roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

It is also evident. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Authority as a basis. This will take in the usual divisions. and their uses and relations in the sentence. An æsthetic benefit. its peculiar and abundant idioms." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. Making rules is risky. rightly considered. their forms. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. assist the classification of kindred expressions. then. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. . What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. but this is bad English now. as. from the question." What grammar is. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Coming back. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. The work it will cover. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). and thus incite his observation. is worthy of serious study. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). If. however." and "Syntax. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. there is still much for the grammarian to do. so that a small grammar will hold them all. to those who have studied the language historically. as compared with Latin or Greek. Surely our noble language. it will at the same time. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. "Analysis. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. A broader view. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Few inflections. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered.The province of English grammar is. Mental training. with its enormous vocabulary. if rightly presented. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. Literary English.

not objects. submission. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Such words are called nouns. as they stand for ideas. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. or standard. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. PART I. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. The following pages will cover. and Inflections. three divisions:² Part I. or Syntax. . and may belong to any of those objects. and the word nation stands for a whole group. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. The plainest name is Arabs. Analysis of Sentences.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. The Parts of Speech. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. then. NOUNS. but. Part III. reference will be made to vulgar English. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Spoken English.²GIBBON. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. the nation is free. besides this one. which belongs to a people. Part II.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Vulgar English. The Uses of Words. The words state. and will are evidently names of a different kind. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. that is. 1. Occasionally. the words sons and master name objects. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. from the eighteenth century on. by which is meant the free. too.

or a mob. animals. ATTRIBUTE. We may say. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. etc. This does not imply. place. Thus. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. (a) 4. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. and things separately. we may think of them in groups. 2. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Name for a group or collection of objects. or idea. . Name for any individual of a class. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. A noun is a name word. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. the name of each is an individual or proper name. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. whether person. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Besides considering persons. men in groups may be called a crowd.Definition. or thing. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. MATERIAL. possessed by all. representing directly to the mind an object. They properly belong under common nouns. reducing it to a narrow application. animals. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. as here used. however. or a congress. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or the man in front of you. For instance. or a council. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. because each group is considered as a unit. (b) Common. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. the man here. is from a Latin word which means general. and appropriate names to the groups. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Thus. 3. Collective. 5. Abstract. Common. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. substance. but Chicago names one city. a committee. belonging to one. or things. Proper. Individual. Classes of nouns.

but in the words sun. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron.²There are some nouns. frost. . wheat. wheat. however. paint. we may say. or that which shows a thing has been proved. earth. It may. but which are not called proper names. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. stone. "Painting is a fine art. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. 6. NOTE. we speak of the wisdom of the man. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). etc.. cloud. as in calling a city Cincinnati. and fasten a special name to the object considered. etc. etc. sand. frost.Names for things thought of in mass. condition. and so on. sugar. Again. Such are glass. earth. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. . tea. etc. granite. The quality is still there as much as before. such as sun. They remain common class names. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. (3) Geological bodies: mud. gold. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. etc. snow. not things. soap." "a man of understanding. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. there is no such intention. expressing attributes or qualities. world. moon. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. Words naturally of limited application not proper. rain. platinum. The reason is. 7. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. sugar. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. instead of to each individual or separate object. considered abstractly. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person." 9. mist. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. or actions. etc. expressing state. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. Names of ideas. but it is taken merely as a name. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. iron. potash. or action. or apart from their natural connection. celluloid. rubber." "Learning is hard to acquire. dew. etc. When we speak of a wise man. rice. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. conditions. rock. etc. clay. proof means the act of proving. wine. (4) Natural phenomena: rain.

he spread his blessings over the land. the great Puritan awakening. the teachings of the High Spirit. The verb. a wedding or a festival. They cannot govern a word. the rude drawings of the book. (2) peerage from peer. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. Underived abstract nouns. as in the expressions." "a brisk walk. the well-being of her subjects. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. summer. etc. height from high. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. (1) prudence from prudent. in the beginning of his life. the main bearings of this matter. but are merely names of actions. night. stupidity from stupid. by altering its function. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. "a long run" "a bold move.Attribute abstract nouns. redness from red. as glad²joy.. day. her longing for their favor. winter. Such are beauty. II. Caution. joy. there is time for such reasonings. speech from speak. hope. etc. 12. etc. . childhood from child. 273). masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. theft from thieve. ease. thunder. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. 272. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. is used as a noun. Thus. To avoid difficulty.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. five proper. kingship from king. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. shadow. five abstract. etc. They are only the husks of verbs. 10. and they cannot express action. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. as their name implies. mastery from master. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. hopeful²hope. NOTE." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. service from serve. those opinions and feelings. energy. Exercises. Verbal abstract nouns. the moon caused fearful forebodings. action from act. lightning. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. 1.

catarrh. as pneumonia. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4.2. Using a dictionary. pleurisy. typhus. geology. (b) branches of knowledge. mathematics? 3. algebra. as physics. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. diphtheria.

The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. Proper names transferred to common use. from Oporto. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Others of similar character are calico. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented." referring to flat- . or to go over to it entirely. above. but most of them are in the following groups. but we may say. currants. from Corinth. etc. as a davy. Material nouns may be used as class names. for example. and lo! a new system. thus. who was its inventor. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. We know a number of objects made of iron. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word.²EMERSON. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Nouns change by use. a Locke. 119). Sodom was famous for wickedness. a Hutton. 13. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. from China. a Bentham. port (wine). from a town in France. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Guillotin. 14. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. in Portugal. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. levant and morocco (leather). the guillotine.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. it imposes its classification on other men. the word port. from Damascus. damask. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. from the name of Dr. arras. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. a Lavoisier. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. "The cook made the irons hot. from Calicut. 15. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. a Fourier.

In lightnings owned his secret stings. though not confined to verse. that disposition is the thing to be created. his mask melting like a nightmare dream.²BYRON. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. or the arts and sciences. to prowl or to moan like night birds. These are the same in material. 17. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. smiled.²BRYANT. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. papers. They are not then pure abstract nouns. or used as class nouns. and say teas. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. are still names of abstract ideas. and only Vice and Misery. purity. Traffic has lain down to rest. Test this in the following sentences:² . So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. nor are they common class nouns. slates. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. and so on. the abstract idea is partly lost. not material things. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. are abroad. be spoken of. When it is said that art differs from science.²COLLINS. Death. but differ in strength. his eyes.²PERCIVAL. etc. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. paints. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. etc. as stones. A halfway class of words. clays. 16. candies. mists. a steel to whet a knife on. a rubber for erasing marks. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. The words preceded by the article a. This is a poetic usage. Class nouns in use. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. Next Anger rushed. oils. coals. but in case an art or a science. or made plural.irons. (3) By poetical use. clouds. From all around²Earth and her waters. on fire. tins. that the power of art is founded on fact. abstract in meaning. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. that is.²CARLYLE. Personification of abstract ideas.²RUSKIN. For example. or. but on dispositions which require to be created. tobaccos. which are made plural.²HAYNE. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural.

Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. were mere terrors of the night." "a New York bank. They are more like the possessive noun." "the State Bank Tax bill. fear thy blow. But ah! those pleasures. or from any expression. make our own so. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. a bank in New York. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning.²BURNS. NOTE. but is still a noun. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. Adjectives. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. which belongs to another word. etc. 18. Conjunctions.²EMERSON. as each repeated pleasure tired.²IRVING. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. But it is better to consider them as nouns. nouns used to modify. they cannot be compared. for example.The Solitary can despise. a bill as to tax on the banks.² GOLDSMITH. Nouns used as descriptive terms. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. "a family quarrel. loves. meaning a walk in the morning.Let us. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. And still. as descriptive adjectives are. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. if we must have great actions." "a morning walk. however. By ellipses.² BURNS." which contains a pure adjective. they do not express quality. Then comes the "Why. 19.²SHAKESPEARE. sir!"²MACAULAY . sir!" and the "What then. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. All these.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. When I was young? Ah. Adverbs. Every why hath a wherefore.²SHAKESPEARE. the wealthy. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. or describe it. sir?" and the "No. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions.

or a criminal. The it." or "legal. 2. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. in speaking of the principal of a school. 1. When. 20. Now."²B. is ambiguous. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Caution. NOTE.²These remarks do not apply. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. and Then. but have an adjectival meaning. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. the terms the great. that the above cases are shiftings of the use." and another of Dr.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. of course. why and wherefore. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. There are many of these. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects.. without reference to its function in the sentence. 4. 7. but as a figure of speech. Learning. too. FRANKLIN. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. 8. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Stone walls do not a prison make. Power laid his rod aside. . and tell to which class each belongs. is the word "just. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. It is to be remembered. 3. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. etc. at the beginning. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. of words rather than of their meaning. In the other sentences. the wealthy. Mather's called "Essays to do Good.Nor iron bars a cage. Exercise. in a sentence above. that cobweb of the brain. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. or a state secret. whether it mean the sun or the cold.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. are used. however. so. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. 5. When. or a faithful domestic. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 6.

12. German. 15. returned to Spain. the welcome. 20. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 21. A fool speaks all his mind.You seize the flower. in English grammar. and many other languages. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. GENDER. It is founded on sex.9. 23. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. and names of females are usually feminine. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. but not so in English. always masculine. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 13. female. A little weeping would ease my heart. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 16.Fair guests. Greek. always feminine.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 22. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. . But pleasures are like poppies spread. What gender means in English. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 11. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. shattered and disabled. And see. The fleet. 19. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. that waits you here. In Latin. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 17. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 21. The hours glide by. 24. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. he cried. 10. its bloom is shed. the silver moon is gone. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. Male beings are. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 14. 18. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy.

in other languages gender follows the form. according to use. 23. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. however. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.²masculine and feminine. 24. the name of it is masculine. that pattern of a husband. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. are named by gender nouns." . No "common gender. those which do not distinguish sex. clapping his burnished wings. das Messer (knife) is neuter. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. and neuter nouns.. and consequently without sex. 22. with its gizzard under its wing. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.² I have seenA curious child . Of animals. All nouns. came to a stand just by the bridge. but are spoken of as neuter. "A little child shall lead them. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Neuter nouns. .²gender nouns. then..²IRVING. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. if there were any signs of life in it. hortus (garden) is masculine. He next stooped down to feel the pig. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.. corpus (body) is neuter. that is.. The great difference is. or names of things without life.When. if of the female sex. mensa (table) is feminine. in English. inanimate things are spoken of. those with which man comes in contact often. For instance: in Latin. Hence: Definition. der Tisch (table) is masculine. according to their use.² IRVING.. must be divided into two principal classes. Gunpowder . Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. the sex being of no consequence. Thus.²LAMB. or additions to words. the name of it is feminine. or which arouse his interest most.. Gender nouns. those distinguishing the sex of the object. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. in German." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth.

These remain in vixen and spinster. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Gender shown by Prefixes. 26. servant. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. only to masculine and feminine nouns. (3) By using a different word for each gender. as he-goat²she-goat. 28. Gender shown by Suffixes. For fox they said vox.25. (2) By adding a suffix. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. Male nouns beings. I. If such words as parent. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. One feminine. 27. is. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. 29. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. the division of words according to sex. though both words have lost their original meanings. cousin. etc. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. woman. relative. .² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Native suffixes. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. Very few of class I. or the lack of it.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. they are neuter words. puts a prefix before the masculine man. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. teacher. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes.. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. generally to a masculine word. but spinster has now no connection with it. from the masculine fox. domestic. According to the definition. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. he-bear²she-bear. of course. and for the older word fat they said vat. Put in convenient form. Hence vixen is for fyxen. for from they said vram. as in wine vat. ruler. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. The inflections for gender belong. II.

as. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Slightly changed and widely used. 30. -ess (French esse. as czarina. as seam-stress. señorita. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Ending of masculine not changed. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). but in most cases it has not.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. executrix.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. it has none now in the words huckster. gamester. donna. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. Unaltered and little used. the one most used. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. punster. and are never used for words recognized as English. These are attached to foreign words.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. trickster. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . Low Latin issa). song-str-ess.

others have in their origin the same root. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. we use the feminine.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). chairman. Instead of saying doctress. as in the fourteenth century. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Thus. In some of these pairs. teacheresse. etc.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. we use the masculine termination. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. frendesse. editor. neighboresse. teacher or lady teacher. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. 31. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. from Latin imperatricem. 32. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. fosteress. NOTE. as. neighbor (masculine and feminine). the ending -ess. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. as. Some of them have an interesting history. wagoness. We frequently use such words as author. from the French -esse. Gender shown by Different Words. to represent persons of either sex. as was said in the sixteenth century. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. or servauntesse." III. Ending -ess less used now than formerly.

Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Besides gander and drake. Widower. etc. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Danish gaas. or lauerd in Middle English. Witch is the Old English wicce. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Madam is the French ma dame. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. lhauerd. widuwa²widuwe.² . The masculine was formed by adding -a. from Latin mea domina. Icelandic gás. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). gand-ra. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. had the masculine mearh (horse). Personification.). and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Three letters of ened have fallen away. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Two masculines from feminines. the old sign of the masculine. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. among others) to be from the same root word. finally gander. as in many other words. not immediately connected with witch. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. leaving our word drake. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Mare. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. 34. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. though both are ultimately from the same root. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. The older forms. written loverd. in Old English mere. 16). for example. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). 33. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. became identical. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). but this has long been obsolete. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). probably meaning house dweller). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans.

There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. and not by the form of the noun. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. 37.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. The first two methods prevailed. the plural. .²KEATS.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. But other words were inflected afterwards. etc. that is. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. treen (trees).Her home is on the deep. Our language has two numbers.²singular and plural. together with the third. eyen (eyes). we make its plural by adding -s or -es. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural.²COLERIDGE. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. shoon (shoes). (2) By changing the root vowel.No towers along the steep. Definition. NUMBER."Now. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. In nouns. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. in Old English. 38. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. for instance. 39. I.²CAMPBELL. The -en inflection. more than one. Effect of personification. the engineer speaks so of his engine. whenever we adopt a new word. 35. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. Britannia needs no bulwarks."²BYRON. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. This is not exclusively a poetic use. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. (3) By adding -s (or -es). 36. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.

salmon. after numerals (if not after numerals.²THOREAU. as.² The foot are fourscore thousand. III. II. lens.²WHITTIER. sail. Kine is another double plural. by.Horse and foot. 40. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. etc. or if preceded by the prepositions in.²MACAULAY. after all. turf. but has now no singular.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. Such are box. Lee marched over the mountain wall. as. head. such as deer. Examples of this inflection are. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. cross. etc.-En inflection imitated by other words. cannon. heathen. dozen. they add -s): also trout. then brothre or brethre. 42. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. but they now add the ending -s. when they mean soldiery. that have the singular and plural alike. Brethren has passed through three stages. glass. brace. Other words following the same usage are."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. Instead of -s. quartz. pair. people. finally brethren. and is still found in dialects.²Over the mountains winding down. and get settled. etc.The horse are thousands ten. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. The words horse and foot. ditch. folk. wight. borough²formerly had the same inflection. retain the same form for plural meaning. Akin to this class are some words. into Frederick town. . 41. sheep. The old plural was brothru.² "God bless me! so then. originally neuter. swine. Children has passed through the same history. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.

When such words take a plural ending. that when thy summons comes. however. 44. molasses. the Americas. a new syllable is made. It served simply as a means of sight. and go over to other classes (Secs. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). the Washingtons. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name.²BRYANT. 15 and 17). physics. Means plural. economics. and many branches of learning. shelf²shelves. Two words. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . optics. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. summons. allies. and the real ending is therefore -s. and some -es. though this sound combines readily with -s. DANA. volcano² volcanoes.g.² Politics.²PROF. Some words are usually singular. etc. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. Special Lists. e. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. niche²niches. 45. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. means and politics. mathematics. Formerly. means: as. in its widest extent.. knife²knives. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. etc. is both the science and the art of government. half²halves. e. though they are plural in form. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Examples of these are. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves.. house²houses. these words ended in -ie. etc. race²races. prize²prizes. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. negro²negroes.-Es added in certain cases. The lilie on hir stalke grene. quoth then that ladie milde. they lose their identity. also news. pains (care). hero²heroes. 43.g. Proper nouns are regularly singular.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. etc. some adding -s. politics. fancies. chaise²chaises. daisies. Words in -ies. fairies. as. So live.

he pronounced to have been a tongs. .²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right. Sometimes. by strongly conveying the passions. Now I read all the politics that come out.²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING. it is furnished with a forceps. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²G. Politics plural. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²MOTLEY. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. By these means. W.²GOLDSMITH. LAUGHLIN. I say. CURTIS.²J. L. by those means which we have already mentioned. 46.²BURKE.² MACAULAY. Some words have no corresponding singular. A relic which. Besides this. riches will accumulate. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. however.Words. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.

. faculties. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). or epistles. two meanings.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. . genii (spirits). or copies. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. pease (collectively). clothes (garments). shot²shot (collective balls). 49.. of a periodical. or work in a bellows?²PROF.The air. 48. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. (2) care. These make the last part plural. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. (2) abilities. part²parts: (1) divisions. indices (signs in algebra). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. shots (number of times fired).²LONGFELLOW. two plurals. etc. twopence.² I lisped in numbers. fishes (individuals or kinds). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. ways. sixpence. (2) poetry. penny²pennies (separately). dice (for gaming). (2) literature. trouble. fish²fish (collectively). Numbers also means issues. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. eaves. One plural. In speaking of coins.). in mournful numbers.²POPE. die²dies (stamps for coins. Two classes of compound words. Three words were originally singular. DANA.²one corresponding to the singular. 50. etc. making a double plural. brethren (of a society or church). cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). (2) revenue duties. genius²geniuses (men of genius). riches. In Early Modern English thank is found.²was it subdued when. Tell me not. carry off chaff. index²indexes (to books). may add -s. pea²peas (separately). as two sixpences. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. pence (collectively). number²numbers: (1) figures. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. for the numbers came.. the other unlike it. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. as in the lines.

Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. manservant.²DR. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. firman. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. or the name may be pluralized. Mussulman. The title may be plural. woman servant. Brahman. 51. as man singer. The chief member adds -s in the plural. though the latter is often found. Briggs. Brown. 52. but add -s. Allen. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. the Misses Rich. German. such as talisman.² Then came Mr. as the Messrs.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Ottoman. Two methods in use for names with titles. HOLMES. As to plurals of names with titles. there is some disagreement among English writers.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Norman. for example. . and then the three Miss Spinneys. the Drs. then Silas Peckham. woman singer. and Mrs.

²THE CRITIC. These are said to be domesticated. Domesticated words. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. The Messrs. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. or Englished. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.²DICKENS. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. y y analysis antithesis . 53.²GIBBON. They are then said to be naturalized. Exercise. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. or Anglicized. FROM THE GREEK. Others have been adopted.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Du Maurier. FROM THE LATIN.²GOLDSMITH. and retain their foreign plurals.

"He sleeps in a felon's cell. etc. form their plurals by adding -s or 's." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). etc. they form their plurals in the regular way. figures." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). In the general wearing-away of inflections. as.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. 56. .. Only two case forms. cell has another relation. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. also add -s or 's. Words quoted merely as words. as. Definition. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. and expresses a relation akin to possession." the word felon's modifies cell. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s)." CASE. 55. 54. Letters. figures. In the sentence. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. without reference to their meaning.

they returned to their homes. I. and the possessive.²one for the nominative and objective. completing a verb. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead." (2) As a predicate noun. learning. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 2. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. may be said to have three cases.²the nominative." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. whether inflected or not. must be understood for purposes of analysis. and merit. Nouns. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.²nature.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 1. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Excuses are clothes which.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. fate. 4. excessive grief. the objective. when asked unawares. three things characterize man. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Three properties belong to wisdom. 5." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Uses of the Nominative. the enemy of the living. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 3. 57. and tell which use of the nominative each one has." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. . then. Human experience is the great test of truth. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree.²person. 58. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. and experience. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level.

Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect." Exercise. . (in the older stages of the language. Set a high price on your leisure moments. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. save." (3) Adverbially. 3. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. and being equivalent to one verb. taking the object enemies. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. taking the object storm. But of all plagues. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. 9. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. distance. and tell which use each has:² 1. Uses of the Objective." "Thou makest the storm a calm. sword in hand and visor down.6. and meaning calmest.Save." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. they are sands of precious gold. thy wrath can send. and landlord of the inn. etc. the word toward which the preposition points. wounded lies." (4) As the second object. good Heaven. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. completing the verb. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. a patriarch of the village." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. how have I frighted thee? II. reconciles. But the flood came howling one day. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 59. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. Conscience. 8. as will be seen in Sec. measure. her first law broken. 68. (5) As the object of a preposition. 2. 4. They charged." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. and makest a calm.

the Great Stone Face. 7. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.² The unwearied sun. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. and forfeits paid. as. 10.²SHELLEY. from day to day. The possessive case always modifies another word.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. expressed or understood. (3) Subjective possessive.²BYRON. 61. or in writing yesterday's elegy. (2) Objective possessive. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. as in these expressions. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. It is a poetic expression. 8. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.Does his Creator's power display. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.²ADDISON.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. And whirling plate. 60. 6. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. tempests that . 9. Possession in some sense is the most common. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.His winter task a pastime made. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. III. the most common of all. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.e. The noblest mind the best contentment has. Uses of the Possessive.²HAWTHORNE. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.5. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. as shown in the sentences.And gave the leper to eat and drink. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.

Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. How the possessive is formed. making the possessive singular. "From every schires ende. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. as schoolboys sometimes write.winter is likely to have). The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. and Obj. there are only two case forms. Poss. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. A false theory. Declension or inflection of nouns. 63. however. To form the possessive plural. 1. in Chaucer. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. Nom." "at his beddes syde. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. One is the simple form of a word. . the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. A suggestion. 64. growth which several days had developed). The use of the apostrophe. As said before (Sec." "mannes herte [heart]. child NOTE. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 56). PLURAL. the panther which the forest hides).e... "George Jones his book. 62. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case.e. and Obj. Nom." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war].²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec." etc." Use of the apostrophe. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. Case Inflection. 62. lady Poss.

etc. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. Peter's. some such word as house. the possessive sign is usually last. the items of my son's. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. Cervantes' satirical work. my neighbors.²CARLYLE. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. In compound expressions." "A postscript is added. 66. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. for goodness' sake. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.² LOWELL. and from a desire to have distinct forms. James's. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. Captain Scrapegrace's."²DE QUINCEY. being understood with it: for example. 65." Possessive with compound expressions. store. a word with a phrase. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. church. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. Possessive and no noun limited. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. I remember him in his cradle at St. and she walked off from the don's. instead of the emperor their master's name.²DE QUINCEY. .²SWIFT. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.²RUSKIN. 67. as by the countess's command. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. as.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. stands up for God's truth one man.²THACKERAY. etc.. containing words in apposition. as. in the name of the emperor their master. know the amount of my income. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.Though this opinion was untrue. Kate saw that.. dwelling.²HOLMES. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. but to the ear all may be alike.

For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.²the introduction which Atterbury made. the statement clearly means only one thing. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me.²FROUDE. each. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. objective. no. etc. E. or subjective. (1) When a word is modified by a. 68. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es.²CARLYLE. a double possessive. (b) Rewrite the sentence. that. Emphasis.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. in such a sentence as. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. as one modifier. 87. ill-lighted except where she stands. A peculiar form. we use the phrase of Atterbury. however.The double possessive. every. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. the sentence might be understood as just explained. Both of these are now used side by side. Blair). If. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. For example.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. corresponding to 's. In most cases. and tell whether each is appositional. Clearness. HALE. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . 1. making a double possessive. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. 2. (3) It prevents ambiguity.²E. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English.. any.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. Exercises. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. this. sometimes they are used together. the. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. (See also Sec. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. especially when used with this or that. and at the same time by a possessive noun.

6. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. In parsing. 70. Now the bright morning star.They say. Hence.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 11.Comes dancing from the East. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 15. Nature herself. Friend. 13. 4. At lovers' perjuries.² . never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 14. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. we state. I must not see thee Osman's bride. some idioms²the double possessive. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. and destroy the other.3. Jove laughs. therefore. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 10. 69. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. let him seasonably water the one. 7. it seemed. day's harbinger. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. in parsing a noun. 12. 8. 5. 9. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. There Shakespeare's self.A weary waste expanding to the skies. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. with every garland crowned.

then make the grammatical statements as to its class. therefore masculine gender. therefore neuter. it denotes only one person. masculine. as to case. it is the object of the preposition by. Throat is neuter. etc. like miller's. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. therefore singular number. is a common class noun.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. 3. has no governing word. hence it is a gender noun. and therefore nominative case. (4) Its office in the sentence. therefore singular number. it has no sex. That in the captain's but a choleric word. 4. Exercise. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. hence it is a common noun. Thief is a common class noun. determining its case. and relations. proper. . "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. The correct method. inflections. In parsing any word. NOTE.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. singular number. and number. hence objective case.²common. a fresh tapster. 2. MODEL FOR PARSING. 71. An old cloak makes a new jerkin.(1) The class to which it belongs. and limits neckcloth. 68). it is the name of a male being. therefore possessive case. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. gender. it expresses possession or ownership. subject of the verb is understood. (3) Whether singular or plural number. names one thing. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. the connection shows a male is meant. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. it expresses time. object of the verb takes. which gender. if the latter. but is the adverbial objective. and to have it found out by accident. a withered serving man. hence it is objective case. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Neckcloth.

"Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. The need of pronouns. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. (2) Interrogative pronouns. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. but by a question we say. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 73. 9. Time makes the worst enemies friends.²palace. instead of saying. Necker. or for a group of persons or things. 10.. 11. and prison.. connected with the shore by a drawbridge.5. He giveth his beloved sleep. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. sleep! 6.. 76). Definition." Again. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. . Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. definite. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. standing for a name. Madame de Staël. A pronoun is a reference word. Jarley's back being towards him. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. where the Rhone enters the lake. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. or for a person or thing. Now. from a necessity for short. For instance. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. Classes of pronouns. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. PRONOUNS. and his daughter. Mrs. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 7. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. 72. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. financial minister to Louis XVI. and representative words. were natives of Geneva. blessings light on him that first invented . castle.And hated her for her pride. 8. A few miles from this point. all in one.

Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. they must represent the person talking. we our. 75. 76. Singular. mine. primarily adjectives. 77. as nouns have the same form. the person or thing spoken to. ours . (2) Second person. they are said to have person by agreement. words. that is. even if it had a special form. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. which cannot be used as adjectives. standing for a person or thing spoken of. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use." Person of nouns. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. my Plural. representing the person speaking. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. "the distinction of person. (5) Indefinite pronouns. or other word or expression. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. representing a person or thing spoken to. Three persons of pronouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. 74. I Poss. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. (4) Adjective pronouns. and the person or thing talked about. which relate or refer to a noun. (3) Third person. Person in grammar..(3) Relative pronouns. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. pronoun. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. which have forms for person. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. Nom. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This gives rise to a new term. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. From analogy to pronouns.

neuter. Nom. SECOND PERSON. . or. me us Singular. of all Three. feminine h o. Obj. Obj. yours Poss. thy Remarks on These Forms. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. namely. Masc. Old Form Common Form. a separate form for each gender. Nom. Nom. thou thee ye you you your.Obj. Old forms. Singular. and also for the neuter. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. First and second persons without gender. hers her Plur. they their. in the singular. thine. Nom. your. But the third person has. it its it Poss. she her. yours you THIRD PERSON. Poss. he his him Fem. so also with the person or thing spoken to. masculine h . Obj. yours you Plural. The speaker may be either male or female.. 78. by personification. Obj. Third person singular has gender. Poss. theirs them Neut. neuter hit. you your.

thy. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. Second person always plural in ordinary English. which was often sounded with the h silent. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. thee. as possessive of it. however.² Oh. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. just as we now say.Thou lovest. Thou. as. and sometimes its. . which is a neuter noun. thou Shepherd of Israel. There are. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 80. especially in poetry. it. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. that didst comfort thy people of old. This is of comparatively recent growth.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. them. 81. The plurals were h . their. etc. We use it with a plural verb always. In spoken English. The form its.²BEECHER.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. 82." As shown above. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. for example. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century.²SHELLEY. etc. etc. two modern uses of thou. the forms they. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. as in prayers.. even when referring to a single object. but make the plural you do duty for the singular.:² (1) In elevated style. Two uses of the old singulars. 79. heom. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. The consequence is.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. heora. in Old English. to thy care we commit the helpless. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). The old form was his (from the nominative hit). (2) In addressing the Deity.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.

when they occur in the predicate position. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. Yet careful speakers avoid this. he. The Possessive. theirs. her. however. 83.²COWPER. to personify objects (Sec. her. his.²BULWER. us. him. I spare thee mine. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. ." the literary language would require he after was. your. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. her. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 84 are always subjects. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and has been slave to thousands. note the following:² 'Twas mine. for. sometimes his and its. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. "I am sure it was him.Use of the pronouns in personification. Additional nominatives in spoken English. though those named in Sec. their. I The Nominative. thou. them. in such a sentence as. besides a nominative use. its. ²SHAKESPEARE. 86. we. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. and sometimes in ordinary speech. And since thou own'st that praise. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. thine. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. me. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. or. 34). That is. they have a nominative form. Not a separate class. 84. yours. she. some say. and follow the usage of literary English. 85. II. them. though ye is occasionally used as objective. and not make more classes. hers. Old use of mine and thine. In spoken English. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. 58). 'tis his. Nominative forms. ye. The forms my.²LANDOR. him. thy. us. The words I. Absolute personal pronouns. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. have a peculiar use. they. our. The forms mine.

thine. ours.²ID. Double and triple possessives. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. COOPER. Like the noun possessives."²SCOTT. (2) To bring emphasis. This usage is still preserved in poetry. we have. F.²CARLYLE. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. theirs. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. as in nouns.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. it tells of good old times.²J. theirs. or satire. Give every man thine ear. This ancient silver bowl of mine. The forms hers. Long Allen. thus. If thine eye offend thee.²ID. and with mine." said Henry Woodstall.² CARLYLE.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. sometimes its. are really double possessives. T. yours. commenting upon a letter of mine.²SWIFT. (3) To express contempt. hers. Besides this. for example. in that old Edinburgh house of his. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. thus.²THACKERAY. his. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. ²HOLMES. 87. ours. but few thy voice. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. Their uses. . yours. anger. pluck it out.²BIBLE.²THACKERAY. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²J. we find. "Hold thy peace. FIELDS.

and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. Curse me this people. as it is called. as shown in Sec. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective." "None but the brave deserves the fair. Besides this use of the objective. Both joined in making him a present." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. the thing is done. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. The old dative case. his for his property. In pronouns. but nominative or objective in use. this dative use. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. 20. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. Now the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. but not in form. III. or use in a sentence. but the form is the same as the objective. but expresses for whom. 86: mine stands for my property. In their function. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and mine in the second has an objective use. for whose benefit.²BIBLE. .²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks.²ID. The Objective. In such sentences as. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. 88. in the first sentence.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. "The good alone are great." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. mine stands for my praise in the second. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. They all handled it. was marked by a separate case. 89. But the first two have a nominative use. 90. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec.

The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. as.Time is behind them and before them. WEBSTER. 91. why. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. thus. Your mere puny stripling. and they cry. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²DE QUINCEY. or to the idea. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. (3) In apposition.²ADDISON. Indefinite use of you and your. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²CARLYLE. 92. was passed by with indulgence.²BULWER.²IRVING To empty here. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.² . ²EMERSON.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. you sneeze. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. or that he has not a great deal more. as in the sentences. him that so often and so gladly I talked with." (3) As a grammatical subject. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. like Chinese skill. as. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. It is a pity that he has so much learning. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. which follows the verb.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.²D. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. logical subject.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. Society. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. to stand for the real.²EMERSON. The word you.² NEWMAN. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.²BACON. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. has not made its progress. in this century. you must condense there.

as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. There was nothing for it but to return. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. .²BUNYAN. 93. peddles it. keeps a school. It was late and after midnight.. as. itself. the second is the old form of the second person.²BRYANT. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. Poor Christian was hard put to it. farms it. but seldom in prose. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined.²COLERIDGE.² Now I lay me down to sleep.²ANON. 94. And when I awoke. it rained.It is finger-cold.²THOREAU. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia.²BURNS.²HOLMES.²ID. and its plural selves. since firstThe flight of years began." and there is an end of it. when they are direct objects. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. (thyself).²HAWTHORNE. They are myself. who in turn tries all the professions. have laid them downIn their last sleep. I made up my mind to foot it. however.²IRVING. And millions in those solitudes.. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. themselves. as they are also called. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English." etc. This occurs in poetry. we use such expressions as.²DE QUINCEY. who teams it."²IRVING. For when it dawned. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. himself. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. yourselves." "He bought him a horse. yourself. I set me down and sigh. -selves. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. they dropped their arms. Of the two forms in parentheses. that is.²EMERSON. used in poetry.²SCOTT. "I found me a good book. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. For example. herself. ourselves. A sturdy lad . (ourself).

²MILTON.² TENNYSON..As girls were once. 96.. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. as in vulgar English.² The great globe itself . We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and the others were formed by analogy with these.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.²WORDSWORTH. theself. B. as we ourself have been. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. shall dissolve. for example. for example. not the possessive forms. and build the lofty rhyme. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. The question might arise. BROWNING.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. after the analogy of myself. with self.² . Threats to all. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. NOTE. as. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. As if it were thyself that's here.To you yourself. to every one. were changed into the possessive myself. to us.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.²E.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. thyself. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. Held dead within them till myself shall die. ourselves.²ID. I shrink with pain. 95. etc. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. especially in the speech of rulers. as.²EMERSON. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. Origin of these reflexives. In Middle English the forms meself. Use of the reflexives.

²B. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 2. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 4. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. feminine. Years ago. Three now in use. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. and what. which. and neuter. Courage. 8. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. fight it out. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. father. 97. some each of masculine. where the word is one with that it tells of. some of them being double possessives. FRANKLIN. To know what is best to do. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). Infancy conforms to nobody. 10.²DE QUINCEY. 3. but it is the soonest spoiled. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 9. . let him lowly confess it. 7.On the light fantastic toe. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. and how to do it. is wisdom. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. Come and trip it as we go. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. And it grew wondrous cold. 5. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.² THACKERAY. 6. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. all conform to it. One obsolete.

it refers to either persons or things. which is not inflected for gender. Use of who and its forms. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. 98. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. etc. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Use of which. referring to things. actions. but now obsolete. it is always third person. What wouldst thou do. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. The use of who. Use of what. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. methought. .What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. 99. 100. whispering sweet. that it is always singular and neuter. the gold. that. or case..There is an old word. shall we say. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. ideas. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. These show that what is not inflected for case. Which of you. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. whether. but for case alone. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. used formerly to mean which of two. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. that is. it is selective. with its possessive and objective. as it always asks about somebody. As shown here. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. that it is not inflected for gender or number. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Whose was that gentle voice. having three forms. number. not to persons.Promised.

It usually precedes the pronoun. SINGULAR Nom. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. AND PLUR. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. as." Or.Who sung of Border chivalry." In the latter sentence. since it is subject of the verb had. These bards sang of Border chivalry. and what are also relative pronouns. being the direct object of the verb shall take. AND PLUR. 103. and so to make smoother discourse. The antecedent. objective in the last. nominative in the second also. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. Who. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case.²by the use of the words. SING. pronoun. it may be shortened into. Further treatment of who. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.² . especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. 127). and also in having a conjunctive use. 104. 105. which and what. For instance.² "The last of all the Bards was he. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. whose? Obj. who evidently refers to Bards. as. what may be an adverb in some expressions. which is called the antecedent of the relative.101. who is used as objective instead of whom. 99. or other word or expression. for which the pronoun stands. which is nominative in the first sentence. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. which and what are sometimes adjectives. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. who? Poss. 102. which. subject of doth love. in Sec. Thus we may say. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. as they take the place usually of a word already used. Function of the relative pronoun. "The last of all the Bards was he.

²BYRON. 3.. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. in the same sense in which man's nature. with all its capabilities . . Generally speaking. WHITNEY. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 3.²MILTON. 108. what. The men whom men respect. 2.²DR JOHNSON. The nurse came to us.That guard our native seas. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. They had not their own luster. 2. that. D. a simple relative is meant. 4. Ye mariners of England.Whom universal nature did lament. is a divine creation.²PARTON Which and its forms. a thousand years.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. but the look which is not of the earth.²SCOTT. Two kinds. will be discussed further on. which. 6. The origin of language is divine. 5. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE.²W. the women whom women approve. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. For her enchanting son. When the word relative is used. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. both his and who have the antecedent priest.²LOWELL In this. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 106.²THACKERAY.. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.² COX.Whose flag has braved. are the men and women who bless their species. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. Indefinite relatives. 4. Who and its forms.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. 107.

Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. 109. ought to be kept in view. 111. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. Already done is all that he would do. and spoils...5. That. you will not be angry with me for telling you. else this description will seem exaggerated.²DE QUINCEY. For what he sought below is passed above. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.²BURKE. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .. 3. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. 107. which it certainly is not.²LAMB 3. The man that hath no music in himself.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.²MARGARET FULLER. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. What..²EMERSON. stratagems. BEECHER 5.²GOLDSMITH..²H. Reader. The Tree Igdrasil. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. bought up all the pigs that could be had. 110. W. Examples of the relative that:² 1.Is fit for treasons.²IRVING. The judge . Who. no bad type of what often happens in that country.. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. 4.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 6.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.. (a) This gradation . they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. 2.

The little gorilla. 96). Kingsley.. 113. they are plural. possessive case of which.. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. (3) It is nearly always third person. Which.²DR. Scott.whose. In 1. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. the others are all third person. 5.²who. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.²THACKERAY.²LEIGH HUNT. a man. whose for the possessive. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. and 6. 2. that man. in the first sentence. in the second. Examples of whose. whom. flung its arms around my neck. son. Smollett.who. My horse.²IRVING. Gibbon.²LOWELL. and so on. whom.. . warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Sec. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. In sentence 4. in the third. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. The sentences in Sec.²which for the nominative and objective. It has been seen (Sec.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. Witness the following examples:² And you. and others.. (2) It has three case forms.. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. referring to animals. who is first person. JOHNSON. whose. whose is second person.²SWIFT. and 3. or ideas.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. in 4. 107. who. not persons. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. The robins. in 5. Who referring to animals. p. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.. seemed as much excited as myself. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. the relatives are singular. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. (4) It has two case forms. things. 112. whose wound I had dressed. Cooper.

² MCMASTER. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. and to persecute without pity. and third persons. The last two sentences in Sec. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.²first. no possessive. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. 116. Men may be ready to fight to the death. Kingsley.²THACKERAY. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.²SCOTT. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. and things.²SHAKESPEARE. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. Primarily. Burke.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. (3) It is the same form for first.²RUSKIN. This moribund '61. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. 109. and numerous others. secondly (which made her stare). (2) It has only one case form. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. . second. which is very notable and curious. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Which and its antecedents.² I swept the horizon. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.114. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. So in Matthew Arnold."²RUSKIN. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. 115. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. thus. too. which is worse.²DE QUINCEY. This often occurs.²BEECHER. the antecedent follows which. In the sentences of Sec. let us enter the church itself. That.² And. Sometimes. animals.

is always neuter. 109. but what I hate. and is emphatic. 118. for example. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES.² What I would. plural number. When expressed. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. either of which would be neuter. Who plainly stands for those or the people. whose Obj. Nom. that do I not. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. that he has." That evidently refers to truths. 117. that do I. What. which.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. as. third person. and person of the relatives who. plural number. The sentences of Sec.²SHAKESPEARE. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular." (3) "These people heard him. by taking them out. who Poss. what we said?²CARLYLE. For example. The gender. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. that men must needs abide.²EMERSON. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. What a man does. 119. but this is not sanctioned as good usage.²BIBLE What fates impose. . DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. as in sentence 6. consequently is neuter. third person. it usually follows. we can. number. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. Sec.

Parsing what. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. is what we call nature." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. we is the subject. subject of heard. in (3).We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. 7. however.. because it has usually no antecedent. Truths in sentence (2). First find the antecedents. it is subject of the verb heard. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Now. neuter. standing for the people understood. 3. What must be endured? Answer. The word what. is subject of wrought upon and molded. in the following sentences:² 1. the simple relative. etc. I think they are trying to outwit nature. In the sentence. but is singular. people is the object of the preposition of. 5. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. In (2). and what is the direct object of the verb call. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. As shown by the following sentences. Exercise. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. it is object of uttered. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. In the same way who. that takes the case of the truths in (2). is in the nominative case. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 8. "What can't be cured must be endured. above. who is sure to be cunninger than they. then parse the relatives."²EMERSON. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. nobler souls with that which they are. What can't be cured. 120. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. 6. 4." Here the subject of is. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. after all. the highest result of all education. The relative what is handled differently. and hence is in the nominative case. in (1). . but of this. so is in the objective case. Another way. third person. which is. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. The whole expression is its subject. Some prefer another method of treatment.

but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. 6. They are whoever. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. by meaning and use." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. summer will have its flies. It is no proof of a man's understanding. whatsoever. 5. The simple relatives who. . whatsoever. List and examples. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. Hence some take what as a double relative. and which in the second clause.²BURKE. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. whichsoever. no certain antecedent. being referred to. whosoever. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 123. 122. object of do] they do. that nothing else can stand in their presence. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. Take which you please. Death is there associated. Meaning and use. in a new and original way. whichever. 7. and in 2. 2. or what else soever. object of with] which [singular.²MACAULAY. 3. "common souls pay with that [singular. whatever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. So with the other indefinites. whatever is equivalent to all things which. 4. not as direct as the simple relatives. Do what we can. to everything that. 2. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. which. It is clear that in 1. that is. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous.²you cannot have both. no particular thing. 121. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. and parse that in the first clause. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. Only itself can inspire whom it will. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. less common are whoso. or stand on their head.²BURKE. and his friend a fool. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1.

This. for example. as was used just as we use that or which. etc. But and as. Instead of the phrases in which. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. 125. and that as after such is equivalent to which. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. not following the word such. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Sec. 124. . etc.²DE QUINCEY. There is nothing but is related to us. nothing that does not interest us. what means anything that. for example.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. has been my heaviest affliction. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. In early modern English. but and as. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. 4. either one that. upon which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. Proof that they have the force of relatives. but which only wealth could have purchased. 120. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. by which. thus. Former use of as.² 1. Other substitutes.As shown in Sec. 121..²HAWTHORNE. everything that (or everything which). 121. are used. but mean any one whom. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence.² some particular thing. etc. 417). Two words. 126. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. 2. whereby.²EMERSON. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. the conjunctions wherein.. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. whereupon. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.

(b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. which having the antecedent lines. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. if not. showing that who is plainly interrogative. and whether what = that + which (if so. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. who having the antecedent gentleman. and 3 (b). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. what is interrogative. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. it is an indefinite relative). In sentences 1 (a). no antecedent is expressed. 2 (b). Thus. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. it is an interrogative.²ID. "Who stood behind? We knew.²WHITTIER. if expanded. second. would be. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. though the earthwork hid them. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent.. it is a simple relative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. Another caution. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. Special caution needed here. In studying such sentences. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. the full expression being. 3. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. which would indicate that they are not relatives.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide.²EMERSON. if not. But in 1 (b). 1 (b). So in 2 (b). . How to decide. a question is disguised in each sentence. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed." etc. 2." Likewise with which in 3 (b). 127. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by.

Thus. 2. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. When Goldsmith died. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. 3. The insect I am now describing lived three years. whose has the antecedent you. In the first. Relative omitted when object. and Court Calendars. On the other hand.²HOLMES. which has the antecedent hue. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²FORSTER 6.128.²SWIFT. which. I visited many other apartments.² THACKERAY. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Examine the following:² 1. Put in the relatives who. 4. . ELIOT.²G. In the second.²FLETCHER. In the third. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. 129. whence is the interrogative word. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew.² These are the sounds we feed upon. but the life of man in England. and asks no question. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. Exercise. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²CARLYLE. the question is asked by the verb. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. 5.

7. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.² LOWELL. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. Examples are. the house was full.²SCOTT. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. .Ne'er looks upon the sun. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. It is rare in prose.²Id. that. who were to be rulers over whom. 2. 3. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. which was already proceeding. 130. or indefinite relatives:² 1. Function of adjective pronouns. 6. Also in literary English we find the same omission. 5. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. There was such a crowd went. and what. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. simple relatives.²SHAKESPEARE. and comparatively so in poetry. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. Relative omitted when subject. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge.²CAMPBELL. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. The nobles looked at each other.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. which.

Primarily they are adjectives. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. In the first use they are adjectives. etc. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. expressed or understood." in the second. or an argument in a paragraph. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. For instance. such as each. many." "Where two men ride on a horse. but in this function. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. "The dead are there. neither." "one man. in letters of gold. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. all. few.²EMERSON. none. in the first. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS.131. a word. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. as some. For example. 132. or may be the whole of a sentence. etc. but have lost their adjective use. in order to be an adjective pronoun.²BRYANT. not pronouns. or use. and on each is written. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. either. and another to get cool under. etc. any." in the others.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. 'Truth. which we have seen in such expressions as. Adjectives." that is. in the second they retain an adjective meaning." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. such as this.²IRVING." Classes of adjective pronouns. or they may stand for nouns. Caution. that. "another bank. the former. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. 133. and stand for a noun. "these pranks. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. necessarily thought of: thus. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. . must not modify any word. "each cube.

²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Exercises. and sow wickedness.²EMERSON 4. They have not shunned the one. reap the same. 5. Even as I have seen.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. when the latter was the King of Spain. 134. Compound. They had fewer books. Such are a few isolated instances. or sat. or reclined. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.²ID. as seemed good to each. accidentally preserved.²ID. Definition and examples.² They stood. A man inspires affection and honor. Their minds accorded into one strain. but these were of the best.²LOWELL. but what he fain had seen He could not see. 3. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. they that plow iniquity. because he was not lying in wait for these. 2. Simple. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Some of these are simple pronouns. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. . Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. for example.All these he saw. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. and they have well performed the other. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. NOTE.

Men take each other's measure when they react. another. imbued. Exercise. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.²HAWTHORNE.²KINGSLEY.²HOLMES. paused over a horoscope. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.² One reflexive. as.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. The word one has a reflexive form. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. or melt for others' woe. one another. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. you quickly come to the end of all.²each other. The Soldan. Definition and examples. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. for example. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many.Two are compound pronouns. as most were. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. Much might be said on both sides. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. None shall rule but the humble. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. . 135. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. with the superstitions of his time. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. ²HAWTHORNE. They led one another. we might the more easily discharge them. as some of the rangers had gone astray. such as one other. as it were.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. Some inflected.²EMERSON. Another opposes him with sound argument.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.

anything. and they. something.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues.² At lovers' perjuries. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. They indefinite means people in general. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. somebody else.Exercise. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. anybody else's. I tell you what. etc. everything. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. every one else. they are never used as adjectives. unlike adjective pronouns. naught. anybody. no one. nothing. Somebody. any one (or anyone). as. but. Definition and examples. what. 137. also aught. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. they say. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. in building of chaises.²SHAKESPEARE. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Exercise. and was indefinite in Old English." It means something. etc. everybody. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. nobody. Every one else stood still at his post. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. anyone else.. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. 136. Now.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. every one (or everyone). everybody else. and somewhat. as shown in the words everybody's.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Jove laughs. some one. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. . That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did.

Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Others did the same thing. A reminder. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. . 18. 4. 17. The table was good. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). All was now ready for action. Hutchinson tells us of herself. to which. 7. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 14. 9. 11. 138. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 12. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. O thou that rollest above. from my earliest days. Exercise. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Whoever deals with M.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 16. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 2. 3. in his negotiations. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. were suffered to depart. 13. and of no other. 6. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. For this did God send her a great reward. 10. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. indeed. 5. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 8. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. I first found myself among the mountains. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about.

They know not I knew thee. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 25. that let him communicate. Whatever he knows and thinks. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. And I had done a hellish thing. oh. in all its height. 30. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 35.And it would work 'em woe. thou rollest now.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 27. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 29. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. And will your mother pity me. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28.Who knew thee too well. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday.Destroyer and preserver. well-oiled dispositions. He sate him down. 31. hear! 33. and seized a pen. eat white bread or brown. I who alone am. hear. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 21. 34.19. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. 32. 26. behold now the semblance of my being. 23. variety. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. who take the world easy.

or with persons. brittle or tough. For example. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 45." "a hundred men. ." etc. We need to add some words to tell its color. It may have this office alone.. Who hears me. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say." The office of an adjective. which was no bad step towards my liberation. We are by nature observers. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. and if we are near. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. then. He knew not what to do." "that house. heavy or light. if we are at a distance. As to the kind of words used. position. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. Office of Adjectives. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. such as in the expressions "this man. etc. 44. ADJECTIVES. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. size. 38. and so he read. He teaches who gives.36. adjectives are used. 42." "some cities. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. 43. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. and he learns who receives. 37. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit." "yonder hill. as. so that no other will be mistaken for it. or gaseous. So with any object. "one hat. that is our permanent state. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. becomes mine. white or red. the number is limited by adjectives. or liquid. 39. 40. 139. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Substantives. 41. in pointing out an object. If a chemist discovers a new substance. Again. who understands me. etc.

fair." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. however. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." "the Roman writer Palladius. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. Infinitives. deep. it shows that he weighs men's minds. Examples are. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. Classes of adjectives." "ivory-handled pistols. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. remotest. 142." "half-dead traveler." . "an old English manuscript. words primarily pronouns. pointing out particular things." "unlooked-for burden. used to tell how many things are spoken of. They include relative and interrogative words. 143. derived from proper nouns." "next-door neighbor. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them." "ice-cold water. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "this life-giving book. 141. beautiful. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. Nouns are not. To make this clear. "Heaven-derived power. happy. or how much of a thing. terrible." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. to forgive. and their trash." and the still less significant "and so. rash." they constitute all his connections." the "and there. With exception of the "and then. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. such as safe. to describe it or to limit its application. If he be thankful for small benefits. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. (4) Pronominal adjectives.² BACON. divine.140. To err is human. such as.²COLERIDGE. (2) Adjectives of quantity. etc." "the Christian pearl of charity.²POPE. Definition.

which are either pure participles used to describe. any. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. 'Tis midnight. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. considerable. in this. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." was is the verb.²COLERIDGE. 145. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "It came on like the rolling simoom." "One is hungry. having some of each subclass named in Sec." Caution. no." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. For instance: in the sentence. 144. Care is needed. Examples are. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. 143. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²MACDONALD. Exercises. 1. and accomplished is an adjective. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many." was accomplished is a verb. and another is drunken.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. .But ever she looked on Mr. sometimes small. 2." "trailing clouds.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. much. in studying these last-named words. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "a charming sight." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "an aged man. Oxenham." "The shattered squares have opened into line. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. some." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.

that.²KINGSLEY. When some. latter. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.²VAUGHAN. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. but I have gained fourscore. are used with plural nouns. The list.²ID. every village. Examples." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. former. How many. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "Then we wandered for many days. An arrow was quivering in each body. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. any. instead of modifying them. (plural these. Exercise.²CARLYLE. and with them a few negroes. as." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound.² Every town had its fair. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. yonder (or yon).Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. The following sentences present some examples:² . 146." "a dozen volunteers. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers." "I have lost one brother." "In came some five and twenty more. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. Thus." Single ones of any number of changes.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²THACKERAY. "one blaze of musketry. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. The demonstrative adjectives are this. the former²the latter. no. they come under the next division of adjectives. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. Not primarily pronouns. its wake." (b) Indefinite numerals. those). Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "He had lived by hunting for some months. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.

²KINGSLEY. . pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. 148. Oxenham fought desperately. ²CARLYLE.²ID.²RUSKIN. 147. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. skill which was progressive²in the other. they are changed to adjectives. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. In which evil strait Mr. These were thy charms. what revenues or garnitures.²GOLDSMITH.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. 149. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course..but all these charms are fled. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. WEBSTER. like the other numerals. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. skill which was at pause. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Modify names of persons or things. As has been said. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. They are of two kinds. Exercise. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. These do not.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. The taking of which bark. Indefinite relative adjectives. I verily believe.²D.²BANCROFT. Definition. The silver and laughing Xenil. but.²ID. When we speak of the seventeenth century.. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. for example. FRANKLIN.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives."²B. of equal skill. but in the one case. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²WORDSWORTH. just as the corresponding pronouns do.² It matters not what rank he has. tell how many things are meant.²BULWER.

he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. As in the pronouns. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. whichsoever way I move. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²ID.²RUSKIN. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.And whichsoever way I turn. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whatsoever.² EMERSON. Examples of their use are.²IRVING. He was turned before long into all the universe. proved not altogether displeasing to him. or whether any. which. . A lady once remarked.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whichsoever. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. as it rather seemed. which is selective among what is known. New torments I behold. you at least give him full authority over your son. the debt to the rich.. Adjective what in exclamations. Was there. Whatsoever kind of man he is. 151. it is impossible to determine. whichever.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. what inquires about things or persons not known.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. But when the Trojan war comes. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.²CARLYLE.²AGASSIZ. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.150.²LAMB. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. In direct questions. and gaze. whatever. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. nature will be sure to bear us out in. In indirect questions. and new tormentedAround me.

it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. we do so by means of their qualities. we notice some differences between them as to size. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. as. This is the old demonstrative.² Oh. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. and when we compare the objects. and those as the plural of that. . NUMBER.Adjectives have two inflections. or size.²This.. All these have certain qualities. weight. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. When we place two objects side by side. 154. Thus. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. color.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. the making of it right. 155. 153 . which was fully inflected in Old English. But this had also another plural. etc. alas. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. It is neither relative nor interrogative. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. In exclamatory expressions. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.152. Exercise. gold is heavier than iron. those). That. History of this²these and that²those. The article that was used with neuter nouns. Those borrowed from this. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. etc. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.²but not the same degree. or weight. COMPARISON. And yet. th s (modern those).²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. Meaning of comparison. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. of the quality. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.²number and comparison. or amount. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.

bluest. blue. 156. So with the words sole. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. infinite. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. 159. supreme. "more matter. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. and the superlative by adding -est. strictly considered. A main difference betwixt men is. immemorial. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. giant-like. with less wit. Definition. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. universal institution." "It is a nobler valor. expressing a greater degree of quality. but. reddest. enormous. These are called degrees of comparison. sufficient.²SEWARD. as.²THACKERAY. and many others.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. great.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. Freedom is a perpetual. for example. whose favorite pupil he was. bluer. They came into use about the thirteenth century." "the largest soul. easy. easiest. The two forms. they are not compared. 157." "the commonest speech. 158. expressing the greatest degree of quality." Words that cannot be compared. The comparative is formed by adding -er. Substitute for inflection in comparison. redder. indefatigable. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. red. "untamed thought.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. to the simple form. but were not common until a century later. whether they attend their own affair or not. though the simple. indomitable. as. easier. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. or amounts in quantity. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. . and the superlative. 160. These are properly the only degrees. organic." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example." "no fewer than a hundred.

163.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain.² CARLYLE A gentleman. and yet familiar. falling on his knees. there needed to be a most genuine substance. easy. was most finished. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." "more odd. indisputablest. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. madam. strange.Which rule. and other words are preceded by more and most. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. admirablest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. as. etc.²ID. polished. harsh forms are usually avoided. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. though born in no very high degree. most small. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." "more austere and holy. which hung behind in the queerest way. 162. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. who. These are adjectives irregularly compared." "sorrowfulest spectacles. witty. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. quiet. and patientest fusing." "the wonderfulest little shoes. peaceablest. I will.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. Adjectives irregularly compared. mournfulest.² -er and -est or more and most? 161." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." said Henry Esmond. The following lists include the majority of them:² . These long.²ID.²The Nation. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. "So help me God. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. finest chiseling." Carlyle uses beautifulest. honestest." "distantest relationships. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. The general rule is.

²HAMLET. a double comparative. [Out] Outer. bad. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. lesser Elder. There was an old comparative bet. 4. though from a different root. worst. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). [In] Inner Inmost. (2) In Old English.² We have it in a much lesser degree. throw away the worser part of it.² O. last Hindmost. Good or well Evil. lesser. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 5.LIST I. 1. which has softened to the modern best. A double comparative. as. outermost Utmost. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 7. The superlative I form was betst. as in Shakespeare. older Nigher Nearer Later. as in the sentence (14th century). 6. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. uppermost LIST III. evil was the positive to worse. least. further Farthest. furthest 10. 164. . and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. next Nearest Latest. utter 3. 8. 2. uttermost Upmost. hindermost Much or many More Farther. These have no adjective positive:² 1. innermost Outmost. 3. List I. which has gone out of use. is often used.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. Hind 2. 9. Worser was once used. latter Hinder LIST II. oldest Nighest.

and on it were built a double comparative nearer. First became entirely detached from the series.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. latter and last are used in speaking of succession.²forth. farthest. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. to which is added -ost. Between the two sets as they now stand. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. except the form next. since the m is for -ma. furthest. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. th came into the others. . came into use. instead of lenger. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. farrest. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. are shown in such phrases as. latest. further. moche. eldest. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. are earlier than older. ²LAMB.. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. etc. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. to England we sailed. and refer to time.² The more part being of one mind. as. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. oldest. In imitation of further. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. making the modern farther. "Many a little makes a mickle. The latter. but originally the comparison was nigh. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. is quite common. next. and the superlative nearest. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. The most part kept a stolid indifference. muchel. an old superlative ending. (9) Latter and last are the older forms.. but not in meaning. strong.²KINGSLEY. much. doubling the inflection. great. strenger. Since later." Its spelling has been micel. first. etc. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. a distinction has grown up between the two series. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. greatest. near. the old forms. (10) Hinder is comparative in form.²ID. meaning the largest part. there is scarcely any distinction. and was the same word that is found in the proverb.²HAWTHORNE. as long. List II. (5) The forms elder. The meanings greater. for example.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. or series.

List III. but they have no adjective positives." "far-seeing as the sun. and have no comparative force. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Think what each adjective belongs to. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. or have no comparative forms. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. Her bows were deep in the water. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Her. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Highest and midmost. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. was descried The royal banner floating wide. but not in their meaning. They have no superlatives. . In List II.165.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. W. the upper light of the world.²DE QUINCEY. are like the comparative forms in List II. or each may modify a different word or group of words. The comparatives are so in form." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. 166. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. in having no adjective positives. all may belong to the same noun. on the very topmost twig. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN." "The outer is of the day. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain." -Most added to other words. BEECHER." "the innermost moral soul. but her after deck was still dry. Decidedly handsome. being merely descriptive. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.²DE QUINCEY. The adjectives in List III. 167. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²HAWTHORNE. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. 168.²H. There. by the by.²KINGSLEY. (Sec." "their utmost exertion. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region.

²TRENCH. But in this sentence. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. and thine often infirmities.²BIBLE. deep. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. and heaven-defying oaths. we may say "the then king. Bradbury and Evans. Other instances are." in which then is an adverb. instead of saying. This. solid.For example. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. Exercise. now our queen. satisfactory. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. deeply black eyes. 3. therefore. rich. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. The seldom use of it. H." making then an adjective. ²TROLLOPE. as. in this sentence. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical.²A. "the one who was then king. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²HOLMES. bright.² My then favorite. in prose. round. . A few improper jests and a volley of good. 169. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. philosophical.²HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN. 4. not decision alone. STEPHENS 5. 2. usual modifies incomparable decision." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. the then and still owners. For thy stomach's sake.²MRS. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. 6. and moral truth. It may still be argued.²HAWTHORNE. 7. and broken.²NOAH PORTER. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. In the following quotations. STOWE. By a convenient brevity. Our sometime sister. May we not. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. our new government. Richard Hooker.

In parsing an adjective. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. positive degree. frank. . (3) Its degree of comparison. I ask nothing of you. across the plain. 3. This gave the young people entire freedom. MODEL FOR PARSING. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. 170. These points out what truths. To every several man. 9. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. seventy-five drachmas. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. 10. compared by prefixing more and most.What to tell in parsing. Exercise. modifies the word truths. and very few have number. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. plural number. not inflected for number. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 8. 7. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. (2) Its number. 6. 2. therefore descriptive. (4) What word or words it modifies. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. manly way. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Since adjectives have no gender. or case. To every Roman citizen he gives. modifies truths. then. this. and I waited for none. person. She made no reply. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. if it can be compared. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. the method of parsing is simple. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. if it has number. with awkward but rapid pace. having a singular. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. therefore demonstrative. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 4. 5. Unfamiliar describes truths. cannot be compared.

Here lay two great roads. Nearer to our own times. 32. In music especially. and dogs. Two hours elapsed. With every third step. not so much for travelers that were few. during which time I waited. those dogs in the yard. . 18. and many poles supported the lower ones. 21. 13. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. he won affections with ease. I know not what course others may take. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. it is so noble a fruit. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. it rests on reality. the tomahawk fell. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 16. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. suggests such thoughts as these. yonder oxen in the pasture. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 28. and therefore more interesting to us. 20. 24. growing in the most unfavorable position. To say what good of fashion we can. 23. are immutably fishes. 14. 31. 19. 29. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Their name was the last word upon his lips. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 33. is the settlement of our own country. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 25. 22. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 12. 27. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. oxen.11. Like most gifted men. as for armies that were too many by half. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 26. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again.

but the former is used. In the sentence. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. 37. that) which was also an article in Old English. 35. Two relics. 173. even when not silent. in vulgar English. Examples: "a house. the other. for example. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. the tother. An before vowel sounds. the tither. . Their origin. and a before consonant sounds. In Middle English the became an article. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. these occurring as the tane. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. with an ordinary little garden." "a European." "an honor. th o. Many writers use an before h.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Our expressions the one. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy." "an orange. the tother. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. later th . The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks." "a yelling crowd. a before consonant sounds. were formerly that one. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds.²SCOTT. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. 174. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. or the tane. s o. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.²BREWER. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. such as we have been attempting to describe.34. A hard-struggling. 171. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. weary-hearted man was he. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s ." the words the and an belong to nouns. just as adjectives do.²MACAULAY. that other. he is no literary man. meaning one. the latter is still preserved in the expression. sometimes the tother. An historian. ðat. An or a came from the old numeral n. ARTICLES. 172." An with consonant sounds.

He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. With names of rivers.²IRVING. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 176. Articles are either definite or indefinite. and not a state or other geographical division. or group. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. or a group or class of things. or class.² . Reference to a known object. When the is prefixed to a proper name. the older n.²HEROES OF ASGARD. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers." the article indicates clearly that a river. 178. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images... a person is introduced by a." "the Ohio. An hereditary tenure of these offices.. thus. on opening a story. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. Definition. since it points out a particular individual.²G. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. 177. BANCROFT. NOTE. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. An or a is the indefinite article. doubtless. 175. and when the word river is omitted. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. An and a are different forms of the same word.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.² Don't you remember how. or any individual of a group or class. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. The Dakota tribes. To call attention to attributes. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. as "the Mississippi. 179. which cannot be used alone. as in the sentence.²THACKERAY. An article is a limiting word. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. is referred to. Kinds. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.²COLERIDGE. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with.²This use is noticed when. The is the definite article. not descriptive.

and the redwing.²ID. etc.²MOTLEY. her. or a match put between the fingers. 180. for example. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. NOTE. If the good is there.²KINGSLEY. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 181. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. Common. 183. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. The simple rise as by specific levity. the gallant. With adjectives used as nouns. 2. Schelling. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. With plural of abstract nouns. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. His messages to the provincial authorities.²ID. the song sparrow. 182. would speedily extract the required information. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.²EMERSON. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.²GIBBON. as. the Spinoza. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. the Hume.² As she hesitated to pass on.The Bacon. Half abstract. Caution. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. not into a particular virtue. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. so is the evil. BANCROFT.²SCOTT. laid it on the miry spot. The. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons.² The faint.²EMERSON. 1. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. . but into the region of all the virtues.²G. Kant. For possessive person pronouns. One thing for its class.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

all do not express it in the same way. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. in (3. 200: In (1). a). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. an adverb. b). but cannot be predicates.In (a). hence is not a verb. lone took what? answer. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. in (3. but fearing is not a predicate."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. with some word understood. a noun. Definition and caution. the most astute. in (2." put is the predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. in (c). to go is no predicate. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. an article. (can) shame also has an object. Of those expressing action. which may be a person. endured what? anguish. and a preposition unite as a verb. obeyed is a predicate. the word following. c). from the Latin transire. a verb. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. In giving a definition. which means to go over. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (b). and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. The nature of intransitive verbs. In the first. care. In the sentence. b). In each case. The nature of the transitive verb.²BULWER . Each influences some object. and not a verb.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. taking the staff which always guided her steps. and to receive the action expressed. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. in (2. "Put thou money in thy purse. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. in this sentence from Bulwer. or a material thing. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate." Examine the sentences in Sec. the most penetrating. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. for example. etc. as. or an idea. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. or the object. representing something which it influences or controls. Now. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. All these are called transitive verbs. we consider a verb as one word. Has takes the object hypocrisy. and shame the most astute. 204. "Put money in thy purse. a preposition. 203. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. 201. can deceive has an object. and. to say something to or about some person or thing. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. 202. Hence Definition. By examining a few verbs. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

or be fulfilled. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. Most excellent stranger.²D.² If. Ideal. the writer can make the statement following.²LONGFELLOW. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. as. ²EMERSON.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. I. he will see the need of these ethics. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. in our case. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. the representative system ultimately fail.² Now. they were recorded in the Book of Life. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.²SHELLEY.²may or may not be true. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.²BRYCE. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. as.²FRANKLIN.I could lie down like a tired child.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. and may or may not be regarded true. 221. WEBSTER. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. 215. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. popular government must be pronounced impossible. . for example. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. If this be the glory of Julius. Unreal²cannot be true. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. 2). but. the second founder.²MACAULAY. Again. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. 222. the first great founder of the Empire. Condition or Supposition.

7.²BAYNE. since he [Byron] was dead. which cannot be true. 6.. that we cannot but regret its absence. do you think. would have sat still with joy and peace. etc. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. Exercise.²MACAULAY. The subjunctive. Subjunctive of Purpose. but when the verb precedes the subject. society could not hold together.. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. 223. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. the clause being introduced by that or lest.²SWIFT. if his lot had been mine. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. 3. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. is used to express purpose. The voice. especially be. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. If he had reason to dislike him. to drink strong beer.²EMERSON. if he was the man I take him for.. that he might be strong to labor. 8. except. and should. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.²CALHOUN. .² If these things were true. ²LOWELL. may. though. P. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. would you. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. Epaminondas. and what kind of condition:² 1. thus. as. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. WILLIS. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created.²N. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²FRANKLIN. is of similar physiognomy. NOTE." etc. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. and sonorous. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.² It was necessary. 5. 4. she was regarded as a prodigy. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. I told him.. In the following conditional clauses. might. But in no case could it be justified. unless. if he speak to you.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. and striven energetically to save Ney. he had better not have written.²FRANKLIN. melodious.² CARLYLE. he supposed.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. 2. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. clear. II.

He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. IV. V.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. To tell of what had passed.²SOUTHEY.²ID.²WORDSWORTH. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. . Let it rise.I have been the more particular. The English subjunctive. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Rise up. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.Were wafted off to seas unknown. till it meet the sun in his coming. WEBSTER.²DE QUINCEY. 225.²D. III. In Temporal Clauses. the answer being regarded as doubtful. I would it were! ²EMERSON.²BRYANT. Expressing a Wish. like the quarry-slave at night.Thou go not. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. like the Latin. In a Noun Clause..²CARLYLE. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. 224. So live. within its fairy bowers... Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. 226. 227. After a verb of wishing.That vain it were her eyes to close. Subjunctive of Result. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. VII. In Indirect Questions. I've wished that little isle had wings.²COLERIDGE. none of us could say. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.And we.²MOORE. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.. Ask the great man if there be none greater. VI. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.

tell me all that thou hast seen. After verbs of commanding. we'll turn aside. VIII. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²SCOTT. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. in its various uses as subject. The essence of originality is not that it be new.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. of cash. I have no thought what men they be. or whatsoever victual it may be. is the ultimate fact of man's life. That hunger of applause. is. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.And look thou tell me true.²WORDSWORTH. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. Whatever betide.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.²TENNYSON.²DE QUINCEY. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. .² DICKENS.²THOREAU. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Object. often contains a subjunctive. for example. Come.²CARLYLE.²COLERIDGE. (b) Adjective.Subject.And see the Braes of Yarrow. which may be (a) Pronoun. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Some might lament that I were cold.. Concessive Clauses. object. The first merit. 228. in apposition. Complement.²SHELLEY. that everything be in its place.²COLERIDGE. 229. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. etc. The noun clause.² Be the matter how it may.

²SHELLEY. we had found [should have found] a poem here. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. 230.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. fear none. or requests. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. In spoken English. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.The spirit he loves remains.² CARLYLE. a concession. It must be remembered. Q. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. At the present day. entreaties.²J. . Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. Oh. (3) Request.²CHANNING. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. though. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. and condition contrary to fact. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. love all men. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. 232. point to their immortal works. (2) Entreaty.²BRYANT. however. since commands are directed to a person addressed. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. (1) Command. 231. Definition. IMPERATIVE MOOD.(c) Adverb. for example. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. Honor all men. to express a wish. Usually second person. ADAMS.

8. Quoth she. nothing is to be preferred before justice. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. child of earth!While each performs his part." whispered Kit. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. Oh. 3.And. 7. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. etc. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. noble earl. or I + they.²SCOTT. Part we in friendship from your land. request. we may use the imperative with we in a command."²DICKENS Tell me.And God forget the stranger!" .. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. there will her heart and her prayers be.. 6. but I + you. Mark thou this difference. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. "Come along with me. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.²CAMPBELL. Break we our watch up. Sometimes with first person in the plural. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Whatever inconvenience ensue. to you implied in it. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Meet is it changes should controlOur being." Exercises on the Moods."Hush! mother. "The Devil take the goose.²SHAKESPEARE. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. receive my hand. etc.One glance at their array! 5. lest we rust in ease." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 2. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.

18. He is. 23." 25. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 21. He.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree." 16. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. then. Though he were dumb. my dear madam. it would speak. or do it at all. Well. Forget thyself to marble. "Mr. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12." cried he. let him live where else he like. as though an instrument. 20. will it not fall unbound. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. whether he do it right or wrong.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. Though abyss open under abyss. That a man parade his doubt. 11.That they might answer him. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. "tell me where I may find my poor. 19. and opinion displace opinion.9.Except. That sheaf of darts. . Think not that I speak for your sakes.High up in silver spikes! 22. no literary man. 26. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. in what pomps and prosperities he like. 14. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 10. ruined. 13." continued Old Morgan. "Oh. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. how he may do his work. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. she ought to have it. but repentant child. Marshall.

²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. such as Latin and Greek. "I go away tomorrow. "Thou walkest. as the classical languages have. a form ending in -eth. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. PERSON AND NUMBER.²the present tense. called auxiliaries. past. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. The tenses in detail. also. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. When the older pronoun thou was in use. and the past tense. Meantime. and future." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. to direct his steps." . Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses." past. as will be shown later on. as. five in the subjunctive. in the conjugations. Tense means time.² present." "If he comes. whatever she did. as. 28. and future perfect tenses. by means of the present. or whether it were as one member of a general party. will. five in the imperative. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. or future time. Siddons." present. the past. "It is not in man that walketh. 235.²nothing could exceed the amiable. 233. Tenses in English. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. have.27. "Thou walkedst. shall. 234. kind. tell him to wait. past perfect. past. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. TENSE. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. Definition. and the future tense. such as be. Old English had only two tenses. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. which represented present and future time. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. in the third person singular. or agree with it.

choosing.²am. I be 2. sometimes adding the old forms walkest.²choose. are.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. for example. chosest). tenses. chooseth. Singular 1. walking. Such verbs as choose have five. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. Singular 1. [He] were [They] were . were. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. PRESENT TENSE. Indicative Mood. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. You (thou) be 3. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. This is the third person. been." and this only in the present tense indicative. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. as. persons. Singular 1. is. "He walks. The verb be has more forms. mood. walketh. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. 236. choosest. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. but in English. PRESENT TENSE. Few forms. chose. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. 237. walks. In classical languages. chosen (old. 238. etc. I were 2. etc. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. moods. CONJUGATION. chooses. wert) 3. singular number. [He] is [They] are 3. walkedst. tense. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. walked. and numbers. You are 2. walk has walk. Singular 1. since it is composed of several different roots. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Definition. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE.

. condition. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.²SCOTT.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. is. (d) With the infinitive. were.²THACKERAY. (2) As auxiliary verbs.Imperative Mood. etc. Remarks on the verb be.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.²GOLDSMITH. as. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. thus. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. obligation. (2) was.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. to form the passive voice. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. etc. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²WORDSWORTH.²SHELLEY. 240. in four ways. (3) be. though it is usually a dialect form. -en. Instead of the plural are. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. 239.²ID.His infancy was nurtured. to express intention. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. (b) With the past participle in -ed. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. for example.²BURKE . If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. same as the German sind. which was now become an occasional banquet. The light that never was on sea and land. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight..

You choose Plural. You chose Plural. tenses. Singular. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. PRESENT TENSE. Singular. 1. "I shall be. "I have gone" (present perfect). as. I chose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. You choose Plural. (2). and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. "I had gone" (past perfect). 242. You chose Plural. I choose 2. We chose You chose 3. I chose 2. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. PRESENT TENSE. Singular. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE." (2) Present perfect.241. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. . [He] choose [They] choose 3. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. by placing have. 1. In addition to the above inflected forms. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 240. tenses. Machinery of a verb in the voices. past perfect. We chose You chose 3. Singular. I choose 2. Indicative Mood. future perfect. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. 1. 1. etc. We choose You choose PAST TENSE." "He will choose. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). as. had. Some of these have been indicated in Sec.

of each tense. Present. Past definite. Imperative Mood. . Present. Future perfect definite.] he choose." "They had been running. he chose (or were to choose). "I was chosen. Future definite. " Be choosing. (2d per. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). ACTIVE VOICE. Present. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. he have chosen. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He had chosen. "I am running. Past perfect definite. " " " " " " " he be choosing." "You are chosen. Subjunctive Mood. He is choosing. He was choosing. Past perfect. will be given.) Choose. He will choose. Same as indicative. Indicative Mood. though. Only the third person." (4) The passive forms. Future perfect. as. Present perfect. Past definite. Present perfect definite. Future. singular number. He will have chosen. as. Present definite. Present definite. He will he choosing. He has been choosing. He chose. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. [If. Present perfect definite. he have been choosing. etc. lest. He had been choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense." 243. Past perfect definite. Past. He chooses. Past. Past perfect. He has chosen. Present perfect. Same as indicative. Present definite. He will have been choosing.

Future perfect definite. though. as. Past perfect. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Past perfect definite. Present. Future definite. He is chosen. if learned at all. Subjunctive Mood. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Past definite. Past.) Be chosen. Present tense. He is being chosen. None. however. he were chosen (or were to be chosen).NOTE. Future. lest. Past perfect definite. Imperative Mood. but verbals.] [If. in affirmative sentences. He was chosen. Indicative Mood. Past Perfect. he have been chosen. Present perfect. . He had been chosen. "He does strike. None. PASSIVE VOICE. He has been chosen. Present perfect. None. He will be chosen. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. None. he had been chosen. 262). Present definite. He will have been chosen. Past.²This table is not to be learned now. Present. (2d per. etc.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present definite. Present perfect definite. they will be discussed later (Sec. he were being chosen. He was being chosen. Exercises should be given." "He did strike. Past definite. Also. Future perfect..] he be chosen." [Note to Teacher. Present perfect definite. None. " " " " " " " None.

and may or may not change the vowel: as. begged. drive. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. slept. beg. lay. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. as. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. 244. NOTE. Definition. drove. According to form.[adj. Kinds. Past Tense. but adds no ending. ran. catch. which are in parentheses Present Tense. bounden] bitten. verbs are strong or weak. bid bound. laid. 245. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. Some of these also have weak forms. run. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . sleep. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. caught.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. bit blown broken chidden.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. trod worn woven won wound . stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

instead of ate and eaten. Sometimes in literary English.²as (from Shakespeare). to split. cleave. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. "his bounden duty. borne is also a passive. now told us it was time for repose. Crew is seldom found in present-day English." In this confusion of usage. ²THACKERAY. cleft (to split). the other.² We had each drank three times at the well. . but is much used in vulgar English. probably to avoid confusion with this. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. cloven. for example.²cleave. The former used to be cleave. and sometimes occurs in poetry. only one set remains certain. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. as. nor a dog barked. as (from Holmes)." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. and the latter." "the cloven hoof.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. especially in that of an earlier period. "stricken with paralysis. as. Not a cock crew.²B. The form clomb is not used in prose. clave or clove. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. When it means to carry or to endure." "a sunken snag."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).²IRVING.²COLERIDGE. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. and.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²one meaning to adhere or cling.²TENNYSON. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. TAYLOR. as. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).²GOLDSMITH.²MILTON. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. Historically. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. and another (born) for the passive." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. 246. cleaved. cleft. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. cleaved. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. Our cock." "a drunken wretch. which always crew at eleven.

Throw. One example out of many is. and grasping at his sword. begun." but not much as a participle. given. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. (a) From the table (Sec.The form gotten is little used. 3. He sate him down. This heard Geraint. shore is rare. 245). shook. froze. Break. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. broke. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Shake. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Give. 6. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. gave. Usually shear is a weak verb. for example. broken. The butler was hanged. 8.²BYRON. fallen. as. Fling."²KINGSLEY. thrown. threw. Exercises. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. 7.²WORDSWORTH. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.²BIBLE. 9." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. as "a shorn lamb.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. frozen. 2. fell.² If. even in poetry. Begin. 4. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. flung. We usually say. and seized a pen. Find. found. flung. began. Drive.²TENNYSON.²DE FOE. 10. shaken. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. drove. 5. . for example.² We had all got safe on shore.²SCOTT. maiden. which is seldom used except in poetry. found. driven. Fall. Freeze.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.

etc. 249. .. (See also Sec. 220. PAST. Indicative Use: Permission. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.. 247. as it sometimes does. Ability..²CHANNING. "far off his coming shines. from the obsolete verb motan. which survives in the sentence. as it has two meanings. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. HAMILTON. etc. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. as.²CHANNING This. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. for full drill on the forms. 251. or. Could may be subjunctive.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. Must is historically a past-tense form. 223. or when it expresses wish. according to the infinitive used.²PAINE.²SCOTT. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. His superiority none might question. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. It is indicative when it expresses permission. ability. purpose. The same remarks apply to ought." Must is present or past tense. They are as follows:² PRESENT.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. "So mote it be. of course. there is one general principle.. 250. Like must."²WINIER. Subjunctive use.²HAWTHORNE.[To the Teacher. must have been an ocular deception. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. Can is used in the indicative only. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. but came through analogy with should and would.. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. PAST. The l in could did not belong there originally. Have we valuable territories and important posts. PRESENT. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. as in Sec.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. it is used only in the indicative mood.

the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. to the neglect of shall and should..²L. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. or confident prediction. for example. as.²LONGFELLOW. as. They shall have venison to eat. to use will and would. The sea shall crush thee. and corn to hoe. my lad. WEBSTER. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.²COOPER.²IRVING. 252.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. while ought always has to.²THAXTER. (b) In questions asking for orders.² Futurity and questions²first person. especially in the United States.² (a) To express authority. with pronouns of the first person.² The time will come full soon. The following are examples:² Never mind. she should ride like a queen. shall and should are used." Uses of shall and should.e. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. I shall be gone.Nay. yea. (b) In indirect quotations. future action). (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. not plod along like apeasant. what shall I say?²N. Shall and Will.² With respect to novels. promise. She rejects his suit with scorn. in the form of command. Second and third persons. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. as. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. C. She should not walk. MOULTON. shall and should are used. "I think I will go. he said. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. BROCKDEN BROWN. .It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.²BULWER.²MACAULAY.

²SCOTT.²H. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. time.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. or a promise. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²WINTER. 253. B.²ROGERS. for example. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. was to be expected. purpose. I never was what I should be. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.² I will go myself now. Disguising a command.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. JR. and will not return until all is finished.²CABLE. and is equivalent to ought.. thus. First. And promised. second and third persons. JAMES. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice..²BYRON. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²WORDSWORTH.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.that I would do him justice. BROWN.²C. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. with the conviction that he should win in the end. as the sole inventor. (c) With direct questions of the second person. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. .²WORDSWORTH. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²SWIFT. as.²A. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²WORDSWORTH. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. for example. LARNED. etc.

To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).² Thou wilt take the skiff. through storms their brothers are afraid of. To be sure. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. for example. B. AND THIRD PERSONS. BROWN. 254. Roland. and mark on the grounds the works. as if it were merely expected action.. Thine was a dangerous gift.²SCOTT. This puts the order more mildly. would is used to express a wish. for punishment or intimidation. PASSIVE VOICE.²BURKE... as..² Subject I omitted: often so. (4) With FIRST.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.² DICKENS.²SCOTT. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. SECOND. without regard to future time. Mere futurity. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. . as. etc. The gift of Beauty. will and would are used to express simple futurity.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. will and would often denote an action as customary. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. will is used to express command.. Would thou hadst it not. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. for example.²IRVING.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²LANDOR.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. When I am in town..²the original meaning of the word will. when thou wast born. and two of my people. They will go to Sunday schools. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. action merely expected to occur.²War Records. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.²BANCROFT. In this stately chair would he sit. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. so you will.

:² ACTIVE VOICE. We shall choose. Exercises on Shall and Will. (a) From Secs. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. and that of the newest cut. [They] shall choose. . 2. [He] will be chosen. [He] will choose. Plural. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. We will be chosen. 3. [He] shall be chosen. 2. 5. 2. You will be chosen. 2. I will be chosen. We shall be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. promise. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. You shall choose. 3. "I shall not run. Plural. You will choose. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 4. 1. Thou art what I would be. You shall choose. 3. Singular. etc. I shall be chosen. 252 and 253. 1. I shall choose. and justify the use of shall and will. 3. 2. We will choose. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. [They] will be chosen. 3. I will choose. 6. 2. (b) Examine the following sentences. [He] shall choose. Plural. 1. yet only seem. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. Singular. He informed us. [They] will choose. [They] shall be chosen. 3.Singular. You will be chosen. 1. 1. You will choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. To express determination. You shall be chosen. You shall be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. Singular. Plural.

(2) Those which end in -d or -t. 11. and have no change of vowel.²CHAUCER. was -de or -te.²Class I. 13. Without having attended to this. 12." 14. as if he would have more of the enchantment.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. then. or mylk and wastel breed. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. The beast made a sluggish movement." the stranger said. This ending has now dropped off. 10. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. which may be called irregular weak verbs. put. as. Lucy stood still. But the rest. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. put. bereave besought Past Participle. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. Of smale houndes hadde she. and I have nothing to say.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. WEAK VERBS. "I am a wayfarer.²ID. bereaved besought . 256. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. my son. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. set. bereave beseech bereft. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. need some attention and explanation. 255. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 9. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. bereft. 257. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Irregular Weak Verbs. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. Past Tense. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. put. set. Present Tense. very anxious. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while.7. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. No.

burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

formed a kind of bedstead. they have an indefinite. when inflections became fewer. Cases when to is omitted. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. . Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. to was used before the infinitive generally. [To] be choosing. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. To with the infinitive. 268. 9. ACTIVE VOICE. 10. will (with should and would).6. try clemency. 8.. Infinitives. INFINITIVES. But later. to express action unconnected with a subject. Perfect. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Nothing of the kind having been done. an imperfect. have no tense.. 266. [To] be chosen. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). Imperfect. [To] have chosen. a perfect. and when passive. 267. Perfect definite. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. When active. In Sec. [To] choose. PASSIVE VOICE. Perfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. I returned to reflection on my situation. an indefinite and a perfect form. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. like participles. as in the Old English. expressing purpose. [To] have been choosing. and a perfect definite form.. Indefinite. 7. Three saplings. Indefinite. [To] have been chosen.²the creature warring against the creating power.

I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT." "I shall have chosen. as the credulous imagine. The gerund is like the participle in form." (4) In exclamations. or the object of a verb or a preposition. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.² What! doth she. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. GERUNDS. 270. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. must..²it may be governed as a noun. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. do (as.²DE QUINCEY. as.²TENNYSON." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. "a house to let. also let. They shall have venison to eat. please. as. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. as in the expression. E. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. see. it may be the subject of a verb. bid (command). negative. But there was nothing to do. sometimes need (as. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. make. 271.²IRVING. "She ask my pardon. also in the imperative. HALE. it has several attributes of a noun. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. learn [doth learn is one verb.²MACAULAY.²COOPER. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. watch. under "Analysis. 269. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. . and corn to hoe.²E. "He will choose. can (could).² She was a kind. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. it is often preceded by the definite article.²GOLDSMITH. hear. feel. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).). liberal woman. and like a noun in use. too. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. as.(2) After the verbs may (might). "I do go" etc." Examples are. 272. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²HOWELLS. While the gerund expresses action." etc. and emphatic forms of the present and past. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. poor woman!" cried Charles.

They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. according to use as well as meaning. making the definite tenses. which express action." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. after examining the nest. which express action.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. they find the nurslings untouched! 3.²Find sentences containing five participles." "Certainly dueling is bad. which have lost all verbal force. Words in -ing are of six kinds. 273." also (2. five infinitives." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. (2) Pure participles. 2. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. (4) Pure adjectives. (3) Participial adjectives. above." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. 4. and wonderful store of learning! . and has been put down. (6) Verbal nouns. but do not assert. which name an action or state. Exercise." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. b). Sec. to see the returning hope of the parents. What a vast. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. may govern and be governed. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. Then how pleasing is it. on your leaving the spot. when. and five gerunds. (5) Gerunds. II). which express action and also modify." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action." Exercise. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. but cannot govern. brilliant.

He spread his blessings all over the land. slowly. (2) Voice. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. VERBS. Thackeray did not.²active or passive. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS.²indicative. 15. . you must. he gave out sentence by sentence. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. dictating from his chair. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. but. (5) Person and number. 14. The only means of ascending was by my hands. giving principal parts. 275. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. (b) as to use. In parsing verbs. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 13. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form.²strong or weak. (4) Tense. (3) Mood.²transitive or intransitive. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 12. subjunctive. 16. round which is an iron railing.5. 11. bearing her national emblem. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. much corroded. 234. give reality to your teaching. or imperative. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. I. write twenty pages without stopping. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 7. 9.²which of the tenses given in Sec. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. Caution. by object lessons. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. like Sir Walter Scott. What is dreaming? 8. 6. 10.

(c) to what word it belongs. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. (3) Gerund. 278. The government might have been strong and prosperous. and parting day linger and play on its summit. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. indicative (as it means could). But unless the verb is present. Let it rise! let it rise. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. perfect. In such sentences as 1. past tense. Especially frequent are those made up of should. call should a weak verb. indicative. past tense. till it meet the sun in his coming. and should always be analyzed as phrases. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. (b) whether indefinite. then parse it as an adjective. would. 3. 2. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. (b) whether active or passive." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. It has been intimated in Sec. therefore active. followed by a pure infinitive without to. 277. call might a weak verb. active. Take these examples:² 1. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. has the subject government. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. II. etc. definite. In 2. intransitive. in the world. If a participial adjective. intransitive. 278(2). "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. and ends in -s. may. imperfect. must. VERBALS. (a) From what verb derived. and not taken as single verbs. III. might. 235. we must beware of the rule. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. 273). give points (a) and (b).. You are gathered to your fathers. 4. see Sec. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. verbals. no sin nor sorrow. can. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Parse the verbs. (b) its use (Sec. usually it does not. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. Exercise. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. (2) Infinitive. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. VERB PHRASES. (1) Participle. etc." Sometimes it does. has for its subject Lee. . Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. perfect. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive.276. 2. could.

and wondered if she were yet awake. However that be. 12. or. 17. a sweet good will. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. The soul having been often born. 22.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor.O God.Henceforth in me instill. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 15.5. With them. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 20. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 19. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. Right graciously he smiled on us. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. When he arose in the morning. 16. a deafening shout. So. 13. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 10. from a sort of temporary death. 11. a new waking up of all that has life. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. as the Hindoos say. 9. 18. 23. leaving me upon the bed. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. He passed across the room to the washstand. 24. as rolled from wing to wing. he thought only of her. 21. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. as usual. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. a new bursting forth of the sun.Down all the line. In going for water. 14. 8. . morning is not a new issuing of light. 6. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. see that it is in good condition.

to speak truly. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. they are more himself than he is. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. to consent. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.25. ADVERBS. Oh.²SHELLEY. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. 29. and live ere life be spent. When action is expressed. and limit adjectives or adverbs. place. Better it were. who live with nature?²ID." An adjective or an adverb. A verb." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. thou sayest. Is it only poets. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Nor was it altogether nothing. because.²time. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.²EMERSON. . "William's private life was severely pure."²DE QUINCEY. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. for the hour of rest is at hand. 27. 279." "He was absolute.² The young man reveres men of genius. as. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. or manner: as. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. To the almost terror of the persons present.Feast while we may. The word adverb means joined to a verb. Adverbs modify.²THACKERAY." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. and men of leisure and cultivation. and so on. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. And now wend we to yonder fountain. for example. 26.²CARLYLE. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.

. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. and half awfully. A phrase. not the noun. B. 281.²THOREAU. to-day. NOTE.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. all wet and glossy. ALDRICH. but really modifying.He was incidentally news dealer. is a modifying word. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. as. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. NOTE. but some verb understood.² LOWELL.²BYRON.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. 280.² FRANKLIN. 282. but still with a rich bloom to it. for example. An adverb. A clause or sentence. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. etc. We are offered six months' credit. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. It may also modify a sentence.²TROLLOPE. Surely happiness is reflective. while those in Sec. 169 are felt to be elliptical. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. and that. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. lately. or a word group used as such. I draw forth the fruit. then. Definition. has induced some of us to attend it. not simply the forms used in predication. ever. which may qualify an action word or a statement. perhaps.²These last differ from the words in Sec. hitherto.²T.²LEIGH HUNT. as now. 169. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. as shown in the sentences. Thus considered.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. before. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. thus. there are six classes:² (1) Time. ²IRVING. being adverbs naturally and fitly. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. like the light of heaven.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. (2) according to their use in the sentence. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. Make music to the lonely ear.

(2) Place. whithersoever.there. Thackeray. just. that these adverbs form a very large class.where. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. above. better. (5) Degree. Meekness. especially the comparative of these words. So also in Grote. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. and not infrequently are found in literary English. much. 283.thence.. as hence.²HAWTHORNE. the more perfect will be their obedience. etc. telling how anything is done.. too. not.²R. slowly.. I was. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.²BROWNING.²SHAKESPEARE. as hither. greatly. .yonder. Motley. (see also Sec. two by two.near. partly.²DE QUINCEY.² The master.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. etc.. possibly. thus.thither. probably. twice. bravely. as here. for example. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. maybe. This long's the text. 283).. etc. while so precedes only the adjective usually. [Sidenote The status of such. whencesoever. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. telling how many times: once.²LECKY. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. surely.whither. (6) Assertion. as well. and others. Emerson. as perhaps. etc. very. or how far he believes it to be true. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. (4) Number.²IRVING. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. at least. telling how much. the more evidently they love liberty. enough.which gained him such universal popularity. (3) Manner.²BURKE. White.whence. LOUIS STEVENSON. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. The more they multiply. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. slightly. as little. etc. the more friends you will have. beautifully. etc. singly.was for this once of her opinion.

Neville. B. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Hard blows and hard money. 282. Holmes.² KINGSLEY. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Defoe.²HAWTHORNE.²GOLDSMITH. Dickens. "Peace. a mighty fine gentleman.²"He walked too far [place]. and its lawn before [place]. Interrogative.²THACKERAY. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Burke. Mighty.²BULWER. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples." "The house. Such are most of those given already in Sec. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Aldrich. . and art but a fool. STOWE.²BAYNE. Franklin. A pretty large experience. have the additional function of asking a question. Simple. Beau Fielding.²FIELDING." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. 284." "That were far better [degree]. besides modifying. 286." "I have seen you before [time]. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. for example. Kingsley.Pretty. De Quincey. Direct questions. for example. It is only occasionally used in literary English. and other writers.² "Mighty well." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE." said the king."²SCOTT. Some adverbs. Emerson. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. 285. Notice meanings." "He spoke positively [manner]. Pretty is also used by Prescott. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.² You are mighty courteous.²THACKERAY. Again.

(2) Place. (5) Reason.²D. I do not remember when I was taught to read. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.²BULWER. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. CLAY.²BYRON. they smiled. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (4) Degree. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (4) Degree. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. I hearkened. WEBSTER. I know not why.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. I will not ask where thou liest low. . Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.²BYRON (3) Manner. 287.²POE. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. When did this humane custom begin?²H. (2) Place. for example. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.

but the whole clause. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. soon. obs. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. further farthest.. not an adverb. soonest. sooner. The following. Many adverbs are compared. Exercise. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.But in reality. high. representing four classes. see Sec. 290. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.eyes. when compared. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. only occasionally having -er and -est. when. irregularly compared. . last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. For further discussion. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. as. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem." Exercise.²COLERIDGE. Then must she keep it safelier. higher. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. Form vs. when does not express time and modify. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.. have the same inflection as adjectives. just as adjectives do.²BYRON.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Tell what each word in ly modifies. Its strings boldlier swept. and. use. well much little far late Comparative.) rather 289. Many adjectives have the same ending.²SHAKESPEARE.²TENNYSON. 288. furthest (rathe. highest. Only that we may wiselier see.²EMERSON. Superlative.

It is true he was rarely heard to speak. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. There are eyes.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. quick-flashing eye. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 291. 292.²THACKERAY. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. The reason is. whether adverbs or adjectives.²ID. instead of being used adverbially. hardly. evenly. mostly." Compare these:² 1. to be sure. nearly.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. 4. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. kindly and good-natured in secret. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 8. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. Not near so black as he was painted. But he must do his errand right. but with a different meaning. near. 7.²IRVING.²CHAUCER. hard. if it has the verb be.1. more courtly in their manners. merely introduces a sentence. Frequently the word there. And all about. 2. With his proud. 3. as. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.²TENNYSON. etc. that in Old and Middle English. curiously jolly.And his mien of kingly state. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. Again. . 5. or down the leaves laughed through. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.² EMERSON. 2. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. many words without -ly have the same form.²WORDSWORTH. He is inexpressibly mean. Such are most. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. even. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 6. Special use of there.

It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 2. but from my fall? 6. 16. For the impracticable. 4. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 12. (3) What word or word group it modifies. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. It is the Cross that is first seen. according to meaning and also use. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 15. 10. 18. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. and always. 5. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. the Madonna is in great glory. however theoretically enticing. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. But a few steps farther on. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 17. In parsing adverbs. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. at the regular wine-shop. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 3. The higher we rise in the scale of being. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. burning in the center of the temple. and sate down on the steps of a house. 293. 7. give² (1) The class. 11. . but continually shifted. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 9. is always politically unwise. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Exercise. if the word is compared. Thither we went. (2) Degree of comparison. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion.

conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. word groups. 295. but the student will readily find them. connecting words. she would undoubtedly have succumbed." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. hence. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. But now the wind rose again. 21. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. Unlike adverbs. A conjunction is a linking word. It was pretty bad after that.19. 20. but side by side within the American Union. therefore. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. Clauses. upon which the sun now shone forth. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. . Definition. sentences. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. however. nor. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. or sentence groups. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but." Paragraphs. then. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here." Sentences. 22. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. 294. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. etc. CONJUNCTIONS.

. the butter too. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.. and..and. (2) ADVERSATIVE...or. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. whether. as. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. usually between two things.or.. as. The assertion.or.. not only. 296. The chief ones are. Alternative.. etc. neither. Some of these go in pairs. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. had its weight. Some go in threes. hence. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (4) ALTERNATIVE. either. . nor.. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.but. of the same rank. still. introducing a reason or cause.but (or but also).. 297. etc.or. not only.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. then.or whether.. Correlatives.. 298. both. therefore. but is emperor in his own right. likewise. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.nor. whether." Nevertheless. neither.Classes of conjunctions. however. as well as the room door. as well as. While the earth bears a plant. as but. Causal. however..... also... the window being open. word groups. only. (3) CAUSAL.. etc. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. neither. either. Adversative. joining words. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. (2) Subordinate.. answering to each other in the same sentence. yet. "Howbeit. as and. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. Your letter.nor.. serves but to show their ignorance. moreover. the bread was spent. while. Nor mark'd they less.. and not man corn.. nor. expressing a choice. They are or. for. whether. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. either. or the sea rolls its waves. else.

in case. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. (3) MANNER: how. nor green leaf. whereas.²COOPER. especially that after so.²BURKE. whither.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. since. Neither the place in which he found himself.²IRVING. on condition that. as. nor wing of bird. seeing. in order that. though. while. there will the heart be also.²BIBLE. provided. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. ere. nor echo. object. lest. since. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. until. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. provided that. 299. whereto. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. etc. so. sometimes if. (7) RESULT: that. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. Where the treasure is. although. so that. etc. howsoever. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. It is. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. whithersoever. so that. unless.. whether.²DE QUINCEY. whence. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. ²ALLSTON. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. etc.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. nor creeping thing. as. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. (2) TIME: when. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. . wherever. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. (6) PURPOSE: that. so.²J. whenever. after. before. He is not only bold and vociferous. QUINCY. even if. except. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry.²WILSON. as. etc. now. Time. so.²PAULDING. however. that. in apposition..

² WORDSWORTH. JACKSON. a thousand bodies. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²EMERSON. As a soldier.That vain it were her eyes to close.²BYRON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. We wish for a thousand heads.² HAWTHORNE. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. reason.²EMERSON.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Cause.That he gave her wounds repose. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. I was again covered with water. Manner. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.² EMERSON.²BURKE.²AMES. not as they were expected or intended.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Concession.So I behold them not. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Comparison.²DEFOE. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²IRVING. Substantive. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²AMES. Let the world go how it will. Result. .²AMES.²CAMPBELL. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Condition. Sparing neither whip nor spur. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.² H. but not so long but I held it out. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Then Denmark blest our chief. Purpose. Now he is dead. H.

since. 7. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. . her real merit is known at home. some words²for example. The moth fly. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 2. And then recovering.²RUSKIN. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 6. They. she faintly pressed her hand. the wisest. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. While patriotism glowed in his heart. however. 4. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. No one had yet caught his character. 12. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. In what point of view. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. as. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 14. Crept under the leaf. it will remain harmless. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. 5.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. Exercises. As will have been noticed. 9. Besides. and hid her there. as he shot in air. 15. And they lived happily forever after. etc. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. While a faction is a minority. He was brought up for the church. hold a subordinate rank. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 3. the lady called her servant.Let us see whether the greatest. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. After he was gone. while. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. that. 13. 10. then. 300.

HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner..As though a rose should shut. In Emerson's sentence. As though. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. 302.Clouded. etc. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. and be a bud again. Consequently. as is often equivalent to as if. His voice . As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. 301. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. thus. In parsing conjunctions.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. (2) What words.. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. as is shown by the use of as though. for example. As if.16. In poetry. in this case.²IRVING. and the frame will suit the picture." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. SPECIAL REMARKS. word groups.So slowly moved about. So silently we seemed to speak. and part as though we parted not.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. they connect. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.²EMILY BRONTE. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong." as.²HOOD. .² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. GREELEY. expressing degree if taken separately. even as they would weep. "We meet. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. the expression would be. If analyzed. As for as if. none of the lashings having given way.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. 303.²BYRON. 304.

Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. are regularly of one particular class. Some conjunctions. in 2. that it might testify of that particular ray.²DEFOE 2. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. or in the forest. 6. because it is his. he is also the correlative of nature. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. and very seldom?" 8. and the like. so that I could not stir abroad. 4. 3. and its clause depends on the other.. and. 13. compare the sentences. 12.²is subordinate of condition. All the postulates of elfin annals. 7. he sleeps as warm. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. For example. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. 5. At sea. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. "Doctor. so it be faithfully imparted.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. It continued raining. because. He is the compend of time. the Sphinx was slain. In classifying them. dines with as good an appetite.² 1. such as nor. When the gods come among men. so means provided. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. Exercise. . and its clause is independent. 10. so they paddled on. 2. and associates as happily. but of the natural. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. or in the snow. If he could solve the riddle. so that expresses result.Caution. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.²EMERSON 3. 9. in 3. as beside his own chimneys. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. others belong to several classes. 11. etc.²I find them true in Concord. when. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. they are not known. so means therefore. He dismisses without notice his thought. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor." said his wife to Martin Luther. It may be safely trusted.²that the fairies do not like to be named.

15. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 20. There was no iron to be seen. 28. And whether consciously or not. when it was presented to them. whose names I omit.. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. that both were wayward. 26. 305. in many a heart. PREPOSITIONS. enthroned. 18. the whole conditions are changed. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. however. 27. . It may be so in the majority of cases. It is clear. Goodness must have some edge to it. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 19. 23. Still. 22. Now you have the whip in your hand. 30.14. of good novels only. For. 29. I speak. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. therefore. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 24. 21. won't you lay on? 17. save it were sinful like herself.²else it is none. 16. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I rejoice to stand here no longer. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. you must be. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. she might have the family countenance. 25. in this they agree. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. Helena. expressing the degree of difference. by the wrecks of time. By my faith. at the worst. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at naught. at any rate. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. he stopped.²COOPER. Exercise.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. By. STODDARD.²ALDRICH. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. the first port made by the ship. 320. (3) Agency or means.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. She saw the boat headed for her. at work. by many a million of acres. H. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. CONWAY. At that time [the earth] was richer.²WARNER. (2) Time. at peace. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. At St. at first. by means near or close to. at the best. at play. at one.²B. etc. Exercise. at rest.²EVERETT. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at all.²R. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at random. 321. etc. ²PARTON.²SWIFT.²ID. at least. by the ruins of nations. at war.² (1) The general meaning of place. at length. as..²DE QUINCEY. D. at once. For. Richard was standing by the window. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. by the blessed memory of the departed. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at most. Like at. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. (4) Measure of excess. .²M.

reason. as being. GARRISON. There are gains for all our losses. An Arab woman. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. poor fellow. for all slips of hers. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. they are now for us. for all his title. For the rest. etc. or extent of space. (3) Duration of time. For him. in behalf of."²SCOTT By my faith. but a few sunsets since.²PARKMAN. HALE This is very common with as²as for me." answered Master Brackett.(2) In favor of. meaning with regard to.²W. he repented of his folly. the Colonna motto would fit you best. "For a fool. if your worship can accomplish that. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous." said the Lady of Lochleven.²IRVING. meaning although. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. for famine..²PARKMAN The people were then against us. (7) Concession. .²EMERSON. He and they were for immediate attack. as to.. had a forest of poor relations. etc.²PARKMAN.² RUSKIN. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline.²ID. etc.²HOLMES. (5) Reference. (9) Motive.One of Eve's family. "Nay.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. ate her child. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. The twilight being. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. considering that etc. for the benefit of. But the Colonel. E. Still. meaning in the character of. a person or thing. incitement to action. (6) Like as. BANCROFT. and leaped for joy. L. "thou hast counseled wisely. H. cause. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²E.²H. or in spite of. respecting.²STODDARD.²HOOD. (4) Substitution or exchange.²LAMB.

Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. cause.²HUXLEY.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Like boys escaped from school. The original meaning of of was separation or source. The young cavaliers.²DRYDEN. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²H. or reason. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The From Relation. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²HIGGINSON. Exercise. H.²HUME. 323. The king holds his authority of the people. . Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. like from.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²ID. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. A distrustful. Exercise. The general idea in from is separation or source. 322. nay.²BANCROFT. From. from a desire of seeming valiant. From harmony. (3) Time. (1) Origin or source. ceased to be merciful. Of. (4) Motive. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. (2) Origin.²HALE. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. It was from no fault of Nolan's. if not a desperate man.²MILTON. more.

south of. of his own knowledge.²DICKENS II. that Cromwell once ruled England. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²BOSWELL. out of the most unpromising materials. HALE. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. free. (6) Partitive.²LEW WALLACE. there were only twenty-one members present. (c) After nouns expressing lack. and grass. relieve.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. etc. (d) With words expressing distance.²clear of. deprive. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. ²PARTON. Back of that tree. disarm. rob. More than one altar was richer of his vows. (5) Expressing agency. A singular want of all human relation. or breastpin of native gold. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. cure. deprivation.²BAYARD TAYLOR. Of the Forty. especially out of. etc. E. The hills were bare of trees. Asked no odds of. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. etc. etc. (3) With expressions of material. "I am glad of that.²BANCROFT.²ALDRICH. bare of. demand.²HIGGINSON.²SCOTT Who formed. He is away of his own free will. Other Relations expressed by Of. ²GAVARRE. purge. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²PARKMAN. as north of. acquitted them of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan.²ID. clear. White shirt with diamond studs. free of. (b) After some adjectives. divest.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. rid. beg. ."²E. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. ask. weeds. Sandals. bound with thongs of boar's hide.² HUXLEY. You cannot make a boy know. motive. wide of. etc.. reason. such as ease.

(8) Appositional.He washed out some of the dirt. The fair city of Mexico. (c) Two nouns.²LOWELL. ²IRVING.. (b) Noun and gerund.²FROUDE. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. Such a book as that of Job. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²SWIFT. when the first is descriptive of the second.²HALLECK.²ALDRICH. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. . The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²W. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. standing. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. etc. 309. concerning.²ID. (7) Possessive. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Not even woman's love. (10) Of reference. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²COOPER. of a sudden. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²BANCROFT. and the dignity of a queen. CHANNING. Besides the phrases of old.²BANCROFT.²LAMB. The nation of Lilliput.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. for the possessive.²BANCROFT. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. Idiomatic use with verbs. of is used in the sense of during. (9) Of time. could give shelter from his contumely. of late. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. E. equal to about. being equivalent to an infinitive. with its object. See also Sec. with regard to.²PRESCOTT.

you are eighteen. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. equal to about. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. without adding to their meaning. complain. 325. It also accompanies the verbs tire.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. on trial. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. etc. Cannon were heard close on the left.²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. avail (one's self). on view. Upon. To. Upon is seldom used to express time. On. SIGOURNEY. . on a sudden.²BRYANT.²DE QUINCEY. and others. and not a day more.²PARKMAN. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. accept. disapprove. allow. consist. ²BANCROFT. (b) With motion. (2) Time.²Find sentences with six uses of of. Exercise. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. Upon my reputation and credit.²PARKMAN. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. The general meaning of on is position or direction. (3) Reference. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. repent. 324.²MRS. on high. approve.²PARKMAN. on the wing.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.²ALDRICH. on board. on the alert. permit. (4) In adjurations. concerning. such as admit. etc. Exercise. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. On my life.

gay Comedy appears. whose influence is felt to this hour. Exercise.²LANG. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Death!²HALLECK.Come to the bridal chamber. (5) Equivalent to according to. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²BRYANT.²often to the loss of vigor. it may be genuine poetry. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. He usually gave his draft to an aid.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. unmasked. had ceased to be. In Old English.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. (2) Expressing result. mid meant in company with.²BENTON To our great delight. 326. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. We cook the dish to our own appetite. to him. Nor. Revolutions. does the mere music.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. interest. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.² be written over. (b) Referring to time. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²GOLDSMITH. But when.²HALE. His brother had died. .²BULWER. To the few. 268). With.²PARTON.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. to my taste. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT...²B.²IRVING..

Messala. motive. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. (3) Cause. He was wild with delight about Texas. E. but a pleasure"?²LANG. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. I think.²EMERSON. but with you. reason. with all his boldness. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. or with the haunch of our near leader. He expired with these words.The advance.²HALE. (5) Opposition. in spite of. With all his sensibility.²COLERIDGE. first of all. as with you. It seemed a supreme moment with him.²ALDRICH. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²E. . we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²SCOTT.²HOWELLS. (4) Estimation. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²DE QUINCEY.²WALLACE (7) Time. (2) Instrumentality. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. opinion.²Find sentences with four uses of with. "poetry is not a pursuit.²DE QUINCEY. to find the object of the preposition. felt it unsafe to trifle further. HALE. it is necessary. transmitted from the beginning. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²COOPER. She seemed pleased with the accident.²LANG. with Heyward at its head. had already reached the defile. Exercise. 327. he gave millions to the sword. Either with the swingle-bar. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²CHANNING.²HOWELLS. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.

the phrase answers the question where. (3) without a country. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. Be that as it will. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. Whereupon. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. or was. shook it directly over my head. 3. (4) from the beginning.²ID. The guns were cleared of their lumber. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. (2) on which. but I received no other hurt. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. but all to no purpose. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. 2. he followed us one day into those gardens. And so on. country. In (1). of on. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. hence we say. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I heard a noise just over my head. In (2). of from. To our general surprise. I remember. I speak these things from a love of justice. without a country modifies man. we met the defaulter here. of without. because I had given the provocation. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. 4. came tumbling about my ears. The object of on board is ships. 5. I looked towards my windows. which. before the dwarf left the queen. and knocked me down flat on my face. Exercises. beginning. In (3). and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted.²SWIFT 2. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. the malicious rogue. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. . though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. by which a dozen apples. like the clapping of wings. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. I called out several times. I felt my box raised very high in the air. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. telling what man.

A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 9. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. On all subjects known to man. 11. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. he favored the world with his opinions. 12. . The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 22. 25. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony.6. 8. 14. 7. 21. The mother sank and fell. Carteret was far from being a pedant. The savage army was in war-paint. His breeches were of black silk. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 24. 27. 20. to one dark and gloomy. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 19. in town. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 26. after a restful morning. 16.He spurred his courser on. For my part. With all his learning. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 23. 13. 18. 10. grasping at the child. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 15.Without stop or stay. 29. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 17. He locked his door from mere force of habit. when. in this respect. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. plumed for battle. I like to see the passing. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage.

Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. 330.²COLERIDGE. That night was a memorable one. (4) As an adverb of degree. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. And now it is like an angel's song. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. (b) Of result.² JOHNSON.²WEBSTER. (c) Substantive conjunction. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. WHAT. and be proud in the midst of its toil. A few are discussed below.²STOCKTON. We wish that labor may look up here. (3) As a relative pronoun. not merely by the amount of the tax. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 329. (2) As an adjective pronoun. 328. He will raise the price. and not according to form.²HUXLEY.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.30.That makes the heavens be mute. THAT. That was a dreadful mistake. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (1) Relative pronoun. (a) Indefinite relative. that you might behold this joyous day. That is what I understand by scientific education.²BEECHER. .

(9) As an exclamation. (b) Indirect question.. What with the Maltese goats. (b) Indirect question.. To say what good of fashion we can. nearly equivalent to partly." (4) Relative adjective. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. . (b) Copulative..² Pera. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. "I'll tell you what. Adam Woodcock at court!² is impossible to determine. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. If he has [been in America]. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.²EMERSON. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.²THACKERAY. and silent all!²BYRON. to see what might be hidden. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.Which be they what they may. What... What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. Cox..²ID. (6) Exclamatory adjective. BUT. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. 331.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.. (7) Adverb of degree.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (a) Indefinite relative adjective... but the result of calculation. At what rate these materials would be distributed.²S.²WEBSTER.²ID. partly.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. or not only. he knows what good people are to be found there.but. (8) Conjunction.Those shadowy recollections. after not only.these sounds are only to be heard. What.S. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. silent still. it rests on reality. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way..²WORDSWORTH.

²HAWTHORNE. not. . ²CARLYLE. or who .²IRVING... at all moments. meaning except.²SCOTT. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (3) Preposition. (4) Relative pronoun. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.²SHELLEY. stands for that . The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (2) Relative pronoun.²EMERSON. but piercing cries. meaning otherwise . Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.. not. (b) Substantive. 332. sometimes same. after a negative. after such. (c) Of degree. (e) Introducing an appositive word. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.He yearned to our patriot bands.²FRANKLIN.²LAMB. AS. equivalent to that .. towards order. (5) Adverb.²CARLYLE. on all sides. Doing duty as a guard.Then arose not only tears. like the dog. I shall see but little of it.. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. To lead but one measure. meaning only. (d) Of reason. (b) Of manner.²IRVING. Who knows but. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.. than.²IRVING.. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²MRS BROWNING. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. not.

and is followed by a dative-objective. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.-SCOTT. In this second use. this.²LAMB. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²ALDRICH. but this is not considered good usage: for example. (1) An adjective. No Emperor. 333. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. like drops out. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.² A timid. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. Note the difference between these two uses.² HAWTHORNE. like summer ocean's.²HIGGINSON.²LONGFELLOW. indeed. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. They look. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. This follows a verb or a verbal. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. like him awhile ago. like Martin was. Introduces a clause. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. ²PARKMAN. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. That face. In each case.²EMERSON.²DARWIN. and as or as if takes its place. like a cook beating eggs.²HALLECK.²ALDRICH. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. .²MAYHEW.²CASS. NOTE. Stirring it vigorously. but its verb is omitted. I do with my friends as I do with my books.LIKE. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. If the verb is expressed. and was clearly an adjective. staring like a bewildered man. Through which they put their heads. nervous child.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE. There is no statue like this living man. Give Ruskin space enough.

etc. . tut! buzz! etc. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. Definition. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. but it still retains its identity as noun. that is. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. Some of these are imitative sounds. 334. 336. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. Definition. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. pronoun. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. verb. entering into the structure of a sentence. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin." "Up! for shame! [adverb].²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. What analysis is. as. in separating them into their component parts.: for example. 335. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. that is." PART II. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons.²in determining case. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. clauses introduced by conjunctions.INTERJECTIONS. subject and predicate. etc. Value of analysis. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell..

"Come to the bridal chamber. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject." "What wouldst thou do. . (2) Interrogative. Examples of these three kinds are. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. but according to how many statements there are. 339. or request. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. (3) Imperative. but the sentence would still be declarative. 2. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. hence. or command: for example.²a subject and a predicate. Definition. or imperative. interrogative. question. not according to the form in which a thought is put. old man?" "Be thou familiar. which expresses command. 337. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. This is the most common one. "The quality of mercy is not strained. 338. according to form. "Hath he not always treasures. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. declarative. But now all is to be changed. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Every sentence must contain two parts. but by no means vulgar. entreaty. "Old year. A rare old plant is the ivy green. Definition: Predicate. SIMPLE SENTENCES." 340.Kinds of sentences as to form. Division according to number of statements. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. which puts the thought in a question. always friends?" imperative. you must not die!" interrogative.

adjective. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. we have some trouble. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. the subject (you. we say all is the subject of the sentence. especially in poetry. 341. 2.²What is to be changed? Answer.²What is the ivy green? Answer. and the real subject is the latter. 3. or ye) is in most cases omitted. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. but about the ivy green. all.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate." Exercise. 5. as. In analyzing such sentences. not of a rare old plant. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Thus. But if we try this with the second sentence. to suit all cases:² Subject. 7. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. always reduce them to the order of a statement. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. 4. or an interrogative pronoun. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. thou. Slavery they can have anywhere. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. Listen. The last of all the Bards was he. "[You] behold her single in the field. or adverb that asks about the subject. on the other hand. . 8. the subject is frequently after the verb. Consequently. and our definition must be the following. and is to be supplied. to an ignorant man.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 6. a rare old plant. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. In the interrogative sentence.

" Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb." indirect. 342. Indirect object. (6) Independent elements.²transitive and intransitive. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. . (5) Modifiers. 343. in addition to the object. but chief belongs to the verb. (3) The object. for example. just as if to say. (4) The complements." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. Of a transitive verb. and me here is not the object simply of call. and by object we mean the direct object. direct. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. or second object. "Ye call me chief. but it is a true complement. The transitive verb often requires." Complement: 344. but of call chief. Direct Object. The subject and predicate have been discussed. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. and means summoned. "Ye honor me.10. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. (2) The predicate.

347. introduced by a preposition: for example. in the original Opium Confessions. A phrase is a group of words. but used as a single modifier." (2) PARTICIPIAL. above sixty. 364. in the popular judgment. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. he was now getting old. ay. feel. or. Phrases." Things used as Subject. "Brow and head were round. not containing a verb.. Complement of an intransitive verb. become. as in the sentence. taste." (3) INFINITIVE. sir!' rang out in response. and." Also an expression used as a noun. and barring the door. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. appear. I mentioned a case of that nature. as in drowning." "The good man. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. 352. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . for instance." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." 345. As to form. 'Ay." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. 355." "He was termed Thomas. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. An intransitive verb. etc.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. seem." All these complete intransitive verbs. as. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. Thom of the Gills. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. and of massive weight. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. "A cheery." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. See sentence 19. 346. to the completion of this man of the world. especially the forms of be. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 351. more familiarly. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. in exercise following Sec.

and by Saint George!' said the King. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. "Therein has been." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. (4) After "there introductory. 349." etc.²the infinitive phrase." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." "Never." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." "The dead are there." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." Things used as Complement. from their lips. "'By God. for which see Sec. 341. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. or their religion from their sect. was heard one syllable to justify. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. . Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). but they will be given in detail here. my deficiency. or the thundering of organs." 348. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. but obscures the real subject. asserting eyes." Things used as Direct Object." In this sentence. and ever will be.²the talent of starting the game." "There are asking eyes. (2) In interrogative sentences." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. I saw the quick and the dead. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. Disguised infinitive subject." The for did not belong there originally. prowling eyes. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. etc. but the real or logical subject is to print.

at the same time." In this last sentence. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. and. doubtless. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. or Complement." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. Modifiers of Subject. and the words italicized are still complements." . Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. they are adjuncts of the object.²completing the predicate. complements of the predicate." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. I.350." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." (4) Participle. Object. Like all the complements in this list." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. 351. the shepherd girl. trusting the hearts of his countrymen.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." "Their tempers. As complement of an intransitive verb." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. the object is made the subject by being passive.²heads or tails." "Serving others is serving us." "She asked her father's permission. Of a transitive verb. (3) Infinitive.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. or the equivalent of the noun. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." Modifiers. and whenever the complement is a noun." "I hear the echoes throng. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. As complement of a transitive verb. and explaining or modifying the subject.

Retained with passive.²proud. 351. 357-363." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "Him." "Give them not only noble teachings. and leading him from star to star. or complement is modified. "He died like a God. the verb being omitted. this young idolater." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. see further Secs. but it is really a contracted clause. Since the predicate is always a verb. and modify the predicate in the same way." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." "In the twinkling of an eye. the prisoner at the bar." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. given at the request of a Dutch lady." (For participial and infinitive phrases. tell whether the subject. Tells how." In such a sentence as. I have seasoned for thee. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. unforgiving. or .²In each sentence in Sec." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. 352. but noble teachers." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." Exercise. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. but with other men. was now called upon for his defense. object. II. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. Modifiers of the Predicate." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. austere. no sociable angel. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. not with nature." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. was the scene from King John.

Why does the horizon hold me fast. This. no humor. To the men of this world. and (direct) object:² 1." "One way lies hope. 7. These answer the question when. (a) Pick out subject. But anger drives a man to say anything. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. but the children of the great. or how long. 7." Exercises. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. predicate. They do not wish to be lovely. but to be loved. 5. and as many to oppose it. and the direct object is retained: for example.When the verb is changed from active to passive. 2. etc. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause.. in regard to particulars. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 2. to the animal strength and spirits. 3. negative. Fashion does not often caress the great. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. after dinner. gives wonderful animation. His books have no melody." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. and other measures of precaution. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. and. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. (b) Pick out the subject. is good in the making. Evil. with my joy and grief. 6. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 5. according to old philosophers. in this center? 4. 3. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. A merciless oppressor hast thou been." "All such knowledge should be given her. 6. a sort of personality to the whole writing. On the voyage to Egypt. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 8. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. predicate. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. . I took. the indirect object is retained." (6) Adverbial objective. he liked." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. how far. no emotion." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. 4.

²the river Meuse. 5. 3. then. happy dinner.. expecting the return of their parents. I felt myself. 6. at the chief hotel. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. I promised her protection against all ghosts. a room seventeen feet by twelve. viz. the blooming cornet. 3. In one feature. at length the warrior lady. 2. Not compound sentences. this imperial rider. the attorney. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. six children sat by a peat fire. this nun so martial. Yes. this dragoon so lovely. y y y y Compound Subject. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. 4. must visit again the home of her childhood. 4. burthened with the anxieties of a man. Not the less I owe thee justice. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. and a member of the world. 5. in little peaceful Easedale. Unhorse me. 2. etc. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Paint me. . for the first time. 3. I gave him an address to my friend. That night. 4. To suffer and to do. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 2. after their long confinement to a ship. Compound Predicate. the present Archbishop of Dublin.y 8. A river formed the boundary. upwards. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. then. Their intention was to have a gay. downwards. to the right and to the left. that was thy portion in life.

"By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. The exclamatory expression. "Ah.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. 355. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. the verb). the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements." Sentences with compound predicates are. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. 354." "He shook his head. together with its modifiers. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. etc. however. two or more subjects of the same predicate. forming a sentence: "Oh. etc. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. in the sentence. the object.353." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. above: thus." "Ye crags and peaks. shouldered the rusty firelock." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. turned his steps homeward." And so with complements." "Voyages and travels I would also have. Of this. I'm with you once again." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. etc. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. and the rest is the logical predicate. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. hurry. several modifiers. For example." "The name of the child. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. exposes. Examples of compound subjects are. the simple subject is situation. then the grammatical subject and predicate.. but it is to be noticed that. complements. hurry. and its object or complement. "The company broke up. same as (1). they are not a necessary part. Bishop. Larger view of a sentence. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. and. that is. the tone of her voice. Independent Elements of the Sentence. modifiers. the air of the mother. in all such sentences as we quote below. my brave young man!" . do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. ulcer. the predicate. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. may be the person or thing addressed. together with all its modifiers.

or complement (see Sec. already noticed. the company broke up. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. object." "Well. instances of which were seen in Sec. really. moreover. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." "No. modifying a noun. The words well. y (2) The adverbial use. In their use. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. therefore. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. 4). 352. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. 357. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 4). he closed his literary toils at dinner. etc. why. . are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. etc. 6). nevertheless. and so on. generally speaking. These need close watching. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. to the best of my remembrance. six quill-driving gentlemen. he was a conscientious man." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. then. truly. 3. her noticing even this is creditable. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 356. and some conjunctions." "Truth to say. There are some adverbs. besides." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. how you're winking!" "Now. (1) Adjectival. 350." "Why." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. that have an office in the sentence.." (5) Participial phrase: "But.. grandma." "At all events. this story runs thus." Another caution. let him perish. modifying the predicate." (2) Adverbial. now. prepositional phrases may be. he somehow lived along. pronoun. yes! everybody knew them. such as perhaps. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion." (3) Independent. see Sec. see Sec. "Oh. undoubtedly. (b) As a modifier of subject. 351. or word used as a noun: for example. 355." (6) Single words: as. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. such as however.

Wilt thou.seem. necessity.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. but having no other office than a verbal one. or as nearly so as the student will require. See Sec. therefore. being equivalent to a future with obligation. "The letter of introduction. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes." "There. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. he should not have known them at all. containing no matters of business." (c) With the definite forms of go. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. etc. modifying was speedily run through. The verbal use.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. was speedily run through. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.: as in the sentences. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. and they will be presented here in full." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. but require somewhat closer attention. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. my dear. 358. ought.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years.can (could). y (a) With may (might). "Because I was. and teach her how to be happy and good.]. This case excepted. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. etc.would. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. 355." (b) With the forms of be. I. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. thus." etc. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. (5). and hence is adverbial.should." In this sentence.

" (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "He insisted on his right to forget her. to hear McOrator after dinner." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. already examined. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. (4) In apposition. III. complement.²both purpose clauses. object." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. . "But there was no time to be lost. above. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." 360. hang the idiot. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. etc." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." "Are you mad." "To teach is to learn. IV. 351. notice the following:² In (1)." "To say what good of fashion we can. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you.: for example. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. II. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive).. 5). etc. the Scotch fighting all the battles. 361." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. Don Guzman. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. to look means that he might look. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. To test this. result. The substantive use. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. 362. The adverbial use. modifying a noun that may be a subject. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. to please is equivalent to that he may please. 361 are used adverbially. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. and the eyes to fill?" 359." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). The adjectival use.

This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. to find shows the result of the return. 351). 355. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. etc. Our life is March weather. I will try to keep the balance true. 3. In analyzing simple sentences. In (3).In (2). etc. V.. give² (1) The predicate. 2. (7) Independent elements (Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 351). 363. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. which is of two kinds.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. must be in a life. . If it is an incomplete verb. not in a book. 351). 355). and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 268. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. (5) The subject (Sec. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. to hear means if you should hear." (See also Sec. 352). (3). as in Sec. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. savage and serene in one hour. In (4). and to say is equivalent to if we say.²both expressing condition.. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 347). In (5). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. to part means because I part. 4." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 364. object. etc. 349). The independent use. equivalent to that you betray. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. give the complement (Secs.

might be called flabby and irresolute. with eager energy.²to preserve her throne. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 23. 8. 17. 13. Her aims were simple and obvious. just on the edge of destruction. 11. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 22. and only to be saved by invention and courage. to keep England out of war. always in a bad plight. to restore civil and religious order. nor generals. through toys and atoms. nor himself. and every moment discover something new. He risked everything. Through the years and the centuries. The water. 16. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. like a witch's oils. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. The whole figure and air. 18. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 19. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams.He sat in the shower.4. 10. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. to the moral sphere. . neither ammunition. a skilled musician. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. Old Adam. 12. a good shot. 6.Burnt green and blue and white. 15. nor money. His opinion is always original. 14. good and amiable otherwise. You may ramble a whole day together. I have heard Coleridge talk. 5. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. The word conscience has become almost confined.The old crow of Cairo. 21. and spared nothing. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. and to the purpose. 20. is to have no political system at all. 9. nor troops. an accomplished scholar. through evil agents. We are always in peril. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. two stricken hours. in popular use. 24. 7. a graceful dancer. To be hurried away by every event. To these gifts of nature. the carrion crow.

I hate him and myself. 27. The cry. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Upon this shore stood. in this world. Fair name might he have handed down. 31. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 37. 39. 36. I dare this. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. the ship was in an uproar. Supposing this computation to be correct. secluded. The villain. In the Acadian land. an elderly man. the present capital of New England. and the why. the prime minister of Spain. to be a reproach to such goodness. proud foe. 34.Distant. 32. upon my own ground. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. the same Condé Olivarez. Few in number. in front of all this mighty crowd. haply. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 40. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. baggage far in the rear. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Of the same grandeur.25. Must we in all things look for the how. This amiable relative. time-honored. But yield. 41. 35. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. still. 29. ready to receive her. 33. in less heroic and poetic form. or perhaps one virtue. and the wherefore? . and in my own garden. 26. Oxford.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Now. and. and no provisions but wild berries. 38. had but one foible. 30. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. She had made a two days' march.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. to bid you leave the place now and forever.

Words left out after than or as. As shown in Part I.From her own loved island of sorrow." This must. the expressions of manner introduced by like. which is the unit of speech.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 333). 365." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. if they were expanded." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. but. as would be the connective instead of like. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. the pride and beauty of the grove.² "She is like some tender tree. 367. (Sec. COMPLEX SENTENCES. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." To show that these words are really omitted. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. ." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. 366. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. The simple sentence the basis. though often treated as phrases." Sentences with like. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. are really contracted clauses. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. as. however. thus. made merely for convenience and smoothness.CONTRACTED SENTENCES.

and the last.. that . logically depends on suffering. or it may be applied to the others. 368. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. object. object. predicate. we are aware..Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. 371. how great . each clause has its subject. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). that is. A principal. Definition.. suffering. ." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. is taken in..² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.²the other members subordinate to it. murmur. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. complement.²the backbone. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. or dependent on it. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. complements. A clause is a division of a sentence. etc. then we recognize this as the main statement. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. Independent clause. containing a verb with its subject. modifiers. 369. 370. and modifier. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. Hence the following definition:² Definition.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. which are so united that one member is the main one.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. as in this sentence. CLAUSES. main. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. and the next one. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.

for a hundred years. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. for example. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. 5). Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. pronoun. put an end to my fancies.Dependent clause. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. . attention is called to them here." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. for a time. for example.. verbal. Kinds. thus. 372. with a noun clause in apposition with it. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. so the object clause is retained.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. over which the torrent came tumbling. infinitive. etc. clauses are divided into NOUN." Just as the object noun. and ADVERB clauses. impertinences. 373. 'I know that he can toil terribly.. impertinences²would be grammatical." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are.." 374.' is an electric touch. night or day. We ourselves are getting . but logically the sentence is." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. and the whole clause is not. (a) Ordinary apposition. adjectives. and it is . Noun Clauses." "I was told that the house had not been shut. 352. or adverbs. (b) that are . "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things." (4) Apposition." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. As to their office in the sentence. ADJECTIVE." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. But since they are complex in form.." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns." (2) Object of a verb.

Except by what he could see for himself. of a nation. whether he should choose one or not. 6. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 7. Such a man is what we call an original man. or equivalent of a noun. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. sometimes by the conjunctions when. where. he would repent it. 10. whereby. Other examples of this construction are. which. I was napping. 2. 4. 3. that. etc. still remains reasonable. As the office of an adjective is to modify. but. 375. But the fact is. whence. as. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. whither. that he was a scheming impostor. that all safe legislation must be based. wherein. 5." Exercise. Frequently there is no connecting word. he could know nothing.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. What history it had. . that. Adjective Clauses. 8. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. and not on the sentiment. The reply of Socrates. in the sentence. no man will ever know. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. a falsehood incarnate. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 9. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. how it changed from shape to shape. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. a relative pronoun being understood. Examples of adjective clauses. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow.² "It is on the understanding. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who.

" "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. 10. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 6. 2. the champions advanced through the lists." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. Adverbial Clauses. etc. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. or that essence we were looking for. 7. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. 8. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. I walked home with Calhoun. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. and tell what each one modifies.376. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture.e. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. No man is reason or illumination. 4. Pick out the adjective clauses." Exercise." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. all is vacancy. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 3. 1. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. he begins to help us more as an effect. object. whether subject. 5. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. i. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. .." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 11. which Rowena tasted. which formed the center of the mansion. 9. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups.

shaping our actions. introduced by indefinite relatives. so far as we can. etc. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. and what it modifies:² . that we should try." "After leaving the whole party under the table. Exercise. tell what kind each is." (7) RESULT." (5) DEGREE. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. no matter what remains." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. since he was too great to care to be original. is wider. to make up our shortcomings." (9) CONCESSION.377. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. etc." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. but they require careful study." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. Joanna is better. however." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "He went several times to England. and adverbial conjunctions. a verbal. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. it takes precedence of everything else. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. whatever. expressing the degree in which the horizon.: "But still. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. however good she may be as a witness." These mean no matter how good. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. the wider is the horizon of their thought. or an adverb. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. an adjective. etc." (3) REASON. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. he goes away as if nothing had happened." "When he was come up to Christian." "The right conclusion is." "Who cares for that. and will be given in detail." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." "The broader their education is. 378.² whoever." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome.." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. the milestones are grave-stones. adverbs. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. with examples.

'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. For example. If the children gathered about her." 2. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. howling and whistling. predicate." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. banging about doors and windows. then treat noun clauses as nouns. incoherent exclamations. when the wind was unruly. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. we are a little disappointed. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. to tell the truth. 380. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. they might perhaps say of their visitors. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. of which clause Odin is the subject. object. as they sometimes did. etc. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and twirling weathercocks. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. so as to picture the parts and their relations. 3. with shrill. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. its object is that Odin was a reality. 'Well. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject.1. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. find the principal subject and principal predicate. and modifiers. snatching up stones to fling at them. on a dark wintry night. 379. in the sentence. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath.

This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (1) Find the principal clause. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 364. as seen in the "map" (Sec. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. d. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. Exercises. 380). 3.. 364. . that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 2..

24. But now that she has become an establishment. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. if applied to the Bible. 7. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. Here lay two great roads. 18. who would yield to it least. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 16. 11. 5. 8. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. And those will often pity that weakness most. Had they been better chemists. M. The night proved unusually dark. 19. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. or whether any. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. dying for them. I like that representation they have of the tree. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 10. 20. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 14. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. which. the shepherd girl. 22. 12. The deep eyes. had we been worse. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. . whom I choose. 15. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. the flower should revive for us. Next came a wretched Dominican. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. bishop. This is she. for yours. 9. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. not so much for travelers that were few. counselor that had none for herself. could not have been effected. that pressed her with an objection. 17. 23. He was what our country people call an old one. 21. the mixed result. 13. 6. Now. It was haunted to that degree by fairies.4. as for armies that were too many by half. that. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. of a light hazel. namely.

but above it. These things we are forced to say. 30. It makes no difference how many friends I have. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. the following complex sentences:² 1. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 7. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 26. Hence the definition. 380. and stamped with his right number. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 2.25. 382. That which we do not believe. would easily reach." 4. we cannot adequately say.²which will not be disposed of. questions. COMPOUND SENTENCES. 6. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. that it was no more than his daily walk. and temper. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square.² Definition. though we may repeat the words never so often." said Bentley. (b) First analyze. and what content I can find in conversing with each. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. 5. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. "was ever written down by any but itself. and not from his heart. How formed. 3. speed. is to speak and write sincerely. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. . until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. or commands. if continuously extended. 28. if there be one to whom I am not equal. "No book. 27. 383. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. then map out as in Sec. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature.

Study the thought. he soliloquizes. 386. Of the following illustrative sentences. 297). The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. and connects the first and second complex members. Connectives. and it shall be the universal sense. The coördinate conjunctions and. moon-like ray" (adversative). he dilates. while (whilst). "Only the star dazzles. Another example is. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Exercise. he is twice a man. others sometimes coördinate. 385. whereas. the waving grass. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. the planet has a faint. however. from the second. as but. and which complex:² 1. and not the form of the connective. nor does he know until he has tried.. he walks with arms akimbo. in (3). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. tell which are compound. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. the semicolon separates the first. yet. Speak your latent conviction. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. and nor the second and third complex members. . 383 (1). Thus in (1). if there are any." 384. for.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. as in Sec. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. etc. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). etc. a complex member." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. now adverbs or prepositions. nor. in (2). Some of these are now conjunctions. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. The division into members will be easier. a simple member. or but. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. which are simple statements." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature.

I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. In this manner. 4. to find a pot of buried gold.2. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. and as yet very early in the morning. Man does not stand in awe of man. you have gained something else. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. Whilst the world is thus dual. from a happy yet often pensive child. 364. and thou shalt be loved. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 9. passed in that time. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. However some may think him wanting in zeal. or. 4. 381. . (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. you lose something. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 5. is particular. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. The gain is apparent. 12. he grew up to be a mild. 14. Exercise. that it was Easter Sunday. 2. and for everything you gain. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. I can yet love. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. quiet. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. and not by what each is. 11. so is every one of its parts. unobtrusive boy. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. all pain. All loss. (i) Separate it into its main members. Love. nay. 387. 6. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 8. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. however. the tax is certain. 13. 7. I can still receive. for example. 3. yield to them heart and life. 10. 3. For everything you have missed. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES.

9. and they will be true to you. or hope. Whatever he knows and thinks. "as nigh the scythe as you can. Trust men. why should we intrude? 10. whilst frankness invites frankness. or we pursue persons. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. When you have chosen your part. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and they will show themselves great. and not an emotion of bravery. 6. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. modesty. and the peace of society is often kept. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. which always make the Actual ridiculous. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. . 18. only that they may brag and conquer there. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. or men will never know and honor him aright. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 11. Come into port greatly. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. "Strike." "keep the rake. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade.5. and you are without effort impelled to truth. abide by it. 7. "the iron is white. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 16. and the other dares not. 17. or we read books. He teaches who gives." says the haymaker. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. let them mount and expand. 19. Stand aside. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and the cart as nigh the rake. that let him communicate. one is afraid. 15. is as thin and timid as any. 21. if you rip up his claims. because. and they repel us. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. or sail with God the seas. 8. and he learns who receives. treat them greatly." says the smith. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. puts the parties on a convenient footing. crook and hide. and not a thought has enriched either party. 20. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow." 13. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. We go to Europe. give those merits room. We see the noble afar off. They will shuffle and crow. as children. and makes their business a friendship. 14. feign to confess here.

24. INTRODUCTORY. We see young men who owe us a new world. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. pronoun and antecedent. adjective and noun. Ground covered by syntax. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. but its leading characteristic is. they lose themselves in the crowd. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. PART III. 390. it never was known to fall into the rear. but go about your business anywhere. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. they die young. Do not craze yourself with thinking. it ends in headache. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. verb and subject. 23. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. but they never acquit the debt. 25. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. By way of introduction.²agreement and government. or. and dodge the account. 388. Following the Latin method. SYNTAX. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. 380. the department of syntax will be a small affair. so readily and lavishly they promise. So does culture with us. Essential point in English syntax. if they live.22. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions.

393. Some rules not rigid. Why study syntax? 391. both forms will be given in the following pages. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms." is ambiguous. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. distinct forms would be used." that is. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. etc.² First. or the same writer will use both indifferently. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. but are not now. also expressing a possessive relation. the sentence. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. authorities²that is. sometimes verb and subject. the order being inverted. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. The basis of syntax. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. When usage varies as to a given construction. good English. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. In some cases. As an illustration of the last remark. and nothing but important points will be considered. therefore. . and imitate it. pronoun and antecedent. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. as to study inflected forms. some of which conform to classical grammar. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. then. following the regular order of subject. This is not logical. Second. and added to it the preposition of. take the sentence. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. "None remained but he. Savage may be the subject." In this there is a possessive form. or settler may be the subject. 392. and whose judgment. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. and it would not matter which one stood first. There is. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). In Latin. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. Also in the sentence. or when they exist side by side in good usage. For example. "The savage here the settler slew.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly.

397. the possessive sign is used with each noun. and Pope's.NOUNS. PRONOUNS. as. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.²BYRON. the antechamber of the High Priest. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Joint possession. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. 396. Mill's and Mr. 395. 408). sense and nature's easy fool. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²ROWE. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. the shore of Galilee. and Peterborough's. Separate possession. Bentham's principles together. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. but imply separate possession or ownership. Use of the possessive. ²ID.²MACAULAY. etc.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. Putting Mr. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.² Live your king and country's best support. . and Harley's. He kept Bolingbroke's. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Woman. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.² He lands us on a grassy stage. and Paul's.²MCCULLOCH. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. 394. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage.²MILTON. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.²EMERSON." Juletta tells. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. for example.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. and Peter's. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.

sanctioned. I. This should be "as she. and should be the nominative form.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²WHITCHER. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. who.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Since most of the personal pronouns. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. .² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. the last expression has the support of many good writers.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Bedott Papers. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. 399. together with the relative who. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). others are generally. Still. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. But he must be a stronger than thee. thus. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.) "The young Harper. if not universally. Some of the violations are universally condemned. Objective for the nominative.²POPE." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.²SHAKESPEARE. General rules. 398. there are two general rules that require attention. for example. No mightier than thyself or me.²BYRON. whom is the complement after the verb am. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²THACKERAY." 400. the real thought being forgotten. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. as.²TROLLOPE. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.²SOUTHEY.

"It was he" or "It was him"? 402. "Than whom. namely.² For there was little doubt that it was he. But still it is not she. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. it will not be me. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. and the other forms of the verb be. "Who's there?"²"Me. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. A safe rule.²PARTON. "If there is any one embarrassed. And it was heThat made the ship to go." 401. The camp of Richard of England.²SCOTT.² One I remember especially.²RUSKIN. The usage is too common to need further examples. One exception is to be noted. is. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. as."²WINTHROP. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. unless a special. on the other hand. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²MACAULAY.²LONGFELLOW. In spoken English. are.²THACKERAY. BLACK. they are yet holier than we. the objective form is regularly found. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. . The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. but such is the fact. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS." There is no special reason for this.²FIELDING.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. Patrick the Porter. for example.²KINGSLEY.²COLERIDGE."²WM. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. both in England and America. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee."²KINGSLEY.

you or me. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. If there ever was a rogue in the world. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. the object of to). and prepositions. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. 5. I speak not to" (he should be him. or preposition which governs it. it is me. Nominative for the objective. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it.Exercise. (3) By forgetting the construction. but not he" (he should be him. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. Whom they were I really cannot specify. as. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person." the word being in apposition with murderer). "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). used after verbs. Me in exclamations. object of saw). verbals. "Ask the murderer. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. You know whom it is that you thus charge.²MILTON. 11. 8. It is not me you are in love with. or us). as this from Shakespeare. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 403. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there." 6. verbal. as. 3. 9. 404. 4. as. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. . 10. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. now. 7. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 2.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. Truth is mightier than us all. or this.

giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. 406. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²BYRON. as.²KINGSLEY. Who have we here?²ID. I've sworn. save thou and thine. .²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²BYRON. who interrogative. 2. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. changed in all save thee. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Let you and I look at these. Thou.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. "Who were they talking to?" etc.² All were knocked down but us two. etc. I arraign. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²KINGSLEY.²KINGSLEY. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. as well as the objective. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. We regularly say. Exception 2. Thy shores are empires. but he. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Nature. 405.²STEELE. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Exercise. for example. all but he. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. partial Nature. and is usually avoided.Exception 1. as. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. None. for they say there are none such in the world.Shall be left upon the morn. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. "Who did you see?" or.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.

10. POSSESSIVE FORMS.3. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²possessive. Preceding a gerund. 5. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²DE QUINCEY. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. This usage is not frequent. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 407. 12. BROWN." 4. B. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. Markland.²MACAULAY. II. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²THACKERAY. and they know that as well as me.²SCOTT. with Jortin and Thirlby. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. or objective? . The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 8. 6. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. They are coming for a visit to she and I. who.²RUSKIN. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 11. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. As antecedent of a relative. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. They crowned him long ago. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 9. 7. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. "Nonsense!" said Amyas.²C. Bartholomew. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea.Ye I salute.

There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. We heard of Brown. and the meaning is. both are gerunds. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. and that in the second. Why both are found.²RUSKIN. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.²MACAULAY. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. [who was] studying law. studying is a gerund.²CARLYLE." That is. Possessive." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.² THACKERAY. In the examples quoted. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.²BREWER. that the bitterness of death was past.408. object of heard of. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²DICKENS. Both types of sentences are found. Objective.² IRVING. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.² SCOTT. The use of the objective is older. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. and asked why it was not made. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.²DE QUINCEY. But in common use there is no such distinction.² CARLYLE. as he turned away from his wife. The last incident which I recollect. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. Here I state them only in brief. etc. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. . sometimes it has the objective.

² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²HUXLEY. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. and gender. Examples of these constructions are. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. and ought to agree with them in person.²EMERSON III. in one person. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.² BRYANT.²C.²DE QUINCEY. where there were examinations.²CABLE.²DEFOE. 409.²THACKERAY. BROCKDEN BROWN. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. If any one did not know it. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. or is a distributive word. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. Every city threw open its gates.²DE QUINCEY. number. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²THOREAU.²RUSKIN. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²HOLMES.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The pale realms of shade.²AUDUBON. Everybody had his own life to think of. Watch for the real antecedent. preceded by a distributive. In such a case as the last three sentences.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. taking in each of many persons.²when the antecedent. 410. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. . the pronoun will be neuter singular. if the antecedent is neuter. it was his own fault.

The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²PALEY. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. not a mowing idiot. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. and giving them means of being so.²ID. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²ID.²RUSKIN.²SCOTT. as anybody in their senses would have done.²PALGRAVE. till they have lost him.² Not the feeblest grandame. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. . Struggling for life. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. By using the plural pronoun. The sun.²BYRON. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. If the part deserve any comment.²DEFOE.²AUSTEN.²THACKERAY. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²BIBLE. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²HUXLEY. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²FIELDING. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Whosoever hath any gold. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²EMERSON. This is not considered the best usage. 411.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. for example.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. let them break it off.²PAULDING.

as. Exercise. unless both genders are implied. that being considered already clear. etc. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. or unrestrictive." A relative. 1. 413. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. when restrictive.²HAWTHORNE. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. What these terms mean. is equivalent to a conjunction (and.) and a personal pronoun. I. and that are restrictive or not. and does not add a new statement. or what was become of her. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. which. but." It defines beggar. because. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. .Where she was gone. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. the definite relatives who. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. 412. and he went away. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. A relative.²In the above sentences." This means. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. Exercise. who went away.² SHERIDAN. according to the practice of every modern writer. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. "I gave it to the beggar. It adds a new statement to what precedes. That is in most cases restrictive. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. which. no one could take upon them to say. and that always restrictive. As to their conjunctive use. when coördinating.²ID. 2. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²ADDISON. In the following examples. in each instance:² Who. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. but. tell whether who.

whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. which was to go over the Cordilleras.3. 8. and over England are saying. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. 13. Yet how many are there who up. etc.²ADDISON. but. and it is called logic. which Mr. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.²ID. With narrow shoulders. That." that is invariable as to person and number.² IRVING. it makes the verb third person singular. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. For example. as that does not vary for person or number. 12.²HOLMES. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. 6. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. 7. she agreed to join the party.² MOTLEY. 14. because of its antecedent. they. or it might have gone hard with the tutor.² NEWMAN. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.²DE QUINCEY. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. W. etc. BEECHER 5.² CARLYLE. you. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. etc. Which. long arms and legs. these or that which. Hare has printed.²H. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. he. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.²ID. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. However.. In what sense true. 10. The rule. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. that were often vicious.²THOREAU. On hearing their plan. down. The general rule is. 11. 4. . who. 9. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. So different from the wild.²DE QUINCEY. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. We say I. A grizzly-looking man appeared. 414. in the sentence. II.

the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²BOWLES. MORSE. "one of the finest books that has been published. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²ADDISON.²J. The fiery youth .²M. etc.. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.. the true antecedent. He is one of those that deserve very well.] Both constructions are frequently found. Franklin.²HOWELLS." One of . when he derided the shams of society. Singular. 415.²LOWELL. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²MACAULAY. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.. Let us be of good cheer..²HOLMES. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²LECKY.. T. but speaks of him as that sort.. ARNOLD. and write the verb in the plural.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. but myself.²ADDISON. in winning a battle." or.²SCOTT. French literature of the eighteenth century. who rarely speak at all. [singular or plural. others regard books as the antecedent. or which . but the former has good authority. with one as the principal word.²whether we should say. [plural] that who. A disputed point. . etc. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. and in improving a victory. The latter is rather more frequent. "one of the finest books that have been published.. JR.²LOWELL.

THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²In the above sentences.² RUSKIN. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. The same day I went aboard we set sail. and such like: as.A rare Roundabout performance.²VAUGHAN. object of a preposition understood. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²SWIFT.²SCOTT. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. when this dust falls to the urn. return. and see if the sentence is made clearer. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.² THACKERAY. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers." "India is the place [in which. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²IRVING. or where] he died.²ADDISON. Exercise.²CARLYLE. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. III. 416. that is.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.²DEFOE."²DICKENS.²EMERSON. when the relative word is a pronoun.In that same state I came.²BURNS.²GOLDSMITH. whence. 417. But I by backward steps would move." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. where. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. I could see nothing except the sky. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.² . IV.And. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²EMERSON.²ID. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.

Which.²ADDISON. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. with Turner. I might as well have staid at home. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. boats. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. he.²FRANKLIN. The regular construction. Mr.² Which. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. . as of knives. but we find the relative who. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. etc. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.He considered.² BURKE. if I had resolved to go on with. looking-glasses. which. and working in the same spirit. for example.² THACKERAY.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. as is not used. Anacoluthic use of which. ² as his apprentice. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.. was a discoverer. she passed the lamp over her face and person. but which is usually carefully avoided. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. if same is followed by a complete clause. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. but. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.²R. 418.²SWIFT. They believe the same of all the works of art. CHURCH.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.² MACAULAY. or that.. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. That. Caution. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. W. V.

Exercise. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. This was a gentleman. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. 3.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. he said that all submission was now too late. Thornhill had read. That is.² Direction for rewriting. once a great favorite of M. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. etc.²THACKERAY.²which if they once heard. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. and this be placed in the proper clause. which when Mr." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE. who are now thrown.. and which." etc. He delivered the letter.²RUSKIN. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. Express both relatives.²DE QUINCEY. . But still the house affairs would draw her thence. As the sentences stand.²SHAKESPEARE. or. After this came Elizabeth herself. But who. (3) "Among the poorer sort. but none is expressed. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. or leave out both connective and relative.. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. (1) "Among those who are poor.She'd come again. And who. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.²SCOTT.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.²GOLDSMITH. 2. or omit the conjunction." etc. now thrown upon their. 4.. (2) "Among the poorer sort. 1. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. le Conte. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. etc." etc. 419. but. and who are now.

1. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.5. and to whom no door is closed. who. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. 13. But which. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. like that spoken in the towns.²HAWTHORNE. which the Scotch had learned. That . either from imitation of their frequent allies. And which. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING. English by name. "A mockery. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. 420. 11.. Akin to the above is another fault. 6. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.² MOTLEY." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. and which may even be heard a mile off. and which. etc. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. etc. Dr. one of signal interest.²PEARSON. 7. I saw upon the left a scene far different. then. "What knight so craven. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.. 8. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. Or who. . and repeat this for any further reference. 10. as a false and astucious mark. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .²SCOTT. Or which. the French. I shall have complete copies. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. 9. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.. indeed. 12. Exercise.. and which has never been described.

E. whom. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. .. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.. That .²HAWTHORNE.2. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 11. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. in his present condition. G.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 7. at the head of what. 9. which. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. He flung into literature.. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 6. SIMMS. 10. half a century ago. 5. that. I give to such men as do not belong to me. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.. was a bustling wharf. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.²DEFOE. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. but which is perhaps not so different from it. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Such as . 15. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. which. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 13. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. in his Mephistopheles.. Which .²HOLMES. He. Such as . 8..² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.²W.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. 12. 4. 3. It rose into a thrilling passion.²HALLAM. 14. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.²EMERSON. In my native town of Salem.. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. and to whom I do not belong.²SCOTT. and whose examples and principles we inherit.²EMERSON.²BEECHER. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. what. but which..²SCOTT That which .²HOWELLS. such as they have very probably been bred to. was hung in air. the cent. The Tree Igdrasil. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²W.. the dime. that . His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.²DE QUINCEY. I recommend some honest manual calling.. CHANNING. I grudge the dollar.

By their original meaning.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. one another.²RUSKIN. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. 421.²RUSKIN. as it were. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. We call ourselves a rich nation. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. and in want of his gold²or his corn. as. always at war with one another. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. Assume that no one is in want of either. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. as. 422.²MACAULAY. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. . Each other. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. in which case any should be used instead. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. Distributives either and neither.²HAWTHORNE.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. Use of any.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. for example.² Some one must be poor. that not all combined.²DICKENS. whether or not the two are equivalent.² HAWTHORNE. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²EMERSON.

. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Do you think.²THACKERAY.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. as. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. speak.² In earnest. 423. when any of them are so good as to visit me. if ever man was. 424. then in Plotinus. as none of the French philosophers were. Examples of its use are. afterwards in Goethe. in Shakespeare. etc. None of Nature's powers do better service.²FRANKLIN. any was often singular..²EMERSON. let him ask of God. Caution. Do you think. during his stay at Yuste. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. any of his friends had died.²BEECHER Whenever. which is plural as often as singular. I beseech you. whilst I still cherish their genius. for him have I offended.²PROF. as. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. and is isolated. If any of you lack wisdom.²STIRLING. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.² EMERSON.. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²BURKE. before that. then in Plutarch. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.²SCOTT. The adjective pronoun none is. Any usually plural. in the prose of the present day.²SHAKESPEARE. at one time in Bacon. .Once I took such delight in Montaigne .² If any.²BIBLE.²CARLYLE. that I know of. even in Bettine. usually plural. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. None usually plural. In earlier Modern English. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.

The compounds somebody else.² PEARSON. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. as.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. when it means all persons: for example. nobody else.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. 425.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.²McMASTER. The light troops thought . The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. and Ford has nobody's else. saving Naaman the Syrian. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.. which is used absolutely. that all was lost. and less rarely in poetry. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. etc. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. any one else.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. etc.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. Somebody's else. are treated as units. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²SCOTT Like the use of any. and all was lost on the other.²THOREAU. the plural.² Singular. etc. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. or somebody else's? 426. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. When all were gone.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. etc.²NAPIER Plural. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything... but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. fixing his eyes on the mace. for example.² None of them was cleansed.

all manner of.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²RUSKIN. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. ELIOT. London. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.²RUSKIN. His hair."²MRS.²AUSTEN." "those kind of trees. or those sort of people.² These kind of knaves I know.²G. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²in such as "these sort of books. These sort. for example. or some other such great man as a bishop. . You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. "Ye see.²N. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). unlike anybody else's in the world..SYDNEY SMITH." "all manner of men.² FIELDING. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. Whitefield or Wesley.²DICKENS. etc. ADJECTIVES." the nouns being singular. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. 427. the adjectives plural. P.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things..²MULOCH. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. STOWE.²SWEET. Again. etc. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. WILLIS.² Saturday Review. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²SHERIDAN.²THACKERAY.

more alarming than a total silence. to express a higher degree of quality. not "all kinds of wild animals. 428. At the source. and in this way may take a plural verb.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects.²RUSKIN. Later form. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." A question. they said. Consequently we have a confused expression. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. According to the approved usage of Modern English. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. Use of the comparative degree. which accounts for the construction. in spoken English. The result. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. History of this construction. gradually displacing the old. or one object with a class of objects. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. with all manner of amusing books. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.The library was open. or the nouns to the plural." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). This the modern expression reverses. Burke's sentence. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. when the necessary dispositions concur. the victor or the vanquished. and the adjective is. "This kind of rules are the best. In Old and Middle English. "These kind of trees are best.² PRESCOTT.² Which is the better able to defend himself. "This sort of trees should be planted. as. Should we say. such as. ." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. for example. Of two such lessons. made to agree with it.

it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. 429."²ID. . 2. 5. 6. than any of his court.A braver ne'er to battle rode. would not have had the face. etc. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. He is taller. by almost the breadth of my nail. Superlative with two objects. Exercise. To the man who plays well. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. has sanctioned.²SWIFT.²MACAULAY. Henry. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²CARLYLE. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Even Dodd himself.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. I am concerned to see that Mr. Use of the superlative degree.²HUXLEY.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²WIRT. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 430. Gary. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. 3. if not.²TROLLOPE. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. the highest stakes are paid. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 4. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²LOWELL. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.² THACKERAY. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Other after the comparative form.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.

²IRVING. Examples from Shakespeare are. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Mary. The eldest. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. more particularly the last of them."²HAWTHORNE. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Double comparative and superlative. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong."²BULWER. 431.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. ha.. 1611. "Ha. Rip was one of those . and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²DR BLAIR. not a bit of high life among them. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²TEMPEST. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. and differ only in form.²ADDISON. and the other contains the best men."²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH. In all disputes between States. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. CÆSAR.²SCOTT. who eat white bread or brown.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²HAMLET.²EMERSON. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. After the most straitest sect of our religion. . I should say that one has the best cause.²RUSKIN. Also from the same period.²J. whichever can be got easiest.²MRS. OLIPHANT. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. These two properties seem essential to wit..² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. The following examples are used purposely.²Bible.²BEN JONSON. Come you more nearer. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.

As to these two expressions. but in literary English.²RUSKIN. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. The merit of the Barb.²LAMB.²GIBBON. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. These are the three first needs of civilized life. First three. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. Instances of both are given below. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. the Spanish. 433. ARTICLES. etc. and conceit in the last. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Examples of this construction are. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. ²COWPER.²RUSKIN. etc.² With a singular noun.²ADDISON. Definite article.²GIBBON. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. The meaning intended is the same. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The delay in the first three lines. and Secretary Walsingham also.²KINGSLEY. The first five had specific names. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. For Carlyle.²DE QUINCEY. Three first. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. not only so in popular speech. jar upon us constantly.²PRESCOTT.² SMOLLETT. . I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.

however.²THACKERAY. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. having been arranged. With a plural noun.²CARLYLE. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. to distinguish clearly. as. but inseparable from each other. the thought and the word. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. 434. The lofty. of the higher and middling orders. as.²NEWMAN.² RUSKIN. or to emphasize the meaning. 433. with a singular noun. Indefinite article. as in Sec. and flexible language. 1508. distinct. The flowers. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. Here the youth of both sexes. with a plural noun.²TAYLOR. and the presents. Frequently. Meaning same as in Sec.²THE NATION. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict..²MACAULAY. the hour of parting came. but is used with one only. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. The not repeated. 433. He is master of the two-fold Logos. One object and several modifiers.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.. I think. of the eighteenth century. Origin of the Aryans. 435. No.²ID. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. melodious. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.²TENNYSON.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.² MACAULAY. were placed at a very tender age.²PRESCOTT.²SCOTT. the greatest poems. .

and inexhausted vein. JONSON. as. 435. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. to limit two or more modified nouns. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²B." and "a red and a white geranium. a round and a square one alternately. or clearness to each of several nouns. 438. 436). Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. a collegian. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. One article with several adjectives. a tyrant. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²MACAULAY. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. But in the following sentences. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. COLERIDGE. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. 437. rich.²BULWER. 433 and 436. only one of which is expressed.²JOHNSON. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. For rhetorical effect. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. one noun is expressed. . Examples of this use are." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. as in the first three of Sec.² BURKE.436.²DICKENS. like the definite article. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²THACKERAY.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. In the sentences of Secs.²MACAULAY. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²BEECHER. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. a murderer. He saw him in his mind's eye.²S. T. interest. and a usurper. The indefinite article is used. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²DRYDEN.An early.² MACAULAY.

The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. Collective noun of singular meaning.²FROUDE. without academies. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. ELIOT. Sec. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. Another writer might. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. and the following illustrations prove it. 439.. Singular verb. all that academies can give. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.VERBS. for example. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²AGASSIZ. as. 440. 276. In English. ARNOLD. He sees that it is better to live in peace. This was spoken of in Part I.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²COOPER. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²The Nation. has got already.²G. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.²W. like some others in this series. Such.²CARLYLE This usage. Singulars connected by or or nor. then. as. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. A broad and loose rule. was the earliest American land. or the great intellectual life of our nation.²GIBBON. . (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²M. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning.

all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. a cruel disappointment. or considered as appositional. as. for example. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²J.² The unbought grace of life.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²EMERSON . 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. ADAMS. nor Paul. nor John. a loss of wealth. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²DE QUINCEY. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. but each one emphatic.²GIBBON. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. ²EMERSON. but considered as meaning about the same thing. Plural form and singular meaning. as.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²BURKE. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. the cheap defense of nations.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. is gone.² In a word. and other singulars of plural form.² GOLDSMITH. (4) When the subject is plural in form.² Politics is the only field now open for me. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. nor Mahomet.Jesus is not dead. for example. other names. Between ourselves. that of a large town. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. and every four hours.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²CRITIC.²WHITTIER.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. or as making up one general idea. No. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.²GOLDSMITH. a mutilation. Q. A fever. a loss of friends. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.

The author. Every sound. as well as the newest. no discontinuity. no matter if the second is plural). an agitated gesture.²BUTLER. every boor. each. To receive presents or a bribe. in a judge. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²PRESCOTT.²SCOTT. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. Then comes the "Why.²MACAULAY. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. The oldest. was listened to for five hours. Every week. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. almost every day. as well as sides. There is a moving tone of voice. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. a gorget. many a. every echo. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. and greaves. the fine gentleman.² There is a right and a wrong in them. is a man of wit.²M ARNOLD.²MACAULAY.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. no spent ball.²NEWMAN. and such like adjectives.²PRESCOTT.The rout. the partisan. was like to crack.²EMERSON.²ID. does not take the place of the man. sir?" and the "No. as. 441. The Epic. Her back. every valet.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. no.² . sir!"²MACAULAY. Here is no ruin. wineBegins to stir itself. was punished. nay. as.²HAWTHORNE. Plural verb. as well as the Drama. was dazzled. thus. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. the dismay.²LONGFELLOW. sir!" and the "What then.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. with death. an impassioned countenance. a cuirass. Subjects after the verb.²RUSKIN.²ID. the ruin. the wit. as well as Europe. Every fop.² Asia. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.

²THOREAU. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. are sufficient to attract a colony. 440 (5. Far. A party of workmen were removing the horses. b).² GIBBON.These bits of wood were covered on every square. a green pasture.²DE QUINCEY. His clothes. shirt. .²SWIFT.²GOLDSMITH. All our household are at rest.²FROUDE.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. Conjunction omitted. of whom there were a number. The conjunction may be omitted.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²FRANKLIN.²COLERIDGE. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²GIBBON. The Dauphin.²ADDISON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²FROUDE. its date. for example. making up a plural subject.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.² A multitude go mad about it. TAYLOR.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. were men of insignificant characters. The travelers. Philip of Anjou. far away thy children leave the land. as in Sec. as.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²EMERSON. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²B. as with a subject of plural form.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. but the verb is plural. as.²SCOTT. a stream of fresh water. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.² One or two of these perhaps survive. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. A shady grove. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. the Duke of Berri.

It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. If there is only one person in the subject.²RUSKIN.²LOWELL. 442. 444. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. hadst been my lord. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. This construction is at the best a little awkward.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Ah. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. but thou.²GOLDSMITH. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.²THACKERAY. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.²THACKERAY.²BYRON. You and I are tolerably modest people. Second or third and first person in the subject.²SMOLLETT." etc.²DE QUINCEY. 443. that is. "He or I can go. Pattison or I have said. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath." "She or you may be sure. WEBSTER. General usage. When the subjects. as.But notice the construction of this.²D.). Exceptional examples. "I have never said so. Not Altamont. we never talk politics. but thou. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. for example. Not I." or. Nothing which Mr. nor should I.²WHITTIER. of different persons.²ROWE. his blood dost shed. ARNOLD. nor has she"). If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²M. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²RUSKIN. . the subject being really equivalent to we. "You would not be wiser. You and I are farmers. the verb takes the construction of the first person.

"I expected every wave would swallow" etc.That neither of their intellects are vast. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 7. 4.²ADDISON. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. 440-444):² 1.²EMERSON. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. Neither of them.²perhaps the devil. Exercise.²BYRON. 2.²MILTON." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. BANCROFT.²ADDISON. 5.Her course to intercept. How each of these professions are crowded. as illustrated above (Secs. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. In this sentence from Defoe. Also in verbals. 11. 10.²ID. in my opinion. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Both death and I am found eternal.²THACKERAY. 12.²SMOLLETT. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. as we would hope. The following illustrate exceptional usage. which it is proper to mention.²BURKE. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze.² TROLLOPE. 9. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . Neither of their counselors were to be present. 446. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). nor bush are there. In a word. 3. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²SCOTT.²and.²G. 6. Nor wood. In the following sentence. nor tree.445. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 8. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.

Of course. on my return. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. It should be remarked. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. I gave one quarter to Ann. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Definitions.²MACAULAY.. Two samples of indirect discourse.. Exercise. for exact connection. to have divided with her whatever might remain. 447. as. CHURCH.²IRVING. meaning. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. 448.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.²KINGSLEY. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . 4. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²DE QUINCEY 2. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²R. Direct discourse²that is. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. W. The present rule is recent. change them to a better form:² 1.² PALGRAVE 5. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. But I found I wanted a stock of words.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. however. if not.²THACKERAY.²FRANKLIN 6. to have seen should be changed to to see. 3." .

Summary of the expressions. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Oh. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. and the indirect question by whether or if. She thought to herself. have. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. This includes the auxiliaries be." Indirect. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. under interrogative pronouns. . and the subjunctive mood of verbs. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Her prudence whispered eternally. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. 449. "Oh. will.. "I cannot oblige you . (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that." etc... His exact words were. etc. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. 2. interrogative adverbs.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. or regular interrogatives. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. introductory verb is in the past tense. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. The substance of his lamentation was. Direct." etc. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Direct.. Sebastian's. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. 1.

PARTICIPLES.²ID. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. . being the course which his confessor had enjoined.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. 450. one summer afternoon. if this were expanded into a verb. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²ADDISON. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. Notice this.Exercise. handed down from his ancestor the historian. FRANKLIN. The trouble is.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. with his crew of the Half-moon. the first discoverer of the river and country. my first observation will be found nearly true. VERBALS. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²B.²GOLDSMITH. the sound of their balls. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. like distant peals of thunder. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. in the sentences first quoted. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. he assured me that nothing was more easy. and that he himself had heard. Careless use of the participial phrase. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.

my first collection was. It is a solemn. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . and often. For example. This is the more common arrangement.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.² HERBERT SPENCER. avoid it. either "As I was pleased. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.Correction. purposely or not. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. In the following citations.²LAUGHLIN." Exercise. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. Standard writers often use it. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.²SCOTT. the first sentence would be. while defended or excused by others. many things to be carefully considered. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. ." etc. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.²RUSKIN. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. 2.. INFINITIVES.. 3. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.. then..²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. . universal assertion. leaving the principal statement as it is. 451. Adverb between to and the infinitive.²ID. Exercise.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. There are.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. if a strike is to succeed.. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.

The rigid rule in such a case would be. even. etc. I wish the reader to clearly understand. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. BLAIR. 7..A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. but it is placed before the infinitive. 8. A little sketch of his. Position of only.²BURKE. from Irving. No. are used. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 12. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. Exercise.²GOLDSMITH. 452. therefore. The spirits. even. is to be very cautiously admitted. In works of art. this kind of grandeur. 5. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. ADVERBS.²ID. Now. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 6. but they are often removed from the exact position. etc. but cannot misunderstand the thought. 9.²The Nation. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. and earthenware. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. which consists in multitude. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. etc.²DR.²TROLLOPE. 13. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. china. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.²SCOTT.² ADDISON..4. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.² MACAULAY. 1533.²RUSKIN. if they modify single words. 10. when such adverbs as only. 11. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.

²THACKERAY. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²EMERSON.²HIGGINSON. to avoid a crowd.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.1. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. In Old and Middle English. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 9. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²MACAULAY. might not marry. The old usage. 453. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²ID. 2. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²SWIFT. In relating these and the following laws.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²COOPER. During the whole course of his administration.²MRS. 15. 3. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²N. for example. 14.²ID. 17. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²PALGRAVE. 10. GROTE. 8. 4. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 6. Irving could only live very modestly. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. whence he was never destined to return. 11. ²ASCHAM.² THACKERAY.²CHAUCER. He shouted in those clear.²ID. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. . P. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 7. His last journey to Cannes. were he never so old of yeares. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²SYDNEY SMITH. 13. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. No sonne. WILLIS. 16.²RUSKIN. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 12. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²MOTLEY. 5. My master. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.

²BAYNE. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. Therefore. Exercise.²HOLMES. STOWE. denying each other. and why:² 1. however. Not only could man not acquire such information. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. in Ole Virginia. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. nor never shall.² HAMILTON. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. 6. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. who hadn't been to school for nothing. This. can so agreeably affect.²BURKE. if two negatives are found together. Regular law of negative in modern English. 3. In the latter case. neither.²LOWELL. as. the usual way of regarding the question now is. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house.²GROTE. and is still kept in vulgar English. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. However.²MRS. In the execution of this task. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. 5. There weren't no pies to equal hers."²MRS. 2. when one of the negatives is a connective. Exceptional use. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. STOWE. is not common. .²HAWTHORNE.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. under the influence of Latin syntax. The prosperity of no empire.²DEFOE.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. uncommon. I did not act so hastily. 7. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. 4.²DE QUINCEY. I never did see him again. ²PAGE. but ought not to labor after it. nor the grandeur of no king. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. one of the negatives is often a prefix. as infrequent. But. etc."²four negatives.

the first should also... A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. the first ought to be placed before a verb.. but.²SCOTT." said the King. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.8. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.. In the sentence. Choice and proper position of correlatives. The sentence.. or. as the use of the conjunction... but (also). "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. neither . 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. 454.²PRESCOTT. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. there we were. as well as of the pronoun. or." Besides neither .. not merely . "A weapon. not only to the success of their common cause. but to their own safety."²SCOTT.. either. even neither .. or with advantage. not only . either . This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. or to reply to it. "well worthy to confer honor. And who. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. if the second precedes a phrase. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. 455.²LOWELL.." may be changed to "This loose . not or is the proper correlative of neither. The sentences given in Secs.. or to reply to it. should be scrutinized.. and which. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. nor is often changed to not²either ... Things to be watched. CONJUNCTIONS. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. Correction. and. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. especially both . nor." both of the above requirements are violated... if the last precedes a verb.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it." . nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.

²THACKERAY. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. not merely interest children. Exercise. but. etc. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Some exceptions. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. as.²RUSKIN. 6.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. . nor the disgrace of assailing him. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²GOLDSMITH.²BAIN. Try and for try to.²MACAULAY. and chop up their own kin. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. 4. 8.²ID. too.²THACKERAY. as. but they will outrage. But what. 456. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. or the negative relative but. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.² ADDISON. or but that. Try and avoid the pronoun. Now. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. and I don't know but what he was right. 457. but grown-up persons. 5. 7. murder. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. In the following sentences. substitute that.²GIBBON. but. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.²FRANKLIN. 2. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. Correct the following sentences:² 1. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.²S. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. O.Exercise. JEWETT. They will. 3.

They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 458. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. as already seen in Sec.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. 6. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. PREPOSITIONS.²EMERSON. 305. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). no separation or division by twos being implied.²EMERSON.²TROLLOPE. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. see Sec.² BULWER. Between is used most often with two things only. 459.2.²ADDISON. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.² SWIFT. 3. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 5. . Between and among. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 313. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 4. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²BURKE. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.

Affinity between. Bestow on (upon). Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. different. Such are derogatory. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Comply with. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Such are absolve. involve. Different from.: Words with particular prepositions. 461. and Stewart. Dependent on (upon). List I. ²EMERSON. Some of them have.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Conform to. LIST I. Kant. by custom. etc. Dissent from. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. 460.²RUSKIN What have I. or one object and a group.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Abhorrent to. Derogatory to. and Coleridge. . and philosophers like Locke. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. and another to convey a different meaning. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. as.²KINGSLEY. a soldier of the Cross. Mackintosh. Two groups or one and a group. correspond. Averse to. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. averse.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Acquit of. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conversant with. confer. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Accord with. as. Paley.

but it is not good usage. Change to (become). Correspond with (write to). Confide to (intrust to)." also of persons. LIST II. A taste for (art. Differ with (note below). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Involve in. Confide in (trust in). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Agree to (a proposal). in the sense of making friends with." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. etc. Confer with (talk with). as.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. A taste of (food). Correspond to (a thing).). . LIST III. and sometimes creeps into standard books. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Reconcile to (note below).y y y Deprive of. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). as. 462. List II. Change with (a person). Confer on (upon) (give to). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. as. "The king is reconciled to his minister. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions." List III. Reconcile with (note below). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. 463. Independent of. Differ from (note below). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. as meaning to be in keeping with. Change for (a thing).

²ATHENÆUM. One of them said he would die for her. It is a man of quality who dies for her.:² "Die of.²GOLDSMITH.²BURNETT.²FIELDING.²ADDISON. simply from old age. ²THACKERAY. ELIOT. No one died from want at Longfeld.²BOSWELL.²G.²SHAKESPEARE.²MACAULAY. "Die for. instrument)." (in behalf of). die for. privation. "Die from." "die from.²GOLDSMITH.²G. as Cervantes informs us. expect from. die from. "Die by. People do not die of trifling little colds.²SCOTT. Part from. Who. If I meet with any of 'em." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Illustrations of "die of.y y y Die by. part with.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing." She would have been ready to die with shame. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. ELIOT." etc. Take thought and die for Cæsar. die of." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. "Die with. die with. He died at last without disease." (because of). It would take me long to die of hunger. they shall die by this hand. and ill treatment. . I am positively dying with hunger. She died of hard work. died for love of the fair Marcella. Expect of.²MACAULAY. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. "Die for.²POPE. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread." (material cause.

With words implying behavior or disposition. ELIOT." "part from:"² "Part with. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²POE.²DICKENS. . It was a little bad of you. which he would by no means part from. as my friend. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. I can part with my children for their good.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. ELIOT.²SHAW." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²MACAULAY. I have long expected something remarkable from you. That is more than I expected of you. nothing better was to be expected." She will expect more attention from you.²WALLER.²BULWER.²TROLLOPE. just parted from her. kind of you. Illustrations of "expect of. Kind in you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. 465. 466. Illustrations of "part with. "Part from.²WALPOLE.²MACAULAY. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²SCOTT.²AUSTEN." "expect from:"² "Expect of. I have just seen her. Of Doctor P. ELIOT. "Expect from.²G." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²G." To part from you would be misery. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. His precious bag. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²G.²BULWER. 464. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²MARRYAT. either of or in is used indifferently. and hated to part with them. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.

Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. But this is idle of you. 6. 5. 3. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. and ran up the alley. In.²CARLYLE. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me.²BULWER. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 10.²BEACONSFIELD. thrown it over Amyas's head. nor blue. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. or that they are any way dependent on each other. the vast abyss. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. tedious perhaps.He did not think it handsome of you. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 13. raging storms. 9.²DICKENS. The noise of vast cataracts. 1. . Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Very natural in Mr. or which we are most imperatively required to do. In the friction between an employer and workman. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.²BULWER. Thou tread'st. nor green. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. 14. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 8. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. or artillery.²TENNYSON. Hampden. nor yellow. nor of a pale red. 7. with seraphims. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. it is commonly said that his profits are high. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. This narrative. thunder. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. but which the story renders necessary. 4. 15. 11.

23. You have seen Cassio and she together. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 36. 24. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 30. but in the price paid to them. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. That night every man of the boat's crew. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 32. But every man may know. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 37. or how beautiful it is. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. and most of us do know. 25. 16. the acquiescence of the understanding. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. produce approbation. 38.And were I anything but what I am. 29. 33. 26. and almost as good as a pony. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 35. 17. 31. . 18. triangles. save Amyas. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. Squares. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 28. 20. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. the light is sometimes softened in the passage.I would wish me only he. (Sec. Friday. 21. 19. what is a just and unjust act. were down with raging fever. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. you or me. 27. 411. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. and other angular figures. 22. When the glass or liquor are transparent. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough.) 34. The effect of proportion and fitness. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. Every one of these letters are in my name.

of. 239. 91. 260. origin of. 20. 107. 119. 124. of. adverbs used complements. (3) Modern English. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. from nominative clauses. 102. 89. as. adjectives.000 between them. nouns. as comparison definition demonstrative. nominative. of. Adjectives. 40. He had four children. article. of. Abstract with Active Address. numeral. of. pronouns. 124. syntax uses Absolute. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 90. INDEX. 47. (2) Middle English. voice. 25. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 310. A. 133. from about 1500 to the present time. demonstrative. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 116. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. . 47. 98.39. 92.

plural pronominal. 103. Alms. adjectives. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. objective. 207. 316. of. nouns. of. quality. 104. 109. clauses. as nouns. with with with subject. 190. 275. 303. 114. 116. predicate. Against. between of. 194. 190. adjectives. of. 242. 194. of. 239. 262. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 42. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 183. 27. parse. antecedent. of. Agreement. 328. antecedent. 148. 303. infinitive. 99. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 195. 97. 325. and 185. 207. conjunction. adjectives. 325. parse. to used of.from function how in not of of ordinal. 184. compared. of. 287. 187. from to of. . 48. nouns. 191. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 302. of. modify. 115. sentence. 116. quantity. 27. 323. 291. 106. conjunctions. 101.

of. of of of And Antecedent. sentences. agreement personal as pronoun. An. Agreement. same. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. of. 74. 127. 67. See with definition complex compound simple who. derivation in definite. syntax. 225. definition of of of Any. 101. 67. 51. and. See 74. after of. 294. Auxiliary if. in in. of. which. 295. 252. uses As At. definition how indefinite. 240. adjective. 198. 207. of. though. 287. syntax As. which. A. as uses verbs. 275. 231. 124. . 47. 264. 84.Among. possessive. Are. to of. 208. it. of and pronoun of. Anacoluthon Analysis. parse. of. which. 271. sentences. 300. 331. pronouns. 120. Arrangement Articles. 296. 49. words between. 150. 90. 120. 79. 148. sentences. 309.

number of. Clause. Children. 49.Bad. adverb. adjective. uses of. 260. 195. of pronouns. definition could. 111. 161. 110. 224. of. 262. But. 262. of nouns. in Old and Modern English. of nouns. 45. of pronouns. plurals of. nominative. 39. best. 210. Cause. 54. 150. uses nominative of. Case. forms. objective. of. Bridegroom. of nouns. . 39. uses Better. syntax of. conjunctions Cherub. comparison conjugation of. possessive. 149. 64. pronoun. 66. of pronouns. 47. 279. 330. 46. of pronouns. 279. 48. 278. Among. 110. 62. clauses of. of what. Between. Brethren. of nouns. 84. with But By. 46. double possessive. 63. of. Can. 37. 194. 283. 278. See of. Be. Case.

predicate. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. double. 43. 257. . 111. 108. plural of. 107. 110. English. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. superlative. 264. nouns. sentence. of. 43. of. of. Cloths. 268. 18. 258. of. 315. of. Clomb. subject. 24. definition degrees irregular. of. 312. 263. 244. material. of. infinitive. 257. 307. clothes. nouns. of. 23. 108. 239. defective. 305. Cleave. analysis of. 12. 189. and forms of. verb. 307. predicate of and from from of. proper. 257. of. 157. nouns. adverbs. 53. in analysis. adjectives. 18. 271. 158. 248. and sentence.definition kinds noun. 113.

66. 263. 255. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. of. coördinate. definition be. and clause. . adverbs. 194. See English. 328. 149. Conjunctions. 151. parse. subjunctive. 139. replaced by objective. 143. analysis. of. pronouns. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. to of. same words. conjunction. pronoun. interrogative pronouns. sentence. See in subjunctive. of of Conjunctions. Agreement. See analysis clauses. 194. 195. sentences. 195. correlative. in Old vs.with Concord. pronoun. 194. 196. 269. 149. 207. verbs. 73. 289. 199. conjunctions. conjunctions. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 188. definition how subordinate. Dative Declarative Declension of case. other other parts of speech. 231. Can. sentences. 193. 138.

of personal relative verbs. indirect. of. Subordinate clause. 60. pronouns. Comparison. 80. of. Case. pronouns. 185. 35. 152. 90. 26. 242. use of dies. 287. Articles. 51. comparative. pronouns. pronouns. for. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. Comparative. 333. vs. See 148. 242. See adjectives. nouns.Declension. . 303. passive adjectives. 99. 288. 300. 102. of. object. 102. discourse. 315. of. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. adverbs See adjectives. with. article. 160. nouns. 91. See See 48. from. tenses. 320. Degrees. with of. duck. by. possessive. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 43. verb. clause.

another. of. other. 92. of. Empress. conjunction. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 42. 158. Either. adjective. vulgar. 62. plural. 287. of. 257. 102. 287. pronouns. . 33. 280. 34. 40. drunk. 12. 194. feminine plural English. Each. Elements Ellipsis. 39. 110. original. 92. of. of. 112. error in sentence. predicate. -En. adjective. complement. in 'Em. spoken. suffix. 299. 255. added suffix. 240. older. 32. to suffix. one ( t). 234. 158. of subject. object. 300. 51. pronoun. of. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 90. 38. 92. 90. 328. ending. literary. pronoun.Drank. 241. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 33. the of sentence. possessive suffix.

of. of. 43. See Gander. have adjective. to of. first. etc. from. First Fish. Further." 31. few. uses redundant. with in sex. with infinitive. . 235. 152. adjective. other languages. perfect. of. used of. From. 212. 30. 211. 148. fishes. definition distinguished in English. modes "common goose. 238. 48. 147. 287. 189. two a further. 112. the. gender. as of from compared marking. 103. plurals. 29. 32. 126. First. Feminine. 30. nouns. etc. Farther. 102. 152. expect gone. 319. 102. For. Future Future tense. 91. as a noun. 334. object. 212. 30. 110. 45. 112. two. Few. 36...Every. 308. Gender. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. uses Foreign Former. pronoun.

it. noun. 120. 36. 13. definition divisions opinions province H. rather. 35. 231. an better. distinguished syntax. participle. Grammar. 145. I. of. 60. Had Hanged. His Husband. from participle of. of. 159. 12. 159. on. of. 9. person. possessive pronouns. of. pronoun. 61. 175. personal relative geniuses. 173. 61. definition basis of. 275. 10. 101. He. 176. adjective. 177. 60. kinds of.of of Genii. and case verbal with. Gerund. 43. Government. 12. 80. Got. its. she. 285. for before. first sentence. pronouns. 144. forms in Girl. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. . had hung.

Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 73. 43. 178. 257. 231. 93. See you. verbs. transitive. indices. pronoun. . 248. elements. indirect of. adjectives. 131. pronouns. your. 67. in compared syntax. 319. 153. Questions. adjectives. mood. 323. 136. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. summary See passive mood. a object. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. of. See Articles. meaning. questions. adverbs. with of. uses discourse. 176. questions. 85. 283. 276. 105. 131. 188. words. 320. of. of. 72. of.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. of clause. 110. 233. Direct object. 245. use article. 227. sentence.

Lay. of. 36. of. 189. Less. -Ly. 12. Latter.adverbs. 281. Logic Logical Lord. 226. Kine. of. uses Literary Little." history etc. Lady. and See words in. 170. queen. "It Its. See Madam. latest. lie. Lay. 61. was uses me. Last. 227. in little. 36. It. 113. lord. 110. 276. syntax. Lie. lesser. King. 63. English. Lady. Like. 36.. adjective. 190. 39. 245. 67. plural. a vs. 91. predicate. syntax the. etc. . 102.. 110. 303. 113. of. Kind. 126. subject form. these double kind. pronoun.

mine. of. 185. 328. 64. Many Mapping Mare. Enlargement. Modifiers. mistress. of. syntax nearer. 187. 112. See definition 136. 113. Neither. May. Means. -Most. 137-144. Master. 160. conjunctions Many. 161. Mood. 110. 189. 110. 189. 102. imperative. 265. 112. of. 114. . out of. adjective. Modifier. Negative. comparison Near. 135. etc. 256. 112. of. 110. Must. subjunctive. 34.. 194. 188. 325. sentences.Manner. might. indicative. 195. superlatives. of. nigh. Much. of. 137. of. 287. double. construction as of adverb. position adverb. 144. 36. 326. Mighty Mine. syntax conjunction. 41. 126. in adverbs comparison a. of.

of. 42. clause. of. abstract. syntax in gender nouns. 29. 328. 20. used as. 301. 25. in. of of of of of a. to of. See 194. letters as 24. nouns. 38. 124. 21. proper. 92. 30. 25.pronoun. become become formation case collective. class used singular. 27. 30. etc. 17. Not Noun Nouns. 18. 246. definition descriptive. 258. Case. of. to use. become neuter. 56. 41. material. 45. of. parse. 17. 46. gender nouns. . syntax Neuter or two News. foreign. half abstract. No Nominative. common. analysis. 46. 32. number once other plural. 38-41. definition according of. 41. 126. Nor. 125. abstract. nouns. of. 17 19. now plural. None. words how compound. formed. of. 41 43. of. 26. 19. etc. 300. and figures. kinds 90. gender how kinds material. 30.

in nouns. 43. 48. 18. 242. form. preposition. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 240. as forms titles. 48. singular. of. meanings. 48. or plural. 121. 41. adverbial. passive adverbial.of same two with proper. of. 242. of. of.. 148. 60. . 278. definite. 42. adjectives. common. singular. nominative. plural. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 279. See in in in Numeral distributive. spoken of instead nouns. with with with Now Number. of different possessive definite of. 23. 195. pronouns. 101. 278. and analysis. Preposition. dative. of. 282. Nouns. 196. meaning. 281. 42. 48. adjectives. 124. 101. article. 39. personal. 48. conjunction. 235. 102. 42 44. 41. English. verbs. pronouns. of. See verb. etc. 106. 92. plural no two singular construction. Numeral Object. indefinite. plural form. 66. indirect. 285. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. in article. with case. 41.

of syntax. indefinite possessive One One as Only. of upon. of of of of of models adjectives. 94. ours. 115. 199. Omission On. articles. 161. 38. inverted. 56. 64. a in adjectives. part analysis. nouns. Ordinal Other Ought. Oxen. of. 56. Parsing. of. 194. Older. uses numeral pronoun. 216. 191. 69. adjective. with (the). 103. 117. 325 275.syntax Of. See the as of. for. of. Pains. 93 other. 213. 101. adverbs. Elder. as other. 41. 103. 306. 233. definite relative uses of. conjunction. Our. . 116. 237. another. 279. pronoun. as of. 127. One. position Order. conjunctions. adverb. Ourself. See pronoun. 87. 293. treatment comparatives. Each adjective. 91.

70. 69. 322. not is. 43. pronouns. 100. verb idioms it from. agreement of verb nouns. 134. with. 148. 61. relatives. 177. 59. 219. of. verbs. 173. in. 95. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. Person. 335. 80. 179. of. 62. or of. pease. 43. parsed. 63. 287. 174. 317. reflexive. phrase. of. 172. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. phrases. . nominative. 172. pennies.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. included various. speech. 59. -ing words. Pence. 28. 56. absolute with of. 64. article 150. 247. of. used as voice. possessive and of. 181. 281. predicate use of. of. of. verbals. pronoun. pronouns. and subject in. verbs. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 59. 180. part adjective. 62. 119. from definition other of. antecedent. them. 27. of. 56.

63. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 236. of. relative.objective syntax table triple uses of. 247. 278. nouns. pronouns. 195. 25. 303. or See of of See 185. complete. pronoun. vs. of. 235. Place. spoken of. nouns. Personal subjective. singular. it. of. 61. 67. of. 245. syntax of of Politics. . of. 51. pronoun. 232. 54. 247. adverbs of. appositional. prepositional. 60. 49. 285. 248. double. participial. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. in of. English. adjectives. Comparison. 52. of. 41. 50. 53. objects. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 278. 281. plural. simple. noun nouns. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. of nouns. 281. 188. singular degree. See 60. of. 245. 303. Positive Possessive. 64. kinds infinitive. 206. 236. of. as double. 53. 241. of Phrase. Personification. antecedent of of pronouns. Nouns. omitted. 37. 's. 106. conjunctions prepositions Plural. nouns.

neither. plural. 284. 202. 300. adjective. 331. in exclamations. 219. 285. 72. 207. 95. of. plural. of. of. of. case. objective. 132. 105. of. who personal. somebody definition how indefinite. future. 58. 299. 287. 187. Prepositions. interrogative. speech. after but. plural. same used as adjectives. 206. 129. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. as. 283. 280. case. usually to as than. parse. singular usually other. 104. 281. forms of. 282. expressed as other of. for predicate nominative. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. as 54. 203. 279. 303. 93. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. any. words. adverb. objective. and form form form form of. of. 283. none. each either. 332. exclamatory. what. 195. of. 186. by with shown certain of. all. 89. 32. . 205. interrogative. parse.Prefixes. as antecedent of relative. 105. 59. 208. and one with else's. by parts of of. verbs. 333. 147. possessive nominative to of. 301. Pronouns. with tense certain. meaning. by. 58. 300. 203. another. 302. 64.

74. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 295. of. 58. 289. adverbs in. in. nouns. pronominal pronouns indirect. 87.possessive relative. of. 291. discourse. and antecedent. use of history formed. of. 293. 293. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. Quotations. same antecedent. 74. indirect compound. use in as. 195. and relatives. parse. who. which after same. 286. 69. 83. pronoun. with who. 99. agreement anacoluthon and as. 188. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 69. that. Nouns. 105. unrestrictive. which. 84. 87. to of. and which. 85. 68. Rank. of. of. 85. of. personal pronoun. 297. Questions. 189. indirect. 296. with with gerund. 279. Rather. pronouns. 289. conjunctions Quality. See of. 295. of. Direct same and different. of. in. in. questions. from and interrogative. of. 74. or of. 142. . 263. 101. 80. Quantity.

conjunction. that. Sex Shall. of of of complex Sentences. kinds Sequence Set. 252. 74. 29. 289. 196. Simple in sate. conjunctions Retained Riches. simple. in form. S. of. in of. will. of. of sit. gender. 195. clauses of. 294. 196. 159. 162. object. 242. 170. effect. which. 51. Shot. elliptical. 26 271. would. suffix. 231. See Sentences. complex. 159.syntax use Result. plural possessive as. 255. reflexive analysis of compound. 43. pronoun. 'S. Seeing. 231. 42. definition . 69. 40. 263. of. Self Sentences. and should. of. 319. tenses. Shear. simple of. ending. Same Sat. sentence. forms shots. who. 259.

adverb. these number. in Middle English. of. of. 126. 38. 240. adverb. sort. 245.. See -En. Somebody Sort. 257. to of. disuse in spoken complete. phonetic in infinitive. 258. English. 138. English. 270. logical. 144. of. etc. as. other Such Such Suffix -s. 33. 137. verbs. 237. 262. 303. 36. of. . 257. Subject. of. 303. 38. Spelling Spinster. literary clause. 32. definition how kinds noun. used mood. 169. 233. Split Spoken -Ster. 257. 323. -en. 12. in feminine suffix. distinguish. English. for. 186. Modern use becoming else's.Singular Sir. of. names as a. 260. 257. 144. -es. 258. English. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 258. vs. 245. 33. definition 67. of.

as history The. of. 147. adverbs. 277. of.. 191. Tenses. 108. article. 306. 222. as adverbs. meaning. of . of. that uses That. 275. 147. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. than of.. restrictive. 275. 148. of. syntax of. of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 106. 107. 120. There These kind. 307. See etc. definition in English Tense. adjectives. 88. 297. English. coördinating. 186. in comparison. 61. objects. 290. omission whom. king. "the then foreign. 319. 189. degree. 289. 87. 147.Suffixes. 116. 119.. 280. Then. 186. English. 309. which. not suggesting adjectives. when relative. Kind. . 106. 306. in double." introductory. of. classical of. form. meaning made up in Old of. when as of. of. two basis not same definition definite. me. object. auxiliaries. plural as adverb. of. 33. of languages. this. they. as history syntax Their. 152. 123. and and of. 109. subject.

try two.These. to. uses history of. thy. from cleft to 174. of.. etc. 172. 180. 322. parse. 322. 20. 247. Upon. feminine and. of. 181. uses of. Upper. of. Try Two Under. gerund. 176. 248. 119. verbs. 175. exclamations. 175. of. first. uttermost. 308. of. used. phrases. analysis. preposition. 128. of. -Trix. tother. 33. Utter. 207. See On. See That. . words. in omitted uses T'other. 21. 61. 323. 217. carelessly uses syntax this. in of. adverbs those. 114. certain as the before with of. how infinitive. 188. first adjective. conjunctions prepositions To. of. kinds participle. other noun. 173. 114. infinitive. 195. thee. Thou. 172. 185. Time. 175. -ing 111. 114. suffix. 330. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. infinitive.

150. table of irregular. 133. Vixen. 12. definition of. 131. 149. with subject in number. regular. 169. but uses what. 154. 147. mood of. active meaning. 134. table of. 154. 312. voice of. 167. passive form. definition of. verbs by. passive. 129. 312-316. 154. 33. verbs. definition of. in indirect discourse. Vocative in Voice. active. 160. remarks on certain. sequence of. in person. 317. of. conjugation of. 148. 245. 133. 319. 155. phonetic. 236. 148. What. 179. transitive and intransitive. becoming irregular. past tense formed nominative. 330. 47. formed by. syntax of. 151. how to parse. retained object with passive. 242. 39. of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went.Verbs. 130. 135. 167. agreement of. weak. 159. defective. 157. change. of incomplete predication. 320. 169. strong. intransitive. auxiliary. person and number of. tense of. spelling of. made transitive. 223. of English. . analysis.

interrogative Which. wizard. of. etc. plural of in nouns -ing. in. conjunction. 40. 218. 85. 36. Wife. Y. 105. animals. spoken in of. 190. 83. With. 178. 194. English. Witch. questions. 246. Will. relative indirect relative. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. Who. 295-299. uses See Shall. 85. 83. worser. antecedent adjective. 32. Words in Worse. 126. of. 72. whereto. 79. in -ly.what Whereby. questions. Whether. 299. 77. 36. 75. pronoun. 75. 73. questions. a.. 111. 104. questions. Yes ending analysis. 296. 105. pronoun. Woman. would. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 78. 85. 72. in in indefinite objective. referring syntax Widower. 72. direct of. relative. . relative. 37.

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