roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. there is still much for the grammarian to do. Surely our noble language. with its enormous vocabulary. It is also evident. and thus incite his observation. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. as. assist the classification of kindred expressions. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. so that a small grammar will hold them all. but this is bad English now." What grammar is. if rightly presented. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. An æsthetic benefit. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.The province of English grammar is. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). Literary English. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. as compared with Latin or Greek. If. and their uses and relations in the sentence. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled." and "Syntax. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Mental training. its peculiar and abundant idioms. A broader view. Few inflections. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. . to those who have studied the language historically. Authority as a basis. rightly considered." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. from the question. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). is worthy of serious study. Coming back. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. "Analysis. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. The work it will cover. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. their forms. it will at the same time. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). This will take in the usual divisions. however. then. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Making rules is risky. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases.

The words state. The Uses of Words. The following pages will cover. which belongs to a people. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. or Syntax. but now undoubtedly bad grammar.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Vulgar English. In the more simple state of the Arabs. then. Such words are called nouns. Occasionally. Part II. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.²GIBBON. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. . and may belong to any of those objects.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. NOUNS. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. or standard. too.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. but. not objects. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. The Parts of Speech. 1. the words sons and master name objects. Part III. the nation is free. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. three divisions:² Part I. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. and Inflections. The plainest name is Arabs. that is. by which is meant the free. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. from the eighteenth century on. and will are evidently names of a different kind. and the word nation stands for a whole group. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. besides this one. submission. PART I. as they stand for ideas. Analysis of Sentences. reference will be made to vulgar English. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Spoken English.

reducing it to a narrow application. but Chicago names one city. whether person. substance. possessed by all. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Name for any individual of a class. as here used. is from a Latin word which means general. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. Common. We may say. Individual. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. MATERIAL. animals. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. and appropriate names to the groups. the man here. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Thus. because each group is considered as a unit. or a mob. Besides considering persons. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. animals. For instance. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Classes of nouns. Name for a group or collection of objects. we may think of them in groups. a committee. representing directly to the mind an object. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. 2. etc. Proper. 3. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. place. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. (a) 4. A noun is a name word. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or thing. however. This does not imply. (b) Common. and things separately. or idea. They properly belong under common nouns. Collective. . Abstract. ATTRIBUTE. or things. or a congress. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. or the man in front of you. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Thus. belonging to one. 5. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons.Definition. or a council. the name of each is an individual or proper name. men in groups may be called a crowd.

sugar. . earth. considered abstractly. iron.²There are some nouns." "a man of understanding. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. proof means the act of proving." 9. Such are glass. conditions. etc. but which are not called proper names. or that which shows a thing has been proved. gold. as in calling a city Cincinnati. etc. not things. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. Again." "Learning is hard to acquire. etc. Words naturally of limited application not proper. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. celluloid. wheat. frost. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. Names of ideas. dew. etc. etc. 7. instead of to each individual or separate object. wheat. The reason is. . etc.Names for things thought of in mass. and fasten a special name to the object considered. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. rice. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. earth. expressing state. condition. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. soap. potash. and so on. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. granite. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. we speak of the wisdom of the man. etc. paint. "Painting is a fine art. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. sugar. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. but in the words sun. such as sun. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. (3) Geological bodies: mud. however.. snow. mist. frost. cloud. When we speak of a wise man. wine. etc. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. or actions. but it is taken merely as a name. It may. clay. 6. tea. rock. sand. expressing attributes or qualities. platinum. rubber. stone. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. there is no such intention. or apart from their natural connection. NOTE. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). rain. we may say. or action. moon. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. They remain common class names. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. The quality is still there as much as before. world.

Exercises. etc. five abstract. five proper. the main bearings of this matter. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. the moon caused fearful forebodings. childhood from child. 273). but are merely names of actions. They cannot govern a word. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. Underived abstract nouns. as glad²joy. day. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. lightning. 272. the well-being of her subjects. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. Thus. II.Attribute abstract nouns. the great Puritan awakening. . in the beginning of his life. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. shadow. and they cannot express action. winter. kingship from king. her longing for their favor. To avoid difficulty. thunder. etc. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. by altering its function. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns.. service from serve. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. height from high. he spread his blessings over the land. a wedding or a festival. is used as a noun. The verb. there is time for such reasonings. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. redness from red. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. energy. 1. (2) peerage from peer. Verbal abstract nouns. speech from speak. action from act. etc. night. etc. (1) prudence from prudent. joy. hope. 10. as in the expressions. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning." "a brisk walk. 12. "a long run" "a bold move. Caution. They are only the husks of verbs. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. NOTE. ease. theft from thieve. the rude drawings of the book. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. mastery from master. the teachings of the High Spirit. those opinions and feelings. as their name implies. hopeful²hope. summer." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. stupidity from stupid. Such are beauty.

mathematics? 3. as pneumonia. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. typhus. Using a dictionary. catarrh. diphtheria. algebra. geology.2. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . (b) branches of knowledge. pleurisy. as physics.

but most of them are in the following groups. from Corinth. a Fourier. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. it imposes its classification on other men. Others of similar character are calico. arras. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. as a davy. from a town in France. Sodom was famous for wickedness." referring to flat- . Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. "The cook made the irons hot. damask. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class.²EMERSON. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. port (wine). from the name of Dr. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. in Portugal. Nouns change by use. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. a Bentham. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. 119). a Hutton. but we may say. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. levant and morocco (leather). above. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. currants. from Calicut. 14. from Oporto. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. and lo! a new system. a Locke. etc.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Material nouns may be used as class names. Guillotin. from China. thus. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. who was its inventor. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. from Damascus. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. a Lavoisier. the guillotine.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. 13. We know a number of objects made of iron. Proper names transferred to common use. for example. the word port. or to go over to it entirely. 15.

So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away.²HAYNE. tins. oils.²CARLYLE. or the arts and sciences. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. but on dispositions which require to be created. mists.²PERCIVAL. Test this in the following sentences:² . to prowl or to moan like night birds. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. For example. but in case an art or a science. or used as class nouns. though not confined to verse.²BYRON. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. coals. tobaccos.²COLLINS. clays. clouds. are abroad. When it is said that art differs from science. but differ in strength. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. A halfway class of words. slates. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. nor are they common class nouns.²RUSKIN. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. 17. on fire. candies. This is a poetic usage. Death. paints. that the power of art is founded on fact. These are the same in material. that disposition is the thing to be created. as stones. be spoken of. Next Anger rushed. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. abstract in meaning.²BRYANT. From all around²Earth and her waters. a rubber for erasing marks. papers.irons. that is. a steel to whet a knife on. Class nouns in use. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. Personification of abstract ideas. his eyes. the abstract idea is partly lost. They are not then pure abstract nouns. The words preceded by the article a. purity. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. which are made plural. not material things. smiled. and so on. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. are still names of abstract ideas. etc. and say teas. etc.In lightnings owned his secret stings. 16. and only Vice and Misery. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. or made plural. (3) By poetical use. Traffic has lain down to rest. or.

²SHAKESPEARE. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. a bank in New York. however. By ellipses.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. as descriptive adjectives are. the wealthy. but is still a noun. But it is better to consider them as nouns. nouns used to modify.² BURNS.² GOLDSMITH. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms." "a morning walk. they do not express quality. for example. a bill as to tax on the banks. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. Adjectives. All these. And still.²EMERSON. Adverbs. make our own so.²BURNS. fear thy blow. sir!" and the "What then.The Solitary can despise. meaning a walk in the morning. which belongs to another word. sir?" and the "No.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. But ah! those pleasures. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. sir!"²MACAULAY . (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great." "a New York bank." which contains a pure adjective.²IRVING. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.Let us. Then comes the "Why. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. or describe it. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. if we must have great actions. or from any expression. When I was young? Ah. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. were mere terrors of the night. Conjunctions. 18. "a family quarrel. they cannot be compared. They are more like the possessive noun. NOTE. Nouns used as descriptive terms. 19. loves. Every why hath a wherefore." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. as each repeated pleasure tired. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning." "the State Bank Tax bill.

Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. and Then. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. or a criminal. The it. In the other sentences. There are many of these. It is to be remembered. Stone walls do not a prison make. in a sentence above. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. why and wherefore. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. or a faithful domestic. that cobweb of the brain. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. Exercise. Now. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. or a state secret. of words rather than of their meaning. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. NOTE.Nor iron bars a cage. whether it mean the sun or the cold." or "legal. 8. 7. 3.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. 4. Caution. so. 5. is the word "just. 20.. are spoken of as if pure nouns. too.And Ceremony doff'd her pride.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. but have an adjectival meaning. and tell to which class each belongs. Learning. are used. to such words as become pure nouns by use. the wealthy. When. Power laid his rod aside. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. at the beginning. however. 1. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences.²These remarks do not apply. 6. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies."²B. FRANKLIN. without reference to its function in the sentence. the terms the great. When. . of course. etc. but as a figure of speech. 2. in speaking of the principal of a school." and another of Dr. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. is ambiguous.

11. always masculine. its bloom is shed. returned to Spain. the welcome. 15. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. the silver moon is gone. and many other languages. that waits you here. he cried. 19.9. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. But pleasures are like poppies spread. A little weeping would ease my heart. in English grammar. always feminine. Male beings are. but not so in English. 24. 22. It is founded on sex. for every dropHinders needle and thread. GENDER. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 10. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter.You seize the flower. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. Greek. . 16. 12. shattered and disabled. And see. A fool speaks all his mind. 18.Fair guests. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. 13. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. The hours glide by. In Latin.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 20. The fleet. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 21. and names of females are usually feminine. 17. 23. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. female. What gender means in English.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. German. 21. 14.

. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. if of the female sex. The great difference is. are named by gender nouns. that is." . For instance: in Latin. or additions to words. in other languages gender follows the form.. the sex being of no consequence. with its gizzard under its wing. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. mensa (table) is feminine. No "common gender. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. those distinguishing the sex of the object. but are spoken of as neuter. Thus. 22. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. must be divided into two principal classes. "A little child shall lead them.When. 24.²IRVING. He next stooped down to feel the pig. Of animals. the name of it is masculine. and neuter nouns. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. that pattern of a husband." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Gender nouns. in English. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. in German.. or names of things without life. Neuter nouns. came to a stand just by the bridge. if there were any signs of life in it. or which arouse his interest most. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Hence: Definition. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. and consequently without sex. All nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence.²gender nouns. das Messer (knife) is neuter.² IRVING.² I have seenA curious child . according to use. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. der Tisch (table) is masculine.²LAMB.. hortus (garden) is masculine. 23.. corpus (body) is neuter. Gunpowder . clapping his burnished wings.. the name of it is feminine. according to their use. however. . those with which man comes in contact often. inanimate things are spoken of. then. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.²masculine and feminine. those which do not distinguish sex.

25. Gender shown by Prefixes. woman. they are neuter words. and for the older word fat they said vat. I. 29. as in wine vat. These remain in vixen and spinster. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. only to masculine and feminine nouns. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. The inflections for gender belong. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. servant. 27. Native suffixes. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. Male nouns beings. domestic. 28. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Put in convenient form. relative. though both words have lost their original meanings. from the masculine fox. ruler. II. puts a prefix before the masculine man. etc. For fox they said vox.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. 26. One feminine. but spinster has now no connection with it. generally to a masculine word. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. Hence vixen is for fyxen. (2) By adding a suffix.. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. teacher. .² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. Gender shown by Suffixes. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. Very few of class I. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. of course. for from they said vram. he-bear²she-bear. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. or the lack of it. the division of words according to sex. According to the definition. as he-goat²she-goat. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. is. (3) By using a different word for each gender. cousin. If such words as parent.

The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. Slightly changed and widely used. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. song-str-ess. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). donna. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. 30. -ess (French esse. Unaltered and little used. the one most used. it has none now in the words huckster. señorita. as czarina. gamester. Low Latin issa). trickster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. as seam-stress. punster. but in most cases it has not. Ending of masculine not changed. executrix. These are attached to foreign words. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. and are never used for words recognized as English. as. as.

Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). fosteress.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. as. neighboresse. we use the masculine termination. In some of these pairs. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. as in the fourteenth century. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. teacher or lady teacher. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. from Latin imperatricem. NOTE. wagoness. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. as. 31. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. editor. 32. teacheresse. to represent persons of either sex. Instead of saying doctress. frendesse. Some of them have an interesting history. etc. We frequently use such words as author. neighbor (masculine and feminine)." III. from the French -esse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . we use the feminine. the ending -ess. as was said in the sixteenth century. or servauntesse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. Gender shown by Different Words. chairman. others have in their origin the same root. Thus. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress.

The older forms. 16). Three letters of ened have fallen away. had the masculine mearh (horse). written loverd.). King and queen are said by some (Skeat. 34. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). probably meaning house dweller). etc. Danish gaas. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. not immediately connected with witch. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Mare. It is not connected historically with our word duck. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. or lauerd in Middle English. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Personification. as in many other words. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. in Old English mere. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Icelandic gás. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. for example. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Besides gander and drake. Two masculines from feminines. 33. gand-ra. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. leaving our word drake. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. though both are ultimately from the same root.² . Witch is the Old English wicce. Madam is the French ma dame. finally gander. the old sign of the masculine. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. lhauerd. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). widuwa²widuwe. among others) to be from the same root word. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. from Latin mea domina. Widower. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. became identical. but this has long been obsolete.

But other words were inflected afterwards. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun."Now. Our language has two numbers. . But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. The -en inflection. Britannia needs no bulwarks. (2) By changing the root vowel.²CAMPBELL. more than one. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. in Old English. etc. I. and not by the form of the noun. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.²KEATS. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. 39. This is not exclusively a poetic use. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. NUMBER. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.²singular and plural. 35. 36. whenever we adopt a new word. In nouns. 37."²BYRON. shoon (shoes). There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. treen (trees). the engineer speaks so of his engine.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. Effect of personification.²COLERIDGE. the plural. that is. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. eyen (eyes). (3) By adding -s (or -es).No towers along the steep. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. for instance.Her home is on the deep. The first two methods prevailed. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. together with the third. 38. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Definition.

² "God bless me! so then. Other words following the same usage are. such as deer. dozen. The weakening of inflections led to this addition.-En inflection imitated by other words. Brethren has passed through three stages. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. etc. etc. Children has passed through the same history. and is still found in dialects. that have the singular and plural alike. cannon. sheep.The horse are thousands ten. The words horse and foot. finally brethren. Kine is another double plural. then brothre or brethre. turf. . II. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. but has now no singular. lens. 41. originally neuter. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. when they mean soldiery. quartz. Examples of this inflection are. Instead of -s. folk. but they now add the ending -s.Horse and foot. salmon. Akin to this class are some words. after numerals (if not after numerals. retain the same form for plural meaning.²Over the mountains winding down. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. head. as. III. glass. Lee marched over the mountain wall. etc. by. they add -s): also trout. 42. sail. The old plural was brothru. or if preceded by the prepositions in.²THOREAU. heathen. ditch. cross.²WHITTIER."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. into Frederick town.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like.²MACAULAY. Such are box. people. brace.² The foot are fourscore thousand. 40. as. wight. after all. and get settled. pair. swine.

though they are plural in form. Two words. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. shelf²shelves.-Es added in certain cases. etc. and many branches of learning. 43.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Examples of these are. politics.²PROF. Some words are usually singular. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. means and politics. in its widest extent. Words in -ies. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. summons. a new syllable is made. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. Means plural. volcano² volcanoes. and go over to other classes (Secs. Proper nouns are regularly singular. that when thy summons comes. hero²heroes. It served simply as a means of sight.. race²races. house²houses. pains (care). they lose their identity. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. 15 and 17). quoth then that ladie milde. e. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. knife²knives.g. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). and the real ending is therefore -s. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. DANA. however. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. economics. 45. prize²prizes. these words ended in -ie. optics.²BRYANT. 44. means: as. mathematics. the Washingtons. negro²negroes. and some -es.g. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . as. e. etc. Special Lists.. molasses. though this sound combines readily with -s. So live. physics. fairies. etc. also news. some adding -s. allies. When such words take a plural ending. the Americas. chaise²chaises.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. The lilie on hir stalke grene. etc. fancies. is both the science and the art of government. half²halves.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. daisies. niche²niches.² Politics. Formerly.

²GOLDSMITH. Now I read all the politics that come out. by strongly conveying the passions. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. 46. A relic which. however. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. .² MACAULAY.Words. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. L. LAUGHLIN. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²MOTLEY. by those means which we have already mentioned.²GOLDSMITH. Politics plural.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps.²IRVING.²J. riches will accumulate. he pronounced to have been a tongs. I say.²G. Some words have no corresponding singular. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. Besides this. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²BURKE. W. Sometimes. By these means. if I recollect right. CURTIS. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.

cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. (2) poetry. indices (signs in algebra). Numbers also means issues. die²dies (stamps for coins. as in the lines. as two sixpences. Three words were originally singular. (2) abilities. pea²peas (separately). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. carry off chaff. genii (spirits). index²indexes (to books). DANA. 48. or epistles.² I lisped in numbers.²POPE. (2) literature. number²numbers: (1) figures. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. penny²pennies (separately). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. . two plurals. Two classes of compound words. part²parts: (1) divisions. (2) revenue duties. trouble. two meanings. fish²fish (collectively). genius²geniuses (men of genius). brethren (of a society or church). pence (collectively)... In Early Modern English thank is found. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection.The air. dice (for gaming). ways. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. for the numbers came. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. riches. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. sixpence.. fishes (individuals or kinds). In speaking of coins. (2) care. 50. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). One plural. etc. twopence. in mournful numbers. faculties.²one corresponding to the singular. clothes (garments). 49.). the other unlike it. Tell me not. shots (number of times fired). etc. of a periodical. or work in a bellows?²PROF.²LONGFELLOW.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. pease (collectively). may add -s. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.²was it subdued when. making a double plural. shot²shot (collective balls). eaves. or copies. These make the last part plural.

Brown. and Mrs. As to plurals of names with titles. or the name may be pluralized. The title may be plural. though the latter is often found. Allen. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. manservant. 52. Briggs. woman singer. firman. Two methods in use for names with titles.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. HOLMES. as the Messrs. the Drs. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. . The chief member adds -s in the plural. then Silas Peckham. there is some disagreement among English writers. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. Brahman.² Then came Mr. the Misses Rich. Norman.²DR. but add -s. German. as man singer. 51. Ottoman. such as talisman. woman servant. Mussulman. for example. and then the three Miss Spinneys.

and retain their foreign plurals. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. or Englished.²GIBBON. 53. Domesticated words. FROM THE LATIN.²GOLDSMITH. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. The Messrs. y y analysis antithesis . or Anglicized. They are then said to be naturalized. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Exercise. These are said to be domesticated. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.²DICKENS. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Others have been adopted. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Du Maurier.²THE CRITIC. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. FROM THE GREEK. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.

Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. Definition. they form their plurals in the regular way. and expresses a relation akin to possession. Only two case forms." the word felon's modifies cell. Words quoted merely as words.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters." CASE. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. 56. cell has another relation. figures. In the general wearing-away of inflections.. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). "He sleeps in a felon's cell. without reference to their meaning. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. etc. also add -s or 's." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. . Letters. etc. 55. as. 54.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. In the sentence." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). as. figures.

completing a verb. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. 57. the objective." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. and the possessive. then. fate." (2) As a predicate noun. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. 58. 1. 2. when asked unawares. whether inflected or not.²one for the nominative and objective." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 3. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. Uses of the Nominative. Human experience is the great test of truth. Excuses are clothes which. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. learning.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. they returned to their homes. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. may be said to have three cases. 5. and experience. . 4. the enemy of the living. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. I.²nature.²the nominative. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. must be understood for purposes of analysis." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. three things characterize man. and merit. Nouns. Three properties belong to wisdom. excessive grief.²person.

this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. . 4. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 2." Exercise. and makest a calm. wounded lies. Uses of the Objective. 8. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. how have I frighted thee? II. thy wrath can send. the word toward which the preposition points. and tell which use each has:² 1. etc. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. Set a high price on your leisure moments. measure. good Heaven. and landlord of the inn. Conscience. defining the action of a verb by denoting time." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun." (3) Adverbially. 59. (in the older stages of the language. her first law broken. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. They charged. distance. 68. But the flood came howling one day. and meaning calmest. reconciles. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due." "Thou makest the storm a calm. save. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb.Save. a patriarch of the village. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. taking the object enemies. (5) As the object of a preposition. But of all plagues. 3. completing the verb. as will be seen in Sec." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. 9. and being equivalent to one verb. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. sword in hand and visor down. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect.6. they are sands of precious gold. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. taking the object storm." (4) As the second object." "Cowards die many times before their deaths.

and in the bay [of] Baiæ. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.² The unwearied sun. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. and forfeits paid. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. (2) Objective possessive. Possession in some sense is the most common. as in these expressions. 10.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.²ADDISON. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.His winter task a pastime made.e. 7. 8. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.Does his Creator's power display. (3) Subjective possessive. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. as. The possessive case always modifies another word.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.²HAWTHORNE. 9. from day to day. 61. It is a poetic expression.5.. And whirling plate.And gave the leper to eat and drink. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. or in writing yesterday's elegy. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. as shown in the sentences. III.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. The noblest mind the best contentment has. expressed or understood.²SHELLEY. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 60.²BYRON. tempests that . the Great Stone Face. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. the most common of all. 6. Uses of the Possessive.

only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. lady Poss. Case Inflection. A false theory. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). How the possessive is formed. 63. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. One is the simple form of a word. "George Jones his book. The use of the apostrophe. as schoolboys sometimes write. and Obj. the panther which the forest hides). Poss. 64. 62. expressing the relations of nominative and objective." "at his beddes syde.winter is likely to have). "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. in Chaucer. child NOTE. As said before (Sec." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war].." etc. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. A suggestion.. Nom. "From every schires ende. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. . "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i.e. 62. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. and Obj. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. PLURAL. growth which several days had developed). there are only two case forms. making the possessive singular. however.e." Use of the apostrophe. 1. Nom. Declension or inflection of nouns. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. To form the possessive plural.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 56)." "mannes herte [heart]. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form.

. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. some such word as house. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence."²DE QUINCEY.² LOWELL. In compound expressions. as by the countess's command. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.²CARLYLE.. 66. Captain Scrapegrace's. know the amount of my income. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. in the name of the emperor their master. being understood with it: for example. stands up for God's truth one man. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead." Possessive with compound expressions. for goodness' sake. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. and she walked off from the don's. a word with a phrase. Possessive and no noun limited. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. etc. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. 65. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. church. but to the ear all may be alike. dwelling. Peter's.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. my neighbors. etc. the possessive sign is usually last. store. James's.²SWIFT. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.²THACKERAY. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.Though this opinion was untrue. Kate saw that. the items of my son's. tailor's bill²THACKERAY." "A postscript is added.²DE QUINCEY. 67. I remember him in his cradle at St. instead of the emperor their master's name. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.²RUSKIN. as. Cervantes' satirical work. containing words in apposition. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. .²HOLMES. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. as. and from a desire to have distinct forms. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.

E. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. corresponding to 's.The double possessive. (3) It prevents ambiguity. and tell whether each is appositional. ill-lighted except where she stands. a double possessive.²CARLYLE. 68. For example. 87. In most cases. objective. every. Blair).. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. 1. we use the phrase of Atterbury. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. (See also Sec. in such a sentence as. that. each. the sentence might be understood as just explained. If. Emphasis. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. sometimes they are used together. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. (1) When a word is modified by a. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. any. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. the.²FROUDE. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. no. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. Both of these are now used side by side. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. etc. making a double possessive. or subjective. Clearness. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. this. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. HALE. and at the same time by a possessive noun. the statement clearly means only one thing. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.²the introduction which Atterbury made. A peculiar form.²E. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. Exercises.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. as one modifier. (b) Rewrite the sentence. however. 2. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . especially when used with this or that.

Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. it seemed. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Hence.Comes dancing from the East. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 10.3. 5. therefore. day's harbinger. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 15. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. and destroy the other. 7. 14. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 11.A weary waste expanding to the skies. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 12.² . Nature herself. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. let him seasonably water the one. At lovers' perjuries. 13. in parsing a noun. Jove laughs. 6. 8. 69. I must not see thee Osman's bride.They say. with every garland crowned. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. Now the bright morning star. 9. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. Friend. In parsing. 4. some idioms²the double possessive. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. we state. 70. There Shakespeare's self.

singular number. . proper. In parsing any word. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. the connection shows a male is meant. therefore masculine gender. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. therefore possessive case. it is the name of a male being. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. etc. which gender. it expresses time. object of the verb takes. it expresses possession or ownership.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. and limits neckcloth. a fresh tapster. (4) Its office in the sentence. it has no sex. 71. if the latter. hence it is objective case. Thief is a common class noun. The correct method. hence it is a common noun.(1) The class to which it belongs. NOTE. has no governing word. is a common class noun. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. gender. and number.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. like miller's. and therefore nominative case. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. Neckcloth. 2. (3) Whether singular or plural number. That in the captain's but a choleric word. determining its case. therefore singular number. but is the adverbial objective. therefore neuter. Throat is neuter. Exercise. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. names one thing. it denotes only one person. masculine. 3. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. inflections. 4. hence objective case. subject of the verb is understood. therefore singular number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. a withered serving man. hence it is a gender noun. and to have it found out by accident. and relations. 68).²common. as to case. it is the object of the preposition by. MODEL FOR PARSING.

When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. The need of pronouns. 10." Again. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. but by a question we say. Madame de Staël. 9. 76). castle. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. 8. from a necessity for short. or for a person or thing. instead of saying. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. A few miles from this point. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. where the Rhone enters the lake. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns..5. PRONOUNS. 7. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. 72. 11. Classes of pronouns. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs..²palace. Jarley's back being towards him. financial minister to Louis XVI. Definition. Mrs. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. and representative words. A pronoun is a reference word. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. all in one. Now. definite.. blessings light on him that first invented . standing for a name." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 73. For instance. were natives of Geneva. sleep! 6. . Necker. Time makes the worst enemies friends. and his daughter. and prison. (2) Interrogative pronouns. He giveth his beloved sleep. or for a group of persons or things. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.And hated her for her pride. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally.

the person or thing spoken to." Person of nouns. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. as nouns have the same form. which cannot be used as adjectives. ours . Person in grammar. representing a person or thing spoken to. 76. Three persons of pronouns. This gives rise to a new term. my Plural. (5) Indefinite pronouns. representing the person speaking. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. pronoun. they must represent the person talking. 77. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things.(3) Relative pronouns. mine. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. we our. that is. I Poss. Nom. they are said to have person by agreement. From analogy to pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. which have forms for person. words. (4) Adjective pronouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. primarily adjectives. standing for a person or thing spoken of. 74. 75. "the distinction of person. and the person or thing talked about.. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. even if it had a special form. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. (2) Second person. or other word or expression. Singular. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. which relate or refer to a noun. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. (3) Third person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated.

neuter hit. masculine h . Nom. by personification. of all Three. Poss. Old forms. so also with the person or thing spoken to. they their. Obj. Obj. First and second persons without gender. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Obj. he his him Fem. you your. and also for the neuter. Singular. thine. yours you THIRD PERSON. or. SECOND PERSON.. Nom. namely. Obj. your. me us Singular. Nom. Old Form Common Form. neuter. Poss. in the singular. Nom. But the third person has. theirs them Neut. hers her Plur. feminine h o. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. she her. yours Poss.Obj. it its it Poss. a separate form for each gender. The speaker may be either male or female. Third person singular has gender. thou thee ye you you your. Masc. 78. thy Remarks on These Forms. . yours you Plural.

for example. Second person always plural in ordinary English. and sometimes its. In spoken English. however. etc. There are.:² (1) In elevated style. This is of comparatively recent growth. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. Thou. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. thou Shepherd of Israel. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them.Thou lovest.²SHELLEY.. heora." As shown above. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. thy. 80. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. etc. as. The consequence is. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. . etc. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.² Oh. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. which was often sounded with the h silent. Two uses of the old singulars. even when referring to a single object. the Old English objective was hem (or heom).. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. The form its. that didst comfort thy people of old. especially in poetry. 81. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. it. their.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. in Old English. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. two modern uses of thou.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. the forms they. The plurals were h . them.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. (2) In addressing the Deity. as in prayers. heom. We use it with a plural verb always. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. as possessive of it. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. just as we now say. to thy care we commit the helpless. 82. 79. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. which is a neuter noun. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). thee.²BEECHER.

he. And since thou own'st that praise. however. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. I The Nominative.²LANDOR. and not make more classes." the literary language would require he after was. ²SHAKESPEARE. The words I. for. we. "I am sure it was him. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. they. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 83. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. thine. our. I spare thee mine. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry.²COWPER. us. hers. ye. The forms mine. Not a separate class. its. her. II. That is. they have a nominative form. 58). In spoken English. him. their. The forms my. besides a nominative use. some say. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. note the following:² 'Twas mine. to personify objects (Sec. 'tis his. and sometimes in ordinary speech. us. have a peculiar use. yours. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. them. she. thou.²BULWER. in such a sentence as. me. them. though those named in Sec. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 86. when they occur in the predicate position.Use of the pronouns in personification. him. his. Nominative forms. Old use of mine and thine. your. theirs. Absolute personal pronouns. Yet careful speakers avoid this. her. her. . and has been slave to thousands. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. Additional nominatives in spoken English. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. or. The Possessive. and follow the usage of literary English. thy. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. sometimes his and its. 84 are always subjects. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. 85. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. though ye is occasionally used as objective. 34). 84.

as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. we have. hers. in that old Edinburgh house of his. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. Like the noun possessives. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. (2) To bring emphasis. as in nouns.²BIBLE.² CARLYLE. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. thine. ours.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. and with mine. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²CARLYLE. or satire. . 87. COOPER. for example. sometimes its.²ID. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. it tells of good old times. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. ²HOLMES.²J. The forms hers. If thine eye offend thee. theirs. anger. thus. yours. Long Allen. Give every man thine ear.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. ours.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. but few thy voice. Besides this. (3) To express contempt.²SWIFT. F. "Hold thy peace. we find. T.²THACKERAY. are really double possessives. commenting upon a letter of mine."²SCOTT. theirs.²THACKERAY. yours. Their uses. Double and triple possessives. pluck it out." said Henry Woodstall. This usage is still preserved in poetry. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²ID. his. FIELDS.²J. thus. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.

²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. Besides this use of the objective. The old dative case. but the form is the same as the objective. . or use in a sentence. mine stands for my praise in the second. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. "The good alone are great.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. 89. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. and mine in the second has an objective use. They all handled it. In such sentences as. was marked by a separate case. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. III. Both joined in making him a present. 86: mine stands for my property. this dative use. but expresses for whom. as shown in Sec. But the first two have a nominative use. In their function." "None but the brave deserves the fair. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. 90. Now the objective.²ID. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. his for his property. but nominative or objective in use. for whose benefit." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. as it is called. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. 20. Curse me this people. In pronouns.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²BIBLE. The Objective. the thing is done." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. but not in form. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. 88. in the first sentence.

It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. Society.²IRVING To empty here. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. as.²ADDISON. you must condense there. logical subject. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. thus. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. has not made its progress. 91. or to the idea. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²D. WEBSTER. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. in this century. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.²CARLYLE. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. ²EMERSON. or that he has not a great deal more. as in the sentences. you sneeze. why.² . like Chinese skill.²BACON. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. to stand for the real.Time is behind them and before them. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. 92. was passed by with indulgence. which follows the verb. The word you. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²EMERSON. as. Your mere puny stripling. and they cry.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.²BULWER.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature." (3) As a grammatical subject. (3) In apposition. Indefinite use of you and your.² NEWMAN.²DE QUINCEY. It is a pity that he has so much learning. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.

(5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. A sturdy lad .²HAWTHORNE. herself." and there is an end of it. And when I awoke. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. they dropped their arms.²BRYANT.It is finger-cold. farms it. And millions in those solitudes. peddles it. and its plural selves." "He bought him a horse. keeps a school. yourself. themselves. For when it dawned. I set me down and sigh. since firstThe flight of years began.²COLERIDGE. -selves. This occurs in poetry. have laid them downIn their last sleep. himself. however. Of the two forms in parentheses. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. that is. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. 93. it rained.²EMERSON.² Now I lay me down to sleep. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. For example. used in poetry. as they are also called.²ANON. as.²BURNS. They are myself.²HOLMES. yourselves. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. (thyself). the second is the old form of the second person. I made up my mind to foot it. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. "I found me a good book.²BUNYAN. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. itself. Poor Christian was hard put to it.²DE QUINCEY. There was nothing for it but to return. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively.²IRVING."²IRVING. when they are direct objects.. who teams it. who in turn tries all the professions. It was late and after midnight. ourselves. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. but seldom in prose.²THOREAU. . we use such expressions as. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS." etc..²ID. (ourself). as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.²SCOTT. 94.

as we ourself have been. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.²MILTON. The question might arise. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. Use of the reflexives.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. In Middle English the forms meself. were changed into the possessive myself. as.² The great globe itself . for example. to every one.²E..²ID. and build the lofty rhyme. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.² . Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. etc. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. as in vulgar English. and the others were formed by analogy with these. theself. thyself. with self. for example. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. 96. as.² TENNYSON.To you yourself. after the analogy of myself. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.²EMERSON.. to us. ourselves.²SHAKESPEARE. especially in the speech of rulers.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. not the possessive forms. BROWNING. 95. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. As if it were thyself that's here. B. Origin of these reflexives. Threats to all. NOTE.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. Held dead within them till myself shall die. I shrink with pain. shall dissolve.²WORDSWORTH. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.As girls were once.

One obsolete. 97. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. 2. all conform to it.² THACKERAY. 5. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. let him lowly confess it. And it grew wondrous cold. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. which. Years ago. 3. some of them being double possessives. father. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Courage. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. is wisdom. where the word is one with that it tells of. .²DE QUINCEY. fight it out. and what. some each of masculine.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 6. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 8. Come and trip it as we go. 7. To know what is best to do. 10. but it is the soonest spoiled. 9. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Three now in use. and how to do it. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 4. Infancy conforms to nobody. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark.On the light fantastic toe. feminine. and neuter. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. FRANKLIN. and one would like to hear counsel on one point.²B.

referring to things. etc.Promised. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. methought. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. with its possessive and objective. Use of which. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. that it is not inflected for gender or number. as it always asks about somebody. Use of who and its forms. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. As shown here. having three forms. it is selective. These show that what is not inflected for case. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. it refers to either persons or things. Use of what. used formerly to mean which of two. which is not inflected for gender. 99.. but now obsolete. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. whether. ideas. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Which of you. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. or case. What wouldst thou do. number. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. that is. actions. but for case alone. that it is always singular and neuter. the gold. 100. shall we say. Whose was that gentle voice. it is always third person. whispering sweet. 98. The use of who.There is an old word. not to persons.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. that. .

They will be spoken of again in the proper places. as. AND PLUR. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. 103. "The last of all the Bards was he. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. objective in the last. in Sec. and so to make smoother discourse. and what are also relative pronouns. These bards sang of Border chivalry. and also in having a conjunctive use. which is called the antecedent of the relative. SINGULAR Nom. which. who is used as objective instead of whom. for which the pronoun stands.Who sung of Border chivalry. what may be an adverb in some expressions. which is nominative in the first sentence. subject of doth love. whose? Obj. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which and what. The antecedent. being the direct object of the verb shall take. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. as.² "The last of all the Bards was he. SING. 127). it may be shortened into.² . 105. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. since it is subject of the verb had. or other word or expression. Who. 99." Or. Function of the relative pronoun. 102. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. It usually precedes the pronoun. pronoun. Further treatment of who. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. AND PLUR. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. who? Poss.²by the use of the words. 104. Thus we may say. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. For instance. who evidently refers to Bards." In the latter sentence. which and what are sometimes adjectives. nominative in the second also.101.

4. Ye mariners of England. 3. D. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. is a divine creation.. 106. The origin of language is divine. 5.²DR JOHNSON. 108. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. a simple relative is meant. in the same sense in which man's nature. Generally speaking.. with all its capabilities . Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.Whom universal nature did lament. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²THACKERAY. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 6. Who and its forms.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. which. 107. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. The men whom men respect.² COX. The nurse came to us.. a thousand years. When the word relative is used. 3. the women whom women approve. WHITNEY. Two kinds. 2. 2. but the look which is not of the earth.²LOWELL In this. both his and who have the antecedent priest. what.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.²PARTON Which and its forms. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.²BYRON. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. that.That guard our native seas. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. . They had not their own luster. 4. Indefinite relatives. are the men and women who bless their species. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.²W.Whose flag has braved.²SCOTT. For her enchanting son. will be discussed further on.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.²MILTON.

Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. and spoils. BEECHER 5.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. stratagems. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.. 6. Examples of the relative that:² 1. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. 107.²LAMB 3.. W. 4. 110.5.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²DE QUINCEY. Who.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. What. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.. The judge . the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . no bad type of what often happens in that country. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. 109. The Tree Igdrasil. The man that hath no music in himself. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²H..²GOLDSMITH. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. which it certainly is not. 111. else this description will seem exaggerated.²IRVING. 3. ought to be kept in view.Is fit for treasons. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. Already done is all that he would do. bought up all the pigs that could be had. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²EMERSON. That..²MARGARET FULLER. 2. (a) This gradation . Reader. For what he sought below is passed above. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable..²BURKE. you will not be angry with me for telling you..

the relatives are singular. 113. 112. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. Sec. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. seemed as much excited as myself.. whose wound I had dressed. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. In 1. a man..²THACKERAY.²DR. and 3..²who. and 6.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. In sentence 4. in 5. in the third. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. Who referring to animals. (2) It has three case forms. Cooper. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Which.²LEIGH HUNT.²SWIFT. 2. Witness the following examples:² And you. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. whose is second person. flung its arms around my neck. JOHNSON. in 4. Smollett. whose for the possessive. It has been seen (Sec. The little gorilla. referring to animals. Examples of whose.. and others.²LOWELL. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.²IRVING. The sentences in Sec.whose. (4) It has two case forms. whom. whose. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. or ideas.. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Gibbon. Scott. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²which for the nominative and objective. . Kingsley. 107. 96). possessive case of which.who. in the first sentence. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. the others are all third person. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. My horse. not persons. son.. (3) It is nearly always third person. 5. whom. in the second. The robins. and so on. p. things. who is first person. who. that man. they are plural.

Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. let us enter the church itself. which is worse. secondly (which made her stare).² MCMASTER. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Primarily. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. and things. Burke. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. . Sometimes.²first. The last two sentences in Sec. (2) It has only one case form. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example.²RUSKIN. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.² And.²SHAKESPEARE. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent.²SCOTT. That. 109.²THACKERAY. Men may be ready to fight to the death. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. Which and its antecedents. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. This often occurs. and third persons. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.² I swept the horizon. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. too. which is very notable and curious. thus. Kingsley. So in Matthew Arnold. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. This moribund '61. animals.²BEECHER. the antecedent follows which. second. 116. 115. (3) It is the same form for first. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. and numerous others. and to persecute without pity. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds."²RUSKIN. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light.114. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. no possessive. In the sentences of Sec.²DE QUINCEY.

" Since the relatives hold the sentence together.²SHAKESPEARE. 119. 117.²EMERSON. as in sentence 6. for example.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. What a man does.²BIBLE What fates impose. number. consequently is neuter. who Poss." That evidently refers to truths. whose Obj. . but what I hate. 109. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. it usually follows. what we said?²CARLYLE. by taking them out. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Sec. third person. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. and is emphatic. and person of the relatives who. 118. that men must needs abide. either of which would be neuter. When expressed. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. Nom. that do I. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. The sentences of Sec. The gender. that do I not. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. is always neuter. that he has." (3) "These people heard him. which. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. What. plural number. plural number.² What I would. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. For example. we can. as. Who plainly stands for those or the people. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. third person.

whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. we is the subject. and what is the direct object of the verb call. but is singular. etc. In the same way who. because it has usually no antecedent. The relative what is handled differently. I think they are trying to outwit nature. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. third person. is subject of the verb can't be cured. is subject of wrought upon and molded. nobler souls with that which they are. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. however. neuter. Another way. in the following sentences:² 1. "What can't be cured must be endured. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. the simple relative. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 5. 3. so is in the objective case. 8. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. The word what. subject of heard. after all. in (3). In the sentence. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Exercise. that takes the case of the truths in (2). 4. the highest result of all education. above. In (2). but of this. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. . is in the nominative case. standing for the people understood. then parse the relatives. and hence is in the nominative case. What can't be cured.. As shown by the following sentences. people is the object of the preposition of. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 120." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Truths in sentence (2)." Here the subject of is. in (1). First find the antecedents. 7. it is object of uttered. is what we call nature. Some prefer another method of treatment. which is. The whole expression is its subject. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Now."²EMERSON. 6. it is subject of the verb heard. Parsing what.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. What must be endured? Answer.

. being referred to. It is clear that in 1. or what else soever. no certain antecedent. Hence some take what as a double relative. whatever. less common are whoso. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. which.²you cannot have both. to everything that. 2. no particular thing.²BURKE. and in 2. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. Take which you please. and parse that in the first clause. 2. whatsoever. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. Only itself can inspire whom it will. object of with] which [singular. It is no proof of a man's understanding. not as direct as the simple relatives. object of do] they do. and which in the second clause. whichever. whosoever. List and examples. Do what we can. that nothing else can stand in their presence. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. whichsoever. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. The simple relatives who. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. So with the other indefinites. 5. 7. They are whoever.²BURKE. and his friend a fool. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. or stand on their head. whatever is equivalent to all things which. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. summer will have its flies. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. 121. whatsoever. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. 3. in a new and original way.²MACAULAY. Death is there associated. that is. Meaning and use. "common souls pay with that [singular. by meaning and use. 122. 123. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. 4. 6.

everything that (or everything which). whereby. 2. thus. whereupon. has been my heaviest affliction. what means anything that.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. There is nothing but is related to us. and that as after such is equivalent to which.. either one that. 124. Two words. 120.. 417). 126. etc. the conjunctions wherein. Proof that they have the force of relatives. but which only wealth could have purchased. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3.² some particular thing. are used. by which. not following the word such. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. .² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. This. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. nothing that does not interest us. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. etc. for example. for example. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. etc. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² 1.²HAWTHORNE. but mean any one whom. 4. upon which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. But and as. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. but and as. 125.²EMERSON. Other substitutes. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. Sec. 121. 121. In early modern English. Former use of as. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. as was used just as we use that or which.As shown in Sec. Instead of the phrases in which.²DE QUINCEY.

(b) Well we knew who stood behind. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. 1 (b). and whether what = that + which (if so.²EMERSON. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. it is a simple relative. 2. which would indicate that they are not relatives. . what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. though the earthwork hid them. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form." Likewise with which in 3 (b). "But what had become of them? They knew not. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 3. which having the antecedent lines.. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone." etc. So in 2 (b).²ID. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. But in 1 (b). 127. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. Thus. Special caution needed here. showing that who is plainly interrogative. if expanded. no antecedent is expressed.²WHITTIER. if not. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. 2 (b). In studying such sentences. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. would be. "Who stood behind? We knew. if not. Another caution. what is interrogative. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). second. it is an indefinite relative). who having the antecedent gentleman. it is an interrogative. a question is disguised in each sentence. In sentences 1 (a). and 3 (b). there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. How to decide. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. the full expression being. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three.

the question is asked by the verb. 129. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. Put in the relatives who. 5. whose has the antecedent you. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. When Goldsmith died. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²GOLDSMITH. 2. which has the antecedent hue. whence is the interrogative word. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²FORSTER 6. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. but the life of man in England. In the third.128. On the other hand. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3.²G.²FLETCHER. 4. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. I visited many other apartments.² THACKERAY. In the second. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Examine the following:² 1. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²HOLMES. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.² These are the sounds we feed upon. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. 3. ELIOT.²SWIFT. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. which. In the first. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Relative omitted when object. Thus. and asks no question. Exercise. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. .²CARLYLE. and Court Calendars.

6. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Function of adjective pronouns. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. The nobles looked at each other. 5. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. Also in literary English we find the same omission. 3.²SHAKESPEARE. simple relatives. or indefinite relatives:² 1. It is rare in prose. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. the house was full. who were to be rulers over whom. 130. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.Ne'er looks upon the sun. that. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. There was such a crowd went. which was already proceeding. which. 2.²Id. Examples are. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. and comparatively so in poetry.²SCOTT.7.²CAMPBELL. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.² LOWELL. Relative omitted when subject. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. . (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. and what.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.

or may be the whole of a sentence. "The dead are there." in the second. in the first. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these.²BRYANT. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. etc. "another bank. such as this. 133. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. necessarily thought of: thus. the former. not pronouns. that. "these pranks. any. but have lost their adjective use. For example." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. in order to be an adjective pronoun. many. a word.²EMERSON. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. all. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. and another to get cool under. few. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. or an argument in a paragraph. must not modify any word. 'Truth.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. Adjectives. expressed or understood. Primarily they are adjectives. neither. etc. such as each." in the others. For instance." "one man. either. as some. 132. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. and stand for a noun." "Where two men ride on a horse. but in this function. or use. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words.131. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. or they may stand for nouns." that is. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. and on each is written. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. in letters of gold. etc. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. none. Caution. "each cube.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. which we have seen in such expressions as. . In the first use they are adjectives. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory." Classes of adjective pronouns. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²IRVING.

²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. for example. accidentally preserved. as seemed good to each. Their minds accorded into one strain. Such are a few isolated instances. or reclined. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. They have not shunned the one. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Even as I have seen. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. and sow wickedness. 134. Definition and examples. Simple.²EMERSON 4. Compound. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Exercises.²ID.All these he saw. when the latter was the King of Spain. 3. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. and they have well performed the other. because he was not lying in wait for these. they that plow iniquity.²ID. or sat. reap the same. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. 2. . but these were of the best. A man inspires affection and honor. They had fewer books. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. Some of these are simple pronouns. NOTE. 5. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.² They stood.²LOWELL.

135. for example. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. as. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²each other.²HAWTHORNE. Another opposes him with sound argument. Definition and examples.²KINGSLEY. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. Much might be said on both sides. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. you quickly come to the end of all. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. Some inflected. as it were.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. one another. They led one another.²HOLMES. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. with the superstitions of his time. we might the more easily discharge them. another. If hand of mine another's task has lightened.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.Two are compound pronouns. The word one has a reflexive form. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. . More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.² One reflexive. Exercise. paused over a horoscope. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. or melt for others' woe. ²HAWTHORNE. imbued. as some of the rangers had gone astray. The Soldan. as most were.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. Men take each other's measure when they react. such as one other. None shall rule but the humble.²EMERSON. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.

Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. .²SHAKESPEARE. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. something. 137. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. in building of chaises. but. any one (or anyone). etc. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Every one else stood still at his post. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Now. everybody else. anybody. and was indefinite in Old English. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy." It means something. every one else. everything. nobody. They indefinite means people in general. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. 136.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. they say. everybody.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. etc.Exercise. some one. I tell you what. and they. nothing. what. as shown in the words everybody's. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Definition and examples. Jove laughs. Exercise.² At lovers' perjuries. anything. somebody else. anyone else. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues.. they are never used as adjectives. as. every one (or everyone). That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. and somewhat. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. naught. anybody else's.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Somebody. also aught. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. unlike adjective pronouns. no one.

it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 16. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 18. in his negotiations. 9. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 14. 3. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. round as the shield of my fathers! 15.²a feature of natural scenery for which. All was now ready for action. Others did the same thing. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. Whoever deals with M. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 5. to which. O thou that rollest above. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 17. indeed. were suffered to depart. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. from my earliest days. 4. The table was good. 12. 11. A reminder. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 138. Hutchinson tells us of herself.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Exercise. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 13. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 8. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 7. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 6. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. and of no other. For this did God send her a great reward. 2. . 10. I first found myself among the mountains.

Destroyer and preserver. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. in all its height. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 23. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. He sate him down. They know not I knew thee. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 32. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. I who alone am. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. hear! 33.19. that let him communicate. 34. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. Who and what was Milton? That is to say.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 30. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. oh. 29. 26. and seized a pen. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 25.Who knew thee too well. variety. who slept last night like a corpse? 22.And it would work 'em woe. 31. 21. who take the world easy. 35. And will your mother pity me. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. hear. thou rollest now. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. And I had done a hellish thing. 27. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. eat white bread or brown. behold now the semblance of my being. well-oiled dispositions. Whatever he knows and thinks.

45. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. white or red. which was no bad step towards my liberation. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." The office of an adjective. So with any object. so that no other will be mistaken for it. Who hears me. and so he read. Substantives. He knew not what to do. the number is limited by adjectives. size. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. . adjectives are used." "some cities. 42. We are by nature observers. if we are at a distance. 37. 44. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object.. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. As to the kind of words used. or gaseous. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. heavy or light. 40. ADJECTIVES." "yonder hill. Again. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. in pointing out an object. position." "a hundred men. For example. that is our permanent state. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. 43. and he learns who receives. who understands me. We need to add some words to tell its color. as. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. 39. such as in the expressions "this man. etc. etc. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. 139. or with persons. 38. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. or liquid.36. If a chemist discovers a new substance. becomes mine. "one hat." etc. and if we are near. He teaches who gives. It may have this office alone. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 41." "that house. brittle or tough. then. Office of Adjectives.

used to tell how many things are spoken of." "half-dead traveler. divine. terrible. or how much of a thing. Examples are. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. beautiful. to describe it or to limit its application. Infinitives. however. Classes of adjectives. Definition. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." the "and there.140. such as. (4) Pronominal adjectives. 141. They include relative and interrogative words. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. 143. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. "an old English manuscript." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "ivory-handled pistols." "the Christian pearl of charity. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. (2) Adjectives of quantity.² BACON." and the still less significant "and so. fair. To make this clear. to forgive. pointing out particular things." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." they constitute all his connections." ." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. and their trash. 142.²POPE. rash. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. If he be thankful for small benefits. Nouns are not. such as safe." "the Roman writer Palladius. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. it shows that he weighs men's minds. happy. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "unlooked-for burden. words primarily pronouns. derived from proper nouns. "Heaven-derived power.²COLERIDGE. deep." "ice-cold water." "this life-giving book. remotest. With exception of the "and then. To err is human. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. etc." "next-door neighbor.

Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. 145. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "The shattered squares have opened into line." was is the verb. 2. any. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. in studying these last-named words. in this. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. Care is needed." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." Caution. Exercises. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." "It came on like the rolling simoom. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. considerable.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. For instance: in the sentence. sometimes small. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "trailing clouds. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." was accomplished is a verb. some.²MACDONALD." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. Oxenham." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "One is hungry. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. 143. Examples are. having some of each subclass named in Sec. much. and accomplished is an adjective. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted.But ever she looked on Mr. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "a charming sight. which are either pure participles used to describe. 1. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives.²COLERIDGE. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. . 'Tis midnight. 144. and another is drunken." "an aged man. no.

" "Then we wandered for many days." "I have lost one brother. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. "one blaze of musketry. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence." (b) Indefinite numerals. Exercise. that. 146. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. An arrow was quivering in each body." Single ones of any number of changes. latter.²ID. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. When some. they come under the next division of adjectives. (plural these." "He had lived by hunting for some months. and with them a few negroes.² Every town had its fair. The demonstrative adjectives are this. its wake. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. instead of modifying them." "In came some five and twenty more.²THACKERAY. every village. Not primarily pronouns.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. The list. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. but I have gained fourscore. those)." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Examples.²KINGSLEY. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. former. the former²the latter. The following sentences present some examples:² . How many. are used with plural nouns. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.²CARLYLE. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. Thus. any. no." "a dozen volunteers. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound.²VAUGHAN. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. yonder (or yon). as.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.

. Indefinite relative adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. tell how many things are meant. 148. Definition.² It matters not what rank he has. These were thy charms.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. of equal skill.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. for example. like the other numerals. skill which was progressive²in the other. The silver and laughing Xenil.²WORDSWORTH.²ID. just as the corresponding pronouns do. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Modify names of persons or things. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. 147.²GOLDSMITH. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. In which evil strait Mr.²D. ²CARLYLE.²ID. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. . Exercise.²BANCROFT."²B. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. When we speak of the seventeenth century.. As has been said. FRANKLIN. they are changed to adjectives.²BULWER. WEBSTER. what revenues or garnitures. I verily believe. but.but all these charms are fled. The taking of which bark.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. These do not.²KINGSLEY. Oxenham fought desperately. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. but in the one case. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. 149. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. They are of two kinds. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. skill which was at pause.²RUSKIN.

A lady once remarked. nature will be sure to bear us out in. Whatsoever kind of man he is. whatever. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. . The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. you at least give him full authority over your son. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. it is impossible to determine. 151.150.²AGASSIZ. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. and gaze. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. But when the Trojan war comes. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.² EMERSON.²IRVING.. In direct questions. and new tormentedAround me. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. whichsoever way I move. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. He was turned before long into all the universe. In indirect questions. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. as it rather seemed. which is selective among what is known.And whichsoever way I turn. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. whichever.²ID. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. or whether any. As in the pronouns.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).²RUSKIN. the debt to the rich. proved not altogether displeasing to him.²CARLYLE. what inquires about things or persons not known. Adjective what in exclamations. Examples of their use are.²LAMB. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. whichsoever. New torments I behold. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. which. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. Was there. whatsoever.

to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. th s (modern those). The article that was used with neuter nouns. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. 154.152. or weight. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. we do so by means of their qualities. NUMBER.² Oh.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. 153 . etc. Exercise. etc. Thus. 155. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. and when we compare the objects. weight. It is neither relative nor interrogative. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE.²but not the same degree. color. In exclamatory expressions.Adjectives have two inflections. COMPARISON. we notice some differences between them as to size. Those borrowed from this. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. Meaning of comparison. All these have certain qualities.. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. alas. But this had also another plural. History of this²these and that²those. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. and those as the plural of that. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. the making of it right. or size.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. And yet. . which was fully inflected in Old English. gold is heavier than iron. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. as. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.²number and comparison.²This. When we place two objects side by side. or amount. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. of the quality. That. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. those). This is the old demonstrative.

easiest. These are called degrees of comparison. to the simple form. though the simple. but. whose favorite pupil he was. 159. "more matter. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 156. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. A main difference betwixt men is. These are properly the only degrees. they are not compared. reddest. bluest. Freedom is a perpetual." "no fewer than a hundred. easier. as. .² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. So with the words sole. Substitute for inflection in comparison. with less wit." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. 158. expressing the greatest degree of quality. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. great. giant-like. organic. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. "untamed thought. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. bluer. and the superlative. redder. strictly considered. blue. for example. expressing a greater degree of quality. The comparative is formed by adding -er. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. Definition." "the commonest speech. whether they attend their own affair or not." "It is a nobler valor. infinite. enormous. indefatigable. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. and the superlative by adding -est. supreme. easy.²THACKERAY. but were not common until a century later. sufficient. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. universal institution. as.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE.²SEWARD. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. indomitable. immemorial." "the largest soul." Words that cannot be compared. or amounts in quantity. 160. and many others. red. The two forms.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. 157. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative.

though born in no very high degree. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. admirablest." "sorrowfulest spectacles. most small. there needed to be a most genuine substance." Carlyle uses beautifulest." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. strange. who. and other words are preceded by more and most. The following lists include the majority of them:² . and yet familiar. and patientest fusing. The general rule is." "the wonderfulest little shoes. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. witty. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. finest chiseling. easy. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. as. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. 163." said Henry Esmond.²ID. I will.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. Adjectives irregularly compared. These are adjectives irregularly compared. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. was most finished. mournfulest.²ID.² CARLYLE A gentleman. honestest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. peaceablest.Which rule." "distantest relationships. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative.²The Nation. harsh forms are usually avoided. These long." "more odd.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. falling on his knees.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck." "more austere and holy. madam. etc. polished. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. "So help me God. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. 162. indisputablest. quiet. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. which hung behind in the queerest way.

next Nearest Latest. utter 3. outermost Utmost. evil was the positive to worse. 3. [Out] Outer. innermost Outmost. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. uttermost Upmost. which has gone out of use. These have no adjective positive:² 1.² O. List I.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 7. Hind 2. furthest 10. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative.²MATTHEW ARNOLD.LIST I. lesser. [In] Inner Inmost. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. latter Hinder LIST II. as in the sentence (14th century). bad. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. as in Shakespeare. which has softened to the modern best.²HAMLET. older Nigher Nearer Later. 9. as. last Hindmost. is often used. oldest Nighest. further Farthest. (3) Little is used as positive to less. (2) In Old English. least. worst. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 6. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 5. 1. lesser Elder. The superlative I form was betst. though from a different root. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 8. There was an old comparative bet. 164. uppermost LIST III. throw away the worser part of it. a double comparative. . Good or well Evil. hindermost Much or many More Farther. A double comparative. Worser was once used. 4. 2.

but originally the comparison was nigh. oldest. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. a distinction has grown up between the two series. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. greatest. first. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. for example. great. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English.²HAWTHORNE. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. strenger. are earlier than older. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. an old superlative ending. to which is added -ost. furthest. The most part kept a stolid indifference. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. "Many a little makes a mickle.² The more part being of one mind. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. strong. or series. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. since the m is for -ma. Since later.²KINGSLEY. Between the two sets as they now stand. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. instead of lenger. eldest. th came into the others. are shown in such phrases as. farrest.²ID. there is scarcely any distinction. First became entirely detached from the series. farthest. The latter. The meanings greater. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. near. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. to England we sailed. and the superlative nearest. (5) The forms elder. and refer to time. as. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. etc. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. the old forms. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. doubling the inflection. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. further.. ²LAMB. . etc. is quite common. moche. In imitation of further. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative.. next. meaning the largest part.²forth. making the modern farther. muchel. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. came into use. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. as long. List II. much. latest.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. but not in meaning. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. except the form next." Its spelling has been micel.

Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives." "far-seeing as the sun.²KINGSLEY. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²H." -Most added to other words. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. 168. There. BEECHER. but her after deck was still dry. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. but not in their meaning.²HAWTHORNE.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT. The comparatives are so in form. and have no comparative force." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. W. In List II. Her bows were deep in the water. are like the comparative forms in List II. in having no adjective positives.²DE QUINCEY. Highest and midmost. the upper light of the world. on the very topmost twig. being merely descriptive. The adjectives in List III. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace.²EMERSON.165. They have no superlatives." "The outer is of the day. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Her. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. List III. Think what each adjective belongs to. but they have no adjective positives. . all may belong to the same noun. (Sec. or have no comparative forms. was descried The royal banner floating wide. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "the innermost moral soul. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. by the by." "their utmost exertion. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. 166. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. Decidedly handsome. 167." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.

Bradbury and Evans. "the one who was then king. By a convenient brevity. 2.²TRENCH. in this sentence. in prose. . as. 4. deep. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. Richard Hooker. 169.²HAWTHORNE. ²TROLLOPE. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. bright. STEPHENS 5. The seldom use of it. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. satisfactory. In the following quotations. 6. But in this sentence. and broken." in which then is an adverb.²NOAH PORTER. not decision alone. our new government. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. instead of saying. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. A few improper jests and a volley of good. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.² My then favorite. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²HOLMES. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.²MRS. Our sometime sister.For example.²RUSKIN. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. solid. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. STOWE. and heaven-defying oaths. usual modifies incomparable decision. round. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. 7. Exercise." making then an adjective. It may still be argued. the then and still owners.²A. now our queen. and moral truth. This. philosophical. 3. May we not. Other instances are. For thy stomach's sake. and thine often infirmities." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.²BIBLE. H. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. deeply black eyes.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs.²HAWTHORNE. we may say "the then king. rich. therefore.

7. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. person. or case.What to tell in parsing. plural number. She made no reply. . having a singular. not inflected for number. 5. compared by prefixing more and most. modifies truths. 3. therefore descriptive. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. modifies the word truths. and I waited for none. and most astounding were those frightful yells. (2) Its number. frank. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. positive degree. 8. therefore demonstrative. 10. across the plain. 2. cannot be compared. and very few have number. 6. if it can be compared. Exercise. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. To every several man. Since adjectives have no gender. I ask nothing of you. To every Roman citizen he gives. 170. then. (3) Its degree of comparison. Unfamiliar describes truths. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. manly way. if it has number. These points out what truths. seventy-five drachmas. this. (4) What word or words it modifies. 9. 4. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. MODEL FOR PARSING. In parsing an adjective. This gave the young people entire freedom. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. the method of parsing is simple. with awkward but rapid pace.

Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. . 13. suggests such thoughts as these. 26. oxen. 20. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Nearer to our own times. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 29. growing in the most unfavorable position. and many poles supported the lower ones. he won affections with ease. 27. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. it rests on reality. those dogs in the yard. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 32. 19. as for armies that were too many by half. 21. the tomahawk fell. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. and dogs. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 25. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. are immutably fishes. 33. 28. Like most gifted men. 24. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Here lay two great roads. is the settlement of our own country. not so much for travelers that were few. 31. With every third step. 22. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. it is so noble a fruit. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. To say what good of fashion we can. yonder oxen in the pasture. 14.11. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 12. Their name was the last word upon his lips. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. and therefore more interesting to us. Two hours elapsed. 23. 16. 18. I know not what course others may take. In music especially. during which time I waited.

when the word is not accented on the first syllable. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. A hard-struggling." "an orange. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives.²MACAULAY. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. but the former is used. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. for example. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . th o.² We ca' her sometimes the tane." "a yelling crowd. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. the tither." An with consonant sounds." "an honor. these occurring as the tane. ðat. even when not silent.²SCOTT. s o. 171. were formerly that one. the other. or the tane. and a before consonant sounds. he is no literary man. the tother. Their origin. ARTICLES. 35. An before vowel sounds. Two relics. the latter is still preserved in the expression. . just as adjectives do. 174. 173. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. that) which was also an article in Old English. Our expressions the one. An or a came from the old numeral n. a before consonant sounds. such as we have been attempting to describe. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. in vulgar English. In Middle English the became an article. meaning one.²BREWER. the tother. An historian. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. 37. Many writers use an before h. 172." the words the and an belong to nouns. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. later th . sometimes the tother. with an ordinary little garden. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. In the sentence. weary-hearted man was he. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. and that remained a demonstrative adjective." "a European. that other. Examples: "a house.34.

as in the sentence. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.. NOTE. An article is a limiting word. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. 178. as "the Mississippi. and not a state or other geographical division. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. Articles are either definite or indefinite. is referred to.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.²THACKERAY. and when the word river is omitted. 176. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.²HEROES OF ASGARD." "the Ohio. the older n. 177. or a group or class of things. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. To call attention to attributes. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. not descriptive. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. or any individual of a group or class. or group. An and a are different forms of the same word. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. An or a is the indefinite article.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²IRVING.² . 179. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers." the article indicates clearly that a river.. An hereditary tenure of these offices.² Don't you remember how. which cannot be used alone. on opening a story.²This use is noticed when. 175. Kinds. When the is prefixed to a proper name. a person is introduced by a. The Dakota tribes. Reference to a known object. doubtless. With names of rivers. Definition.²COLERIDGE. BANCROFT. The is the definite article.²G. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. since it points out a particular individual. thus. or class.

Common. 183. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. the gallant. 181. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. 1. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU.²ID.²GIBBON. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. etc. For possessive person pronouns. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. and the redwing. for example. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.²G.²EMERSON. or a match put between the fingers. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. would speedily extract the required information.² As she hesitated to pass on. the Hume.²KINGSLEY. 180.²MOTLEY. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. Half abstract.² The faint. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. Caution. laid it on the miry spot. 2. her.²EMERSON. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²SCOTT. One thing for its class.²ID. but into the region of all the virtues.The Bacon. 182. NOTE. .²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. With plural of abstract nouns. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. so is the evil. BANCROFT. not into a particular virtue. His messages to the provincial authorities. Schelling. the song sparrow. The simple rise as by specific levity. The. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. With adjectives used as nouns. If the good is there. Kant. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. the Spinoza. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. as.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

Hence Definition. In giving a definition. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb.In (a)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. in (3. representing something which it influences or controls. the most astute. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. an article. can deceive has an object. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. in this sentence from Bulwer. which means to go over. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. In the first. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. to go is no predicate. in (2. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. care. Definition and caution. 201. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. in (b). a preposition. the word following. 204. for example. b). or an idea. Of those expressing action. endured what? anguish. All these are called transitive verbs. with some word understood. or the object. or a material thing. c). b). By examining a few verbs. but fearing is not a predicate. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. and not a verb. a). we consider a verb as one word. to say something to or about some person or thing. Has takes the object hypocrisy. Each influences some object. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. taking the staff which always guided her steps. and to receive the action expressed. but cannot be predicates. which may be a person. "Put money in thy purse. the most penetrating. an adverb. hence is not a verb. in (2. 202. (can) shame also has an object." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE." Examine the sentences in Sec.²BULWER . in (3. lone took what? answer. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. In the sentence. "Put thou money in thy purse. A verb is a word used as a predicate." put is the predicate. Now.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. obeyed is a predicate. as. 203. a verb. all do not express it in the same way. The nature of intransitive verbs. etc. from the Latin transire. in (c). a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. and shame the most astute. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. The nature of the transitive verb. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. and. 200: In (1). and a preposition unite as a verb. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. a noun. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. In each case.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

² Now. 2). as. the second founder.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. popular government must be pronounced impossible. the first great founder of the Empire. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.² If. .²MACAULAY.²may or may not be true. Condition or Supposition.²BRYCE. ²EMERSON. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. and may or may not be regarded true. Most excellent stranger. in our case.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.I could lie down like a tired child.²SHELLEY. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. he will see the need of these ethics. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.²FRANKLIN. Again. they were recorded in the Book of Life. but. Ideal. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. 222. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. or be fulfilled. 215. WEBSTER. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. the representative system ultimately fail. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.²D. for example. the writer can make the statement following. If this be the glory of Julius. as. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.²LONGFELLOW. Unreal²cannot be true. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. I. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. 221.

Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.² CARLYLE.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. society could not hold together. melodious. may. and sonorous. he had better not have written. 2. 6.. might. 3. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. P. Epaminondas. and what kind of condition:² 1. which cannot be true. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. to drink strong beer.²CALHOUN. if he was the man I take him for. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. WILLIS. II. that we cannot but regret its absence. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. that he might be strong to labor.. would you. If he had reason to dislike him. I told him. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. 223.²FRANKLIN. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. is of similar physiognomy. do you think. and should. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. The voice.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. 4. if his lot had been mine." etc. except.. etc. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.² It was necessary.²EMERSON. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. he supposed. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. . especially be.² If these things were true.²N.²BAYNE.. NOTE. But in no case could it be justified. 8.²MACAULAY. and striven energetically to save Ney. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. unless. Subjunctive of Purpose. thus. Exercise. as. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. ²LOWELL. though. but when the verb precedes the subject. is used to express purpose. she was regarded as a prodigy. since he [Byron] was dead. clear. The subjunctive. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. would have sat still with joy and peace.²SWIFT. In the following conditional clauses. if he speak to you. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²FRANKLIN. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 7. 5.

²CARLYLE. VII. In a Noun Clause. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²D.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.²BRYANT.And we. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. Rise up.That vain it were her eyes to close. 227.²MOORE. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. . like the quarry-slave at night. In Temporal Clauses. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. I've wished that little isle had wings. till it meet the sun in his coming. V. III. After a verb of wishing.²DE QUINCEY. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²SOUTHEY. VI. 224. So live.²COLERIDGE.. The English subjunctive. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.Were wafted off to seas unknown.. none of us could say. I would it were! ²EMERSON. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. Ask the great man if there be none greater. 226..²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. within its fairy bowers. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²WORDSWORTH. like the Latin. IV. In Indirect Questions. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. Expressing a Wish. WEBSTER. 225.Thou go not. To tell of what had passed. Let it rise. Subjunctive of Result.I have been the more particular.²ID. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause..

that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.Subject.²THOREAU.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²DE QUINCEY. that everything be in its place. for example. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²WORDSWORTH. which may be (a) Pronoun. VIII. Some might lament that I were cold. etc. After verbs of commanding. Concessive Clauses. in its various uses as subject. The noun clause. we'll turn aside. object. (b) Adjective. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. Come. 228. Object. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.. 229. or whatsoever victual it may be. often contains a subjunctive. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²TENNYSON. is. The essence of originality is not that it be new. tell me all that thou hast seen. That hunger of applause. I have no thought what men they be.²COLERIDGE.² DICKENS. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. The first merit.²COLERIDGE. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.² Be the matter how it may. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. . Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²CARLYLE. of cash. in apposition. is the ultimate fact of man's life.²SHELLEY. Complement. Whatever betide.²SCOTT.And see the Braes of Yarrow.And look thou tell me true.

Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. ADAMS.² CARLYLE. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. to express a wish. (1) Command. Definition. since commands are directed to a person addressed. In spoken English. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. Honor all men. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. fear none. Q. though. love all men.²BRYANT. Oh. (3) Request. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. however. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Usually second person.The spirit he loves remains. 232. 231. we had found [should have found] a poem here. and condition contrary to fact.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. entreaties. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. point to their immortal works. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used.²SHELLEY. (2) Entreaty. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.²J. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. . Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. for example.²CHANNING. At the present day. or requests. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. IMPERATIVE MOOD.(c) Adverb. a concession. 230. It must be remembered. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.

" Exercises on the Moods. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. noble earl.And God forget the stranger!" .. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. 6. Whatever inconvenience ensue. we may use the imperative with we in a command. etc." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Mark thou this difference.²CAMPBELL. nothing is to be preferred before justice." whispered Kit.. "Come along with me."Hush! mother. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.And. Break we our watch up. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. 2.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. request. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. "The Devil take the goose. etc.²SCOTT. lest we rust in ease. child of earth!While each performs his part.One glance at their array! 5. to you implied in it. 3. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. there will her heart and her prayers be. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. 7.²SHAKESPEARE. or I + they. Oh. receive my hand. 8. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Meet is it changes should controlOur being."²DICKENS Tell me. Part we in friendship from your land. but I + you. Quoth she. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.

20. or do it at all." cried he. Though he were dumb. and opinion displace opinion. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. "Oh. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. 23. Forget thyself to marble. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 11. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. as though an instrument. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt.Except. then. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Marshall." continued Old Morgan. He is. Well. 21.That they might answer him. it would speak. in what pomps and prosperities he like. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. He. 26. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. how he may do his work.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 10.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. she ought to have it. whether he do it right or wrong. Though abyss open under abyss. 18. That a man parade his doubt. "Mr.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 13. but repentant child. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 19." 25.High up in silver spikes! 22. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.9. That sheaf of darts." 16. "tell me where I may find my poor. let him live where else he like. 14. no literary man. will it not fall unbound. my dear madam. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. ruined. . Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15.

or whether it were as one member of a general party." ." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. 233. "Thou walkedst.²the present tense.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. five in the imperative. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. and the past tense. and future perfect tenses. past perfect. 235.27.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Old English had only two tenses. five in the subjunctive. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. past. shall. as. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. PERSON AND NUMBER. 234. Definition. The tenses in detail. the past. as the classical languages have. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. and the future tense. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. Tenses in English. a form ending in -eth. in the conjugations. and future. "I go away tomorrow. such as be. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. to direct his steps. in the third person singular." present. Siddons. which represented present and future time. tell him to wait. kind." past. past. "It is not in man that walketh. Meantime. by means of the present. as will be shown later on.² present. or future time. TENSE. Tense means time. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. 28. or agree with it. When the older pronoun thou was in use." "If he comes. as. will. have. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. whatever she did. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. such as Latin and Greek. "Thou walkest. also. called auxiliaries.

walking. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. You (thou) be 3. etc. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. chosest). walk has walk. chooseth. CONJUGATION. chose. I be 2. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. choosest. as. for example. chooses. Singular 1. Definition.²choose. wert) 3. I were 2. [He] were [They] were . walked. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2." and this only in the present tense indicative. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. persons. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Few forms. 238. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. were. etc. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. mood. since it is composed of several different roots. 237. but in English. Singular 1. moods.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Singular 1. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. "He walks. tenses. walkedst. This is the third person.²am. You are 2. Indicative Mood. walketh. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. chosen (old. is. 236. been. [He] is [They] are 3. Such verbs as choose have five. Singular 1. singular number. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. choosing. and numbers. PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. walks. are. The verb be has more forms. In classical languages. tense.

This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am..²SHELLEY. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. Instead of the plural are. (2) As auxiliary verbs. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (b) With the past participle in -ed. to express intention.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. The light that never was on sea and land.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. obligation. (d) With the infinitive. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH.²WORDSWORTH. same as the German sind. (2) was.His infancy was nurtured. which was now become an occasional banquet. -en. (3) be.Imperative Mood. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²ID. though it is usually a dialect form.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. etc. in four ways. 239. Remarks on the verb be.²SCOTT. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. condition. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²BURKE . is. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. etc. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. to form the passive voice. thus. for example.. were. 240. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. as. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.

past perfect. Singular. I chose 2. [He] choose [They] choose 3. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. tenses. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. In addition to the above inflected forms. We chose You chose 3. Machinery of a verb in the voices. 1. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. Singular. PRESENT TENSE. 1. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. "I had gone" (past perfect). made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. had. 1. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. by placing have. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. Singular. I chose 2. Singular. (2). [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. "I have gone" (present perfect). future perfect. I choose 2. PRESENT TENSE. tenses." (2) Present perfect. as. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). You choose Plural. We chose You chose 3.241. You choose Plural. 240. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. Indicative Mood. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb." "He will choose. I choose 2. "I shall be. 1. 242. . as. etc. You chose Plural. You chose Plural.

"I am running. He was choosing. He has chosen. Present. (2d per. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He chooses. as. Past perfect. ACTIVE VOICE.] he choose. He will have been choosing. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present definite. . Only the third person. Present perfect definite.) Choose. of each tense. Future. He will choose. He is choosing. Same as indicative. Past." "You are chosen. He will have chosen. Subjunctive Mood. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past perfect. Present. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Future perfect definite. He has been choosing." (4) The passive forms." 243. Past perfect definite. Past. Present definite. Future perfect. Future definite. he chose (or were to choose).(3) The definite form of each tense. he have chosen. "I was chosen. though. lest. Present perfect. etc. He chose. He had chosen. he have been choosing. He will he choosing. Imperative Mood. will be given. Past definite." "They had been running. Indicative Mood. as. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Past perfect definite. He had been choosing. Present perfect. Present definite. " Be choosing. Present perfect definite. singular number. [If. Present. Same as indicative. Past definite.

None. they will be discussed later (Sec. None.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. etc. if learned at all. Past definite.) Be chosen. Future definite. He is being chosen.] he be chosen. Subjunctive Mood. Present definite. He is chosen. he had been chosen. however. he were being chosen. 262). it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. He was being chosen. Indicative Mood.] [If. Past perfect definite. Also. Past. Imperative Mood. in affirmative sentences. Present perfect. . Present." "He did strike. Present perfect." [Note to Teacher. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. though. None. He will have been chosen.NOTE. Past definite. Past perfect. Present perfect definite. Future perfect definite. (2d per. he have been chosen. He was chosen. Past. None. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). "He does strike. as. " " " " " " " None. He will be chosen. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Future. He has been chosen. Past perfect definite. None. PASSIVE VOICE. Present. but verbals.²This table is not to be learned now. He had been chosen. Past Perfect. Present definite. Present perfect definite.. None. Future perfect. lest. Present tense. Exercises should be given.

and may or may not change the vowel: as. as. sleep. drove. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bid bound. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. bit blown broken chidden. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. 244. According to form. 245. slept. laid. which are in parentheses Present Tense. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. run. NOTE. Past Tense.[adj. caught. ran. begged. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. but adds no ending.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. beg. bounden] bitten. drive. lay. Kinds. verbs are strong or weak. Some of these also have weak forms. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. catch. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. Definition.

drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sunken] sat slain slidden. trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.

cleft. to split. "his bounden duty. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. When it means to carry or to endure. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.²cleave." "the cloven hoof. only one set remains certain. cloven. and sometimes occurs in poetry. cleft (to split).²COLERIDGE.²as (from Shakespeare). The form clomb is not used in prose. ²THACKERAY. TAYLOR. and the latter. which always crew at eleven.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. as." "a sunken snag. 246.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. for example.²one meaning to adhere or cling. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. Sometimes in literary English.² We had each drank three times at the well. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). But drunk is very much used as an adjective. as. especially in that of an earlier period."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. borne is also a passive. Not a cock crew. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.²MILTON. . probably to avoid confusion with this. The former used to be cleave. and another (born) for the passive. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. now told us it was time for repose. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. Historically. nor a dog barked. clave or clove.²TENNYSON." In this confusion of usage. "stricken with paralysis." "a drunken wretch.²B. cleaved.²GOLDSMITH. instead of ate and eaten. as. but is much used in vulgar English." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. cleave. cleaved. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). the other.² Thou hast clomb aloft. and. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. as (from Holmes).²IRVING. Our cock.

Find.²TENNYSON. 7.²WORDSWORTH.The form gotten is little used. which is seldom used except in poetry.²BYRON. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. threw. Break. as. flung. Exercises. fell. even in poetry. frozen. thrown. 5. 10. maiden. We usually say.²BIBLE. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. found. Usually shear is a weak verb." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. begun. as "a shorn lamb. 3. Drive. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. began. fallen. 9. Fall. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. shook. He sate him down.²DE FOE.²SCOTT. found. for example."²KINGSLEY. . flung. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. 4.² If. Fling. Give. shore is rare. 2.² We had all got safe on shore. 8. shaken. Throw. Freeze. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Shake. 245). Begin. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. froze. (a) From the table (Sec. for example. broken. 6. given. One example out of many is." but not much as a participle. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. and seized a pen.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. broke. driven. gave. This heard Geraint. and grasping at his sword. The butler was hanged. drove.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.

] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.[To the Teacher.. Ability. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. 249. Have we valuable territories and important posts. as it has two meanings. for full drill on the forms. of course. must have been an ocular deception. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. as it sometimes does. 220. 247.²HAWTHORNE. Like must. The same remarks apply to ought. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. from the obsolete verb motan.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. as in Sec. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. but came through analogy with should and would. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Indicative Use: Permission. The l in could did not belong there originally.²CHANNING. PAST. it is used only in the indicative mood. which survives in the sentence. 251. "So mote it be. Could may be subjunctive. PRESENT.. purpose. "far off his coming shines.. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. Must is historically a past-tense form. Can is used in the indicative only. ability."²WINIER. according to the infinitive used. They are as follows:² PRESENT. there is one general principle." Must is present or past tense. It is indicative when it expresses permission.²PAINE.. or when it expresses wish. PAST. His superiority none might question. Subjunctive use. (See also Sec.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. or. . etc. as.²SCOTT. 223. etc. 250. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. HAMILTON.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise.²CHANNING This.

in the form of command. my lad.²BULWER. to the neglect of shall and should. (b) In questions asking for orders. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. MOULTON. C. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.²LONGFELLOW. to use will and would. promise.²IRVING. he said. while ought always has to. The following are examples:² Never mind. yea.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.²MACAULAY. and corn to hoe. BROCKDEN BROWN. or confident prediction.Nay. 252. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.² Futurity and questions²first person. as." Uses of shall and should. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. (b) In indirect quotations.²COOPER. WEBSTER. Second and third persons. future action).² (a) To express authority. as..² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. shall and should are used. as. They shall have venison to eat. she should ride like a queen. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. "I think I will go. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. I shall be gone. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.²THAXTER. not plod along like apeasant. . for example. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.² With respect to novels.²L. with pronouns of the first person.e. She should not walk. The sea shall crush thee.² The time will come full soon. shall and should are used. She rejects his suit with scorn. Shall and Will. especially in the United States. what shall I say?²N.

²BYRON.²WORDSWORTH. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. purpose.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²SWIFT. for example. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. 253. JR. as the sole inventor. I never was what I should be. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²WORDSWORTH. B. LARNED. as. time. thus. (c) With direct questions of the second person. and will not return until all is finished.²CABLE.² I will go myself now.. for example. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. First.²WINTER. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. BROWN.²ROGERS. was to be expected. and is equivalent to ought. Disguising a command. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. JAMES. . That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²SCOTT. or a promise. And promised.. second and third persons. etc.²C..² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²A. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²H. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.²WORDSWORTH.that I would do him justice. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. with the conviction that he should win in the end. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.

Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. will is used to express command. without regard to future time. They will go to Sunday schools. for example. The gift of Beauty.²LANDOR. Roland. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. BROWN. Mere futurity. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. To be sure.²SCOTT.² Thou wilt take the skiff.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. In this stately chair would he sit. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. Would thou hadst it not. would is used to express a wish. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.²BANCROFT. through storms their brothers are afraid of. as. as.²War Records.² Subject I omitted: often so. for punishment or intimidation. B.. . will and would often denote an action as customary. When I am in town. SECOND. so you will.. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.² DICKENS.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. This puts the order more mildly. AND THIRD PERSONS. action merely expected to occur.. will and would are used to express simple futurity. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.²BURKE.. when thou wast born. (4) With FIRST. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. and two of my people. as if it were merely expected action. Thine was a dangerous gift. etc.. and mark on the grounds the works. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. PASSIVE VOICE.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.²the original meaning of the word will.. for example. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). 254.²IRVING.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.²SCOTT.

yet only seem. [He] shall choose. I will be chosen. You will be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. 4. [They] will choose. Exercises on Shall and Will. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. 2. 1. 2. [He] shall be chosen. 3. Plural. 3.Singular." answered Herbert stubbornly. (b) Examine the following sentences. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. . [He] will be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. and justify the use of shall and will. 1. 3. You shall be chosen. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 6. 3. 3. Singular. You shall choose. 2. "I shall not run. I shall be chosen. 1. You shall choose. We shall choose. [They] shall choose. You will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 2. [They] will be chosen. 1. [They] shall be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Plural. You shall be chosen. Plural. etc. Thou art what I would be. You will choose. We will choose. 5. promise. 2. Singular. [He] will choose. He informed us. We shall be chosen. (a) From Secs. Singular. To express determination.:² ACTIVE VOICE. You will choose. Thou shalt have a suit. and that of the newest cut. We will be chosen. Plural. 3. I shall choose. I will choose. 1. 252 and 253.

then. bereave beseech bereft.7. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. my son. Irregular Weak Verbs.²CHAUCER. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²Class I. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. 255." the stranger said." 14. WEAK VERBS. The old ending to verbs of Class II. and have no change of vowel. 10. 256.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. Of smale houndes hadde she. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. put. that sche fedde With rosted flessh.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. 257. This ending has now dropped off. put. as if he would have more of the enchantment. and I have nothing to say. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. The beast made a sluggish movement. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. as. which may be called irregular weak verbs. But the rest. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. put. was -de or -te. Without having attended to this. very anxious. 12. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. or mylk and wastel breed. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. No. 9. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. bereave besought Past Participle. bereft. bereaved besought . Present Tense. set. 13. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 11. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. need some attention and explanation.²ID. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. Lucy stood still. "I am a wayfarer. set. Past Tense.

hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. leant leaped.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

[To] have chosen. Indefinite. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. and when passive. Perfect. [To] have been chosen. [To] choose. Nothing of the kind having been done. expressing purpose.6. 9. PASSIVE VOICE. Perfect definite. have no tense. 267. I returned to reflection on my situation. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 268. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. [To] be chosen. Three saplings. Imperfect. will (with should and would). INFINITIVES. try clemency. [To] have been choosing. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. 8. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. ACTIVE VOICE. When active. a perfect. Infinitives. 266. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. 10. to was used before the infinitive generally..²the creature warring against the creating power. 7. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow).. Cases when to is omitted. and a perfect definite form. To with the infinitive. when inflections became fewer. an indefinite and a perfect form. Indefinite. Perfect. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. . Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. [To] be choosing. But later. like participles. In Sec. to express action unconnected with a subject. formed a kind of bedstead. an imperfect. they have an indefinite. as in the Old English..

it may be the subject of a verb. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. They shall have venison to eat.²HOWELLS. "He will choose. under "Analysis. too. and emphatic forms of the present and past. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative.² What! doth she. watch." Examples are. negative. liberal woman. 269. HALE. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. can (could). make. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.." (4) In exclamations. 270. "She ask my pardon.²IRVING. learn [doth learn is one verb. But there was nothing to do." etc.). as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. sometimes need (as." "I shall have chosen. and corn to hoe. E. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. as the credulous imagine. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²DE QUINCEY. it has several attributes of a noun. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. or the object of a verb or a preposition. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).²it may be governed as a noun. do (as. The gerund is like the participle in form. and like a noun in use. feel. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. GERUNDS.(2) After the verbs may (might).²MACAULAY. 271. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. bid (command).²GOLDSMITH. ." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. it is often preceded by the definite article.²TENNYSON. please. While the gerund expresses action. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. must. also in the imperative. poor woman!" cried Charles. hear. also let. "a house to let. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. as. the gerund may be called a noun verbal.² She was a kind.²E. as in the expression.²COOPER. 272. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. see. as. as. "I do go" etc.

SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. (2) Pure participles. (6) Verbal nouns. which express action. (3) Participial adjectives. (5) Gerunds." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. making the definite tenses." "Certainly dueling is bad. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. (4) Pure adjectives. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. which express action. 2. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. but cannot govern." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. which express action and also modify. which have lost all verbal force. brilliant. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. five infinitives." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. II). Exercise. 273. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability." Exercise.²Find sentences containing five participles. when. b). Then how pleasing is it. to see the returning hope of the parents." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. may govern and be governed. above. Sec. Words in -ing are of six kinds. according to use as well as meaning. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. and has been put down." also (2. but do not assert. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. 4." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. and five gerunds. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which name an action or state. after examining the nest. What a vast. and wonderful store of learning! . Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. on your leaving the spot.

in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is.5. 11. . 10. subjunctive. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. you must. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. dictating from his chair. 12. like Sir Walter Scott. He spread his blessings all over the land. giving principal parts.²strong or weak. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 6. he gave out sentence by sentence. 7. 9. (4) Tense.²transitive or intransitive. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. round which is an iron railing. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 234. I. 275. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. In parsing verbs. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 13. (2) Voice. write twenty pages without stopping.²indicative.²which of the tenses given in Sec. Caution. much corroded. Thackeray did not. give reality to your teaching. (b) as to use. (5) Person and number. 16. VERBS. or imperative. 14. I suppose I was dreaming about it. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. What is dreaming? 8. slowly.²active or passive. (3) Mood. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. The only means of ascending was by my hands. by object lessons. 15. bearing her national emblem. but.

and should always be analyzed as phrases. intransitive. perfect. might. followed by a pure infinitive without to. past tense. (c) to what word it belongs. call might a weak verb. no sin nor sorrow. must. etc. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. 3. could. In 2." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. It has been intimated in Sec. (b) whether active or passive. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. 2. see Sec. 278. In such sentences as 1. imperfect. and not taken as single verbs. III. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Especially frequent are those made up of should. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. (a) From what verb derived. (3) Gerund. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. has for its subject Lee. past tense. verbals.. (2) Infinitive. we must beware of the rule. If a participial adjective. give points (a) and (b). may. definite." Sometimes it does. But unless the verb is present. therefore active. II. (b) its use (Sec. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. You are gathered to your fathers. Let it rise! let it rise. VERBALS. VERB PHRASES. (b) whether indefinite. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. would. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. intransitive. Exercise. till it meet the sun in his coming. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. can. 2. and parting day linger and play on its summit. Parse the verbs. in the world. indicative. 4. 273). etc. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. perfect. 277. The government might have been strong and prosperous. then parse it as an adjective. has the subject government. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. call should a weak verb. . Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. 278(2). Take these examples:² 1. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.276. and ends in -s. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. indicative (as it means could). active. (1) Participle. 235. usually it does not.

15. 20. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Whatever ground you sow or plant. as rolled from wing to wing. Right graciously he smiled on us. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. see that it is in good condition. With them. 17. 6. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. The soul having been often born. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. and wondered if she were yet awake. So. . 16. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 9. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. as the Hindoos say. he thought only of her. 22. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 14. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 24. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. morning is not a new issuing of light. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. a new waking up of all that has life.O God. 10. 12.Henceforth in me instill. When he arose in the morning.Down all the line. a new bursting forth of the sun. a deafening shout. a sweet good will. 13. 18. He passed across the room to the washstand.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 19. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. leaving me upon the bed. However that be. In going for water. 23. or. 11. 8. as usual. 21. from a sort of temporary death.5. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things.

or manner: as." "He was absolute. to consent. Nor was it altogether nothing. ADVERBS." An adjective or an adverb.² The young man reveres men of genius. for example. "William's private life was severely pure. and men of leisure and cultivation. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.²SHELLEY. and so on. Is it only poets. And now wend we to yonder fountain. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²CARLYLE. they are more himself than he is. thou sayest." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. When action is expressed. The word adverb means joined to a verb. Oh. 26. 279.²THACKERAY. because." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. Better it were."²DE QUINCEY. To the almost terror of the persons present.25. who live with nature?²ID. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. 29. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. and limit adjectives or adverbs.Feast while we may. 27. . Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. to speak truly. place. A verb. and live ere life be spent. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. Adverbs modify. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²time. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.²EMERSON. for the hour of rest is at hand. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. as.

Definition.² FRANKLIN. 282. to-day. but really modifying. but some verb understood. is a modifying word. 169 are felt to be elliptical. B. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. and that. lately. (2) according to their use in the sentence. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. A clause or sentence. We are offered six months' credit. before. not the noun. but still with a rich bloom to it. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. there are six classes:² (1) Time.² LOWELL. It may also modify a sentence. ever. etc.²T.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. as now. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. then. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. being adverbs naturally and fitly. as shown in the sentences. while those in Sec. which may qualify an action word or a statement. thus. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. 281. all wet and glossy.²THOREAU. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.²TROLLOPE. 280.²These last differ from the words in Sec. NOTE. A phrase. ALDRICH. Surely happiness is reflective. An adverb. . and rather forced into the service of adjectives. for example. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. not simply the forms used in predication.He was incidentally news dealer.²LEIGH HUNT. ²IRVING. NOTE.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. Thus considered. like the light of heaven. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. Make music to the lonely ear.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. as. 169. hitherto. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. has induced some of us to attend it. and half awfully.²BYRON. or a word group used as such. perhaps. I draw forth the fruit.

thither. thus. 283). the more evidently they love liberty.whence. partly. singly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.near.²IRVING. (5) Degree.²R. especially the comparative of these words. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. above. as little. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. etc. slightly.²BROWNING. Motley. 283. telling how much. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. for example. enough. Emerson.(2) Place.²BURKE.²SHAKESPEARE.²LECKY. surely.. beautifully. whithersoever.² The master. not. the more friends you will have. as perhaps. much. telling how many times: once.. probably. maybe. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. just.was for this once of her opinion. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. as hither. [Sidenote The status of such. and not infrequently are found in literary English.thence. White. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. greatly. slowly. bravely. whencesoever. etc. very. better.. possibly. and others.²DE QUINCEY. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. the more perfect will be their obedience. Meekness. while so precedes only the adjective usually. (4) Number. etc. This long's the text.. as here. etc. as well. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. LOUIS STEVENSON.. (see also Sec.yonder.there.where. I was. twice. Thackeray. So also in Grote. etc. (6) Assertion. as hence.whither.which gained him such universal popularity. that these adverbs form a very large class. at least. too.²HAWTHORNE. . two by two. or how far he believes it to be true. (3) Manner. telling how anything is done.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. etc. The more they multiply.

" "He spoke positively [manner]. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Some adverbs." said the king. STOWE. Holmes. and other writers. have the additional function of asking a question. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Beau Fielding. and art but a fool. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.² You are mighty courteous. Franklin.²BAYNE. 286. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. A pretty large experience. Kingsley. Burke. Hard blows and hard money." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. for example. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. De Quincey." "I have seen you before [time]. 284. Direct questions. "Peace. 285. Notice meanings. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.Pretty. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.²GOLDSMITH. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form."²SCOTT." "The house. Defoe." "That were far better [degree].² "Mighty well. Simple. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Dickens. a mighty fine gentleman.²HAWTHORNE. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. for example. Aldrich. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Again. B. and its lawn before [place]." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. besides modifying. Neville.²THACKERAY. . Mighty.²BULWER. Interrogative.² KINGSLEY. 282. Emerson.²FIELDING.²"He walked too far [place]. Such are most of those given already in Sec. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise.²THACKERAY.

I know not why.²BYRON (3) Manner.²BYRON. (5) Reason.²D. I hearkened.²POE.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I do not remember when I was taught to read. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²BULWER.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. they smiled. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. I will not ask where thou liest low. (2) Place. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. When did this humane custom begin?²H. CLAY. for example. WEBSTER. (2) Place. . Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (4) Degree. (4) Degree. 287.

but the whole clause. For further discussion. higher. Only that we may wiselier see." Exercise. when does not express time and modify. Superlative. when. . soonest. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.²BYRON.) rather 289. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. just as adjectives do.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. see Sec. only occasionally having -er and -est. The following. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.²EMERSON. Many adjectives have the same ending.. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. high. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. obs. Tell what each word in ly modifies. when compared.eyes. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. further farthest. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Many adverbs are compared. 290. Form vs.²TENNYSON. well much little far late Comparative.²COLERIDGE. furthest (rathe. representing four classes. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.But in reality.²SHAKESPEARE. have the same inflection as adjectives. not an adverb. highest. Exercise. Then must she keep it safelier. use.. 288. soon. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Its strings boldlier swept. sooner. irregularly compared. as. and. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

292. that in Old and Middle English. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. He is inexpressibly mean. mostly. 291. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. but with a different meaning. And all about. or down the leaves laughed through." Compare these:² 1. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. hardly. . This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 8. With his proud. whether adverbs or adjectives. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt.²WORDSWORTH. 2. as. 4. evenly.1. merely introduces a sentence. to be sure. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. 2. Again. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 3. quick-flashing eye. There are eyes. even. The reason is. 7.²ID. near. hard. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. if it has the verb be. curiously jolly.²THACKERAY. Not near so black as he was painted. nearly. Such are most. But he must do his errand right. kindly and good-natured in secret. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.²CHAUCER. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.²TENNYSON.And his mien of kingly state. Frequently the word there. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. more courtly in their manners.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²IRVING. many words without -ly have the same form.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.² EMERSON. Special use of there. etc. 6. instead of being used adverbially. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 5.

17. 3. 18. 4. the Madonna is in great glory. but from my fall? 6. It is the Cross that is first seen. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 9. In parsing adverbs. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. But a few steps farther on. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. at the regular wine-shop. burning in the center of the temple. and always. 15. however theoretically enticing. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. . 2. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 293. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and sate down on the steps of a house. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. For the impracticable. 10. according to meaning and also use. Thither we went. 16. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 12. is always politically unwise. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 5. if the word is compared. Exercise. but continually shifted. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. give² (1) The class. 7. 11. (3) What word or word group it modifies. (2) Degree of comparison.

she would undoubtedly have succumbed. nor. Definition. etc. but the student will readily find them. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. then. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. 22. 294. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. A conjunction is a linking word. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. Clauses. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise." Sentences. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause.19. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. but side by side within the American Union. It was pretty bad after that." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. But now the wind rose again. or sentence groups. 20. 21. connecting words. should be omnipotent for evil? 24." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. sentences. CONJUNCTIONS. hence. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. however. Unlike adverbs. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. word groups. . 295. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. therefore. upon which the sun now shone forth." Paragraphs.

whether. as.. then. the bread was spent.. neither. 297. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. else. While the earth bears a plant. as well as the room door. while. both. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. and not man corn. either. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.." Nevertheless..nor.. the butter too. expressing a choice.. therefore. Correlatives.. answering to each other in the same sentence. neither.. of the same rank..or. either.but (or but also)..or. for. Nor mark'd they less. Adversative. etc.but. as but. Some go in threes... word groups. Your letter.. likewise. however. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.or. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. or the sea rolls its waves. however. not only. Some of these go in pairs.. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Causal. (3) CAUSAL. .. as well as.. had its weight. 298. and. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate..nor. joining words. usually between two things. still. only. the window being open. also. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. (2) ADVERSATIVE. 296. whether.. "Howbeit. The chief ones are.or whether. nor.. neither. etc. nor. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. as.. (2) Subordinate. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. They are or. etc. not only. either. serves but to show their ignorance. moreover. hence. The assertion..or.. yet. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.... introducing a reason or cause. (4) ALTERNATIVE. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. but is emperor in his own right.and. Alternative. whether.Classes of conjunctions. as and.

etc. in case. before.²COOPER. seeing... (5) COMPARISON: than and as. nor creeping thing. QUINCY. after. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted.²BIBLE. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds.²WILSON. ²ALLSTON. whenever. that.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. especially that after so. Time.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. so that. so that. whence. ere. except.² whithersoever. It is. though. (2) TIME: when. nor echo. as. provided that. now. sometimes if. (3) MANNER: how. 299. provided. in order that. however. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. so. Neither the place in which he found himself. . that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. so. He is not only bold and vociferous. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. nor wing of bird. etc. as. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. on condition that. whither. even if.²PAULDING. (6) PURPOSE: that. until. nor green leaf. since. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. in apposition. whereto.. etc. lest. whether. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. Where the treasure is. wherever. unless. while.²DE QUINCEY. etc. (7) RESULT: that. so. there will the heart be also.. etc.²J. whereas. howsoever. although. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. as. object. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican.²BURKE. since.

Sparing neither whip nor spur. Result. reason. Comparison.²EMERSON. but not so long but I held it out. H.²COLERIDGE. As a soldier.²AMES.²BYRON. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Manner.So I behold them not.²EMERSON.²DEFOE.That he gave her wounds repose. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. So many thoughts moved to and fro. .² H. Condition.²BURKE.²AMES. Let the world go how it will. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. I was again covered with water. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. a thousand bodies.²AMES. Purpose. Concession.² WORDSWORTH.² EMERSON. We wish for a thousand heads. Then Denmark blest our chief. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. JACKSON.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Cause.²IRVING.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE Events proceed. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.That vain it were her eyes to close. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²CAMPBELL. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Substantive. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Now he is dead.² HAWTHORNE. not as they were expected or intended.

300. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. After he was gone. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 14. While patriotism glowed in his heart. since. as. The moth fly. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 3. While a faction is a minority.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions.Let us see whether the greatest. then. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. In what point of view. the lady called her servant. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. the wisest. As will have been noticed. as he shot in air. it will remain harmless. . hold a subordinate rank. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. They. her real merit is known at home. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. however. 4. etc. No one had yet caught his character. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. Besides. 10. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. And then recovering.²RUSKIN. Exercises. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 9. some words²for example. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. 12. 13. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Crept under the leaf. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 6. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. And they lived happily forever after. that. He was brought up for the church. she faintly pressed her hand. 2. 15. 5. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. and hid her there. 7. while.

Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.²HOOD. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. the expression would be. and the frame will suit the picture. and part as though we parted not. GREELEY. as is shown by the use of as though. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.So slowly moved about. So silently we seemed to speak. and be a bud again.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. As for as if.²BYRON. 304..² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.Clouded. expressing degree if taken separately.16. As though. As if. they connect. for example." as. Consequently. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. as is often equivalent to as if. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. In poetry.As though a rose should shut. (2) What words. word groups. none of the lashings having given way. even as they would weep.²IRVING. 302. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. If analyzed. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. in this case. In parsing conjunctions. "We meet. 301.²EMILY BRONTE. . etc. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. In Emerson's sentence. thus. His voice ." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. SPECIAL REMARKS. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. 303. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner... but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.

whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. It may be safely trusted. in 2. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. in 3. .² 1. 10. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. because. 2. 12. 5.²DEFOE 2. "Doctor. they are not known. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 6. 9. so they paddled on. and very seldom?" 8. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. the Sphinx was slain. 13. so that expresses result.²EMERSON 3.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. when. Some conjunctions. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. because it is his. When the gods come among men. and its clause depends on the other. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. compare the sentences. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. dines with as good an appetite. 7. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. are regularly of one particular class. so it be faithfully imparted. such as nor.²that the fairies do not like to be named. For example. In classifying them.²I find them true in Concord. so that I could not stir abroad. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. that it might testify of that particular ray.²is subordinate of condition. and. At sea. others belong to several classes. All the postulates of elfin annals.. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.Caution. He dismisses without notice his thought. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. so means provided. 3. or in the forest. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. but of the natural. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. or in the snow. and its clause is independent. as beside his own chimneys. He is the compend of time. so means therefore." said his wife to Martin Luther. It continued raining. and associates as happily. 11. Exercise. 4. and the like. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. he is also the correlative of nature. If he could solve the riddle. he sleeps as warm. etc.

seeing that it behooves me to hasten. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 29. . won't you lay on? 17. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 18. you must be. I speak. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. It may be so in the majority of cases. 15. And whether consciously or not. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. that both were wayward. however. 22. in many a heart. 305. Still. 21. 19. PREPOSITIONS. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object.²else it is none. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. There was no iron to be seen. whose names I omit. It is clear. she might have the family countenance. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 28. 26. 16. 25. the whole conditions are changed.14. of good novels only. Now you have the whip in your hand. therefore. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 24. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. when it was presented to them. save it were sinful like herself. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. Goodness must have some edge to it. 23. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him.. enthroned. 27. 30. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. in this they agree. For. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 20.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²Find sentences with three different uses of at. . H. expressing the degree of difference. by the blessed memory of the departed. the first port made by the ship. Richard was standing by the window. at naught. at all. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. (2) Time. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. 320. At St. at war.²B. at least. Helena. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. D.²SWIFT.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. Exercise. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail.²ID.. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. etc. at play.²EVERETT.²R. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at the worst.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. 321. at the best. By my faith. by many a million of acres. By. CONWAY. (3) Agency or means. at work. STODDARD. by the ruins of nations.²WARNER. etc. For. at most. by the wrecks of time. by means near or close to.²M. he stopped. She saw the boat headed for her. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations.²ALDRICH. (4) Measure of excess. at random. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Like at. at first.² (1) The general meaning of place. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at peace. at length. at once. TAYLOR The angel came by night. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. ²PARTON. as. Exercise.²DE QUINCEY. At that time [the earth] was richer. at rest.²COOPER. at any rate. at one.

He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. There are gains for all our losses. But the Colonel. and leaped for joy. L. respecting. etc.²PARKMAN. incitement to action. for all his title.. An Arab woman.²W. as being.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. reason. the Colonna motto would fit you best. (9) Motive. as to.²HOOD. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline."²SCOTT By my faith. ate her child.²STODDARD. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. if your worship can accomplish that. He and they were for immediate attack. (6) Like as. Still. but a few sunsets since. for the benefit of. (3) Duration of time. The twilight being. a person or thing. (4) Substitution or exchange.²EMERSON..²E. for famine. he repented of his folly. they are now for us.²HOLMES. For the rest. BANCROFT. poor fellow.²PARKMAN. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. meaning in the character of. etc.²IRVING. (5) Reference. "For a fool. had a forest of poor relations. meaning with regard to. "Nay. meaning although. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.² RUSKIN.²ID. For him. in behalf of. .²PARKMAN The people were then against us. H.One of Eve's family.²LAMB. GARRISON. considering that etc. (7) Concession. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. for all slips of hers. or extent of space." said the Lady of Lochleven. etc.²H." answered Master Brackett. or in spite of.(2) In favor of. E. "thou hast counseled wisely. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. cause.

The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. (3) Time. if not a desperate man. (1) Origin or source. The general idea in from is separation or source.²BANCROFT. H. 322. 323.²MILTON. nay. cause. Of. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Exercise. (4) Motive. The young cavaliers.²HIGGINSON. Exercise. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²H. Like boys escaped from school. From harmony. The From Relation. From. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. . (2) Origin. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. more. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The original meaning of of was separation or source. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. or reason. ceased to be merciful. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. like from. The king holds his authority of the people. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²HUXLEY.²HUME. from a desire of seeming valiant. A distrustful.²ID.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²HALE. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²DRYDEN.

You cannot make a boy know.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. out of the most unpromising materials."²E. (6) Partitive. cure. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. The hills were bare of trees.²DICKENS II. clear. weeds. disarm. purge.²LEW WALLACE. rid. free of. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.² HUXLEY.²HIGGINSON. "I am glad of that. (5) Expressing agency. White shirt with diamond studs. motive.²SCOTT Who formed. More than one altar was richer of his vows. (b) After some adjectives. etc. (3) With expressions of material. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. such as ease. demand. E. bound with thongs of boar's hide. of his own knowledge. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. (c) After nouns expressing lack. south of. relieve. there were only twenty-one members present. etc. etc.²BOSWELL. free. Other Relations expressed by Of. (d) With words expressing distance. divest.²BAYARD TAYLOR.²BANCROFT. A singular want of all human relation. bare of.. Back of that tree. or breastpin of native gold. Asked no odds of. that Cromwell once ruled England. He is away of his own free will. beg. . etc. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. ²PARTON. deprive. expressing a part of a number or quantity. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. wide of.²clear of.²ID. rob. ask. as north of. deprivation.²ALDRICH. etc. Sandals. ²GAVARRE.²PARKMAN. and grass. acquitted them of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Of the Forty. HALE.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. reason. especially out of.

Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. equal to about. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. when the first is descriptive of the second. (8) Appositional.²SWIFT. (c) Two nouns. Idiomatic use with verbs. and the dignity of a queen.²ID.²HALLECK. could give shelter from his contumely. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. Besides the phrases of old.²PRESCOTT. Such a book as that of Job. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. being equivalent to an infinitive. E. of is used in the sense of during. etc. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. with its object. . Not even woman's love.²ALDRICH. concerning. CHANNING. (10) Of reference. See also Sec. ²IRVING. (b) Noun and gerund.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²W. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. standing. with regard to.He washed out some of the dirt.²BANCROFT. for the possessive. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²FROUDE..²BANCROFT.²LOWELL. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. of a sudden. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. The fair city of Mexico. The nation of Lilliput. of late.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. 309.²BANCROFT. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. (7) Possessive.²COOPER.²LAMB. (9) Of time.

325. approve.²BRYANT. such as admit. avail (one's self). . on the wing. Exercise. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. On my life.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. etc. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. consist.²PARKMAN. on board. on the alert.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. accept. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.²DE QUINCEY. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. The general meaning of on is position or direction. Exercise. To. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²ALDRICH. you are eighteen. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. permit. etc. on view. and others. Cannon were heard close on the left. SIGOURNEY. (b) With motion. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. without adding to their meaning. (4) In adjurations. and not a day more.²MRS. complain.²PARKMAN.²Find sentences with six uses of of.²EMERSON. on a sudden. allow. disapprove. (3) Reference. 324. On.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. It also accompanies the verbs tire. Upon my reputation and credit. ²BANCROFT. on high. concerning. on trial. repent. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. equal to about.²PARKMAN. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. Upon. Upon is seldom used to express time. (2) Time.

²IRVING.²BRYANT. had ceased to be. We cook the dish to our own appetite. Exercise. (2) Expressing result. to my taste. .²HALE. (b) Referring to time. His brother had died. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. whose influence is felt to this hour.²PARTON.Come to the bridal chamber..²PARKMAN. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Revolutions. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²B.. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. He usually gave his draft to an aid. 326. 268). while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Nor.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. With. Death!²HALLECK. (5) Equivalent to according to. to him. it may be genuine poetry.²BENTON To our great delight.²BULWER.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. does the mere music.²GOLDSMITH.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. gay Comedy appears.. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him..²often to the loss of vigor.²LANG. To the few. But when. mid meant in company with. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. be written over. unmasked.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. In Old English.

For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. It seemed a supreme moment with him. but a pleasure"?²LANG. had already reached the defile. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²LANG. in spite of.²Find sentences with four uses of with. as with you. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. with Heyward at its head.²ALDRICH.²HOWELLS. first of all. She seemed pleased with the accident. reason. E. opinion. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. or with the haunch of our near leader.²EMERSON. With all his sensibility. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. I think. Messala. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. felt it unsafe to trifle further. to find the object of the preposition. 327. motive. (5) Opposition. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. "poetry is not a pursuit. (4) Estimation.²DE QUINCEY.²E. he gave millions to the sword. Either with the swingle-bar. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²SCOTT. but with you.²HALE. it is necessary. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²COLERIDGE. (3) Cause.²DE QUINCEY.²CHANNING.²WALLACE (7) Time. He expired with these words. with all his boldness. (2) Instrumentality.²COOPER. He was wild with delight about Texas.²HOWELLS.The advance. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. Exercise. transmitted from the beginning. HALE. .

I remember. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. or was. In (2). each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. 4. of without. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. we met the defaulter here. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. The guns were cleared of their lumber. shook it directly over my head. the phrase answers the question where. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. of on. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. 2.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. by which a dozen apples. before the dwarf left the queen. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. without a country modifies man. (4) from the beginning. telling what man. because I had given the provocation. Exercises. I speak these things from a love of justice. The object of on board is ships. but I received no other hurt. which.²ID. I called out several times. Whereupon. beginning. In (3). which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. he followed us one day into those gardens. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. hence we say. of from. (2) on which. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. . (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. like the clapping of wings. the malicious rogue. To our general surprise. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. Be that as it will. (3) without a country. I looked towards my windows. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak.²SWIFT 2. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. I felt my box raised very high in the air. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. 5. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. And so on. and knocked me down flat on my face. country. 3. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. In (1). The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. came tumbling about my ears. I heard a noise just over my head. but all to no purpose.

20. . in town. 8. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. in this respect. 23. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. With all his learning. The savage army was in war-paint. 29. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 26. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 14. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 10.6. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. His breeches were of black silk. after a restful morning. The mother sank and fell. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. when. 7. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. On all subjects known to man. 15. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing.Without stop or stay.He spurred his courser on. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. grasping at the child. 21. 9. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. I like to see the passing. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 22. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 13. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 19. Carteret was far from being a pedant. For my part. 12. 24. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. to one dark and gloomy. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 27. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 25. plumed for battle. 11. 16. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 18. 17. he favored the world with his opinions.

We wish that labor may look up here. WHAT.²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun. That was a dreadful mistake. That night was a memorable one.²WEBSTER. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. That is what I understand by scientific education.² JOHNSON. (b) Of result. 330.²HUXLEY.That makes the heavens be mute. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. He will raise the price.30. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (4) As an adverb of degree. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²STOCKTON. A few are discussed below. and not according to form. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. . he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. 328. not merely by the amount of the tax.²WEBSTER. (1) Relative pronoun. And now it is like an angel's song. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.²BEECHER. 329. that you might behold this joyous day. (a) Indefinite relative.²COLERIDGE. THAT. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (c) Substantive conjunction.

To say what good of fashion we can.² is impossible to determine.²ID. At what rate these materials would be distributed.Are yet the fountain light of all our Pera.²THACKERAY. it rests on reality. What with the Maltese goats. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.S. Cox.. BUT. (b) Indirect question. "I'll tell you what.. after not only. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.²WEBSTER.. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.. nearly equivalent to partly. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. If he has [been in America]..Those shadowy recollections.these sounds are only to be heard.." (4) Relative adjective. or not only. to see what might be hidden. What. and silent all!²BYRON.. 331. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. . silent still..Which be they what they may.²EMERSON.²WORDSWORTH. (9) As an exclamation.²ID. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.²EMERSON.. (6) Exclamatory adjective. partly. (b) Indirect question.but. (8) Conjunction. (7) Adverb of degree. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. (b) Copulative.. What. but the result of calculation. he knows what good people are to be found there. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.

meaning otherwise . not. but piercing cries.²HAWTHORNE. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. Doing duty as a guard. (d) Of reason.²FRANKLIN. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.He yearned to our patriot bands.²CARLYLE. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. I shall see but little of it.²IRVING. .²SCOTT.. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night... 332. meaning only. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. not. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.. AS.²MRS BROWNING. after a negative.. (5) Adverb. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. at all moments. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. (2) Relative pronoun. towards order. (4) Relative pronoun.. ²CARLYLE.²IRVING. meaning except. after such. on all sides. (3) Preposition.. To lead but one measure. like the dog. or who . Who knows but. not.. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. (e) Introducing an appositive word.²SHELLEY.Then arose not only tears. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. than. (c) Of degree. stands for that .²IRVING.²EMERSON. (b) Substantive. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (b) Of manner.²LAMB. equivalent to that . His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. sometimes same.

²ALDRICH. There is no statue like this living man. . Give Ruskin space enough. They look. (1) An adjective. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²LAMB. nervous child.²HAWTHORNE. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²ALDRICH. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like summer ocean's.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. and is followed by a dative-objective.²HIGGINSON. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²HALLECK. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. ²PARKMAN. That face. like a cook beating eggs. Introduces a clause. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.² A timid.²EMERSON. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. like Martin was.²CASS.² HAWTHORNE. Through which they put their heads. In this second use. and as or as if takes its place. but its verb is omitted. NOTE. like drops out. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. staring like a bewildered man. Stirring it vigorously. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. 333. like him awhile ago.²LONGFELLOW.²SHAKESPEARE. Note the difference between these two uses.²MAYHEW.²DARWIN. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. this. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. This follows a verb or a verbal. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. I do with my friends as I do with my books. but this is not considered good usage: for example. No Emperor. If the verb is expressed. In each case.LIKE. and was clearly an adjective. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.-SCOTT.²EMERSON. indeed.

What analysis is. Some of these are imitative sounds. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. tut! buzz! etc. that is." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. that is. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. entering into the structure of a sentence.. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. Definition. verb. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. pronoun.: for example. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. subject and predicate. 335. in separating them into their component parts. 336. .²in determining case." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. Definition. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. as. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. etc. etc. 334.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. clauses introduced by conjunctions. but it still retains its identity as noun." PART II.INTERJECTIONS. Value of analysis. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric.

entreaty. Definition: Predicate. (3) Imperative. but by no means vulgar. "Hath he not always treasures.²a subject and a predicate. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. But now all is to be changed. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. interrogative. 338. 337. Division according to number of statements. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement." 340. SIMPLE SENTENCES. question. "Old year. or request. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. 2. 339. or imperative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. declarative. . (2) Interrogative. "Come to the bridal chamber. This is the most common one. you must not die!" interrogative. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader.Kinds of sentences as to form. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. hence." "What wouldst thou do. which puts the thought in a question. A rare old plant is the ivy green. Definition. Examples of these three kinds are. Every sentence must contain two parts. according to form. always friends?" imperative. old man?" "Be thou familiar. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. which expresses command. but according to how many statements there are. not according to the form in which a thought is put. but the sentence would still be declarative. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. or command: for example. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative.

Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. and the real subject is the latter. In the interrogative sentence.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. always reduce them to the order of a statement. or adverb that asks about the subject. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. the subject (you. . 5. 6. but about the ivy green. on the other hand. as. 3.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. to an ignorant man. a rare old plant.²What is to be changed? Answer. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. and our definition must be the following. not of a rare old plant. 2. 4. all. 7. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. or ye) is in most cases omitted. "[You] behold her single in the field. In analyzing such sentences. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. to suit all cases:² Subject. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. we have some trouble. 8. the subject is frequently after the verb. But if we try this with the second sentence. and is to be supplied. Thus. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. adjective. Consequently. especially in poetry." Exercise. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Slavery they can have anywhere. The last of all the Bards was he. Listen. or an interrogative pronoun. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 341. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. thou.²What is the ivy green? Answer. we say all is the subject of the sentence.

(6) Independent elements. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. "Ye call me chief. . for example. (4) The complements. 343. Of a transitive verb.10. 342." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. (5) Modifiers. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. but it is a true complement. (2) The predicate. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Indirect object. (3) The object. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed." Complement: 344. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object." indirect. direct. and me here is not the object simply of call. The subject and predicate have been discussed." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Direct Object. and means summoned. but of call chief. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. or second object.²transitive and intransitive. in addition to the object. but chief belongs to the verb. "Ye honor me. just as if to say. and by object we mean the direct object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. The transitive verb often requires.

(1) PREPOSITIONAL." Also an expression used as a noun. appear. for instance." "He was termed Thomas." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." "The good man. as in drowning." Things used as Subject. and of massive weight. Thom of the Gills." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. as. become. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. to the completion of this man of the world." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . taste. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. Phrases. 347. more familiarly. especially the forms of be." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. and. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. "Brow and head were round. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. etc. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." (2) PARTICIPIAL. above sixty. See sentence 19. 352. 355. As to form. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. and barring the door. in exercise following Sec. in the original Opium Confessions. seem. 364." (3) INFINITIVE.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 351. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. An intransitive verb. introduced by a preposition: for example. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. I mentioned a case of that nature. 'Ay. he was now getting old. as in the sentence. feel. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. "A cheery. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. ay." 345. 346. sir!' rang out in response." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." All these complete intransitive verbs. or. not containing a verb. but used as a single modifier. in the popular judgment.. Complement of an intransitive verb. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. A phrase is a group of words.

(2) In interrogative sentences. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." etc. and by Saint George!' said the King." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. but they will be given in detail here. but obscures the real subject." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. my deficiency." 348." "There are asking eyes. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." "The dead are there. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). "Therein has been. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.²the infinitive phrase.²the talent of starting the game." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. 341. . The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. or the thundering of organs." Things used as Complement. Disguised infinitive subject." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. for which see Sec. or their religion from their sect. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. (4) After "there introductory. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. but the real or logical subject is to print. I saw the quick and the dead. 349. asserting eyes.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. from their lips. etc. prowling eyes." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. and ever will be." The for did not belong there originally." "Never. was heard one syllable to justify." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." Things used as Direct Object. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." In this sentence. "'By God. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject.

it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. Modifiers of Subject. and the words italicized are still complements." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. complements of the predicate. Of a transitive verb. I." "Serving others is serving us." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." . or the equivalent of the noun. and explaining or modifying the subject. and. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." "She asked her father's permission. Object. (3) Infinitive." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny.350." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. and whenever the complement is a noun." "I hear the echoes throng." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. they are adjuncts of the object. the shepherd girl." In this last sentence. 351. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. As complement of a transitive verb. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. As complement of an intransitive verb. doubtless. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. at the same time.²completing the predicate.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Like all the complements in this list. or Complement." "Their tempers." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken.²heads or tails. the object is made the subject by being passive." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." Modifiers." (4) Participle.

Tells how. was now called upon for his defense. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. not with nature. 351. Retained with passive." "In the twinkling of an eye." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. the verb being omitted. tell whether the subject. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. 352. II." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. this young idolater. Modifiers of the Predicate." Exercise. object. I have seasoned for thee. and modify the predicate in the same way. austere." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. or . no sociable angel. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." "Give them not only noble teachings. see further Secs." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. but it is really a contracted clause." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland.²proud." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." "Him. and leading him from star to star. was the scene from King John. given at the request of a Dutch lady." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. "He died like a God. or complement is modified. but with other men." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. 357-363. the prisoner at the bar." In such a sentence as. unforgiving. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet.²In each sentence in Sec. Since the predicate is always a verb. but noble teachers." (For participial and infinitive phrases." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.

This. to the animal strength and spirits. predicate. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. To the men of this world.When the verb is changed from active to passive. 2. 7." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. . A merciless oppressor hast thou been. Why does the horizon hold me fast. or how long. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. no emotion. 3. and. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. after dinner. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. the indirect object is retained. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 6." Exercises. 8." (6) Adverbial objective. a sort of personality to the whole writing. how far." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. They do not wish to be lovely. Evil. 2. On the voyage to Egypt. and (direct) object:² 1. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 7. 4. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. but to be loved. in regard to particulars." "One way lies hope. predicate. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. according to old philosophers." "All such knowledge should be given her. But anger drives a man to say anything. but the children of the great. 3. he liked. negative. is good in the making. etc. in this center? 4. Fashion does not often caress the great. (a) Pick out subject. His books have no melody. (b) Pick out the subject. gives wonderful animation. and as many to oppose it. 5. and the direct object is retained: for example. with my joy and grief. 6. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. I took." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. no humor.. 5. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. These answer the question when. and other measures of precaution.

must visit again the home of her childhood.y 8.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. after their long confinement to a ship. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. a room seventeen feet by twelve. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. I promised her protection against all ghosts. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. I felt myself. viz. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. 4. Not the less I owe thee justice. 5. A river formed the boundary.. In one feature. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. at the chief hotel. expecting the return of their parents. 5. the blooming cornet. the present Archbishop of Dublin. etc. 3. six children sat by a peat fire. y y y y Compound Subject. then. downwards. Their intention was to have a gay. To suffer and to do. 2. for the first time. this dragoon so lovely. Paint me. then.²the river Meuse. 2. Yes. 4. 2. in little peaceful Easedale. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 4. the attorney. this imperial rider. Not compound sentences. Compound Predicate. that was thy portion in life. this nun so martial. upwards. Unhorse me. 3. 6. That night. . I gave him an address to my friend. 3. and a member of the world. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. happy dinner. burthened with the anxieties of a man. to the right and to the left. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. at length the warrior lady.

"He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. etc. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. in all such sentences as we quote below. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. turned his steps homeward. Of this." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." Sentences with compound predicates are. in the sentence. ulcer. etc. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. complements. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. the predicate. modifiers. hurry. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements." "He shook his head. the tone of her voice. and its object or complement. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. Examples of compound subjects are. two or more subjects of the same predicate. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. but it is to be noticed that. above: thus. that is. shouldered the rusty firelock." "The name of the child. then the grammatical subject and predicate. Bishop. several modifiers. "Ah." "Voyages and travels I would also have. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. the verb). Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. the air of the mother. however. 355. the object. my brave young man!" . I'm with you once again. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. "The company broke up. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. hurry. etc. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. together with all its modifiers. may be the person or thing addressed. forming a sentence: "Oh. together with its modifiers. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject.353. and." And so with complements." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. exposes." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. same as (1). The exclamatory expression. For example. the simple subject is situation. and the rest is the logical predicate. Independent Elements of the Sentence.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." "Ye crags and peaks. 354. Larger view of a sentence. they are not a necessary part..

such as perhaps." "Well. etc. he was a conscientious man. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. why. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. really. The words well. y (2) The adverbial use. 4).. he somehow lived along. and some conjunctions. besides. already noticed. pronoun." "Truth to say. six quill-driving gentlemen. the company broke up. nevertheless. see Sec. (1) Adjectival. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. then. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 6). etc." (6) Single words: as.." "At all events. this story runs thus. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb." (5) Participial phrase: "But. prepositional phrases may be. such as however. modifying the predicate. These need close watching. or word used as a noun: for example. 352. moreover. undoubtedly. he closed his literary toils at dinner." (3) Independent. . 356. object.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. There are some adverbs. and so on. In their use." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. therefore. truly. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. 351." "No. 357. let him perish. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary." "Why." (2) Adverbial. see Sec. 3. that have an office in the sentence." Another caution. or complement (see Sec. yes! everybody knew them. now. 4). 350. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. modifying a noun. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. her noticing even this is creditable. "Oh. instances of which were seen in Sec. to the best of my remembrance." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. how you're winking!" "Now. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. 355. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. grandma." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. (b) As a modifier of subject. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. generally speaking.

and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . was speedily run through. See Sec. my dear. thus. I. This case excepted. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. therefore. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. etc. 358. "Because I was. he should not have known them at all." "There." In this sentence." (b) With the forms of be. (5). necessity. Wilt thou. containing no matters of business. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. or as nearly so as the student will require. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. etc. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. The verbal use. 355. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. modifying was speedily run through. "The letter of introduction. but having no other office than a verbal one.can (could). being equivalent to a future with obligation.: as in the sentences." etc.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. and teach her how to be happy and good. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule.should. and they will be presented here in full. and hence is adverbial." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.seem. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." (c) With the definite forms of go.would." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. y (a) With may (might). but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.]. but require somewhat closer attention.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. ought.

The adjectival use. 361. above." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. modifying a noun that may be a subject. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. object. To test this. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives.²both purpose clauses. notice the following:² In (1). The fact that the infinitives in Sec. hang the idiot." 360. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. 361 are used adverbially. . already examined." "To say what good of fashion we can.: for example. to hear McOrator after dinner." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them.. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. etc." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. Don Guzman. 5). 362. complement. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. III." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." "Are you mad. the Scotch fighting all the battles. 351. The substantive use. "But there was no time to be lost. to look means that he might look. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. II. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). (4) In apposition. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." "He insisted on his right to forget her. etc." "To teach is to learn. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. result. and the eyes to fill?" 359. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. The adverbial use. IV. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. to please is equivalent to that he may please.

352). In (3). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 2. V. 268. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. Our life is March weather. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. If it is an incomplete verb.." (See also Sec. 364. not in a book. In (5). etc. . (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. (3). 363. The independent use. give² (1) The predicate. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. must be in a life. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. to find shows the result of the return. (5) The subject (Sec. 349). 3. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. etc." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 351). 351).) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. object. give the complement (Secs. as in Sec. to part means because I part. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. etc.²both expressing condition. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 355). which is of two kinds. (7) Independent elements (Sec. I will try to keep the balance true. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 351). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 347). savage and serene in one hour.In (2). to hear means if you should hear. 4. equivalent to that you betray.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence.. In analyzing simple sentences. 355. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. In (4).

7. nor generals. nor money. to keep England out of war. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. To these gifts of nature. 24. with eager energy. Through the years and the centuries. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance.Burnt green and blue and white. 16. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. The word conscience has become almost confined. nor himself. The water. through toys and atoms.²to preserve her throne. to restore civil and religious order. 13. 23. 5. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 11. 14. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. a graceful dancer. just on the edge of destruction. in popular use. is to have no political system at all. and only to be saved by invention and courage.He sat in the shower. to the moral sphere. 6. I have heard Coleridge talk. He risked everything. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 15. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 20. and spared nothing. 19. like a witch's oils. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. neither ammunition. might be called flabby and irresolute. 17. . 22. the carrion crow. a skilled musician. Old Adam. 10. You may ramble a whole day together. nor troops. a good shot. good and amiable otherwise. 21.The old crow of Cairo. always in a bad plight. The whole figure and air. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. two stricken hours. To be hurried away by every event. through evil agents. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. an accomplished scholar. Her aims were simple and obvious. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 12. We are always in peril. and every moment discover something new. His opinion is always original. and to the purpose.4. 18. 8. 9.

Effacing many a stain of former crime. This amiable relative. 41. baggage far in the rear. the prime minister of Spain. in less heroic and poetic form. 39. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. upon my own ground. or perhaps one virtue.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. in front of all this mighty crowd. Now. The villain. and the wherefore? . She had made a two days' march. and. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Few in number. 33. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. an elderly man. The cry. 37. 31. In the Acadian land. Fair name might he have handed down. to bid you leave the place now and forever. had but one foible. 34. 36. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. to be a reproach to such goodness. But yield. I dare this. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. the ship was in an uproar. 32. Upon this shore stood.Distant. Must we in all things look for the how. still. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 26.25. Supposing this computation to be correct. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. the same Condé Olivarez. Oxford. in this world. 35. 40. time-honored. and in my own garden. secluded. 38. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. I hate him and myself. and no provisions but wild berries. and the why. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. the present capital of New England. 27. proud foe. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. it would not have been filial or ladylike. haply. ready to receive her. Of the same grandeur. 29. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 30.

but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. 365. . the pride and beauty of the grove." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. thus. made merely for convenience and smoothness. COMPLEX SENTENCES.From her own loved island of sorrow." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. however. As shown in Part I. but. The simple sentence the basis.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. as. Words left out after than or as. as would be the connective instead of like. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. 366." This must." Sentences with like. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 367.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 333). though often treated as phrases. which is the unit of speech." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. (Sec. are really contracted clauses." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. if they were expanded. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country.² "She is like some tender tree. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." To show that these words are really omitted.

371. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.²the other members subordinate to it. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. as in this sentence.. we are aware. object. 370. and modifier. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. object. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. 368. that is. predicate. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. CLAUSES. modifiers. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. complements. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. or it may be applied to the others. Hence the following definition:² Definition. complement.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. Independent clause. etc. and the last. or dependent on it. and the next one. each clause has its subject. murmur. logically depends on suffering.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. suffering. A clause is a division of a sentence. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. Definition. 369.. main." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint.. which are so united that one member is the main one. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).. . is taken in. A principal.²the backbone. containing a verb with its subject. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. how great . then we recognize this as the main statement. that .

352. and it is . and ADVERB clauses. and the whole clause is not.. 5). We ourselves are getting .. verbal. infinitive. attention is called to them here. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. pronoun. ADJECTIVE. 'I know that he can toil terribly. put an end to my fancies.. with a noun clause in apposition with it.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences... night or day. for a hundred years. over which the torrent came tumbling. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. impertinences²would be grammatical." "I was told that the house had not been shut.' is an electric touch. (a) Ordinary apposition. etc. clauses are divided into NOUN. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." 374. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. impertinences. (b) that are . adjectives. As to their office in the sentence." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. thus. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.." Just as the object noun." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause." (2) Object of a verb. so the object clause is retained. for example. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. 373. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. Kinds.." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. for a time. 372. but logically the sentence is. for example. Noun Clauses." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. ." (4) Apposition. But since they are complex in form.Dependent clause. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. or adverbs.

The reply of Socrates. that he was a scheming impostor. that. wherein. 9. a relative pronoun being understood. 2. a falsehood incarnate. where. and not on the sentiment. of a nation. etc. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. but. I was napping." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 3. as. that all safe legislation must be based. which. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. Except by what he could see for himself. 8. 4. . how it changed from shape to shape. Frequently there is no connecting word. no man will ever know. he would repent it. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. Such a man is what we call an original man. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. whither. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Examples of adjective clauses. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. that. in the sentence. he could know nothing. But the fact is. As the office of an adjective is to modify. whence. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. Other examples of this construction are. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun.² "It is on the understanding. still remains reasonable. 7. whether he should choose one or not. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 10." Exercise. What history it had. whereby. 5. sometimes by the conjunctions when. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. 6.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. or equivalent of a noun. 375. Adjective Clauses. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building.

In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. which Rowena tasted. 1. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. which formed the center of the mansion. 6." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. No man is reason or illumination. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 8. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Pick out the adjective clauses." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 4. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. etc. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. i. 11. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. and tell what each one modifies. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. I walked home with Calhoun. or that essence we were looking for. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. all is vacancy. 10. 3. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 2. 5." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. the champions advanced through the lists.e." Exercise. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. Adverbial Clauses.376. . 7." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. he begins to help us more as an effect.. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. whether subject. 9. object. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble.

there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. adverbs. expressing the degree in which the horizon. and will be given in detail." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." (3) REASON. to make up our shortcomings." "When he was come up to Christian." "The right conclusion is. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. etc. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. Joanna is better.² whoever. is wider." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. Exercise.. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. with examples. etc. or an adverb. and what it modifies:² ." "Who cares for that. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. introduced by indefinite relatives. an adjective. however good she may be as a witness. the wider is the horizon of their thought. Shakespeare is our city of refuge.377. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. a verbal. 378. the milestones are grave-stones." These mean no matter how good." "After leaving the whole party under the table. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. however. etc." (9) CONCESSION. tell what kind each is. but they require careful study." "He went several times to England. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "The broader their education is. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." (5) DEGREE. he goes away as if nothing had happened." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. since he was too great to care to be original." (7) RESULT. no matter what remains. shaping our actions." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. so far as we can.: "But still. whatever. that we should try. it takes precedence of everything else. and adverbial conjunctions." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future.

when the wind was unruly. incoherent exclamations. on a dark wintry night. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. banging about doors and windows. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. 'Well. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. and twirling weathercocks. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. find the principal subject and principal predicate. 379. If the children gathered about her. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it.1. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. 3. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. etc. so as to picture the parts and their relations.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence." 2. with shrill. we are a little disappointed. to tell the truth. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. then treat noun clauses as nouns. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. its object is that Odin was a reality. as they sometimes did. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. object. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. of which clause Odin is the subject. and modifiers. they might perhaps say of their visitors. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. 380. howling and whistling. predicate. snatching up stones to fling at them. For example. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. in the sentence.

as seen in the "map" (Sec. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 364. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (1) Find the principal clause. Exercises. 380). \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Take the place and attitude which belong to you. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 2. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 3... 364. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. . d. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.

who would yield to it least. 21. 23. counselor that had none for herself. Next came a wretched Dominican. namely. The deep eyes. This is she. But now that she has become an establishment. 19. 13. the shepherd girl. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 6. 14. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 20. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. could not have been effected. 22. not so much for travelers that were few. the flower should revive for us. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. M. that pressed her with an objection. as for armies that were too many by half. 5. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 9. He was what our country people call an old one. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. if applied to the Bible. bishop. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. which. Here lay two great roads. I like that representation they have of the tree. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Now. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 12. that. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. . The night proved unusually dark. had we been worse. 11. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. And those will often pity that weakness most. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 17. 8. 10. 24. 15. for yours. 7. 18. dying for them. of a light hazel. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 16. whom I choose. or whether any.4. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. Had they been better chemists. the mixed result. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other.

should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. How formed. It makes no difference how many friends I have. . The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. though we may repeat the words never so often. if there be one to whom I am not equal. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. That which we do not believe. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. 27. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 28.² Definition. 26. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength." said Bentley. would easily reach. 380. if continuously extended. or commands. and what content I can find in conversing with each. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 6. "No book. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. we cannot adequately say. (b) First analyze. Hence the definition. then map out as in Sec. that it was no more than his daily walk. 7. "was ever written down by any but itself." 4.25. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. is to speak and write sincerely. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. and stamped with his right number. but above it. 383. and temper. These things we are forced to say. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 5. 3. 2. 382.²which will not be disposed of. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. COMPOUND SENTENCES. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. and not from his heart. 30. questions. speed. the following complex sentences:² 1.

But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. The coördinate conjunctions and. Speak your latent conviction. and which complex:² 1. the semicolon separates the first. he walks with arms akimbo. the waving grass. whereas. 385. etc. . and connects the first and second complex members." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. he soliloquizes. from the second." 384. Study the thought. or but. which are simple statements. moon-like ray" (adversative). From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. the planet has a faint. others sometimes coördinate. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. a simple member. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. in (3). a complex member. as but. 383 (1). Connectives. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. if there are any. Of the following illustrative sentences. tell which are compound. now adverbs or prepositions. The division into members will be easier. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. he dilates. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. and it shall be the universal sense. Some of these are now conjunctions. while (whilst). Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. however. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. yet. 297). "Only the star dazzles. Another example is. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3).. he is twice a man. and not the form of the connective. nor. Exercise." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. etc.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. and nor the second and third complex members. 386. in (2). The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. Thus in (1). for. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. nor does he know until he has tried. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. as in Sec.

that it was Easter Sunday. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. to find a pot of buried gold. For everything you have missed. so is every one of its parts. However some may think him wanting in zeal. however. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. Exercise. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 381. 2. you lose something. all pain. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 364. for example. 9. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 7.2. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. or. from a happy yet often pensive child. All loss. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 12. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. nay. (i) Separate it into its main members. the tax is certain. and not by what each is. 5. Man does not stand in awe of man. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 13. 3. . Love. 8. quiet. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 3. I can yet love. 11. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 6. passed in that time. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. I can still receive. and as yet very early in the morning. and thou shalt be loved. 14. In this manner. yield to them heart and life. 387. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. The gain is apparent. 4. unobtrusive boy. he grew up to be a mild. 10. you have gained something else. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. Whilst the world is thus dual. is particular. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 4. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. and for everything you gain. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has.

They will shuffle and crow. and each shows only what lies at its focus. why should we intrude? 10. treat them greatly. 15. and they will be true to you. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. Stand aside. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. modesty." "keep the rake. and not a thought has enriched either party. feign to confess here. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. "as nigh the scythe as you can. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. or men will never know and honor him aright. and not an emotion of bravery. 7. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 11. and they will show themselves great. if you rip up his claims. "the iron is white." 13. Whatever he knows and thinks. Come into port greatly. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. whilst frankness invites frankness. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. give those merits room. and they repel us. He teaches who gives. 17. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12." says the smith. because. and the other dares not. We see the noble afar off. 16. is as thin and timid as any. and the cart as nigh the rake. 6. let them mount and expand. 21. 20. as children. only that they may brag and conquer there. one is afraid. or we pursue persons. 14. and makes their business a friendship. When you have chosen your part.5. crook and hide. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. 18. or hope. 9. and the peace of society is often kept. that let him communicate. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and he learns who receives. and you are without effort impelled to truth. abide by it. which always make the Actual ridiculous. "Strike. or sail with God the seas. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 19. Trust men. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. We go to Europe. ." says the haymaker. or we read books. 8. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats.

so readily and lavishly they promise. they lose themselves in the crowd. or. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. if they live. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. but go about your business anywhere. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. By way of introduction. but its leading characteristic is.²agreement and government. and dodge the account. but they never acquit the debt. they die young. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Ground covered by syntax. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. 388. the department of syntax will be a small affair. verb and subject. So does culture with us. adjective and noun. 23. it never was known to fall into the rear. pronoun and antecedent. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. 380. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. 24. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Do not craze yourself with thinking. 25. INTRODUCTORY. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. PART III. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Essential point in English syntax.22. SYNTAX. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. We see young men who owe us a new world. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. 390. Following the Latin method. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. it ends in headache.

then. etc. the sentence. the order being inverted. The basis of syntax. take the sentence. As an illustration of the last remark. Also in the sentence. distinct forms would be used. 392. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Some rules not rigid. authorities²that is. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. and imitate it. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. some of which conform to classical grammar. Savage may be the subject. pronoun and antecedent. as to study inflected forms. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and nothing but important points will be considered.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. "None remained but he. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree." that is. sometimes verb and subject. or settler may be the subject. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. For example. but are not now. This is not logical. There is. and whose judgment. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. therefore. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. . following the regular order of subject. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan." is ambiguous. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. or the same writer will use both indifferently. also expressing a possessive relation. and added to it the preposition of. Why study syntax? 391. good English. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. When usage varies as to a given construction.² First." In this there is a possessive form. 393. "The savage here the settler slew. and it would not matter which one stood first. In some cases. both forms will be given in the following pages." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. In Latin. Second.

When two or more possessives modify the same noun. and Pope's.²BYRON. but imply separate possession or ownership. He kept Bolingbroke's. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²MACAULAY. the possessive sign is used with each noun. PRONOUNS. Use of the possessive. or indicate joint ownership or possession. as.²MILTON. ²ID.²MCCULLOCH. Woman. 394. and Harley's. the shore of Galilee. Putting Mr. . etc.²THACKERAY. Mill's and Mr. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. 396. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.² Live your king and country's best support. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. 408)." Juletta tells.²ROWE. and Peter's. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Joint possession.² He lands us on a grassy stage. for example. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.NOUNS. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Separate possession. the antechamber of the High Priest. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. and Paul's.²EMERSON. 397.²RUSKIN. 395. sense and nature's easy fool. Bentham's principles together. and Peterborough's. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.

This should be "as she. sanctioned. for example.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. But he must be a stronger than thee. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. I. and should be the nominative form. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. thus. Some of the violations are universally condemned. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. Still.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.) "The young Harper. 399. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. as. if not universally. who. . These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. others are generally.²WHITCHER. No mightier than thyself or me. the real thought being forgotten. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Objective for the nominative. together with the relative who. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. 398.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Since most of the personal pronouns. the last expression has the support of many good writers.²POPE.²SHAKESPEARE. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. whom is the complement after the verb am.²THACKERAY. Bedott Papers.²BYRON.²TROLLOPE. there are two general rules that require attention." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. General rules. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²SOUTHEY." 400.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.

" There is no special reason for this. . Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. and the other forms of the verb be.²KINGSLEY. but such is the fact. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable."²WM.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. Patrick the Porter. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. as. The camp of Richard of England. for example. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. One exception is to be noted. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. unless a special.²THACKERAY. A safe rule. But still it is not she.²SCOTT. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. BLACK."²KINGSLEY. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²PARTON. on the other hand.² For there was little doubt that it was he.²LONGFELLOW.²MACAULAY. "Who's there?"²"Me. it will not be me. "Than whom.²FIELDING. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²COLERIDGE. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.² One I remember especially. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. "If there is any one embarrassed. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage." 401. they are yet holier than we."²WINTHROP. both in England and America. are. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. the objective form is regularly found.²RUSKIN.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. The usage is too common to need further examples. In spoken English. And it was heThat made the ship to go. namely. is.

²MILTON. 11. or this. verbals. the object of to). Nominative for the objective. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. you or me. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. or preposition which governs it. as this from Shakespeare. You know whom it is that you thus charge. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. verbal. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person." the word being in apposition with murderer). 2. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 404. It is not me you are in love with." 6. If there ever was a rogue in the world. Truth is mightier than us all. 8. used after verbs. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. and prepositions. 4. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 403. Me in exclamations. "Ask the murderer. but not he" (he should be him. it is me. . 9. as. object of saw). 10. as. 3. 5. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Whom they were I really cannot specify. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. or us). (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns.Exercise. 7. now. I speak not to" (he should be him.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. (3) By forgetting the construction.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. as. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women.

²BYRON. Nature. who interrogative. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. Thou. for they say there are none such in the world. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. "Who were they talking to?" etc. . I've sworn. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. I arraign. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. partial Nature.²STEELE. etc. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.²KINGSLEY. but he. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²KINGSLEY. as. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. as.²GOLDSMITH. None. 2.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. all but he.²BYRON. Exercise. We regularly say. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. save thou and thine. 406.Exception 1. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Let you and I look at these. "Who did you see?" or.² All were knocked down but us two. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.²KINGSLEY. Exception 2. for example. 405. Who have we here?²ID. changed in all save thee. Thy shores are empires. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. after the preposition but (sometimes save). as well as the objective.Shall be left upon the morn. and is usually avoided.

²MACAULAY. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. B. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. 11. or objective? . 6. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Bartholomew. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 12. As antecedent of a relative.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²RUSKIN. This usage is not frequent. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 8. and they know that as well as me. BROWN. 10. who. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. They crowned him long ago. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²C. Markland.²THACKERAY." 4. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. Preceding a gerund.3. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²DE QUINCEY. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 7.²SCOTT. 407. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. POSSESSIVE FORMS. II. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.Ye I salute. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. with Jortin and Thirlby. 5. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. 9.²possessive.

sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²DICKENS.² SCOTT.² IRVING. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. object of heard of. Possessive.²BREWER. that the bitterness of death was past. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. both are gerunds. etc.² THACKERAY. We heard of Brown. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.²RUSKIN. sometimes it has the objective. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²CARLYLE.²MACAULAY. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. as he turned away from his wife. The last incident which I recollect. Objective. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and that in the second." That is.²DE QUINCEY. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. But in common use there is no such distinction. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.408. and asked why it was not made. The use of the objective is older. In the examples quoted. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. and the meaning is. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. [who was] studying law. Why both are found. Both types of sentences are found. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. .² CARLYLE. Here I state them only in brief. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. studying is a gerund.

² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²THACKERAY. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. if the antecedent is neuter. Every city threw open its gates. Watch for the real antecedent. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON III. If any one did not know it. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²C.²AUDUBON. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²DE QUINCEY.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²RUSKIN. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²CABLE.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. Everybody had his own life to think of. In such a case as the last three sentences.²when the antecedent.²THOREAU. and gender. BROCKDEN BROWN. number. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. where there were examinations. and ought to agree with them in person. .²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. 410. Examples of these constructions are. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.² BRYANT. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. The pale realms of shade.²HUXLEY.²HOLMES. preceded by a distributive. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. it was his own fault. in one person. or is a distributive word. taking in each of many persons. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²DEFOE. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. 409.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.

every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²DEFOE.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. If the part deserve any comment.² Not the feeblest grandame. The sun. for example. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²EMERSON. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²THACKERAY. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²PALGRAVE. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. 411.²RUSKIN. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²ID.²PALEY. Whosoever hath any gold. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. till they have lost him. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²HUXLEY. let them break it off. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. not a mowing idiot.²AUSTEN. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. as anybody in their senses would have done. This is not considered the best usage. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Struggling for life.²ID. and giving them means of being so. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. By using the plural pronoun. . Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²BIBLE.²SCOTT. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²BYRON.²PAULDING.²FIELDING. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.Avoided: By using both pronouns.

the definite relatives who. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. 1. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. who went away. but. in each instance:² Who. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. "I gave it to the beggar.Where she was gone. no one could take upon them to say." A relative.²HAWTHORNE. when coördinating. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. which.² SHERIDAN." It defines beggar. Exercise. and he went away. and that are restrictive or not. but. What these terms mean. A relative. or what was become of her. which. as.²ADDISON.) and a personal pronoun. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. according to the practice of every modern writer.²ID. unless both genders are implied. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. That is in most cases restrictive.²In the above sentences. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. It adds a new statement to what precedes. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. etc." This means. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. when restrictive. 2. 413. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. As to their conjunctive use. In the following examples. and does not add a new statement. and that always restrictive. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. Exercise. tell whether who. because. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. I. that being considered already clear. . 412. or unrestrictive.

²THOREAU. Hare has printed. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. With narrow shoulders. In what sense true. The general rule is. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. II. W. etc. 11. Yet how many are there who up. 6. Which. 13. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. We say I. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. but.² IRVING. down. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.²DE QUINCEY.² NEWMAN. which Mr.²ADDISON. 8. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind." that is invariable as to person and number.² MOTLEY. . On hearing their plan. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. So different from the wild. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. they.3. 4.²HOLMES. A grizzly-looking man appeared. and it is called logic.²DE QUINCEY. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. For example. which was to go over the Cordilleras. she agreed to join the party. BEECHER 5. that were often vicious. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 414. However. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. these or that which. 10. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²ID.. 14.² CARLYLE. 12. it makes the verb third person singular.²H. as that does not vary for person or number. you.²ID. and over England are saying. 7. he. etc. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. because of its antecedent. who. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. 9. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. etc. The rule. long arms and legs. in the sentence. That.

JR. ARNOLD. with one as the principal word.] Both constructions are frequently found. but the former has good authority. Let us be of good cheer. etc. He is one of those that deserve very well. MORSE. in winning a battle. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. the true antecedent.. "one of the finest books that has been published. Franklin. or which . What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. 415. "one of the finest books that have been published.²BOWLES. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²SCOTT. [singular or plural.. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. [plural] that who.²ADDISON. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. when he derided the shams of society.²LOWELL.²HOLMES. T. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²LECKY..²whether we should say.²J. and in improving a victory... Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.. but myself." or. etc.. .Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²ADDISON.²M.²LOWELL. A disputed point. The fiery youth . French literature of the eighteenth century. and write the verb in the plural. who rarely speak at all. The latter is rather more frequent.²HOWELLS. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. but speaks of him as that sort. Singular. others regard books as the antecedent. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²MACAULAY." One of .

I could see nothing except the sky. when this dust falls to the urn.²SCOTT.²DEFOE.² THACKERAY. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation." "India is the place [in which. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. 417." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. object of a preposition understood. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. or where] he died.² . Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.And.²In the above sentences.²GOLDSMITH.² RUSKIN. or is equivalent to the conjunction when."²DICKENS. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²BURNS. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. But I by backward steps would move.²SWIFT.In that same state I came. whence.²VAUGHAN.²EMERSON. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²EMERSON. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²ID.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. that is.²CARLYLE. Exercise. III.²ADDISON.A rare Roundabout performance. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. 416. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. return. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. when the relative word is a pronoun. IV. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²IRVING. and such like: as. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. and see if the sentence is made clearer. where.

Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. etc.²FRANKLIN. Which.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. if I had resolved to go on with. V. boats. . with Turner. which. W. Caution. or that.. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.² THACKERAY. but which is usually carefully avoided. They believe the same of all the works of art. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.² Which. and working in the same spirit.He considered. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. That. was a discoverer. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. I might as well have staid at home. if same is followed by a complete clause.. 418.²SCOTT. CHURCH. but. she passed the lamp over her face and person. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.²WORDSWORTH. as is not used. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. looking-glasses. The regular construction.² as his apprentice. as of knives. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. he. but we find the relative who. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. for example.² MACAULAY.² BURKE. Mr.²SWIFT. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. Anacoluthic use of which. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. ²GOLDSMITH.²ADDISON.

²SCOTT. After this came Elizabeth herself. but none is expressed.²RUSKIN.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.She'd come again. and who are now. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.²DE QUINCEY. . The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. Express both relatives.²THACKERAY. 4. le Conte. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. but. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself." etc.²which if they once heard. or omit the conjunction." etc. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. 419. But who. or leave out both connective and relative. etc. As the sentences stand. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²GOLDSMITH. and which.² Direction for rewriting. who are now thrown. Exercise. once a great favorite of M.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. etc. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²SHAKESPEARE. or. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. Exercise. Thornhill had read. (3) "Among the poorer sort. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 2. he said that all submission was now too late. which when Mr.²HAWTHORNE.. And who. and this be placed in the proper clause. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. This was a gentleman." etc. 3. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. (1) "Among those who are poor. (2) "Among the poorer sort. He delivered the letter. now thrown upon their. That is. 1.

Or who. Dr. English by name. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. 9. the French. and which has never been described. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. like that spoken in the towns. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 1. "What knight so craven. Exercise. That . 11. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.²DE QUINCEY. I shall have complete copies. etc. 6." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian.²IRVING. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.. and which. who. which the Scotch had learned. and to whom no door is closed.²SCOTT. 8. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. 420. indeed. etc. Or which. 10. 13. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. "A mockery.. 12. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . . I saw upon the left a scene far different.²HAWTHORNE. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. one of signal interest. and which may even be heard a mile off. then.5. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 7. Akin to the above is another fault. either from imitation of their frequent allies.²SCOTT.. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.²DE QUINCEY.²PEARSON. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. But which.² MOTLEY. and repeat this for any further reference. as a false and astucious mark.. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. And which. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.

and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. which..²SCOTT That which .. 11. was hung in air. the cent.2. and to whom I do not belong. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.²SCOTT. 3. whom. SIMMS. 7.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. 8. Which .²DE QUINCEY. that . that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.²DEFOE.²W.²HALLAM. . and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. That . I grudge the dollar. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. E. G. in his Mephistopheles.. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. 13. I give to such men as do not belong to me. I recommend some honest manual calling. and whose examples and principles we inherit. CHANNING. 4. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 6. Such as . The Tree Igdrasil. in his present condition. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. at the head of what.. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. what. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. 14. which.. In my native town of Salem. He. 12. Such as .. 5.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. half a century ago.²BEECHER. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. It rose into a thrilling passion. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. 10. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. was a bustling wharf. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.²W.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. but which..²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON.²EMERSON.. 15. such as they have very probably been bred to. the dime. He flung into literature.. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. but which is perhaps not so different from it. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. 9. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.²HOLMES.²HOWELLS.. that.

²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.² HAWTHORNE. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²GOLDSMITH. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²DICKENS. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. that not all combined. 422. always at war with one another.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²MACAULAY.² Some one must be poor.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. one another. Each other.²RUSKIN. We call ourselves a rich nation. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. Distributives either and neither. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²RUSKIN. By their original meaning. 421. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. as. whether or not the two are equivalent. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. for example.²EMERSON. in which case any should be used instead. as it were.²HAWTHORNE. as. . Assume that no one is in want of either.²ID. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. Use of any.

afterwards in Goethe.²SCOTT. then in Plotinus. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²FRANKLIN. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.. speak.²BURKE. then in Plutarch.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. The adjective pronoun none is. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. for him have I offended. any of his friends had died.²SHAKESPEARE. as. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. Caution. which is plural as often as singular.. 423. whilst I still cherish their genius. that I know of. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . in Shakespeare.²CARLYLE. if ever man was. None of Nature's powers do better service. at one time in Bacon.²BIBLE.² EMERSON.²EMERSON.²PROF. before that.. usually plural.² In earnest. when any of them are so good as to visit me. In earlier Modern English. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.²STIRLING. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). and is isolated. I beseech you. any was often singular. None usually plural. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. even in Bettine. as none of the French philosophers were. Do you think. as. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Examples of its use are. Any usually plural. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. .² If any. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. in the prose of the present day. If any of you lack wisdom. etc.²THACKERAY.²BEECHER Whenever. let him ask of God. 424. Do you think. during his stay at Yuste.

the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.²McMASTER. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. saving Naaman the Syrian. etc. fixing his eyes on the mace. or somebody else's? 426. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. as. and less rarely in poetry. and all was lost on the other. for example. nobody else.² Singular.²SCOTT Like the use of any.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²THOREAU. when it means all persons: for example. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. any one else. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. The light troops thought . which is used absolutely.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²NAPIER Plural. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. etc. etc.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. the plural. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.² None of them was cleansed... are treated as units.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. 425. and Ford has nobody's else. The compounds somebody else. When all were gone. Somebody's else. etc.² PEARSON.. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. that all was lost.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.

curled once all over it in long tendrils. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes."²MRS.²N. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²RUSKIN. etc. etc. the adjectives plural. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. His hair.² Saturday Review.²THACKERAY.. . "Ye see. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²MULOCH. ELIOT.²in such as "these sort of books. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). P.SYDNEY SMITH. for example. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²AUSTEN. These sort. or those sort of people." "those kind of trees.²RUSKIN. all manner of.²SWEET. London.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. 427.² These kind of knaves I know." the nouns being singular. Again. ADJECTIVES.² FIELDING. STOWE.. unlike anybody else's in the world.²SHERIDAN. or some other such great man as a bishop. Whitefield or Wesley. WILLIS." "all manner of men. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²G. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²DICKENS. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.

more alarming than a total silence. for example.²RUSKIN.The library was open. or one object with a class of objects. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. made to agree with it. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. Later form. Consequently we have a confused expression. . The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. 428. "This kind of rules are the best. such as. not "all kinds of wild animals. "This sort of trees should be planted." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. which accounts for the construction. Burke's sentence. History of this construction. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. At the source. they said. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. The result. with all manner of amusing books. Use of the comparative degree. Should we say. when the necessary dispositions concur. to express a higher degree of quality. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects." A question.² Which is the better able to defend himself. According to the approved usage of Modern English. "These kind of trees are best. This the modern expression reverses." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). gradually displacing the old. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Of two such lessons. the victor or the vanquished. in spoken English.²a strong man with nothing but his fists.² PRESCOTT. and the adjective is. as. In Old and Middle English. and in this way may take a plural verb. or the nouns to the plural. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared.

Gary. 430. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. .²SCOTT.²MACAULAY.² THACKERAY.A braver ne'er to battle rode. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. Henry. 3.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Exercise. Other after the comparative form. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. the highest stakes are paid. Even Dodd himself. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Use of the superlative degree. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. He is taller.²MACAULAY.²LOWELL. would not have had the face. than any of his court. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²SWIFT. by almost the breadth of my nail. if not. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²CARLYLE. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²TROLLOPE. 2. To the man who plays well.²WIRT.²HAWTHORNE. Superlative with two objects."²ID. 429. etc. 5. 6. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²THACKERAY. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. 4. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. I am concerned to see that Mr. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²HUXLEY. has sanctioned.

There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. Also from the same period.²MRS. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. more particularly the last of them.²RUSKIN. .²Bible. OLIPHANT. In all disputes between States."²HAWTHORNE. and the other contains the best men. The following examples are used purposely. "Ha. "Let us see which will laugh loudest."²GOLDSMITH. not a bit of high life among them.. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. 1611.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. The eldest.²EMERSON. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. whichever can be got easiest. Double comparative and superlative.²J. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²DR BLAIR. CÆSAR. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²ADDISON. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. I should say that one has the best cause. Rip was one of those . ha.. Mary.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. Come you more nearer. Examples from Shakespeare are. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²HAMLET. After the most straitest sect of our religion. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.²TEMPEST. These two properties seem essential to wit.²BEN JONSON. and differ only in form.²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT.²IRVING. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. 431. who eat white bread or brown. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size."²BULWER.

The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²KINGSLEY. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. but in literary English. . when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The delay in the first three lines. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The first five had specific names.²GIBBON. Examples of this construction are. and Secretary Walsingham also. As to these two expressions. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²RUSKIN.² SMOLLETT.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²PRESCOTT. etc. The meaning intended is the same. Definite article. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. etc. For Carlyle. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. not only so in popular speech.² With a singular noun. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The merit of the Barb. Three first.²LAMB. jar upon us constantly. Instances of both are given below.²RUSKIN. ARTICLES. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.²GIBBON. First three. These are the three first needs of civilized life. the Spanish. 433. and conceit in the last. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. ²COWPER.²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY.

No.² RUSKIN. with a singular noun.²SCOTT. Here the youth of both sexes. to distinguish clearly. 433.²THACKERAY. He is master of the two-fold Logos. were placed at a very tender age.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. the thought and the word.²NEWMAN. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. but is used with one only. 1508. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. as. Frequently.²CARLYLE. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. . of the eighteenth century. the hour of parting came. The not repeated. or to emphasize the meaning. as in Sec. I think.²MACAULAY. as. but inseparable from each other. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. 435.²TENNYSON. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.² MACAULAY. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. and the presents.²ID.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. With a plural noun.. melodious. 433.²PRESCOTT. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. with a plural noun. Indefinite article. Meaning same as in Sec. 434. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. the greatest poems. The lofty.. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. The flowers. One object and several modifiers.²THE NATION. and flexible language. Origin of the Aryans.²TAYLOR. of the higher and middling orders. however. distinct. having been arranged. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.

² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.436. One article with several adjectives.An early.² MACAULAY. a round and a square one alternately. a collegian. For rhetorical effect. as in the first three of Sec.²S. The indefinite article is used. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. a murderer. 435.²DICKENS. rich. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. only one of which is expressed. T.²B. He saw him in his mind's eye. like the definite article. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. The indefinite article (compare Sec. 433 and 436. 437.²BEECHER. one noun is expressed.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. But in the following sentences.²MACAULAY.²BULWER. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted." and "a red and a white geranium. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. interest. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. a tyrant.²DRYDEN. and a usurper. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 438. and inexhausted vein. In the sentences of Secs. JONSON. . a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²JOHNSON. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. or clearness to each of several nouns. 436). COLERIDGE. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. as.²MACAULAY. Examples of this use are. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. to limit two or more modified nouns.²THACKERAY. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² BURKE.

²G.²AGASSIZ. as. ARNOLD. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. 440. Sec. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.²M. ELIOT. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. Singular verb. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. A broad and loose rule.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²GIBBON. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. Collective noun of singular meaning. 439. then. all that academies can give. as. Another writer might. Singulars connected by or or nor. or the great intellectual life of our nation.²COOPER. He sees that it is better to live in peace. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. for example. Such. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form..²FROUDE. has got already.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. In English. was the earliest American land. 276.²CARLYLE This usage.²The Nation. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. and the following illustrations prove it.VERBS. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. without academies. like some others in this series. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. .²W. This was spoken of in Part I. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.

the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. a loss of wealth. a mutilation.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. for example. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. is gone.² The unbought grace of life. the cheap defense of nations. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. No.² In a word. but considered as meaning about the same thing.²GOLDSMITH. and every four hours.² Politics is the only field now open for me. a cruel disappointment.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²J.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²DE QUINCEY. and other singulars of plural form. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.Jesus is not dead.²GIBBON. as. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. a loss of friends. Plural form and singular meaning. or as making up one general idea. seems at the moment unpaid loss. that of a large town. nor Mahomet. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.² GOLDSMITH. nor John.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²EMERSON . Several singular subjects to one singular verb. for example. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. Between ourselves. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. but each one emphatic. as. other names.²BURKE. Q. nor Paul.²CRITIC. A fever. ²EMERSON. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.²WHITTIER. ADAMS. or considered as appositional.

Every law and usage was a man's expedient.²EMERSON. sir?" and the "No. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. as. every echo. many a. and greaves. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. Every sound. and such like adjectives.² Asia. as. an agitated gesture. with death. as well as the newest.The author. the wit. an impassioned countenance. nay.²M ARNOLD. no spent ball. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. wineBegins to stir itself. in a judge. was listened to for five hours.²MACAULAY.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. the partisan. every boor. Here is no ruin.²RUSKIN.The rout. The oldest. For wide is heard the thundering fray. no discontinuity.²LONGFELLOW. Subjects after the verb. sir!" and the "What then. no matter if the second is plural). was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. 441.²PRESCOTT.² .²SCOTT. To receive presents or a bribe. Then comes the "Why.²BUTLER. Plural verb. the dismay.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²ID. the ruin. does not take the place of the man. Her back.²NEWMAN. was dazzled. a cuirass. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. Every week. thus. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. each. as well as the Drama. The Epic.²MACAULAY. the fine gentleman. There is a moving tone of voice. almost every day.²ID. every valet. as well as sides. is a man of wit. no. Every fop. sir!"²MACAULAY. a gorget.²PRESCOTT. as well as Europe. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. was like to crack.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. was punished.²HAWTHORNE.

²GIBBON.²DE QUINCEY. its date. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. as with a subject of plural form. making up a plural subject. His clothes.²FROUDE.²FROUDE. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. a green pasture.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²COLERIDGE. far away thy children leave the land.²SWIFT.These bits of wood were covered on every square. as. for example. TAYLOR. a stream of fresh water. but the verb is plural. Far. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. The Dauphin. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. of whom there were a number.²FRANKLIN. All our household are at rest.²CARLYLE But its authorship. as.² A multitude go mad about it. and its history are alike a mystery to us. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. Philip of Anjou.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. the Duke of Berri.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²ADDISON. 440 (5. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²B. The conjunction may be omitted. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. as in Sec. A shady grove.²EMERSON.² GIBBON. b).²THOREAU. are sufficient to attract a colony. shirt. Conjunction omitted. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²SCOTT. were men of insignificant characters.²GOLDSMITH. The travelers.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. .

Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. Nothing which Mr.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Not Altamont. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²LOWELL. "I have never said so.²RUSKIN. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. ARNOLD. Ah. nor should I. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. the subject being really equivalent to we." "She or you may be sure.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. that is. Pattison or I have said. 442. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as." etc. 444. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. but thou. but thou.²DE QUINCEY. WEBSTER. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²RUSKIN. Exceptional examples. for example. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. . nor has she").²ROWE.²GOLDSMITH. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²THACKERAY." or. "You would not be wiser.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. General usage. hadst been my lord.). of different persons.²D. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. we never talk politics. Second or third and first person in the subject. When the subjects.²M. the verb takes the construction of the first person.But notice the construction of this. as. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. his blood dost shed. Not I. 443.²BYRON.²WHITTIER.²THACKERAY. If there is only one person in the subject. You and I are farmers. "He or I can go. You and I are tolerably modest people.²SMOLLETT.

Neither of them. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. 3. nor tree. 7.That neither of their intellects are vast. 9.²ID.²G. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. In a word. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 8.Her course to intercept.²BYRON. nor bush are there. as illustrated above (Secs. Both death and I am found eternal.²THACKERAY. 2. 4.² TROLLOPE. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Nor wood. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²MILTON. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Neither of their counselors were to be present. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²BURKE." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²ADDISON. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²SMOLLETT. 5. which it is proper to mention. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 440-444):² 1. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. Also in verbals. 6. In the following sentence. 12.445.²and. 446. 11. BANCROFT. How each of these professions are crowded. Exercise. In this sentence from Defoe. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²ADDISON. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²SCOTT.²EMERSON.²perhaps the devil. in my opinion. 10. as we would hope.

for exact connection.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. 447. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. 3. as. meaning. The present rule is recent." .²IRVING.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.²THACKERAY. Of course. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. if not. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²FRANKLIN 6. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. It should be remarked. Definitions. Indirect discourse means reported speech. on my return. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Two samples of indirect discourse.² PALGRAVE 5. But I found I wanted a stock of words. W. Direct discourse²that is.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. I gave one quarter to Ann. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²KINGSLEY. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.²DE QUINCEY 2. 4. change them to a better form:² 1. to have seen should be changed to to see. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. CHURCH. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Exercise..²R. 448.. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²MACAULAY. to have divided with her whatever might remain. however.

will. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. have. Oh. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St." Indirect. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. His exact words were. Her prudence whispered eternally. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. She thought to herself." etc. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. under interrogative pronouns.. and the subjunctive mood of verbs.. .(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. 1. interrogative adverbs. Sebastian's. 449. introductory verb is in the past tense. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. etc. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. "I cannot oblige you .. and the indirect question by whether or if. Direct. This includes the auxiliaries be. or regular interrogatives. Direct. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step.. "Oh. Summary of the expressions." etc. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. 2. The substance of his lamentation was. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form.

The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. . and that he himself had heard. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. like distant peals of thunder. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. one summer afternoon. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. Notice this.²ID. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²B. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. he assured me that nothing was more easy. my first observation will be found nearly true. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. VERBALS. FRANKLIN.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. in the sentences first quoted. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. the first discoverer of the river and country. The trouble is. the sound of their balls. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. Careless use of the participial phrase. PARTICIPLES. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. handed down from his ancestor the historian." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact.²ADDISON. if this were expanded into a verb.²GOLDSMITH. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. with his crew of the Half-moon. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. 450.Exercise. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.

²SCOTT. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. my first collection was.²RUSKIN. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. There are. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. and often. universal assertion. either "As I was pleased.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.." Exercise. avoid it.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. Exercise. if a strike is to succeed.. INFINITIVES.Correction.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. then. It is a solemn. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. . It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .. 3. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects..²ID. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. the first sentence would be.² HERBERT SPENCER. while defended or excused by others. many things to be carefully considered.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. 451. In the following citations. Standard writers often use it. . see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible." etc. leaving the principal statement as it is. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. 2. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. For example.²LAUGHLIN. Adverb between to and the infinitive. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. purposely or not. This is the more common arrangement.

from Irving. No. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.²The Nation. etc. 13. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. but it is placed before the infinitive. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. which consists in multitude. 12. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another..A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. when such adverbs as only. even.. 8." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. and earthenware. The spirits. The rigid rule in such a case would be.4. 9.²SCOTT. even. 10. but cannot misunderstand the thought. china.² MACAULAY. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. Exercise. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. In works of art.²GOLDSMITH. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. BLAIR. therefore. A little sketch of his.²ID. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. Now.²BURKE. is to be very cautiously admitted. I wish the reader to clearly understand. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. if they modify single words. etc. etc.² ADDISON. 6. are used. 1533. 7. but they are often removed from the exact position. Position of only. 452.²RUSKIN. 11. this kind of grandeur. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.²DR. ADVERBS. 5.²TROLLOPE. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.

I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. .²PALGRAVE. 7. During the whole course of his administration.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. The old usage. 453. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²RUSKIN. 14. might not marry. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 13. GROTE. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. were he never so old of yeares. Irving could only live very modestly. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²SWIFT.² THACKERAY.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²MACAULAY. 9.²CHAUCER. ²ASCHAM. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. WILLIS. 5. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. He shouted in those clear.²ID. P. whence he was never destined to return.²ID. 12. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²MRS.²ID.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 10. 15. My master.²MOTLEY.²EMERSON. to avoid a crowd. 11. His last journey to Cannes. 2.1.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²COOPER. In relating these and the following laws. 17. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 4.²N. 3. In Old and Middle English. No sonne. 8. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²SYDNEY SMITH.²HIGGINSON. 16. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²THACKERAY. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. He could only afford to keep one old horse. for example. 6.

Exceptional use. if two negatives are found together. 6. Therefore. as. 5. 4. nor the grandeur of no king.²HOLMES. nor never shall. 3. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.²BURKE. neither. Regular law of negative in modern English.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.² HAMILTON. is not common. in Ole Virginia. This. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.²DE QUINCEY. Not only could man not acquire such information.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. who hadn't been to school for nothing. I did not act so hastily. when one of the negatives is a connective. There weren't no pies to equal hers. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. STOWE. and is still kept in vulgar English. as infrequent. the usual way of regarding the question now is. In the execution of this task. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.²BAYNE."²four negatives. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²HAWTHORNE. one of the negatives is often a prefix. STOWE. etc."²MRS. In the latter case. uncommon. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. . Exercise. 7. 2.²DEFOE. The prosperity of no empire. But. but ought not to labor after it. I never did see him again. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. denying each other. and why:² 1.²MRS. ²PAGE. however.²LOWELL. under the influence of Latin syntax. can so agreeably affect. However. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.²GROTE.

"This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. or.. Correction. The sentences given in Secs. In the sentence.. the first should also. CONJUNCTIONS. either. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical." .. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . Things to be watched. 454. if the second precedes a phrase. or to reply to it. "well worthy to confer honor. Choice and proper position of correlatives. or with advantage. "A weapon. and. if the last precedes a verb.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives... and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. nor is often changed to not²either ." said the King. neither . as well as of the pronoun. but." Besides neither .8."²SCOTT. as the use of the conjunction. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. not only to the success of their common cause. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. and which.. not only .. should be scrutinized. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it... the first ought to be placed before a verb.. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. but to their own safety. The sentence. especially both . These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. not merely . Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever... nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. either . 455." may be changed to "This loose .. nor. even neither .²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it..²SCOTT.. And who. not or is the proper correlative of neither. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. but (also)." both of the above requirements are violated. or. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. or to reply to it.²PRESCOTT. there we were.²LOWELL..

²THACKERAY. Try and for try to. In the following sentences. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Some exceptions. 4. or the negative relative but.²BAIN. murder. but. and chop up their own kin. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. 6. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. But what. as. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²GIBBON.²GOLDSMITH. 8. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. too. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. 5. 3. O. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²RUSKIN. substitute that. Try and avoid the pronoun.²ID. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. but. etc. but grown-up persons.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. as. . An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²S. or but that. 457. Exercise. 2. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. 7. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. They will. not merely interest children. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son.²THACKERAY. nor the disgrace of assailing him. JEWETT.²MACAULAY. Now. and I don't know but what he was right.²FRANKLIN. 456. but they will outrage.² ADDISON. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.Exercise.

several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²ADDISON. 6.2. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 459. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²ADDISON. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. PREPOSITIONS.² BULWER. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 305.²BURKE. 4. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. Between and among. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²SCOTT.²TROLLOPE. 313. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 3. 458.²EMERSON. 5. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies.² SWIFT. Between is used most often with two things only. no separation or division by twos being implied. as already seen in Sec. see Sec. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.²EMERSON. .

Abhorrent to. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Such are derogatory. Comply with. Some of them have. etc.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. . involve. and another to convey a different meaning. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. a soldier of the Cross. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. different. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Kant. Accord with. 460. List I. 461. Affinity between. as. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Bestow on (upon). Different from. Two groups or one and a group. averse. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. and Coleridge.: Words with particular prepositions. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Paley.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Such are absolve. or one object and a group. as.²RUSKIN What have I. Averse to. and philosophers like Locke. ²EMERSON. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Conform to. Conversant with. Acquit of. Mackintosh. by custom. Dissent from. LIST I. confer. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Dependent on (upon). correspond. Derogatory to.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. and Stewart.²KINGSLEY.

etc. Correspond with (write to). Change with (a person). 462. in the sense of making friends with. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons." List III. as.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. LIST II. List II. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Confide to (intrust to).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Reconcile with (note below). Agree to (a proposal). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Confer with (talk with). Confide in (trust in). Correspond to (a thing). A taste of (food). 463. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Reconcile to (note below). ." also of persons. as meaning to be in keeping with.y y y Deprive of. Differ with (note below). A taste for (art. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. as. Confer on (upon) (give to). as.). LIST III. Independent of. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). "The king is reconciled to his minister. but it is not good usage. Involve in. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Change to (become). Differ from (note below). Change for (a thing).

Part from." "die from. ²ATHENÆUM.²MACAULAY. It is a man of quality who dies for her. No one died from want at Longfeld. If I meet with any of 'em. Illustrations of "die of.²SHAKESPEARE.:² "Die of. die with. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²GOLDSMITH. "Die from. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. She died of hard work.²GOLDSMITH. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. . die for." She would have been ready to die with shame." (because of). privation.²SCOTT. "Die by. as Cervantes informs us. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²BOSWELL. People do not die of trifling little colds." etc. "Die with." (in behalf of). Who. One of them said he would die for her. expect from. die of. died for love of the fair Marcella.²MACAULAY. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. ELIOT.²G." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. "Die for. simply from old age.²BULWER. part with.²ADDISON. "Die for. I am positively dying with hunger.²POPE." (material cause. instrument). ELIOT. He died at last without disease.²FIELDING. Expect of.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. and ill treatment.y y y Die by. they shall die by this hand.²BURNETT. It would take me long to die of hunger.²G. die from.²MACAULAY." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. ²THACKERAY.

I part with all that grew so near my heart.²SHAW. . Cleveland was sorry to part with him. Kind in you. I can part with my children for their good.²TROLLOPE. Illustrations of "part with. just parted from her. which he would by no means part from. 464. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. 466.²BULWER.²POE. nothing better was to be expected." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. ELIOT. ELIOT. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. I have just seen her.²DICKENS. kind of you. Of Doctor P. I have long expected something remarkable from you. That is more than I expected of you.²WALLER." She will expect more attention from you.²MARRYAT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²G. "Part from. It was a little bad of you.²G.²G. "Expect from. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. and hated to part with them." "part from:"² "Part with.²WALPOLE. as my friend." "expect from:"² "Expect of." To part from you would be misery. either of or in is used indifferently." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²AUSTEN. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. With words implying behavior or disposition. His precious bag.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. 465. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. ELIOT. Illustrations of "expect of.

This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 1. 5. nor blue. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 7. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. Thou tread'st. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. and ran up the alley. nor of a pale red. 14. raging storms. thunder. but which the story renders necessary. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 8. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. It will be anything but shrewd in you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. thrown it over Amyas's head. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. it is commonly said that his profits are high. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 6. This narrative. In.He did not think it handsome of you. In the friction between an employer and workman. 13.²BEACONSFIELD. with seraphims. the vast abyss. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. . Hampden.²DICKENS. 3. or artillery.²TENNYSON. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me.²CARLYLE. 4. The noise of vast cataracts. Very natural in Mr. 9. or which we are most imperatively required to do. tedious perhaps. nor green. 11.²BULWER.²BULWER. nor yellow. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. But this is idle of you. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 10. 15.

in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 22. 29.I would wish me only he. Friday. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 24. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. But every man may know. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 16. 36. the acquiescence of the understanding. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. triangles. 35. You have seen Cassio and she together. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 31. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. . and almost as good as a pony. The effect of proportion and fitness. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 411. (Sec. 37.And were I anything but what I am. 21. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. were down with raging fever. 26. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 20. produce approbation. 30. Squares. 33. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. Every one of these letters are in my name. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 19. or how beautiful it is. 27. and most of us do know. 38. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 17. 25. 32. 23. That night every man of the boat's crew. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. but in the price paid to them. 28.) 34. what is a just and unjust act. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. and other angular figures. save Amyas. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 18. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. you or me.

nominative. 102. 107. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 89. 47. article. 124. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 47. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 25. 92. 116. 133. nouns. . 91. of. from about 1500 to the present time.000 between them. Abstract with Active Address. as comparison definition demonstrative. 260. demonstrative. of. (2) Middle English. of. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. adverbs used complements. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 239. voice. from nominative clauses. 124. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. adjectives. 119. He had four children. 98. INDEX. syntax uses Absolute. numeral. A. as. pronouns. 40. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 20. Adjectives. (3) Modern English. 90. of. of. origin of. 310.39.

Against. plural pronominal. 325. 48. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. sentence. 191. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 239. 101. 27. conjunctions. objective. modify. 42. quantity. antecedent. compared. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 287. 262. with with with subject. 183. of. 190. 242. conjunction. 291. 103. 194. clauses. 194. 106. 99. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 148. nouns. . of. 302. and 185. to used of. adjectives. parse. 195. 303. 275. 97. 187. of. 115. antecedent. quality. 328. 27. 190. predicate. as nouns. of. from to of. 114. between of.from function how in not of of ordinal. of. infinitive. Alms. 303. 116. 184. parse. of. adjectives. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 109. of. 207. Agreement. 323. 116. nouns. 104. 207. adjectives. 325. 316.

of. definition how indefinite. 67. Anacoluthon Analysis. parse. sentences. 67. 74. in in. 47. Agreement. A. sentences. sentences. after of. of and pronoun of. Arrangement Articles. 331. which. words between. and. possessive.Among. syntax As. See 74. 148. 300. of. 240. which. 271. derivation in definite. 252. it. 198. 287. of of of And Antecedent. 264. of. 90. 295. 127. 79. of. as uses verbs. 207. same. to of. 124. 49. syntax. 101. adjective. 208. 231. 51. 84. though. 275. 120. of. Are. 150. 120. 296. An. See with definition complex compound simple who. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 225. pronouns. 309. uses As At. . which. definition of of of Any. agreement personal as pronoun. 294. Auxiliary if.

number of. pronoun. best. But. of nouns. of nouns. Brethren. Between. 64. 47. 66. Can. of. of. adverb. 39. 262. 210. adjective. Cause. of what. 283. possessive. clauses of. 194. plurals of. uses Better. with But By. double possessive. of pronouns. 45. syntax of. 111. conjunctions Cherub. of pronouns. . 54. 278. 49. Case. Children. Case. 48. 110.Bad. Among. uses nominative of. 63. 262. nominative. 150. 195. 279. 110. 161. in Old and Modern English. Clause. See of. 37. 39. 62. of nouns. comparison conjugation of. 279. of. objective. 46. of pronouns. 330. Bridegroom. forms. 149. of nouns. 224. uses of. 278. 46. 84. definition could. 260. Be. of pronouns.

258. adjectives. 257. of. 307. of. nouns. of. 312. 43. 158. 257. 244. definition degrees irregular. 305. Clomb. superlative. . 24. 23. 264. 263. of. 257. Cloths. 111. of. of. 268. 107. 110. adverbs. 248. English. of. of. analysis of. 315. infinitive. 189. plural of. 271. subject. 307. nouns. in analysis. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 43. clothes. 108. double. 18. nouns. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. and forms of. of.definition kinds noun. 53. 239. predicate of and from from of. proper. sentence. and sentence. material. 113. Cleave. verb. 18. 12. 157. 108. predicate. defective.

restrictive use of See relative Relative of. conjunctions. sentences. sentence. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. subjunctive. analysis. See English. 151. of of Conjunctions. 255. conjunctions. other other parts of speech. See analysis clauses. See in subjunctive. 66. 149. and clause. pronouns. Agreement. same words. 195. pronoun. correlative. 193. 194. Can. in Old vs. Dative Declarative Declension of case. coördinate. 328. to of. 139. 231. . 149. 199. 188. definition how subordinate. sentences. verbs. 194. of. 263. replaced by objective.with Concord. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. pronoun. 196. 143. 207. 194. 289. definition be. adverbs. 138. Conjunctions. 73. conjunction. interrogative pronouns. parse. 195. of. 269.

duck. pronouns. 303. 288. from. discourse. 287. of. of. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 300. pronouns. vs. pronouns. possessive. 80. article. adverbs See adjectives. tenses. Subordinate clause. 185. of. use of dies. 26. of personal relative verbs. 242. 160. nouns. Case. with of. 43. See adjectives. pronouns. See 148. 333. 60. 51. 35. Degrees. 102. See See 48. by. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 99. passive adjectives. 91. . Comparative. 102.Declension. Articles. 242. of. for. clause. with. 90. nouns. object. Comparison. 315. 320. indirect. verb. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. comparative. 152.

ending. 90. possessive suffix. 102. 255. in 'Em. drunk. 280. the of sentence. spoken. conjunction. 62. Elements Ellipsis. Either. older. literary. adjective. of. added suffix. 240. 194. complement. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 299. object. Empress. 92. of. another. of.Drank. 32. to suffix. 39. 51. of subject. original. 328. 33. -En. pronouns. 90. of. 42. suffix. one ( t). 92. 34. Each. 92. plural. 241. feminine plural English. of. adjective. 40. 234. other. . 300. pronoun. 287. 38. 287. error in sentence. predicate. 158. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. vulgar. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 110. 12. 257. 158. of. 112. pronoun. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 33.

Every. uses redundant. other languages. as a noun. 212. 126. of. uses Foreign Former. First Fish. of. modes "common goose. fishes. first. 43. 287. 45. object. 334. with in sex. For. 147. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 103. few. two a further. Future Future tense. to of.. 102. 32. 48. gender. pronoun. Few. 29. expect gone." 31. with infinitive. adjective. 319. nouns. 30. definition distinguished in English. plurals. of. Gender. Feminine. from. 189. 102. From. 110. have adjective. See Gander. 308. 30. 211. as of from compared marking. 235. the. First. perfect. 36. 91. 148. 152. 112. two. 212. 152. used of. Farther. etc. 238. . etc. Further.. 112. 30.

9. 13. 60. she. participle. Got. distinguished syntax. 120. 10. Gerund. and case verbal with. from participle of. first sentence. He. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. on. adjective. 275. rather. possessive pronouns. personal relative geniuses. pronouns. 36. for before. 176. 12. of. . noun. 43. His Husband. 61.of of Genii. person. of. it. 144. Grammar. 12. 101. 80. its. of. 231. 145. Had Hanged. 61. had hung. 159. 285. 159. 173. I. 35. kinds of. forms in Girl. definition divisions opinions province H. 60. 175. 177. pronoun. Government. definition basis of. of. an better.

indirect of. of. verbs. 93. 136. 73. 320. 245. 323. meaning. transitive. of. pronouns. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. of. of. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 43. 227. 105. of clause. 233. adjectives. indices. 72. See Articles. your. 131. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 176. 231. Questions. . 131. summary See passive mood. 248. sentence. elements. uses discourse. mood. 257. adverbs. adjectives. questions. a object. 319. with of. 178. 276. use article. 85. questions. 188. in compared syntax.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. Direct object. 110. See you. words. 153. 283. 67. pronoun.

King. 113. 36.. 63." history etc.. lesser. lord. It. 226. 189. "It Its. uses Literary Little. . 190. Last. pronoun. 227. adjective. Lady. queen. 110. Lay. 39. syntax the. 281. in little. Logic Logical Lord. and See words in. 170. Lay. plural. of. 91. See Madam. 12. latest.adverbs. 36. 67. Lady. 36. Less. 303. of. these double kind. syntax. Like. subject form. was uses me. lie. 110. predicate. Kind. 126. Kine. 245. of. English. -Ly. 102. of. 61. 276. 113. Lie. etc. a vs. Latter.

Master. 328. 326. 189. . Means. Much. mistress. superlatives. 41. indicative. 256. sentences. comparison Near. 325.. 64. 36. imperative. 137. 34. Modifiers. might. construction as of adverb. 194. 126. 187. of. 110. 287. mine. subjunctive. 161. Enlargement. Negative. double. 265. Must. Mighty Mine. Neither. 137-144. 144. Modifier. of. of. in adverbs comparison a. 110. 188.Manner. syntax nearer. of. nigh. of. of. Mood. 185. -Most. of. adjective. Many Mapping Mare. May. 110. 112. 112. conjunctions Many. 189. 160. etc. out of. See definition 136. 112. 195. 114. 135. 113. position adverb. of. syntax conjunction. 102.

. foreign. 21. None. 32. See 194. 20. words how compound. formed. of. now plural. 92. 18. Not Noun Nouns. half abstract. become become formation case collective. 26. of. 25. proper. Case. 300. 126. abstract. 27. etc. of. nouns. common. of of of of of a. to of. used as. 56. 46. of. 258. gender nouns. 328. etc. material. 45. 46. abstract. 19. clause. kinds 90. of. 42. and figures. 17. 41. 246. 17. 41 43. to use. No Nominative.pronoun. Nor. 29. become neuter. class used singular. 125. syntax Neuter or two News. of. 38-41. 38. 25. 301. in. 30. 41. syntax in gender nouns. parse. definition according of. 30. 30. analysis. nouns. number once other plural. gender how kinds material. of. 124. 17 19. definition descriptive. letters as 24.

278. 39. 92. 285. 41. preposition. of. common. Numeral Object. of.of same two with proper. 48. . form. definite. become syntax use with with with Nouns. with case. 41. 42. indirect. 106. 48. 42 44. See verb. 102. 195. passive adverbial. 148. 18. 48. 242. 48. singular. of. nominative. of. 240. 101. plural form. 43. 124. 242. of. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. plural no two singular construction. personal. meanings. Preposition. indefinite. pronouns. 42. See in in in Numeral distributive. English. Nouns. pronouns. adjectives. 281. plural. in article. etc. and analysis. 196. 278. 41. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. verbs. article. meaning. in nouns. of different possessive definite of. as forms titles. 279. 23. 48. or plural. singular. 66. conjunction. of. 121. 101. 235. adjectives. dative.. with with with Now Number. spoken of instead nouns. adverbial. 60. 282.

233. of syntax. of upon. Parsing. adjective. 213. 293. of. a in adjectives. 325 275. 194. 64. pronoun. 115. inverted. treatment comparatives. 69. 116. articles. Each adjective. adverbs. 93 other. One. See pronoun. nouns. 101. 91. 306. 279. of. 56. Pains. of of of of of models adjectives. Ourself. Oxen.syntax Of. 38. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 161. for. 41. Elder. definite relative uses of. 127. as of. 103. Older. Omission On. 191. conjunction. uses numeral pronoun. . Ordinal Other Ought. as other. with (the). 103. See the as of. 199. of. another. 117. 87. adverb. 94. 216. conjunctions. ours. part analysis. 56. 237. position Order. Our.

64. 61. 80. of. 287. verbs. speech. of. possessive and of. 219. Pence. pennies. 27. 317. verbs. . antecedent. reflexive. included various. with. part adjective. 148. used as voice. 56. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. pronoun. 62. in. 69. 174. 100. pronouns. 119. 59. verbals. 181. 172. 56. phrase. -ing words. 247. predicate use of. of. 59. 59. of. 322. 62. from definition other of. 43. of. nominative. 63.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. not is. article 150. relatives. phrases. or of. 28. parsed. absolute with of. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 95. 179. Person. pease. 134. verb idioms it from. 281. of. them. 335. and subject in. 180. 43. of. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 172. agreement of verb nouns. 173. pronouns. 177. 70.

106. pronouns. singular degree. 53. 53. kinds infinitive. singular. 54. 285. of. 241. 188. 61. Personification. 49. appositional. spoken of. Positive Possessive. complete. 278. of. plural. of. adjectives. relative. nouns. double. 52. 's. 63. 247. pronoun. 281. 60. 25. syntax of of Politics. . in of.objective syntax table triple uses of. 303. of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. as double. 206. adverbs of. omitted. Nouns. English. nouns. of Phrase. 41. 67. 245. nouns. noun nouns. vs. 232. 248. 245. 236. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. of. 50. pronoun. Personal subjective. prepositional. of. Comparison. simple. of. objects. of. of nouns. or See of of See 185. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 278. participial. 303. 195. it. 236. 37. 235. See 60. 281. 64. 51. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. Place. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. antecedent of of pronouns. 247.

58. objective. 32. 187. by parts of of. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. future. 332. neither. 202. exclamatory. 284. 129.Prefixes. with tense certain. 105. parse. case. adjective. 205. 132. possessive nominative to of. in exclamations. by. 186. and one with else's. parse. 72. singular usually other. 207. interrogative. none. 302. 279. 95. of. who personal. another. as 54. words. for predicate nominative. 280. case. as antecedent of relative. 206. forms of. all. 281. Prepositions. 282. of. 299. somebody definition how indefinite. 195. 283. 208. of. interrogative. . 104. verbs. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 203. and form form form form of. usually to as than. 285. objective. of. 333. 105. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 300. each either. 331. 59. speech. any. of. 93. what. same used as adjectives. 283. Pronouns. 58. adverb. of. 147. plural. plural. 203. of. 287. by with shown certain of. meaning. 89. 303. 219. plural. 64. as. after but. 300. 301. expressed as other of.

293. use in as. 87. pronoun. 85. Quantity. 74. and which. 286. and antecedent. of. adverbs in. nouns. in. personal pronoun. in. pronouns. 74. 69. same antecedent. of. Questions. 68. 142. Rank. 295. which after same. 279. 58. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 83. 296. 99. 291. indirect compound. with who. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. of. with with gerund. Rather. to of. that. 105. and relatives. 87. 289. agreement anacoluthon and as. of. 84. 69. pronominal pronouns indirect. of. which. 195. parse. of. Quotations. 85. 289. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. or of. who. . questions. 80. use of history formed. 295. of. 189. of.possessive relative. Direct same and different. unrestrictive. Nouns. 188. from and interrogative. 297. discourse. 101. 263. 293. indirect. See of. 74. in. of. conjunctions Quality.

reflexive analysis of compound. 294. Shear. 196. forms shots. 231. pronoun. Self Sentences. of. who. of. 263. 259. object. clauses of. Same Sat. 170. 159. Sex Shall. that. definition . in form. conjunction. tenses. gender. and should. of. simple. 69. elliptical. plural possessive as. complex. sentence. 51. 26 271. 242. suffix. See Sentences. of sit. S. Seeing. which. 162. 196. 252. would. 255. 40. 42. Simple in sate. 74. effect. simple of. conjunctions Retained Riches.syntax use Result. 43. 'S. 289. 231. 319. 159. of. in of. of of of complex Sentences. kinds Sequence Set. 195. 29. will. ending. Shot.

in feminine suffix. 144. 186. definition 67. 144. 270. adverb. of. of. 233. 12. 303. 36. distinguish. 257. Subject. definition how kinds noun. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. verbs. 258. English. adverb. 245. 126. used mood.Singular Sir. 260. of. 257. -en. English. 257. English. 38. 240. Split Spoken -Ster. sort. 33. Somebody Sort. logical. to of. other Such Such Suffix -s. 32. of. 38. 323. 137. 303. etc. literary clause. 245.. 258. of. disuse in spoken complete. Spelling Spinster. 237. 169. See -En. . as. 257. 33. 258. phonetic in infinitive. vs. of. 262. these number. English. in Middle English. -es. of. for. 138. names as a. Modern use becoming else's.

. meaning. 116. 120. 148. meaning made up in Old of. of. 306. objects. form. of. 290. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 275.. adjectives. adverbs. than of. 289. Tenses. 186. 319.Suffixes. of. restrictive. in Modern number sequence table Than That. which. 186. 107. 106. 106. object. of languages. of. 109. that uses That. in comparison. as history syntax Their. two basis not same definition definite. 147. English. 33. of. See etc. coördinating. 306. "the then foreign. they. 275. Then. 147. not suggesting adjectives. 87. 123. definition in English Tense. this. 61.. as history The. omission whom. auxiliaries. subject. Kind. 277. when as of. in double." introductory. English. 307. and and of. me. 189. of. 191. when relative. 119. king. 88. classical of. article.. of . 152. 297. of. 222. 108. 147. 280. degree. There These kind. 309. syntax of. of. plural as adverb. as adverbs.

Thou. of. 119. 217. etc. analysis. 185. 114. of. -ing 111. how infinitive. 330. of. first adjective. 207. verbs. See On. 248. 172. gerund. thy. Upon. Upper. thee. Utter. of. uses history of. parse. 175.These. of. from cleft to 174. 180. of. of. 247. 173. Try Two Under. preposition. adverbs those. try two. 195. 61. 20. -Trix. used. 33. uttermost. 308. infinitive. in omitted uses T'other. words. uses of. 176. 175. 21. other noun. in of. 175. See That. 323. exclamations. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. Time. 172. 114. 322. conjunctions prepositions To. first. 188. tother. 181. suffix. phrases. feminine and. 322. to. 128. infinitive. . carelessly uses syntax this.. certain as the before with of. 114. kinds participle.

133. 148. 317. strong. 242. 154. syntax of. retained object with passive. weak. analysis. 154. spelling of. how to parse. sequence of. transitive and intransitive. verbs. active. in indirect discourse. becoming irregular. 159. verbs by. of English. 169. auxiliary. formed by. table of irregular. 148. 129. 135. past tense formed nominative. with subject in number. 312. 169. 147. passive. mood of. of. 167. made transitive. 151. 134. regular. voice of. active meaning. 131. 160. 319. defective. but uses what. intransitive. passive form. conjugation of. 330. person and number of. 179. 154. remarks on certain. 47. 236. of incomplete predication. 33. 167. Vixen. 157. 155. change. 12. 149. tense of. definition of. 130. of. What. 133. 150. 39. agreement of. Vocative in Voice. definition of.Verbs. . 312-316. definition of. 223. 320. phonetic. in person. table of. 245. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went.

in in indefinite objective. Wife. 85. 246.. 190. questions. animals. referring syntax Widower. English. plural of in nouns -ing. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. conjunction. worser. 104. 37. 105. questions. 32. 218. interrogative Which. in -ly. 296. uses See Shall.what Whereby. Witch. Who. Will. a. Woman. 36. 83. 72. 178. 78. of. of. . 299. 40. pronoun. direct of. 77. 194. 36. 75. in. 295-299. Words in Worse. Whether. questions. antecedent adjective. whereto. 72. 79. relative. 75. relative. wizard. 105. 85. 85. spoken in of. would. 111. questions. Y. 126. 73. Yes ending analysis. 83. 72. pronoun. With. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. etc. relative indirect relative.

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