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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

is worthy of serious study. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. . The work it will cover. as compared with Latin or Greek. there is still much for the grammarian to do. Authority as a basis. however. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. assist the classification of kindred expressions. to those who have studied the language historically. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. as. but this is bad English now. Making rules is risky. This will take in the usual divisions. An æsthetic benefit. rightly considered. "Analysis. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. so that a small grammar will hold them all. it will at the same time. Few inflections. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. then. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. their forms.The province of English grammar is.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. with its enormous vocabulary. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Literary English." and "Syntax. If. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). and thus incite his observation. A broader view. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Surely our noble language. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. It is also evident. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. and their uses and relations in the sentence. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Coming back. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. its peculiar and abundant idioms. from the question." What grammar is. Mental training. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). if rightly presented.

The words state. the words sons and master name objects. or standard. but. by which is meant the free. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. from the eighteenth century on. Part II. Spoken English. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. PART I. that is.²GIBBON. which belongs to a people.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Part III. The plainest name is Arabs. Such words are called nouns. reference will be made to vulgar English. The Parts of Speech. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 1. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. . Vulgar English. the nation is free. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. besides this one. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. and the word nation stands for a whole group. NOUNS. not objects.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. or Syntax. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. submission. In the more simple state of the Arabs. and will are evidently names of a different kind. The following pages will cover. then. Analysis of Sentences. Occasionally. and Inflections. The Uses of Words. as they stand for ideas.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. and may belong to any of those objects. three divisions:² Part I. too.

animals. place. Name for any individual of a class. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. a committee. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Proper. men in groups may be called a crowd. Common. and appropriate names to the groups. 2. but Chicago names one city. Besides considering persons. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. MATERIAL. and things separately. is from a Latin word which means general. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. whether person. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. or a council. Classes of nouns. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. or idea. the man here. For instance. (a) 4. Individual. This does not imply. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. however. reducing it to a narrow application. we may think of them in groups. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. or a mob. Collective.Definition. Thus. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. belonging to one. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. representing directly to the mind an object. Name for a group or collection of objects. ATTRIBUTE. or things. because each group is considered as a unit. etc. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. . Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Thus. possessed by all. the name of each is an individual or proper name. (b) Common. We may say. or a congress. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. 3. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Abstract. animals. or thing. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. They properly belong under common nouns. substance. 5. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. as here used. A noun is a name word. or the man in front of you.

NOTE. . or that which shows a thing has been proved. Words naturally of limited application not proper. wheat. clay. It may. dew. there is no such intention. we speak of the wisdom of the man. stone. Such are glass. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. world. rice. Names of ideas. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. sugar." "Learning is hard to acquire. Again. or action. When we speak of a wise man. etc.²There are some nouns. earth. expressing attributes or qualities. The quality is still there as much as before." 9. tea. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. wine. wheat. and fasten a special name to the object considered. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. platinum. paint. soap. instead of to each individual or separate object. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. 7. earth. They remain common class names. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. 6." "a man of understanding. conditions. snow. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. proof means the act of proving. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. expressing state. not things. however. celluloid. frost. etc. but in the words sun. etc. etc. rock. but it is taken merely as a name. iron. we may say. etc.Names for things thought of in mass. sugar. . considered abstractly. mist.. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. cloud. but which are not called proper names. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. The reason is. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. condition. as in calling a city Cincinnati. potash. and so on. moon. gold. "Painting is a fine art. or apart from their natural connection. sand. rain. rubber. such as sun. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). granite. (3) Geological bodies: mud. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. etc. or actions. etc. frost. etc.

" "a brisk walk. there is time for such reasonings. lightning. joy. as glad²joy. winter. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. he spread his blessings over the land. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. II. Verbal abstract nouns. etc. redness from red. the main bearings of this matter. Underived abstract nouns. 1. height from high. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. Exercises. Thus." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. the rude drawings of the book. childhood from child. To avoid difficulty. Such are beauty. (2) peerage from peer.. in the beginning of his life. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. the well-being of her subjects. . feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. the moon caused fearful forebodings. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. and they cannot express action. those opinions and feelings. kingship from king. five proper. mastery from master. etc. hope. shadow. speech from speak. day. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. They are only the husks of verbs. The verb. energy. service from serve. thunder. stupidity from stupid. by altering its function. summer. a wedding or a festival. as their name implies.Attribute abstract nouns. (1) prudence from prudent. NOTE. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. action from act. as in the expressions. etc. Caution. etc. ease. theft from thieve. hopeful²hope. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. They cannot govern a word. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. five abstract. "a long run" "a bold move. the great Puritan awakening. 12. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. 273). 272. the teachings of the High Spirit. her longing for their favor. 10. is used as a noun. but are merely names of actions.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. night.

as pneumonia. (b) branches of knowledge. geology. Using a dictionary. algebra. typhus. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . catarrh. as physics. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. mathematics? 3. pleurisy. diphtheria.2.

a Fourier. from China. 13. 14. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. from Calicut. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Proper names transferred to common use. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. "The cook made the irons hot. arras. a Locke. who was its inventor. port (wine). thus. from the name of Dr. but most of them are in the following groups. 119). Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. a Bentham. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy.²EMERSON. etc. from Damascus. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Nouns change by use. or to go over to it entirely. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. levant and morocco (leather). we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. currants. the word port. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. above. from a town in France. from Corinth. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. We know a number of objects made of iron. damask." referring to flat- . in Portugal. the guillotine. Material nouns may be used as class names. a Hutton. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. 15. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. from Oporto. Guillotin. a Lavoisier. but we may say. and lo! a new system. it imposes its classification on other men. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. as a davy. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Others of similar character are calico. for example.

oils. or. but in case an art or a science. the abstract idea is partly lost. Test this in the following sentences:² . The words preceded by the article a. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. and only Vice and Misery. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Next Anger rushed. Personification of abstract ideas. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural.²BYRON. slates. smiled. Traffic has lain down to rest. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. clouds.²BRYANT. that is. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. a rubber for erasing marks. A halfway class of words. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. or the arts and sciences. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified.²PERCIVAL. etc.irons. but differ in strength. purity. as stones. nor are they common class nouns. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. though not confined to verse. his eyes. candies. that the power of art is founded on fact. or made plural. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. tins. From all around²Earth and her waters.²CARLYLE. paints. are still names of abstract ideas. be spoken of. coals. are abroad. not material things. on fire. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. These are the same in material. They are not then pure abstract nouns. which are made plural. papers. tobaccos. mists. abstract in meaning. or used as class nouns.In lightnings owned his secret stings. a steel to whet a knife on. When it is said that art differs from science. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks.²HAYNE. and so on. (3) By poetical use. and say teas. to prowl or to moan like night birds. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. Class nouns in use.²COLLINS.²RUSKIN. but on dispositions which require to be created. This is a poetic usage. 17. etc. For example. 16. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Death. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. clays. that disposition is the thing to be created. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind.

The Solitary can despise. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. But it is better to consider them as nouns.Let us.²IRVING. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. as descriptive adjectives are." "a morning walk. Nouns used as descriptive terms. meaning a walk in the morning.²EMERSON. NOTE. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. however. were mere terrors of the night. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. Adjectives. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. or from any expression. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.² BURNS. the wealthy. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.²BURNS. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. a bank in New York. sir!"²MACAULAY ." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. nouns used to modify. for example. They are more like the possessive noun." "the State Bank Tax bill." "a New York bank. they cannot be compared. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.²SHAKESPEARE. All these. or describe it. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. "a family quarrel. sir?" and the "No. loves. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.² GOLDSMITH.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Adverbs. they do not express quality. if we must have great actions. which belongs to another word. etc. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. 18. Conjunctions. but is still a noun. By ellipses. Then comes the "Why. When I was young? Ah. sir!" and the "What then. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. 19. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. Every why hath a wherefore. make our own so. fear thy blow.²SHAKESPEARE. a bill as to tax on the banks." which contains a pure adjective. But ah! those pleasures. And still. as each repeated pleasure tired. The noun may borrow from any part of speech.

but have an adjectival meaning. Now." and another of Dr." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. . but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. without reference to its function in the sentence. that cobweb of the brain. etc. or a faithful domestic.Nor iron bars a cage. 4. In the other sentences. is ambiguous. Stone walls do not a prison make. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns.²These remarks do not apply.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. the terms the great. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. of course. 1. however. 3. in speaking of the principal of a school.. 5. is the word "just. in a sentence above. or a state secret. and Then. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. but as a figure of speech. 2. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. The it. so.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Caution. NOTE. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. There are many of these. are used. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. Learning. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 7. Exercise. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Power laid his rod aside. When. at the beginning. too. FRANKLIN. 20. 6. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. It is to be remembered. or a criminal. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. and tell to which class each belongs. of words rather than of their meaning. When. the wealthy. why and wherefore. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force." or "legal. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. to such words as become pure nouns by use."²B. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. 8. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. whether it mean the sun or the cold.

Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. The fleet. returned to Spain. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. A fool speaks all his mind. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 14. What gender means in English. that waits you here. and names of females are usually feminine.9. 12. the silver moon is gone. . Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. German. in English grammar. he cried. It is founded on sex.You seize the flower. 21. GENDER. But pleasures are like poppies spread. but not so in English. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. and many other languages. 22. 11. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 17. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 20. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. its bloom is shed. Male beings are. 10. 19. always feminine. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. the welcome. 21. always masculine. female. In Latin. 15.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. A little weeping would ease my heart.Fair guests. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 24. 13.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 16. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. Greek. There are exceptions even to this general statement. shattered and disabled. The hours glide by. 18. 23. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. And see. for every dropHinders needle and thread.

neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. "A little child shall lead them.² I have seenA curious child . die Gabel (fork) is feminine. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. . the sex being of no consequence. in English. mensa (table) is feminine. Hence: Definition. those distinguishing the sex of the object. and consequently without sex. Of animals.² IRVING. must be divided into two principal classes. 22. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. the word child is neuter in the sentence. 23. if of the female sex. that is.²LAMB. Gunpowder . Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. that pattern of a husband.. the name of it is masculine. but are spoken of as neuter. der Tisch (table) is masculine. in German. or additions to words.. No "common gender. in other languages gender follows the form. All nouns. if there were any signs of life in it.. however. 24. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. with its gizzard under its wing. according to use. Neuter nouns.²masculine and feminine. inanimate things are spoken of.. For instance: in Latin. das Messer (knife) is neuter. then. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. came to a stand just by the bridge. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. or which arouse his interest most. corpus (body) is neuter. are named by gender nouns." . Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. or names of things without life." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. according to their use. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. those with which man comes in contact often. and neuter nouns. the name of it is feminine. He next stooped down to feel the pig.²IRVING... Some words either gender or neuter nouns. Gender nouns.²gender nouns. Thus. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. The great difference is. hortus (garden) is masculine.When. clapping his burnished wings. those which do not distinguish sex.

there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. from the masculine fox. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. though both words have lost their original meanings. relative. Very few of class I.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Native suffixes.. (3) By using a different word for each gender. of course. 29. Gender shown by Suffixes. woman. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. domestic. generally to a masculine word. These remain in vixen and spinster. Hence vixen is for fyxen. the division of words according to sex. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. or the lack of it. According to the definition. The inflections for gender belong. Male nouns beings. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. for from they said vram. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. he-bear²she-bear. as in wine vat. 26. II. as he-goat²she-goat. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. 28. 27. cousin. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. servant. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. etc. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. (2) By adding a suffix. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. and for the older word fat they said vat. they are neuter words. If such words as parent. One feminine. For fox they said vox. . teacher.25. Put in convenient form. only to masculine and feminine nouns. ruler. puts a prefix before the masculine man.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Gender shown by Prefixes. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. I. but spinster has now no connection with it. is.

(2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. trickster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Unaltered and little used. it has none now in the words huckster. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. the one most used. Low Latin issa). as. as czarina. song-str-ess. Ending of masculine not changed. donna. but in most cases it has not. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. These are attached to foreign words.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. as. -ess (French esse. executrix. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. señorita. 30. gamester. punster. Slightly changed and widely used. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). and are never used for words recognized as English.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. as seam-stress.

the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. 32. neighboresse. Gender shown by Different Words. as. others have in their origin the same root. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . fosteress. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. from the French -esse. we use the masculine termination. wagoness." III. we use the feminine. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. 31. In some of these pairs. teacheresse. Some of them have an interesting history.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. teacher or lady teacher. We frequently use such words as author. NOTE. chairman. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. frendesse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. as in the fourteenth century. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. editor. from Latin imperatricem. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. or servauntesse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. as. Instead of saying doctress. as was said in the sixteenth century. Thus. the ending -ess. etc. neighbor (masculine and feminine).Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. to represent persons of either sex.

from Latin mea domina. Widower. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king).). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. but this has long been obsolete. among others) to be from the same root word. It is not connected historically with our word duck. though both are ultimately from the same root. 16). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. for example. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). not immediately connected with witch. lhauerd. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. finally gander. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). gand-ra.² . Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. the old sign of the masculine. 33. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. had the masculine mearh (horse). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. widuwa²widuwe. The masculine was formed by adding -a. leaving our word drake. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Madam is the French ma dame. Three letters of ened have fallen away. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. The older forms. Two masculines from feminines. Witch is the Old English wicce. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). 34.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Danish gaas. etc. or lauerd in Middle English. Personification. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Besides gander and drake. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. probably meaning house dweller). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. as in many other words. became identical. Icelandic gás. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Mare. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. written loverd. in Old English mere.

we make its plural by adding -s or -es. NUMBER. shoon (shoes). 36. the engineer speaks so of his engine.²KEATS. 35. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. for instance. The -en inflection. eyen (eyes). I. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.²COLERIDGE. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. Definition.Her home is on the deep. and not by the form of the noun.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. together with the third. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. Effect of personification. (3) By adding -s (or -es). Britannia needs no bulwarks. 38.No towers along the steep. The first two methods prevailed. treen (trees). and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England."²BYRON. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. . But other words were inflected afterwards. 37. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. more than one.²CAMPBELL. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. (2) By changing the root vowel. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. whenever we adopt a new word.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective."Now. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. Our language has two numbers. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. In nouns. This is not exclusively a poetic use. etc. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. that is.²singular and plural. 39. in Old English. the plural. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.

Instead of -s. Other words following the same usage are. originally neuter. people. Children has passed through the same history. after all. that have the singular and plural alike. and is still found in dialects. heathen. but has now no singular. salmon. The old plural was brothru. brace.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. borough²formerly had the same inflection. such as deer.²MACAULAY. sail. pair. sheep. retain the same form for plural meaning. when they mean soldiery. Brethren has passed through three stages. finally brethren. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. wight. glass.² "God bless me! so then."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. turf. etc. Examples of this inflection are.²THOREAU. Kine is another double plural. swine. into Frederick town. as. or if preceded by the prepositions in. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. folk. III.² The foot are fourscore thousand.Horse and foot. . by. as. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. but they now add the ending -s. Lee marched over the mountain wall. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Such are box. they add -s): also trout. The words horse and foot. etc. ditch. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. cross.²Over the mountains winding down. then brothre or brethre. lens. cannon.²WHITTIER.-En inflection imitated by other words.The horse are thousands ten. after numerals (if not after numerals. and get settled. head. II. 42. 41. Akin to this class are some words. 40. etc. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. dozen. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. quartz.

some adding -s. Proper nouns are regularly singular. economics. 15 and 17). race²races. though they are plural in form. It served simply as a means of sight. and the real ending is therefore -s.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. though this sound combines readily with -s.g. etc. Words in -ies. prize²prizes. Means plural. allies. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. and many branches of learning. So live.. is both the science and the art of government. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. optics. also news. The lilie on hir stalke grene.²PROF. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. the Americas. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. half²halves.. 45.-Es added in certain cases. physics. chaise²chaises. Special Lists. When such words take a plural ending. daisies. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . means: as. quoth then that ladie milde. etc. however. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. they lose their identity.² Politics. means and politics. 44. Some words are usually singular. these words ended in -ie. negro²negroes. knife²knives. shelf²shelves. the Washingtons. e. volcano² volcanoes. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. etc. politics.²BRYANT. hero²heroes. mathematics. etc. as. that when thy summons comes. fairies. fancies.g. Two words. summons. Examples of these are. house²houses. pains (care). in its widest extent. and go over to other classes (Secs. and some -es. molasses. e. 43.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. DANA.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. a new syllable is made. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. niche²niches. Formerly.

LAUGHLIN. it is furnished with a forceps. A relic which.² MACAULAY. Besides this.²GOLDSMITH.²G. 46.²IRVING. By these means.²GOLDSMITH. he pronounced to have been a tongs. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²GOLDSMITH. riches will accumulate. W. L. Now I read all the politics that come out. With great dexterity these means were now applied. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. CURTIS. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.Words. Some words have no corresponding singular. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. by strongly conveying the passions. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. .²BURKE.²MOTLEY. I say. however. Politics plural. Sometimes. by those means which we have already mentioned. if I recollect right.²J.

. genii (spirits). One plural. of a periodical. shots (number of times fired). eaves.²was it subdued when. (2) revenue duties. or epistles. in mournful numbers. carry off chaff. (2) poetry. 50. pence (collectively). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. as in the lines. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. genius²geniuses (men of genius). etc. Three words were originally singular.).. In speaking of coins. (2) care. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. penny²pennies (separately). indices (signs in algebra). dice (for gaming). two plurals. or work in a bellows?²PROF. may add -s. die²dies (stamps for coins. faculties.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. shot²shot (collective balls). What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. making a double plural.² I lisped in numbers. Numbers also means issues. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection.The air. In Early Modern English thank is found. pea²peas (separately). the other unlike it. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. fishes (individuals or kinds). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. for the numbers came. DANA.²one corresponding to the singular. brethren (of a society or church). riches. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). ways. Two classes of compound words. or copies. number²numbers: (1) figures. part²parts: (1) divisions. pease (collectively). etc. 49. twopence. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). index²indexes (to books). sixpence. two meanings. These make the last part plural. (2) abilities. (2) literature. trouble... clothes (garments).²LONGFELLOW.²POPE. 48. fish²fish (collectively). as two sixpences. Tell me not.

. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. manservant. and Mrs. Norman. Brown. Briggs. the Misses Rich. As to plurals of names with titles. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. then Silas Peckham. The chief member adds -s in the plural.²DR. the Drs. Mussulman. but add -s.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. German. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. woman servant. or the name may be pluralized. Ottoman. there is some disagreement among English writers. for example. as the Messrs. 52.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Allen. though the latter is often found. HOLMES. as man singer. firman. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Brahman. woman singer.² Then came Mr. The title may be plural. 51. such as talisman. Two methods in use for names with titles.

A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. These are said to be domesticated. y y analysis antithesis . Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Exercise. They are then said to be naturalized.²THE CRITIC.²DICKENS. Du Maurier. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. FROM THE LATIN. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. or Anglicized. FROM THE GREEK. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. or Englished.²GOLDSMITH. Others have been adopted. The Messrs. 53.²GIBBON. and retain their foreign plurals. Domesticated words. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.

etc. 54. In the general wearing-away of inflections. 56. Letters. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. they form their plurals in the regular way. Definition." CASE." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). without reference to their meaning. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. .² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. figures. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. 55. cell has another relation. and expresses a relation akin to possession. Only two case forms. as. also add -s or 's." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). etc.. as. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced." the word felon's modifies cell. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). Words quoted merely as words.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. In the sentence.

thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²the nominative. and experience. three things characterize man. I. 58. . adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. Three properties belong to wisdom. 1. fate." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word." (2) As a predicate noun.²one for the nominative and objective. whether inflected or not. and the possessive.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. when asked unawares. learning. the objective. Human experience is the great test of truth. excessive grief. 4." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. and merit. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.²nature. Nouns. then. 2. 5. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. the enemy of the living. 3." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Excuses are clothes which. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 57. completing a verb.²person. may be said to have three cases. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. they returned to their homes. Uses of the Nominative. must be understood for purposes of analysis.

spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. sword in hand and visor down." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends." (3) Adverbially. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. Uses of the Objective. 3. distance. thy wrath can send. and makest a calm. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due.Save. 8. measure. (5) As the object of a preposition. and being equivalent to one verb. 2. the word toward which the preposition points. wounded lies. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. a patriarch of the village. . 68. and tell which use each has:² 1. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. taking the object storm. (in the older stages of the language.6. 4. taking the object enemies." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. 9. and landlord of the inn. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. completing the verb. 59. as will be seen in Sec. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. Conscience. save. Set a high price on your leisure moments. how have I frighted thee? II. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse." "Thou makest the storm a calm. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. reconciles. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. etc." (4) As the second object. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences." Exercise. But of all plagues. good Heaven. and meaning calmest. her first law broken. they are sands of precious gold. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. But the flood came howling one day. They charged.

an elegy to commemorate yesterday. and forfeits paid. as shown in the sentences. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. (2) Objective possessive. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.²ADDISON. the most common of all. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. as in these expressions.²BYRON. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. expressed or understood. III. The noblest mind the best contentment has.e. or in writing yesterday's elegy. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. 6.. the Great Stone Face. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. 8.His winter task a pastime made. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.5. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. 61. Uses of the Possessive.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. tempests that .And gave the leper to eat and drink. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. as. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.² The unwearied sun. 60.Does his Creator's power display.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.²SHELLEY. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. (3) Subjective possessive.²HAWTHORNE. from day to day. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. 10. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. 9. It is a poetic expression. And whirling plate. Possession in some sense is the most common. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 7. The possessive case always modifies another word.

however.winter is likely to have).²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Poss. 64. the panther which the forest hides)." "at his beddes syde. . 62. How the possessive is formed." Use of the apostrophe. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. Declension or inflection of nouns. "George Jones his book. as schoolboys sometimes write.. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. in Chaucer. The use of the apostrophe. 63.e. One is the simple form of a word. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. there are only two case forms. To form the possessive plural. child NOTE. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. 1. growth which several days had developed). As said before (Sec. A suggestion. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.e. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. lady Poss. PLURAL. A false theory. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. 62.. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. making the possessive singular. Nom. Nom." "mannes herte [heart]. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. 56). Case Inflection. and Obj. "From every schires ende. and Obj." etc.

Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. in the name of the emperor their master." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Kate saw that. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. dwelling. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. being understood with it: for example. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.²SWIFT.Though this opinion was untrue. containing words in apposition. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular." "A postscript is added. my neighbors. 67. store. and from a desire to have distinct forms. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. some such word as house. church. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. 66. the items of my son's. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. Peter's. Cervantes' satirical work.²RUSKIN. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. as. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. for goodness' sake. 65. stands up for God's truth one man. the possessive sign is usually last. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. and she walked off from the don's. as." Possessive with compound expressions. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.. Captain Scrapegrace's."²DE QUINCEY. etc. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. a word with a phrase. as by the countess's command.. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. etc.²HOLMES. Possessive and no noun limited. know the amount of my income. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. instead of the emperor their master's name.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. I remember him in his cradle at St.² LOWELL.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. but to the ear all may be alike. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead.²CARLYLE. . In compound expressions. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. James's.

we use the phrase of Atterbury. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. E.²E. In most cases. however. a double possessive. 2. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. each. especially when used with this or that. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. sometimes they are used together.²FROUDE. HALE. If.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. 1. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. Clearness. or subjective. that. making a double possessive. no. (3) It prevents ambiguity. this. any. Both of these are now used side by side. Blair). as one modifier.. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . (b) Rewrite the sentence. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. objective. Exercises. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. the statement clearly means only one thing. Emphasis. the. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. For example. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. 87. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. and tell whether each is appositional. and at the same time by a possessive noun. the sentence might be understood as just explained. 68.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark.²the introduction which Atterbury made.The double possessive. A peculiar form. (1) When a word is modified by a. etc.²CARLYLE. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. in such a sentence as.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. ill-lighted except where she stands. every. corresponding to 's. (See also Sec.

8. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 6. it seemed. 5. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 15. At lovers' perjuries. Nature herself.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 70. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience.² . we state. and destroy the other. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. therefore. 7. 11. Now the bright morning star. In parsing. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 10. 12. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. day's harbinger. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules.3. 9. Hence.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. There Shakespeare's self. some idioms²the double possessive.Comes dancing from the East. in parsing a noun. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 14. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 4. Friend. with every garland crowned. 13. 69. Jove laughs. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. let him seasonably water the one.They say.

it is the name of a male being. names one thing. hence objective case. and limits neckcloth. a withered serving man. has no governing word. therefore possessive case. gender. it expresses possession or ownership. 71. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. 2. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. singular number. therefore singular number. MODEL FOR PARSING. hence it is a common noun. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. 3. and relations. That in the captain's but a choleric word. it expresses time. a fresh tapster.²common. Exercise. hence it is objective case. as to case. and therefore nominative case. if the latter. inflections. proper. the connection shows a male is meant. etc. The correct method. Neckcloth. object of the verb takes. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. which gender. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. it has no sex. . like miller's. and to have it found out by accident. subject of the verb is understood. 4. NOTE. but is the adverbial objective. and number. is a common class noun. hence it is a gender noun. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. therefore masculine gender. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. it denotes only one person.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. it is the object of the preposition by. Thief is a common class noun. therefore singular number. (3) Whether singular or plural number. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. determining its case. In parsing any word. Throat is neuter. therefore neuter. (4) Its office in the sentence.(1) The class to which it belongs. masculine. 68).

5. PRONOUNS. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Classes of pronouns. Necker. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. The need of pronouns. Definition. all in one. definite. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. 72. He giveth his beloved sleep. 9. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. where the Rhone enters the lake. were natives of Geneva. . we evidently cannot state the owner's name. and his daughter. A pronoun is a reference word. Time makes the worst enemies friends. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Mrs. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. 73. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. instead of saying. sleep! 6. from a necessity for short.. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. or for a person or thing. 8.. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. or for a group of persons or things. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 76). blessings light on him that first invented . "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Now. and prison. Jarley's back being towards him. 7. but by a question we say. castle. standing for a name." Again.And hated her for her pride. A few miles from this point. 10. 11. financial minister to Louis XVI. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. For instance.²palace. Madame de Staël.. and representative words.

and the person or thing talked about. words. ours . whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. even if it had a special form. Nom. I Poss. pronoun. which relate or refer to a noun. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 76. they must represent the person talking." Person of nouns. primarily adjectives. 74. Three persons of pronouns. 77. that is. "the distinction of person. (5) Indefinite pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use.(3) Relative pronouns. (2) Second person. 75. my Plural. which have forms for person. (3) Third person. representing the person speaking. which cannot be used as adjectives. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. they are said to have person by agreement.. as nouns have the same form. standing for a person or thing spoken of. mine. (4) Adjective pronouns. the person or thing spoken to. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Singular. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. representing a person or thing spoken to. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. or other word or expression. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. This gives rise to a new term. we our. Person in grammar. From analogy to pronouns.

Obj.Obj. neuter. Obj. 78. yours Poss. she her. Singular. feminine h o. he his him Fem. thine. or. yours you Plural. masculine h . The speaker may be either male or female. Old Form Common Form. neuter hit. Nom. they their. of all Three. Nom. your. Obj. . a separate form for each gender. theirs them Neut. by personification. it its it Poss. and also for the neuter. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. thy Remarks on These Forms. hers her Plur. But the third person has. Third person singular has gender. Nom. you your. Poss. yours you THIRD PERSON. First and second persons without gender. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Old forms. Poss. SECOND PERSON. Masc. thou thee ye you you your. namely. Obj. in the singular.. Nom. me us Singular. In Old English these three were formed from the same root.

Second person always plural in ordinary English. heom. etc. The plurals were h . This is of comparatively recent growth. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. etc. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). especially in poetry. which is a neuter noun. 82. as in prayers. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. and sometimes its.²BEECHER. We use it with a plural verb always. etc. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.:² (1) In elevated style. as. the Old English objective was hem (or heom).²SHELLEY." As shown above. thy. The consequence is. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. Two uses of the old singulars. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children.² Oh. Thou. for example. that didst comfort thy people of old. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. as possessive of it.Thou lovest. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. .The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. 80. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. however. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. There are. in Old English. their. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them.. In spoken English. to thy care we commit the helpless. The form its. just as we now say.. thee. the forms they. 81. them. heora.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. it. two modern uses of thou. (2) In addressing the Deity. thou Shepherd of Israel. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. even when referring to a single object.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. which was often sounded with the h silent. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. 79. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.

just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. however. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. his. The Possessive. Yet careful speakers avoid this. me. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. when they occur in the predicate position. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. yours. And since thou own'st that praise. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. and has been slave to thousands. I spare thee mine. he. besides a nominative use. our. him. Not a separate class. 58).²COWPER. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. and follow the usage of literary English. That is. ye. theirs. they. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. thine. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS." the literary language would require he after was. to personify objects (Sec. sometimes his and its. them. her. have a peculiar use. Nominative forms. In spoken English. they have a nominative form. some say. The forms my. we. 'tis his. him. in such a sentence as. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. The forms mine. its. 34). but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. Additional nominatives in spoken English. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. hers. her. for. Old use of mine and thine. though those named in Sec. us. and sometimes in ordinary speech. and not make more classes. them. 86. . ²SHAKESPEARE. us. "I am sure it was him. 84.²BULWER. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. her. 84 are always subjects. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are.Use of the pronouns in personification. thy. their. I The Nominative. thou. II. 85. your. The words I. though ye is occasionally used as objective. 83.²LANDOR. note the following:² 'Twas mine. she. Absolute personal pronouns. or.

² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. Give every man thine ear. his.²CARLYLE. ours. Double and triple possessives. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. Long Allen. hers. yours. pluck it out. F. This usage is still preserved in poetry."²SCOTT.²BIBLE. or satire. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²J. Besides this. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. we find. ours. 87.²ID. anger. commenting upon a letter of mine. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. yours. theirs. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.²THACKERAY.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. COOPER. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.²THACKERAY. thus. Like the noun possessives. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.² CARLYLE. and with mine. sometimes its. for example. it tells of good old times. . (3) To express contempt. The forms hers. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. thine.²ID. ²HOLMES. Their uses. but few thy voice. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²SWIFT." said Henry Woodstall. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. thus. we have. If thine eye offend thee. as in nouns. T. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²J. (2) To bring emphasis. theirs. are really double possessives. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. "Hold thy peace. FIELDS.

the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. or use in a sentence. Now the objective. 89. The old dative case. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. They all handled it. They may be spoken of as possessive in form.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar.²ID. but expresses for whom." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. but the form is the same as the objective.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²BIBLE. in the first sentence. Besides this use of the objective. . and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. In such sentences as. the thing is done. 20. "The good alone are great. III. as it is called. this dative use. Both joined in making him a present.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. Curse me this people. but nominative or objective in use. In pronouns. and mine in the second has an objective use. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. mine stands for my praise in the second. 86: mine stands for my property. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen." "None but the brave deserves the fair. But the first two have a nominative use. 88. The Objective. In their function. was marked by a separate case. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. but not in form. as shown in Sec. his for his property. for whose benefit." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. 90. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches.

It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. ²EMERSON. you must condense there. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. or to the idea. 92. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.²D. Indefinite use of you and your.² . which prick and scratch because they can do no other. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. as. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.² NEWMAN.²ADDISON. (3) In apposition.²CARLYLE.²DE QUINCEY. like Chinese skill.²EMERSON. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. which follows the verb. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.Time is behind them and before them. you sneeze." (3) As a grammatical subject.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. and they cry. has not made its progress. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. Your mere puny stripling. It is a pity that he has so much learning.²BULWER. 91. as. to stand for the real. as in the sentences. WEBSTER. in this century.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. why.²BACON. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. was passed by with indulgence. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. Society. logical subject. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. The word you.²IRVING To empty here. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. or that he has not a great deal more. thus. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.

I made up my mind to foot it. peddles it. -selves. And millions in those solitudes." "He bought him a horse. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²COLERIDGE. Of the two forms in parentheses. we use such expressions as. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.. have laid them downIn their last sleep. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. yourself. itself. however.²ANON. They are myself. who teams it.²THOREAU.²BRYANT. the second is the old form of the second person. who in turn tries all the professions.²DE QUINCEY. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²BURNS. farms it. when they are direct objects. I set me down and sigh. . as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. himself. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. "I found me a good book. as. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. 94.²SCOTT. For example. and its plural selves. keeps a school. herself. (thyself). as they are also called. (ourself). 93.It is finger-cold. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively."²IRVING. themselves.²IRVING. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. It was late and after midnight. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. since firstThe flight of years began.²HOLMES.²EMERSON. And when I awoke. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. Poor Christian was hard put to it. they dropped their arms. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. There was nothing for it but to return. This occurs in poetry. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but seldom in prose. yourselves. A sturdy lad .. that is. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb." and there is an end of it." etc. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. it rained.²HAWTHORNE. For when it dawned. used in poetry.²ID. ourselves.²BUNYAN.² Now I lay me down to sleep.

What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. with self. and build the lofty rhyme.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.² The great globe itself .Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. Use of the reflexives. to every one. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. shall dissolve.²ID. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. to us.. were changed into the possessive myself. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. as we ourself have been.To you yourself.² TENNYSON. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. ourselves. B. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. The question might arise. Threats to all. for example. for example.²SHAKESPEARE.As girls were once. and the others were formed by analogy with these.²WORDSWORTH. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. I shrink with pain. 96. Held dead within them till myself shall die. NOTE. especially in the speech of rulers. BROWNING. as in vulgar English.²EMERSON.²MILTON. As if it were thyself that's here. etc.² .? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. 95. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum..²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. as. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. after the analogy of myself.²E. not the possessive forms. theself. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. In Middle English the forms meself. thyself. Origin of these reflexives. as.

(a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1.²B. where the word is one with that it tells of. all conform to it. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. To know what is best to do. 3. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. 6. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. One obsolete. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. is wisdom. and how to do it. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. let him lowly confess it.On the light fantastic toe. FRANKLIN. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). fight it out. and what. 2. 10. 7. . Years ago. 97. some each of masculine. Infancy conforms to nobody. some of them being double possessives. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. and neuter. father. Three now in use. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.²DE QUINCEY. Come and trip it as we go. 5. 8.² THACKERAY. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. feminine. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. And it grew wondrous cold. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. but it is the soonest spoiled. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. which. Courage. 4. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 9.

it is always third person. Which of you. whether. with its possessive and objective. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY.Promised. whispering sweet. 100. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. What wouldst thou do. Use of who and its forms. ideas. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. 98. referring to things. shall we say. methought. having three forms. etc. Use of which. but now obsolete. . which is not inflected for gender. that it is not inflected for gender or number. number. it is selective. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. not to persons. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. 99.There is an old word. Use of what. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. but for case alone. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. used formerly to mean which of two. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. it refers to either persons or things. that. as it always asks about somebody. The use of who. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. that it is always singular and neuter. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only.. or case. These show that what is not inflected for case. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. As shown here. Whose was that gentle voice. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. that is. actions. the gold.

which. Who. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²by the use of the words.Who sung of Border chivalry. AND PLUR. Function of the relative pronoun. being the direct object of the verb shall take. The antecedent. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun." Or. and so to make smoother discourse. as they take the place usually of a word already used. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. "The last of all the Bards was he. what may be an adverb in some expressions. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. These bards sang of Border chivalry. or other word or expression. 99. as. in Sec. which and what. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English.² "The last of all the Bards was he. For instance. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. pronoun. who? Poss. which is nominative in the first sentence. SINGULAR Nom. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. since it is subject of the verb had. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Thus we may say. 105.101.² . who is used as objective instead of whom. for which the pronoun stands. AND PLUR. 102. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. 127). SING. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. nominative in the second also. It usually precedes the pronoun. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. which is called the antecedent of the relative. it may be shortened into. which and what are sometimes adjectives. subject of doth love. who evidently refers to Bards. and also in having a conjunctive use. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. and what are also relative pronouns. Further treatment of who. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. objective in the last." In the latter sentence. whose? Obj. 104. as. 103.

Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.²THACKERAY. 4. 4. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. Indefinite relatives.Whom universal nature did lament.²DR JOHNSON. is a divine creation..²W. When the word relative is used. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²PARTON Which and its forms. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. a thousand years. . that. will be discussed further on.That guard our native seas. 5. Ye mariners of England. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. WHITNEY.. in the same sense in which man's nature. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. D. Two kinds. Who and its forms.. They had not their own luster.²MILTON.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. both his and who have the antecedent priest. The origin of language is divine. with all its capabilities . what. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 2. 107. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 3. 3. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. For her enchanting son. are the men and women who bless their species.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.² COX. 2. which.²LOWELL In this.²BYRON. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. but the look which is not of the earth. The men whom men respect. The nurse came to us.²SCOTT. a simple relative is meant. 106. the women whom women approve. 108. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. Generally speaking. 6.Whose flag has braved.

²DE QUINCEY. 110. The Tree Igdrasil. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. and spoils.²GOLDSMITH. What. you will not be angry with me for telling you. which it certainly is not. The judge .... 6. 2. For what he sought below is passed above.. BEECHER 5. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death..²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible..² SHAKESPEARE 2.²LAMB 3.. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 109. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. 107.²EMERSON. The man that hath no music in himself. Reader.²BURKE. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . That.Is fit for treasons.²MARGARET FULLER.5. 3. ought to be kept in view. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²IRVING. else this description will seem exaggerated. 111. 4. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. Already done is all that he would do.²H. no bad type of what often happens in that country. W. Who. bought up all the pigs that could be had. (a) This gradation .²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. Examples of the relative that:² 1. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. stratagems.

Smollett. and 6. who. In 1. who is first person. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. a man. in the first sentence. It has been seen (Sec. whom. 107. Sec. Examples of whose. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. The robins. The little gorilla. not persons. Cooper. the relatives are singular. The sentences in Sec. My horse. p. whose wound I had dressed. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].²LEIGH HUNT. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. in 5.. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. possessive case of which. son. in the third. Scott. JOHNSON. Kingsley.²SWIFT. whose for the possessive. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. they are plural. 5. that man.. whom. (4) It has two case forms. things. in the second. flung its arms around my neck. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. and 3. . A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.whose. and others.²who. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. seemed as much excited as myself..²IRVING.. In sentence 4. Gibbon. and so on.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. the others are all third person..²which for the nominative and objective. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. whose is second person. Who referring to animals.²THACKERAY. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. (3) It is nearly always third person. whose. in 4.who. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. Witness the following examples:² And you. (2) It has three case forms.. 96).²DR. 113.²LOWELL. or ideas. 112. Which. 2. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. referring to animals.

²RUSKIN. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. That. and third persons. (2) It has only one case form. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain."²RUSKIN. let us enter the church itself. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. Kingsley. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. Primarily. .²THACKERAY. which is very notable and curious. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. 116. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²first. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. Burke. which is worse. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. So in Matthew Arnold. and to persecute without pity. Men may be ready to fight to the death. The last two sentences in Sec. thus.114. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.²BEECHER. This moribund '61. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. 109.² MCMASTER. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.²SHAKESPEARE. This often occurs. and things. no possessive. secondly (which made her stare). animals. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. Sometimes. 115. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. and numerous others.² And. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.²SCOTT. the antecedent follows which. second.² I swept the horizon.²DE QUINCEY. too. In the sentences of Sec. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. (3) It is the same form for first. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. Which and its antecedents. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.

the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. and is emphatic. as in sentence 6. that do I not. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. who Poss. third person. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. 119. it usually follows. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. number. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Nom. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent.²EMERSON. is always neuter." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. but what I hate.²BIBLE What fates impose. by taking them out. . and person of the relatives who. that he has. consequently is neuter. what we said?²CARLYLE. which. When expressed. whose Obj." That evidently refers to truths. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. The sentences of Sec. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. Who plainly stands for those or the people. we can. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. 117.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. 109. third person. The gender. plural number. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. What. that do I. for example.² What I would. as." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. 118. For example. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. What a man does. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. either of which would be neuter.²SHAKESPEARE." (3) "These people heard him. Sec. plural number. that men must needs abide.

so is in the objective case. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. is subject of wrought upon and molded. is subject of the verb can't be cured. but of this. above. Another way. it is object of uttered. Truths in sentence (2). however. I think they are trying to outwit nature. people is the object of the preposition of. Now. The word what. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. The whole expression is its subject. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. . third person. As shown by the following sentences. and what is the direct object of the verb call. In the sentence. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. it is subject of the verb heard. What can't be cured. 3. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. we is the subject. standing for the people understood. "What can't be cured must be endured. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. but is singular. which is. who is sure to be cunninger than they. In the same way who. subject of heard. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. 5.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. Parsing what. that takes the case of the truths in (2). In (2). is what we call nature. What must be endured? Answer. 8. because it has usually no antecedent. 6. 4."²EMERSON. 120. the highest result of all education. The relative what is handled differently. after all. 7. nobler souls with that which they are. in (1). in (3). in the following sentences:² 1. the simple relative. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. is in the nominative case. Exercise." Here the subject of is. First find the antecedents. then parse the relatives. neuter.. and hence is in the nominative case. Some prefer another method of treatment. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. etc.

²BURKE. being referred to. It is no proof of a man's understanding. The simple relatives who. whatsoever. by meaning and use. less common are whoso. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. whichsoever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. Meaning and use. 6. whatsoever. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases.²you cannot have both. and his friend a fool. whichever. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. Do what we can. and which in the second clause. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. in a new and original way. Hence some take what as a double relative. no particular thing. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. or stand on their head. that is. It is clear that in 1. object of with] which [singular. object of do] they do. no certain antecedent. Death is there associated. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. whatever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. 4. to everything that. whosoever. which. 122. or what else soever. 123.²BURKE. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. . They are whoever. 7. List and examples. 5. 2. and in 2. whatever is equivalent to all things which. not as direct as the simple relatives. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. Take which you please. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. "common souls pay with that [singular.²MACAULAY. 2. So with the other indefinites. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 3. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. and parse that in the first clause. Only itself can inspire whom it will. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 121. summer will have its flies. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.

whereupon.. nothing that does not interest us.²DE QUINCEY. has been my heaviest affliction. . Proof that they have the force of relatives. for example. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. upon which.² 1. 125. 417). whereby.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. In early modern English. what means anything that. 124. Two words. but which only wealth could have purchased. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. 120. for example. 2. etc. etc. not following the word such.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.²EMERSON. Sec. etc.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. by which. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Former use of as. either one that. 4. This. the conjunctions wherein. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. But and as. Other substitutes. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed.As shown in Sec. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. thus. but mean any one whom.²HAWTHORNE. 121. and that as after such is equivalent to which. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. are used. but and as. as was used just as we use that or which. everything that (or everything which). Instead of the phrases in which. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 126.. 121. There is nothing but is related to us.² some particular thing. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.

would be. "Who stood behind? We knew." Likewise with which in 3 (b). Another caution. what is interrogative. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun)." etc. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 3. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. and whether what = that + which (if so. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. 127. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. In sentences 1 (a). it is an interrogative. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. . (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. it is an indefinite relative). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. if not. In studying such sentences. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. "But what had become of them? They knew not. second. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. it is a simple relative. if not. which would indicate that they are not relatives. though the earthwork hid them. who having the antecedent gentleman. 2. if expanded. So in 2 (b). 2 (b).²ID. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. 1 (b). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure.²EMERSON. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. How to decide. which having the antecedent lines. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. the full expression being. no antecedent is expressed. Thus.. But in 1 (b). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. showing that who is plainly interrogative. a question is disguised in each sentence. Special caution needed here.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide.²WHITTIER. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. and 3 (b).

half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. 129. .²G. In the second. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. ELIOT. Exercise. In the first.²HOLMES. but the life of man in England. I visited many other apartments. Relative omitted when object. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Thus. whence is the interrogative word. When Goldsmith died. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 4. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. which.128. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. Put in the relatives who. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew.² These are the sounds we feed upon. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²CARLYLE. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. whose has the antecedent you.²SWIFT. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. In the third.²FLETCHER. the question is asked by the verb. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 3.²GOLDSMITH. The insect I am now describing lived three years. which has the antecedent hue. 2.² THACKERAY. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²FORSTER 6. and asks no question. On the other hand. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Examine the following:² 1. and Court Calendars. 5. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.

Also in literary English we find the same omission. It is rare in prose. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. The nobles looked at each other. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Relative omitted when subject. 6. which. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. and comparatively so in poetry. 130. which was already proceeding.²Id. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. 3. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. and what. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. . (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. that.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. 5. Examples are. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.7.²CAMPBELL. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. who were to be rulers over whom. or indefinite relatives:² 1. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. There was such a crowd went. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. simple relatives. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.² LOWELL.²SHAKESPEARE. Function of adjective pronouns. 2.Ne'er looks upon the sun. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.²SCOTT. the house was full.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. such as this. etc. many. In the first use they are adjectives. in letters of gold. either. and on each is written. which we have seen in such expressions as. few. in order to be an adjective pronoun. not pronouns. For instance. or they may stand for nouns. Adjectives. any. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood.²IRVING. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. or may be the whole of a sentence." that is. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory.131. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. Primarily they are adjectives. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. such as each. but in this function. all. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Caution. but have lost their adjective use. 133. 132. "another bank. 'Truth. and another to get cool under.²EMERSON." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. a word. that. in the first. etc. "The dead are there. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. or an argument in a paragraph. "these pranks. must not modify any word. etc." "Where two men ride on a horse. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. For example. as some." in the second. or use. necessarily thought of: thus. neither. expressed or understood." in the others. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns.²BRYANT.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. none. and stand for a noun. "each cube. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. the former. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. ." "one man. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing." Classes of adjective pronouns.

accidentally preserved.²LOWELL. Exercises. 5.²EMERSON 4. when the latter was the King of Spain. and sow wickedness. Compound. for example. as seemed good to each. 2.² They stood. because he was not lying in wait for these. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and they have well performed the other. reap the same. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Definition and examples. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. NOTE. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Such are a few isolated instances. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.²ID. Even as I have seen. they that plow iniquity.All these he saw. Simple. or reclined. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Their minds accorded into one strain.²ID.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. 3. They had fewer books. or sat. 134. . and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. A man inspires affection and honor. They have not shunned the one. but these were of the best.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Some of these are simple pronouns.

It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. They led one another. such as one other.²HAWTHORNE. Much might be said on both sides. ²HAWTHORNE. None shall rule but the humble. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. we might the more easily discharge them.Two are compound pronouns.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. one another. imbued. as it were.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. for example. The word one has a reflexive form. you quickly come to the end of all. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. Men take each other's measure when they react. as some of the rangers had gone astray. as most were. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²HOLMES. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.²EMERSON. paused over a horoscope. Another opposes him with sound argument.²each other. or melt for others' woe. Definition and examples.² One reflexive. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. another.²KINGSLEY. with the superstitions of his time. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. 135. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. . They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. The Soldan. Exercise. Some inflected.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. as.

everything. everybody. anyone else. and was indefinite in Old English. some one. also aught." It means something. they say. unlike adjective pronouns. in building of chaises. they are never used as adjectives. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Definition and examples. Every one else stood still at his post. I tell you what. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. anything. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. and somewhat. Exercise. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. every one else. Somebody.Exercise. 137. They indefinite means people in general. anybody.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. nobody. as shown in the words everybody's. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. no one. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.²SHAKESPEARE. and they. naught. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Jove laughs. what. etc. every one (or everyone). everybody else. something. any one (or anyone). 136.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. as.There is always somewhere a weakest spot.. but. somebody else. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. . Now. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. anybody else's. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. etc. nothing.² At lovers' perjuries.

round as the shield of my fathers! 15.²a feature of natural scenery for which. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 7. Exercise. O thou that rollest above. All was now ready for action. 10. 17. 11. The table was good. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. from my earliest days. Others did the same thing. I first found myself among the mountains. 14. 4. in his negotiations. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. to which. 13. 8. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. Hutchinson tells us of herself. and of no other. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. For this did God send her a great reward. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 16. 6. but not to quite so enormous an extent. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. indeed. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 18. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 3. 2. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 5. . A reminder. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 12. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Whoever deals with M. 9. 138. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. were suffered to depart.

By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Whatever he knows and thinks. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. who take the world easy. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 26. variety. He sate him down.19. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. And will your mother pity me. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. in all its height. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. hear! 33. 27. thou rollest now.Destroyer and preserver. behold now the semblance of my being. 34.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 23. 35. eat white bread or brown. that let him communicate.And it would work 'em woe. 31. and seized a pen. And I had done a hellish thing. 21. 30. well-oiled dispositions. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 29. 25.Who knew thee too well. hear. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. I who alone am. oh. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. They know not I knew thee. 32. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.

that is our permanent state. Substantives. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. He teaches who gives. 41. Who hears me. and he learns who receives. 39. 42. adjectives are used. or with persons. 37." The office of an adjective. etc. the number is limited by adjectives. As to the kind of words used. if we wish to speak of a friend's house." etc. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house." "that house." "yonder hill. If a chemist discovers a new substance. or liquid." "a hundred men. becomes mine. or gaseous. We need to add some words to tell its color. then. size. and if we are near. Again. etc. which was no bad step towards my liberation. 43. 44. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun." "some cities. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object.. So with any object. 45. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. 38. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. in pointing out an object. 40. . 139. white or red.36. as. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. heavy or light. It may have this office alone. He knew not what to do. brittle or tough. if we are at a distance. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. For example. who understands me. and so he read. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. such as in the expressions "this man. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. We are by nature observers. "one hat. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. Office of Adjectives. position. so that no other will be mistaken for it. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. ADJECTIVES.

happy.²COLERIDGE. and their trash. With exception of the "and then. If he be thankful for small benefits." the "and there." "the Roman writer Palladius." ." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "next-door neighbor. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. to describe it or to limit its application." "half-dead traveler. fair. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. divine." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. terrible. 143. Classes of adjectives. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. or how much of a thing." "ivory-handled pistols. remotest." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. 142." they constitute all his connections. derived from proper nouns. Nouns are not. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. it shows that he weighs men's minds. Infinitives." "ice-cold water.² BACON. such as." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. To err is human. deep. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "this life-giving book. words primarily pronouns. etc. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. (4) Pronominal adjectives. however.140. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. used to tell how many things are spoken of. 141." "unlooked-for burden. pointing out particular things. Definition. They include relative and interrogative words. to forgive." "the Christian pearl of charity. such as safe. rash. To make this clear. "an old English manuscript." and the still less significant "and so. beautiful. "Heaven-derived power.²POPE. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. Examples are. (2) Adjectives of quantity.

Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. and another is drunken. which are either pure participles used to describe." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. no." "One is hungry." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. and accomplished is an adjective. in studying these last-named words. 143.²MACDONALD." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." Caution. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady.But ever she looked on Mr. 144. Care is needed." "It came on like the rolling simoom." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. Oxenham." was accomplished is a verb. sometimes small. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. Exercises.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." was is the verb. but small thoughts have I of sleep. 'Tis midnight. 145. 1. 2." "a charming sight. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. some.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. much. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. considerable. Examples are. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. any.²COLERIDGE. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. ." "The shattered squares have opened into line. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "trailing clouds. in this." "an aged man. For instance: in the sentence. having some of each subclass named in Sec.

Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." "In came some five and twenty more." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. any.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. the former²the latter. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening." Single ones of any number of changes. The list.²KINGSLEY.²CARLYLE. When some. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. An arrow was quivering in each body." (b) Indefinite numerals. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. Thus. latter. "one blaze of musketry. those). no. (plural these. 146. they come under the next division of adjectives. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. Not primarily pronouns. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. its wake. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "Then we wandered for many days. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. instead of modifying them. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. every village. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²ID. yonder (or yon).²VAUGHAN. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. former." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Examples. are used with plural nouns. The following sentences present some examples:² . Exercise." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking.²THACKERAY." "He had lived by hunting for some months." "a dozen volunteers. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives.² Every town had its fair. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. but I have gained fourscore. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. The demonstrative adjectives are this. How many. as. that." "I have lost one brother.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. and with them a few negroes.

About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. I verily believe.²BULWER. Modify names of persons or things. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.²ID. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. but.²GOLDSMITH.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives."²B. These were thy charms. they are changed to adjectives. 149.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE..²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. The taking of which bark. like the other numerals. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. but in the one case. As has been said.²KINGSLEY. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. FRANKLIN.²BANCROFT. tell how many things are meant. 148. These do not. for example.²WORDSWORTH. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. They are of two kinds.but all these charms are fled. skill which was at pause. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. 147. Definition.² It matters not what rank he has. . The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. The silver and laughing Xenil. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. ²CARLYLE. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²D. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. Oxenham fought desperately. Indefinite relative adjectives.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²RUSKIN. Exercise. skill which was progressive²in the other. WEBSTER. what revenues or garnitures.. When we speak of the seventeenth century. In which evil strait Mr.²ID. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. of equal skill. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.

What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. whichever. whatever. nature will be sure to bear us out in. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. or whether any. the debt to the rich. New torments I behold. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²AGASSIZ. whatsoever. In indirect questions.150. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. whichsoever way I move.²CARLYLE. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. which is selective among what is known. Was there. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.. He was turned before long into all the universe.²LAMB.² EMERSON. as it rather seemed. Adjective what in exclamations. A lady once remarked.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). In direct questions. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. which.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Whatsoever kind of man he is.²RUSKIN. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. and gaze. 151. But when the Trojan war comes. proved not altogether displeasing to him.. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.²ID. you at least give him full authority over your son. . and new tormentedAround me. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. As in the pronouns. it is impossible to determine.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. Examples of their use are.And whichsoever way I turn. what inquires about things or persons not known.²IRVING. whichsoever.

History of this²these and that²those. But this had also another plural. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. etc. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. 153 . that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. as. Meaning of comparison. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. In exclamatory expressions.²This. Thus. gold is heavier than iron. and when we compare the objects. or amount. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU.Adjectives have two inflections. That. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. When we place two objects side by side.. or size. th s (modern those). etc. weight. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. COMPARISON. we do so by means of their qualities. which was fully inflected in Old English.²number and comparison. The article that was used with neuter nouns. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. the making of it right. All these have certain qualities. color. 155. It is neither relative nor interrogative. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. And yet.152. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. . Exercise. of the quality. This is the old demonstrative. those). NUMBER. we notice some differences between them as to size. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. Those borrowed from this. and those as the plural of that. or weight.² Oh. which changed its spelling to the modern form these.²but not the same degree. alas. 154.

These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. Substitute for inflection in comparison. red. The comparative is formed by adding -er. blue. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them." "no fewer than a hundred. to the simple form. These are called degrees of comparison. indomitable. bluest. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. redder. expressing a greater degree of quality. 157. easiest. These are properly the only degrees.²THACKERAY. Freedom is a perpetual. The two forms. "more matter. reddest. or amounts in quantity. though the simple. 160. bluer. for example. whether they attend their own affair or not. whose favorite pupil he was. with less wit." Words that cannot be compared. infinite. giant-like. Definition. So with the words sole." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. universal institution. 156. great. and many others. and the superlative by adding -est. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. 159.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. sufficient." "the commonest speech. but. and the superlative. A main difference betwixt men is. as. as. They came into use about the thirteenth century. organic. but were not common until a century later. easy. 158." "It is a nobler valor.²SEWARD. . Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. expressing the greatest degree of quality. supreme." "the largest soul. they are not compared.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. easier. strictly considered. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. immemorial. enormous. indefatigable. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. "untamed thought.

though born in no very high degree. and other words are preceded by more and most. there needed to be a most genuine substance. quiet. which hung behind in the queerest way. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. mournfulest. harsh forms are usually avoided. admirablest.²ID. These are adjectives irregularly compared.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. honestest." "distantest relationships. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. The general rule is. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. madam. witty.²The Nation. who. strange. finest chiseling. These long. as.² CARLYLE A gentleman. falling on his knees. was most finished." Carlyle uses beautifulest." "more austere and holy. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." "more odd. most small. Adjectives irregularly compared. easy. 163. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. and yet familiar. "So help me God.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. etc. and patientest fusing. I will." "the wonderfulest little shoes." said Henry Esmond. polished. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. peaceablest. indisputablest." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." "sorrowfulest spectacles.Which rule.²ID. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. 162. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. The following lists include the majority of them:² . but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.

last Hindmost. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 8. next Nearest Latest. 2. 3. 1. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 9. is often used. outermost Utmost. Hind 2.LIST I. 164. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. which has gone out of use. The superlative I form was betst. Worser was once used.² We have it in a much lesser degree. worst. (3) Little is used as positive to less. [In] Inner Inmost.² O. 5. lesser Elder. though from a different root. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. innermost Outmost. A double comparative. further Farthest. throw away the worser part of it. oldest Nighest. 6. which has softened to the modern best. least. as in Shakespeare. . utter 3. [Out] Outer. evil was the positive to worse. 4. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. older Nigher Nearer Later. uttermost Upmost. hindermost Much or many More Farther. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. There was an old comparative bet. as. 7. uppermost LIST III. a double comparative. List I. bad. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. furthest 10. as in the sentence (14th century). lesser.²HAMLET. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. (2) In Old English. Good or well Evil. latter Hinder LIST II.

oldest. an old superlative ending. doubling the inflection. muchel. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form." Its spelling has been micel. to England we sailed. but originally the comparison was nigh. meaning the largest part. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. The most part kept a stolid indifference. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. or series. th came into the others. are earlier than older. much. Since later. moche. greatest. is quite common. (5) The forms elder. for example. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative.. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional.²HAWTHORNE. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. The meanings greater. First became entirely detached from the series. but not in meaning. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. and refer to time. instead of lenger. strong.²forth. strenger. further. and the superlative nearest. List II. the old forms. near. making the modern farther.² The more part being of one mind. great. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. a distinction has grown up between the two series. farrest. to which is added -ost. "Many a little makes a mickle. etc. since the m is for -ma. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. eldest.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. except the form next. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.²ID. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. the parallel form mickle being rarely used.. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. next. as. came into use. ²LAMB. farthest. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. are shown in such phrases as. In imitation of further. there is scarcely any distinction. . furthest. etc. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. The latter. as long. first. but in former times much was used in the sense of large.²KINGSLEY. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. Between the two sets as they now stand. latest.

by the by. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. are like the comparative forms in List II. on the very topmost twig. Her bows were deep in the water. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. They have no superlatives. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. The adjectives in List III." "their utmost exertion. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. and have no comparative force. the upper light of the world." "The outer is of the day. but not in their meaning. Her. all may belong to the same noun." "far-seeing as the sun. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. W. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Think what each adjective belongs to.²KINGSLEY. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. being merely descriptive. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. In List II. There." -Most added to other words." "the innermost moral soul. 168. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain.²DE QUINCEY. or have no comparative forms.²EMERSON. Highest and midmost.²SCOTT." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. in having no adjective positives.165. Decidedly handsome. but they have no adjective positives. BEECHER. The comparatives are so in form.²HAWTHORNE. or each may modify a different word or group of words. List III.²H. 167. but her after deck was still dry. . and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. 166. (Sec.²DE QUINCEY.

round." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. Bradbury and Evans. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. . 4. we may say "the then king. not decision alone. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. and broken. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. the then and still owners.²HOLMES. instead of saying.²BIBLE. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.²HAWTHORNE. It may still be argued. in prose. This.For example. deeply black eyes. bright. in this sentence. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs.² My then favorite. and heaven-defying oaths. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. But in this sentence.²TRENCH. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. A few improper jests and a volley of good." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. In the following quotations. therefore. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. as. 2. Exercise. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. For thy stomach's sake. May we not.²A. STOWE.²MRS." in which then is an adverb. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet." making then an adjective. By a convenient brevity. ²TROLLOPE. Richard Hooker.²NOAH PORTER.²HAWTHORNE. "the one who was then king. rich. deep. The seldom use of it. and moral truth. usual modifies incomparable decision. satisfactory. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. 7. 169. now our queen. Our sometime sister. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. Other instances are. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. our new government.²RUSKIN. and thine often infirmities. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. 6. H. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. 3. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. philosophical. solid. STEPHENS 5.

9. 170. To every Roman citizen he gives. if it has number. 3. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. the method of parsing is simple. cannot be compared. or case. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. manly way. (4) What word or words it modifies. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. She made no reply. 2. positive degree. modifies truths. frank. therefore demonstrative. therefore descriptive. not inflected for number. if it can be compared. 4. This gave the young people entire freedom. (2) Its number. and very few have number. These points out what truths. MODEL FOR PARSING. I ask nothing of you. and I waited for none. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. having a singular. 7. In parsing an adjective. seventy-five drachmas. 6. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. modifies the word truths. To every several man. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 10. compared by prefixing more and most. person. 8. Unfamiliar describes truths. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. then.What to tell in parsing. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. (3) Its degree of comparison. across the plain. and most astounding were those frightful yells. Since adjectives have no gender. 5. with awkward but rapid pace. this. plural number. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. Exercise. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. .

Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 12. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. as for armies that were too many by half. 23. Their name was the last word upon his lips. he won affections with ease. 25. 19. 32. it is so noble a fruit. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. yonder oxen in the pasture. 20. 16. With every third step. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 29. 22. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. and therefore more interesting to us. is the settlement of our own country. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 33. Like most gifted men. and many poles supported the lower ones. Nearer to our own times. 24. the same love to France would have been nurtured.11. To say what good of fashion we can. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 28. 31. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Here lay two great roads. Two hours elapsed. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 21. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 27. those dogs in the yard. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. are immutably fishes. growing in the most unfavorable position. 14. not so much for travelers that were few. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. it rests on reality. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. during which time I waited. I know not what course others may take. 26. and dogs. suggests such thoughts as these. the tomahawk fell. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 18. . 13. oxen. In music especially.

Examples: "a house. Our expressions the one. 174." "a European. that other. a before consonant sounds. but the former is used. the other. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. s o. for example. 37. In the sentence. weary-hearted man was he. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. these occurring as the tane." An with consonant sounds. An historian.²BREWER. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. sometimes the tother. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. 173. even when not silent. in vulgar English. when the word is not accented on the first syllable." "a yelling crowd. Many writers use an before h. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. such as we have been attempting to describe. were formerly that one. In Middle English the became an article." the words the and an belong to nouns. just as adjectives do. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general.²MACAULAY. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. 172. later th . and a before consonant sounds.²SCOTT." "an orange. that) which was also an article in Old English. the tither. A hard-struggling. the tother. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. th o. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. he is no literary man." "an honor.34. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. 35.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Their origin. the tother. ARTICLES. 171. ðat. meaning one. An or a came from the old numeral n. An before vowel sounds. or the tane. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. . Two relics. the latter is still preserved in the expression. with an ordinary little garden.

176.. or group. as "the Mississippi..² . then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri." the article indicates clearly that a river. and when the word river is omitted. 178. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.²THACKERAY. An or a is the indefinite article.²IRVING. a person is introduced by a. An and a are different forms of the same word. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. The Dakota tribes. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. With names of rivers. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. thus. is referred to. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. 177. Definition. 179. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.²HEROES OF ASGARD. which cannot be used alone. not descriptive. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. doubtless." "the Ohio.. BANCROFT. An article is a limiting word. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. as in the sentence. and not a state or other geographical division. or class. To call attention to attributes. When the is prefixed to a proper name. or a group or class of things.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. The is the definite article.²COLERIDGE. An hereditary tenure of these offices. the older n. or any individual of a group or class.²This use is noticed when. Kinds. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. Articles are either definite or indefinite.²G. since it points out a particular individual. Reference to a known object. 175. on opening a story.² Don't you remember how. NOTE.

so is the evil. the Hume. For possessive person pronouns. 181. the song sparrow. 183. her. the gallant. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. Schelling.² As she hesitated to pass on.The Bacon.²KINGSLEY.²EMERSON. but into the region of all the virtues. BANCROFT. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. the Spinoza. not into a particular virtue. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. for example. would speedily extract the required information. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²MOTLEY.² The faint. .²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. Common. With plural of abstract nouns. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. 1.²SCOTT. 180. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. If the good is there. etc. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.²ID. One thing for its class. His messages to the provincial authorities. Half abstract. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. Kant. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. Caution. 2. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²EMERSON. or a match put between the fingers. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. as. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²ID. With adjectives used as nouns. NOTE. laid it on the miry spot. The simple rise as by specific levity. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. The.²GIBBON. 182.²G. and the redwing.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. (can) shame also has an object. and to receive the action expressed. in this sentence from Bulwer. but cannot be predicates. an adverb. 202. Of those expressing action. Each influences some object. and shame the most astute."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. and not a verb. Definition and caution.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. an article. b). Hence Definition. a noun. the most penetrating." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE.In (a). A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (2. which may be a person. in (c). to say something to or about some person or thing. Now. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. Has takes the object hypocrisy. b). with some word understood. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. we consider a verb as one word. a verb. c). In each case. which means to go over. or an idea. In giving a definition. in (3. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. or a material thing. In the sentence. lone took what? answer. to go is no predicate. as. in (2. a preposition. taking the staff which always guided her steps. care. or the object. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. but fearing is not a predicate. the most astute. The nature of the transitive verb. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. a). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii." put is the predicate. By examining a few verbs. etc. and. from the Latin transire. endured what? anguish. hence is not a verb." Examine the sentences in Sec. 203. the word following. The nature of intransitive verbs. representing something which it influences or controls. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. all do not express it in the same way. 200: In (1). A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and a preposition unite as a verb. for example. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. In the first.²BULWER . are united with verbs as one verb phrase. "Put thou money in thy purse. can deceive has an object. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. 204. 201. "Put money in thy purse. All these are called transitive verbs. in (3. in (b). obeyed is a predicate.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.²MACAULAY. 221.² Now. they were recorded in the Book of Life. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. in our case. and may or may not be regarded true.²SHELLEY.²may or may not be true. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. as. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.I could lie down like a tired child. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. the first great founder of the Empire. popular government must be pronounced impossible. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. . If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. as. the writer can make the statement following. Unreal²cannot be true. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. the second founder.²LONGFELLOW. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. If this be the glory of Julius. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec.² If. WEBSTER. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. ²EMERSON.²D. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. but. Again.²FRANKLIN. Most excellent stranger. 222. Ideal. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. 2). Condition or Supposition. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. or be fulfilled. for example. the representative system ultimately fail. he will see the need of these ethics. I.²BRYCE. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. 215.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.

may. WILLIS. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.²EMERSON.² If these things were true. ²LOWELL. melodious. but when the verb precedes the subject.² CARLYLE. since he [Byron] was dead. If he had reason to dislike him. that he might be strong to labor.. the clause being introduced by that or lest. society could not hold together. she was regarded as a prodigy. 4.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. and sonorous.²SWIFT. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. thus.²FRANKLIN.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. he had better not have written." etc. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. especially be. to drink strong beer. 7. he supposed. The subjunctive. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. and should. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.²BAYNE.²MACAULAY. I told him..² It was necessary. is used to express purpose.²FRANKLIN. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. 6. if he speak to you. as. except. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. 223. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. NOTE. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. is of similar physiognomy.²N. In the following conditional clauses. do you think. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. clear. Epaminondas.. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. 5. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. which cannot be true. 2. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. though. might. and what kind of condition:² 1. The voice. II. and striven energetically to save Ney. . etc. Exercise. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. But in no case could it be justified.²CALHOUN. that we cannot but regret its absence. 8. unless. P. would have sat still with joy and peace. if his lot had been mine. Subjunctive of Purpose.. would you. 3. if he was the man I take him for.

VI. Rise up. Let it rise. WEBSTER..²COLERIDGE. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. IV. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. In Indirect Questions.. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. In a Noun Clause. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²MOORE.. Subjunctive of Result.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. 224. none of us could say.That vain it were her eyes to close. After a verb of wishing. I've wished that little isle had wings.Thou go not. In Temporal Clauses.And we.²SOUTHEY.²BRYANT. The English subjunctive. . 225. VII. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. 227.²D. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.I have been the more particular. like the quarry-slave at night.Were wafted off to seas unknown. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.²ID. like the Latin. To tell of what had passed. Ask the great man if there be none greater. III. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. within its fairy bowers.²WORDSWORTH. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. the answer being regarded as doubtful. I would it were! ²EMERSON. V. Expressing a Wish. till it meet the sun in his coming. So live. 226..²CARLYLE.

²THOREAU. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. The noun clause. 229. which may be (a) Pronoun. VIII. we'll turn aside.Subject. of cash.²TENNYSON. Object. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. for example.²CARLYLE. often contains a subjunctive. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. I have no thought what men they be. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. object. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. in apposition..² Be the matter how it may.And see the Braes of Yarrow. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. .² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. Some might lament that I were cold.² DICKENS. or whatsoever victual it may be. is. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. in its various uses as subject. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Come. That hunger of applause. Whatever betide. See that there be no traitors in your camp. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²COLERIDGE. (b) Adjective.And look thou tell me true.²DE QUINCEY.²WORDSWORTH. is the ultimate fact of man's life. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. that everything be in its place.²COLERIDGE. tell me all that thou hast seen. After verbs of commanding. 228.²SCOTT. Complement.²SHELLEY. etc. The essence of originality is not that it be new. The first merit. Concessive Clauses.

The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. love all men. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. ADAMS. Q. to express a wish. IMPERATIVE MOOD. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. we had found [should have found] a poem here. (3) Request. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. for example. (2) Entreaty. 230.The spirit he loves remains. It must be remembered.² CARLYLE.²J. though.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were.(c) Adverb. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²BRYANT. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Usually second person. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. (1) Command. In spoken English. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. a concession. point to their immortal works. At the present day. or requests. 231. and condition contrary to fact. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. however. 232. .²SHELLEY. entreaties. Honor all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. since commands are directed to a person addressed.²CHANNING. fear none. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Definition. Oh.

or I + they.²SCOTT. Break we our watch up.And.And God forget the stranger!" ." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. etc.One glance at their array! 5. child of earth!While each performs his part. Whatever inconvenience ensue. 7. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. etc. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Quoth she. there will her heart and her prayers be. we may use the imperative with we in a command. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life." Exercises on the Moods. nothing is to be preferred before justice.."Hush! mother.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. lest we rust in ease. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.²CAMPBELL. "Come along with me. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.. to you implied in it. 2. 3. 6. noble earl." whispered Kit. 8. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. "The Devil take the goose. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Mark thou this difference. request. Oh. receive my hand. but I + you. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.²SHAKESPEARE. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Part we in friendship from your land. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go."²DICKENS Tell me. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled.

20. whether he do it right or wrong. or do it at all. "Mr. 23. Though he were dumb. . tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. 21.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17." 25. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. 14.Except. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. That a man parade his doubt. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. but repentant child. Think not that I speak for your sakes. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.That they might answer him. she ought to have it." 16. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 26. Forget thyself to marble." cried he. "tell me where I may find my poor. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. He is." continued Old Morgan. then. "Oh. 19.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. it would speak. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. That sheaf of darts. will it not fall unbound. Marshall. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. Well. and opinion displace opinion. 13. ruined.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls.High up in silver spikes! 22. my dear madam. as though an instrument. let him live where else he like. 11. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. no literary man. 18. 10. He. Though abyss open under abyss. how he may do his work.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.9. in what pomps and prosperities he like. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote.

" "If he comes. such as be. as. Tenses in English. as the classical languages have. to direct his steps. 235. "Thou walkedst. and the future tense." present. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. 28. called auxiliaries. The tenses in detail. five in the subjunctive. the past. "I go away tomorrow. whatever she did. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. and future perfect tenses. as will be shown later on. have. Meantime. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it.²nothing could exceed the amiable.² present. past. or future time. "It is not in man that walketh. in the conjugations. such as Latin and Greek. shall. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. and the past tense. When the older pronoun thou was in use. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. five in the imperative. will. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. past perfect. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. in the third person singular. and future. tell him to wait. Siddons. a form ending in -eth. Old English had only two tenses.²the present tense. which represented present and future time. 234. Tense means time. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. or agree with it. Definition. kind. TENSE. and unassuming deportment of Mrs." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. by means of the present. PERSON AND NUMBER." . "Thou walkest. also. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood." past. past.27.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. or whether it were as one member of a general party. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. 233. as.

I be 2. chose. chooseth. Singular 1. You (thou) be 3. PRESENT TENSE. chooses. tense. walk has walk. This is the third person. choosing. PRESENT TENSE. Singular 1. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. were. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. chosest). I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. chosen (old. 238. walketh. persons. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. tenses. wert) 3. Such verbs as choose have five. 236. been. for example. walks. The verb be has more forms. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. etc. choosest. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. I were 2. and numbers. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. [He] were [They] were . etc. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. mood. Indicative Mood. walking. walkedst. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. singular number. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. are. In classical languages. moods. Singular 1. CONJUGATION. Definition. [He] is [They] are 3.²am. 237. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice." and this only in the present tense indicative. "He walks. is. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. You are 2. but in English. Few forms. walked.²choose. Singular 1. as. since it is composed of several different roots.

²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²ID. The light that never was on sea and land. (2) As auxiliary verbs. which was now become an occasional banquet.²GOLDSMITH. were. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. to express intention. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.. Instead of the plural are. to form the passive voice. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. etc. same as the German sind. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. Remarks on the verb be. for example. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. obligation.²BURKE . thus.²WORDSWORTH. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. 239. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. (3) be. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. though it is usually a dialect form. (d) With the infinitive. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. etc.²THACKERAY. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. is. as. in four ways.Imperative Mood. condition. 240.²SCOTT. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²SHELLEY. -en. (2) was. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.His infancy was nurtured.

In addition to the above inflected forms. Machinery of a verb in the voices. past perfect. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You choose Plural. as. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). by placing have. You choose Plural. 1. tenses. 1. . The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I chose 2. "I have gone" (present perfect). I choose 2. You chose Plural. "I had gone" (past perfect). 1. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. 242. tenses. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose.241. [He] choose [They] choose 3. We chose You chose 3. Indicative Mood. PRESENT TENSE. etc. future perfect." "He will choose." (2) Present perfect. I choose 2. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. (2). there are many periphrastic or compound forms. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. We chose You chose 3. as. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. Singular. You chose Plural. "I shall be. I chose 2. PRESENT TENSE. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. Singular. had. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 1. Singular. 240.

Imperative Mood. Past perfect. though. Future perfect definite. Present perfect. Present. Present definite." (4) The passive forms. Present perfect definite." "They had been running. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). "I was chosen. He chooses. Past perfect definite. Past perfect. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. he have been choosing. He will have chosen. Present. Future perfect. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Past definite. Same as indicative. (2d per. Past perfect definite." "You are chosen. Present definite.(3) The definite form of each tense. as. as.] he choose. Future. Past definite. He has chosen. He is choosing. singular number. [If. Future definite. " Be choosing. He chose. Past. He will he choosing. "I am running. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. of each tense. He will choose. Subjunctive Mood. He had been choosing. He was choosing. Present." 243. will be given. lest. " " " " " " " he be choosing. . he chose (or were to choose).) Choose. ACTIVE VOICE. Present definite. Present perfect. Only the third person. he have chosen. He had chosen. etc. Same as indicative. He will have been choosing. He has been choosing. Present perfect definite. Past. Indicative Mood.

None.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. (2d per. Past definite. Past perfect definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. None. Future.. None. Present perfect definite. 262). etc. Also. in affirmative sentences. Present perfect definite. Imperative Mood. None. Present definite. however. if learned at all. Present perfect. they will be discussed later (Sec. Indicative Mood. Past. He will be chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Past definite. PASSIVE VOICE. None. "He does strike. Past perfect definite. Present. Subjunctive Mood. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Present. He has been chosen." [Note to Teacher. he had been chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. . He is being chosen. " " " " " " " None. He is chosen. Past Perfect. Exercises should be given.) Be chosen. lest. as. Past. Past perfect. He had been chosen. He was being chosen. he have been chosen.NOTE. though." "He did strike. None. Future perfect. Present tense.] he be chosen. Present perfect.] [If. Future definite. Present definite. Future perfect definite. but verbals. he were being chosen. He was chosen. He will have been chosen.

Kinds. ran. drive. laid. 244. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. beg. catch. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. bit blown broken chidden. bid bound. begged. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. drove. as. lay.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. Some of these also have weak forms. sleep.[adj. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Past Tense. verbs are strong or weak. bounden] bitten. slept. and may or may not change the vowel: as. According to form. Definition. run. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . 245. but adds no ending. which are in parentheses Present Tense. NOTE. caught. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense.

drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sunken] sat slain slidden.

² We had each drank three times at the well. now told us it was time for repose.²cleave. cleaved. ²THACKERAY. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²B. cloven.² Thou hast clomb aloft. The former used to be cleave.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. and. especially in that of an earlier period. Not a cock crew. nor a dog barked." "a drunken wretch. cleave.²MILTON." In this confusion of usage. clave or clove. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.²GOLDSMITH.²TENNYSON. "stricken with paralysis.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb." "a sunken snag. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. and another (born) for the passive. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. but is much used in vulgar English. instead of ate and eaten.²IRVING. as. and the latter.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. and sometimes occurs in poetry. cleft.²one meaning to adhere or cling. the other. probably to avoid confusion with this. borne is also a passive. as. cleaved. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. only one set remains certain.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. cleft (to split).²COLERIDGE. as."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. 246. Sometimes in literary English. When it means to carry or to endure. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. TAYLOR. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. The form clomb is not used in prose." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. Historically. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. which always crew at eleven. to split. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. for example. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. "his bounden duty.²as (from Shakespeare)." "the cloven hoof. . as (from Holmes). instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). Our cock." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).

fallen. for example. found. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Break. He sate him down. for example. We usually say. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. driven. found. 3. froze. Throw. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. which is seldom used except in poetry.Shore thro' the swarthy neck."²KINGSLEY. Find. as. Fall. 5.The form gotten is little used. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. flung.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. shaken. 8.²TENNYSON. begun. broke.²BIBLE. One example out of many is. Exercises. gave. 6. Usually shear is a weak verb. The butler was hanged. frozen. This heard Geraint. even in poetry.² We had all got safe on shore." but not much as a participle.²BYRON. Shake. 9. 7. shore is rare. Begin. Freeze. and grasping at his sword. 245). 2. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. (a) From the table (Sec.²DE FOE. broken.²WORDSWORTH. . fell.² If. 10. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. thrown. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. shook. threw. 4. and seized a pen. began. drove. Fling.²SCOTT. maiden. given. flung. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. as "a shorn lamb. Give. Drive. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs.

²HAWTHORNE. "So mote it be.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. Must is historically a past-tense form. HAMILTON. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. Indicative Use: Permission. 249. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Have we valuable territories and important posts. of course.[To the Teacher. 220. according to the infinitive used. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. as. 223. as in Sec. but came through analogy with should and would. as it has two meanings. etc. 250. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. (See also Sec. PRESENT.²CHANNING. They are as follows:² PRESENT. or when it expresses wish. Could may be subjunctive. It is indicative when it expresses permission. 251.. there is one general principle.. or.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. ability.. etc.²PAINE. The same remarks apply to ought."²WINIER. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. . Can is used in the indicative only. from the obsolete verb motan. as it sometimes does. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248.²SCOTT. Ability. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. The l in could did not belong there originally.. for full drill on the forms. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. His superiority none might question. it is used only in the indicative mood.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.²CHANNING This. "far off his coming shines. Subjunctive use. must have been an ocular deception. 247." Must is present or past tense. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. Like must. PAST. purpose.. which survives in the sentence.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. PAST.

²COOPER. with pronouns of the first person. he said.²MACAULAY. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. WEBSTER. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. she should ride like a queen." Uses of shall and should.² (a) To express authority.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.²THAXTER. in the form of command. Second and third persons. (b) In questions asking for orders.²BULWER. 252. The following are examples:² Never mind.²LONGFELLOW. as. not plod along like apeasant.² Futurity and questions²first person. Shall and Will. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²IRVING. shall and should are used.Nay. She rejects his suit with scorn. or confident prediction. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. future action). yea. for example. The sea shall crush thee. BROCKDEN BROWN.e. while ought always has to. and corn to hoe. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. shall and should are used. as. what shall I say?²N. (b) In indirect quotations. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. my lad. They shall have venison to eat. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.²L. MOULTON. to use will and would. She should not walk.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. C. to the neglect of shall and should. especially in the United States.² With respect to novels. I shall be gone. as.² The time will come full soon. . The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. "I think I will go.. promise.

He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²SCOTT. was to be expected. and will not return until all is finished.. purpose. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²CABLE.²WORDSWORTH. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. JR. B.²WORDSWORTH. Disguising a command.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²A.²H.that I would do him justice. First. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. thus. And promised. for example.²C. as. JAMES. 253. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. etc. . time. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.. and is equivalent to ought. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. BROWN. I never was what I should be.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²WINTER. second and third persons. LARNED. or a promise. with the conviction that he should win in the end.²ROGERS. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. as the sole inventor. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²WORDSWORTH.² I will go myself now.²SWIFT. for example.²BYRON. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.

and fetch off certain plate and belongings. as if it were merely expected action.²War Records. etc.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. When I am in town. To be sure. PASSIVE VOICE. Mere futurity.²the original meaning of the word will.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. and two of my people.. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. . action merely expected to occur. will and would often denote an action as customary. when thou wast born. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C... so you will... Roland. AND THIRD PERSONS. The gift of Beauty. without regard to future time. 254.² DICKENS.²SCOTT. Thine was a dangerous gift. Would thou hadst it not. BROWN. B. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. for example. This puts the order more mildly. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. as. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). through storms their brothers are afraid of.²BURKE. for punishment or intimidation. SECOND. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. for example.²IRVING.²LANDOR. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. (4) With FIRST. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. In this stately chair would he sit.²SCOTT.² Thou wilt take the skiff.² Subject I omitted: often so. and mark on the grounds the works. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. will is used to express command. as. would is used to express a wish. They will go to Sunday schools. will and would are used to express simple futurity.²BANCROFT.

1. Thou art what I would be. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Plural. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. "I shall not run. 3. You will be chosen. 2. We shall be chosen.:² ACTIVE VOICE. I will be chosen. (a) From Secs. We will be chosen. We shall choose. 1. Singular. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. To express determination. (b) Examine the following sentences. [He] will be chosen. 2. You shall choose. Singular. You shall choose. Thou shalt have a suit. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. 1. PASSIVE VOICE. I shall be chosen. [They] will be chosen. 252 and 253. Plural. 3." answered Herbert stubbornly. [They] will choose. 2. etc. Plural. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. You shall be chosen.Singular. You will choose. 1. yet only seem. [He] shall choose. [He] will choose. You shall be chosen. 2. promise. You will be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. 1. He informed us. . I will choose. 3. [They] shall choose. 3. and justify the use of shall and will. and that of the newest cut. 3. [He] shall be chosen. 5. Plural. Exercises on Shall and Will. 3. 2. We will choose. Singular. 4. 6. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. I shall choose. You will choose.

WEAK VERBS. set. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. 13. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. or mylk and wastel breed. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 9. This ending has now dropped off. 12. 255. Lucy stood still.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. put. put. "I am a wayfarer.²CHAUCER. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. very anxious. 256. Of smale houndes hadde she. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. The old ending to verbs of Class II. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. But the rest. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. which may be called irregular weak verbs.²Class I. No. and I have nothing to say. 11. as. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. bereaved besought . Present Tense. bereave besought Past Participle. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. then. Without having attended to this. as if he would have more of the enchantment. 257. bereft. bereave beseech bereft. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. need some attention and explanation." 14. The beast made a sluggish movement. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.²ID. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. and have no change of vowel. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. was -de or -te. my son. Past Tense. Irregular Weak Verbs. 10.7." the stranger said. set. put.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made .burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. . [To] have been chosen. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). an imperfect. 7. 267. Indefinite. expressing purpose. 9. [To] have been choosing. when inflections became fewer. try clemency. and when passive. [To] be choosing. But later. [To] be chosen. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. an indefinite and a perfect form.. have no tense. Three saplings. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. they have an indefinite. 266. like participles. 8.. Nothing of the kind having been done. will (with should and would). and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. INFINITIVES. PASSIVE VOICE. 10.²the creature warring against the creating power. 268. [To] have chosen. Imperfect. as in the Old English. Cases when to is omitted. Infinitives. Indefinite. and a perfect definite form. In Sec. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. to express action unconnected with a subject. to was used before the infinitive generally.6. ACTIVE VOICE. [To] choose. Perfect. a perfect. formed a kind of bedstead. When active. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. I returned to reflection on my situation.. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Perfect definite. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Perfect. To with the infinitive.

²COOPER. "He will choose. 272. make. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs.² What! doth she. 271.²it may be governed as a noun. E. as in the expression. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay." (4) In exclamations. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. as.²TENNYSON. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. . "I do go" etc. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. see." etc. "a house to let. as. "She ask my pardon. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. HALE. 269. must. sometimes need (as. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches." Examples are. watch. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).(2) After the verbs may (might). it is often preceded by the definite article." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. learn [doth learn is one verb. please.²E. it has several attributes of a noun. feel. poor woman!" cried Charles. negative.. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. too. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. and corn to hoe. They shall have venison to eat.² She was a kind.²MACAULAY. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. do (as. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. GERUNDS. hear. also in the imperative. as the credulous imagine. and emphatic forms of the present and past. can (could).²IRVING." "I shall have chosen. bid (command). The gerund is like the participle in form. under "Analysis. as. But there was nothing to do.²DE QUINCEY. it may be the subject of a verb. liberal woman. also let.²GOLDSMITH. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. or the object of a verb or a preposition.). 270. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. and like a noun in use. While the gerund expresses action.²HOWELLS. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.

above." also (2." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. when. b). The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. 2. which express action." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. (6) Verbal nouns. which have lost all verbal force. according to use as well as meaning. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. after examining the nest. but cannot govern." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. to see the returning hope of the parents. (4) Pure adjectives. brilliant. (3) Participial adjectives. What a vast. Exercise." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use." "Certainly dueling is bad. and wonderful store of learning! . they find the nurslings untouched! 3. Words in -ing are of six kinds. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. which express action and also modify. may govern and be governed. and five gerunds. (2) Pure participles. 273. on your leaving the spot. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. which name an action or state." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden.²Find sentences containing five participles. but do not assert. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. making the definite tenses. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. five infinitives. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. 4. which express action.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. II). (5) Gerunds. and has been put down. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. Then how pleasing is it. Sec." Exercise.

16. Thackeray did not.5.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 7. giving principal parts. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating.²indicative. (4) Tense. I suppose I was dreaming about it. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. he gave out sentence by sentence. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. Caution. subjunctive. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. by object lessons. What is dreaming? 8. round which is an iron railing. . dictating from his chair. 9. 10. 6. (b) as to use. 234. 12. bearing her national emblem. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. but. He is one of the most charming masters of our language.²active or passive. give reality to your teaching. (2) Voice. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 13. slowly. much corroded. I. 275. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. or imperative. The only means of ascending was by my hands. VERBS. 14. In parsing verbs. you must. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 15. (5) Person and number. write twenty pages without stopping.²strong or weak. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. (3) Mood. He spread his blessings all over the land.²transitive or intransitive. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. like Sir Walter Scott. 11.

(a) From what verb derived. has the subject government. therefore active. VERBALS. can. VERB PHRASES. 278(2). The government might have been strong and prosperous. (c) to what word it belongs. (2) Infinitive. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. give points (a) and (b).276. 278. in the world. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. (b) its use (Sec. 235. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. usually it does not. has for its subject Lee." Sometimes it does. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. past tense. Exercise. then parse it as an adjective. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. If a participial adjective. imperfect. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. and should always be analyzed as phrases. call should a weak verb. In 2. active. . perfect. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. see Sec. might. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. perfect. intransitive. You are gathered to your fathers. and ends in -s. till it meet the sun in his coming. intransitive. indicative (as it means could)." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. we must beware of the rule. Especially frequent are those made up of should. Take these examples:² 1. indicative. 4. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. (b) whether indefinite. 2.. could. 273). and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. II. 2. (1) Participle. But unless the verb is present. would. and not taken as single verbs. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. Parse the verbs. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. III. etc. may. must. definite. 277. call might a weak verb. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. Let it rise! let it rise. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. etc. In such sentences as 1. followed by a pure infinitive without to. past tense. no sin nor sorrow. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. and parting day linger and play on its summit. (3) Gerund. verbals. 3. (b) whether active or passive. It has been intimated in Sec.

O God. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 11. a new waking up of all that has life. 18. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 10. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. . as rolled from wing to wing. morning is not a new issuing of light. he thought only of her.5. The soul having been often born. a sweet good will.Down all the line.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. However that be. 19. or. Right graciously he smiled on us. 21. When he arose in the morning. leaving me upon the bed. 13. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 24. 17. 16. Whatever ground you sow or plant. from a sort of temporary death. a new bursting forth of the sun. 23. 20. 15. as usual.Henceforth in me instill. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. In going for water. 14. He passed across the room to the washstand. and wondered if she were yet awake. a deafening shout. 22. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 9. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 12. 8. as the Hindoos say. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. So. 6. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. With them. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. see that it is in good condition. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence.

279." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Nor was it altogether nothing. .²SHELLEY.Feast while we may.25. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 29. Adverbs modify. they are more himself than he is. 26."²DE QUINCEY.² The young man reveres men of genius. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way." An adjective or an adverb. and men of leisure and cultivation. The word adverb means joined to a verb. A verb. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. And now wend we to yonder fountain. and limit adjectives or adverbs. When action is expressed. as.²EMERSON. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. because. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. to speak truly.²time. thou sayest. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. To the almost terror of the persons present. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. and live ere life be spent." "He was absolute. ADVERBS. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. or manner: as. who live with nature?²ID. and so on. for the hour of rest is at hand." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Better it were. place.²CARLYLE. Is it only poets. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. 27. for example.²THACKERAY. Oh. "William's private life was severely pure. to consent.

and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. perhaps. as. Definition. NOTE. 281. B. ²IRVING.²These last differ from the words in Sec. but really modifying.² FRANKLIN. but some verb understood. 169 are felt to be elliptical. to-day. NOTE. as now. while those in Sec. and that. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. not simply the forms used in predication.²T. not the noun. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.²BYRON. or a word group used as such.²TROLLOPE. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. being adverbs naturally and fitly. ever. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. ALDRICH. I draw forth the fruit. We are offered six months' credit. 280. is a modifying word.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. then. 282. all wet and glossy. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. etc. An adverb. Thus considered.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. there are six classes:² (1) Time. before. A phrase. like the light of heaven. 169. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. (2) according to their use in the sentence. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. lately. has induced some of us to attend it. which may qualify an action word or a statement. for example. thus.²LEIGH HUNT. A clause or sentence. . because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.²THOREAU. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.² LOWELL.He was incidentally news dealer. It may also modify a sentence. Make music to the lonely ear. hitherto. as shown in the sentences. and half awfully. but still with a rich bloom to it. Surely happiness is reflective.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.

enough. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. and others. (3) Manner. singly. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. So also in Grote. I was. as here. (6) Assertion. Emerson.²IRVING. the more perfect will be their obedience.was for this once of her opinion. partly. above. as little. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. 283). slightly.² The master. as perhaps. especially the comparative of these words. telling how anything is done. as hither. 283. LOUIS STEVENSON. whithersoever. etc. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. two by two. This long's the text. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.thither.. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. (see also Sec.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. .which gained him such universal popularity. while so precedes only the adjective usually. too... (5) Degree. etc. greatly. etc.²DE QUINCEY. whencesoever.there. that these adverbs form a very large class.where. not. possibly. better. Motley. etc. the more evidently they love liberty. telling how much.²LECKY.whither.²HAWTHORNE.²SHAKESPEARE.(2) Place. maybe. (4) Number.²BURKE.near. as well. surely. etc.whence. the more friends you will have. and not infrequently are found in literary English.. slowly.thence. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.. Thackeray. beautifully. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. bravely. much.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. twice. [Sidenote The status of such.yonder. White. telling how many times: once. for example. etc.²R.²BROWNING. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. thus. just. or how far he believes it to be true. The more they multiply. probably. at least. Meekness. very. as hence.

²"He walked too far [place].Pretty." "That were far better [degree].² "Mighty well. besides modifying. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.²BAYNE. Some adverbs. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. have the additional function of asking a question.²HAWTHORNE. . The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Emerson. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. 285." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. 284." "He spoke positively [manner]. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Aldrich. Simple. STOWE. Defoe. A pretty large experience. Burke. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Franklin." "The house. and art but a fool. and its lawn before [place].² KINGSLEY. Again. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. a mighty fine gentleman.²GOLDSMITH. Beau Fielding. Notice meanings. De Quincey. Mighty. Hard blows and hard money.²THACKERAY. Dickens. Kingsley. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Interrogative.²BULWER. B. Holmes. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Direct questions. for example."²SCOTT." "I have seen you before [time]. and other writers." said the king. Neville. It is only occasionally used in literary English.² You are mighty courteous. Pretty is also used by Prescott.²THACKERAY. "Peace." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. for example. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. 286. 282.²FIELDING.

WEBSTER. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. for example. . "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.²D. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.²BYRON (3) Manner. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. I do not remember when I was taught to read. (2) Place. I will not ask where thou liest low.²BYRON. CLAY. (4) Degree. I hearkened. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²BULWER.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. I know not why. When did this humane custom begin?²H. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. they smiled. 287. (5) Reason. (2) Place. (4) Degree.²POE.

when compared. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. further farthest. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. The following. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. sooner. higher. see Sec. highest.²SHAKESPEARE.But in reality. well much little far late Comparative. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Many adjectives have the same ending. Exercise. 290. when.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. high. Superlative.eyes. Its strings boldlier swept. For further discussion. representing four classes.²BYRON. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Then must she keep it safelier. soon. not an adverb. soonest. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Many adverbs are compared. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. just as adjectives do. irregularly compared. have the same inflection as adjectives. 288. ." Exercise. when does not express time and modify.²TENNYSON.) rather 289. and. use. obs. Only that we may wiselier see. as.. but the whole clause. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. furthest (rathe. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. only occasionally having -er and -est.²COLERIDGE. Form vs.²EMERSON..

adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. many words without -ly have the same form." Compare these:² 1. that in Old and Middle English. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 5. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. With his proud. near. 291. There are eyes.²TENNYSON. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 2. nearly. if it has the verb be. mostly.²THACKERAY. Special use of there. curiously jolly. 292. 6. 8. 4.²WORDSWORTH. hardly. but with a different meaning. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. 7. And all about. Not near so black as he was painted. hard. He is inexpressibly mean. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. evenly. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. Again. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. merely introduces a sentence. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. even. The reason is. or down the leaves laughed through.²IRVING.²ID. But he must do his errand right. more courtly in their manners. kindly and good-natured in secret. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 3. quick-flashing eye. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.² EMERSON. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. instead of being used adverbially.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. to be sure. Such are most. 2. . whether adverbs or adjectives. etc. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth.²CHAUCER. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. Frequently the word there.And his mien of kingly state. as.1.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].

3. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. the Madonna is in great glory. according to meaning and also use. 15. 293.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. . Thither we went. is always politically unwise. but continually shifted. 12. It is the Cross that is first seen. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 2. 4. The higher we rise in the scale of being. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. burning in the center of the temple. (3) What word or word group it modifies. For the impracticable. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. at the regular wine-shop. 17. 9. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 5. In parsing adverbs. if the word is compared. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. and sate down on the steps of a house. 7. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 11. 16. 18. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. But a few steps farther on. but from my fall? 6. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 10. and always. Exercise. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. give² (1) The class. (2) Degree of comparison. however theoretically enticing.

in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. CONJUNCTIONS. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. . but side by side within the American Union." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. 21. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. Clauses.19. hence." Paragraphs. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. It was pretty bad after that. or sentence groups. however. Definition. word groups. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. then. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. 20. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. connecting words. 294. 22. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. upon which the sun now shone forth. Unlike adverbs. therefore. But now the wind rose again. but the student will readily find them. 295. nor." Sentences. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. sentences. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. etc. A conjunction is a linking word. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise.

serves but to show their ignorance. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. usually between two things. still. neither. then. moreover. The chief ones are. The assertion.. Alternative.or. also. While the earth bears a plant.but.. word groups.Classes of conjunctions. (2) Subordinate. had its weight. nor. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. nor. the butter too. (2) ADVERSATIVE...or. expressing a choice. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. 298. as. Your letter. only. "Howbeit. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. but is emperor in his own right. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. introducing a reason or cause... or the sea rolls its waves. the window being open. for. either.and.but (or but also). 296.. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. Causal. neither. whether. Adversative. as well as." Nevertheless. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.. whether. as and. yet. either. Some go in threes..or.. both. likewise. Nor mark'd they less. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.. etc.. of the same rank. . as well as the room door..nor... as.or. neither. the bread was spent. (3) CAUSAL. Correlatives.. else. however. and. Some of these go in pairs. hence. etc.. not only.nor.or whether. as but. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. joining words. while.. therefore. etc. 297. They are or. whether.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. answering to each other in the same sentence. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.. either.. not only.... and not man corn. (4) ALTERNATIVE. however..

on condition that. 299. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.. etc. whithersoever. etc. QUINCY. (7) RESULT: that. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. as. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. whence. (3) MANNER: how. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. etc. ..²PAULDING. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. whereas. lest. as. (6) PURPOSE: that. Time. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. so.²BURKE. in order that. since. nor echo. ere. that. whenever. except. after. He is not only bold and vociferous. nor creeping thing.as. however. ²ALLSTON. nor wing of bird. nor green leaf.²COOPER. so. provided that. whither. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. provided. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. object. etc. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. before. in apposition. so that. even if. sometimes if.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. howsoever.²IRVING. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. Where the treasure is. seeing. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. (2) TIME: when. so that. etc. wherever.. now. while. unless. though. in case. especially that after so. as.. whether. since.²WILSON. It is. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.²BIBLE. although. so. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. Neither the place in which he found himself. there will the heart be also.²J. until.²DE QUINCEY. whereto. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.

H.That vain it were her eyes to close.²EMERSON.²AMES. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²AMES. Condition.²DEFOE. Sparing neither whip nor spur. So many thoughts moved to and fro. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Comparison. but not so long but I held it out.²AMES. Then Denmark blest our chief.²BYRON.²EMERSON. Cause.So I behold them not. Purpose.²COLERIDGE. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Let the world go how it will. reason.² HAWTHORNE. not as they were expected or intended. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Concession. Substantive.² H. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Now he is dead. Manner. We wish for a thousand heads. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²IRVING.² EMERSON. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²CAMPBELL. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. .²BURKE. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. I was again covered with water.²EMERSON. As a soldier.²CARLYLE Events proceed. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.That he gave her wounds repose. Result.² WORDSWORTH. a thousand bodies. JACKSON.

(b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. After he was gone. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. In what point of view. 2. 4. some words²for example. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 5. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. as. While a faction is a minority. hold a subordinate rank. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. They. her real merit is known at home. 13. As will have been noticed. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. 14. since. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. He was brought up for the church. then. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. Besides. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. while. . she faintly pressed her hand. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 12. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. and hid her there. 15. etc. 300. 9.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. No one had yet caught his character. however. the lady called her servant. And then recovering. And they lived happily forever after. 3.²RUSKIN. Crept under the leaf. the wisest. Exercises. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. that. 7. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. as he shot in air. 6. it will remain harmless. The moth fly. 10. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished.Let us see whether the greatest.

If analyzed.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. GREELEY. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. In poetry. the expression would be. as is often equivalent to as if. and be a bud again. As if." as. and part as though we parted not. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. even as they would weep.. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. (2) What words... for example. none of the lashings having given way. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. So silently we seemed to speak. 304. etc.16. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. "We meet.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. as is shown by the use of as though. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²EMILY BRONTE.As though a rose should shut. word groups.²HOOD. 303. .Clouded. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. they connect. thus.²BYRON. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. SPECIAL REMARKS. In parsing conjunctions. in this case. As for as if. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. 302. As though.²IRVING. His voice . 301. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. Consequently. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. expressing degree if taken separately.So slowly moved about. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. In Emerson's sentence. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. and the frame will suit the picture.

Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. because it is his. 12. or in the snow. and very seldom?" 8. Some conjunctions.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.²DEFOE 2. he sleeps as warm. and. 4. in 3. the Sphinx was slain. . so that I could not stir abroad. 7. If he could solve the riddle. are regularly of one particular class. so means therefore. In classifying them. 11. and its clause is independent. For example. or in the forest. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. and associates as happily. others belong to several classes. so they paddled on. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. 13. At sea. that it might testify of that particular ray. when. It continued raining. Exercise.²I find them true in Concord. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. so it be faithfully imparted. 3.. 6. and the like. because.²EMERSON 3.² 1.Caution. He dismisses without notice his thought. such as nor. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. He is the compend of time." said his wife to Martin Luther.²is subordinate of condition. they are not known. dines with as good an appetite. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. etc. 10. "Doctor. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. and its clause depends on the other. 9. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. so that expresses result. he is also the correlative of nature. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. 5. as beside his own chimneys. When the gods come among men. It may be safely trusted. but of the natural. 2. All the postulates of elfin annals. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.²that the fairies do not like to be named. so means provided. compare the sentences. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. in 2. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower.

Still. 26. 20. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 305. 23. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. For. in many a heart. It may be so in the majority of cases. that both were wayward. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. she might have the family countenance. 15. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 16.. 28. 24. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. in this they agree.²else it is none. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. you must be. Now you have the whip in your hand. I speak. It is clear. whose names I omit. save it were sinful like herself. There was no iron to be seen. won't you lay on? 17. . Goodness must have some edge to it. when it was presented to them. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. enthroned.14. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. of good novels only. therefore. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 22. PREPOSITIONS. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 29. And whether consciously or not. 21. however. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 18. 19. 25. 27. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 30. the whole conditions are changed. I rejoice to stand here no longer.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

and phrases signifying state or condition of being. 321. at most.²DE QUINCEY. at least.²M.²R. Exercise. at the worst. at peace. At that time [the earth] was richer. Richard was standing by the window. Exercise. CONWAY.²SWIFT..²WARNER.²B. D. at war. the first port made by the ship. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. Like at. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. For. At St.²EVERETT. at any rate. expressing the degree of difference.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. at all. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. By my faith. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at rest. at random.² (1) The general meaning of place. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at play. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation.²COOPER. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. . but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at work. H. at length. (3) Agency or means. (4) Measure of excess. Helena. STODDARD. 320. etc. She saw the boat headed for her.²ALDRICH.²ID. at first.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. by the ruins of nations. by means near or close to. etc. at naught. at once. by many a million of acres. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. ²PARTON. by the blessed memory of the departed. TAYLOR The angel came by night. as. at the best.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. by the wrecks of time. By. (2) Time. he stopped. at one.

he repented of his folly. (6) Like as. poor fellow. (5) Reference.²ID. cause.. (3) Duration of time. (9) Motive. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. had a forest of poor relations.. There are gains for all our losses. For the rest.²E. for the benefit of. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. if your worship can accomplish that. "For a fool. . or extent of space."²SCOTT By my faith.² RUSKIN. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²IRVING. meaning although. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. the Colonna motto would fit you best. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²LAMB. An Arab woman. for all slips of hers. But the Colonel. He and they were for immediate attack. meaning with regard to. reason. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. for all his title. but a few sunsets since." said the Lady of Lochleven. "Nay. and leaped for joy. in behalf of. For him. BANCROFT.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.²EMERSON. incitement to action. H.²STODDARD. for famine. or in spite of." answered Master Brackett. L. ate her child. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.²HOLMES. as to.²H. etc. meaning in the character of. considering that etc. etc.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. "thou hast counseled wisely. E. a person or thing. etc.²W. (4) Substitution or exchange. Still.²HOOD. The twilight being. they are now for us. (7) Concession. GARRISON. respecting. as being.²PARKMAN. (8) Meaning notwithstanding.(2) In favor of.One of Eve's family.²PARKMAN.

H. The original meaning of of was separation or source. The young cavaliers. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. Exercise. 322. Exercise.²H. (4) Motive. (1) Origin or source. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²HALE. 323. From harmony. (3) Time. from a desire of seeming valiant.²BANCROFT. nay. ceased to be merciful. like from. The king holds his authority of the people.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. A distrustful. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²DRYDEN. or reason. The From Relation. cause. if not a desperate man.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. . Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²HIGGINSON. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. From. more. Like boys escaped from school.²HUXLEY. Of. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²MILTON.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. (2) Origin.²ID. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. The general idea in from is separation or source.²HUME.

south of. disarm. clear.²clear of. as north of.²BANCROFT. ²PARTON. deprivation. E. rob.²ID. ²GAVARRE. free. (b) After some adjectives. out of the most unpromising materials.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. motive. that Cromwell once ruled England. etc.²BAYARD TAYLOR. The hills were bare of trees. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. You cannot make a boy know.²DICKENS II. etc. A singular want of all human relation..²BOSWELL. cure. Sandals. beg. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. bare of. and grass.²SCOTT Who formed. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. Back of that tree. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. there were only twenty-one members present. bound with thongs of boar's hide. (6) Partitive. Other Relations expressed by Of. He is away of his own free will. Of the Forty.² HUXLEY. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. free of. More than one altar was richer of his vows. demand. of his own knowledge.²HIGGINSON. wide of. or breastpin of native gold. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. relieve. (c) After nouns expressing lack. weeds. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. deprive. White shirt with diamond studs.²PARKMAN. reason. etc. ask."²E. .² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. etc. rid. acquitted them of. such as ease.²ALDRICH. (3) With expressions of material. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. purge. "I am glad of that. Asked no odds of. especially out of. divest. expressing a part of a number or quantity. (5) Expressing agency.²LEW WALLACE. HALE. etc. (d) With words expressing distance.

(7) Possessive. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. of late.²ALDRICH.²BANCROFT.²W. (8) Appositional. . E.He washed out some of the dirt. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.. (b) Noun and gerund.²LOWELL.²COOPER. equal to about. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. of is used in the sense of during.²HALLECK. Idiomatic use with verbs. standing. and the dignity of a queen. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. The nation of Lilliput.²BANCROFT. See also Sec.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. with regard to. etc. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. for the possessive. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. when the first is descriptive of the second. could give shelter from his contumely.²FROUDE. ²IRVING.²ID. Not even woman's love. with its object. concerning. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. Such a book as that of Job.²LAMB. CHANNING. (c) Two nouns. (9) Of time.²PRESCOTT. being equivalent to an infinitive.²SWIFT. of a sudden. Besides the phrases of old.²BANCROFT. (10) Of reference. The fair city of Mexico. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. 309.

on high.²EMERSON. on trial. on board. on the alert. ²BANCROFT. 325. and others.²PARKMAN. Exercise. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. equal to about. To. . It also accompanies the verbs tire. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²PARKMAN. (b) With motion. The general meaning of on is position or direction. disapprove. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²DE QUINCEY.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. 324. on the wing.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. you are eighteen. complain. permit. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. on a sudden.²PARKMAN. SIGOURNEY. etc. On my life. without adding to their meaning.²ALDRICH. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. On. on view. Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon is seldom used to express time. and not a day more.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.²MRS. accept. (4) In adjurations. avail (one's self). repent. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. Upon my reputation and credit. concerning.²Find sentences with six uses of of. Exercise. (3) Reference. (2) Time. consist.²BRYANT. such as admit. allow. etc. Upon. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. approve.

²HALE. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. (b) Referring to time.. But when.. Death!²HALLECK. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. interest.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²BRYANT.²LANG.²PARKMAN..²PARTON.²BULWER.²IRVING. 268). to my taste.²B. mid meant in company with.²BENTON To our great delight. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. had ceased to be. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. it may be genuine poetry. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Exercise.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. 326. To the few. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. He usually gave his draft to an aid.²often to the loss of vigor. Revolutions. Nor.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.to be written over.. whose influence is felt to this hour. We cook the dish to our own appetite.Come to the bridal chamber. does the mere music.²GOLDSMITH. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. (5) Equivalent to according to. to him. unmasked. gay Comedy appears. In Old English. With. His brother had died. .of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. (2) Expressing result.

opinion.²WALLACE (7) Time.²DE QUINCEY. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²ALDRICH. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. with all his boldness. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. felt it unsafe to trifle further. With all his sensibility. (5) Opposition. "poetry is not a pursuit.²COOPER. but a pleasure"?²LANG. (3) Cause. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. as with you. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.The advance. he gave millions to the sword. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. (4) Estimation. I think. or with the haunch of our near leader. Messala. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. He was wild with delight about Texas.²HOWELLS.²EMERSON. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. reason.²HALE. Exercise. motive.²DE QUINCEY. first of all. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. HALE. She seemed pleased with the accident.²LANG. 327. to find the object of the preposition.²HOWELLS. He expired with these words. (2) Instrumentality. with Heyward at its head.²SCOTT.²COLERIDGE. it is necessary. but with you. It seemed a supreme moment with him. Either with the swingle-bar.²E. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. in spite of. . E. had already reached the defile. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²Find sentences with four uses of with. transmitted from the beginning.²CHANNING.

which. the malicious rogue. (4) from the beginning. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. 2. I speak these things from a love of justice. To our general surprise. (2) on which. but I received no other hurt. beginning. of without. telling what man. Exercises. In (3). Whereupon. 3. the phrase answers the question where. and knocked me down flat on my face. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. 5. he followed us one day into those gardens. And so on. we met the defaulter here. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. of on. or was. but all to no purpose.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. shook it directly over my head. came tumbling about my ears. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. . one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I felt my box raised very high in the air. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man.²ID. because I had given the provocation. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. hence we say. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. In (1). by which a dozen apples. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. I remember. country. Be that as it will. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. like the clapping of wings. (3) without a country. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. The object of on board is ships. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. without a country modifies man. of from. The guns were cleared of their lumber. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. I called out several times. In (2).²SWIFT 2. before the dwarf left the queen. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. I looked towards my windows. 4. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. I heard a noise just over my head.

9. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. when. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 16. With all his learning. 7. 20. The savage army was in war-paint. 8. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold.6. 13. On all subjects known to man.Without stop or stay. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 10. plumed for battle. His breeches were of black silk. 17. in town. he favored the world with his opinions. For my part. He locked his door from mere force of habit. to one dark and gloomy. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. after a restful morning. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 21. grasping at the child. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 23. 22.He spurred his courser on. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 11. . 19. 15. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 25. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 27. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. Carteret was far from being a pedant. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 24. 12. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. The mother sank and fell. I like to see the passing. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 18. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 26. in this respect. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 14. 29. though unbroken by the peal of church bells.

²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. not merely by the amount of the tax. that you might behold this joyous day. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. A few are discussed below. 329. 330. That is what I understand by scientific education. We wish that labor may look up here. He will raise the price.30.²WEBSTER. And now it is like an angel's song.²BEECHER. (b) Of result.That makes the heavens be mute.²HUXLEY.²WEBSTER. (2) As an adjective pronoun. WHAT. (c) Substantive conjunction. That was a dreadful mistake. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 328.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. That night was a memorable one. and be proud in the midst of its toil. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.² JOHNSON. (a) Indefinite relative. (1) Relative pronoun. (4) As an adverb of degree.²COLERIDGE. .²STOCKTON. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. and not according to form. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. THAT.

(8) Conjunction. 331.. Cox. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. "I'll tell you what. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (b) Indirect question.Which be they what they may.²WEBSTER.. to see what might be hidden. (6) Exclamatory adjective. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. or not only. nearly equivalent to partly. partly.²EMERSON.. To say what good of fashion we can. (7) Adverb of degree. BUT.²ID." (4) Relative adjective..Are yet the fountain light of all our day.²S. (9) As an exclamation.²THACKERAY. he knows what good people are to be found there. but the result of calculation. ..²ID..Those shadowy recollections. (b) Indirect question. (b) Copulative. silent still.it is impossible to determine. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. What. it rests on reality.²WORDSWORTH.S... and silent all!²BYRON. What with the Maltese goats.these sounds are only to be heard.in Pera. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. If he has [been in America]. after not only.²EMERSON... (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. At what rate these materials would be distributed.but.. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. What.

²IRVING.²HAWTHORNE. but piercing cries.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal..Then arose not only tears. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²CARLYLE. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. I shall see but little of it. 332. on all sides. ²CARLYLE. not.He yearned to our patriot bands.²FRANKLIN.²EMERSON. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.²LAMB.. (b) Substantive.²IRVING. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. (2) Relative pronoun. stands for that . (5) Adverb. or who . equivalent to that .. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. meaning except. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (4) Relative pronoun. .. sometimes same.²SHELLEY. (c) Of degree. Who knows but.²MRS BROWNING.. after a negative. meaning otherwise . (b) Of manner. like the dog.²SCOTT. (d) Of reason. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. To lead but one measure. Doing duty as a guard. not.. after such. not. (e) Introducing an appositive word.²IRVING.. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. AS. at all moments. towards order. meaning only. (3) Preposition. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. than.

²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. No Emperor.²LONGFELLOW. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²EMERSON. (1) An adjective. Note the difference between these two uses.-SCOTT. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. Through which they put their heads.² HAWTHORNE. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. If the verb is expressed.²HALLECK.²ALDRICH. this. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. and was clearly an adjective. . ²PARKMAN. I do with my friends as I do with my books. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. nervous child. This follows a verb or a verbal.²DARWIN. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like him awhile ago. There is no statue like this living man. staring like a bewildered man. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²ALDRICH. and is followed by a dative-objective. indeed.² A timid.²HIGGINSON. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. like Martin was. Give Ruskin space enough. In this second use. Introduces a clause. but its verb is omitted. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²MAYHEW. They look.²HAWTHORNE. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²CASS.²LAMB. That face. like drops out. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. like a cook beating eggs.²SHAKESPEARE. In each case. 333. like summer ocean's. NOTE.²EMERSON. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. and as or as if takes its place. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. Stirring it vigorously.LIKE. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.

Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. 336. but it still retains its identity as noun. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. etc. in separating them into their component parts. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.: for example. entering into the structure of a sentence. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. that is. subject and predicate." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. verb. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. 335. pronoun. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. clauses introduced by conjunctions.²in determining case. etc." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. tut! buzz! etc. Definition.INTERJECTIONS. What analysis is. . it is necessary to become expert in analysis. that is. 334. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Value of analysis.. as. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]." PART II. Some of these are imitative sounds. Definition. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].

337. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. entreaty. "Come to the bridal chamber.²a subject and a predicate. or request." 340. which puts the thought in a question. "Old year. Division according to number of statements. or imperative. or command: for example." "What wouldst thou do. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. Definition: Predicate. but by no means vulgar. 338. not according to the form in which a thought is put. Examples of these three kinds are. (3) Imperative. Definition. always friends?" imperative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. SIMPLE SENTENCES. A rare old plant is the ivy green. "Hath he not always treasures. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. which expresses command. This is the most common one. declarative. you must not die!" interrogative. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. question. hence. But now all is to be changed. 339.Kinds of sentences as to form. (2) Interrogative. but the sentence would still be declarative. interrogative. Every sentence must contain two parts. . Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. 2. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. but according to how many statements there are. "The quality of mercy is not strained. according to form. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. old man?" "Be thou familiar. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.

on the other hand. all. In analyzing such sentences. Thus. and is to be supplied. and the real subject is the latter. or ye) is in most cases omitted. 3." Exercise. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. a rare old plant. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 341. 6. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. we have some trouble. the subject is frequently after the verb.²What is to be changed? Answer. Consequently. But if we try this with the second sentence. 7. thou. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. In the interrogative sentence.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 5. especially in poetry. 8. the subject (you. The last of all the Bards was he. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. to an ignorant man. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. adjective. "[You] behold her single in the field. . Slavery they can have anywhere. and our definition must be the following. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. Listen. to suit all cases:² Subject. but about the ivy green. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. always reduce them to the order of a statement. or an interrogative pronoun. not of a rare old plant. 2. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. 4. as. or adverb that asks about the subject.

. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (4) The complements. "Ye call me chief. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. Direct Object. "Ye honor me. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. (6) Independent elements. for example. Indirect object. direct. The subject and predicate have been discussed. 342." indirect. Of a transitive verb. (5) Modifiers. 343. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (3) The object. but of call chief. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.10. (2) The predicate. or second object. but chief belongs to the verb. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. in addition to the object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. but it is a true complement. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.²transitive and intransitive. and me here is not the object simply of call. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. and means summoned. The transitive verb often requires. just as if to say. "She seldom saw her course at a glance." Complement: 344." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. and by object we mean the direct object.

346. ay. I mentioned a case of that nature. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. or." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. appear. 352. See sentence 19. "A cheery. As to form. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. An intransitive verb. more familiarly." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. become. and barring the door." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. 364." Things used as Subject." "He was termed Thomas." (3) INFINITIVE. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. 355. etc. as in drowning. 351. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . feel. especially the forms of be. he was now getting old. "Brow and head were round." All these complete intransitive verbs. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. taste. in exercise following Sec." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. 'Ay. for instance. to the completion of this man of the world. in the popular judgment.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 347. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. sir!' rang out in response. and." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. seem. A phrase is a group of words." Also an expression used as a noun. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. above sixty.. Phrases. as. Thom of the Gills. but used as a single modifier. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. not containing a verb." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. in the original Opium Confessions." (2) PARTICIPIAL." "The good man. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." 345. as in the sentence. Complement of an intransitive verb. introduced by a preposition: for example. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. and of massive weight.

" (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. . but obscures the real subject. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. but the real or logical subject is to print. was heard one syllable to justify. I saw the quick and the dead.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. "Therein has been.²the infinitive phrase. 341. "'By God. and ever will be. or the thundering of organs. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." The for did not belong there originally." 348." "There are asking eyes. (2) In interrogative sentences. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." "The dead are there. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. 349." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. from their lips. prowling eyes." Things used as Complement. my deficiency." "Never." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." In this sentence. etc. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. asserting eyes. (4) After "there introductory." Things used as Direct Object." etc.²the talent of starting the game. or their religion from their sect. Disguised infinitive subject. for which see Sec. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. and by Saint George!' said the King. but they will be given in detail here. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust).

I. the shepherd girl. they are adjuncts of the object." In this last sentence. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. or Complement.350. and explaining or modifying the subject. doubtless. Like all the complements in this list. and. and the words italicized are still complements. and whenever the complement is a noun. (3) Infinitive." "Their tempers." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." "She asked her father's permission. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. the object is made the subject by being passive." "I hear the echoes throng. Of a transitive verb. complements of the predicate.²completing the predicate." Modifiers. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. 351. Object." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. Modifiers of Subject. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. As complement of a transitive verb." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.²heads or tails." ." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (4) Participle. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. As complement of an intransitive verb. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. or the equivalent of the noun.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." "Serving others is serving us." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. at the same time." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken.

(3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. 357-363." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." "Him. Retained with passive." "In the twinkling of an eye." Exercise." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. the prisoner at the bar." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. austere. 351. "He died like a God." (For participial and infinitive phrases." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. not with nature. but noble teachers. Since the predicate is always a verb. the verb being omitted. II. I have seasoned for thee. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. no sociable angel. given at the request of a Dutch lady. this young idolater. Tells how. object. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. was the scene from King John. or . 352.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. and leading him from star to star." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. unforgiving. or complement is modified.²proud. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. Modifiers of the Predicate. but with other men. tell whether the subject." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. and modify the predicate in the same way. see further Secs.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. but it is really a contracted clause." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." "Give them not only noble teachings. was now called upon for his defense. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase.²In each sentence in Sec." In such a sentence as. interpreting for him the most difficult truths.

predicate. and the direct object is retained: for example.When the verb is changed from active to passive. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 5." Exercises." "All such knowledge should be given her. Evil. in this center? 4. (b) Pick out the subject. is good in the making." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. They do not wish to be lovely. with my joy and grief. etc. (a) Pick out subject. 5. His books have no melody. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. and as many to oppose it. no relief to the dead prosaic level. but to be loved. or how long. gives wonderful animation. 4. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. 8. 6. These answer the question when. 3. predicate. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. according to old philosophers. This. how far. 2. To the men of this world. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. no humor. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. and other measures of precaution. 2. On the voyage to Egypt. after dinner.. in regard to particulars. 7. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. But anger drives a man to say anything. no emotion. but the children of the great. and (direct) object:² 1." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 3. I took. and. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. Fashion does not often caress the great." "One way lies hope. . Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. to the animal strength and spirits." (6) Adverbial objective. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. negative. the indirect object is retained. he liked. 7. 6. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. a sort of personality to the whole writing.

then. to the right and to the left. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 4. y y y y Compound Subject. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Yes. In one feature. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 2. and a member of the world. 2. 6.²the river Meuse. 3. Not the less I owe thee justice. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. To suffer and to do. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. then. A river formed the boundary. at the chief hotel. Not compound sentences. this nun so martial. 4. . the present Archbishop of Dublin. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. expecting the return of their parents. 4.. downwards. Their intention was to have a gay. the attorney. in little peaceful Easedale. 3. for the first time. six children sat by a peat fire. I gave him an address to my friend. this dragoon so lovely. must visit again the home of her childhood. Paint me. etc. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. Compound Predicate. the blooming cornet.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. after their long confinement to a ship. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 5.y 8. upwards. a room seventeen feet by twelve. happy dinner. at length the warrior lady. 3. this imperial rider. I felt myself. That night. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 2. 5. that was thy portion in life. Unhorse me. viz. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott.

in the sentence. etc. shouldered the rusty firelock. same as (1)." "Voyages and travels I would also have. ulcer. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. complements. hurry. and the rest is the logical predicate." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. exposes. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. but it is to be noticed that. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution." And so with complements. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. hurry." "Ye crags and peaks. For example. the verb). the predicate. the air of the mother. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is." "The name of the child. forming a sentence: "Oh. two or more subjects of the same predicate." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. The exclamatory expression. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. etc." Sentences with compound predicates are.353. above: thus. Of this. then the grammatical subject and predicate. Independent Elements of the Sentence. several modifiers. the object. together with its modifiers. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. my brave young man!" . and its object or complement. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. however. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. the tone of her voice. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. 354. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. that is. in all such sentences as we quote below.. Larger view of a sentence. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. may be the person or thing addressed. turned his steps homeward. I'm with you once again. together with all its modifiers." "He shook his head. and. "Ah. etc. 355. the simple subject is situation. Bishop. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. "The company broke up. Examples of compound subjects are. modifiers. they are not a necessary part.

4). and so on. There are some adverbs. pronoun. this story runs thus. the company broke up. instances of which were seen in Sec. 355. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. such as however. now. 356. 352. such as perhaps. her noticing even this is creditable." "Well. to the best of my remembrance. modifying the predicate. six quill-driving gentlemen. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. (1) Adjectival. or complement (see Sec. object. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. In their use. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. and some conjunctions." Another caution.. then. yes! everybody knew them. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. (b) As a modifier of subject. y (2) The adverbial use. 357." "Why. 4)." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. he was a conscientious man. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." (2) Adverbial. see Sec." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. why. The words well. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. generally speaking. modifying a noun. ." (3) Independent. 3." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. These need close watching. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. that have an office in the sentence. let him perish." "At all events. etc. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. 351." (6) Single words: as. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. nevertheless.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. "Oh." "Truth to say." (5) Participial phrase: "But. prepositional phrases may be.. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. or word used as a noun: for example. 6). grandma. moreover. he somehow lived along. besides. undoubtedly. already noticed. truly. really. 350." "No. how you're winking!" "Now. etc. see Sec. therefore. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. he closed his literary toils at dinner.

Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . I.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. and they will be presented here in full. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. 358.: as in the sentences." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.seem. (5). Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule.should. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. but having no other office than a verbal one.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." "There." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. y (a) With may (might). etc." etc.]. "Because I was. and hence is adverbial. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. or as nearly so as the student will require. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. necessity. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. See Sec. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. being equivalent to a future with obligation.can (could). ought." (b) With the forms of be. etc. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. "The letter of introduction. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. he should not have known them at all.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. but require somewhat closer attention. thus. was speedily run through. This case excepted.would. Wilt thou." (c) With the definite forms of go. therefore." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. containing no matters of business. 355. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. modifying was speedily run through. and teach her how to be happy and good. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. my dear. The verbal use." In this sentence.

but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). IV. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. and the eyes to fill?" 359. to please is equivalent to that he may please. To test this. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose.." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. above." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this.²both purpose clauses. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. The adverbial use." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. 361. modifying a noun that may be a subject. The adjectival use." 360. 351. II. 5). "But there was no time to be lost.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). (4) In apposition. 362. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. . III.: for example." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "He insisted on his right to forget her. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. to look means that he might look. Don Guzman. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. The substantive use." "Are you mad." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. object. the Scotch fighting all the battles. result. etc. etc." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. complement. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." "To say what good of fashion we can. hang the idiot." "To teach is to learn. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. notice the following:² In (1). to hear McOrator after dinner. already examined. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. 361 are used adverbially.

give the complement (Secs. as in Sec. to find shows the result of the return. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. equivalent to that you betray. give² (1) The predicate. .In (2). etc.. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 355. 351).²both expressing condition. (5) The subject (Sec. 351). which is of two kinds. In analyzing simple sentences. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 364.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. etc." (See also Sec. V. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 349). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. must be in a life. (7) Independent elements (Sec. In (3). (3).. The independent use. 352). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 2. 347). 4. 363. 351). etc. Our life is March weather. I will try to keep the balance true. and to say is equivalent to if we say. object. savage and serene in one hour. 355). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. If it is an incomplete verb.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 268. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. to hear means if you should hear. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. not in a book. In (4). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. In (5). to part means because I part. 3." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop.

We are always in peril. 21. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 14. 20. to the moral sphere. 5. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 12.He sat in the shower. to restore civil and religious order. a good shot. nor money. Old Adam. 7. to keep England out of war. two stricken hours. 18. and spared nothing. through toys and atoms. and only to be saved by invention and courage. He risked everything. and to the purpose. 9. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 16. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. like a witch's oils.4. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 22. in popular use. Her aims were simple and obvious. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. nor troops.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. is to have no political system at all. 13. The whole figure and air. a graceful dancer. Through the years and the centuries. through evil agents. just on the edge of destruction. 15. an accomplished scholar. might be called flabby and irresolute. 8. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. nor himself. nor generals. 19. 6.²to preserve her throne. His opinion is always original. The water. and every moment discover something new. .The old crow of Cairo. To be hurried away by every event. 17. 24. good and amiable otherwise. neither ammunition. You may ramble a whole day together. To these gifts of nature. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 10. 11. 23. the carrion crow. always in a bad plight. The word conscience has become almost confined. with eager energy. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest.Burnt green and blue and white. I have heard Coleridge talk. a skilled musician.

I dare this.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 33. In the Acadian land. and no provisions but wild berries. upon my own ground. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 32. The villain. an elderly man. 31. 39. time-honored. 36. 35. and. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. secluded. proud foe. to be a reproach to such goodness. 34.Distant. the present capital of New England. the prime minister of Spain. or perhaps one virtue. Fair name might he have handed down. She had made a two days' march. and in my own garden. But yield. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 26. 38. and the why. the same Condé Olivarez. and the wherefore? . in this world. 40. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. I hate him and myself. the ship was in an uproar. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 29. 37. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 27.25. This amiable relative. baggage far in the rear. Now. still. in front of all this mighty crowd. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. Few in number. Supposing this computation to be correct. had but one foible. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Upon this shore stood. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. haply. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. Of the same grandeur. to bid you leave the place now and forever. The cry. ready to receive her. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches.Effacing many a stain of former crime. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 41. 30. in less heroic and poetic form. Oxford. Must we in all things look for the how.

however. (Sec." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." Sentences with like. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. 365." This must. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]." To show that these words are really omitted. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. 366. Words left out after than or as. . The simple sentence the basis. as. 367. the pride and beauty of the grove. but. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. which is the unit of speech. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. though often treated as phrases. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. as would be the connective instead of like. if they were expanded. thus.² "She is like some tender tree. COMPLEX SENTENCES." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. are really contracted clauses.From her own loved island of sorrow. made merely for convenience and smoothness. As shown in Part I. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 333).

that is. or it may be applied to the others. that . But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. suffering. A clause is a division of a sentence.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. modifiers. which are so united that one member is the main one. CLAUSES. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). etc. 369.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. each clause has its subject. as in this sentence. 370. and the next one.. is taken in. A principal. Hence the following definition:² Definition.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. containing a verb with its subject. murmur. 371." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind.²the other members subordinate to it. complements. Definition.. object. we are aware. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware..²the dependent or subordinate clauses. logically depends on suffering. object.²the backbone. Independent clause. complement. or dependent on it. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. . and modifier. 368.. and the last. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. main. how great . predicate. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement.

impertinences²would be grammatical. verbal. . and the whole clause is not. 352. 'I know that he can toil terribly. But since they are complex in form.. or adverbs. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. etc. 373." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. so the object clause is retained." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. attention is called to them here. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.. night or day. is retained after a passive verb (Sec.. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. adjectives. We ourselves are getting . for a time. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. impertinences. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. ADJECTIVE. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences." "I was told that the house had not been shut. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." 374. over which the torrent came tumbling. and it is . and ADVERB clauses. put an end to my fancies. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. As to their office in the sentence. Noun Clauses." (2) Object of a verb. for example. Kinds. clauses are divided into NOUN.Dependent clause. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.. pronoun." Just as the object noun. for example.' is an electric touch. (a) Ordinary apposition. for a hundred years. (b) that are . thus." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living." (4) Apposition... 372.. but logically the sentence is. infinitive. with a noun clause in apposition with it. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. 5).

that all safe legislation must be based. 6. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. that he was a scheming impostor. as. Such a man is what we call an original man. 2. The reply of Socrates. a relative pronoun being understood. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. that. where. 4. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 5. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Adjective Clauses. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. or equivalent of a noun." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. But the fact is. Frequently there is no connecting word. he would repent it. whither. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 375.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis.² "It is on the understanding." Exercise. sometimes by the conjunctions when. Except by what he could see for himself. 8. and not on the sentiment. etc. in the sentence. Other examples of this construction are. of a nation. but. whether he should choose one or not. 9. 7. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Examples of adjective clauses. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. no man will ever know. which. whereby. how it changed from shape to shape. 3. he could know nothing. . Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. still remains reasonable. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. that. I was napping. a falsehood incarnate. 10. As the office of an adjective is to modify. whence. What history it had. wherein.

6. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 10. the champions advanced through the lists." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. he begins to help us more as an effect. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. or that essence we were looking for. i. 5. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. and tell what each one modifies. I walked home with Calhoun. object. 1. all is vacancy. . 9. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. Pick out the adjective clauses. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 8. which Rowena tasted." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Adverbial Clauses. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.e. etc. 11. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 3. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. No man is reason or illumination. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place." Exercise. 4. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. whether subject.376. 7.. 2. which formed the center of the mansion." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats.

so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. no matter what remains. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. the wider is the horizon of their thought. introduced by indefinite relatives. adverbs. and adverbial conjunctions. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. to make up our shortcomings. that we should try." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints.377. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. he goes away as if nothing had happened. or an adverb. expressing the degree in which the horizon. Joanna is better. but they require careful study. Exercise." (3) REASON. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. however.: "But still.." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. and what it modifies:² . so far as we can. 378." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. a verbal. and will be given in detail. shaping our actions. whatever. the milestones are grave-stones. an adjective. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." (9) CONCESSION. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. is wider. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. etc. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. etc. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. with examples." (5) DEGREE.² whoever. it takes precedence of everything else." "After leaving the whole party under the table." "The right conclusion is. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." (7) RESULT." "When he was come up to Christian." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." These mean no matter how good. since he was too great to care to be original." "He went several times to England. tell what kind each is. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "Who cares for that." "The broader their education is. etc." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. however good she may be as a witness. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions.

we are a little disappointed. they might perhaps say of their visitors. For example. object.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. of which clause Odin is the subject. to tell the truth. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. in the sentence. banging about doors and windows. 'Well. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. when the wind was unruly.1. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. on a dark wintry night. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. predicate. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. with shrill. so as to picture the parts and their relations. as they sometimes did. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject." 2. etc. incoherent exclamations. howling and whistling. snatching up stones to fling at them. and twirling weathercocks. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . its object is that Odin was a reality. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. 379. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and modifiers." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. If the children gathered about her. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. 3. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. 380. find the principal subject and principal predicate. then treat noun clauses as nouns. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time.

| r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 380). 364. 2. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.. 364. 3. . \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. as seen in the "map" (Sec. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (1) Find the principal clause. Exercises. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. d..

12. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 8. The night proved unusually dark. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 17. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. M. for yours. 13. bishop. who would yield to it least. if applied to the Bible. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. Had they been better chemists. the shepherd girl. dying for them. But now that she has become an establishment. 21. as for armies that were too many by half. The deep eyes. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 23. of a light hazel. the mixed result. 5. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 10. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. that pressed her with an objection. 19. had we been worse. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. that. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. This is she. counselor that had none for herself. 18. . Here lay two great roads. 20. or whether any.4. I like that representation they have of the tree. 11. 6. namely. 24. not so much for travelers that were few. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. He was what our country people call an old one. 15. Now. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 16. 9. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. whom I choose. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. could not have been effected. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 22. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. Next came a wretched Dominican. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. which. 14. And those will often pity that weakness most. the flower should revive for us. 7.

and what content I can find in conversing with each. then map out as in Sec. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days." 4. 3. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. "was ever written down by any but itself. How formed. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 2. questions. "No book. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 380. though we may repeat the words never so often.²which will not be disposed of. 28. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. speed. we cannot adequately say.² Definition. 26. and temper.25. would easily reach. 7. 382. Hence the definition. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. 5. 30. 383. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. (b) First analyze. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. or commands. but above it. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. . is to speak and write sincerely. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. That which we do not believe. 6. 27. the following complex sentences:² 1. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. It makes no difference how many friends I have." said Bentley. and not from his heart. and stamped with his right number. COMPOUND SENTENCES. that it was no more than his daily walk. if there be one to whom I am not equal. These things we are forced to say. if continuously extended. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square.

a simple member. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. if there are any. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. or but." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. etc. others sometimes coördinate. etc. Another example is. Connectives. and connects the first and second complex members. and nor the second and third complex members. in (2). the semicolon separates the first. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. a complex member. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. Study the thought. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives." 384. while (whilst). he walks with arms akimbo." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. nor. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. 297). nor does he know until he has tried. as in Sec. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. Thus in (1). whereas. the planet has a faint. Some of these are now conjunctions. as but. however. Speak your latent conviction. which are simple statements. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. and not the form of the connective. and it shall be the universal sense. for. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. 385. Exercise. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. he soliloquizes. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. he dilates. moon-like ray" (adversative). now adverbs or prepositions. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. the waving grass.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. yet. . tell which are compound. 386. The division into members will be easier. he is twice a man. in (3). Of the following illustrative sentences. from the second. and which complex:² 1. The coördinate conjunctions and. 383 (1).. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). "Only the star dazzles.

(2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. In this manner. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. The gain is apparent. 387. and for everything you gain. 12. 9. 14. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. you have gained something else. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 381. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 5. from a happy yet often pensive child. . 364. 2. Love. the tax is certain. All loss. For everything you have missed. all pain. unobtrusive boy. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. so is every one of its parts. 11. 13. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. that it was Easter Sunday. 6. 4. 8. 3. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 4. 10. I can yet love. you lose something. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. he grew up to be a mild. 3. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. yield to them heart and life. (i) Separate it into its main members. Exercise. and not by what each is.2. or. Man does not stand in awe of man. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. quiet. 7. passed in that time. to find a pot of buried gold. I can still receive. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. and thou shalt be loved. Whilst the world is thus dual. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. is particular. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. However some may think him wanting in zeal. for example. nay. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. and as yet very early in the morning. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. however. the universe remains to the heart unhurt.

They will shuffle and crow." says the smith. 15. 11. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 21. or we pursue persons. only that they may brag and conquer there. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. as children. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and the other dares not. We see the noble afar off. 7. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. or men will never know and honor him aright. and the peace of society is often kept. 16. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and makes their business a friendship. and the cart as nigh the rake. puts the parties on a convenient footing. if you rip up his claims. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 8. which always make the Actual ridiculous. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and not an emotion of bravery." says the haymaker. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. 18. feign to confess here. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. or we read books. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. whilst frankness invites frankness.5. why should we intrude? 10. or hope. Trust men. "Strike. When you have chosen your part. one is afraid. that let him communicate. treat them greatly. . because. 9." "keep the rake. 14. and they will be true to you. He teaches who gives. modesty. Stand aside. Come into port greatly. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 19. We go to Europe. "the iron is white. and not a thought has enriched either party." 13. is as thin and timid as any. Whatever he knows and thinks. crook and hide. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. 17. and they repel us. abide by it. and they will show themselves great. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. give those merits room. and he learns who receives. or sail with God the seas. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. let them mount and expand. 20. 6.

Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. and dodge the account. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . PART III. 24. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. but they never acquit the debt. Ground covered by syntax. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. or. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. but its leading characteristic is. verb and subject. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. 390. Essential point in English syntax. but go about your business anywhere. 25. it never was known to fall into the rear. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. it ends in headache. the department of syntax will be a small affair. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. 380. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. adjective and noun. 388. SYNTAX. they lose themselves in the crowd.²agreement and government. Following the Latin method. 23. Do not craze yourself with thinking. if they live. so readily and lavishly they promise. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. they die young. So does culture with us. pronoun and antecedent. INTRODUCTORY. By way of introduction.22. We see young men who owe us a new world.

authorities²that is. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. As an illustration of the last remark." In this there is a possessive form. following the regular order of subject. In some cases. the order being inverted. therefore. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. There is. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. good English. and it would not matter which one stood first. or the same writer will use both indifferently. distinct forms would be used. but are not now. Savage may be the subject. 392. "None remained but he. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Also in the sentence. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. This is not logical. . The basis of syntax. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). and added to it the preposition of. Some rules not rigid. Second. and nothing but important points will be considered. "The savage here the settler slew." is ambiguous. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. In Latin. pronoun and antecedent. For example. When usage varies as to a given construction. 393. also expressing a possessive relation. the sentence. or settler may be the subject. Why study syntax? 391.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. and whose judgment. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. sometimes verb and subject. both forms will be given in the following pages. take the sentence. then. some of which conform to classical grammar. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. and imitate it." that is. or when they exist side by side in good usage. etc.² First. as to study inflected forms. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard.

Use of the possessive. as. Separate possession. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. ." Juletta tells. and Pope's. and Peterborough's. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Putting Mr. and Paul's. sense and nature's easy fool. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. He kept Bolingbroke's.²MCCULLOCH. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Woman.²EMERSON. and Harley's.²BYRON.²THACKERAY.²ROWE.² Live your king and country's best support. Bentham's principles together.² He lands us on a grassy stage. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. or indicate joint ownership or possession.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. 397. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.²MACAULAY. ²ID. Joint possession. 395. PRONOUNS. etc. 408). Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Mill's and Mr. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. 396. the shore of Galilee. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.²MILTON. 394. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. and Peter's. for example.NOUNS. the antechamber of the High Priest. but imply separate possession or ownership.

These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. and should be the nominative form. whom is the complement after the verb am." 400. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. 398. But he must be a stronger than thee. I. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. others are generally. if not universally. No mightier than thyself or me. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. General rules. This should be "as she. there are two general rules that require attention. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. the real thought being forgotten.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.²WHITCHER.²TROLLOPE.²BYRON. Objective for the nominative. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.) "The young Harper.²POPE. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.²SHAKESPEARE.²SOUTHEY. Some of the violations are universally condemned. . thus. Since most of the personal pronouns. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. for example.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.²THACKERAY. who. as." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). have separate forms for nominative and objective use. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. 399. together with the relative who. sanctioned. Still. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Bedott Papers. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.

is." 401. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne." There is no special reason for this. But still it is not she. The camp of Richard of England. both in England and America. "Than whom. "Who's there?"²"Me."²WINTHROP. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. "If there is any one embarrassed. on the other hand. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. but such is the fact. One exception is to be noted. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. it will not be me. A safe rule. The usage is too common to need further examples. unless a special.² One I remember especially.²SCOTT.²PARTON. for example. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. . And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed."²KINGSLEY. and the other forms of the verb be. the objective form is regularly found.²RUSKIN. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.²LONGFELLOW. they are yet holier than we. are. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²MACAULAY. Patrick the Porter.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. namely.² For there was little doubt that it was he.²FIELDING.²KINGSLEY. I have no other saint than thou to pray to."²WM.²COLERIDGE.²THACKERAY. In spoken English. as. And it was heThat made the ship to go. BLACK. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.

"I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 7. (3) By forgetting the construction. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. 5. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. If there ever was a rogue in the world. as. the object of to). as this from Shakespeare. It is not me you are in love with. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. or us).²MILTON. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away." 6. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 3. Me in exclamations. used after verbs. Whom they were I really cannot specify. object of saw). The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. 11. or this. or preposition which governs it. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 9. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. you or me. it is me. I speak not to" (he should be him.Exercise.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life." the word being in apposition with murderer). (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 10. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. verbal. . Nominative for the objective. "Ask the murderer. 8. but not he" (he should be him. now. 4. verbals. and prepositions. 2. 404. 403. You know whom it is that you thus charge. as. as. Truth is mightier than us all.

Exception 2. for example. None.²KINGSLEY.² All were knocked down but us two.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.²BYRON.²GOLDSMITH. 406.²STEELE. 2. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. partial Nature. Thou. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. "Who did you see?" or.Shall be left upon the morn. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. 405. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. for they say there are none such in the world. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. as well as the objective. "Who were they talking to?" etc. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Exercise. Let you and I look at these. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Thy shores are empires. as. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. I arraign.²KINGSLEY. who interrogative. We regularly say. Who have we here?²ID. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. changed in all save thee.Exception 1.²KINGSLEY. but he. etc. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.²BYRON.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Nature. all but he. and is usually avoided. as. . save thou and thine. I've sworn.

B. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. Markland. 11. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. This usage is not frequent. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 5. Preceding a gerund.3. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 8. with Jortin and Thirlby. As antecedent of a relative. POSSESSIVE FORMS. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 12. Bartholomew.Ye I salute.²C." 4. 9. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. who. II. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. They are coming for a visit to she and I. and they know that as well as me.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 407. They crowned him long ago. BROWN. or objective? . 10. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²possessive. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²MACAULAY. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 6. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. 7.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN.

He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.²CARLYLE." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. Objective. The use of the objective is older. The last incident which I recollect.²RUSKIN. studying is a gerund. In the examples quoted. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.²DE QUINCEY.²DICKENS. Possessive. object of heard of. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.² SCOTT. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.408. sometimes it has the objective.² CARLYLE. that the bitterness of death was past. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. We heard of Brown. Both types of sentences are found. Here I state them only in brief. . We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. But in common use there is no such distinction.²MACAULAY. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. [who was] studying law. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. and asked why it was not made. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. both are gerunds. Why both are found. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.² IRVING. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and the meaning is. etc. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun." That is.²BREWER. and that in the second. as he turned away from his wife.² THACKERAY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.

²HUXLEY. if the antecedent is neuter.²THOREAU. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. 409. Everybody had his own life to think of. Every city threw open its gates. taking in each of many persons.²EMERSON III. where there were examinations.²THACKERAY. the pronoun will be neuter singular.² BRYANT. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Examples of these constructions are. and gender. it was his own fault. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²DEFOE. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. in one person. . is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. The pale realms of shade.²DE QUINCEY. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²HOLMES. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. number. BROCKDEN BROWN. Watch for the real antecedent.²CABLE. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. and ought to agree with them in person. In such a case as the last three sentences. 410. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. or is a distributive word.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²DE QUINCEY. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. preceded by a distributive.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²AUDUBON.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. If any one did not know it.²when the antecedent. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²C.²RUSKIN.

411.²DEFOE. till they have lost him. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²ID. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²PAULDING. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²EMERSON. Whosoever hath any gold.²HUXLEY. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. let them break it off. and giving them means of being so. By using the plural pronoun.²AUSTEN. not a mowing idiot.² Not the feeblest grandame. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²SCOTT. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²THACKERAY. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²RUSKIN. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²BIBLE. The sun. for example. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²PALGRAVE.²BYRON. If the part deserve any comment.²PALEY.²ID.²FIELDING. Struggling for life. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. . as anybody in their senses would have done. Every one must judge of their own feelings. This is not considered the best usage. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.

and that may be coördinating or restrictive. or unrestrictive. that being considered already clear. and that always restrictive. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. and does not add a new statement. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive.) and a personal pronoun. 412. who went away. and he went away. as. 2. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. which. when restrictive. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. tell whether who. What these terms mean. but. As to their conjunctive use. 413. I. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. when coördinating. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. 1." A relative. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. etc. which. A relative. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. in each instance:² Who. and that are restrictive or not.² SHERIDAN.²ID." This means." It defines beggar.Where she was gone.²In the above sentences. or what was become of her.²ADDISON. unless both genders are implied. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. . change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. In the following examples. because. the definite relatives who. "I gave it to the beggar. It adds a new statement to what precedes. Exercise. no one could take upon them to say. Exercise. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. according to the practice of every modern writer. but. That is in most cases restrictive.²HAWTHORNE.

W. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. BEECHER 5. . these or that which.3. A grizzly-looking man appeared. it makes the verb third person singular. etc. she agreed to join the party. 9. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. which was to go over the Cordilleras. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. etc. 8. For example. On hearing their plan. 414.²H.²ID.² IRVING.² MOTLEY. 4. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.²THOREAU. 10. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. he. etc.² NEWMAN. that were often vicious. because of its antecedent. That. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 14. We say I. who. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. you. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. 11." that is invariable as to person and number. and over England are saying. they. 6. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. Which. However. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. but. and it is called logic. as that does not vary for person or number. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.²ADDISON. Hare has printed.²DE QUINCEY.² CARLYLE.²ID. 13.²HOLMES. Yet how many are there who up. in the sentence. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. which Mr. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. In what sense true. With narrow shoulders. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. The rule. So different from the wild. 12. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. The general rule is. II. long arms and legs. 7.²DE QUINCEY. down.

²LOWELL. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²MACAULAY. [singular or plural. .. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²ADDISON. JR. Franklin.²ADDISON.²M. but myself. or which .²whether we should say.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²BOWLES. "one of the finest books that has been published.²HOWELLS. but the former has good authority. A disputed point. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.²LOWELL.] Both constructions are frequently found. but speaks of him as that sort..²LECKY.. who rarely speak at all. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. ARNOLD. 415. in winning a battle. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. "one of the finest books that have been published. He is one of those that deserve very well.²SCOTT. MORSE.. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. etc. when he derided the shams of society. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived." One of . Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. Singular.. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. with one as the principal word. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. The latter is rather more frequent.²HOLMES. The fiery youth . etc." or. and write the verb in the plural. the true antecedent. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. French literature of the eighteenth century. Let us be of good cheer. and in improving a victory. T. [plural] that who. others regard books as the antecedent..²J..

I could see nothing except the sky. or where] he died. when this dust falls to the urn. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. IV.²ID. III.A rare Roundabout performance. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²CARLYLE.And.In that same state I came. The same day I went aboard we set sail."²DICKENS. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²EMERSON. and such like: as. return.²EMERSON. Exercise. 417.²In the above sentences.² RUSKIN. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. 416.²IRVING. object of a preposition understood. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. whence. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. when the relative word is a pronoun. But I by backward steps would move. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. where. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.² THACKERAY. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²GOLDSMITH. that is." "India is the place [in which.²SWIFT.²SCOTT. and see if the sentence is made clearer. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²ADDISON. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²BURNS. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²VAUGHAN.²DEFOE. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.² .

This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. if I had resolved to go on with. she passed the lamp over her face and person. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner.²WORDSWORTH. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. boats. That. I might as well have staid at home.²ADDISON. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. he.²FRANKLIN. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. 418. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.² THACKERAY. looking-glasses. was a discoverer. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² MACAULAY. but which is usually carefully avoided. W.²SWIFT. etc. and working in the same spirit. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. Which. V.² Which. but we find the relative who.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. Anacoluthic use of which. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Mr. or that. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. They believe the same of all the works of art.² BURKE. as of knives.. but. ²GOLDSMITH.²R. with Turner. as is not used. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. if same is followed by a complete clause. CHURCH. .me as his apprentice. The regular construction.He considered.²SCOTT.. Caution. for example.

." etc. and which. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.²SHAKESPEARE. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. Exercise. 1. He delivered the letter. As the sentences stand.²GOLDSMITH. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. now thrown upon their. and this be placed in the proper clause. which when Mr. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. and who are now. After this came Elizabeth herself. etc. Express both relatives. This was a gentleman." etc.. That is. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. 4." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. he said that all submission was now too late.²THACKERAY.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. (1) "Among those who are poor. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. once a great favorite of M. but. Thornhill had read. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. And who. But who.² Direction for rewriting. (2) "Among the poorer sort. who are now thrown.²SCOTT. or. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. . but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. 419.²which if they once heard.²RUSKIN. Exercise. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. or omit the conjunction. 2. but none is expressed. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. (3) "Among the poorer sort. 3.. etc." etc. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. le Conte.²DE QUINCEY. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors.²HAWTHORNE. or leave out both connective and relative.She'd come again.

. That . but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. "What knight so craven. 420. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . as a false and astucious mark. either from imitation of their frequent allies. 13. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. Or who. the French. But which. indeed.. and which.²SCOTT. like that spoken in the towns. I shall have complete copies.²IRVING.²PEARSON." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. 6. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 9. which the Scotch had learned. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character..²SCOTT. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 7. Akin to the above is another fault. I saw upon the left a scene far different. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. one of signal interest.5.² MOTLEY.. And which.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. and repeat this for any further reference. etc. 10. 12. 1. "A mockery. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. Dr. and which has never been described. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. 11. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. and which may even be heard a mile off. 8. then. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. etc. who. and to whom no door is closed. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. English by name. Or which. . The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE.

²SCOTT That which .²DEFOE. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. such as they have very probably been bred to.²DE QUINCEY. that . the cent. 10. Such as . appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²EMERSON.. whom. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 6. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.²HOLMES.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. SIMMS. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. that.. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. He flung into literature. 8.. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. 9. I grudge the dollar.²HOWELLS. I recommend some honest manual calling. in his present condition. the dime.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE.²W.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. CHANNING. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. which... The Tree Igdrasil. In my native town of Salem.2. 3. I give to such men as do not belong to me. and to whom I do not belong. at the head of what. . He. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²BEECHER. G. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. what. 11. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. but which is perhaps not so different from it. It rose into a thrilling passion. 12.²W. E. That .... and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. 5. but which. 7. and whose examples and principles we inherit. half a century ago. 4. Such as .²EMERSON. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. was hung in air. 15. Which .²HALLAM. which. 13... was a bustling wharf. in his Mephistopheles. 14. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.

Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Distributives either and neither.²ID. as.² Some one must be poor. for example. . and in want of his gold²or his corn. whether or not the two are equivalent. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.²RUSKIN. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.²MACAULAY. as it were. 422.²RUSKIN. England was then divided between kings and Druids. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. one another. 421. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²GOLDSMITH.²DICKENS.² HAWTHORNE. that not all combined. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. as. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²HAWTHORNE.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²EMERSON. Each other. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. in which case any should be used instead. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. Use of any. We call ourselves a rich nation. always at war with one another.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. Assume that no one is in want of either.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. By their original meaning. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.

speak. . Any usually plural. 423.²THACKERAY.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. that I know of. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. The adjective pronoun none is. Caution.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. which is plural as often as singular. even in Bettine. I beseech you.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . if ever man was. let him ask of God. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. any of his friends had died. for him have I offended.²BIBLE.²STIRLING. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. etc.²BURKE. in the prose of the present day. as. during his stay at Yuste. Do you think. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. as. afterwards in Goethe. at one time in Bacon. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.²BEECHER Whenever. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.²SHAKESPEARE. as none of the French philosophers were. before that. whilst I still cherish their genius. 424.² If any. In earlier Modern English. then in Plotinus. in Shakespeare..²CARLYLE. Do you think. any was often singular. If any of you lack wisdom.² In earnest. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. Examples of its use are. None of Nature's powers do better service. then in Plutarch... usually plural. when any of them are so good as to visit me. None usually plural.²PROF. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.² EMERSON.²FRANKLIN. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). and is isolated.

.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. The compounds somebody else. etc. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. When all were gone. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. fixing his eyes on the mace.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. which is used absolutely.. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. etc. as.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.² PEARSON.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²THOREAU.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. etc.²McMASTER. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . for example. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.² None of them was cleansed.. when it means all persons: for example. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. nobody else. 425.² Singular.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. etc. saving Naaman the Syrian. The light troops thought .²SCOTT Like the use of any. and Ford has nobody's else. or somebody else's? 426. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. and all was lost on the other. Somebody's else. are treated as units.²NAPIER Plural. the plural. that all was lost. and less rarely in poetry. any one else.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.

Again. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.SYDNEY SMITH. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. WILLIS.² Saturday Review.²MULOCH. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. or those sort of people. for example. These sort." "those kind of trees. STOWE. "Ye see.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²N. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. His hair. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. London. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²AUSTEN."²MRS. A suit of clothes like somebody else's." "all manner of men. ADJECTIVES.." the nouns being singular.²in such as "these sort of books. ELIOT.²SHERIDAN.² These kind of knaves I know. . etc. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. etc. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.²G..²DICKENS. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.² FIELDING. the adjectives plural. or some other such great man as a bishop. P.²RUSKIN.²SWEET. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. unlike anybody else's in the world. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²THACKERAY. 427. all manner of.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Whitefield or Wesley.²RUSKIN.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.

Use of the comparative degree. According to the approved usage of Modern English." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind).² Which is the better able to defend himself. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. when the necessary dispositions concur. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms.²RUSKIN. In Old and Middle English. not "all kinds of wild animals. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. "These kind of trees are best. the victor or the vanquished.² PRESCOTT.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. or one object with a class of objects. Burke's sentence. or the nouns to the plural." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. to express a higher degree of quality. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects." A question. History of this construction. Consequently we have a confused expression. . they said. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. which accounts for the construction. Should we say. as. 428. "This sort of trees should be planted." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. more alarming than a total silence. gradually displacing the old. and the adjective is." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. for example.The library was open. "This kind of rules are the best. and in this way may take a plural verb. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. made to agree with it. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. in spoken English. This the modern expression reverses. with all manner of amusing books. Of two such lessons. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. Later form. At the source. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. such as. The result.

In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. would not have had the face. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.² THACKERAY. Henry.²WIRT. .²CARLYLE. 6. by almost the breadth of my nail. etc. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Use of the superlative degree. Superlative with two objects. Gary. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²MACAULAY.A braver ne'er to battle rode.²THACKERAY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. has sanctioned.²SCOTT."²ID. the highest stakes are paid. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. if not. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 5. 2.²SWIFT. He is taller.²HUXLEY. 3. 430. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. than any of his court. Other after the comparative form. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. 429. 4. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn.²TROLLOPE. Even Dodd himself.²HAWTHORNE. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. Exercise. I am concerned to see that Mr.²MACAULAY.²LOWELL. To the man who plays well. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.

²J. OLIPHANT. not a bit of high life among them. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Double comparative and superlative. I should say that one has the best cause. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²BEN JONSON. Examples from Shakespeare are. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. who eat white bread or brown.²HAMLET. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Also from the same period. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. ha. whichever can be got easiest. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²EMERSON. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²SCOTT. The following examples are used purposely. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest."²BULWER.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him."²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²TEMPEST. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. more particularly the last of them. Come you more nearer. 431."²GOLDSMITH. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²RUSKIN. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. "Ha.²Bible. CÆSAR. The eldest. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²DR BLAIR. 1611. In all disputes between States. After the most straitest sect of our religion. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. .²ADDISON. and differ only in form. Mary..²MRS.. Rip was one of those . and the other contains the best men. These two properties seem essential to wit.²GOLDSMITH.

and conceit in the last. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²GIBBON. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. For Carlyle. Definite article.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The meaning intended is the same.²LAMB. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²ADDISON. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. and Secretary Walsingham also. ²COWPER. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Three first. First three. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. . As to these two expressions. These are the three first needs of civilized life. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. etc.²KINGSLEY. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.²RUSKIN.²RUSKIN.² With a singular noun. the Spanish. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. jar upon us constantly. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. etc. not only so in popular speech. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The first five had specific names.²GIBBON. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. The merit of the Barb. Examples of this construction are.²DE QUINCEY.²PRESCOTT. Instances of both are given below.² SMOLLETT. The delay in the first three lines. 433. ARTICLES. but in literary English.

He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. Origin of the Aryans.²PRESCOTT. Here the youth of both sexes. as. and the presents. melodious.²NEWMAN. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . He is master of the two-fold Logos. One object and several modifiers. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.²TENNYSON. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. having been arranged. With a plural noun.² MACAULAY. the thought and the word. and flexible language. The not repeated.²THACKERAY.. of the higher and middling orders. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. 435.²ID. however. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. I think. the greatest poems. Indefinite article.²SCOTT. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²MACAULAY. 433. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²CARLYLE. were placed at a very tender age.²TAYLOR. distinct.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. The flowers. as in Sec. 434. the hour of parting came.. with a singular noun. Meaning same as in Sec. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. . 1508. of the eighteenth century. to distinguish clearly. with a plural noun. or to emphasize the meaning. as.² RUSKIN.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. No. 433.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. Frequently. The lofty. but inseparable from each other. but is used with one only.²THE NATION.

² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²S. and a usurper. as in the first three of Sec. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²DICKENS.²MACAULAY. For rhetorical effect. a murderer.² MACAULAY. or clearness to each of several nouns. COLERIDGE. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. One article with several adjectives.²THACKERAY. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. He saw him in his mind's eye.² BURKE. In the sentences of Secs." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²BEECHER. 435. JONSON. only one of which is expressed. a collegian. 433 and 436. like the definite article." and "a red and a white geranium. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. interest. But in the following sentences. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. The indefinite article is used.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²BULWER. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. rich. and inexhausted vein. T. 437. 436). 438. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. The indefinite article (compare Sec. one noun is expressed. . to limit two or more modified nouns. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²B.436. as. a tyrant. a round and a square one alternately.²MACAULAY. Examples of this use are.²DRYDEN.An early. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.²JOHNSON. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.

Another school professes entirely opposite principles. 276. Collective noun of singular meaning. He sees that it is better to live in peace. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. This was spoken of in Part I. or the great intellectual life of our nation.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²AGASSIZ.²M.. 439. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²The Nation. then.²COOPER. 440. In English. . (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. Sec. has got already. without academies. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. ELIOT. Singulars connected by or or nor. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. as. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. Such. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. all that academies can give. A broad and loose rule.²W. Another writer might.²CARLYLE This usage.²GIBBON. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. ARNOLD.²FROUDE.VERBS. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. and the following illustrations prove it. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. as. for example.²G. was the earliest American land.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. like some others in this series. Singular verb.

other names. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.² Politics is the only field now open for me. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²WHITTIER.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.² The unbought grace of life.²GIBBON. the cheap defense of nations. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²CRITIC.²J. a loss of friends.Jesus is not dead.² In a word.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²EMERSON . all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. A fever.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²BURKE. Plural form and singular meaning. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. ADAMS. as.²GOLDSMITH. for example. or considered as appositional. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. a cruel disappointment. and other singulars of plural form. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. as. a loss of wealth. ²EMERSON. but considered as meaning about the same thing. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. No. a mutilation.²DE QUINCEY. that of a large town. and every four hours. is gone. nor Paul.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. Q. or as making up one general idea. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. nor John. nor Mahomet. but each one emphatic. seems at the moment unpaid loss. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. for example. Between ourselves.² GOLDSMITH.

²M ARNOLD. no. no discontinuity.²PRESCOTT. To receive presents or a bribe. The oldest. with death. and such like adjectives. almost every day. was punished. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. Subjects after the verb. every boor. For wide is heard the thundering fray. an impassioned countenance.²BUTLER. Her back. The Epic. as well as the Drama. and greaves. does not take the place of the man. wineBegins to stir itself. as. is a man of wit. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.²NEWMAN. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. the wit. nay. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. sir!"²MACAULAY. the ruin.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. an agitated gesture. sir!" and the "What then. the partisan. every valet.² Asia. 441. the fine gentleman. Every week.² . sir?" and the "No. the dismay. every echo.²ID. no spent ball. as. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²MACAULAY. each.²SCOTT. Then comes the "Why. a gorget. Plural verb. many a.² There is a right and a wrong in them. thus.²PRESCOTT.²HAWTHORNE.²MACAULAY. as well as Europe.²EMERSON.The author. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. as well as sides.²LONGFELLOW.²RUSKIN. There is a moving tone of voice.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. was dazzled. a cuirass. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. was listened to for five hours. was like to crack.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. as well as the newest. in a judge. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. Here is no ruin. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. Every fop.The rout.²ID. Every sound. no matter if the second is plural).

the Duke of Berri.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. His clothes. The conjunction may be omitted. its date.²ADDISON. A party of workmen were removing the horses.² A multitude go mad about it.²B. b). shirt.²FROUDE.²FRANKLIN.²SCOTT. TAYLOR. of whom there were a number. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.² One or two of these perhaps survive. All our household are at rest. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. but the verb is plural. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. making up a plural subject. were men of insignificant characters. as with a subject of plural form. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²DE QUINCEY.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²EMERSON.²FROUDE. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²THOREAU. and its history are alike a mystery to us. Philip of Anjou. A shady grove.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²COLERIDGE.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. a stream of fresh water.² GIBBON. as. a green pasture. as. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. The travelers. The Dauphin.These bits of wood were covered on every square.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. 440 (5. .²GIBBON. are sufficient to attract a colony. for example.²SWIFT. Conjunction omitted. Far. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. far away thy children leave the land.²CARLYLE But its authorship. as in Sec.

²GOLDSMITH. You and I are farmers. 443.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. If there is only one person in the subject. You and I are tolerably modest people.²THACKERAY.²ROWE." or.²D.²M.²LOWELL. Ah. nor has she"). "You would not be wiser. 444. Nothing which Mr. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²SMOLLETT. Exceptional examples. . 442.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. Second or third and first person in the subject. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.But notice the construction of this. for example. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. nor should I. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. of different persons.²RUSKIN. we never talk politics.).²RUSKIN. WEBSTER." etc. Not I.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Not Altamont. When the subjects. General usage. hadst been my lord. but thou.²THACKERAY. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. "He or I can go. that is. ARNOLD. Pattison or I have said. the verb takes the construction of the first person. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. but thou.²DE QUINCEY. the subject being really equivalent to we.²BYRON. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject." "She or you may be sure. his blood dost shed. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.²WHITTIER. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. "I have never said so. as.

nor bush are there. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . The following illustrate exceptional usage. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²MILTON. 5.²SMOLLETT. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²BYRON. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. nor tree. 12.²EMERSON.²ID. How each of these professions are crowded.That neither of their intellects are vast. Also in verbals. in my opinion.²THACKERAY. 4. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²and.²ADDISON." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. 6.445. 446. 8.²perhaps the devil. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. In the following sentence. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Lack of logical sequence in verbs. In this sentence from Defoe. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.² TROLLOPE. BANCROFT. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²ADDISON. 11. 7. 3. In a word. 2. Neither of them. 10.²G. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. Exercise. Neither of their counselors were to be present. as illustrated above (Secs. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.Her course to intercept. as we would hope. Nor wood.²SCOTT. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 9. Both death and I am found eternal. which it is proper to mention. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. 440-444):² 1.²BURKE.

Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. to have divided with her whatever might remain. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. It should be remarked. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. Two samples of indirect discourse. Of course. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. Direct discourse²that is.²MACAULAY. Definitions. to have seen should be changed to to see. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 4. Exercise.²THACKERAY. The present rule is recent.²KINGSLEY. 3. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. 448. for exact connection.²DE QUINCEY 2. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. however.. if not. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. meaning.. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. on my return. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Indirect discourse means reported speech. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .² PALGRAVE 5.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. as. 447.²FRANKLIN 6.²R.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. I gave one quarter to Ann.²IRVING. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes." . change them to a better form:² 1. But I found I wanted a stock of words. CHURCH. W.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.

She thought to herself. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. The substance of his lamentation was. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat.. and the indirect question by whether or if. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. 2. "I cannot oblige you . Direct. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Direct. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Summary of the expressions. will." etc. interrogative adverbs. "Oh. 449. introductory verb is in the past tense. Sebastian's. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect." etc. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step." Indirect.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. This includes the auxiliaries be. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. etc.. have. Her prudence whispered eternally. or regular interrogatives. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. . 1. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Oh. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. under interrogative pronouns. His exact words were.. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I.. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form.

Notice this. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. like distant peals of thunder. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.²GOLDSMITH.Exercise. . and that he himself had heard. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. Careless use of the participial phrase.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. VERBALS." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. PARTICIPLES. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. the sound of their balls. if this were expanded into a verb. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²ID.²ADDISON. one summer afternoon." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. he assured me that nothing was more easy. FRANKLIN.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. the first discoverer of the river and country. 450. in the sentences first quoted. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. The trouble is. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. my first observation will be found nearly true. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name.²B. with his crew of the Half-moon.

leaving the principal statement as it is. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.² HERBERT SPENCER. purposely or not. either "As I was pleased. 2. 451. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . and often. my first collection was. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. universal assertion.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.²SCOTT. then.²ID. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.²LAUGHLIN. 3. Adverb between to and the infinitive. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. For example.²RUSKIN. . many things to be carefully considered. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. Exercise. In the following citations.Correction. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. It is a solemn. Standard writers often use it." Exercise.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. This is the more common arrangement. while defended or excused by others.. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. INFINITIVES. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.. . if a strike is to succeed... the first sentence would be." etc.. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. There are. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. avoid it.

²ID. 6. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. BLAIR. 12. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. when such adverbs as only.²The Nation. even.²GOLDSMITH. but cannot misunderstand the thought.² MACAULAY. Exercise. 11. 8. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. etc. which consists in multitude. No. Position of only.²TROLLOPE.²BURKE. from Irving. Now.4. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. even. etc.. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. are used. this kind of grandeur. 10. china. etc. In works of art. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. therefore. The spirits. The rigid rule in such a case would be. 13. ADVERBS. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . A little sketch of his. but it is placed before the infinitive.² ADDISON..²SCOTT. 1533.²DR. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. and earthenware. 452. I wish the reader to clearly understand." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.²RUSKIN. 7. but they are often removed from the exact position. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 5. 9. if they modify single words. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. is to be very cautiously admitted.

14.²ID. . 3. for example. might not marry. 5. No sonne.²ID. 13. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. During the whole course of his administration.²RUSKIN.²PALGRAVE.²N.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. P. 6. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. In relating these and the following laws. to avoid a crowd.²THACKERAY.²CHAUCER. 7. 8.²MOTLEY. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²COOPER. 2.²ID. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 9. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²HIGGINSON.²MRS. 4. The old usage. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 11. WILLIS. 15. ²ASCHAM. He shouted in those clear.²EMERSON. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²SWIFT. 16.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 17.²SYDNEY SMITH. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. were he never so old of yeares. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. In Old and Middle English. GROTE. His last journey to Cannes.² THACKERAY. He could only afford to keep one old horse. Irving could only live very modestly.1. 12. whence he was never destined to return. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. My master.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²MACAULAY. 453. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 10. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.

denying each other. who hadn't been to school for nothing. However. Therefore. neither. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.²MRS. etc. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort.²BURKE.²LOWELL."²MRS. in Ole Virginia. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. 7. In the execution of this task. The prosperity of no empire. Not only could man not acquire such information. STOWE. There weren't no pies to equal hers. and is still kept in vulgar English. when one of the negatives is a connective. Regular law of negative in modern English. as. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. 2. 3.²DE QUINCEY.²BAYNE.²DEFOE. I never did see him again. under the influence of Latin syntax. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. the usual way of regarding the question now is. 4. as infrequent. I did not act so hastily.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. This. and why:² 1. if two negatives are found together.²HOLMES.² HAMILTON. nor the grandeur of no king. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. But. but ought not to labor after it. Exercise. uncommon. .²HAWTHORNE. STOWE. nor never shall. however. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. is not common. Exceptional use. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. one of the negatives is often a prefix."²four negatives.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. ²PAGE. 6.²GROTE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. 5. In the latter case. can so agreeably affect.

Things to be watched. The sentence. the first ought to be placed before a verb. or to reply to it. And who. CONJUNCTIONS.. "A weapon.²PRESCOTT. either . should be scrutinized.." Besides neither . or with advantage. and which.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.... the first should also. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. The sentences given in Secs.²LOWELL. not or is the proper correlative of neither.²SCOTT. neither . not merely . misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. not only to the success of their common cause. but (also)."²SCOTT." . nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. In the sentence. especially both .. Correction. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. but to their own safety. as the use of the conjunction. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. 454. nor is often changed to not²either ." both of the above requirements are violated. as well as of the pronoun... Choice and proper position of correlatives. if the second precedes a phrase.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever..8. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals." may be changed to "This loose . and. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. there we were. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.. but.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. not only .. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. "well worthy to confer honor. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. nor. if the last precedes a verb. either." said the King... 455. or to reply to it.. even neither . or.. or. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.

or the negative relative but. 6.²FRANKLIN. But what. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. too.²GOLDSMITH.²MACAULAY. 457. or but that. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Now. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 7. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son.²S. 3.Exercise.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.²RUSKIN. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. but they will outrage. Exercise. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²GIBBON.²ID. . and chop up their own kin. Try and avoid the pronoun.²THACKERAY. substitute that. etc.²BAIN.² ADDISON. not merely interest children. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Correct the following sentences:² 1. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. murder. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. Try and for try to. 2. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. 5." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. Some exceptions. as. as. 4. but. O. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. JEWETT. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 456. They will. and I don't know but what he was right. 8.²THACKERAY. In the following sentences. but grown-up persons. but. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. or but that for the words but what:² 1.

Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies.² BULWER. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.² SWIFT. 313. see Sec. 458. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²SCOTT. PREPOSITIONS.²ADDISON. 3. no separation or division by twos being implied. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.²ADDISON.²TROLLOPE.²EMERSON. Between is used most often with two things only. . They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 4.2. 6. 459.²BURKE.²EMERSON. 305. as already seen in Sec. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Between and among. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 5.

Kant. Comply with. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. a soldier of the Cross. Some of them have. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. as. . ²EMERSON.²between philosophers like Spinoza.²KINGSLEY. LIST I. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. and another to convey a different meaning. involve. Dissent from. and Coleridge. Derogatory to. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Different from. etc. Acquit of. Two groups or one and a group. Accord with. Affinity between. Conform to. Dependent on (upon).: Words with particular prepositions.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. and philosophers like Locke. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. by custom. Abhorrent to. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conversant with. 461. as. Averse to.²RUSKIN What have I. Mackintosh. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. averse. 460. Bestow on (upon).²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. and Stewart. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. correspond. different. Such are derogatory. List I. confer. or one object and a group. Such are absolve. Paley.

Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. LIST II. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. . 462. Confer with (talk with). etc. A taste of (food). as meaning to be in keeping with." also of persons. Independent of. "The king is reconciled to his minister. LIST III. Change for (a thing). Involve in. as. in the sense of making friends with." List III. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England.). A taste for (art. as. Confide in (trust in). as. 463. Reconcile with (note below). Differ with (note below). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. but it is not good usage. Correspond with (write to). Agree to (a proposal). Change with (a person).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Change to (become). List II. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Confide to (intrust to). Confer on (upon) (give to).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Differ from (note below). Correspond to (a thing). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Reconcile to (note below)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). and sometimes creeps into standard books.y y y Deprive of. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to.

they shall die by this hand. .²ADDISON. ELIOT. "Die with." (material cause." She would have been ready to die with shame. It would take me long to die of hunger.²SHAKESPEARE." (because of).²GOLDSMITH.²MACAULAY.²BOSWELL. "Die by. expect from." The author died of a fit of apoplexy." (in behalf of). People do not die of trifling little colds. ²ATHENÆUM.²BULWER. Who. It is a man of quality who dies for her. Take thought and die for Cæsar. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. She died of hard work. die for. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. One of them said he would die for her. ²THACKERAY. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²MACAULAY. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. Expect of. If I meet with any of 'em. "Die from. simply from old age.²SCOTT. Illustrations of "die of. "Die for.²BURNETT. He died at last without disease. I am positively dying with hunger. and ill treatment. instrument). Part from.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. "Die for.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH.y y y Die by.:² "Die of. part with. ELIOT." "die from.²G.²FIELDING." etc. as Cervantes informs us." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. died for love of the fair Marcella.²POPE. die of. privation. die from.²G. die with. No one died from want at Longfeld.

How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²SHAW.²AUSTEN.²POE.²G. ELIOT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²WALLER. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. I can part with my children for their good. Illustrations of "part with. With words implying behavior or disposition. 465. That is more than I expected of you. Illustrations of "expect of. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. I have just seen her.²G.²MACAULAY.²TROLLOPE. kind of you.²G. Of Doctor P. 466." "part from:"² "Part with. which he would by no means part from.²BULWER." She will expect more attention from you. and hated to part with them." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. It was a little bad of you.²WALPOLE. as shown in the following quotations:² Of." To part from you would be misery. just parted from her. nothing better was to be expected. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²MARRYAT. ELIOT.²MACAULAY. "Expect from.²SCOTT. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²DICKENS." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. either of or in is used indifferently.²BULWER. as my friend. Kind in you. "Part from. ELIOT. 464." "expect from:"² "Expect of. . I part with all that grew so near my heart. His precious bag.

²BULWER. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 5. the vast abyss. 7. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. and ran up the alley. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. In the friction between an employer and workman. 3. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 1. or artillery. nor yellow. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. Thou tread'st. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. The noise of vast cataracts. 11. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 15. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. with seraphims. or which we are most imperatively required to do. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. nor blue. Hampden. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 14. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 6. raging storms. Very natural in Mr. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²CARLYLE.²BULWER. tedious perhaps. thrown it over Amyas's head. nor green.He did not think it handsome of you. nor of a pale red. 13. This narrative.²TENNYSON.²DICKENS. 4. . But this is idle of you. 9. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. thunder. but which the story renders necessary. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 10. 8.²BEACONSFIELD. In.

The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 18. 25. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 22. were down with raging fever. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 30. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. you or me. When the glass or liquor are transparent.And were I anything but what I am. 27. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 36. 20. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 37. 17. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. Every one of these letters are in my name. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. But every man may know. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. what is a just and unjust act. and other angular figures. save Amyas. 16. 26. produce approbation.I would wish me only he. 31. and almost as good as a pony. 32. 411.) 34. (Sec. That night every man of the boat's crew. Friday. and most of us do know. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 28. 38. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 23. The effect of proportion and fitness. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. or how beautiful it is. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 29. You have seen Cassio and she together. . 21. triangles. 24. the acquiescence of the understanding. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Squares. 19. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 33. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. but in the price paid to them. 35.

(3) Modern English. (2) Middle English. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 310. 40. 91. 260. origin of. 47. of. numeral. 89. from nominative clauses. of. 98. 239. as comparison definition demonstrative. Adjectives. 107. 116.39. from about 1500 to the present time. He had four children. of. 47. 25. 119. of. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. adverbs used complements. 124. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. nominative. syntax uses Absolute. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 92. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. voice. article. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. of. 124. adjectives. . A. as. 90. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century.000 between them. INDEX. 20. 102. Abstract with Active Address. nouns. 133. pronouns. demonstrative.

Alms. quality. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 239. Against. . parse. 207. 194. compared. objective. 109. of. 148. 195. of. of. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 184.from function how in not of of ordinal. as nouns. 325. quantity. 207. nouns. 262. 194. 242. of. clauses. 27. from to of. of. 302. conjunctions. plural pronominal. conjunction. with with with subject. adjectives. 287. 190. antecedent. infinitive. 275. 97. to used of. 291. modify. 187. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 48. predicate. 191. 323. 103. parse. of. 303. 104. 114. 115. 190. sentence. antecedent. of. 328. adjectives. 27. 101. 116. 99. 325. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 116. between of. nouns. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. adjectives. 183. 42. and 185. 303. 316. Agreement. 106.

47. 120. adjective. 120. 295. 331. to of. syntax. which. Auxiliary if. sentences. See 74. of. sentences. of and pronoun of. of of of And Antecedent. 275. after of. 207. 198. parse. definition how indefinite.Among. 101. agreement personal as pronoun. and. 225. 148. 309. See with definition complex compound simple who. 296. same. 271. of. 252. . in in. words between. of. syntax As. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 124. 79. which. of. Anacoluthon Analysis. 287. of. 240. uses As At. pronouns. 84. possessive. 67. 49. as uses verbs. 90. 264. Are. definition of of of Any. it. 74. derivation in definite. 127. though. Arrangement Articles. which. 51. sentences. 208. 300. An. A. Agreement. 67. 231. 150. 294.

46. of nouns. 111. of nouns. 39. 110. 39. 62. 330. 64. 224. of pronouns. Can. 37. 110. 278. Case. adverb. 279. possessive. best. Between. of. Cause. 150. adjective. 149. of pronouns. See of. clauses of. uses nominative of. 84. 49. 278. objective. Clause. 48. of pronouns. . of what. definition could. 262. Brethren. Be. of. syntax of. of. conjunctions Cherub. 54. forms. Case. Children. 194. 210. double possessive. 66. of nouns. But. 46. nominative. Bridegroom. pronoun. 47. of nouns. Among. number of. of pronouns. 195. 63. 45. 279. 283. in Old and Modern English. 262. uses Better.Bad. with But By. comparison conjugation of. plurals of. 260. uses of. 161.

107. 43. 18. infinitive. adverbs. of. predicate. definition degrees irregular. 257. 18. clothes. 271. proper. 110.definition kinds noun. 108. 307. 257. nouns. superlative. analysis of. 189. of. 244. English. verb. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 258. nouns. nouns. of. subject. in analysis. Clomb. Cleave. material. 268. and sentence. 263. 157. 108. 113. 12. 312. of. defective. 53. 23. 305. sentence. 315. 257. double. of. adjectives. of. predicate of and from from of. of. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. . 239. plural of. of. 111. of. 158. Cloths. 43. 248. 307. and forms of. 24. 264.

193. 196. Can. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 207. parse. 143. 73. 151. 188. 263. 194. 194. sentences. replaced by objective. pronouns. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 269. 139. to of. 231. conjunction. 289. correlative. in Old vs. definition be. of of Conjunctions. pronoun. Agreement. . analysis. and clause. See in subjunctive. 195. 255. 149. 149. subjunctive. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. pronoun.with Concord. sentence. verbs. 199. 328. definition how subordinate. 194. interrogative pronouns. See English. conjunctions. 66. Dative Declarative Declension of case. conjunctions. of. other other parts of speech. same words. coördinate. Conjunctions. sentences. 195. of. See analysis clauses. adverbs. 138.

Declension. 242. 185. pronouns. . Comparison. 288. article. adverbs See adjectives. See adjectives. pronouns. 315. 303. 287. 80. nouns. indirect. 60. of. See 148. tenses. discourse. of. 35. duck. vs. 152. Case. pronouns. verb. for. use of dies. of. of personal relative verbs. 43. 242. 99. passive adjectives. from. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 26. of. pronouns. 300. Subordinate clause. by. clause. 320. 333. comparative. with of. Degrees. 51. Comparative. possessive. 102. 160. nouns. See See 48. 90. 102. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. Articles. object. with. 91. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree.

original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. possessive suffix. 12. spoken. 51. . of. object. pronoun. 39. 241. 102. 110. suffix. 299. of. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. other. 257. 32. of. 90. 112. conjunction. of. adjective. added suffix. feminine plural English. Each. 240.Drank. 33. 92. predicate. original. drunk. 287. 62. another. 92. 328. 40. 300. adjective. of. complement. older. 90. 287. 194. one ( t). syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. ending. pronouns. pronoun. plural. 92. to suffix. Empress. 33. the of sentence. Elements Ellipsis. 280. -En. 158. in 'Em. 34. of. Either. 158. 38. of subject. syntax Each Eat Eaves. vulgar. 234. literary. error in sentence. 255. 42.

29. used of. 211. of. 45. . 32. 43. expect gone. nouns. 334. 308. 147. 152. of. plurals. 126. 30. 212. etc.. For. Farther. Feminine. 212. adjective. 91. 112. 36. 48. pronoun. First Fish. of. Future Future tense. 287.. From. 30. 235. with infinitive. as of from compared marking. two a further. other languages. the. 238. First. few. have adjective. Gender. perfect. object. as a noun. uses redundant. gender. Few. with in sex. 152. etc. definition distinguished in English. Further. fishes. 110. See Gander. 148. 30. 112." 31. first. 102. 102. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. from. 103.Every. two. to of. uses Foreign Former. 189. modes "common goose. 319.

177. pronoun. Government. 10. had hung. 144. 61. 101. of. participle. Had Hanged. definition basis of. Grammar. Gerund. person. 159. it. kinds of. 285. definition divisions opinions province H. 176. 36. 43. I. 159. pronouns. 173. 60. on. He. of. distinguished syntax. 275. 120. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. its. 145. noun. 35. from participle of. 12. 12. 175.of of Genii. an better. 60. 80. His Husband. 9. personal relative geniuses. of. for before. of. rather. and case verbal with. forms in Girl. 13. adjective. Got. possessive pronouns. first sentence. . 61. 231. she.

words. 178. with of. 85. elements. 131. 245. indirect of. See you. uses discourse. 320. of. 323. questions.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 110. of. summary See passive mood. meaning. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 93. 73. See Articles. pronouns. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 283. 131. adjectives. 136. pronoun. a object. adjectives. verbs. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 276. of clause. your. 176. in compared syntax. adverbs. transitive. . mood. Questions. 233. 43. Direct object. 153. sentence. 231. 67. use article. 227. 248. questions. 72. 105. indices. 319. of. 257. of. 188.

39. queen. 61. 110. 36. . 12. 227. latest. Latter.adverbs. 190. lie. Lie.. subject form. 63. "It Its. was uses me. Lay. 113. etc. 281. predicate. English. 113. Like. lord. 36. 245. Last. 303. lesser. of. Lay. 110. of. 170. of. -Ly." history etc. a vs. 276. Lady. pronoun. 102. adjective. syntax the. Less. these double kind. 36. 126. of. Lady. Kind. uses Literary Little. 91. 226. 189. See Madam. Logic Logical Lord. Kine. in little. and See words in. It. King.. syntax. 67. plural.

Modifiers. of.Manner. 137-144. -Most. double. 160. May. 110. 113. 265. of. construction as of adverb. of. conjunctions Many. Neither. of. 114. indicative. 112. 161. of. 110. nigh. 189. Modifier. 187. 112. mine. Mighty Mine. out of. 325. sentences. Must. of. superlatives. Enlargement. 36. Master. 126. of. imperative. adjective. Negative. 41. syntax nearer. syntax conjunction.. position adverb. 112. 328. 135. etc. 194. 195. Means. of. 287. 188. Many Mapping Mare. 256. . mistress. Mood. 137. 110. 64. 185. comparison Near. See definition 136. 326. 102. subjunctive. 144. in adverbs comparison a. 34. might. 189. Much.

124. 29. of. and figures. 300. nouns. 17 19. to of. 25. formed. No Nominative. 41. 17. 17. 19. in. definition descriptive. proper. 45. abstract. 18. 42. of. become neuter. of. 27. 30. to use. 38. words how compound. syntax Neuter or two News.pronoun. 20. material. used as. half abstract. 32. class used singular. letters as 24. parse. Case. syntax in gender nouns. 26. 46. 30. 301. definition according of. of. become become formation case collective. 46. clause. 258. None. gender how kinds material. 125. nouns. 92. of. 126. . 30. 246. of. 25. now plural. foreign. of of of of of a. kinds 90. 38-41. 328. common. 56. etc. analysis. Not Noun Nouns. abstract. 41. of. 41 43. Nor. See 194. etc. 21. number once other plural. gender nouns.

41. 48. 18. spoken of instead nouns. of. of. Preposition. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. with case. personal. adjectives. indefinite.. singular. 41. preposition.of same two with proper. 278. 48. of. 124. 235. meaning. 106. 285. See in in in Numeral distributive. Nouns. 148. plural form. form. Numeral Object. definite. 281. 240. 43. pronouns. 92. 42 44. plural. 101. 48. . article. plural no two singular construction. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. passive adverbial. of. 41. English. 196. and analysis. singular. 101. become syntax use with with with Nouns. in article. etc. with with with Now Number. of. 48. 102. verbs. or plural. 279. adverbial. 48. of different possessive definite of. 121. indirect. dative. 66. conjunction. meanings. 242. See verb. 42. 282. 23. 195. as forms titles. pronouns. in nouns. 42. 242. nominative. 278. of. 60. adjectives. common. 39.

as other. See pronoun. uses numeral pronoun. adverbs. 56. 233. articles. definite relative uses of. 87. 38. 64. 199. Omission On. 194. . 41. of upon. 101. Ourself. 161. Our. 116. pronoun. of syntax. another. 306. inverted. 94. 56. of. 93 other. conjunction. part analysis. of of of of of models adjectives. Each adjective. 293.syntax Of. a in adjectives. adverb. 117. ours. of. for. Oxen. conjunctions. nouns. Elder. of. 103. 103. Ordinal Other Ought. Older. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 191. 325 275. 279. Pains. See the as of. One. 213. 237. 127. as of. 91. 69. position Order. Parsing. 216. adjective. 115. treatment comparatives. with (the).

with. 63. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. included various. 181. 322. speech. of. 219. 61. of. in. or of. pronoun. 43. 174. of. 317. 62. of. reflexive. 59. 80. used as voice. predicate use of. 70. verbs. 64. 134. verbals. 180. pennies. absolute with of. 172. 148. not is. 56. part adjective. article 150. parsed. from definition other of.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. Pence. 95. 173. 100. 59. 179. verb idioms it from. them. antecedent. phrases. and subject in. phrase. 43. of. Person. 69. 281. 172. 56. -ing words. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 27. . of. pease. agreement of verb nouns. 335. relatives. pronouns. 247. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 59. 177. 62. 28. possessive and of. nominative. 287. of. 119. verbs. pronouns.

antecedent of of pronouns. of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. spoken of. 281. See 60. Nouns. kinds infinitive. Personification. 303. noun nouns. 278. 247. as double. singular degree. 206. 247. syntax of of Politics. 37. of. omitted. 49. of. Place. 188. singular. vs. participial. conjunctions prepositions Plural. plural. 54. simple.objective syntax table triple uses of. 235. it. 195. 25. 64. 53. 52. of. 106. Positive Possessive. 41. 232. Comparison. appositional. 245. 245. Personal subjective. pronoun. 241. of. of. of. 's. 236. of Phrase. in of. or See of of See 185. 248. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 50. prepositional. adjectives. 278. 63. 51. English. 67. double. 303. 285. nouns. pronouns. of nouns. relative. nouns. 60. nouns. pronoun. adverbs of. 61. 236. of. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. . 281. objects. 53. complete. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of.

72. possessive nominative to of. by parts of of. as 54. 205. 208. exclamatory. 219. 93. of. 332. parse. objective. each either. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 95. none. 58. somebody definition how indefinite. speech. of. case. plural. usually to as than. 132. 105. of. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 287. interrogative. 203. 300. objective. 284. 64. forms of. singular usually other. future. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 301. 59. of. 105. 300. 207. as antecedent of relative. 203. 281. any. and one with else's. adjective. same used as adjectives. Pronouns. 58. adverb. interrogative. for predicate nominative. 279. 285. case. and form form form form of. neither. 302. as. meaning. 129. of. verbs.Prefixes. 89. 299. plural. 32. Prepositions. words. . 104. 331. 333. another. who personal. parse. 282. by. 283. 186. 206. what. 195. after but. 283. 147. all. 202. by with shown certain of. 303. of. 280. in exclamations. with tense certain. 187. expressed as other of. of. plural.

pronominal pronouns indirect. nouns. 101. 74. 289. 195. agreement anacoluthon and as. that. 80. questions. 295. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. Nouns. use in as. in. same antecedent. pronoun. indirect. 83. of. Rank. Rather. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. of. of. discourse. in. See of. 69. of. 289. 87. 69. 142. from and interrogative. of. 58. 85. use of history formed. 68. which. 296. conjunctions Quality. in. 293. to of. of. Quantity. indirect compound. of. 188. Direct same and different. 74. 291. 74. pronouns. unrestrictive. who. adverbs in. and antecedent. 293. of. and relatives. 84. Questions. of. 85. and which. with with gerund. with who. or of. 295. 286. 263. 279. 99. .possessive relative. 105. 189. 87. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. personal pronoun. 297. parse. which after same. Quotations.

of. forms shots. 252. 159. 51. 69. 294. Same Sat. in of. Shear. 26 271. which. 319. 196. 42. 159. 263. that. 43. Simple in sate. 74. plural possessive as. tenses. 40. of. in form. gender. ending. pronoun. of sit. 259. effect. 195.syntax use Result. 242. S. 29. 162. Self Sentences. 196. definition . clauses of. of of of complex Sentences. reflexive analysis of compound. suffix. 231. elliptical. 231. would. who. 'S. sentence. kinds Sequence Set. simple. complex. of. object. conjunctions Retained Riches. and should. will. Shot. See Sentences. 255. of. conjunction. simple of. 289. Seeing. Sex Shall. 170.

-es. 257. 257. sort. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 233. 303. English. 144. for. definition 67. Split Spoken -Ster. English. other Such Such Suffix -s. distinguish. of. adverb. adverb. literary clause. definition how kinds noun. of. 323. 186. of. these number. of. 32. -en. of. of. 245. 240. Subject. phonetic in infinitive. Spelling Spinster. 169. etc. 38. verbs. disuse in spoken complete. . in feminine suffix. 33. See -En. 260. 137. 36.Singular Sir. 303. Modern use becoming else's. used mood. 258. 262. 237. 258. of. to of. 12. 270.. 245. English. 257. vs. 144. in Middle English. English. 258. 33. 257. 38. 126. as. logical. 138. names as a. Somebody Sort.

Suffixes. 191. not suggesting adjectives. and and of. 87. which. form. restrictive. two basis not same definition definite. of languages. plural as adverb. 106. when relative. 306. me. coördinating. 147. of . 290. than of. 147. 186. adjectives. they. 120. meaning. 297. 108. 319. Then. in comparison. 106.. 306. object. Kind. 189. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 277. classical of. subject. 116. omission whom. degree. 307. "the then foreign. 109. as history The.. 275. objects. 107. in Modern number sequence table Than That." introductory. king. 289. 147. of. 148. 275. 309. syntax of. 119. of. Tenses. 280.. as adverbs. 61. in double. that uses That. 186. English. of. See etc. when as of. of. auxiliaries. definition in English Tense. 222. There These kind. 33. . of. of. of. English. as history syntax Their. 123. adverbs. of. meaning made up in Old of. 152. this. 88. article.

207. exclamations. 21. Upper. 308. of. 247. parse. gerund. suffix. -ing 111. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. thy. 188. certain as the before with of. thee. etc. 61. adverbs those. 185. 322. words. 330. try two. uses of. 33. of. in omitted uses T'other. 176. 114. analysis. 172. of. 175. 173. tother. See On. 175. of. 114. of. used. infinitive. 323. of. kinds participle. verbs. Try Two Under. in of. 114. uses history of. other noun. Upon. 175. Thou. 128. 119. to. how infinitive. carelessly uses syntax this. phrases. first. 20. 180. preposition. 322. conjunctions prepositions To. -Trix. 217. 181. . 172. feminine and.. Utter. uttermost. Time. infinitive. from cleft to 174. 248. first adjective. See That. of.These. 195.

of. mood of. 242. What. made transitive. 151. 160.Verbs. auxiliary. active meaning. past tense formed nominative. intransitive. formed by. 134. 179. syntax of. 317. 320. of incomplete predication. 129. 47. but uses what. definition of. 319. agreement of. 133. verbs by. 133. 39. 167. 148. tense of. 312. definition of. how to parse. sequence of. 12. 131. Vixen. person and number of. 135. 159. verbs. Vocative in Voice. 169. change. passive form. 148. 312-316. 245. strong. remarks on certain. regular. retained object with passive. 149. voice of. 147. phonetic. 236. with subject in number. table of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 150. 167. 33. definition of. table of irregular. conjugation of. in person. 130. weak. analysis. active. 154. defective. of English. of. 157. 169. spelling of. 223. transitive and intransitive. 154. passive. 155. becoming irregular. in indirect discourse. 330. 154. .

animals. Wife. 36. questions. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 105. With. relative. 32. 72. questions. worser. 190. 299. direct of. of. Yes ending analysis. 73. Will. antecedent adjective. 72. pronoun. 85. questions.what Whereby. 77. relative indirect relative. Witch. Y. . 246. 83. in in indefinite objective. wizard. in -ly. pronoun. questions. 78. 126. 75. 85. 36. in. 296. 75. would. plural of in nouns -ing. of. 111. relative. 40. referring syntax Widower. spoken in of. 218. 194. Woman. 104. Whether. Words in Worse.. 295-299. 83. 105. 85. 178. English. interrogative Which. conjunction. 72. whereto. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 37. 79. etc. a. uses See Shall. Who.

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