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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

however. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. their forms. if rightly presented. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. as. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. from the question. Surely our noble language. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now." What grammar is. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. but this is bad English now. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections)." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. then. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. Coming back. If. and their uses and relations in the sentence. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. with its enormous vocabulary. Mental training. is worthy of serious study. there is still much for the grammarian to do. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes.The province of English grammar is. assist the classification of kindred expressions. The work it will cover. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Literary English. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. An æsthetic benefit. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. so that a small grammar will hold them all. "Analysis. Few inflections. Authority as a basis. It is also evident. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. it will at the same time. This will take in the usual divisions. its peculiar and abundant idioms. Making rules is risky. to those who have studied the language historically. as compared with Latin or Greek. and thus incite his observation. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. . rightly considered." and "Syntax. A broader view. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training.

the nation is free. or standard. three divisions:² Part I. Part II. besides this one. PART I. and may belong to any of those objects. Occasionally. not objects. . since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. the words sons and master name objects. Analysis of Sentences. then.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. that is. by which is meant the free. Part III. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. from the eighteenth century on. and Inflections. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. NOUNS. 1. Spoken English. reference will be made to vulgar English.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Such words are called nouns. which belongs to a people. The plainest name is Arabs. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. or Syntax. submission. In the more simple state of the Arabs. and will are evidently names of a different kind. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. too. but. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. and the word nation stands for a whole group. The words state. The following pages will cover. Vulgar English. The Parts of Speech. The Uses of Words. as they stand for ideas. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times.²GIBBON.

Classes of nouns. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. 3. (b) Common. etc. representing directly to the mind an object. 2. as here used. substance. reducing it to a narrow application. Abstract. ATTRIBUTE. men in groups may be called a crowd. and appropriate names to the groups. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Collective. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. They properly belong under common nouns. we may think of them in groups. animals. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. because each group is considered as a unit. or the man in front of you. or a mob. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. A noun is a name word. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. a committee. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. MATERIAL. Besides considering persons. Thus. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. We may say. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Proper. Common. place. or thing. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. (a) 4. Individual. This does not imply. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. For instance. Thus. 5. possessed by all. Name for any individual of a class. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. and things separately. Name for a group or collection of objects. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. is from a Latin word which means general. or a congress. animals. whether person.Definition. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. but Chicago names one city. . but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. or idea. belonging to one. the man here. however. the name of each is an individual or proper name. or a council. or things.

proof means the act of proving. or apart from their natural connection. soap. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. tea. etc. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. rubber. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. earth. sugar. rice. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). It may. instead of to each individual or separate object. clay. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. but in the words sun. platinum. 6. etc. etc. The quality is still there as much as before. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. celluloid. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. frost. moon.Names for things thought of in mass. we may say. expressing attributes or qualities. or that which shows a thing has been proved. etc. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. conditions. rock. expressing state." "a man of understanding. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. condition. etc. mist. but which are not called proper names.. NOTE. wheat. wine. paint. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. however. and so on. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. Names of ideas. "Painting is a fine art. gold. or action. . earth. snow. granite. such as sun. frost. dew. or actions. (3) Geological bodies: mud. stone. sugar. Such are glass. They remain common class names. not things. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. etc. etc. etc." 9. we speak of the wisdom of the man. wheat. . (4) Natural phenomena: rain. Words naturally of limited application not proper.²There are some nouns. 7. and fasten a special name to the object considered. but it is taken merely as a name. sand. rain. Again. iron. there is no such intention. The reason is." "Learning is hard to acquire. as in calling a city Cincinnati. When we speak of a wise man. cloud. potash. world. considered abstractly.

hopeful²hope. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. ease. They cannot govern a word. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. "a long run" "a bold move. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. . the well-being of her subjects. childhood from child. thunder. etc. as in the expressions. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. theft from thieve. NOTE. the moon caused fearful forebodings. in the beginning of his life. and they cannot express action. hope. 273). service from serve. Verbal abstract nouns. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns.. by altering its function. (2) peerage from peer. 12. Thus. redness from red. speech from speak. etc. is used as a noun. Exercises. To avoid difficulty. II. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. 272. stupidity from stupid." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. the main bearings of this matter. those opinions and feelings. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. the rude drawings of the book. summer. five proper. (1) prudence from prudent. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. a wedding or a festival. the teachings of the High Spirit. shadow. etc. Caution. energy. The verb. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. kingship from king. there is time for such reasonings. Underived abstract nouns. he spread his blessings over the land. day." "a brisk walk. as their name implies. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. but are merely names of actions. Such are beauty. night. lightning. etc. as glad²joy.Attribute abstract nouns.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. 1. five abstract. height from high. her longing for their favor. mastery from master. They are only the husks of verbs. 10. the great Puritan awakening. winter. joy. action from act.

Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. mathematics? 3. catarrh. geology. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . typhus.2. as physics. Using a dictionary. diphtheria. as pneumonia. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. (b) branches of knowledge. algebra. pleurisy.

from Damascus. Nouns change by use. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. 119). in Portugal. from the name of Dr. a Locke. the guillotine. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. a Fourier. from a town in France. 15. from Corinth. for example. it imposes its classification on other men. Sodom was famous for wickedness. etc. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. and lo! a new system. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. damask. or to go over to it entirely. Guillotin. the word port. a Lavoisier." referring to flat- . Material nouns may be used as class names. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. but we may say. as a davy. Others of similar character are calico. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. levant and morocco (leather). from Calicut. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. a Bentham. port (wine). Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. above. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. from China. currants.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. 14. but most of them are in the following groups. who was its inventor. from Oporto. thus. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. "The cook made the irons hot. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. 13. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. a Hutton. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. arras. We know a number of objects made of iron. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Proper names transferred to common use.²EMERSON. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy.

slates. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. his eyes. For example. that is. papers. The words preceded by the article a. A halfway class of words. paints. Test this in the following sentences:² . or made plural. though not confined to verse. oils. which are made plural. coals. purity. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. tobaccos. From all around²Earth and her waters. and so on. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. are still names of abstract ideas. 17. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.²RUSKIN. etc.²BRYANT. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. a steel to whet a knife on.²PERCIVAL. They are not then pure abstract nouns. (3) By poetical use. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. tins. Death. that the power of art is founded on fact. nor are they common class nouns. or used as class nouns. 16. smiled.²HAYNE. as stones. These are the same in material. on fire. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. a rubber for erasing marks. abstract in meaning. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. or. but on dispositions which require to be created. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. that disposition is the thing to be created. Class nouns in use.²CARLYLE. Traffic has lain down to rest. but in case an art or a science. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. but differ in strength. When it is said that art differs from science. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract.²BYRON. to prowl or to moan like night birds. Next Anger rushed. his mask melting like a nightmare dream.In lightnings owned his secret stings. candies. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. and say teas. the abstract idea is partly lost. clays. and only Vice and Misery.²COLLINS. not material things. etc. are abroad.irons. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. mists. clouds. Personification of abstract ideas. be spoken of. This is a poetic usage. or the arts and sciences.

it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.The Solitary can despise.²BURNS. Then comes the "Why. a bill as to tax on the banks. however. sir!"²MACAULAY . Adjectives. They are more like the possessive noun. Every why hath a wherefore. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. were mere terrors of the night. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. a bank in New York. or from any expression. make our own so. they do not express quality. Nouns used as descriptive terms. Conjunctions. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. they cannot be compared." "a morning walk. 18.Let us. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. sir!" and the "What then.²SHAKESPEARE.²IRVING.²SHAKESPEARE. All these. meaning a walk in the morning. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. as each repeated pleasure tired. but is still a noun. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. loves. which belongs to another word. NOTE.² GOLDSMITH. And still." which contains a pure adjective. etc. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. When I was young? Ah. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. or describe it. "a family quarrel. But ah! those pleasures." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. if we must have great actions. the wealthy.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Adverbs. fear thy blow. 19. as descriptive adjectives are. By ellipses. sir?" and the "No.² BURNS. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen." "a New York bank." "the State Bank Tax bill.²EMERSON. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. for example. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. But it is better to consider them as nouns. nouns used to modify.

NOTE. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. 6.. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. is the word "just. Now. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. the wealthy." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 1. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. are spoken of as if pure nouns. is ambiguous. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns." and another of Dr. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. without reference to its function in the sentence. or a state secret. 7. 8. Power laid his rod aside. or a faithful domestic. whether it mean the sun or the cold. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. In the other sentences. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. FRANKLIN. so."²B. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. are used. 2. . 3. When. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Exercise.²These remarks do not apply. and Then.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Stone walls do not a prison make. in a sentence above. There are many of these. however. that cobweb of the brain. etc. but have an adjectival meaning. of words rather than of their meaning. of course. and tell to which class each belongs. Caution. It is to be remembered.²Dr BLAIR In this definition." or "legal. When. Learning. at the beginning. 4. or a criminal.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. to such words as become pure nouns by use. in speaking of the principal of a school. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. the terms the great. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. 5.Nor iron bars a cage. The it. 20. too. but as a figure of speech. why and wherefore.

GENDER. in English grammar. But pleasures are like poppies spread.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. and many other languages. 21. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. It is founded on sex. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. German. 17. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. returned to Spain. 22. 21. 20.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 24. 23. its bloom is shed. always masculine. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. and names of females are usually feminine. What gender means in English. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. the welcome. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 16. 18. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. the silver moon is gone.You seize the flower. always feminine. There are exceptions even to this general statement. female. 11. A little weeping would ease my heart. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. The hours glide by. 14. 19. he cried. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 13. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 10. shattered and disabled. The fleet. Greek. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 12. Male beings are. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine.Fair guests. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. but not so in English. In Latin. A fool speaks all his mind. that waits you here. 15.9. And see. .

The great difference is. the name of it is masculine.. those distinguishing the sex of the object." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. in German. are named by gender nouns. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. must be divided into two principal classes. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock.² I have seenA curious child . however. . and consequently without sex.. For instance: in Latin. 22. that pattern of a husband. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. hortus (garden) is masculine. those with which man comes in contact often. that is. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. All nouns. Gender nouns. inanimate things are spoken of.When. in other languages gender follows the form. clapping his burnished wings.. according to their use. Hence: Definition. the name of it is feminine. or additions to words. Neuter nouns. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. No "common gender. if there were any signs of life in it. Of animals. and neuter nouns. then. those which do not distinguish sex. Gunpowder . Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. das Messer (knife) is neuter. came to a stand just by the bridge. 24. in English.² IRVING. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Thus.²masculine and feminine. mensa (table) is feminine. or which arouse his interest most. He next stooped down to feel the pig. 23. corpus (body) is neuter. "A little child shall lead them. or names of things without life. the sex being of no consequence. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.²IRVING. der Tisch (table) is masculine." .²LAMB.. with its gizzard under its wing. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. if of the female sex. according to use.. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. but are spoken of as neuter. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals..²gender nouns.

or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. domestic. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. he-bear²she-bear.. is. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. The inflections for gender belong. but spinster has now no connection with it.25. cousin. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. (2) By adding a suffix. Male nouns beings. or the lack of it. from the masculine fox. relative. (3) By using a different word for each gender. For fox they said vox. Put in convenient form. Gender shown by Prefixes. 29. the division of words according to sex. servant. These remain in vixen and spinster. According to the definition. II. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. One feminine. teacher. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. Native suffixes. of course. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. 28. I. Hence vixen is for fyxen. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. only to masculine and feminine nouns. 26. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. as in wine vat. ruler. If such words as parent. though both words have lost their original meanings. etc. generally to a masculine word. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. for from they said vram. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. they are neuter words. as he-goat²she-goat. Gender shown by Suffixes. Very few of class I. puts a prefix before the masculine man. woman. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. and for the older word fat they said vat. 27.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. .

The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). as. it has none now in the words huckster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. trickster. as. -ess (French esse. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Unaltered and little used. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. gamester. These are attached to foreign words. Low Latin issa). executrix. donna. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as seam-stress. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. señorita. song-str-ess. punster. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. the one most used. Ending of masculine not changed. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Slightly changed and widely used. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. and are never used for words recognized as English. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. 30. but in most cases it has not. as czarina.

we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. or servauntesse. teacher or lady teacher. fosteress. others have in their origin the same root. the ending -ess. wagoness. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. editor. Some of them have an interesting history.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. 31. to represent persons of either sex. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. we use the feminine. Thus. as. neighboresse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. In some of these pairs. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. NOTE. as was said in the sixteenth century.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. we use the masculine termination. from the French -esse." III. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . from the Old French maistre²maistresse. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as. frendesse. 32. from Latin imperatricem. We frequently use such words as author. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. Gender shown by Different Words. chairman.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. teacheresse. etc. as in the fourteenth century. Instead of saying doctress. neighbor (masculine and feminine).

or lauerd in Middle English. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). 34. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. became identical. the old sign of the masculine. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. as in many other words. 16). Icelandic gás. The older forms. Three letters of ened have fallen away. etc. Two masculines from feminines. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. not immediately connected with witch. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Danish gaas.). Madam is the French ma dame. 33. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Widower. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Witch is the Old English wicce. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Mare. Besides gander and drake. gand-ra. lhauerd. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. for example. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. written loverd. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. among others) to be from the same root word. The masculine was formed by adding -a. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English.² . but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). but this has long been obsolete. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). though both are ultimately from the same root. had the masculine mearh (horse). and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). probably meaning house dweller). in Old English mere. leaving our word drake. from Latin mea domina. It is not connected historically with our word duck. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. finally gander. Personification. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. widuwa²widuwe. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man).

eyen (eyes). etc. .Her march is o'er the mountain waves. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. This is not exclusively a poetic use. (2) By changing the root vowel. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. I.²singular and plural. together with the third. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. shoon (shoes). Britannia needs no bulwarks. Our language has two numbers. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.²COLERIDGE. In nouns. the engineer speaks so of his engine. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. 38. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. 35. Definition. Effect of personification. The first two methods prevailed.²KEATS. The -en inflection. NUMBER. treen (trees). But other words were inflected afterwards. whenever we adopt a new word."Now. 39. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. 36. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. (3) By adding -s (or -es).Clustered around by all her starry Fays. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural.No towers along the steep. and not by the form of the noun. 37.Her home is on the deep. in Old English. more than one. the plural. for instance.²CAMPBELL."²BYRON. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. that is. This inflection remains only in the word oxen.

The horse are thousands ten. Such are box. Brethren has passed through three stages. salmon. or if preceded by the prepositions in. The words horse and foot. . cannon. they add -s): also trout. dozen. finally brethren. 40. and get settled. etc. The old plural was brothru. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. sail. Kine is another double plural. swine. as. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Akin to this class are some words. Lee marched over the mountain wall.² The foot are fourscore thousand. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. after all. borough²formerly had the same inflection.²Over the mountains winding down. but has now no singular. Examples of this inflection are. brace. Instead of -s. people. Children has passed through the same history. by. that have the singular and plural alike. such as deer. sheep. as. etc.-En inflection imitated by other words. etc. then brothre or brethre.²THOREAU."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.² "God bless me! so then. but they now add the ending -s. III. retain the same form for plural meaning.Horse and foot. and is still found in dialects. originally neuter. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. II. folk. Other words following the same usage are. turf. lens. quartz. head. glass. wight.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. heathen. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.²WHITTIER. when they mean soldiery. pair. cross.²MACAULAY. into Frederick town. ditch. 41. after numerals (if not after numerals. 42.

. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. e. etc. niche²niches. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. daisies. DANA. Means plural. also news. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. means and politics. they lose their identity. optics. Formerly. economics. volcano² volcanoes.. summons. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. Words in -ies.²PROF. and some -es. that when thy summons comes. 43. and many branches of learning. etc. as. and the real ending is therefore -s. and go over to other classes (Secs. The lilie on hir stalke grene. etc. When such words take a plural ending. prize²prizes. pains (care). 15 and 17). may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² .-Es added in certain cases. is both the science and the art of government. Examples of these are. knife²knives.² Politics. allies. fairies. 44. politics.g.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. in its widest extent. Two words. chaise²chaises.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. some adding -s. physics. shelf²shelves. the Americas. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. molasses.g. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. means: as. negro²negroes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. however. etc. So live. quoth then that ladie milde. half²halves. race²races. fancies. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. Proper nouns are regularly singular. house²houses. Some words are usually singular. the Washingtons. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. 45. It served simply as a means of sight.²BRYANT. though they are plural in form. a new syllable is made. these words ended in -ie. mathematics. though this sound combines readily with -s. Special Lists. hero²heroes. e. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i).

CURTIS. 46.² MACAULAY. by those means which we have already mentioned. Besides this.²MOTLEY. Now I read all the politics that come out. if I recollect right. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Some words have no corresponding singular.²J.²G.Words. . Politics plural. Sometimes. it is furnished with a forceps. W. riches will accumulate. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²GOLDSMITH. L.²IRVING. I say. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. By these means.²GOLDSMITH.²BURKE. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. by strongly conveying the passions. he pronounced to have been a tongs. A relic which.²GOLDSMITH. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. however. LAUGHLIN. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.

What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. part²parts: (1) divisions. etc. Two classes of compound words. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. clothes (garments). shot²shot (collective balls).²one corresponding to the singular. the other unlike it. ways. fishes (individuals or kinds).). dice (for gaming). of a periodical. Numbers also means issues. Three words were originally singular.²was it subdued when. index²indexes (to books). shots (number of times fired). etc. In speaking of coins. two plurals. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. 48.. may add -s. These make the last part plural. as in the lines. indices (signs in algebra). eaves. One plural. In Early Modern English thank is found. or copies. pease (collectively).The air. in mournful numbers. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. DANA.²LONGFELLOW. genii (spirits). (2) literature. (2) care. pea²peas (separately).² I lisped in numbers. 50.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. die²dies (stamps for coins. riches. number²numbers: (1) figures. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.. 49. or work in a bellows?²PROF. faculties. or epistles. trouble. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). . two meanings. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. sixpence. penny²pennies (separately). as two sixpences.. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). genius²geniuses (men of genius). pence (collectively). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. (2) abilities. brethren (of a society or church).²POPE. fish²fish (collectively). for the numbers came. carry off chaff. (2) revenue duties. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. (2) poetry. twopence. making a double plural. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. Tell me not.

Norman.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. 52. Mussulman. The title may be plural. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. there is some disagreement among English writers. though the latter is often found. Briggs. 51. then Silas Peckham. for example. Brahman. but add -s. the Misses Rich. As to plurals of names with titles. Brown. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. woman singer. Allen. such as talisman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. and Mrs. or the name may be pluralized. manservant. German. firman. as man singer.² Then came Mr. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. The chief member adds -s in the plural. woman servant. Ottoman. and then the three Miss Spinneys. as the Messrs. Two methods in use for names with titles. HOLMES. . the Drs.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.²DR.

Exercise. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.²GOLDSMITH. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. or Anglicized. or Englished. The Messrs. and retain their foreign plurals. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.²THE CRITIC. FROM THE LATIN. These are said to be domesticated.²GIBBON.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²DICKENS. Du Maurier. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Domesticated words. Others have been adopted. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. FROM THE GREEK. 53. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. y y analysis antithesis . The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. They are then said to be naturalized.

and expresses a relation akin to possession. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. . form their plurals by adding -s or 's. Words quoted merely as words. In the general wearing-away of inflections. figures. 55. also add -s or 's. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." CASE. cell has another relation." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). figures. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. without reference to their meaning. as. When the foreign words are fully naturalized.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words.. they form their plurals in the regular way. etc. In the sentence." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Letters. as. 54.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. etc. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). Definition. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Only two case forms. 56." the word felon's modifies cell.

they returned to their homes. may be said to have three cases. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 58. 2.²person. Excuses are clothes which. the objective. 3.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. 5.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Uses of the Nominative. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. excessive grief.²nature." (2) As a predicate noun. when asked unawares. 4. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. and merit. 1. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. Human experience is the great test of truth. I." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. and the possessive. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. completing a verb. and experience. whether inflected or not. three things characterize man. learning. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²the nominative. fate. . 57. then. Nouns. Three properties belong to wisdom.²one for the nominative and objective. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. the enemy of the living.

sword in hand and visor down. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. the word toward which the preposition points. and tell which use each has:² 1. completing the verb. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. and landlord of the inn. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. Conscience. her first law broken. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. distance. 68. reconciles. and makest a calm. etc." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. good Heaven. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 59." (4) As the second object. 8. and being equivalent to one verb. save." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. 3. 2. Set a high price on your leisure moments. But of all plagues. 4. a patriarch of the village. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse.Save. But the flood came howling one day. as will be seen in Sec. ." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 9. taking the object storm. Uses of the Objective. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. how have I frighted thee? II. wounded lies. They charged. (in the older stages of the language. thy wrath can send. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and meaning calmest." Exercise.6. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. taking the object enemies. (5) As the object of a preposition. measure. they are sands of precious gold. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends." (3) Adverbially.

And whirling plate. as shown in the sentences.His winter task a pastime made. It is a poetic expression. expressed or understood. Uses of the Possessive. III. as in these expressions. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.²SHELLEY. as. 60. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. (2) Objective possessive. the most common of all.e. Possession in some sense is the most common. 9. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. and forfeits paid. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.²BYRON. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. (3) Subjective possessive. 7.²HAWTHORNE. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.5.Does his Creator's power display. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. 8. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. The possessive case always modifies another word. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. 6.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.. the Great Stone Face. from day to day. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. The noblest mind the best contentment has.And gave the leper to eat and drink. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. or in writing yesterday's elegy.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. 10. 61.²ADDISON.² The unwearied sun. tempests that .

1. and Obj." etc. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. Declension or inflection of nouns. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. "From every schires ende. A false theory. child NOTE. Nom. the panther which the forest hides). ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. . 56). expressing the relations of nominative and objective. Poss. One is the simple form of a word." "at his beddes syde. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. As said before (Sec. How the possessive is formed. 63.winter is likely to have). By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. To form the possessive plural. 64. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. in Chaucer. making the possessive singular.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. "George Jones his book." "mannes herte [heart]. however. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es.. and Obj. growth which several days had developed). in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. The use of the apostrophe. 62. there are only two case forms. 62.e. Nom. A suggestion. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. Case Inflection.." Use of the apostrophe. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. PLURAL. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.e. lady Poss." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. as schoolboys sometimes write.

I remember him in his cradle at St. store. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. 67."²DE QUINCEY.² LOWELL. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. as. some such word as house. as by the countess's command. stands up for God's truth one man. In other cases the s is seldom omitted.. and she walked off from the don's. Cervantes' satirical work. and the connection must tell us what form is intended.²HOLMES. James's.. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. the items of my son's. etc. 66. my neighbors. know the amount of my income. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. for goodness' sake.²SWIFT. etc. In compound expressions.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. Kate saw that. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.²CARLYLE. church." "A postscript is added. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. dwelling. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. Captain Scrapegrace's. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. and from a desire to have distinct forms. 65. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²RUSKIN. Possessive and no noun limited." Possessive with compound expressions. being understood with it: for example. . Peter's.Though this opinion was untrue. containing words in apposition. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. as. instead of the emperor their master's name. a word with a phrase. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. in the name of the emperor their master. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. but to the ear all may be alike. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. the possessive sign is usually last.

has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. Clearness. as one modifier. we use the phrase of Atterbury. (See also Sec. a double possessive. (3) It prevents ambiguity. (1) When a word is modified by a. the statement clearly means only one thing. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. this. each. every. the. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. ill-lighted except where she stands. however. Blair). objective. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.The double possessive. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. (b) Rewrite the sentence. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. 2. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. in such a sentence as. Both of these are now used side by side. making a double possessive. especially when used with this or that. corresponding to 's. and at the same time by a possessive noun.²the introduction which Atterbury made. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. Emphasis.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. Exercises. 68. any. If. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.²E. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. 87.²FROUDE. or subjective. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. sometimes they are used together. no. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.. E. HALE. that.²CARLYLE. 1. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. For example. the sentence might be understood as just explained. In most cases. A peculiar form. and tell whether each is appositional. etc. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? .

10. day's harbinger. in parsing a noun. and destroy the other.A weary waste expanding to the skies. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. with every garland crowned. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. Nature herself. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 70. 12. 6.Comes dancing from the East. we state. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules.² . 9. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. it seemed. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. There Shakespeare's self. Hence. 5. 69. 15. 14. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. let him seasonably water the one.They say. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Jove laughs. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 13. 8. Friend. In parsing. therefore. 4. At lovers' perjuries. 7. Now the bright morning star. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. some idioms²the double possessive. 11.3.

if the latter. but is the adverbial objective. inflections. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. Neckcloth. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. 2. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. it is the object of the preposition by.(1) The class to which it belongs. as to case. and limits neckcloth. the connection shows a male is meant. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Throat is neuter. like miller's. object of the verb takes. gender. which gender. and to have it found out by accident. masculine. hence it is objective case. has no governing word. therefore masculine gender. (3) Whether singular or plural number. 4. 3. proper. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. names one thing. therefore possessive case. hence objective case.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. Thief is a common class noun. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. hence it is a gender noun.²common. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. subject of the verb is understood. The correct method. a fresh tapster. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. and therefore nominative case. hence it is a common noun. determining its case. 68). Exercise. therefore neuter. a withered serving man. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. therefore singular number. it has no sex. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. therefore singular number. is a common class noun. 71. In parsing any word. and relations. (4) Its office in the sentence. NOTE. . it expresses time. and number. it expresses possession or ownership. it denotes only one person. it is the name of a male being. MODEL FOR PARSING.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. etc. singular number. That in the captain's but a choleric word. then make the grammatical statements as to its class.

but by a question we say.And hated her for her pride. from a necessity for short. which distinguish person by their form (Sec.. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house.²palace. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. 7. The need of pronouns. instead of saying. 11. 8. castle. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. where the Rhone enters the lake. Definition. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. financial minister to Louis XVI." Again. Necker. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. Madame de Staël. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Jarley's back being towards him. stands the famous Castle of Chillon." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. sleep! 6. 72. blessings light on him that first invented . which are used to ask questions about persons or things. or for a person or thing. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. (2) Interrogative pronouns. 9. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. 73. Time makes the worst enemies friends. For instance. Now. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. definite. and representative words. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious.5. Classes of pronouns. 76). Mrs. or for a group of persons or things. PRONOUNS. and his daughter. 10. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. . A few miles from this point. all in one. A pronoun is a reference word. standing for a name.. and prison. were natives of Geneva. He giveth his beloved sleep..

I Poss. "the distinction of person. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. representing a person or thing spoken to. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. (3) Third person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. 77. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. and the person or thing talked about. Person in grammar. (4) Adjective pronouns.(3) Relative pronouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. This gives rise to a new term. we our. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. representing the person speaking. they must represent the person talking. 76. 74. Singular. 75. (2) Second person. pronoun. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Three persons of pronouns. primarily adjectives. ours . mine. my Plural. Nom. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. that is. which relate or refer to a noun." Person of nouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. From analogy to pronouns. words. standing for a person or thing spoken of. even if it had a special form. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. (5) Indefinite pronouns. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. they are said to have person by agreement. or other word or expression.. which have forms for person. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. which cannot be used as adjectives. the person or thing spoken to. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. as nouns have the same form.

Singular. he his him Fem. Obj. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. or. hers her Plur. a separate form for each gender. Obj. The speaker may be either male or female. it its it Poss.. Obj. you your. namely. First and second persons without gender. 78. Masc. so also with the person or thing spoken to. by personification. she her. Nom. your. Third person singular has gender. Nom. they their. Nom. theirs them Neut. yours you THIRD PERSON. Obj. in the singular. of all Three. feminine h o. thy Remarks on These Forms. and also for the neuter. yours you Plural. masculine h . Poss. yours Poss.Obj. But the third person has. me us Singular. thine. Poss. neuter. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. neuter hit. Old Form Common Form. SECOND PERSON. Nom. Old forms. . thou thee ye you you your.

. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children.. heom. etc." As shown above. thee. even when referring to a single object. just as we now say. which is a neuter noun. their. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them.²BEECHER. as. 81. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. as in prayers. We use it with a plural verb always. The plurals were h . It is worth while to consider the possessive its. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. In spoken English. The form its.:² (1) In elevated style.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. to thy care we commit the helpless. Thou. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. that didst comfort thy people of old. however.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. as possessive of it. etc. and sometimes its.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. which was often sounded with the h silent. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. heora. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. There are. This is of comparatively recent growth.² Oh. The consequence is.. them. thy. 79. especially in poetry. Two uses of the old singulars. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). two modern uses of thou.Thou lovest. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. (2) In addressing the Deity. etc. 82. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. in Old English.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. thou Shepherd of Israel. it. Second person always plural in ordinary English.²SHELLEY. 80. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. the forms they. for example. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time.

her. to personify objects (Sec. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. The words I. The Possessive. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. him. Not a separate class. thou. . sometimes his and its. ²SHAKESPEARE. hers. 34). 83. note the following:² 'Twas mine. Old use of mine and thine. 'tis his. him. Absolute personal pronouns. and follow the usage of literary English. her. his. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. theirs. The forms mine. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. their. "I am sure it was him. 58). me. thine. though those named in Sec. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. That is. them. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. they have a nominative form. and has been slave to thousands. our. thy.²BULWER. I The Nominative. II. and not make more classes. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. The forms my. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 84. In spoken English.²LANDOR. I spare thee mine. have a peculiar use. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. in such a sentence as. some say. or. them. for. its. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. 86. us. though ye is occasionally used as objective. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. your. we. they. and sometimes in ordinary speech. 84 are always subjects. Additional nominatives in spoken English. us. 85.Use of the pronouns in personification. Yet careful speakers avoid this. he. yours.²COWPER. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. however. ye. when they occur in the predicate position." the literary language would require he after was. And since thou own'st that praise. she. besides a nominative use. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. Nominative forms. her.

his. pluck it out.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.²ID. commenting upon a letter of mine. ours. Like the noun possessives. Their uses. are really double possessives. Give every man thine ear. or satire. we have. thus. Long Allen. thine. as in nouns.²CARLYLE. The forms hers."²SCOTT. If thine eye offend thee. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. COOPER.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. but few thy voice. FIELDS. it tells of good old times.²J. thus. hers. theirs.²THACKERAY.²BIBLE." said Henry Woodstall. ²HOLMES. Besides this. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. This usage is still preserved in poetry. This ancient silver bowl of mine. theirs.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. sometimes its.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. ours. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.²ID. (2) To bring emphasis. . "Hold thy peace. (3) To express contempt. (4) To make a noun less limited in application.²SWIFT. anger. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.²J. we find. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. yours. in that old Edinburgh house of his. 87. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. Double and triple possessives. yours. for example. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. F. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.²THACKERAY.² CARLYLE. T. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. and with mine.

" the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. They all handled it.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. They may be spoken of as possessive in form." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. . 86: mine stands for my property. But the first two have a nominative use. his for his property. In their function. Now the objective. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. in the first sentence.²ID.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. The old dative case. but expresses for whom. 90. the thing is done. "The good alone are great. for whose benefit. but nominative or objective in use. as shown in Sec. as it is called. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. was marked by a separate case. Both joined in making him a present." "None but the brave deserves the fair. 89.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. In pronouns. and mine in the second has an objective use.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. but not in form. or use in a sentence. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In such sentences as. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. The Objective. 88. Besides this use of the objective. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. 20. Curse me this people. mine stands for my praise in the second. this dative use.²BIBLE. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. III. but the form is the same as the objective.

²EMERSON. and they cry. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. as in the sentences. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²DE QUINCEY. why.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. It is a pity that he has so much learning. as.²D.²IRVING To empty here. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. as.²BULWER. which follows the verb.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. 92. WEBSTER.² NEWMAN. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. has not made its progress. to stand for the real. you must condense there. 91. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.²BACON. thus. (3) In apposition. was passed by with indulgence.²ADDISON. Society. like Chinese skill. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. or to the idea. Your mere puny stripling. you sneeze. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.Time is behind them and before them. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. Indefinite use of you and your. or that he has not a great deal more. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.² .²EMERSON. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. logical subject.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. The word you. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²CARLYLE. in this century." (3) As a grammatical subject.

Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. themselves.²IRVING.²ANON." "He bought him a horse. used in poetry. itself. .²HAWTHORNE. as they are also called. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. we use such expressions as. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. ourselves.²EMERSON. keeps a school. "I found me a good book. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. -selves.²ID." etc. as. For when it dawned. have laid them downIn their last sleep. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.² Now I lay me down to sleep. Poor Christian was hard put to it. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. peddles it. (thyself). It was late and after midnight. who in turn tries all the professions.²COLERIDGE. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²HOLMES.²BRYANT. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. when they are direct objects.²THOREAU. They are myself.²BURNS. And millions in those solitudes. they dropped their arms. who teams it. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.It is finger-cold. A sturdy lad . as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. yourself. And when I awoke."²IRVING. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. (ourself). yourselves. it rained. since firstThe flight of years began. and its plural selves.²BUNYAN. I set me down and sigh. but seldom in prose. farms it.. This occurs in poetry. that is." and there is an end of it. Of the two forms in parentheses. 93. herself. There was nothing for it but to return. himself.²DE QUINCEY..²SCOTT. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. I made up my mind to foot it. however. For example. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. the second is the old form of the second person. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. 94.

to every one. In Middle English the forms meself. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. 96.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. shall dissolve. with self.² The great globe itself .Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. as in vulgar English..²ID. for example. theself. 95.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.. as. thyself. for example. to us. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. were changed into the possessive myself.As girls were once.²EMERSON. after the analogy of myself. Held dead within them till myself shall die. Use of the reflexives. not the possessive forms. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. BROWNING. The question might arise. I shrink with pain.²MILTON. as. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. As if it were thyself that's here. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. etc. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. Origin of these reflexives. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.²E. B. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. especially in the speech of rulers. and the others were formed by analogy with these. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and build the lofty rhyme. as we ourself have been.² TENNYSON.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.To you yourself. ourselves. NOTE.² .² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. Threats to all.²WORDSWORTH.²SHAKESPEARE. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.

and how to do it. Three now in use. is wisdom.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 3. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. father. 10. 7. fight it out. 97. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. some of them being double possessives. Courage. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. let him lowly confess it. 6. And it grew wondrous cold. and what. 9. all conform to it. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. but it is the soonest spoiled. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 4. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. Biscuit is about the best thing I know.²DE QUINCEY.²B. which.On the light fantastic toe. 2. 8. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. To know what is best to do. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and neuter. One obsolete. FRANKLIN. where the word is one with that it tells of. Years ago. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. 5. feminine. some each of masculine. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language.² THACKERAY. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). Infancy conforms to nobody. . Come and trip it as we go.

Which of you. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. used formerly to mean which of two. that. What wouldst thou do. etc. As shown here. number. referring to things. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. but now obsolete. that it is not inflected for gender or number. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. it is always third person. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. which is not inflected for gender. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Whose was that gentle voice. whether. the gold. that it is always singular and neuter. 98. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. Use of which. that is. it is selective. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. or case..Promised. with its possessive and objective. The use of who. . whispering sweet. actions. methought. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. as it always asks about somebody. it refers to either persons or things. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Use of what. shall we say. ideas. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 99. These show that what is not inflected for case.There is an old word. but for case alone. not to persons. 100. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. having three forms. Use of who and its forms. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul.

as. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. 127). The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. "The last of all the Bards was he. RELATIVE PRONOUNS." Or. who? Poss. SINGULAR Nom. It usually precedes the pronoun. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. and also in having a conjunctive use. for which the pronoun stands. 104. Function of the relative pronoun. whose? Obj. and so to make smoother discourse. pronoun. which is called the antecedent of the relative. nominative in the second also. 105. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. in Sec." In the latter sentence. or other word or expression. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. which and what are sometimes adjectives. as.Who sung of Border chivalry. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Who. 99. which and what. For instance. what may be an adverb in some expressions. AND PLUR.² "The last of all the Bards was he. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. These bards sang of Border chivalry. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. subject of doth love. SING. objective in the last.101. since it is subject of the verb had. Thus we may say. The antecedent. being the direct object of the verb shall take. it may be shortened into. and what are also relative pronouns.²by the use of the words. which. which is nominative in the first sentence. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. 102. who is used as objective instead of whom.² . Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. 103. who evidently refers to Bards. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. AND PLUR. Further treatment of who.

² COX. The nurse came to us.Whose flag has braved. The men whom men respect. that.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. a simple relative is meant. 3. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. what. Indefinite relatives.. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. D. For her enchanting son. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.²SCOTT. 2. are the men and women who bless their species.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. both his and who have the antecedent priest.²LOWELL In this. which. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. but the look which is not of the earth.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. Ye mariners of England. a thousand years. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. Who and its forms. 108. They had not their own luster. the women whom women approve.That guard our native seas. 106. WHITNEY. will be discussed further on. 6. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.. is a divine creation. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. 3..Whom universal nature did lament. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE.²THACKERAY.²DR JOHNSON. in the same sense in which man's nature. with all its capabilities . Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. Two kinds.²BYRON. .²PARTON Which and its forms. The origin of language is divine. 107.²MILTON. 4. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 2.²W. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. When the word relative is used. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 5. Generally speaking. 4. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.

²IRVING.. stratagems. The judge .. The Tree Igdrasil. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.5. For what he sought below is passed above. else this description will seem exaggerated. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . BEECHER 5. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. The man that hath no music in himself. 4. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. 109. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. no bad type of what often happens in that country. (a) This gradation . and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²DE QUINCEY. Already done is all that he would do. ought to be kept in view. 3. 6. Examples of the relative that:² 1. Reader.. 2. 110.²EMERSON. Who.²LAMB 3.. 107.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. That.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. What.. W.²GOLDSMITH.²MARGARET FULLER.Is fit for treasons. you will not be angry with me for telling you. which it certainly is not.² SHAKESPEARE 2. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²BURKE. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and spoils. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.²H. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.. 111. bought up all the pigs that could be had. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.

Examples of whose.²LOWELL..have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. possessive case of which. in the second. the others are all third person. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. 112. whose for the possessive. the relatives are singular. p. in 5. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.²IRVING. Sec. 107. a man. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. 96). While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. (3) It is nearly always third person.. and so on. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. whom.²SWIFT. seemed as much excited as myself. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. not persons. Cooper. son. The little gorilla. In 1. (4) It has two case forms. and 6. whose is second person. Scott. 5. or ideas. that man... Witness the following examples:² And you. referring to animals. Smollett. JOHNSON. My horse. flung its arms around my neck. 113.who. in 4. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. whom. 2..²which for the nominative and objective. and others.²DR. in the first sentence. It has been seen (Sec. Gibbon. The robins. and 3.²who. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. who is first person. in the third. In sentence 4. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. things. . (2) It has three case forms. whose.. Which. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. they are plural. who class With those who think the candles come too soon.²THACKERAY. whose wound I had dressed. who. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. The sentences in Sec. Who referring to animals.whose.²LEIGH HUNT. Kingsley.

which is very notable and curious. That. Which and its antecedents. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.²first. 116. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. Primarily. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. thus. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. and to persecute without pity. . on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. 115. no possessive. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. and things. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. The last two sentences in Sec.114. Sometimes. let us enter the church itself."²RUSKIN. Men may be ready to fight to the death. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. the antecedent follows which. and third persons. animals.² MCMASTER. So in Matthew Arnold. (2) It has only one case form.²BEECHER. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. secondly (which made her stare).² I swept the horizon. which is worse. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.² And. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. Kingsley. This moribund '61. In the sentences of Sec. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. (3) It is the same form for first. 109. Burke. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. second. too. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.²SHAKESPEARE. and numerous others. This often occurs.²THACKERAY. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.²SCOTT.

who Poss. that he has. whose Obj." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. it usually follows. When expressed. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. for example. and is emphatic." (3) "These people heard him. consequently is neuter. is always neuter. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. we can. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. by taking them out." That evidently refers to truths. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent.²EMERSON. plural number. 119.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. which. what we said?²CARLYLE. What. third person. either of which would be neuter. third person. as in sentence 6." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. The sentences of Sec. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. 117. and person of the relatives who. number. What a man does. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. 118. that do I not. Nom.² What I would. 109. . the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true.²BIBLE What fates impose. that men must needs abide.²SHAKESPEARE. but what I hate. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as. Sec. For example. Who plainly stands for those or the people. The gender. that do I. plural number.

the simple relative. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. The word what. 8. neuter. we is the subject. and hence is in the nominative case. is in the nominative case. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. subject of heard. that takes the case of the truths in (2). First find the antecedents. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. in the following sentences:² 1. after all. above. In the sentence.. . What must be endured? Answer. 4. 5.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. in (3). nobler souls with that which they are. who is sure to be cunninger than they. then parse the relatives. I think they are trying to outwit nature. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. In the same way who. 3. As shown by the following sentences. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. "What can't be cured must be endured." Here the subject of is. is subject of wrought upon and molded. so is in the objective case. Truths in sentence (2). it is subject of the verb heard. In (2). What can't be cured. is what we call nature. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. but of this. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. Exercise. but is singular. because it has usually no antecedent. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. The whole expression is its subject. however. Parsing what. the highest result of all education. it is object of uttered. in (1). I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. is subject of the verb can't be cured. The relative what is handled differently. third person. etc. which is."²EMERSON. 120. 6. Some prefer another method of treatment." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 7. Another way. Now. people is the object of the preposition of. standing for the people understood. and what is the direct object of the verb call.

It is no proof of a man's understanding. and which in the second clause. 7. Only itself can inspire whom it will. less common are whoso. whatever. whichsoever. no particular thing.²MACAULAY. and parse that in the first clause. that is. whosoever. to everything that. 2. 5. and in 2. Take which you please. Death is there associated. being referred to. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. They are whoever. in a new and original way.²BURKE. summer will have its flies. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. "common souls pay with that [singular.²you cannot have both. 2. and his friend a fool. that nothing else can stand in their presence. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Do what we can. 6. whatsoever. The simple relatives who. by meaning and use. whatsoever. or stand on their head. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. Meaning and use. List and examples. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. object of with] which [singular. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. not as direct as the simple relatives. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. no certain antecedent. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. Hence some take what as a double relative. . which. whichever. object of do] they do.²BURKE. 121. So with the other indefinites. 3. 4. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. It is clear that in 1. 123. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. 122. or what else soever. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives.

as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. etc. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. and that as after such is equivalent to which. 4. Proof that they have the force of relatives. This. whereby.² 1. the conjunctions wherein. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. by which. but mean any one whom. for example. Sec. thus. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. In early modern English.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. are used. Former use of as.. There is nothing but is related to us. Instead of the phrases in which. . 417). as was used just as we use that or which. everything that (or everything which). 121. But and as. either one that. Two words. what means anything that. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 124. 2.. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. nothing that does not interest us. whereupon.²EMERSON. 121. but and as.As shown in Sec. 125. Other substitutes. etc. but which only wealth could have purchased. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. upon which. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.² some particular thing. for example.²HAWTHORNE. has been my heaviest affliction. 120. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. not following the word such.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.²DE QUINCEY. etc. 126.

who having the antecedent gentleman. In studying such sentences. showing that who is plainly interrogative. . But in 1 (b). 127. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). second. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first." etc." Likewise with which in 3 (b). if not. if not. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. would be. In sentences 1 (a). Another caution. no antecedent is expressed. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. the full expression being. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. So in 2 (b). and 3 (b).²WHITTIER. Special caution needed here. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which.. Thus. a question is disguised in each sentence. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. "But what had become of them? They knew not.²EMERSON. which having the antecedent lines. it is an interrogative. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. which would indicate that they are not relatives. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. it is a simple relative. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. if expanded.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. though the earthwork hid them. and whether what = that + which (if so. 3. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. it is an indefinite relative). 2 (b). PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 2. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. 1 (b). (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. "Who stood behind? We knew. what is interrogative. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power.²ID. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. How to decide.

The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 5. Relative omitted when object. 4. 129. 2. whence is the interrogative word. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Exercise. . In the second.² THACKERAY. but the life of man in England. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Examine the following:² 1. whose has the antecedent you. I visited many other apartments.²HOLMES.²CARLYLE. In the third.128. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence.²FORSTER 6. the question is asked by the verb. On the other hand. which.² These are the sounds we feed upon. In the first. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. When Goldsmith died. Put in the relatives who.²FLETCHER. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 3.²GOLDSMITH. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. and asks no question. which has the antecedent hue. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. Thus.²SWIFT. ELIOT. and Court Calendars. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.²G. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.

who were to be rulers over whom. 5. and comparatively so in poetry. . There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. which. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. or indefinite relatives:² 1. 6. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. and what. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Examples are. 2. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.² LOWELL. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.²SHAKESPEARE. which was already proceeding.²SCOTT. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. The nobles looked at each other. Relative omitted when subject.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. simple relatives.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Function of adjective pronouns. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. There was such a crowd went. that.7.²Id. 130. the house was full.²CAMPBELL. 3. It is rare in prose. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. Also in literary English we find the same omission.

in the first. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. few. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. For instance." "Where two men ride on a horse. "each cube. . they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. but in this function. which we have seen in such expressions as. "The dead are there." that is. the former. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. that. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. etc. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. must not modify any word. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. For example. or may be the whole of a sentence. such as each. necessarily thought of: thus." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. "another bank.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. or an argument in a paragraph. "these pranks. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. 133. as some. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. or they may stand for nouns. Caution. such as this. in order to be an adjective pronoun.131.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. or use. not pronouns. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²IRVING. and stand for a noun. In the first use they are adjectives. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. etc.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. either. Primarily they are adjectives. any. in letters of gold. expressed or understood. 'Truth. a word. none. and another to get cool under." in the second. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. and on each is written. but have lost their adjective use." "one man. 132. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns.²EMERSON. neither." in the others.²BRYANT. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. many. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched." Classes of adjective pronouns. etc. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. Adjectives. all.

²LOWELL. 134. A man inspires affection and honor. Their minds accorded into one strain. Such are a few isolated instances. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. 3. and sow wickedness. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²EMERSON 4. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose.All these he saw.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. they that plow iniquity. NOTE. . 2. Even as I have seen. 5. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. as seemed good to each. when the latter was the King of Spain. because he was not lying in wait for these. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. or reclined. accidentally preserved. They have not shunned the one. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. for example. but these were of the best.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Exercises.²ID. reap the same. and they have well performed the other.² They stood. They had fewer books.²ID. Definition and examples. Simple. Some of these are simple pronouns. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Compound. or sat.

²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.² One reflexive. we might the more easily discharge them. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. for example.Two are compound pronouns. as.²HOLMES. Another opposes him with sound argument.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. as most were.²KINGSLEY.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²each other. such as one other. imbued. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. Definition and examples. another. The Soldan. one another. 135. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. you quickly come to the end of all. Some inflected. Much might be said on both sides. ²HAWTHORNE. with the superstitions of his time. .²EMERSON. or melt for others' woe. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. None shall rule but the humble. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²HAWTHORNE. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. as it were. They led one another. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. The word one has a reflexive form. paused over a horoscope. Exercise. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. Men take each other's measure when they react. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns.

anything. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. as shown in the words everybody's. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. but. Every one else stood still at his post.²SHAKESPEARE. 137." It means something. They indefinite means people in general.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Somebody. every one else. naught.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. etc. no one. anybody. some one. everybody else. in building of chaises. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. everybody. any one (or anyone). The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. unlike adjective pronouns. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. and somewhat. Now. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. I tell you what. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. nobody. they are never used as adjectives. Exercise.Exercise.. every one (or everyone). what. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. as. also aught. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. . Jove laughs. somebody else. and was indefinite in Old English. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. nothing. 136. they say. something. and they. Definition and examples. everything. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. etc. anyone else. anybody else's.² At lovers' perjuries.

On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. The table was good. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 2. 10. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know.²a feature of natural scenery for which. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 5. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 13. but not to quite so enormous an extent. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 17. O thou that rollest above. 11. I first found myself among the mountains. 7. 138. Exercise. and of no other. in his negotiations. indeed. 3. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. to which. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 6. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated.See also "Syntax" (Sec. from my earliest days. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. . he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 18. 8. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Whoever deals with M. All was now ready for action. 14. were suffered to depart. 12. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. A reminder. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Others did the same thing. 9. For this did God send her a great reward. 4. 16.

Destroyer and preserver. thou rollest now. that let him communicate. and tracedWords which I could not guess of.19. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. well-oiled dispositions.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. behold now the semblance of my being. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 34. 21. Whatever he knows and thinks. 26. oh. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. A smile of hers was like an act of grace.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. They know not I knew thee. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. in all its height. 29. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. I who alone am. variety. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 30. And I had done a hellish thing. who take the world easy. And will your mother pity me. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish.And it would work 'em woe. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 25.Who knew thee too well. 27. and seized a pen. 32. 23. hear. 35. He sate him down. 31. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. hear! 33. eat white bread or brown. who slept last night like a corpse? 22.

139. who understands me. as. size. brittle or tough. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. 45. becomes mine. We are by nature observers." etc." The office of an adjective. For example. ADJECTIVES. As to the kind of words used. Office of Adjectives. white or red. . Instead of using nouns indefinitely. so that no other will be mistaken for it. 38. 41." "some cities. and if we are near. He knew not what to do. 44. in pointing out an object. Again. So with any object. 37." "a hundred men. Substantives. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. then. or gaseous. which was no bad step towards my liberation. or with persons. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object." "yonder hill.. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. If a chemist discovers a new substance. 40. etc. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. We need to add some words to tell its color. etc. that is our permanent state. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. adjectives are used. and he learns who receives. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. It may have this office alone. position. 42. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say.36. "one hat. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master." "that house. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. such as in the expressions "this man. heavy or light. 39. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. Who hears me. He teaches who gives. if we are at a distance. or liquid. the number is limited by adjectives. and so he read. 43.

used to tell how many things are spoken of. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "half-dead traveler.²POPE." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. (2) Adjectives of quantity.² BACON. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. however. 141. Examples are. deep. 143. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. such as." "the Christian pearl of charity." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "ivory-handled pistols. derived from proper nouns.²COLERIDGE. Infinitives. They include relative and interrogative words. or how much of a thing. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. etc. words primarily pronouns. Definition." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." the "and there. To err is human. remotest." "this life-giving book. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. 142. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. such as safe." "ice-cold water. to forgive." they constitute all his connections." "next-door neighbor. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. fair. "an old English manuscript. To make this clear. With exception of the "and then. it shows that he weighs men's minds. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. beautiful.140. If he be thankful for small benefits. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. (4) Pronominal adjectives. Classes of adjectives. happy. rash." "the Roman writer Palladius. to describe it or to limit its application." "unlooked-for burden. pointing out particular things. Nouns are not." and the still less significant "and so. "Heaven-derived power." ." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. divine. and their trash. terrible.

143." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. For instance: in the sentence. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. having some of each subclass named in Sec. which are either pure participles used to describe." Caution.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. any. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. much. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. and another is drunken. but small thoughts have I of sleep." was accomplished is a verb. in studying these last-named words. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. considerable. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. 2.²COLERIDGE.²MACDONALD. sometimes small." "One is hungry. some. Examples are.But ever she looked on Mr. no." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." was is the verb. and accomplished is an adjective. 145. Exercises.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "an aged man." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. 1. Care is needed. 144." "a charming sight. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "The shattered squares have opened into line." "It came on like the rolling simoom. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 'Tis midnight." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. in this. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "trailing clouds. ." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Oxenham.

which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. How many. and with them a few negroes. (plural these.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²CARLYLE. every village. that. the former²the latter. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. those). "one blaze of musketry. Examples. they come under the next division of adjectives. yonder (or yon).It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Not primarily pronouns.²ID. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. any. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. are used with plural nouns. 146. The demonstrative adjectives are this. The following sentences present some examples:² . The list. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives.² Every town had its fair. no. When some. former. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.²THACKERAY. Exercise." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. its wake." (b) Indefinite numerals. latter. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. An arrow was quivering in each body. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "Then we wandered for many days." "He had lived by hunting for some months. Thus.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "In came some five and twenty more. as. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound.²VAUGHAN." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. instead of modifying them." "I have lost one brother. but I have gained fourscore." Single ones of any number of changes. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence." "a dozen volunteers. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.²KINGSLEY.

I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. 148. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. but in the one case. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.²RUSKIN. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. As has been said. ²CARLYLE. like the other numerals.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. In which evil strait Mr. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²D. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. Oxenham fought desperately. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. The silver and laughing Xenil. The taking of which bark. These do not.²ID.²BANCROFT. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²ID. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. skill which was progressive²in the other. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Definition. They are of two kinds. WEBSTER. I verily believe.. 147.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.² It matters not what rank he has. what revenues or garnitures. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²BULWER.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. they are changed to adjectives. . Modify names of persons or things. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. tell how many things are meant. of equal skill."²B.²GOLDSMITH. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Exercise. Indefinite relative adjectives. but.. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. for example.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. 149. These were thy charms.but all these charms are fled. skill which was at pause.²WORDSWORTH.²KINGSLEY. FRANKLIN. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. just as the corresponding pronouns do. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.

nature will be sure to bear us out in. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. and new tormentedAround me.150. it is impossible to determine. . a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. which. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²AGASSIZ. He was turned before long into all the universe. A lady once remarked.²IRVING. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. the debt to the rich. proved not altogether displeasing to him.²RUSKIN. or whether any. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. 151. In direct questions.² EMERSON. as it rather seemed. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whichsoever.²CARLYLE. which is selective among what is known. whatever.²ID. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Was there. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. Adjective what in exclamations.²LAMB. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. and gaze.. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. As in the pronouns. In indirect questions. New torments I behold. you at least give him full authority over your son. whatsoever. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. Whatsoever kind of man he is. whichever. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. what inquires about things or persons not known. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Examples of their use are..And whichsoever way I turn. whichsoever way I move. But when the Trojan war comes.

the making of it right. But this had also another plural. as. 153 . those). etc. 154. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. All these have certain qualities.²This. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. etc. th s (modern those).² Oh. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.Adjectives have two inflections. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. weight. Meaning of comparison. That. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. 155. NUMBER.²number and comparison.²but not the same degree. History of this²these and that²those. color. In exclamatory expressions.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. And yet.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. Exercise. COMPARISON. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. of the quality. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. we do so by means of their qualities. or size. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. alas. and when we compare the objects. This is the old demonstrative. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. gold is heavier than iron. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. or amount. When we place two objects side by side. It is neither relative nor interrogative. Those borrowed from this. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. or weight. . Thus. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. we notice some differences between them as to size. which was fully inflected in Old English. The article that was used with neuter nouns. and those as the plural of that. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep..152. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE.

but. supreme. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. reddest. indefatigable. with less wit. great. for example. bluer. "more matter. 157. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality." "the commonest speech. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. organic. 158. enormous. expressing a greater degree of quality." "It is a nobler valor.²THACKERAY. they are not compared. giant-like." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. A main difference betwixt men is. strictly considered. infinite. or amounts in quantity. immemorial. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. The two forms. as. universal institution.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. expressing the greatest degree of quality. redder. easier." "the largest soul. Substitute for inflection in comparison. These are properly the only degrees. 159. red. but were not common until a century later." "no fewer than a hundred. as. sufficient. easiest. 156. easy. Freedom is a perpetual. and the superlative. though the simple. "untamed thought. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. These are called degrees of comparison. whether they attend their own affair or not.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. . and the superlative by adding -est. They came into use about the thirteenth century. indomitable. whose favorite pupil he was. and many others. Definition." Words that cannot be compared. bluest. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. 160. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. blue. to the simple form. The comparative is formed by adding -er. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected.²SEWARD. So with the words sole.

" "the wonderfulest little shoes.² -er and -est or more and most? 161.² CARLYLE A gentleman. as. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. "So help me God. and other words are preceded by more and most.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. mournfulest. 162. and patientest fusing.²ID. falling on his knees. which hung behind in the queerest way." "more austere and holy. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. madam. and yet familiar. I will.²ID." "more odd. witty. The general rule is. honestest. peaceablest. These long." "distantest relationships. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. though born in no very high degree. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. Adjectives irregularly compared. The following lists include the majority of them:² ." said Henry Esmond. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. there needed to be a most genuine substance. harsh forms are usually avoided. strange." "sorrowfulest spectacles. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. etc. 163. quiet. was most finished. most small.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.Which rule." Carlyle uses beautifulest. finest chiseling. indisputablest.²The Nation. These are adjectives irregularly compared. admirablest. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. easy. who. polished." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative.

utter 3. next Nearest Latest. is often used. as in the sentence (14th century).²MATTHEW ARNOLD. 2. as in Shakespeare.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 5. bad. (3) Little is used as positive to less. uppermost LIST III. 164. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. a double comparative. innermost Outmost. which has gone out of use. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. [In] Inner Inmost. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. (2) In Old English. 6. though from a different root. Good or well Evil. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). [Out] Outer. Hind 2. last Hindmost. 9. A double comparative. . least. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. hindermost Much or many More Farther. lesser. Worser was once used. The superlative I form was betst. throw away the worser part of it. There was an old comparative bet.² O. 7. which has softened to the modern best. 3. further Farthest. older Nigher Nearer Later. These have no adjective positive:² 1. evil was the positive to worse. lesser Elder. worst.LIST I.²HAMLET. List I. latter Hinder LIST II. outermost Utmost. 8. furthest 10. oldest Nighest. 4. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. as. 1. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. uttermost Upmost.

farrest. an old superlative ending. to which is added -ost. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. (5) The forms elder. th came into the others. first. In imitation of further. The latter. oldest. The meanings greater. meaning the largest part. "Many a little makes a mickle.. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer." Its spelling has been micel. came into use. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. strong. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. but not in meaning. much. as long.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. ²LAMB. near. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. further. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. or series. for example. there is scarcely any distinction. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. since the m is for -ma.. making the modern farther. List II. muchel. First became entirely detached from the series. farthest. etc. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. . (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. great.² The more part being of one mind. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. Between the two sets as they now stand. doubling the inflection. a distinction has grown up between the two series. are earlier than older. as. greatest. but originally the comparison was nigh. etc. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. next. instead of lenger. and the superlative nearest. eldest. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. is quite common.²forth. strenger.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. latest. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. and refer to time. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. the old forms. furthest. are shown in such phrases as. The most part kept a stolid indifference. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. Since later. moche. to England we sailed.²ID.²HAWTHORNE.²KINGSLEY. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. except the form next.

W.²KINGSLEY. The comparatives are so in form. or have no comparative forms. being merely descriptive." "their utmost exertion. Her. but they have no adjective positives. 167. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. but not in their meaning. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. was descried The royal banner floating wide. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. The adjectives in List III. and have no comparative force." "the innermost moral soul. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. by the by.²H. 166. . Her bows were deep in the water.165." "far-seeing as the sun. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. In List II.²HAWTHORNE. Highest and midmost. are like the comparative forms in List II. or each may modify a different word or group of words. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. on the very topmost twig.²SCOTT." -Most added to other words. BEECHER. There. the upper light of the world. They have no superlatives. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. 168.²EMERSON. Think what each adjective belongs to. List III. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. (Sec. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING." "The outer is of the day. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. all may belong to the same noun. in having no adjective positives. but her after deck was still dry. Decidedly handsome.

May we not. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank.²NOAH PORTER. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. It may still be argued. we may say "the then king. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. bright. in this sentence. A few improper jests and a volley of good. 2. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. Other instances are. therefore. and broken.²TRENCH.²HAWTHORNE.²A.²MRS. The seldom use of it. and moral truth. 6. solid.For example. Our sometime sister. deeply black eyes.²HOLMES. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. 4. For thy stomach's sake. Bradbury and Evans. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. But in this sentence. and heaven-defying oaths. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. the then and still owners. as.²HAWTHORNE. our new government. round. ²TROLLOPE." making then an adjective. Whenever that look appeared in her wild.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.² My then favorite. deep. not decision alone. "the one who was then king. philosophical." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice." in which then is an adverb. 169. Richard Hooker. and thine often infirmities. In the following quotations. instead of saying. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. H.²BIBLE. usual modifies incomparable decision.²RUSKIN. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. rich. in prose. now our queen. . This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. 3. STEPHENS 5. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. STOWE. satisfactory. This. 7. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. By a convenient brevity. Exercise.

To every several man. 3. 4. the method of parsing is simple. I ask nothing of you. . Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 6. frank. 2. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. manly way. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. MODEL FOR PARSING. In parsing an adjective. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. 5. this. person. 7. then. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 8. positive degree. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. 9. 170. Exercise. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. (2) Its number. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. and very few have number. These points out what truths. and I waited for none. (3) Its degree of comparison. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. This gave the young people entire freedom. across the plain. (4) What word or words it modifies. not inflected for number. with awkward but rapid pace. if it has number. Since adjectives have no gender. Unfamiliar describes truths. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. compared by prefixing more and most. cannot be compared. modifies the word truths. She made no reply.What to tell in parsing. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. To every Roman citizen he gives. seventy-five drachmas. therefore descriptive. if it can be compared. 10. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. modifies truths. plural number. or case. therefore demonstrative. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. having a singular. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent.

24. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. suggests such thoughts as these. 12. and many poles supported the lower ones. . yonder oxen in the pasture. and therefore more interesting to us. and dogs. 21. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. 23. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 28. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 19. 32. Their name was the last word upon his lips. is the settlement of our own country. 16. With every third step. it is so noble a fruit. oxen. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 25. the tomahawk fell. Nearer to our own times. it rests on reality. are immutably fishes. 31. not so much for travelers that were few. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Here lay two great roads. 27. 14. as for armies that were too many by half. In music especially. 20. 29.11. growing in the most unfavorable position. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 22. he won affections with ease. Like most gifted men. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 33. I know not what course others may take. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 18. 13. during which time I waited. 26. those dogs in the yard. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Two hours elapsed. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. To say what good of fashion we can. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen.

Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel." "a yelling crowd. the latter is still preserved in the expression." the words the and an belong to nouns. Our expressions the one. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Two relics. In the sentence. that) which was also an article in Old English. weary-hearted man was he. were formerly that one. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. in vulgar English. 35. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Examples: "a house. just as adjectives do. sometimes the tother. A hard-struggling. ." An with consonant sounds.²MACAULAY." "an orange. ARTICLES. a before consonant sounds. later th . would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. for example. the tither. and a before consonant sounds." "an honor. An before vowel sounds. An or a came from the old numeral n. these occurring as the tane. Many writers use an before h. the other. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. ðat. that other. Their origin. 174. 173.²BREWER. 172. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. meaning one. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant.34. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment.²SCOTT. 171. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. 37. even when not silent. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. In Middle English the became an article." "a European. An historian. the tother. or the tane. he is no literary man. th o. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. the tother. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. s o. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . but the former is used. such as we have been attempting to describe. with an ordinary little garden.

An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. 177.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. Definition. and when the word river is omitted.² . or any individual of a group or class." the article indicates clearly that a river.²COLERIDGE. An and a are different forms of the same word. not descriptive. An article is a limiting word. 178.. With names of rivers. doubtless. NOTE.. 175. or group. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. The is the definite article." "the Ohio.²IRVING. since it points out a particular individual. as in the sentence. 176. as "the Mississippi. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. and not a state or other geographical division. which cannot be used alone. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with.²G. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.² Don't you remember how. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. The Dakota tribes. or a group or class of things.²This use is noticed when. An or a is the indefinite article.²HEROES OF ASGARD.²THACKERAY. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. When the is prefixed to a proper name. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. the older n. 179. thus. BANCROFT. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. a person is introduced by a. To call attention to attributes. on opening a story. is referred to. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Kinds..²THOMAS JEFFERSON. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. Articles are either definite or indefinite. An hereditary tenure of these offices. or class. Reference to a known object. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.

and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. the Spinoza.²MOTLEY. 182. Caution. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 181.²SCOTT. laid it on the miry spot. The. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. as. If the good is there. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. With plural of abstract nouns. for example. Kant. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. NOTE. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. etc.²GIBBON. the song sparrow. but into the region of all the virtues. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. so is the evil. 180. 1. Common.²G. BANCROFT. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. With adjectives used as nouns.² As she hesitated to pass on.²ID. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. not into a particular virtue.The Bacon. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. 2. . her. His messages to the provincial authorities.² The faint. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. Schelling. the gallant. Half abstract.²EMERSON.²KINGSLEY. would speedily extract the required information. One thing for its class. For possessive person pronouns. the Hume.²EMERSON. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. and the redwing. or a match put between the fingers.²ID. 183. The simple rise as by specific levity. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

"Put thou money in thy purse. in (c). and to receive the action expressed. All do not express action: some denote state or condition." put is the predicate. an adverb. c). A verb is a word used as a predicate. care. we consider a verb as one word. in (2. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. 200: In (1). the word following. taking the staff which always guided her steps. the most penetrating. with some word understood. a preposition. The nature of intransitive verbs. but fearing is not a predicate. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. Hence Definition. a). 201. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. The nature of the transitive verb. in (b). In the sentence. In each case. 204. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike.²BULWER . which means to go over. and shame the most astute. as. and not a verb. in (2. (can) shame also has an object. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. a verb." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. In giving a definition. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. a noun. but cannot be predicates. etc. All these are called transitive verbs. to say something to or about some person or thing. for example. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. b). in (3. 203. endured what? anguish. Of those expressing action. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. which may be a person. to go is no predicate. or an idea. or the object. an article. lone took what? answer. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. By examining a few verbs.In (a). in this sentence from Bulwer. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. hence is not a verb. and a preposition unite as a verb. obeyed is a predicate. Definition and caution. 202. all do not express it in the same way. can deceive has an object.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. In the first. or a material thing."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. "Put money in thy purse. in (3. Now. b). Each influences some object. and. from the Latin transire. the most astute. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek." Examine the sentences in Sec. representing something which it influences or controls.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

(1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. in our case.²LONGFELLOW. Ideal. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²D. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. If this be the glory of Julius. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. as. 215. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. the representative system ultimately fail. he will see the need of these ethics. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. 222. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. the writer can make the statement following.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. for example. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. the first great founder of the Empire.² If. WEBSTER.²may or may not be true. or be fulfilled. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. Again. 221. I.²FRANKLIN. . but. 2). if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. as. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].²MACAULAY. ²EMERSON. Most excellent stranger. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. they were recorded in the Book of Life. and may or may not be regarded true.I could lie down like a tired child. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. Condition or Supposition. popular government must be pronounced impossible.²SHELLEY. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.²BRYCE. Unreal²cannot be true. the second founder.² Now.

NOTE.²CALHOUN. that he might be strong to labor. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. is of similar physiognomy. may.² CARLYLE. would have sat still with joy and peace.²EMERSON. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.. and what kind of condition:² 1. . etc. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. and striven energetically to save Ney.²BAYNE. except. since he [Byron] was dead. The voice. and should. 7. 5. 2. Exercise. if he speak to you. but when the verb precedes the subject. he supposed. II.²FRANKLIN.²MACAULAY. The subjunctive. which cannot be true. the conjunction is often omitted: for example.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if.. especially be. I told him. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. 8. WILLIS. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. if he was the man I take him for. unless. If he had reason to dislike him. and sonorous. ²LOWELL.. 3. In the following conditional clauses. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. do you think.²SWIFT. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. is used to express purpose. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. though.. as. clear. Subjunctive of Purpose. would you. he had better not have written. society could not hold together. the clause being introduced by that or lest." etc. to drink strong beer. P. might. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created.² If these things were true. that we cannot but regret its absence. 223. she was regarded as a prodigy.² It was necessary. 6. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. But in no case could it be justified. if his lot had been mine.²N.²FRANKLIN. 4. Epaminondas. melodious. thus.

the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. .And we.. till it meet the sun in his coming. The English subjunctive.²WORDSWORTH.²ID. 226. In a Noun Clause.Were wafted off to seas unknown. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²DE QUINCEY. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. 225.. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. Ask the great man if there be none greater. 224. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. Let it rise. V. So live. I've wished that little isle had wings. III.That vain it were her eyes to close. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. Rise up. the answer being regarded as doubtful. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. In Temporal Clauses. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²D.²COLERIDGE.²BRYANT.I have been the more particular. like the Latin. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.. VI. Expressing a Wish. IV.²CARLYLE. To tell of what had passed. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. Subjunctive of Result. In Indirect Questions. like the quarry-slave at night.. 227. WEBSTER.Thou go not.²SOUTHEY. none of us could say. I would it were! ²EMERSON. After a verb of wishing.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. within its fairy bowers.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²MOORE. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. VII.

And look thou tell me true. for example.²THOREAU.²TENNYSON. VIII.²SCOTT. is. 229. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. often contains a subjunctive. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²COLERIDGE.. is the ultimate fact of man's life. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. of cash. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.² DICKENS. I have no thought what men they be.² Be the matter how it may. After verbs of commanding. in its various uses as subject. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²COLERIDGE. The first merit.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. that everything be in its place. Come. or whatsoever victual it may be. Some might lament that I were cold. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.Subject.²CARLYLE. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. etc. The essence of originality is not that it be new. . This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. (b) Adjective. tell me all that thou hast seen. The noun clause. That hunger of applause. object. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²WORDSWORTH. 228. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. Complement.²DE QUINCEY.And see the Braes of Yarrow.²SHELLEY. Object. in apposition. Whatever betide. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. which may be (a) Pronoun. we'll turn aside. Concessive Clauses.

At the present day. 231. to express a wish.²SHELLEY. love all men.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. or requests. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. (1) Command. (2) Entreaty. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. however. 232.(c) Adverb. ADAMS.The spirit he loves remains. In spoken English. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. .² CARLYLE. Honor all men. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²CHANNING. for example.²BRYANT. It must be remembered. point to their immortal works. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. fear none. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. we had found [should have found] a poem here. entreaties. and condition contrary to fact. Usually second person.²J. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. though. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Oh. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Q. Definition. since commands are directed to a person addressed. 230. (3) Request. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. a concession.

." Exercises on the Moods. etc. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.²SHAKESPEARE. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Oh. Mark thou this difference. 7. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Part we in friendship from your land.²SCOTT.One glance at their array! 5. 6. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.²CAMPBELL. nothing is to be preferred before justice. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. child of earth!While each performs his part."²DICKENS Tell me."Hush! mother. 3. but I + you. etc. lest we rust in ease. 2.And. receive my hand.. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. "The Devil take the goose. Quoth she. noble earl. "Come along with me. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Break we our watch up." whispered Kit. request. or I + they. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.And God forget the stranger!" . Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. there will her heart and her prayers be. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Meet is it changes should controlOur being." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 8. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. to you implied in it. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.

"Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of." 16. as though an instrument.That they might answer him. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. in what pomps and prosperities he like.High up in silver spikes! 22. 11. 19. . "tell me where I may find my poor. 21. will it not fall unbound. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. That sheaf of darts. 26." cried he. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree.Except. Forget thyself to marble.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Marshall. ruined. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. 18." 25. whether he do it right or wrong.9. 10. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. then. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Well. my dear madam. That a man parade his doubt. 20. He. Though abyss open under abyss. 13. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. no literary man. or do it at all. 23. and opinion displace opinion. Think not that I speak for your sakes. He is. she ought to have it. "Oh. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. it would speak. 14." continued Old Morgan. "Mr. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Though he were dumb. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. let him live where else he like.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. how he may do his work. but repentant child. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote.

" present. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. five in the imperative. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. whatever she did. 28. in the conjugations. Siddons. as. Definition. and the future tense. kind. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. by means of the present. or future time. called auxiliaries. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Meantime. shall. Tenses in English." "If he comes. also. Tense means time.27. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. and future perfect tenses. as. and the past tense. such as Latin and Greek. 235. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present.² present.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. "Thou walkest. "I go away tomorrow. will. have. which represented present and future time. When the older pronoun thou was in use. past. as the classical languages have. a form ending in -eth. in the third person singular. or agree with it. TENSE.²the present tense. as will be shown later on. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. tell him to wait. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and future. Old English had only two tenses. or whether it were as one member of a general party. "Thou walkedst. past perfect. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. 234. such as be. the past." ." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. to direct his steps.²nothing could exceed the amiable. PERSON AND NUMBER. "It is not in man that walketh. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. five in the subjunctive." past. past. The tenses in detail. 233.

were. CONJUGATION. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. walketh. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. Singular 1. I be 2. are. PRESENT TENSE. Singular 1. as." and this only in the present tense indicative. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. "He walks. is. [He] were [They] were . Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. etc. persons.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Definition. walked. The verb be has more forms. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. singular number. [He] is [They] are 3. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. You are 2. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. and numbers. wert) 3. mood. chosest). conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. 237. Singular 1. This is the third person. chose. Few forms. Indicative Mood. Such verbs as choose have five. tense. for example.²am.²choose. I were 2. since it is composed of several different roots. chooses. been. tenses. walkedst. Singular 1. chosen (old. walk has walk. You (thou) be 3. choosing. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. In classical languages. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. but in English. choosest. 238. walking. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. moods. walks. chooseth. PRESENT TENSE. etc. 236.

PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. same as the German sind. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. as. (b) With the past participle in -ed. 239..²WORDSWORTH.²SCOTT.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²SHELLEY. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. (d) With the infinitive. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.His infancy was nurtured. (2) was. to express intention. Remarks on the verb be. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. in four ways.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea..²THACKERAY. for example. condition. is. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. thus. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²ID. (2) As auxiliary verbs. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.Imperative Mood. to form the passive voice. though it is usually a dialect form.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. Instead of the plural are. etc.²GOLDSMITH. were. (3) be. The light that never was on sea and land. -en. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. obligation. etc. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²BURKE . It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. which was now become an occasional banquet. 240.

tenses. We chose You chose 3. Singular. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. Indicative Mood. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). You chose Plural. 1. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. You chose Plural. Singular. I choose 2. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 240. I choose 2. "I shall be. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. future perfect.241." "He will choose. Machinery of a verb in the voices. 1. . etc. You choose Plural. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. "I have gone" (present perfect). We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. by placing have. We chose You chose 3. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. In addition to the above inflected forms. past perfect. [He] choose [They] choose 3. 1. Singular. tenses. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Singular. 242. (2). You choose Plural. PRESENT TENSE. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. had. as. I chose 2. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. 1. I chose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. PRESENT TENSE." (2) Present perfect. "I had gone" (past perfect). as.

ACTIVE VOICE.) Choose. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. as. [If. Past. " Be choosing. He has been choosing. He chooses. Past. Future definite. Present perfect. Future perfect definite. he chose (or were to choose). Present definite. Indicative Mood. Same as indicative.(3) The definite form of each tense." (4) The passive forms. though. He is choosing. Present definite." "They had been running. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Only the third person. He will have been choosing. . as. Present." "You are chosen. Future. lest. "I am running. Present definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He will he choosing.] he choose. will be given. Present perfect definite. etc. Past definite. He had chosen. Future perfect. Past definite. Same as indicative. Present perfect definite. He chose. Subjunctive Mood. Present. Past perfect. He will have chosen. He was choosing. (2d per. He will choose. Present perfect. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Past perfect. Imperative Mood. "I was chosen. he have been choosing. He had been choosing. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Present. Past perfect definite. Past perfect definite. singular number. He has chosen." 243. he have chosen. of each tense.

He had been chosen. Past perfect. Present perfect. Present definite. None. . He is being chosen. he have been chosen.) Be chosen. Future definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. "He does strike. Future perfect. None.²This table is not to be learned now. they will be discussed later (Sec. Past Perfect.] he be chosen. None. as. Imperative Mood. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Present. Present. Past. in affirmative sentences. 262). Past. if learned at all. Past definite. None. Exercises should be given. PASSIVE VOICE." "He did strike. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Past perfect definite. etc. Indicative Mood. he had been chosen." [Note to Teacher. He will be chosen. Past definite. He will have been chosen. Past perfect definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. " " " " " " " None. Future perfect definite. Present perfect definite. Present perfect definite.. he were being chosen. (2d per. He is chosen. Present perfect. Present definite. lest. None. Future. however. He was chosen. Present tense. though. He was being chosen. but verbals. None. Also. He has been chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs.NOTE.] [If. Subjunctive Mood.

[adj. bid bound. 245. laid. caught. but adds no ending. sleep. beg. catch. bit blown broken chidden. Some of these also have weak forms. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . verbs are strong or weak. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. which are in parentheses Present Tense. drive. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. slept. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. drove. run. 244. begged.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. as. According to form. and may or may not change the vowel: as. NOTE. ran. bounden] bitten. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. Definition. Kinds. Past Tense. lay. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle.

drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sunken] sat slain slidden. trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

cleaved.²GOLDSMITH. and sometimes occurs in poetry.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. instead of ate and eaten. ²THACKERAY. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. "his bounden duty. cleaved. borne is also a passive." "a drunken wretch. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²one meaning to adhere or cling. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. TAYLOR. Our cock.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. as." Stricken is used mostly of diseases." "a sunken snag.²MILTON.²COLERIDGE. Not a cock crew. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).² We had each drank three times at the well. 246.²cleave. probably to avoid confusion with this." "the cloven hoof. as. "stricken with paralysis. When it means to carry or to endure. nor a dog barked. Sometimes in literary English." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. for example. clave or clove. cleft. to split. but is much used in vulgar English. The form clomb is not used in prose. now told us it was time for repose. cleft (to split)." In this confusion of usage. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. Historically. The former used to be cleave. cleave. especially in that of an earlier period. the other. cloven.²TENNYSON. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. and the latter. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. as (from Holmes). which always crew at eleven.²as (from Shakespeare).² Thou hast clomb aloft.²IRVING. and another (born) for the passive.²B. and. as. only one set remains certain. . The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.

We usually say. for example. 245). maiden. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. Drive. as. and seized a pen. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.²DE FOE. found. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. The butler was hanged. thrown.²BYRON. flung. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. drove.The form gotten is little used. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. broke. shaken. fallen.²SCOTT. 3.²WORDSWORTH. Find. 8. even in poetry. Give. began. threw. He sate him down. froze. shook." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Fall. This heard Geraint.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. given. 9. begun. fell. 7. as "a shorn lamb. Shake."²KINGSLEY. and grasping at his sword. driven. 6. 4. Begin. One example out of many is. Throw. broken.²TENNYSON. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Fling. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. which is seldom used except in poetry. shore is rare. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. .² If.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective." but not much as a participle. found. Freeze. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang.²BIBLE. flung. 10. for example.² We had all got safe on shore. frozen. Exercises. 5. (a) From the table (Sec. Usually shear is a weak verb. gave. 2. Break.

as in Sec.. His superiority none might question.²PAINE. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. purpose.. Must is historically a past-tense form.. Like must. Ability. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. Subjunctive use.²HAWTHORNE. (See also Sec. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. 220. ability. .²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. it is used only in the indicative mood. HAMILTON.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. The same remarks apply to ought. which survives in the sentence. 249. "far off his coming shines.²CHANNING. etc. PRESENT. The l in could did not belong there originally. 251. Could may be subjunctive. Can is used in the indicative only. as it has two meanings. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. Indicative Use: Permission. 247. 250.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.. or when it expresses wish.. as.²SCOTT. They are as follows:² PRESENT." Must is present or past tense. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. 223. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. for full drill on the forms. or. It is indicative when it expresses permission. according to the infinitive used. as it sometimes does. PAST.[To the Teacher. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. there is one general principle. must have been an ocular deception. PAST.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. of course. "So mote it be. etc. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. Have we valuable territories and important posts. from the obsolete verb motan. but came through analogy with should and would.²CHANNING This."²WINIER.

² (a) To express authority. not plod along like apeasant. she should ride like a queen. while ought always has to. what shall I say?²N. as.²MACAULAY." Uses of shall and should. he said. Shall and Will. I shall be gone.²THAXTER. She should not walk. 252. BROCKDEN BROWN. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.²L.² Futurity and questions²first person. and corn to hoe. (b) In indirect quotations. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. shall and should are used.²COOPER.² With respect to novels.Nay.e. promise.²IRVING. to the neglect of shall and should. as. She rejects his suit with scorn. MOULTON. yea. or confident prediction.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. as.²LONGFELLOW. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. . shall and should are used.² The time will come full soon. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. future action). The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. "I think I will go. Second and third persons. in the form of command. with pronouns of the first person. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. my lad. The following are examples:² Never mind.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.²BULWER. to use will and would. C. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. The sea shall crush thee.. for example. (b) In questions asking for orders. They shall have venison to eat. WEBSTER. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. especially in the United States.

Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. thus. . 253. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. LARNED.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. I never was what I should be. and is equivalent to ought.²CABLE. time.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²SWIFT.²WINTER.²WORDSWORTH. B. Disguising a command. First.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. as the sole inventor.²WORDSWORTH. as. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²WORDSWORTH.²C. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. etc. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. was to be expected. (c) With direct questions of the second person.. BROWN. purpose. JR. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²SCOTT. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. for example. with the conviction that he should win in the end.that I would do him justice.²BYRON.²H. second and third persons. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.² I will go myself now.²A.²ROGERS. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution... and will not return until all is finished. JAMES. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. for example. And promised. or a promise.

She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. will and would often denote an action as customary. without regard to future time.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. PASSIVE VOICE.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. SECOND.² Subject I omitted: often so. In this stately chair would he sit..²BURKE. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). B. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.²IRVING. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. ..²SCOTT.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. for punishment or intimidation. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. (4) With FIRST. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. This puts the order more mildly.. To be sure. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²LANDOR. would is used to express a wish. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. so you will.²BANCROFT..²SCOTT. as if it were merely expected action. action merely expected to occur. AND THIRD PERSONS. will is used to express command. etc. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. as.² Thou wilt take the skiff. The gift of Beauty. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. Thine was a dangerous gift. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. Would thou hadst it not. when thou wast born. for example. Roland.. When I am in town. as.²War Records. 254. will and would are used to express simple futurity. Mere futurity. and mark on the grounds the works. for example.. They will go to Sunday schools.²the original meaning of the word will.² DICKENS. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. and two of my people. BROWN. through storms their brothers are afraid of.

You will choose. 1. 2. 2. 4. 252 and 253. You will be chosen. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. You shall be chosen. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. (b) Examine the following sentences. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. I shall choose. You shall be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Plural. We will choose. [They] shall be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. 5. and justify the use of shall and will. 1. [He] shall be chosen. 2. He informed us. promise. [They] shall choose. etc. 6. Thou art what I would be. 2. Singular. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. [He] will choose. 1. [He] will be chosen. yet only seem. 2. We shall be chosen. Singular. We will be chosen. ." answered Herbert stubbornly. 3. Singular. [They] will choose. Plural. 2. Plural. You will choose. 3. and that of the newest cut. Plural. We shall choose. You shall choose. I will be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will.:² ACTIVE VOICE. [He] shall choose. I shall be chosen.Singular. 3. "I shall not run. (a) From Secs. [They] will be chosen. I will choose. 1. 3. Thou shalt have a suit. You shall choose. 1. You will be chosen. To express determination. 3. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 3.

The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. very anxious. 10. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 11. then. 9. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. Of smale houndes hadde she. put. bereave besought Past Participle. WEAK VERBS. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. as if he would have more of the enchantment." the stranger said. 13. The old ending to verbs of Class II. Present Tense. Without having attended to this. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.²Class I. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. Lucy stood still. Irregular Weak Verbs. as.7. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. The beast made a sluggish movement. was -de or -te. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. put. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. bereaved besought . with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. 256. bereft. But the rest. set. bereave beseech bereft.²CHAUCER. need some attention and explanation.²ID. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. No. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Past Tense. put. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. This ending has now dropped off. 12. 255. and have no change of vowel. or mylk and wastel breed. set. my son. and I have nothing to say." 14. 257. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. "I am a wayfarer. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8.

spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leapt left lost meant paid penned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

formed a kind of bedstead. 268. [To] have been chosen. Perfect. I returned to reflection on my situation.. when inflections became fewer. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. a perfect. Three saplings. have no tense. to was used before the infinitive generally. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). and a perfect definite form. as in the Old English. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. ACTIVE VOICE. Infinitives. . Indefinite. When active. But later. Imperfect. 266. [To] have chosen. [To] be choosing. and when passive. 267.²the creature warring against the creating power. To with the infinitive. In Sec. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 9. an imperfect. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. they have an indefinite. Indefinite. 10. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. [To] choose. [To] have been choosing. to express action unconnected with a subject. Perfect definite. [To] be chosen.. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. 7. Cases when to is omitted. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall.. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. 8. will (with should and would). PASSIVE VOICE. an indefinite and a perfect form. Perfect. expressing purpose. INFINITIVES.6. try clemency. like participles. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Nothing of the kind having been done.

bid (command). the gerund may be called a noun verbal. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. 270. and corn to hoe." etc.² What! doth she. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. too. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²MACAULAY. 272. feel. please. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. it is often preceded by the definite article. make. watch. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. They shall have venison to eat.²HOWELLS. under "Analysis.²TENNYSON. can (could). HALE.²it may be governed as a noun. it may be the subject of a verb. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. negative. The gerund is like the participle in form. GERUNDS. While the gerund expresses action. . present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. liberal woman. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). "I do go" etc.. "He will choose.²E. 271. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. sometimes need (as. learn [doth learn is one verb.(2) After the verbs may (might)." Examples are." "I shall have chosen. see. and like a noun in use. as. "a house to let. it has several attributes of a noun. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. or the object of a verb or a preposition. do (as. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY. as in the expression. also in the imperative.). (3) After had in the idiomatic use. poor woman!" cried Charles. also let. "She ask my pardon.²COOPER. as. But there was nothing to do. and emphatic forms of the present and past." (4) In exclamations. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. as. must. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²IRVING." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. as the credulous imagine. hear.² She was a kind. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. E. 269.

Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. to see the returning hope of the parents. 2." also (2. but cannot govern." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. Then how pleasing is it." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. and has been put down. Sec. Exercise. which express action and also modify. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1.²Find sentences containing five participles. which express action." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. (2) Pure participles. but do not assert. (4) Pure adjectives." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. (6) Verbal nouns. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. and five gerunds. according to use as well as meaning. which name an action or state. (5) Gerunds. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. What a vast. II). b). (3) Participial adjectives." Exercise. may govern and be governed. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. when. and wonderful store of learning! . they find the nurslings untouched! 3. brilliant. 273. which have lost all verbal force. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. 4. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. making the definite tenses. above. which express action. five infinitives." "Certainly dueling is bad. on your leaving the spot. Words in -ing are of six kinds. after examining the nest.

²strong or weak. (3) Mood. round which is an iron railing. he gave out sentence by sentence. like Sir Walter Scott. you must. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. In parsing verbs. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 15. I.²indicative. VERBS. (b) as to use. Caution. (5) Person and number. slowly. (4) Tense. 9. Thackeray did not.²which of the tenses given in Sec. He spread his blessings all over the land. What is dreaming? 8. dictating from his chair. (2) Voice. 12. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 14. 6. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. . 10. giving principal parts. write twenty pages without stopping. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 7. by object lessons. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 16. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. bearing her national emblem. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 275. 13. give reality to your teaching.²transitive or intransitive. 11. subjunctive. 234.5. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. or imperative. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating.²active or passive. but. I suppose I was dreaming about it. much corroded.

(b) its use (Sec. and ends in -s. III. II. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. intransitive. . 2. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. 235. active. and parting day linger and play on its summit. might. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 3. Especially frequent are those made up of should. The government might have been strong and prosperous. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. In such sentences as 1. has the subject government. 273). 4. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. and not taken as single verbs.. indicative (as it means could). give points (a) and (b). etc. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. (1) Participle. You are gathered to your fathers. (a) From what verb derived. till it meet the sun in his coming.276. can. (b) whether active or passive. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. past tense. 277. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. may. Exercise. therefore active. If a participial adjective. perfect. see Sec. could. (3) Gerund. has for its subject Lee. definite. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. (2) Infinitive. Let it rise! let it rise. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. 278. usually it does not. VERBALS. then parse it as an adjective." Sometimes it does. indicative. VERB PHRASES. in the world. Take these examples:² 1. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. past tense. would. no sin nor sorrow. must. Parse the verbs. and should always be analyzed as phrases. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. imperfect. But unless the verb is present. call might a weak verb. call should a weak verb. (b) whether indefinite. we must beware of the rule. verbals. followed by a pure infinitive without to. 2. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. etc. It has been intimated in Sec. (c) to what word it belongs. In 2. 278(2). Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. perfect. intransitive. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers.

18. leaving me upon the bed. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. as usual. morning is not a new issuing of light. 9. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. He passed across the room to the washstand. or. 23. 16.Henceforth in me instill. When he arose in the morning. a new waking up of all that has life.Down all the line. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 12. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. he thought only of her. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 14. With them. 15. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 6. see that it is in good condition. 17. a deafening shout. Right graciously he smiled on us.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Whatever ground you sow or plant. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 21. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. from a sort of temporary death. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts.5. a new bursting forth of the sun. 24. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. as rolled from wing to wing. However that be. 10. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 8. 13. 20. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 11. a sweet good will. 19. In going for water. So. and wondered if she were yet awake. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. . He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill.O God. 22. as the Hindoos say. The soul having been often born.

A verb. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. thou sayest.²SHELLEY. 26. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. because." "He was absolute. for example. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].²THACKERAY. they are more himself than he is." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. who live with nature?²ID.²time." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. or manner: as. Nor was it altogether nothing. ADVERBS. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend." An adjective or an adverb.²CARLYLE. place. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. and live ere life be spent.25. and so on." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. 27.²EMERSON. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. "William's private life was severely pure."²DE QUINCEY. Oh. . Adverbs modify. Better it were. to consent. When action is expressed. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. to speak truly.Feast while we may. as. 279. and men of leisure and cultivation.² The young man reveres men of genius. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. The word adverb means joined to a verb. and limit adjectives or adverbs. for the hour of rest is at hand. Is it only poets. To the almost terror of the persons present. 29. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. And now wend we to yonder fountain.

² FRANKLIN. or a word group used as such. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. NOTE. Definition.²T. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. perhaps. not the noun. and half awfully. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. 169 are felt to be elliptical. B. An adverb. 282. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. all wet and glossy. as now.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. then. 280. 169.² LOWELL.He was incidentally news dealer. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. Make music to the lonely ear. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. but really modifying. which may qualify an action word or a statement. as. has induced some of us to attend it. being adverbs naturally and fitly. (2) according to their use in the sentence. there are six classes:² (1) Time.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. We are offered six months' credit. Thus considered. lately. Surely happiness is reflective. . and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. not simply the forms used in predication. but still with a rich bloom to it. It may also modify a sentence.²LEIGH HUNT. to-day. while those in Sec. as shown in the sentences. is a modifying word. ALDRICH. hitherto. NOTE. thus.²TROLLOPE. A phrase. like the light of heaven. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. ²IRVING. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. but some verb understood. for example. I draw forth the fruit. A clause or sentence. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. ever.²BYRON. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.²THOREAU. 281. and that.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. before. etc.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.²These last differ from the words in Sec.

The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. above.thither. and others. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.²BROWNING. Meekness. This long's the text. . just.. (see also Sec. Thackeray. much. two by two. very. greatly.there. telling how anything is done.thence. slowly. twice.was for this once of her opinion. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. whithersoever.²LECKY. etc. as hither. maybe. as well. 283). Death! To die! I owe that much To what. (6) Assertion. Motley. and not infrequently are found in literary English. telling how much.whither. for example. as here.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. probably.near.. as little. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. [Sidenote The status of such. that these adverbs form a very large class. bravely. (3) Manner. thus.²IRVING.where. So also in Grote. telling how many times: once. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.whence. etc. the more evidently they love liberty.. the more perfect will be their obedience. especially the comparative of these words..²R.²BURKE. better.²SHAKESPEARE. partly. at least. while so precedes only the adjective usually. singly. whencesoever. (5) Degree. enough. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. The more they multiply. etc. or how far he believes it to be true. the more friends you will have. Emerson.²DE QUINCEY. (4) Number.² The master. etc. I was.²HAWTHORNE. too. as hence. LOUIS STEVENSON. 283.. as perhaps. beautifully.which gained him such universal popularity. slightly.yonder. White. etc. not.(2) Place. surely. possibly. etc. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.

Neville. Direct questions.² "Mighty well. and other writers. 286. Hard blows and hard money.² You are mighty courteous. 285. STOWE. Holmes. 282." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.²GOLDSMITH." "That were far better [degree]. A pretty large experience. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. and art but a fool. Emerson. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived.²FIELDING.²BAYNE. B. Burke. Dickens.² KINGSLEY. Aldrich. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Kingsley. Franklin. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Again. 284." "The house. for example. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.Pretty. have the additional function of asking a question.²HAWTHORNE. It is only occasionally used in literary English. and its lawn before [place]. Defoe. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now."²SCOTT. a mighty fine gentleman. Some adverbs. De Quincey. Beau Fielding. besides modifying. Mighty.²THACKERAY. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.²THACKERAY.²"He walked too far [place]. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²BULWER. Interrogative." said the king. Simple." "I have seen you before [time]. "Peace. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Notice meanings. . Pretty is also used by Prescott. for example." "He spoke positively [manner]. Such are most of those given already in Sec.

for example.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. . I know not why. I hearkened. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON. (4) Degree. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. (2) Place. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (4) Degree. (2) Place.²POE.²BYRON (3) Manner.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. CLAY. When did this humane custom begin?²H. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. WEBSTER. 287. I will not ask where thou liest low.²D. they smiled. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (5) Reason. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²BULWER. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.

when does not express time and modify. obs. irregularly compared. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Exercise. ..²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. use.eyes.²COLERIDGE. Tell what each word in ly modifies.) rather 289. when. sooner. Only that we may wiselier see. For further discussion. high. Many adjectives have the same ending. not an adverb. further farthest. higher. Form vs. representing four classes.²BYRON. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Superlative. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. see Sec. 288. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest." Exercise. Then must she keep it safelier. have the same inflection as adjectives. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. soonest. well much little far late Comparative. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Many adverbs are compared.But in reality.²EMERSON. when compared. 290. as. furthest (rathe. Its strings boldlier swept. highest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. only occasionally having -er and -est.²TENNYSON.. and. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. just as adjectives do. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.²SHAKESPEARE. but the whole clause. The following. soon.

merely introduces a sentence.²CHAUCER.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. near.1. There are eyes. Again. many words without -ly have the same form. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. 7. Frequently the word there. 5. that in Old and Middle English. 291. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.² EMERSON. more courtly in their manners. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 6. quick-flashing eye. if it has the verb be. even. 292. 4. Special use of there. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. mostly. hard. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. whether adverbs or adjectives.²ID." Compare these:² 1. hardly. etc. 8. kindly and good-natured in secret. curiously jolly. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. He is inexpressibly mean. Such are most. but with a different meaning. . The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.And his mien of kingly state. The reason is. 2. nearly. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence.²THACKERAY. or down the leaves laughed through.²IRVING. And all about. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.²TENNYSON. as. 2. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. But he must do his errand right. With his proud. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 3. instead of being used adverbially. to be sure. evenly. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate.²WORDSWORTH. Not near so black as he was painted.

if the word is compared. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. however theoretically enticing. but from my fall? 6. Thither we went. and always. 11. 18. 10. 7. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. (2) Degree of comparison. 17. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. But a few steps farther on. burning in the center of the temple. 293. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. but continually shifted.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 5. Exercise. The higher we rise in the scale of being. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. . 3. 9. In parsing adverbs. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 12. 15. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. It is the Cross that is first seen. the Madonna is in great glory. according to meaning and also use. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. and sate down on the steps of a house. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. For the impracticable. 16. 4. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. at the regular wine-shop. give² (1) The class. 2. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. is always politically unwise. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13.

Unlike adverbs. Definition. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. upon which the sun now shone forth. nor. 21. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. A conjunction is a linking word. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. connecting words. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. 294." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. hence. or sentence groups. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. but side by side within the American Union.19. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. etc. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. word groups. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. But now the wind rose again. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. CONJUNCTIONS. and found room to wonder how it could have got there." Sentences. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. 295. 20. . conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. It was pretty bad after that. however. therefore." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. Clauses. 22. then. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives." Paragraphs. sentences. but the student will readily find them. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States.

Some of these go in pairs. as but. The assertion. whether. They are or.but (or but also). 298. 296... answering to each other in the same sentence... neither. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. Correlatives. (3) CAUSAL. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.nor.nor. ... connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. both. Adversative. not only.. as." Nevertheless.. as and.... expressing a choice. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.or whether. The chief ones are. word groups.. then. as. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. Your letter. else. nor.. the bread was spent.. whether. likewise.. the butter too.. had its weight. introducing a reason or cause. (2) ADVERSATIVE.Classes of conjunctions. or the sea rolls its waves. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. nor.or.. whether. etc. therefore. etc. Some go in threes...or. yet. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. serves but to show their ignorance. Alternative. only. as well as the room door. still. either.. hence. while. (2) Subordinate..or. moreover.and.. of the same rank. While the earth bears a plant. also. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. joining words. neither. not only. and. (4) ALTERNATIVE. neither. the window being open. Nor mark'd they less.or. as well as.but. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. however. either. etc. 297. for. "Howbeit. Causal. and not man corn. but is emperor in his own right. usually between two things. however. either. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair..

provided.. howsoever. etc. nor wing of bird. etc. Where the treasure is. after. nor echo. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. ²ALLSTON. so that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. in order that. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. in case. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. whence.. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. even if. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. He is not only bold and vociferous. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. however. (7) RESULT: that. whenever. whereas. It is. before.²IRVING. until. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. since. since.²J.²WILSON.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. whither. so. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. now. although. Neither the place in which he found himself. though. except. so. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. while. so that. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. in apposition. whithersoever.²COOPER. etc. etc. (6) PURPOSE: that. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. nor creeping thing. (2) TIME: when. provided that. wherever.²PAULDING. ere. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. QUINCY. (3) MANNER: how. so. Time.. on condition that. . that. unless. nor green leaf. etc. there will the heart be also.²DE QUINCEY. 299. as. seeing. sometimes if. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. as.²BIBLE. whether. lest. whereto.²BURKE.as. as. object. especially that after so. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me.

As a soldier. a thousand bodies. H. .So I behold them not. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Condition. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.²EMERSON.That vain it were her eyes to close.²CARLYLE Events proceed.² EMERSON. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.² H.²AMES. Manner.² WORDSWORTH. not as they were expected or intended.²DEFOE. Substantive. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²BURKE.² HAWTHORNE. Result.²EMERSON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Comparison.²AMES. We wish for a thousand heads. Let the world go how it will. I was again covered with water. Cause. Then Denmark blest our chief.²EMERSON. Purpose.²COLERIDGE. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²CAMPBELL. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Concession. but not so long but I held it out.²IRVING.That he gave her wounds repose. So many thoughts moved to and fro. JACKSON. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²BYRON. Now he is dead. reason.²AMES.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.

As will have been noticed. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. and hid her there. 7. that. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. 13.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 3. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. some words²for example. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 10. . as he shot in air. however. her real merit is known at home. He was brought up for the church. it will remain harmless. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. After he was gone. 15. Exercises. While a faction is a minority. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. she faintly pressed her hand. then. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives.Let us see whether the greatest. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. And then recovering. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 300. the lady called her servant. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. Crept under the leaf. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. No one had yet caught his character. the wisest. 12. 5. as. etc. They. Besides.²RUSKIN. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. And they lived happily forever after. 6. In what point of view. since. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. 2. While patriotism glowed in his heart. hold a subordinate rank. 9. 14. The moth fly. while. 4.

tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. the expression would be. even as they would weep. none of the lashings having given way.²HOOD. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. "We meet. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. for example.16. As for as if.So slowly moved about. 302.²BYRON. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. So silently we seemed to speak. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.²EMILY BRONTE.Clouded. Consequently. GREELEY.. and part as though we parted not. .² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. As though. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. as is often equivalent to as if. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. they connect. etc. 304.. SPECIAL REMARKS.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.. in this case. 301. His voice . only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. as is shown by the use of as though.²IRVING. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. As if.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. expressing degree if taken separately. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. In poetry. 303. and the frame will suit the picture. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. thus. word groups." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. and be a bud again." as. If analyzed. In parsing conjunctions. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.As though a rose should shut. (2) What words. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. In Emerson's sentence.

²that the fairies do not like to be named. and its clause depends on the other. or in the forest. Some conjunctions.² 1. 11. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. and its clause is independent. 6. and the like. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.²DEFOE 2. 4. such as nor.. 7. in 2. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. so it be faithfully imparted. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. or in the snow. compare the sentences. so means provided. He dismisses without notice his thought. and very seldom?" 8. All the postulates of elfin annals. Exercise.²is subordinate of condition. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. When the gods come among men. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. 10. 9. he sleeps as warm. so they paddled on. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. He is the compend of time.Caution. but of the natural. as beside his own chimneys. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. 5. are regularly of one particular class. they are not known. "Doctor. 13. the Sphinx was slain. so that expresses result. in 3. . A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. It may be safely trusted. In classifying them. and. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. etc. and associates as happily. It continued raining. 12.²EMERSON 3. 3. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. because.²I find them true in Concord. that it might testify of that particular ray. when. dines with as good an appetite. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason." said his wife to Martin Luther. others belong to several classes. If he could solve the riddle. he is also the correlative of nature. because it is his. 2. At sea. so that I could not stir abroad. For example. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. so means therefore.

For. 18. enthroned. 16. 24. 15. 26. Now you have the whip in your hand. in many a heart. I rejoice to stand here no longer. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 19.. Still. you must be. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 20. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. It may be so in the majority of cases. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 28. Goodness must have some edge to it. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. And whether consciously or not.²else it is none. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 27. that both were wayward. won't you lay on? 17. 29.14. whose names I omit. when it was presented to them. in this they agree. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. the whole conditions are changed. save it were sinful like herself. 23. 305. . of good novels only. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. she might have the family countenance. 21. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. There was no iron to be seen. 22. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. It is clear. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. I speak. therefore. 25. 30. PREPOSITIONS. however. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. seeing that it behooves me to hasten.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

CONWAY. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations.²WARNER. ²PARTON. D. he stopped. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at least.²ALDRICH. by means near or close to. TAYLOR The angel came by night.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.²M. She saw the boat headed for her. at work. at naught. as. Like at. Exercise. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. Richard was standing by the window. by the blessed memory of the departed.²R. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. the first port made by the ship.²COOPER. at peace.²B. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at the worst. expressing the degree of difference. by the ruins of nations.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at one. H. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at play. by the wrecks of time. at the best. at random. By. (2) Time. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.²SWIFT. Helena. etc.² (1) The general meaning of place.²DE QUINCEY. at first. (4) Measure of excess.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. At St.²EVERETT. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at war. . at any rate. By my faith. (3) Agency or means. etc. by many a million of acres. at rest. at once. at length.. For. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at most. At that time [the earth] was richer. Exercise.²ID. 321. STODDARD. at all. 320.

as being. "thou hast counseled wisely. in behalf of. ate her child. reason. etc.²ID. if your worship can accomplish that. poor fellow. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. BANCROFT. meaning although.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²EMERSON. For the rest.²STODDARD. considering that etc.²H.. He and they were for immediate attack.²PARKMAN. etc.²LAMB. "Nay.²E. (3) Duration of time. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. For him. for famine. or extent of space. or in spite of.² RUSKIN. etc. The twilight being. as to. for the benefit of.²IRVING.²HOLMES. (5) Reference.²HOOD. the Colonna motto would fit you best. (9) Motive. Still. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.. But the Colonel. GARRISON." answered Master Brackett. meaning with regard to. (4) Substitution or exchange. E.One of Eve's family. incitement to action. but a few sunsets since. cause. There are gains for all our losses. H. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. and leaped for joy. a person or thing."²SCOTT By my faith. "For a fool. (6) Like as.²W. meaning in the character of. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. for all his title. he repented of his folly." said the Lady of Lochleven.(2) In favor of.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. respecting. had a forest of poor relations. they are now for us. (7) Concession. for all slips of hers. . An Arab woman.²PARKMAN. L.

²MILTON. nay.²ID.²HALE.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. Of. . A distrustful. Like boys escaped from school. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The From Relation. H. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. cause. (1) Origin or source. more. The general idea in from is separation or source. From. (2) Origin. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. From harmony.²BANCROFT.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. The king holds his authority of the people.²HUXLEY. or reason. The original meaning of of was separation or source. Exercise. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. from a desire of seeming valiant.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²H.²HIGGINSON. (4) Motive. if not a desperate man. 322. It was from no fault of Nolan's. like from. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. ceased to be merciful. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. The young cavaliers. 323.²HUME. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. Exercise.²DRYDEN. (3) Time.

(3) With expressions of material. Other Relations expressed by Of. ²PARTON.²BANCROFT. deprivation. that Cromwell once ruled England. beg.²clear of. ask."²E. clear.²ID. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. HALE.²PARKMAN.²DICKENS II. the finest army that Europe had yet seen.²BOSWELL. acquitted them of. Of the Forty. (5) Expressing agency. etc. of his own knowledge. weeds.² HUXLEY. divest. White shirt with diamond studs. . rid.²SCOTT Who formed. Asked no odds of. (d) With words expressing distance. rob. bound with thongs of boar's hide. etc.²HIGGINSON. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. He is away of his own free will. as north of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²ALDRICH. deprive. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. ²GAVARRE. "I am glad of that. bare of. etc. motive. (6) Partitive.²LEW WALLACE. Sandals. free of. relieve. expressing a part of a number or quantity. (c) After nouns expressing lack. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Back of that tree. or breastpin of native gold. E. disarm. etc. etc. south of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. cure. The hills were bare of trees. such as ease. purge. especially out of.²BAYARD TAYLOR. wide of. there were only twenty-one members present. A singular want of all human relation. You cannot make a boy know. More than one altar was richer of his vows. (b) After some adjectives.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. out of the most unpromising materials. demand. and grass.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. "Good for him!" cried Nolan.. free. reason.

(8) Appositional. E.²ALDRICH. Idiomatic use with verbs. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. Not even woman's love.²FROUDE.²HALLECK. (c) Two nouns. for the possessive. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. of late..²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²ID. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. of a sudden. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. equal to about. (7) Possessive. concerning. CHANNING. etc. (b) Noun and gerund. The fair city of Mexico. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.He washed out some of the dirt. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²LOWELL. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²BANCROFT. Such a book as that of Job. 309. ²IRVING.²W.²BANCROFT. (9) Of time. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. (10) Of reference. standing.²COOPER. being equivalent to an infinitive. when the first is descriptive of the second. and the dignity of a queen. The nation of Lilliput.²LAMB. with regard to.²BANCROFT. See also Sec.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. .²SWIFT.²PRESCOTT. of is used in the sense of during. could give shelter from his contumely. Besides the phrases of old. with its object. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.

. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. on trial. accept.²ALDRICH. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. on the alert. SIGOURNEY. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (b) With motion. permit. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. The general meaning of on is position or direction. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. on a sudden. (2) Time. disapprove.²MRS. without adding to their meaning. avail (one's self). (4) In adjurations. Exercise. concerning. you are eighteen.²EMERSON. Upon my reputation and credit. on view.²PARKMAN. etc. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. complain. approve. Cannon were heard close on the left. On my life. allow. etc. and not a day more. repent. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. 324. It also accompanies the verbs tire. equal to about. (3) Reference.²DE QUINCEY.²BRYANT.²PARKMAN. such as admit. on the wing. ²BANCROFT. Upon is seldom used to express time. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. and others. on board. on high.²Find sentences with six uses of of. To. On. Exercise. Upon. consist. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats.²PARKMAN.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. 325.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.

to my taste.to be written over. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. gay Comedy appears. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. (5) Equivalent to according to. does the mere music. to him. His brother had died. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²BULWER..²PARTON.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. unmasked.²LANG..Come to the bridal chamber. .²IRVING..²B. 268). it may be genuine poetry.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²HALE. Exercise.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²PARKMAN. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²BRYANT. Revolutions.²often to the loss of vigor. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. (2) Expressing result.²BENTON To our great delight. With.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Nor. We cook the dish to our own appetite. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. had ceased to be. He usually gave his draft to an aid. But when. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²GOLDSMITH.. To the few. Death!²HALLECK. mid meant in company with. whose influence is felt to this hour. In Old English. (b) Referring to time. 326. interest.

²HALE. with all his boldness. transmitted from the beginning.²E. as with you.²ALDRICH. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²LANG. I think. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²DE QUINCEY. 327.²HOWELLS. With all his sensibility. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. (2) Instrumentality. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. or with the haunch of our near leader. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. She seemed pleased with the accident. motive. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²CHANNING. He was wild with delight about Texas. (4) Estimation. (5) Opposition. to find the object of the preposition. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²COLERIDGE. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. . he gave millions to the sword. Either with the swingle-bar. with Heyward at its head. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. E.²SCOTT.²COOPER.²WALLACE (7) Time.²EMERSON. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. Messala. Exercise. (3) Cause. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²Find sentences with four uses of with.The advance. He expired with these words. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. it is necessary. reason. in spite of. but with you. "poetry is not a pursuit.²DE QUINCEY.²HOWELLS. HALE. It seemed a supreme moment with him. felt it unsafe to trifle further. had already reached the defile. opinion. first of all.

. hence we say. but all to no purpose. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. 4. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. came tumbling about my ears. 2. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. I remember. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. and knocked me down flat on my face. by which a dozen apples. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. (4) from the beginning. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. without a country modifies man. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. To our general surprise. of from. beginning. country. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. the malicious rogue.²SWIFT 2. Exercises. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. (3) without a country. but I received no other hurt. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. The object of on board is ships. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. In (1). shook it directly over my head. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. I felt my box raised very high in the air. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. (2) on which. of without. which. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. telling what man. the phrase answers the question where. or was.The phrases are (1) on board the ships.²ID. Whereupon. we met the defaulter here. I speak these things from a love of justice. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. Be that as it will. because I had given the provocation. before the dwarf left the queen. In (3). 5. like the clapping of wings. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. And so on. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. I heard a noise just over my head. of on. I called out several times. In (2). 3. I looked towards my windows. The guns were cleared of their lumber. he followed us one day into those gardens.

even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 10. in this respect. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. to one dark and gloomy.Without stop or stay. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. His breeches were of black silk. he favored the world with his opinions. On all subjects known to man. 12. The savage army was in war-paint. plumed for battle. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 29. 15. Carteret was far from being a pedant. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. For my part. I like to see the passing. The mother sank and fell. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 26. 27. 23. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 8. 11. after a restful morning. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 14. 24. when. 9. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 18. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 7. 25. in town. 19. 13. . 17. grasping at the child.6. 16. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. With all his learning. 21. 20. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 22. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage.He spurred his courser on.

²BEECHER.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (4) As an adverb of degree. THAT. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. WHAT. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. He will raise the price. That night was a memorable one. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. And now it is like an angel's song.²HUXLEY. (3) As a relative pronoun. . (c) Substantive conjunction. that you might behold this joyous day.That makes the heavens be mute. (a) Indefinite relative. A few are discussed below. not merely by the amount of the tax. 329.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. 328. and not according to form. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. That was a dreadful mistake. That is what I understand by scientific education.²WEBSTER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²STOCKTON. We wish that labor may look up here. 330. (1) Relative pronoun.² JOHNSON.²COLERIDGE. and be proud in the midst of its toil. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.30. (b) Of result.

or not only." (4) Relative adjective.Which be they what they may. (8) Conjunction. (7) Adverb of degree. (b) Indirect question.²EMERSON. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²WORDSWORTH.it is impossible to determine. . (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question..these sounds are only to be heard. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.S.but. What with the Maltese goats. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. "I'll tell you what.. he knows what good people are to be found there. What.. and silent all!²BYRON.²ID.²THACKERAY. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.. (9) As an exclamation. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. If he has [been in America].. but the result of calculation. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. 331.. (b) Indirect question. it rests on reality. after not only. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.. partly.²S.Those shadowy recollections. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.²WEBSTER. nearly equivalent to partly.²EMERSON... What. Cox. BUT... To say what good of fashion we can.. silent still.²ID. (b) Copulative. At what rate these materials would be distributed. to see what might be hidden.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.in Pera.

(e) Introducing an appositive word. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.. AS...²HAWTHORNE. like the dog. (5) Adverb. at all moments. 332.²FRANKLIN. I shall see but little of it.Then arose not only tears.. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (c) Of degree. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. To lead but one measure.²MRS BROWNING. Doing duty as a guard. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. not. or who . There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²EMERSON. meaning only.. (b) Of manner.²CARLYLE. (d) Of reason. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven... (3) Preposition. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. on all sides. . not.²LAMB.²SHELLEY. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (4) Relative pronoun. (b) Substantive. towards order. meaning otherwise . meaning except. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. stands for that . than. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. but piercing cries. after such.²SCOTT. equivalent to that ..²IRVING. after a negative. (2) Relative pronoun.²IRVING. Who knows but.²IRVING. not.He yearned to our patriot bands. ²CARLYLE. sometimes same.

²ALDRICH. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. and as or as if takes its place. This follows a verb or a verbal.²LAMB. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.² HAWTHORNE. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. and is followed by a dative-objective. That face.LIKE.²MAYHEW. staring like a bewildered man. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like Martin was. nervous child.-SCOTT. Through which they put their heads. In each case.²LONGFELLOW.²EMERSON. Introduces a clause.² A timid. Note the difference between these two uses. like drops out. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. I do with my friends as I do with my books. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. If the verb is expressed. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. NOTE.²CASS. like a cook beating eggs. There is no statue like this living man.²DARWIN. like him awhile ago. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. but its verb is omitted. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. this. Stirring it vigorously. .²HALLECK.²EMERSON.²ALDRICH. 333. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE. and was clearly an adjective. ²PARKMAN. indeed. Give Ruskin space enough. like summer ocean's. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. In this second use. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. No Emperor. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. They look.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. but this is not considered good usage: for example. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. (1) An adjective.²HIGGINSON.²HAWTHORNE.

verb. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. pronoun. clauses introduced by conjunctions. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. What analysis is. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. that is. as. 334.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences.INTERJECTIONS. Value of analysis. but it still retains its identity as noun. Some of these are imitative sounds. that is. 336. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. etc. Definition.. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. entering into the structure of a sentence. 335." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. etc. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. tut! buzz! etc. Definition. in separating them into their component parts. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. it is necessary to become expert in analysis.: for example. subject and predicate." PART II. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. .²in determining case.

not according to the form in which a thought is put. Examples of these three kinds are. or command: for example. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. which expresses command. or imperative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. 338. which puts the thought in a question. Every sentence must contain two parts. always friends?" imperative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. according to form. declarative. 339. or request. you must not die!" interrogative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. . question. "Old year. But now all is to be changed. Definition.²a subject and a predicate. "The quality of mercy is not strained." "What wouldst thou do. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. 337. hence. but by no means vulgar. entreaty.Kinds of sentences as to form. (3) Imperative. but according to how many statements there are. A rare old plant is the ivy green. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. "Come to the bridal chamber. but the sentence would still be declarative." 340. interrogative. 2. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. (2) Interrogative. This is the most common one. Division according to number of statements. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. "Hath he not always treasures. old man?" "Be thou familiar. Definition: Predicate.

But if we try this with the second sentence. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. and is to be supplied. or an interrogative pronoun. not of a rare old plant. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. all. adjective." Exercise. 3.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. In the interrogative sentence. 8. on the other hand. the subject is frequently after the verb. 341. Thus. In analyzing such sentences. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. a rare old plant. thou. 6. especially in poetry. or adverb that asks about the subject. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. but about the ivy green. to an ignorant man. Consequently. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. "[You] behold her single in the field. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. and the real subject is the latter.²What is the ivy green? Answer. 4. The last of all the Bards was he.²What is to be changed? Answer. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. or ye) is in most cases omitted. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. and our definition must be the following. 2. 7. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. to suit all cases:² Subject. Listen. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. the subject (you.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Slavery they can have anywhere. we say all is the subject of the sentence. always reduce them to the order of a statement. we have some trouble. . as. 5.

but it is a true complement. 342. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. for example. (2) The predicate. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. and by object we mean the direct object." indirect. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.²transitive and intransitive. Direct Object. in addition to the object. 343. "Ye call me chief. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning." Complement: 344. (4) The complements. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. (5) Modifiers. (6) Independent elements. or second object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. Of a transitive verb. The subject and predicate have been discussed. The transitive verb often requires. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. and me here is not the object simply of call. but chief belongs to the verb. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. direct. (3) The object. Indirect object. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. and means summoned. but of call chief. just as if to say." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). . "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds.10. "Ye honor me.

more familiarly. Thom of the Gills." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. appear. feel. introduced by a preposition: for example. become. 352. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. 364. taste." (3) INFINITIVE." 345. A phrase is a group of words." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. and. See sentence 19. in the original Opium Confessions." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. especially the forms of be." All these complete intransitive verbs. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. but used as a single modifier. he was now getting old. Phrases. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. sir!' rang out in response. and barring the door. and of massive weight. to the completion of this man of the world. 'Ay." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote.. above sixty. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. for instance. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. "A cheery. Complement of an intransitive verb. I mentioned a case of that nature." "The good man.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 355. etc. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. 351. "Brow and head were round." "He was termed Thomas. in the popular judgment." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . not containing a verb." (2) PARTICIPIAL. ay." Also an expression used as a noun. 346. as. as in drowning. or. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. seem." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. As to form. in exercise following Sec. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." Things used as Subject. An intransitive verb. as in the sentence. 347.

(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). or their religion from their sect. but obscures the real subject." The for did not belong there originally. and by Saint George!' said the King. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. but the real or logical subject is to print." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. my deficiency." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. Disguised infinitive subject. and ever will be. etc. "Therein has been. or the thundering of organs. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. 341.²the infinitive phrase. "'By God." In this sentence." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. (4) After "there introductory. was heard one syllable to justify." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. but they will be given in detail here. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." Things used as Direct Object. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. from their lips. 349. I saw the quick and the dead. asserting eyes. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." etc." "There are asking eyes. . it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. (2) In interrogative sentences." Things used as Complement. prowling eyes." 348." "The dead are there.²the talent of starting the game." "Never." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. for which see Sec. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject.

² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards.²completing the predicate. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. doubtless. and explaining or modifying the subject. and whenever the complement is a noun. I. and the words italicized are still complements." Modifiers." ." "She asked her father's permission." "I hear the echoes throng. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." "Their tempers." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. As complement of a transitive verb. Like all the complements in this list." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. or Complement. Modifiers of Subject. Of a transitive verb. Object.350.²heads or tails." "Serving others is serving us." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. the object is made the subject by being passive." In this last sentence. (3) Infinitive. and. As complement of an intransitive verb. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. complements of the predicate. or the equivalent of the noun." (4) Participle." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. at the same time. 351. the shepherd girl. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. they are adjuncts of the object.

352. unforgiving." "Give them not only noble teachings. Modifiers of the Predicate. Tells how." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. the verb being omitted. tell whether the subject. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. Retained with passive. or . austere. and modify the predicate in the same way. or complement is modified.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. object. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." "In the twinkling of an eye. II.²In each sentence in Sec." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. but noble teachers. given at the request of a Dutch lady." Exercise. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." "Him. 357-363. and leading him from star to star. but it is really a contracted clause. see further Secs. 351. but with other men." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." In such a sentence as. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. was now called upon for his defense. Since the predicate is always a verb. was the scene from King John." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. "He died like a God.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. the prisoner at the bar." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. no sociable angel.²proud. I have seasoned for thee." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. this young idolater." (For participial and infinitive phrases." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. not with nature.

to the animal strength and spirits. and (direct) object:² 1. Evil. and as many to oppose it." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. negative. the indirect object is retained. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. But anger drives a man to say anything. 2. 5. His books have no melody. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. or how long. how far. 7." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. is good in the making. in this center? 4. 6. and. I took.. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 6. but the children of the great. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 8. etc. a sort of personality to the whole writing. On the voyage to Egypt." (6) Adverbial objective. gives wonderful animation. with my joy and grief." Exercises. 5. predicate. To the men of this world. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. in regard to particulars. predicate. This. and other measures of precaution. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. These answer the question when. and the direct object is retained: for example. Why does the horizon hold me fast." "One way lies hope. 3. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. no emotion. according to old philosophers. Fashion does not often caress the great.When the verb is changed from active to passive. after dinner. 2. but to be loved. (b) Pick out the subject. 3. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy." "All such knowledge should be given her. . They do not wish to be lovely. 7. 4. (a) Pick out subject. no relief to the dead prosaic level. the man of ideas appears out of his reason." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. he liked. no humor.

6. 5. A river formed the boundary. To suffer and to do. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. Paint me. the blooming cornet. I promised her protection against all ghosts. . happy dinner. I gave him an address to my friend. 3. at length the warrior lady. 4. for the first time. Yes. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 3. a room seventeen feet by twelve. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott.y 8. that was thy portion in life. to the right and to the left. then. 3. 2. the attorney. Not the less I owe thee justice. y y y y Compound Subject. Compound Predicate.²the river Meuse. at the chief hotel. 4. this dragoon so lovely. 2. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. That night. burthened with the anxieties of a man. must visit again the home of her childhood. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. this nun so martial.. Unhorse me. 4. etc. after their long confinement to a ship. viz. then. in little peaceful Easedale. In one feature. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 2. six children sat by a peat fire. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. Their intention was to have a gay. this imperial rider. expecting the return of their parents. I felt myself. Not compound sentences. and a member of the world. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. downwards. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. upwards.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. 5. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1.

the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. that is. For example. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. Of this. Larger view of a sentence. however. hurry. ulcer. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject." "Ye crags and peaks. etc. together with all its modifiers. hurry." "Voyages and travels I would also have. the simple subject is situation. in the sentence." "The name of the child. Independent Elements of the Sentence. the object. Examples of compound subjects are. two or more subjects of the same predicate. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. and. may be the person or thing addressed. I'm with you once again. same as (1). Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. complements.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. then the grammatical subject and predicate. "The company broke up. 355." "He shook his head. my brave young man!" . several modifiers. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. but it is to be noticed that. the tone of her voice. the air of the mother. in all such sentences as we quote below. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. The exclamatory expression. shouldered the rusty firelock. etc. Bishop. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative.353. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms." And so with complements. together with its modifiers." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. "Ah. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. 354. above: thus." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. they are not a necessary part. and the rest is the logical predicate. the verb). forming a sentence: "Oh. exposes." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. etc. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is.. modifiers. the predicate." Sentences with compound predicates are. and its object or complement. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. turned his steps homeward.

and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. besides. 6). let him perish. or word used as a noun: for example. etc." Another caution. 357. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 350. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. . pronoun." "Why." "No. this story runs thus. (1) Adjectival. grandma. 355. 356. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. the company broke up. why. undoubtedly. y (2) The adverbial use. or complement (see Sec." "Truth to say. modifying a noun. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. truly. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. These need close watching. see Sec. then." (5) Participial phrase: "But. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. how you're winking!" "Now. he closed his literary toils at dinner. generally speaking." (2) Adverbial. he somehow lived along. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.. 4)." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. object. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. really. In their use. prepositional phrases may be." "Well. he was a conscientious man. such as perhaps." (6) Single words: as. 3. to the best of my remembrance. (b) As a modifier of subject. The words well.. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." (3) Independent. her noticing even this is creditable. see Sec." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. nevertheless. and so on." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. such as however. already noticed. therefore. instances of which were seen in Sec. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. yes! everybody knew them. and some conjunctions. that have an office in the sentence. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb." "At all events. now. 352. 351. There are some adverbs. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. six quill-driving gentlemen. etc. modifying the predicate.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. "Oh. 4). moreover.

The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble." "There.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. etc. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. but having no other office than a verbal one. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. containing no matters of business. y (a) With may (might). INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." (b) With the forms of be. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.can (could). "Because I was. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. but require somewhat closer attention." etc." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. or as nearly so as the student will require. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . thus. therefore.should. See Sec. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. etc. he should not have known them at all.would. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.]. 355." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. Wilt thou. 358. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. and hence is adverbial.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. necessity. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. modifying was speedily run through. The verbal use.seem. ought. (5). was speedily run through. and they will be presented here in full. and teach her how to be happy and good. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. I. This case excepted." (c) With the definite forms of go." In this sentence. being equivalent to a future with obligation. "The letter of introduction." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.: as in the sentences. my dear.

The fact that the infinitives in Sec. to look means that he might look." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. The substantive use. The adverbial use. III. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. and the eyes to fill?" 359." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "To teach is to learn. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. etc.: for example. object. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. "Do they not cause the heart to beat.. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. to please is equivalent to that he may please. To test this. Don Guzman. 5).moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). is evident from the meaning of the sentences. the Scotch fighting all the battles. hang the idiot. II. 362." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. 351. . complement." "To say what good of fashion we can. IV." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." "Are you mad. 361 are used adverbially. notice the following:² In (1). to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). 361." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. "But there was no time to be lost. above. (4) In apposition." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. to hear McOrator after dinner." "He insisted on his right to forget her. etc. The adjectival use." 360. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. modifying a noun that may be a subject. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence.²both purpose clauses. result." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. already examined.

(6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec." (See also Sec. savage and serene in one hour. (3). to part means because I part. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. In (3). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. . to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 364. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. which is of two kinds.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 4. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. give² (1) The predicate. 351). etc. must be in a life. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. to find shows the result of the return. 2. 347). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 355). 349). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers.²both expressing condition.In (2). 351). V.. to hear means if you should hear. I will try to keep the balance true. In analyzing simple sentences. (7) Independent elements (Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. object. (5) The subject (Sec. 351). If it is an incomplete verb. as in Sec. 268.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. Our life is March weather. equivalent to that you betray. give the complement (Secs. In (5). etc. 3. and to say is equivalent to if we say. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. not in a book. In (4). 355. 352). etc. 363. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. The independent use. and to betray and to bring express the reason..

The old crow of Cairo. 14. might be called flabby and irresolute. . 7. always in a bad plight. We are always in peril. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 18. He risked everything. 10. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 21. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. You may ramble a whole day together. like a witch's oils. 24. a good shot. The whole figure and air. 22. The water. with eager energy. and only to be saved by invention and courage. To these gifts of nature. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men.He sat in the shower. 13. good and amiable otherwise. 12. a skilled musician. nor money. in popular use. two stricken hours. nor himself. The word conscience has become almost confined. I have heard Coleridge talk. through evil agents. through toys and atoms. 17. His opinion is always original. nor troops. just on the edge of destruction. 23.Burnt green and blue and white. nor generals. is to have no political system at all. a graceful dancer. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 20. Through the years and the centuries. 15. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune.²to preserve her throne. and every moment discover something new. neither ammunition. an accomplished scholar. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 11. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. To be hurried away by every event. the carrion crow. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. to the moral sphere. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. to restore civil and religious order. 16. Old Adam. and to the purpose. and spared nothing. 8. to keep England out of war. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 6. Her aims were simple and obvious. 19. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual.4. 9. 5.

ready to receive her. upon my own ground. and the why. She had made a two days' march. 26. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. in front of all this mighty crowd. Few in number. or perhaps one virtue. Of the same grandeur.Effacing many a stain of former crime. the present capital of New England. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 35. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. Fair name might he have handed down. still. 33. Upon this shore stood. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. Supposing this computation to be correct. Must we in all things look for the how. 34.25.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. and in my own garden. In the Acadian land. 38. 36. time-honored. and. proud foe. to be a reproach to such goodness. But yield. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. The cry. the ship was in an uproar. 39. I hate him and myself. in this world. baggage far in the rear. in less heroic and poetic form. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes.Distant. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. This amiable relative. 29. 30. 27. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. an elderly man. 41. and no provisions but wild berries. haply. 37. to bid you leave the place now and forever. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Now. the same Condé Olivarez. I dare this. Oxford. The villain. 40. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. the prime minister of Spain. and the wherefore? . had but one foible. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 32. secluded. 31.

" Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Words left out after than or as." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. made merely for convenience and smoothness." Sentences with like. As shown in Part I. 365. however. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. which is the unit of speech. The simple sentence the basis. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. though often treated as phrases.² "She is like some tender tree. 367. thus.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. the pride and beauty of the grove. as would be the connective instead of like. as. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. are really contracted clauses.From her own loved island of sorrow. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. . but.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 333). 366." To show that these words are really omitted. (Sec. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. the expressions of manner introduced by like. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. if they were expanded." This must.

Definition. or dependent on it.. and the last. suffering. each clause has its subject. 370. logically depends on suffering.²the other members subordinate to it. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. that . A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause)." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. 371. predicate. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. and the next one. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. object.. modifiers. containing a verb with its subject. we are aware.. 368.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. . murmur. that is. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. is taken in. which are so united that one member is the main one. complements. Independent clause. Hence the following definition:² Definition. main. and modifier. A principal.²the backbone. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. etc. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. A clause is a division of a sentence. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. CLAUSES. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. complement.. object. or it may be applied to the others. 369.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. how great . as in this sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.

.. thus." (2) Object of a verb. or adverbs. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things." (4) Apposition." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. verbal. 352. put an end to my fancies. for example. We ourselves are getting . "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. for a time. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. (b) that are . 5). for example. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. pronoun. so the object clause is retained. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. impertinences. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause.' is an electric touch. and the whole clause is not. (a) Ordinary apposition. 'I know that he can toil terribly. ADJECTIVE. impertinences²would be grammatical. over which the torrent came tumbling. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. . 373. is retained after a passive verb (Sec." "I was told that the house had not been shut. Kinds.." 374. and ADVERB clauses. adjectives. night or day. As to their office in the sentence. attention is called to them here... Noun Clauses.. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. infinitive. But since they are complex in form. 372. and it is . clauses are divided into NOUN.Dependent clause." Just as the object noun. for a hundred years.. with a noun clause in apposition with it." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. but logically the sentence is.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. etc." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.

that he was a scheming impostor. and not on the sentiment. wherein. 5.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. a relative pronoun being understood. but. where. he could know nothing. As the office of an adjective is to modify. etc. 8. or equivalent of a noun. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. Other examples of this construction are. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. that all safe legislation must be based. The reply of Socrates. a falsehood incarnate." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. . that. 7. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. he would repent it. which. still remains reasonable. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Except by what he could see for himself. sometimes by the conjunctions when. whether he should choose one or not. But the fact is. how it changed from shape to shape. Frequently there is no connecting word. 3. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. I was napping. whereby. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. as. 2.² "It is on the understanding. Such a man is what we call an original man. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. of a nation. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. 375. 6. whence. 4. whither. 10. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Examples of adjective clauses. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. Adjective Clauses. no man will ever know. that. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. in the sentence. What history it had. 9. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun." Exercise.

e. Pick out the adjective clauses. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. No man is reason or illumination. 2. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 4. . object. which Rowena tasted. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 9. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. 1." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 3. all is vacancy. which formed the center of the mansion. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. i." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. etc. I walked home with Calhoun." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 11. 7. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 10. the champions advanced through the lists. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 8. 5." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." Exercise. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. Adverbial Clauses. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. or that essence we were looking for. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. and tell what each one modifies. 6. whether subject. he begins to help us more as an effect.376.

" "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." "After leaving the whole party under the table.: "But still.. and adverbial conjunctions. whatever." (3) REASON. a verbal." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. so far as we can. however. etc. an adjective. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. Joanna is better." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. that we should try. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study.² whoever. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. is wider. shaping our actions. he goes away as if nothing had happened. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. and what it modifies:² . so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. introduced by indefinite relatives." "The broader their education is." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. the wider is the horizon of their thought. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. the milestones are grave-stones. and will be given in detail. but they require careful study.377. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. however good she may be as a witness. expressing the degree in which the horizon. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. adverbs." (7) RESULT." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." "When he was come up to Christian. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "The right conclusion is. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." (9) CONCESSION." These mean no matter how good. etc." "Who cares for that." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. with examples." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. etc. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. Exercise. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. since he was too great to care to be original. no matter what remains. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "He went several times to England." (5) DEGREE. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. it takes precedence of everything else. 378. to make up our shortcomings. tell what kind each is." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. or an adverb.

" 2. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. as they sometimes did. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. banging about doors and windows. incoherent exclamations. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. predicate. howling and whistling. and modifiers. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. we are a little disappointed. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. so that the living were frightened out of their beds." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. find the principal subject and principal predicate. 380.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. on a dark wintry night. so as to picture the parts and their relations. in the sentence. with shrill. etc. For example. 'Well. snatching up stones to fling at them. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. they might perhaps say of their visitors. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. then treat noun clauses as nouns. of which clause Odin is the subject. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. 379. If the children gathered about her. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. object. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and twirling weathercocks.1. to tell the truth. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. when the wind was unruly. its object is that Odin was a reality. 3. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves.

(2) Analyze it according to Sec. d. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.. (1) Find the principal clause. 364. 380).| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much.. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 3. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. 2. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. Exercises. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. . 364. as seen in the "map" (Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec.

Had they been better chemists. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 18. 19. 17. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 22. And those will often pity that weakness most. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 14. had we been worse. not so much for travelers that were few. the mixed result. if applied to the Bible. He was what our country people call an old one. 6. or whether any. whom I choose. 20. 11. namely. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Here lay two great roads. for yours. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 9. M. 7. who would yield to it least. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. This is she. the flower should revive for us. 10. 15. 24. that pressed her with an objection. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 23. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration.4. could not have been effected. 16. 12. 8. Now. bishop. counselor that had none for herself. the shepherd girl. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. The deep eyes. . Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. The night proved unusually dark. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 13. 21. 5. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. as for armies that were too many by half. But now that she has become an establishment. of a light hazel. that. I like that representation they have of the tree. which. dying for them. Next came a wretched Dominican. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident.

² Definition. speed." said Bentley. (b) First analyze. Hence the definition. 30. that it was no more than his daily walk. 3. and not from his heart. if continuously extended. but above it. the following complex sentences:² 1. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 380. These things we are forced to say. 6. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 26. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 7.²which will not be disposed of. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. if there be one to whom I am not equal. It makes no difference how many friends I have.25. The writer who takes his subject from his ear." 4. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. though we may repeat the words never so often. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 27. questions. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 5. and stamped with his right number. then map out as in Sec. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. How formed. 28. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. and temper. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. . we cannot adequately say. That which we do not believe. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. is to speak and write sincerely. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 2. would easily reach. or commands. "was ever written down by any but itself. 382. COMPOUND SENTENCES. 383. "No book.

and not the form of the connective.. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. as in Sec. in (3)." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. as but. which are simple statements. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. 386. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. a complex member. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. for. Exercise. he dilates. Of the following illustrative sentences.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. yet. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. in (2). if there are any. he soliloquizes. others sometimes coördinate. moon-like ray" (adversative). Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. while (whilst). and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. a simple member. nor. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. 385." 384. however. Some of these are now conjunctions. Thus in (1). nor does he know until he has tried. the waving grass. or but. . the semicolon separates the first. and which complex:² 1. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. he walks with arms akimbo. Speak your latent conviction. The division into members will be easier. the planet has a faint. etc. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. The coördinate conjunctions and. now adverbs or prepositions." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. and it shall be the universal sense. tell which are compound. "Only the star dazzles. 383 (1). he is twice a man. 297). Study the thought. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). Another example is. from the second. and nor the second and third complex members. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. etc. Connectives. whereas. and connects the first and second complex members.

and sun-browned with labor in the fields. unobtrusive boy. 2. 8. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. and for everything you gain. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. the tax is certain. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. and not by what each is. 7. All loss. passed in that time. 12. 6. The gain is apparent. Exercise.2. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. Whilst the world is thus dual. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 5. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 4. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 3. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. (i) Separate it into its main members. yield to them heart and life. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 10. I can yet love. you have gained something else. For everything you have missed. 9. and thou shalt be loved. I can still receive. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. nay. you lose something. 4. from a happy yet often pensive child. is particular. to find a pot of buried gold. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. so is every one of its parts. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. however. or. Man does not stand in awe of man. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. and as yet very early in the morning. 364. 14. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. all pain. . 387. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. for example. 13. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. quiet. However some may think him wanting in zeal. he grew up to be a mild. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 11. 381. In this manner. Love. 3. that it was Easter Sunday.

because. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. puts the parties on a convenient footing. or sail with God the seas. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. We see the noble afar off. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. as children. 18. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. 8. and makes their business a friendship. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and the other dares not. 20. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue." says the smith. "Strike. 14. or we pursue persons. and they will show themselves great. and they will be true to you. "as nigh the scythe as you can. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 15. modesty. . but the day never shines in which this element may not work. He teaches who gives. 9. 19. When you have chosen your part. or hope. whilst frankness invites frankness. They will shuffle and crow. abide by it. 16. give those merits room. Stand aside. 6. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Come into port greatly. We go to Europe. and each shows only what lies at its focus. Trust men. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world.5. treat them greatly." says the haymaker. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 17. Whatever he knows and thinks. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. and the cart as nigh the rake. 7. feign to confess here. crook and hide. one is afraid. why should we intrude? 10. and not an emotion of bravery. and you are without effort impelled to truth." 13. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 21. and they repel us. is as thin and timid as any. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade." "keep the rake. "the iron is white. and the peace of society is often kept. or men will never know and honor him aright. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. only that they may brag and conquer there. and not a thought has enriched either party. that let him communicate. or we read books. 11. if you rip up his claims. and he learns who receives. let them mount and expand.

But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. So does culture with us. so readily and lavishly they promise. 388. pronoun and antecedent. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 390. We see young men who owe us a new world. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. SYNTAX. adjective and noun. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. 25. it never was known to fall into the rear. PART III. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. By way of introduction. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. 23. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. Do not craze yourself with thinking. or. 24. but go about your business anywhere. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. they die young. but they never acquit the debt. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Following the Latin method. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case.²agreement and government. Ground covered by syntax. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. verb and subject. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence.22. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. if they live. they lose themselves in the crowd. Essential point in English syntax. and dodge the account. but its leading characteristic is. INTRODUCTORY. 380. it ends in headache.

Why study syntax? 391. and whose judgment. or when they exist side by side in good usage. There is. and imitate it." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. "None remained but he. good English. The basis of syntax. the sentence. 393. Some rules not rigid. pronoun and antecedent. etc. the order being inverted. then. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. Second." that is." is ambiguous. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. or settler may be the subject. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. For example. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. some of which conform to classical grammar. but are not now. and nothing but important points will be considered. authorities²that is. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. Also in the sentence. or the same writer will use both indifferently. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. also expressing a possessive relation. This is not logical. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. 392. as to study inflected forms.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. both forms will be given in the following pages. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. "The savage here the settler slew. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. . for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. In Latin. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. therefore. In some cases. Savage may be the subject. As an illustration of the last remark. and added to it the preposition of. following the regular order of subject. and it would not matter which one stood first. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. yet the expression is sustained by good authority.² First. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. When usage varies as to a given construction." In this there is a possessive form. take the sentence. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. distinct forms would be used. sometimes verb and subject.

as. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.²RUSKIN. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Putting Mr. . 397. Separate possession.²EMERSON.²MACAULAY.²MILTON. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. or indicate joint ownership or possession.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY." Juletta tells. for example. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Joint possession. 395. and Pope's. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. 394.²THACKERAY.² He lands us on a grassy stage. the possessive sign is used with each noun. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. and Paul's. Mill's and Mr. PRONOUNS. Woman. ²ID. and Harley's.²MCCULLOCH. 408). the antechamber of the High Priest. Bentham's principles together. Use of the possessive.² Live your king and country's best support. but imply separate possession or ownership.²BYRON.²ROWE. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. the shore of Galilee. and Peter's. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. etc. and Peterborough's. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.NOUNS. 396. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. He kept Bolingbroke's. sense and nature's easy fool. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.

The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). . who. together with the relative who. Bedott Papers. 399. I. the last expression has the support of many good writers. whom is the complement after the verb am.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.²TROLLOPE. the real thought being forgotten. have separate forms for nominative and objective use." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. for example. others are generally. and should be the nominative form. General rules. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Still. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Objective for the nominative. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. But he must be a stronger than thee. thus." 400. sanctioned.²SOUTHEY. there are two general rules that require attention.²SHAKESPEARE. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.²BYRON.²THACKERAY. Since most of the personal pronouns. 398. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. if not universally. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²POPE. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.) "The young Harper. Some of the violations are universally condemned. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. as. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²WHITCHER. This should be "as she. No mightier than thyself or me.

In spoken English. BLACK.² For there was little doubt that it was he. One exception is to be noted.²RUSKIN.²LONGFELLOW. But still it is not she.²FIELDING. are." There is no special reason for this.²PARTON."²WM. it will not be me. for example.² One I remember especially."²WINTHROP. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. "Than whom. "Who's there?"²"Me. is. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²COLERIDGE. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. A safe rule. as. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. And it was heThat made the ship to go. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. "If there is any one embarrassed. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. Patrick the Porter. unless a special. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. The camp of Richard of England. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. the objective form is regularly found. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant." 401.²SCOTT.²THACKERAY. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. . but such is the fact. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON."²KINGSLEY. on the other hand. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. namely. they are yet holier than we.²KINGSLEY. both in England and America. and the other forms of the verb be. The usage is too common to need further examples.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²MACAULAY.

or this. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 3. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 8. as. Me in exclamations. used after verbs. now. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 404. object of saw). Nominative for the objective. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 9." 6. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. 11. but not he" (he should be him. 2. it is me. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns.²MILTON.Exercise. as this from Shakespeare. as. You know whom it is that you thus charge. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. and prepositions.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. 10. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. you or me. It is not me you are in love with. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. or us)." the word being in apposition with murderer). or preposition which governs it. "Ask the murderer. (3) By forgetting the construction. as. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. I speak not to" (he should be him. 5. verbal. Whom they were I really cannot specify. verbals. Truth is mightier than us all. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 4. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. . 7. 403. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. the object of to).

The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Thy shores are empires. after the preposition but (sometimes save). I arraign.Shall be left upon the morn. as. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.² All were knocked down but us two. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. and is usually avoided. "Who were they talking to?" etc. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who have we here?²ID. Exception 2. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²KINGSLEY. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. for they say there are none such in the world. but he. We regularly say. Thou. save thou and thine. Nature.²GOLDSMITH.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Exercise. Let you and I look at these. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. None. . Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.²KINGSLEY.²STEELE. as. for example.²KINGSLEY.Exception 1. who interrogative.²BYRON. as well as the objective. 405. etc. partial Nature.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. changed in all save thee. "Who did you see?" or.²BYRON. 406. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. I've sworn. 2. all but he. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.

²THACKERAY. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. POSSESSIVE FORMS. 407. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour.²possessive. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. 5. 9. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. 12.Ye I salute. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.²SCOTT. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 7. II." 4. 8.²DE QUINCEY. They crowned him long ago. with Jortin and Thirlby. 10. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. As antecedent of a relative. BROWN. Preceding a gerund. 11. or objective? . Markland. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. B.²RUSKIN. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. This usage is not frequent. who. and they know that as well as me.²C. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 6.3.²MACAULAY. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. Bartholomew.

it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. The use of the objective is older.²CARLYLE. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and the meaning is. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.² SCOTT. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning." That is. that the bitterness of death was past. Both types of sentences are found.²RUSKIN.²BREWER. and asked why it was not made. But in common use there is no such distinction. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.²DE QUINCEY. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. . We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. In the examples quoted. The last incident which I recollect.²DICKENS. etc. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. studying is a gerund. Why both are found.² IRVING." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. Objective.408.²MACAULAY. We heard of Brown.² THACKERAY. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. object of heard of. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and that in the second. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.² CARLYLE. sometimes it has the objective. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. both are gerunds. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. [who was] studying law. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. as he turned away from his wife. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Here I state them only in brief. Possessive.

There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. BROCKDEN BROWN. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²DEFOE. in one person. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²CABLE.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. Every city threw open its gates. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²AUDUBON.² BRYANT. preceded by a distributive. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²THOREAU.²HOLMES.²C. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. In such a case as the last three sentences.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. where there were examinations. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. it was his own fault. Examples of these constructions are.²HUXLEY. if the antecedent is neuter. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²when the antecedent. and gender. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²RUSKIN. The pale realms of shade. Watch for the real antecedent. If any one did not know it.²EMERSON III. and ought to agree with them in person.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. number.²DE QUINCEY. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. taking in each of many persons.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. 410. 409.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. or is a distributive word. Everybody had his own life to think of. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. .

Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. 411.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²RUSKIN. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. for example. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²BIBLE.²BYRON. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. By using the plural pronoun. Whosoever hath any gold. let them break it off. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²EMERSON. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. till they have lost him. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²PAULDING. . to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. The sun.²DEFOE. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²PALEY. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. as anybody in their senses would have done.²SCOTT. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.² Not the feeblest grandame.²ID.²HUXLEY. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²ID. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.Avoided: By using both pronouns. This is not considered the best usage.²PALGRAVE. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²FIELDING.²THACKERAY. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Struggling for life.²AUSTEN. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. and giving them means of being so. not a mowing idiot. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. If the part deserve any comment. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.

introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. and he went away.) and a personal pronoun. when coördinating. or unrestrictive. as. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. no one could take upon them to say. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. Exercise. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. What these terms mean. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. In the following examples. the definite relatives who. The clause is restricted to the antecedent." A relative. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. according to the practice of every modern writer. 2. It adds a new statement to what precedes. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. when restrictive.²ADDISON. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. etc." This means. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. but. and that are restrictive or not. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. unless both genders are implied. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. .²In the above sentences.²HAWTHORNE. who went away. That is in most cases restrictive. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. and does not add a new statement. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. but. I." It defines beggar. because. which. 1. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. tell whether who. As to their conjunctive use. or what was become of her. A relative.Where she was gone. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. in each instance:² Who.²ID. Exercise.² SHERIDAN. which. that being considered already clear. "I gave it to the beggar. 412. and that always restrictive. 413.

²DE QUINCEY. For example. 414.. etc. 12. BEECHER 5. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. 7. these or that which. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. The general rule is.² MOTLEY. which Mr. he.²ID. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. she agreed to join the party. long arms and legs. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. We say I. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. etc. A grizzly-looking man appeared. In what sense true. II. and over England are saying. and it is called logic. you. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. On hearing their plan. 11. However.²THOREAU. that were often vicious. 10. 8.²ADDISON. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.² IRVING. W. as that does not vary for person or number. etc. 9. but.²HOLMES. 6. Which. because of its antecedent. . "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. Hare has printed. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. The rule. down." that is invariable as to person and number. in the sentence. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. they. Yet how many are there who up. who. 14. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. which was to go over the Cordilleras.²DE QUINCEY. That. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand.²ID. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.² NEWMAN.3.² CARLYLE.²H. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. So different from the wild. 4. 13. it makes the verb third person singular. With narrow shoulders.

²SCOTT. when he derided the shams of society.. and write the verb in the plural. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. The latter is rather more frequent. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. but the former has good authority. French literature of the eighteenth century. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books..²HOLMES.²LOWELL. MORSE. in winning a battle. A disputed point. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. ARNOLD.²ADDISON. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. JR. Franklin.²LOWELL. but myself. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.. who rarely speak at all. 415.²J. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. Let us be of good cheer.²LECKY. "one of the finest books that have been published. with one as the principal word. T.. but speaks of him as that sort.²whether we should say. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. others regard books as the antecedent. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. [singular or plural. and in improving a victory. "one of the finest books that has been published. etc. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. [plural] that who.²HOWELLS.] Both constructions are frequently found. He is one of those that deserve very well. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²ADDISON. The fiery youth .²M. Singular.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²BOWLES.. etc.²MACAULAY. .. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY." One of . It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. or which ." or.. the true antecedent.

² THACKERAY.²IRVING. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²ADDISON.²EMERSON. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²SCOTT. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²DEFOE. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. object of a preposition understood.In that same state I came. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.² RUSKIN.²SWIFT. or where] he died. III.²VAUGHAN. when the relative word is a pronoun. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. return. Exercise. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. 416.² . "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. whence. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE." "India is the place [in which. where. IV.²In the above sentences. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²ID."²DICKENS. and such like: as. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. I could see nothing except the sky. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. 417. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²CARLYLE. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.And. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. that is. when this dust falls to the urn. But I by backward steps would move. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. The same day I went aboard we set sail. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²GOLDSMITH.²EMERSON.A rare Roundabout performance.²BURNS.

but we find the relative who. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²R..² BURKE. Mr. Anacoluthic use of which. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. V. and working in the same spirit. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. looking-glasses. if same is followed by a complete clause.²WORDSWORTH. W. as is not used.²SWIFT. etc. or that.²SCOTT. .² THACKERAY. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. as of knives. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. if I had resolved to go on with. for example. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.²FRANKLIN. he. I might as well have staid at home.² Which. ²GOLDSMITH. boats.²ADDISON. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. was a discoverer.He considered. she passed the lamp over her face and person. 418. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. but. but which is usually carefully avoided. Which. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.. That. Caution. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.me as his apprentice. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. The regular construction. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. with Turner. They believe the same of all the works of art.² MACAULAY.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. which. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. CHURCH.

should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. (2) "Among the poorer sort. 419. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors..²HAWTHORNE.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.²GOLDSMITH. or.. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. and who are now. he said that all submission was now too late. That is.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. 3." etc. or omit the conjunction. once a great favorite of M. He delivered the letter." etc. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. (1) "Among those who are poor. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. Express both relatives. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. etc. . Exercise. 4. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²SHAKESPEARE." etc. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. 2. (3) "Among the poorer sort. etc.²SCOTT. After this came Elizabeth herself. As the sentences stand. and this be placed in the proper clause.² Direction for rewriting.She'd come again.²RUSKIN. but none is expressed..²DE QUINCEY. which when Mr. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.²which if they once heard. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. now thrown upon their. or leave out both connective and relative. but. And who. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²THACKERAY. Exercise. This was a gentleman. But who. who are now thrown." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. 1. le Conte. Thornhill had read. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and which.

the French. Dr. I shall have complete copies.²IRVING. which the Scotch had learned. That . Or who. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. and which has never been described. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 6. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. Exercise. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. "What knight so craven.. like that spoken in the towns. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. and to whom no door is closed. 8. 10. as a false and astucious mark.²PEARSON. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 420. who. And which.²HAWTHORNE. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. 1. English by name.² MOTLEY. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. and which. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. then. 11. indeed. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²SCOTT. . 12. and repeat this for any further reference. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. "A mockery.5. and which may even be heard a mile off. either from imitation of their frequent allies. etc. 13.²DE QUINCEY. Akin to the above is another fault. 9. one of signal interest. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²SCOTT." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. But which.²DE QUINCEY.. etc. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. 7. Or which... I saw upon the left a scene far different.

Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. CHANNING. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.²EMERSON. .²HAWTHORNE. Which . Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. such as they have very probably been bred to.. SIMMS. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. It rose into a thrilling passion. at the head of what.²HOLMES.... I give to such men as do not belong to me.²SCOTT. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. half a century ago.. I grudge the dollar. 8.. which.²HALLAM.. 9.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 11. 6. 4. which.. 10. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. that .²HOWELLS. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and whose examples and principles we inherit.²W. In my native town of Salem.²DEFOE. 15. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.²W. the dime. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. I recommend some honest manual calling.. The Tree Igdrasil. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. that. and to whom I do not belong.. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. Such as . 3. He.2. but which. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. He flung into literature. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. whom. 14.²EMERSON. 5. 13. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.. was hung in air. in his Mephistopheles. That . and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. 7.. what. E. G. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. but which is perhaps not so different from it. Such as . the cent.²DE QUINCEY. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. was a bustling wharf.²BEECHER. 12. in his present condition.²SCOTT That which .

either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. Each other. for example.²MACAULAY. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. . The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²GOLDSMITH. 422.²RUSKIN. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. Distributives either and neither. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. By their original meaning. as. whether or not the two are equivalent. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²HAWTHORNE. one another. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. as it were.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.² HAWTHORNE. Assume that no one is in want of either. 421. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²ID.²RUSKIN. in which case any should be used instead.²EMERSON.² Some one must be poor. as.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. always at war with one another. Use of any. We call ourselves a rich nation.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. and in want of his gold²or his corn. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. that not all combined.²DICKENS.

any of his friends had died. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. as none of the French philosophers were. as.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . afterwards in Goethe. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. and is isolated.²STIRLING.²BEECHER Whenever. in Shakespeare. then in Plutarch. 423. speak. as. then in Plotinus.² EMERSON. when any of them are so good as to visit me. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. in the prose of the present day. Examples of its use are.²THACKERAY. let him ask of God. usually plural. during his stay at Yuste. for him have I offended. that I know of.²PROF.. even in Bettine. None usually plural. Do you think. whilst I still cherish their genius. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.² If any. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²FRANKLIN. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. I beseech you. None of Nature's powers do better service. etc. If any of you lack wisdom. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²EMERSON. if ever man was. at one time in Bacon. In earlier Modern English..²SCOTT. which is plural as often as singular.²BIBLE. The adjective pronoun none is. Do you think. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²SHAKESPEARE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. any was often singular.²BURKE. before that. .²CARLYLE.² In earnest. Caution.. 424. Any usually plural. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.

but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . any one else. as. etc. saving Naaman the Syrian. and Ford has nobody's else. etc. fixing his eyes on the mace.²NAPIER Plural. or somebody else's? 426. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. The compounds somebody else.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²McMASTER.² Singular. when it means all persons: for example. nobody else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. When all were gone. and all was lost on the other. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. 425. that all was lost.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. etc.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others..Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. are treated as units. and less rarely in poetry. The light troops thought .. the plural.² None of them was cleansed.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²SCOTT Like the use of any.² PEARSON.²THOREAU.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. etc. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. Somebody's else. for example. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. which is used absolutely.

there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²SHERIDAN.²MULOCH.² Saturday Review. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. or some other such great man as a bishop. London. P.²N.²RUSKIN. unlike anybody else's in the world. etc." "all manner of men.. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. or those sort of people. Again. the adjectives plural. ADJECTIVES.² These kind of knaves I know.²RUSKIN.²AUSTEN. STOWE. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.. 427. ELIOT. His hair. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.SYDNEY SMITH. WILLIS." the nouns being singular.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²in such as "these sort of books.² FIELDING. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). . etc.²G.²SWEET. all manner of. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. Whitefield or Wesley. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English."²MRS. "Ye see.²THACKERAY." "those kind of trees.²DICKENS. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.curled once all over it in long tendrils. These sort. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. for example. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.

We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Later form. History of this construction. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. when the necessary dispositions concur." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. The result." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. "These kind of trees are best. 428. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. made to agree with it.The library was open. "This sort of trees should be planted." A question. . According to the approved usage of Modern English. or one object with a class of objects. Burke's sentence. the victor or the vanquished. At the source. or the nouns to the plural.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. as. and in this way may take a plural verb. with all manner of amusing books. Should we say.² Which is the better able to defend himself.² PRESCOTT. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. which accounts for the construction. This the modern expression reverses. In Old and Middle English. gradually displacing the old. "This kind of rules are the best. and the adjective is. to express a higher degree of quality. more alarming than a total silence. not "all kinds of wild animals. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. Use of the comparative degree. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. for example. such as. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.²RUSKIN. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. Of two such lessons. in spoken English. they said. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. Consequently we have a confused expression." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.

Other after the comparative form. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²HUXLEY. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. . 430. He is taller.²LOWELL. has sanctioned. 429. Use of the superlative degree. Exercise."²ID. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Henry. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. would not have had the face. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. etc. by almost the breadth of my nail. than any of his court. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. To the man who plays well. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²CARLYLE. if not. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. Even Dodd himself. 3. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. Gary.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²HAWTHORNE. 5. Superlative with two objects. 4.A braver ne'er to battle rode. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. 6.² THACKERAY.²SCOTT. the highest stakes are paid. I am concerned to see that Mr.²SWIFT.²WIRT.²TROLLOPE. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 2. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.

After the most straitest sect of our religion. and differ only in form.²HAMLET. Come you more nearer.²ADDISON. The eldest. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.. who eat white bread or brown. and the other contains the best men. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Double comparative and superlative. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. 431.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. not a bit of high life among them.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him."²HAWTHORNE."²GOLDSMITH. ha. The following examples are used purposely. 1611. These two properties seem essential to wit.²GOLDSMITH.."²BULWER.²EMERSON. "Ha. . She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. whichever can be got easiest.²SCOTT. Rip was one of those . Also from the same period. I should say that one has the best cause. OLIPHANT. more particularly the last of them.²RUSKIN. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. In all disputes between States. Mary. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²DR BLAIR.²J. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. CÆSAR. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²BEN JONSON.²MRS.²TEMPEST. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²IRVING. Examples from Shakespeare are. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²Bible. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.

and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. jar upon us constantly. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. and Secretary Walsingham also. etc.²KINGSLEY. These are the three first needs of civilized life. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. For Carlyle. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. Instances of both are given below. the Spanish. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.²GIBBON. The merit of the Barb.²LAMB. etc. ARTICLES. The delay in the first three lines. The meaning intended is the same.²RUSKIN. . and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. First three. ²COWPER. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. but in literary English.²DE QUINCEY.² With a singular noun. Examples of this construction are. not only so in popular speech.²RUSKIN. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The first five had specific names. 433. As to these two expressions. Three first.²GIBBON. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. Definite article.²PRESCOTT.²ADDISON. and conceit in the last.² SMOLLETT.

of the eighteenth century.² RUSKIN.² MACAULAY.²ID.²SCOTT. One object and several modifiers. Indefinite article. and the presents. as. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. having been arranged.²THACKERAY. or to emphasize the meaning. the hour of parting came. but inseparable from each other. the greatest poems. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. but is used with one only. melodious. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . 433. Origin of the Aryans. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. The lofty. however.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. distinct. 1508.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. with a plural noun. to distinguish clearly. Here the youth of both sexes. Frequently. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. 435.. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. No. were placed at a very tender age. He is master of the two-fold Logos. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. The not repeated. with a singular noun. the thought and the word. as in Sec.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.²THE NATION. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. The flowers.²NEWMAN. of the higher and middling orders. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. 433. as. With a plural noun.. . and flexible language.²TENNYSON.²MACAULAY. 434.²CARLYLE. I think.²PRESCOTT.²TAYLOR. Meaning same as in Sec.

² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. 436). 435. one noun is expressed. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. and a usurper. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² BURKE. T.²S. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. a murderer. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. For rhetorical effect. rich. JONSON. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²BEECHER. only one of which is expressed. 438. a round and a square one alternately.²THACKERAY. But in the following sentences.²DICKENS. as in the first three of Sec. or clearness to each of several nouns. Examples of this use are. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. COLERIDGE.² MACAULAY.²B. . In the sentences of Secs. a tyrant. a collegian. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.²MACAULAY. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON. 433 and 436. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. The indefinite article is used. 437." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.²BULWER. One article with several adjectives. to limit two or more modified nouns.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. as. and inexhausted vein.436. like the definite article. interest. He saw him in his mind's eye. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²DRYDEN." and "a red and a white geranium.An early. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.²MACAULAY.

as.²M. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. Singular verb. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.²G. Another writer might. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. was the earliest American land. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²GIBBON. This was spoken of in Part I. He sees that it is better to live in peace. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. 276. In English. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. all that academies can give. as.²W. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. without academies.²AGASSIZ. Such. for example. ARNOLD. then.²COOPER. 440..²FROUDE. Sec. or the great intellectual life of our nation. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²CARLYLE This usage. Singulars connected by or or nor.²The Nation. .² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. Collective noun of singular meaning. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. 439. A broad and loose rule. like some others in this series. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.VERBS. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. and the following illustrations prove it. ELIOT. has got already.

three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. and every four hours.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. nor Mahomet. A fever. for example. and other singulars of plural form. seems at the moment unpaid loss. but considered as meaning about the same thing.²BURKE. nor John. Between ourselves. ²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²J.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. or considered as appositional. (4) When the subject is plural in form. is gone.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. a loss of wealth.²CRITIC. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. that of a large town. the cheap defense of nations. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²EMERSON .² In a word. No. as. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.Jesus is not dead. other names.²WHITTIER. ADAMS.²GIBBON.² The unbought grace of life. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. Q. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.² GOLDSMITH. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. or as making up one general idea. a loss of friends. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. but each one emphatic.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Plural form and singular meaning.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²GOLDSMITH. a mutilation. for example. nor Paul.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. as. a cruel disappointment.

²PRESCOTT. many a. and such like adjectives. 441. as.²M ARNOLD.²LONGFELLOW. as. Then comes the "Why. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. sir!"²MACAULAY.²NEWMAN. was listened to for five hours. was punished. as well as the newest. the ruin. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. no spent ball.² Asia. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. To receive presents or a bribe. every echo.² . nay.²MACAULAY. the partisan. sir?" and the "No. does not take the place of the man.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. and greaves. Plural verb.The rout.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. as well as Europe. The oldest. the dismay.²MACAULAY. There is a moving tone of voice. each. is a man of wit. was like to crack. Every week. no discontinuity. almost every day. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Every fop.²ID. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²BUTLER.² There is a right and a wrong in them. an impassioned countenance. every boor. Her back.²HAWTHORNE. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. sir!" and the "What then. as well as sides. wineBegins to stir itself. with death. The Epic. in a judge. the fine gentleman. every valet. the wit.The author. no matter if the second is plural). a gorget.²PRESCOTT.²ID. Subjects after the verb. Here is no ruin. no.²RUSKIN. a cuirass.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²SCOTT. thus.²EMERSON. was dazzled. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. as well as the Drama. an agitated gesture. Every sound.

a stream of fresh water. making up a plural subject. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²THOREAU. but the verb is plural. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²DE QUINCEY. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. Philip of Anjou.²GIBBON. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²CARLYLE But its authorship. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. were men of insignificant characters. . its date. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²SCOTT. A party of workmen were removing the horses. A shady grove. Far.²FRANKLIN. as.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. as with a subject of plural form. All our household are at rest. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. Conjunction omitted. b). shirt.²COLERIDGE.These bits of wood were covered on every square. far away thy children leave the land.²FROUDE.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²GOLDSMITH. are sufficient to attract a colony.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. for example.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.² GIBBON. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²B.²EMERSON.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. of whom there were a number. and its history are alike a mystery to us. as in Sec. The travelers.²FROUDE. The conjunction may be omitted.²ADDISON.²SWIFT. TAYLOR. a green pasture. The Dauphin. as. 440 (5.² One or two of these perhaps survive.² A multitude go mad about it. His clothes. the Duke of Berri.

" or. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. for example. his blood dost shed. 443. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. If there is only one person in the subject." "She or you may be sure.²LOWELL. nor should I.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. "I have never said so. Second or third and first person in the subject.²BYRON. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. "You would not be wiser.²M. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. . Not Altamont. Ah. nor has she"). Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. General usage. "He or I can go. but thou. of different persons.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. You and I are tolerably modest people.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. 442.²D.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. When the subjects. but thou.²ROWE. the verb takes the construction of the first person. ARNOLD. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. as.²SMOLLETT. Pattison or I have said. This construction is at the best a little awkward. the subject being really equivalent to we. WEBSTER. hadst been my lord. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. that is. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Exceptional examples." etc. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. we never talk politics.). 444. You and I are farmers. Nothing which Mr.But notice the construction of this.²WHITTIER. Not I. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.²RUSKIN.

Neither of them.²MILTON. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. nor tree.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. Also in verbals. 8. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 2. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²EMERSON.Her course to intercept.²ID. In the following sentence. How each of these professions are crowded. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.That neither of their intellects are vast. 11.²G. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²BYRON. 10. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 5. as illustrated above (Secs. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 7. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Exercise. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. as we would hope. which it is proper to mention.445. 4.² TROLLOPE. 9. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²BURKE.²SMOLLETT. In a word.²THACKERAY. 6. Both death and I am found eternal.²ADDISON. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. nor bush are there. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 440-444):² 1. 12. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²and. in my opinion. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. In this sentence from Defoe. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Nor wood. 3." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²perhaps the devil. BANCROFT. 446.

²DE QUINCEY 2. CHURCH..²FRANKLIN 6. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . 3.² PALGRAVE 5.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. as. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. change them to a better form:² 1. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. on my return.²THACKERAY. however. I gave one quarter to Ann.. 447." . to have seen should be changed to to see. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. for exact connection. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²MACAULAY. It should be remarked. W. 4. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. But I found I wanted a stock of words. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 448. if not. Definitions. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. Indirect discourse means reported speech. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Direct discourse²that is.²R. Of course. Two samples of indirect discourse.²KINGSLEY.²IRVING. meaning. Exercise. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. The present rule is recent.

(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs... This includes the auxiliaries be. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. introductory verb is in the past tense. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that." etc.. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect." etc. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Direct. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. etc. Direct. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. or regular interrogatives. "I cannot oblige you . 449. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. 1. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat.." Indirect. His exact words were. 2. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Sebastian's. "Oh. Oh. interrogative adverbs. have. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. The substance of his lamentation was. Summary of the expressions. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. will. She thought to herself. . Her prudence whispered eternally. and the indirect question by whether or if. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. under interrogative pronouns.

that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. Notice this. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. VERBALS. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²B. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.Exercise. being the course which his confessor had enjoined.²GOLDSMITH. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name.²ADDISON.²ID." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. he assured me that nothing was more easy. FRANKLIN.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. like distant peals of thunder. and that he himself had heard. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. if this were expanded into a verb. PARTICIPLES. The trouble is. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. the first discoverer of the river and country. my first observation will be found nearly true. . Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. handed down from his ancestor the historian. in the sentences first quoted. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. the sound of their balls. Careless use of the participial phrase. one summer afternoon. 450. with his crew of the Half-moon. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise.

avoid it." Exercise. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. purposely or not. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. Adverb between to and the infinitive.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. INFINITIVES. either "As I was pleased. This is the more common arrangement.. my first collection was. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. and often. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. Exercise. the first sentence would be. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. many things to be carefully considered. For example. then. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.²LAUGHLIN.²RUSKIN. if a strike is to succeed. . or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. . to modify it as closely and clearly as possible." etc... Consequently one of two courses must be taken.Correction. There are.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase... while defended or excused by others. Standard writers often use it. 2. It is a solemn. 3. leaving the principal statement as it is.²ID.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. 451.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .² HERBERT SPENCER. In the following citations. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. universal assertion.²SCOTT.

10. 1533. 8. Position of only. 6.²TROLLOPE. 13.²BURKE. Now. 452.²The Nation. etc.²SCOTT. china. but it is placed before the infinitive. 11.. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 12. No. from Irving. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. therefore. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. is to be very cautiously admitted. 5. etc. which consists in multitude. but they are often removed from the exact position.4. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. Exercise. even. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. etc. when such adverbs as only. In works of art.²ID. The rigid rule in such a case would be. 9. The spirits.² ADDISON. and earthenware. I wish the reader to clearly understand. are used. A little sketch of his. BLAIR. if they modify single words. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position..² MACAULAY. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. this kind of grandeur.²RUSKIN. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. but cannot misunderstand the thought.²DR." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. even.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 7. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. ADVERBS.²GOLDSMITH.

might not marry. 4. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 8.²SWIFT. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 12. 9. to avoid a crowd.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²MOTLEY. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 15. P.² THACKERAY. WILLIS. ²ASCHAM. 5.²ID. 6.²ID.²ID. He could only afford to keep one old horse. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. were he never so old of yeares. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 13.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 16. . 2.²MACAULAY. 11. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. During the whole course of his administration. The old usage.²SYDNEY SMITH. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. 14. GROTE. My master. He shouted in those clear.²HIGGINSON.²COOPER.1. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Irving could only live very modestly. 10. whence he was never destined to return. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 7. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 17.²EMERSON. 3.²PALGRAVE. In Old and Middle English. 453.²N. In relating these and the following laws.²CHAUCER. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. No sonne. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. for example.²MRS. His last journey to Cannes. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.

I never did see him again.²HOLMES. in Ole Virginia.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.²LOWELL. 7. 2. Exceptional use. This. nor never shall. nor the grandeur of no king.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. the usual way of regarding the question now is. In the execution of this task. uncommon. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. Exercise. is not common. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.²MRS. STOWE. neither. and is still kept in vulgar English. as infrequent. However. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. and why:² 1. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. 5. .²GROTE. The prosperity of no empire.² HAMILTON. There weren't no pies to equal hers. 3. But. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. ²PAGE.²DE QUINCEY. can so agreeably affect. 4. I did not act so hastily.²HAWTHORNE. one of the negatives is often a prefix."²four negatives. Therefore. as.²BURKE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.²DEFOE.²BAYNE. Regular law of negative in modern English."²MRS. who hadn't been to school for nothing. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. when one of the negatives is a connective. under the influence of Latin syntax. Not only could man not acquire such information. 6. if two negatives are found together. STOWE. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. but ought not to labor after it. etc. however. In the latter case. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. denying each other.

. but to their own safety.." . not or is the proper correlative of neither. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives."²SCOTT.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it... or with advantage. and.. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. there we were.. but. either. Things to be watched. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. as well as of the pronoun." Besides neither .. And who. the first should also. and which. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. "A weapon. nor is often changed to not²either . The sentences given in Secs. Correction. The sentence.." may be changed to "This loose . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever... neither . the first ought to be placed before a verb. or to reply to it. 454.. or. or to reply to it. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. In the sentence. but (also).. "well worthy to confer honor. 455... not merely ." both of the above requirements are violated. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. Choice and proper position of correlatives. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. especially both .. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. as the use of the conjunction.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. not only to the success of their common cause. CONJUNCTIONS.. should be scrutinized. even neither . either .8.²LOWELL. not only . if the last precedes a verb. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. if the second precedes a phrase. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here." said the King. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. or. nor.²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT.

and I don't know but what he was right. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 456. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. or but that. as.²THACKERAY. 3. murder. Try and for try to. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.² ADDISON.²BAIN." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. 457. 5. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. 8. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. but they will outrage.²S. 7. or but that for the words but what:² 1. JEWETT. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. or the negative relative but. but. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²GOLDSMITH. .²ID. They will. nor the disgrace of assailing him. and chop up their own kin.²RUSKIN. not merely interest children. 4.²FRANKLIN. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Now.Exercise.²GIBBON. as.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. etc. substitute that. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²THACKERAY. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Try and avoid the pronoun. Exercise. In the following sentences. too. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. O. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. But what.²MACAULAY. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Some exceptions. but. but grown-up persons. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 2. 6.

PREPOSITIONS. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²EMERSON.²SCOTT.²TROLLOPE. 313.²ADDISON.²BURKE. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. as already seen in Sec. Between is used most often with two things only. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 458. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 459.2. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 3. 5. no separation or division by twos being implied. 4. Between and among.²EMERSON. see Sec.² BULWER. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 6. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.² SWIFT. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.²ADDISON. . but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 305.

Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. by custom. Such are derogatory. Paley. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions.²RUSKIN What have I. confer. 460. Conversant with. Such are absolve. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conform to. Derogatory to. or one object and a group. and Coleridge.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Mackintosh. as. averse. Two groups or one and a group. Affinity between. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Accord with. . Dissent from. and philosophers like Locke. Comply with. correspond. Different from. as. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. etc. LIST I.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Bestow on (upon). ²EMERSON. different. Some of them have. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. List I.: Words with particular prepositions. and Stewart. 461. Dependent on (upon). Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Acquit of. involve.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope.²KINGSLEY. Abhorrent to. a soldier of the Cross. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Kant.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. and another to convey a different meaning. Averse to.

Reconcile with (note below). Correspond to (a thing). Change for (a thing)." also of persons. "The king is reconciled to his minister. and sometimes creeps into standard books. . Differ from (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. but it is not good usage. Change with (a person). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). A taste of (food)." List III. Correspond with (write to).). Change to (become). in the sense of making friends with. LIST III. Independent of.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. as. Confide in (trust in). A taste for (art. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Confer with (talk with). Agree to (a proposal). as. Confide to (intrust to). 463. Involve in. etc.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. LIST II. as. Differ with (note below). Reconcile to (note below). 462. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons.y y y Deprive of. Confer on (upon) (give to). List II. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct.

die from.²GOLDSMITH. ²ATHENÆUM.²GOLDSMITH.²FIELDING. It is a man of quality who dies for her. part with. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. No one died from want at Longfeld." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. Who. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. One of them said he would die for her. ²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY.²BOSWELL. ELIOT.²ADDISON. die of. expect from.²BURNETT." (because of). as Cervantes informs us. Expect of. died for love of the fair Marcella." She would have been ready to die with shame." (in behalf of)." (material cause. Illustrations of "die of.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²G.:² "Die of. Take thought and die for Cæsar." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. simply from old age. People do not die of trifling little colds. instrument).²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. "Die by. "Die for. "Die for. She died of hard work. they shall die by this hand." etc.²SCOTT. "Die with. .²BULWER. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. ELIOT. "Die from. I am positively dying with hunger.²POPE.²SHAKESPEARE. Part from." "die from. and ill treatment. die for. privation. It would take me long to die of hunger. He died at last without disease. die with.²G.²MACAULAY. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. If I meet with any of 'em.y y y Die by.

"Expect from.²MACAULAY. either of or in is used indifferently. Illustrations of "part with." To part from you would be misery.²SHAW. as my friend. ELIOT.²G. Kind in you." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²BULWER. just parted from her. 466." She will expect more attention from you.²MACAULAY. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things." "expect from:"² "Expect of. That is more than I expected of you.²WALPOLE. "Part from.²POE. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²DICKENS. ELIOT. 465. Of Doctor P. I have just seen her. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. I can part with my children for their good. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²AUSTEN. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. nothing better was to be expected. His precious bag. It was a little bad of you.²G." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. and hated to part with them. which he would by no means part from.²TROLLOPE. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. 464." "part from:"² "Part with. . How cruel of me!²COLLINS. ELIOT. With words implying behavior or disposition. I have long expected something remarkable from you. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²SCOTT.²WALLER. Illustrations of "expect of.²BULWER.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. kind of you.²MARRYAT.²G.

nor blue. Very natural in Mr. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. Hampden. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 11. 1. Thou tread'st.²BEACONSFIELD. 10. 15. with seraphims. nor explained by accuracy of speaking.²CARLYLE. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 5. 3. 6.²DICKENS. In. 14. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. 9. nor green. nor yellow.He did not think it handsome of you. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. It will be anything but shrewd in you. it is commonly said that his profits are high. nor of a pale red. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. or which we are most imperatively required to do. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. In the friction between an employer and workman. the vast abyss. raging storms. or artillery. thunder.²TENNYSON. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame.²BULWER. 4. 13. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. thrown it over Amyas's head. and ran up the alley. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²BULWER. This narrative. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. The noise of vast cataracts. But this is idle of you. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 8. or that they are any way dependent on each other. . tedious perhaps. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 7. but which the story renders necessary.

produce approbation. But every man may know. Friday. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. what is a just and unjust act. 31. 24. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 25. 21. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. You have seen Cassio and she together. 27.I would wish me only he. 33. 38. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. the acquiescence of the understanding. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 22. 26. and other angular figures. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. (Sec. and almost as good as a pony. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 37. 411. 28. or how beautiful it is. 18. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 19. Squares. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 17. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. When the glass or liquor are transparent. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. The effect of proportion and fitness. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. you or me.) 34.And were I anything but what I am. 36. but in the price paid to them. save Amyas. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 35. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. were down with raging fever. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. . 23. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. and most of us do know. 20. That night every man of the boat's crew. triangles. 32. 16. Every one of these letters are in my name. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 29. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 30.

FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 89.000 between them. from about 1500 to the present time. of. adverbs used complements. syntax uses Absolute. nominative. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. as. 124. . and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 98. 20. article. 133. Abstract with Active Address. pronouns. 119. of. 25. voice. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. 47. 102. adjectives. origin of. (2) Middle English. numeral. 310. INDEX. 90. 91. 40. 124. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. A. 260.39. 239. He had four children. 92. 107. Adjectives. demonstrative. (3) Modern English. 116. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 47. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. from nominative clauses. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. of. nouns. of.

clauses. 106. adjectives. 302. 104. conjunctions. nouns. of. nouns. 195. Agreement. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. of. 325. and 185. of. of. of. of. 242. 239. Alms. 103. 275. Against. from to of.from function how in not of of ordinal. antecedent. 207. 325. 27. 194. 99. . quality. objective. 303. 187. 116. adjectives. modify. to used of. 114. 109. 323. as nouns. conjunction. 262. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 148. 101. 184. 194. 291. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 97. 190. 183. 316. 191. sentence. parse. 190. 27. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 287. with with with subject. of. 115. plural pronominal. antecedent. predicate. 116. 48. adjectives. compared. between of. quantity. 207. parse. 328. 42. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. infinitive. 303.

A. of. . of. parse. 90. 294. 271. 67. See with definition complex compound simple who. of. 49. it. Arrangement Articles. agreement personal as pronoun. syntax. adjective. Agreement. definition how indefinite.Among. 47. which. though. of. 79. 264. See 74. 309. 101. Are. 124. 231. 120. 148. same. in in. after of. to of. as uses verbs. and. of and pronoun of. 287. 300. 150. derivation in definite. 208. 225. sentences. sentences. 74. 275. 84. possessive. syntax As. of. Anacoluthon Analysis. of of of And Antecedent. 240. 67. which. pronouns. 127. definition of of of Any. words between. 252. 296. Auxiliary if. 207. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. sentences. 198. 331. which. uses As At. 295. 120. 51. An.

330. plurals of. syntax of. 84. adjective. 39. 49. . definition could. of pronouns. of. 46. 111. of. 47. 262. 46. 63. 278. nominative. Among. number of. 110. Be. of pronouns. Children. with But By. 149. objective. of nouns. 262. 278. 39. 64. in Old and Modern English. adverb. 195.Bad. 194. 279. 37. Clause. 161. 62. conjunctions Cherub. 66. best. 54. of pronouns. 283. of. See of. forms. possessive. 279. pronoun. Case. 45. of nouns. of nouns. Case. of pronouns. Brethren. uses Better. 224. 210. clauses of. 150. uses nominative of. of what. uses of. 48. 110. of nouns. But. Can. double possessive. Cause. 260. Bridegroom. comparison conjugation of. Between.

sentence. 264. of. predicate. 53. and sentence. infinitive. 23. 312. adjectives. nouns. 43. clothes. of. 108. of. Clomb. of. 158. of. Cleave. double. predicate of and from from of. 111. of. 257. Cloths. 12. 258. 108. 113. defective. 24. 268. 244. of. 315. 257. plural of.definition kinds noun. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. and forms of. 248. English. 263. . 239. of. nouns. nouns. 257. 157. 18. 305. 110. 18. 43. verb. adverbs. of. in analysis. definition degrees irregular. 307. material. superlative. 189. subject. 107. 271. analysis of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 307. proper.

and clause. adverbs. 255. Conjunctions. 289. 263. 194. definition how subordinate. 193. sentence. 207. 149. 151. 231. sentences. coördinate. conjunction. See English. See analysis clauses. pronoun. 195. of of Conjunctions. conjunctions.with Concord. 149. of. Agreement. 269. 138. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 188. subjunctive. 194. 139. sentences. of. 143. pronoun. analysis. verbs. 66. conjunctions. Dative Declarative Declension of case. to of. correlative. Can. 195. See in subjunctive. parse. 199. 328. interrogative pronouns. . other other parts of speech. replaced by objective. pronouns. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. definition be. 194. same words. 196. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 73. in Old vs.

pronouns. 26. use of dies. indirect. 287. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 60. 102. 43. Articles. 91. . possessive. discourse. 242. 315. passive adjectives. 51. for. See 148. of. Comparison. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. by. Degrees. adverbs See adjectives. with. of. 185. 242. 300. comparative. nouns. Comparative. from. 152. object. See See 48. verb. 303. 35. 288. of. See adjectives. 90. nouns. 99. duck. of personal relative verbs. with of. article. 333. 160. pronouns. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 102. Case. clause.Declension. 80. Subordinate clause. of. tenses. pronouns. vs. pronouns. 320.

112. of. other. literary. object. 287. 300. to suffix. complement. 241. Elements Ellipsis. 299. adjective. 328. 34. of subject. syntax Each Eat Eaves. pronoun. 240. 92. 257. 42. the of sentence. 32. . 158. 158. in 'Em. added suffix. -En. possessive suffix. original. Either. 90. 39. Empress. of. of. plural. conjunction. error in sentence. 287. feminine plural English. one ( t). adjective. drunk. pronouns. 255. 110. 62. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. pronoun.Drank. 51. predicate. of. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 33. 90. 92. 38. 194. 40. ending. spoken. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 102. 92. older. 280. of. Each. another. vulgar. suffix. 234. 33. 12. of.

287. 48. For. of. from. 189. First Fish. 102. 29. expect gone. 308. etc. 30. 32. 30. 43. 235. of. 238. fishes. Farther. 45. object. as a noun. 126. modes "common goose. 152. two a further. 110. gender. perfect. 112. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. Few. 212. 36. 147. two. uses Foreign Former. Further. nouns. 112. See Gander. have adjective. the. to of. with in sex. as of from compared marking. of. 102. adjective. used of. 334. uses redundant. Future Future tense. 211. etc. few.. From. ." 31. 148. First. 319. 103. other languages. 30.Every. first. Feminine.. plurals. definition distinguished in English. 91. with infinitive. 212. pronoun. 152. Gender.

61. 35. definition basis of. had hung. Government. Grammar. pronoun. 101. of. 275. 12. of. 43. it. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 177. noun. . adjective. His Husband. 80. kinds of. 285. Got. an better. Had Hanged. of. 60. 173. 176. 13. distinguished syntax. 145. 159. possessive pronouns. 36. 12. 231. 9.of of Genii. forms in Girl. personal relative geniuses. 60. participle. pronouns. Gerund. I. 144. 175. and case verbal with. of. person. on. 10. He. 120. for before. she. first sentence. 159. its. 61. rather. from participle of. definition divisions opinions province H.

231. 283. 320. transitive. words. 319. of. of. . use article. 105. of clause. 227. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 85. verbs. 248. 110. questions. 245. 188. 136. indirect of. adjectives. 153. Direct object. elements. 176. uses discourse. 72. your. See you. of. with of. adverbs. 233. 323. pronouns. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. sentence. of. questions. Questions. a object. meaning. pronoun. 43. See Articles. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. summary See passive mood. 93. 67. 257. adjectives. 131.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 73. mood. indices. 131. 178. 276. in compared syntax.

Last. 113. 126. 36. 63. 170. 227. King. 36. 303. See Madam. 39. 67. a vs. latest. 102. queen. 189. Logic Logical Lord. 113. lord. 245. 190. 36. 61. Lie. 110. of. predicate.. Like. pronoun. 12. It. was uses me. these double kind. lesser. in little. Lady. lie. -Ly. uses Literary Little. "It Its. of. Lay. of. syntax the. and See words in. Latter." history etc. 226.adverbs. Lady. Less. 276. 91. of. 281. English. Lay. etc. plural. . 110. Kine. subject form. syntax. Kind. adjective..

Mighty Mine. May. syntax conjunction. subjunctive. 189. 185. of. might. conjunctions Many. Many Mapping Mare. 126. Negative. 114. Much. indicative. double. 137. position adverb. 144. of. construction as of adverb. sentences. adjective. of. 194. Mood. out of. 64. 112. See definition 136. of. 102. of. in adverbs comparison a. nigh. 187. Master. 113. 265. 112. 287. imperative. . 160. 326. mine. 137-144. comparison Near. 110. mistress. 189. 34. etc. of. Must. 325. 328. Means. 135. 41. of. 110. 195. 161. Enlargement. 188. 36. Neither. of. 110. superlatives. 112.. Modifiers. syntax nearer. -Most. Modifier.Manner. 256.

25. of. See 194. 20. become become formation case collective. common. half abstract. now plural. 17. 41. 92. 328. 18. nouns. 27. 42. of. 21. 25. letters as 24. 46. definition descriptive. 45. parse. etc. in. 38-41. kinds 90. Nor. of. used as. of of of of of a. gender nouns. material. of. 258. . definition according of. 30. etc. 30. number once other plural. 300. 17. and figures. 41 43. 17 19. 124. 38. 19. of. of. 29. 32. syntax in gender nouns. syntax Neuter or two News. proper. No Nominative. formed. become neuter. Case.pronoun. 26. nouns. None. of. class used singular. 56. words how compound. gender how kinds material. to of. abstract. analysis. 125. foreign. 126. Not Noun Nouns. 46. to use. 246. abstract. clause. 30. 41. 301.

of. 41. 278. 18. 39. and analysis. adjectives. personal. singular. spoken of instead nouns. 41. 279. 48. form. of. meaning. Nouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. conjunction. 66. 282. dative. 42. 92. passive adverbial. 41. as forms titles. 235. with case. verbs. of. common. pronouns. 48. etc. adverbial. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 101. English. preposition. indirect. or plural. definite. of. 148. 60. 23. 42 44. singular. plural no two singular construction. 121. See verb. 48. 196. pronouns.of same two with proper. . Numeral Object. 240. plural. with with with Now Number. 102. 48. 242. 106. nominative. of. meanings. 281. 278. 124. of. plural form. indefinite. 43. 195. 285. in article. adjectives. of different possessive definite of. article.. 242. in nouns. Preposition. 48. 42. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 101.

as of. treatment comparatives. 69. 103. 237. position Order. Omission On. Pains. 191. 91. conjunction. of upon. Ourself. One. of syntax. for. 325 275. inverted. See pronoun. Oxen. a in adjectives. 306. 199. 56. Ordinal Other Ought. articles. 56. 233. uses numeral pronoun. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 87. Each adjective. 103. part analysis. 116. with (the). 161. 41. 94. 127. 101. nouns. Elder. 194. of. 213. 216. another. Older. See the as of. adjective. adverbs. 279.syntax Of. . ours. pronoun. adverb. Parsing. 293. of. Our. 64. 117. of of of of of models adjectives. 93 other. as other. of. definite relative uses of. 38. 115. conjunctions.

174. included various. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. pronoun. predicate use of. 179. from definition other of. of. phrases. 335. of. verbs. . 287. 180. Pence. antecedent. possessive and of. 181. 43. with. 43. 56. and subject in. 69. used as voice. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 219. of. pronouns. Person. 80. 100. 148. 28. 134. or of. -ing words. reflexive. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. them. 63. verb idioms it from. absolute with of. 59. 172. nominative. part adjective. 70. 64. 95. 27. verbs. not is. 119.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 59. article 150. 172. 177. pennies. 56. parsed. 173. pease. 62. of. pronouns. of. 322. 62. of. phrase. relatives. 247. speech. in. 317. of. 59. 281. verbals. 61. agreement of verb nouns.

51. 60. kinds infinitive. 53. 206. 's. 61. of. Place. English. 54. 285. 236. syntax of of Politics. in of. spoken of. 49. or See of of See 185. 52. of. 106. 53. adjectives. 303. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 64. nouns. plural. of. noun nouns. Nouns. simple. Comparison. 236. singular degree. participial. Personification. 303.objective syntax table triple uses of. pronoun. 41. pronouns. appositional. nouns. nouns. it. Positive Possessive. omitted. of. of. See 60. antecedent of of pronouns. prepositional. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 67. objects. 63. 248. 195. of. of Phrase. of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 278. 188. 278. relative. of. as double. 25. 281. 245. 281. 50. 247. 241. adverbs of. 235. 247. complete. 232. of nouns. 37. conjunctions prepositions Plural. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. double. 245. . vs. singular. pronoun. Personal subjective.

objective. as antecedent of relative. Pronouns. 202. 205. 208. all. what. of. 331. after but. 59. future. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. singular usually other. 283. 186. 279. 203. 89. parse. 93. as 54. any. another. 58. plural. with tense certain. of. by with shown certain of. 303. 300. adverb. adjective. 333. usually to as than. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. by. in exclamations. 206. Prepositions. 302. 104. possessive nominative to of. 105. 332. of. interrogative. parse. objective. 72. and one with else's. 58. 187. 132. 207. 283. 281. 129. 284. plural. of. 300. verbs. 285. 282. somebody definition how indefinite. 95. of. interrogative. expressed as other of. 32. of. words. for predicate nominative. 147. 219. as. case. none. 195. meaning. speech. same used as adjectives. 299. forms of. and form form form form of. 287. 105. who personal. case. by parts of of. of. neither. exclamatory. 203. plural. . 301. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. each either. 280.Prefixes. 64.

and antecedent. of. 85. 74. agreement anacoluthon and as. and relatives. who. 101. with who. pronominal pronouns indirect. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 74. in. of. 295. parse. 195. 80. 279. 296. 84. personal pronoun. Rank. 289. 99. 142. of. 189. 74. 85. and which. unrestrictive. Quantity. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 87. . of. questions. 286. 289. of. See of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. discourse. in. 105. 297. pronouns. of. Questions. 58. Direct same and different.possessive relative. with with gerund. 69. of. 263. or of. from and interrogative. of. Rather. 83. conjunctions Quality. same antecedent. indirect compound. indirect. 87. Nouns. 69. 295. which after same. pronoun. use of history formed. which. 293. 293. nouns. 291. adverbs in. 68. Quotations. to of. of. use in as. in. that. 188.

elliptical. 231. which. of. 51. that. 196. effect. simple. reflexive analysis of compound. who. of of of complex Sentences. in of. in form. 162. Same Sat. 259. 195. 294. of. of sit. 231. pronoun. Simple in sate. See Sentences. Shear. 'S. 242. ending. would. 196. 252. will. object. suffix. 255. and should. kinds Sequence Set. Shot. Sex Shall. conjunctions Retained Riches. 263. 159. 42. simple of. S. conjunction. 69. definition . 43. Seeing. 159. of. 319. plural possessive as.syntax use Result. tenses. 40. complex. forms shots. Self Sentences. gender. 289. sentence. clauses of. 170. of. 74. 29. 26 271.

of. 303. 12. to of. literary clause. See -En. disuse in spoken complete. 258. in Middle English. 240. phonetic in infinitive. English. etc. these number. Subject. of. of. 169. definition 67. 270. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. .. 257. 303. of. 257. -es. 245. for. names as a. 33. vs. 33. 260. 144. of. used mood. 257. 36. English. adverb. English. 138. 233. logical. of. definition how kinds noun. 186. 258. sort. verbs. Spelling Spinster. 257. -en. 126. 245.Singular Sir. Somebody Sort. other Such Such Suffix -s. 323. Modern use becoming else's. 38. adverb. 144. 38. as. 32. 237. 137. English. 258. of. distinguish. in feminine suffix. Split Spoken -Ster. 262.

objects. of. that uses That. 147. 280. 106. of. coördinating. of. as adverbs. Kind. object. 306. 309. adjectives. 61. 108. 186. 33. omission whom. plural as adverb. 119. "the then foreign. 186. 87. 297. 189. in Modern number sequence table Than That. syntax of. restrictive. of . classical of. 290. Then. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 222. 123." introductory. which. this. as history The. when relative. article. degree. they. and and of. 275. Tenses. when as of. There These kind. English. definition in English Tense. 106. 152. of.. meaning. English. 306.Suffixes.. as history syntax Their. of. 109. 148. 275. 191. 88. in comparison. in double. not suggesting adjectives. of. adverbs. 116. two basis not same definition definite. me. 120. 289. .. king. of languages. 107. 147. of. 277. auxiliaries. 147. meaning made up in Old of. 319. subject. of. See etc. form. 307. than of.

analysis. preposition. of. 21. 119. 114. 323. of. certain as the before with of. parse. kinds participle. . suffix.. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. Try Two Under. 180. 20. thy. 172. verbs. how infinitive. to. conjunctions prepositions To. 173. carelessly uses syntax this. other noun. 248. of.These. thee. See On. in of. 217. of. words. first. uses of. infinitive. 176. 114. first adjective. 172. used. uses history of. of. 188. 181. Utter. See That. adverbs those. 175. etc. try two. 33. 185. 247. from cleft to 174. -ing 111. -Trix. phrases. 61. Upon. 322. 330. tother. 128. in omitted uses T'other. Time. 308. feminine and. uttermost. 175. of. of. 322. 114. gerund. 195. 175. exclamations. Upper. 207. Thou. infinitive.

236. 39. 154. . active meaning. defective. definition of. of. 47. passive. 317. in indirect discourse. past tense formed nominative. of English. 320. syntax of. formed by.Verbs. 133. analysis. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. strong. 312. auxiliary. becoming irregular. verbs. 149. tense of. 159. 147. 148. 245. 312-316. definition of. retained object with passive. weak. 154. definition of. but uses what. What. table of. 131. 12. remarks on certain. active. Vocative in Voice. 155. 133. conjugation of. phonetic. 223. agreement of. 169. 160. 179. 242. 319. regular. transitive and intransitive. voice of. of incomplete predication. in person. 129. 33. 157. 135. Vixen. 151. verbs by. table of irregular. 148. 167. mood of. of. 154. intransitive. 330. with subject in number. 150. passive form. sequence of. person and number of. 167. made transitive. change. 130. spelling of. 169. how to parse. 134.

conjunction. Who. 85. 72. relative. 104. questions. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. questions. wizard. 296. of. relative. a. 37. etc. direct of. 85. 83.what Whereby. questions. uses See Shall. plural of in nouns -ing. 83. in in indefinite objective. 299. referring syntax Widower.. 75. 79. 72. Will. in -ly. 218. worser. 246. Witch. 105. Whether. antecedent adjective. 77. 32. 178. 73. 78. of. 85. 72. Y. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 295-299. 194. pronoun. animals. English. spoken in of. would. Yes ending analysis. Words in Worse. With. 40. . interrogative Which. whereto. Wife. 111. pronoun. 190. in. 36. 36. 105. questions. 126. 75. Woman. relative indirect relative.

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