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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. Coming back. to those who have studied the language historically. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. An æsthetic benefit. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Making rules is risky. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. from the question. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. their forms. however. it will at the same time. Authority as a basis. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. we have tabulated the inflections of the language." and "Syntax. but this is bad English now. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. "Analysis. A broader view.The province of English grammar is." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. its peculiar and abundant idioms. If. rightly considered. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. there is still much for the grammarian to do. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. Surely our noble language. as compared with Latin or Greek. then. This will take in the usual divisions. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar")." What grammar is. Mental training. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. The work it will cover. Few inflections. with its enormous vocabulary. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. if rightly presented. is worthy of serious study. as. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. . Literary English. and their uses and relations in the sentence. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). assist the classification of kindred expressions. It is also evident. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). so that a small grammar will hold them all. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. and thus incite his observation.

The following pages will cover. and the word nation stands for a whole group. 1. In the more simple state of the Arabs. and will are evidently names of a different kind. Spoken English.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. the nation is free. or Syntax. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. by which is meant the free. The Parts of Speech. Part III.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times.²GIBBON. reference will be made to vulgar English. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. the words sons and master name objects. PART I. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Occasionally. or standard. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. The plainest name is Arabs. as they stand for ideas. Vulgar English. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. Such words are called nouns. three divisions:² Part I. NOUNS. which belongs to a people. submission. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. . unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. not objects. The words state. and may belong to any of those objects. The Uses of Words.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. too. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. but. Part II. besides this one. and Inflections. then. Analysis of Sentences. from the eighteenth century on. that is.

representing directly to the mind an object. because each group is considered as a unit. or thing. is from a Latin word which means general. ATTRIBUTE. Name for a group or collection of objects. Classes of nouns. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Besides considering persons. animals. MATERIAL. possessed by all. and things separately. whether person. (b) Common. or the man in front of you. as here used. we may think of them in groups. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. a committee. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. They properly belong under common nouns. Common. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. etc. reducing it to a narrow application. animals. substance. or a mob. . the man here.Definition. A noun is a name word. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. place. Thus. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Collective. For instance. belonging to one. This does not imply. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. 3. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. or a congress. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. 2. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Individual. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. 5. Name for any individual of a class. but Chicago names one city. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. or idea. however. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or a council. (a) 4. and appropriate names to the groups. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Abstract. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. men in groups may be called a crowd. We may say. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Proper. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or things. Thus.

they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. or action. etc. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. considered abstractly. (3) Geological bodies: mud. gold. but it is taken merely as a name. frost. The quality is still there as much as before. etc. or that which shows a thing has been proved. earth. 7. wheat. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. proof means the act of proving. moon. however. conditions. dew. sand. there is no such intention. world. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. earth. cloud. . etc. wheat. and fasten a special name to the object considered. tea." "a man of understanding. "Painting is a fine art. frost. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. but which are not called proper names. rubber. Such are glass. or actions. (4) Natural phenomena: rain.. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. or apart from their natural connection. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. as in calling a city Cincinnati. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. When we speak of a wise man. platinum. but in the words sun. It may. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. etc. The reason is. celluloid. expressing state. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. 6. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). granite. and so on. paint. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. clay. Words naturally of limited application not proper. snow. not things. etc. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. NOTE. wine. soap. we may say. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. Names of ideas. .Names for things thought of in mass. etc. instead of to each individual or separate object.²There are some nouns. sugar. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. rice. such as sun. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. potash. sugar." "Learning is hard to acquire. etc. stone. mist. iron. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. Again. rain. we speak of the wisdom of the man. rock." 9. condition. expressing attributes or qualities. They remain common class names.

II. there is time for such reasonings. "a long run" "a bold move. energy. the teachings of the High Spirit. childhood from child." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. her longing for their favor. the main bearings of this matter. etc. lightning. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. those opinions and feelings. hope.Attribute abstract nouns. the rude drawings of the book. thunder. etc. mastery from master. theft from thieve.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. 273). feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. Such are beauty. etc. winter. joy. action from act. Verbal abstract nouns. by altering its function. service from serve. They are only the husks of verbs.. the moon caused fearful forebodings. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. . in the beginning of his life. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. shadow. the great Puritan awakening. kingship from king. as their name implies. NOTE. etc. night. five proper. (1) prudence from prudent." "a brisk walk. speech from speak. Caution. stupidity from stupid. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. summer. is used as a noun. as glad²joy. To avoid difficulty. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. 10. hopeful²hope. five abstract. The verb. They cannot govern a word. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. (2) peerage from peer. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. Exercises. height from high. redness from red. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. ease. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. the well-being of her subjects. he spread his blessings over the land. 272. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. Thus. as in the expressions. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. but are merely names of actions. and they cannot express action. day. a wedding or a festival. 1. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. 12. Underived abstract nouns.

catarrh. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . mathematics? 3. geology. (b) branches of knowledge. as pneumonia. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. diphtheria. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4.2. typhus. as physics. pleurisy. Using a dictionary. algebra.

The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. Nouns change by use. 15. Others of similar character are calico. arras. "The cook made the irons hot. from a town in France. from Damascus.²EMERSON. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. as a davy. for example. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. levant and morocco (leather). above. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. 119). the guillotine. 13. a Bentham. who was its inventor. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from Corinth. from the name of Dr. Proper names transferred to common use. a Locke. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. but we may say. thus. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Guillotin. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. and lo! a new system. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. etc. in Portugal. but most of them are in the following groups. We know a number of objects made of iron. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin." referring to flat- . the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. the word port. damask. from China. a Lavoisier. it imposes its classification on other men. or to go over to it entirely. 14. Sodom was famous for wickedness. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Material nouns may be used as class names. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. a Fourier. port (wine). a Hutton. from Calicut. from Oporto. currants.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength.

In lightnings owned his secret stings. or the arts and sciences.²BRYANT. and so on. be spoken of. candies. Personification of abstract ideas. mists. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. are abroad. etc. slates. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. a rubber for erasing marks. or used as class nouns. From all around²Earth and her waters. coals. clouds. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. to prowl or to moan like night birds. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. on fire. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Class nouns in use.²PERCIVAL. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. purity. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. Death. that disposition is the thing to be created. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. This is a poetic usage. nor are they common class nouns. For example. the abstract idea is partly lost. (3) By poetical use. Traffic has lain down to rest. as stones. Next Anger rushed. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. but differ in strength.²HAYNE. that the power of art is founded on fact. his eyes. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. tins. oils. and say teas. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. are still names of abstract ideas. papers.²BYRON. clays. The words preceded by the article a. tobaccos. which are made plural. Test this in the following sentences:² . a steel to whet a knife on. These are the same in material. 17.²CARLYLE. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. or made plural. abstract in meaning. smiled. 16. When it is said that art differs from science. They are not then pure abstract nouns. not material things. and only Vice and Misery. though not confined to verse. that is. or. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.irons.²RUSKIN. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. paints. etc. of certain words necessarily singular in idea.²COLLINS. A halfway class of words. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. but in case an art or a science. but on dispositions which require to be created.

²IRVING. which belongs to another word. were mere terrors of the night.²SHAKESPEARE. fear thy blow. Adverbs.² GOLDSMITH." "the State Bank Tax bill. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. sir!" and the "What then.The Solitary can despise. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. Conjunctions. NOTE. Then comes the "Why.²EMERSON. as descriptive adjectives are. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. or from any expression. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. make our own so. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions." "a New York bank. nouns used to modify." which contains a pure adjective. but is still a noun. sir!"²MACAULAY . But ah! those pleasures. 18. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. and joysWhich I too keenly taste." "a morning walk.²BURNS. if we must have great actions. 19. etc. Every why hath a wherefore. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. Nouns used as descriptive terms. meaning a walk in the morning. loves. they do not express quality. Adjectives. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. or describe it.²SHAKESPEARE. When I was young? Ah. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. "a family quarrel. however. sir?" and the "No. they cannot be compared. By ellipses. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. a bank in New York. the wealthy. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.Let us." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. as each repeated pleasure tired. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. for example.² BURNS. They are more like the possessive noun. All these. a bill as to tax on the banks. And still.

is ambiguous. so. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. 4. whether it mean the sun or the cold. why and wherefore. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Learning. 5.Nor iron bars a cage. . 8. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. Now. of words rather than of their meaning. Exercise. 2. and Then. that the above cases are shiftings of the use." or "legal. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. Power laid his rod aside. the terms the great. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. etc. that cobweb of the brain. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. however.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. The it. or a faithful domestic. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. In the other sentences. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 6. but have an adjectival meaning. FRANKLIN. Caution. 3.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. at the beginning." and another of Dr. without reference to its function in the sentence. or a state secret. It is to be remembered. to such words as become pure nouns by use. 7. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. too. When. 1. are used.. Stone walls do not a prison make. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. or a criminal. 20. the wealthy. NOTE. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. of course.²These remarks do not apply. and tell to which class each belongs. in a sentence above. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. in speaking of the principal of a school. There are many of these."²B. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. is the word "just. When. but as a figure of speech.

But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 24. for every dropHinders needle and thread. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. that waits you here. returned to Spain. 11. 19. female. 21. It is founded on sex. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 17. the welcome. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 13. GENDER. 10. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. always feminine. 18. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 15. but not so in English. And see. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. German. A fool speaks all his mind. What gender means in English. 14. Greek. and many other languages. The hours glide by. 16. 23. 12. shattered and disabled. 21. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast.You seize the flower. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving.9. .Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. There are exceptions even to this general statement. But pleasures are like poppies spread. the silver moon is gone. always masculine. In Latin. he cried. 20. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. The fleet. its bloom is shed. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. Male beings are.Fair guests. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. and names of females are usually feminine. in English grammar. 22. A little weeping would ease my heart.

²masculine and feminine. . those with which man comes in contact often. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock.² I have seenA curious child . that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. der Tisch (table) is masculine. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders.. 23. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. if there were any signs of life in it. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. according to use. in English. No "common gender. the sex being of no consequence. "A little child shall lead them. Of animals. clapping his burnished wings. Neuter nouns. are named by gender nouns. those which do not distinguish sex. and neuter nouns. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. with its gizzard under its wing." . in other languages gender follows the form. however.²LAMB. or names of things without life. if of the female sex. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. but are spoken of as neuter. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Thus. or which arouse his interest most." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. that pattern of a husband.. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. mensa (table) is feminine. For instance: in Latin. He next stooped down to feel the pig. Gender nouns. must be divided into two principal classes. das Messer (knife) is neuter. Gunpowder .. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.² IRVING. Hence: Definition. 24.. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. 22. the name of it is masculine. or additions to words. in German. All nouns. and consequently without sex. The great difference is. according to their use. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.²IRVING.²gender nouns. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. that is. the name of it is feminine. came to a stand just by the bridge. then.When.. hortus (garden) is masculine.. inanimate things are spoken of. the word child is neuter in the sentence. those distinguishing the sex of the object. corpus (body) is neuter.

These remain in vixen and spinster. . and for the older word fat they said vat. of course. or the lack of it..[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. as in wine vat. II. 27. (2) By adding a suffix.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Native suffixes. though both words have lost their original meanings. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. he-bear²she-bear. is. domestic. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. servant. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. generally to a masculine word. teacher. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. I. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Male nouns beings. from the masculine fox. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. 29. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. as he-goat²she-goat. woman. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. Gender shown by Prefixes. Gender shown by Suffixes. relative. The inflections for gender belong. they are neuter words. If such words as parent. cousin. Hence vixen is for fyxen. For fox they said vox.25. Very few of class I. ruler. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Put in convenient form. 28. etc. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. According to the definition. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. for from they said vram. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. 26. puts a prefix before the masculine man. only to masculine and feminine nouns. the division of words according to sex. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. but spinster has now no connection with it. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. One feminine.

-ess (French esse. as czarina. song-str-ess. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Low Latin issa). Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. donna. Slightly changed and widely used. as seam-stress. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or).The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. señorita. 30. but in most cases it has not. as. executrix. it has none now in the words huckster. Unaltered and little used. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . Ending of masculine not changed.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. gamester. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. and are never used for words recognized as English. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. trickster. punster.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. the one most used. as. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. These are attached to foreign words. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words.

or servauntesse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. Thus. as in the fourteenth century. others have in their origin the same root." III. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. to represent persons of either sex. we use the masculine termination. 31. etc. neighboresse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Some of them have an interesting history. as. neighbor (masculine and feminine). the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. editor. wagoness. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. 32. Instead of saying doctress.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. frendesse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. chairman. from the French -esse. fosteress. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as. NOTE. as was said in the sixteenth century. teacheresse. from Latin imperatricem. teacher or lady teacher.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. the ending -ess. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Gender shown by Different Words. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. In some of these pairs. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. We frequently use such words as author.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. we use the feminine.

² . the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. became identical. the old sign of the masculine. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Icelandic gás. Widower.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. among others) to be from the same root word. leaving our word drake. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). written loverd. Madam is the French ma dame. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. 34. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. widuwa²widuwe. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Personification. The older forms. 33. Two masculines from feminines. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). as in many other words. gand-ra. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. not immediately connected with witch. probably meaning house dweller). had the masculine mearh (horse). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Danish gaas. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. 16). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. though both are ultimately from the same root. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). lhauerd. finally gander. for example. Mare. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. from Latin mea domina. in Old English mere. Besides gander and drake. Witch is the Old English wicce. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. or lauerd in Middle English. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. The masculine was formed by adding -a. but this has long been obsolete. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Three letters of ened have fallen away.). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. etc.

Her home is on the deep. for instance. together with the third. In nouns. and not by the form of the noun.²singular and plural.²KEATS. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Britannia needs no bulwarks. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. etc. Definition.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. The -en inflection. eyen (eyes). number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. in Old English. Our language has two numbers. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 39. But other words were inflected afterwards. 36. . shoon (shoes). NUMBER. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. This is not exclusively a poetic use. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. whenever we adopt a new word.No towers along the steep. that is. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.²CAMPBELL. The first two methods prevailed. (2) By changing the root vowel. treen (trees). But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.²COLERIDGE. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. the engineer speaks so of his engine. more than one."²BYRON.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. 35. I. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. Effect of personification. 38. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. the plural. 37."Now. (3) By adding -s (or -es). In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.

² "God bless me! so then. then brothre or brethre. or if preceded by the prepositions in. The words horse and foot. II. Such are box. lens. sheep. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. turf.²THOREAU. dozen.The horse are thousands ten. 42. pair. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. cannon. retain the same form for plural meaning. glass. people. salmon. head.²WHITTIER. etc. Akin to this class are some words. quartz. III. 40. into Frederick town.Horse and foot. but they now add the ending -s.²MACAULAY. The weakening of inflections led to this addition."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. Kine is another double plural. wight.²Over the mountains winding down. folk. after numerals (if not after numerals. borough²formerly had the same inflection. such as deer. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. Brethren has passed through three stages. finally brethren. but has now no singular. . Examples of this inflection are. ditch.-En inflection imitated by other words. swine. etc. as. when they mean soldiery. as. brace. Lee marched over the mountain wall. The old plural was brothru. that have the singular and plural alike. Children has passed through the same history.² The foot are fourscore thousand. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. sail. heathen. originally neuter. Other words following the same usage are. 41. and get settled. Instead of -s. by. and is still found in dialects. they add -s): also trout. cross. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. etc. after all. Plurals formed by Vowel Change.

summons. volcano² volcanoes. house²houses.²PROF. negro²negroes.² Politics. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . and some -es. as. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. e. Examples of these are. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. politics. economics. that when thy summons comes. mathematics. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. Means plural. Some words are usually singular. means: as. optics. etc. however. Two words. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. The lilie on hir stalke grene. fairies. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes.g. When such words take a plural ending. So live. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. half²halves. the Washingtons.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. physics. e. race²races. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. Special Lists.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. hero²heroes. etc. DANA. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe.-Es added in certain cases. these words ended in -ie. also news. shelf²shelves. and go over to other classes (Secs.²BRYANT.g. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. chaise²chaises.. some adding -s. niche²niches. though this sound combines readily with -s. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). 43. and the real ending is therefore -s. pains (care). is both the science and the art of government. in its widest extent. means and politics.. a new syllable is made. Proper nouns are regularly singular. 44. prize²prizes. they lose their identity. It served simply as a means of sight. etc. knife²knives. the Americas. allies. 45. fancies. molasses. 15 and 17). though they are plural in form. etc. Formerly. and many branches of learning. Words in -ies. quoth then that ladie milde. daisies.

Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. A relic which. if I recollect right. 46. . Politics plural. I say.Words. Besides this. W.²BURKE. Some words have no corresponding singular. LAUGHLIN. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²GOLDSMITH.² MACAULAY. however.²IRVING. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. Now I read all the politics that come out. it is furnished with a forceps.²MOTLEY. by strongly conveying the passions. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. CURTIS. By these means.²J. riches will accumulate.²GOLDSMITH. by those means which we have already mentioned. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. L.²G.²GOLDSMITH. Sometimes. With great dexterity these means were now applied. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.

DANA. sixpence.² I lisped in numbers.The air. (2) literature. pea²peas (separately). index²indexes (to books). Two classes of compound words. shot²shot (collective balls). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). making a double plural. number²numbers: (1) figures. fishes (individuals or kinds). or copies. etc. etc.). part²parts: (1) divisions. clothes (garments). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.²POPE. two plurals. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. In speaking of coins. dice (for gaming). (2) poetry. or work in a bellows?²PROF. for the numbers came. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. genius²geniuses (men of genius). In Early Modern English thank is found. Tell me not. One plural.²one corresponding to the singular. brethren (of a society or church). These make the last part plural. 50. fish²fish (collectively). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. twopence. (2) care. two meanings. 48. riches. genii (spirits). in mournful numbers. 49.. as in the lines.²was it subdued when. faculties. carry off chaff. penny²pennies (separately). (2) revenue duties. Three words were originally singular. Numbers also means issues. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. eaves. pease (collectively). pence (collectively).. or epistles. as two sixpences. . of a periodical. shots (number of times fired).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. die²dies (stamps for coins..²LONGFELLOW. trouble. the other unlike it. ways. may add -s. indices (signs in algebra). (2) abilities. Other words have one plural form with two meanings.

but add -s. as the Messrs. . then Silas Peckham. Briggs. manservant. the Drs. Brown. woman singer. and then the three Miss Spinneys. and Mrs. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. Mussulman. 52. firman. for example. The title may be plural. Brahman. such as talisman.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Ottoman. woman servant. Allen.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Norman. As to plurals of names with titles. or the name may be pluralized.²DR. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. German. Two methods in use for names with titles.² Then came Mr. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. as man singer. there is some disagreement among English writers. 51. though the latter is often found. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. HOLMES. the Misses Rich.

The domesticated words may retain the original plural. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. 53.²THE CRITIC. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.²DICKENS. The Messrs.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. They are then said to be naturalized. or Englished. y y analysis antithesis . Exercise. and retain their foreign plurals. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Du Maurier. Domesticated words. Others have been adopted.²GIBBON.²GOLDSMITH. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. FROM THE GREEK. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. FROM THE LATIN. or Anglicized. These are said to be domesticated.

without reference to their meaning.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. etc." CASE." the word felon's modifies cell. they form their plurals in the regular way. etc. figures. 56. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. cell has another relation. Letters. as. Only two case forms." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). and expresses a relation akin to possession.. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). In the general wearing-away of inflections. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. also add -s or 's. Definition. In the sentence. Words quoted merely as words.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. . form their plurals by adding -s or 's. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. as. 55. figures. 54. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s).

5.²one for the nominative and objective. when asked unawares. they returned to their homes." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus.²the nominative.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. excessive grief. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. then. learning. completing a verb. 58." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. and experience. may be said to have three cases. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. Uses of the Nominative. Three properties belong to wisdom.²nature." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Excuses are clothes which. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case." (2) As a predicate noun. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 2. three things characterize man.²person. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Nouns. the objective. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 3. fate. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. and the possessive. 1.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. the enemy of the living. Human experience is the great test of truth. . 57. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. I. whether inflected or not. and merit. 4. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers.

taking the object enemies. Set a high price on your leisure moments. measure. a patriarch of the village. and meaning calmest. and makest a calm. 9. 4. as will be seen in Sec. etc. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. . (5) As the object of a preposition. 2. and being equivalent to one verb. good Heaven. Uses of the Objective. her first law broken. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. how have I frighted thee? II. reconciles. (in the older stages of the language. 59." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 68. sword in hand and visor down. the word toward which the preposition points. thy wrath can send." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. completing the verb. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. But the flood came howling one day. save. They charged. But of all plagues.Save. 8. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. they are sands of precious gold. and landlord of the inn." (3) Adverbially. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends." (4) As the second object.6. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. and tell which use each has:² 1. wounded lies. distance. 3. Conscience. taking the object storm. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. oh save me from the candid friend! 7." Exercise.

9. 60. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. (3) Subjective possessive. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.His winter task a pastime made. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. And whirling plate. The possessive case always modifies another word. 10.²SHELLEY. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. 7.. III.²BYRON. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. the Great Stone Face.5. expressed or understood. or in writing yesterday's elegy. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. as. It is a poetic expression. Possession in some sense is the most common. and forfeits paid. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.And gave the leper to eat and drink. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. (2) Objective possessive. Uses of the Possessive. tempests that . and in the bay [of] Baiæ. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.²HAWTHORNE. 61. The noblest mind the best contentment has. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. as shown in the sentences.e. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. as in these expressions.Does his Creator's power display.² The unwearied sun. from day to day. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. the most common of all. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.²ADDISON. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. 6. 8.

Declension or inflection of nouns. One is the simple form of a word. 62. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form." "mannes herte [heart]. growth which several days had developed). in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. As said before (Sec. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. "George Jones his book.e." Use of the apostrophe.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec.e." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. however. 1. . the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. in Chaucer. 56). lady Poss. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 63. To form the possessive plural. A false theory. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. Case Inflection. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. child NOTE. and Obj. there are only two case forms. 62. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses).winter is likely to have). Nom. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. 64. A suggestion. The use of the apostrophe. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. PLURAL. and Obj. making the possessive singular." etc. Poss. as schoolboys sometimes write. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. How the possessive is formed." "at his beddes syde. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s... "From every schires ende. Nom. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. the panther which the forest hides). was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his.

Peter's. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.² LOWELL. I remember him in his cradle at St. Cervantes' satirical work. as by the countess's command. In other cases the s is seldom omitted.. James's. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. Kate saw that. the possessive sign is usually last. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. . know the amount of my income. Possessive and no noun limited. and she walked off from the don's. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. store. stands up for God's truth one man. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. instead of the emperor their master's name.. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. dwelling. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. for goodness' sake." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. the items of my son's. containing words in apposition. as. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. etc. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.²HOLMES. being understood with it: for example.²SWIFT.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. 65. and from a desire to have distinct forms. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St."²DE QUINCEY. a word with a phrase. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.²CARLYLE. church.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. 67. 66. in the name of the emperor their master. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. my neighbors. as. etc. In compound expressions. some such word as house. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. though instances are found with both appositional words marked." "A postscript is added. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. tailor's bill²THACKERAY.Though this opinion was untrue." Possessive with compound expressions. but to the ear all may be alike. Captain Scrapegrace's. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.²DE QUINCEY.

²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. however. that. any. making a double possessive. or subjective. corresponding to 's. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun.. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. each. Both of these are now used side by side. especially when used with this or that. objective. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. (3) It prevents ambiguity. A peculiar form. a double possessive.²E. 1. as one modifier. If. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. this. in such a sentence as.The double possessive. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. 68. the. we use the phrase of Atterbury. 87. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . etc. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. Clearness. the sentence might be understood as just explained. no.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. HALE. 2. Blair). a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's.²CARLYLE. Exercises. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. every. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. For example. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. In most cases. and at the same time by a possessive noun. and tell whether each is appositional. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²FROUDE. (1) When a word is modified by a. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²the introduction which Atterbury made. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. (b) Rewrite the sentence. sometimes they are used together. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. ill-lighted except where she stands. E. (See also Sec. Emphasis. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. the statement clearly means only one thing.

Now the bright morning star. 5. 7. some idioms²the double possessive. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. with every garland crowned. 12. day's harbinger. There Shakespeare's self. Jove laughs. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 11. Hence. 70. Nature herself. therefore. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.Comes dancing from the East. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. In parsing. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 14. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. and destroy the other. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 13. 6. 69. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. in parsing a noun. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. At lovers' perjuries. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.3. 15. it seemed. Friend. 8. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. we state. 10. 9.² .They say. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 4. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. let him seasonably water the one.

hence it is objective case. and therefore nominative case. as to case. 71. 2. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. (3) Whether singular or plural number. but is the adverbial objective. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. determining its case. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. and relations.²common. like miller's.(1) The class to which it belongs. has no governing word. etc. therefore neuter. That in the captain's but a choleric word. (4) Its office in the sentence. if the latter. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. and limits neckcloth. therefore singular number. 4. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. Exercise. it is the object of the preposition by. inflections. the connection shows a male is meant. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. In parsing any word. object of the verb takes. a withered serving man. NOTE. The correct method. therefore singular number. it denotes only one person. subject of the verb is understood. MODEL FOR PARSING. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. hence it is a gender noun.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. hence objective case. singular number. which gender. masculine. 3. it expresses possession or ownership.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. Neckcloth. it expresses time. it is the name of a male being. therefore masculine gender. . gender. proper. is a common class noun. 68). and to have it found out by accident. names one thing. Thief is a common class noun. Throat is neuter. and number. therefore possessive case. hence it is a common noun. a fresh tapster. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. it has no sex.

all in one.And hated her for her pride. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. blessings light on him that first invented . stands the famous Castle of Chillon. He giveth his beloved sleep." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. instead of saying. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name." Again. . connected with the shore by a drawbridge. or for a group of persons or things. Definition. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. financial minister to Louis XVI. 9. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. Madame de Staël. castle. and prison. PRONOUNS. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. 8. For instance. 72. A few miles from this point. 7. Jarley's back being towards him. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. Mrs. were natives of Geneva. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. 73. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. but by a question we say. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. from a necessity for short.. standing for a name. Classes of pronouns. where the Rhone enters the lake. 11. and representative words. Now. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Necker. 76).. (2) Interrogative pronouns. and his daughter. definite.. sleep! 6.5.²palace. The need of pronouns. or for a person or thing. A pronoun is a reference word. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. 10.

Three persons of pronouns. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. (4) Adjective pronouns. and the person or thing talked about. 74. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things." Person of nouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. the person or thing spoken to. which relate or refer to a noun. 77. primarily adjectives. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. they must represent the person talking. mine. my Plural. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. as nouns have the same form. I Poss. (5) Indefinite pronouns. that is. This gives rise to a new term. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. words.. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. representing a person or thing spoken to. (2) Second person. which cannot be used as adjectives. From analogy to pronouns. Person in grammar.(3) Relative pronouns. pronoun. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. we our. 75. 76. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. they are said to have person by agreement. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. or other word or expression. "the distinction of person. (3) Third person. which have forms for person. Nom. representing the person speaking. Singular. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. even if it had a special form. ours .

Obj. and also for the neuter. Nom. neuter. 78. namely. Nom. Nom. ..Obj. Poss. neuter hit. SECOND PERSON. Obj. hers her Plur. The speaker may be either male or female. they their. Third person singular has gender. thou thee ye you you your. me us Singular. Old forms. in the singular. your. by personification. thine. Singular. you your. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. so also with the person or thing spoken to. First and second persons without gender. Poss. But the third person has. yours Poss. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. of all Three. yours you Plural. Obj. a separate form for each gender. or. he his him Fem. she her. Nom. theirs them Neut. yours you THIRD PERSON. Old Form Common Form. masculine h . Obj. Masc. it its it Poss. feminine h o. thy Remarks on These Forms.

but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. In spoken English.² Oh. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. as in prayers. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. etc. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. that didst comfort thy people of old." As shown above. heora..²SHELLEY. The plurals were h . 81.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. to thy care we commit the helpless.Thou lovest. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The consequence is. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. heom. however. . that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. even when referring to a single object. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. (2) In addressing the Deity. thou Shepherd of Israel. which was often sounded with the h silent. etc. it. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. in Old English. the forms they. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. There are.:² (1) In elevated style. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. and sometimes its. etc. which is a neuter noun. 80. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. The form its. 79. This is of comparatively recent growth. thee. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. Second person always plural in ordinary English. Thou. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. especially in poetry. two modern uses of thou. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. as possessive of it. as. We use it with a plural verb always. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. them.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. thy. for example.. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). 82.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar.²BEECHER. their. Two uses of the old singulars. just as we now say.

I The Nominative. and follow the usage of literary English. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. 'tis his. Old use of mine and thine. and has been slave to thousands. though those named in Sec. however. some say. thou. 58). thy. Additional nominatives in spoken English. him. Absolute personal pronouns. her. Nominative forms. 84 are always subjects. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns.²BULWER. The forms my. me. 34). are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. In spoken English. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. besides a nominative use. she. them. . are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. ²SHAKESPEARE. their. in such a sentence as. its. they have a nominative form. 86. II. we. note the following:² 'Twas mine. he. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. his. 84. us. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. 83. him. Not a separate class. your. her. The words I. or. sometimes his and its. thine. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. The Possessive. for. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec.²COWPER. The forms mine. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. Yet careful speakers avoid this. though ye is occasionally used as objective. "I am sure it was him. they. and sometimes in ordinary speech. when they occur in the predicate position. to personify objects (Sec. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 85. hers. have a peculiar use. theirs. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. and not make more classes. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. us. yours. ye. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. And since thou own'st that praise." the literary language would require he after was.²LANDOR. her.Use of the pronouns in personification. I spare thee mine. our. That is. them.

T. hers.²ID. (2) To bring emphasis. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. ours. for example. we find. but few thy voice. we have. as in nouns. F." said Henry Woodstall. thus.²J. yours. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. Their uses. "Hold thy peace. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. Give every man thine ear.²J. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²CARLYLE. This usage is still preserved in poetry. his. (4) To make a noun less limited in application.²SWIFT. ours. thine.²THACKERAY.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. This ancient silver bowl of mine. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink."²SCOTT.² CARLYLE. thus. The forms hers. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. (3) To express contempt.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. theirs. yours.²ID. commenting upon a letter of mine. . are really double possessives. theirs. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. Long Allen. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. If thine eye offend thee. FIELDS. ²HOLMES.²BIBLE. Like the noun possessives. sometimes its.²THACKERAY. or satire.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. and with mine. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. Double and triple possessives. pluck it out. it tells of good old times. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. COOPER. Besides this. 87. anger. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.

" the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. as it is called. 88. his for his property. but not in form. Both joined in making him a present. In such sentences as. But the first two have a nominative use.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. Curse me this people. 90. the thing is done. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. They all handled it. III. mine stands for my praise in the second. 89. for whose benefit. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. in the first sentence." "None but the brave deserves the fair. The Objective. Besides this use of the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. as shown in Sec. but the form is the same as the objective. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. or use in a sentence. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. was marked by a separate case. In their function. and mine in the second has an objective use. 20. "The good alone are great. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²ID. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. 86: mine stands for my property. In pronouns. The old dative case. . this dative use.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²BIBLE. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. but nominative or objective in use.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. Now the objective. but expresses for whom. In Old English there was one case which survives in use.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.

like Chinese skill. to stand for the real. It is a pity that he has so much learning. has not made its progress. The word you. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. (3) In apposition.²CARLYLE.Time is behind them and before them. WEBSTER. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. as.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. as. 92. was passed by with indulgence. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.²BULWER.²ADDISON. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. ²EMERSON.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. Your mere puny stripling.² .²D. which follows the verb." (3) As a grammatical subject. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. or that he has not a great deal more. in this century. you must condense there. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. and they cry. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²BACON.² NEWMAN. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.²EMERSON. as in the sentences.²DE QUINCEY. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. you sneeze. Society. why. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²IRVING To empty here. logical subject. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. 91. Indefinite use of you and your. thus. or to the idea.

Of the two forms in parentheses. -selves. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. "I found me a good book. yourselves. yourself. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition.²ID.²DE QUINCEY. A sturdy lad . who in turn tries all the professions. the second is the old form of the second person. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. And millions in those solitudes. Poor Christian was hard put to it." and there is an end of it.²BURNS. when they are direct objects. And when I awoke. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. itself. and its plural selves.²SCOTT.²EMERSON."²IRVING. herself. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English." "He bought him a horse. There was nothing for it but to return.²ANON. it rained. who teams it. but seldom in prose. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. peddles it. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²COLERIDGE. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. This occurs in poetry. (thyself). themselves. however. used in poetry. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. have laid them downIn their last sleep. 93. It was late and after midnight.It is finger-cold.² Now I lay me down to sleep. that is.. ourselves.²BRYANT. since firstThe flight of years began. (ourself). and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. . The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. For when it dawned. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. they dropped their arms. we use such expressions as.. himself. 94.²HOLMES. as they are also called.²HAWTHORNE. keeps a school." etc.²IRVING. I set me down and sigh. as. They are myself.²THOREAU. For example. I made up my mind to foot it. farms it. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia.²BUNYAN.

B. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. to every one.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. with self. as we ourself have been. especially in the speech of rulers. I shrink with pain. Use of the reflexives. thyself. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.To you yourself. were changed into the possessive myself.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.²ID. The question might arise. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. theself. as. ourselves.² . and build the lofty rhyme.²WORDSWORTH.. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. NOTE. for example.² The great globe itself . as in vulgar English. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Origin of these reflexives. to us.²EMERSON.²E.² TENNYSON. etc. not the possessive forms. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. In Middle English the forms meself. 96. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. for example. Held dead within them till myself shall die. Threats to all.. shall dissolve. after the analogy of myself.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.²SHAKESPEARE. as. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.As girls were once. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.²MILTON.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. and the others were formed by analogy with these. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. 95. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. As if it were thyself that's here. BROWNING.

why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. but it is the soonest spoiled. 2. To know what is best to do. Three now in use. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. and neuter. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. some each of masculine. 97. 4.²DE QUINCEY. is wisdom. fight it out. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils.² THACKERAY. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. some of them being double possessives. father. 6. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and how to do it. Come and trip it as we go. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. And it grew wondrous cold. Courage. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). FRANKLIN. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Years ago. 7. . let him lowly confess it. where the word is one with that it tells of. which. and what. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. all conform to it. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 5. 8. 9. 10. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active.On the light fantastic toe. feminine. 3. One obsolete. Infancy conforms to nobody.²B.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.

used formerly to mean which of two. having three forms. that. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. . that it is not inflected for gender or number. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. methought. referring to things. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. actions. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul.. which is not inflected for gender. ideas. that is. but for case alone. Which of you. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. it is always third person. whispering sweet. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. with its possessive and objective. What wouldst thou do. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. As shown here. or case. number. Use of what. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. Whose was that gentle voice. 98. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Use of which. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. not to persons.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. The use of who.There is an old word. the gold. 100. etc. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. whether. it is selective. that it is always singular and neuter. These show that what is not inflected for case. as it always asks about somebody. 99. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. shall we say.Promised. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. but now obsolete. it refers to either persons or things. Use of who and its forms.

it may be shortened into. who evidently refers to Bards.101. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. whose? Obj. as. and also in having a conjunctive use. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word." In the latter sentence. 104. 103. These bards sang of Border chivalry. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. pronoun. For instance. and so to make smoother discourse. what may be an adverb in some expressions. They will be spoken of again in the proper places.² "The last of all the Bards was he. AND PLUR. as they take the place usually of a word already used. objective in the last. as. subject of doth love.²by the use of the words. 105. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. "The last of all the Bards was he. AND PLUR. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. who? Poss." Or. or other word or expression. The antecedent. which and what. Thus we may say. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. since it is subject of the verb had. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. which and what are sometimes adjectives. It usually precedes the pronoun. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. which is called the antecedent of the relative. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. which. Who.² . and what are also relative pronouns. SING. nominative in the second also. in Sec. SINGULAR Nom.Who sung of Border chivalry. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Function of the relative pronoun. 102. for which the pronoun stands. 127). being the direct object of the verb shall take. 99. Further treatment of who. which is nominative in the first sentence. who is used as objective instead of whom. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives.

both his and who have the antecedent priest.² COX. 3. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. Who and its forms.Whose flag has braved. The men whom men respect. 4. 107. 3. 5.That guard our native seas. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.Whom universal nature did lament. 6. They had not their own luster. Ye mariners of England. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.²SCOTT. that. 4.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. a thousand years. 2. When the word relative is used.²DR JOHNSON. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. D.²BYRON. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.²MILTON. Generally speaking.. 108. the women whom women approve. a simple relative is meant. with all its capabilities .²LOWELL In this.²THACKERAY. 2. . For her enchanting son.. 106. but the look which is not of the earth. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. Two kinds. WHITNEY. are the men and women who bless their species. is a divine creation.. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. in the same sense in which man's nature. The nurse came to us. The origin of language is divine. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²W. will be discussed further on. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Indefinite relatives. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. what. which.²PARTON Which and its forms.

²LAMB 3. W. Who. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. Examples of the relative that:² 1. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.²BURKE.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. no bad type of what often happens in that country. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.. and spoils. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. 110. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²IRVING. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²GOLDSMITH. Reader.. The judge .²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.5. What. bought up all the pigs that could be had.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²DE QUINCEY.. 3.. you will not be angry with me for telling you. 107.. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. BEECHER 5. Already done is all that he would do.²H. 4. stratagems. That. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.Is fit for treasons.²MARGARET FULLER.²EMERSON. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . The man that hath no music in himself. 6. 111. 109. which it certainly is not. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. (a) This gradation . else this description will seem exaggerated.. ought to be kept in view. The Tree Igdrasil. For what he sought below is passed above. 2.

whom. The sentences in Sec. referring to animals.²who. who. whom. the others are all third person. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.²IRVING. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. in the third. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. JOHNSON. In sentence 4. Cooper. things. in 4. in the first sentence. who is first person. possessive case of which. My horse. Examples of whose. seemed as much excited as myself. Scott. Which. and 3. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²LEIGH HUNT. and others.who.. whose wound I had dressed. The robins. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.. Who referring to animals. In 1. the relatives are singular. and so on. not persons.²THACKERAY. The little gorilla..whose. p. 96). flung its arms around my neck. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. whose for the possessive.²which for the nominative and objective.²SWIFT. Sec. . a man. Witness the following examples:² And you. (4) It has two case forms. Kingsley.. and 6. Smollett. or ideas. in 5.²DR.. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.. whose. 113. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. they are plural. Gibbon. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. (2) It has three case forms. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whose is second person. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 2. (3) It is nearly always third person. 107. that man.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. It has been seen (Sec. in the second. 112. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. 5. son.²LOWELL.

let us enter the church itself. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.² I swept the horizon. (3) It is the same form for first. 109. which is worse. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. second. Primarily. thus. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. This often occurs. Which and its antecedents. 115. (2) It has only one case form. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.² And. . So in Matthew Arnold. which is very notable and curious. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.²first. and third persons. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²SCOTT.² MCMASTER. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. animals.²DE QUINCEY. The last two sentences in Sec. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. 116. In the sentences of Sec. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²THACKERAY. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Burke. This moribund '61.114. and numerous others. too. no possessive. Sometimes. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens."²RUSKIN. and to persecute without pity.²RUSKIN. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. secondly (which made her stare). and things. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.²SHAKESPEARE.²BEECHER. the antecedent follows which. That. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Men may be ready to fight to the death. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. Kingsley. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.

DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. by taking them out. that do I." (3) "These people heard him. we can. What a man does. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause." That evidently refers to truths. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. Sec. plural number. For example. 118. is always neuter. it usually follows. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.²BIBLE What fates impose. which. whose Obj. that he has.²EMERSON." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. . third person. what we said?²CARLYLE. number. Nom.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. 117. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent.²SHAKESPEARE. When expressed.² What I would. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. who Poss. but what I hate. The gender. 109. and person of the relatives who. third person. The sentences of Sec. that men must needs abide. What. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Who plainly stands for those or the people. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. plural number. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. that do I not. either of which would be neuter." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. as in sentence 6. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. consequently is neuter. as. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. for example. and is emphatic. 119.

is in the nominative case."²EMERSON. in (1). 7. 4. The whole expression is its subject. standing for the people understood. nobler souls with that which they are." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Another way. which is. What can't be cured. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. in the following sentences:² 1. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Exercise. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. however. subject of heard.. is what we call nature." Here the subject of is. First find the antecedents. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. is subject of the verb can't be cured. that takes the case of the truths in (2). "What can't be cured must be endured. What must be endured? Answer. Some prefer another method of treatment. because it has usually no antecedent. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 120. The word what. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. third person. above. Truths in sentence (2). 6. is subject of wrought upon and molded. In (2). but is singular. then parse the relatives. but of this. the simple relative. after all. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. so is in the objective case. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. As shown by the following sentences. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. I think they are trying to outwit nature. Now. In the same way who. and hence is in the nominative case. etc. The relative what is handled differently. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. we is the subject. in (3). neuter. people is the object of the preposition of. it is subject of the verb heard. 8. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. In the sentence. . and what is the direct object of the verb call. Parsing what. the highest result of all education. it is object of uttered. 5. 3.

Only itself can inspire whom it will. and which in the second clause. List and examples. whatsoever. . object of do] they do. by meaning and use. It is clear that in 1. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. no certain antecedent. summer will have its flies. less common are whoso. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. or what else soever. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. object of with] which [singular. whosoever. which. to everything that. or stand on their head. whatever. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. and his friend a fool.²BURKE. Do what we can. 7. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 5. no particular thing. They are whoever. The simple relatives who. It is no proof of a man's understanding. in a new and original way. 4. "common souls pay with that [singular. whichsoever.²you cannot have both.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. 121. Death is there associated.²BURKE. that is. being referred to. Meaning and use. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. and in 2. 2. not as direct as the simple relatives.²MACAULAY. 122. Take which you please. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 3. 6. whichever. Hence some take what as a double relative. 2. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. So with the other indefinites. whatsoever. 123. and parse that in the first clause. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.

show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. and that as after such is equivalent to which. Two words. 4. . what means anything that. thus. 120. 2. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. are used. for example. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. 125. for example. This. Other substitutes. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. 126. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. not following the word such. 121. but mean any one whom. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. either one that.. whereupon. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 124. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. But and as.²EMERSON. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. the conjunctions wherein. Sec. In early modern English. etc. Instead of the phrases in which. upon which.² some particular thing.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Former use of as. whereby. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Proof that they have the force of relatives. by which.²HAWTHORNE. as was used just as we use that or which. 121.²DE QUINCEY.As shown in Sec. but and as. has been my heaviest affliction. etc. 417). but which only wealth could have purchased. nothing that does not interest us. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² 1. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. everything that (or everything which). OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.. There is nothing but is related to us.

3. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. 127. Another caution. which would indicate that they are not relatives. In sentences 1 (a). (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. if not. it is an interrogative. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. Special caution needed here. second. it is a simple relative. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. if not. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 2 (b). which having the antecedent lines. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. 2. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent." etc." Likewise with which in 3 (b).²WHITTIER. . it is an indefinite relative). the full expression being. showing that who is plainly interrogative. if expanded. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). "But what had become of them? They knew not. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. who having the antecedent gentleman. a question is disguised in each sentence. 1 (b). Thus. and whether what = that + which (if so.²EMERSON. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. In studying such sentences. So in 2 (b). (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does.²ID. and 3 (b). How to decide. what is interrogative.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. "Who stood behind? We knew. But in 1 (b). though the earthwork hid them. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. would be.. no antecedent is expressed.

In the first. and asks no question. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. ELIOT. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. In the second. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 4.² These are the sounds we feed upon.128. 3. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of.²HOLMES. I visited many other apartments. and Court Calendars. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. . and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. Examine the following:² 1. 2. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Relative omitted when object. Put in the relatives who.²GOLDSMITH. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²G. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. Thus. the question is asked by the verb. On the other hand.² THACKERAY. whence is the interrogative word. 129. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. which. 5.²CARLYLE. Exercise. but the life of man in England.²SWIFT. whose has the antecedent you. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. When Goldsmith died. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. In the third.²FLETCHER. which has the antecedent hue. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²FORSTER 6. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.

the house was full. The nobles looked at each other. 5. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.²SCOTT. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. which was already proceeding. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.² LOWELL. There was such a crowd went. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. 6. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.²CAMPBELL. 130.Ne'er looks upon the sun. It is rare in prose. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. or indefinite relatives:² 1. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns.²SHAKESPEARE. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. that. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Relative omitted when subject. 2. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.7. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. . and what. and comparatively so in poetry.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.²Id. simple relatives. Function of adjective pronouns. 3. who were to be rulers over whom. Examples are. Also in literary English we find the same omission. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. which.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.

in letters of gold. must not modify any word. in order to be an adjective pronoun. or they may stand for nouns. 'Truth. the former. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. "another bank. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. a word. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. 132. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS." "one man. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. all. and stand for a noun. and on each is written. but have lost their adjective use. . that. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. such as each." in the others. such as this.²BRYANT. or an argument in a paragraph. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. etc. Primarily they are adjectives." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. necessarily thought of: thus. either. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence." in the second. not pronouns. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence.131. but in this function. Caution.²IRVING.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. 133. as some. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. in the first. which we have seen in such expressions as.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. neither. expressed or understood. "each cube." "Where two men ride on a horse. and another to get cool under. In the first use they are adjectives. etc. none. For instance. "these pranks. etc." Classes of adjective pronouns." that is. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use.²EMERSON. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. few. or may be the whole of a sentence. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. or use. many. For example. "The dead are there. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. any.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. Adjectives.

they that plow iniquity. 2. Compound.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Some of these are simple pronouns. for example. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.²EMERSON 4. 5. A man inspires affection and honor. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Even as I have seen. or sat. Their minds accorded into one strain. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. NOTE. They had fewer books. . (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²ID. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. They have not shunned the one. and they have well performed the other. when the latter was the King of Spain. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Exercises. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Simple. 134. reap the same. but what he fain had seen He could not see. as seemed good to each. 3. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.²LOWELL.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. or reclined. Definition and examples. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. accidentally preserved.² They stood. and sow wickedness.All these he saw. because he was not lying in wait for these. Such are a few isolated instances. but these were of the best. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface.²ID.

NUMERAL PRONOUNS.² One reflexive.²EMERSON. another. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²HAWTHORNE. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. with the superstitions of his time. one another. as. . for example.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. Definition and examples. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. Men take each other's measure when they react. None shall rule but the humble.²HOLMES. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. such as one other. we might the more easily discharge them. as some of the rangers had gone astray. The Soldan. 135. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.²KINGSLEY.²each other. ²HAWTHORNE. They led one another. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The word one has a reflexive form.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. you quickly come to the end of all. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. as it were. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. Another opposes him with sound argument. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. Some inflected. Exercise. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. paused over a horoscope.Two are compound pronouns. as most were. or melt for others' woe. imbued. Much might be said on both sides. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns.

²SHAKESPEARE. etc. anybody else's. they say.. and was indefinite in Old English. etc. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. They indefinite means people in general. Every one else stood still at his post. everything. any one (or anyone). 137. nobody.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. what. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Definition and examples. I tell you what. naught. in building of chaises." It means something. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. unlike adjective pronouns. also aught. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. every one (or everyone). . no one. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. as. anyone else. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. everybody else. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. they are never used as adjectives. some one. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Jove laughs. anything. anybody.Exercise. and they. 136. and somewhat. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. something.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Exercise. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. everybody. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Somebody. but. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. as shown in the words everybody's. Now.² At lovers' perjuries. nothing. somebody else. every one else.

17. 16. 3. All was now ready for action. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty.See also "Syntax" (Sec.²a feature of natural scenery for which. . 138. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. to which. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 12. in his negotiations. 13. For this did God send her a great reward. 18. 11. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. A reminder. indeed. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. Hutchinson tells us of herself. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. were suffered to depart. 10. 14. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 6. and of no other. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 2. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Others did the same thing. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. from my earliest days. Exercise. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. I first found myself among the mountains. 5. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Whoever deals with M. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. O thou that rollest above. The table was good. 8. 7. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 4. 9.

whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 34. 27. who take the world easy. and seized a pen. 35. eat white bread or brown. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 29. 31. 32. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.Who knew thee too well. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . hear! 33. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. behold now the semblance of my being. hear. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. 23. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 25. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 21. that let him communicate. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. oh. A smile of hers was like an act of grace.And it would work 'em woe.19.By the old Hall which may be mine no more.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. I who alone am. And I had done a hellish thing. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. And will your mother pity me. thou rollest now. in all its height. Whatever he knows and thinks. variety. He sate him down. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 30. 26.Destroyer and preserver. They know not I knew thee. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. well-oiled dispositions.

etc. 44. 38. or liquid. if we are at a distance. As to the kind of words used. brittle or tough." "some cities." The office of an adjective. size. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. . 42. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. the number is limited by adjectives. white or red. He teaches who gives. that is our permanent state. such as in the expressions "this man. which was no bad step towards my liberation. 45. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. For example. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. and so he read." "a hundred men." "yonder hill.36. 39. If a chemist discovers a new substance. "one hat." etc. Again. or gaseous. ADJECTIVES. or with persons. etc. so that no other will be mistaken for it. Office of Adjectives. It may have this office alone.. So with any object. position. We are by nature observers. 139. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. 40. He knew not what to do. then. 43. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. Who hears me. and if we are near. heavy or light. in pointing out an object. adjectives are used. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. who understands me. as." "that house. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. and he learns who receives. 41. 37. Substantives. We need to add some words to tell its color. becomes mine.

words primarily pronouns." "half-dead traveler. Examples are.² BACON." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." . rash. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "this life-giving book. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. it shows that he weighs men's minds. pointing out particular things. to describe it or to limit its application. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression.²COLERIDGE. Nouns are not." "ice-cold water. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. divine. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. happy. To err is human. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. fair. (2) Adjectives of quantity. to forgive. To make this clear. terrible. however." "unlooked-for burden." "next-door neighbor. If he be thankful for small benefits. 143. or how much of a thing. such as." "the Christian pearl of charity. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 142. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them.²POPE. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "ivory-handled pistols." they constitute all his connections. deep." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. beautiful. used to tell how many things are spoken of. With exception of the "and then." "the Roman writer Palladius. and their trash. "Heaven-derived power. remotest. Infinitives. Definition." the "and there. They include relative and interrogative words. such as safe. "an old English manuscript. derived from proper nouns. 141. (4) Pronominal adjectives. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. Classes of adjectives.140. etc." and the still less significant "and so.

"The work was well and rapidly accomplished. some." was accomplished is a verb. which are either pure participles used to describe. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." "It came on like the rolling simoom." "The shattered squares have opened into line. 144." Caution. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "One is hungry. having some of each subclass named in Sec. in studying these last-named words. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished." was is the verb. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. For instance: in the sentence. no. considerable. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "an aged man. 'Tis midnight. 143. any.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "a charming sight. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²MACDONALD. ." "trailing clouds. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 1." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.But ever she looked on Mr.²COLERIDGE. sometimes small. and accomplished is an adjective." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. Exercises." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. 145. and another is drunken. Oxenham. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Care is needed. much. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. Examples are. in this. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. 2.

" "I have lost one brother. An arrow was quivering in each body.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²VAUGHAN." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. How many. The following sentences present some examples:² . (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." "In came some five and twenty more. When some. latter. The demonstrative adjectives are this. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. but I have gained fourscore.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. "one blaze of musketry. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. Exercise. Examples. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." Single ones of any number of changes. its wake. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Thus. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. yonder (or yon)." "a dozen volunteers. are used with plural nouns. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.²KINGSLEY. those). instead of modifying them. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. every village. former.²CARLYLE. (plural these. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Not primarily pronouns." "He had lived by hunting for some months. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.²ID. and with them a few negroes." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. they come under the next division of adjectives. as. any. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. that. the former²the latter. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." "Then we wandered for many days. The list. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." (b) Indefinite numerals.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking.² Every town had its fair. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. 146. no.²THACKERAY.

As has been said.. WEBSTER. Exercise. of equal skill. like the other numerals. 147.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN.²BULWER. When we speak of the seventeenth century. I verily believe. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. Modify names of persons or things. The silver and laughing Xenil. . tell how many things are meant. FRANKLIN.²BANCROFT. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²ID.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. but in the one case. just as the corresponding pronouns do. These were thy charms. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. Indefinite relative adjectives. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²ID. These do not. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.² It matters not what rank he has. skill which was at pause. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. In which evil strait Mr. 148. they are changed to adjectives. but. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.²KINGSLEY. ²CARLYLE. skill which was progressive²in the other.but all these charms are fled. for example. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. The taking of which bark. was the ruin of every mother's son of us."²B. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be..The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. Definition. 149.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²WORDSWORTH. They are of two kinds. what revenues or garnitures. Oxenham fought desperately.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²D. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.

A lady once remarked. Whatsoever kind of man he is.² EMERSON. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. Adjective what in exclamations. Was there. Examples of their use are. proved not altogether displeasing to him. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.150.²CARLYLE. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. As in the pronouns. In indirect questions. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. In direct questions.²LAMB. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. whichsoever.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.²ID. the debt to the rich. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whichsoever way I move. or whether any. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. as it rather seemed.²RUSKIN.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. 151. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. . and new tormentedAround me. you at least give him full authority over your son.And whichsoever way I turn. what inquires about things or persons not known.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.²AGASSIZ. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. New torments I behold... and gaze. nature will be sure to bear us out in. whichever. He was turned before long into all the universe. it is impossible to determine.²IRVING. whatsoever. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. which. But when the Trojan war comes. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. which is selective among what is known. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. whatever.

we do so by means of their qualities. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. etc. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. In exclamatory expressions. or weight. Exercise.²This. which was fully inflected in Old English. Meaning of comparison. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.²number and comparison.² Oh. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. or size. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. . gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. 155. or amount.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. and those as the plural of that. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.152. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. those). Those borrowed from this. COMPARISON. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this..Adjectives have two inflections. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. This is the old demonstrative. The article that was used with neuter nouns. etc. That. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. and when we compare the objects. History of this²these and that²those. as. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. But this had also another plural. of the quality. alas. 154. gold is heavier than iron. NUMBER. color. And yet. th s (modern those). the making of it right.²but not the same degree. Thus. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. When we place two objects side by side. All these have certain qualities. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. It is neither relative nor interrogative. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. we notice some differences between them as to size. weight. 153 .

. strictly considered. These are called degrees of comparison." "It is a nobler valor. 157." "the largest soul. Freedom is a perpetual. great. but. The two forms. or amounts in quantity. redder. organic. universal institution. supreme. to the simple form. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. immemorial." "no fewer than a hundred. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most." "the commonest speech. sufficient. infinite. indefatigable. red. blue. whose favorite pupil he was. So with the words sole. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. Substitute for inflection in comparison. giant-like. A main difference betwixt men is. "more matter. easiest. but were not common until a century later. reddest. expressing the greatest degree of quality. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. expressing a greater degree of quality. enormous. as. bluer. with less wit. as. 159. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. and many others. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. 158. though the simple. Definition. and the superlative. and the superlative by adding -est. they are not compared. The comparative is formed by adding -er.²THACKERAY. whether they attend their own affair or not." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. bluest. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States.²SEWARD.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. indomitable.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. 160. These are properly the only degrees. easier. for example. 156. easy. They came into use about the thirteenth century. "untamed thought." Words that cannot be compared.

falling on his knees. madam. most small." said Henry Esmond." "sorrowfulest spectacles. These are adjectives irregularly compared. mournfulest.²ID. etc.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. The following lists include the majority of them:² . but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. These long. easy. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. 162. strange." "more odd." Carlyle uses beautifulest." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. 163." "more austere and holy. "So help me God. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. I will. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. which hung behind in the queerest way.² CARLYLE A gentleman." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." "distantest relationships. and other words are preceded by more and most. who.Which rule. quiet. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. there needed to be a most genuine substance. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. admirablest. was most finished. finest chiseling. honestest.²ID. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. indisputablest.²The Nation. Adjectives irregularly compared. harsh forms are usually avoided. and patientest fusing. and yet familiar.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. polished." "the wonderfulest little shoes. though born in no very high degree. witty. The general rule is. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. as. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. peaceablest.

Worser was once used. utter 3. though from a different root. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 7. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. The superlative I form was betst. is often used. latter Hinder LIST II. older Nigher Nearer Later. as in the sentence (14th century). but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. [Out] Outer. 6. last Hindmost. least. which has softened to the modern best. 4. There was an old comparative bet. a double comparative.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. outermost Utmost. [In] Inner Inmost. 1. 9.² O. . furthest 10. lesser Elder. 164. throw away the worser part of it. Hind 2. These have no adjective positive:² 1. further Farthest. (3) Little is used as positive to less. (2) In Old English. next Nearest Latest. 8. uttermost Upmost. as in Shakespeare. Good or well Evil. bad. worst. A double comparative. List I.²HAMLET. 5. as. oldest Nighest. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative.² We have it in a much lesser degree. evil was the positive to worse. hindermost Much or many More Farther. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. uppermost LIST III. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). which has gone out of use. 3. 2.LIST I. innermost Outmost. lesser.

In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. but originally the comparison was nigh. The most part kept a stolid indifference. further. as. much. the old forms. Since later. instead of lenger. The latter.²ID. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. (5) The forms elder. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. there is scarcely any distinction. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. doubling the inflection. muchel. but not in meaning. The meanings greater. . but in former times much was used in the sense of large. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. greatest.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. for example. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. strenger. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. near. List II. next. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.²forth. oldest. first. making the modern farther. is quite common.²HAWTHORNE. came into use. are earlier than older. farrest. except the form next. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. to which is added -ost. to England we sailed. meaning the largest part. as long. th came into the others. In imitation of further. First became entirely detached from the series.² The more part being of one mind. an old superlative ending. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. a distinction has grown up between the two series. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. etc. strong.²KINGSLEY. "Many a little makes a mickle. ²LAMB. eldest. and the superlative nearest. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. Between the two sets as they now stand. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. or series. great. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective.. etc. farthest. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. and refer to time. since the m is for -ma.." Its spelling has been micel. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. moche. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. latest. furthest. are shown in such phrases as.

was descried The royal banner floating wide. the upper light of the world." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.²EMERSON." "The outer is of the day. but they have no adjective positives.165.²HAWTHORNE. Her bows were deep in the water. List III. Her. in having no adjective positives. Think what each adjective belongs to. The adjectives in List III. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.²H." "the innermost moral soul. 167. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. all may belong to the same noun. (Sec. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. by the by. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. . They have no superlatives. 166. W. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. 168. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. In List II. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²KINGSLEY." "far-seeing as the sun. or have no comparative forms. There. Highest and midmost. but her after deck was still dry. BEECHER. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Decidedly handsome. or each may modify a different word or group of words. on the very topmost twig. and have no comparative force. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. are like the comparative forms in List II. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. but not in their meaning. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY." -Most added to other words. The comparatives are so in form. being merely descriptive." "their utmost exertion.²SCOTT.

not decision alone. STOWE. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. and moral truth. Our sometime sister.²BIBLE. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. the then and still owners.²A. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. For thy stomach's sake. 4." in which then is an adverb. bright. STEPHENS 5. May we not.²MRS. solid. In the following quotations. in prose. A few improper jests and a volley of good. round. By a convenient brevity. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. deep. ²TROLLOPE.²HAWTHORNE. 7.²HOLMES. Exercise. therefore.For example. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. Other instances are. 169." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. instead of saying. and broken. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.²HAWTHORNE. and thine often infirmities. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. and heaven-defying oaths. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. H. satisfactory.² My then favorite.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical.²NOAH PORTER. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. 6. usual modifies incomparable decision. now our queen. we may say "the then king. It may still be argued. in this sentence. deeply black eyes. our new government. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank.²TRENCH.²RUSKIN. The seldom use of it. Bradbury and Evans. rich. as. But in this sentence." making then an adjective. 3. Richard Hooker. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. . 2. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. This. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. "the one who was then king." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. philosophical.

A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. if it can be compared. Unfamiliar describes truths. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 8. To every several man. 5. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. 4. seventy-five drachmas. and I waited for none. modifies truths. then. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. and very few have number. Since adjectives have no gender. not inflected for number. therefore demonstrative. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. across the plain. this. To every Roman citizen he gives. frank. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. positive degree. having a singular.What to tell in parsing. (4) What word or words it modifies. 7. . I ask nothing of you. therefore descriptive. MODEL FOR PARSING. 9. if it has number. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. the method of parsing is simple. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. plural number. In parsing an adjective. Exercise. person. (2) Its number. compared by prefixing more and most. This gave the young people entire freedom. She made no reply. 10. cannot be compared. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. 6. or case. with awkward but rapid pace. 2. 170. and most astounding were those frightful yells. manly way. These points out what truths. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. (3) Its degree of comparison. modifies the word truths. 3.

21. the same love to France would have been nurtured. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. 23. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. are immutably fishes. and dogs. not so much for travelers that were few. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Nearer to our own times. 19. 24. 29. 20. suggests such thoughts as these. Two hours elapsed. during which time I waited. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 28. In music especially. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 33. 16. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 27. 31. growing in the most unfavorable position. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. the tomahawk fell. yonder oxen in the pasture. To say what good of fashion we can. and therefore more interesting to us. 12. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 32. it is so noble a fruit. I know not what course others may take. oxen. 14. he won affections with ease. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 18. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. those dogs in the yard. Like most gifted men.11. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. as for armies that were too many by half. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 25. 26. is the settlement of our own country. and many poles supported the lower ones. Here lay two great roads. . Their name was the last word upon his lips. 13. it rests on reality. With every third step. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 22.

37. Their origin. Many writers use an before h. meaning one. 35. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . An historian. the latter is still preserved in the expression. later th . Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. a before consonant sounds. 173. or the tane. th o. in vulgar English. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. were formerly that one. sometimes the tother. An or a came from the old numeral n. the tither." "a yelling crowd. A hard-struggling. In the sentence.34. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road.² We ca' her sometimes the tane." "an orange. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds." "a European. he is no literary man.²SCOTT. Examples: "a house. for example. s o. In Middle English the became an article. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. the tother. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. An before vowel sounds. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. that other." "an honor. such as we have been attempting to describe." the words the and an belong to nouns. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. and a before consonant sounds. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. 171. even when not silent. just as adjectives do. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general.²MACAULAY. weary-hearted man was he. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. ARTICLES. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. these occurring as the tane. but the former is used. ðat. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. 172. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. 174. Our expressions the one. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.²BREWER. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Two relics. that) which was also an article in Old English. the tother." An with consonant sounds. the other. . with an ordinary little garden.

Kinds. 176. When the is prefixed to a proper name. 177. and not a state or other geographical division. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.² .²THOMAS JEFFERSON. not descriptive. on opening a story. An and a are different forms of the same word. which cannot be used alone.²HEROES OF ASGARD.²This use is noticed when. To call attention to attributes." "the Ohio. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. and when the word river is omitted. or a group or class of things. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.² Don't you remember how. NOTE. a person is introduced by a. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. or class. or any individual of a group or class. as "the Mississippi. doubtless. The is the definite article. the older n. since it points out a particular individual. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.²G. With names of rivers..²IRVING.. 175. Reference to a known object. as in the sentence. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. BANCROFT. thus. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. An hereditary tenure of these offices. Articles are either definite or indefinite. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. is referred to. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²THACKERAY. 179." the article indicates clearly that a river. Definition. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. 178.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. The Dakota tribes. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings..²COLERIDGE. or group. An or a is the indefinite article. An article is a limiting word.

Schelling. the Hume. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. 2. the gallant. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.² The faint. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. The. With plural of abstract nouns. as. His messages to the provincial authorities. One thing for its class. the Spinoza. With adjectives used as nouns. The simple rise as by specific levity. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. or a match put between the fingers. 182. Kant. 183. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 180.The Bacon. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. 1. NOTE. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU.²ID. her. laid it on the miry spot. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²EMERSON. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun.²ID. so is the evil. and the redwing. the song sparrow. not into a particular virtue. Half abstract. Common. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. but into the region of all the virtues. If the good is there. For possessive person pronouns.²MOTLEY. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.²KINGSLEY. BANCROFT.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. . for example.² As she hesitated to pass on. would speedily extract the required information. etc.²EMERSON. 181. Caution. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²GIBBON.²G. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.²SCOTT.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

All these are called transitive verbs. the word following."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. a verb. an article. Definition and caution. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. (can) shame also has an object. and shame the most astute. Has takes the object hypocrisy. which may be a person. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. c). or an idea. and not a verb. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. and. hence is not a verb. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. endured what? anguish. 202.²BULWER . but fearing is not a predicate. b). we consider a verb as one word. The nature of intransitive verbs. an adverb. obeyed is a predicate. representing something which it influences or controls. In each case. from the Latin transire. in (3. 204. for example. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. but cannot be predicates. 201. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. all do not express it in the same way. in (c). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. 203. a). can deceive has an object. care. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. In the sentence. the most penetrating. In the first. taking the staff which always guided her steps. or the object. A verb is a word used as a predicate. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. a preposition. lone took what? answer. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. with some word understood. in (b). etc. the most astute." put is the predicate. In giving a definition. 200: In (1). and to receive the action expressed. in (2. or a material thing. "Put money in thy purse.In (a). in this sentence from Bulwer. in (3. which means to go over. a noun. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. as. Now. in (2. Of those expressing action. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. to say something to or about some person or thing." Examine the sentences in Sec. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. Hence Definition." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. b). Each influences some object. "Put thou money in thy purse. By examining a few verbs. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. to go is no predicate. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. The nature of the transitive verb. and a preposition unite as a verb.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

as. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.²MACAULAY. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. ²EMERSON. the first great founder of the Empire.²BRYCE. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. they were recorded in the Book of Life. as.²FRANKLIN. and may or may not be regarded true. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. the representative system ultimately fail. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. 215. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].²SHELLEY. Unreal²cannot be true.I could lie down like a tired child. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. for example. Ideal. 2). if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. . the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. Again. Most excellent stranger. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. 221. the second founder. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. WEBSTER.²LONGFELLOW. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. the writer can make the statement following. popular government must be pronounced impossible. If this be the glory of Julius. in our case.²D.² Now.² If. Condition or Supposition. or be fulfilled. 222. I.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.²may or may not be true. but. he will see the need of these ethics. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.

But in no case could it be justified. 3.²BAYNE. and what kind of condition:² 1. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.² CARLYLE. she was regarded as a prodigy. melodious. he had better not have written. 2. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. thus.² It was necessary. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. except. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. would have sat still with joy and peace. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. NOTE.²CALHOUN..² If these things were true. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. since he [Byron] was dead. is of similar physiognomy. and sonorous. that we cannot but regret its absence. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. to drink strong beer. if he was the man I take him for. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. P. 7. II. unless. the clause being introduced by that or lest. Subjunctive of Purpose. If he had reason to dislike him. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. etc.²FRANKLIN. clear.²FRANKLIN. he supposed. I told him. especially be. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. 223. 4. may. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. might.²SWIFT. and should. which cannot be true. and striven energetically to save Ney. 8. if his lot had been mine. WILLIS. society could not hold together.. ²LOWELL. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. would you.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. . The subjunctive.²EMERSON. 5. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. though. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled.. that he might be strong to labor. if he speak to you. 6. Exercise. Epaminondas.²MACAULAY. In the following conditional clauses. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. The voice. is used to express purpose. do you think.²N. but when the verb precedes the subject. as." etc.

like the Latin.²D. Rise up. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. 225. 227. V. . VII.²BRYANT. In Temporal Clauses..that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. After a verb of wishing.²WORDSWORTH. IV. In Indirect Questions. The English subjunctive. Let it rise. none of us could say.²ID. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²COLERIDGE. I've wished that little isle had wings.. So live. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.I have been the more particular. In a Noun Clause. Ask the great man if there be none greater. the answer being regarded as doubtful... VI. III. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. till it meet the sun in his coming.And we. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.²DE QUINCEY.²SOUTHEY. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. within its fairy bowers. Subjunctive of Result.²CARLYLE. To tell of what had passed.²MOORE.Thou go not. 224. I would it were! ²EMERSON.That vain it were her eyes to close. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. Expressing a Wish. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.Were wafted off to seas unknown. 226. WEBSTER. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. like the quarry-slave at night. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.

²SCOTT.Subject. tell me all that thou hast seen.²DE QUINCEY.²COLERIDGE. Object. I have no thought what men they be.²THOREAU. The noun clause.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. VIII. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²TENNYSON. Complement. in apposition. we'll turn aside.² Be the matter how it may. The first merit. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. . of cash.And look thou tell me true. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. which may be (a) Pronoun. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. That hunger of applause. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. is. The essence of originality is not that it be new.. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. 228. object. that everything be in its place. etc. After verbs of commanding.²WORDSWORTH.And see the Braes of Yarrow.²COLERIDGE. 229. or whatsoever victual it may be. for example. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.² DICKENS.²SHELLEY. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Concessive Clauses. is the ultimate fact of man's life. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²CARLYLE. Come. (b) Adjective. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. Some might lament that I were cold. often contains a subjunctive. Whatever betide. in its various uses as subject.

It must be remembered.²CHANNING. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. and condition contrary to fact. Usually second person.(c) Adverb. entreaties. (3) Request. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Definition. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. fear none. In spoken English. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. . though. IMPERATIVE MOOD. to express a wish. we had found [should have found] a poem here. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. (2) Entreaty. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. however. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. since commands are directed to a person addressed. or requests. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. for example. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact.The spirit he loves remains. love all men. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. (1) Command.²SHELLEY. Honor all men. ADAMS. 232. At the present day.²J. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected.²BRYANT. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. a concession. Oh. point to their immortal works. 230. Q.² CARLYLE. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. 231.

Break we our watch up. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID."Hush! mother. there will her heart and her prayers be. request. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. nothing is to be preferred before justice.²SCOTT.. Mark thou this difference. noble earl. 6. etc. Meet is it changes should controlOur being.. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. etc. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. "Come along with me. 8. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. "The Devil take the goose. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled." Exercises on the Moods. Part we in friendship from your land. to you implied in it. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 2. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.One glance at their array! 5. Oh. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. lest we rust in ease. child of earth!While each performs his part.And.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Sometimes with first person in the plural. or I + they. 7.And God forget the stranger!" . Whatever inconvenience ensue. receive my hand." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed." whispered Kit."²DICKENS Tell me. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.²CAMPBELL. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. but I + you.²SHAKESPEARE. 3. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Quoth she.

Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. Well. or do it at all." 16. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. 18." 25. Forget thyself to marble. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. 11. Though he were dumb. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. whether he do it right or wrong.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar.That they might answer him. then. Though abyss open under abyss.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.9. 14." continued Old Morgan. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15.High up in silver spikes! 22. let him live where else he like. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 19. Marshall. "tell me where I may find my poor.Except. will it not fall unbound. 10. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. He. but repentant child. it would speak. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. . 23. and opinion displace opinion. how he may do his work. 21. 13. my dear madam. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. "Oh." cried he. as though an instrument. He is. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. she ought to have it. ruined. That a man parade his doubt. in what pomps and prosperities he like. no literary man. Think not that I speak for your sakes. That sheaf of darts. "Mr. 26. 20.

or agree with it. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses." "If he comes. Tense means time. and unassuming deportment of Mrs.27. or future time. and the past tense. in the conjugations. The tenses in detail. and the future tense. and future perfect tenses. have. past perfect. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. Tenses in English. as the classical languages have. past.²the present tense. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it." . showing more exactly the time of the action or being. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. as will be shown later on. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. as.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages.²nothing could exceed the amiable. which represented present and future time. "I go away tomorrow. kind. 233. TENSE. tell him to wait. "It is not in man that walketh. such as be. PERSON AND NUMBER. in the third person singular. whatever she did. called auxiliaries. also. will. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages." past. shall. Meantime. the past. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. Old English had only two tenses. 234. 235. such as Latin and Greek. five in the subjunctive. by means of the present. and future. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs." present. "Thou walkest. five in the imperative. as. past. to direct his steps. or whether it were as one member of a general party. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. 28.² present. a form ending in -eth. "Thou walkedst. Siddons. When the older pronoun thou was in use. Definition." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as.

You are 2. were. walketh. I were 2. Singular 1. been. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. [He] is [They] are 3. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. wert) 3. for example. Indicative Mood. 238. choosing. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. walked. tense. choosest." and this only in the present tense indicative. walking. You (thou) be 3. PRESENT TENSE. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Singular 1. chose. Singular 1. chosest). moods. chooses. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. Definition. as. PRESENT TENSE. Such verbs as choose have five. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. "He walks. [He] were [They] were . etc. I be 2. 237. etc. is. The verb be has more forms. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. walk has walk. but in English.²choose. Few forms. walks. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE.²am. CONJUGATION. tenses. Singular 1. In classical languages. are. walkedst. This is the third person. 236. and numbers. since it is composed of several different roots. singular number. persons. chosen (old. mood. chooseth.

Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. in four ways.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. which was now become an occasional banquet. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. to form the passive voice. etc. (2) As auxiliary verbs. (b) With the past participle in -ed. is. condition. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. for example. Remarks on the verb be. 239. thus.²SHELLEY. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²THACKERAY. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. as. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. Instead of the plural are. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.²WORDSWORTH. (d) With the infinitive. etc.²BURKE . -en. The light that never was on sea and land.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. 240. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. (2) was.. were. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs..His infancy was nurtured. (3) be.Imperative Mood.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. same as the German sind.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature.²SCOTT. obligation. to express intention. though it is usually a dialect form.

1. future perfect. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. [He] choose [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE. had. We chose You chose 3. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. etc. by placing have. "I have gone" (present perfect). . In addition to the above inflected forms. past perfect. 1. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. 240. "I had gone" (past perfect). as. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). You choose Plural. (2). You choose Plural. Singular. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. Singular. 242. [He] chooses [They] choose 3." (2) Present perfect. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I choose 2. You chose Plural. We chose You chose 3. You chose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Machinery of a verb in the voices." "He will choose. I chose 2. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. tenses. I choose 2. tenses. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. I chose 2.241. Singular. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. 1. as. "I shall be. PRESENT TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. 1. Singular. Indicative Mood.

Present definite. Future perfect. He will have been choosing. will be given. as. Past." "They had been running. he have chosen. . Past definite. He has been choosing. "I was chosen.) Choose. he chose (or were to choose). Present. Only the third person. He will choose. Past perfect. Past definite. He was choosing. Past perfect. "I am running." "You are chosen. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). (2d per. Present. lest. Past perfect definite. He will he choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present. [If. Present perfect." 243. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Subjunctive Mood. Future definite. Present definite. of each tense. Future perfect definite. He had chosen. He had been choosing. Same as indicative. Present definite. He chooses. ACTIVE VOICE. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He chose. Indicative Mood. Present perfect definite. as. Past. Future. Imperative Mood. " Be choosing. etc.] he choose. He has chosen. He is choosing. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Past perfect definite. singular number. He will have chosen. he have been choosing." (4) The passive forms. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present perfect definite. though. Present perfect. Same as indicative.

as. if learned at all. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. though. Past. Present perfect. Past. None. Present perfect definite. he were being chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Past Perfect." "He did strike. He will be chosen. Past perfect definite. Present. Future perfect. He is chosen. None. He has been chosen. (2d per. None. Present definite. Imperative Mood. Present perfect.²This table is not to be learned now.) Be chosen. lest. He is being chosen. Present definite.] he be chosen.. but verbals. he have been chosen. 262). He had been chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. etc. He will have been chosen. . Present perfect definite. Future definite. Present.NOTE. He was being chosen. Past perfect definite. He was chosen. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. however. Past definite. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). in affirmative sentences. " " " " " " " None. Subjunctive Mood. None. they will be discussed later (Sec. he had been chosen. Exercises should be given. Past perfect. Future. Future perfect definite. Also. "He does strike." [Note to Teacher. Past definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature.] [If. Indicative Mood. None. Present tense.

catch. ran. bit blown broken chidden. slept. and may or may not change the vowel: as. verbs are strong or weak. which are in parentheses Present Tense. beg. 245. sleep. begged. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade.[adj. caught. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. Kinds. Some of these also have weak forms. According to form. as. Past Tense. drove. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . laid. bid bound. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. run. lay. NOTE. but adds no ending.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. 244. Definition. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. bounden] bitten. drive.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

²MILTON. which always crew at eleven." "a drunken wretch.² Thou hast clomb aloft. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. but is much used in vulgar English. instead of ate and eaten. The form clomb is not used in prose. nor a dog barked.²B. borne is also a passive.²IRVING. 246. . as (from Holmes). drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. Sometimes in literary English. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. and the latter. "his bounden duty.² We had each drank three times at the well. TAYLOR.²COLERIDGE. as. How fairy Mab the junkets eat." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. as. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. and another (born) for the passive.²as (from Shakespeare)." "a sunken snag. now told us it was time for repose. "stricken with paralysis."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²TENNYSON. especially in that of an earlier period. cleave. to split. and. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. for example. cloven. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). Historically. as. probably to avoid confusion with this. and sometimes occurs in poetry. The former used to be cleave. When it means to carry or to endure.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. ²THACKERAY." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. cleaved. the other. cleft (to split)." In this confusion of usage.²cleave. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. cleaved. clave or clove. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). Our cock.²GOLDSMITH. cleft.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. Not a cock crew." "the cloven hoof. only one set remains certain.²one meaning to adhere or cling.

Fling. We usually say." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. threw."²KINGSLEY. gave. 245). Shake. Exercises.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.² We had all got safe on shore. broke. even in poetry. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. found. He sate him down. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. for example. given. began. 9." but not much as a participle. 4.²SCOTT. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. maiden. Freeze.²TENNYSON. 6. fallen. 7. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. driven. Usually shear is a weak verb. One example out of many is. froze. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Begin. Break. as.²BYRON. flung.²DE FOE. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. 5. fell. and grasping at his sword. which is seldom used except in poetry. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. shore is rare. as "a shorn lamb. begun. for example.²WORDSWORTH. shook. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. (a) From the table (Sec. Drive. thrown. Fall. 2. 3. 8. This heard Geraint. flung. Find. shaken. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. . 10. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Throw. drove. found. broken.² If. frozen. and seized a pen.²BIBLE. The butler was hanged.The form gotten is little used. Give.

The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. Indicative Use: Permission. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. 251. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. but came through analogy with should and would. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. there is one general principle. .[To the Teacher..²HAWTHORNE. according to the infinitive used. (See also Sec. 249. from the obsolete verb motan. of course. His superiority none might question. Must is historically a past-tense form.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. It is indicative when it expresses permission. which survives in the sentence.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. 220. it is used only in the indicative mood. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. ability. purpose.²CHANNING This. "So mote it be. PRESENT. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.. Have we valuable territories and important posts. Subjunctive use. etc. PAST.²PAINE. The same remarks apply to ought. must have been an ocular deception. as it has two meanings. Like must. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. or when it expresses wish. as in Sec. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. etc. for full drill on the forms. HAMILTON. Could may be subjunctive." Must is present or past tense. PAST. Ability. 247. The l in could did not belong there originally.. or."²WINIER.. They are as follows:² PRESENT. "far off his coming shines..²CHANNING. as.²SCOTT. Can is used in the indicative only. 250. as it sometimes does. 223.

²IRVING. yea. in the form of command. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. BROCKDEN BROWN. while ought always has to. future action). The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. The sea shall crush thee. not plod along like apeasant. as. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.e.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. as. my lad.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.² Futurity and questions²first person. C. as.²COOPER. or confident prediction. Second and third persons. with pronouns of the first person. "I think I will go. and corn to hoe." Uses of shall and should. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.Nay. I shall be gone. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. 252. (b) In questions asking for orders.. MOULTON. .² (a) To express authority. she should ride like a queen.²MACAULAY. shall and should are used. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. Shall and Will. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²BULWER. The following are examples:² Never mind. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. She should not walk. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.²L. shall and should are used. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. what shall I say?²N.² With respect to novels. promise. especially in the United States.²LONGFELLOW. She rejects his suit with scorn.² The time will come full soon. (b) In indirect quotations. he said. for example. WEBSTER. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. to the neglect of shall and should. They shall have venison to eat.²THAXTER. to use will and would.

Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. I never was what I should be.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. second and third persons. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.. Disguising a command.²BYRON.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. JR. etc. or a promise.²CABLE.. thus.. LARNED. for example.²WORDSWORTH. purpose. BROWN. time. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. and will not return until all is finished. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. First. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²A. was to be expected. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²SCOTT.²ROGERS.²WORDSWORTH.²WORDSWORTH. 253.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²H. and is equivalent to ought.²C. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. as the sole inventor.² I will go myself now.²SWIFT. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. as. B.²WINTER. (c) With direct questions of the second person. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. . with the conviction that he should win in the end.that I would do him justice. And promised. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. JAMES. for example.

. when thou wast born. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²LANDOR. etc. To be sure. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. for example. as. without regard to future time.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. In this stately chair would he sit. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. through storms their brothers are afraid of.² DICKENS. (4) With FIRST.²the original meaning of the word will. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. as. BROWN. The gift of Beauty. as if it were merely expected action. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. for punishment or intimidation.²IRVING.. will is used to express command. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.² Subject I omitted: often so. PASSIVE VOICE. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. so you will. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.. action merely expected to occur.. They will go to Sunday schools. Mere futurity. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. 254. will and would often denote an action as customary. and mark on the grounds the works.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.²SCOTT. Roland.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. B. for example.. will and would are used to express simple futurity. SECOND. would is used to express a wish.²SCOTT.²BURKE. Would thou hadst it not. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. and two of my people. Thine was a dangerous gift.²BANCROFT. AND THIRD PERSONS. When I am in town.. This puts the order more mildly. . Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).²War Records.² Thou wilt take the skiff.

You will choose. [They] will be chosen. Singular. (a) From Secs. PASSIVE VOICE. We will choose. 4. Singular. Plural. He informed us. 2. I will be chosen. You will choose. [They] shall choose. 1. 3." answered Herbert stubbornly. Plural. Exercises on Shall and Will. You shall be chosen. 2. 3. [He] shall choose. 2. [He] will be chosen. You shall choose. 1. 252 and 253. and that of the newest cut. [They] shall be chosen. We will be chosen. yet only seem. promise. Thou art what I would be. (b) Examine the following sentences. You will be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. To express determination. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. We shall choose. Plural. I will choose. You shall choose. 3. [He] will choose. 3. etc. Plural. and justify the use of shall and will. 3. You will be chosen. Singular. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so.:² ACTIVE VOICE. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. [He] shall be chosen. 2. 2. We shall be chosen. You shall be chosen. I shall be chosen. 2. "I shall not run. 1. 5. 1. [They] will choose. I shall choose. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. 6. 3.Singular. .

Without having attended to this. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. was -de or -te. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. very anxious. put. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. and I have nothing to say. as. 11. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. 256. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. WEAK VERBS. 255. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. which may be called irregular weak verbs. bereave beseech bereft.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. then.7. 13. and have no change of vowel. No.²CHAUCER. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle.²Class I." the stranger said. 12. Present Tense. set. bereft. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 9. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. my son. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. put. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. The beast made a sluggish movement. need some attention and explanation. The old ending to verbs of Class II." 14. Of smale houndes hadde she. Lucy stood still. bereaved besought .² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Irregular Weak Verbs. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. Past Tense. This ending has now dropped off. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. as if he would have more of the enchantment. bereave besought Past Participle. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. put. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. 257. set. 10. or mylk and wastel breed.²ID. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. "I am a wayfarer. But the rest.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Infinitives. as in the Old English. 268. an imperfect.. Three saplings.. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. In Sec. they have an indefinite. Perfect. INFINITIVES. Cases when to is omitted. Imperfect. . a perfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. to was used before the infinitive generally. expressing purpose. to express action unconnected with a subject. formed a kind of bedstead.²the creature warring against the creating power. 7. 267. and a perfect definite form. PASSIVE VOICE. When active. 266.. 8. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. like participles. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. But later. have no tense. [To] have chosen. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. [To] be choosing. try clemency. [To] be chosen. Nothing of the kind having been done. Perfect. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. To with the infinitive. will (with should and would). when inflections became fewer. Indefinite. 10. an indefinite and a perfect form. 9.6. [To] choose. and when passive. Perfect definite. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). I returned to reflection on my situation. [To] have been choosing. [To] have been chosen. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Indefinite. ACTIVE VOICE.

see. as the credulous imagine. "a house to let. HALE. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. and like a noun in use. as.²E. 271. They shall have venison to eat. under "Analysis. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative." "I shall have chosen.²TENNYSON. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. But there was nothing to do. 269. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.(2) After the verbs may (might)." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. and emphatic forms of the present and past. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. as. too. or the object of a verb or a preposition. The gerund is like the participle in form.²IRVING. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. feel.²GOLDSMITH. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win.. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. watch.² What! doth she. "She ask my pardon. E.² She was a kind. it has several attributes of a noun. must. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²HOWELLS. "He will choose. GERUNDS. learn [doth learn is one verb. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.). hear. poor woman!" cried Charles." etc. please.²it may be governed as a noun. While the gerund expresses action. 272." (4) In exclamations. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. as in the expression. also in the imperative.²COOPER. "I do go" etc. 270. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. bid (command). "He need not go") and dare (to venture). negative.²DE QUINCEY. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. it is often preceded by the definite article. do (as. it may be the subject of a verb. make. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. liberal woman. can (could). and corn to hoe.²MACAULAY. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. also let. . sometimes need (as. as." Examples are. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.

after examining the nest. and has been put down.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. on your leaving the spot. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. What a vast. according to use as well as meaning. 2. five infinitives. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. Sec. may govern and be governed. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability." also (2. (3) Participial adjectives. when. brilliant. (2) Pure participles. making the definite tenses. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. but do not assert." "Certainly dueling is bad. 4. (4) Pure adjectives. Words in -ing are of six kinds. to see the returning hope of the parents. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb." Exercise. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which have lost all verbal force. 273. (5) Gerunds. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. which express action. Then how pleasing is it. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. but cannot govern." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use.²Find sentences containing five participles." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. (6) Verbal nouns. and five gerunds." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. II). above. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. Exercise." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. b)." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. which name an action or state. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. which express action. which express action and also modify. and wonderful store of learning! .

He spread his blessings all over the land. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. but. (2) Voice. What is dreaming? 8. VERBS. 15. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. write twenty pages without stopping. 275. 11. (3) Mood. 13. In parsing verbs. 16.²transitive or intransitive. much corroded. (b) as to use. (4) Tense. . (5) Person and number. or imperative. 10. Thackeray did not. subjunctive. dictating from his chair. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. slowly. give reality to your teaching. 12.²which of the tenses given in Sec. bearing her national emblem. Caution. I. round which is an iron railing. 234.²strong or weak. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. by object lessons. like Sir Walter Scott. 14. The only means of ascending was by my hands. I suppose I was dreaming about it.²indicative. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. he gave out sentence by sentence. 6. you must.5. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is.²active or passive. 9. 7. giving principal parts. He is one of the most charming masters of our language.

(c) to what word it belongs. and ends in -s. past tense. has for its subject Lee. then parse it as an adjective. 2. and not taken as single verbs. In 2. active. see Sec. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. definite.276. 278(2). Especially frequent are those made up of should. Exercise. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. (1) Participle. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. call should a weak verb. (3) Gerund. You are gathered to your fathers." Sometimes it does. (b) whether indefinite. In such sentences as 1. VERBALS. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. perfect. indicative. . 2." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. But unless the verb is present. and parting day linger and play on its summit. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. 273). Have been is a perfect active infinitive. has the subject government. past tense. (b) whether active or passive. 277. intransitive. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Parse the verbs. It has been intimated in Sec. could. etc. followed by a pure infinitive without to. (b) its use (Sec. (a) From what verb derived. can. verbals. in the world. etc. intransitive. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 3. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. must. might. would. (2) Infinitive. imperfect.. 4. till it meet the sun in his coming. 235. and should always be analyzed as phrases. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. may. call might a weak verb. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. VERB PHRASES. usually it does not. If a participial adjective. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. III. give points (a) and (b). Take these examples:² 1. no sin nor sorrow. II. perfect. 278. indicative (as it means could). Let it rise! let it rise. we must beware of the rule. The government might have been strong and prosperous. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. therefore active.

as the Hindoos say. 15. 22.O God. So. 8. morning is not a new issuing of light. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. a deafening shout. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 12. 18. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. However that be. from a sort of temporary death. or. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 13. Right graciously he smiled on us. 6. "God save our Lord the King!" 7.Henceforth in me instill. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. a sweet good will. as rolled from wing to wing. he thought only of her. Whatever ground you sow or plant.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 14. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. and wondered if she were yet awake. 11. 17." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. The soul having been often born. a new waking up of all that has life. 20. 9. leaving me upon the bed. 16. 23. He passed across the room to the washstand.Down all the line. With them. When he arose in the morning. 19. 24. a new bursting forth of the sun. 10. 21. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. . "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. as usual.5. see that it is in good condition. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. In going for water.

Is it only poets. who live with nature?²ID. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.25. for example." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. A verb. Nor was it altogether nothing. 26. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. and live ere life be spent. 27. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. And now wend we to yonder fountain. and men of leisure and cultivation. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. because. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend.²CARLYLE. they are more himself than he is." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place].²THACKERAY. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].² The young man reveres men of genius. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28." An adjective or an adverb. to consent.²SHELLEY.²EMERSON. 29. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. thou sayest. Better it were. place.Feast while we may. The word adverb means joined to a verb.²time. . "William's private life was severely pure. Oh. and limit adjectives or adverbs. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. To the almost terror of the persons present. to speak truly. and so on. 279."²DE QUINCEY. as. ADVERBS. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. or manner: as. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Adverbs modify. for the hour of rest is at hand. When action is expressed." "He was absolute.

maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.²THOREAU. Surely happiness is reflective. 281. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. has induced some of us to attend it.²TROLLOPE. and half awfully. all wet and glossy. as shown in the sentences. Definition. hitherto. not simply the forms used in predication. for example. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. but still with a rich bloom to it. perhaps. is a modifying word. to-day. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. ²IRVING. etc. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. A clause or sentence. 282. An adverb. or a word group used as such. as now. then. which may qualify an action word or a statement. NOTE.²BYRON. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. 280. before. ALDRICH.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. thus. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. 169 are felt to be elliptical.²LEIGH HUNT. lately. as. while those in Sec. being adverbs naturally and fitly.² FRANKLIN.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.² LOWELL. like the light of heaven. Make music to the lonely ear. A phrase. but some verb understood. but really modifying.²T. B. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead.He was incidentally news dealer. not the noun. there are six classes:² (1) Time. I draw forth the fruit. We are offered six months' credit.²These last differ from the words in Sec. Thus considered. .² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. and that. ever. NOTE. 169. It may also modify a sentence. (2) according to their use in the sentence.

better. The more they multiply. beautifully. and not infrequently are found in literary English. 283).²LECKY.yonder. Emerson. LOUIS STEVENSON. This long's the text. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. too. the more perfect will be their obedience. etc. whencesoever. enough.² The master.there. or how far he believes it to be true. very. above. while so precedes only the adjective usually. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. surely.²R. probably. slightly.near. as hither. [Sidenote The status of such.²SHAKESPEARE. especially the comparative of these words. telling how much. twice. as perhaps.. (6) Assertion. possibly.. as well. for example. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. (5) Degree.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. etc. two by two.. etc.²HAWTHORNE. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.(2) Place. the more friends you will have. singly. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration..which gained him such universal popularity. bravely. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. thus. Motley. whithersoever.where. much.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.²BURKE. as little. White. partly.was for this once of her opinion. etc. Meekness. not.²DE QUINCEY. maybe.²BROWNING. So also in Grote.thence. greatly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. Thackeray. and others. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. I was. . The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. slowly.thither. just. 283. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. (3) Manner.whence.whither.²IRVING. that these adverbs form a very large class. as hence. as here. etc. telling how many times: once. the more evidently they love liberty. at least. (see also Sec. etc. (4) Number. telling how anything is done.

"Peace. Direct questions. Again." "He spoke positively [manner]." "That were far better [degree].²BAYNE. Some adverbs. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. have the additional function of asking a question. . Interrogative. Emerson. Dickens. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now." said the king. Simple. and art but a fool. De Quincey. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. It is only occasionally used in literary English.Pretty. Such are most of those given already in Sec." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Franklin. Aldrich. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H." "The house.²THACKERAY.²THACKERAY. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. for example.² "Mighty well." "I have seen you before [time]."²SCOTT. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Beau Fielding. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Mighty. B. Holmes. Kingsley. 284. A pretty large experience. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. besides modifying. Burke. Notice meanings.²FIELDING. Hard blows and hard money.²HAWTHORNE. Defoe. a mighty fine gentleman. STOWE. and its lawn before [place].²"He walked too far [place]. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²BULWER.² You are mighty courteous. and other writers. 286.² KINGSLEY. 285. for example.²GOLDSMITH. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Neville. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. 282.

for example.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.²BYRON. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. . WEBSTER. (4) Degree. (2) Place. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. (5) Reason. 287.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. I hearkened. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (4) Degree. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. I will not ask where thou liest low. I do not remember when I was taught to read.²BULWER. I know not why.²D. CLAY. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. (2) Place. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²POE. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. When did this humane custom begin?²H.²BYRON (3) Manner. they smiled.

Many adjectives have the same ending.²SHAKESPEARE." Exercise. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Exercise. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. representing four classes. Form vs. further farthest. soonest. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. use. Many adverbs are compared. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. only occasionally having -er and -est. high. see Sec. when does not express time and modify. but the whole clause. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. higher. Tell what each word in ly modifies. and. Superlative.²TENNYSON. Then must she keep it safelier. . just as adjectives do.But in reality.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. highest. obs.²BYRON. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. have the same inflection as adjectives. sooner. when.. 290. well much little far late Comparative. The following. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.²COLERIDGE. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. Its strings boldlier swept. Only that we may wiselier see. when compared. For further discussion.eyes. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. 288. as. soon. irregularly compared. not an adverb. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.²EMERSON. furthest (rathe.) rather 289. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.

Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.²WORDSWORTH. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. The reason is. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.²ID.²THACKERAY. kindly and good-natured in secret. 4. mostly. as. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. 2.² EMERSON.²CHAUCER. merely introduces a sentence. nearly. evenly. curiously jolly. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. hardly.And his mien of kingly state. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 3.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. instead of being used adverbially. With his proud. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. . even. 2. if it has the verb be. 6.²IRVING. Such are most. 292. Not near so black as he was painted. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Special use of there. But he must do his errand right. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. whether adverbs or adjectives.²TENNYSON. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. that in Old and Middle English. 5. Frequently the word there. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. He is inexpressibly mean." Compare these:² 1. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. quick-flashing eye. 8. hard. more courtly in their manners. but with a different meaning. or down the leaves laughed through. etc.1. There are eyes. near. many words without -ly have the same form. 291. Again. to be sure. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. And all about. 7.

4. For the impracticable. however theoretically enticing. but from my fall? 6. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 18. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 5. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 15. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 10. at the regular wine-shop. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. according to meaning and also use. In parsing adverbs. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 12. is always politically unwise. 2. Exercise. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 9. 7. 17. (3) What word or word group it modifies. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Thither we went. But a few steps farther on. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. and sate down on the steps of a house. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. It is the Cross that is first seen. and always. 293.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 3. if the word is compared. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. the Madonna is in great glory. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 11. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. . He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. give² (1) The class. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. (2) Degree of comparison. burning in the center of the temple. 16. but continually shifted.

however. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. Unlike adverbs." Paragraphs. hence. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. 21. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. then. It was pretty bad after that. A conjunction is a linking word. word groups.19. 20." Sentences. . They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. 22. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. but the student will readily find them. therefore. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. nor. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. 294. CONJUNCTIONS. upon which the sun now shone forth." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Definition. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. but side by side within the American Union. or sentence groups." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. 295. connecting words. Clauses. sentences. etc. But now the wind rose again.

etc. Adversative.. therefore.but (or but also).. Alternative. however. whether.. hence. neither. as. then. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. word groups. serves but to show their ignorance. etc. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. neither.. the window being open. not only.. Some of these go in pairs.. the bread was spent." Nevertheless. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. as well as.. etc..nor. introducing a reason or cause. while. Correlatives. 296. else. While the earth bears a plant.or.. 297. only.. "Howbeit. expressing a choice...or.nor. The chief ones are. (2) ADVERSATIVE. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Your letter. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Nor mark'd they less.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.. . still. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.Classes of conjunctions. Causal.or. as and. The assertion.. (3) CAUSAL. the butter too. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. either.. but is emperor in his own right. as well as the room door. moreover.. either.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. usually between two things. (4) ALTERNATIVE. yet. had its weight. and. also. nor. for. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. or the sea rolls its waves. answering to each other in the same sentence. (2) Subordinate. both.. and not man corn. nor.. however. joining words. as but. likewise. of the same rank. not only.or whether..and. whether..or. neither. Some go in threes. either. They are or.but. as. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. 298. whether.

however.. howsoever. that. before..²WILSON. whereas.²DE QUINCEY. nor creeping thing. whereto. wherever. though. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. as. since.²BIBLE. so that.as. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. so. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. nor green leaf. as. whether. provided. Where the treasure is. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. ere. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. (2) TIME: when.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. in order that. since. now. in apposition. It is. nor echo. object. unless. QUINCY. there will the heart be also. although. etc. (3) MANNER: how. seeing.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²IRVING. nor wing of bird. ²ALLSTON. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. whithersoever.²COOPER. etc. He is not only bold and vociferous. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. so.²BURKE.²PAULDING. (7) RESULT: that. . Neither the place in which he found himself. (6) PURPOSE: that.²J. whenever. 299. etc. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. in case. provided that. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. on condition that. as. so that. etc. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. until.. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. except. whence. after. sometimes if. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. Time. even if. while. lest. whither. so. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. especially that after so. etc. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.

A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Let the world go how it will.That he gave her wounds repose. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.² EMERSON. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.² H.² WORDSWORTH. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²EMERSON. Cause. not as they were expected or intended.²DEFOE. Condition. As a soldier. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Purpose. JACKSON. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. H. Manner. So many thoughts moved to and fro. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. but not so long but I held it out.²AMES.²AMES. a thousand bodies. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²BURKE.²EMERSON.²BYRON.²AMES. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²IRVING. Comparison. I was again covered with water.That vain it were her eyes to close.So I behold them not. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Concession. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.²EMERSON. Now he is dead.²CAMPBELL. Then Denmark blest our chief. Result. . he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. reason. We wish for a thousand heads.² HAWTHORNE.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Substantive.²COLERIDGE.

7. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. as he shot in air. 4. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 10. etc. While a faction is a minority. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 15. 12. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. 6. 9. some words²for example. The moth fly. They. Crept under the leaf. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. it will remain harmless. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 13. . her real merit is known at home. the wisest. 14. 300. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 3. Exercises. 5. He was brought up for the church. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. No one had yet caught his character. Besides. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. classify them if conjunctions:² 1.²RUSKIN. And then recovering. and hid her there. 2.Let us see whether the greatest. since. that. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. then. as. As will have been noticed. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. hold a subordinate rank. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. while. In what point of view. the lady called her servant. And they lived happily forever after. After he was gone. however. she faintly pressed her hand.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions.

As though a rose should shut. "We meet. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. word groups. the expression would be.²BYRON.. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.So slowly moved about. and part as though we parted not. Consequently. (2) What words.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. even as they would weep. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. In poetry. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.Clouded. 303. and be a bud again. expressing degree if taken separately.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. As though. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. His voice . 301.. they connect.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. GREELEY.. As if. as is often equivalent to as if. SPECIAL REMARKS. As for as if.²IRVING. .²HOOD. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. for example. So silently we seemed to speak. as is shown by the use of as though. In parsing conjunctions. 302. etc. 304. none of the lashings having given way.16." as. thus. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. In Emerson's sentence. If analyzed. and the frame will suit the picture.²EMILY BRONTE." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. in this case. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.

12. so means provided. in 3. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. compare the sentences. Exercise. 13. so means therefore. 6. as beside his own chimneys. so that expresses result. but of the natural. It continued raining.. and. when. or in the snow. in 2. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1.²I find them true in Concord. etc. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. so that I could not stir abroad." said his wife to Martin Luther. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.² 1. so it be faithfully imparted.²is subordinate of condition. such as nor. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. he sleeps as warm. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. because. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and very seldom?" 8. are regularly of one particular class. 11. It may be safely trusted. and the like. When the gods come among men. 9. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. He is the compend of time. 3. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. and associates as happily. and its clause depends on the other. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. Some conjunctions. 7. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. 10. 4.²that the fairies do not like to be named. others belong to several classes. For example. or in the forest. If he could solve the riddle. they are not known. At sea. He dismisses without notice his thought. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. he is also the correlative of nature. the Sphinx was slain. "Doctor. that it might testify of that particular ray. so they paddled on. In classifying them. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. . that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. because it is his. 2. and its clause is independent.²EMERSON 3. All the postulates of elfin annals. dines with as good an appetite. 5.Caution. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness.²DEFOE 2.

The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. It is clear. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. PREPOSITIONS. There was no iron to be seen. in this they agree. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. save it were sinful like herself. the whole conditions are changed. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. whose names I omit. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. you must be. 27. 18. Still.14.. she might have the family countenance. 26. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. won't you lay on? 17. . I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 30. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. when it was presented to them. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. that both were wayward.²else it is none. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 16. 29. in many a heart. And whether consciously or not. Now you have the whip in your hand. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 28. It may be so in the majority of cases. 15. I speak. enthroned. 21. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 19. 25. of good novels only. however. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. Goodness must have some edge to it. 20. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 305. For. 23. 22. therefore. 24. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. seeing that it behooves me to hasten.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

Exercise. at one. by the wrecks of time. at rest. At St. At that time [the earth] was richer.²COOPER.²ID. as. by many a million of acres.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. he stopped. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. by the ruins of nations. Like at.²M. (3) Agency or means. By. ²PARTON. (2) Time. STODDARD. Helena. at first. expressing the degree of difference. at war. at play. Exercise. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. 321. at least. 320. TAYLOR The angel came by night. etc. D. H.²R. etc. by means near or close to. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²WARNER.²SWIFT. at most. at length. at the worst. For.²EVERETT. at any rate. By my faith. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at the best.²DE QUINCEY. Richard was standing by the window.² (1) The general meaning of place. at random. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. . at once. at work. by the blessed memory of the departed.²ALDRICH. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. the first port made by the ship. at all.. at peace.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation.²B. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. CONWAY. She saw the boat headed for her. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. (4) Measure of excess. at naught. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.

GARRISON. meaning in the character of. for famine. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. An Arab woman. BANCROFT. But the Colonel. . (9) Motive. for all slips of hers. "For a fool. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.²IRVING. cause. reason.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. etc. but a few sunsets since. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. had a forest of poor relations.One of Eve's family. (7) Concession. E. he repented of his folly. (4) Substitution or exchange. There are gains for all our losses. etc. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. as to. incitement to action.²EMERSON. poor fellow." said the Lady of Lochleven.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. The twilight being. the Colonna motto would fit you best. "thou hast counseled wisely."²SCOTT By my faith.. ate her child. in behalf of. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²H. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. for the benefit of..²STODDARD. a person or thing. (3) Duration of time.²HOLMES. for all his title. For the rest. (6) Like as. and leaped for joy. they are now for us. (5) Reference. He and they were for immediate attack. Still.²PARKMAN." answered Master Brackett. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. or in spite of. considering that etc. meaning with regard to. H. meaning although. if your worship can accomplish that.²HOOD.(2) In favor of. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline.² RUSKIN.²PARKMAN. "Nay. etc.²ID.²E.²W. or extent of space. respecting. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. as being.²LAMB. L. For him.

if not a desperate man.²HALE. like from. A distrustful. Like boys escaped from school. (3) Time.²ID. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²H. It was from no fault of Nolan's. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. From. Exercise. The original meaning of of was separation or source. H. From harmony. (1) Origin or source. The young cavaliers.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²HUME. Exercise.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. (4) Motive. The From Relation. ceased to be merciful. 323. The general idea in from is separation or source. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. (2) Origin.²BANCROFT. The king holds his authority of the people. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. more. nay. Of.²DRYDEN. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. cause. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. 322.²MILTON. or reason. from a desire of seeming valiant. .²HUXLEY.²HIGGINSON. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.

²LEW WALLACE. there were only twenty-one members present. south of.²clear of. the finest army that Europe had yet seen."²E.²ALDRICH. free. or breastpin of native gold. . of his own knowledge. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. such as ease. rid. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. weeds. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. Back of that tree. free of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²ID.²BAYARD TAYLOR. etc.²PARKMAN. ²GAVARRE. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. cure. A singular want of all human relation. ask. E. "I am glad of that. deprivation. Sandals.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. rob. White shirt with diamond studs. motive. etc.²HIGGINSON. disarm. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²SCOTT Who formed. More than one altar was richer of his vows. etc. beg. ²PARTON. bare of. Other Relations expressed by Of. bound with thongs of boar's hide. HALE. deprive. as north of.. He is away of his own free will. acquitted them of. (d) With words expressing distance. that Cromwell once ruled England.² HUXLEY. divest. (5) Expressing agency. expressing a part of a number or quantity. and grass. purge. out of the most unpromising materials.²BANCROFT. (6) Partitive.²DICKENS II. Asked no odds of.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. etc. The hills were bare of trees. You cannot make a boy know. Of the Forty. wide of. reason. clear. (3) With expressions of material. (b) After some adjectives.²BOSWELL. etc. demand. relieve. especially out of. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.

Such a book as that of Job. of is used in the sense of during. See also Sec. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²SWIFT. (7) Possessive. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. for the possessive.²COOPER. being equivalent to an infinitive. with its object. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²LOWELL.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. with regard to. (c) Two nouns.He washed out some of the dirt.²LAMB. of late. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. equal to about.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. The nation of Lilliput. of a sudden. concerning. The fair city of Mexico.²PRESCOTT. (8) Appositional. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²BANCROFT. Besides the phrases of old. (b) Noun and gerund. Idiomatic use with verbs. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. could give shelter from his contumely.²HALLECK.²ALDRICH. Not even woman's love. when the first is descriptive of the second. (9) Of time. etc. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. and the dignity of a queen. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. ²IRVING.²BANCROFT. . 309. (10) Of reference. standing. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²W. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²ID.²FROUDE..²BANCROFT. E. CHANNING.

He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. 325. disapprove. Exercise.²EMERSON.²PARKMAN.²Find sentences with six uses of of. (2) Time. on high.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. allow. consist. Exercise. The general meaning of on is position or direction.²ALDRICH. On. (3) Reference.²BRYANT. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. such as admit. Upon my reputation and credit. Upon. on the wing. repent. SIGOURNEY. permit. On my life. accept. on board. and not a day more. avail (one's self). and others. Upon is seldom used to express time. concerning. on the alert. equal to about. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. (b) With motion. 324. . approve. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. ²BANCROFT. on a sudden. you are eighteen. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. without adding to their meaning. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²DE QUINCEY. etc.²PARKMAN. It also accompanies the verbs tire. on view. To.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. Cannon were heard close on the left.²PARKMAN.²MRS. etc.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. on trial. (4) In adjurations. complain.

With. (5) Equivalent to according to.. Nor. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. does the mere music. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²BULWER.. But when.²PARTON. His brother had died. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²LANG. In Old English. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²IRVING. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. Death!²HALLECK. We cook the dish to our own appetite. to my taste.²B. (b) Referring to time. whose influence is felt to this hour.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. Exercise. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. 268).of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²GOLDSMITH. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.to be written over.Come to the bridal chamber. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. He usually gave his draft to an aid. to him. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²PARKMAN.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. mid meant in company with. it may be genuine poetry.²BRYANT. Revolutions.²often to the loss of vigor.. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. 326.. To the few.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²BENTON To our great delight.²HALE. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. unmasked. interest. gay Comedy appears. had ceased to be. (2) Expressing result. .

It seemed a supreme moment with him. 327.²ALDRICH.²SCOTT.²COOPER. HALE. He expired with these words. She seemed pleased with the accident. in spite of. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. it is necessary. transmitted from the beginning. Exercise.²CHANNING.²COLERIDGE. reason. first of all. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (3) Cause. but with you.²DE QUINCEY.²HOWELLS. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. Either with the swingle-bar. With all his sensibility. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. felt it unsafe to trifle further. .²DE QUINCEY. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. as with you. to find the object of the preposition.²EMERSON. Messala. he gave millions to the sword.²WALLACE (7) Time. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. (2) Instrumentality.²LANG. E.The advance. with Heyward at its head. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. "poetry is not a pursuit. but a pleasure"?²LANG. (5) Opposition. motive. (4) Estimation. with all his boldness. I think.²E. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. He was wild with delight about Texas.²HALE. or with the haunch of our near leader.²HOWELLS. had already reached the defile. opinion.²Find sentences with four uses of with.

I felt my box raised very high in the air. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. 2.²ID. In (2). I speak these things from a love of justice. he followed us one day into those gardens. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. Whereupon. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. I remember. which. the phrase answers the question where. 3. Exercises. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. 5. and knocked me down flat on my face. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. hence we say. country. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. came tumbling about my ears. The guns were cleared of their lumber. 4. before the dwarf left the queen. To our general surprise. Be that as it will. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. And so on. without a country modifies man. . telling what man. of without. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. I called out several times. the malicious rogue. In (3). (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I looked towards my windows. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. we met the defaulter here. by which a dozen apples. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met.²SWIFT 2. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. beginning. The object of on board is ships. (4) from the beginning. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. (2) on which. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. but all to no purpose. of from. shook it directly over my head. but I received no other hurt. or was. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. like the clapping of wings. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. I heard a noise just over my head. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. In (1). of on. (3) without a country. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. because I had given the provocation.

down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. He locked his door from mere force of habit. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 9. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. grasping at the child. For my part. 25. 15. in this respect. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 24.He spurred his courser on. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 13. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. With all his learning. when. 29. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 7. 14. 23. 27. The mother sank and fell. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. The savage army was in war-paint. 22. On all subjects known to man. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 10. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. in town. plumed for battle. 21.Without stop or stay. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 19. I like to see the passing. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 18. 8. 20. 16. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. to one dark and gloomy. after a restful morning. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 17. His breeches were of black silk.6. he favored the world with his opinions. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. . 26. 11. 12. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage.

²BEECHER. That is what I understand by scientific education. not merely by the amount of the tax.30. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. 330. and be proud in the midst of its toil.That makes the heavens be mute. A few are discussed below.²WEBSTER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (a) Indefinite relative. 329. THAT. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²COLERIDGE. We wish that labor may look up here. That was a dreadful mistake. that you might behold this joyous day. (1) Relative pronoun. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²WEBSTER.²HUXLEY.² JOHNSON. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (4) As an adverb of degree. and not according to form. 328. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. He will raise the price. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. . And now it is like an angel's song. WHAT. That night was a memorable one. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (b) Of result.²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun. (c) Substantive conjunction.²STOCKTON.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.

Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (b) Indirect question.²ID. To say what good of fashion we can.. (9) As an exclamation. BUT.²S. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. it rests on reality. What. to see what might be hidden. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. he knows what good people are to be found there. (b) Indirect question.Which be they what they may. after not only.²ID.²EMERSON.. If he has [been in America]. silent still.. At what rate these materials would be distributed. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. (7) Adverb of degree. "I'll tell you what.but." (4) Relative adjective.in Pera. partly.. and silent all!²BYRON. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. Cox.²WORDSWORTH.. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.Are yet the fountain light of all our day.²THACKERAY.²EMERSON. or not only.²WEBSTER. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.. . (b) Copulative.S. (6) Exclamatory adjective. What with the Maltese goats.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.. (8) Conjunction.. What..these sounds are only to be heard. nearly equivalent to partly. but the result of calculation.. 331..it is impossible to determine.Those shadowy recollections.

meaning only. Doing duty as a guard. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. (3) Preposition. not. equivalent to that .²IRVING. (4) Relative pronoun.²LAMB.. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. I shall see but little of it.²SCOTT. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.. Who knows but.. ²CARLYLE. like the dog. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.²HAWTHORNE. meaning otherwise . AS. (b) Of manner. To lead but one measure. or who .²IRVING. sometimes same. (b) Substantive.. meaning except.He yearned to our patriot bands.²IRVING.²MRS BROWNING. (5) Adverb.. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²CARLYLE.²SHELLEY. (d) Of reason.. 332. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. than. not. at all moments. towards order. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. (2) Relative pronoun.²FRANKLIN. (c) Of degree. but piercing cries. (e) Introducing an appositive word. after such.Then arose not only tears. on all sides. after a negative. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. stands for that . not. ...²EMERSON.

Give Ruskin space enough. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like him awhile ago.² A timid. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. Stirring it vigorously. and was clearly an adjective. staring like a bewildered man.² HAWTHORNE. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²EMERSON. 333. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²HAWTHORNE. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²CASS. like Martin was. and is followed by a dative-objective. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²EMERSON.²DARWIN. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. I do with my friends as I do with my books. Introduces a clause. They look. This follows a verb or a verbal.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. That face. and as or as if takes its place. nervous child. Note the difference between these two uses.LIKE. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²HALLECK. In this second use.²ALDRICH. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. No Emperor. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²HIGGINSON.²ALDRICH. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.-SCOTT. There is no statue like this living man. . like drops out. Through which they put their heads. In each case. ²PARKMAN. like a cook beating eggs. indeed. NOTE. If the verb is expressed. but its verb is omitted.²MAYHEW.²LAMB. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²LONGFELLOW. but this is not considered good usage: for example. like summer ocean's. (1) An adjective. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. this. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²SHAKESPEARE.

336. clauses introduced by conjunctions. What analysis is. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. etc. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. as. etc. but it still retains its identity as noun. that is. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. entering into the structure of a sentence. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax.: for example. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. in separating them into their component parts. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. verb. that is. pronoun." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. Definition." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Definition. Some of these are imitative sounds. tut! buzz! etc. 335. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion.²in determining case. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric." PART II..INTERJECTIONS. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. . and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. 334. Value of analysis. subject and predicate. it is necessary to become expert in analysis.

²a subject and a predicate. "Hath he not always treasures. 337. Every sentence must contain two parts." "What wouldst thou do. but the sentence would still be declarative. (2) Interrogative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. always friends?" imperative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. interrogative. declarative. not according to the form in which a thought is put. A rare old plant is the ivy green. But now all is to be changed. This is the most common one. but according to how many statements there are. Definition: Predicate. "The quality of mercy is not strained. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. old man?" "Be thou familiar. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1.Kinds of sentences as to form. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. SIMPLE SENTENCES. "Come to the bridal chamber. Division according to number of statements. or imperative. 338. entreaty. hence. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. 2. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Examples of these three kinds are. which expresses command. you must not die!" interrogative. but by no means vulgar. Definition. question. or command: for example. 339. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. which puts the thought in a question. (3) Imperative. "Old year. . Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. according to form. or request. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS." 340.

²What is to be changed? Answer. but about the ivy green. not of a rare old plant. especially in poetry. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. But if we try this with the second sentence. or adverb that asks about the subject. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. 3. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. or an interrogative pronoun. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. as. the subject (you. 6. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. . In the interrogative sentence. Thus. to an ignorant man. Listen. The last of all the Bards was he.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. to suit all cases:² Subject. a rare old plant. always reduce them to the order of a statement.²What is the ivy green? Answer. or ye) is in most cases omitted. the subject is frequently after the verb. 7. 4. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. 2. "[You] behold her single in the field. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. and is to be supplied. all. Slavery they can have anywhere. we have some trouble. and our definition must be the following. Consequently. 8. thou. on the other hand. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. and the real subject is the latter.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. adjective. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order." Exercise. In analyzing such sentences. 341. 5. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made.

direct. . but chief belongs to the verb. 342. (5) Modifiers. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. Of a transitive verb." Complement: 344. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. in addition to the object. and means summoned. Indirect object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.10. and by object we mean the direct object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. just as if to say. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. (2) The predicate. (3) The object. 343. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. but it is a true complement. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. and me here is not the object simply of call. (4) The complements. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (6) Independent elements. The transitive verb often requires.²transitive and intransitive. "Ye call me chief. for example. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. Direct Object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. but of call chief. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. "Ye honor me. or second object." indirect.

The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. etc. as. not containing a verb. As to form. and. 355. 351. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." Things used as Subject. above sixty. See sentence 19. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." "The good man. in the popular judgment. taste.." "He was termed Thomas." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. become. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. appear. 347. 352. especially the forms of be. for instance. seem." Also an expression used as a noun." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . Phrases. "A cheery. 364. feel. An intransitive verb. "Brow and head were round. and of massive weight. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. Thom of the Gills. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. and barring the door. A phrase is a group of words. introduced by a preposition: for example. or. sir!' rang out in response." (3) INFINITIVE. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. Complement of an intransitive verb. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. he was now getting old. 346. in exercise following Sec. ay." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. 'Ay. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. in the original Opium Confessions. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. as in drowning." (2) PARTICIPIAL. more familiarly. I mentioned a case of that nature. as in the sentence." 345. to the completion of this man of the world." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." All these complete intransitive verbs. but used as a single modifier.

²the talent of starting the game. asserting eyes. or the thundering of organs. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." Things used as Complement. (4) After "there introductory." "Never." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. from their lips. but they will be given in detail here. my deficiency. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. for which see Sec.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. Disguised infinitive subject." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. but obscures the real subject. or their religion from their sect. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." etc. and ever will be." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. "'By God." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. . The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject.²the infinitive phrase. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. was heard one syllable to justify. prowling eyes. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. I saw the quick and the dead. and by Saint George!' said the King. 341. (2) In interrogative sentences. 349. etc." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). but the real or logical subject is to print. "Therein has been." Things used as Direct Object. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." In this sentence." 348." "There are asking eyes." The for did not belong there originally." "The dead are there.

and whenever the complement is a noun." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. and.350.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. doubtless. or Complement." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she.²heads or tails." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. 351. the object is made the subject by being passive." (4) Participle. Like all the complements in this list. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. As complement of an intransitive verb. the shepherd girl. and explaining or modifying the subject." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.²completing the predicate. Of a transitive verb." "She asked her father's permission." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. and the words italicized are still complements. or the equivalent of the noun. Object. Modifiers of Subject." Modifiers. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." In this last sentence." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. they are adjuncts of the object. (3) Infinitive." "Their tempers." "Serving others is serving us. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." "I hear the echoes throng. at the same time. I. complements of the predicate. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." . As complement of a transitive verb.

unforgiving." "Him." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. "He died like a God. but noble teachers. given at the request of a Dutch lady." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but it is really a contracted clause. Modifiers of the Predicate. 351." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." "In the twinkling of an eye. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. II. but with other men." Exercise.²proud. austere. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. Tells how. object. not with nature. 352." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. tell whether the subject. the prisoner at the bar. I have seasoned for thee. and modify the predicate in the same way. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. this young idolater.²In each sentence in Sec. Retained with passive." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. was now called upon for his defense. 357-363.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." In such a sentence as. see further Secs." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. and leading him from star to star." "Give them not only noble teachings. or . no sociable angel." (For participial and infinitive phrases. the verb being omitted. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. was the scene from King John.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. or complement is modified." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. Since the predicate is always a verb. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing.

5. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. etc. a sort of personality to the whole writing.. how far." Exercises. 3. in this center? 4." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. and (direct) object:² 1. Why does the horizon hold me fast. and other measures of precaution. I took. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause." (6) Adverbial objective. Evil. They do not wish to be lovely. 7. 4. These answer the question when. 7. the man of ideas appears out of his reason.When the verb is changed from active to passive. predicate. but to be loved. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. (a) Pick out subject. On the voyage to Egypt. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. with my joy and grief. 6. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 3. But anger drives a man to say anything. 2. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. and as many to oppose it. This. to the animal strength and spirits. negative. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. and. His books have no melody. but the children of the great. in regard to particulars. 6. . Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. predicate. and the direct object is retained: for example. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. no emotion. the indirect object is retained." "One way lies hope." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. after dinner. 2. Fashion does not often caress the great. no relief to the dead prosaic level. is good in the making. 5. gives wonderful animation. according to old philosophers. To the men of this world." "All such knowledge should be given her. 8. (b) Pick out the subject. or how long. no humor. he liked.

. then. burthened with the anxieties of a man. etc. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. that was thy portion in life. 6. 3.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. in little peaceful Easedale. this dragoon so lovely. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 3. upwards. 3. 5. must visit again the home of her childhood. Paint me. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste.. I gave him an address to my friend. this nun so martial. 5. To suffer and to do. the attorney. Compound Predicate. happy dinner. expecting the return of their parents. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 2.²the river Meuse. Yes. That night. viz. 4.y 8. Unhorse me. Not the less I owe thee justice. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. to the right and to the left. a room seventeen feet by twelve. In one feature. at the chief hotel. this imperial rider. the blooming cornet. Their intention was to have a gay. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. y y y y Compound Subject. after their long confinement to a ship. then. 4. six children sat by a peat fire. and a member of the world. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. I felt myself. A river formed the boundary. downwards. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. I promised her protection against all ghosts. Not compound sentences. 2. at length the warrior lady. for the first time. 4. 2.

etc. the predicate. hurry." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. hurry. For example. together with all its modifiers. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. and its object or complement. Independent Elements of the Sentence." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. same as (1). complements. turned his steps homeward. the verb). and returned to the more important concerns of the election. may be the person or thing addressed.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. the simple subject is situation." Sentences with compound predicates are. shouldered the rusty firelock. exposes. forming a sentence: "Oh. then the grammatical subject and predicate. and. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. in all such sentences as we quote below. together with its modifiers. modifiers. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. but it is to be noticed that. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. lurking far down in the depths of human nature." "The name of the child. etc. "Ah. I'm with you once again. several modifiers. the tone of her voice.. in the sentence. Examples of compound subjects are. however." And so with complements. Bishop. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. two or more subjects of the same predicate. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided.353. above: thus. Larger view of a sentence. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. "The company broke up." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. etc. that is. 355. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject." "Ye crags and peaks. they are not a necessary part. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. the air of the mother. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. ulcer." "He shook his head. The exclamatory expression. the object. Of this." "Voyages and travels I would also have. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. my brave young man!" . 354. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. and the rest is the logical predicate. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them.

y (2) The adverbial use. how you're winking!" "Now. In their use." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 350. 352. see Sec. "Oh. or complement (see Sec. object. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." (6) Single words: as. nevertheless." "Why. modifying a noun." (2) Adverbial. let him perish. etc. therefore. prepositional phrases may be. 355. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. and so on." (3) Independent. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. truly. undoubtedly. 357. such as perhaps." "At all events." (5) Participial phrase: "But.. the company broke up. (b) As a modifier of subject. then. The words well. see Sec. modifying the predicate. besides. 3. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. There are some adverbs. generally speaking. he was a conscientious man. yes! everybody knew them." "Truth to say. this story runs thus. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. or word used as a noun: for example. such as however. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES.." "No. pronoun. already noticed. (1) Adjectival. six quill-driving gentlemen. 356. he somehow lived along." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. her noticing even this is creditable. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 6). 4). as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. why. he closed his literary toils at dinner. instances of which were seen in Sec. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. now." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. and some conjunctions." "Well. to the best of my remembrance. 351. moreover. 4). really.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short." Another caution. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. etc. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. . that have an office in the sentence." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. These need close watching. grandma.

being equivalent to a future with obligation. "Because I was.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor." (b) With the forms of be. modifying was speedily run through. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." "There. ought. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec.should. 355. but require somewhat closer attention." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . and hence is adverbial." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. therefore. or as nearly so as the student will require.would. and they will be presented here in full. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. The verbal use. and teach her how to be happy and good. "The letter of introduction. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.: as in the sentences. but having no other office than a verbal one." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. containing no matters of business. my dear. he should not have known them at all." (c) With the definite forms of go. Wilt thou. (5).]. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.can (could). See Sec. I. 358. y (a) With may (might). INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." In this sentence. thus. necessity. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. was speedily run through. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. etc. This case excepted. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." etc. etc.seem.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public.

etc." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." 360. above. result. to hear McOrator after dinner. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." "To say what good of fashion we can. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. "But there was no time to be lost. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. complement. already examined." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. Don Guzman." "To teach is to learn. The adjectival use.²both purpose clauses. 362. modifying a noun that may be a subject. to look means that he might look. The adverbial use. III. object. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. hang the idiot. The substantive use. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. 361. etc. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. IV." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. (4) In apposition. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). and the eyes to fill?" 359. notice the following:² In (1)." "He insisted on his right to forget her." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry.. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this.: for example. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." "Are you mad. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. II. 351. the Scotch fighting all the battles. 5). . was to have the foe's life at their mercy. to please is equivalent to that he may please. To test this. The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. 361 are used adverbially.

give² (1) The predicate. savage and serene in one hour. In (5). 2. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 352). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. object. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. must be in a life." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. etc. If it is an incomplete verb. . 355. 268.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS.. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. (5) The subject (Sec. 351). In (4).In (2). In analyzing simple sentences. 349). I will try to keep the balance true. 364. to part means because I part. to hear means if you should hear.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec.. In (3). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. 351). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. as in Sec. 355). give the complement (Secs. The independent use. to find shows the result of the return. 347). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 4. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. (3). Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. not in a book." (See also Sec.²both expressing condition. 363. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. and to say is equivalent to if we say. V. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. etc. (7) Independent elements (Sec. and to betray and to bring express the reason. equivalent to that you betray. which is of two kinds. etc. 3. 351). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. Our life is March weather. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree.

16. nor troops.The old crow of Cairo. just on the edge of destruction. 23. neither ammunition. and to the purpose. Her aims were simple and obvious. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. with eager energy. 6.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 10. through toys and atoms. I have heard Coleridge talk. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 12. through evil agents. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. to keep England out of war. To these gifts of nature. a good shot. 13. nor generals. a graceful dancer. 7. 11. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. two stricken hours.4. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. to the moral sphere. to restore civil and religious order. might be called flabby and irresolute. like a witch's oils. 21. .²to preserve her throne. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams.Burnt green and blue and white.He sat in the shower. 22. nor money. Through the years and the centuries. The whole figure and air. He risked everything. Old Adam. a skilled musician. nor himself. The word conscience has become almost confined. 15. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. His opinion is always original. 14. We are always in peril. 19. 24. and spared nothing. 9. 17. the carrion crow. good and amiable otherwise. and every moment discover something new. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. The water. 5. always in a bad plight. in popular use. To be hurried away by every event. 8. an accomplished scholar. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 18. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. is to have no political system at all. 20. You may ramble a whole day together.

32. 34. Upon this shore stood. 29. upon my own ground. and the wherefore? . haply. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. had but one foible. 27. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. 26. 33. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. to be a reproach to such goodness. Now. Few in number.Distant. in less heroic and poetic form. secluded. and in my own garden. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. the prime minister of Spain. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. In the Acadian land.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. still. 39. in this world. an elderly man. Fair name might he have handed down. time-honored. This amiable relative. the same Condé Olivarez. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. to bid you leave the place now and forever. and no provisions but wild berries. I hate him and myself. the present capital of New England. it would not have been filial or ladylike. Oxford. The cry. The villain.25. Must we in all things look for the how. baggage far in the rear. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 40. the ship was in an uproar. 38. ready to receive her. But yield. and the why. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. 31. 35. 41.Effacing many a stain of former crime. I dare this. Supposing this computation to be correct. 37. or perhaps one virtue. 30. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. in front of all this mighty crowd. 36. Of the same grandeur. She had made a two days' march. and. proud foe.

but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. thus.² "She is like some tender tree." To show that these words are really omitted." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. The simple sentence the basis. Words left out after than or as. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. if they were expanded. are really contracted clauses. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. the pride and beauty of the grove.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. the expressions of manner introduced by like." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. 367. as. which is the unit of speech. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." Sentences with like. 365. . (Sec. made merely for convenience and smoothness. though often treated as phrases.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. 333). COMPLEX SENTENCES. As shown in Part I. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." This must. as would be the connective instead of like. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].From her own loved island of sorrow. but. however. 366.

. and modifier. predicate.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. Definition. suffering. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).²the other members subordinate to it." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. and the next one. A clause is a division of a sentence. complement. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. object. A principal. 368. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. complements.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. Independent clause. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. is taken in. we are aware. murmur. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. and the last. containing a verb with its subject. or it may be applied to the others.. each clause has its subject. 371.. that . object.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. as in this sentence. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. how great . or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.. modifiers. CLAUSES. Hence the following definition:² Definition. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. etc.. 369. main. or dependent on it. which are so united that one member is the main one. 370. logically depends on suffering. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. that is.²the backbone. then we recognize this as the main statement.

. night or day. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. Noun Clauses. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. for example. put an end to my fancies." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. and ADVERB clauses. and it is ." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. for example. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns." (2) Object of a verb. impertinences²would be grammatical." (4) Apposition. verbal.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. etc. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. pronoun. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. over which the torrent came tumbling. We ourselves are getting .. clauses are divided into NOUN. attention is called to them here. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. (b) that are ." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. 372. for a time." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.' is an electric touch. But since they are complex in form.." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition." 374... infinitive. As to their office in the sentence. adjectives. (a) Ordinary apposition.Dependent clause." Just as the object noun. 5). and the whole clause is not. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. but logically the sentence is. thus.. 352." "I was told that the house had not been shut. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. with a noun clause in apposition with it. ADJECTIVE. impertinences. or adverbs.. Kinds. for a hundred years. 'I know that he can toil terribly. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. so the object clause is retained.. 373.

Such a man is what we call an original man. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. that he was a scheming impostor. of a nation. and not on the sentiment. a falsehood incarnate. 6. whereby. how it changed from shape to shape. no man will ever know. 9. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 8. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. as. 10. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. he could know nothing. which. 7. but. sometimes by the conjunctions when. What history it had.² "It is on the understanding. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. that. As the office of an adjective is to modify. that. in the sentence. or equivalent of a noun. that all safe legislation must be based. still remains reasonable. wherein. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. whither. But the fact is. where. 5. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. Frequently there is no connecting word. The reply of Socrates. . Adjective Clauses. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. whence. Except by what he could see for himself. 375. Examples of adjective clauses. 2. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. he would repent it. 3." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. a relative pronoun being understood. Other examples of this construction are.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. etc. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow." Exercise. whether he should choose one or not. 4. I was napping. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1.

the champions advanced through the lists. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 4. he begins to help us more as an effect." Exercise. and tell what each one modifies. 7. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. object." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. No man is reason or illumination.e. 11. 6. which formed the center of the mansion." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. I walked home with Calhoun. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. all is vacancy. 8." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. etc. i. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 2. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle.376. 1. Adverbial Clauses." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. which Rowena tasted." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. . There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon.. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 9. Pick out the adjective clauses. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 5. or that essence we were looking for. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. 3. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 10. whether subject.

" (5) DEGREE. however. etc." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. with examples. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints.377. and will be given in detail." "When he was come up to Christian." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming.: "But still." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. to make up our shortcomings." "He went several times to England. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. that we should try. since he was too great to care to be original." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." (7) RESULT. is wider. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. adverbs. 378. etc. however good she may be as a witness. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "The broader their education is. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. introduced by indefinite relatives. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. it takes precedence of everything else. a verbal. an adjective." "The right conclusion is." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. or an adverb. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. he goes away as if nothing had happened. the milestones are grave-stones. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. and adverbial conjunctions. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. Joanna is better. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance.. whatever. Exercise. etc. expressing the degree in which the horizon.² whoever. but they require careful study. the wider is the horizon of their thought. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "After leaving the whole party under the table." (3) REASON. tell what kind each is." (9) CONCESSION. and what it modifies:² ." "Who cares for that." These mean no matter how good. shaping our actions. no matter what remains. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. so far as we can.

the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. of which clause Odin is the subject. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. For example. in the sentence. so as to picture the parts and their relations. snatching up stones to fling at them.1. with shrill. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. howling and whistling. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. predicate. 380. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. as they sometimes did. then treat noun clauses as nouns. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. and modifiers. they might perhaps say of their visitors. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. 379. object. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. If the children gathered about her. its object is that Odin was a reality. banging about doors and windows." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. 'Well. incoherent exclamations. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists." 2. we are a little disappointed. when the wind was unruly. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. on a dark wintry night. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. 3. and twirling weathercocks. find the principal subject and principal predicate. to tell the truth. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. etc.

| r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 364. as seen in the "map" (Sec. . 3. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.. Exercises.. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 2. 364. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. d. 380). (1) Find the principal clause.

or whether any. 20. who would yield to it least. 9. Now. not so much for travelers that were few. 24. 15. 17. 22. 14. the mixed result. for yours. 10. M. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. I like that representation they have of the tree. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. . counselor that had none for herself. namely. But now that she has become an establishment. if applied to the Bible. 18. bishop. The deep eyes. 5. As surely as the wolf retires before cities.4. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 13. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. that pressed her with an objection. Had they been better chemists. as for armies that were too many by half. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. This is she. 21. 8. the flower should revive for us. Whether she said the word is uncertain. which. of a light hazel. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. Here lay two great roads. 6. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. that. Next came a wretched Dominican. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. could not have been effected. 16. whom I choose. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 23. dying for them. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 12. 19. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 11. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. And those will often pity that weakness most. 7. the shepherd girl. had we been worse. The night proved unusually dark. He was what our country people call an old one.

speed. and temper.²which will not be disposed of. would easily reach." said Bentley. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. then map out as in Sec. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. How formed. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. that it was no more than his daily walk. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. though we may repeat the words never so often. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. we cannot adequately say. or commands. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days." 4. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 26. is to speak and write sincerely. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 30. Hence the definition. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. "No book. 382. questions. 5. 28. That which we do not believe. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. and stamped with his right number.² Definition. and not from his heart.25. 383. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 7. 380. 3. 27. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. (b) First analyze. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 2. COMPOUND SENTENCES. "was ever written down by any but itself. the following complex sentences:² 1. . if there be one to whom I am not equal. if continuously extended. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. 6. but above it. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. These things we are forced to say.

nor does he know until he has tried. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. moon-like ray" (adversative). others sometimes coördinate. whereas. Another example is. from the second. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. Some of these are now conjunctions. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). Thus in (1). The coördinate conjunctions and. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. introduce independent clauses (see Sec." 384. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. he dilates. Of the following illustrative sentences. he soliloquizes. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. and it shall be the universal sense. yet. 297)." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. for. and not the form of the connective. . The division into members will be easier. while (whilst). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. and connects the first and second complex members." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. etc. nor. 386. etc. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. the waving grass. a complex member.. if there are any. in (3). now adverbs or prepositions. however. "Only the star dazzles. 383 (1). and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. or but. which are simple statements. Study the thought. as in Sec. Connectives.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. in (2). he walks with arms akimbo. the planet has a faint. and nor the second and third complex members. Exercise. the semicolon separates the first. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. Speak your latent conviction. 385. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. and which complex:² 1. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. as but. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. a simple member. he is twice a man. tell which are compound.

14. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. For everything you have missed. and for everything you gain. Exercise. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. so is every one of its parts. 364. 8. 4. 5. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 13. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. In this manner. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 6. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 2. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. However some may think him wanting in zeal. all pain. 3. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. unobtrusive boy. 7. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. for example. passed in that time. 4. the tax is certain. 10. is particular. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. and not by what each is. I can yet love. yield to them heart and life. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. The gain is apparent. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. to find a pot of buried gold. he grew up to be a mild. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 9. or. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 3. 12. All loss. you lose something. you have gained something else. and as yet very early in the morning. from a happy yet often pensive child. however. 387. 381. that it was Easter Sunday. Whilst the world is thus dual. 11. Love. whilst all later teachings are tuitions.2. (i) Separate it into its main members. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. I can still receive. quiet. nay. Man does not stand in awe of man. . and thou shalt be loved. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools.

or we pursue persons. Stand aside. 6. 14. and makes their business a friendship. 19. 8. and the other dares not. or sail with God the seas. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. treat them greatly. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. We go to Europe. They will shuffle and crow. or we read books. and they will be true to you. 9. one is afraid. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. 21. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. He teaches who gives. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. as children. give those merits room. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. Whatever he knows and thinks. because. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. crook and hide. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and you are without effort impelled to truth. let them mount and expand. and the cart as nigh the rake. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and the peace of society is often kept. that let him communicate. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. Come into port greatly. or men will never know and honor him aright. if you rip up his claims. why should we intrude? 10. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June." says the haymaker. 11. "Strike. Trust men." 13. and each shows only what lies at its focus. is as thin and timid as any. and not an emotion of bravery. "the iron is white. whilst frankness invites frankness." "keep the rake. 18. or hope. abide by it. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 7.5. and not a thought has enriched either party. and he learns who receives. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade." says the smith. 20. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 16. and they will show themselves great. feign to confess here. modesty. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. We see the noble afar off. and they repel us. 15. When you have chosen your part. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. . only that they may brag and conquer there. "as nigh the scythe as you can. 17.

We see young men who owe us a new world. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. so readily and lavishly they promise.22. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. 23.²agreement and government. Ground covered by syntax. verb and subject. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. they lose themselves in the crowd. INTRODUCTORY. By way of introduction. it never was known to fall into the rear. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. 390. Do not craze yourself with thinking. 24. but its leading characteristic is. or. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. adjective and noun. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. but go about your business anywhere. but they never acquit the debt. it ends in headache. PART III. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. 25. Following the Latin method. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. and dodge the account. the department of syntax will be a small affair. if they live. 380. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. So does culture with us. 388. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Essential point in English syntax. they die young. pronoun and antecedent. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. SYNTAX.

but are not now. 393. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. For example. Some rules not rigid. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). therefore." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. then. Savage may be the subject. authorities²that is. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. both forms will be given in the following pages. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. The basis of syntax. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. and it would not matter which one stood first. . Second. When usage varies as to a given construction. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. There is. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. In Latin. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion.² First. As an illustration of the last remark. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. sometimes verb and subject. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. This is not logical. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. also expressing a possessive relation. the sentence. and added to it the preposition of.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. or when they exist side by side in good usage. as to study inflected forms. In some cases." In this there is a possessive form. 392. some of which conform to classical grammar. distinct forms would be used. and nothing but important points will be considered. Also in the sentence. and whose judgment. "None remained but he. or the same writer will use both indifferently." is ambiguous. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. Why study syntax? 391. pronoun and antecedent. etc. the order being inverted. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar." that is. or settler may be the subject. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. following the regular order of subject. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. good English. take the sentence. and imitate it. "The savage here the settler slew.

the possessive sign is used with each noun. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. for example. but imply separate possession or ownership. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case." Juletta tells.²ROWE. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. . 408). Use of the possessive. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Separate possession. Joint possession.²MACAULAY. and Pope's. and Peter's. the antechamber of the High Priest. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. the shore of Galilee. Bentham's principles together. 395.²MCCULLOCH. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. 394.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. and Harley's. or indicate joint ownership or possession.² He lands us on a grassy stage. and Paul's. 397. and Peterborough's.NOUNS.²BYRON. PRONOUNS.² Live your king and country's best support. etc. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. sense and nature's easy fool.²EMERSON.²MILTON. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. He kept Bolingbroke's. Woman. Mill's and Mr. ²ID. 396. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.²RUSKIN. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. as.²THACKERAY. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Putting Mr.

This should be "as she. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. Still.²SHAKESPEARE. together with the relative who. whom is the complement after the verb am. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.²POPE. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. No mightier than thyself or me.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. the real thought being forgotten. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. Bedott Papers.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.²WHITCHER. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. others are generally. But he must be a stronger than thee. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. as. Some of the violations are universally condemned. sanctioned. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. . (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Since most of the personal pronouns. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. for example. 398.²TROLLOPE.²THACKERAY. thus. Objective for the nominative. who." 400. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. and should be the nominative form. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. 399. there are two general rules that require attention. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.²SOUTHEY. if not universally. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). General rules. I. the last expression has the support of many good writers.²BYRON.) "The young Harper.

they are yet holier than we. Patrick the Porter. as.²COLERIDGE. "If there is any one embarrassed. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.² One I remember especially." There is no special reason for this. the objective form is regularly found. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. BLACK. but such is the fact. "Who's there?"²"Me.²MACAULAY. And it was heThat made the ship to go." 401. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. The usage is too common to need further examples. is. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²SCOTT. for example. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON.² For there was little doubt that it was he. and the other forms of the verb be. namely.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. The camp of Richard of England. unless a special. . on the other hand.²RUSKIN. it will not be me. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. A safe rule."²WM.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. are."²KINGSLEY. One exception is to be noted. "Than whom. both in England and America.²THACKERAY. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²PARTON. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. But still it is not she. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. In spoken English.²KINGSLEY. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her."²WINTHROP.²FIELDING.²LONGFELLOW.

5. or us). now. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 7. 10. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. as. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. 9. If there ever was a rogue in the world. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. "Ask the murderer. used after verbs. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 3.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. object of saw). 404. 2. verbal. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. it is me. and prepositions.Exercise. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 8. Whom they were I really cannot specify. 11. but not he" (he should be him. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. as this from Shakespeare. the object of to).² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life." the word being in apposition with murderer). verbals. as. (3) By forgetting the construction. or preposition which governs it. I speak not to" (he should be him. Nominative for the objective. or this. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. Me in exclamations." 6.²MILTON. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). You know whom it is that you thus charge. you or me. 403. as. Truth is mightier than us all. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. . 4. It is not me you are in love with.

²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. for example. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. as well as the objective. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²GOLDSMITH. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. I've sworn. "Who did you see?" or.²KINGSLEY. changed in all save thee. who interrogative. after the preposition but (sometimes save). save thou and thine.²BYRON. Exercise. and is usually avoided. .²KINGSLEY. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.Exception 1. partial Nature.Shall be left upon the morn. 406. as. Thou. I arraign. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. 405. all but he. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. for they say there are none such in the world. Nature. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Let you and I look at these. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.² All were knocked down but us two. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. None.²KINGSLEY. Thy shores are empires. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. as.²STEELE.²BYRON. We regularly say. Exception 2. but he. 2. etc. "Who were they talking to?" etc. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Who have we here?²ID.

To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. B. 7. 5. with Jortin and Thirlby. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Markland. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. Preceding a gerund. 10. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 8.²MACAULAY. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 12. BROWN. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 11.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.3.²C.Ye I salute. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.²RUSKIN. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. They crowned him long ago. and they know that as well as me.²SCOTT. Bartholomew. II. or objective? . Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. They are coming for a visit to she and I. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 407. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. 9.²possessive. who. 6. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence." 4. As antecedent of a relative. POSSESSIVE FORMS. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. This usage is not frequent. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.

But in common use there is no such distinction. as he turned away from his wife. both are gerunds. . Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. The use of the objective is older. etc. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.²BREWER. [who was] studying law. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning.²DICKENS.408. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. and that in the second. In the examples quoted. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. Both types of sentences are found. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.² IRVING. and the meaning is. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. Here I state them only in brief. that the bitterness of death was past. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun." or "We heard of Brown's studying law." That is. We heard of Brown. and asked why it was not made. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.² THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. studying is a gerund. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. sometimes it has the objective.²MACAULAY.²DE QUINCEY. Possessive.²CARLYLE.² SCOTT. object of heard of. Why both are found. The last incident which I recollect.² CARLYLE. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Objective.

²THACKERAY.²EMERSON III. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. in one person. Every city threw open its gates. the pronoun will be neuter singular. preceded by a distributive. In such a case as the last three sentences.²C. The pale realms of shade. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. and gender. it was his own fault.²AUDUBON.² BRYANT. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. . number. BROCKDEN BROWN. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. Examples of these constructions are.²THOREAU.²DEFOE. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. Watch for the real antecedent. If any one did not know it. Everybody had his own life to think of.²HOLMES. or is a distributive word. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. 410.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²HUXLEY.²CABLE. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. if the antecedent is neuter. taking in each of many persons. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²when the antecedent. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. 409. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. where there were examinations.²DE QUINCEY. and ought to agree with them in person.

Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²ID. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. till they have lost him. The sun.²PAULDING. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²SCOTT. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²BIBLE. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. for example.²THACKERAY.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. not a mowing idiot.²DEFOE. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. If the part deserve any comment. and giving them means of being so.²PALGRAVE. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²AUSTEN.²EMERSON.²BYRON.²ID. let them break it off. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. . Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Struggling for life. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²FIELDING. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²RUSKIN.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Whosoever hath any gold. This is not considered the best usage. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. 411.²HUXLEY. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²PALEY. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. By using the plural pronoun. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.² Not the feeblest grandame. as anybody in their senses would have done.

I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. 2." A relative. tell whether who.Where she was gone.²HAWTHORNE. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. . when restrictive. and does not add a new statement. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. 412. but. and that are restrictive or not. when coördinating. 1. etc. or what was become of her. according to the practice of every modern writer. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. in each instance:² Who. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. unless both genders are implied. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. Exercise. What these terms mean. I.² SHERIDAN. that being considered already clear. As to their conjunctive use. 413." This means. the definite relatives who. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. and he went away." It defines beggar. which.²ID. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. That is in most cases restrictive. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. or unrestrictive.²In the above sentences. "I gave it to the beggar. A relative. which. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. but. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES.) and a personal pronoun. Exercise.²ADDISON. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. no one could take upon them to say. and that always restrictive. who went away. because. In the following examples. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as. It adds a new statement to what precedes.

² NEWMAN. BEECHER 5.² MOTLEY. 11. they. etc. 8. who.²ID. 10. However. In what sense true.²ADDISON. down. Which. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number." that is invariable as to person and number. he. 4. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. etc. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. Hare has printed. in the sentence. So different from the wild. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. The rule. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. you. that were often vicious.²HOLMES. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. That. which was to go over the Cordilleras. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. it makes the verb third person singular. With narrow shoulders. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. We say I..3. 14. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.²ID. etc. she agreed to join the party. long arms and legs. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. because of its antecedent. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.²THOREAU. 414. but. For example. 12.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. as that does not vary for person or number. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. Yet how many are there who up.² CARLYLE. 9. On hearing their plan. and it is called logic. W. which Mr. 13. and over England are saying.² IRVING. II. A grizzly-looking man appeared. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. The general rule is. 6. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. 7.²H. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. these or that which. . RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.

T. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. when he derided the shams of society." or. The fiery youth .. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²LECKY. the true antecedent.. French literature of the eighteenth century.. MORSE. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²SCOTT.²HOWELLS.²ADDISON. He is one of those that deserve very well. A disputed point.²MACAULAY. "one of the finest books that have been published.²BOWLES.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. but the former has good authority. etc. etc. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. Singular. "one of the finest books that has been published. JR. who rarely speak at all. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. and write the verb in the plural.] Both constructions are frequently found. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²HOLMES. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. but myself. in winning a battle. with one as the principal word.²M. or which .. and in improving a victory. [plural] that who." One of . Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. but speaks of him as that sort.²ADDISON. others regard books as the antecedent. .²LOWELL...²whether we should say. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. [singular or plural.²LOWELL. Franklin. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. 415. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. Let us be of good cheer.²J. The latter is rather more frequent. ARNOLD.

² RUSKIN. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. whence.A rare Roundabout performance. object of a preposition understood. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. I could see nothing except the sky.²SCOTT. IV. when this dust falls to the urn. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. return. III. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²ADDISON.² .²EMERSON. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²In the above sentences. that is. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²EMERSON. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²GOLDSMITH. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²DEFOE."²DICKENS.²IRVING. where. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers." "India is the place [in which.²SWIFT.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.² THACKERAY. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²CARLYLE. and such like: as.And. The same day I went aboard we set sail. Exercise.²ID.²BURNS. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. or where] he died. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. 416. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. when the relative word is a pronoun. 417. But I by backward steps would move. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²VAUGHAN.In that same state I came. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.

as of knives. which.. Anacoluthic use of which. but which is usually carefully avoided. as is not used. Caution. V.² BURKE. he. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. . Mr. etc. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. if I had resolved to go on with. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²SCOTT. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. I might as well have staid at home. but we find the relative who. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.² THACKERAY. They believe the same of all the works of art.²ADDISON. boats. she passed the lamp over her face and person. or that.² Which. That.He considered. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.²WORDSWORTH.² MACAULAY.me as his apprentice. 418.. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. with Turner. for example. The regular construction. ²GOLDSMITH.²R. if same is followed by a complete clause.²FRANKLIN. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. CHURCH. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²SWIFT. was a discoverer. and working in the same spirit. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. looking-glasses. Which. W. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. but.

²HAWTHORNE. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. Exercise. (1) "Among those who are poor. 419. (3) "Among the poorer sort. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. now thrown upon their. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus.²THACKERAY. which when Mr.. who are now thrown." etc. After this came Elizabeth herself.² Direction for rewriting. but. Exercise. but none is expressed. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. Express both relatives. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²SCOTT." etc.²GOLDSMITH.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. He delivered the letter. But who. and who are now. etc.²which if they once heard. le Conte. 2. and this be placed in the proper clause. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. or omit the conjunction. And who.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. and which. 1.²DE QUINCEY. once a great favorite of M. Thornhill had read. . Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who..Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. This was a gentleman. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. he said that all submission was now too late. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.²RUSKIN. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. That is." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. (2) "Among the poorer sort. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. 4. With an albatross perched on his shoulder." etc.She'd come again. As the sentences stand. 3. or. or leave out both connective and relative.. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort.

But which.²SCOTT. 13. and which. Or which. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. "What knight so craven. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. which the Scotch had learned. and which may even be heard a mile off. 10. 420. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . who." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. I saw upon the left a scene far different.. .²HAWTHORNE. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence..²DE QUINCEY. That . and to whom no door is closed. either from imitation of their frequent allies.²PEARSON. 6. "A mockery. etc.²SCOTT. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. 1. then. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. and repeat this for any further reference. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. I shall have complete copies. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. Exercise. Or who. indeed. 9. And which. as a false and astucious mark. etc. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 7. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. 11. Akin to the above is another fault.² MOTLEY. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.. one of signal interest..5. like that spoken in the towns. and which has never been described. the French.²IRVING.²DE QUINCEY. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. 12. 8. Dr. English by name.

His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. which.²HOWELLS. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. the cent. The Tree Igdrasil. 6. That . 5.. 8.²DE QUINCEY.²BEECHER. what. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. I give to such men as do not belong to me. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. Such as . at the head of what. 3. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. that .. such as they have very probably been bred to. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 4. that. was a bustling wharf.. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. 9. but which is perhaps not so different from it... 13. Such as . and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. G. He.²HOLMES. I recommend some honest manual calling.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. E. . In my native town of Salem. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.²DEFOE. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. CHANNING. I grudge the dollar. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. whom.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. He flung into literature. which..²HALLAM. 15. was hung in air. Which .²SCOTT That which .. in his Mephistopheles. and to whom I do not belong..²W. and whose examples and principles we inherit. but which. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. half a century ago.²HAWTHORNE. 7. 14. in his present condition.2.²SCOTT. 10.²EMERSON. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.²W. 12. the dime.²EMERSON.. SIMMS. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.. 11. It rose into a thrilling passion.

for example.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. 421.² HAWTHORNE. Distributives either and neither. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. Each other. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. whether or not the two are equivalent. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²DICKENS. that not all combined. Use of any. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. as.²RUSKIN. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. 422. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.²RUSKIN. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.²EMERSON. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. one another.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. in which case any should be used instead. . Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. Assume that no one is in want of either.²MACAULAY. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. We call ourselves a rich nation. as it were.²HAWTHORNE. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²ID. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. By their original meaning. always at war with one another. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. and in want of his gold²or his corn. as.² Some one must be poor. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²GOLDSMITH.

any of his friends had died.²BEECHER Whenever. The adjective pronoun none is. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. None usually plural. as.²STIRLING. speak. as. If any of you lack wisdom. Do you think.. during his stay at Yuste. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. in Shakespeare. then in Plutarch. in the prose of the present day. whilst I still cherish their genius. Examples of its use are. at one time in Bacon.²CARLYLE. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).² EMERSON. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. 423. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.. even in Bettine. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²SHAKESPEARE. In earlier Modern English.²BURKE. any was often singular. then in Plotinus. etc.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. usually plural. . Do you think. let him ask of God. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. I beseech you. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Caution.²SCOTT.²BIBLE.²PROF. before that. which is plural as often as singular.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . None of Nature's powers do better service.²THACKERAY. for him have I offended. as none of the French philosophers were. if ever man was. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. afterwards in Goethe. and is isolated. that I know of. 424..²FRANKLIN.² If any. Any usually plural. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.² In earnest.²EMERSON.

But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. and all was lost on the other.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. etc. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. etc. and Ford has nobody's else. The compounds somebody else. for example. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. The light troops thought .²NAPIER Plural. the plural. are treated as units.. which is used absolutely. When all were gone.² PEARSON.² None of them was cleansed. 425..² Singular. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. or somebody else's? 426..²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. as. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²THOREAU. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. etc. and less rarely in poetry. when it means all persons: for example. Somebody's else.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. that all was lost.²SCOTT Like the use of any. nobody else.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. saving Naaman the Syrian. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.²McMASTER.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. fixing his eyes on the mace. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. etc. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. any one else.

²SWEET. for example. "Ye see. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. the adjectives plural. etc. STOWE.²RUSKIN.. Whitefield or Wesley. ELIOT. . and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. ADJECTIVES. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. Again. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.² These kind of knaves I know."²MRS.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²MULOCH.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²RUSKIN. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.² FIELDING. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots." "those kind of trees. and may be found not infrequently in literary English..A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). WILLIS. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS." "all manner of men. unlike anybody else's in the world.²DICKENS. 427.² Saturday Review.²AUSTEN. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. These sort. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.SYDNEY SMITH. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural." the nouns being singular. or those sort of people. or some other such great man as a bishop. all manner of.²N. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²in such as "these sort of books.²SHERIDAN. London. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²G.²THACKERAY. etc. His hair. P.

when the necessary dispositions concur. "This sort of trees should be planted. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. and the adjective is. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. such as.²RUSKIN." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). the victor or the vanquished. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared.² PRESCOTT. In Old and Middle English. to express a higher degree of quality." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. gradually displacing the old. or one object with a class of objects. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. Of two such lessons. Burke's sentence. with all manner of amusing books. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. History of this construction." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. At the source. Later form.² Which is the better able to defend himself. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. Should we say. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The result." A question. This the modern expression reverses. 428. made to agree with it. Consequently we have a confused expression. for example." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. . not "all kinds of wild animals.The library was open. and in this way may take a plural verb. which accounts for the construction. or the nouns to the plural. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. they said. more alarming than a total silence. "This kind of rules are the best. as. in spoken English. "These kind of trees are best. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. Use of the comparative degree. According to the approved usage of Modern English.

Gary. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²SCOTT. Superlative with two objects. 3.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Henry.²HAWTHORNE. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²CARLYLE. the highest stakes are paid. has sanctioned. Even Dodd himself. than any of his court. 429.²MACAULAY. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.² THACKERAY.²WIRT. 5. 4. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. He is taller. Other after the comparative form. would not have had the face. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. To the man who plays well. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²TROLLOPE. if not. 6. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. 430. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. I am concerned to see that Mr. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. etc. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. Exercise. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²MACAULAY."²ID.²THACKERAY. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.A braver ne'er to battle rode. by almost the breadth of my nail.²LOWELL.²SWIFT. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Use of the superlative degree. . 2.²HUXLEY.

²DR BLAIR. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. "Ha. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. and differ only in form.²TEMPEST. Rip was one of those . 431. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. OLIPHANT. 1611. whichever can be got easiest. who eat white bread or brown. After the most straitest sect of our religion. . and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²Bible. Also from the same period. The eldest.²J.²GOLDSMITH. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. ha.. In all disputes between States.²EMERSON.²MRS. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. more particularly the last of them. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. I should say that one has the best cause. The following examples are used purposely. Come you more nearer."²HAWTHORNE. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Examples from Shakespeare are.. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. These two properties seem essential to wit.²IRVING.²ADDISON. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. Double comparative and superlative. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. CÆSAR. Mary."²GOLDSMITH. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²SCOTT.²BEN JONSON. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²HAMLET."²BULWER. not a bit of high life among them.²RUSKIN. and the other contains the best men.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.

²COWPER. and Secretary Walsingham also.² With a singular noun. jar upon us constantly. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²ADDISON. ARTICLES. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. First three.²LAMB. Three first. and conceit in the last. For Carlyle. Examples of this construction are. As to these two expressions. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²RUSKIN. not only so in popular speech. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. 433. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. . the Spanish. etc. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²GIBBON. Instances of both are given below. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. The merit of the Barb.²PRESCOTT. Definite article. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²RUSKIN. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The first five had specific names. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²GIBBON. etc.²DE QUINCEY.² SMOLLETT. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²KINGSLEY. The meaning intended is the same. but in literary English. The delay in the first three lines.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.

the thought and the word.²CARLYLE.²NEWMAN. The not repeated. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. as.²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. 434. however. 433.²ID.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. 435. The flowers. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. Frequently. having been arranged. Indefinite article.² RUSKIN. With a plural noun. One object and several modifiers. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict..The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. of the eighteenth century.²TAYLOR. Origin of the Aryans. Here the youth of both sexes. were placed at a very tender age.²THACKERAY. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . 433.²TENNYSON. of the higher and middling orders. and flexible language. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. He is master of the two-fold Logos. with a singular noun. Meaning same as in Sec. the hour of parting came. to distinguish clearly. as.. or to emphasize the meaning. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. distinct. melodious. but inseparable from each other. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. The lofty. I think.²THE NATION. 1508. . the greatest poems.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. and the presents.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.² MACAULAY. No. as in Sec. with a plural noun.²MACAULAY. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. but is used with one only.

It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.²MACAULAY. a tyrant. In the sentences of Secs. as.² BURKE. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. and inexhausted vein. For rhetorical effect." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. 438. only one of which is expressed.² MACAULAY. One article with several adjectives. or clearness to each of several nouns. . Examples of this use are.²BEECHER. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. a collegian. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. The indefinite article (compare Sec. a murderer. one noun is expressed. 436). 434) is used to lend special emphasis. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. a round and a square one alternately.²BULWER. He saw him in his mind's eye.²MACAULAY. COLERIDGE. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. JONSON. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. rich.²S.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²DRYDEN. interest." and "a red and a white geranium. 435. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. 437. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.An early. The indefinite article is used. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. and a usurper.²DICKENS. as in the first three of Sec.²JOHNSON.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. like the definite article.²B. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.436. T. But in the following sentences. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. 433 and 436. to limit two or more modified nouns. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²THACKERAY. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.

(1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. or the great intellectual life of our nation. ELIOT. 276.²FROUDE. Collective noun of singular meaning.. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. . 439.²CARLYLE This usage. all that academies can give.²G. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²AGASSIZ. This was spoken of in Part I.²The Nation. He sees that it is better to live in peace. then.²COOPER. Sec. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. as.²W.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. for example. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. has got already. Singulars connected by or or nor. as. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. and the following illustrations prove it. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.VERBS.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Another writer might. ARNOLD. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. was the earliest American land. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. In English.²M.²GIBBON. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. like some others in this series. without academies. Singular verb. A broad and loose rule. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. 440. Such.

as. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. a loss of friends. No.²CRITIC. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.²DE QUINCEY. that of a large town.²BURKE. a loss of wealth. nor Paul. ²EMERSON. Between ourselves.²GOLDSMITH. but considered as meaning about the same thing. a mutilation. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. as. or considered as appositional. but each one emphatic.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²WHITTIER. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.Jesus is not dead. a cruel disappointment. ADAMS. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.² Politics is the only field now open for me. for example. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. Plural form and singular meaning. or as making up one general idea. Q.²GIBBON. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²EMERSON . "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. nor Mahomet. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. A fever. nor John. is gone. and other singulars of plural form.² In a word. other names.²J. (4) When the subject is plural in form. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.² GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. for example. the cheap defense of nations.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. and every four hours. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.² The unbought grace of life. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.

The rout. no discontinuity. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²ID. every echo. the partisan. and such like adjectives. nay. To receive presents or a bribe. as well as sides. sir?" and the "No. a cuirass. an impassioned countenance. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²SCOTT. The oldest.²RUSKIN. thus. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.² There is a right and a wrong in them. the ruin. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. many a. Here is no ruin.²EMERSON. The Epic. with death. and greaves. There is a moving tone of voice. as well as the Drama. does not take the place of the man.The author. an agitated gesture.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. Plural verb. almost every day. each. Her back.²M ARNOLD.²HAWTHORNE. every valet. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Subjects after the verb.²BUTLER. Then comes the "Why.²PRESCOTT. sir!"²MACAULAY. in a judge.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. as well as Europe.²LONGFELLOW. as. the wit. was punished. was like to crack. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. 441.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²NEWMAN. the dismay. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. wineBegins to stir itself.²ID. Every fop.² . a gorget.²MACAULAY. is a man of wit. no. every boor. as. no spent ball. the fine gentleman. Every week. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. was dazzled. as well as the newest. no matter if the second is plural).² Asia. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. was listened to for five hours.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. sir!" and the "What then. Every sound.

² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. The conjunction may be omitted. Philip of Anjou. His clothes. of whom there were a number.²GIBBON. Far. as in Sec. The Dauphin. but the verb is plural.²THOREAU. making up a plural subject.²B. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²EMERSON. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. as.²DE QUINCEY.²FRANKLIN. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²GOLDSMITH. were men of insignificant characters. b). shirt. TAYLOR.²CARLYLE But its authorship.These bits of wood were covered on every square.² GIBBON. and its history are alike a mystery to us. the Duke of Berri. its date. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.² One or two of these perhaps survive. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. are sufficient to attract a colony.²SWIFT. All our household are at rest.²ADDISON. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²FROUDE.²COLERIDGE. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. a green pasture. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. for example. A shady grove. far away thy children leave the land. Conjunction omitted. . a stream of fresh water.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. as.²FROUDE.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. 440 (5.² A multitude go mad about it.²SCOTT. as with a subject of plural form.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. The travelers.

But notice the construction of this. nor has she"). are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Nothing which Mr.²THACKERAY. ARNOLD." or. Second or third and first person in the subject.²RUSKIN. nor should I. "I have never said so. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. When the subjects. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.²DE QUINCEY.²LOWELL.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. that is. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. 444. This construction is at the best a little awkward. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. we never talk politics.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Not I.²ROWE. of different persons. Not Altamont.²WHITTIER. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. 442. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Ah.). It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.²RUSKIN. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²BYRON. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. You and I are tolerably modest people.²D. Pattison or I have said. You and I are farmers. hadst been my lord. If there is only one person in the subject. "You would not be wiser. the verb takes the construction of the first person." "She or you may be sure. General usage.²THACKERAY. "He or I can go. for example.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. 443. the subject being really equivalent to we.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. his blood dost shed. WEBSTER.²SMOLLETT. Exceptional examples. .²GOLDSMITH.²M. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. but thou." etc. but thou. as. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.

2.²THACKERAY.²perhaps the devil. 7. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.Her course to intercept.²SMOLLETT. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Also in verbals.²ADDISON. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²ID. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²G. in my opinion. In the following sentence. Nor wood. Neither of their counselors were to be present.² TROLLOPE. Both death and I am found eternal. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²EMERSON. as illustrated above (Secs. 12. 446. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 11.That neither of their intellects are vast. 5.²and. How each of these professions are crowded. 6.²MILTON. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 8. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 440-444):² 1. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²BYRON. nor bush are there. 4. BANCROFT. In this sentence from Defoe. 3.²BURKE.²SCOTT. as we would hope. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²ADDISON. which it is proper to mention. Exercise. In a word. 9. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. Neither of them. 10. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. nor tree. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.445." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.

if not. Exercise. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. W. Direct discourse²that is. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. Of course.²KINGSLEY. I gave one quarter to Ann. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²IRVING. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²FRANKLIN 6. meaning. The present rule is recent. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them.²THACKERAY. on my return. however. 3." . The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. 4. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. But I found I wanted a stock of words.²R.. change them to a better form:² 1. Indirect discourse means reported speech.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. 448.²MACAULAY..I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. for exact connection. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. to have seen should be changed to to see. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. Definitions.² PALGRAVE 5. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. as. 447. It should be remarked.²DE QUINCEY 2. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. to have divided with her whatever might remain. CHURCH. Two samples of indirect discourse. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.

introductory verb is in the past tense. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. Sebastian's. etc. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I.. Direct. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. and the indirect question by whether or if. . "Oh. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid... His exact words were. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Oh. or regular interrogatives. have. Her prudence whispered eternally. This includes the auxiliaries be. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. will. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. The substance of his lamentation was. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect." etc.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. 2. Summary of the expressions. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form." etc. 1. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. "I cannot oblige you . interrogative adverbs. under interrogative pronouns. She thought to herself. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St.." Indirect. Direct. 449. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.

Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. Careless use of the participial phrase. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. The trouble is. Notice this. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. if this were expanded into a verb. my first observation will be found nearly true. 450. the sound of their balls.²GOLDSMITH. the first discoverer of the river and country.²ADDISON.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. handed down from his ancestor the historian. and that he himself had heard. with his crew of the Half-moon. like distant peals of thunder.²B. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. FRANKLIN. VERBALS. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²ID. he assured me that nothing was more easy.Exercise. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. in the sentences first quoted.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. . PARTICIPLES. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. one summer afternoon.

. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . leaving the principal statement as it is.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself." etc. INFINITIVES. the first sentence would be. Standard writers often use it. This is the more common arrangement. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea..²ID. while defended or excused by others. universal assertion. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. 2. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. Adverb between to and the infinitive. if a strike is to succeed.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. There are. either "As I was pleased." Exercise. In the following citations. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. purposely or not..²LAUGHLIN. It is a solemn. and often.Correction. Exercise. 3.²SCOTT.²RUSKIN. many things to be carefully considered. .²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.² HERBERT SPENCER. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. then.. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. For example. . 451. avoid it. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. my first collection was.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.

No. 11. is to be very cautiously admitted. Position of only. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.² MACAULAY. etc.²DR. therefore. 12. 9. 452. and earthenware. The rigid rule in such a case would be. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .²BURKE. are used. but cannot misunderstand the thought.. when such adverbs as only. ADVERBS." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.4. The spirits. BLAIR. Now.²TROLLOPE. 10. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.² ADDISON. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. from Irving. etc. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. this kind of grandeur. 8. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 6. china. but they are often removed from the exact position. even.²The Nation. 5. but it is placed before the infinitive.²SCOTT. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. if they modify single words. A little sketch of his. which consists in multitude. even. etc. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 1533.²RUSKIN. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success.²GOLDSMITH. In works of art. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Exercise. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. 7. I wish the reader to clearly understand. 13. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²ID. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.

In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²CHAUCER. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.² THACKERAY. During the whole course of his administration.1. 8.²PALGRAVE. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²ID.²MACAULAY. 16. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 453.²RUSKIN. 15. No sonne. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²MOTLEY. 14.²N.²ID.²COOPER. P.²EMERSON. were he never so old of yeares. His last journey to Cannes. 6. 4. WILLIS. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²SWIFT. He shouted in those clear.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 3. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Irving could only live very modestly. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 13. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. In relating these and the following laws. 17. 2. ²ASCHAM.²MRS.²SYDNEY SMITH. to avoid a crowd. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. My master. In Old and Middle English.²HIGGINSON. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. The old usage. GROTE. 9. . 11.²THACKERAY. whence he was never destined to return. might not marry. 5. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 10.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. for example. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 12. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 7. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²ID.

There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²DEFOE.²DE QUINCEY. as infrequent. but ought not to labor after it. 4.² HAMILTON. I never did see him again. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. 5. Exceptional use. 2.²BURKE. 6. Regular law of negative in modern English. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. There weren't no pies to equal hers. nor the grandeur of no king.²BAYNE.²HAWTHORNE.²HOLMES. Exercise. In the latter case. STOWE. etc. ²PAGE. I did not act so hastily. STOWE. neither. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. can so agreeably affect. Therefore. Not only could man not acquire such information. if two negatives are found together. In the execution of this task. in Ole Virginia.²LOWELL. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. . 7. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. But. denying each other.²MRS. is not common. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. 3. The prosperity of no empire."²four negatives. nor never shall.²GROTE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. and is still kept in vulgar English. uncommon. and why:² 1. when one of the negatives is a connective. This. one of the negatives is often a prefix. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. under the influence of Latin syntax. However. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. however. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl."²MRS.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. the usual way of regarding the question now is. as. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.

. or with advantage. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. Correction. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it.²PRESCOTT.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. The sentence. or to reply to it. or to reply to it. In the sentence. not merely . nor is often changed to not²either . A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.." Besides neither ."²SCOTT... neither .. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. if the last precedes a verb. Choice and proper position of correlatives. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. as the use of the conjunction.. and. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .8. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.²SCOTT. should be scrutinized." may be changed to "This loose . not only to the success of their common cause. "A weapon. if the second precedes a phrase. The sentences given in Secs. either . and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. And who.." said the King.²LOWELL. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. especially both . a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. there we were. either.. or.. not only . but." both of the above requirements are violated. 455. 454. even neither ... Things to be watched... nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. CONJUNCTIONS. nor.. the first ought to be placed before a verb.." . but (also).. as well as of the pronoun. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. or.. but to their own safety. the first should also. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. and which. "well worthy to confer honor.

An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. O. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²RUSKIN. and chop up their own kin. too. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²MACAULAY. Some exceptions. or the negative relative but. or but that for the words but what:² 1. They will. not merely interest children. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. as. but grown-up persons. Now.²THACKERAY.²S. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. substitute that. etc. 8. Try and avoid the pronoun. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to.²GIBBON. murder. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. and I don't know but what he was right. 4. 7.²BAIN. 456. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²ID. but. 5.² ADDISON. Exercise. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 6. But what.Exercise. 457.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. 3.²GOLDSMITH. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. or but that. but. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. JEWETT. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²FRANKLIN.²THACKERAY. In the following sentences. but they will outrage. nor the disgrace of assailing him. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. . 2. Try and for try to. as.

4.²EMERSON. 459. 5. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Between is used most often with two things only.²ADDISON. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.² SWIFT. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. as already seen in Sec. no separation or division by twos being implied.²SCOTT.²TROLLOPE. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.²EMERSON. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Between and among. 458.2. 3. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 305. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²ADDISON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. .²BURKE. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 313. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. see Sec. 6.² BULWER. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). PREPOSITIONS.

Mackintosh. 461. Some of them have.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Bestow on (upon). Conversant with. Derogatory to. averse. and philosophers like Locke. and Coleridge. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Dependent on (upon). Comply with.²RUSKIN What have I. Kant. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Abhorrent to. Dissent from. Averse to.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Acquit of. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. . Paley. ²EMERSON. as. a soldier of the Cross. List I. Different from.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope.²KINGSLEY. Two groups or one and a group. 460.: Words with particular prepositions. and another to convey a different meaning. Conform to. Affinity between. and Stewart. involve. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Such are absolve. or one object and a group. Such are derogatory. correspond. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. LIST I. different. by custom. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Accord with. etc. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. as. confer.

: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. 462. Confer with (talk with). LIST III. List II. Correspond with (write to). etc. LIST II. Correspond to (a thing). as.y y y Deprive of. as. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Differ from (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Confide in (trust in). Independent of. as. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. and sometimes creeps into standard books. 463. Confer on (upon) (give to). Involve in. "The king is reconciled to his minister. in the sense of making friends with. as meaning to be in keeping with. A taste of (food)." List III. Confide to (intrust to). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. . "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Change to (become). Differ with (note below). Change for (a thing). Agree to (a proposal). A taste for (art. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Reconcile to (note below). but it is not good usage." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Reconcile with (note below). Change with (a person). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person)." also of persons.). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things.

" (because of).²BURNETT. "Die for. they shall die by this hand. die with. No one died from want at Longfeld. Part from. Who. expect from." She would have been ready to die with shame.²MACAULAY. die from. Illustrations of "die of.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.²ADDISON. "Die for.²MACAULAY. part with. simply from old age. ²THACKERAY. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day." (in behalf of).:² "Die of. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. He died at last without disease.y y y Die by.²GOLDSMITH. instrument). "Die with. as Cervantes informs us. died for love of the fair Marcella. die of.²SCOTT. . "Die by.²FIELDING. It would take me long to die of hunger.²BOSWELL. One of them said he would die for her. ELIOT. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²G. I am positively dying with hunger. die for.²GOLDSMITH.²BULWER." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. "Die from. and ill treatment. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. People do not die of trifling little colds. If I meet with any of 'em." (material cause. It is a man of quality who dies for her." etc.²G.²SHAKESPEARE. Expect of. She died of hard work.²POPE. privation. ELIOT. ²ATHENÆUM." "die from.²MACAULAY.

which he would by no means part from.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²G. either of or in is used indifferently.²DICKENS.²G. I have long expected something remarkable from you. Of Doctor P.²AUSTEN. and hated to part with them. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. His precious bag. Kind in you. nothing better was to be expected. as my friend." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²POE.²SCOTT.²MARRYAT. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. ELIOT.²BULWER.²WALLER." "part from:"² "Part with. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. 464.²MACAULAY. kind of you. "Expect from. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. ELIOT.²BULWER. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²WALPOLE.²G. It was a little bad of you." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. That is more than I expected of you." She will expect more attention from you." To part from you would be misery. ." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. 466. ELIOT. I part with all that grew so near my heart. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. With words implying behavior or disposition.²TROLLOPE.²MACAULAY.²SHAW. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. Illustrations of "expect of. Illustrations of "part with. 465. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. I can part with my children for their good. "Part from. just parted from her. I have just seen her.

3. 9. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 1. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. nor green. In the friction between an employer and workman. In.²BULWER. 11. But this is idle of you. 4. Hampden. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. it is commonly said that his profits are high. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. 10. or which we are most imperatively required to do. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12.He did not think it handsome of you. thrown it over Amyas's head. 8. 15. or artillery. the vast abyss. 14. 13. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. nor of a pale red. but which the story renders necessary. 6.²BEACONSFIELD.²BULWER. 5. 7. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. or that they are any way dependent on each other. nor blue. . None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief.²CARLYLE. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. This narrative. thunder.²DICKENS. and ran up the alley. The noise of vast cataracts. Thou tread'st. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Very natural in Mr. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. raging storms. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. tedious perhaps. nor yellow. with seraphims.²TENNYSON.

25. But every man may know. When the glass or liquor are transparent. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. or how beautiful it is. 29. 38. but in the price paid to them. (Sec. Squares. 30. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 411. 22. 16. triangles. 36. You have seen Cassio and she together. 31. and most of us do know.And were I anything but what I am.I would wish me only he. 23. what is a just and unjust act. 32. and other angular figures. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 19. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. save Amyas. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. produce approbation.) 34. . 20. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 26. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 24. 28. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. were down with raging fever. 35. 33. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. Every one of these letters are in my name. 18. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 21. The effect of proportion and fitness. 27. the acquiescence of the understanding. 37. and almost as good as a pony. 17. Friday. That night every man of the boat's crew. you or me. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles.

and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. from about 1500 to the present time. of. Abstract with Active Address. voice. 310. 40. He had four children. 116. 124. 20. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. of. INDEX. syntax uses Absolute. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. nouns. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. pronouns. numeral. 47. article. 47. from nominative clauses. Adjectives. 90. 92. of. demonstrative. nominative. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 25. 98. 107. as comparison definition demonstrative. adverbs used complements. (3) Modern English. 119. 91. adjectives. A. of. 102. 124. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century.000 between them. 89. (2) Middle English. of. 239. origin of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. .39. 260. 133. as.

191. 287. nouns. 190. predicate. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. adjectives. of. 187. 103. 302. 97. of. objective. of. conjunctions. 325. 115. compared. Against. with with with subject. 303. 114. 195. adjectives. 104. 48. Alms. 194. infinitive. clauses. 325. parse. 242. 323. antecedent. of. 116. as nouns. modify. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 190. 275. 99. 194. sentence. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. between of. 109. 184. nouns. 148. 207. 27. parse. 328. adjectives. to used of. of. 116. 239. . Agreement. quantity. 262. 42. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. of. 316. and 185. 183. quality. 27. form as as they to in as uses uses of. plural pronominal. conjunction. 303. 207. 291. from to of. 106. 101.from function how in not of of ordinal. antecedent. of.

of. of. same. 120. 150. of. 252. .Among. derivation in definite. definition of of of Any. 331. 84. words between. 207. 49. uses As At. syntax. 79. possessive. A. pronouns. in in. 231. definition how indefinite. 264. 287. 101. 240. of. though. 148. which. See 74. 294. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 74. 47. 208. 295. 127. as uses verbs. 120. 300. 271. syntax As. sentences. of. of of of And Antecedent. 67. of and pronoun of. sentences. 124. 275. Are. 309. 67. Anacoluthon Analysis. Arrangement Articles. after of. Auxiliary if. Agreement. parse. which. 296. 90. See with definition complex compound simple who. to of. and. sentences. 225. adjective. 198. 51. it. agreement personal as pronoun. An. which.

62. in Old and Modern English. 283. plurals of. of pronouns. 66. of nouns.Bad. Be. Cause. 262. objective. 110. 195. adjective. 150. 279. uses nominative of. of what. with But By. Among. Case. 39. Case. Between. syntax of. 37. of nouns. uses Better. possessive. . 278. 45. 279. 46. 224. 260. best. of. 330. 46. of pronouns. conjunctions Cherub. 54. Children. 47. 149. of pronouns. 194. 63. number of. 210. 49. See of. 110. definition could. forms. 111. 48. 84. Can. of nouns. of. nominative. double possessive. 262. Bridegroom. adverb. of. pronoun. Clause. of pronouns. 64. Brethren. 278. of nouns. clauses of. comparison conjugation of. 39. But. 161. uses of.

definition kinds noun. 239. defective. Clomb. predicate of and from from of. and forms of. 24. of. 157. 110. adverbs. 53. 18. 158. clothes. Cloths. 271. 307. infinitive. verb. nouns. 264. and sentence. nouns. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. material. definition degrees irregular. 248. in analysis. 107. 108. of. 257. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 257. proper. 189. 258. 113. 307. 244. adjectives. of. of. 43. plural of. . English. of. of. 312. of. superlative. of. 263. 43. 305. 108. 315. 268. 12. analysis of. double. Cleave. 18. subject. 257. sentence. 23. nouns. of. predicate. 111.

Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 194. definition how subordinate. sentence. verbs. 73. to of. 193. See in subjunctive. 139. Conjunctions. 138. Can. conjunctions. parse. 231. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 188. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 195. analysis. definition be. same words. Agreement. sentences.with Concord. . 195. See analysis clauses. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. coördinate. 66. 143. See English. of. conjunction. pronouns. adverbs. 199. in Old vs. subjunctive. 149. 269. 196. 151. interrogative pronouns. replaced by objective. of of Conjunctions. 255. and clause. 194. 207. pronoun. conjunctions. of. sentences. other other parts of speech. 149. correlative. 263. 328. 289. 194. pronoun.

300. for. of. passive adjectives.Declension. tenses. 315. Subordinate clause. Case. duck. indirect. . Degrees. pronouns. vs. Comparison. 333. use of dies. pronouns. of. 99. 51. nouns. 152. of personal relative verbs. 35. 320. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. nouns. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. from. of. of. 288. 102. pronouns. 242. clause. adverbs See adjectives. pronouns. with. verb. 90. 185. 287. See adjectives. by. 242. See See 48. 102. See 148. possessive. 91. with of. 160. article. 26. 80. 303. Comparative. comparative. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. discourse. 60. Articles. 43. object.

of. predicate. Each. older. 241. Either. drunk. 12. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 328. in 'Em. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. original. spoken. 234. ending. 51. of. 62. complement. plural. 33. 299.Drank. 32. 287. suffix. 90. of. 280. 34. pronoun. 92. possessive suffix. 42. 40. vulgar. Empress. 257. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 112. conjunction. another. 39. literary. adjective. pronouns. of. of. adjective. 92. to suffix. added suffix. of subject. . 240. 194. 255. error in sentence. 90. 300. Elements Ellipsis. 158. 110. 38. one ( t). 33. pronoun. 287. 102. -En. feminine plural English. object. of. 92. other. the of sentence. 158. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102.

of." 31. 32. uses Foreign Former. object. have adjective. 29. etc. expect gone. 334. 189. first. 126. . 152. 212. plurals. other languages. 212. 30. as of from compared marking.. 110. From. 112. First. 152. uses redundant. perfect. two. 319. etc. 43. with infinitive. 91. 102. 30. used of. few. modes "common goose. First Fish. Future Future tense. definition distinguished in English. See Gander. For. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 36. from. 103. 148. two a further. nouns. Further. 45. of. 147. 30. with in sex. 238. of. fishes. 287. the. Few. adjective. 308. pronoun. as a noun. to of.Every. 102. Feminine. 235. 112.. gender. Farther. 211. Gender. 48.

an better. 159. forms in Girl. 36. person. 12. from participle of. for before. 80. of. 120. kinds of. 101. Government. 176. possessive pronouns. 61. its. 177. Gerund. definition basis of. pronoun. she. adjective. noun. Grammar. 285. 60. of. 12. rather. participle. He. 60. pronouns. 231. 9. personal relative geniuses. 43. 35. 175. 173. first sentence. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. His Husband. 159. 10. 275. distinguished syntax. 144. 61. it. definition divisions opinions province H. . Had Hanged.of of Genii. Got. of. 145. 13. I. and case verbal with. on. had hung. of.

questions. of. a object. sentence. 85. 73. indices. pronoun. 323. 231. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 257. pronouns. 110. 176. 136. 131. 93. questions. transitive. uses discourse. elements. 319. 67. in compared syntax. adverbs. of clause. your. See Articles. of. 153. 178.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. with of. adjectives. 72. 43. indirect of. 131. 245. adjectives. summary See passive mood. of. 188. use article. 248. Direct object. 105. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. See you. 276. of. verbs. . 227. 233. words. mood. 283. Questions. 320. meaning.

36. 226. 110. latest." history etc. 276. See Madam. lord. Kind. predicate. lie. 126. a vs. Lie. adjective. Lady. of. 170. 113. Lady. syntax. 190. uses Literary Little. 189. in little. 91. . 281. Less. pronoun. plural. 102. was uses me. lesser. of. Lay. Last. 39. "It Its. 12. of. Lay.. subject form. 61. etc. 303. Like. -Ly. 110. Logic Logical Lord. 67. 36. 63.. 227. Kine. It. 113. 36. and See words in. 245. these double kind. of. queen. King.adverbs. Latter. English. syntax the.

Enlargement. indicative. nigh. double. 160. 112. . 194. Many Mapping Mare. might. Mighty Mine. 265. mistress. 325. 328. superlatives. 102. conjunctions Many. 126. 112. 34. 113. of. imperative. of. Mood. 185. 110. Modifier. 36. Negative. 161. 110. construction as of adverb. 112. out of. of. syntax conjunction. 137-144. -Most. See definition 136. of. of. comparison Near. of. 287. 64. 188. 137. mine. 189. Much. 110. 189. adjective. position adverb.. in adverbs comparison a. of. Neither. Means. Master. of. etc. 144. 41. 135. sentences. syntax nearer. 114. Must. 195.Manner. May. Modifiers. 187. 256. subjunctive. 326.

of. half abstract. abstract. etc. nouns. of. syntax in gender nouns. 19. parse. kinds 90. 41. . of of of of of a. analysis. 56. class used singular. 21. 30. definition according of. used as. 38-41.pronoun. proper. 20. of. become neuter. to of. etc. 25. 246. 45. 300. 41. 30. 29. 27. 17. 38. 17. now plural. 32. formed. 18. of. and figures. 17 19. gender nouns. common. to use. Not Noun Nouns. 26. 46. None. of. letters as 24. number once other plural. 124. Case. syntax Neuter or two News. 25. 92. definition descriptive. Nor. of. of. 126. 301. No Nominative. abstract. material. words how compound. 42. foreign. nouns. 258. gender how kinds material. clause. 46. See 194. become become formation case collective. 328. 41 43. 30. 125. in.

of same two with proper. singular. 43. 60. 102. 101. verbs. 101. 278. of. pronouns. of. 48. 281. 39. conjunction. 106. 278. Numeral Object. as forms titles. Nouns. become syntax use with with with Nouns. dative. 240. pronouns. in nouns. 235. of. See verb. 196. . definite. meaning. 242. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 195. plural no two singular construction. of. etc.. 279. English. 48. 92. preposition. 121. 42. 66. personal. in article. 48. Preposition. common. adverbial. adjectives. spoken of instead nouns. nominative. 23. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. indirect. indefinite. with case. of different possessive definite of. 285. 48. 41. 148. See in in in Numeral distributive. 42 44. 242. 18. meanings. adjectives. 42. singular. 48. passive adverbial. plural. 282. plural form. 41. or plural. form. 41. article. and analysis. of. of. with with with Now Number. 124.

Parsing. of of of of of models adjectives. 56. inverted. See pronoun. another. position Order. 233. 56. 237. 64. 117. conjunction. 161. 279. as of. 191. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 103. articles. of upon. 127. ours. conjunctions. 116. 325 275. Pains. part analysis. nouns. Ourself. 87. 306. of. as other. 213. 115. adverb. Omission On. definite relative uses of. 38. 41. Ordinal Other Ought. pronoun. treatment comparatives. One. Elder. 94. of. . 194. 69. 199. 91. 293. 93 other. Oxen. adverbs. with (the). 101. Older.syntax Of. of. Our. a in adjectives. uses numeral pronoun. adjective. 103. of syntax. 216. See the as of. Each adjective. for.

of. 281. speech. part adjective. article 150. 43. Pence. 64. pennies. from definition other of. 100. 80. 62. 177. of. -ing words. 70. pronoun. pronouns. 61. or of. and subject in. 28. Person. verbals. parsed. not is. 43. 174. 179. 172. 317. 287. 322. absolute with of. 27. 219. phrase. verbs. of. agreement of verb nouns. 173. 59. 134. 95. phrases. 247. verbs.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. predicate use of. of. 148. 335. used as voice. in. of. 56. 181. possessive and of. 59. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. . nominative. 59. 62. pronouns. pease. 172. relatives. 69. 119. 180. of. them. included various. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. antecedent. reflexive. of. verb idioms it from. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. with. 56. 63.

of nouns. 61. Place. 106. 25. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. of. 53. Personification. Comparison. 303. 64. 235. participial. appositional. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 67. double. 247. 54. 37. 285. 281. 51. 303. as double. of. 241. antecedent of of pronouns. 248. 53. pronouns. 49. English. objects. Personal subjective. of. 52. plural. or See of of See 185. pronoun. 232. . 236. 206. 236. it. of Phrase. 281. vs. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. Positive Possessive. Nouns. noun nouns. conjunctions prepositions Plural. in of. of.objective syntax table triple uses of. syntax of of Politics. complete. of. 278. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. spoken of. nouns. 63. 245. 247. 245. 60. nouns. singular degree. relative. omitted. adverbs of. simple. 188. 's. prepositional. 195. singular. nouns. kinds infinitive. adjectives. 50. 278. of. of. pronoun. of. 41. See 60.

what. 287. 299. who personal. and one with else's. 203. none. words. verbs. same used as adjectives. 104. case. 187. parse. by with shown certain of. with tense certain. case. 89. 195. as 54. 205. singular usually other. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 203. by. 208. 300. usually to as than. Pronouns. each either. parse. 282. neither. somebody definition how indefinite. and form form form form of. adjective. 280. all. after but. 207. 281. adverb. 333. speech. 186. 147. of. future. 285. another. 331. exclamatory. of. 105. as antecedent of relative. possessive nominative to of. any. plural. 64. plural. 105. of. 300. in exclamations. 219. 58. . 202. of. forms of. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. meaning. 72. of. 58. 283. 303. 93. 129. expressed as other of. 95. of. of. 206. 279. for predicate nominative. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 332. 284. 283.Prefixes. by parts of of. objective. plural. 32. Prepositions. interrogative. as. 59. 302. interrogative. 301. 132. objective.

188. 74. in. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. See of. 74. . of. 293. 83. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. Questions. Nouns. from and interrogative. or of. parse. that. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. and antecedent. 142. of. personal pronoun. 69. to of. pronoun. same antecedent. in. 99. of. and relatives. 286. 87. 105. 84. 295. 85. 68. Quantity. of. discourse. 80. agreement anacoluthon and as. 189. with who. who. of. 295. 289. conjunctions Quality. use in as. 296. of. Rank. with with gerund. 279. use of history formed. indirect. in. which after same. pronouns. of.possessive relative. 58. Rather. 87. which. 297. 291. Quotations. 74. unrestrictive. of. questions. 101. of. 69. 195. 289. nouns. 263. Direct same and different. adverbs in. and which. pronominal pronouns indirect. indirect compound. 293. 85.

Simple in sate. reflexive analysis of compound. simple. suffix. in form. clauses of. 195. and should.syntax use Result. effect. 29. Self Sentences. Same Sat. S. 51. 196. 196. 289. would. 69. ending. kinds Sequence Set. 43. will. conjunction. 170. 162. 'S. of. elliptical. 255. of of of complex Sentences. of. plural possessive as. 319. of sit. of. tenses. gender. 26 271. Sex Shall. 74. complex. 294. 42. that. See Sentences. Seeing. forms shots. 159. 259. who. which. definition . Shear. object. 231. in of. 263. 242. 231. 159. sentence. 40. 252. Shot. pronoun. simple of. conjunctions Retained Riches. of.

257. etc. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 258. 32. 169. 245. Subject. 270.. 137. 258. of. of. in feminine suffix. of. 186. 240. logical. of. 257. definition 67. 233. of. 36. 38. 260. Split Spoken -Ster. 257. 303. 12. 323. English. 33. verbs. vs. phonetic in infinitive. . Modern use becoming else's. disuse in spoken complete. of. as. adverb. -es. used mood. literary clause. to of.Singular Sir. English. definition how kinds noun. these number. Spelling Spinster. of. 33. sort. 262. in Middle English. for. 245. 303. 258. names as a. Somebody Sort. adverb. See -En. other Such Such Suffix -s. 144. -en. 38. English. 237. English. distinguish. 138. 257. 126. 144.

88. 148. English. Kind. 306." introductory. 116. 108. when relative. There These kind. "the then foreign. classical of. of. of. 147.. coördinating. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. form. of. 222. and and of.. when as of. in double. of.. 306. of. objects. of languages. 191. 275. two basis not same definition definite. English. of. Tenses. restrictive. 61. of . not suggesting adjectives. in comparison. 147. in Modern number sequence table Than That. definition in English Tense. 289. 123. 106. adverbs. 147. adjectives. meaning. 275. 109. 307. as history syntax Their. syntax of. 277. 119. omission whom. 106. degree.Suffixes. they. article. 280. 33. 120. 290. as history The. which. as adverbs. 309. 107. 186. of. plural as adverb. king. subject. 87. 319. meaning made up in Old of. auxiliaries. 189. . that uses That. me. See etc. 152. 297. of. than of. Then. this. 186. object.

172. 188. feminine and. Try Two Under. 173. infinitive. thy. other noun. 195. 217. verbs. used. of. preposition. of. 185. phrases. try two. . 175. See On. certain as the before with of. 175. from cleft to 174. 322. words. 175. etc. gerund. conjunctions prepositions To. 323. uses of. analysis. 61. kinds participle.. adverbs those. first adjective. 181. 180. exclamations. 172. how infinitive. Upper. 114. infinitive. 21. tother. Time. -ing 111. 33. 114. 207. -Trix. Thou. 248. 330. of. suffix. carelessly uses syntax this. Upon. uttermost. first. in of. 128. to. 308. See That. of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. of.These. thee. uses history of. 322. of. 176. 20. 114. 247. in omitted uses T'other. of. 119. Utter. parse.

tense of. transitive and intransitive. Vocative in Voice. 167. in indirect discourse. 133. passive. of. 148. made transitive. 155. mood of. 133. verbs by. with subject in number. 154. 179. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. table of. 154. 154. 169. 134. defective. 157. of incomplete predication. syntax of. definition of. 245. how to parse. definition of. 317.Verbs. verbs. becoming irregular. 236. 312. What. 33. change. formed by. 320. voice of. in person. phonetic. 135. weak. 12. 148. Vixen. 330. 242. 131. 312-316. . 150. 149. strong. auxiliary. retained object with passive. spelling of. 167. analysis. 151. of. active meaning. table of irregular. 147. definition of. 160. 169. conjugation of. sequence of. active. regular. intransitive. 129. remarks on certain. agreement of. 159. 223. of English. 130. person and number of. but uses what. past tense formed nominative. 319. 47. 39. passive form.

. a. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. questions. 77. 218. With. Words in Worse. conjunction.. relative. plural of in nouns -ing. 79. 105. relative indirect relative. relative. 296. uses See Shall.what Whereby. etc. worser. 190. Will. questions. antecedent adjective. 295-299. pronoun. Whether. 40. 126. Who. 111. referring syntax Widower. 37. of. in -ly. 72. in in indefinite objective. questions. of. Wife. 36. 32. 104. 105. wizard. questions. 75. 73. Y. 72. in. interrogative Which. 75. 36. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. Yes ending analysis. 246. 72. 85. whereto. Witch. 85. 85. English. spoken in of. pronoun. 78. would. Woman. 178. 299. direct of. 83. 83. animals. 194.

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