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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

as. with its enormous vocabulary. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. it will at the same time. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. then. Mental training. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. so that a small grammar will hold them all. A broader view. and their uses and relations in the sentence. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. . and thus incite his observation. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). It is also evident. Surely our noble language. Coming back. Few inflections.The province of English grammar is. is worthy of serious study. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). if rightly presented." What grammar is. from the question. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. An æsthetic benefit. assist the classification of kindred expressions. as compared with Latin or Greek. to those who have studied the language historically. This will take in the usual divisions. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. there is still much for the grammarian to do. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. its peculiar and abundant idioms. Literary English. If. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. their forms. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. The work it will cover. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). "Analysis." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. but this is bad English now." and "Syntax. rightly considered. Authority as a basis. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. Making rules is risky. however. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes.

the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. besides this one. The Parts of Speech.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. not objects. as they stand for ideas. and the word nation stands for a whole group. PART I. three divisions:² Part I. 1. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. The plainest name is Arabs. the words sons and master name objects. The Uses of Words. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. that is. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. and will are evidently names of a different kind. or Syntax. . Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. Occasionally.²GIBBON. from the eighteenth century on. Analysis of Sentences. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. but. and may belong to any of those objects. NOUNS. then. Such words are called nouns. Spoken English. the nation is free. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. by which is meant the free. Part II. Vulgar English. submission. which belongs to a people. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. The words state. and Inflections. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. or standard. reference will be made to vulgar English. Part III.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. In the more simple state of the Arabs. The following pages will cover.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. too.

we may think of them in groups. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Thus. however. Individual. animals. the man here. because each group is considered as a unit. the name of each is an individual or proper name. a committee.Definition. but Chicago names one city. or idea. Besides considering persons. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. or the man in front of you. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. We may say. as here used. A noun is a name word. ATTRIBUTE. men in groups may be called a crowd. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. 2. They properly belong under common nouns. or a congress. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. or thing. belonging to one. Thus. . and things separately. 3. Name for a group or collection of objects. Proper. (a) 4. representing directly to the mind an object. Name for any individual of a class. and appropriate names to the groups. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Common. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. possessed by all. Abstract. reducing it to a narrow application. is from a Latin word which means general. etc. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. MATERIAL. whether person. or a council. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. For instance. This does not imply. or a mob. (b) Common. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. Collective. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. substance. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Classes of nouns. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. 5. or things. place. animals.

²There are some nouns. earth. etc. The quality is still there as much as before. earth. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. celluloid. cloud. wheat. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. but which are not called proper names." "a man of understanding. dew. The reason is. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. . moon. wheat. and fasten a special name to the object considered. tea. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. etc. etc. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. and so on. clay.Names for things thought of in mass." 9. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. or apart from their natural connection. iron. etc. or action. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. stone. condition. or that which shows a thing has been proved. mist. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. rain. (3) Geological bodies: mud. as in calling a city Cincinnati. Names of ideas. etc. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS.. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. frost. or actions. rock. sugar. however. platinum. we speak of the wisdom of the man. soap. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. . (2) VERBAL NOUNS. paint. "Painting is a fine art. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. wine. world. When we speak of a wise man. etc." "Learning is hard to acquire. Again. rubber. etc. we may say. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. rice. not things. potash. there is no such intention. expressing state. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. proof means the act of proving. instead of to each individual or separate object. etc. snow. sand. granite. sugar. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. conditions. Such are glass. but it is taken merely as a name. gold. They remain common class names. Words naturally of limited application not proper. 6. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). considered abstractly. 7. such as sun. but in the words sun. NOTE. expressing attributes or qualities. frost. It may.

Thus. in the beginning of his life. is used as a noun." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. day. her longing for their favor. To avoid difficulty. the moon caused fearful forebodings. ease. 12. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. childhood from child. the great Puritan awakening. stupidity from stupid. 1. joy. as in the expressions. hopeful²hope. night. They cannot govern a word. by altering its function. Verbal abstract nouns. speech from speak. II. Such are beauty. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. five abstract. (1) prudence from prudent. five proper. energy. The verb. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature." "a brisk walk. but are merely names of actions. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. 10. service from serve. the main bearings of this matter. NOTE. theft from thieve. he spread his blessings over the land. . (2) peerage from peer. Exercises. Caution. etc. thunder. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. a wedding or a festival. height from high. lightning. the rude drawings of the book. etc. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. "a long run" "a bold move.Attribute abstract nouns. Underived abstract nouns. shadow. action from act. there is time for such reasonings. etc. summer. mastery from master. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. the teachings of the High Spirit. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. They are only the husks of verbs. etc. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. 272. as their name implies. kingship from king. those opinions and feelings. 273). hope. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. redness from red.. as glad²joy. winter. and they cannot express action. the well-being of her subjects. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words.

pleurisy. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . geology. (b) branches of knowledge. typhus. Using a dictionary. catarrh. mathematics? 3. as pneumonia. algebra. as physics. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases.2. diphtheria. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4.

15. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. or to go over to it entirely. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. from Calicut. arras. in Portugal. and lo! a new system. Nouns change by use. as a davy. the guillotine. a Locke. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. a Hutton. a Lavoisier. who was its inventor. Others of similar character are calico. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. thus.²EMERSON. from the name of Dr. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Proper names transferred to common use.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. from Corinth. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. We know a number of objects made of iron. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. but we may say. from Damascus. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. "The cook made the irons hot. 119). Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made." referring to flat- . for example. it imposes its classification on other men. damask. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. a Bentham. a Fourier. Sodom was famous for wickedness. levant and morocco (leather). the word port. currants. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. port (wine). 14. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. from a town in France. etc. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. from Oporto. above. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. from China. Material nouns may be used as class names. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. but most of them are in the following groups. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Guillotin. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. 13.

From all around²Earth and her waters. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Test this in the following sentences:² . his eyes. Next Anger rushed. that disposition is the thing to be created. the abstract idea is partly lost. Class nouns in use. or made plural.²PERCIVAL.²COLLINS. but differ in strength. Personification of abstract ideas. a rubber for erasing marks. (3) By poetical use. clouds. mists.²CARLYLE.In lightnings owned his secret stings. clays. or used as class nouns. are abroad. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. papers. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. which are made plural. abstract in meaning. When it is said that art differs from science. tins. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. and say teas. but in case an art or a science. Death. and so on. etc. a steel to whet a knife on. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. on fire. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron.²BRYANT. etc. or the arts and sciences.²BYRON. coals. but on dispositions which require to be created. though not confined to verse. They are not then pure abstract nouns. 17. oils.²RUSKIN. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. Traffic has lain down to rest. that the power of art is founded on fact. For example. not material things. are still names of abstract ideas. to prowl or to moan like night birds. tobaccos. that is. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.irons. This is a poetic usage. be spoken of. smiled. paints. These are the same in material. as stones. or. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. purity. The words preceded by the article a. 16. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified.²HAYNE. A halfway class of words. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. candies. and only Vice and Misery. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. slates. nor are they common class nouns.

Let us. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. nouns used to modify. they cannot be compared. as each repeated pleasure tired. or from any expression.The Solitary can despise. Conjunctions.² BURNS.²SHAKESPEARE. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. sir?" and the "No. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. etc. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. sir!"²MACAULAY . they do not express quality. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. which belongs to another word.²SHAKESPEARE. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Nouns used as descriptive terms. if we must have great actions. but is still a noun. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. meaning a walk in the morning. All these.²BURNS. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. however.²IRVING. make our own so. were mere terrors of the night. And still. for example. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. sir!" and the "What then. Every why hath a wherefore. But ah! those pleasures. 19." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning.² GOLDSMITH." "a morning walk. a bill as to tax on the banks. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. NOTE. When I was young? Ah. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. They are more like the possessive noun." "the State Bank Tax bill. Adverbs. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. or describe it. loves. By ellipses.²EMERSON. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. a bank in New York. fear thy blow.²If the descriptive word be a material noun." which contains a pure adjective. as descriptive adjectives are. the wealthy." "a New York bank. Then comes the "Why. 18. "a family quarrel. Adjectives.

or a faithful domestic. and tell to which class each belongs. Now. of words rather than of their meaning. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Caution. 8." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. the wealthy. 20. Learning. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. In the other sentences.Nor iron bars a cage. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force."²B. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. NOTE. ." and another of Dr. too. whether it mean the sun or the cold. is ambiguous. or a state secret. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. 2. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. but have an adjectival meaning. 4. the terms the great. etc. of course. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. The it. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. 6. 5. so. There are many of these. however. 1. are used. FRANKLIN. It is to be remembered. why and wherefore. at the beginning. without reference to its function in the sentence. are spoken of as if pure nouns. When.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. but as a figure of speech. Power laid his rod aside. is the word "just. to such words as become pure nouns by use. When. that cobweb of the brain.. in a sentence above.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. Exercise. 7. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects.²These remarks do not apply. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. or a criminal. 3. Stone walls do not a prison make. in speaking of the principal of a school. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another." or "legal. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. and Then.

Greek. its bloom is shed. he cried. 21. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 12. 17. 20. The hours glide by. 11. always feminine. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 22. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. GENDER. 14. 24.You seize the flower. always masculine. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. female. that waits you here. There are exceptions even to this general statement. It is founded on sex. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 21. A fool speaks all his mind. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. the welcome. and names of females are usually feminine. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 23. And see. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. shattered and disabled. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. German.9. . returned to Spain. 13. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. in English grammar. 10. the silver moon is gone. and many other languages. But pleasures are like poppies spread. What gender means in English. The fleet.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. Male beings are.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 18. A little weeping would ease my heart. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. In Latin. 19. 15.Fair guests. 16. for every dropHinders needle and thread. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. but not so in English.

Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. das Messer (knife) is neuter. if there were any signs of life in it. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. 24.When. He next stooped down to feel the pig. came to a stand just by the bridge. those which do not distinguish sex.. if of the female sex.²masculine and feminine. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. Of animals. in other languages gender follows the form. in German.. 23. with its gizzard under its wing. der Tisch (table) is masculine.²gender nouns. those with which man comes in contact often. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence. that is. those distinguishing the sex of the object. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. in English. according to use." .. but are spoken of as neuter.²LAMB. Gender nouns. mensa (table) is feminine. clapping his burnished wings. Thus. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. All nouns. or names of things without life. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. the sex being of no consequence. 22. . according to their use. Neuter nouns. the name of it is feminine. must be divided into two principal classes. that pattern of a husband.. however. hortus (garden) is masculine. the name of it is masculine. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. or additions to words.. and neuter nouns.² IRVING. Hence: Definition. No "common gender." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. or which arouse his interest most. "A little child shall lead them. are named by gender nouns. then. Gunpowder .² I have seenA curious child . applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. inanimate things are spoken of. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. corpus (body) is neuter.. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. The great difference is.²IRVING. and consequently without sex. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. For instance: in Latin. Some words either gender or neuter nouns.

they are neuter words. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. or the lack of it. 28. Gender shown by Prefixes. though both words have lost their original meanings. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. cousin. ruler. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. as he-goat²she-goat. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. Gender shown by Suffixes. (3) By using a different word for each gender. 27. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. Male nouns beings. for from they said vram. relative. Very few of class I. I. puts a prefix before the masculine man. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. generally to a masculine word. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. of course. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. only to masculine and feminine nouns. as in wine vat. do not show the sex to which the persons belong.. teacher. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. 29. woman. The inflections for gender belong. Put in convenient form. and for the older word fat they said vat. .25. II. is. If such words as parent. etc. but spinster has now no connection with it. servant. the division of words according to sex. These remain in vixen and spinster. According to the definition.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. One feminine. (2) By adding a suffix. he-bear²she-bear. Hence vixen is for fyxen.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. domestic. 26. Native suffixes. For fox they said vox. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. from the masculine fox.

the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as czarina. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. -ess (French esse. Low Latin issa). Slightly changed and widely used. Unaltered and little used. and are never used for words recognized as English. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . as seam-stress. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). but in most cases it has not. as. gamester. the one most used. it has none now in the words huckster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. donna. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Ending of masculine not changed. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. señorita.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as. executrix. song-str-ess. punster. trickster. These are attached to foreign words.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. 30.

Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). We frequently use such words as author. from Latin imperatricem. frendesse. as. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. Thus. others have in their origin the same root. neighboresse. Instead of saying doctress. In some of these pairs. from the French -esse. chairman. or servauntesse. as. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. etc. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. teacheresse. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. as in the fourteenth century. teacher or lady teacher. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. the ending -ess. 31. to represent persons of either sex. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt .'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male." III. NOTE. as was said in the sixteenth century. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. we use the masculine termination. wagoness. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. 32. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Some of them have an interesting history. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. fosteress. we use the feminine. neighbor (masculine and feminine). Gender shown by Different Words. editor.

widuwa²widuwe. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). had the masculine mearh (horse). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. 34. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. etc. Personification. written loverd. not immediately connected with witch. Besides gander and drake. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. The masculine was formed by adding -a. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Madam is the French ma dame. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). or lauerd in Middle English. Mare. Icelandic gás. lhauerd. Danish gaas. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Three letters of ened have fallen away. 16). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. 33. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. finally gander. among others) to be from the same root word. gand-ra. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). The older forms. for example. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). the old sign of the masculine. but this has long been obsolete.). Two masculines from feminines. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. as in many other words. Witch is the Old English wicce. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). though both are ultimately from the same root. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. from Latin mea domina. Widower. King and queen are said by some (Skeat.² . probably meaning house dweller). It is not connected historically with our word duck. in Old English mere. leaving our word drake. became identical.

But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. whenever we adopt a new word. in Old English. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. 37."Now. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. and not by the form of the noun. Our language has two numbers. shoon (shoes). In nouns.²COLERIDGE. etc. The first two methods prevailed. (3) By adding -s (or -es). Britannia needs no bulwarks. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural.²CAMPBELL.²singular and plural. 38.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. more than one."²BYRON. 36. But other words were inflected afterwards. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. the engineer speaks so of his engine. eyen (eyes). NUMBER. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. This is not exclusively a poetic use. The -en inflection. Effect of personification. the plural.No towers along the steep. together with the third. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. treen (trees). that is. 39. (2) By changing the root vowel. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. I. we make its plural by adding -s or -es.²KEATS. for instance. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. . Definition. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en.Her home is on the deep. 35. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England.

Children has passed through the same history. originally neuter. lens.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. cross. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. sheep. The words horse and foot. brace. heathen. head. The old plural was brothru. by. as.²Over the mountains winding down. dozen.²MACAULAY.-En inflection imitated by other words. finally brethren. after all. when they mean soldiery. 40. II. as. such as deer. borough²formerly had the same inflection. ditch. they add -s): also trout. 42. retain the same form for plural meaning. Lee marched over the mountain wall. after numerals (if not after numerals. Other words following the same usage are. into Frederick town. that have the singular and plural alike.²THOREAU. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. and get settled.Horse and foot. wight. III. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Kine is another double plural.²WHITTIER."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.² The foot are fourscore thousand. Instead of -s. glass.² "God bless me! so then. salmon. people. etc. Examples of this inflection are. folk. Such are box. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. but they now add the ending -s. but has now no singular. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. cannon. etc. turf. then brothre or brethre. 41. etc. . and is still found in dialects. Akin to this class are some words. quartz. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. swine. pair. sail. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Brethren has passed through three stages.The horse are thousands ten.

in its widest extent. volcano² volcanoes. allies. and the real ending is therefore -s. as. hero²heroes. Some words are usually singular. etc.-Es added in certain cases. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. etc.. the Washingtons. these words ended in -ie. prize²prizes. 44. house²houses.²PROF. a new syllable is made. niche²niches. Two words. the Americas. negro²negroes. optics. economics. they lose their identity. chaise²chaises. some adding -s. It served simply as a means of sight. politics.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. summons. though this sound combines readily with -s. The lilie on hir stalke grene. daisies. 45. however. that when thy summons comes. Formerly. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. mathematics. means: as. etc. half²halves. Examples of these are. When such words take a plural ending. though they are plural in form. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o.. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. 43. pains (care). quoth then that ladie milde. DANA. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. Words in -ies.g. is both the science and the art of government. e. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² .²CENTURY DICTIONARY. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). and go over to other classes (Secs. e. means and politics.²BRYANT. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. Means plural. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. Proper nouns are regularly singular. knife²knives. fancies.g. 15 and 17). So live. and many branches of learning. shelf²shelves. Special Lists. molasses. also news. physics. fairies.Of maladie the which he hadde endured.² Politics. etc. and some -es. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. race²races.

²MOTLEY. Politics plural. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²GOLDSMITH. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²IRVING.²J. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. L. A relic which. 46. it is furnished with a forceps.²BURKE. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. Some words have no corresponding singular.²GOLDSMITH. By these means.² MACAULAY. I say. Besides this. . by those means which we have already mentioned. LAUGHLIN. W.²GOLDSMITH. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. if I recollect right. Sometimes. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. CURTIS.Words. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Now I read all the politics that come out. riches will accumulate.²G. however. by strongly conveying the passions.

eaves. as in the lines. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. In Early Modern English thank is found. part²parts: (1) divisions. 48. (2) revenue duties. in mournful numbers. index²indexes (to books).. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. indices (signs in algebra). ways. Numbers also means issues. 49. or copies. Three words were originally singular. etc. as two sixpences. riches. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). penny²pennies (separately). genii (spirits). In speaking of coins. (2) poetry. dice (for gaming). Two classes of compound words. pence (collectively). shots (number of times fired). DANA.²was it subdued when. (2) abilities. fish²fish (collectively). trouble. of a periodical. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. for the numbers came.The air. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. clothes (garments). These make the last part plural. brethren (of a society or church). One plural.²POPE. or work in a bellows?²PROF. carry off chaff. 50. may add -s. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.²LONGFELLOW. two meanings..). What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. Tell me not. the other unlike it. number²numbers: (1) figures.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. pease (collectively). shot²shot (collective balls). pea²peas (separately). . fishes (individuals or kinds). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. faculties. or epistles. sixpence. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection.. (2) care.² I lisped in numbers. genius²geniuses (men of genius). cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). die²dies (stamps for coins. twopence. etc. (2) literature.²one corresponding to the singular. two plurals. making a double plural.

. 51. HOLMES. or the name may be pluralized. The title may be plural. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Mussulman. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. As to plurals of names with titles. The chief member adds -s in the plural. woman singer. for example. Allen.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. as the Messrs. there is some disagreement among English writers.²DR. 52. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. though the latter is often found. but add -s. as man singer. the Drs.² Then came Mr. manservant. then Silas Peckham. Brown. Brahman. Ottoman. the Misses Rich. woman servant. such as talisman. firman. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Two methods in use for names with titles. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Norman. German. Briggs. and Mrs.

The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Du Maurier. FROM THE LATIN. Domesticated words. The domesticated words may retain the original plural.²GIBBON. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²GOLDSMITH. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.²DICKENS. These are said to be domesticated. 53. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. The Messrs.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²THE CRITIC. or Englished. y y analysis antithesis . The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. or Anglicized. FROM THE GREEK. Others have been adopted. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. They are then said to be naturalized. and retain their foreign plurals. Exercise.

figures. and expresses a relation akin to possession. etc. In the general wearing-away of inflections. . as. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. etc. figures. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). 55.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). Words quoted merely as words. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. they form their plurals in the regular way. as." the word felon's modifies cell. In the sentence.. Definition. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s)." CASE. cell has another relation.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. also add -s or 's. Only two case forms. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. 54. without reference to their meaning. Letters. 56.

Excuses are clothes which.²one for the nominative and objective. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. fate. . I. 58. Uses of the Nominative. Nouns. 5. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 57.²person. 3." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. they returned to their homes. then. 1. the enemy of the living. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case.²nature." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. and merit. excessive grief. may be said to have three cases. three things characterize man. completing a verb. the objective. when asked unawares. whether inflected or not. and the possessive. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. 2.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. and experience." (2) As a predicate noun. learning.²the nominative. Three properties belong to wisdom." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. 4. Human experience is the great test of truth.

The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." Exercise." (3) Adverbially. 9. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. how have I frighted thee? II. measure. Uses of the Objective. the word toward which the preposition points. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. 4. They charged. 2. good Heaven. But of all plagues. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. a patriarch of the village.Save. 68. 59." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and being equivalent to one verb. as will be seen in Sec. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. and makest a calm. they are sands of precious gold. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. reconciles. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. completing the verb. taking the object enemies. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. save. her first law broken. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. etc. wounded lies." (4) As the second object. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. But the flood came howling one day. Tender men sometimes have strong wills." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. and meaning calmest. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. distance. taking the object storm. Conscience. Set a high price on your leisure moments. sword in hand and visor down." "Cowards die many times before their deaths.6. (5) As the object of a preposition. (in the older stages of the language. 8. and tell which use each has:² 1. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. thy wrath can send. and landlord of the inn. . 3." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends.

"Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. 9. as. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. expressed or understood.His winter task a pastime made. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.And gave the leper to eat and drink. 6. Possession in some sense is the most common.. And whirling plate. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. The possessive case always modifies another word. 61. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. the Great Stone Face. 60. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. The noblest mind the best contentment has. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. and forfeits paid.²BYRON. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. from day to day.5.e. 7. as shown in the sentences.Does his Creator's power display. (3) Subjective possessive. Uses of the Possessive. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. (2) Objective possessive. 10.² The unwearied sun. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. as in these expressions.²HAWTHORNE. 8. III.²ADDISON.²SHELLEY. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. tempests that . or in writing yesterday's elegy. It is a poetic expression. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. the most common of all. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.

Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. 56). 63.e. child NOTE. there are only two case forms. How the possessive is formed." "mannes herte [heart]." Use of the apostrophe. Nom. "George Jones his book." etc. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. One is the simple form of a word. "From every schires ende. A false theory." "at his beddes syde. as schoolboys sometimes write. and Obj. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. and Obj. PLURAL. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form.winter is likely to have). 62. As said before (Sec. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. Poss. growth which several days had developed). Case Inflection. Declension or inflection of nouns.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec.. the panther which the forest hides). however. 64. 62. making the possessive singular.e. lady Poss. To form the possessive plural. in Chaucer. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. A suggestion. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. Nom." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. The use of the apostrophe. 1. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. . "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses).

Possessive and no noun limited.²RUSKIN.Though this opinion was untrue. I remember him in his cradle at St. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.² LOWELL."²DE QUINCEY. in the name of the emperor their master. as by the countess's command. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. my neighbors. 66.²SWIFT. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. instead of the emperor their master's name.²DE QUINCEY. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. Kate saw that. Captain Scrapegrace's. stands up for God's truth one man. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. and from a desire to have distinct forms. .²CARLYLE. etc. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. In compound expressions. but to the ear all may be alike. a word with a phrase. Peter's. Cervantes' satirical work. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. church. the items of my son's. some such word as house. for goodness' sake. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. 65. as. 67.²THACKERAY. know the amount of my income.. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. In other cases the s is seldom omitted.²HOLMES. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. store." "A postscript is added." Possessive with compound expressions. the possessive sign is usually last..² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. James's. as. dwelling. and she walked off from the don's. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. being understood with it: for example. etc. containing words in apposition. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.

has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. however. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. each. E. (1) When a word is modified by a. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us..) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. the sentence might be understood as just explained. any. and tell whether each is appositional. 68. etc.The double possessive. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. (3) It prevents ambiguity. sometimes they are used together. 87. objective. or subjective. Both of these are now used side by side. HALE. especially when used with this or that. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. the. 1.²E. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. In most cases.²FROUDE.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Exercises. this. a double possessive. and at the same time by a possessive noun. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. For example. corresponding to 's.²CARLYLE. Emphasis. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. Blair). for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. we use the phrase of Atterbury. the statement clearly means only one thing. 2. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. that. If. (See also Sec. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. making a double possessive. A peculiar form. ill-lighted except where she stands. no. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. every. Clearness. in such a sentence as. (b) Rewrite the sentence.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. as one modifier. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? .

to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. therefore. In parsing. and destroy the other. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Now the bright morning star. 6. At lovers' perjuries. 9. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. some idioms²the double possessive.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 13. in parsing a noun.² . 5. 10. Friend. Hence. 15. There Shakespeare's self. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.3. 70. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 69.They say. 4.Comes dancing from the East. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 14. day's harbinger.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. it seemed. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 7. we state. let him seasonably water the one. 8. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. Nature herself. Jove laughs. 12. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 11. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. with every garland crowned.

proper. hence it is a common noun. . Neckcloth. the connection shows a male is meant. but is the adverbial objective. In parsing any word. 68). and to have it found out by accident. it is the name of a male being. etc. (3) Whether singular or plural number. and number. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. subject of the verb is understood. MODEL FOR PARSING. Thief is a common class noun. determining its case. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. as to case. therefore masculine gender. therefore neuter. names one thing. 2.(1) The class to which it belongs. (4) Its office in the sentence. and relations.²common. singular number. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. if the latter. like miller's. Exercise. it expresses possession or ownership. gender. hence objective case. inflections. which gender. it expresses time. therefore singular number. hence it is a gender noun. and limits neckcloth. is a common class noun. masculine. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. object of the verb takes. therefore possessive case. 71. it has no sex. it is the object of the preposition by. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. hence it is objective case.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 4.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. therefore singular number. has no governing word. a fresh tapster. 3. That in the captain's but a choleric word. and therefore nominative case. Throat is neuter. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. a withered serving man. it denotes only one person. The correct method. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. NOTE.

. 7. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. 11. The need of pronouns. sleep! 6. Time makes the worst enemies friends. and representative words. 9. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. and prison. 76). (2) Interrogative pronouns. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession." Again." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus.. or for a group of persons or things.. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. Mrs. and his daughter. all in one. standing for a name. Now. 72. . Jarley's back being towards him. For instance. definite. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Necker. A few miles from this point. were natives of Geneva. Classes of pronouns. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 8. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. from a necessity for short. the military gentleman shook his forefinger.5. He giveth his beloved sleep. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. Definition. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Madame de Staël. instead of saying. but by a question we say.And hated her for her pride.²palace. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. A pronoun is a reference word. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. 73. financial minister to Louis XVI. or for a person or thing. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. 10. where the Rhone enters the lake. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. PRONOUNS. blessings light on him that first invented . castle.

and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Person in grammar. From analogy to pronouns. that is. ours . (4) Adjective pronouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 76. 75. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. (2) Second person. (5) Indefinite pronouns.(3) Relative pronouns. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. words.. Nom. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Three persons of pronouns. pronoun. primarily adjectives. representing the person speaking. they must represent the person talking. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. or other word or expression. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS." Person of nouns. standing for a person or thing spoken of. even if it had a special form. I Poss. we our. my Plural. which have forms for person. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. and the person or thing talked about. "the distinction of person. This gives rise to a new term. (3) Third person. they are said to have person by agreement. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. 77. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. as nouns have the same form. representing a person or thing spoken to. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. mine. Singular. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. which relate or refer to a noun. the person or thing spoken to. which cannot be used as adjectives. 74.

Old Form Common Form. yours you THIRD PERSON. a separate form for each gender. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. neuter.Obj. in the singular. thou thee ye you you your. he his him Fem. Nom. . In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Old forms. Masc. or.. namely. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Nom. and also for the neuter. The speaker may be either male or female. Obj. yours you Plural. But the third person has. she her. thy Remarks on These Forms. masculine h . Obj. me us Singular. Poss. theirs them Neut. it its it Poss. hers her Plur. feminine h o. thine. 78. Nom. neuter hit. Obj. your. they their. Poss. Obj. SECOND PERSON. yours Poss. First and second persons without gender. by personification. Nom. Third person singular has gender. of all Three. you your. Singular.

thou Shepherd of Israel. 80. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. their..²SHELLEY.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. The form its. that didst comfort thy people of old. especially in poetry. to thy care we commit the helpless. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. The consequence is.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. two modern uses of thou. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. etc. thee. Thou. thy. just as we now say. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. as possessive of it. . 81. which is a neuter noun. Two uses of the old singulars. and sometimes its. In spoken English.² Oh. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. The plurals were h . and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. 82.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. We use it with a plural verb always. for example. which was often sounded with the h silent. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. in Old English. even when referring to a single object. as in prayers.. 79.Thou lovest. The old form was his (from the nominative hit).²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. them. Second person always plural in ordinary English. etc. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. as. heora. etc. heom. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. (2) In addressing the Deity. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. however. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. This is of comparatively recent growth. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. the forms they. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.²BEECHER.:² (1) In elevated style. it. There are." As shown above.

there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. his. ²SHAKESPEARE. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. yours. Nominative forms. her. "I am sure it was him. and sometimes in ordinary speech. them. their. The forms my. . Additional nominatives in spoken English. hers. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. The words I. 85. I The Nominative. And since thou own'st that praise. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. its. our. however. they. theirs. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. us. II. him. 84. me. them. her. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Absolute personal pronouns. her. thine. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. note the following:² 'Twas mine. I spare thee mine. though those named in Sec. In spoken English. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them.²LANDOR. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. they have a nominative form. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. 83. Yet careful speakers avoid this. though ye is occasionally used as objective. 34). some say. or. besides a nominative use." the literary language would require he after was. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. he. us. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. The forms mine. sometimes his and its. she. when they occur in the predicate position. your. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. thou. to personify objects (Sec. That is.²BULWER. and follow the usage of literary English. 'tis his. Old use of mine and thine. 58). in such a sentence as. and has been slave to thousands. ye.Use of the pronouns in personification. for. The Possessive. we. 86. and not make more classes. 84 are always subjects. thy. him. have a peculiar use.²COWPER. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Not a separate class.

(2) To bring emphasis. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. 87. "Hold thy peace. Besides this. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²THACKERAY."²SCOTT. COOPER. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. are really double possessives. yours. for example. we find. This usage is still preserved in poetry. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.²THACKERAY. This ancient silver bowl of mine. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. ours. Give every man thine ear. theirs. hers. in that old Edinburgh house of his. or satire. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. yours.²BIBLE. commenting upon a letter of mine.²J. T.²CARLYLE. ours. theirs. FIELDS. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.²ID. we have.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. pluck it out. Double and triple possessives.²SWIFT.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. Their uses. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. Like the noun possessives. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. If thine eye offend thee. F. thus. anger. thus. . his.²J.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. ²HOLMES.² CARLYLE. it tells of good old times. and with mine. sometimes its." said Henry Woodstall. as in nouns. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. but few thy voice. The forms hers. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. thine.²ID. Long Allen. (3) To express contempt.

90. "The good alone are great. mine stands for my praise in the second. his for his property. as it is called. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. or use in a sentence. The old dative case. The Objective. In pronouns. and mine in the second has an objective use. III.²BIBLE. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. Besides this use of the objective. in the first sentence. 86: mine stands for my property." "None but the brave deserves the fair. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. They all handled it. But the first two have a nominative use.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²ID. this dative use." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. but the form is the same as the objective. but not in form. Curse me this people. In such sentences as. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. but expresses for whom. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. In their function. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. as shown in Sec. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. 88.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. was marked by a separate case. Now the objective. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. the thing is done. . In Old English there was one case which survives in use. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. 89. for whose benefit. 20. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. Both joined in making him a present. but nominative or objective in use.

Your mere puny stripling.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. 92. to stand for the real. ²EMERSON. you sneeze. The word you.²EMERSON.²BACON. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. thus. as. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. has not made its progress.² . She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. in this century. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. Indefinite use of you and your. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. It is a pity that he has so much learning. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. as in the sentences. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. you must condense there.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. WEBSTER." (3) As a grammatical subject.²IRVING To empty here. logical subject. or to the idea. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. or that he has not a great deal more.² NEWMAN. why. Society. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.²DE QUINCEY. (3) In apposition.²BULWER. and they cry.²ADDISON.²D. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. 91. like Chinese skill.²CARLYLE. which follows the verb.Time is behind them and before them. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. was passed by with indulgence. as. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.

²DE QUINCEY.²COLERIDGE. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²SCOTT. who in turn tries all the professions.²HAWTHORNE. (ourself). since firstThe flight of years began. They are myself. 94. "I found me a good book. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²EMERSON. farms it. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. And when I awoke. yourself. used in poetry.²ANON. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. themselves." etc. It was late and after midnight.. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. For when it dawned. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. itself. -selves. we use such expressions as.It is finger-cold.²BURNS. There was nothing for it but to return.²HOLMES. have laid them downIn their last sleep. herself. This occurs in poetry." and there is an end of it. it rained. . yourselves. Of the two forms in parentheses. as. And millions in those solitudes. peddles it.² Now I lay me down to sleep. who teams it.²BRYANT.²IRVING. as they are also called. (thyself). 93.²ID. however.²THOREAU. For example. I set me down and sigh. Poor Christian was hard put to it. that is.²BUNYAN. they dropped their arms. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. the second is the old form of the second person." "He bought him a horse. when they are direct objects. but seldom in prose. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. ourselves. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.. A sturdy lad . himself. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. I made up my mind to foot it. and its plural selves. keeps a school."²IRVING.

etc. as we ourself have been. especially in the speech of rulers. as. Threats to all. after the analogy of myself. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.To you yourself. for example. ourselves. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. shall dissolve.²ID. and build the lofty rhyme. and the others were formed by analogy with these. for example. as. 96.² The great globe itself .. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. theself.²MILTON.. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. Origin of these reflexives.As girls were once. as in vulgar English. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. BROWNING. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. to every one.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. Use of the reflexives. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.²SHAKESPEARE. In Middle English the forms meself.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. to us.²WORDSWORTH. were changed into the possessive myself.² TENNYSON.²E. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.²EMERSON. I shrink with pain. As if it were thyself that's here. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. NOTE. B.² . The question might arise. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. with self. not the possessive forms. 95. thyself.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Held dead within them till myself shall die. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.

it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. but it is the soonest spoiled. One obsolete. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 8. fight it out. is wisdom.² THACKERAY. Courage. father.²DE QUINCEY. 97. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. And it grew wondrous cold. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. To know what is best to do. and neuter. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 10.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 2. feminine. let him lowly confess it. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. FRANKLIN. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. where the word is one with that it tells of. 3. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Three now in use. . and what. all conform to it.²B. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. which. 7. and how to do it. some each of masculine. Come and trip it as we go. 4. 5. Infancy conforms to nobody. 6.On the light fantastic toe. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Years ago. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. some of them being double possessives. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 9. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved.

Use of what. methought. . picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. that is. 99. The use of who. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer.. These show that what is not inflected for case. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. with its possessive and objective. What wouldst thou do. Whose was that gentle voice. Use of which. it is selective. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. actions. Which of you. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES.Promised. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID.There is an old word. that it is always singular and neuter. ideas. it is always third person. having three forms. used formerly to mean which of two. it refers to either persons or things. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. as it always asks about somebody. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Use of who and its forms. referring to things. shall we say. whether. 100. that it is not inflected for gender or number. but now obsolete.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. or case. but for case alone. number. etc. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. whispering sweet. As shown here. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. that. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. which is not inflected for gender. not to persons. 98. the gold.

as. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. or other word or expression. who? Poss. Further treatment of who.101. which and what. 104. who evidently refers to Bards. 103. in Sec. subject of doth love. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. pronoun. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. 105. 102. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. and so to make smoother discourse. who is used as objective instead of whom. SINGULAR Nom. which and what are sometimes adjectives. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. objective in the last. "The last of all the Bards was he. For instance. which is called the antecedent of the relative. which. nominative in the second also. It usually precedes the pronoun. and also in having a conjunctive use. AND PLUR. The antecedent. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec.² "The last of all the Bards was he. AND PLUR. for which the pronoun stands. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. 99. SING. These bards sang of Border chivalry. Thus we may say. which is nominative in the first sentence.² . Who. being the direct object of the verb shall take. and what are also relative pronouns. what may be an adverb in some expressions. 127)." In the latter sentence. since it is subject of the verb had.²by the use of the words." Or. whose? Obj. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English.Who sung of Border chivalry. as they take the place usually of a word already used. as. it may be shortened into. Function of the relative pronoun. They will be spoken of again in the proper places.

The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.²W. is a divine creation. in the same sense in which man's nature. 6. When the word relative is used. WHITNEY. Who and its forms. D.. what. . the women whom women approve. 3. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. They had not their own luster. a simple relative is meant. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. 2.²PARTON Which and its forms. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. will be discussed further on. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. which.²MILTON.Whom universal nature did lament.² COX.²SCOTT. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. 5. 2.²LOWELL In this. Ye mariners of England. 4. The nurse came to us.²THACKERAY. 107. with all its capabilities . and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. that.Whose flag has braved. but the look which is not of the earth.²DR JOHNSON. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. The origin of language is divine. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. 108. both his and who have the antecedent priest. 106. 4. are the men and women who bless their species. 3.. Generally speaking. The men whom men respect.That guard our native seas. a thousand years. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.. Indefinite relatives. Two kinds. For her enchanting son.²BYRON.

the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . 2. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. you will not be angry with me for telling you. which it certainly is not.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. else this description will seem exaggerated.²LAMB 3. W. The man that hath no music in himself.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. 111. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.Is fit for treasons. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. ought to be kept in view. BEECHER 5. 6.. and spoils.²H. What.... For what he sought below is passed above.²DE QUINCEY. That.²IRVING. The judge . Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²BURKE.² SHAKESPEARE 2. 4. Examples of the relative that:² 1. The Tree Igdrasil. 109.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. bought up all the pigs that could be had. Who. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. (a) This gradation .²MARGARET FULLER. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²EMERSON. Reader. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.²GOLDSMITH. 107. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Already done is all that he would do. no bad type of what often happens in that country. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.5. 110. stratagems. 3.

²LOWELL. 2. Who referring to animals. the relatives are singular. whose wound I had dressed.²DR. and so on. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. JOHNSON.²THACKERAY. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. Witness the following examples:² And you. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. whose. or ideas. 107. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.. the others are all third person. seemed as much excited as myself. possessive case of which.²SWIFT. in the first sentence.. Cooper. not persons. in the third. Which. The sentences in Sec. in 5. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. who.who. and others. Examples of whose. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. p. Kingsley.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. 113. whose for the possessive. In 1. son. referring to animals.. whose is second person.. Gibbon. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. The little gorilla. 5.²which for the nominative and objective. (3) It is nearly always third person.²who. Smollett.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. (2) It has three case forms.. My horse. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]..²IRVING.²LEIGH HUNT. . 112. flung its arms around my neck. and 6. things. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. a man. that man. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. in the second. in 4. and 3. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. whom.whose. Sec. (4) It has two case forms. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. they are plural. 96). In sentence 4. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. whom. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. The robins. who is first person. Scott. It has been seen (Sec.

² And. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.²THACKERAY. let us enter the church itself. Primarily. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. (2) It has only one case form.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Sometimes. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.²BEECHER. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.²SHAKESPEARE. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. Men may be ready to fight to the death. The last two sentences in Sec. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. no possessive. secondly (which made her stare).114. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. 116. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. . thus. the antecedent follows which. (3) It is the same form for first. Burke. second. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. This often occurs. and third persons. That. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution.²RUSKIN. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. 115. which is worse. which is very notable and curious. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. too. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. This moribund '61. and numerous others.²first.² MCMASTER. In the sentences of Sec."²RUSKIN. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.² I swept the horizon. Which and its antecedents. and to persecute without pity. animals.²SCOTT. 109. So in Matthew Arnold. Kingsley.²DE QUINCEY. and things.

is always neuter. plural number. that do I not." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. what we said?²CARLYLE. that he has. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. and is emphatic.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. which. The sentences of Sec. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. we can. 109. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. who Poss. 117. 118. whose Obj. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. as. Sec. that men must needs abide. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. What a man does. Nom. plural number. it usually follows. What. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.²EMERSON. either of which would be neuter. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him.²BIBLE What fates impose. The gender." That evidently refers to truths.²SHAKESPEARE. consequently is neuter. When expressed. number. third person. For example. for example. . and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. that do I. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. but what I hate. third person. and person of the relatives who. 119. by taking them out. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. Who plainly stands for those or the people. as in sentence 6." (3) "These people heard him.² What I would." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people.

then parse the relatives. subject of heard. What can't be cured. who is sure to be cunninger than they. people is the object of the preposition of. In (2). in (3). but of this. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. but is singular. Parsing what. Now. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. 5. The relative what is handled differently. The whole expression is its subject. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. 7. 8. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. In the same way who. Some prefer another method of treatment. third person. As shown by the following sentences. however. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. so is in the objective case. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. after all. we is the subject. the simple relative. in the following sentences:² 1. neuter. etc. Truths in sentence (2). which is. is what we call nature. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. I think they are trying to outwit nature. it is subject of the verb heard. above."²EMERSON. in (1). is subject of the verb can't be cured. In the sentence.. nobler souls with that which they are. "What can't be cured must be endured. 120. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. and what is the direct object of the verb call. 4. it is object of uttered. Another way." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. and hence is in the nominative case. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Exercise. because it has usually no antecedent." Here the subject of is. 3. the highest result of all education. First find the antecedents. 6. is subject of wrought upon and molded. What must be endured? Answer. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. standing for the people understood. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. is in the nominative case. The word what. .

So with the other indefinites. which. and which in the second clause. "common souls pay with that [singular.²BURKE. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror.²BURKE. summer will have its flies. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 6. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. 122. whichsoever. that is. Hence some take what as a double relative. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. whatsoever. 3.²you cannot have both. Only itself can inspire whom it will. no particular thing. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 123. 5. less common are whoso. being referred to. Do what we can. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. or what else soever. in a new and original way. not as direct as the simple relatives. Death is there associated. . but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. whosoever. It is clear that in 1. List and examples. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. 2. Take which you please. by meaning and use. 4. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. The simple relatives who. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and his friend a fool. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. 121.²MACAULAY. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. to everything that. Meaning and use.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. and in 2. 2. no certain antecedent. or stand on their head. whatsoever. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 7. and parse that in the first clause. They are whoever. whichever. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. object of do] they do. whatever. object of with] which [singular. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. It is no proof of a man's understanding.

etc. But and as. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. for example. Former use of as. Instead of the phrases in which. etc. as was used just as we use that or which. 417). 2. either one that. 124. upon which. but which only wealth could have purchased. everything that (or everything which). 121. what means anything that. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. .. are used. whereupon.²EMERSON. thus. In early modern English. Two words.²DE QUINCEY. the conjunctions wherein. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. There is nothing but is related to us. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed.As shown in Sec. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. 125. 126. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. Proof that they have the force of relatives.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. and that as after such is equivalent to which. for example. This. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. but mean any one whom. 120. 121. by which. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. nothing that does not interest us. Other substitutes. Sec.² 1. 4. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. whereby. not following the word such. etc. but and as. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. has been my heaviest affliction..²HAWTHORNE.² some particular thing.

the full expression being. 2 (b). no antecedent is expressed. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. "Who stood behind? We knew. How to decide. 2. . and whether what = that + which (if so. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. who having the antecedent gentleman." Likewise with which in 3 (b). (b) Well we knew who stood behind. it is an indefinite relative). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. 3. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. which would indicate that they are not relatives. "But what had become of them? They knew not." etc. second. Another caution. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. and 3 (b). if expanded. which having the antecedent lines. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. Thus. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by.²WHITTIER. 1 (b). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. if not. So in 2 (b). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. 127. In studying such sentences. though the earthwork hid them. In sentences 1 (a). it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). showing that who is plainly interrogative.²EMERSON. if not. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. a question is disguised in each sentence. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.. But in 1 (b). it is an interrogative. Special caution needed here. what is interrogative.²ID. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. would be. it is a simple relative.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide.

care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. 3.²G. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. whose has the antecedent you. but the life of man in England. 4. the question is asked by the verb.²CARLYLE. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. 129. In the second.²SWIFT. In the first. In the third. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. Examine the following:² 1.128. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew.² THACKERAY. On the other hand. When Goldsmith died. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. I visited many other apartments. whence is the interrogative word. Relative omitted when object. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. and asks no question. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. which.²GOLDSMITH. Put in the relatives who. 5. and Court Calendars.²FLETCHER. Exercise. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²FORSTER 6. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. . 2. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.²HOLMES. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. ELIOT. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. which has the antecedent hue.² These are the sounds we feed upon. The insect I am now describing lived three years. Thus.

He went on speaking to who would listen to him.²SCOTT. 6. It is rare in prose.² LOWELL.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.²SHAKESPEARE. who were to be rulers over whom. The nobles looked at each other. Function of adjective pronouns.Ne'er looks upon the sun. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. the house was full. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. and what.²Id. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. which was already proceeding. or indefinite relatives:² 1. 3. There was such a crowd went. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 130. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. .7. Relative omitted when subject. 2. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. Also in literary English we find the same omission.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. that. and comparatively so in poetry. simple relatives. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. 5.²CAMPBELL. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. which. Examples are. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.

133. many.²IRVING. necessarily thought of: thus. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. Adjectives. as some. or use." "Where two men ride on a horse. and on each is written. none. "these pranks. "The dead are there. but in this function. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. that. expressed or understood. or an argument in a paragraph. 'Truth. such as each. such as this. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. must not modify any word.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence." Classes of adjective pronouns. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. In the first use they are adjectives. 132. in order to be an adjective pronoun." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. or they may stand for nouns. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns.²BRYANT. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. and stand for a noun. but have lost their adjective use. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. all. etc. or may be the whole of a sentence." that is. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. few. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. .²EMERSON. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. "another bank.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns." in the others. Caution. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. For example.131. etc. which we have seen in such expressions as. Primarily they are adjectives. in the first. neither. not pronouns. For instance." in the second. a word. etc. the former. and another to get cool under. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. any. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. either. "each cube." "one man. in letters of gold.

but what he fain had seen He could not see. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Even as I have seen. when the latter was the King of Spain. 5. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.² They stood.²LOWELL. or sat. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. 2. Exercises. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. accidentally preserved. because he was not lying in wait for these. Some of these are simple pronouns. 134. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books.²EMERSON 4.²ID. Their minds accorded into one strain. Compound. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. NOTE. . and sow wickedness. 3. they that plow iniquity.All these he saw. and they have well performed the other. reap the same.²ID. Definition and examples. but these were of the best. Such are a few isolated instances. A man inspires affection and honor. as seemed good to each. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. They had fewer books. or reclined. Simple. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. for example. They have not shunned the one.

for example. Some inflected. as some of the rangers had gone astray. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.² One reflexive. or melt for others' woe. The word one has a reflexive form. as most were. imbued. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.Two are compound pronouns.²EMERSON. another. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²each other. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. as. None shall rule but the humble. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. we might the more easily discharge them. one another. you quickly come to the end of all. with the superstitions of his time. .It felt the guidance that it does not claim. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.²HAWTHORNE. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. ²HAWTHORNE. The Soldan. Exercise.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Men take each other's measure when they react. paused over a horoscope. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. as it were. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. such as one other. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. 135.²HOLMES. Another opposes him with sound argument.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. Definition and examples. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. They led one another. NUMERAL PRONOUNS.²KINGSLEY. Much might be said on both sides.

. everybody else. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. naught. Definition and examples. anyone else. etc. Every one else stood still at his post. Somebody. no one.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. 136. Now. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Jove laughs. in building of chaises. any one (or anyone). The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues.² At lovers' perjuries. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. I tell you what. every one else. anybody. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. nobody. they say. somebody else. unlike adjective pronouns. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. they are never used as adjectives. Exercise." It means something. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. and they. anybody else's. anything.Exercise. something. . William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. but. and somewhat. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. as. 137. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. some one. everybody. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. They indefinite means people in general. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. as shown in the words everybody's. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. every one (or everyone). everything. also aught.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. what. nothing. and was indefinite in Old English. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.

Our readers probably remember what Mrs. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. from my earliest days. 9. Whoever deals with M. 16. 5. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 12. O thou that rollest above. All was now ready for action. For this did God send her a great reward. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. but not to quite so enormous an extent. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. Hutchinson tells us of herself. in his negotiations. 6. 14. I first found myself among the mountains. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 2. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. to which. and of no other. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. A reminder. 10. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. were suffered to depart. 7. indeed. 18. 11. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. The table was good. 3. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 138. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 13. 17. Others did the same thing. 4. .²a feature of natural scenery for which. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. Exercise. 8.

who take the world easy. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.And it would work 'em woe. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. And I had done a hellish thing. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. behold now the semblance of my being.Destroyer and preserver. eat white bread or brown. 30. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and seized a pen. 35. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. that let him communicate. thou rollest now. 29. variety. 26. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 31. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 21. oh. 32. What can we see or acquire but what we are? .Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 25. in all its height. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. These hopes are mine as much as theirs.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20.Who knew thee too well. hear! 33. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 23. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. Whatever he knows and thinks. He sate him down. 34. I who alone am.19. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. And will your mother pity me. They know not I knew thee. well-oiled dispositions. hear. 27.

or liquid. He knew not what to do. 41." "some cities. and if we are near. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. It may have this office alone. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. such as in the expressions "this man. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. so that no other will be mistaken for it. which was no bad step towards my liberation. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. So with any object." "yonder hill. 39. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. that is our permanent state. or with persons. size. brittle or tough. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. "one hat. If a chemist discovers a new substance. 43. 37. adjectives are used. He teaches who gives. white or red. 42. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. in pointing out an object. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. as. becomes mine. Substantives. and he learns who receives." The office of an adjective. heavy or light. if we are at a distance. 38. or gaseous. 44. Who hears me. etc. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. then. 40." "a hundred men. For example." etc. who understands me. and so he read. Again. We need to add some words to tell its color. Office of Adjectives. ADJECTIVES. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. etc. . position. As to the kind of words used. the number is limited by adjectives." "that house.. We are by nature observers. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present.36. 45. 139.

Nouns are not. If he be thankful for small benefits. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. Definition. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. 142. fair. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. rash." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. To make this clear. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. divine. With exception of the "and then. terrible. derived from proper nouns." the "and there." "the Roman writer Palladius. and their trash." "unlooked-for burden. "Heaven-derived power. used to tell how many things are spoken of. They include relative and interrogative words. such as. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. beautiful. To err is human." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. or how much of a thing. Infinitives." "next-door neighbor." they constitute all his connections." and the still less significant "and so.² BACON. "an old English manuscript. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. however. deep." "this life-giving book. 141. etc. remotest." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Examples are. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "ice-cold water. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." .140. Classes of adjectives. words primarily pronouns. to forgive. such as safe." "ivory-handled pistols. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. happy. pointing out particular things.²COLERIDGE." "the Christian pearl of charity. (4) Pronominal adjectives. 143. it shows that he weighs men's minds. (2) Adjectives of quantity. to describe it or to limit its application.²POPE. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." "half-dead traveler.

" "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. sometimes small." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. any. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. 2. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. 145." "One is hungry. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. which are either pure participles used to describe. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "The shattered squares have opened into line. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many.But ever she looked on Mr." "an aged man. and accomplished is an adjective. 1. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. no.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 143. in studying these last-named words.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." was is the verb. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." Caution. . (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. much. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. some.²COLERIDGE." "a charming sight. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. Examples are.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. Oxenham. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. considerable." was accomplished is a verb.²MACDONALD." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "It came on like the rolling simoom. For instance: in the sentence. in this. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Care is needed. and another is drunken." "trailing clouds. 144. 'Tis midnight. having some of each subclass named in Sec. Exercises." "The clearness and quickness are amazing.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit.

yonder (or yon). that. every village. no. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. 146. Not primarily pronouns. Thus. any.² Every town had its fair." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards." "Then we wandered for many days. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. the former²the latter.²CARLYLE." "He had lived by hunting for some months. but I have gained fourscore. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "a dozen volunteers. "one blaze of musketry." Single ones of any number of changes. The following sentences present some examples:² . for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. The list. The demonstrative adjectives are this. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. When some. latter. (plural these. and with them a few negroes. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." (b) Indefinite numerals. its wake.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. are used with plural nouns. instead of modifying them.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.²ID. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. former." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. as. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. those)." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. they come under the next division of adjectives.²KINGSLEY. Exercise." "In came some five and twenty more. How many. Examples. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals.²THACKERAY. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives.²VAUGHAN. An arrow was quivering in each body. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening." "I have lost one brother.

Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²WORDSWORTH. The taking of which bark.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²RUSKIN.²ID. . as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. Indefinite relative adjectives. skill which was at pause. ²CARLYLE. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. 149.. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²BANCROFT.but all these charms are fled. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. just as the corresponding pronouns do. Oxenham fought desperately.²GOLDSMITH.²KINGSLEY.² It matters not what rank he has. Exercise.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. The silver and laughing Xenil. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. but. In which evil strait Mr.²ID. They are of two kinds. what revenues or garnitures. I verily believe. 148. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. Modify names of persons or things. These were thy charms. FRANKLIN. like the other numerals. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. but in the one case. As has been said.²D. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. These do not. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. they are changed to adjectives. When we speak of the seventeenth century. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.. tell how many things are meant. for example. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. 147."²B. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. skill which was progressive²in the other. WEBSTER. Definition. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. of equal skill.²BULWER. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.

nature will be sure to bear us out in.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.And whichsoever way I turn.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. which. or whether any. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. whichever. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. whatsoever. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. As in the pronouns.²IRVING. as it rather seemed. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. which is selective among what is known. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. you at least give him full authority over your son. But when the Trojan war comes. A lady once remarked. In direct questions.²AGASSIZ. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. Adjective what in exclamations. what inquires about things or persons not known.150. Was there. and new tormentedAround me. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. Whatsoever kind of man he is. Examples of their use are...²ID.²LAMB. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. and gaze. whatever. whichsoever. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. it is impossible to determine. 151.²CARLYLE. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. He was turned before long into all the universe. the debt to the rich.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). proved not altogether displeasing to him. . Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. whichsoever way I move.²RUSKIN. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.² EMERSON. New torments I behold. In indirect questions.

we notice some differences between them as to size. Exercise.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. This is the old demonstrative. and when we compare the objects. That. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. color. . Thus. those). it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. When we place two objects side by side. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.²number and comparison.²This. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. 155. we do so by means of their qualities. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. which was fully inflected in Old English. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE.²but not the same degree. or size. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. In exclamatory expressions. All these have certain qualities. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. of the quality. alas. etc. It is neither relative nor interrogative. the making of it right. etc. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. th s (modern those).152. But this had also another plural.² Oh. Meaning of comparison.Adjectives have two inflections. weight. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. 153 . to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. And yet. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. History of this²these and that²those. The article that was used with neuter nouns.. NUMBER. or weight. gold is heavier than iron. Those borrowed from this. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. COMPARISON. or amount. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. as. 154. and those as the plural of that. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.

" "the largest soul. bluest. expressing the greatest degree of quality." "the commonest speech. These are called degrees of comparison. giant-like. 157. redder. Definition. and many others. but. These are properly the only degrees. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. though the simple. easiest. 160. they are not compared. Substitute for inflection in comparison." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. with less wit. . blue. sufficient. red." "It is a nobler valor. "untamed thought. and the superlative. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. Freedom is a perpetual. indefatigable.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. for example. bluer. So with the words sole. as. supreme." "no fewer than a hundred.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. easier.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. immemorial. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. "more matter. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree.²THACKERAY. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. and the superlative by adding -est. 158. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. 159. A main difference betwixt men is. whose favorite pupil he was. 156." Words that cannot be compared.²SEWARD. as. universal institution. whether they attend their own affair or not. to the simple form. expressing a greater degree of quality. great. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. strictly considered. The two forms. organic. infinite. easy. enormous. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. or amounts in quantity. but were not common until a century later. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. The comparative is formed by adding -er. reddest. They came into use about the thirteenth century. indomitable.

but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.²ID." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. These are adjectives irregularly compared. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. and yet familiar. which hung behind in the queerest way. who. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. polished. admirablest.²ID. easy. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. etc. Adjectives irregularly compared. though born in no very high degree. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives." "more odd. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. mournfulest. peaceablest.Which rule." "sorrowfulest spectacles. indisputablest. was most finished." said Henry Esmond.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. 163. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." "distantest relationships. finest chiseling. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. as. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. madam. The general rule is. there needed to be a most genuine substance.² CARLYLE A gentleman. most small. These long." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. 162. falling on his knees. "So help me God. strange.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. and other words are preceded by more and most. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables." "more austere and holy.²The Nation. harsh forms are usually avoided. The following lists include the majority of them:² . I will." "the wonderfulest little shoes. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. and patientest fusing. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. honestest. quiet." Carlyle uses beautifulest. witty.

Hind 2. as in Shakespeare. Good or well Evil. Worser was once used. 9. . 4. List I. worst. which has gone out of use. furthest 10. a double comparative. uttermost Upmost. A double comparative. last Hindmost. latter Hinder LIST II. is often used. oldest Nighest. [In] Inner Inmost. bad. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. lesser Elder. 1. which has softened to the modern best. least. These have no adjective positive:² 1. throw away the worser part of it. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 2. though from a different root. (3) Little is used as positive to less. further Farthest. outermost Utmost. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. The superlative I form was betst. as. [Out] Outer. uppermost LIST III. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. hindermost Much or many More Farther. 8. evil was the positive to worse. 3. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. older Nigher Nearer Later. (2) In Old English. as in the sentence (14th century).²HAMLET. next Nearest Latest.² O. 164. 6. lesser. 7.² We have it in a much lesser degree. utter 3. There was an old comparative bet. 5. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. innermost Outmost.LIST I.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost).

(5) The forms elder. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. a distinction has grown up between the two series. eldest. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. first.²ID. strenger. doubling the inflection. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. as. . latter and last are used in speaking of succession. making the modern farther. th came into the others. is quite common." Its spelling has been micel. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. an old superlative ending. and the superlative nearest. Between the two sets as they now stand. since the m is for -ma. farrest. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. are earlier than older. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late.²KINGSLEY. except the form next. came into use. meaning the largest part. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. for example. List II. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. In imitation of further. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. to which is added -ost. The most part kept a stolid indifference. furthest. etc. First became entirely detached from the series. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. strong. greatest. as long. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. but originally the comparison was nigh. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. further. oldest. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. near. etc.²forth. or series.²HAWTHORNE. and refer to time. much. muchel. but not in meaning. there is scarcely any distinction. next. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. The meanings greater. Since later. great. The latter. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. to England we sailed. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. moche. are shown in such phrases as. farthest.² The more part being of one mind. instead of lenger.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it.. latest. (9) Latter and last are the older forms.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. the old forms. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. ²LAMB.. "Many a little makes a mickle.

all may belong to the same noun. but her after deck was still dry.²DE QUINCEY. being merely descriptive. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. Her bows were deep in the water. and have no comparative force." "The outer is of the day. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.165. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. 166. or have no comparative forms. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him." "the innermost moral soul. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. The comparatives are so in form. 167. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. (Sec. Her. on the very topmost twig. The adjectives in List III.²KINGSLEY." "their utmost exertion. Decidedly handsome. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. W. but they have no adjective positives. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. in having no adjective positives. In List II." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.²H. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. by the by. but not in their meaning." -Most added to other words. BEECHER. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. the upper light of the world. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. 168. Highest and midmost. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. or each may modify a different word or group of words.²EMERSON. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. are like the comparative forms in List II. Think what each adjective belongs to.²DE QUINCEY.²HAWTHORNE." "far-seeing as the sun. They have no superlatives. There. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²SCOTT. List III. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. .

solid. and broken. the then and still owners. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. not decision alone. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.² My then favorite." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision.²HAWTHORNE. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. Other instances are. bright. A few improper jests and a volley of good. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. deep. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. The seldom use of it. 3. In the following quotations. "the one who was then king. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. and moral truth. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. now our queen. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. ²TROLLOPE. 169.²A. and heaven-defying oaths. 7. therefore.For example.²TRENCH. This. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. and thine often infirmities." making then an adjective.²HAWTHORNE. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. 2.²BIBLE. For thy stomach's sake.²RUSKIN. we may say "the then king. Exercise. round. 4. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. usual modifies incomparable decision. in prose. rich. H. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. instead of saying. STEPHENS 5. By a convenient brevity. Bradbury and Evans." in which then is an adverb. May we not. in this sentence.²NOAH PORTER. Richard Hooker. as. deeply black eyes. Our sometime sister. satisfactory. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²MRS. It may still be argued. .²HOLMES. our new government. STOWE. But in this sentence. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. philosophical. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. 6.

5. (3) Its degree of comparison. modifies truths. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. (4) What word or words it modifies. To every several man. These points out what truths. and very few have number. this. if it has number. person. Exercise. MODEL FOR PARSING. frank. plural number. (2) Its number.What to tell in parsing. therefore demonstrative. manly way. To every Roman citizen he gives. not inflected for number. 4. In parsing an adjective. 170. across the plain. if it can be compared. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. therefore descriptive. cannot be compared. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. and most astounding were those frightful yells. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. I ask nothing of you. . then. compared by prefixing more and most. having a singular. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. the method of parsing is simple. with awkward but rapid pace. and I waited for none. 7. Since adjectives have no gender. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. positive degree. 3. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. or case. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. 9. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. This gave the young people entire freedom. modifies the word truths. 6. Unfamiliar describes truths. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. She made no reply. 2. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 8. seventy-five drachmas. 10. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice.

those dogs in the yard. 16. 32. With every third step. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 33. 14. as for armies that were too many by half. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. To say what good of fashion we can. are immutably fishes. 29. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Their name was the last word upon his lips. not so much for travelers that were few. Like most gifted men. during which time I waited. Here lay two great roads. 27. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. Two hours elapsed. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. it is so noble a fruit. he won affections with ease. 23. the tomahawk fell. and therefore more interesting to us. is the settlement of our own country. 25. . and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. growing in the most unfavorable position.11. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 20. and dogs. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. 21. 28. suggests such thoughts as these. 13. 24. 12. yonder oxen in the pasture. In music especially. 31. 19. oxen. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 18. it rests on reality. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Nearer to our own times. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. and many poles supported the lower ones. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 26. 22. I know not what course others may take.

and a before consonant sounds. such as we have been attempting to describe. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. An historian. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general.34. th o. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks." "a yelling crowd. the tither. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. the tother. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives.²SCOTT. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. In the sentence. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . even when not silent. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant." "an honor. but the former is used. or the tane. Their origin. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. that) which was also an article in Old English. Many writers use an before h. with an ordinary little garden. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. that other. weary-hearted man was he. A hard-struggling. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. . 171.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. these occurring as the tane. Examples: "a house." the words the and an belong to nouns. 37. 173. meaning one. in vulgar English. the latter is still preserved in the expression. just as adjectives do. Our expressions the one. 174. An or a came from the old numeral n." "a European. s o." An with consonant sounds. Two relics. 35. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. later th . sometimes the tother.²BREWER. for example. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. the tother. a before consonant sounds. An before vowel sounds. 172. were formerly that one. ARTICLES. he is no literary man. the other. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy.²MACAULAY. ðat. In Middle English the became an article." "an orange.

" "the Ohio. which cannot be used alone. The is the definite article. 179. as "the Mississippi. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.²THACKERAY. When the is prefixed to a proper name. BANCROFT. or class.. An or a is the indefinite article. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. 177. or a group or class of things. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. The Dakota tribes.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.² Don't you remember how. NOTE. the older n. and when the word river is omitted. on opening a story.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. An and a are different forms of the same word. or any individual of a group or class. Reference to a known object. not descriptive." the article indicates clearly that a river. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. 175. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. and not a state or other geographical division. With names of rivers. is referred to. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. a person is introduced by a.²This use is noticed when. or group.. An hereditary tenure of these offices. doubtless. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. Definition. since it points out a particular individual.²HEROES OF ASGARD. Kinds.²IRVING. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. Articles are either definite or indefinite..²COLERIDGE. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.²G. thus. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. 176.² . To call attention to attributes. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. An article is a limiting word. as in the sentence. 178.

²ID. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. 182. Schelling. Kant. 180.²KINGSLEY. With adjectives used as nouns. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU.²GIBBON. her. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. NOTE. One thing for its class. would speedily extract the required information. 1. Common. etc. Caution.²G.² The faint. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. His messages to the provincial authorities. The.²MOTLEY.² As she hesitated to pass on.²EMERSON. so is the evil.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. the Hume. The simple rise as by specific levity. the Spinoza. . The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. laid it on the miry spot. Half abstract. not into a particular virtue. the song sparrow. for example. 181. and the redwing. If the good is there. 183. as. the gallant.²ID. BANCROFT. With plural of abstract nouns. 2. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.The Bacon. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. For possessive person pronouns. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. but into the region of all the virtues.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. or a match put between the fingers.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

In (a). in (2. All these are called transitive verbs. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. or an idea. a). and a preposition unite as a verb. All do not express action: some denote state or condition."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. with some word understood. Now. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. "Put thou money in thy purse." Examine the sentences in Sec. we consider a verb as one word. which may be a person. In the first. but fearing is not a predicate. In each case. Each influences some object. 204. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. (can) shame also has an object." put is the predicate. care. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. in (c). a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. but cannot be predicates. Hence Definition. for example. in (2. in (b). which means to go over. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. to go is no predicate. in (3. to say something to or about some person or thing. b). are united with verbs as one verb phrase. Definition and caution. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. an article. hence is not a verb. 200: In (1). a noun. 202. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. can deceive has an object. In giving a definition. the most penetrating. and not a verb.²BULWER . Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. Has takes the object hypocrisy. The nature of the transitive verb. the word following. taking the staff which always guided her steps. or the object. "Put money in thy purse. an adverb. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. etc. By examining a few verbs. a verb. and to receive the action expressed. c). as. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. The nature of intransitive verbs. b). from the Latin transire. all do not express it in the same way. 201. 203. and shame the most astute. or a material thing. obeyed is a predicate. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. in this sentence from Bulwer. representing something which it influences or controls. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (3. the most astute. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. lone took what? answer. and. endured what? anguish. In the sentence. a preposition. Of those expressing action.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

and may or may not be regarded true. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. Unreal²cannot be true.² Now. . or be fulfilled. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. 215.² If. Ideal. for example. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. he will see the need of these ethics.²LONGFELLOW.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.²D. as. but. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. as.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.I could lie down like a tired child. 2). 221. the second founder. WEBSTER. 222.²may or may not be true. I.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. in our case. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.²FRANKLIN. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. the writer can make the statement following. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. the representative system ultimately fail. Most excellent stranger. the first great founder of the Empire. If this be the glory of Julius. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. they were recorded in the Book of Life. Condition or Supposition. Again. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.²MACAULAY. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. popular government must be pronounced impossible. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec.²SHELLEY.²BRYCE. ²EMERSON.

Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. NOTE. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature..² It was necessary. But in no case could it be justified. as. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. I told him. The subjunctive. if he speak to you. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. if his lot had been mine. P. though. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. that we cannot but regret its absence. 2.² CARLYLE. to drink strong beer. that he might be strong to labor.. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. society could not hold together. and should. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. Subjunctive of Purpose. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. If he had reason to dislike him. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.²CALHOUN. thus. except. 8. but when the verb precedes the subject. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. he supposed. 6.²BAYNE.²MACAULAY. 223. is used to express purpose.²FRANKLIN. clear.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.²FRANKLIN. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. would have sat still with joy and peace. the clause being introduced by that or lest. melodious." etc. WILLIS. if he was the man I take him for.²N. which cannot be true. Exercise.² If these things were true.²SWIFT. do you think. and striven energetically to save Ney. and what kind of condition:² 1. II. since he [Byron] was dead. . and sonorous. might. 7. In the following conditional clauses. is of similar physiognomy. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.. The voice. unless. ²LOWELL. 3. he had better not have written. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. she was regarded as a prodigy. would you. especially be. 4. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. Epaminondas.. etc. may. 5.²EMERSON.

within its fairy bowers.²CARLYLE. .And we.. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. Expressing a Wish. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.²COLERIDGE. I would it were! ²EMERSON.Were wafted off to seas unknown. After a verb of wishing. In Indirect Questions. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. the answer being regarded as doubtful. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²SOUTHEY. VI.. The English subjunctive. 224.. Subjunctive of Result. I've wished that little isle had wings.. till it meet the sun in his coming.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. IV.²DE QUINCEY. In a Noun Clause. 226.²BRYANT.Thou go not. V. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. In Temporal Clauses. none of us could say. like the quarry-slave at night. Rise up. VII. like the Latin. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.I have been the more particular. 225. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²WORDSWORTH.²ID. Let it rise.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. Ask the great man if there be none greater. 227.That vain it were her eyes to close. III. So live. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²D. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. WEBSTER. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. To tell of what had passed.²MOORE. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.

Subject. (b) Adjective.² DICKENS.And look thou tell me true. in its various uses as subject. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. for example. we'll turn aside. Complement.²THOREAU. After verbs of commanding. or whatsoever victual it may be. I have no thought what men they be. object. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²CARLYLE. etc. The essence of originality is not that it be new. is the ultimate fact of man's life. of cash. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. See that there be no traitors in your camp. The noun clause. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. That hunger of applause. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. Some might lament that I were cold. 229. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²SCOTT.²COLERIDGE.. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²WORDSWORTH. often contains a subjunctive.²DE QUINCEY. tell me all that thou hast seen. VIII. The first merit.²TENNYSON. is. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. Concessive Clauses.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. . that everything be in its place. Object. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Whatever betide. 228. which may be (a) Pronoun. in apposition. Come.² Be the matter how it may.²COLERIDGE.And see the Braes of Yarrow.²SHELLEY.

As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. and condition contrary to fact. At the present day. 232.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. Q. 230. a concession. ADAMS. since commands are directed to a person addressed. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Oh. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. love all men. . The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.(c) Adverb.The spirit he loves remains. Usually second person. point to their immortal works. though. Definition. we had found [should have found] a poem here. fear none. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine.²BRYANT. (1) Command. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. or requests. It must be remembered. for example. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.² CARLYLE.²J. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. (3) Request. In spoken English. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. 231. to express a wish. entreaties. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. however. Honor all men. (2) Entreaty. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.²SHELLEY. IMPERATIVE MOOD. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought.²CHANNING.

But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.One glance at their array! 5."²DICKENS Tell me. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life."Hush! mother.²SHAKESPEARE. etc.. "Come along with me. 8. 3. to you implied in it. lest we rust in ease. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. or I + they. request. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 7. there will her heart and her prayers be." Exercises on the Moods.And God forget the stranger!" . how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. noble earl. child of earth!While each performs his part. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. 2. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. 6. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Part we in friendship from your land. etc.²CAMPBELL." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Mark thou this difference. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Oh. Quoth she.²SCOTT. but I + you. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Break we our watch up. "The Devil take the goose.And. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. nothing is to be preferred before justice." whispered Kit. Whatever inconvenience ensue. receive my hand.

10.Except. whether he do it right or wrong. how he may do his work. no literary man. That a man parade his doubt. Forget thyself to marble. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 23. He. Marshall. she ought to have it." 25. in what pomps and prosperities he like. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. and opinion displace opinion.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. it would speak. Though he were dumb. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. my dear madam. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. 11.High up in silver spikes! 22. "Mr. 14. He is. then. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar." cried he. Though abyss open under abyss. 21.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. let him live where else he like.That they might answer him. ruined. Well.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. or do it at all. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 13.9. "Oh." continued Old Morgan." 16. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. "tell me where I may find my poor. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. will it not fall unbound. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. 18. but repentant child. as though an instrument. 26. 20. 19. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. . The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. That sheaf of darts.

which represented present and future time. the past. in the third person singular. whatever she did. Tenses in English. five in the subjunctive." present. five in the imperative. and the past tense. or whether it were as one member of a general party. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. have. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. "Thou walkest. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect.²nothing could exceed the amiable. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. will. tell him to wait. such as be. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. past perfect. Old English had only two tenses." past. The tenses in detail. a form ending in -eth. such as Latin and Greek.²the present tense.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. 234. and future. 233. 28. or future time. "Thou walkedst. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses.² present. as will be shown later on. and future perfect tenses. also. and the future tense. as. Tense means time." . Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. When the older pronoun thou was in use. by means of the present.27. past. 235. kind. TENSE. shall. Definition. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. to direct his steps. past. called auxiliaries. "It is not in man that walketh. or agree with it. PERSON AND NUMBER. in the conjugations. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. "I go away tomorrow. as the classical languages have. Meantime. Siddons. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. as." "If he comes.

Definition. Such verbs as choose have five. choosest. Singular 1. [He] is [They] are 3. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. for example.²choose. but in English. "He walks. Singular 1. walkedst. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. I were 2. moods. 238. mood. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. chooses. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. walked. Singular 1. walks. PRESENT TENSE.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. sometimes adding the old forms walkest." and this only in the present tense indicative. [He] were [They] were . The verb be has more forms. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. singular number. as. Singular 1. You are 2. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. tense. PRESENT TENSE. etc. is. chooseth.²am. 237. Indicative Mood. were. since it is composed of several different roots. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. chose. You (thou) be 3. This is the third person. CONJUGATION. etc. and numbers. chosen (old. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. I be 2. 236. Few forms. persons. tenses. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. wert) 3. chosest). walking. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. In classical languages. are. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. been. choosing. walketh. walk has walk.

PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. to form the passive voice. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. thus. as. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.His infancy was nurtured. is..²BURKE .²ID.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. etc. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. (3) be. obligation. etc. condition. were. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. to express intention. for example. (2) was.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. 239. which was now become an occasional banquet.Imperative Mood. The light that never was on sea and land. Remarks on the verb be. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²GOLDSMITH. Instead of the plural are. (d) With the infinitive. -en..²THACKERAY. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. same as the German sind. (b) With the past participle in -ed.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²SHELLEY. (2) As auxiliary verbs. in four ways. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. 240. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.²WORDSWORTH. though it is usually a dialect form. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.

I choose 2. We chose You chose 3.241. Machinery of a verb in the voices. Singular. We chose You chose 3. 242. "I had gone" (past perfect). 240. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. [He] choose [They] choose 3. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). I chose 2. You chose Plural. I chose 2." (2) Present perfect. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. tenses. PRESENT TENSE. . You choose Plural. Singular. Singular. Singular. 1. by placing have. tenses. as. 1. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb." "He will choose. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. had. as. past perfect. future perfect. (2). The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. 1. "I have gone" (present perfect). We choose You choose PAST TENSE. In addition to the above inflected forms. "I shall be. I choose 2. You chose Plural. etc. 1. Indicative Mood. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE.

] he choose. " Be choosing. Present definite.) Choose. Present definite. He has chosen. Present perfect. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Present definite. Same as indicative. He chooses. Present. Present. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He has been choosing. Past. Past perfect." "You are chosen." 243. (2d per. though.(3) The definite form of each tense. . He will he choosing. Imperative Mood. He will choose. " " " " " " " he be choosing. "I am running. he chose (or were to choose). "I was chosen. He will have been choosing. He had been choosing. Past. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Future perfect definite. [If." "They had been running. Present. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). as. Same as indicative. He chose. He had chosen. lest. Past perfect definite. Present perfect definite. Present perfect definite. as. Past definite. Future definite. Future perfect. Future. of each tense. Indicative Mood. ACTIVE VOICE. will be given. He was choosing. etc. he have chosen. He is choosing. Present perfect. Past perfect definite. Past definite. Past perfect. Only the third person. Subjunctive Mood. he have been choosing. singular number. He will have chosen." (4) The passive forms.

Future perfect definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. . He was chosen. Past Perfect. He has been chosen. Past.) Be chosen. " " " " " " " None. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). None. they will be discussed later (Sec. He is being chosen. Indicative Mood. he have been chosen. etc. (2d per. Past perfect. None. Future definite. Past. in affirmative sentences. Future. PASSIVE VOICE.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. He had been chosen. Also.²This table is not to be learned now. Present perfect. Subjunctive Mood. None. None. He was being chosen. Future perfect. if learned at all. he had been chosen. He will be chosen. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. 262). lest. Present perfect. Past perfect definite. Present perfect definite. None. Present definite.] [If. Past definite. Exercises should be given. "He does strike. he were being chosen. Present. however. Present definite." [Note to Teacher. Present perfect definite. though." "He did strike.] he be chosen. Present tense. but verbals. He will have been chosen. Past perfect definite. None..NOTE. Imperative Mood. as. Past definite. Present. He is chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms.

sleep. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . drive. 245. bid bound. run. According to form. and may or may not change the vowel: as. as. lay. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. Kinds. Past Tense. NOTE. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. bit blown broken chidden. drove. slept. laid. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. caught. but adds no ending. catch. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove.[adj. which are in parentheses Present Tense. Some of these also have weak forms. Definition. begged. ran. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. verbs are strong or weak. 244. bounden] bitten. beg. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drank[adj. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. sunken] sat slain slidden.

Our cock. Not a cock crew. as. "his bounden duty. clave or clove. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. and. nor a dog barked.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²B." In this confusion of usage. as. cleft. TAYLOR. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).² We had each drank three times at the well. probably to avoid confusion with this.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.²as (from Shakespeare). drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. ²THACKERAY." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. now told us it was time for repose. cleave. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. and the latter." "a drunken wretch. Sometimes in literary English."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²GOLDSMITH. as.²cleave. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. borne is also a passive.²one meaning to adhere or cling. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. instead of ate and eaten. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). How fairy Mab the junkets eat. and another (born) for the passive. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. cloven. and sometimes occurs in poetry. Historically. When it means to carry or to endure. "stricken with paralysis. cleaved. the other. which always crew at eleven.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. especially in that of an earlier period. cleft (to split).² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²TENNYSON. to split. cleaved. only one set remains certain." "a sunken snag. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. for example." "the cloven hoof. The former used to be cleave. The form clomb is not used in prose. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. as (from Holmes). . but is much used in vulgar English.²COLERIDGE. 246.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.²MILTON.²IRVING. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.

Fall. even in poetry. Begin. as. 5. began.² We had all got safe on shore. and grasping at his sword.²DE FOE. Usually shear is a weak verb. drove. shook. This heard Geraint. flung.The form gotten is little used. Exercises. . shaken."²KINGSLEY. Freeze. broke. given. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. fallen. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. for example. frozen. 4. begun. Throw. One example out of many is. Find.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.²BIBLE. found. The butler was hanged.²BYRON. Give. and seized a pen. broken. 6. (a) From the table (Sec. gave. 9. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. driven. Drive. Break. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Fling.²TENNYSON. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. froze. flung. which is seldom used except in poetry.² If. found. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. Shake. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. shore is rare. 2. 3. fell.²SCOTT. maiden.²WORDSWORTH. thrown. for example. He sate him down. as "a shorn lamb. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. 245). 7. 10." but not much as a participle. We usually say. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 8. threw.

²CHANNING.²HAWTHORNE.[To the Teacher. it is used only in the indicative mood.. 220. 251. Must is historically a past-tense form. The same remarks apply to ought. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. "far off his coming shines. 250. or when it expresses wish.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. Like must.²PAINE. Subjunctive use. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. . Ability. etc.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. or.²SCOTT. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged." Must is present or past tense. Can is used in the indicative only. His superiority none might question. of course.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. 223. purpose. according to the infinitive used. there is one general principle.. 247. They are as follows:² PRESENT. as it sometimes does. ability.²CHANNING This.. Could may be subjunctive. (See also Sec.."²WINIER. Indicative Use: Permission. which survives in the sentence.. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. but came through analogy with should and would. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. as it has two meanings. as. "So mote it be. 249. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. HAMILTON. It is indicative when it expresses permission. for full drill on the forms. PAST. The l in could did not belong there originally. must have been an ocular deception. etc. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. PAST.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. from the obsolete verb motan. PRESENT. as in Sec. Have we valuable territories and important posts.

The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. as.e. Shall and Will.²LONGFELLOW.²IRVING. C. shall and should are used. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. to use will and would.² With respect to novels. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.²L.Nay. not plod along like apeasant. I shall be gone.²THAXTER.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. .² The time will come full soon. "I think I will go. promise. (b) In indirect quotations. MOULTON. in the form of command. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. with pronouns of the first person. yea. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. or confident prediction. as.² Futurity and questions²first person. to the neglect of shall and should. The following are examples:² Never mind. as. The sea shall crush thee." Uses of shall and should. Second and third persons..²MACAULAY. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. 252. She should not walk.² (a) To express authority. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. (b) In questions asking for orders.²COOPER. my lad. They shall have venison to eat. BROCKDEN BROWN. he said. for example. and corn to hoe. what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. She rejects his suit with scorn.²BULWER. shall and should are used.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. especially in the United States. future action). (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. she should ride like a queen. while ought always has to. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.

² I will go myself now. I never was what I should be. and will not return until all is finished. with the conviction that he should win in the end. JR.²WORDSWORTH.²C. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. etc. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. for example. B. thus. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. time.²BYRON. 253.²A.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. . Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²ROGERS. or a promise. second and third persons. was to be expected.²WORDSWORTH.²CABLE. and is equivalent to ought. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²SWIFT. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. as the sole inventor. BROWN. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.. First. as. purpose. Disguising a command.. for example. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. LARNED.that I would do him justice.²SCOTT.²WINTER. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.. (c) With direct questions of the second person. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²WORDSWORTH. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. And promised. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. JAMES.²H.

²SCOTT. and mark on the grounds the works.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). When I am in town.² Thou wilt take the skiff.²War Records.² Subject I omitted: often so. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE..²the original meaning of the word will. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. PASSIVE VOICE..²SCOTT. for example. will is used to express command. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. SECOND.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. Roland.. . This puts the order more mildly. They will go to Sunday schools.. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. will and would often denote an action as customary. would is used to express a wish. In this stately chair would he sit. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. as. Would thou hadst it not. etc. The gift of Beauty. for example. action merely expected to occur. Thine was a dangerous gift. AND THIRD PERSONS. through storms their brothers are afraid of. and two of my people. 254. so you will. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. Mere futurity.²BURKE. without regard to future time. B. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.²BANCROFT.²IRVING. To be sure. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. will and would are used to express simple futurity. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. as if it were merely expected action. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.² DICKENS. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. when thou wast born.. for punishment or intimidation. BROWN. as. (4) With FIRST.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.²LANDOR.

[He] shall be chosen. 6. Singular. (b) Examine the following sentences. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Thou art what I would be. I shall choose. I shall be chosen. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. [They] will be chosen. You shall choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 3. 1. I will choose. To express determination. promise.Singular. 3. You shall choose. 3. You will choose. Thou shalt have a suit. yet only seem. Plural. You shall be chosen. We will choose. [They] shall be chosen. 1. We shall be chosen. 4. Exercises on Shall and Will. We will be chosen. 3. We shall choose. 3. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. You will be chosen. You shall be chosen. [He] will choose. [He] shall choose. and justify the use of shall and will. You will be chosen. 1. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. [He] will be chosen. 1. 2. 2. 2. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 1. Singular. etc. 5. (a) From Secs. Plural. 2. Singular.:² ACTIVE VOICE. . "I shall not run. 252 and 253. Plural. PASSIVE VOICE. I will be chosen. He informed us. You will choose. [They] shall choose. Plural. [They] will choose. 2. 3." answered Herbert stubbornly. and that of the newest cut.

then. put. was -de or -te.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]." the stranger said. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. The old ending to verbs of Class II. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Past Tense. as if he would have more of the enchantment. "I am a wayfarer. The beast made a sluggish movement. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 257. need some attention and explanation. set. Present Tense. and I have nothing to say. No. set. Without having attended to this. This ending has now dropped off. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. put. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. Irregular Weak Verbs. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. 10. my son. 255. which may be called irregular weak verbs. and have no change of vowel. bereave besought Past Participle. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. 11.7. 12. bereaved besought . WEAK VERBS. But the rest." 14. 13. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. as. Of smale houndes hadde she. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. 9. or mylk and wastel breed. Lucy stood still.²CHAUCER.²Class I. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. bereft. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. put. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this.²ID. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. 256. bereave beseech bereft. very anxious.

leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. hid kept knelt laid leaned. spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

I returned to reflection on my situation. 9. an imperfect. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Infinitives. [To] have chosen.²the creature warring against the creating power. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). expressing purpose. ACTIVE VOICE. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Indefinite. INFINITIVES. 268. Perfect. Perfect. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Imperfect. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. Three saplings. PASSIVE VOICE. Perfect definite. formed a kind of bedstead. have no tense. try clemency. 267. will (with should and would).. 8. 7. like participles. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Cases when to is omitted. [To] have been chosen. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE.6. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. and when passive. . a perfect. they have an indefinite. [To] be chosen. Indefinite. as in the Old English.. To with the infinitive. an indefinite and a perfect form. [To] be choosing. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. 10. to express action unconnected with a subject. Nothing of the kind having been done. 266. to was used before the infinitive generally. In Sec. When active. But later. when inflections became fewer. [To] choose.. and a perfect definite form. [To] have been choosing.

²HOWELLS. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay." etc.²GOLDSMITH. "a house to let.² She was a kind. and like a noun in use. poor woman!" cried Charles. and emphatic forms of the present and past. make.² What! doth she. "She ask my pardon.. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. as.²it may be governed as a noun. it may be the subject of a verb. . Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.²TENNYSON. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). as.²E. it is often preceded by the definite article. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. do (as. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. must.²MACAULAY. sometimes need (as. also in the imperative.). 270. see. it has several attributes of a noun. can (could). GERUNDS. HALE. "He will choose. The gerund is like the participle in form. E. also let. or the object of a verb or a preposition. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. hear. 272.²DE QUINCEY. 271. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. and corn to hoe. bid (command). The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. liberal woman. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. under "Analysis. negative. as. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.²IRVING. They shall have venison to eat. "I do go" etc. But there was nothing to do. as the credulous imagine.(2) After the verbs may (might). Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. please. as in the expression. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II." Examples are. feel. watch. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride." (4) In exclamations.²COOPER. learn [doth learn is one verb." "I shall have chosen. too. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. 269." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. While the gerund expresses action.

" (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. Words in -ing are of six kinds. which express action and also modify. b). The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. (2) Pure participles. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. five infinitives. 273. and five gerunds. II)." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. What a vast. but do not assert." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. when. above. may govern and be governed. and wonderful store of learning! . 2. Exercise.²Find sentences containing five participles. (4) Pure adjectives. which name an action or state. Sec. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. on your leaving the spot. and has been put down. 4. according to use as well as meaning. making the definite tenses. which express action. (6) Verbal nouns. after examining the nest. but cannot govern. which express action. (3) Participial adjectives.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. Then how pleasing is it. which have lost all verbal force." also (2." "Certainly dueling is bad. brilliant." Exercise. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (5) Gerunds. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. to see the returning hope of the parents.

give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 11. he gave out sentence by sentence. much corroded. I suppose I was dreaming about it. (4) Tense. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number.5. but. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. giving principal parts.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 10. What is dreaming? 8. (3) Mood. round which is an iron railing. (2) Voice. (5) Person and number. 9. In parsing verbs. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. bearing her national emblem. 6. slowly. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. subjunctive.²transitive or intransitive. Caution. Thackeray did not. 16. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 14.²strong or weak. by object lessons. VERBS. write twenty pages without stopping. He spread his blessings all over the land. 15. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. . A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 13. (b) as to use. give reality to your teaching. 12.²indicative.²active or passive. 234. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. like Sir Walter Scott. 275. The only means of ascending was by my hands. you must. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 7. or imperative. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. I. dictating from his chair.

VERBALS.. we must beware of the rule. 235. If a participial adjective. The government might have been strong and prosperous. (a) From what verb derived.276. 4. may. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. indicative (as it means could)." Sometimes it does. usually it does not. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. (c) to what word it belongs. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. In 2. and not taken as single verbs. Take these examples:² 1. VERB PHRASES. II. might. and parting day linger and play on its summit. has for its subject Lee. . no sin nor sorrow. followed by a pure infinitive without to. and should always be analyzed as phrases. 2. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (1) Participle. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. perfect. imperfect. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. perfect. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. would. (b) whether active or passive. in the world. 273). "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (3) Gerund. active. Exercise. But unless the verb is present. (b) whether indefinite. could. and ends in -s. till it meet the sun in his coming. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. intransitive. (b) its use (Sec. You are gathered to your fathers. (2) Infinitive. etc. 3. therefore active. give points (a) and (b). see Sec. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 278(2). definite. III." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. intransitive. call should a weak verb. Especially frequent are those made up of should. Let it rise! let it rise. must. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. past tense. verbals. can. etc. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. It has been intimated in Sec. In such sentences as 1. 277. 278. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. call might a weak verb. then parse it as an adjective. 2. Parse the verbs. past tense. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. indicative. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. has the subject government.

as the Hindoos say. see that it is in good condition. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor.O God. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. a deafening shout. 8. 24.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. he thought only of her. 12. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 16. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. However that be. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 15. 22. . 13.5. "God save our Lord the King!" 7.Henceforth in me instill. 21.Down all the line. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. and wondered if she were yet awake. a new waking up of all that has life. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 17. 18. from a sort of temporary death. 11. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. a new bursting forth of the sun. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 19. a sweet good will. He passed across the room to the washstand. Right graciously he smiled on us. 9. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 10. When he arose in the morning." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. Whatever ground you sow or plant. or. 6. In going for water. leaving me upon the bed. The soul having been often born. So. as rolled from wing to wing. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. as usual. morning is not a new issuing of light. With them. 23. 20. 14.

but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. and live ere life be spent. Is it only poets.²THACKERAY. who live with nature?²ID. place. for the hour of rest is at hand.²CARLYLE. because. and men of leisure and cultivation." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. ADVERBS. Oh. Nor was it altogether nothing." "He was absolute. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. as. And now wend we to yonder fountain." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. they are more himself than he is. to consent.²SHELLEY. "William's private life was severely pure. . Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. thou sayest."²DE QUINCEY. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.² The young man reveres men of genius.²EMERSON. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Adverbs modify. to speak truly. Better it were." An adjective or an adverb. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. and so on." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 279. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. 29.²time. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. To the almost terror of the persons present. 26. The word adverb means joined to a verb. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. A verb. When action is expressed.Feast while we may. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.25. 27. or manner: as. for example. and limit adjectives or adverbs.

as.He was incidentally news dealer. 169. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. being adverbs naturally and fitly. and half awfully. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.²THOREAU. for example. We are offered six months' credit. It may also modify a sentence.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. 282. ever. (2) according to their use in the sentence.²LEIGH HUNT.²T.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. Thus considered.² LOWELL.² FRANKLIN.²TROLLOPE.²BYRON. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. before. 280. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. ²IRVING. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. to-day. as shown in the sentences. 281.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. 169 are felt to be elliptical. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. not simply the forms used in predication. which may qualify an action word or a statement.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. not the noun. like the light of heaven. B. perhaps. while those in Sec. all wet and glossy. An adverb. A phrase. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. thus. Make music to the lonely ear. but still with a rich bloom to it. ALDRICH. is a modifying word. I draw forth the fruit. then. . there are six classes:² (1) Time. but some verb understood. or a word group used as such. etc. but really modifying. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. lately. NOTE. Surely happiness is reflective. and that. as now. Definition.²These last differ from the words in Sec. A clause or sentence. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. NOTE. has induced some of us to attend it. hitherto.

especially the comparative of these words. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. etc. (3) Manner. (5) Degree. greatly.²HAWTHORNE. above. possibly. 283.²BROWNING. whithersoever. too. etc. Thackeray. thus. at least. LOUIS STEVENSON.thither. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. not.² The master. as hither. The more they multiply. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. etc.²IRVING.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.whither. slightly.²LECKY. So also in Grote. the more evidently they love liberty. while so precedes only the adjective usually.²DE QUINCEY. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.where. much.thence. [Sidenote The status of such.was for this once of her opinion. telling how anything is done. very. and not infrequently are found in literary English.²R. etc. 283). two by two. twice.near. Meekness. as little. Emerson. whencesoever. partly. as well. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. etc.²BURKE. as perhaps.. (4) Number. and others. Motley..there. telling how much. as hence. as here.yonder. singly. surely. better. I was. White. telling how many times: once. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. maybe.. that these adverbs form a very large class. (6) Assertion. for example. or how far he believes it to be true.which gained him such universal popularity. bravely. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. This long's the text.(2) Place. slowly. the more perfect will be their obedience. etc. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. (see also Sec. enough.²SHAKESPEARE. . probably. just. the more friends you will have. beautifully.whence... telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.

Emerson.Pretty." "The house. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Beau Fielding.²BULWER. Burke. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.²"He walked too far [place]. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. STOWE.²HAWTHORNE. A pretty large experience. 285.²BAYNE. for example. "Peace. Again. B. Aldrich. Simple. It is only occasionally used in literary English. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.² You are mighty courteous. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Hard blows and hard money. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.²FIELDING. Kingsley. 286. Neville. Direct questions. Franklin." "He spoke positively [manner]. a mighty fine gentleman." said the king. De Quincey. and art but a fool.²THACKERAY. Interrogative. Holmes. for example. . All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Dickens. besides modifying." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Mighty."²SCOTT.² KINGSLEY. Notice meanings. and its lawn before [place].²GOLDSMITH. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. 284. Defoe. and other writers. 282. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Such are most of those given already in Sec. have the additional function of asking a question. Some adverbs." "That were far better [degree].²THACKERAY." "I have seen you before [time].² "Mighty well.

²BYRON (3) Manner. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. WEBSTER. I hearkened. I know not why. 287.²D. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (4) Degree.²BULWER. they smiled. CLAY.²POE. (4) Degree.²BYRON. (5) Reason. (2) Place. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. (2) Place.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. When did this humane custom begin?²H.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. I do not remember when I was taught to read. for example. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. I will not ask where thou liest low. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. .

when compared.eyes.²BYRON. not an adverb. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. For further discussion. Form vs. Exercise. use. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. furthest (rathe.) rather 289. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. well much little far late Comparative. irregularly compared. 288. soon. Tell what each word in ly modifies. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. just as adjectives do. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Many adjectives have the same ending.²EMERSON. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. and. highest. have the same inflection as adjectives. representing four classes. The following.²SHAKESPEARE. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.But in reality.²TENNYSON. only occasionally having -er and -est. Superlative. higher. Its strings boldlier swept. sooner. when. 290.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Many adverbs are compared. .²COLERIDGE. when does not express time and modify. high. Then must she keep it safelier. but the whole clause. soonest. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. as." Exercise. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. see Sec.. further farthest. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. obs. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. Only that we may wiselier see.

Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. 8.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. With his proud. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.² EMERSON. if it has the verb be. evenly. whether adverbs or adjectives. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. many words without -ly have the same form. quick-flashing eye. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. to be sure. hardly.²WORDSWORTH. but with a different meaning. merely introduces a sentence.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. even. 4. But he must do his errand right. Not near so black as he was painted. that in Old and Middle English. Such are most.And his mien of kingly state. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.²ID. as.²IRVING. 5. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 7.²CHAUCER. He is inexpressibly mean. more courtly in their manners. The reason is.1. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. mostly. kindly and good-natured in secret.²TENNYSON. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Special use of there." Compare these:² 1. hard. . 6. etc. curiously jolly. 3. nearly. Again. There are eyes. Frequently the word there.²THACKERAY. near. instead of being used adverbially. or down the leaves laughed through. 292. And all about. 2. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. 2. 291. It is true he was rarely heard to speak.

if the word is compared. however theoretically enticing. But a few steps farther on. 4. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. the Madonna is in great glory.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. at the regular wine-shop. The higher we rise in the scale of being. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. It is the Cross that is first seen. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 9. 17. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 11. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 10. 293. 5. 2. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 15. burning in the center of the temple. In parsing adverbs. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 16. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. but continually shifted. (2) Degree of comparison. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. according to meaning and also use. . whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 18. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. give² (1) The class. For the impracticable. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. Thither we went. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. but from my fall? 6. and sate down on the steps of a house. Exercise. 7. is always politically unwise. 12. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 3. and always.

But now the wind rose again. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. connecting words. Clauses. nor. then. 294. Definition. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. should be omnipotent for evil? 24." Paragraphs. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. 21. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. A conjunction is a linking word. CONJUNCTIONS. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. It was pretty bad after that." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States.19. word groups. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. etc. Unlike adverbs. however. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. sentences. 20. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. . but side by side within the American Union. but the student will readily find them. or sentence groups. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. and the stern drifted in toward the bank." Sentences. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. 22. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. hence. therefore. 295." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. upon which the sun now shone forth.

therefore.. as well as the room door. as and. serves but to show their ignorance.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. answering to each other in the same sentence. and not man corn. introducing a reason or cause. Causal. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.. (3) CAUSAL. as but.. either. while.. joining words. Correlatives. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.and.or. but is emperor in his own right.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. for..but. hence. Nor mark'd they less..nor. "Howbeit. as. usually between two things. either. still. 296. however.... etc.. the bread was spent.. yet. not only. etc.. nor..or. Your letter.. had its weight. both.. and. whether. likewise.or.. nor. the butter too. neither.. They are or.. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. the window being open. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. only. While the earth bears a plant. then. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. moreover.nor. The chief ones are. Adversative..but (or but also).or whether. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. not only. Alternative. neither. as well as. (2) Subordinate. as. whether. etc. expressing a choice. . of the same rank... Some of these go in pairs.. however. else. either. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.Classes of conjunctions. 297.or. neither." Nevertheless. or the sea rolls its waves. (4) ALTERNATIVE.. whether. The assertion. Some go in threes. also. (2) ADVERSATIVE. 298. word groups.

Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. whenever. nor green leaf.²COOPER. whither. ere. since. Neither the place in which he found himself. in order that. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. especially that after so.. nor creeping thing. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. after. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. (2) TIME: when. etc. etc. that. so that. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body.as. object. while. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. lest. until. whence. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. etc. (6) PURPOSE: that. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. whereto.²BURKE. as. there will the heart be also. on condition that.²BIBLE. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.. now. whether. provided that.²IRVING. He is not only bold and vociferous. in case. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. ²ALLSTON. nor echo. (3) MANNER: how.. (7) RESULT: that. wherever. so. provided. since. 299.²WILSON. . as. so. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. whithersoever. Where the treasure is. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. seeing. whereas. so. sometimes if. as.²J. Time. howsoever. before. in apposition. so that. unless.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. nor wing of bird. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. although.²DE QUINCEY. etc. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. QUINCY. though. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. except. however. even if. It is. (5) COMPARISON: than and as..²PAULDING. etc.

Let the world go how it will. I was again covered with water.²EMERSON. Sparing neither whip nor spur.That he gave her wounds repose. Purpose.²EMERSON.²DEFOE.²AMES. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Then Denmark blest our chief.² H. Comparison. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Substantive.That vain it were her eyes to close. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Condition. . JACKSON. Concession.² HAWTHORNE. but not so long but I held it out.²EMERSON.² EMERSON. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Now he is dead. We wish for a thousand heads. Cause. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²CARLYLE Events proceed. H. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Result. a thousand bodies. not as they were expected or intended.²BYRON.²IRVING.²CAMPBELL. As a soldier. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Manner.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²AMES. reason. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²COLERIDGE. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²BURKE.²AMES. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.So I behold them not.² WORDSWORTH.

then. some words²for example. 12. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. While a faction is a minority. 300. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 7. however. 6. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. The moth fly. and hid her there. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. as. while. 10. No one had yet caught his character.Let us see whether the greatest. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. Exercises. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. As will have been noticed. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. that. And they lived happily forever after. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. the lady called her servant. Besides. 9. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 5. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. etc. 13. since. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 2.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 4. her real merit is known at home. 14. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. They. she faintly pressed her hand. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. hold a subordinate rank. 3. He was brought up for the church. it will remain harmless. And then recovering.²RUSKIN. 15. While patriotism glowed in his heart. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. . After he was gone. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. as he shot in air. In what point of view. Crept under the leaf. the wisest.

As though. even as they would weep. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. Consequently. 301. the expression would be. 302. If analyzed.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. . "We meet. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.²BYRON. and be a bud again. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. SPECIAL REMARKS.. none of the lashings having given way." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. In poetry. expressing degree if taken separately.As though a rose should shut. His voice . In parsing conjunctions. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. In Emerson's sentence.So slowly moved about. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.Clouded.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. and part as though we parted not. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. for example. they connect. GREELEY. as is shown by the use of as though. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. As if. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. etc. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. word groups. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. So silently we seemed to speak.." as. in this case.²EMILY BRONTE. As for as if.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. as is often equivalent to as if.16. 303. 304. thus.²IRVING. and the frame will suit the picture. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. (2) What words..²HOOD.

9. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery.Caution. It continued raining. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. When the gods come among men. 3.²EMERSON 3. in 2. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. For example. It may be safely trusted. 10. that it might testify of that particular ray.²is subordinate of condition. 5. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. 2. so that expresses result. or in the snow. All the postulates of elfin annals. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. and. Some conjunctions. he sleeps as warm. or in the forest. 6. they are not known. in 3. "Doctor. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. when. 11. compare the sentences. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. He is the compend of time. and its clause is independent. and very seldom?" 8.²that the fairies do not like to be named. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. so that I could not stir abroad. At sea." said his wife to Martin Luther. the Sphinx was slain. so means therefore. 7. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. because it is his.²I find them true in Concord. etc. are regularly of one particular class. In classifying them. so they paddled on. 13. he is also the correlative of nature..² 1. so it be faithfully imparted. Exercise. . There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. so means provided. He dismisses without notice his thought.²DEFOE 2. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. others belong to several classes. and its clause depends on the other. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. because. 4. If he could solve the riddle. such as nor. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. as beside his own chimneys. dines with as good an appetite. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. and the like. 12. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. and associates as happily. but of the natural. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries.

28. 15. the whole conditions are changed. won't you lay on? 17. 29. 26. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. And whether consciously or not. 305. enthroned. It is clear. therefore. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 23. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. she might have the family countenance. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. of good novels only. that both were wayward. PREPOSITIONS. in many a heart.²else it is none. 21. you must be. in this they agree. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 25. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more.14. Still. save it were sinful like herself. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 27. It may be so in the majority of cases. 22. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 20. 19.. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 18. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. I speak. 30. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. There was no iron to be seen. Goodness must have some edge to it. . whose names I omit. I rejoice to stand here no longer. Now you have the whip in your hand. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 24. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 16. however. when it was presented to them. For.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at one. the first port made by the ship. At St. 320. Exercise. H. etc. By my faith. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at work. CONWAY.²COOPER.²R. by the blessed memory of the departed. At that time [the earth] was richer.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at any rate. Helena.²ID. as. . ²PARTON.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at once. at naught.²M.²SWIFT.² (1) The general meaning of place.²WARNER. he stopped. Like at. at length. at first. (4) Measure of excess. D. at the best. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. Richard was standing by the window. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at most. She saw the boat headed for her. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. expressing the degree of difference. by the ruins of nations. at war. For. by means near or close to. (3) Agency or means. etc. at least. at all.²EVERETT.. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at play. at the worst. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. STODDARD. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at peace. (2) Time. at rest.²ALDRICH. by the wrecks of time. By. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²DE QUINCEY.²B.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at random. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. 321. Exercise. by many a million of acres. TAYLOR The angel came by night.

(3) Duration of time. "Nay. poor fellow.²HOOD. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. L.² RUSKIN. for the benefit of. (7) Concession.²HOLMES. for all his title..²STODDARD.²W. as being. a person or thing. There are gains for all our losses.(2) In favor of. Still. GARRISON.²PARKMAN. (4) Substitution or exchange. But the Colonel.²IRVING. reason. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. (5) Reference. they are now for us.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. ate her child." said the Lady of Lochleven. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline." answered Master Brackett. incitement to action. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.One of Eve's family. H. for famine. in behalf of.²E.²LAMB. or extent of space. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. An Arab woman.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. as to. and leaped for joy. if your worship can accomplish that. The twilight being. he repented of his folly. but a few sunsets since.²ID. etc.²H. the Colonna motto would fit you best. (6) Like as. etc."²SCOTT By my faith. meaning although. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. (9) Motive.²EMERSON. For him. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. He and they were for immediate attack. "thou hast counseled wisely. had a forest of poor relations. etc. meaning in the character of. or in spite of. BANCROFT.²PARKMAN. E. cause. .. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. For the rest. respecting. "For a fool. meaning with regard to. considering that etc. for all slips of hers.

323. The From Relation.²DRYDEN.²HALE. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. (1) Origin or source. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. From harmony. cause. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. (4) Motive. Exercise. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The general idea in from is separation or source. ceased to be merciful. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²HUME. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The original meaning of of was separation or source. or reason. A distrustful. Exercise. . From. The young cavaliers. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²H. 322.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²MILTON. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²ID. The king holds his authority of the people. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²BANCROFT. (2) Origin. H. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. more. nay. from a desire of seeming valiant.²HIGGINSON. if not a desperate man. Of. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. (3) Time.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Like boys escaped from school.²HUXLEY. like from.

²BOSWELL. Sandals. ²GAVARRE. deprivation. acquitted them of. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. Other Relations expressed by Of.² HUXLEY.²ALDRICH. etc. reason. The hills were bare of trees. rob.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. White shirt with diamond studs. such as ease. wide of. beg. etc. (5) Expressing agency. . etc. ask.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.²BANCROFT.. relieve. You cannot make a boy know. E. "Good for him!" cried Nolan.²BAYARD TAYLOR. More than one altar was richer of his vows. Back of that tree. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. and grass. expressing a part of a number or quantity. (b) After some adjectives.²ID. The author died of a fit of apoplexy."²E. A singular want of all human relation. there were only twenty-one members present. of his own knowledge. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. (3) With expressions of material. free of. (d) With words expressing distance. that Cromwell once ruled England. etc. Of the Forty. cure. free. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²clear of. or breastpin of native gold. bare of. Asked no odds of. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. purge. out of the most unpromising materials. especially out of. south of. "I am glad of that.²SCOTT Who formed.²PARKMAN. ²PARTON. weeds. rid. He is away of his own free will. bound with thongs of boar's hide. motive. clear.²HIGGINSON.²LEW WALLACE. deprive. (c) After nouns expressing lack. disarm. as north of.²DICKENS II. (6) Partitive. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. HALE. etc. divest. demand.

Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. could give shelter from his contumely. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.. (9) Of time.²BANCROFT. of is used in the sense of during. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. of a sudden. for the possessive. (b) Noun and gerund. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²ALDRICH. etc. The fair city of Mexico.²ID. equal to about. (c) Two nouns. when the first is descriptive of the second. Not even woman's love. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. of late. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Besides the phrases of old.²W.²BANCROFT.²LAMB.²HALLECK.He washed out some of the dirt. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.²LOWELL. 309. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (8) Appositional. See also Sec. (7) Possessive. Such a book as that of Job.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. . Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. CHANNING. concerning.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. ²IRVING. Idiomatic use with verbs. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. with regard to. standing. being equivalent to an infinitive.²FROUDE. with its object. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²COOPER. (10) Of reference. and the dignity of a queen.²PRESCOTT.²BANCROFT. E. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. The nation of Lilliput.²SWIFT.

avail (one's self). SIGOURNEY. Upon. on a sudden. on the wing.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. on view. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. (b) With motion. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. The general meaning of on is position or direction. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. permit. on the alert. accept. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. 324. concerning. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. disapprove. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²PARKMAN. on trial. complain.²Find sentences with six uses of of. (3) Reference. Upon my reputation and credit. approve. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. etc.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. without adding to their meaning. On.²DE QUINCEY. (2) Time. It also accompanies the verbs tire. .²EMERSON. On my life. on high. To. Exercise. and others.²PARKMAN. such as admit. ²BANCROFT. repent. 325. consist. etc. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. on board. you are eighteen.²ALDRICH. Exercise.²MRS. (4) In adjurations. Cannon were heard close on the left.²PARKMAN. Upon is seldom used to express time. allow. and not a day more.²BRYANT. equal to about.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.

²B. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. (5) Equivalent to according to. He usually gave his draft to an aid. does the mere music. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. interest.. 268). (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. With.Come to the bridal chamber. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Death!²HALLECK. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. But when. (b) Referring to time.²BRYANT. 326. to him.²PARKMAN.²IRVING. .²often to the loss of vigor... to my taste.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. To the few. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. We cook the dish to our own appetite. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.. In Old English. it may be genuine poetry. whose influence is felt to this hour.²GOLDSMITH.to be written over. Nor. Revolutions.²BULWER. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. gay Comedy appears.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²PARTON. mid meant in company with. Exercise.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. His brother had died.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²LANG. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²HALE. unmasked.²BENTON To our great delight.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. had ceased to be. (2) Expressing result.

or with the haunch of our near leader. but a pleasure"?²LANG.The advance. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. had already reached the defile. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. in spite of.²HOWELLS. with all his boldness. felt it unsafe to trifle further. I think.²COLERIDGE. but with you.²ALDRICH. it is necessary.²LANG. With all his sensibility. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. He expired with these words. transmitted from the beginning. He was wild with delight about Texas. HALE. (2) Instrumentality. E. Exercise. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²DE QUINCEY. She seemed pleased with the accident. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²E.²EMERSON. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (5) Opposition.²DE QUINCEY. 327.²HALE. first of all. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. (4) Estimation.²WALLACE (7) Time. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. with Heyward at its head.²CHANNING. as with you.²SCOTT. (3) Cause.²HOWELLS. It seemed a supreme moment with him.²Find sentences with four uses of with. Either with the swingle-bar. to find the object of the preposition. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. motive. Messala. . After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. reason. "poetry is not a pursuit. he gave millions to the sword.²COOPER. opinion.

In (1). (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. shook it directly over my head. which. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. country. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in.²SWIFT 2. before the dwarf left the queen. the phrase answers the question where. To our general surprise. I called out several times. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. . I felt my box raised very high in the air. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. but all to no purpose. 5. telling what man. hence we say. (3) without a country. Exercises. (4) from the beginning. Be that as it will. I remember. he followed us one day into those gardens. I speak these things from a love of justice. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. And so on. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. 4. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. 3. by which a dozen apples. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. and knocked me down flat on my face. or was. we met the defaulter here. the malicious rogue. Whereupon. (2) on which. In (3). but I received no other hurt. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. of on.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. 2. of without. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. without a country modifies man. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire.²ID. The object of on board is ships. I looked towards my windows. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. because I had given the provocation. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. In (2). There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. beginning. came tumbling about my ears. I heard a noise just over my head. like the clapping of wings. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. of from. The guns were cleared of their lumber. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak.

The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 22. 13. 20. when. 11. The savage army was in war-paint. 26. 23. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 27. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 18. For my part. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. plumed for battle. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. to one dark and gloomy. 9. On all subjects known to man. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 19. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. His breeches were of black silk. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. he favored the world with his opinions. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. in this respect. The mother sank and fell.6. 25. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 7. 24. I like to see the passing. He locked his door from mere force of habit. . though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 10. 12. 17.Without stop or stay. 16. 29. after a restful morning. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 21. grasping at the child. 15. With all his learning. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 14. in town. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 8. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir.He spurred his courser on. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand.

not merely by the amount of the tax. (4) As an adverb of degree. (c) Substantive conjunction. THAT. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (3) As a relative pronoun. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. (a) Indefinite relative.²COLERIDGE.²WEBSTER. That is what I understand by scientific education. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. and not according to form.That makes the heavens be mute.²BEECHER. A few are discussed below. 330.² JOHNSON. We wish that labor may look up here.²WEBSTER. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.30. WHAT. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²WEBSTER.²STOCKTON. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. 328. And now it is like an angel's song. 329.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (2) As an adjective pronoun. and be proud in the midst of its toil. that you might behold this joyous day. (1) Relative pronoun. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. That was a dreadful mistake. That night was a memorable one. He will raise the price. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.²HUXLEY. . (b) Of result.

Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. What. BUT. it rests on reality..²WEBSTER. What with the Maltese goats. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.²EMERSON. silent still. (8) Conjunction. (7) Adverb of degree. but the result of calculation. "I'll tell you what. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.S. (b) Copulative. partly. What." (4) Relative adjective. (9) As an exclamation. (b) Indirect question. If he has [been in America]....but. after not only. to see what might be hidden.Those shadowy recollections. or not only. To say what good of fashion we can..²THACKERAY. (b) Indirect question. and silent all!²BYRON. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. Cox. 331. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.²EMERSON.²ID. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²WORDSWORTH.²S. ..in Pera..Are yet the fountain light of all our day.. nearly equivalent to partly. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.²ID. At what rate these materials would be distributed..Which be they what they may. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. he knows what good people are to be found there..it is impossible to determine.these sounds are only to be heard. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way..

²EMERSON. or who . not. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. not.. Doing duty as a guard. towards order.²SHELLEY. after a negative.²MRS BROWNING. equivalent to that .²SCOTT. (d) Of reason. on all sides. (3) Preposition. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING.Then arose not only tears. I shall see but little of it.²CARLYLE. after such. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. but piercing cries. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain...²IRVING. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.²HAWTHORNE. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.²IRVING... His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. ²CARLYLE. meaning except. like the dog. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. sometimes same.He yearned to our patriot bands. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. . meaning only. (e) Introducing an appositive word. Who knows but. (c) Of degree. (b) Of manner... not. To lead but one measure. (2) Relative pronoun. AS. meaning otherwise . (5) Adverb. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²LAMB. (b) Substantive. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. at all moments. stands for that . 332. (4) Relative pronoun. than.²FRANKLIN.

Introduces a clause. and was clearly an adjective. indeed. . ²PARKMAN. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. and as or as if takes its place. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. and is followed by a dative-objective.²SHAKESPEARE. They look. No Emperor.²ALDRICH. like Martin was.²HALLECK.²HIGGINSON. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. Through which they put their heads. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²EMERSON. NOTE. Give Ruskin space enough. Note the difference between these two uses. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. 333.²HAWTHORNE.-SCOTT. this. Stirring it vigorously. like a cook beating eggs.²LAMB. I do with my friends as I do with my books.² HAWTHORNE.²ALDRICH. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²DARWIN. There is no statue like this living man. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. In this second use. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.² A timid. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. (1) An adjective. This follows a verb or a verbal.²CASS. like summer ocean's. like drops out.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²LONGFELLOW. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. That face.²EMERSON. but this is not considered good usage: for example.LIKE. In each case. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. but its verb is omitted. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²MAYHEW. staring like a bewildered man. like him awhile ago. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. nervous child. If the verb is expressed.

subject and predicate. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.. etc. tut! buzz! etc. Value of analysis. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. that is. . as. 336. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. 334. verb. in separating them into their component parts. etc.²in determining case. clauses introduced by conjunctions.INTERJECTIONS. entering into the structure of a sentence. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." "Up! for shame! [adverb]." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].: for example. pronoun. Some of these are imitative sounds. it is necessary to become expert in analysis." PART II. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. that is. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. Definition. 335. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. but it still retains its identity as noun. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. What analysis is. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Definition.

"Come to the bridal chamber. SIMPLE SENTENCES. "The quality of mercy is not strained. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. declarative. 337. 338. Examples of these three kinds are. which puts the thought in a question. But now all is to be changed. Every sentence must contain two parts. 339. according to form. Definition. not according to the form in which a thought is put. Definition: Predicate. This is the most common one. but according to how many statements there are. "Hath he not always treasures.²a subject and a predicate." "What wouldst thou do. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. (3) Imperative. old man?" "Be thou familiar. question.Kinds of sentences as to form. interrogative. always friends?" imperative. 2. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. or request. which expresses command. "Old year. (2) Interrogative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named." 340. you must not die!" interrogative. but by no means vulgar. Division according to number of statements. or imperative. . or command: for example. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. A rare old plant is the ivy green. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. hence. but the sentence would still be declarative. entreaty. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject.

Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. and our definition must be the following. or an interrogative pronoun. 6. Consequently. or adverb that asks about the subject. especially in poetry. and is to be supplied. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. as. to an ignorant man. 7. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. to suit all cases:² Subject. 341. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. all. In analyzing such sentences. "[You] behold her single in the field. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. a rare old plant. the subject is frequently after the verb. thou.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. adjective. 3. on the other hand. But if we try this with the second sentence. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. we say all is the subject of the sentence. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 4. but about the ivy green. The last of all the Bards was he. 2. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1.²What is to be changed? Answer. Listen. . In the interrogative sentence. Slavery they can have anywhere. not of a rare old plant. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 5.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate." Exercise.²What is the ivy green? Answer. 8. we have some trouble. always reduce them to the order of a statement. the subject (you. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. and the real subject is the latter. Thus. or ye) is in most cases omitted.

but of call chief." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. Of a transitive verb. (6) Independent elements. The subject and predicate have been discussed. direct. Indirect object. just as if to say. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. or second object. 343. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. and by object we mean the direct object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. "Ye honor me. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. but it is a true complement. (5) Modifiers. "Ye call me chief. . in addition to the object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. but chief belongs to the verb. and me here is not the object simply of call. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. for example. (2) The predicate." indirect. and means summoned. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. (3) The object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Direct Object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject." Complement: 344.10. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (4) The complements. 342. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.²transitive and intransitive. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. The transitive verb often requires." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief).

feel. 346. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. Thom of the Gills." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. as. as in drowning. he was now getting old." (3) INFINITIVE. As to form. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. A phrase is a group of words. taste. "Brow and head were round. Phrases. appear.." "He was termed Thomas." Things used as Subject. ay. Complement of an intransitive verb. in exercise following Sec. not containing a verb. in the original Opium Confessions." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." "The good man. in the popular judgment." 345. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. 'Ay. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. to the completion of this man of the world. become. and barring the door. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. as in the sentence. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. seem. 364. 351." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (2) PARTICIPIAL. An intransitive verb. above sixty. or. especially the forms of be. and. I mentioned a case of that nature. 352." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. See sentence 19. introduced by a preposition: for example. sir!' rang out in response. more familiarly.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 355. "A cheery. but used as a single modifier. and of massive weight. etc." Also an expression used as a noun. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. for instance. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." All these complete intransitive verbs. 347.

292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. my deficiency. "'By God. Disguised infinitive subject." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." 348." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. but obscures the real subject. (4) After "there introductory." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. but the real or logical subject is to print. but they will be given in detail here." Things used as Direct Object.²the infinitive phrase. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." "The dead are there. for which see Sec. I saw the quick and the dead." Things used as Complement. and by Saint George!' said the King. from their lips. ." "There are asking eyes. prowling eyes." etc. 341.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. "Therein has been." "Never. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." In this sentence. and ever will be. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. (2) In interrogative sentences. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. or the thundering of organs. asserting eyes.²the talent of starting the game." The for did not belong there originally." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). etc. or their religion from their sect. was heard one syllable to justify. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. 349.

" "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. they are adjuncts of the object." ." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." In this last sentence." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.²completing the predicate.350.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. Object." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. at the same time. doubtless." (4) Participle." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." "Their tempers. and. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. or Complement.²heads or tails. Like all the complements in this list. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." "Serving others is serving us. As complement of an intransitive verb. the object is made the subject by being passive.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. and whenever the complement is a noun. the shepherd girl. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. or the equivalent of the noun. and explaining or modifying the subject. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." "She asked her father's permission. and the words italicized are still complements. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. 351." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. I." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. complements of the predicate. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Modifiers of Subject. As complement of a transitive verb." "I hear the echoes throng. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. (3) Infinitive." Modifiers." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. Of a transitive verb.

" "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. Retained with passive." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. was now called upon for his defense." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. or ." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." (For participial and infinitive phrases. 351. "He died like a God. but with other men." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation.²proud. I have seasoned for thee. 352.²In each sentence in Sec. the verb being omitted.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. II. 357-363. and leading him from star to star. see further Secs. not with nature." "In the twinkling of an eye. was the scene from King John. object. or complement is modified. no sociable angel. but noble teachers. austere. Tells how." "Give them not only noble teachings." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. but it is really a contracted clause. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. interpreting for him the most difficult truths.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." Exercise." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. given at the request of a Dutch lady. Modifiers of the Predicate." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. unforgiving. the prisoner at the bar. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. this young idolater." In such a sentence as. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. Since the predicate is always a verb. and modify the predicate in the same way. tell whether the subject." "Him.

or how long.When the verb is changed from active to passive.. 8. These answer the question when. with my joy and grief. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. how far. 5. and other measures of precaution. Evil. A merciless oppressor hast thou been." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 3. and the direct object is retained: for example. 6. (a) Pick out subject. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. is good in the making. Fashion does not often caress the great. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. 4. 6. after dinner. His books have no melody. This. They do not wish to be lovely. and as many to oppose it. On the voyage to Egypt. 2. predicate." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. gives wonderful animation. Why does the horizon hold me fast. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. etc. 7. and." "One way lies hope. I took. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. . a sort of personality to the whole writing. To the men of this world. the indirect object is retained. in this center? 4. 5. according to old philosophers." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. no relief to the dead prosaic level. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. but the children of the great. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. negative. and (direct) object:² 1. to the animal strength and spirits. 3. no emotion. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. no humor. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. (b) Pick out the subject. 2. 7. he liked." "All such knowledge should be given her. in regard to particulars. predicate. But anger drives a man to say anything." (6) Adverbial objective. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. but to be loved." Exercises.

4. burthened with the anxieties of a man. upwards. . to the right and to the left.²the river Meuse. happy dinner. To suffer and to do. Not compound sentences. 2. Paint me. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. at length the warrior lady. 3. must visit again the home of her childhood. in little peaceful Easedale. 5. a room seventeen feet by twelve. That night. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. Unhorse me. at the chief hotel. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. the attorney. downwards. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Compound Predicate. 5. 6. Yes. this nun so martial. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. six children sat by a peat fire. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 3.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. etc. expecting the return of their parents. this dragoon so lovely.. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 4. y y y y Compound Subject. 2. then. the present Archbishop of Dublin. for the first time. I felt myself. after their long confinement to a ship. In one feature.y 8. then. viz. 3. 2. A river formed the boundary. Their intention was to have a gay. this imperial rider. I gave him an address to my friend. 4. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. and a member of the world. Not the less I owe thee justice. that was thy portion in life. the blooming cornet.

then the grammatical subject and predicate. For example. etc. 355. the object. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. turned his steps homeward. together with all its modifiers." And so with complements. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. hurry. complements. Examples of compound subjects are. may be the person or thing addressed. "The company broke up. my brave young man!" . 354." "Ye crags and peaks." Sentences with compound predicates are. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. they are not a necessary part. Independent Elements of the Sentence. same as (1). and. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. several modifiers. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. exposes." "He shook his head. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. the simple subject is situation. above: thus. shouldered the rusty firelock. the verb). two or more subjects of the same predicate." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. ulcer. Bishop. but it is to be noticed that. however. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. Of this. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. hurry." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. and the rest is the logical predicate.. in the sentence. modifiers.353. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms." "Voyages and travels I would also have. etc. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. and its object or complement. and returned to the more important concerns of the election." "The name of the child. etc." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. the tone of her voice. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. the air of the mother. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. that is. the predicate. Larger view of a sentence. The exclamatory expression. together with its modifiers. "Ah. in all such sentences as we quote below. I'm with you once again. forming a sentence: "Oh.

already noticed. or complement (see Sec. 4)." "At all events. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. her noticing even this is creditable. see Sec. the company broke up. grandma. how you're winking!" "Now. There are some adverbs. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "No. (b) As a modifier of subject." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. moreover. and some conjunctions. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. yes! everybody knew them. why. and so on. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. pronoun. besides. The words well. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. prepositional phrases may be.. he was a conscientious man. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use." (3) Independent. nevertheless. let him perish. y (2) The adverbial use. six quill-driving gentlemen. 3. such as perhaps. to the best of my remembrance. 350. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. truly. undoubtedly." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. 356. instances of which were seen in Sec. In their use. or word used as a noun: for example. therefore. modifying a noun." (2) Adverbial. (1) Adjectival. 4). really." "Well." (6) Single words: as. he somehow lived along. that have an office in the sentence. These need close watching. "Oh. generally speaking." (5) Participial phrase: "But." "Why. 355.. ." Another caution. modifying the predicate. 351. etc." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. 352. this story runs thus. now. object. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. 357. he closed his literary toils at dinner. then. such as however. see Sec. 6). and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "Truth to say. etc. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short.

" "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. was speedily run through. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." etc.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. The verbal use. and teach her how to be happy and good. and they will be presented here in full. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. necessity. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. containing no matters of business.would. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. he should not have known them at all. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. thus. (5). "Because I was. 358. but require somewhat closer attention.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.can (could). Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.should. my dear.: as in the sentences. therefore. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES.]. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. and hence is adverbial. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." (c) With the definite forms of go. or as nearly so as the student will require." In this sentence. but having no other office than a verbal one." (b) With the forms of be. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. etc.seem. This case excepted.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. I. being equivalent to a future with obligation. See Sec. y (a) With may (might). 355. Wilt thou. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. modifying was speedily run through. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every ." "There. ought. etc. "The letter of introduction. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public.

but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. II. 361. 5). complement." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. to hear McOrator after dinner. Don Guzman.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). The adjectival use.²both purpose clauses." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. object. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor.: for example. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. to look means that he might look. the Scotch fighting all the battles." "Are you mad. "But there was no time to be lost. ." "To teach is to learn. above." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again." "He insisted on his right to forget her. IV. (4) In apposition. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. III.. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. to please is equivalent to that he may please. result. 361 are used adverbially. notice the following:² In (1). "Do they not cause the heart to beat." "To say what good of fashion we can." 360." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. etc. 351. The adverbial use. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. 362. The substantive use. hang the idiot. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. etc." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. already examined. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. modifying a noun that may be a subject. and the eyes to fill?" 359. To test this.

and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. (7) Independent elements (Sec. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. 351). as in Sec. which is of two kinds. etc. The independent use. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers.²both expressing condition. to hear means if you should hear. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 364. If it is an incomplete verb.. give the complement (Secs." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 268." (See also Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. V. 355. savage and serene in one hour. object. 352). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. not in a book. and to betray and to bring express the reason. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. Our life is March weather. (5) The subject (Sec.In (2). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. In analyzing simple sentences. 2. equivalent to that you betray. 355). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 351). 363. 351). In (5). must be in a life. to part means because I part. 347). and to say is equivalent to if we say.. I will try to keep the balance true. give² (1) The predicate. to find shows the result of the return. 349). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. . Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. etc. (3). In (3).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. etc. In (4). 3. 4.

Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. neither ammunition. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. the carrion crow. 15. 23. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 7. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 19. just on the edge of destruction. 9. 16. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. to restore civil and religious order. is to have no political system at all. 8. good and amiable otherwise. I have heard Coleridge talk. a good shot. and to the purpose. To these gifts of nature. To be hurried away by every event. through evil agents. an accomplished scholar. a skilled musician. always in a bad plight. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 10.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. His opinion is always original. Old Adam. 11. Through the years and the centuries. 6. like a witch's oils. in popular use. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 24. Her aims were simple and obvious. nor money. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 20. 13. and spared nothing. through toys and atoms. The word conscience has become almost confined. 12. nor himself. 14. to the moral sphere. He risked everything.He sat in the shower. 21. 5. two stricken hours.Burnt green and blue and white. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. a graceful dancer. 17. You may ramble a whole day together. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. nor generals. The whole figure and air.4.The old crow of Cairo. 22. . to keep England out of war. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. nor troops.²to preserve her throne. We are always in peril. and every moment discover something new. 18. with eager energy. might be called flabby and irresolute. The water. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men.

secluded. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 30. 40.25. Few in number. and the wherefore? . baggage far in the rear. Fair name might he have handed down. haply. in less heroic and poetic form.Distant. still. This amiable relative. 29. I hate him and myself. and no provisions but wild berries. 35.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 31. proud foe. the same Condé Olivarez. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. I dare this. 32. Supposing this computation to be correct. Upon this shore stood. the present capital of New England. 38. ready to receive her. Oxford. In the Acadian land. and in my own garden. The cry. 36. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. 34. The villain. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 39. 26. upon my own ground. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 33. 27. had but one foible. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. an elderly man. and the why. the ship was in an uproar. She had made a two days' march. to bid you leave the place now and forever. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. or perhaps one virtue. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. But yield. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 41. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. to be a reproach to such goodness. in front of all this mighty crowd. in this world. Now.Effacing many a stain of former crime. time-honored. 37. Must we in all things look for the how. Of the same grandeur. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. the prime minister of Spain. and.

² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 365. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. if they were expanded." To show that these words are really omitted.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. the pride and beauty of the grove. 366. however. made merely for convenience and smoothness. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. as. but. 367. thus. as would be the connective instead of like. The simple sentence the basis. (Sec. which is the unit of speech." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. the expressions of manner introduced by like." Sentences with like. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. are really contracted clauses. ." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.² "She is like some tender tree. Words left out after than or as. 333). Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. though often treated as phrases. COMPLEX SENTENCES.From her own loved island of sorrow." This must." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. As shown in Part I. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement.

" The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint..Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. that is. 369. etc. is taken in.²the backbone. which are so united that one member is the main one. we are aware.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. modifiers. A principal. complement. predicate. and the next one. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. or dependent on it. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. and modifier. and the last. that . A clause is a division of a sentence. how great . Hence the following definition:² Definition. CLAUSES... or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. object. complements. suffering. logically depends on suffering. each clause has its subject. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. main. or it may be applied to the others. 371. 368. . A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). object.. murmur. Definition. as in this sentence. containing a verb with its subject. Independent clause. 370. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement.²the other members subordinate to it. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.

or adverbs. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. 352. We ourselves are getting . Kinds. and the whole clause is not." "I was told that the house had not been shut. ." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.. is retained after a passive verb (Sec..' is an electric touch." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. infinitive. for example. night or day." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. impertinences. adjectives. (b) that are . put an end to my fancies." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.. 373. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. with a noun clause in apposition with it. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some..." 374. 'I know that he can toil terribly. impertinences²would be grammatical.." (2) Object of a verb. But since they are complex in form. etc. but logically the sentence is. and ADVERB clauses. thus. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause." (4) Apposition. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. for a time. ADJECTIVE. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. verbal. so the object clause is retained. for example. 372. (a) Ordinary apposition. As to their office in the sentence. Noun Clauses. and it is . Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. over which the torrent came tumbling. pronoun. clauses are divided into NOUN. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend." Just as the object noun.Dependent clause. attention is called to them here. for a hundred years.. 5).

The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. etc. a falsehood incarnate. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. Such a man is what we call an original man. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. The reply of Socrates. As the office of an adjective is to modify. he could know nothing. What history it had. Other examples of this construction are. . Frequently there is no connecting word. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. as.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. that he was a scheming impostor. which. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. that. whence. 2. whither. 8. 4. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. wherein. 9. whereby." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 10. where. 375. But the fact is. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. sometimes by the conjunctions when. of a nation. Examples of adjective clauses. no man will ever know. that. in the sentence. 3. I was napping. and not on the sentiment. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. but. a relative pronoun being understood. he would repent it. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. 5. Except by what he could see for himself. 7. 6. Adjective Clauses. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun.² "It is on the understanding. or equivalent of a noun." Exercise. that all safe legislation must be based. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. how it changed from shape to shape. whether he should choose one or not. still remains reasonable.

11. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 8.376." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. 3." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. Pick out the adjective clauses. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. object. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. No man is reason or illumination. and tell what each one modifies." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. . Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. all is vacancy. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 10. 7. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. etc. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. or that essence we were looking for. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. he begins to help us more as an effect.." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. which formed the center of the mansion. 2. 9.e. 4. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. the champions advanced through the lists. 1. Adverbial Clauses. i. 5. I walked home with Calhoun. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. whether subject." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." Exercise." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. which Rowena tasted. 6.

" (3) REASON." (5) DEGREE. and adverbial conjunctions. an adjective. Joanna is better. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. introduced by indefinite relatives. he goes away as if nothing had happened. no matter what remains. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries.." "After leaving the whole party under the table. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. to make up our shortcomings." "The broader their education is. etc." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. however. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. a verbal." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. is wider." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. the milestones are grave-stones. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. however good she may be as a witness. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." "He went several times to England. Exercise." These mean no matter how good." (7) RESULT. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. etc." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. expressing the degree in which the horizon." "The right conclusion is. so far as we can." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. etc. tell what kind each is. since he was too great to care to be original. whatever." (9) CONCESSION. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "Who cares for that." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. the wider is the horizon of their thought. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand.² whoever. that we should try.: "But still. 378. adverbs. or an adverb. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. but they require careful study. it takes precedence of everything else. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. with examples.377." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. shaping our actions. and what it modifies:² . and will be given in detail." "When he was come up to Christian. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal.

and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. with shrill. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. incoherent exclamations. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 3. 379. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. 'Well. predicate. they might perhaps say of their visitors. we are a little disappointed. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. and twirling weathercocks. 380. For example. etc." 2. object. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. banging about doors and windows. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. on a dark wintry night. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. If the children gathered about her. find the principal subject and principal predicate. when the wind was unruly. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. then treat noun clauses as nouns. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. howling and whistling. its object is that Odin was a reality. in the sentence.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. of which clause Odin is the subject. snatching up stones to fling at them. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter.1. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. as they sometimes did. to tell the truth. and modifiers. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. so as to picture the parts and their relations.

. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 364. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. as seen in the "map" (Sec. (1) Find the principal clause. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec.. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. Exercises. 364. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 380). 3..| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. d. 2.

the shepherd girl. The deep eyes. 14. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 10. had we been worse. And those will often pity that weakness most. could not have been effected. 12. But now that she has become an establishment. Now. He was what our country people call an old one. namely. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. M.4. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. I like that representation they have of the tree. 8. 13. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. or whether any. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. if applied to the Bible. 6. 5. which. the flower should revive for us. whom I choose. as for armies that were too many by half. 21. The night proved unusually dark. 15. 20. 11. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. Next came a wretched Dominican. 23. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. that pressed her with an objection. This is she. who would yield to it least. 22. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 7. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. of a light hazel. bishop. that. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. not so much for travelers that were few. 24. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. Had they been better chemists. 9. . that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. Here lay two great roads. 16. dying for them. 18. counselor that had none for herself. 17. for yours. the mixed result. 19.

" said Bentley. 380. 7." 4. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face.² Definition. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. questions. 6. if there be one to whom I am not equal. we cannot adequately say. 28. COMPOUND SENTENCES. though we may repeat the words never so often. How formed. 382. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. These things we are forced to say. 26. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. (b) First analyze. 383. 27. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 5. is to speak and write sincerely. speed. then map out as in Sec.25. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. "No book. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. . and what content I can find in conversing with each. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 30. Hence the definition. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. but above it. 2. That which we do not believe. and not from his heart. It makes no difference how many friends I have.²which will not be disposed of. if continuously extended. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. and stamped with his right number. the following complex sentences:² 1. or commands. that it was no more than his daily walk. and temper. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. would easily reach. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. "was ever written down by any but itself. 3.

Speak your latent conviction. while (whilst). if there are any. others sometimes coördinate. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. from the second. Thus in (1). Of the following illustrative sentences.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. for. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. as in Sec. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples.. 386. nor. . for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. nor does he know until he has tried. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. or but. The division into members will be easier. Connectives. and connects the first and second complex members. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. etc. and it shall be the universal sense. he soliloquizes. the planet has a faint. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. The coördinate conjunctions and. Some of these are now conjunctions." 384. the semicolon separates the first. etc. "Only the star dazzles. he walks with arms akimbo. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. Exercise. 385. he is twice a man. he dilates. a simple member. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. a complex member. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. moon-like ray" (adversative). 383 (1). the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. Another example is. however. in (3). tell which are compound. whereas." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. in (2). yet. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). as but. which are simple statements. and which complex:² 1. and not the form of the connective. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Study the thought. and nor the second and third complex members. now adverbs or prepositions. 297). the waving grass.

but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. I can yet love. 12. 6. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. from a happy yet often pensive child. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. so is every one of its parts. 9. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. you lose something. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. all pain. 14.2. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 381. for example. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. However some may think him wanting in zeal. he grew up to be a mild. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. and not by what each is. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 5. 10. and thou shalt be loved. 8. 364. 4. or. 7. yield to them heart and life. All loss. 11. and as yet very early in the morning. you have gained something else. . The gain is apparent. (i) Separate it into its main members. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. Exercise. For everything you have missed. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. Love. 13. unobtrusive boy. In this manner. and for everything you gain. 3. the tax is certain. nay. I can still receive. however. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 3. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 4. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. passed in that time. is particular. Man does not stand in awe of man. Whilst the world is thus dual. 387. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. that it was Easter Sunday. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. quiet. 2. to find a pot of buried gold.

or men will never know and honor him aright. "Strike. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. "as nigh the scythe as you can. crook and hide. or hope. modesty. "the iron is white. We see the noble afar off. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 18. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. only that they may brag and conquer there. and not an emotion of bravery.5. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 6. 15. and the peace of society is often kept. We go to Europe. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and they repel us. and you are without effort impelled to truth. Come into port greatly. 8. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. and the other dares not. 7. Stand aside. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 17." says the smith. 21. whilst frankness invites frankness. or we read books. is as thin and timid as any. 14. 11. and the cart as nigh the rake. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves." "keep the rake. and not a thought has enriched either party. or we pursue persons. give those merits room. one is afraid. 9. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade." 13. Trust men. abide by it. When you have chosen your part. and makes their business a friendship. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. if you rip up his claims. 20. 19. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. 16. They will shuffle and crow. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. that let him communicate. . why should we intrude? 10." says the haymaker. and he learns who receives. or sail with God the seas. Whatever he knows and thinks. and they will show themselves great. because. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. puts the parties on a convenient footing. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. feign to confess here. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. as children. treat them greatly. He teaches who gives. let them mount and expand. and they will be true to you.

Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . but they never acquit the debt. 380. PART III. it ends in headache. 24. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. 25. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. INTRODUCTORY.22. So does culture with us. they die young. they lose themselves in the crowd. the department of syntax will be a small affair. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Essential point in English syntax. and dodge the account. but its leading characteristic is.²agreement and government. 23. verb and subject. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. if they live. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. it never was known to fall into the rear. pronoun and antecedent. By way of introduction. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. so readily and lavishly they promise. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Following the Latin method. but go about your business anywhere. Ground covered by syntax. or. 390. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. 388. adjective and noun. We see young men who owe us a new world. SYNTAX.

some of which conform to classical grammar. When usage varies as to a given construction. but are not now. Some rules not rigid. Savage may be the subject. as to study inflected forms. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. sometimes verb and subject. distinct forms would be used. The basis of syntax. Also in the sentence. and imitate it. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. and it would not matter which one stood first. the order being inverted. or when they exist side by side in good usage." is ambiguous. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. therefore." that is. As an illustration of the last remark. authorities²that is. or settler may be the subject." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. following the regular order of subject. and added to it the preposition of. then." In this there is a possessive form.² First. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. Why study syntax? 391. This is not logical. 392. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). pronoun and antecedent. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. "The savage here the settler slew. Second. the sentence. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. etc. take the sentence. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. also expressing a possessive relation. 393. and whose judgment. In some cases. both forms will be given in the following pages. In Latin. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. or the same writer will use both indifferently. . good English. "None remained but he. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. and nothing but important points will be considered. For example. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. There is. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used.

²THACKERAY.² Live your king and country's best support. 397. 395. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage." Juletta tells.²ROWE. Bentham's principles together.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN. or indicate joint ownership or possession. and Paul's. the shore of Galilee. and Pope's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. the antechamber of the High Priest. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. as. 394. ²ID.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²MILTON. He kept Bolingbroke's. Woman. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. and Peterborough's. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. 408).²MCCULLOCH. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. and Harley's. the possessive sign is used with each noun. PRONOUNS.²BYRON. Mill's and Mr. and Peter's. 396. but imply separate possession or ownership. Joint possession.NOUNS. . Putting Mr. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. etc. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²MACAULAY. Use of the possessive. for example. sense and nature's easy fool. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Separate possession.

no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.²THACKERAY. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. But he must be a stronger than thee. thus. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. .²TROLLOPE. No mightier than thyself or me. Still.²SHAKESPEARE. as. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. Objective for the nominative.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 398. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). General rules. whom is the complement after the verb am. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. and should be the nominative form. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. who. Since most of the personal pronouns." 400.²POPE. I. if not universally. 399.²BYRON. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.) "The young Harper. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Some of the violations are universally condemned. others are generally.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. there are two general rules that require attention. sanctioned. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Bedott Papers. for example." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. This should be "as she. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. together with the relative who.²WHITCHER. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. the real thought being forgotten.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. the last expression has the support of many good writers.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.²SOUTHEY.

is. the objective form is regularly found. "If there is any one embarrassed. "Who's there?"²"Me. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed." There is no special reason for this. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. BLACK. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. are. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. But still it is not she. Patrick the Porter.²RUSKIN. In spoken English. they are yet holier than we. as.²COLERIDGE.²PARTON. A safe rule. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²THACKERAY. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²KINGSLEY. namely. unless a special.² For there was little doubt that it was he.²LONGFELLOW."²WINTHROP. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. both in England and America. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. One exception is to be noted.² One I remember especially.²SCOTT. "Than whom. it will not be me. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.²FIELDING. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. and the other forms of the verb be. The usage is too common to need further examples. but such is the fact. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²MACAULAY. . for example. The camp of Richard of England."²WM."²KINGSLEY." 401.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. on the other hand.

or this. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). object of saw). he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. it is me. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. 8. as this from Shakespeare. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 404.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. now. 10. verbal. used after verbs. you or me. and prepositions. the object of to). . The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. "Ask the murderer. 5. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Whom they were I really cannot specify. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 7. I speak not to" (he should be him. 9. verbals. or preposition which governs it. 3. Truth is mightier than us all. Nominative for the objective. as. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. in the case of words used in apposition with the object." 6. 403. as. It is not me you are in love with. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. or us). "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 2. 4. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. but not he" (he should be him. If there ever was a rogue in the world. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me." the word being in apposition with murderer). 11. as. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. (3) By forgetting the construction.²MILTON. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Me in exclamations.Exercise.

for example.²BYRON. partial Nature. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who have we here?²ID. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. changed in all save thee. and is usually avoided. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²BYRON. "Who were they talking to?" etc. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form.²GOLDSMITH. Let you and I look at these. for they say there are none such in the world. I arraign. as.² All were knocked down but us two. 406.Exception 1. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. save thou and thine. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. I've sworn. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. as well as the objective. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. etc. all but he. Thou.²STEELE. who interrogative.²KINGSLEY. Nature. Exception 2.²KINGSLEY. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. as. Thy shores are empires. .² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. None. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. 405.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. after the preposition but (sometimes save). but he. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Exercise. We regularly say. "Who did you see?" or.²KINGSLEY.Shall be left upon the morn. 2. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.

The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 7. Preceding a gerund. POSSESSIVE FORMS. 9.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. Markland." 4. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. This usage is not frequent.²MACAULAY. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. with Jortin and Thirlby.²RUSKIN. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. As antecedent of a relative. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.²C. They are coming for a visit to she and I. BROWN. 12. 10. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. who. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.Ye I salute. B. 11. They crowned him long ago. Bartholomew. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. II.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. 5.²THACKERAY. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²possessive. 407.3. and they know that as well as me. 6. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. or objective? . For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 8. "Nonsense!" said Amyas.

as he turned away from his wife. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. The last incident which I recollect. Possessive. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house." That is. Why both are found.²BREWER.² SCOTT. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and that in the second. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. But in common use there is no such distinction. and asked why it was not made. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.²DE QUINCEY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. both are gerunds. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. Here I state them only in brief.²RUSKIN." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. We heard of Brown.² CARLYLE. . that the bitterness of death was past. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.408.²DICKENS.² THACKERAY. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. sometimes it has the objective. object of heard of. etc.²CARLYLE. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. Both types of sentences are found. and the meaning is. studying is a gerund. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²MACAULAY. The use of the objective is older.² IRVING. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. [who was] studying law. Objective. In the examples quoted.

²C. preceded by a distributive. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²DEFOE.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. where there were examinations. and gender.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY. Every city threw open its gates. it was his own fault. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²CABLE. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. if the antecedent is neuter. In such a case as the last three sentences.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²THOREAU. or is a distributive word. 409. If any one did not know it.²when the antecedent. Watch for the real antecedent. BROCKDEN BROWN.²HOLMES. The pale realms of shade. . PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. Examples of these constructions are. Everybody had his own life to think of. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. 410.²AUDUBON. taking in each of many persons.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²HUXLEY. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²DE QUINCEY. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²EMERSON III. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.² BRYANT. the pronoun will be neuter singular. in one person. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. and ought to agree with them in person. number.²RUSKIN.

but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²AUSTEN. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. let them break it off.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. . It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²ID. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²PALGRAVE. till they have lost him. Struggling for life. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. By using the plural pronoun. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.² Not the feeblest grandame. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Whosoever hath any gold. for example.²BYRON. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²PAULDING.²FIELDING.²RUSKIN. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. and giving them means of being so. Every one must judge of their own feelings. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²BIBLE. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. The sun.²DEFOE. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²ID. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²EMERSON.²THACKERAY. This is not considered the best usage. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²SCOTT. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. If the part deserve any comment. as anybody in their senses would have done. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²PALEY.Avoided: By using both pronouns. 411.²HUXLEY. not a mowing idiot. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.

in each instance:² Who. when coördinating. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side." This means. 413.Where she was gone." A relative. no one could take upon them to say. It adds a new statement to what precedes.²HAWTHORNE. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. What these terms mean. and that always restrictive. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. and that are restrictive or not. who went away. unless both genders are implied. but. the definite relatives who. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. As to their conjunctive use. 412. I.²In the above sentences. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. because. as. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. when restrictive. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. . or what was become of her." It defines beggar. That is in most cases restrictive. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. etc. and he went away. which. according to the practice of every modern writer. 1. "I gave it to the beggar. A relative. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating.²ADDISON. but. Exercise. 2. that being considered already clear.²ID. or unrestrictive. tell whether who. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. which. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. Exercise.) and a personal pronoun. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. In the following examples.² SHERIDAN. and does not add a new statement.

BEECHER 5.3. and over England are saying. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. etc. which was to go over the Cordilleras. these or that which. who. 414. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. etc.²ID. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. down.² IRVING. she agreed to join the party. We say I. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. II. but. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. That.. which Mr. they. Which. he.² CARLYLE. long arms and legs. 13. and it is called logic.²DE QUINCEY. 9. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. . So different from the wild. Hare has printed. etc. 7. In what sense true. 10. 6. For example.² MOTLEY. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.²DE QUINCEY. that were often vicious.²H. The rule. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. in the sentence.² NEWMAN.²ID. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. 14. W. you. 8. A grizzly-looking man appeared. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. Yet how many are there who up.²HOLMES." that is invariable as to person and number. because of its antecedent. 11. With narrow shoulders. On hearing their plan. 12. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. The general rule is. However. 4.²THOREAU. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. it makes the verb third person singular. as that does not vary for person or number. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand.²ADDISON.

²LOWELL.²LECKY. The fiery youth .²SCOTT. but myself.²J. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. A disputed point. and in improving a victory. who rarely speak at all. but speaks of him as that sort. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was." or. Franklin.. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²HOLMES.. [singular or plural.. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. [plural] that who. with one as the principal word. MORSE. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. 415. JR. "one of the finest books that have been published. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. others regard books as the antecedent. when he derided the shams of society.²HOWELLS. .²BOWLES. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.²LOWELL. He is one of those that deserve very well. T. but the former has good authority. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.. ARNOLD.²MACAULAY.²ADDISON. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. Let us be of good cheer.²M. the true antecedent.²ADDISON. in winning a battle.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. and write the verb in the plural. etc. or which .] Both constructions are frequently found." One of .. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. French literature of the eighteenth century. etc. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.. "one of the finest books that has been published. Singular. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²whether we should say.. The latter is rather more frequent.

² RUSKIN.²SCOTT. return. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²IRVING. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²ID." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²GOLDSMITH. 417. and such like: as.In that same state I came.²CARLYLE. IV. Exercise.²In the above sentences. I could see nothing except the sky. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²EMERSON.² THACKERAY. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. But I by backward steps would move. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. when this dust falls to the urn.²BURNS. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.A rare Roundabout performance. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.² . insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²ADDISON. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. III. where.²DEFOE. The same day I went aboard we set sail. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²VAUGHAN. whence. when the relative word is a pronoun. 416."²DICKENS. object of a preposition understood. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²SWIFT. that is.And.²EMERSON." "India is the place [in which. or where] he died. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.

boats. he. as is not used. ²GOLDSMITH. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.²SCOTT. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. Mr.² MACAULAY. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. I might as well have staid at home.²WORDSWORTH. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. Anacoluthic use of which.² THACKERAY. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. or that. .²SWIFT.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. which.. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. Which. as of knives. but we find the relative who. W.² BURKE. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. etc.²ADDISON. but which is usually carefully avoided. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. That. The regular construction. looking-glasses. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. but. V.me as his apprentice. Caution. and working in the same spirit..²FRANKLIN. she passed the lamp over her face and person. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. if I had resolved to go on with. 418. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. with Turner. CHURCH. They believe the same of all the works of art. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.He considered. was a discoverer.²R. for example.² Which. if same is followed by a complete clause.

After this came Elizabeth herself.²which if they once heard. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish." etc.. who are now thrown. Express both relatives.. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.²THACKERAY. but none is expressed. Thornhill had read. and this be placed in the proper clause. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. 4. As the sentences stand. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.²DE QUINCEY. Exercise. or leave out both connective and relative. and who are now.² Direction for rewriting. which when Mr.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. he said that all submission was now too late. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. This was a gentleman. .She'd come again. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. 2. etc. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. 419. now thrown upon their.. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.²GOLDSMITH. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. or. and which. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. That is. le Conte." etc. or omit the conjunction.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise. etc. (1) "Among those who are poor. But who. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. He delivered the letter. but. 1. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself." etc. (2) "Among the poorer sort. (3) "Among the poorer sort.²RUSKIN. 3. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²SCOTT.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. once a great favorite of M. And who. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE.

. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Exercise." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian.5.²SCOTT. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. "What knight so craven. 1.. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. I shall have complete copies. But which. Or which. 13. indeed. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. And which. and which has never been described.²PEARSON. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. like that spoken in the towns. either from imitation of their frequent allies. and which..²IRVING. 6. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. I saw upon the left a scene far different. and which may even be heard a mile off. as a false and astucious mark.² MOTLEY. 9. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.²HAWTHORNE. then. the French. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. Or who. etc. who. 420. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. Akin to the above is another fault.. 7. and repeat this for any further reference. one of signal interest. English by name. That . Dr.²DE QUINCEY. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. etc. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . which is likewise a variation from the best usage. 10. and to whom no door is closed. "A mockery. 12.²DE QUINCEY. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.. which the Scotch had learned. 8. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 11. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.²SCOTT.

²W. whom. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. G. that. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.²HOLMES. He. I grudge the dollar. E.²EMERSON. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.²DEFOE. CHANNING.. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. 9. In my native town of Salem. what.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. Which .. 5. . 6. It rose into a thrilling passion. was hung in air...²BEECHER. 11.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 12. but which is perhaps not so different from it. Such as . at the head of what. that .. and to whom I do not belong. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.. 10. the dime.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. which. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.²SCOTT That which . I give to such men as do not belong to me. half a century ago. 8. I recommend some honest manual calling.²W. 15.2. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. such as they have very probably been bred to.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. He flung into literature. and whose examples and principles we inherit. Such as . The Tree Igdrasil. in his Mephistopheles.. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. 14. 13. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. which. 7.. That .²HOWELLS.²HAWTHORNE. SIMMS.. but which. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. 3.. the cent.²SCOTT. in his present condition. was a bustling wharf.²HALLAM. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. 4.

The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²MACAULAY. Each other.² HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. By their original meaning. as.² Some one must be poor. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. in which case any should be used instead. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. 421. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²GOLDSMITH. We call ourselves a rich nation. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. 422. Distributives either and neither. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²DICKENS.²ID.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. whether or not the two are equivalent. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. one another.²RUSKIN. Assume that no one is in want of either. as. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.²EMERSON. Use of any. as it were. always at war with one another. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²HAWTHORNE. that not all combined. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. for example. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. .

I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.. usually plural.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²BIBLE. any was often singular. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. during his stay at Yuste. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.. If any of you lack wisdom.²PROF.²SCOTT. as none of the French philosophers were. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²SHAKESPEARE.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. None usually plural. In earlier Modern English. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²FRANKLIN. The adjective pronoun none is. then in Plutarch. Examples of its use are. before that. when any of them are so good as to visit me. etc. Caution.. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. 423. in the prose of the present day.²BEECHER Whenever. . as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. Any usually plural.²EMERSON. let him ask of God. in Shakespeare. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. Do you think. and is isolated. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. as.²CARLYLE. whilst I still cherish their genius. afterwards in Goethe. None of Nature's powers do better service. which is plural as often as singular.² EMERSON.²THACKERAY. any of his friends had died.²STIRLING. Do you think. then in Plotinus. that I know of. as.² In earnest. speak. for him have I offended. at one time in Bacon. 424. if ever man was. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. I beseech you. even in Bettine.² If any. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²BURKE.

² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.. or somebody else's? 426. etc. etc. any one else.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. etc.² None of them was cleansed. for example.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²NAPIER Plural. saving Naaman the Syrian. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²THOREAU. etc... 425. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. that all was lost. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. as.²McMASTER. when it means all persons: for example.² Singular.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.² PEARSON. and Ford has nobody's else. Somebody's else. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. the plural. When all were gone. The light troops thought . which is used absolutely.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. The compounds somebody else. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. nobody else. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. fixing his eyes on the mace.²SCOTT Like the use of any. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. and less rarely in poetry. and all was lost on the other. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. are treated as units.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.

His hair. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²THACKERAY. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²AUSTEN. These sort. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. "Ye see. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²in such as "these sort of books. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. unlike anybody else's in the world.²RUSKIN. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's."²MRS. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. or those sort of people. London." "all manner of men.² These kind of knaves I know." "those kind of trees.. the adjectives plural. ADJECTIVES. Whitefield or Wesley. Again. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. all manner of. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²SHERIDAN.² Saturday Review.SYDNEY SMITH. or some other such great man as a bishop.²MULOCH..A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. etc." the nouns being singular. .²RUSKIN.² FIELDING.curled once all over it in long tendrils. etc.²N. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. WILLIS. P. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. 427. for example.²G.²SWEET.²DICKENS. ELIOT. STOWE. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.

The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects.²RUSKIN. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. Of two such lessons. to express a higher degree of quality. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. with all manner of amusing books. Should we say." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. At the source. The result." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). and in this way may take a plural verb. Use of the comparative degree. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. or the nouns to the plural. as.² Which is the better able to defend himself. for example. more alarming than a total silence. "A sort of uncertain sounds are." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. made to agree with it. when the necessary dispositions concur. Burke's sentence. "This kind of rules are the best.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. Consequently we have a confused expression." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. This the modern expression reverses. in spoken English. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. they said.² PRESCOTT. the victor or the vanquished. gradually displacing the old. History of this construction. According to the approved usage of Modern English. Later form.The library was open. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. which accounts for the construction. and the adjective is. such as. not "all kinds of wild animals. In Old and Middle English. . "This sort of trees should be planted. 428." A question. "These kind of trees are best. or one object with a class of objects. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.

etc. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. To the man who plays well. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. Henry.²MACAULAY. 6. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²MACAULAY.²TROLLOPE. Other after the comparative form. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. has sanctioned.²WIRT. Even Dodd himself. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²LOWELL.²CARLYLE. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. 4.²THACKERAY. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn."²ID. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²HUXLEY. if not.²SCOTT. 429. Superlative with two objects. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. than any of his court. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. He is taller.² THACKERAY. Exercise. 2. 430. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. 5.²HAWTHORNE. would not have had the face.²SWIFT. Use of the superlative degree. 3. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. I am concerned to see that Mr.A braver ne'er to battle rode. . See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. by almost the breadth of my nail. Gary. the highest stakes are paid.

CÆSAR. These two properties seem essential to wit.²DR BLAIR.²Bible.²J.²MRS. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. The eldest.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. OLIPHANT. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Also from the same period. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. 1611. The following examples are used purposely. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. Mary. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²IRVING. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. In all disputes between States."²HAWTHORNE. not a bit of high life among them. and the other contains the best men. "Ha.²HAMLET.²SCOTT.²BEN JONSON."²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH. more particularly the last of them. I should say that one has the best cause. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²ADDISON. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. ha. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. 431. After the most straitest sect of our religion.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. Double comparative and superlative. Examples from Shakespeare are.²TEMPEST. and differ only in form.²EMERSON. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.. Come you more nearer."²BULWER. whichever can be got easiest. who eat white bread or brown. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.. Rip was one of those . .²RUSKIN.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.

These are the three first needs of civilized life.²PRESCOTT. ²COWPER. The delay in the first three lines. . He has already finished the three first sticks of it. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.²GIBBON. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.²KINGSLEY. ARTICLES. As to these two expressions.²ADDISON. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The meaning intended is the same. Instances of both are given below. For Carlyle. etc. and conceit in the last. 433. Definite article. The merit of the Barb.²LAMB. jar upon us constantly. the Spanish. and Secretary Walsingham also.² With a singular noun. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. First three. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. etc.²GIBBON. but in literary English. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. not only so in popular speech.² SMOLLETT. The first five had specific names. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. Examples of this construction are. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²RUSKIN.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. Three first.

²SCOTT.²TENNYSON.²THE NATION. distinct.²PRESCOTT. I think. having been arranged. No. as. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. He is master of the two-fold Logos. were placed at a very tender age. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. with a plural noun.² RUSKIN. Here the youth of both sexes. of the eighteenth century. With a plural noun. the hour of parting came.. the greatest poems. One object and several modifiers. The lofty. and flexible language. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²TAYLOR. with a singular noun. Origin of the Aryans. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. of the higher and middling orders. as. the thought and the word. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²CARLYLE. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. Frequently. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.² MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. 1508. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. . or to emphasize the meaning. Meaning same as in Sec. 433.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. The flowers. melodious.²THACKERAY.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. as in Sec. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. 434.²ID. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . Indefinite article. and the presents. but is used with one only. to distinguish clearly. but inseparable from each other..²NEWMAN. 433. however. The not repeated.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. 435.

" Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.²JOHNSON. 438.²BULWER. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.436. to limit two or more modified nouns. The indefinite article (compare Sec.An early.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 435. T. interest. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. or clearness to each of several nouns.²THACKERAY. only one of which is expressed. a murderer. In the sentences of Secs. 436).²DRYDEN. and inexhausted vein. and a usurper. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²MACAULAY. as in the first three of Sec. a tyrant. . rich. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. a round and a square one alternately. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²B.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. as.² MACAULAY. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²DICKENS. Examples of this use are. For rhetorical effect.² BURKE. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. a collegian. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. One article with several adjectives.²MACAULAY. like the definite article.²S. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. 433 and 436. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. The indefinite article is used. 437. He saw him in his mind's eye. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. But in the following sentences. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. one noun is expressed." and "a red and a white geranium. COLERIDGE. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.²BEECHER. JONSON.

like some others in this series. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. and the following illustrations prove it. ELIOT.²GIBBON. was the earliest American land. A broad and loose rule. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.²W.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. without academies. This was spoken of in Part I. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²G.²AGASSIZ.²CARLYLE This usage. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. all that academies can give. Singulars connected by or or nor. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.. . He sees that it is better to live in peace.VERBS. In English. then. 439.²FROUDE.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. as.²M. has got already. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²COOPER. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Singular verb. Another writer might. for example. or the great intellectual life of our nation. 440. Sec.²The Nation. Such. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. 276. Collective noun of singular meaning. ARNOLD. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. as.

²GIBBON. but each one emphatic. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. a mutilation.²J. and every four hours. and other singulars of plural form. a cruel disappointment. as.²BURKE. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. nor Mahomet.² In a word.² GOLDSMITH. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. No. or considered as appositional.²EMERSON . nor Paul.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. ²EMERSON.² Politics is the only field now open for me. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. A fever. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. (4) When the subject is plural in form. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but considered as meaning about the same thing.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.² The unbought grace of life.Jesus is not dead.²WHITTIER.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. the cheap defense of nations. a loss of wealth. nor John. Q.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. Plural form and singular meaning.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²DE QUINCEY. for example. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.²CRITIC. Between ourselves. for example. is gone. ADAMS. as. seems at the moment unpaid loss. or as making up one general idea. that of a large town. other names. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. a loss of friends.²GOLDSMITH.

Then comes the "Why. every boor.²BUTLER. sir!"²MACAULAY. Plural verb. Every sound. For wide is heard the thundering fray. thus. as well as Europe. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. was listened to for five hours.²M ARNOLD. a cuirass.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. the ruin. as well as the Drama. is a man of wit. sir!" and the "What then. the partisan. and greaves.²NEWMAN. To receive presents or a bribe.²SCOTT. many a. as well as sides.²PRESCOTT. nay. was punished. every valet. no matter if the second is plural). Every fop. The oldest. does not take the place of the man. every echo. no discontinuity.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. as well as the newest. wineBegins to stir itself. sir?" and the "No.²MACAULAY. an impassioned countenance. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²EMERSON. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. and such like adjectives. 441.²ID. was dazzled.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. in a judge.The rout.²ID. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.²RUSKIN. as. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. an agitated gesture.² Asia. the dismay.² There is a right and a wrong in them. Subjects after the verb. There is a moving tone of voice. as. was like to crack.² . Her back. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. The Epic. Here is no ruin. the wit. with death. no spent ball. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. a gorget.The author.²HAWTHORNE. the fine gentleman. no.²LONGFELLOW. almost every day. Every week. each.

²GIBBON. as with a subject of plural form. 440 (5. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. shirt. The travelers.²GOLDSMITH. but the verb is plural.²THOREAU. The Dauphin. a stream of fresh water. A party of workmen were removing the horses. Philip of Anjou.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. a green pasture.²DE QUINCEY. The conjunction may be omitted. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. for example. of whom there were a number. the Duke of Berri.²COLERIDGE. TAYLOR. are sufficient to attract a colony.²FROUDE. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²FRANKLIN.²ADDISON.² GIBBON. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. and its history are alike a mystery to us. were men of insignificant characters.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.² A multitude go mad about it. His clothes.²SCOTT.²CARLYLE But its authorship. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²B. . far away thy children leave the land. making up a plural subject. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. A shady grove. as. All our household are at rest.² One or two of these perhaps survive. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. b). as.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. as in Sec.²SWIFT.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. Conjunction omitted.²EMERSON. Far. its date.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²FROUDE.

nor has she").² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Pattison or I have said. If there is only one person in the subject. that is. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.²M.)." "She or you may be sure.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. 442. as. but thou. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. ARNOLD. of different persons. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. . When the subjects. "He or I can go. "I have never said so.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. This construction is at the best a little awkward. 444. "You would not be wiser.²D. nor should I.²GOLDSMITH.²SMOLLETT. Not I. Ah. General usage. Nothing which Mr. the verb takes the construction of the first person. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. the subject being really equivalent to we. hadst been my lord." or. for example. WEBSTER. 443. Not Altamont.²THACKERAY. Exceptional examples.²DE QUINCEY. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²BYRON." etc.²RUSKIN.²WHITTIER.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. Second or third and first person in the subject. You and I are tolerably modest people. his blood dost shed. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. we never talk politics.²ROWE.²LOWELL. but thou. You and I are farmers.But notice the construction of this.

² TROLLOPE. as we would hope. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 10. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²SMOLLETT.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²BURKE. 12. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.That neither of their intellects are vast." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. The following illustrate exceptional usage. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 7. Neither of them. In a word. Exercise. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²MILTON. In this sentence from Defoe. 8.²THACKERAY.²EMERSON.²BYRON. 9. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. BANCROFT. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 4. 2. as illustrated above (Secs.Her course to intercept.²ADDISON. Both death and I am found eternal. 11.²and. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 446. 6. nor tree. which it is proper to mention. Also in verbals.²perhaps the devil. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. How each of these professions are crowded. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 440-444):² 1. Neither of their counselors were to be present.445. Nor wood.²G. in my opinion. In the following sentence. nor bush are there. 5. 3.²ID. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.

²IRVING. to have divided with her whatever might remain. W. 4. however. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. 3. Exercise. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. But I found I wanted a stock of words. to have seen should be changed to to see. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. Two samples of indirect discourse.²KINGSLEY. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. The present rule is recent." . I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. for exact connection. as. if not. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence..²DE QUINCEY 2. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. Direct discourse²that is. I gave one quarter to Ann.²THACKERAY. Definitions. Of course. change them to a better form:² 1. Indirect discourse means reported speech. 447. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.² PALGRAVE 5. meaning..²FRANKLIN 6. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²R.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. CHURCH. 448. on my return. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²MACAULAY. It should be remarked.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.

Her prudence whispered eternally. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. or regular interrogatives. will. 2.. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. "I cannot oblige you . 449. Oh. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. Sebastian's... and the indirect question by whether or if.. She thought to herself. "Oh. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Direct. His exact words were." etc. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. introductory verb is in the past tense. . Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Direct.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis." Indirect. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person." etc. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. Summary of the expressions. have. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. This includes the auxiliaries be. interrogative adverbs. etc. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. The substance of his lamentation was. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. under interrogative pronouns. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. 1.

with his crew of the Half-moon." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works.²ADDISON. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. . the sound of their balls. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. my first observation will be found nearly true. if this were expanded into a verb. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. the first discoverer of the river and country.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. The trouble is." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. handed down from his ancestor the historian. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. Careless use of the participial phrase. he assured me that nothing was more easy.²B. one summer afternoon. PARTICIPLES. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. Notice this. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example.Exercise. in the sentences first quoted. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²ID. VERBALS. and that he himself had heard. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. FRANKLIN. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. like distant peals of thunder. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. 450. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²GOLDSMITH. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.

²ID.²LAUGHLIN. Adverb between to and the infinitive. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.. purposely or not.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. while defended or excused by others. 2. There are. the first sentence would be. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. This is the more common arrangement. then. avoid it.²SCOTT.Correction. It is a solemn." etc. INFINITIVES. In the following citations. either "As I was pleased. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.²RUSKIN.. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive..²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. 451. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . my first collection was. 3. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. leaving the principal statement as it is. many things to be carefully considered.² HERBERT SPENCER.. Exercise. and often." Exercise. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. . universal assertion. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. if a strike is to succeed. . For example. Standard writers often use it. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase..² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.

9. when such adverbs as only." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. 10.²The Nation. even. Exercise.² ADDISON. I wish the reader to clearly understand. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 7. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. but they are often removed from the exact position.² MACAULAY. 452. 12. this kind of grandeur. but it is placed before the infinitive. The spirits.²DR. which consists in multitude. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .²SCOTT. 8. are used. is to be very cautiously admitted. 13.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.²ID. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. 1533.²RUSKIN. etc.²BURKE.²GOLDSMITH.. 11. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. from Irving. etc. but cannot misunderstand the thought. The rigid rule in such a case would be. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. china. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. No. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. etc. 5. 6. and earthenware.²TROLLOPE.. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. if they modify single words. BLAIR. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. A little sketch of his.4. In works of art. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. therefore. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. Now. ADVERBS. Position of only. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. even.

453.²PALGRAVE. 11.²ID.² THACKERAY. 7. might not marry. He could only afford to keep one old horse. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²SYDNEY SMITH. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. for example. In Old and Middle English. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. ²ASCHAM. . 6. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. WILLIS. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. In relating these and the following laws.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 14. 17. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²MACAULAY. 8.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 2.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 4. 15.²HIGGINSON.²SWIFT.²THACKERAY. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²COOPER.²RUSKIN. 10. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. During the whole course of his administration. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. whence he was never destined to return. 9. 16.²MOTLEY. 13.²N.²CHAUCER. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.1. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²ID. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²EMERSON. The old usage. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. His last journey to Cannes. to avoid a crowd. 3. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Irving could only live very modestly.²MRS. were he never so old of yeares.²ID. He shouted in those clear. 12. No sonne.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. My master. GROTE. P. 5. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.

2.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. Exceptional use. Regular law of negative in modern English. ²PAGE. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.²GROTE."²MRS. The prosperity of no empire. as. and is still kept in vulgar English. the usual way of regarding the question now is.²DEFOE. uncommon. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. if two negatives are found together.²MRS. when one of the negatives is a connective. I did not act so hastily.²HOLMES. There weren't no pies to equal hers. In the execution of this task. denying each other. 6. nor the grandeur of no king. can so agreeably affect. nor never shall. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. 7. Not only could man not acquire such information. This.²HAWTHORNE. Therefore. . However.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. STOWE. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. etc. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. but ought not to labor after it. in Ole Virginia. STOWE. 3. 4. But. Exercise.²LOWELL."²four negatives. who hadn't been to school for nothing. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. 5. is not common. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. In the latter case.² HAMILTON. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²BAYNE. neither.²BURKE. as infrequent. and why:² 1. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. however. under the influence of Latin syntax. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.²DE QUINCEY. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. I never did see him again. one of the negatives is often a prefix.

A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. if the last precedes a verb." Besides neither . and an equivalent pronoun by the other. And who. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. should be scrutinized. there we were. "well worthy to confer honor.. The sentence... CONJUNCTIONS.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. the first ought to be placed before a verb.. if the second precedes a phrase. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.²PRESCOTT. the first should also. neither . even neither . and which. not only to the success of their common cause. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs." . either . 454." may be changed to "This loose .. especially both . Things to be watched. as the use of the conjunction. or.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind."²SCOTT.8..²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it.²LOWELL." both of the above requirements are violated. Correction. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. or to reply to it... or to reply to it. or with advantage... The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.. and. but. not merely . not only . "A weapon. 455. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. Choice and proper position of correlatives.. either.. In the sentence. nor.²SCOTT. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. but to their own safety." said the King. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. as well as of the pronoun. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. or.. The sentences given in Secs. but (also). nor is often changed to not²either .

Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. murder. or but that. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 457. They will. Try and for try to. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²BAIN.² ADDISON. 3. 7. but they will outrage. substitute that. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Try and avoid the pronoun." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. nor the disgrace of assailing him. Now. as. . but grown-up persons. Exercise.²RUSKIN.²ID. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²FRANKLIN. Some exceptions. 6.²THACKERAY. 2. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²MACAULAY. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²GOLDSMITH. 8.Exercise. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. But what. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. and chop up their own kin. etc. O. too. 5.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. not merely interest children. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. but. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to.²THACKERAY. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. but.²GIBBON. 456. In the following sentences.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. or the negative relative but. JEWETT. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. 4. and I don't know but what he was right. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²S. as.

several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 313. 3.²ADDISON.²BURKE.²EMERSON. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.² BULWER.² SWIFT. Between is used most often with two things only.²ADDISON. no separation or division by twos being implied. 6. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 459. PREPOSITIONS. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. see Sec. as already seen in Sec. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. . but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 305. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. Between and among. 458. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²TROLLOPE. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 5. 4. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.2. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.²SCOTT. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.²EMERSON.

LIST I. and Stewart. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. .²KINGSLEY.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Accord with. Acquit of. Kant. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Comply with. 461. Bestow on (upon). as. Conversant with. Averse to. Different from. Two groups or one and a group. by custom. Paley. Dissent from.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. and philosophers like Locke. Such are absolve. Affinity between.: Words with particular prepositions. involve. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Dependent on (upon). etc. correspond. List I. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. and another to convey a different meaning. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conform to. Some of them have. and Coleridge. Derogatory to. different. as. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Mackintosh. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. a soldier of the Cross. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. averse. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Abhorrent to.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Such are derogatory. confer.²RUSKIN What have I.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. or one object and a group. ²EMERSON. 460.

: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Change to (become). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Reconcile with (note below). but it is not good usage." List III. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Confer on (upon) (give to). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. as. "The exile became reconciled to his fate.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. etc. Correspond with (write to). List II. Agree to (a proposal). Involve in. Confide in (trust in). Correspond to (a thing). Confer with (talk with).)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Independent of. LIST II. A taste of (food). . in the sense of making friends with. 462. as. 463. Differ with (note below). Confide to (intrust to). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. as. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Reconcile to (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Change with (a person).y y y Deprive of. LIST III. A taste for (art. Differ from (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with." also of persons. and sometimes creeps into standard books. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Change for (a thing).

It would take me long to die of hunger. Take thought and die for Cæsar." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. expect from. One of them said he would die for her. ELIOT.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. simply from old age.²SCOTT. She died of hard work. die for. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. Who." (material cause. privation.²ADDISON. I am positively dying with hunger. No one died from want at Longfeld. ELIOT. and ill treatment.²MACAULAY. "Die from." (in behalf of).²G. Illustrations of "die of. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²POPE.:² "Die of. If I meet with any of 'em. ²ATHENÆUM. "Die for.²BOSWELL. . It is a man of quality who dies for her.²MACAULAY. die of. Part from.²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH. die with.²BURNETT. People do not die of trifling little colds.²FIELDING. "Die with. Expect of." She would have been ready to die with shame. He died at last without disease. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." etc. as Cervantes informs us.²BULWER. instrument). part with. died for love of the fair Marcella." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. "Die for." (because of).²SHAKESPEARE.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. they shall die by this hand. "Die by.²MACAULAY." "die from. die from.²G.y y y Die by. ²THACKERAY.

"Expect from. 466.²G. It was a little bad of you. Illustrations of "expect of." "part from:"² "Part with. nothing better was to be expected. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²BULWER. 464. Of Doctor P.²POE. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²WALLER." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²G. and hated to part with them. Kind in you. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. 465. as my friend. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. either of or in is used indifferently. "Part from. I have long expected something remarkable from you. That is more than I expected of you. ELIOT." She will expect more attention from you." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²DICKENS. I have just seen her. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²BULWER. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²AUSTEN.²MACAULAY. His precious bag.²TROLLOPE.²WALPOLE.²SCOTT.²G. which he would by no means part from. just parted from her. I can part with my children for their good. ELIOT." To part from you would be misery. . ELIOT.²MARRYAT.²SHAW. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²MACAULAY." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. Illustrations of "part with. With words implying behavior or disposition. kind of you.

is not always the thing that most needs to be done. thunder. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. . may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean.²TENNYSON. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 5. 10. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. tedious perhaps.²CARLYLE. nor green.²DICKENS. raging storms. and ran up the alley. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 9. or which we are most imperatively required to do. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. Very natural in Mr. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 4. thrown it over Amyas's head. But this is idle of you. or artillery. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. In the friction between an employer and workman. This narrative. 11. 3.²BULWER. 7. it is commonly said that his profits are high. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. nor blue. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. with seraphims.He did not think it handsome of you. the vast abyss. 15. 6. 1. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. The noise of vast cataracts. 8.²BEACONSFIELD. 13. Hampden. nor of a pale red. but which the story renders necessary. In. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. Thou tread'st. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12.²BULWER. 14. nor yellow.

The effect of proportion and fitness. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. But every man may know. 36. 25. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. save Amyas. and almost as good as a pony. 20. . 26. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. and other angular figures. triangles. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 22. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. or how beautiful it is. what is a just and unjust act. 30. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 23. 21. the acquiescence of the understanding. you or me. Squares. 32. 24. You have seen Cassio and she together. 38. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 35. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. were down with raging fever. 33. 17. That night every man of the boat's crew. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Friday. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 28. Every one of these letters are in my name. 18. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy.) 34. 19. 411. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach.I would wish me only he. 16. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. (Sec. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. When the glass or liquor are transparent. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 27. produce approbation. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. but in the price paid to them. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 31. 29.And were I anything but what I am. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 37. and most of us do know.

voice. origin of. He had four children. article. nouns.000 between them. 124. A. pronouns. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 98. 107.39. 47. 260. 20. 124. nominative. from nominative clauses. (3) Modern English. 25. of. 89. 91. syntax uses Absolute. as. 40. 90. 133. of. from about 1500 to the present time. 47. 310. adjectives. of. (2) Middle English. 102. adverbs used complements. 116. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. of. . 239. Adjectives. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 92. INDEX. of. 119. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. demonstrative. Abstract with Active Address. as comparison definition demonstrative. numeral. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. Between each was an interval where lay a musket.

as nouns. 27. 303. 328. 42. of. 114. predicate. 183. 242. 148. 116. 190. parse. form as as they to in as uses uses of. quality. 99. 325. adjectives. of. 323. antecedent. plural pronominal. 27. 190. 239. parse. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. of. 184. of. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. with with with subject. adjectives. 207. quantity. between of. 207.from function how in not of of ordinal. nouns. infinitive. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 115. from to of. 262. 101. conjunction. 316. modify. 302. 109. 106. of. of. 116. antecedent. compared. to used of. . Against. objective. 303. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. clauses. adjectives. 291. sentence. 103. 194. 97. Agreement. 191. conjunctions. 195. 48. 194. 287. 187. 325. 275. of. 104. and 185. nouns. Alms.

of and pronoun of. 225. words between. adjective. 240. pronouns. 296. 120. 295. and. 49. syntax As. 124. 74. it. See with definition complex compound simple who. sentences. uses As At. 47. 252. though. Anacoluthon Analysis. sentences. 84. 208. sentences. as uses verbs. of. derivation in definite. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 275. which. 231. which. of. after of. Are. 287.Among. 150. 294. definition how indefinite. of. 101. 271. which. 207. 264. 51. 90. See 74. . 300. 331. agreement personal as pronoun. syntax. 79. An. possessive. 67. to of. of of of And Antecedent. Auxiliary if. 198. Arrangement Articles. Agreement. 127. same. in in. of. parse. of. 67. 120. A. 148. definition of of of Any. 309.

47. with But By. of nouns. uses of. See of. 45. of pronouns. 283. 262. uses nominative of. 46. Case. plurals of. 49. pronoun. of what. objective. 46. 161. conjunctions Cherub. number of. definition could. forms. of nouns. 62. clauses of. uses Better. 260. . Among. 194. Brethren. 262. of. Clause.Bad. comparison conjugation of. 66. of pronouns. 48. nominative. syntax of. 110. 110. 64. 39. of pronouns. possessive. 278. 150. 278. But. 111. 195. of. in Old and Modern English. of pronouns. 37. 84. Bridegroom. 279. best. 149. 224. Children. Be. Can. double possessive. adverb. 54. of nouns. 63. 39. of nouns. 279. of. Cause. 330. Between. 210. adjective. Case.

305. 189. Clomb. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. nouns. predicate of and from from of. in analysis. 107. . plural of. clothes. 108. 258. adjectives. definition degrees irregular. double. of. superlative. 263. 24. 307. material. of. 244. 110. Cloths. 315. of. verb. 271. 239. adverbs. nouns. English. subject. infinitive. 113. 257. 43. 257. 18. of. 157.definition kinds noun. 43. of. proper. defective. 257. sentence. 248. of. and sentence. 108. 111. nouns. 264. of. of. 18. and forms of. 12. 307. 23. predicate. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 312. 53. 268. Cleave. analysis of. 158.

195. coördinate. 289. pronoun. 138. conjunction. 199. 255. 66. pronoun. subjunctive. sentences. Conjunctions. 196. sentences. conjunctions. of. other other parts of speech. of. 143. See analysis clauses. to of. sentence. 139. parse. analysis. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. Dative Declarative Declension of case. replaced by objective. 151. definition how subordinate. same words. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. See in subjunctive. of of Conjunctions. Agreement. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. in Old vs.with Concord. 263. 269. 188. See English. 195. and clause. adverbs. Can. correlative. 73. interrogative pronouns. 207. . 194. 194. 231. 193. 149. 328. 194. conjunctions. definition be. verbs. 149. pronouns.

of. 185. Degrees. See adjectives. See 148. of. 242. comparative. by. 288. See See 48. 91. 99. clause. 303. 333. adverbs See adjectives. pronouns. 102. passive adjectives. nouns. Subordinate clause. 300. vs. 152. with of. article. 160. 80. 35. verb. pronouns. Comparative. 51. 320. duck. . for. from. with. pronouns. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. possessive. Comparison. Articles. of. discourse. Case. tenses. of personal relative verbs. use of dies. 60. indirect. 315. nouns. of.Declension. 90. pronouns. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 102. 43. 242. object. 287. 26.

of subject. another. of. pronoun. 32. 102. 328. in 'Em. 62. Either. ending. 33. pronouns. older. of. 110. 194. object. 38.Drank. of. of. plural. adjective. 257. -En. 92. other. 33. Each. pronoun. complement. 158. the of sentence. 255. vulgar. 240. 12. error in sentence. drunk. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 287. of. literary. 90. 90. Empress. possessive suffix. 92. conjunction. 92. 51. original. 112. of. Elements Ellipsis. suffix. 39. 287. one ( t). 300. 241. 299. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 40. . 158. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 34. 234. feminine plural English. 280. to suffix. predicate. spoken. 42. adjective. added suffix.

of. 189. 48. with infinitive. 102. 112. 102. of. 45. 334. 148. first. used of. See Gander. 112. 212. 32. two. 152. pronoun. 30. object. definition distinguished in English. uses Foreign Former. nouns. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. with in sex. First. Further. of." 31. gender. From. have adjective. plurals. 103. 319.. etc. Feminine. 211. adjective. For. other languages. 29. from. the. 30. 235. 30. perfect. as a noun. Farther. Few. as of from compared marking. 212. modes "common goose. 43.Every. fishes. 36.. uses redundant. 147. etc. Future Future tense. . expect gone. to of. 287. First Fish. 152. two a further. 91. 238. 110. 308. 126. Gender. few.

of. its. 144.of of Genii. Gerund. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. Grammar. rather. it. 285. 80. 231. on. adjective. 35. 61. for before. 60. 177. of. an better. Got. 10. 145. from participle of. forms in Girl. 175. definition divisions opinions province H. 43. 275. had hung. pronouns. participle. of. 176. distinguished syntax. first sentence. definition basis of. she. 120. personal relative geniuses. possessive pronouns. His Husband. 101. pronoun. 13. 36. Government. 12. kinds of. I. 12. . 9. of. 159. noun. 61. 60. and case verbal with. He. 159. person. Had Hanged. 173.

See you. Questions.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 248. 227. 233. 85. of clause. indices. of. of. your. 323. of. 320. of. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 105. 276. pronoun. 257. 283. transitive. in compared syntax. Direct object. elements. 231. 176. 178. 131. 245. 72. questions. 131. See Articles. 73. pronouns. 110. indirect of. with of. 188. . 319. 136. mood. adverbs. adjectives. uses discourse. questions. words. adjectives. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. use article. 153. a object. 67. 93. summary See passive mood. sentence. 43. verbs. meaning.

170. lord. syntax. 102. adjective." history etc. 227. 245. of. 61. plural. and See words in. 12. queen. 67. 281. Like. 126.. Lay. latest. of. subject form. 110. 303. a vs. etc. Logic Logical Lord. lie.adverbs. King. syntax the. in little. 36. uses Literary Little. 91. 113. predicate. It. Kind. of. Latter. 110. 276. 36. English. Lay. these double kind. See Madam. 113. Lie. pronoun. Less. Lady. was uses me. .. Kine. 190. 36. Lady. 189. 39. 226. lesser. of. -Ly. 63. "It Its. Last.

36. 102.. Means. 287. May. might. 185. 135. 194. nigh. construction as of adverb. conjunctions Many. Modifier. Much. 188. subjunctive. 328. 137. of. indicative. 160. syntax conjunction. out of. adjective. 256. 326. 137-144. . Many Mapping Mare. double.Manner. of. 126. 112. 113. See definition 136. mine. 112. 114. of. Negative. Modifiers. Neither. -Most. of. 34. Mood. Enlargement. syntax nearer. 325. of. position adverb. in adverbs comparison a. mistress. Master. 161. sentences. 110. 64. 189. of. 187. Must. of. superlatives. etc. 195. imperative. of. 144. Mighty Mine. 41. 112. 110. comparison Near. 189. 110. 265.

of. 17. 18. common. 30. 301. 45. 92. 27. and figures. proper. 258. 41. 25. 246. 41. 126. 30. See 194. Case. syntax in gender nouns. gender nouns. etc. 38. 300. abstract.pronoun. class used singular. 29. used as. 46. 125. 17. Not Noun Nouns. 38-41. of. 20. to use. Nor. abstract. 17 19. 56. 46. to of. 30. 42. syntax Neuter or two News. 21. 19. of. letters as 24. foreign. half abstract. 26. No Nominative. of of of of of a. become neuter. of. 328. of. gender how kinds material. formed. words how compound. number once other plural. of. material. definition according of. definition descriptive. clause. parse. . of. become become formation case collective. nouns. etc. 32. 41 43. 124. 25. now plural. nouns. analysis. None. kinds 90. in.

adjectives. 66. etc. plural no two singular construction. 39. form. See in in in Numeral distributive. 42 44. with with with Now Number. 242. 279. 121. 48. personal. 101. of. . 48. adverbial. of. meanings. 106. pronouns. singular. of. 278. and analysis. 42. 92. of. become syntax use with with with Nouns. nominative. of. dative. 278. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 148. 41. of different possessive definite of. 48. 240. 60. 242. Numeral Object.of same two with proper. 235. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 102. meaning. spoken of instead nouns. 41. 48. in nouns. conjunction. See verb. 196. 18. 195. 48. common. 42. 285. passive adverbial. indirect. singular. preposition. 124. verbs. in article. 101. English. Nouns. 281. plural. definite. indefinite. with case. article. 23. plural form. 282. 41. or plural. as forms titles. Preposition.. pronouns. of. adjectives. 43.

Ordinal Other Ought. 103. 237. Pains. 56. 233. definite relative uses of. of upon. 87. Omission On. adverbs. See the as of. 116. another. 306. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 191. 216. 325 275. treatment comparatives. 293. as other. position Order. 56. of. articles. 127. 117. 101. conjunction. Older. of of of of of models adjectives. 93 other. uses numeral pronoun. 64. Ourself. 115. 91. 161. of syntax. as of. One. Oxen. 38. nouns. Elder. pronoun. adjective. inverted. 194. 103. 279. adverb. for. part analysis. See pronoun. with (the). conjunctions. of. 41.syntax Of. a in adjectives. . 69. Each adjective. of. ours. 94. 199. 213. Our. Parsing.

180. them. 181. 61. 64. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 59. absolute with of. verb idioms it from. of. pronoun. 179. in. 63. 173. 56. 219. Person. 69. verbs. possessive and of. 95. 43. 322. included various. of. 62. verbals. 43. from definition other of. . phrases. agreement of verb nouns. 70. speech. phrase. 172. of. 317. pennies. 177. pease. 56. -ing words. Pence. 148. of. 100. predicate use of. 62. reflexive. article 150. part adjective.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 28. relatives. with. 281. 59. 27. nominative. 172. pronouns. or of. used as voice. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 247. 119. not is. 287. of. 80. 134. parsed. verbs. 59. of. of. and subject in. 174. 335. antecedent. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. pronouns.

plural. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 52. 206. kinds infinitive. of. appositional. 49. 248. Nouns. 278. of nouns. Place. of. . nouns. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 60. 64. singular degree. complete. of. pronouns. 54. 67. nouns. nouns. double. of. objects. 281. vs. adverbs of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 53. 245. 25. of. 247. in of. simple. 245. 278. pronoun. 63. relative. 235. it. of. Personification. or See of of See 185. 50. 247. participial. pronoun. syntax of of Politics. 106. 232. of. Positive Possessive. 's. spoken of. 188. 41. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 61.objective syntax table triple uses of. 241. as double. 53. English. See 60. antecedent of of pronouns. of. of Phrase. 281. 303. Personal subjective. Comparison. 37. 236. omitted. prepositional. 51. 303. 195. adjectives. 285. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. singular. noun nouns. 236.

59. 332. 301. case. of. plural. neither. 206. 187. each either. 105. 203. of. 104. interrogative. usually to as than. of. adjective. objective. plural. in exclamations. parse. 202. of. 208. of. 105. and one with else's. what. 72. Pronouns. 285. words. 299. somebody definition how indefinite. interrogative. verbs. 93. 64. future. objective. any. 302. 89. 58. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. expressed as other of. 283. of. all. by parts of of. case. by with shown certain of. 280. for predicate nominative. 58. another. 132. 284. 32. 129. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. by. and form form form form of. speech. possessive nominative to of. 287. meaning. 303. .Prefixes. 331. 300. 219. who personal. singular usually other. 279. same used as adjectives. as antecedent of relative. Prepositions. 203. 186. plural. 300. parse. 333. 207. forms of. 147. as 54. 95. 195. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 205. after but. exclamatory. 283. adverb. with tense certain. 282. none. as. 281. of.

parse. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. same antecedent. agreement anacoluthon and as. in. See of. of. 85. discourse. 80. 195. 74. from and interrogative. 293. 295. 189. 84. Quotations. unrestrictive. 68. 58. in. 87. indirect compound. 74. 101. . of. Questions. which after same. 188. and relatives. questions. 74. pronouns. Rank. 297. indirect. use of history formed. or of. 263. 289. use in as. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 87. which. pronominal pronouns indirect. of. Quantity. to of.possessive relative. of. and which. 295. conjunctions Quality. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. with who. of. 142. 286. Direct same and different. 105. personal pronoun. and antecedent. nouns. Nouns. 289. pronoun. 85. 83. of. 296. 293. that. who. 99. of. Rather. in. with with gerund. of. 69. 291. of. 279. 69. adverbs in.

Seeing. sentence. 319. 255. which. would. will. object.syntax use Result. simple. Sex Shall. 252. pronoun. conjunction. in form. of. 162. 40. 26 271. of. kinds Sequence Set. plural possessive as. of. S. 159. complex. who. 231. 43. effect. 29. of. elliptical. definition . tenses. 263. clauses of. gender. that. 289. Simple in sate. forms shots. Self Sentences. Shot. 51. reflexive analysis of compound. in of. 159. and should. ending. 196. 42. 259. suffix. 294. See Sentences. 196. Shear. of of of complex Sentences. Same Sat. 231. of sit. simple of. 170. 'S. 69. 74. conjunctions Retained Riches. 242. 195.

126. of. 36. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. to of. phonetic in infinitive. 138. English. etc. these number. 257. 257. 245. 258. sort. 144. of. definition 67. 38. -en. disuse in spoken complete. literary clause. used mood. 38. as. 257. 33.Singular Sir. in Middle English. 260. 303. vs. adverb. 257. of. Somebody Sort. 245. 32. 12. 169. 258. Modern use becoming else's. of. Spelling Spinster. adverb. 240. 258. distinguish. Split Spoken -Ster. names as a. 262. of. 137. See -En. 303. 186. of. English. Subject. -es. . 233. of. logical. definition how kinds noun. 33. 270. English. 323. in feminine suffix. verbs. 237. for. other Such Such Suffix -s.. English. 144.

See etc. English. in Modern number sequence table Than That. Tenses." introductory. 191. Kind. 186. plural as adverb. auxiliaries. they.. 148. when as of. as adverbs. 289. 147. of. in comparison. 307. as history syntax Their.. than of. adverbs. meaning made up in Old of. of.. 152. 120. 277. coördinating. classical of. degree. There These kind. of languages. 186. 87. . form. definition in English Tense. 33. 306. 61. 222. 319. 147. Then. "the then foreign. as history The. subject. in double. objects. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 306. 290. not suggesting adjectives. restrictive. adjectives. 280. 88. of. two basis not same definition definite. meaning. object. king. 147. 123. 116. 297. of. of . me. which. and and of. 106. omission whom. 189. 108. this. 119. 106. that uses That. 309. syntax of. 109. 275. article. 275. 107.Suffixes. of. when relative. English. of. of. of.

parse. of. 33. thee. 195. 173. from cleft to 174. 119. uses history of. suffix. Try Two Under. thy. 308. 175. kinds participle. Thou. 114. infinitive. 180. 172. 247. tother. 114. 322. first adjective.These. uttermost. 175. adverbs those. first. of. words. certain as the before with of. carelessly uses syntax this. 181. 128. 20. conjunctions prepositions To. in omitted uses T'other. preposition.. of. 217. 175. Utter. 330. in of. 248. gerund. -ing 111. 61. other noun. how infinitive. of. 114. See That. -Trix. try two. feminine and. Time. Upper. used. analysis. . exclamations. of. 176. to. See On. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. infinitive. 323. phrases. uses of. 207. of. 322. etc. 21. Upon. of. 172. 188. verbs. 185.

151. 154. but uses what. 242. 312-316. change. past tense formed nominative. 167. retained object with passive. verbs by. 159. 12. of. defective. Vocative in Voice. definition of. phonetic. table of irregular.Verbs. 236. formed by. voice of. 245. passive. spelling of. tense of. 149. transitive and intransitive. 148. 148. how to parse. verbs. 320. 154. with subject in number. definition of. 154. analysis. active meaning. auxiliary. 155. 317. person and number of. weak. becoming irregular. 319. made transitive. passive form. conjugation of. in person. in indirect discourse. 160. intransitive. 169. mood of. 312. What. 330. 169. . active. definition of. syntax of. table of. agreement of. 167. of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 129. 150. 47. Vixen. 179. 131. sequence of. 33. 133. 39. strong. 133. of incomplete predication. 134. 223. 135. 157. regular. remarks on certain. 147. 130. of English.

85. 295-299. . With. would. referring syntax Widower. English. questions. pronoun. relative. Who. uses See Shall. 77. in in indefinite objective. plural of in nouns -ing. 126. 105. 72. relative indirect relative. a. 190. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. etc. 246. pronoun. 299. 32. 37. 73. questions.. 36. relative. Yes ending analysis. whereto. direct of. 104. of. worser. 36. questions. in -ly. 79. 296. 85. Witch. Whether. 72. 194. 40. Woman. 75. in. antecedent adjective. Will. 105. 178. of. 75. 72. 78. spoken in of. Words in Worse. wizard.what Whereby. interrogative Which. 111. 218. 83. Y. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 85. 83. animals. Wife. questions. conjunction.

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