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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

however. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. Few inflections. Mental training. Making rules is risky. as. If. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). with its enormous vocabulary. . lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste." and "Syntax. This will take in the usual divisions. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. An æsthetic benefit. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. The work it will cover. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Literary English. "Analysis. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules.The province of English grammar is. there is still much for the grammarian to do. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Coming back. and thus incite his observation. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. Authority as a basis. Surely our noble language. to those who have studied the language historically. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. assist the classification of kindred expressions." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. A broader view. is worthy of serious study. from the question." What grammar is. as compared with Latin or Greek. its peculiar and abundant idioms. rightly considered. their forms. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. if rightly presented. It is also evident. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. but this is bad English now. then. it will at the same time. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. so that a small grammar will hold them all.

The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. the nation is free. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. three divisions:² Part I. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. the words sons and master name objects. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. In the more simple state of the Arabs. and will are evidently names of a different kind. The plainest name is Arabs. Spoken English.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. besides this one. 1. Analysis of Sentences. but. by which is meant the free. then. Part III. PART I. or Syntax. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. that is.²GIBBON. Occasionally. The Uses of Words. too. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. not objects. Vulgar English. Part II. The Parts of Speech. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. NOUNS. and may belong to any of those objects.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. and the word nation stands for a whole group. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. reference will be made to vulgar English. which belongs to a people. or standard. as they stand for ideas. The following pages will cover. and Inflections. from the eighteenth century on. . since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. The words state. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. submission. Such words are called nouns.

but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. This does not imply. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. substance.Definition. or a council. etc. Abstract. Name for a group or collection of objects. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or a congress. Common. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. 3. MATERIAL. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. or a mob. is from a Latin word which means general. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. but Chicago names one city. Collective. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. representing directly to the mind an object. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Thus. or things. or the man in front of you. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. and appropriate names to the groups. as here used. men in groups may be called a crowd. . whether person. Proper. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. the man here. or thing. ATTRIBUTE. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Thus. For instance. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. (a) 4. We may say. belonging to one. Individual. a committee. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. reducing it to a narrow application. 5. or idea. and things separately. Name for any individual of a class. animals. They properly belong under common nouns. Classes of nouns. Besides considering persons. we may think of them in groups. because each group is considered as a unit. possessed by all. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. place. A noun is a name word. (b) Common. however. 2. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. animals. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object.

NOTE. rubber. and so on. platinum. 6. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. but which are not called proper names. potash. or that which shows a thing has been proved. It may. The reason is. . Names of ideas. rice. (3) Geological bodies: mud. 7. or apart from their natural connection. They remain common class names. wine.. however. etc. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. etc. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. or actions. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. tea. wheat. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. sugar. mist." 9. Again. conditions. The quality is still there as much as before." "a man of understanding. such as sun. considered abstractly. condition. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth).²There are some nouns. Words naturally of limited application not proper. rock. Such are glass. but it is taken merely as a name. . and fasten a special name to the object considered. paint. wheat. granite. iron. etc. etc. stone. soap. frost. When we speak of a wise man. there is no such intention. proof means the act of proving. etc. "Painting is a fine art. sand. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. we may say. earth. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. or action. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. clay. expressing attributes or qualities. expressing state." "Learning is hard to acquire. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. but in the words sun. earth. instead of to each individual or separate object. dew. snow. moon. not things. cloud. sugar. as in calling a city Cincinnati. celluloid. etc. rain.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. gold. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. frost. world. we speak of the wisdom of the man.

²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. those opinions and feelings. but are merely names of actions. Exercises. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. etc. there is time for such reasonings. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. the moon caused fearful forebodings. kingship from king. 1. 12. mastery from master. They are only the husks of verbs. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. hope. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. 273). etc. They cannot govern a word. stupidity from stupid. hopeful²hope. summer. as glad²joy. as in the expressions.Attribute abstract nouns. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. winter. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. is used as a noun. 272. childhood from child. etc. service from serve. as their name implies. her longing for their favor. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. The verb. "a long run" "a bold move. redness from red. (2) peerage from peer. NOTE. and they cannot express action. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. shadow. the great Puritan awakening. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. lightning. the main bearings of this matter. night. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. Such are beauty. the rude drawings of the book. a wedding or a festival. Verbal abstract nouns." "a brisk walk. Thus. the well-being of her subjects. 10. To avoid difficulty. ease. by altering its function. five abstract.. five proper. (1) prudence from prudent. Caution." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. etc. thunder. joy. the teachings of the High Spirit. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. energy. he spread his blessings over the land. height from high. speech from speak. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. theft from thieve. day. in the beginning of his life. Underived abstract nouns. action from act. . II. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb.

typhus. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Using a dictionary.2. as pneumonia. pleurisy. geology. diphtheria. as physics. (b) branches of knowledge. catarrh. algebra. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . mathematics? 3.

Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. damask. but most of them are in the following groups.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from Corinth. 13. from Oporto. or to go over to it entirely. the guillotine. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. arras. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. levant and morocco (leather). from a town in France. a Locke. 119). Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. but we may say. Others of similar character are calico. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. etc. We know a number of objects made of iron. a Bentham. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Nouns change by use. 15. thus. for example. and lo! a new system. Guillotin. from Calicut. above. a Fourier.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. in Portugal. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. "The cook made the irons hot. a Hutton. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. who was its inventor. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. it imposes its classification on other men. currants. as a davy. port (wine). Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. 14. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE." referring to flat- .²EMERSON. the word port. Sodom was famous for wickedness. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. from the name of Dr. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. from Damascus. Proper names transferred to common use. Material nouns may be used as class names. a Lavoisier. from China.

(3) By poetical use.In lightnings owned his secret stings. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²PERCIVAL. A halfway class of words. papers. nor are they common class nouns. the abstract idea is partly lost. etc. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. a steel to whet a knife on. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract.²HAYNE. or used as class nouns. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. clouds. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. his eyes. slates. are still names of abstract ideas. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. 17.²BRYANT. smiled. his mask melting like a nightmare dream.irons. For example. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science.²RUSKIN. Test this in the following sentences:² . The words preceded by the article a. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Traffic has lain down to rest. not material things. etc.²COLLINS. and say teas. Class nouns in use. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. are abroad. on fire. tobaccos. which are made plural. to prowl or to moan like night birds. 16. coals. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. paints. They are not then pure abstract nouns. clays. These are the same in material.²CARLYLE. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. oils. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. a rubber for erasing marks. and only Vice and Misery. or the arts and sciences. When it is said that art differs from science. tins.²BYRON. that disposition is the thing to be created. Personification of abstract ideas. be spoken of. Death. candies. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Next Anger rushed. abstract in meaning. purity. or made plural. but differ in strength. This is a poetic usage. and so on. From all around²Earth and her waters. that the power of art is founded on fact. but in case an art or a science. that is. or. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. as stones. mists. but on dispositions which require to be created. though not confined to verse.

nouns used to modify. They are more like the possessive noun.²EMERSON. they cannot be compared. All these. or from any expression. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. however. loves. etc. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. "a family quarrel." "a New York bank.The Solitary can despise. And still. Adverbs. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Adjectives. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. Nouns used as descriptive terms." "a morning walk.² BURNS.²BURNS. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. When I was young? Ah. which belongs to another word. NOTE.² GOLDSMITH. meaning a walk in the morning. for example. they do not express quality." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives.²SHAKESPEARE. or describe it. but is still a noun. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Conjunctions.²SHAKESPEARE. make our own so. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question." which contains a pure adjective. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. But it is better to consider them as nouns." "the State Bank Tax bill.²IRVING. fear thy blow. But ah! those pleasures. 18. if we must have great actions. sir!" and the "What then.Let us. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. as descriptive adjectives are. By ellipses. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. sir!"²MACAULAY . Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. a bank in New York. the wealthy. sir?" and the "No. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Every why hath a wherefore. as each repeated pleasure tired. a bill as to tax on the banks. were mere terrors of the night. Then comes the "Why. 19.

of words rather than of their meaning. why and wherefore. NOTE. Caution. the terms the great. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another." and another of Dr.Nor iron bars a cage. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. too. but have an adjectival meaning. 20."²B. Now. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. the wealthy. 5. in a sentence above. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used.²These remarks do not apply. When. are spoken of as if pure nouns. or a state secret. 2. however. 6. Stone walls do not a prison make. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. or a criminal.. without reference to its function in the sentence. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. of course." or "legal. 4. Power laid his rod aside. at the beginning. There are many of these. are used. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. and tell to which class each belongs. Exercise. and Then. FRANKLIN. In the other sentences. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. 8. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 1. It is to be remembered. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. When. etc. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. is ambiguous." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. whether it mean the sun or the cold. 7. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. or a faithful domestic. so. 3. Learning. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. but as a figure of speech. that cobweb of the brain. in speaking of the principal of a school.²Dr BLAIR In this definition.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. The it. is the word "just. .

14. 21. the welcome. In Latin. always masculine. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. Male beings are. in English grammar. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. he cried. 16. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. What gender means in English. 10. A fool speaks all his mind. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. A little weeping would ease my heart. for every dropHinders needle and thread. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 17. One To-day is worth two To-morrows.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. female. its bloom is shed. 13. GENDER. and many other languages. 24. that waits you here. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. It is founded on sex. 12. 19.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. . The hours glide by. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 20. 15.You seize the flower.Fair guests. returned to Spain. shattered and disabled. There are exceptions even to this general statement. always feminine. And see. the silver moon is gone. but not so in English. German. 11. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. 22.9. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. The fleet. 18. Greek. 23. 21. and names of females are usually feminine. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more.

the name of it is masculine. those distinguishing the sex of the object. came to a stand just by the bridge. then... these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. corpus (body) is neuter. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. those which do not distinguish sex. and neuter nouns.When. hortus (garden) is masculine. according to use.² IRVING. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. All nouns.²masculine and feminine.. clapping his burnished wings.. Hence: Definition. No "common gender. 22.²IRVING. if there were any signs of life in it. that pattern of a husband. or names of things without life." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up." . or which arouse his interest most.. Neuter nouns. 23. 24. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. der Tisch (table) is masculine. according to their use. mensa (table) is feminine. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Of animals. the word child is neuter in the sentence. in German. He next stooped down to feel the pig. Gender nouns. das Messer (knife) is neuter. The great difference is. the name of it is feminine. and consequently without sex. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.²LAMB. "A little child shall lead them. or additions to words.²gender nouns. in other languages gender follows the form. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. the sex being of no consequence. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. with its gizzard under its wing.. but are spoken of as neuter. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Gunpowder . with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Thus. however. are named by gender nouns. that is.² I have seenA curious child . if of the female sex. inanimate things are spoken of. For instance: in Latin. must be divided into two principal classes. . in English. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. those with which man comes in contact often.

{ Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. II. ruler. the division of words according to sex. of course. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. One feminine. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. cousin. For fox they said vox. If such words as parent. domestic. from the masculine fox. he-bear²she-bear. teacher. Native suffixes. but spinster has now no connection with it. 28. Gender shown by Suffixes. Hence vixen is for fyxen. and for the older word fat they said vat.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. These remain in vixen and spinster. . for from they said vram. 27. According to the definition. as he-goat²she-goat. or the lack of it. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. puts a prefix before the masculine man.. etc. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. they are neuter words. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. (2) By adding a suffix. is. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. only to masculine and feminine nouns. The inflections for gender belong. 26. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. though both words have lost their original meanings. relative. 29. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. as in wine vat. Gender shown by Prefixes. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. generally to a masculine word. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Male nouns beings. servant. Very few of class I.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Put in convenient form. woman. I. do not show the sex to which the persons belong.25.

donna. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. executrix. punster. These are attached to foreign words. trickster. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . as czarina. señorita. as. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. gamester.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. 30.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. it has none now in the words huckster. Slightly changed and widely used. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Low Latin issa). as seam-stress. and are never used for words recognized as English. Ending of masculine not changed. Unaltered and little used. but in most cases it has not. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. song-str-ess. -ess (French esse.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. the one most used.

from Latin imperatricem. teacheresse. etc. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . In some of these pairs. as in the fourteenth century. Instead of saying doctress. we use the masculine termination. the ending -ess. fosteress. to represent persons of either sex. We frequently use such words as author. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. 32. Gender shown by Different Words. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. as. chairman. neighboresse. editor. Thus. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. frendesse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. wagoness." III. neighbor (masculine and feminine).²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. from the French -esse. Some of them have an interesting history. as was said in the sixteenth century. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. we use the feminine.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). or servauntesse. NOTE. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. teacher or lady teacher. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. 31. others have in their origin the same root. as.

Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Danish gaas. etc. widuwa²widuwe. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. became identical. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. It is not connected historically with our word duck. as in many other words. in Old English mere. finally gander. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. 33.² . Witch is the Old English wicce. Icelandic gás. or lauerd in Middle English. Widower. for example. Madam is the French ma dame. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. probably meaning house dweller). from Latin mea domina. Besides gander and drake. 34. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. The older forms. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom.). among others) to be from the same root word. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. the old sign of the masculine. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). leaving our word drake. gand-ra. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. but this has long been obsolete. written loverd. 16). not immediately connected with witch. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). lhauerd. though both are ultimately from the same root. Mare. Two masculines from feminines. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Three letters of ened have fallen away.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Personification. had the masculine mearh (horse).

The -en inflection. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. etc. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. But other words were inflected afterwards. and not by the form of the noun. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.²singular and plural. the engineer speaks so of his engine. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. shoon (shoes). (3) By adding -s (or -es).²COLERIDGE.Her home is on the deep. Effect of personification. In nouns.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. 35. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. for instance. 38."²BYRON.No towers along the steep. This is not exclusively a poetic use. Britannia needs no bulwarks. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. I. 36. 39. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. treen (trees). in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. . more than one. Definition. the plural. 37. NUMBER. Our language has two numbers. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. eyen (eyes).²CAMPBELL. in Old English. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.²KEATS. whenever we adopt a new word.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. (2) By changing the root vowel. that is."Now. The first two methods prevailed. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. together with the third.

Horse and foot. pair. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. as.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. but they now add the ending -s.² The foot are fourscore thousand. as. The old plural was brothru. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. Brethren has passed through three stages. etc. into Frederick town. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Lee marched over the mountain wall. but has now no singular. and is still found in dialects. 42. salmon. 41. heathen. etc. or if preceded by the prepositions in. quartz. Akin to this class are some words. II. after all. they add -s): also trout. wight. people. such as deer. folk. finally brethren."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. The weakening of inflections led to this addition.²MACAULAY. Other words following the same usage are. Such are box.²WHITTIER. ditch. brace. borough²formerly had the same inflection. retain the same form for plural meaning. The words horse and foot. head. then brothre or brethre. when they mean soldiery. after numerals (if not after numerals. that have the singular and plural alike. .-En inflection imitated by other words. Children has passed through the same history. lens. Instead of -s. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. swine. Kine is another double plural. III. glass. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. originally neuter. by. etc. sheep.The horse are thousands ten. 40. cross. turf.²THOREAU. Examples of this inflection are. dozen. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. cannon.² "God bless me! so then.²Over the mountains winding down. and get settled. sail.

etc. and some -es. prize²prizes. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). house²houses. half²halves. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. fairies. is both the science and the art of government. means: as. Two words. shelf²shelves. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . physics. as. knife²knives. Proper nouns are regularly singular. and go over to other classes (Secs.g.²CENTURY DICTIONARY.. molasses. optics. daisies. and the real ending is therefore -s. the Americas. mathematics. though this sound combines readily with -s.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. DANA. economics. pains (care). 15 and 17). quoth then that ladie milde. some adding -s. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular.g. etc. that when thy summons comes. The lilie on hir stalke grene. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. the Washingtons. 44. When such words take a plural ending. So live. Some words are usually singular. and many branches of learning. niche²niches. etc. hero²heroes. however. e. a new syllable is made. Means plural. Formerly. etc. 45. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. also news.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. means and politics.²PROF. politics. e. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. allies.. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. race²races. Words in -ies. It served simply as a means of sight.-Es added in certain cases. 43. they lose their identity. in its widest extent. Examples of these are. Special Lists. summons.²BRYANT. negro²negroes. these words ended in -ie. fancies.² Politics. though they are plural in form. volcano² volcanoes. chaise²chaises.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²GOLDSMITH. Sometimes. Now I read all the politics that come out. however.²GOLDSMITH.Words.²MOTLEY. L. 46. by strongly conveying the passions. Politics plural. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²J.²BURKE. LAUGHLIN. it is furnished with a forceps. by those means which we have already mentioned. By these means. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.² MACAULAY. CURTIS. . Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²IRVING. riches will accumulate. Some words have no corresponding singular. I say. he pronounced to have been a tongs. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. if I recollect right. W.²GOLDSMITH. A relic which. Besides this.²G.

One plural. Two classes of compound words. or epistles. etc. (2) revenue duties. genius²geniuses (men of genius). What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47.²was it subdued when. pence (collectively). Tell me not. ways. (2) poetry. In Early Modern English thank is found. die²dies (stamps for coins. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). (2) abilities. (2) care. brethren (of a society or church). Numbers also means issues. or copies.. part²parts: (1) divisions. making a double plural. . the other unlike it.. riches. as two sixpences. clothes (garments). twopence. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. 48. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. may add -s. Three words were originally singular. In speaking of coins.The air. (2) literature. shot²shot (collective balls). of a periodical. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. genii (spirits).). in mournful numbers. 49. pease (collectively). fish²fish (collectively). trouble. number²numbers: (1) figures.. shots (number of times fired). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). two plurals. penny²pennies (separately).²one corresponding to the singular. as in the lines. 50. dice (for gaming).² I lisped in numbers. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. indices (signs in algebra). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. sixpence. eaves. fishes (individuals or kinds). two meanings. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. DANA. faculties. for the numbers came. These make the last part plural. etc. carry off chaff.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill.²POPE. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.²LONGFELLOW. index²indexes (to books). or work in a bellows?²PROF. pea²peas (separately).

the Drs. manservant. As to plurals of names with titles. but add -s.²DR. there is some disagreement among English writers. Ottoman. The chief member adds -s in the plural. as the Messrs. the Misses Rich. HOLMES. Brown. or the name may be pluralized. and then the three Miss Spinneys. The title may be plural. 51. then Silas Peckham. such as talisman.² Then came Mr. as man singer. German. though the latter is often found. . Norman. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. for example. 52. and Mrs. Mussulman. Briggs. woman servant.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Brahman. Two methods in use for names with titles. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. woman singer. firman. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Allen.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. They are then said to be naturalized. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.²GIBBON. These are said to be domesticated. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²GOLDSMITH. 53.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. Others have been adopted. Exercise.²THE CRITIC. and retain their foreign plurals. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Du Maurier. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. FROM THE LATIN. or Anglicized. or Englished. FROM THE GREEK.²DICKENS. The Messrs. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Domesticated words. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. y y analysis antithesis . Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.

Words quoted merely as words. etc. as. Only two case forms. without reference to their meaning. In the general wearing-away of inflections. figures.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words." CASE. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. . When the foreign words are fully naturalized. "He sleeps in a felon's cell." the word felon's modifies cell. etc. also add -s or 's. as." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). they form their plurals in the regular way. cell has another relation. 55. Definition. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. Letters. 56. In the sentence.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. 54. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. figures.. and expresses a relation akin to possession. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s).

" (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. fate. when asked unawares. and merit. they returned to their homes. .²nature.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. and the possessive. Nouns. 57. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations.²the nominative. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 5.²one for the nominative and objective. 3. completing a verb. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. I.²person. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Human experience is the great test of truth. must be understood for purposes of analysis. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. the objective." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Excuses are clothes which. and experience. 2. Uses of the Nominative. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 4. then. 58. three things characterize man. may be said to have three cases.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. learning. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. excessive grief. the enemy of the living." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. whether inflected or not." (2) As a predicate noun. 1. Three properties belong to wisdom. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.

and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil." Exercise. a patriarch of the village. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. and landlord of the inn." "Thou makest the storm a calm. measure. (in the older stages of the language. But of all plagues. reconciles. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 9. and tell which use each has:² 1. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. (5) As the object of a preposition. good Heaven. distance. 3. But the flood came howling one day. Conscience.Save. 68. wounded lies. sword in hand and visor down. how have I frighted thee? II. taking the object enemies. and being equivalent to one verb. 59." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. and makest a calm.6. her first law broken." (3) Adverbially. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. . They charged. as will be seen in Sec. 4. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. taking the object storm. 8. they are sands of precious gold. Uses of the Objective. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. save." (4) As the second object. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. Set a high price on your leisure moments. thy wrath can send. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. etc." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. completing the verb. and meaning calmest. 2. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. the word toward which the preposition points.

²SHELLEY.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. The noblest mind the best contentment has. and forfeits paid. the Great Stone Face. 8. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.e. expressed or understood. Uses of the Possessive. or in writing yesterday's elegy. III. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. the most common of all. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. It is a poetic expression. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. Possession in some sense is the most common. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. as. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. 7.And gave the leper to eat and drink. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.Does his Creator's power display. 61. from day to day. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.5.²ADDISON. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. tempests that . 9. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. as in these expressions. (2) Objective possessive. The possessive case always modifies another word.²HAWTHORNE.²BYRON. as shown in the sentences. (3) Subjective possessive. And whirling plate. 10.. 60. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. 6.His winter task a pastime made.² The unwearied sun.

only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. as schoolboys sometimes write. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. 56)." "mannes herte [heart]. lady Poss. Nom. . Case Inflection. however. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. and Obj. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. there are only two case forms. One is the simple form of a word. As said before (Sec.. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 62. 63. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). How the possessive is formed. Nom." "at his beddes syde.. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. in Chaucer. 62. A false theory.e.winter is likely to have). the panther which the forest hides). In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. "From every schires ende. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR." Use of the apostrophe. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general.e. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. 64. 1. Declension or inflection of nouns. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. child NOTE. and Obj. A suggestion. "George Jones his book." etc. making the possessive singular. PLURAL. The use of the apostrophe. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. Poss. growth which several days had developed). To form the possessive plural. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his.

²RUSKIN. . as. Peter's. instead of the emperor their master's name. in the name of the emperor their master. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. my neighbors. stands up for God's truth one man. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. dwelling. 66. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.²CARLYLE.. James's. being understood with it: for example. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. and she walked off from the don's.Though this opinion was untrue. store. know the amount of my income." "A postscript is added.²SWIFT. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. a word with a phrase. some such word as house. etc.²THACKERAY. and from a desire to have distinct forms. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. Captain Scrapegrace's. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. the items of my son's.²HOLMES. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. 67. Possessive and no noun limited. as." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. I remember him in his cradle at St. Cervantes' satirical work. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase."²DE QUINCEY.. the possessive sign is usually last. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience." Possessive with compound expressions. church. etc. as by the countess's command. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.² LOWELL. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. Kate saw that. containing words in apposition. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. In compound expressions. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.²DE QUINCEY. 65. for goodness' sake. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. but to the ear all may be alike.

If. that. 1. a double possessive.The double possessive. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. objective. in such a sentence as. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. the sentence might be understood as just explained. Exercises. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. (See also Sec. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. each. sometimes they are used together. Blair).²FROUDE. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. E. we use the phrase of Atterbury. In most cases. 2. Clearness. Both of these are now used side by side. the. Emphasis.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. and at the same time by a possessive noun. making a double possessive. etc. every. the statement clearly means only one thing. any. (b) Rewrite the sentence. no. however.²E. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. corresponding to 's.²the introduction which Atterbury made. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. or subjective. especially when used with this or that. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. (1) When a word is modified by a. and tell whether each is appositional.. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²CARLYLE. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. this. A peculiar form.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. HALE. For example. 68. 87. as one modifier. ill-lighted except where she stands. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. (3) It prevents ambiguity.

some idioms²the double possessive. it seemed. In parsing. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. day's harbinger. Jove laughs. At lovers' perjuries. 8. I must not see thee Osman's bride. therefore. with every garland crowned. There Shakespeare's self.They say. 70. and destroy the other. 6.3.² . Nature herself. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. we state. 14. let him seasonably water the one. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 12. 4. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. in parsing a noun. Friend. Now the bright morning star. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 9. 15. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 5. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son.A weary waste expanding to the skies. My quarrel and the English queen's are one.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 10. 69.Comes dancing from the East. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 7. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 11. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 13. Hence.

it denotes only one person. therefore neuter. it is the name of a male being. 4. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. has no governing word. singular number. The correct method. Thief is a common class noun. In parsing any word. and to have it found out by accident. and relations. it expresses time.(1) The class to which it belongs. if the latter. Exercise. a withered serving man. 3. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. Neckcloth. 2. which gender. Throat is neuter. and number. like miller's. (3) Whether singular or plural number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. hence it is objective case. therefore singular number. That in the captain's but a choleric word. hence it is a common noun.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. (4) Its office in the sentence. it is the object of the preposition by. masculine. MODEL FOR PARSING. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. names one thing. 68). The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. it has no sex. but is the adverbial objective. gender. therefore singular number. therefore masculine gender. and limits neckcloth. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. 71. a fresh tapster. and therefore nominative case.²common. as to case. hence it is a gender noun. proper. is a common class noun. it expresses possession or ownership. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. object of the verb takes. determining its case. inflections. etc. therefore possessive case. NOTE. hence objective case. .²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. the connection shows a male is meant. subject of the verb is understood.

73. PRONOUNS..²palace. 7. standing for a name. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Now. 76).. 9. Definition. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. all in one." Again. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. A pronoun is a reference word. or for a person or thing. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. but by a question we say. 72. A few miles from this point. ." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. The need of pronouns. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. He giveth his beloved sleep. Necker. from a necessity for short. definite.. financial minister to Louis XVI. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Mrs. blessings light on him that first invented . where the Rhone enters the lake. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. For instance. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. instead of saying. were natives of Geneva. Madame de Staël.And hated her for her pride. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. and prison. and his daughter. sleep! 6. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. or for a group of persons or things. Jarley's back being towards him. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house.5. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. castle. 8. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Classes of pronouns. 10. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. 11. and representative words.

This gives rise to a new term. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. which relate or refer to a noun. as nouns have the same form. 77. I Poss. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. and the person or thing talked about. Person in grammar. 74. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. that is. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. we our. 75. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. pronoun. they must represent the person talking. (5) Indefinite pronouns.. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. (3) Third person. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. "the distinction of person. Singular.(3) Relative pronouns. From analogy to pronouns. mine. my Plural. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. the person or thing spoken to. words. which cannot be used as adjectives. 76. representing a person or thing spoken to. they are said to have person by agreement. Nom. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. even if it had a special form. primarily adjectives. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. standing for a person or thing spoken of. (2) Second person. Three persons of pronouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. (4) Adjective pronouns. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated." Person of nouns. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. representing the person speaking. which have forms for person. ours . or other word or expression. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive.

Obj. me us Singular. you your. neuter hit. Masc. Nom. The speaker may be either male or female.. of all Three. hers her Plur. First and second persons without gender. neuter. Nom. and also for the neuter. thy Remarks on These Forms. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Old Form Common Form. Poss. Obj. they their. thou thee ye you you your. masculine h . But the third person has. by personification. Third person singular has gender. Obj. so also with the person or thing spoken to. your. Old forms. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. he his him Fem. 78. theirs them Neut. Poss. thine. yours Poss. Singular. namely. she her. SECOND PERSON. Nom. or. Obj. yours you THIRD PERSON. in the singular. feminine h o. Nom. it its it Poss. . a separate form for each gender. yours you Plural. Obj.

In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. especially in poetry. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.Thou lovest. thou Shepherd of Israel. to thy care we commit the helpless. just as we now say. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. There are. however. even when referring to a single object. (2) In addressing the Deity.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. as in prayers. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. thee. Thou. for example. The plurals were h . the forms they. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. Second person always plural in ordinary English. heom. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. two modern uses of thou. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). which was often sounded with the h silent.." As shown above. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. 81. as. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. In spoken English. in Old English.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. 80. thy. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. We use it with a plural verb always.²BEECHER. heora. The consequence is. which is a neuter noun. Two uses of the old singulars. their.² Oh. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. etc.²SHELLEY. as possessive of it. it. This is of comparatively recent growth. and sometimes its. 82. . that didst comfort thy people of old. them. etc.:² (1) In elevated style. 79..²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. etc. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. The form its. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. but make the plural you do duty for the singular.

though ye is occasionally used as objective. his. or. when they occur in the predicate position. Absolute personal pronouns. their. 84 are always subjects. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. theirs. they. though those named in Sec. our. hers.Use of the pronouns in personification. 84. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. Yet careful speakers avoid this. your. to personify objects (Sec. That is. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. us.²LANDOR. Old use of mine and thine. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. Additional nominatives in spoken English. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. Nominative forms. thou. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²BULWER. The words I. 85. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. they have a nominative form. 34). note the following:² 'Twas mine. sometimes his and its. I spare thee mine. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. The Possessive. The forms my. us. 83. me. . The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 58). The forms mine. she. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. And since thou own'st that praise. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. ye. thy. Not a separate class.²COWPER. we. I The Nominative. In spoken English. and follow the usage of literary English. in such a sentence as. however. them. its. "I am sure it was him. and not make more classes. have a peculiar use. thine. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. and sometimes in ordinary speech. 86. he. besides a nominative use. 'tis his. ²SHAKESPEARE. II. her. her. some say. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. her." the literary language would require he after was. and has been slave to thousands. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. yours. them. him. for. him.

Long Allen.²BIBLE. F. T. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. his. Give every man thine ear. Like the noun possessives. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. pluck it out. or satire.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. ²HOLMES.²THACKERAY. thus. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. thine. yours. we have.²J. sometimes its. yours. If thine eye offend thee. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. This usage is still preserved in poetry. in that old Edinburgh house of his. we find. COOPER." said Henry Woodstall. ours. Double and triple possessives.²ID. The forms hers. Besides this. (2) To bring emphasis.²SWIFT. for example. and with mine. .²ID. as in nouns. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. Their uses.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. (3) To express contempt.² CARLYLE. "Hold thy peace. hers.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. commenting upon a letter of mine. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. theirs. but few thy voice. thus. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. This ancient silver bowl of mine. anger. theirs.²J. are really double possessives.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. 87.²CARLYLE. ours. FIELDS. it tells of good old times.²THACKERAY."²SCOTT. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.

but nominative or objective in use. In their function. In pronouns. but expresses for whom. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. in the first sentence. Curse me this people.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches.²BIBLE. III." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. was marked by a separate case. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. In such sentences as. 86: mine stands for my property.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. as it is called. and mine in the second has an objective use. . 89. but not in form. Now the objective." "None but the brave deserves the fair. But the first two have a nominative use. his for his property.²ID. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. The old dative case." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. Both joined in making him a present. the thing is done. 20. for whose benefit. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. mine stands for my praise in the second. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. Besides this use of the objective. "The good alone are great. 90. The Objective. or use in a sentence. 88. but the form is the same as the objective. this dative use. They all handled it. as shown in Sec. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.

which follows the verb. or to the idea. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march." (3) As a grammatical subject.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. (3) In apposition. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² . The word you. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. to stand for the real. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. ²EMERSON. thus. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. logical subject.²ADDISON. as. was passed by with indulgence. Indefinite use of you and your.²BACON. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. as.Time is behind them and before them. and they cry. Society.² NEWMAN. It is a pity that he has so much learning. 91.²CARLYLE. why. 92. in this century. like Chinese skill. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. as in the sentences. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.²DE QUINCEY. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. you must condense there. WEBSTER. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²IRVING To empty here. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.²EMERSON. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. Your mere puny stripling.²BULWER. you sneeze. or that he has not a great deal more. has not made its progress. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.²D.

I made up my mind to foot it.²SCOTT. who teams it. -selves.²ID. Poor Christian was hard put to it. itself.²ANON. peddles it. (thyself)." etc. And when I awoke. or COMPOUND PERSONAL.²BRYANT. however. This occurs in poetry.²HAWTHORNE.. And millions in those solitudes. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²BURNS. (ourself). They are myself.²COLERIDGE. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. we use such expressions as. yourselves. I set me down and sigh. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. 93. It was late and after midnight. it rained. Of the two forms in parentheses. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. 94.It is finger-cold. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. since firstThe flight of years began. herself.²IRVING. who in turn tries all the professions. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples." and there is an end of it.² Now I lay me down to sleep. but seldom in prose. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. that is. For example. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. they dropped their arms. used in poetry.²DE QUINCEY. have laid them downIn their last sleep.²THOREAU. . "I found me a good book. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and its plural selves. themselves. himself.²EMERSON." "He bought him a horse."²IRVING. yourself. when they are direct objects.²HOLMES. There was nothing for it but to return. farms it. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. A sturdy lad . keeps a school. as.. ourselves. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. as they are also called. the second is the old form of the second person. For when it dawned.²BUNYAN.

? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. shall dissolve. 96.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl..Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. after the analogy of myself.As girls were once. Threats to all. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. for example.² The great globe itself . Held dead within them till myself shall die.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.²SHAKESPEARE. ourselves. as we ourself have been. and the others were formed by analogy with these. as. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.To you yourself. as. 95. NOTE. especially in the speech of rulers. were changed into the possessive myself.² TENNYSON. to every one. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. theself. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.²EMERSON. not the possessive forms. thyself. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.²MILTON.. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. BROWNING. for example. In Middle English the forms meself. I shrink with pain.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.²WORDSWORTH. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. Use of the reflexives. as in vulgar English. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Origin of these reflexives. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.²ID. As if it were thyself that's here. etc. The question might arise.² . with self. to us. B. and build the lofty rhyme. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.²E.

²B.²DE QUINCEY. feminine. And it grew wondrous cold. all conform to it. Infancy conforms to nobody. where the word is one with that it tells of. some each of masculine. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. . 4. 2. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. 3. father.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 97. 7. and how to do it. 8. which. 10. 9. fight it out. Courage. but it is the soonest spoiled. Years ago. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. FRANKLIN.² THACKERAY. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. One obsolete. some of them being double possessives. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Come and trip it as we go. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. is wisdom. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. Three now in use. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 5. To know what is best to do.On the light fantastic toe. let him lowly confess it. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). and neuter. 6. and what. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

or case. Use of which. it refers to either persons or things. the gold.Promised. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. number. actions. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Use of what. These show that what is not inflected for case. as it always asks about somebody. that is. 99. whether. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. 98. it is selective. used formerly to mean which of two. ideas. that it is not inflected for gender or number. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. but now obsolete. What wouldst thou do.. referring to things. not to persons. Whose was that gentle voice. but for case alone. The use of who. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. it is always third person. whispering sweet. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Which of you. which is not inflected for gender. etc. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. As shown here. with its possessive and objective. Use of who and its forms. 100. methought. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. having three forms. shall we say. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. that.There is an old word. . long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. that it is always singular and neuter.

who? Poss. as. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. or other word or expression. for which the pronoun stands. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. whose? Obj. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. since it is subject of the verb had. AND PLUR. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as. 103. Function of the relative pronoun. Who. These bards sang of Border chivalry. objective in the last. Further treatment of who. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. SING. which and what are sometimes adjectives. nominative in the second also. The antecedent. it may be shortened into. and so to make smoother discourse.² "The last of all the Bards was he. For instance. who evidently refers to Bards. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word.²by the use of the words. and what are also relative pronouns. as they take the place usually of a word already used. 105. and also in having a conjunctive use. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. in Sec." Or.Who sung of Border chivalry. subject of doth love. SINGULAR Nom. which is nominative in the first sentence. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. 127). It usually precedes the pronoun. AND PLUR.² . 104. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. "The last of all the Bards was he." In the latter sentence. which and what. which is called the antecedent of the relative. Thus we may say. being the direct object of the verb shall take.101. which. 99. what may be an adverb in some expressions. who is used as objective instead of whom. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. 102. pronoun.

. 4. WHITNEY.. is a divine creation. a thousand years.²LOWELL In this.²PARTON Which and its forms. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.²MILTON. The nurse came to us. For her enchanting son. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. Generally speaking.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 3. but the look which is not of the earth. 4.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. that. 2.That guard our native seas. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²W. a simple relative is meant..²DR JOHNSON. .²SCOTT. are the men and women who bless their species. D. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. The origin of language is divine. 5. They had not their own luster.²THACKERAY. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. 6. 106. with all its capabilities . and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Two kinds. Ye mariners of England. will be discussed further on. 3. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. the women whom women approve. When the word relative is used. in the same sense in which man's nature. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.² COX. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. Indefinite relatives. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. 108. what.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.Whose flag has braved. The men whom men respect. Who and its forms. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.²BYRON. 107.Whom universal nature did lament. which. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 2.

109. Examples of the relative that:² 1. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .. ought to be kept in view.. The judge . that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²LAMB 3. stratagems.²IRVING. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. That. BEECHER 5. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.²MARGARET FULLER. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. 6.. The Tree Igdrasil.²BURKE. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.. 3. 2. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.² SHAKESPEARE 2. bought up all the pigs that could be had. which it certainly is not.²H. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.5. The man that hath no music in himself.²DE QUINCEY. 110. W.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. Reader.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Who. For what he sought below is passed above. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.. (a) This gradation . you will not be angry with me for telling you.Is fit for treasons. 4. and spoils.²EMERSON. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. What. 111. Already done is all that he would do. 107. else this description will seem exaggerated. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE..

²LEIGH HUNT.. who. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. Sec.. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. flung its arms around my neck. Kingsley. The little gorilla. 107.²DR. and 3. in the third. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. and 6. Witness the following examples:² And you. son. or ideas. referring to animals.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. whose wound I had dressed. who is first person. 96).²LOWELL. 2. possessive case of which. whose.²IRVING.who.. seemed as much excited as myself. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. My horse. whom. not persons. It has been seen (Sec.²who. JOHNSON. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whose is second person. and so on. 5. Which.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. Who referring to animals.²THACKERAY. The robins. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. (3) It is nearly always third person. in 4.²which for the nominative and objective. the relatives are singular. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. in 5. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. (4) It has two case forms. in the second. whose for the possessive. . Gibbon. a man.²SWIFT.. Examples of whose. Scott. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Smollett. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. and others. that man.. p. In sentence 4. The sentences in Sec. they are plural. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. Cooper. in the first sentence. 113. things. (2) It has three case forms.whose. the others are all third person. 112. In 1. whom.

the antecedent follows which. This moribund '61. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. 115. secondly (which made her stare). . all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son."²RUSKIN. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. This often occurs. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.²SHAKESPEARE.² MCMASTER. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. Burke. and numerous others. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. and things.² And. 116. Primarily.²THACKERAY. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. and to persecute without pity. Men may be ready to fight to the death. That.²RUSKIN.² I swept the horizon. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²SCOTT.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. 109. Kingsley. thus. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. Sometimes. second. The last two sentences in Sec. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. (2) It has only one case form. animals. let us enter the church itself. which is very notable and curious.²first. and third persons. In the sentences of Sec. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. no possessive. So in Matthew Arnold. too.²BEECHER. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. (3) It is the same form for first.114. which is worse. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.²DE QUINCEY. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Which and its antecedents. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.

plural number. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. number. 117." That evidently refers to truths. but what I hate. Sec. When expressed. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. Who plainly stands for those or the people. third person. that he has. who Poss. consequently is neuter. 118. Nom. we can. as in sentence 6. for example. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. either of which would be neuter. The sentences of Sec. For example. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people.²BIBLE What fates impose. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. that do I not. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. . third person.²EMERSON. by taking them out.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose.²SHAKESPEARE. and is emphatic. The gender. that men must needs abide.² What I would. as. 109. it usually follows. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. is always neuter. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true." (3) "These people heard him. whose Obj. plural number. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. 119. which. and person of the relatives who. What. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. what we said?²CARLYLE." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. that do I. What a man does.

it is object of uttered. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. that takes the case of the truths in (2). First find the antecedents. is in the nominative case. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Parsing what. because it has usually no antecedent. standing for the people understood. In the sentence.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. but is singular. What must be endured? Answer. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. is subject of the verb can't be cured. subject of heard. Another way. nobler souls with that which they are. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. What can't be cured. "What can't be cured must be endured. 8. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. The relative what is handled differently. 3. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. in (1). 6. and what is the direct object of the verb call. 5. 4. Now. then parse the relatives. people is the object of the preposition of. The word what." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something." Here the subject of is. is what we call nature. the highest result of all education."²EMERSON. third person. Truths in sentence (2). neuter. 120. In the same way who. we is the subject. The whole expression is its subject. so is in the objective case. 7. it is subject of the verb heard. after all. etc. the simple relative. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. in the following sentences:² 1. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. I think they are trying to outwit nature. is subject of wrought upon and molded. . Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Exercise. which is. however.. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. who is sure to be cunninger than they. In (2). Some prefer another method of treatment. above. As shown by the following sentences. and hence is in the nominative case. but of this. in (3).

Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. less common are whoso. whatsoever. 4. It is clear that in 1.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. or stand on their head. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Death is there associated. whatever is equivalent to all things which. in a new and original way. whosoever. 2. Take which you please. object of do] they do. whatever. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. They are whoever. and in 2. 6." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.²BURKE. Meaning and use. . Hence some take what as a double relative. whichsoever. no particular thing. 123.²BURKE. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. object of with] which [singular. which. and parse that in the first clause. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe.²you cannot have both. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. It is no proof of a man's understanding. or what else soever. not as direct as the simple relatives. no certain antecedent. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. "common souls pay with that [singular. 2. that is. The simple relatives who. 3. and his friend a fool. List and examples. summer will have its flies.²MACAULAY. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 122. that nothing else can stand in their presence. being referred to. and which in the second clause. 7. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. 121. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. 5. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. by meaning and use. whichever. to everything that. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. So with the other indefinites. Do what we can. whatsoever.

Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. as was used just as we use that or which. and that as after such is equivalent to which. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.As shown in Sec. Other substitutes. has been my heaviest affliction. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. etc. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Former use of as. . are used..² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. Instead of the phrases in which. upon which. Proof that they have the force of relatives. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. 120. 121. everything that (or everything which). 4.. etc. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Sec. 126. but which only wealth could have purchased. 417). amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. whereupon. what means anything that. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. thus. whereby. This. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. 121. by which. but and as.² 1. But and as. 125. There is nothing but is related to us. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. the conjunctions wherein. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. not following the word such. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. for example. 124. either one that. In early modern English.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. nothing that does not interest us.²DE QUINCEY.² some particular thing. etc. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. for example. but mean any one whom. 2. Two words.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have.

A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. "But what had become of them? They knew not. Special caution needed here. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. which would indicate that they are not relatives. if not. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. would be. 127. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. it is a simple relative. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. showing that who is plainly interrogative. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. no antecedent is expressed. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. But in 1 (b). . (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. a question is disguised in each sentence. it is an indefinite relative). PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. if expanded. Another caution. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. the full expression being. if not. second. 1 (b).²WHITTIER. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. How to decide." Likewise with which in 3 (b). 2 (b). (b) But what had become of them they knew not. and 3 (b). Thus. what is interrogative. it is an interrogative.²EMERSON. who having the antecedent gentleman. So in 2 (b). (b) Well we knew who stood behind." etc. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. 3. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 2. which having the antecedent lines. though the earthwork hid them. In studying such sentences. and whether what = that + which (if so. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three..²ID. In sentences 1 (a). "Who stood behind? We knew. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun.

² THACKERAY.²FORSTER 6. In the second. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. whose has the antecedent you. Relative omitted when object.²CARLYLE.²FLETCHER. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²SWIFT. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. . On the other hand.² These are the sounds we feed upon. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.²HOLMES. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. and asks no question. 129. and Court Calendars. whence is the interrogative word. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. I visited many other apartments. Examine the following:² 1. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²G. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. the question is asked by the verb. In the third. 5. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. The insect I am now describing lived three years. When Goldsmith died. which. 4. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. In the first. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. which has the antecedent hue. but the life of man in England. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. 2.²GOLDSMITH. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. 3. Thus. Put in the relatives who. ELIOT. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew.128. Exercise.

or indefinite relatives:² 1.² LOWELL. . and comparatively so in poetry. which was already proceeding. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.²CAMPBELL. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 6. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.7. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. Also in literary English we find the same omission. Relative omitted when subject. Function of adjective pronouns.² The silent truth that it was she was superior.²Id. the house was full. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. 2. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. which. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. The nobles looked at each other.Ne'er looks upon the sun. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. 3. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. who were to be rulers over whom. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²SHAKESPEARE. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. that. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 5. and what. simple relatives. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. Examples are.²SCOTT. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. There was such a crowd went. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. It is rare in prose. 130.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. Primarily they are adjectives. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. many. . "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence." in the others. 133." "Where two men ride on a horse. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. such as each.131." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. Caution. expressed or understood. all. or use. few. etc. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. "each cube. but have lost their adjective use. 132. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. must not modify any word." "one man. and another to get cool under." in the second. For example. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. and on each is written. as some.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. 'Truth. etc. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. or they may stand for nouns." that is. neither. "these pranks. etc.²IRVING. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. in order to be an adjective pronoun." Classes of adjective pronouns. none. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. or may be the whole of a sentence.²EMERSON. a word. and stand for a noun. or an argument in a paragraph. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. which we have seen in such expressions as. "another bank. in the first. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. Adjectives. the former. "The dead are there. either. that. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. any.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. not pronouns. necessarily thought of: thus. in letters of gold. but in this function. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. For instance. In the first use they are adjectives.²BRYANT. such as this.

Their minds accorded into one strain. because he was not lying in wait for these. They had fewer books. Some of these are simple pronouns. and they have well performed the other. . They have not shunned the one. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.² They stood. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Simple. Such are a few isolated instances. but what he fain had seen He could not see. NOTE. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. accidentally preserved.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²ID. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Even as I have seen. 134. 5.All these he saw. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Definition and examples. Exercises. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. reap the same. or reclined. as seemed good to each. when the latter was the King of Spain.²EMERSON 4. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. but these were of the best.²ID. they that plow iniquity. 2.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²LOWELL. and sow wickedness. Compound. A man inspires affection and honor. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. or sat. for example. 3.

for example. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²HAWTHORNE. such as one other. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.²KINGSLEY. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. paused over a horoscope. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. one another. 135. you quickly come to the end of all. Another opposes him with sound argument. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.² One reflexive. Men take each other's measure when they react. They led one another. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. another.²HOLMES. as most were.²each other. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. ²HAWTHORNE. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. as. The word one has a reflexive form. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.Two are compound pronouns. imbued. we might the more easily discharge them. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. Definition and examples. Exercise.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. with the superstitions of his time. The Soldan. as it were. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. Some inflected. . It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. Much might be said on both sides.²EMERSON. None shall rule but the humble. or melt for others' woe.

Every one else stood still at his post. every one else. no one. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. something. Definition and examples. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. nothing. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. as shown in the words everybody's. and was indefinite in Old English. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. somebody else. also aught. and somewhat. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. anybody. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. any one (or anyone).²SHAKESPEARE. etc. 137. naught. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. everybody else. and they. They indefinite means people in general. they say. some one. as. what. Somebody. anything. Jove laughs.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.. every one (or everyone). I tell you what. nobody. . but. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. unlike adjective pronouns. Exercise. everybody. anybody else's. in building of chaises." It means something.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. they are never used as adjectives.Exercise. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. 136. everything.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns.² At lovers' perjuries. anyone else. Now. etc.

HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Hutchinson tells us of herself. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Exercise. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 9. 7. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 13. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer).²a feature of natural scenery for which. 6. Others did the same thing. in his negotiations. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 18. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. but not to quite so enormous an extent. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 17. 4. 16. A reminder. Our readers probably remember what Mrs.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. The table was good. 8. 12. 2. 138. . 3. to which. Whoever deals with M. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. I first found myself among the mountains. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. and of no other. 5. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. All was now ready for action. were suffered to depart. 14. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. indeed. from my earliest days. 10. For this did God send her a great reward. 11. O thou that rollest above. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use.

Destroyer and preserver. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 32. eat white bread or brown.Who knew thee too well. 34. 29. oh. 26. And I had done a hellish thing. behold now the semblance of my being. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. I who alone am. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. He sate him down. who take the world easy. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. They know not I knew thee. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 21. 27. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish.And it would work 'em woe.19. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. A smile of hers was like an act of grace.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 25. that let him communicate.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 23. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 30. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. hear! 33. thou rollest now. 35. variety. and seized a pen. well-oiled dispositions. 31. And will your mother pity me. hear. Whatever he knows and thinks. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. in all its height.

position. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. He teaches who gives. Again." "some cities.." etc." "a hundred men. etc. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. For example. brittle or tough. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. white or red. As to the kind of words used. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. Substantives. We need to add some words to tell its color. and so he read. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. as. We are by nature observers. 44. in pointing out an object. It may have this office alone. the number is limited by adjectives. 43. adjectives are used. becomes mine. etc. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. 37." "yonder hill. "one hat. 139. so that no other will be mistaken for it. If a chemist discovers a new substance.36. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. He knew not what to do. . we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. then. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. 41. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. 39. size. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. Who hears me. 42. such as in the expressions "this man. or liquid." The office of an adjective. ADJECTIVES. 40. 38. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. and if we are near. if we are at a distance. Office of Adjectives. who understands me. which was no bad step towards my liberation. and he learns who receives. or with persons. heavy or light. or gaseous. So with any object. 45. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." "that house. that is our permanent state.

140. such as safe. pointing out particular things. etc. 143. derived from proper nouns. To make this clear." "this life-giving book. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. terrible. To err is human." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "the Christian pearl of charity. Classes of adjectives.²POPE. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "the Roman writer Palladius. If he be thankful for small benefits. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. "Heaven-derived power. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. (4) Pronominal adjectives. With exception of the "and then. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. to forgive." the "and there.²COLERIDGE. Examples are. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. Nouns are not." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. (2) Adjectives of quantity. to describe it or to limit its application. however. deep. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. beautiful.² BACON. divine. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. fair. it shows that he weighs men's minds. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. Infinitives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. Definition." "next-door neighbor." ." and the still less significant "and so. "an old English manuscript. They include relative and interrogative words." "half-dead traveler. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "ivory-handled pistols. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. happy. words primarily pronouns." they constitute all his connections. or how much of a thing. 142. remotest. 141. such as." "unlooked-for burden." "ice-cold water. rash. and their trash.

(1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. and accomplished is an adjective. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. Examples are." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.²MACDONALD. For instance: in the sentence. 145. sometimes small." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. much. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. and another is drunken." Caution. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. 144.But ever she looked on Mr." was accomplished is a verb. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "a charming sight. 2. 'Tis midnight. Exercises. in studying these last-named words." "trailing clouds. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many." "an aged man.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. having some of each subclass named in Sec. no. which are either pure participles used to describe. considerable. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 143." "The shattered squares have opened into line. 1. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. some." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. in this. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. Oxenham. but small thoughts have I of sleep. any. Care is needed. .Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." was is the verb." "It came on like the rolling simoom.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.²COLERIDGE. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." "One is hungry.

The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. that. and with them a few negroes.²VAUGHAN." "I have lost one brother. the former²the latter. The following sentences present some examples:² . Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. Examples.²THACKERAY." "Then we wandered for many days." "He had lived by hunting for some months." "a dozen volunteers. any." Single ones of any number of changes. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence." (b) Indefinite numerals. instead of modifying them." "In came some five and twenty more. Exercise. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. they come under the next division of adjectives." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Not primarily pronouns. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. no. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. When some.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. but I have gained fourscore. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. latter. "one blaze of musketry. yonder (or yon). those). but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. The list. its wake. 146. every village. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. How many.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.²KINGSLEY.²ID. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. former." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. (plural these." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. An arrow was quivering in each body. are used with plural nouns. as.² Every town had its fair. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. Thus. The demonstrative adjectives are this.²CARLYLE.

They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. They are of two kinds. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. of equal skill. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. When we speak of the seventeenth century. These were thy charms.²RUSKIN.² It matters not what rank he has. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. they are changed to adjectives. skill which was at pause. but.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. tell how many things are meant. These do not. but in the one case. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.²ID. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²WORDSWORTH. ²CARLYLE.."²B.²BULWER. what revenues or garnitures. 147.²ID. As has been said. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. 148.²BANCROFT. like the other numerals. Definition. just as the corresponding pronouns do. FRANKLIN. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.. Exercise. Oxenham fought desperately. for example. In which evil strait Mr. . I verily believe. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. Modify names of persons or things. The taking of which bark. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. skill which was progressive²in the other.²D. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. The silver and laughing Xenil.but all these charms are fled.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. 149. Indefinite relative adjectives. WEBSTER.²GOLDSMITH.²KINGSLEY.

Whatsoever kind of man he is. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. New torments I behold. or whether any. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. proved not altogether displeasing to him. what inquires about things or persons not known. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. the debt to the rich. In direct questions.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. which.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. Examples of their use are. Adjective what in exclamations..²AGASSIZ. Was there. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. and new tormentedAround me. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.150. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whichsoever. A lady once remarked. which is selective among what is known.²ID. whatsoever. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²LAMB. nature will be sure to bear us out in. But when the Trojan war comes. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. In indirect questions. .²RUSKIN. and gaze.And whichsoever way I turn.. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.² EMERSON.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. As in the pronouns. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. He was turned before long into all the universe. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whichever. it is impossible to determine.²IRVING. you at least give him full authority over your son. whichsoever way I move. 151.²CARLYLE. as it rather seemed. whatever.

but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. COMPARISON. Thus. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. NUMBER. History of this²these and that²those. But this had also another plural. and those as the plural of that. weight.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. Meaning of comparison. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. etc.²This.152. This is the old demonstrative. Exercise. or weight. we notice some differences between them as to size. And yet. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. of the quality. color. Those borrowed from this. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. or amount. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. That. All these have certain qualities. etc. The article that was used with neuter nouns. 155. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. which was fully inflected in Old English.² Oh. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. alas. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. . and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. In exclamatory expressions.²but not the same degree. as. th s (modern those). 154. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. and when we compare the objects. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. we do so by means of their qualities. It is neither relative nor interrogative. those). When we place two objects side by side.²number and comparison. gold is heavier than iron. 153 . a sapphire is bluer than the sky. or size. the making of it right.Adjectives have two inflections. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective..

" "the largest soul. The two forms. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. organic. 160. easiest. but. These are called degrees of comparison. but were not common until a century later. expressing a greater degree of quality.²SEWARD. though the simple. and the superlative. A main difference betwixt men is. These are properly the only degrees. immemorial. bluer. reddest. or amounts in quantity." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. 159. bluest. red. . as. easy. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. Freedom is a perpetual. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. "more matter. whether they attend their own affair or not. indomitable. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. They came into use about the thirteenth century. Definition. 157. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. Substitute for inflection in comparison. redder. and many others." Words that cannot be compared. strictly considered. The comparative is formed by adding -er.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. for example.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. as. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. to the simple form. easier. they are not compared.²THACKERAY. "untamed thought. and the superlative by adding -est. enormous. with less wit. great. 156." "no fewer than a hundred. infinite." "It is a nobler valor. universal institution. supreme." "the commonest speech. So with the words sole. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. giant-like. indefatigable. 158. whose favorite pupil he was. blue. expressing the greatest degree of quality. sufficient.

To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress.²ID." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. These are adjectives irregularly compared. peaceablest. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.² CARLYLE A gentleman. finest chiseling. I will. These long." "more odd. as. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. who. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. most small. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. Adjectives irregularly compared." "the wonderfulest little shoes. madam. though born in no very high degree. and other words are preceded by more and most. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. honestest. and yet familiar. falling on his knees.Which rule. mournfulest.²ID. polished. admirablest. indisputablest.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. quiet. easy. which hung behind in the queerest way. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. etc. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.² -er and -est or more and most? 161." Carlyle uses beautifulest. 162. was most finished. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most.²The Nation." "distantest relationships. witty. harsh forms are usually avoided. The following lists include the majority of them:² . "So help me God." "more austere and holy. and patientest fusing. strange. there needed to be a most genuine substance. 163." said Henry Esmond. The general rule is." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." "sorrowfulest spectacles.

6. innermost Outmost. Worser was once used. hindermost Much or many More Farther.²HAMLET. (2) In Old English. [In] Inner Inmost. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. There was an old comparative bet. as. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. A double comparative. 5. last Hindmost. worst. uppermost LIST III.LIST I. 4. evil was the positive to worse. is often used. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 7. List I. (3) Little is used as positive to less.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. throw away the worser part of it. [Out] Outer. oldest Nighest. utter 3. outermost Utmost. 9. as in the sentence (14th century). which has gone out of use. which has softened to the modern best. Good or well Evil. lesser. further Farthest. latter Hinder LIST II. . 164. uttermost Upmost. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 1. These have no adjective positive:² 1. The superlative I form was betst. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 3. bad. least. as in Shakespeare. older Nigher Nearer Later. lesser Elder. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. a double comparative.² O. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). Hind 2. furthest 10. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 8. next Nearest Latest. though from a different root. 2.

A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. making the modern farther. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. The latter.²KINGSLEY. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. meaning the largest part. First became entirely detached from the series. Between the two sets as they now stand. is quite common. In imitation of further. Since later. latest. "Many a little makes a mickle. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. strong. great. moche. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. etc. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. oldest. but originally the comparison was nigh. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. ²LAMB.²ID. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. The meanings greater. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. an old superlative ending. further. there is scarcely any distinction. near. but not in meaning.. as. and the superlative nearest. much. to which is added -ost. or series. a distinction has grown up between the two series. first. as long. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. to England we sailed. are shown in such phrases as. eldest.²forth. (5) The forms elder. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. for example. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. etc.. and refer to time. except the form next. strenger. are earlier than older. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. List II. doubling the inflection. came into use. farthest. since the m is for -ma. the old forms. instead of lenger. th came into the others. muchel. and was the same word that is found in the proverb." Its spelling has been micel. .²HAWTHORNE.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. next. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. The most part kept a stolid indifference. farrest.² The more part being of one mind. greatest. furthest.

" "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man." "their utmost exertion. but they have no adjective positives. 168. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection." "far-seeing as the sun." "The outer is of the day. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. BEECHER. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink.²KINGSLEY. in having no adjective positives. Decidedly handsome. on the very topmost twig. the upper light of the world.²HAWTHORNE. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. and have no comparative force. Highest and midmost. or have no comparative forms. . Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. In List II. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence.²SCOTT. List III. but her after deck was still dry. They have no superlatives. The comparatives are so in form. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. 167. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²EMERSON. by the by. but not in their meaning." -Most added to other words.165.²DE QUINCEY." "the innermost moral soul. are like the comparative forms in List II.²DE QUINCEY. or each may modify a different word or group of words. being merely descriptive. The adjectives in List III. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. (Sec. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. was descried The royal banner floating wide.²H. Her. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. Her bows were deep in the water. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. 166. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. all may belong to the same noun. There. Think what each adjective belongs to." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. W.

6. 7. ." in which then is an adverb. solid. Richard Hooker. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. This. In the following quotations. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. "the one who was then king.²HAWTHORNE. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. and broken. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation.²A. deep. bright.²HOLMES. By a convenient brevity." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. Our sometime sister. STEPHENS 5. instead of saying.²RUSKIN. 2.²TRENCH. A few improper jests and a volley of good. Exercise. But in this sentence.²BIBLE. we may say "the then king. Other instances are. and moral truth. and thine often infirmities. It may still be argued. in this sentence. H. now our queen. usual modifies incomparable decision." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. ²TROLLOPE. 4.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. philosophical. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. therefore. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.For example. our new government. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²HAWTHORNE. and heaven-defying oaths. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. rich. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. as.²NOAH PORTER. in prose. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. satisfactory." making then an adjective. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. For thy stomach's sake. Bradbury and Evans. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. May we not. 3. 169. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. deeply black eyes. the then and still owners. not decision alone. round. The seldom use of it.²MRS. STOWE.² My then favorite.

6. . but that you proceed to your end by a direct. or case. 9. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Unfamiliar describes truths. the method of parsing is simple. 8. (2) Its number. These points out what truths. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. To every several man. She made no reply. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. 2. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. therefore descriptive. compared by prefixing more and most. 5. (4) What word or words it modifies. MODEL FOR PARSING. and very few have number. having a singular. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. This gave the young people entire freedom. this. In parsing an adjective. Since adjectives have no gender. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. and most astounding were those frightful yells. I ask nothing of you. positive degree. therefore demonstrative. 7. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. 4. manly way. person. modifies the word truths. (3) Its degree of comparison. modifies truths. 3. then. with awkward but rapid pace. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. frank. 10. To every Roman citizen he gives. cannot be compared. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. seventy-five drachmas. across the plain. Exercise. not inflected for number. 170. if it has number. and I waited for none.What to tell in parsing. if it can be compared. plural number.

as for armies that were too many by half. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. it is so noble a fruit. With every third step. Like most gifted men. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 16. 28. Nearer to our own times. the tomahawk fell. the same love to France would have been nurtured. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. Here lay two great roads. yonder oxen in the pasture. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. is the settlement of our own country. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. In music especially. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. it rests on reality. 31. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. and many poles supported the lower ones. 20. 21. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 24. 33. suggests such thoughts as these. To say what good of fashion we can. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 14. 23. Two hours elapsed. growing in the most unfavorable position. 26. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 29. . 22. during which time I waited. 27. he won affections with ease. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. and therefore more interesting to us. 18. those dogs in the yard. I know not what course others may take. oxen. are immutably fishes.11. 12. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 19. 25. 13. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. not so much for travelers that were few. 32. Their name was the last word upon his lips. and dogs.

nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant." the words the and an belong to nouns. later th . th o. 174. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. 35. s o. or the tane." An with consonant sounds. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. just as adjectives do. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds." "a European. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives.²SCOTT. the other. were formerly that one. In Middle English the became an article. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. A hard-struggling. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. the tother. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. that other. but the former is used. An or a came from the old numeral n. the tother. An before vowel sounds. Their origin. sometimes the tother. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel.²BREWER. meaning one. in vulgar English. An historian." "an honor. a before consonant sounds. such as we have been attempting to describe. that) which was also an article in Old English. these occurring as the tane. ðat.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. In the sentence. he is no literary man. Our expressions the one. ARTICLES. weary-hearted man was he. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. . The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s ." "an orange. for example.34. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. Two relics. Examples: "a house. with an ordinary little garden.²MACAULAY. 171. 37." "a yelling crowd. the tither. even when not silent. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. 173. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. Many writers use an before h. and a before consonant sounds. the latter is still preserved in the expression. 172. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like.

178. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.. as "the Mississippi.²HEROES OF ASGARD. An or a is the indefinite article. or group. since it points out a particular individual. An and a are different forms of the same word.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. 179. or class. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. Kinds. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. NOTE. An hereditary tenure of these offices. 177. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. With names of rivers. or any individual of a group or class. The Dakota tribes. Reference to a known object. To call attention to attributes.² . 175.²COLERIDGE. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. a person is introduced by a." "the Ohio. The is the definite article. 176. Definition. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²This use is noticed when. which cannot be used alone. or a group or class of things.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.²THACKERAY." the article indicates clearly that a river. and not a state or other geographical division. as in the sentence.² Don't you remember how. When the is prefixed to a proper name. doubtless. is referred to. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. the older n. An article is a limiting word. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.²G. not descriptive. on opening a story. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. Articles are either definite or indefinite. BANCROFT.. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. and when the word river is omitted. thus.²IRVING.

²KINGSLEY. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. His messages to the provincial authorities.²ID. The.²EMERSON. her. 181. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. laid it on the miry spot. would speedily extract the required information. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. as. 183. not into a particular virtue. Half abstract.The Bacon. With plural of abstract nouns. Kant. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. One thing for its class. 2. Schelling. . it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. for example. Common. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.² As she hesitated to pass on. BANCROFT. 1. so is the evil. With adjectives used as nouns. For possessive person pronouns.² The faint.²SCOTT. the Spinoza. Caution. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. the song sparrow.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.²MOTLEY. but into the region of all the virtues.²G. NOTE. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. etc. The simple rise as by specific levity. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. the gallant. and the redwing. or a match put between the fingers. 182. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. 180. If the good is there. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²ID. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²EMERSON. the Hume.²GIBBON.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

care. Has takes the object hypocrisy. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. Each influences some object. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. a preposition. All these are called transitive verbs.In (a). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. and. but cannot be predicates. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. the most penetrating. 202. an article. to say something to or about some person or thing. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. a noun. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. in (3. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. a). Of those expressing action. can deceive has an object. a verb. all do not express it in the same way. c). 204. etc." Examine the sentences in Sec. "Put money in thy purse. the word following. In the sentence.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. the most astute. which may be a person. for example. 200: In (1). but fearing is not a predicate. A verb is a word used as a predicate. In each case. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. in (c). in (3. in (2. 203. as. which means to go over. from the Latin transire. Now. The nature of intransitive verbs. obeyed is a predicate. or the object. 201. Hence Definition. (can) shame also has an object. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. to go is no predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. or an idea. The nature of the transitive verb. representing something which it influences or controls. By examining a few verbs. we consider a verb as one word. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. "Put thou money in thy purse. In giving a definition. and not a verb. In the first. an adverb. endured what? anguish. or a material thing. and a preposition unite as a verb. b). A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. b). hence is not a verb. in (2. in (b)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. taking the staff which always guided her steps. with some word understood. in this sentence from Bulwer." put is the predicate. lone took what? answer. Definition and caution. and shame the most astute. All do not express action: some denote state or condition.²BULWER . and to receive the action expressed.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Most excellent stranger. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. the writer can make the statement following. but. popular government must be pronounced impossible. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. and may or may not be regarded true.²LONGFELLOW. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.² If.²SHELLEY.² Now. 222.²D. Unreal²cannot be true. they were recorded in the Book of Life. as. ²EMERSON.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. he will see the need of these ethics. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. the representative system ultimately fail. the second founder. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.²FRANKLIN. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. 215.²may or may not be true. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. in our case. 221. Ideal.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. 2). this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. If this be the glory of Julius. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. or be fulfilled. I. Again. WEBSTER. the first great founder of the Empire. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.²MACAULAY. . There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.I could lie down like a tired child.²BRYCE. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. as. for example. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. Condition or Supposition.

thus. 2. and sonorous. WILLIS.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.²EMERSON.² CARLYLE. the clause being introduced by that or lest. ²LOWELL. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. II. If he had reason to dislike him. is of similar physiognomy.² It was necessary.²MACAULAY. and should. would you." etc. to drink strong beer. as. Exercise. that he might be strong to labor. Epaminondas. if he speak to you. except. NOTE. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²FRANKLIN. Subjunctive of Purpose. might. P. 4. she was regarded as a prodigy.. that we cannot but regret its absence.. may.²SWIFT.² If these things were true. unless. and striven energetically to save Ney. 7. do you think. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. which cannot be true. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. etc. would have sat still with joy and peace.²FRANKLIN. 6. and what kind of condition:² 1. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. 3. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. clear. is used to express purpose. The voice. he supposed. the conjunction is often omitted: for example.²BAYNE. society could not hold together. melodious. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. . what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. But in no case could it be justified.. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.. especially be.²N.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. if he was the man I take him for.²CALHOUN. The subjunctive. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. 223. In the following conditional clauses. 8. but when the verb precedes the subject. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. 5. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. if his lot had been mine. though. I told him. since he [Byron] was dead. he had better not have written.

III. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. Rise up. 224. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²ID.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. Ask the great man if there be none greater. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²WORDSWORTH. Subjunctive of Result... 226. within its fairy bowers.And we.²COLERIDGE. till it meet the sun in his coming.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. After a verb of wishing. VII. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. In Temporal Clauses. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²D. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. VI. none of us could say. V. Let it rise.²DE QUINCEY. To tell of what had passed.. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.²MOORE. I would it were! ²EMERSON. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.²BRYANT. WEBSTER. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. So live. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²CARLYLE. Expressing a Wish. like the Latin. The English subjunctive. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. 227. I've wished that little isle had wings. IV. .I have been the more particular. 225.. like the quarry-slave at night.Were wafted off to seas unknown. In Indirect Questions.²SOUTHEY.That vain it were her eyes to close. In a Noun Clause.Thou go not.

²COLERIDGE. After verbs of commanding.²COLERIDGE. Object.Subject. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.And see the Braes of Yarrow. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. is the ultimate fact of man's life.² DICKENS. object. Complement. tell me all that thou hast seen. or whatsoever victual it may be.. we'll turn aside. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Some might lament that I were cold.²SHELLEY.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.²WORDSWORTH. 229. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²SCOTT. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. Concessive Clauses. in apposition. The essence of originality is not that it be new. of cash. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. (b) Adjective. VIII. The first merit. that everything be in its place. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. for example. 228. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²TENNYSON. etc. I have no thought what men they be.² Be the matter how it may. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²THOREAU. Come. The noun clause. which may be (a) Pronoun. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. That hunger of applause. often contains a subjunctive.²DE QUINCEY. is. .²CARLYLE. in its various uses as subject. Whatever betide.And look thou tell me true.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.

for example. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. At the present day. or requests. entreaties.²J.(c) Adverb. and condition contrary to fact. (2) Entreaty. It must be remembered. since commands are directed to a person addressed. love all men. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.²BRYANT. Oh. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Usually second person. 231. IMPERATIVE MOOD. point to their immortal works. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. In spoken English. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood.The spirit he loves remains. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used.² CARLYLE. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were.²SHELLEY. Q. 230. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.²CHANNING. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. to express a wish. Honor all men. (3) Request. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. a concession. fear none. ADAMS. we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. (1) Command. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. however. Definition. . 232. though.

And God forget the stranger!" . Oh. 2. or I + they. Break we our watch up. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. "Come along with me. request." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.²SCOTT.. to you implied in it. nothing is to be preferred before justice. lest we rust in ease. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. etc.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Part we in friendship from your land. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. 3. 7. there will her heart and her prayers be. etc. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.One glance at their array! 5. 6." whispered Kit. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.²CAMPBELL."²DICKENS Tell me. "The Devil take the goose. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. child of earth!While each performs his part.²SHAKESPEARE. receive my hand." Exercises on the Moods. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID."Hush! mother. Mark thou this difference. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. but I + you.And. noble earl. Quoth she. 8. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.

as though an instrument. 13. 14." continued Old Morgan. let him live where else he like. my dear madam." cried he.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. and opinion displace opinion. He is. she ought to have it. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. 20. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.High up in silver spikes! 22. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12.9.Except. "tell me where I may find my poor. That sheaf of darts. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17." 25. "Oh. how he may do his work.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. but repentant child. whether he do it right or wrong. That a man parade his doubt. Forget thyself to marble. in what pomps and prosperities he like. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 23. no literary man. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 10. then. Though abyss open under abyss. Though he were dumb. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. . 21.That they might answer him." 16. it would speak. "Mr. will it not fall unbound. 11. or do it at all. He. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 26.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. ruined. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 19. 18. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Well. Marshall.

as the classical languages have. such as Latin and Greek. to direct his steps.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. and the future tense. as will be shown later on. When the older pronoun thou was in use. which represented present and future time. called auxiliaries. shall. Tense means time. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as.27. 234. Definition.²the present tense. also. such as be. past. will. by means of the present. the past. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. in the third person singular. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. or whether it were as one member of a general party.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Siddons. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. as. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. and unassuming deportment of Mrs." . or agree with it. "It is not in man that walketh. tell him to wait. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. 28. in the conjugations. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. Old English had only two tenses. five in the imperative. "Thou walkedst. Tenses in English. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. a form ending in -eth." "If he comes. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. have. PERSON AND NUMBER. kind.² present." past. The tenses in detail. "Thou walkest.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. and future perfect tenses. past. 233. TENSE. "I go away tomorrow. or future time." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. and future. Meantime. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. as." present. and the past tense. five in the subjunctive. past perfect. 235. whatever she did.

²choose. Definition. I be 2. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. walked. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. 237. walks. Singular 1. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. walketh. choosest. tense. Few forms. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. moods. "He walks. chooses. been. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. chosen (old. chooseth. chose. In classical languages. tenses. were. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. choosing. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. [He] is [They] are 3. Singular 1. Such verbs as choose have five. walkedst. [He] were [They] were . You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. CONJUGATION. You are 2. as. PRESENT TENSE. chosest). Singular 1. 238. PRESENT TENSE. You (thou) be 3. The verb be has more forms. singular number. persons. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. walking. and numbers.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. since it is composed of several different roots. I were 2. Singular 1. 236. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. are.²am. wert) 3. etc. walk has walk. but in English. for example. is. etc. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. This is the third person. Indicative Mood. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. mood." and this only in the present tense indicative. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice.

(2) was. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. (2) As auxiliary verbs. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. obligation.²THACKERAY. thus.Imperative Mood.²WORDSWORTH.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. as. which was now become an occasional banquet. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. etc. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.²BURKE . in four ways. for example. to form the passive voice. were. (d) With the infinitive. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. same as the German sind. (3) be.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. to express intention.His infancy was nurtured.²SHELLEY. (b) With the past participle in -ed..²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²GOLDSMITH.. 240. is. condition. though it is usually a dialect form. Remarks on the verb be. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. -en.²SCOTT.²ID. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. The light that never was on sea and land. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. etc. Instead of the plural are. 239. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.

I chose 2. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. 1. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. as. You chose Plural. We chose You chose 3. I choose 2. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. "I have gone" (present perfect). [He] choose [They] choose 3. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. tenses. Singular." (2) Present perfect. etc. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. 240. tenses.241. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Machinery of a verb in the voices. 1. "I shall be. PRESENT TENSE. We chose You chose 3. by placing have. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Singular. 242. You choose Plural. You chose Plural. In addition to the above inflected forms. PRESENT TENSE. past perfect. future perfect. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. (2). I choose 2. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. You choose Plural. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I had gone" (past perfect). . 1. had. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. 1. Singular. Singular. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles." "He will choose. as. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). I chose 2. Indicative Mood. [He] chooses [They] choose 3.

singular number. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. "I was chosen. as. He will have been choosing. Present definite. Future definite. lest.(3) The definite form of each tense. Imperative Mood. He had chosen. Past. Past definite. He has been choosing. as. Present. Present perfect. Past perfect. Same as indicative." 243. he have been choosing. He had been choosing. Past perfect definite. Subjunctive Mood. (2d per. ACTIVE VOICE. Past perfect definite." "They had been running.) Choose. . Indicative Mood. though. Only the third person. He is choosing. Present perfect definite. He will have chosen. he have chosen. Past definite. Present. Present perfect definite. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Future. he were choosing (or were to be choosing)." (4) The passive forms. Past. he chose (or were to choose). Past perfect. "I am running. Present perfect. " Be choosing. He chooses. [If. Future perfect definite. He has chosen. He will he choosing. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. of each tense. will be given. He will choose. Present definite. Future perfect. Same as indicative. He was choosing.] he choose. He chose. Present definite." "You are chosen. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present. etc.

Past definite." [Note to Teacher. as. Present perfect definite. lest. He is being chosen. Past. He has been chosen." "He did strike. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. None. if learned at all. Present definite. Present tense. Exercises should be given. though. He is chosen. 262). He will have been chosen. Present perfect. he were being chosen. Past perfect definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature.²This table is not to be learned now. Present.] [If. he had been chosen. Past. Also. He was chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec. None. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Future perfect. None. he have been chosen. Past perfect definite. Present. Present perfect. He had been chosen.NOTE. Past perfect. (2d per. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). PASSIVE VOICE. "He does strike. Imperative Mood.. Past Perfect.] he be chosen. but verbals. in affirmative sentences. Past definite. Indicative Mood. Future definite. None. Future. etc. He was being chosen. None. Subjunctive Mood.) Be chosen. He will be chosen. Future perfect definite. None. .²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present definite. however. Present perfect definite. " " " " " " " None.

drive. bounden] bitten. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . verbs are strong or weak. According to form. and may or may not change the vowel: as.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. ran. NOTE. Past Tense. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. bid bound. 245. caught. which are in parentheses Present Tense. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. sleep. begged. bit blown broken chidden. Definition. Kinds. catch. but adds no ending. Some of these also have weak forms. as.[adj. laid. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. 244. beg. lay. run. drove. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. slept. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

Historically. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. . as. which always crew at eleven. and sometimes occurs in poetry.²one meaning to adhere or cling.² Thou hast clomb aloft. for example. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. instead of ate and eaten. The former used to be cleave. as (from Holmes). 246. Our cock.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.²as (from Shakespeare). now told us it was time for repose. clave or clove. as." "the cloven hoof."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. How fairy Mab the junkets eat." In this confusion of usage. to split. cleaved.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. especially in that of an earlier period. TAYLOR.² We had each drank three times at the well. cloven. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. cleave. Not a cock crew. probably to avoid confusion with this." "a sunken snag. cleft. as. When it means to carry or to endure. and.²GOLDSMITH. only one set remains certain." "a drunken wretch. but is much used in vulgar English.²MILTON. ²THACKERAY." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. cleft (to split). the other. nor a dog barked. "his bounden duty.²COLERIDGE. and the latter. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²TENNYSON.²B. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. borne is also a passive.²IRVING. "stricken with paralysis. cleaved. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. and another (born) for the passive.²cleave." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. The form clomb is not used in prose. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). Sometimes in literary English. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).

drove. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. froze. Freeze. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. as "a shorn lamb."²KINGSLEY. Begin." but not much as a participle. fell. The butler was hanged. This heard Geraint. (a) From the table (Sec. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Exercises. 8. driven. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. broke.²SCOTT.² We had all got safe on shore. thrown. gave. flung. 3.²DE FOE. 10. begun. found. 6.²BIBLE. One example out of many is. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. 7. began. We usually say.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. broken. 4. 5. Drive. Shake. Fall. fallen. Find. He sate him down. Break. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. 245). (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. . Throw. as. 2. frozen. Fling.²WORDSWORTH. found. for example. given. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Give. even in poetry.² If. Usually shear is a weak verb. threw.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. 9. shook. and seized a pen. flung.²TENNYSON." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. and grasping at his sword. shore is rare. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. shaken. maiden. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. which is seldom used except in poetry.The form gotten is little used. for example.²BYRON. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.

223. Must is historically a past-tense form. The l in could did not belong there originally. "So mote it be.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. 250. must have been an ocular deception. (See also Sec.²CHANNING This. there is one general principle. PAST. it is used only in the indicative mood. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. of course. It is indicative when it expresses permission. etc. Like must. for full drill on the forms. His superiority none might question. as in Sec. They are as follows:² PRESENT. "far off his coming shines. PAST.. as it sometimes does.. .²HAWTHORNE. 220. Could may be subjunctive.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A.. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248.. Indicative Use: Permission. 251. from the obsolete verb motan. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. or when it expresses wish. 247." Must is present or past tense. or. according to the infinitive used. PRESENT. HAMILTON.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS."²WINIER. as. 249. Can is used in the indicative only.. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. which survives in the sentence.[To the Teacher.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. etc. as it has two meanings. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. purpose. Ability.²PAINE. but came through analogy with should and would. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.²SCOTT. Have we valuable territories and important posts. Subjunctive use. The same remarks apply to ought.²CHANNING. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. ability.

she should ride like a queen.²L. The sea shall crush thee.²COOPER. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.² With respect to novels. or confident prediction. Shall and Will.² (a) To express authority. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. as. (b) In indirect quotations. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. to the neglect of shall and should. as. She should not walk. They shall have venison to eat. Second and third persons. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. shall and should are used. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. what shall I say?²N. C.²LONGFELLOW.²THAXTER. "I think I will go. not plod along like apeasant. She rejects his suit with scorn. MOULTON.²IRVING. (b) In questions asking for orders.e. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. yea. The following are examples:² Never mind. especially in the United States. for example. I shall be gone." Uses of shall and should.² The time will come full soon. WEBSTER. while ought always has to..Nay. . future action).²MACAULAY. he said. my lad.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. and corn to hoe. shall and should are used.²BULWER.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. BROCKDEN BROWN. 252. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. with pronouns of the first person. promise.² Futurity and questions²first person. in the form of command. to use will and would. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. as.

²WINTER. and will not return until all is finished.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²WORDSWORTH. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. thus. First. I never was what I should be.²A. and is equivalent to ought.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. JAMES. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. (c) With direct questions of the second person. etc. And promised.that I would do him justice. for example. 253. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. second and third persons. for example. time.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²CABLE. ..²BYRON.²WORDSWORTH. Disguising a command. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. with the conviction that he should win in the end. or a promise. JR. as the sole inventor.²WORDSWORTH. LARNED. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. purpose. B.² I will go myself now. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.²ROGERS. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²H. was to be expected.. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.²C.²SWIFT. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. BROWN. as. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²SCOTT.

To be sure. as. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.²War Records. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. Would thou hadst it not. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. through storms their brothers are afraid of. without regard to future time. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. and two of my people. Mere futurity. when thou wast born. PASSIVE VOICE.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.²SCOTT..² Thou wilt take the skiff.²LANDOR. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. Thine was a dangerous gift. AND THIRD PERSONS. This puts the order more mildly. B. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.² Subject I omitted: often so.² DICKENS. will is used to express command. will and would are used to express simple futurity.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. When I am in town.. They will go to Sunday schools. action merely expected to occur. Roland.²SCOTT. would is used to express a wish. for example. 254. The gift of Beauty. and mark on the grounds the works. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. etc. (4) With FIRST.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.²BANCROFT.. will and would often denote an action as customary.. as if it were merely expected action. .²the original meaning of the word will. for example. SECOND. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. In this stately chair would he sit. for punishment or intimidation. so you will. BROWN. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.²IRVING. as.²BURKE. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose)... You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.

I shall choose. You shall choose. 1. I shall be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. and that of the newest cut. We shall be chosen. 2. (a) From Secs. 1. I will be chosen. 3. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. yet only seem. We will be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. To express determination. You will be chosen. 3. [They] will be chosen.Singular. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 2. [He] shall be chosen. You will choose. We will choose. 6. [He] will be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Singular. "I shall not run. 2. 3. [He] shall choose. 4. You will be chosen. Singular. [They] shall choose. Exercises on Shall and Will. He informed us. 2. 3. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. (b) Examine the following sentences. 5. 252 and 253.:² ACTIVE VOICE. promise." answered Herbert stubbornly. 1. [He] will choose. I will choose. You will choose. We shall choose. and justify the use of shall and will. 2. etc. Plural. You shall be chosen. 1. 3. Plural. [They] will choose. 2. You shall choose. Plural. 3. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. Plural. . What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. Singular. You shall be chosen. Thou art what I would be. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 1.

set. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. But the rest. put. bereave beseech bereft. then. Of smale houndes hadde she. 10. and have no change of vowel. very anxious. "I am a wayfarer. bereaved besought . as if he would have more of the enchantment. Lucy stood still.²Class I. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. Present Tense. 11.²ID. 256. WEAK VERBS. put. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. need some attention and explanation. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. Without having attended to this. or mylk and wastel breed. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.7. 257. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. No. was -de or -te. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. as. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. 12.²CHAUCER. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. set. The old ending to verbs of Class II. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. my son. 13. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. Irregular Weak Verbs." the stranger said. This ending has now dropped off." 14. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. Past Tense. 255. The beast made a sluggish movement.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. put. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. and I have nothing to say. 9. bereave besought Past Participle. bereft. which may be called irregular weak verbs.

spelt spilt staid. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

I returned to reflection on my situation. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Indefinite. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. when inflections became fewer. a perfect.²the creature warring against the creating power.6.. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. and a perfect definite form. But later. 9. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. To with the infinitive. an indefinite and a perfect form. [To] have been chosen. to was used before the infinitive generally. ACTIVE VOICE. Perfect. 8. [To] have been choosing. 268. will (with should and would). have no tense. to express action unconnected with a subject. as in the Old English. 266. When active. . It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Imperfect. an imperfect.. PASSIVE VOICE. Cases when to is omitted. Nothing of the kind having been done. try clemency. expressing purpose. [To] have chosen. formed a kind of bedstead. like participles. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). 267. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. [To] be chosen. INFINITIVES. [To] choose. 7. Three saplings. [To] be choosing. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Perfect. In Sec. they have an indefinite. Indefinite. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE.. Infinitives. 10. Perfect definite. and when passive.

watch. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. as. They shall have venison to eat. as. it is often preceded by the definite article. E. negative. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. sometimes need (as. and like a noun in use.. "a house to let. or the object of a verb or a preposition. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. and emphatic forms of the present and past. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.²E. too.). She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. do (as. "I do go" etc. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. The gerund is like the participle in form.²it may be governed as a noun. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. as the credulous imagine. and corn to hoe. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs.²MACAULAY. also in the imperative. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. "She ask my pardon.² She was a kind. learn [doth learn is one verb. it has several attributes of a noun." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. But there was nothing to do. bid (command)." Examples are. also let.²TENNYSON.²IRVING. under "Analysis.²HOWELLS." (4) In exclamations. 269.²GOLDSMITH. liberal woman. "He will choose." "I shall have chosen.²DE QUINCEY. ." etc. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). it may be the subject of a verb.(2) After the verbs may (might). hear. as. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.² What! doth she. 271. poor woman!" cried Charles. feel. please. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. 272. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. see. must. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.²COOPER. as in the expression. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. HALE. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. make. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. can (could). While the gerund expresses action. GERUNDS. 270.

Then how pleasing is it. Words in -ing are of six kinds." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. when. (6) Verbal nouns. to see the returning hope of the parents. Exercise. which name an action or state. but do not assert." Exercise. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. (4) Pure adjectives." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. 273. which express action. may govern and be governed. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. five infinitives. above. which express action and also modify. which express action. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. on your leaving the spot. but cannot govern. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb.²Find sentences containing five participles. 4. and wonderful store of learning! . b). and has been put down." "Certainly dueling is bad. II). (3) Participial adjectives. 2. and five gerunds." also (2. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. What a vast. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. Sec. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. (5) Gerunds." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (2) Pure participles. after examining the nest. which have lost all verbal force. making the definite tenses. brilliant. according to use as well as meaning.

It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. (5) Person and number. Caution. he gave out sentence by sentence. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. round which is an iron railing.²strong or weak. much corroded. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. dictating from his chair. (4) Tense. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. slowly. (b) as to use.²active or passive. like Sir Walter Scott. 9. 12. 275. 234. 7. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. In parsing verbs. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 11. 16. you must. give reality to your teaching. (3) Mood. but. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. I. Thackeray did not. bearing her national emblem. giving principal parts. VERBS.²transitive or intransitive. 6. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. What is dreaming? 8.²indicative. write twenty pages without stopping. (2) Voice. . or imperative. subjunctive. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 15. He spread his blessings all over the land.5. 10. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 14. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 13.²which of the tenses given in Sec. I suppose I was dreaming about it. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. by object lessons.

see Sec. (c) to what word it belongs. But unless the verb is present. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. give points (a) and (b)." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. till it meet the sun in his coming. can. 2. call might a weak verb. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. In 2. has the subject government. VERBALS. 4. therefore active. Exercise. It has been intimated in Sec. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. we must beware of the rule." Sometimes it does. 235. You are gathered to your fathers. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. must. verbals. usually it does not. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. may. 278. might. would. 2. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. followed by a pure infinitive without to. (2) Infinitive. etc. . perfect. 277. (a) From what verb derived. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. (1) Participle. has for its subject Lee. 278(2). The government might have been strong and prosperous. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. and should always be analyzed as phrases. definite. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. (b) whether active or passive. Take these examples:² 1. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. intransitive. (3) Gerund.276. Parse the verbs. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. 273). and ends in -s. could. indicative. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. no sin nor sorrow. indicative (as it means could). imperfect. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Especially frequent are those made up of should. (b) whether indefinite. and not taken as single verbs. in the world. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1.. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. and parting day linger and play on its summit. VERB PHRASES. In such sentences as 1. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. intransitive. etc. Let it rise! let it rise. perfect. II. 3. active. (b) its use (Sec. past tense. III. past tense. If a participial adjective. call should a weak verb. then parse it as an adjective.

Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. or. 11. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 14. a new waking up of all that has life. However that be. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. see that it is in good condition. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 9. Whatever ground you sow or plant. a sweet good will. In going for water. When he arose in the morning. 6. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. morning is not a new issuing of light. 15. as the Hindoos say. he thought only of her. 17. Right graciously he smiled on us. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. a deafening shout.O God. The soul having been often born. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. So. 12. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 13.Down all the line. 20. 16. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. a new bursting forth of the sun. With them. 21. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 24. 19. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 10. leaving me upon the bed. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. 22. 23. 18. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. as usual. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. from a sort of temporary death. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. and wondered if she were yet awake.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. He passed across the room to the washstand.5.Henceforth in me instill. as rolled from wing to wing. . he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 8. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.

And now wend we to yonder fountain. ADVERBS. and so on. place.² The young man reveres men of genius. "William's private life was severely pure. 26. Adverbs modify. To the almost terror of the persons present. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend."²DE QUINCEY. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. The word adverb means joined to a verb.²EMERSON. to speak truly. and limit adjectives or adverbs. or manner: as. Is it only poets." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.Feast while we may. When action is expressed. 29." An adjective or an adverb. for the hour of rest is at hand. Nor was it altogether nothing. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. to consent.²SHELLEY. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. thou sayest. Oh. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.²time. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. and live ere life be spent.25. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. as. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.²THACKERAY. because. and men of leisure and cultivation. Better it were." "He was absolute. . for example. they are more himself than he is." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 27. 279. who live with nature?²ID. A verb." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun.²CARLYLE.

thus. ever. and half awfully. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. hitherto. before.He was incidentally news dealer. then. being adverbs naturally and fitly. but some verb understood. but still with a rich bloom to it. not simply the forms used in predication.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time.²LEIGH HUNT. An adverb. has induced some of us to attend it.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. Thus considered. I draw forth the fruit. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. 169 are felt to be elliptical. which may qualify an action word or a statement.² LOWELL. and that. Surely happiness is reflective. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.²T. while those in Sec. ²IRVING. as shown in the sentences. . there are six classes:² (1) Time. A phrase. lately. for example. not the noun. Definition. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. like the light of heaven. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. A clause or sentence. 280.² FRANKLIN. We are offered six months' credit. 281. etc. all wet and glossy. to-day. as now. but really modifying. 169.²BYRON. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. NOTE. (2) according to their use in the sentence.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. Make music to the lonely ear.²These last differ from the words in Sec. as.²THOREAU. ALDRICH. 282. It may also modify a sentence.²TROLLOPE. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. or a word group used as such. perhaps. is a modifying word. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. NOTE. B.

(5) Degree. whencesoever. telling how many times: once. Emerson. as here.² The master. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.²HAWTHORNE. partly.²IRVING. [Sidenote The status of such.²DE QUINCEY. So also in Grote. or how far he believes it to be true. singly.whence. probably..²BROWNING. twice. etc. etc. while so precedes only the adjective usually. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. slowly. as little. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.whither. the more perfect will be their obedience. above. (6) Assertion. (4) Number. as perhaps. the more friends you will have. possibly.near. better. This long's the text. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. as well. etc. just.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.. at least.thither. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.yonder. much. two by two. telling how much. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. enough. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. . etc. not.²BURKE. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. whithersoever. LOUIS STEVENSON. that these adverbs form a very large class. bravely. surely.was for this once of her opinion. thus. and others. Thackeray.²LECKY. too. telling how anything is done. White. The more they multiply. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. greatly. the more evidently they love liberty.there. very. (see also Sec. for example. I was..where..²R.(2) Place.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. Meekness. slightly. as hither. 283.which gained him such universal popularity.thence.. (3) Manner. especially the comparative of these words. as hence. beautifully. etc. 283). The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. etc. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Motley. maybe. and not infrequently are found in literary English.²SHAKESPEARE.

The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Dickens. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." "I have seen you before [time]." said the king. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.²BAYNE. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. B.Pretty." "That were far better [degree]. STOWE.²THACKERAY.² You are mighty courteous. Franklin. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Aldrich. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Hard blows and hard money. besides modifying. Beau Fielding. Emerson. Such are most of those given already in Sec. A pretty large experience. Again.² "Mighty well. for example. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. 285. for example. Mighty. 284. Simple. De Quincey. Holmes. and its lawn before [place]. and art but a fool. Notice meanings. It is only occasionally used in literary English.²HAWTHORNE. . a mighty fine gentleman.²GOLDSMITH. Neville." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE."²SCOTT. Direct questions. Defoe.²"He walked too far [place]. have the additional function of asking a question. Some adverbs. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.²FIELDING. and other writers.²THACKERAY.²BULWER." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise." "The house. Kingsley. 286. Interrogative. 282.² KINGSLEY. Burke." "He spoke positively [manner]. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. "Peace.

287. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (2) Place. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²BYRON.²BYRON (3) Manner. I do not remember when I was taught to read. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. . for example. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. I hearkened. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. CLAY.²POE. (5) Reason. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. (4) Degree.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. (4) Degree. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²BULWER. (2) Place.²D. When did this humane custom begin?²H. WEBSTER. they smiled. I know not why. I will not ask where thou liest low.

then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Only that we may wiselier see. Its strings boldlier swept. soonest. soon. see Sec. higher.²TENNYSON. use. irregularly compared.. Form vs. when compared. 290. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Tell what each word in ly modifies. just as adjectives do. highest. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Many adjectives have the same ending. not an adverb. For further discussion. high. furthest (rathe. when does not express time and modify. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.But in reality. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. only occasionally having -er and -est. 288. have the same inflection as adjectives. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Then must she keep it safelier. Superlative. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. sooner. Exercise. as. further farthest. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.." Exercise. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. when.eyes.²EMERSON.) rather 289.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. The following. Many adverbs are compared. . obs.²COLERIDGE. well much little far late Comparative. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. but the whole clause. representing four classes.²BYRON. and.²SHAKESPEARE. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.

evenly. There are eyes. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 8. merely introduces a sentence. 291. The reason is. instead of being used adverbially. Special use of there. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. quick-flashing eye.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. even. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. mostly. 4. He is inexpressibly mean.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²IRVING.²CHAUCER. Again. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. kindly and good-natured in secret. But he must do his errand right.² EMERSON. that in Old and Middle English. as. Frequently the word there.²TENNYSON. whether adverbs or adjectives. 7. nearly. near. many words without -ly have the same form.²WORDSWORTH. 3.1. if it has the verb be.²ID. And all about. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 2. With his proud. or down the leaves laughed through. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 5. but with a different meaning." Compare these:² 1. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. Such are most. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. hard. etc. more courtly in their manners. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. . to be sure. hardly. 292. 6. Not near so black as he was painted. 2.And his mien of kingly state. curiously jolly. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate.²THACKERAY. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.

HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. is always politically unwise. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. according to meaning and also use. 2. and always. 9. The higher we rise in the scale of being. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. (2) Degree of comparison. and sate down on the steps of a house. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. but continually shifted. 16. if the word is compared. however theoretically enticing. Thither we went. Exercise. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 293. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 11. but from my fall? 6. It is the Cross that is first seen. 12. the Madonna is in great glory. 18. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. For the impracticable. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 4. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. burning in the center of the temple. 10. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 5. . Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. give² (1) The class. 17. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 3. But a few steps farther on. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. at the regular wine-shop. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. In parsing adverbs. 7. 15.

" "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. hence. upon which the sun now shone forth. Unlike adverbs. nor. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. sentences." Sentences. but the student will readily find them. etc. therefore. It was pretty bad after that. 21. word groups. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. 22. . but side by side within the American Union. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. she would undoubtedly have succumbed.19. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. Clauses. should be omnipotent for evil? 24." Paragraphs. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. 295. 20. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. connecting words. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. 294. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. A conjunction is a linking word. Definition. CONJUNCTIONS. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. however. then. But now the wind rose again. or sentence groups.

.. While the earth bears a plant. the window being open.. as but. neither. for.. Some go in threes.Classes of conjunctions.. introducing a reason or cause..but. whether. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought..or whether. . Causal. Alternative. 297.or. "Howbeit. Some of these go in pairs. word groups. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. likewise. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause." Nevertheless.. else. only. as. however. as. the bread was spent. moreover. (2) Subordinate.. expressing a choice. Correlatives. (4) ALTERNATIVE. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. still. of the same rank. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. and not man corn. whether. either. usually between two things.but (or but also). serves but to show their ignorance.and. nor.. and. (2) ADVERSATIVE. as well as.. They are or. however. neither. answering to each other in the same sentence.. yet. 296.. therefore. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. Your letter. etc. either. etc. either...nor. not only.... not only. hence.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.. also. The chief ones are. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. 298. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. but is emperor in his own right.or..or. Nor mark'd they less. joining words. nor. then. both.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. whether. the butter too..nor. Adversative. (3) CAUSAL. had its weight. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. The assertion. neither. or the sea rolls its waves. etc. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. while.. as well as the room door.or. as and.

nor echo. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. whereto. etc. however. (3) MANNER: how. ere. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. sometimes if. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. whereas. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will.. It is. etc. although. howsoever. so that. etc. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.²J. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. (2) TIME: when. on condition that. etc. object. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. even if. in apposition. provided that. ²ALLSTON.²DE QUINCEY. that. as.²PAULDING. nor green leaf. lest.. whithersoever. so. so that. since. seeing.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body.²IRVING. whither. wherever. unless. (7) RESULT: that.²BURKE. since. whenever. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. in order that. provided. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. as. 299. though. (6) PURPOSE: that. before. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste.²COOPER. whence.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. in case. while. after.as. QUINCY. Where the treasure is. until.. especially that after so. Time. Neither the place in which he found himself.²WILSON. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. as. He is not only bold and vociferous. except. now. etc. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. so. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²BIBLE. there will the heart be also. whether. nor wing of bird. nor creeping thing. .. so.

he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.² EMERSON.² WORDSWORTH. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.² HAWTHORNE.²AMES.²AMES.² H. . Concession.²DEFOE.That vain it were her eyes to close.That he gave her wounds repose. As a soldier.²EMERSON.²BURKE.²IRVING.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. a thousand bodies. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. I was again covered with water. Then Denmark blest our chief. JACKSON. Substantive.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Cause. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Result.So I behold them not.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²AMES. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Comparison. Sparing neither whip nor spur. So many thoughts moved to and fro. not as they were expected or intended. Purpose. Condition.²EMERSON.²BYRON.²CAMPBELL. Now he is dead. Let the world go how it will. but not so long but I held it out. We wish for a thousand heads. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. H. Manner. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. reason.

6. hold a subordinate rank. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. as. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. etc. 5. . (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 9. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. some words²for example. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. it will remain harmless. the lady called her servant. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. Besides. 14. since. that. then. 2. 12. 15. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. the wisest.²RUSKIN. 10. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 4. And they lived happily forever after. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. He was brought up for the church. In what point of view. as he shot in air.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. As will have been noticed. 13. however. Exercises. After he was gone. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 300.Let us see whether the greatest. Crept under the leaf. No one had yet caught his character. The moth fly. she faintly pressed her hand. While a faction is a minority. 3. and hid her there. While patriotism glowed in his heart. And then recovering. her real merit is known at home. while. They. 7.

² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.²HOOD. As if. etc. word groups.Clouded. the expression would be. none of the lashings having given way.. and the frame will suit the picture. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. As though. In poetry. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. and part as though we parted not. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. and be a bud again. even as they would weep. SPECIAL REMARKS.²EMILY BRONTE. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. Consequently." as. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. In Emerson's sentence. 304.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. 302.²IRVING. in this case. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. thus. expressing degree if taken separately. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. If analyzed. "We meet. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. (2) What words. GREELEY. In parsing conjunctions.²BYRON. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. as is often equivalent to as if.So slowly moved about.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. as is shown by the use of as though.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. 301.As though a rose should shut.. they connect. His voice . . So silently we seemed to speak. for example.16. 303. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. As for as if.

If he could solve the riddle. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. 9. because it is his. Some conjunctions. so that expresses result. so means therefore. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. 6. dines with as good an appetite. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. so means provided. that it might testify of that particular ray. 4. as beside his own chimneys. 2. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. he sleeps as warm. they are not known. It continued raining. Exercise. For example. At sea. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. or in the forest. "Doctor.²that the fairies do not like to be named. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. are regularly of one particular class. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. When the gods come among men. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. All the postulates of elfin annals. but of the natural. 10.² 1. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. or in the snow. 12. and its clause is independent. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. etc. he is also the correlative of nature. He dismisses without notice his thought. in 2. such as nor. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. 7." said his wife to Martin Luther. and very seldom?" 8.Caution. 5. others belong to several classes. and. In classifying them. when. and associates as happily. the Sphinx was slain. so it be faithfully imparted. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. .²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. and its clause depends on the other.. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. so that I could not stir abroad. 13.²EMERSON 3. and the like. compare the sentences. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor.²DEFOE 2.²is subordinate of condition. 3. because. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. so they paddled on. 11. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. He is the compend of time. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason.²I find them true in Concord. It may be safely trusted. in 3.

He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. you must be. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 22.²else it is none.14. 28. For.. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 18. . The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. whose names I omit. 25. Still. There was no iron to be seen. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. I speak. save it were sinful like herself. however. 30. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. she might have the family countenance. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 15. It is clear. therefore. And whether consciously or not. Now you have the whip in your hand. 27. 26. won't you lay on? 17. in many a heart. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 21. of good novels only. that both were wayward. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. when it was presented to them. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 305. the whole conditions are changed. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. It may be so in the majority of cases. 23. 24. 16. I rejoice to stand here no longer. Goodness must have some edge to it. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 20. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. in this they agree. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 29. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 19. PREPOSITIONS. enthroned.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

.²R. at play. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at most. (2) Time.²M. STODDARD. at all. ²PARTON. by means near or close to.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. At St.²ID. (4) Measure of excess. CONWAY.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at war. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at the worst. .²ALDRICH.²SWIFT. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. At that time [the earth] was richer. By my faith. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.²WARNER. at peace. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at length. by many a million of acres. Richard was standing by the window. at work. (3) Agency or means. at one.²DE QUINCEY. at random. as. H. at once. 321. at first.²EVERETT. the first port made by the ship. at the best.²B.² (1) The general meaning of place. at naught. Helena. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. by the ruins of nations.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. Exercise. by the wrecks of time. 320. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. etc. Exercise. he stopped. expressing the degree of difference. By. For.²COOPER. by the blessed memory of the departed. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. She saw the boat headed for her. at rest. at any rate. Like at. TAYLOR The angel came by night. etc. D. at least. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside.

if your worship can accomplish that. H. (7) Concession. the Colonna motto would fit you best." said the Lady of Lochleven. . (9) Motive. For him. in behalf of. etc.(2) In favor of. An Arab woman. or in spite of. as to.²ID. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.²LAMB. they are now for us. "For a fool."²SCOTT By my faith. He and they were for immediate attack.²PARKMAN.. poor fellow. for all his title. for the benefit of.²HOLMES. E. GARRISON. "thou hast counseled wisely.²PARKMAN The people were then against us." answered Master Brackett.²PARKMAN. had a forest of poor relations. (3) Duration of time. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.²STODDARD. and leaped for joy. meaning with regard to. etc. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. (5) Reference.. For the rest. There are gains for all our losses. ate her child. for all slips of hers. etc. he repented of his folly. a person or thing. (4) Substitution or exchange. Still. incitement to action.²IRVING. meaning although. (6) Like as. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. BANCROFT. But the Colonel. cause. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²HOOD. L. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. but a few sunsets since.² RUSKIN. as being. or extent of space. "Nay. The twilight being. respecting.²EMERSON.²E. reason. meaning in the character of. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. considering that etc. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.One of Eve's family.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²W. for famine.²H.

it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²BANCROFT.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. The original meaning of of was separation or source. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. Of. The young cavaliers. 322.²H. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. From.²HIGGINSON. cause. . It was from no fault of Nolan's. 323.²ID. (4) Motive. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. ceased to be merciful.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. if not a desperate man.²DRYDEN. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²MILTON. (3) Time. Exercise. from a desire of seeming valiant. From harmony. H.²HUXLEY. (2) Origin. more. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. (1) Origin or source. Like boys escaped from school. Exercise. The king holds his authority of the people. nay. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. The From Relation.²HUME.²HALE. or reason. like from. The general idea in from is separation or source. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. A distrustful.

such as ease. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. beg. that Cromwell once ruled England."²E. clear. rob. cure.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. disarm. deprivation. free. etc. especially out of. (3) With expressions of material. demand. there were only twenty-one members present. ²PARTON. etc. The hills were bare of trees. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Other Relations expressed by Of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. rid. (c) After nouns expressing lack. etc. More than one altar was richer of his vows. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. HALE. reason. (d) With words expressing distance. weeds. south of. wide of.²HIGGINSON.²BAYARD TAYLOR. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²ALDRICH. Of the Forty. (6) Partitive. of his own knowledge. ²GAVARRE.²BANCROFT. and grass. bound with thongs of boar's hide. as north of.²clear of. White shirt with diamond studs. Asked no odds of.²ID. ask.² HUXLEY. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. relieve.²SCOTT Who formed. Sandals. (b) After some adjectives. "I am glad of that. He is away of his own free will. (5) Expressing agency. divest. etc. free of. purge.²BOSWELL. motive. expressing a part of a number or quantity. out of the most unpromising materials. bare of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. You cannot make a boy know. A singular want of all human relation. . Back of that tree. E.²PARKMAN.²LEW WALLACE. deprive. acquitted them of.²DICKENS II. etc. or breastpin of native gold.

I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (b) Noun and gerund. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. of late.²LAMB. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²BANCROFT. (8) Appositional.²ID. See also Sec. with regard to. ²IRVING.²FROUDE.²ALDRICH. (c) Two nouns.²PRESCOTT.²COOPER. Besides the phrases of old. E..²BANCROFT. standing. Such a book as that of Job. .²LOWELL. could give shelter from his contumely. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²HALLECK. equal to about. Not even woman's love. being equivalent to an infinitive. etc.²W.²BANCROFT. for the possessive. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. The fair city of Mexico. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. of a sudden. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²SWIFT. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. when the first is descriptive of the second. with its object. of is used in the sense of during. (10) Of reference. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. CHANNING. Idiomatic use with verbs. 309. concerning.He washed out some of the dirt.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. (9) Of time. and the dignity of a queen. (7) Possessive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. The nation of Lilliput.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.

On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. such as admit. Upon is seldom used to express time. Upon my reputation and credit. repent. you are eighteen. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. (b) With motion. It also accompanies the verbs tire. without adding to their meaning. SIGOURNEY. on view. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. Exercise.²BRYANT.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. on high.²PARKMAN. on the alert. and not a day more. accept. On. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. (4) In adjurations.²PARKMAN. on the wing. equal to about. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. To. (2) Time. consist.²DE QUINCEY. The general meaning of on is position or direction.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. 324. allow. Cannon were heard close on the left. and others.²EMERSON. . on a sudden. concerning.²PARKMAN.²Find sentences with six uses of of.²ALDRICH. disapprove. complain. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. (3) Reference. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. avail (one's self). Upon.²MRS. 325. Exercise. etc. ²BANCROFT. approve. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. on board. etc. On my life. on trial. permit. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.

With. unmasked. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²often to the loss of vigor. (b) Referring to time. (5) Equivalent to according to. interest. But when.²BULWER. He usually gave his draft to an aid. Revolutions. Exercise.²PARTON. it may be genuine poetry. to my taste. To the few. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. had ceased to be. 268). while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Death!²HALLECK. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. mid meant in company with. Nor.²BENTON To our great delight.²IRVING.²B..of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.. (2) Expressing result. to him.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. We cook the dish to our own appetite.to be written over. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. 326.²HALE. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.Come to the bridal chamber.. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²BRYANT. gay Comedy appears. In Old English. . whose influence is felt to this hour.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²GOLDSMITH. His brother had died.. does the mere music.²LANG.²PARKMAN.

in spite of. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²EMERSON.²Find sentences with four uses of with. .²COLERIDGE. transmitted from the beginning. "poetry is not a pursuit.²LANG.²HOWELLS. 327. first of all. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. He expired with these words. it is necessary. but a pleasure"?²LANG. Messala. Either with the swingle-bar. opinion. He was wild with delight about Texas.²DE QUINCEY. (5) Opposition. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. HALE.²WALLACE (7) Time. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. She seemed pleased with the accident. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. felt it unsafe to trifle further. Exercise. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. reason. (4) Estimation. It seemed a supreme moment with him. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. to find the object of the preposition. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. with all his boldness. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. I think. (3) Cause.²HALE. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²HOWELLS. With all his sensibility. or with the haunch of our near leader.²CHANNING.²E. E.²SCOTT. motive.²COOPER.²ALDRICH.The advance. he gave millions to the sword. with Heyward at its head. had already reached the defile. but with you. (2) Instrumentality. as with you.²DE QUINCEY.

I looked towards my windows. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. Whereupon. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I speak these things from a love of justice. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. before the dwarf left the queen. In (3). watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. but all to no purpose. Be that as it will.²ID. of without. the malicious rogue. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. of on. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. 4. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. of from. by which a dozen apples. I called out several times. like the clapping of wings. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. came tumbling about my ears. without a country modifies man.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. shook it directly over my head. country. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. (2) on which. but I received no other hurt. The object of on board is ships. 5. I heard a noise just over my head. In (1). or was. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. beginning. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. and knocked me down flat on my face. In (2). which. To our general surprise. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. And so on. 3. (3) without a country. 2. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. because I had given the provocation. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. The guns were cleared of their lumber. the phrase answers the question where. we met the defaulter here. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. I remember.²SWIFT 2. I felt my box raised very high in the air. . (4) from the beginning. Exercises. telling what man. hence we say. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. he followed us one day into those gardens. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees.

6. 23. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 29. . The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 16. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. On all subjects known to man. With all his learning. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 15. 25. plumed for battle. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 17. 14. 7. 12. in this respect. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 8. to one dark and gloomy. 21. 22. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. he favored the world with his opinions. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. grasping at the child. 13. 24. 11. The mother sank and fell. 18. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 26. The savage army was in war-paint. Carteret was far from being a pedant. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. His breeches were of black silk.Without stop or stay. when. 20.He spurred his courser on. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 19. 10. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. I like to see the passing. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 27. For my part. 9. after a restful morning. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. in town. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service.

(2) As an adjective pronoun. That was a dreadful mistake. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.²WEBSTER. THAT. not merely by the amount of the tax. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (c) Substantive conjunction.² JOHNSON.²COLERIDGE. (b) Of result. That night was a memorable one. (4) As an adverb of degree.²HUXLEY. 329. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (3) As a relative pronoun.That makes the heavens be mute. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²STOCKTON. He will raise the price. And now it is like an angel's song. A few are discussed below. (a) Indefinite relative. WHAT. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. and be proud in the midst of its toil. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (1) Relative pronoun. . that you might behold this joyous day.²BEECHER. and not according to form. 328. We wish that labor may look up here. 330.30.²WEBSTER. That is what I understand by scientific education.²WEBSTER.

What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. To say what good of fashion we can.²ID. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. silent still. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.Which be they what they may. What..S. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.²EMERSON. .. to see what might be hidden. What with the Maltese goats.in Pera. he knows what good people are to be found there.²WORDSWORTH.these sounds are only to be heard.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. BUT. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. after not only.²WEBSTER.²S. (8) Conjunction.. 331.²THACKERAY.it is impossible to determine... partly.but. (b) Copulative.. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. What." (4) Relative adjective.²ID. At what rate these materials would be distributed. Cox.Those shadowy recollections. (9) As an exclamation.²EMERSON. and silent all!²BYRON. nearly equivalent to partly. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. or not only. (7) Adverb of degree. (b) Indirect question. If he has [been in America]. (6) Exclamatory adjective..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.. (b) Indirect question. but the result of calculation. "I'll tell you what. it rests on reality. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.... What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.

As orphans yearn on to their mothers.²EMERSON. after such. meaning otherwise ..Then arose not only tears.. not. Who knows but. (b) Substantive.²SCOTT. meaning except.. (5) Adverb. stands for that . after a negative. not.. (d) Of reason. To lead but one measure. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²LAMB. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. 332. towards order. (b) Of manner. I shall see but little of it. at all moments. (3) Preposition. (c) Of degree. on all sides. than.²IRVING... it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.²IRVING. Doing duty as a guard.²MRS BROWNING. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. like the dog. but piercing cries.He yearned to our patriot bands. AS.²IRVING. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²CARLYLE. (e) Introducing an appositive word. ²CARLYLE. meaning only. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.²FRANKLIN.²SHELLEY.. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. . (4) Relative pronoun. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. sometimes same. equivalent to that . There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. (2) Relative pronoun. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE..²HAWTHORNE. or who . not. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.

as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. This follows a verb or a verbal. No Emperor.²EMERSON. If the verb is expressed.²CASS.²HALLECK. but this is not considered good usage: for example. and was clearly an adjective. like drops out. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. and is followed by a dative-objective. I do with my friends as I do with my books.² HAWTHORNE. Note the difference between these two uses. . like Martin was.LIKE. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²DARWIN. There is no statue like this living man. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. ²PARKMAN. In each case. Through which they put their heads. In this second use. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²HIGGINSON. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. nervous child.²EMERSON. Give Ruskin space enough.²MAYHEW. That face.²LAMB. and as or as if takes its place.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. like summer ocean's. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²SHAKESPEARE. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. (1) An adjective. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. indeed. They look. staring like a bewildered man.²ALDRICH.-SCOTT. NOTE. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. Stirring it vigorously. like him awhile ago. Introduces a clause. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.² A timid. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. 333. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²LONGFELLOW. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. this. like a cook beating eggs. but its verb is omitted. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²HAWTHORNE.²ALDRICH.

"Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. verb.: for example. but it still retains its identity as noun. tut! buzz! etc. ." "Up! for shame! [adverb].²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. 336. Definition.²in determining case. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. in separating them into their component parts. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Definition. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. that is. etc. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.." PART II. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. 335. as. that is. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. entering into the structure of a sentence. clauses introduced by conjunctions. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. Value of analysis. Some of these are imitative sounds. Not all exclamatory words are interjections." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. 334. etc. subject and predicate.INTERJECTIONS. pronoun. What analysis is.

old man?" "Be thou familiar. . Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. interrogative. always friends?" imperative. which puts the thought in a question. 337. but according to how many statements there are. which expresses command. Division according to number of statements. Every sentence must contain two parts. SIMPLE SENTENCES." "What wouldst thou do. A rare old plant is the ivy green. But now all is to be changed. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. This is the most common one. "Old year. question. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader.²a subject and a predicate. 2. but the sentence would still be declarative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. but by no means vulgar. or request. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement." 340. hence. "Come to the bridal chamber. entreaty. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. "The quality of mercy is not strained. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative.Kinds of sentences as to form. not according to the form in which a thought is put. (3) Imperative. 338. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. or imperative. you must not die!" interrogative. according to form. Definition. declarative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. (2) Interrogative. Examples of these three kinds are. 339. or command: for example. "Hath he not always treasures. Definition: Predicate.

7. to suit all cases:² Subject.²What is to be changed? Answer. the subject (you. 3. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. In analyzing such sentences. 341. Consequently. or ye) is in most cases omitted. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. "[You] behold her single in the field. The last of all the Bards was he. and our definition must be the following. thou. In the interrogative sentence. Slavery they can have anywhere. to an ignorant man. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Thus. and is to be supplied. all. a rare old plant. not of a rare old plant. always reduce them to the order of a statement. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. especially in poetry. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1." Exercise. as. and the real subject is the latter. on the other hand.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Listen. 6. we have some trouble. adjective. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. . but about the ivy green. But if we try this with the second sentence. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. the subject is frequently after the verb.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. 8. or an interrogative pronoun.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 2. or adverb that asks about the subject. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. 5. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 4.

direct. in addition to the object. or second object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning." Complement: 344. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (3) The object.10. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. but of call chief. and means summoned.²transitive and intransitive. Of a transitive verb. and me here is not the object simply of call. but chief belongs to the verb. The transitive verb often requires." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. but it is a true complement. The subject and predicate have been discussed. 342. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. (5) Modifiers. Direct Object. and by object we mean the direct object. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. for example. "I give thee this to wear at the collar." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. "Ye honor me. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. just as if to say." indirect. "Ye call me chief. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (6) Independent elements. (2) The predicate. (4) The complements. . 343. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. Indirect object.

351. to the completion of this man of the world. and barring the door. appear." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. feel. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. as." "The good man. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. especially the forms of be. and of massive weight." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. seem." (2) PARTICIPIAL." Things used as Subject.. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." "He was termed Thomas." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. "Brow and head were round. he was now getting old. An intransitive verb. for instance. Phrases. as in drowning." 345. ay. in the original Opium Confessions. "A cheery. 352. more familiarly. As to form." All these complete intransitive verbs. 355." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. but used as a single modifier. 346. not containing a verb. etc. Complement of an intransitive verb. See sentence 19. in exercise following Sec. 'Ay." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. sir!' rang out in response." Also an expression used as a noun. above sixty. in the popular judgment. as in the sentence." (3) INFINITIVE. Thom of the Gills.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. become." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. or. I mentioned a case of that nature. introduced by a preposition: for example. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. A phrase is a group of words. 347. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. 364. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. and. taste.

or the thundering of organs. "'By God. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. and by Saint George!' said the King. or their religion from their sect. prowling eyes. Disguised infinitive subject.²the talent of starting the game. 341. but they will be given in detail here." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. 349." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." etc. (2) In interrogative sentences. from their lips. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. asserting eyes. etc. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. (4) After "there introductory." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." Things used as Direct Object. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.²the infinitive phrase. for which see Sec. but the real or logical subject is to print." "There are asking eyes." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. ." 348." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." The for did not belong there originally." "The dead are there.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." "Never. and ever will be." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." Things used as Complement. "Therein has been." In this sentence. but obscures the real subject. I saw the quick and the dead. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. my deficiency. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. was heard one syllable to justify. Complement: Of an intransitive verb.

Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. As complement of an intransitive verb. Like all the complements in this list. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. complements of the predicate." In this last sentence. Object." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. and the words italicized are still complements." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. they are adjuncts of the object." "Their tempers. and. Modifiers of Subject. I." "She asked her father's permission." (4) Participle. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. and whenever the complement is a noun. at the same time." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. As complement of a transitive verb." . or the equivalent of the noun.350." Modifiers. 351." "I hear the echoes throng. Of a transitive verb." "Serving others is serving us.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. and explaining or modifying the subject." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. doubtless. (3) Infinitive. or Complement.²completing the predicate.²heads or tails. the shepherd girl.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. the object is made the subject by being passive.

" "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. or complement is modified. 351. Retained with passive. the prisoner at the bar. and modify the predicate in the same way. I have seasoned for thee." (For participial and infinitive phrases. tell whether the subject. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. "He died like a God. given at the request of a Dutch lady.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Modifiers of the Predicate." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "Give them not only noble teachings." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. no sociable angel. see further Secs." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but it is really a contracted clause. 352. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. this young idolater. and leading him from star to star." In such a sentence as." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. not with nature. Tells how. the verb being omitted." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. was now called upon for his defense." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." Exercise. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. austere." "Him." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. but noble teachers." "In the twinkling of an eye.²proud. II. object. but with other men.²In each sentence in Sec. unforgiving. was the scene from King John. or ." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. 357-363." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. Since the predicate is always a verb.

On the voyage to Egypt. to the animal strength and spirits. His books have no melody." "All such knowledge should be given her. gives wonderful animation. I took. (a) Pick out subject. predicate. and (direct) object:² 1. 5. with my joy and grief. etc. 6." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 5. but the children of the great. They do not wish to be lovely. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 3." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. the man of ideas appears out of his reason." (6) Adverbial objective." "One way lies hope. how far. To the men of this world. predicate. These answer the question when. and as many to oppose it. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 2. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. 4. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. in regard to particulars. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. he liked. no humor. or how long. but to be loved. (b) Pick out the subject. Evil. and the direct object is retained: for example. after dinner. 3. Fashion does not often caress the great. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 7. negative. according to old philosophers. 7. and. and other measures of precaution. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 2. in this center? 4. no emotion. is good in the making.. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 8.When the verb is changed from active to passive. 6. . No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. no relief to the dead prosaic level. the indirect object is retained. This. a sort of personality to the whole writing." subject of passive verb and direct object retained." Exercises. But anger drives a man to say anything.

that was thy portion in life. Their intention was to have a gay. Not the less I owe thee justice. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. Yes. to the right and to the left. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. . then. this nun so martial. To suffer and to do. I gave him an address to my friend. viz. 2. 4. the blooming cornet. 4. 5. Not compound sentences. A river formed the boundary.. 2. 3. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. this imperial rider. then. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. etc. 6. 5. burthened with the anxieties of a man. the attorney. expecting the return of their parents. In one feature. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. Paint me. at length the warrior lady. happy dinner. That night.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. 3. I felt myself. Compound Predicate. at the chief hotel.²the river Meuse. 3. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. for the first time. and a member of the world. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. this dragoon so lovely. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. upwards.y 8. Unhorse me. six children sat by a peat fire. a room seventeen feet by twelve. must visit again the home of her childhood. 4. in little peaceful Easedale. after their long confinement to a ship. 2. downwards. the present Archbishop of Dublin. y y y y Compound Subject. I promised her protection against all ghosts.

with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. in the sentence. together with its modifiers.. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. "The company broke up. For example. the verb). Examples of compound subjects are. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. shouldered the rusty firelock. etc. the predicate. together with all its modifiers. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. hurry." "He shook his head. Of this. the tone of her voice. several modifiers. they are not a necessary part. then the grammatical subject and predicate. the object. etc. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. and. modifiers. may be the person or thing addressed. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." "The name of the child. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. the air of the mother. that is.353. above: thus. my brave young man!" ." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. complements. ulcer. Independent Elements of the Sentence." "Voyages and travels I would also have. Bishop. same as (1).²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. however. and the rest is the logical predicate. 355." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. exposes." "Ye crags and peaks. The exclamatory expression. turned his steps homeward. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution." Sentences with compound predicates are. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. the simple subject is situation. 354. and its object or complement. I'm with you once again. etc." And so with complements. forming a sentence: "Oh. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. two or more subjects of the same predicate. "Ah. but it is to be noticed that. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. Larger view of a sentence. in all such sentences as we quote below. hurry.

There are some adverbs.. object. such as however.. instances of which were seen in Sec. y (2) The adverbial use. modifying the predicate. 356. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 357. 4). let him perish. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. 6)." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 352. therefore." (6) Single words: as. then. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example." "At all events. already noticed. truly." "Well. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." Another caution." (3) Independent. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. 351. see Sec. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. generally speaking. (b) As a modifier of subject. now. 350." "No. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. this story runs thus. the company broke up. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. see Sec. nevertheless. he somehow lived along. (1) Adjectival. etc. grandma. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. "Oh. 4). to the best of my remembrance." "Why. yes! everybody knew them." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. and some conjunctions. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. how you're winking!" "Now. or complement (see Sec. In their use. The words well. 3. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. why. etc." "Truth to say. 355. he was a conscientious man." (5) Participial phrase: "But. such as perhaps. or word used as a noun: for example.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. he closed his literary toils at dinner. that have an office in the sentence. her noticing even this is creditable. These need close watching. and so on. really. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. besides. modifying a noun. . pronoun. undoubtedly. prepositional phrases may be. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." (2) Adverbial. six quill-driving gentlemen. moreover." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat.

therefore.should. or as nearly so as the student will require. See Sec. containing no matters of business.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. etc. but require somewhat closer attention." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.: as in the sentences. 358. Wilt thou. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." In this sentence. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. ought. thus. y (a) With may (might)." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. was speedily run through. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. modifying was speedily run through. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. and they will be presented here in full. "Because I was. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. etc.would." (c) With the definite forms of go. (5). Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason." etc. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. and hence is adverbial. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. being equivalent to a future with obligation. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. and teach her how to be happy and good.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. 355.seem. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. This case excepted. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. my dear. he should not have known them at all." "There. "The letter of introduction. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. I. necessity." (b) With the forms of be." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.can (could). I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. but having no other office than a verbal one. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . The verbal use.].

and the eyes to fill?" 359. complement.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again.: for example. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. above. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. modifying a noun that may be a subject." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. The adverbial use. etc." 360. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. already examined. 361 are used adverbially. To test this. to look means that he might look. etc." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. (4) In apposition. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. 362. to hear McOrator after dinner. Don Guzman. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). hang the idiot. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. to please is equivalent to that he may please. object." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. notice the following:² In (1)." "Are you mad. 5)." "To say what good of fashion we can. result. 361. The adjectival use. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. "But there was no time to be lost.²both purpose clauses." "To teach is to learn.. 351." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. III. The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "He insisted on his right to forget her. the Scotch fighting all the battles. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. IV. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). The substantive use. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. . II.

must be in a life. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 349). etc. If it is an incomplete verb. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. I will try to keep the balance true. 4. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have.. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. 351). equivalent to that you betray. 351). to hear means if you should hear. (3). not in a book. V. as in Sec. etc. In (5).In (2). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. and to betray and to bring express the reason. etc. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 363. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. The independent use. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. . 351). 268. to find shows the result of the return. to part means because I part. give the complement (Secs. 364. In analyzing simple sentences. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. which is of two kinds. 2. (7) Independent elements (Sec. 3. In (4). 347).) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS.. savage and serene in one hour." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. give² (1) The predicate. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 355). Our life is March weather. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 352)." (See also Sec. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. object. 355. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. (5) The subject (Sec. In (3).²both expressing condition.

Old Adam. to restore civil and religious order. good and amiable otherwise. to the moral sphere. 15. two stricken hours. 17. 10. an accomplished scholar. 13. a skilled musician. To be hurried away by every event. 16. To these gifts of nature. 11. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 6. with eager energy. nor troops. 23. . 9. The whole figure and air. always in a bad plight. I have heard Coleridge talk. just on the edge of destruction. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. and to the purpose. to keep England out of war. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. nor money. a good shot.²to preserve her throne.4. through toys and atoms. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. nor generals. 19. The word conscience has become almost confined. 12. and every moment discover something new. We are always in peril.He sat in the shower. 20. 18.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. through evil agents. Her aims were simple and obvious. in popular use. 14. Through the years and the centuries. 8. 5. 22. nor himself. is to have no political system at all. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. and spared nothing. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. and only to be saved by invention and courage. The water. might be called flabby and irresolute. 7. like a witch's oils. a graceful dancer. His opinion is always original. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. the carrion crow. He risked everything. 24.The old crow of Cairo. 21. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. You may ramble a whole day together. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. neither ammunition.Burnt green and blue and white. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings.

had but one foible. proud foe. or perhaps one virtue. Few in number. upon my own ground. and no provisions but wild berries. in less heroic and poetic form. 41. Must we in all things look for the how. In the Acadian land. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. 36. and the why. and the wherefore? . the prime minister of Spain. Fair name might he have handed down.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 34. haply. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Supposing this computation to be correct. the ship was in an uproar. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 39. to be a reproach to such goodness. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 31. Upon this shore stood. time-honored. in this world. 37. 29. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships.Distant. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. secluded. This amiable relative. in front of all this mighty crowd. to bid you leave the place now and forever. The villain. ready to receive her.Effacing many a stain of former crime. I hate him and myself. the present capital of New England. 35. 38. the same Condé Olivarez. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. still. 27. 33. I dare this. 32. and in my own garden. Now. 26. 30. But yield. it would not have been filial or ladylike. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 40. She had made a two days' march. Oxford. The cry. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors.25. baggage far in the rear. Of the same grandeur. an elderly man. and.

² "She is like some tender tree. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. Words left out after than or as." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. if they were expanded. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." To show that these words are really omitted. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. As shown in Part I. 365. made merely for convenience and smoothness. 333).CONTRACTED SENTENCES." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. are really contracted clauses. which is the unit of speech. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. the expressions of manner introduced by like. the pride and beauty of the grove. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. 366. however. as would be the connective instead of like. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. though often treated as phrases. as. ." This must. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. but. (Sec. The simple sentence the basis.From her own loved island of sorrow. thus. COMPLEX SENTENCES." Sentences with like. 367.

. 368. Definition. containing a verb with its subject.²the other members subordinate to it." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. object. how great . drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. Independent clause. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. that . murmur. then we recognize this as the main statement. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). as in this sentence. A principal. or dependent on it. which are so united that one member is the main one. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. suffering. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. is taken in. . A clause is a division of a sentence. etc. CLAUSES. or it may be applied to the others.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. logically depends on suffering. complement. object. complements. each clause has its subject.²the backbone. 371.. predicate. that is. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. 369. we are aware. Hence the following definition:² Definition. modifiers. main. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.. 370. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. and the last. and the next one.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. and modifier..

put an end to my fancies.. ADJECTIVE. impertinences. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. so the object clause is retained. for a hundred years. 352.Dependent clause.' is an electric touch. over which the torrent came tumbling." 374. attention is called to them here. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. 373. 5)." (2) Object of a verb." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. for a time. for example. etc." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are.. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject.. clauses are divided into NOUN. or adverbs.." Just as the object noun. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. for example. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. ." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. pronoun. But since they are complex in form. 'I know that he can toil terribly." (4) Apposition. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. We ourselves are getting . but logically the sentence is. thus. night or day. and ADVERB clauses. 372." "I was told that the house had not been shut." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause.. adjectives. Noun Clauses. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. verbal. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. (a) Ordinary apposition. Kinds. and the whole clause is not. As to their office in the sentence. impertinences²would be grammatical. with a noun clause in apposition with it. and it is . A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. (b) that are . Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. infinitive..

375. 6. which. What history it had. The reply of Socrates." Exercise. whereby. Frequently there is no connecting word. Such a man is what we call an original man. 2. sometimes by the conjunctions when. But the fact is. 4. that. that all safe legislation must be based. Other examples of this construction are. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. of a nation. 9. he could know nothing. he would repent it. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. as. Except by what he could see for himself. a relative pronoun being understood. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. that. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. how it changed from shape to shape. in the sentence. whether he should choose one or not. whither. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. Adjective Clauses. no man will ever know. 7. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. where. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. As the office of an adjective is to modify. but. wherein. I was napping. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who.² "It is on the understanding. 8. still remains reasonable. a falsehood incarnate. . I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Examples of adjective clauses. whence. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. and not on the sentiment. 3. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 5. etc. or equivalent of a noun. 10. that he was a scheming impostor.

376." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. I walked home with Calhoun. 11." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. he begins to help us more as an effect. and tell what each one modifies. 1. 8. which Rowena tasted. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 3. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 6. Adverbial Clauses. . Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. all is vacancy." Exercise. Pick out the adjective clauses. object. which formed the center of the mansion. i." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 2. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. No man is reason or illumination. or that essence we were looking for. 4. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 7. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 10. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. etc." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse.. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 9. the champions advanced through the lists. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. 5. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. whether subject.e. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness.

that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification.: "But still. that we should try. however." "When he was come up to Christian. he goes away as if nothing had happened." "The right conclusion is." (7) RESULT. since he was too great to care to be original." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "After leaving the whole party under the table. but they require careful study. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. no matter what remains." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention.377. so far as we can. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. Joanna is better. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." These mean no matter how good. Exercise. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. the wider is the horizon of their thought. the milestones are grave-stones. and what it modifies:² ." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. etc. adverbs." "The broader their education is. etc. whatever. however good she may be as a witness. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. 378." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly.. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." (9) CONCESSION." "Who cares for that." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. an adjective. to make up our shortcomings. or an adverb. introduced by indefinite relatives. shaping our actions. expressing the degree in which the horizon. and adverbial conjunctions." (3) REASON. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were.² whoever. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and will be given in detail." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. is wider." (5) DEGREE. a verbal. etc. tell what kind each is. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. with examples." "He went several times to England. it takes precedence of everything else.

and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. incoherent exclamations." 2. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. howling and whistling. find the principal subject and principal predicate. and modifiers. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. For example. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. they might perhaps say of their visitors. 379. to tell the truth.1. of which clause Odin is the subject. we are a little disappointed. banging about doors and windows. 380. in the sentence. and twirling weathercocks. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. so as to picture the parts and their relations.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. its object is that Odin was a reality. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. snatching up stones to fling at them. If the children gathered about her." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . on a dark wintry night. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. 'Well. predicate. 3. when the wind was unruly. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. with shrill. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. object. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. then treat noun clauses as nouns. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. etc. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. as they sometimes did.

. 364. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 2. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. . | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. d.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much.. 364. Exercises. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (1) Find the principal clause. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. as seen in the "map" (Sec. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 380). (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 3.

would tax every miracle with unsoundness. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 20. namely. 11. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. the mixed result. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. The deep eyes. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 19. Here lay two great roads. had we been worse. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. And those will often pity that weakness most. 9.4. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. who would yield to it least. that pressed her with an objection. . not so much for travelers that were few. Had they been better chemists. 21. I like that representation they have of the tree. as for armies that were too many by half. for yours. whom I choose. 18. counselor that had none for herself. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. or whether any. of a light hazel. Next came a wretched Dominican. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. which. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 8. if applied to the Bible. dying for them. 17. 16. M. 10. 6. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. This is she. But now that she has become an establishment. bishop. 14. 15. could not have been effected. that. 12. 24. He was what our country people call an old one. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 13. 23. 22. the flower should revive for us. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. Now. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. The night proved unusually dark. the shepherd girl. 7. 5.

25. is to speak and write sincerely. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. 2. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 380. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 30. 28. That which we do not believe. and what content I can find in conversing with each. Hence the definition. COMPOUND SENTENCES. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. that it was no more than his daily walk." said Bentley. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. but above it. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. and temper. 7. . The writer who takes his subject from his ear. we cannot adequately say. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square.²which will not be disposed of. and not from his heart. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. if continuously extended. 27. questions. "No book. 6. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29." 4. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 3.² Definition. though we may repeat the words never so often. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 383. 26. the following complex sentences:² 1. then map out as in Sec. "was ever written down by any but itself. and stamped with his right number. speed. These things we are forced to say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 5. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. It makes no difference how many friends I have. or commands. 382. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. How formed. would easily reach. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. (b) First analyze.

he walks with arms akimbo. the planet has a faint. a simple member. for. Speak your latent conviction. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. 383 (1)." 384. moon-like ray" (adversative). yet. 386. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. Thus in (1). etc. whereas. Of the following illustrative sentences. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Another example is. . and not the form of the connective. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Exercise.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Study the thought." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). if there are any. tell which are compound." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. a complex member. now adverbs or prepositions. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. however. the semicolon separates the first. 297). in (2). the waving grass. he soliloquizes. introduce independent clauses (see Sec.. while (whilst). and it shall be the universal sense. nor does he know until he has tried. in (3). etc. which are simple statements. "Only the star dazzles. he dilates. and nor the second and third complex members. Connectives. The division into members will be easier. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. nor. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. from the second. others sometimes coördinate. or but. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. 385. and which complex:² 1. The coördinate conjunctions and. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. he is twice a man. as but. Some of these are now conjunctions. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. and connects the first and second complex members. as in Sec.

I can still receive. 364. 4. 11. In this manner. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. For everything you have missed. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 4. 12. 9. 381. 8. he grew up to be a mild. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. passed in that time. All loss. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. or. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. from a happy yet often pensive child. and as yet very early in the morning. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 2. (i) Separate it into its main members. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. and for everything you gain. all pain. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 6. 13. 3. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 10. you have gained something else. Whilst the world is thus dual. and thou shalt be loved. Love. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. Exercise. 7. nay. for example. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. and not by what each is. Man does not stand in awe of man. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 14. 3. . however. is particular. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 5. quiet. the tax is certain. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. yield to them heart and life.2. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. I can yet love. However some may think him wanting in zeal. so is every one of its parts. unobtrusive boy. The gain is apparent. to find a pot of buried gold. 387. that it was Easter Sunday. you lose something.

14. whilst frankness invites frankness. 7. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. give those merits room. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves.5. one is afraid. that let him communicate. and the peace of society is often kept. We see the noble afar off. 16. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. 11. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. or we read books. 9. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 18. He teaches who gives. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. They will shuffle and crow. puts the parties on a convenient footing. Trust men. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. We go to Europe. 19." "keep the rake. only that they may brag and conquer there. 6. and not a thought has enriched either party. crook and hide. modesty." 13. as children." says the smith. or we pursue persons. "the iron is white. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. Come into port greatly. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. or hope. and makes their business a friendship. feign to confess here. and he learns who receives. When you have chosen your part. why should we intrude? 10. or sail with God the seas. 17. treat them greatly. and the other dares not." says the haymaker. . Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and they will be true to you. "as nigh the scythe as you can. because. and not an emotion of bravery. and they will show themselves great. 8. if you rip up his claims. Whatever he knows and thinks. and each shows only what lies at its focus. or men will never know and honor him aright. and the cart as nigh the rake. "Strike. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 21. and you are without effort impelled to truth. abide by it. Stand aside. 15. is as thin and timid as any. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and they repel us. 20. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. let them mount and expand.

Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. verb and subject. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . or. pronoun and antecedent. the department of syntax will be a small affair. SYNTAX. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. 24. and dodge the account. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. they lose themselves in the crowd. so readily and lavishly they promise. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Essential point in English syntax. We see young men who owe us a new world. So does culture with us. 390. Do not craze yourself with thinking. if they live. PART III. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. but its leading characteristic is. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. INTRODUCTORY. adjective and noun. but they never acquit the debt. they die young. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. it ends in headache. 388. Following the Latin method.22. it never was known to fall into the rear. 23. By way of introduction. Ground covered by syntax. but go about your business anywhere. 380. 25. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence.²agreement and government.

When usage varies as to a given construction. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard.² First. as to study inflected forms." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. 392. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. and whose judgment. and imitate it. or when they exist side by side in good usage. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. good English. . it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. but are not now. some of which conform to classical grammar. the order being inverted. or the same writer will use both indifferently. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. following the regular order of subject. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. For example. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. then. take the sentence. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. etc. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. both forms will be given in the following pages. As an illustration of the last remark." is ambiguous. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. the sentence. This is not logical. also expressing a possessive relation. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. 393. sometimes verb and subject. pronoun and antecedent. Also in the sentence. "None remained but he. In Latin. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. In some cases." In this there is a possessive form. The basis of syntax. and nothing but important points will be considered. Savage may be the subject. Second. Why study syntax? 391. or settler may be the subject. Some rules not rigid. There is. "The savage here the settler slew. and added to it the preposition of." that is. distinct forms would be used.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. authorities²that is. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. therefore. and it would not matter which one stood first. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language).

but imply separate possession or ownership. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. etc. Woman. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²BYRON.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.² Live your king and country's best support. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. PRONOUNS. the shore of Galilee. Joint possession. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. the possessive sign is used with each noun. ²ID. Mill's and Mr. 397.²EMERSON. the antechamber of the High Priest. sense and nature's easy fool.²RUSKIN. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. for example.²MACAULAY. as. 395. . Use of the possessive.²THACKERAY.²ROWE. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. and Peter's. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²MCCULLOCH. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Separate possession. 396. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. and Pope's. and Peterborough's. and Harley's. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.² He lands us on a grassy stage. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Bentham's principles together. 408). and Paul's. He kept Bolingbroke's. Putting Mr.²MILTON. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. 394." Juletta tells.NOUNS. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.

who. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. if not universally. No mightier than thyself or me. as.²SHAKESPEARE.²WHITCHER.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. there are two general rules that require attention. sanctioned. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²THACKERAY. But he must be a stronger than thee. others are generally. 399. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.²BYRON. Bedott Papers. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. whom is the complement after the verb am. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. and should be the nominative form. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Still. together with the relative who.²POPE. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. 398.²SOUTHEY. thus. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. . for example. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. the real thought being forgotten. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. I." 400. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. General rules. This should be "as she.²TROLLOPE. Since most of the personal pronouns. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). Objective for the nominative. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.) "The young Harper. Some of the violations are universally condemned." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.² One I remember especially. it will not be me. namely.²FIELDING.²COLERIDGE. "Who's there?"²"Me. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²PARTON.²MACAULAY. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. but such is the fact. are. "If there is any one embarrassed. is. A safe rule.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402."²WM. And it was heThat made the ship to go. unless a special. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance." 401. for example. "Than whom.²RUSKIN. and the other forms of the verb be. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne."²KINGSLEY. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.²KINGSLEY. both in England and America. they are yet holier than we.²SCOTT.² For there was little doubt that it was he. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.²THACKERAY. One exception is to be noted. In spoken English. But still it is not she. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²LONGFELLOW. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. BLACK. the objective form is regularly found. The camp of Richard of England. as." There is no special reason for this. The usage is too common to need further examples. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. on the other hand. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. .I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent."²WINTHROP. Patrick the Porter.

he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. . I speak not to" (he should be him. now. the object of to). It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 5. verbal. object of saw). (3) By forgetting the construction. you or me. You know whom it is that you thus charge. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. It is not me you are in love with. 404. 9. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. verbals. used after verbs. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. Nominative for the objective." 6.Exercise. 10. or this. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. as. as. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. or preposition which governs it. Whom they were I really cannot specify. 2. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. Truth is mightier than us all." the word being in apposition with murderer). It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. or us). as this from Shakespeare. "Ask the murderer. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. 7. If there ever was a rogue in the world. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 3. 8. Me in exclamations. 4. it is me.²MILTON. as. and prepositions. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 11. but not he" (he should be him. 403. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no.

The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.Shall be left upon the morn.²STEELE. 405. Let you and I look at these. who interrogative. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. all but he.²BYRON. Exception 2.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. partial Nature. Exercise. 2. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Thy shores are empires. changed in all save thee. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. save thou and thine. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. after the preposition but (sometimes save). The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. . as. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²KINGSLEY. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²KINGSLEY.²KINGSLEY.² All were knocked down but us two. I arraign. for example.²BYRON. None. Who have we here?²ID. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. etc. and is usually avoided. but he. "Who did you see?" or.²GOLDSMITH. We regularly say. Thou. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Nature. as well as the objective. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. 406. as. for they say there are none such in the world. I've sworn.Exception 1.

It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. 11. with Jortin and Thirlby. and they know that as well as me. II.²possessive.²SCOTT.Ye I salute.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. who. 12.²THACKERAY. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 407. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. BROWN. 10.3. As antecedent of a relative. Bartholomew. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 5. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 9. B. 6. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. or objective? . "Nonsense!" said Amyas. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. This usage is not frequent. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²MACAULAY. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.²C. Preceding a gerund. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²RUSKIN. They crowned him long ago. 7. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. Markland." 4.²DE QUINCEY. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 8. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.

should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.²RUSKIN. etc. and asked why it was not made. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. In the examples quoted. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it." That is.² IRVING. Both types of sentences are found.² SCOTT.408.²CARLYLE. Here I state them only in brief. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. as he turned away from his wife. But in common use there is no such distinction. object of heard of. The last incident which I recollect. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. Possessive. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. Objective. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. The use of the objective is older. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.²BREWER.²MACAULAY.²DICKENS. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. studying is a gerund. and that in the second. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. sometimes it has the objective. and the meaning is.²DE QUINCEY.² CARLYLE. . both are gerunds. [who was] studying law.² THACKERAY. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. We heard of Brown. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. that the bitterness of death was past. Why both are found. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning.

and gender. 409. it was his own fault. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. number.²RUSKIN. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. and ought to agree with them in person.² BRYANT. Every city threw open its gates. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. where there were examinations.²DEFOE. or is a distributive word.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. taking in each of many persons.²C. in one person. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. Examples of these constructions are.²when the antecedent. if the antecedent is neuter. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²THACKERAY.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²CABLE.²HOLMES.²AUDUBON. BROCKDEN BROWN.²THOREAU. preceded by a distributive. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. In such a case as the last three sentences.²DE QUINCEY. the pronoun will be neuter singular.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. 410. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²HUXLEY. .²EMERSON III. Everybody had his own life to think of. If any one did not know it.²DE QUINCEY. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. The pale realms of shade. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Watch for the real antecedent.

is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. By using the plural pronoun. for example.²EMERSON. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. till they have lost him. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²THACKERAY. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²DEFOE. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²BIBLE.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²FIELDING. If the part deserve any comment. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²RUSKIN.²PAULDING.²ID. not a mowing idiot. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²PALEY.²BYRON. . every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. 411. Whosoever hath any gold. The sun. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²AUSTEN.²ID. Every one must judge of their own feelings. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²SCOTT. and giving them means of being so. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. Struggling for life. as anybody in their senses would have done. This is not considered the best usage. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²HUXLEY. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.² Not the feeblest grandame. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. let them break it off.²PALGRAVE.

Exercise.Where she was gone. As to their conjunctive use. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. and that always restrictive. in each instance:² Who. In the following examples. That is in most cases restrictive. which. I. because. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. ." A relative.) and a personal pronoun. that being considered already clear. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. but. 2. which.²HAWTHORNE. unless both genders are implied. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals." It defines beggar. A relative. when restrictive. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. 412. and does not add a new statement." This means. the definite relatives who. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. 413. and he went away. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. What these terms mean. or unrestrictive. Exercise. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. and that are restrictive or not.²ID. 1. etc. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. but. "I gave it to the beggar. who went away. according to the practice of every modern writer. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. as.²ADDISON.²In the above sentences. or what was become of her.² SHERIDAN. no one could take upon them to say. tell whether who. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. when coördinating. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. It adds a new statement to what precedes. and that may be coördinating or restrictive.

he. The rule.²DE QUINCEY. and over England are saying. 6. as that does not vary for person or number. etc. she agreed to join the party. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. that were often vicious. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.²H. However. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. That. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.² MOTLEY. 9. W. 11.²ID. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. long arms and legs. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. On hearing their plan. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. it makes the verb third person singular. Hare has printed. A grizzly-looking man appeared.²THOREAU. which Mr. BEECHER 5. In what sense true. etc.²ADDISON. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. II. With narrow shoulders.²HOLMES. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. 12.² CARLYLE. Yet how many are there who up. .3. 14. you. For example..² NEWMAN. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. So different from the wild. 8. in the sentence. down. The general rule is. because of its antecedent. which was to go over the Cordilleras. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. 10. 13." that is invariable as to person and number. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. etc.² IRVING. and it is called logic. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.²DE QUINCEY. 4. 414. who. Which. 7. but. We say I.²ID. they. these or that which. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.

²HOWELLS. JR. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. and in improving a victory. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. but the former has good authority." One of . MORSE. Franklin. with one as the principal word. A disputed point. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. Let us be of good cheer. [plural] that who. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. when he derided the shams of society.. others regard books as the antecedent. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. etc. in winning a battle.²MACAULAY.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.²LOWELL. but speaks of him as that sort. T.. 415. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. . O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²BOWLES..²whether we should say.²SCOTT. [singular or plural. etc.²ADDISON.²J. He is one of those that deserve very well..²LOWELL.²HOLMES.²LECKY. French literature of the eighteenth century. Singular.. or which .²ADDISON. who rarely speak at all.] Both constructions are frequently found.. "one of the finest books that have been published. the true antecedent. ARNOLD. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. The fiery youth . struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. The latter is rather more frequent.²M.. but myself." or. "one of the finest books that has been published. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. and write the verb in the plural.

and see if the sentence is made clearer.² THACKERAY. where." "India is the place [in which.²BURNS. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. III. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. return. IV.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.²In the above sentences. 416. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. whence. 417. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. when this dust falls to the urn.²EMERSON. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers."²DICKENS. object of a preposition understood. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. and such like: as.²ID. that is. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. But I by backward steps would move.²GOLDSMITH. or where] he died. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²DEFOE.² RUSKIN.And. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²CARLYLE.²VAUGHAN. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. The same day I went aboard we set sail.A rare Roundabout performance.In that same state I came. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²SCOTT. Exercise.²EMERSON." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²ADDISON. when the relative word is a pronoun. I could see nothing except the sky. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.² .²SWIFT.²IRVING. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.

she passed the lamp over her face and person. Anacoluthic use of which.²FRANKLIN. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. as of knives.² Which.²ADDISON.He considered. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. 418. but. Caution. boats.. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who.me as his apprentice. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. That. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. W. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. They believe the same of all the works of art. and working in the same spirit. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. as is not used. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. . if same is followed by a complete clause. but which is usually carefully avoided.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. or that. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. etc. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.² BURKE.²WORDSWORTH. V.²R.²SWIFT. for example. which. Mr.²SCOTT. was a discoverer. he.. with Turner. CHURCH. I might as well have staid at home. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. if I had resolved to go on with.² MACAULAY. ²GOLDSMITH. Which.² THACKERAY. looking-glasses. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. The regular construction. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. but we find the relative who.

²HAWTHORNE. etc. and which. but. once a great favorite of M.²SCOTT. etc. He delivered the letter. Express both relatives. (3) "Among the poorer sort. (2) "Among the poorer sort. This was a gentleman.. le Conte.² Direction for rewriting. Exercise. he said that all submission was now too late. or leave out both connective and relative. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. . and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. or omit the conjunction.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort.²which if they once heard. That is. now thrown upon their. And who. 4.²DE QUINCEY. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. which when Mr. As the sentences stand.²SHAKESPEARE. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. With an albatross perched on his shoulder." etc. but none is expressed. (1) "Among those who are poor. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. 2. who are now thrown. 3. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²RUSKIN. 1. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago." etc.²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. But who." etc. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. or. Exercise.. Thornhill had read. After this came Elizabeth herself. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.She'd come again. and who are now. 419.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. and this be placed in the proper clause.

Akin to the above is another fault. and which may even be heard a mile off. "What knight so craven. Exercise.²PEARSON. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. indeed. 8. 12. which the Scotch had learned. But which. one of signal interest. the French. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and repeat this for any further reference. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. then. 13. 1.²HAWTHORNE. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . who. 10..²IRVING. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. etc. That . and which. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 9. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.² MOTLEY. 6. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. I saw upon the left a scene far different. Or who.5. I shall have complete copies.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT. as a false and astucious mark.. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. 11. And which. and to whom no door is closed.²SCOTT. like that spoken in the towns. 420.. 7. either from imitation of their frequent allies. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity.. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. . Dr. etc. and which has never been described. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin.²DE QUINCEY. English by name. Or which. "A mockery.

at the head of what.²W. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. In my native town of Salem. and whose examples and principles we inherit. but which is perhaps not so different from it. such as they have very probably been bred to.²DE QUINCEY. It rose into a thrilling passion.. that . He flung into literature. SIMMS.²HALLAM..²SCOTT. 4. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 6. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.. Such as . I recommend some honest manual calling.²EMERSON. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.²EMERSON. 14. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. Such as . E. what. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.. 8.. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. Which . and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. 10. CHANNING. which.²HAWTHORNE. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill... and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE..2. He.²HOLMES. 13. but which. . and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. was a bustling wharf. 7. That .²BEECHER. 11. in his Mephistopheles. 9. 3. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. the dime. and to whom I do not belong. in his present condition. 15. 5.²HOWELLS. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion... The Tree Igdrasil.²SCOTT That which . and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. I grudge the dollar. was hung in air.²DEFOE. which.. the cent. half a century ago. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. that. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. I give to such men as do not belong to me. whom. 12. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. G.²W.

In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. that not all combined. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²RUSKIN.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Use of any.²MACAULAY. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. Assume that no one is in want of either. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. in which case any should be used instead. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²ID. always at war with one another. for example.²HAWTHORNE. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. 421. 422.² Some one must be poor.²EMERSON. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. Each other.² HAWTHORNE. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²GOLDSMITH. Distributives either and neither. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. England was then divided between kings and Druids. We call ourselves a rich nation. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. By their original meaning.²RUSKIN.²DICKENS. as. and in want of his gold²or his corn. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. as. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. .ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. as it were. whether or not the two are equivalent. one another.

² EMERSON. at one time in Bacon.²BEECHER Whenever.²BIBLE.²FRANKLIN. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.²BURKE. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. In earlier Modern English.²SHAKESPEARE.² In earnest. 423.. The adjective pronoun none is. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. None usually plural.²STIRLING. let him ask of God.²THACKERAY. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. before that.²PROF. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.. which is plural as often as singular. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.² If any. that I know of. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. Do you think. even in Bettine. as none of the French philosophers were. as. then in Plotinus. 424. as. . Examples of its use are. and is isolated. during his stay at Yuste. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²CARLYLE. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. for him have I offended. usually plural. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²SCOTT. any was often singular. Caution.²EMERSON. Any usually plural. None of Nature's powers do better service. speak. any of his friends had died. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. If any of you lack wisdom. etc.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . I beseech you. afterwards in Goethe. Do you think. if ever man was. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. in the prose of the present day. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).. then in Plutarch. whilst I still cherish their genius. in Shakespeare.

any one else. for example. which is used absolutely. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. etc. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. are treated as units. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. or somebody else's? 426.² PEARSON.² None of them was cleansed.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.²NAPIER Plural. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .... Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. Somebody's else. fixing his eyes on the mace.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. The compounds somebody else.² Singular. as.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. When all were gone. etc.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.²McMASTER. 425.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. when it means all persons: for example. and less rarely in poetry.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. etc. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. The light troops thought . that all was lost. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²THOREAU. and all was lost on the other. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. saving Naaman the Syrian. nobody else. etc. the plural.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. and Ford has nobody's else.

²THACKERAY. 427. all manner of. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. London.²AUSTEN.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²G. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's." the nouns being singular.²in such as "these sort of books.²MULOCH. unlike anybody else's in the world. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. etc. These sort.SYDNEY SMITH. Again. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. or some other such great man as a bishop. ELIOT.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²DICKENS.² FIELDING.² These kind of knaves I know. the adjectives plural. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated." "those kind of trees. or those sort of people. for example. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. P.² Saturday Review. His hair."²MRS.²RUSKIN. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. WILLIS. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²SHERIDAN.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²SWEET. . ADJECTIVES. "Ye see.²RUSKIN. STOWE. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. Whitefield or Wesley.²N. etc. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences." "all manner of men.. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.

"These kind of trees are best. gradually displacing the old. to express a higher degree of quality. History of this construction." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. . Later form. in spoken English." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.² PRESCOTT. not "all kinds of wild animals. with all manner of amusing books. This the modern expression reverses. Use of the comparative degree. At the source. the victor or the vanquished. more alarming than a total silence. made to agree with it. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. and the adjective is." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind)." A question. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY.The library was open. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. In Old and Middle English. 428. Should we say. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. "This sort of trees should be planted. Consequently we have a confused expression. and in this way may take a plural verb. Of two such lessons. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. The result.²RUSKIN. for example. which accounts for the construction. as. or one object with a class of objects. or the nouns to the plural. Burke's sentence. they said. "This kind of rules are the best. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. According to the approved usage of Modern English.² Which is the better able to defend himself. such as. when the necessary dispositions concur.

²HAWTHORNE. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. Exercise. than any of his court. has sanctioned. To the man who plays well. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²WIRT.²THACKERAY. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own.²MACAULAY. etc.²CARLYLE. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. I am concerned to see that Mr.²SCOTT. 430. . Superlative with two objects.²SWIFT. 5."²ID.²HUXLEY.A braver ne'er to battle rode. if not. Other after the comparative form. would not have had the face. Use of the superlative degree. Gary. 2. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.² THACKERAY. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 6. Henry. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²MACAULAY.²LOWELL. 4. Even Dodd himself. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. by almost the breadth of my nail.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²TROLLOPE. He is taller. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. 429. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. the highest stakes are paid. 3.

The eldest. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice."²BULWER.²BEN JONSON. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. In all disputes between States.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²MRS. Also from the same period.²EMERSON. OLIPHANT. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Come you more nearer. and differ only in form."²HAWTHORNE. more particularly the last of them. I should say that one has the best cause. . Nor that I am more better than Prospero. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. CÆSAR."²GOLDSMITH. Rip was one of those . to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. whichever can be got easiest. who eat white bread or brown.²RUSKIN. These two properties seem essential to wit.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Examples from Shakespeare are.²ADDISON. ha. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Double comparative and superlative. 1611. 431.²TEMPEST. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²IRVING.²Bible.. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²DR BLAIR. The following examples are used purposely. "Ha.²J.²HAMLET. and the other contains the best men. not a bit of high life among them.²SCOTT. After the most straitest sect of our religion. Mary. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest..²GOLDSMITH.

not only so in popular speech. For Carlyle. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. First three. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. and Secretary Walsingham also. the Spanish.²DE QUINCEY. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.² SMOLLETT. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. but in literary English. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The merit of the Barb.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432.²ADDISON. and conceit in the last. Definite article. Instances of both are given below. As to these two expressions.²KINGSLEY. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. . over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²PRESCOTT. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.² With a singular noun. The first five had specific names.²LAMB. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. These are the three first needs of civilized life. Three first. ²COWPER. Examples of this construction are. jar upon us constantly. The delay in the first three lines. etc. etc. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The meaning intended is the same. ARTICLES.²GIBBON. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²GIBBON. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²RUSKIN. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²RUSKIN. 433.

as. the greatest poems. Meaning same as in Sec.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.. but is used with one only. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. with a singular noun. distinct.. I think. One object and several modifiers. as in Sec. 435.²TAYLOR. or to emphasize the meaning. The lofty. were placed at a very tender age. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. of the eighteenth century.²ID. 433.²TENNYSON. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. to distinguish clearly. 433. with a plural noun. 434. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. but inseparable from each other. 1508. With a plural noun. the thought and the word. the hour of parting came.²NEWMAN. however. having been arranged.²PRESCOTT.² MACAULAY. Indefinite article. of the higher and middling orders. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.²THE NATION. No. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . The not repeated. melodious. He is master of the two-fold Logos.²THACKERAY.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.² RUSKIN. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.²SCOTT. Here the youth of both sexes. and flexible language. and the presents. The flowers. Origin of the Aryans.²CARLYLE.²MACAULAY. . Frequently. as.

²BEECHER." and "a red and a white geranium.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. one noun is expressed. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. to limit two or more modified nouns.436.²DICKENS. In the sentences of Secs. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. . yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.² BURKE.²S. 433 and 436. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. But in the following sentences. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. 436). 434) is used to lend special emphasis. The indefinite article (compare Sec. rich. 438. 437.An early. He saw him in his mind's eye.²MACAULAY. only one of which is expressed. and a usurper. For rhetorical effect.² MACAULAY. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The indefinite article is used. or clearness to each of several nouns. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. a collegian. a round and a square one alternately. Examples of this use are.²B. interest. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²THACKERAY. as. JONSON.²MACAULAY. as in the first three of Sec. T.²DRYDEN. 435.²JOHNSON. a tyrant. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. COLERIDGE.²BULWER. and inexhausted vein. a murderer. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. like the definite article. One article with several adjectives. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.

²G. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. 440. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. Such.. or the great intellectual life of our nation. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. was the earliest American land. and the following illustrations prove it. Collective noun of singular meaning. This was spoken of in Part I. Singulars connected by or or nor. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. like some others in this series. In English. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Another writer might. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. without academies. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. then.²AGASSIZ. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. as. He sees that it is better to live in peace. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²GIBBON. as.²M.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.²FROUDE.VERBS.²W. ARNOLD. Singular verb.²The Nation.²CARLYLE This usage. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. has got already.²COOPER. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. . for example. Sec. 439. ELIOT. A broad and loose rule. all that academies can give. 276.

ADAMS. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. nor Mahomet. and every four hours.² The unbought grace of life.²BURKE. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. a mutilation.² In a word. Between ourselves.² Politics is the only field now open for me. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. nor John. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. (4) When the subject is plural in form. as. and other singulars of plural form. or as making up one general idea. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²WHITTIER.²CRITIC.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. ²EMERSON. or considered as appositional. for example.Jesus is not dead. but considered as meaning about the same thing. nor Paul. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²GOLDSMITH. A fever. for example. a loss of friends.² GOLDSMITH.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. No. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. but each one emphatic. as.²J. a cruel disappointment. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. a loss of wealth.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²DE QUINCEY. that of a large town. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²EMERSON . the cheap defense of nations. other names. is gone.²GIBBON. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. Plural form and singular meaning. seems at the moment unpaid loss. Q. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.

was like to crack. the fine gentleman. Plural verb.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. Every sound.²PRESCOTT.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. Her back.² Asia. does not take the place of the man.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. each.² . the partisan. sir!" and the "What then. thus. in a judge. every echo. as. Then comes the "Why. with death.²ID. as. many a. the ruin. was dazzled.²MACAULAY. To receive presents or a bribe.²BUTLER. Here is no ruin. every boor. as well as the newest. every valet. no spent ball. is a man of wit. sir?" and the "No. For wide is heard the thundering fray. sir!"²MACAULAY.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. and greaves. the dismay. an impassioned countenance. Every week.²RUSKIN. a cuirass. 441. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. The Epic. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. almost every day. and such like adjectives. The oldest. as well as Europe.²SCOTT. an agitated gesture. was listened to for five hours. no matter if the second is plural). to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. as well as the Drama.²LONGFELLOW. no. a gorget.²ID. wineBegins to stir itself.²NEWMAN. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.The rout. There is a moving tone of voice. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.² There is a right and a wrong in them. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. as well as sides. Subjects after the verb.The author. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²M ARNOLD. the wit. no discontinuity. Every fop. nay. was punished.

² A multitude go mad about it. of whom there were a number. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²GOLDSMITH. A shady grove.²B. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²COLERIDGE. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. far away thy children leave the land. The travelers. but the verb is plural.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON. Conjunction omitted. were men of insignificant characters. a stream of fresh water.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. His clothes.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. are sufficient to attract a colony.²GIBBON.²FROUDE. Philip of Anjou. as with a subject of plural form. b). for example.²FROUDE. A party of workmen were removing the horses.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. . The conjunction may be omitted.²FRANKLIN. the Duke of Berri. shirt. The Dauphin. a green pasture. All our household are at rest. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. and its history are alike a mystery to us. making up a plural subject. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.² GIBBON.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. its date.²ADDISON. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²SWIFT. 440 (5. TAYLOR. as. Far. as in Sec.These bits of wood were covered on every square. as.²SCOTT.²THOREAU.

²RUSKIN. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. You and I are farmers. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.²M. General usage. "He or I can go. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. but thou." "She or you may be sure. .² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. ARNOLD. hadst been my lord. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. of different persons.²ROWE. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. that is.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness." etc. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. Not I. the subject being really equivalent to we. as. Ah.²DE QUINCEY. Exceptional examples.²GOLDSMITH. but thou. "You would not be wiser. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. nor should I. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²LOWELL. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.).² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser." or. WEBSTER. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. If there is only one person in the subject. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²SMOLLETT. we never talk politics. Pattison or I have said. You and I are tolerably modest people. for example. 442. Second or third and first person in the subject.²THACKERAY.²D. Not Altamont.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. "I have never said so. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. Nothing which Mr.²THACKERAY. nor has she"). When the subjects.²BYRON.²RUSKIN. 443.But notice the construction of this.²WHITTIER. his blood dost shed. 444.

6. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.² TROLLOPE. 5. Exercise. In this sentence from Defoe.²ADDISON. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Also in verbals.²ADDISON. as we would hope. BANCROFT.²EMERSON. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 4. 2. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. How each of these professions are crowded. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 3. The following illustrate exceptional usage. as illustrated above (Secs. nor bush are there. 12. In the following sentence. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.That neither of their intellects are vast.²MILTON. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²BURKE. nor tree. Neither of them. 446. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²perhaps the devil. in my opinion. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²THACKERAY.Her course to intercept. 8. 440-444):² 1.²and. In a word. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²ID. Nor wood. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. 7. 11.²G.²BYRON. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²SMOLLETT. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.445.²SCOTT. Both death and I am found eternal. which it is proper to mention. 10. 9. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.

²KINGSLEY.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²THACKERAY. The present rule is recent.²FRANKLIN 6. 447. for exact connection. W. Indirect discourse means reported speech. if not. meaning.²IRVING. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.. 448. I gave one quarter to Ann.² PALGRAVE 5.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.²MACAULAY." . INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 4.. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. to have seen should be changed to to see. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. Of course. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. on my return.²R. But I found I wanted a stock of words. change them to a better form:² 1. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. It should be remarked. Two samples of indirect discourse.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. Exercise. Direct discourse²that is. 3. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. as. to have divided with her whatever might remain. however. Definitions. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²DE QUINCEY 2. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. CHURCH. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.

She thought to herself. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. have. This includes the auxiliaries be. "Oh. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Sebastian's.. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. will. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. His exact words were. Direct. and the indirect question by whether or if. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat." etc. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Oh. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. introductory verb is in the past tense. Her prudence whispered eternally. Summary of the expressions. 2. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. interrogative adverbs. or regular interrogatives. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. 1. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. 449. etc. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main..(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. . under interrogative pronouns. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Direct." etc. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form." Indirect. The substance of his lamentation was. "I cannot oblige you . Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step.

Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. my first observation will be found nearly true. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. he assured me that nothing was more easy. 450. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.Exercise. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. . being the course which his confessor had enjoined.²ID. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. FRANKLIN." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. and that he himself had heard. the sound of their balls. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. PARTICIPLES. The trouble is.²GOLDSMITH. one summer afternoon. VERBALS." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²ADDISON. the first discoverer of the river and country. like distant peals of thunder. Careless use of the participial phrase. with his crew of the Half-moon. Notice this. if this were expanded into a verb. in the sentences first quoted. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²B. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill.

.. This is the more common arrangement. Exercise.. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. In the following citations..²SCOTT. INFINITIVES. Adverb between to and the infinitive. leaving the principal statement as it is. if a strike is to succeed. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. purposely or not. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. my first collection was. For example. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. 2.. while defended or excused by others.²ID. then. and often.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. 451. the first sentence would be. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. universal assertion. . deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.Correction. either "As I was pleased.²LAUGHLIN.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. It is a solemn." etc. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. avoid it. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. 3. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . many things to be carefully considered. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. There are.²RUSKIN.² HERBERT SPENCER." Exercise. Standard writers often use it.

Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. 452. etc. Now. but they are often removed from the exact position.²ID. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.4. etc. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. The spirits. are used. but cannot misunderstand the thought. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. 8. The rigid rule in such a case would be. when such adverbs as only. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. Exercise.²The Nation. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.² MACAULAY.. even. is to be very cautiously admitted. but it is placed before the infinitive. ADVERBS. I wish the reader to clearly understand. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.²SCOTT. In works of art. etc. 10. 7. 6. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. from Irving. A little sketch of his. No.² ADDISON. this kind of grandeur. 13. 5.²DR.²TROLLOPE. 9. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. Position of only. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. china. 1533. even. BLAIR. and earthenware.²GOLDSMITH. 11.. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.²BURKE. therefore.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 12. which consists in multitude. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. if they modify single words.²RUSKIN.

7.²RUSKIN. 8. In relating these and the following laws. 453. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. were he never so old of yeares.²COOPER. 5.²N. 3.1. 17.²ID. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. for example.²MRS. P.²SWIFT. 11. My master.²THACKERAY. WILLIS. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 14. 15.²HIGGINSON. In Old and Middle English.²MOTLEY. to avoid a crowd. . 12. whence he was never destined to return. GROTE. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.² THACKERAY. 13. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. ²ASCHAM. No sonne. The old usage.²CHAUCER.²EMERSON.²ID. 10. might not marry. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. During the whole course of his administration. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 6.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²MACAULAY. 2. Irving could only live very modestly. His last journey to Cannes. 16. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 9.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²ID.²SYDNEY SMITH. He shouted in those clear. 4.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²PALGRAVE. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.

and is still kept in vulgar English. is not common. However.²GROTE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. In the execution of this task.²BURKE. . that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. I did not act so hastily. the usual way of regarding the question now is. nor never shall. in Ole Virginia. and why:² 1. In the latter case. STOWE.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. The prosperity of no empire. Regular law of negative in modern English. denying each other. if two negatives are found together. 5.²LOWELL. 6."²MRS. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. Not only could man not acquire such information. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. 2. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. There weren't no pies to equal hers. I never did see him again.²DEFOE.²DE QUINCEY.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. as. Exceptional use. when one of the negatives is a connective. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.²HOLMES.²HAWTHORNE."²four negatives. ²PAGE. 7. But. can so agreeably affect. however. STOWE.²BAYNE. uncommon.² HAMILTON. but ought not to labor after it. etc. who hadn't been to school for nothing. as infrequent. one of the negatives is often a prefix. 4. under the influence of Latin syntax.²MRS. 3. This. Therefore. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. nor the grandeur of no king. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. neither. Exercise.

" both of the above requirements are violated. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. as well as of the pronoun.. either.. there we were."²SCOTT. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is." said the King. or. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. either .²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. even neither . or with advantage.. The sentences given in Secs. And who.. or to reply to it. but to their own safety. nor. CONJUNCTIONS. The sentence. not merely ." may be changed to "This loose .²LOWELL.8. "A weapon. as the use of the conjunction. should be scrutinized. but (also). the first should also. not only . or. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.... Choice and proper position of correlatives..²SCOTT... nor is often changed to not²either .. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. if the last precedes a verb. and which. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives... nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. 455. the first ought to be placed before a verb. neither . "well worthy to confer honor. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace." . but. In the sentence. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. or to reply to it. Things to be watched.²PRESCOTT. 454. and." Besides neither . not only to the success of their common cause. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. especially both ... Correction. if the second precedes a phrase.

²ID.²S. JEWETT. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. too. but. as. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. nor the disgrace of assailing him.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 7. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. . it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. But what. but they will outrage. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²FRANKLIN. substitute that. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²GOLDSMITH. murder.²RUSKIN. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. O. In the following sentences. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.²BAIN. 6. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Some exceptions. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Try and for try to. not merely interest children.²GIBBON. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. as. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 4. 3. or the negative relative but. and I don't know but what he was right. They will. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. 2. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Try and avoid the pronoun.²THACKERAY. 5.²MACAULAY.² ADDISON. but.Exercise. but grown-up persons. 456. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 457.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. Now." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²THACKERAY. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. and chop up their own kin. Exercise. 8. or but that. etc.

PREPOSITIONS. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²BURKE. no separation or division by twos being implied. 5. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²TROLLOPE. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.² BULWER. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²ADDISON.² SWIFT. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.2. as already seen in Sec. Between and among. 458. . Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 3. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²EMERSON. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²EMERSON. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 459. Between is used most often with two things only. 305. 6. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. 313. 4. see Sec.²ADDISON.²SCOTT.

and another to convey a different meaning. Comply with. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Abhorrent to. involve. LIST I. Dependent on (upon). Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. as. Kant. Two groups or one and a group. Conversant with. correspond. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Conform to. confer. different. 461. Affinity between.: Words with particular prepositions.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. .²RUSKIN What have I. Different from. etc. Mackintosh. Derogatory to. averse. by custom. Some of them have. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. a soldier of the Cross. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Bestow on (upon). Accord with. Dissent from. List I. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow.²KINGSLEY. Paley. 460. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Acquit of. and Stewart. Averse to. or one object and a group.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. as. and philosophers like Locke.²between philosophers like Spinoza.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. ²EMERSON. Such are absolve. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. and Coleridge. Such are derogatory. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.

as meaning to be in keeping with. "The king is reconciled to his minister. as.y y y Deprive of. Agree to (a proposal). 463. A taste of (food)." List III. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. but it is not good usage. Involve in. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Differ from (note below). Change to (become). etc. A taste for (art. 462. and sometimes creeps into standard books. LIST II. Change with (a person).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Correspond with (write to). Reconcile with (note below). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Confide in (trust in)." also of persons.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Change for (a thing). Confer with (talk with). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Reconcile to (note below). Correspond to (a thing). as. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Confide to (intrust to). List II. Confer on (upon) (give to). in the sense of making friends with.). Independent of. LIST III. as. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. . "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Differ with (note below). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.

²ADDISON.y y y Die by. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing." "die from. die for. He died at last without disease. It would take me long to die of hunger. instrument). "Die from.²POPE. ²ATHENÆUM.:² "Die of. If I meet with any of 'em." (material cause. "Die by. "Die for. . I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. Take thought and die for Cæsar. expect from.²BURNETT. ELIOT." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. ²THACKERAY. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. "Die with. People do not die of trifling little colds.²FIELDING." (because of).²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL." etc.²BOSWELL. they shall die by this hand. die from. part with. Expect of.²G.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. and ill treatment. One of them said he would die for her.²GOLDSMITH. Who. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread." The author died of a fit of apoplexy." (in behalf of).²BULWER. Part from. simply from old age.²GOLDSMITH.²G. No one died from want at Longfeld. privation. died for love of the fair Marcella. Illustrations of "die of. die of. die with. She died of hard work." She would have been ready to die with shame. ELIOT.²MACAULAY.²SHAKESPEARE.²SCOTT. "Die for. It is a man of quality who dies for her. I am positively dying with hunger.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. as Cervantes informs us.

kind of you." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²MARRYAT. His precious bag. as my friend.²POE.²WALLER.²G." To part from you would be misery. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. "Part from. Cleveland was sorry to part with him." "part from:"² "Part with. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. Of Doctor P. I have just seen her.²BULWER. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²G.²TROLLOPE. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. ELIOT. either of or in is used indifferently.²G. 464. just parted from her. Illustrations of "expect of. Illustrations of "part with. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. ELIOT. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. which he would by no means part from. ELIOT. That is more than I expected of you.²AUSTEN." She will expect more attention from you. I can part with my children for their good. "Expect from. I part with all that grew so near my heart. . 465.²WALPOLE.²DICKENS.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²MACAULAY. nothing better was to be expected. It was a little bad of you.²SHAW.²MACAULAY." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. I have long expected something remarkable from you. With words implying behavior or disposition. and hated to part with them. 466." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²BULWER.²SCOTT. Kind in you.

7. or artillery.²CARLYLE. nor yellow. 11. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 6. Thou tread'st. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 14. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. or which we are most imperatively required to do. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction.²BULWER. The noise of vast cataracts.He did not think it handsome of you. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 9. nor of a pale red. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. 4. 5. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. raging storms.²TENNYSON.²BEACONSFIELD. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. thrown it over Amyas's head. Hampden. the vast abyss. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. This narrative. 1. 10. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 8. thunder.²BULWER. Very natural in Mr. and ran up the alley. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. In the friction between an employer and workman. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. But this is idle of you. tedious perhaps. . 3. but which the story renders necessary.²DICKENS. In. 15. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. nor green. 13. nor blue. or that they are any way dependent on each other. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. with seraphims. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.

) 34. 16. You have seen Cassio and she together. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. the acquiescence of the understanding. Every one of these letters are in my name. you or me. The effect of proportion and fitness. 35. 21. 23. 36. produce approbation. 30. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 25. 28. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 411. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. but in the price paid to them. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled.I would wish me only he. Friday. 37. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. That night every man of the boat's crew. or how beautiful it is. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. But every man may know. 18. 20. (Sec. 17. 29. and almost as good as a pony. triangles. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. and other angular figures. save Amyas. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. what is a just and unjust act. 31. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 38. 19. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. were down with raging fever. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 22. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 33. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 27. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves.And were I anything but what I am. and most of us do know. 32. 24. Squares. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. . 26.

from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. syntax uses Absolute. of. as comparison definition demonstrative. 260. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 90. 124.39. adjectives. nominative. 40. 91. 47. adverbs used complements. pronouns. demonstrative. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. voice. numeral. of. 133. 310. 107. of. (2) Middle English. 92. from about 1500 to the present time. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. of. as. 102. 124. 239. Adjectives. 47. (3) Modern English. nouns. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. A. 98. 119. origin of. INDEX. article.000 between them. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 25. . of. Abstract with Active Address. 116. 89. 20. He had four children. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. from nominative clauses.

190. 114. compared. 195. nouns. of. 316. 242. Agreement. sentence. 239. 323. of. 303. 116. of. 275. clauses. 27. 302. 191. conjunction. 303. 97. 101. 103. infinitive. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. conjunctions. parse. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. objective. 48. 116. nouns. of. 148.from function how in not of of ordinal. 325. 115. 99. 187. 328. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. adjectives. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 207. of. 42. 262. Alms. 325. 287. predicate. 291. plural pronominal. to used of. from to of. quantity. Against. antecedent. quality. 109. modify. parse. 194. 190. of. and 185. antecedent. 106. of. 194. with with with subject. adjectives. 207. between of. 184. 27. as nouns. adjectives. 104. 183. .

127. of. of of of And Antecedent. 231. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 47. See with definition complex compound simple who. of and pronoun of. Arrangement Articles. 150. . An. and. Agreement. 120. which. 208. 287. Are. 79. pronouns. 101. 74. words between. derivation in definite. of. 148. 295. 264. 225. definition how indefinite. 49. 309. 207. adjective. 271. 120. 90. syntax As. 124. sentences. agreement personal as pronoun. sentences. to of. 331. uses As At. it. 67. of. Anacoluthon Analysis. same. 296. as uses verbs. though. 84. of. which. syntax. of. See 74. Auxiliary if. 294. 198. 275. 51. 300. definition of of of Any. sentences. 240. parse. which. A. possessive. 67. in in.Among. 252. after of.

262. 161. best. But. See of. of what. Among. uses Better. of pronouns. of. Children. 45. Case. clauses of. objective. nominative. Between.Bad. adverb. possessive. of. 37. forms. 66. adjective. 46. 279. uses of. 195. Be. 46. syntax of. 150. 278. . Brethren. 63. of nouns. Can. 260. definition could. of nouns. 110. 279. 54. in Old and Modern English. 48. of nouns. with But By. 47. 39. of. Cause. Clause. comparison conjugation of. 149. conjunctions Cherub. 194. 64. of pronouns. of pronouns. pronoun. 278. of nouns. 210. uses nominative of. number of. 84. 330. Case. 39. of pronouns. 49. 224. 262. plurals of. 62. double possessive. 283. 111. Bridegroom. 110.

nouns. 315. 271. of. defective. of. subject. 23. of. English. 113. of. in analysis. definition degrees irregular. 189. predicate. 43. 53. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 108. predicate of and from from of. 12. 18. 307. and sentence. verb. 305. sentence. nouns. 312. 263. adjectives. 239. nouns. infinitive. 108. Clomb. 268. of. of. Cloths. 43. 257. 257. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 158. 18. 24. 157. 264. superlative. material. 244. 258. 107. and forms of. proper. 248. of. clothes. of. 307. 111. plural of.definition kinds noun. analysis of. 257. adverbs. Cleave. double. 110. .

parse. See English. 194. 196. and clause. same words. 255. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 269. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. to of. replaced by objective. of. 66. pronoun. 193. 149. verbs. 231. 143. conjunction. correlative. See in subjunctive. sentences. Agreement. other other parts of speech. 151. 73. subjunctive. 194. adverbs. pronoun. conjunctions. definition be. 207. Can. 289. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. Conjunctions. 199. See analysis clauses. 194. conjunctions. coördinate. 263. . sentence. 139. pronouns. sentences. 328. 149. 188. in Old vs. 138. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 195. of. 195.with Concord. analysis. of of Conjunctions. interrogative pronouns. definition how subordinate.

Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. pronouns. 51. 160. See See 48. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. tenses. indirect. 152. object. with of. nouns. article.Declension. Subordinate clause. 60. 91. clause. 102. of. vs. of. by. use of dies. See 148. 315. 242. 287. 99. 288. pronouns. nouns. Case. Articles. 303. of. discourse. 80. from. possessive. 185. of. duck. 300. 102. verb. 333. adverbs See adjectives. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. Comparison. comparative. pronouns. passive adjectives. 43. with. 26. of personal relative verbs. 90. 242. pronouns. 35. Degrees. . Comparative. for. 320. See adjectives.

194. adjective. pronoun. object. 92. older. error in sentence. 257. of. 33. 40. drunk. 287. 240. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. syntax Each Eat Eaves.Drank. 42. 158. -En. ending. 255. conjunction. plural. to suffix. 110. 234. 90. literary. of. the of sentence. in 'Em. one ( t). 241. vulgar. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 280. 33. 51. 12. complement. Elements Ellipsis. 300. of subject. predicate. of. 287. 158. 39. 90. 32. 92. 299. 102. 38. 62. possessive suffix. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. feminine plural English. another. original. spoken. adjective. 92. added suffix. Empress. of. other. suffix. pronouns. 34. 112. 328. of. Each. of. . pronoun. Either.

238. 30. 30. with in sex. as of from compared marking. etc. First Fish. the. 147. Further. uses redundant. For. 32. 334. 235. of. 152. 287. 103. to of. pronoun. 29. of. Gender. definition distinguished in English. 112. as a noun. modes "common goose. See Gander. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther.. other languages. Future Future tense. 148. from. 30. First. with infinitive. 152. have adjective. Farther. 319. Few. 102. 211. 308. etc. 91.. two. 48. plurals. Feminine. first. 212. 110. 112. 102. few. 212. two a further. adjective. object. used of. of. 36. From. . uses Foreign Former. 126. perfect. nouns. 189." 31. expect gone. 43. 45. fishes.Every. gender.

and case verbal with. 159. she. Had Hanged. Got. 176. 285. it. rather. 177. . person. 144. for before. 13.of of Genii. Grammar. personal relative geniuses. possessive pronouns. its. 145. He. definition divisions opinions province H. 80. kinds of. from participle of. 175. 159. 36. distinguished syntax. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 60. participle. of. first sentence. His Husband. of. an better. Government. 275. adjective. 43. 12. 61. 120. 35. had hung. 60. definition basis of. forms in Girl. of. pronoun. I. of. 12. 231. on. 61. 10. 9. 101. pronouns. noun. 173. Gerund.

pronoun. See Articles. mood. verbs. of clause. of. 73. 323. 320. meaning. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 176. of. of. Direct object. a object. 131. 231. 85. uses discourse. transitive. indirect of. 93. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. adverbs. 188. 110. elements. summary See passive mood. with of. 43. 319. See you. questions. Questions. 136.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 67. in compared syntax. your. 245. 227. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. words. indices. 276. 72. questions. sentence. of. 105. 283. 233. . 131. 248. adjectives. pronouns. 257. adjectives. use article. 153. 178.

Last. 190. -Ly. of. and See words in. 39. 12. predicate. adjective. in little. of. Kind. these double kind. 36. syntax the. was uses me. Lay. lesser. 281. 63. a vs. Lay. . English.. Like. 227. 61. plural. pronoun. Less. queen. syntax. 276. Lady. 303. 245. lord. See Madam. 226. 91. 113. 67. Lady. 113. 170.adverbs. 36. "It Its.. latest. 110. 36. It. 102. 126. of. Latter. Kine. Logic Logical Lord. King. 189. subject form. etc. Lie. lie. 110. of." history etc. uses Literary Little.

135. of. 34. comparison Near. See definition 136. adjective. 137. 144. double. Enlargement. 112. 265. might. Much. 161. mistress. Master. of. 185. of. 189. Negative. indicative. etc. Modifier. May. syntax nearer. of. 325. 112. 189. Mighty Mine. 110. Must. Mood. Means. 114.Manner. 36. superlatives. 328. Modifiers. mine. of. 112. imperative. 160. 188. 256. 110. 64. out of. sentences. construction as of adverb. 137-144. 195. -Most. subjunctive. 187. of. 287. 194. 41. 110. 113. Neither. 326. in adverbs comparison a. syntax conjunction. conjunctions Many. position adverb. Many Mapping Mare. of. 102.. . nigh. of. 126.

46.pronoun. Nor. 42. 27. now plural. 246. 92. See 194. Case. abstract. syntax Neuter or two News. 301. and figures. 41. 26. half abstract. of. 29. 21. 19. of. 20. 126. definition descriptive. definition according of. become become formation case collective. 125. 46. to use. of. etc. foreign. 30. used as. 30. syntax in gender nouns. proper. of of of of of a. 25. parse. 124. 18. 41. 17 19. abstract. gender how kinds material. 32. 45. nouns. None. 38-41. etc. of. 41 43. gender nouns. . common. words how compound. No Nominative. to of. nouns. in. 328. formed. 56. 258. number once other plural. of. 38. 30. analysis. class used singular. 300. of. clause. become neuter. letters as 24. 25. material. Not Noun Nouns. of. kinds 90. 17. 17.

common. 92. passive adverbial. personal. 41.. Preposition. of. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 48. 278. of. meanings. of. 102. spoken of instead nouns. definite. meaning. 48. or plural. plural form. with case. See in in in Numeral distributive. dative. 23. 148. in article. 41. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. plural. 48. singular. pronouns. as forms titles. preposition. 235. English. of. with with with Now Number. 18. of different possessive definite of. plural no two singular construction.of same two with proper. indefinite. 124. conjunction. 42. 42. article. See verb. 240. adjectives. 101. adverbial. 48. singular. verbs. 66. 41. etc. 121. 106. 43. 281. 285. and analysis. 278. form. 48. 60. 242. Numeral Object. 42 44. 196. 282. Nouns. of. 279. in nouns. of. 242. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. . nominative. pronouns. 39. indirect. 101. adjectives. 195.

of. One. Our. as of. for. 213. 279. conjunctions. adverb. 194. part analysis. 91. of of of of of models adjectives. Pains. 103. adverbs. Ordinal Other Ought. Parsing. of upon. 293. articles. definite relative uses of. Each adjective. 216. another. Older. 87. 38. . 64. See the as of. 41. 233. 117. 237. nouns. 325 275. of syntax. 56. pronoun. position Order. ours. Elder. 93 other. 116. 94. adjective. 199. a in adjectives. 103. See pronoun. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 115. treatment comparatives. 101.syntax Of. inverted. 191. 306. 69. 127. Ourself. Omission On. 161. with (the). of. Oxen. conjunction. of. 56. uses numeral pronoun. as other.

287. part adjective. pronouns. and subject in. pronouns. 59. pennies. 322. predicate use of. 56. 63. speech. 62. 119. 59. them. reflexive. 62. phrases. -ing words. of.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. or of. antecedent. verbals. 134. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. included various. of. 335. of. 95. from definition other of. 172. article 150. verbs. absolute with of. 179. in. of. relatives. parsed. phrase. of. 281. 27. 56. 247. 177. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. not is. 100. 64. pronoun. 219. 148. pease. 70. Pence. used as voice. verbs. 172. 181. possessive and of. . 80. 59. of. 69. 180. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 43. 173. verb idioms it from. nominative. 174. 61. 43. with. of. agreement of verb nouns. 317. 28. Person.

of. pronoun. 278. 195. 247. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns.objective syntax table triple uses of. double. nouns. antecedent of of pronouns. appositional. pronoun. Place. nouns. it. vs. of. 303. 54. 64. 52. 50. Comparison. 106. of. 188. participial. 51. 248. singular. of Phrase. 's. 245. of nouns. 236. pronouns. 61. 25. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. Positive Possessive. 37. 303. of. plural. 49. simple. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. Nouns. adjectives. 235. complete. 206. 67. prepositional. Personal subjective. 53. . 232. of. spoken of. 247. nouns. conjunctions prepositions Plural. syntax of of Politics. 278. of. omitted. 236. kinds infinitive. See 60. 41. as double. relative. Personification. English. 241. singular degree. 53. 245. or See of of See 185. of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 281. in of. 60. objects. 285. 281. 63. noun nouns. of. adverbs of.

186. 58. in exclamations. and one with else's. singular usually other. as 54. 285. after but. 283. 331. 203. 147. plural. as. . adjective. usually to as than. interrogative. future. of. plural. 64. 187. verbs. neither. and form form form form of. 303. who personal. each either. as antecedent of relative. speech. 282. 283. exclamatory. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. parse. 279.Prefixes. 132. by with shown certain of. 202. somebody definition how indefinite. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 284. 89. same used as adjectives. of. 105. 58. what. another. of. 95. none. parse. 332. 299. forms of. possessive nominative to of. 32. 59. 280. case. 281. 208. 105. 300. 300. 207. objective. meaning. words. 301. adverb. of. by. of. 205. 287. 93. by parts of of. of. 72. all. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. interrogative. case. 206. plural. objective. 302. any. with tense certain. for predicate nominative. Prepositions. of. 203. expressed as other of. 129. 104. 195. 219. 333. Pronouns.

286. of. which after same. adverbs in.possessive relative. 84. 58. who. with who. 99. pronoun. 74. in. 85. conjunctions Quality. or of. of. Rather. of. and which. 296. 83. agreement anacoluthon and as. Quantity. nouns. 297. 68. unrestrictive. of. 291. in. 188. use of history formed. 87. Rank. 87. 263. and antecedent. 105. 74. of. pronouns. 293. of. discourse. in. 142. 195. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 279. Direct same and different. 69. and relatives. pronominal pronouns indirect. 289. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. Questions. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 74. questions. parse. indirect compound. . from and interrogative. use in as. of. See of. which. 289. 295. 295. that. to of. of. 80. 189. of. Quotations. 85. with with gerund. indirect. Nouns. 293. same antecedent. 101. 69. personal pronoun.

Seeing. 42. clauses of. of. pronoun. will. 231. 29. gender. tenses. effect. Shear. 69. and should. of of of complex Sentences. 40. Sex Shall. that. 263. 159. in form. forms shots. who. in of. conjunctions Retained Riches. kinds Sequence Set. S. Simple in sate. conjunction. elliptical. definition . 242. of. object. would. of. Self Sentences. which. Shot. 43. 51. reflexive analysis of compound. Same Sat. 'S. plural possessive as. 170. See Sentences. 74. 319. ending. 195. 289. 259. 159. complex. 26 271. 162. 196. 294. 255. simple of. of. 252. simple. 196. suffix. sentence. 231.syntax use Result. of sit.

12. 245. 33. of. 323. as. 33. phonetic in infinitive. 237. 258. 240. adverb. English. definition how kinds noun. names as a. of. 303. .Singular Sir. 257. 126. 245. 260.. 270. 262. other Such Such Suffix -s. verbs. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 38. 186. English. Subject. vs. distinguish. 137. used mood. definition 67. of. in feminine suffix. for. literary clause. English. 138. Spelling Spinster. 32. sort. 258. logical. disuse in spoken complete. 144. adverb. 169. 233. Somebody Sort. etc. English. 257. of. 38. of. See -En. of. Split Spoken -Ster. 144. 36. these number. 303. to of. 257. 257. -en. 258. of. Modern use becoming else's. -es. in Middle English.

they. 319. two basis not same definition definite. 87. of. definition in English Tense. English. of languages.. form. classical of. omission whom." introductory. 306. 116. 106. object. of. 123. not suggesting adjectives. 107.. which. 189. 152. king. restrictive. 61. syntax of. of. than of. plural as adverb. English. 191. 147. adverbs. 33. in double. "the then foreign. 147. as adverbs. of. as history The. when relative. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. me. 306. coördinating. auxiliaries. degree. when as of. 186. meaning made up in Old of. 297. of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 148. in comparison. 106. 290. Then. 275. 186. 275. 277. Kind. of. 119. 88. objects. adjectives. There These kind. of. this. of . See etc. and and of. 108. 309. subject.Suffixes. of. article. 289. 120. 109. 307.. that uses That. 222. . Tenses. 280. as history syntax Their. meaning. 147.

of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. first adjective. 172. 322. 180. 247. 175. conjunctions prepositions To. 20. how infinitive. to. 207. 114. 128. Upon. See That. Thou. 175. used. analysis. parse. 172. uttermost. of. . 248. in omitted uses T'other. Try Two Under. 181. infinitive. uses history of. exclamations. phrases. other noun. uses of. suffix. 308.These. gerund. 176. See On. 114. preposition. kinds participle. of. 185. 322. Utter. 33. first. verbs. from cleft to 174. -ing 111. 330. 173. Upper.. 217. 114. adverbs those. -Trix. 175. words. 119. of. 21. carelessly uses syntax this. Time. 323. feminine and. of. in of. etc. thy. try two. tother. thee. of. 61. certain as the before with of. 195. infinitive. 188. of.

spelling of. with subject in number. 148. conjugation of. 317. definition of. person and number of. verbs by. 147. 179. 223. 134. 154. made transitive. 169. passive form. 133. definition of. 135. becoming irregular. 312. 154. defective. past tense formed nominative. 245. of. 320. 236. auxiliary. syntax of. 149. 129. 242. 157. 167. 159. tense of. weak. in indirect discourse. 131. 133. how to parse. 33. 12. agreement of. regular. 319. analysis. voice of.Verbs. 151. of English. definition of. Vixen. 169. Vocative in Voice. passive. verbs. 155. 39. but uses what. sequence of. 154. retained object with passive. 47. table of irregular. remarks on certain. of incomplete predication. in person. 160. intransitive. 148. of. change. 330. strong. formed by. What. transitive and intransitive. . Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 150. table of. 130. active meaning. active. phonetic. mood of. 167. 312-316.

pronoun. 40. 75. Yes ending analysis. 111. would. referring syntax Widower. Witch. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. interrogative Which. 83. 72. spoken in of. plural of in nouns -ing. Words in Worse. antecedent adjective. whereto. of. 295-299.what Whereby. wizard. questions. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 105. Wife. questions. 77. 79. 190. 126. questions. English. worser. in in indefinite objective. Whether. 178. 104. Who. conjunction. questions. Will. a. 37. 83. in -ly. . 32. relative indirect relative. 85. 85. 36. animals. 85. direct of. relative. 73. 299. 246. 194. pronoun. etc. of.. 36. uses See Shall. 105. in. With. 218. relative. 296. Y. Woman. 75. 78. 72. 72.

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