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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

so that a small grammar will hold them all. its peculiar and abundant idioms. it will at the same time. This will take in the usual divisions. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. and their uses and relations in the sentence. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. however. Literary English. as compared with Latin or Greek. with its enormous vocabulary. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. The work it will cover. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. Coming back. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. we have tabulated the inflections of the language." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. It is also evident. as." What grammar is. Surely our noble language. if rightly presented. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. then. rightly considered. An æsthetic benefit.The province of English grammar is. to those who have studied the language historically. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. If. Mental training. Authority as a basis. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. from the question. there is still much for the grammarian to do. A broader view. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests." and "Syntax. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. and thus incite his observation. Few inflections. is worthy of serious study.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. . "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. Making rules is risky. "Analysis. but this is bad English now. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. assist the classification of kindred expressions. their forms. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions.

The following pages will cover. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. not objects. Such words are called nouns.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. that is. besides this one. three divisions:² Part I. The plainest name is Arabs. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. and may belong to any of those objects. The words state. but. NOUNS.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Part III. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. In the more simple state of the Arabs.²GIBBON. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. and will are evidently names of a different kind. . or standard. which belongs to a people. PART I. and Inflections. by which is meant the free. the nation is free. Vulgar English. the words sons and master name objects. Analysis of Sentences. or Syntax. The Uses of Words. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. The Parts of Speech. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. Part II. Occasionally. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Spoken English. too. submission. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. as they stand for ideas. from the eighteenth century on. 1. then. and the word nation stands for a whole group. reference will be made to vulgar English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.

whether person. and things separately. or the man in front of you. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. men in groups may be called a crowd. Besides considering persons. Proper. and appropriate names to the groups. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. or thing. or a congress. or things. as here used. is from a Latin word which means general. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. representing directly to the mind an object. Collective. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. 3. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. (b) Common. 2. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. They properly belong under common nouns. or idea. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. We may say. Name for any individual of a class. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. possessed by all. or a mob. MATERIAL. This does not imply. For instance. Thus. belonging to one. Individual. 5. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. substance. however. animals. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. we may think of them in groups. Thus. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. Classes of nouns. Common. (a) 4. the name of each is an individual or proper name. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. the man here. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. . or a council. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. Abstract. etc. ATTRIBUTE.Definition. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Name for a group or collection of objects. but Chicago names one city. place. because each group is considered as a unit. a committee. A noun is a name word. animals. reducing it to a narrow application.

They remain common class names. and fasten a special name to the object considered. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. as in calling a city Cincinnati. frost. The quality is still there as much as before. iron. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. sugar. etc. however. sugar.Names for things thought of in mass. proof means the act of proving." "Learning is hard to acquire. stone. or that which shows a thing has been proved. wheat. etc. etc. sand. earth. soap. but it is taken merely as a name. celluloid. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. Words naturally of limited application not proper. dew. tea. expressing state. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. etc. It may. granite. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. wheat. 6. Such are glass. etc. considered abstractly. wine. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. rock. condition. "Painting is a fine art. . not things. or action. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. gold. mist. instead of to each individual or separate object." 9. earth. paint. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. or apart from their natural connection. rain. snow. (3) Geological bodies: mud. 7. expressing attributes or qualities. conditions. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. cloud. When we speak of a wise man. but which are not called proper names. rice. The reason is. moon. etc." "a man of understanding. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. or actions. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. potash. but in the words sun. .. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. there is no such intention. rubber. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. NOTE. clay. world. etc. Again. Names of ideas. platinum. we may say. and so on. frost.²There are some nouns. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. such as sun. we speak of the wisdom of the man. etc.

lightning. ease. the teachings of the High Spirit. hope. the moon caused fearful forebodings. hopeful²hope. (1) prudence from prudent. height from high. speech from speak. as their name implies. he spread his blessings over the land. Such are beauty.." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. as in the expressions. Underived abstract nouns. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. 273). by altering its function. her longing for their favor. 1. day. mastery from master. theft from thieve. etc. They are only the husks of verbs. They cannot govern a word." "a brisk walk. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. a wedding or a festival. service from serve. Caution.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. energy. . masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. five abstract. and they cannot express action. The verb. the main bearings of this matter. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb.Attribute abstract nouns. there is time for such reasonings. Exercises. etc. the great Puritan awakening. Thus. 272. 12. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. the rude drawings of the book. in the beginning of his life. "a long run" "a bold move. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. is used as a noun. Verbal abstract nouns. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. the well-being of her subjects. etc. night. but are merely names of actions. as glad²joy. action from act. stupidity from stupid. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. redness from red. NOTE. summer. kingship from king. II. winter. those opinions and feelings. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. To avoid difficulty. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. (2) peerage from peer. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. etc. joy. five proper. shadow. thunder. childhood from child. 10.

Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. typhus. as physics. mathematics? 3.2. geology. diphtheria. catarrh. Using a dictionary. algebra. as pneumonia. (b) branches of knowledge. pleurisy. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice .

Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. port (wine). from Corinth. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. 119). damask. thus. Others of similar character are calico. arras. above. levant and morocco (leather). Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. a Fourier. a Lavoisier. currants. Sodom was famous for wickedness.²EMERSON. for example. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. 14. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. as a davy. from China. 15. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. who was its inventor. or to go over to it entirely.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. 13. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. but we may say. the word port." referring to flat- . we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Proper names transferred to common use. it imposes its classification on other men. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. from the name of Dr. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. a Hutton. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. from Calicut. from Damascus. from Oporto.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. etc. and lo! a new system. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. "The cook made the irons hot. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. a Locke. but most of them are in the following groups. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. in Portugal. We know a number of objects made of iron. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Nouns change by use. the guillotine. Guillotin. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. a Bentham. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. from a town in France. Material nouns may be used as class names.

of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Class nouns in use. tins.²RUSKIN. oils. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. A halfway class of words. or made plural. candies.In lightnings owned his secret stings. Traffic has lain down to rest. Death. as stones. though not confined to verse.irons. a steel to whet a knife on.²HAYNE. or the arts and sciences. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. smiled. but differ in strength. and say teas. slates.²PERCIVAL. not material things. but on dispositions which require to be created. the abstract idea is partly lost. paints. mists. on fire. Test this in the following sentences:² . They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. This is a poetic usage. The words preceded by the article a. etc. For example. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. which are made plural. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. 16.²CARLYLE. tobaccos. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. etc. papers. a rubber for erasing marks. and only Vice and Misery. nor are they common class nouns.²BYRON. purity. clouds. are abroad. These are the same in material. From all around²Earth and her waters. and so on. 17.²BRYANT. that is. that disposition is the thing to be created. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. When it is said that art differs from science. his eyes. clays. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. be spoken of. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. to prowl or to moan like night birds. that the power of art is founded on fact. Personification of abstract ideas. but in case an art or a science.²COLLINS. Next Anger rushed. They are not then pure abstract nouns. coals. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. are still names of abstract ideas. or. (3) By poetical use. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. abstract in meaning. or used as class nouns. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns.

and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns." "the State Bank Tax bill. Adjectives. Adverbs. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. as descriptive adjectives are.²BURNS. And still. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. the wealthy. as each repeated pleasure tired. or describe it. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired." "a New York bank. but is still a noun. Conjunctions. sir!"²MACAULAY . But ah! those pleasures.² GOLDSMITH. sir!" and the "What then. loves. "a family quarrel. NOTE.²EMERSON. they cannot be compared. Then comes the "Why. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns.² BURNS. When I was young? Ah.²IRVING.²SHAKESPEARE. were mere terrors of the night. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. however. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. All these. 19. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. 18. a bank in New York." which contains a pure adjective. which belongs to another word. By ellipses. nouns used to modify. meaning a walk in the morning. they do not express quality. make our own so. Every why hath a wherefore. They are more like the possessive noun. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. fear thy blow. But it is better to consider them as nouns. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.²SHAKESPEARE. etc.²If the descriptive word be a material noun." "a morning walk. Nouns used as descriptive terms. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. if we must have great actions. sir?" and the "No.The Solitary can despise. or from any expression. for example. The noun may borrow from any part of speech.Let us. a bill as to tax on the banks. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.

to such words as become pure nouns by use. 2. or a faithful domestic. in speaking of the principal of a school. 8. or a criminal. In the other sentences. or a state secret. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. 3. without reference to its function in the sentence. but have an adjectival meaning. and tell to which class each belongs. The it. When. at the beginning. but as a figure of speech. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. 7. FRANKLIN." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Exercise. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. are spoken of as if pure nouns. of course. Caution. Learning. It is to be remembered. why and wherefore. etc." and another of Dr. Stone walls do not a prison make. whether it mean the sun or the cold. . The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. 1. Power laid his rod aside.²Dr BLAIR In this definition.²These remarks do not apply. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate.Nor iron bars a cage. is ambiguous. in a sentence above. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. are used. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects." or "legal. and Then."²B. the terms the great. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. When. the wealthy. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. however. NOTE. that cobweb of the brain. is the word "just. There are many of these.. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. 4. of words rather than of their meaning. too. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. 20. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 5. Now. so.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. 6.

Greek. 17. What gender means in English. the welcome. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. returned to Spain. 24. 14. There are exceptions even to this general statement.You seize the flower.Fair guests. the silver moon is gone. for every dropHinders needle and thread. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. It is founded on sex. 21. but not so in English. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. And see. 12. female.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. shattered and disabled. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. that waits you here. 11.9. and many other languages. always feminine. The hours glide by. and names of females are usually feminine. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. The fleet. 21. always masculine. Male beings are. 22. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 16. 15. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. In Latin. . its bloom is shed. 13. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 23. 20. 18. in English grammar. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. But pleasures are like poppies spread. A little weeping would ease my heart. he cried.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 19. GENDER. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. A fool speaks all his mind. 10. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. German. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy.

applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. Gunpowder . Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Of animals. the sex being of no consequence. those with which man comes in contact often. according to their use.. in German. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence." . or which arouse his interest most.²masculine and feminine.² IRVING. Hence: Definition. The great difference is. das Messer (knife) is neuter. in other languages gender follows the form. . that pattern of a husband. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. however. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. No "common gender. hortus (garden) is masculine.. For instance: in Latin. those distinguishing the sex of the object. or names of things without life. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. der Tisch (table) is masculine. and consequently without sex. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.²LAMB. the name of it is feminine. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. with its gizzard under its wing. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. All nouns. must be divided into two principal classes. in English. if of the female sex. Thus. 23. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. are named by gender nouns.²IRVING. those which do not distinguish sex. Gender nouns. Neuter nouns. came to a stand just by the bridge.When. then. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. if there were any signs of life in it. "A little child shall lead them. clapping his burnished wings. He next stooped down to feel the pig. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex.. that is. inanimate things are spoken of. or additions to words. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. 24. and neuter nouns. the name of it is masculine. but are spoken of as neuter. according to use.² I have seenA curious child .. corpus (body) is neuter. 22.. mensa (table) is feminine. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock.²gender nouns.

In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. relative. Hence vixen is for fyxen. etc. servant. the division of words according to sex. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. they are neuter words. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. These remain in vixen and spinster. is. According to the definition. II. domestic. Very few of class I. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. though both words have lost their original meanings. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. Gender shown by Prefixes. he-bear²she-bear.. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. from the masculine fox. I. teacher. only to masculine and feminine nouns. 27. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. woman. For fox they said vox.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. (2) By adding a suffix. of course. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Put in convenient form. and for the older word fat they said vat. Gender shown by Suffixes. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. 28. If such words as parent. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. as in wine vat. cousin. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. for from they said vram. Male nouns beings. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. but spinster has now no connection with it. . 26. Native suffixes. as he-goat²she-goat. generally to a masculine word. The inflections for gender belong.25. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. 29. or the lack of it. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. puts a prefix before the masculine man. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. ruler. One feminine.

Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. and are never used for words recognized as English. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. but in most cases it has not. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. These are attached to foreign words. trickster. señorita.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. it has none now in the words huckster. as seam-stress.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). as czarina. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Unaltered and little used. the one most used. Low Latin issa). 30. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . Ending of masculine not changed. -ess (French esse. gamester. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Slightly changed and widely used. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. punster.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. executrix. as. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. song-str-ess. donna.

²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely." III. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. as. or servauntesse. We frequently use such words as author. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. In some of these pairs. editor. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Instead of saying doctress. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. as in the fourteenth century. frendesse. chairman. to represent persons of either sex. 31. neighbor (masculine and feminine). from the French -esse. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Gender shown by Different Words.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. teacheresse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. fosteress. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. wagoness. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. we use the masculine termination. Thus. 32. neighboresse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. teacher or lady teacher. the ending -ess. as was said in the sixteenth century. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. Some of them have an interesting history. from Latin imperatricem.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). as. others have in their origin the same root. we use the feminine. etc. NOTE.

etc. the old sign of the masculine. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Mare. from Latin mea domina. Madam is the French ma dame. Danish gaas. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Witch is the Old English wicce. Besides gander and drake. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). for example. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. in Old English mere. among others) to be from the same root word.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. became identical. Widower. 34. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. The masculine was formed by adding -a. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). finally gander. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Two masculines from feminines. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. 33. had the masculine mearh (horse). material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. The older forms. It is not connected historically with our word duck. or lauerd in Middle English. probably meaning house dweller). but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). though both are ultimately from the same root. 16). as in many other words. Personification. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. written loverd. Icelandic gás. leaving our word drake. King and queen are said by some (Skeat.² . lhauerd.). widuwa²widuwe. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. not immediately connected with witch. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. but this has long been obsolete. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). gand-ra. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior).

37. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. . I. the plural. But other words were inflected afterwards. in Old English."²BYRON. 39. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 36. Definition. NUMBER.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. 38. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. The first two methods prevailed. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. 35. (2) By changing the root vowel. more than one. In nouns. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. Effect of personification. (3) By adding -s (or -es). shoon (shoes). where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en.Her home is on the deep.Her march is o'er the mountain waves."Now. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.No towers along the steep. Our language has two numbers.²KEATS. Britannia needs no bulwarks. the engineer speaks so of his engine. treen (trees). together with the third. for instance. This is not exclusively a poetic use. eyen (eyes). whenever we adopt a new word.²COLERIDGE. and not by the form of the noun. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. The -en inflection.²singular and plural. etc. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. that is. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.²CAMPBELL.

Other words following the same usage are.Horse and foot. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.²WHITTIER. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Lee marched over the mountain wall. cannon. swine. Brethren has passed through three stages. they add -s): also trout. The old plural was brothru. into Frederick town. pair.²THOREAU. folk. glass. brace. ditch. wight. quartz. Examples of this inflection are. when they mean soldiery. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. that have the singular and plural alike. by. turf. heathen.-En inflection imitated by other words. after all. Children has passed through the same history. salmon."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.² The foot are fourscore thousand. such as deer.² "God bless me! so then. etc. cross. etc. etc. and is still found in dialects. people.The horse are thousands ten.²MACAULAY. . lens. dozen. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. originally neuter. then brothre or brethre. Kine is another double plural. as. as. and get settled. sail. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. II. Such are box. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. or if preceded by the prepositions in. retain the same form for plural meaning. but they now add the ending -s.²Over the mountains winding down. finally brethren. after numerals (if not after numerals. The words horse and foot. 40. Instead of -s. 42. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. but has now no singular. sheep. Akin to this class are some words. head. 41. III.

optics. It served simply as a means of sight. and go over to other classes (Secs. 15 and 17). though this sound combines readily with -s. Proper nouns are regularly singular. Examples of these are.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. the Americas. mathematics. pains (care). Some words are usually singular. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. When such words take a plural ending. the Washingtons. 45. politics. as. quoth then that ladie milde. The lilie on hir stalke grene. these words ended in -ie. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. So live.² Politics. fairies. etc. physics. half²halves. race²races. niche²niches. means: as. etc. fancies. 44. hero²heroes.. that when thy summons comes. economics. Words in -ies. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular.²BRYANT. DANA. etc. in its widest extent. and the real ending is therefore -s. summons. Two words. some adding -s. daisies. though they are plural in form. knife²knives. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. and many branches of learning. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). also news. Formerly. chaise²chaises.-Es added in certain cases. Special Lists. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Means plural. they lose their identity. prize²prizes.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. means and politics. etc. shelf²shelves. and some -es. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. is both the science and the art of government.²PROF. 43. molasses.²CENTURY DICTIONARY.g. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² .. allies. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class.g. a new syllable is made. however. e. volcano² volcanoes. negro²negroes. house²houses. e.

CURTIS.²J.²BURKE. I say. 46.²IRVING.²MOTLEY.² MACAULAY.Words. . by strongly conveying the passions. With great dexterity these means were now applied. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Now I read all the politics that come out. Sometimes. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. however. if I recollect right. A relic which.²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH. riches will accumulate. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. LAUGHLIN.²G. by those means which we have already mentioned. By these means. Besides this. he pronounced to have been a tongs. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. W. Some words have no corresponding singular. it is furnished with a forceps.²GOLDSMITH. L. Politics plural. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.

One plural. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. faculties. sixpence. DANA. or work in a bellows?²PROF. brethren (of a society or church). genius²geniuses (men of genius). clothes (garments). two plurals. eaves.²one corresponding to the singular. die²dies (stamps for coins. shots (number of times fired). of a periodical. (2) revenue duties. 50. ways. In speaking of coins.² I lisped in numbers. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. etc. index²indexes (to books). pease (collectively).). the other unlike it. may add -s. riches. Numbers also means issues. as two sixpences. etc. or copies. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). fish²fish (collectively). trouble.. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. Two classes of compound words.The air. shot²shot (collective balls). in mournful numbers. two meanings. number²numbers: (1) figures. 48. (2) poetry.. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. 49.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. fishes (individuals or kinds).²was it subdued when. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. part²parts: (1) divisions. Three words were originally singular. as in the lines. In Early Modern English thank is found. dice (for gaming). (2) abilities. pea²peas (separately). . A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. These make the last part plural. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.²LONGFELLOW. twopence. or epistles.²POPE. (2) care. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.. Tell me not. making a double plural. carry off chaff. pence (collectively). for the numbers came. genii (spirits). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. (2) literature. penny²pennies (separately). indices (signs in algebra).

²DR. firman. HOLMES. but add -s. for example. The title may be plural. As to plurals of names with titles.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. woman singer. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Allen. manservant. the Drs. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. 52. though the latter is often found.² Then came Mr. . Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. as the Messrs. Briggs. and then the three Miss Spinneys. the Misses Rich. 51. and Mrs. such as talisman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Brahman. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. there is some disagreement among English writers. Two methods in use for names with titles. Norman. Ottoman. as man singer. then Silas Peckham. German. Brown. Mussulman.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. or the name may be pluralized. woman servant.

²DICKENS. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Exercise.²THE CRITIC. FROM THE GREEK. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. These are said to be domesticated. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. or Englished. Du Maurier. y y analysis antithesis . and retain their foreign plurals. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Others have been adopted. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. 53. They are then said to be naturalized.²GOLDSMITH.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. The Messrs. or Anglicized. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Domesticated words.²GIBBON. FROM THE LATIN.

helping to express the idea of place with the word in. In the general wearing-away of inflections. 54." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Only two case forms. Letters. etc. 56." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). the number of case forms has been greatly reduced.. also add -s or 's.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. figures. In the sentence. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. and expresses a relation akin to possession. as. cell has another relation. Words quoted merely as words. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. . Definition.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words." the word felon's modifies cell." CASE. figures. they form their plurals in the regular way. without reference to their meaning. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. as. 55. etc.

and experience. three things characterize man.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. I. the objective. completing a verb." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. Human experience is the great test of truth. 4. 1. must be understood for purposes of analysis. then. 2. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. 5.²one for the nominative and objective.²nature. whether inflected or not. the enemy of the living. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 58. Three properties belong to wisdom. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. 3. when asked unawares. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. excessive grief. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Excuses are clothes which. Uses of the Nominative." (2) As a predicate noun. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 57. . and the possessive. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. and merit. learning. may be said to have three cases. Nouns. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. they returned to their homes.²person. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. fate.²the nominative.

" "Cowards die many times before their deaths. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 2. Conscience. wounded lies. thy wrath can send. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends." Exercise. They charged. (5) As the object of a preposition. Uses of the Objective. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. the word toward which the preposition points. Set a high price on your leisure moments. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. taking the object storm. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 3. measure. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. and landlord of the inn. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. completing the verb. how have I frighted thee? II. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. good Heaven. they are sands of precious gold." (3) Adverbially. a patriarch of the village. But of all plagues.Save. and tell which use each has:² 1." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences.6. taking the object enemies. as will be seen in Sec. (in the older stages of the language. and being equivalent to one verb. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. 68. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 9. save. 4. 59. her first law broken. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object." (4) As the second object. and makest a calm. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. . But the flood came howling one day. etc. distance. 8. sword in hand and visor down. and meaning calmest. reconciles.

60.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.²BYRON.And gave the leper to eat and drink. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. Uses of the Possessive. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. 61. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. and forfeits paid. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.² The unwearied sun. 9. or in writing yesterday's elegy.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. as in these expressions. 6. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. expressed or understood. 10. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.His winter task a pastime made. Possession in some sense is the most common. as.²ADDISON. the Great Stone Face. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.²HAWTHORNE.5.²SHELLEY. (2) Objective possessive. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. And whirling plate.. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. (3) Subjective possessive. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. It is a poetic expression. The possessive case always modifies another word. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.e. as shown in the sentences. 7. tempests that . "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. 8. the most common of all.Does his Creator's power display. The noblest mind the best contentment has. from day to day. III.

Nom. the panther which the forest hides). A suggestion.winter is likely to have). "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i." "mannes herte [heart]. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. To form the possessive plural. 1. 56). "From every schires ende. lady Poss. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. ." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. As said before (Sec. as schoolboys sometimes write. making the possessive singular..e.. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. and Obj. How the possessive is formed. 64. Declension or inflection of nouns." Use of the apostrophe. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. in Chaucer. Poss." "at his beddes syde. child NOTE.e. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. The use of the apostrophe. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). 63. however. "George Jones his book. 62. and Obj. there are only two case forms. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. Nom. A false theory. growth which several days had developed).²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 62. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case." etc. Case Inflection. PLURAL. One is the simple form of a word. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.

65. as by the countess's command. the possessive sign is usually last. some such word as house. stands up for God's truth one man.²RUSKIN. church. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.²CARLYLE. etc. and from a desire to have distinct forms. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase.. but to the ear all may be alike.²DE QUINCEY. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. etc. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. know the amount of my income. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. Captain Scrapegrace's. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. Possessive and no noun limited. store. for goodness' sake. To the eye all the forms are now distinct."²DE QUINCEY. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. containing words in apposition. Cervantes' satirical work. and she walked off from the don's. Kate saw that. James's. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. In compound expressions. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. I remember him in his cradle at St. the items of my son's. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. a word with a phrase. as. my neighbors. in the name of the emperor their master. as. Peter's. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. instead of the emperor their master's name. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.²SWIFT.² LOWELL. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence." Possessive with compound expressions. 66. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. dwelling. . the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. being understood with it: for example..²THACKERAY. 67.Though this opinion was untrue.²HOLMES." "A postscript is added.

68. and tell whether each is appositional. we use the phrase of Atterbury.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. (1) When a word is modified by a. objective. Blair). the statement clearly means only one thing. (3) It prevents ambiguity. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. Both of these are now used side by side. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. every. 2. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. etc. Emphasis. In most cases. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. corresponding to 's. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. making a double possessive. 87. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? ..) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. E. (b) Rewrite the sentence. in such a sentence as. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. a double possessive. the. and at the same time by a possessive noun. each. A peculiar form. that. For example. as one modifier. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. however. HALE. this. Exercises. the sentence might be understood as just explained. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. Clearness. no. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. especially when used with this or that.²FROUDE. sometimes they are used together. ill-lighted except where she stands. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. If. (See also Sec. any.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. and I used to like whatever they bade me like.²the introduction which Atterbury made.The double possessive. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.²CARLYLE.²E. 1. or subjective.

Hence. Nature herself. 12. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 15. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. some idioms²the double possessive. therefore. 13. 10. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. There Shakespeare's self. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 70. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. In parsing. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 69.Comes dancing from the East. we state. My quarrel and the English queen's are one.A weary waste expanding to the skies. Jove laughs. 5. 4. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. in parsing a noun.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. and destroy the other. let him seasonably water the one. 14. Friend. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 11.3. 7. with every garland crowned. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Now the bright morning star.They say. 9.² . 6. At lovers' perjuries. 8. it seemed. day's harbinger.

NOTE. 2. therefore singular number. therefore neuter. The correct method. 3. and therefore nominative case. but is the adverbial objective.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. In parsing any word. singular number. it expresses time. masculine. hence objective case. if the latter. which gender. the connection shows a male is meant. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. and number. gender. is a common class noun. 71. That in the captain's but a choleric word. object of the verb takes. therefore masculine gender. as to case. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. like miller's. (3) Whether singular or plural number. proper.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. 4. it is the object of the preposition by.²common. 68). etc. Exercise. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. hence it is a common noun. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. and to have it found out by accident. a fresh tapster. it has no sex. Neckcloth. and relations.(1) The class to which it belongs. . The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. MODEL FOR PARSING. has no governing word. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. names one thing. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. Thief is a common class noun. a withered serving man. hence it is a gender noun. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. subject of the verb is understood. determining its case. therefore singular number. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. and limits neckcloth. therefore possessive case. hence it is objective case. it denotes only one person. Throat is neuter. it is the name of a male being. (4) Its office in the sentence. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. inflections. it expresses possession or ownership.

Jarley's back being towards him. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious.²palace. where the Rhone enters the lake. and prison. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. were natives of Geneva. Madame de Staël. . standing for a name.5. or for a group of persons or things. For instance. castle. all in one. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. or for a person or thing. Mrs. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. 7. A pronoun is a reference word. Classes of pronouns. The need of pronouns." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. Definition. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.And hated her for her pride. 10. 8. 11. instead of saying." Again. Time makes the worst enemies friends.. definite. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. from a necessity for short. He giveth his beloved sleep.. Necker. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. A few miles from this point. 73. and representative words. Now. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 76). blessings light on him that first invented . 9. sleep! 6. financial minister to Louis XVI. and his daughter.. PRONOUNS. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. 72. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. but by a question we say.

even if it had a special form. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person.. they are said to have person by agreement. Nom. 74. From analogy to pronouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. (4) Adjective pronouns.(3) Relative pronouns. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. I Poss. 77. representing a person or thing spoken to. This gives rise to a new term. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. which relate or refer to a noun. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. they must represent the person talking. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. "the distinction of person. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. Three persons of pronouns. that is. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. which cannot be used as adjectives. words. the person or thing spoken to. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. pronoun. Person in grammar. mine. standing for a person or thing spoken of. ours . primarily adjectives. (5) Indefinite pronouns. which have forms for person. as nouns have the same form. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. 75. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. we our. 76. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. representing the person speaking. Singular." Person of nouns. my Plural. and the person or thing talked about. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. or other word or expression. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. (2) Second person. (3) Third person.

Obj. yours you Plural. and also for the neuter. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. theirs them Neut. by personification. thy Remarks on These Forms. it its it Poss. namely. Third person singular has gender. feminine h o. he his him Fem. Obj. they their. thine. thou thee ye you you your. in the singular. Singular. Nom. me us Singular. Old Form Common Form. Masc. First and second persons without gender. she her. or. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. hers her Plur. But the third person has. 78. Poss. The speaker may be either male or female. neuter hit. of all Three. . so also with the person or thing spoken to.Obj. Obj. Poss. SECOND PERSON. Old forms.. you your. neuter. masculine h . Nom. yours Poss. Nom. Obj. Nom. yours you THIRD PERSON. your. a separate form for each gender.

thee. . them. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. heom. There are. especially in poetry.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. however.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. it. In spoken English. etc. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. Thou. two modern uses of thou. heora. even when referring to a single object. The consequence is.²BEECHER. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. that didst comfort thy people of old. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. just as we now say. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. and sometimes its. which was often sounded with the h silent. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. as. Second person always plural in ordinary English. 80. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.²SHELLEY. for example. thy..²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. their. 79.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. The plurals were h . and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. but make the plural you do duty for the singular.:² (1) In elevated style. in Old English. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. etc. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). which is a neuter noun.Thou lovest. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. as possessive of it. The form its. as in prayers. We use it with a plural verb always. etc.² Oh. the forms they. to thy care we commit the helpless. thou Shepherd of Israel. Two uses of the old singulars. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. 82. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. 81. This is of comparatively recent growth. (2) In addressing the Deity.." As shown above.

As instances of the use of absolute pronouns." the literary language would require he after was. 85. 58). note the following:² 'Twas mine. II. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. her. though those named in Sec. have a peculiar use. theirs. when they occur in the predicate position.²BULWER. Absolute personal pronouns.²LANDOR. and has been slave to thousands. him. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. your. and sometimes in ordinary speech. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. though ye is occasionally used as objective. to personify objects (Sec.Use of the pronouns in personification. Yet careful speakers avoid this. And since thou own'st that praise. they have a nominative form. she. Nominative forms. thou. or. hers. sometimes his and its. ²SHAKESPEARE. me. for. Not a separate class. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. . his. ye. 84 are always subjects. The forms mine. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The forms my. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. in such a sentence as. I The Nominative. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. and follow the usage of literary English. besides a nominative use. us. thine. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. us. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. 34). 86. Additional nominatives in spoken English. Old use of mine and thine. In spoken English. The words I. That is. our. they. however. her. "I am sure it was him. them. its. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns.²COWPER. I spare thee mine. and not make more classes. The Possessive. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. her. he. 83. 84. thy. yours. 'tis his. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. them. we. him. some say. their.

yours.²ID.²CARLYLE. 87. ours.²J. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. The forms hers.²ID. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. If thine eye offend thee. theirs.² CARLYLE. T. F. sometimes its. "Hold thy peace. as in nouns. but few thy voice. anger. are really double possessives.²BIBLE. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. yours." said Henry Woodstall. FIELDS.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. . (3) To express contempt.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. This ancient silver bowl of mine. ours. thus.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. in that old Edinburgh house of his.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. This usage is still preserved in poetry. we find. Their uses. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.²THACKERAY. Double and triple possessives. or satire. commenting upon a letter of mine. Like the noun possessives. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²THACKERAY. Besides this. we have. pluck it out. and with mine. theirs. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. thus.²SWIFT. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. Give every man thine ear. his.²J. thine. COOPER. for example. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. Long Allen. (2) To bring emphasis. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. hers. ²HOLMES."²SCOTT. it tells of good old times.

for whose benefit. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In such sentences as. the thing is done. "The good alone are great. in the first sentence. In Old English there was one case which survives in use." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. as it is called. 20. but expresses for whom. Both joined in making him a present. In pronouns. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.²BIBLE. The Objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. but not in form. but the form is the same as the objective. In their function. mine stands for my praise in the second. as shown in Sec. 88. his for his property. or use in a sentence. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. III. was marked by a separate case.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks." "None but the brave deserves the fair. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. . 86: mine stands for my property. Now the objective. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. The old dative case. But the first two have a nominative use. 90. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. They all handled it.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. Curse me this people. Besides this use of the objective. and mine in the second has an objective use.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition.²ID. this dative use." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. 89. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. but nominative or objective in use.

²EMERSON. Your mere puny stripling. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. logical subject.²DE QUINCEY. which follows the verb. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. as in the sentences. The word you. was passed by with indulgence. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²IRVING To empty here.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. 91. or to the idea.²EMERSON. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. like Chinese skill.²CARLYLE.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. (3) In apposition. has not made its progress. WEBSTER. 92. You have oaten cakes baked some months before." (3) As a grammatical subject.²BACON. Society. It is a pity that he has so much learning. to stand for the real. Indefinite use of you and your. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. thus. you sneeze. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.² . as.²D.²BULWER.² NEWMAN. in this century. why. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. or that he has not a great deal more. you must condense there. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. as.Time is behind them and before them. and they cry. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.²ADDISON. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.

as. peddles it. A sturdy lad . are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. (thyself). I set me down and sigh. the second is the old form of the second person.² Now I lay me down to sleep. farms it." and there is an end of it. This occurs in poetry. used in poetry." "He bought him a horse. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.²COLERIDGE. For when it dawned. who in turn tries all the professions. ourselves.. And millions in those solitudes. Of the two forms in parentheses.²IRVING. we use such expressions as. and its plural selves. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. I made up my mind to foot it. There was nothing for it but to return. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. however. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²HOLMES. have laid them downIn their last sleep. itself.It is finger-cold. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. themselves. It was late and after midnight. "I found me a good book. 93. since firstThe flight of years began. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²EMERSON.²BUNYAN. it rained.. when they are direct objects.²HAWTHORNE.²BURNS. They are myself. Poor Christian was hard put to it. they dropped their arms. keeps a school. as they are also called. that is. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. yourself. (ourself). 94. For example.²BRYANT. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²ANON.²THOREAU. And when I awoke." etc."²IRVING. . -selves.²SCOTT. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. yourselves. but seldom in prose. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. herself.²ID. himself.²DE QUINCEY. who teams it.

95..? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. and build the lofty rhyme. for example. NOTE. BROWNING. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.²MILTON. as in vulgar English.² TENNYSON. Held dead within them till myself shall die. after the analogy of myself. with self. thyself. were changed into the possessive myself.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. B.²SHAKESPEARE. as.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Origin of these reflexives. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.To you yourself.² .²EMERSON. theself. In Middle English the forms meself.²WORDSWORTH.. not the possessive forms. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.²E. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. Threats to all. The question might arise.² The great globe itself . etc. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. Use of the reflexives. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. I shrink with pain. to us. 96. ourselves. As if it were thyself that's here. to every one.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.As girls were once. especially in the speech of rulers. as we ourself have been. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.²ID. shall dissolve. for example. as. and the others were formed by analogy with these. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.

It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. FRANKLIN.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. Infancy conforms to nobody. 4. but it is the soonest spoiled. all conform to it.On the light fantastic toe. 2. and how to do it.² THACKERAY. . Three now in use. 10. To know what is best to do. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 9. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 6. father. One obsolete. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. and neuter. feminine. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. and what. where the word is one with that it tells of. which. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. And it grew wondrous cold. some of them being double possessives. let him lowly confess it. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. 5. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 8. 3. is wisdom. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Courage. 7.²DE QUINCEY. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. 97. Come and trip it as we go. fight it out. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. some each of masculine. Years ago.²B. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.

that it is always singular and neuter. Which of you. that is. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. whether. having three forms. The use of who. which is not inflected for gender. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Use of who and its forms.Promised. but now obsolete. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. shall we say. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. whispering sweet. used formerly to mean which of two. ideas. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. with its possessive and objective. 100.There is an old word. Use of which. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. not to persons. actions. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. 99. or case. What wouldst thou do. 98. Whose was that gentle voice. Use of what. methought. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. . as it always asks about somebody. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. referring to things. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. etc. it is selective. the gold. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES.. but for case alone. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. As shown here. it is always third person. number. it refers to either persons or things. that. These show that what is not inflected for case.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT.

Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives.² "The last of all the Bards was he. it may be shortened into. and what are also relative pronouns. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. AND PLUR. what may be an adverb in some expressions. 102." Or. nominative in the second also. in Sec. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. pronoun. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. For instance. being the direct object of the verb shall take. and so to make smoother discourse. and also in having a conjunctive use. Thus we may say. Who. as. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case.²by the use of the words.101. which and what. who evidently refers to Bards. since it is subject of the verb had. It usually precedes the pronoun. 127). which is called the antecedent of the relative. whose? Obj. who? Poss. for which the pronoun stands. or other word or expression. "The last of all the Bards was he. These bards sang of Border chivalry. which is nominative in the first sentence. 103. as. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. AND PLUR.Who sung of Border chivalry." In the latter sentence. who is used as objective instead of whom. subject of doth love. 104. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. SINGULAR Nom. objective in the last. 99. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. as they take the place usually of a word already used. SING. 105. The antecedent. Further treatment of who. which. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.² . Function of the relative pronoun. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. which and what are sometimes adjectives.

Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. will be discussed further on. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. The men whom men respect. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. both his and who have the antecedent priest. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. 3. 107. WHITNEY.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Who and its forms. 4. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. is a divine creation.²LOWELL In this. in the same sense in which man's nature.²MILTON. 6. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. with all its capabilities . Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.Whose flag has braved. For her enchanting son. a simple relative is meant. which. 3.²BYRON.²DR JOHNSON. The nurse came to us. Indefinite relatives.Whom universal nature did lament. that. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. They had not their own luster. a thousand years. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.²PARTON Which and its forms. Ye mariners of England. D. 5.That guard our native seas. 108. but the look which is not of the earth. .²THACKERAY. When the word relative is used. 2. the women whom women approve. Generally speaking. are the men and women who bless their species. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.. 4.² COX. 2..²SCOTT.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. The origin of language is divine. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. Two kinds. 106.²W.. what.

Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1...²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. and spoils. For what he sought below is passed above.²IRVING.. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 111. The Tree Igdrasil. which it certainly is not. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²BURKE.²EMERSON. Who. W. you will not be angry with me for telling you. stratagems.²LAMB 3. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. 110. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²GOLDSMITH. 2..Is fit for treasons. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.²DE QUINCEY. What. BEECHER 5. Examples of the relative that:² 1. (a) This gradation . else this description will seem exaggerated. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 3. 6. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. bought up all the pigs that could be had. 109.. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.²H. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. The man that hath no music in himself. 4. The judge ..²MARGARET FULLER.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. no bad type of what often happens in that country.. Already done is all that he would do.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 107.5. Reader. That. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. ought to be kept in view.

rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. in the third. that man. and so on. (4) It has two case forms.²LEIGH HUNT. in the first sentence.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. referring to animals. seemed as much excited as myself. 113.²which for the nominative and objective. (3) It is nearly always third person. whose.who. My horse. flung its arms around my neck. 2. in 4.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. Sec. whose is second person. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. p. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. (2) It has three case forms. in the second. Witness the following examples:² And you. The sentences in Sec. the relatives are singular. not persons. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. and 6. or ideas.. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. who. JOHNSON. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. things.²who. son. Cooper. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. It has been seen (Sec. 96).²THACKERAY.. whom. and others. a man. and 3. 5. whom. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. The little gorilla..²DR. Which. In sentence 4. they are plural. 112. . in 5.whose.. Examples of whose. Scott.²IRVING. 107. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Smollett. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. whose wound I had dressed. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. Gibbon. whose for the possessive. who is first person. In 1. The robins.²SWIFT. Who referring to animals... possessive case of which.²LOWELL. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. the others are all third person. Kingsley.

(2) It has only one case form. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. This often occurs. let us enter the church itself.²first.² I swept the horizon. 109. no possessive.²RUSKIN. the antecedent follows which. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. 115.² And. which is very notable and curious. . in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. animals. and things. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. which is worse. In the sentences of Sec. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. Primarily.²DE QUINCEY. Kingsley. Which and its antecedents. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. 116.²BEECHER.² MCMASTER. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.114.²SHAKESPEARE. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. too. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. That.²SCOTT. thus. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. Men may be ready to fight to the death. This moribund '61. Burke.²THACKERAY. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. Sometimes. and numerous others. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. and to persecute without pity. The last two sentences in Sec."²RUSKIN. So in Matthew Arnold. (3) It is the same form for first. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. and third persons. second. secondly (which made her stare).

Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. that do I not. we can. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. third person. for example. Nom. is always neuter. it usually follows. 109. When expressed. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose." (3) "These people heard him. but what I hate. that he has. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. who Poss. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent.²EMERSON. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. as in sentence 6. and is emphatic. The gender. 118. Sec. third person. as. 117. plural number." That evidently refers to truths. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 119. that do I. whose Obj. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. For example.²BIBLE What fates impose.²SHAKESPEARE. consequently is neuter. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. by taking them out. which. that men must needs abide. either of which would be neuter. . What. number. what we said?²CARLYLE. plural number. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular.² What I would. What a man does. and person of the relatives who. The sentences of Sec." Since the relatives hold the sentence together.

. the simple relative. First find the antecedents. people is the object of the preposition of. I think they are trying to outwit nature. neuter. etc. Parsing what. The whole expression is its subject.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. but of this. which is. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. in (3). and what is the direct object of the verb call. 6. 5. "What can't be cured must be endured. In (2). who is sure to be cunninger than they. 120. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case." Here the subject of is. . it is subject of the verb heard. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. standing for the people understood. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. What must be endured? Answer. The relative what is handled differently. In the same way who. we is the subject. however."²EMERSON." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Exercise. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. nobler souls with that which they are. the highest result of all education. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. 8. Now. is subject of the verb can't be cured. In the sentence. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. is what we call nature. Truths in sentence (2). is in the nominative case. and hence is in the nominative case. in the following sentences:² 1. that takes the case of the truths in (2). The word what. What can't be cured. it is object of uttered. in (1). after all. is subject of wrought upon and molded. so is in the objective case. then parse the relatives. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. subject of heard. 3. but is singular. Another way. Some prefer another method of treatment. third person. because it has usually no antecedent. 4. As shown by the following sentences. above. 7. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time.

²you cannot have both. by meaning and use. Do what we can. . and in 2. that is. The simple relatives who. whichsoever. 6. object of do] they do. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. List and examples. in a new and original way. whatever. 123. So with the other indefinites. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. not as direct as the simple relatives. and parse that in the first clause." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.²BURKE. Only itself can inspire whom it will. less common are whoso. whichever. which. summer will have its flies. and his friend a fool.²BURKE. 122. It is no proof of a man's understanding. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. 4.²MACAULAY. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. 7. no certain antecedent. that nothing else can stand in their presence. whosoever. whatsoever. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. whatsoever. They are whoever. Take which you please. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 2. or what else soever. 2. 121. It is clear that in 1.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. 3. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 5. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. object of with] which [singular. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. or stand on their head. Meaning and use. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. "common souls pay with that [singular. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. no particular thing. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Hence some take what as a double relative. being referred to. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. Death is there associated. to everything that. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and which in the second clause.

for example. the conjunctions wherein. are used. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.²DE QUINCEY. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. by which.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. what means anything that. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 121. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. 124. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. has been my heaviest affliction.²EMERSON. etc. not following the word such. but which only wealth could have purchased. 125. There is nothing but is related to us. Former use of as. whereupon.. as was used just as we use that or which. but mean any one whom. This.²HAWTHORNE. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 120. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. In early modern English. 126. for example. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. whereby. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.. 417). everything that (or everything which). and that as after such is equivalent to which. upon which. Sec.As shown in Sec. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. But and as. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. 2. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. etc. . but and as. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 4.² 1. Two words. Proof that they have the force of relatives. either one that.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Instead of the phrases in which. nothing that does not interest us. 121. thus. etc. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.² some particular thing. Other substitutes. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.

It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. In studying such sentences. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. Another caution. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. Thus.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. 127. a question is disguised in each sentence. what is interrogative. 2. Special caution needed here. second. if not. would be. no antecedent is expressed. it is an indefinite relative). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. who having the antecedent gentleman." Likewise with which in 3 (b). But in 1 (b). So in 2 (b). (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first.²ID. "But what had become of them? They knew not. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. which would indicate that they are not relatives." etc. showing that who is plainly interrogative. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. if expanded. "Who stood behind? We knew. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. if not. and 3 (b).. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. How to decide. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.²WHITTIER. 3. . the full expression being. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. 1 (b). it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). In sentences 1 (a). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. it is a simple relative. and whether what = that + which (if so. which having the antecedent lines. 2 (b).²EMERSON. though the earthwork hid them. it is an interrogative.

and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. In the third. In the first. . The insect I am now describing lived three years.²FORSTER 6.²G. 4. the question is asked by the verb. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.² These are the sounds we feed upon.128. 2. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. Thus. On the other hand. but the life of man in England. ELIOT. and asks no question. 3. When Goldsmith died. whose has the antecedent you.²FLETCHER. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. 129. Exercise. Relative omitted when object.²SWIFT. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Put in the relatives who. and Court Calendars.² THACKERAY. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²HOLMES. In the second. which has the antecedent hue. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. I visited many other apartments. 5. which. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Examine the following:² 1.²CARLYLE.²GOLDSMITH. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. whence is the interrogative word. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.

the house was full. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. and comparatively so in poetry.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. Also in literary English we find the same omission. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.Ne'er looks upon the sun.²SCOTT. 5. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. Function of adjective pronouns. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. Examples are. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. which was already proceeding. 2. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. The nobles looked at each other. who were to be rulers over whom.²Id. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4.²SHAKESPEARE. 6.² LOWELL.7. 3. .²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.²CAMPBELL. There was such a crowd went. or indefinite relatives:² 1. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. It is rare in prose. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. which. Relative omitted when subject. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. that. and what. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 130. simple relatives.

'Truth. Adjectives. which we have seen in such expressions as. Caution. either. and stand for a noun. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. neither. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. or an argument in a paragraph. none. in the first. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²BRYANT." "one man. a word. In the first use they are adjectives.131. that. the former. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. "another bank. any. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. 133. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. It must come under the requirement of pronouns.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "The dead are there. but in this function. as some. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. etc. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. and another to get cool under. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. in order to be an adjective pronoun. or use. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. not pronouns. such as this. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns." that is. few." "Where two men ride on a horse. For instance.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. "these pranks. such as each. 132. or may be the whole of a sentence. expressed or understood. but have lost their adjective use. For example. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples.²IRVING." in the others.²EMERSON. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Primarily they are adjectives. etc. . many. necessarily thought of: thus." Classes of adjective pronouns." in the second. must not modify any word. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. or they may stand for nouns. in letters of gold. all." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. etc.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. and on each is written. "each cube.

²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Exercises. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.²LOWELL. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. Compound. NOTE. 3. They had fewer books. when the latter was the King of Spain.All these he saw. Some of these are simple pronouns.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. as seemed good to each. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Such are a few isolated instances.² They stood. reap the same. 2. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and sow wickedness. accidentally preserved.²ID. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Definition and examples. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. but these were of the best. They have not shunned the one. or sat. . because he was not lying in wait for these. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. they that plow iniquity. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. and they have well performed the other. or reclined. Their minds accorded into one strain. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.²ID. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. A man inspires affection and honor. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. 134. for example.²EMERSON 4. 5. Even as I have seen. Simple.

another. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. . as it were. you quickly come to the end of all. Exercise. as. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The Soldan. Much might be said on both sides. imbued. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. paused over a horoscope. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. or melt for others' woe. with the superstitions of his time.² One reflexive. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²each other. as most were.²HOLMES. Definition and examples. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. we might the more easily discharge them. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. ²HAWTHORNE. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²EMERSON. None shall rule but the humble.²HAWTHORNE. They led one another. such as one other. Some inflected. Men take each other's measure when they react. for example.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. 135. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. The word one has a reflexive form.Two are compound pronouns. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. Another opposes him with sound argument. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.²KINGSLEY. one another.

. in building of chaises. every one (or everyone).Exercise. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Definition and examples. what.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. no one. and they. as. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Every one else stood still at his post. everybody else.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. anything. and was indefinite in Old English. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Now. somebody else. nobody.²SHAKESPEARE. anybody. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. naught. They indefinite means people in general.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. anyone else. and somewhat. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy." It means something. but. also aught. any one (or anyone). etc. some one. etc. 137. they are never used as adjectives. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. unlike adjective pronouns. Jove laughs. every one else. . Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. they say. nothing. anybody else's. Exercise. something. 136. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. everybody. Somebody. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.² At lovers' perjuries. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. I tell you what. as shown in the words everybody's. everything.

All was now ready for action. 9. . but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 2. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. Whoever deals with M. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. For this did God send her a great reward. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 12. Others did the same thing. 138. to which. 13. 8. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 17. Exercise. 7. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1.²a feature of natural scenery for which. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. from my earliest days. and of no other. 16. 18. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 3. Hutchinson tells us of herself. in his negotiations. 14. The table was good. O thou that rollest above. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 11. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. were suffered to depart. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. indeed. 5. A reminder. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 10. 4.See also "Syntax" (Sec. I first found myself among the mountains. 6.

27. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 35.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. in all its height. 29. They know not I knew thee. And will your mother pity me. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 34. hear! 33. I who alone am. hear. who take the world easy. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 26. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 30. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. thou rollest now. 25.19. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. variety. He sate him down. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 23. oh. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 32. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. Whatever he knows and thinks.Destroyer and preserver. eat white bread or brown. And I had done a hellish thing. well-oiled dispositions.Who knew thee too well. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. and seized a pen. 21. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own.And it would work 'em woe. 31.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. behold now the semblance of my being. that let him communicate.

and he learns who receives. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. It may have this office alone. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. He teaches who gives. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. as. Substantives. size. heavy or light. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. which was no bad step towards my liberation. For example. so that no other will be mistaken for it." "yonder hill. 38. the number is limited by adjectives." "some cities." "that house. 39." etc. 37. and if we are near.. in pointing out an object. brittle or tough. So with any object. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. if we are at a distance. and so he read. Who hears me. adjectives are used. As to the kind of words used. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. position. etc. Office of Adjectives. who understands me. Again. white or red. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. 139. We are by nature observers. . We need to add some words to tell its color. that is our permanent state. 44. or liquid. "one hat. or with persons." "a hundred men. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. or gaseous. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. such as in the expressions "this man. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. becomes mine. 40. 42. 45. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 43. etc. If a chemist discovers a new substance." The office of an adjective. then. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid.36. ADJECTIVES. He knew not what to do. 41.

" "the Roman writer Palladius. etc." "the Christian pearl of charity.² BACON. If he be thankful for small benefits. They include relative and interrogative words. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof.²POPE. (2) Adjectives of quantity. fair." "unlooked-for burden. Definition." they constitute all his connections. or how much of a thing. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. 143." "ivory-handled pistols. and their trash. rash." "this life-giving book. To err is human. Classes of adjectives. divine. terrible. pointing out particular things. 142. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. Infinitives. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "ice-cold water. to describe it or to limit its application. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. (4) Pronominal adjectives." "next-door neighbor. deep. Nouns are not. "Heaven-derived power. To make this clear. such as safe." . it shows that he weighs men's minds. beautiful." "half-dead traveler. to forgive." the "and there. Examples are. however. words primarily pronouns." and the still less significant "and so. derived from proper nouns. happy. remotest." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES.140. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. such as.²COLERIDGE. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. 141. With exception of the "and then. "an old English manuscript." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White.

but small thoughts have I of sleep." was is the verb." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.But ever she looked on Mr. and accomplished is an adjective. Oxenham. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. which are either pure participles used to describe. considerable.²MACDONALD. . to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. Examples are. 2. in this. sometimes small. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. and another is drunken. For instance: in the sentence." "One is hungry. Exercises. having some of each subclass named in Sec." was accomplished is a verb." "It came on like the rolling simoom. 144. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. 145. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. much.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. in studying these last-named words. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. some. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "The shattered squares have opened into line.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. 143. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. no." "trailing clouds. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. 1." "a charming sight." Caution." "an aged man. any.²COLERIDGE. 'Tis midnight. Care is needed.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.

as.² Every town had its fair. An arrow was quivering in each body. How many.²CARLYLE.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. that. 146.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking.²KINGSLEY. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. instead of modifying them. Thus. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. former. are used with plural nouns.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." Single ones of any number of changes.²ID. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. When some. (plural these. The following sentences present some examples:² . they come under the next division of adjectives. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. no. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. the former²the latter. every village. latter. "one blaze of musketry. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. The demonstrative adjectives are this." "He had lived by hunting for some months. The list. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. Exercise.²THACKERAY." "Then we wandered for many days. any. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers." "I have lost one brother. yonder (or yon)." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. its wake." (b) Indefinite numerals. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards." "a dozen volunteers. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. Examples. Not primarily pronouns. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. and with them a few negroes.²VAUGHAN. but I have gained fourscore. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. those)." "In came some five and twenty more.

As has been said.²ID.²WORDSWORTH. WEBSTER. Modify names of persons or things.²BULWER. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. They are of two kinds. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.but all these charms are fled.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives.²ID.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. I verily believe. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The taking of which bark. Oxenham fought desperately. skill which was at pause.²D."²B. FRANKLIN. Indefinite relative adjectives. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. 147. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. Exercise.²BANCROFT.²KINGSLEY.² It matters not what rank he has. The silver and laughing Xenil.²GOLDSMITH. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Definition. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. for example. tell how many things are meant. what revenues or garnitures.²RUSKIN. These were thy charms.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. like the other numerals.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. 149.. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. . The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. 148. they are changed to adjectives. ²CARLYLE. but. These do not. skill which was progressive²in the other. When we speak of the seventeenth century.. just as the corresponding pronouns do. In which evil strait Mr. but in the one case. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. of equal skill.

²ID. it is impossible to determine.. which is selective among what is known. Adjective what in exclamations.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. In indirect questions. or whether any. Whatsoever kind of man he is. In direct questions. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. proved not altogether displeasing to him. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. As in the pronouns. But when the Trojan war comes. nature will be sure to bear us out in. . Was there. whichsoever way I move.And whichsoever way I turn. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whichever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. and new tormentedAround me. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.150.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whichsoever.² EMERSON. whatsoever. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. as it rather seemed. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Examples of their use are. you at least give him full authority over your son. 151. whatever.²RUSKIN.²CARLYLE. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. the debt to the rich. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. He was turned before long into all the universe. what inquires about things or persons not known. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. A lady once remarked. and gaze. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²LAMB.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).²IRVING. New torments I behold. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²AGASSIZ.. which.

color.²number and comparison. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. History of this²these and that²those. weight. or size. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. In exclamatory expressions.²but not the same degree.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives.² Oh. 154. as. or weight. Thus. those). which changed its spelling to the modern form these. we notice some differences between them as to size. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. It is neither relative nor interrogative.²This. etc. . etc. And yet. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. COMPARISON. Meaning of comparison. 155.Adjectives have two inflections.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. and when we compare the objects. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. the making of it right. That. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. When we place two objects side by side. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. th s (modern those). 153 .152. NUMBER. and those as the plural of that. Those borrowed from this. we do so by means of their qualities. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. Exercise. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. But this had also another plural. alas. The article that was used with neuter nouns. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. of the quality. All these have certain qualities. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. or amount. which was fully inflected in Old English. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. This is the old demonstrative. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. gold is heavier than iron.

infinite. and many others. they are not compared.²THACKERAY. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. These are properly the only degrees. They came into use about the thirteenth century. supreme. great. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison." "no fewer than a hundred. 160. indefatigable." "It is a nobler valor. . whether they attend their own affair or not. as. strictly considered. 156. immemorial. though the simple. red. A main difference betwixt men is. and the superlative. The comparative is formed by adding -er. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. for example. easiest. giant-like. "more matter. Freedom is a perpetual." "the largest soul. with less wit.²SEWARD. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. These are called degrees of comparison." "the commonest speech. expressing the greatest degree of quality." Words that cannot be compared. Definition. sufficient. 158. The two forms. easy. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. "untamed thought. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. 157. bluest.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. So with the words sole. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. Substitute for inflection in comparison. blue. and the superlative by adding -est. organic. expressing a greater degree of quality. easier.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. reddest. redder. universal institution. but. or amounts in quantity. indomitable. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. bluer. whose favorite pupil he was." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. as. 159.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. but were not common until a century later. enormous. to the simple form.

so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. 162. and other words are preceded by more and most.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. there needed to be a most genuine substance." "the immensest quantity of thrashing.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. "So help me God. 163." "more austere and holy. polished.²The Nation." "the wonderfulest little shoes." said Henry Esmond. admirablest. These are adjectives irregularly compared. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. strange.²ID. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. witty. peaceablest." "more odd. though born in no very high degree. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. harsh forms are usually avoided. easy. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.² -er and -est or more and most? 161.Which rule. The following lists include the majority of them:² . finest chiseling.² CARLYLE A gentleman. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. who. The general rule is. as. and patientest fusing. most small. madam. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. Adjectives irregularly compared. was most finished. honestest. which hung behind in the queerest way. These long. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. indisputablest. quiet." "distantest relationships. and yet familiar. falling on his knees." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. I will. mournfulest." Carlyle uses beautifulest. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables.²ID." "sorrowfulest spectacles. etc. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress.

Hind 2. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. . A double comparative. which has softened to the modern best. worst. further Farthest.² O. innermost Outmost. uppermost LIST III. 1. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. utter 3. 6. 5.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. 7. latter Hinder LIST II. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. The superlative I form was betst. 8. last Hindmost. outermost Utmost. These have no adjective positive:² 1. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 3. bad. furthest 10. 9. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. 4. Worser was once used.² We have it in a much lesser degree. List I. as in Shakespeare. next Nearest Latest. hindermost Much or many More Farther.²HAMLET. as in the sentence (14th century). lesser Elder. though from a different root. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. as. uttermost Upmost. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). (2) In Old English. 164. oldest Nighest. older Nigher Nearer Later. 2. There was an old comparative bet. least. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. (3) Little is used as positive to less.LIST I. throw away the worser part of it. evil was the positive to worse. is often used. a double comparative. Good or well Evil. which has gone out of use. [In] Inner Inmost. lesser. [Out] Outer.

" Its spelling has been micel. oldest. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. (5) The forms elder. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. latest. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. and the superlative nearest. are shown in such phrases as. but not in meaning. but originally the comparison was nigh. as long. or series. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. farthest. The most part kept a stolid indifference. further. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series... making the modern farther. moche. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. In imitation of further. . and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.²ID. to which is added -ost. first. greatest. next. The meanings greater. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. came into use. etc.²forth. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. ²LAMB. a distinction has grown up between the two series. instead of lenger. doubling the inflection. to England we sailed. The latter. List II. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. furthest. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. except the form next.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. Between the two sets as they now stand. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. Since later. muchel. is quite common. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. great. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. an old superlative ending.²HAWTHORNE. strenger. strong. there is scarcely any distinction. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. are earlier than older.²KINGSLEY. as. and refer to time. much. since the m is for -ma. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. for example. th came into the others. eldest. the old forms. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. near. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. farrest. meaning the largest part. "Many a little makes a mickle.² The more part being of one mind. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. etc. First became entirely detached from the series.

" "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. the upper light of the world. W.²KINGSLEY. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. on the very topmost twig. all may belong to the same noun. by the by. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²EMERSON. BEECHER." "the innermost moral soul.²DE QUINCEY. Think what each adjective belongs to. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. List III. Her. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.165." "their utmost exertion. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. was descried The royal banner floating wide. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. 167. 168. being merely descriptive.²H." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. 166. Decidedly handsome. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. In List II. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. but not in their meaning." -Most added to other words. but her after deck was still dry. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²SCOTT. in having no adjective positives.²HAWTHORNE. Her bows were deep in the water. but they have no adjective positives. Highest and midmost. The comparatives are so in form. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. There. or have no comparative forms. and have no comparative force. They have no superlatives." "far-seeing as the sun. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. or each may modify a different word or group of words.²DE QUINCEY. ." "The outer is of the day. The adjectives in List III. (Sec. are like the comparative forms in List II.

²BIBLE. "the one who was then king. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. 169. Exercise. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.For example. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. May we not.²TRENCH. . A few improper jests and a volley of good. bright. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. 4.²MRS. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. Richard Hooker. and thine often infirmities. Bradbury and Evans.²HAWTHORNE. The seldom use of it. In the following quotations. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. in this sentence. usual modifies incomparable decision." making then an adjective. not decision alone. 6. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. deeply black eyes. STEPHENS 5. solid. Our sometime sister. satisfactory. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. therefore." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. But in this sentence. and broken. the then and still owners. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. This.²HOLMES. deep.²RUSKIN." in which then is an adverb. By a convenient brevity. ²TROLLOPE. round. Other instances are.²NOAH PORTER. 7. as. It may still be argued.² My then favorite. H. For thy stomach's sake. instead of saying. and moral truth. our new government." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. 3. philosophical. we may say "the then king. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. in prose.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. now our queen. 2. and heaven-defying oaths.²HAWTHORNE. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. rich. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.²A. STOWE.

modifies truths. if it has number. 7. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 6. frank.What to tell in parsing. seventy-five drachmas. (2) Its number. therefore descriptive. This gave the young people entire freedom. MODEL FOR PARSING. compared by prefixing more and most. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. She made no reply. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. Unfamiliar describes truths. 2. (4) What word or words it modifies. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. To every Roman citizen he gives. the method of parsing is simple. not inflected for number. positive degree. and very few have number. 170. 5. this. with awkward but rapid pace. In parsing an adjective. I ask nothing of you. 3. having a singular. cannot be compared. Exercise. plural number. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. or case. Since adjectives have no gender. manly way. modifies the word truths. therefore demonstrative. (3) Its degree of comparison. 4. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. To every several man. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. 10. across the plain. then. 9. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. and I waited for none. . but that you proceed to your end by a direct. These points out what truths. if it can be compared. 8. person. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way.

18. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 19. the tomahawk fell. 16. 28. . and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 23. 26. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. In music especially. 22. and therefore more interesting to us.11. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. Two hours elapsed. 32. 20. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. suggests such thoughts as these. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. not so much for travelers that were few. To say what good of fashion we can. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. as for armies that were too many by half. it is so noble a fruit. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. With every third step. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. those dogs in the yard. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 27. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 14. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 12. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 25. 33. 21. yonder oxen in the pasture. 31. and many poles supported the lower ones. during which time I waited. and dogs. it rests on reality. Like most gifted men. is the settlement of our own country. I know not what course others may take. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. Here lay two great roads. the same love to France would have been nurtured. growing in the most unfavorable position. are immutably fishes. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 24. oxen. Nearer to our own times. he won affections with ease. 13. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 29.

" "a European. even when not silent. he is no literary man. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. An historian. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. 171. ARTICLES.²BREWER. 172. Their origin. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. the tother. Our expressions the one.² We ca' her sometimes the tane." "an honor. that) which was also an article in Old English. A hard-struggling. 174. Many writers use an before h. for example." "an orange. An before vowel sounds. with an ordinary little garden. Two relics. 37. when the word is not accented on the first syllable.34. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. sometimes the tother.²MACAULAY. a before consonant sounds. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. ðat. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. that other. and a before consonant sounds. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. Examples: "a house. In Middle English the became an article. . meaning one. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. later th . th o. the other. An or a came from the old numeral n. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. the tother. the latter is still preserved in the expression. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. just as adjectives do.²SCOTT. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. 173. were formerly that one. the tither. these occurring as the tane. In the sentence. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant." "a yelling crowd. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. weary-hearted man was he. such as we have been attempting to describe. in vulgar English. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. or the tane. s o. 35." An with consonant sounds. but the former is used. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds." the words the and an belong to nouns.

then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. a person is introduced by a. or class.² . and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY." "the Ohio. since it points out a particular individual. Reference to a known object. Definition. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. and when the word river is omitted. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. 175. When the is prefixed to a proper name.²This use is noticed when. the older n. on opening a story. The is the definite article. An and a are different forms of the same word. or group. as "the Mississippi." the article indicates clearly that a river.²G.. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. With names of rivers.²COLERIDGE. not descriptive. as in the sentence. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. 176. 177. To call attention to attributes. Kinds. An article is a limiting word. is referred to. 179. doubtless. or a group or class of things. An hereditary tenure of these offices.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. BANCROFT. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. or any individual of a group or class. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. and not a state or other geographical division.² Don't you remember how.²THACKERAY. thus. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. The Dakota tribes.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.. which cannot be used alone.²HEROES OF ASGARD. 178. An or a is the indefinite article. Articles are either definite or indefinite. NOTE.²IRVING. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north..

is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. or a match put between the fingers.²G. Half abstract. 182.² As she hesitated to pass on. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.²EMERSON. but into the region of all the virtues. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. not into a particular virtue. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. the song sparrow. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. etc. the Hume. Kant. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²MOTLEY. 181. NOTE. would speedily extract the required information. the Spinoza. Common.²SCOTT. 1. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. laid it on the miry spot.²GIBBON. The simple rise as by specific levity.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. One thing for its class. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. With adjectives used as nouns. Caution. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.² The faint. His messages to the provincial authorities. 183. For possessive person pronouns. BANCROFT. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. for example.The Bacon.²EMERSON. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. as. the gallant. 2. If the good is there. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. so is the evil. .²ID. her. 180.²KINGSLEY. With plural of abstract nouns.²ID. The. Schelling. and the redwing.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

we consider a verb as one word. A verb is a word used as a predicate. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. in this sentence from Bulwer. all do not express it in the same way." Examine the sentences in Sec." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. a verb. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. All these are called transitive verbs. an article. but fearing is not a predicate. the most penetrating. to say something to or about some person or thing. Of those expressing action. In giving a definition. representing something which it influences or controls. from the Latin transire. a noun. 203. in (2. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. in (3. the most astute. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. the word following. in (c). Has takes the object hypocrisy. "Put thou money in thy purse. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. endured what? anguish. a preposition.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. (can) shame also has an object. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. taking the staff which always guided her steps. and a preposition unite as a verb. 200: In (1).In (a). c). which means to go over. In the sentence. In each case. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. obeyed is a predicate. care. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. with some word understood. 202. Hence Definition. or an idea. which may be a person. but cannot be predicates. a). "Put money in thy purse." put is the predicate.²BULWER . The nature of the transitive verb. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. hence is not a verb. and shame the most astute. 204. or a material thing. or the object. lone took what? answer. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. and. b). By examining a few verbs. can deceive has an object."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. in (2. The nature of intransitive verbs. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. Definition and caution. etc. and not a verb. as. Each influences some object. b). in (3. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. 201. In the first. for example. an adverb. in (b). to go is no predicate. and to receive the action expressed. Now.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

for example. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.² Now. If this be the glory of Julius. Condition or Supposition. Most excellent stranger. as. the first great founder of the Empire.²BRYCE. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. or be fulfilled.²FRANKLIN.²D. in our case. popular government must be pronounced impossible.I could lie down like a tired child. 215. the writer can make the statement following. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. and may or may not be regarded true. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. 2). might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.²LONGFELLOW.² If. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. WEBSTER. the second founder. Ideal. 222. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. I. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. but. . The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. as.²SHELLEY. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.²MACAULAY. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. he will see the need of these ethics. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. 221. the representative system ultimately fail.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. they were recorded in the Book of Life.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. Unreal²cannot be true.²may or may not be true. ²EMERSON. Again.

since he [Byron] was dead. to drink strong beer. and sonorous. Exercise. would you.²EMERSON. though. and striven energetically to save Ney. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. If he had reason to dislike him. that he might be strong to labor. may. might. The voice. especially be.. except. but when the verb precedes the subject.² It was necessary.. 7. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. thus. do you think. and should. the clause being introduced by that or lest. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. 6. that we cannot but regret its absence. etc. 223..²FRANKLIN. unless. 5.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. and what kind of condition:² 1. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.² CARLYLE. ²LOWELL. 4. as. melodious. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. In the following conditional clauses. clear. WILLIS.²FRANKLIN. would have sat still with joy and peace. The subjunctive. P. she was regarded as a prodigy. he supposed. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. Epaminondas. society could not hold together.²N. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. II. if he speak to you. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. 2. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.²CALHOUN. ." etc.²MACAULAY. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled.² If these things were true.²BAYNE. NOTE. is of similar physiognomy. But in no case could it be justified. he had better not have written. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. if he was the man I take him for. if his lot had been mine. which cannot be true. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. I told him. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. Subjunctive of Purpose.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. 3.²SWIFT. is used to express purpose. 8.

Subjunctive of Result. WEBSTER. I would it were! ²EMERSON. ..²ID. The English subjunctive. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.And we.²BRYANT. like the Latin. the answer being regarded as doubtful. none of us could say. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. In Temporal Clauses. Let it rise.²MOORE.²WORDSWORTH. I've wished that little isle had wings.Thou go not.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. III. 225.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. 226. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. To tell of what had passed.²D. Ask the great man if there be none greater.. In a Noun Clause. Rise up. After a verb of wishing. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.I have been the more particular. till it meet the sun in his coming. VI. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²DE QUINCEY. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. within its fairy bowers. V..²CARLYLE. 227. like the quarry-slave at night. Expressing a Wish.That vain it were her eyes to close. IV. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. So live.Were wafted off to seas unknown. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²SOUTHEY. In Indirect Questions. 224.²COLERIDGE. VII.

in its various uses as subject.Subject. in apposition.² DICKENS. that everything be in its place.²THOREAU. Object.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. That hunger of applause.And see the Braes of Yarrow. The noun clause. is. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. Complement. The essence of originality is not that it be new. for example. object. which may be (a) Pronoun. The first merit.²COLERIDGE. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²CARLYLE. 229. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. or whatsoever victual it may be.²TENNYSON. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²COLERIDGE. Whatever betide. (b) Adjective. After verbs of commanding. Some might lament that I were cold. often contains a subjunctive. Come. 228. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. is the ultimate fact of man's life. VIII. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.And look thou tell me true. etc..²SHELLEY.² Be the matter how it may. tell me all that thou hast seen. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Concessive Clauses. of cash. I have no thought what men they be. . See that there be no traitors in your camp.²WORDSWORTH. we'll turn aside.

(2) Entreaty. IMPERATIVE MOOD.²J. or requests. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. It must be remembered. Q. to express a wish. fear none. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. 231. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. Usually second person. a concession. (1) Command. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²CHANNING. since commands are directed to a person addressed. At the present day. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. (3) Request. Honor all men. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. point to their immortal works. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream.The spirit he loves remains. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. ADAMS.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were.²BRYANT. however. for example. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. 232. . we had found [should have found] a poem here. love all men. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²SHELLEY. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. entreaties. 230. Definition.² CARLYLE. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Oh.(c) Adverb. In spoken English. and condition contrary to fact. though.

Whatever inconvenience ensue. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Sometimes with first person in the plural. request.And God forget the stranger!" . Meet is it changes should controlOur being. etc. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. noble earl. etc. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person."²DICKENS Tell me. child of earth!While each performs his part." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Break we our watch up. there will her heart and her prayers be. or I + they. nothing is to be preferred before justice. to you implied in it. receive my hand.." Exercises on the Moods.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.One glance at their array! 5. 7. we may use the imperative with we in a command. "The Devil take the goose.. Quoth she. 2.²SCOTT. lest we rust in ease. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I." whispered Kit. Mark thou this difference. Part we in friendship from your land. Oh.And. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. but I + you. 3. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.²CAMPBELL. "Come along with me."Hush! mother.²SHAKESPEARE. 8. 6.

" cried he. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 19. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. no literary man. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. and opinion displace opinion. Think not that I speak for your sakes. That sheaf of darts. 26. she ought to have it. 20. my dear madam. That a man parade his doubt. 13." continued Old Morgan. Though abyss open under abyss. God send Rome one such other sight! 24.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.That they might answer him. 11. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. Well. 18." 25. 14. it would speak. how he may do his work. Marshall. "Mr. 21. 23. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. or do it at all. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. "Oh. ruined.Except. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. but repentant child. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 10. He. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. . The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot." 16. let him live where else he like.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. whether he do it right or wrong. Though he were dumb. Forget thyself to marble.High up in silver spikes! 22. will it not fall unbound. He is. as though an instrument. in what pomps and prosperities he like.9.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. then. "tell me where I may find my poor. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.

Meantime.²nothing could exceed the amiable. The tenses in detail. TENSE. Tense means time. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. as. and future. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. past. five in the subjunctive. have.² present. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. such as be. Tenses in English. Old English had only two tenses. such as Latin and Greek. and the past tense. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. 234." present. and future perfect tenses. by means of the present. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses." "If he comes." . in the conjugations. the past. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. kind. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. past perfect. or future time. as the classical languages have. shall. PERSON AND NUMBER.27. as will be shown later on.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. Siddons. tell him to wait. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. "I go away tomorrow. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. a form ending in -eth. as. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. "It is not in man that walketh. or agree with it. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. "Thou walkest. and the future tense. When the older pronoun thou was in use. 28. or whether it were as one member of a general party. to direct his steps. past. Definition. 233. "Thou walkedst. will. also. which represented present and future time. whatever she did. five in the imperative. 235. in the third person singular. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect." past." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. called auxiliaries.²the present tense.

Singular 1. for example. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. You are 2. [He] is [They] are 3. chooses. I be 2. [He] were [They] were . as. persons. In classical languages.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Singular 1. choosest. I were 2. walk has walk. been. The verb be has more forms. Singular 1." and this only in the present tense indicative. 236. singular number. Singular 1. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. but in English. mood. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. walking. tenses. 238. CONJUGATION. You (thou) be 3. moods. Definition. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. chosest). chooseth. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. are. were. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Such verbs as choose have five. Indicative Mood. etc.²choose. 237. walked. PRESENT TENSE. walketh. choosing. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walkedst. chosen (old. "He walks. etc. since it is composed of several different roots. tense. walks. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. PRESENT TENSE. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. is. Few forms. chose. This is the third person. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. wert) 3. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE.²am. and numbers.

though it is usually a dialect form. (2) As auxiliary verbs. (b) With the past participle in -ed. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. (2) was. Remarks on the verb be. 239. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. which was now become an occasional banquet. -en. Instead of the plural are.²BURKE .Imperative Mood. is. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. were. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. in four ways.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²SHELLEY. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²GOLDSMITH. same as the German sind.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.²ID. thus. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. 240. etc. as..²WORDSWORTH. for example. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.²THACKERAY. (d) With the infinitive.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. to express intention. The light that never was on sea and land. (3) be. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. etc. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.His infancy was nurtured. condition. obligation.²SCOTT. to form the passive voice.

I choose 2. . by placing have. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. Singular. 1. "I shall be. 242. PRESENT TENSE. "I have gone" (present perfect). We chose You chose 3. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. We chose You chose 3. Singular. I chose 2. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). You chose Plural. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. tenses. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 1. Indicative Mood. You choose Plural. PRESENT TENSE. had. Singular. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. future perfect. (2). as. You chose Plural. etc. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] choose [They] choose 3. I chose 2. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. 1. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. I choose 2. Singular.241. 1. We choose You choose PAST TENSE." "He will choose. In addition to the above inflected forms. as. "I had gone" (past perfect). 240. Machinery of a verb in the voices. past perfect. tenses." (2) Present perfect.

Present. he chose (or were to choose). Past perfect definite. he have been choosing. Future. Present perfect. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. of each tense. Imperative Mood. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He had chosen. etc. as. "I was chosen. as. He will choose. Past." "You are chosen. Present perfect definite. He chooses. "I am running.) Choose. He has been choosing. Present definite. Past. lest. He will have chosen. He has chosen. singular number. though. Past definite. ACTIVE VOICE. Future definite. Same as indicative. he have chosen. Present definite. " Be choosing. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active." 243. Past definite. Subjunctive Mood. Present definite. He will he choosing. He chose. Past perfect.] he choose. Present perfect definite." (4) The passive forms. Future perfect definite. He will have been choosing. will be given. [If. He had been choosing. Past perfect definite. Future perfect. He is choosing. He was choosing. Past perfect. Indicative Mood. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Same as indicative. Present. Present. Present perfect. (2d per. . he were choosing (or were to be choosing)." "They had been running. Only the third person.(3) The definite form of each tense.

He is being chosen. Past definite.] [If. Present tense. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. 262). He had been chosen. Future perfect definite. Present perfect." [Note to Teacher. Future. He was chosen. however. he have been chosen.NOTE. None. Present perfect. He will have been chosen. Past. Present perfect definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. . he had been chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. Also.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. he were being chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Present perfect definite. Future definite. Exercises should be given. He will be chosen. Future perfect. though. " " " " " " " None. they will be discussed later (Sec. He has been chosen.] he be chosen. (2d per. Imperative Mood. He was being chosen. None. He is chosen." "He did strike.. None. Past. lest. Present. Present. Past definite. None. Present definite. PASSIVE VOICE. Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood.) Be chosen. None. if learned at all. Past perfect definite. as. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. Past Perfect. but verbals. "He does strike. etc. Present definite. None. in affirmative sentences.

VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. caught. drove. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. beg. laid. bid bound. bounden] bitten. bit blown broken chidden. but adds no ending. as. catch. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . Past Tense. and may or may not change the vowel: as. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. which are in parentheses Present Tense. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. verbs are strong or weak. ran. According to form. lay. slept. Kinds. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. drive. Some of these also have weak forms. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. sleep. run. Definition. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. 244. begged.[adj. 245. NOTE.

drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate.

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.

The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. "stricken with paralysis." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. to split. as. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. Sometimes in literary English. TAYLOR. nor a dog barked. The former used to be cleave."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove." In this confusion of usage. 246. cleft. only one set remains certain. which always crew at eleven. "his bounden duty. now told us it was time for repose. as. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. cleft (to split).² We had each drank three times at the well.²as (from Shakespeare). Historically. clave or clove.²cleave. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. especially in that of an earlier period. instead of ate and eaten. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²one meaning to adhere or cling.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. for example. cleaved.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. and sometimes occurs in poetry. borne is also a passive. Not a cock crew. When it means to carry or to endure. but is much used in vulgar English. and.²COLERIDGE.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. cleaved. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. ²THACKERAY. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. and the latter. Our cock." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²B. as (from Holmes)." "a drunken wretch. The form clomb is not used in prose. cleave. the other.²TENNYSON. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). and another (born) for the passive.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²IRVING. cloven. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. as. ." "the cloven hoof.²MILTON.²GOLDSMITH. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. probably to avoid confusion with this." "a sunken snag.

fallen. shore is rare.²BYRON. Fall. frozen. even in poetry. Freeze. This heard Geraint. for example. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. . The butler was hanged. and grasping at his sword. 7. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. as "a shorn lamb. 10. flung. gave. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Drive. fell. 9.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. found. and seized a pen.²BIBLE. for example. Usually shear is a weak verb. given. (a) From the table (Sec.²SCOTT. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. begun. began. shook. 2. 6. Break. froze. drove. Shake.²WORDSWORTH. flung. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Throw. Exercises. threw. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang.² We had all got safe on shore. shaken. broken. 3. Find. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. He sate him down. 4." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. thrown. 8.² If. One example out of many is. Give. 5. driven.²TENNYSON."²KINGSLEY. Begin. broke. which is seldom used except in poetry." but not much as a participle. Fling.²DE FOE. 245). maiden. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. found.The form gotten is little used. as. We usually say.

PAST. purpose. 220. or. Could may be subjunctive. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. Indicative Use: Permission. PAST. Subjunctive use. etc. (See also Sec. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed... as in Sec. PRESENT. They are as follows:² PRESENT. according to the infinitive used. 250. "far off his coming shines. as it sometimes does.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.²CHANNING. of course. there is one general principle. Must is historically a past-tense form. it is used only in the indicative mood. which survives in the sentence. It is indicative when it expresses permission. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged.²HAWTHORNE. . etc. HAMILTON. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. as it has two meanings. Like must."²WINIER.. must have been an ocular deception. 249. 247. Have we valuable territories and important posts. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. from the obsolete verb motan. 251.²PAINE. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. for full drill on the forms. Ability." Must is present or past tense.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.²SCOTT. His superiority none might question. The same remarks apply to ought.²CHANNING This.[To the Teacher. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. Can is used in the indicative only.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. The l in could did not belong there originally. but came through analogy with should and would. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.. 223.. ability. "So mote it be. as. or when it expresses wish.

²BULWER. to the neglect of shall and should. shall and should are used. promise. in the form of command. C.Nay.²LONGFELLOW. Second and third persons. future action). not plod along like apeasant. especially in the United States.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.² Futurity and questions²first person. They shall have venison to eat. as. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. yea. with pronouns of the first person. what shall I say?²N. I shall be gone. while ought always has to.² (a) To express authority. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i.²IRVING. The sea shall crush thee. (b) In questions asking for orders. she should ride like a queen." Uses of shall and should. my lad. or confident prediction. to use will and would. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. The following are examples:² Never mind. BROCKDEN BROWN. 252. and corn to hoe. "I think I will go.²THAXTER. Shall and Will. She should not walk.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. for example. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. MOULTON. She rejects his suit with scorn.e.²L. as. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.. WEBSTER. (b) In indirect quotations. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. shall and should are used. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. as. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²COOPER. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.² With respect to novels. he said.²MACAULAY. . (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.² The time will come full soon.

that I would do him justice. .²SWIFT. 253. for example.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. etc. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²WINTER. for example. second and third persons. as.²CABLE. LARNED.. BROWN. and is equivalent to ought.²SCOTT.²C. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. with the conviction that he should win in the end. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.. thus. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²A. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. JR.² I will go myself now.²WORDSWORTH. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. First. JAMES. I never was what I should be. as the sole inventor. time. and will not return until all is finished. Disguising a command. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. was to be expected. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²BYRON. And promised. purpose. or a promise.²WORDSWORTH.²ROGERS. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. B.²H.²WORDSWORTH.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.

. will and would are used to express simple futurity. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. Would thou hadst it not. Thine was a dangerous gift. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). action merely expected to occur. . as..²SCOTT. will and would often denote an action as customary. as if it were merely expected action. through storms their brothers are afraid of.²IRVING. for punishment or intimidation. (4) With FIRST. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. SECOND. This puts the order more mildly. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²BURKE. The gift of Beauty. To be sure. without regard to future time..²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²LANDOR.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. and two of my people.²War Records. as. They will go to Sunday schools.. would is used to express a wish. 254. Mere futurity. AND THIRD PERSONS.² Thou wilt take the skiff.² DICKENS. and mark on the grounds the works. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. etc.. when thou wast born.² Subject I omitted: often so.²SCOTT. B. Roland. for example.²BANCROFT. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. will is used to express command. When I am in town. In this stately chair would he sit. for example. PASSIVE VOICE. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. BROWN. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.²the original meaning of the word will. so you will.. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.

I shall be chosen. 2. 5. [He] shall be chosen. You shall choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so." answered Herbert stubbornly. . You will be chosen. etc. 3. 1. Singular. 3. 3. You shall be chosen. 3. 1. You will be chosen. [He] will choose. Singular. (a) From Secs. We shall be chosen. 1. Thou art what I would be. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. I will be chosen. yet only seem. 3. "I shall not run. 2. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Thou shalt have a suit. [They] shall choose. [He] will be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. I will choose. 3. 252 and 253. Plural. Singular. 1. 6. [He] shall choose. 1.Singular.:² ACTIVE VOICE. To express determination. Plural. Exercises on Shall and Will. Plural. and that of the newest cut. [They] shall be chosen. 2. He informed us. and justify the use of shall and will. We will choose. [They] will choose. I shall choose. 4. Plural. (b) Examine the following sentences. You shall be chosen. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. We will be chosen. promise. 2. You will choose. You will choose. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. We shall choose. You shall choose. [They] will be chosen. 2. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten.

7. 9.²CHAUCER. 11. The beast made a sluggish movement. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Of smale houndes hadde she. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 10. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. set." the stranger said. Lucy stood still. then.²ID. 255. and I have nothing to say. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. which may be called irregular weak verbs. my son. No. 257. But the rest. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. bereaved besought . put. bereave beseech bereft. 256." 14. put. bereave besought Past Participle. as if he would have more of the enchantment. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. set. as. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. bereft. was -de or -te. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. This ending has now dropped off. or mylk and wastel breed.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. and have no change of vowel. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. 13. The old ending to verbs of Class II. Irregular Weak Verbs. put. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 12. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. Without having attended to this.²Class I. Past Tense. very anxious. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. WEAK VERBS. "I am a wayfarer. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Present Tense. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. need some attention and explanation.

burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned. spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. hid kept knelt laid leaned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

" t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). [To] have chosen. when inflections became fewer. [To] have been choosing. an imperfect. Indefinite. Indefinite. as in the Old English. 267. When active. ACTIVE VOICE. [To] choose. try clemency. Imperfect. [To] be choosing. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE.. [To] have been chosen. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive.. to express action unconnected with a subject. a perfect. have no tense. Perfect. expressing purpose. In Sec. I returned to reflection on my situation. Infinitives. and a perfect definite form. To with the infinitive.. Three saplings. . [To] be chosen. 268. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. 9. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Perfect definite.²the creature warring against the creating power. to was used before the infinitive generally. INFINITIVES. and when passive. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. will (with should and would). PASSIVE VOICE. 8. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Nothing of the kind having been done. Perfect. Cases when to is omitted. 7.6. 266. an indefinite and a perfect form. they have an indefinite. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. formed a kind of bedstead. like participles. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. 10. But later.

²it may be governed as a noun. learn [doth learn is one verb. While the gerund expresses action.. as. and like a noun in use.² She was a kind. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. E. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal." Examples are. or the object of a verb or a preposition.(2) After the verbs may (might). Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. do (as. "He will choose. "I do go" etc.² What! doth she. 270. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. also let.). "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. as the credulous imagine. negative. hear. (3) After had in the idiomatic use." etc.²GOLDSMITH. it may be the subject of a verb. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. make. GERUNDS.²IRVING. as. and corn to hoe. too. it is often preceded by the definite article. as in the expression. sometimes need (as." "I shall have chosen.²HOWELLS. The gerund is like the participle in form.²TENNYSON. "a house to let. it has several attributes of a noun. poor woman!" cried Charles. under "Analysis.²MACAULAY. But there was nothing to do. must. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. see. watch. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. and emphatic forms of the present and past. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.²E. They shall have venison to eat.²DE QUINCEY. also in the imperative. can (could). as. HALE. please." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. bid (command).²COOPER." (4) In exclamations. . 269. "She ask my pardon. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. liberal woman. feel. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. 272. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. 271.

273. on your leaving the spot. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. Words in -ing are of six kinds. after examining the nest. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. (4) Pure adjectives. (6) Verbal nouns. Exercise. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. What a vast. and wonderful store of learning! . II). b). It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Then how pleasing is it." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. to see the returning hope of the parents. brilliant. Sec. above. and has been put down. five infinitives. which have lost all verbal force. but cannot govern. when. (3) Participial adjectives. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb." Exercise." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. 4. which express action. making the definite tenses." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. may govern and be governed." also (2. according to use as well as meaning. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. (5) Gerunds. which express action. and five gerunds. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. which express action and also modify.²Find sentences containing five participles.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. (2) Pure participles." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." "Certainly dueling is bad. which name an action or state. but do not assert. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. 2.

5. 10. he gave out sentence by sentence. 13. 9. slowly. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. VERBS. (b) as to use. 234. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 6. subjunctive. giving principal parts. I suppose I was dreaming about it. I. 7. give reality to your teaching. 15. but. (5) Person and number.²indicative. 16. or imperative. 12. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. much corroded. (3) Mood. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. like Sir Walter Scott.²which of the tenses given in Sec. Thackeray did not. by object lessons. Caution.²strong or weak. (4) Tense. dictating from his chair. 275. you must. In parsing verbs. bearing her national emblem. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. round which is an iron railing. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. write twenty pages without stopping. 11. What is dreaming? 8.²active or passive. He spread his blessings all over the land. . The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. (2) Voice. 14.²transitive or intransitive. The only means of ascending was by my hands.

The verb be has more forms than other verbs. 278(2). followed by a pure infinitive without to. Exercise. call might a weak verb. definite. has the subject government. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. we must beware of the rule. You are gathered to your fathers. and ends in -s. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. past tense. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Take these examples:² 1. imperfect. (b) whether active or passive." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Especially frequent are those made up of should. therefore active. It has been intimated in Sec. must. no sin nor sorrow. indicative (as it means could). II. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. 3. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. intransitive. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. and not taken as single verbs. 235. Let it rise! let it rise." Sometimes it does. may. (a) From what verb derived. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. (c) to what word it belongs. perfect. then parse it as an adjective. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. would. could. etc. Parse the verbs. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. usually it does not. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. . and parting day linger and play on its summit. 273). can. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. active.276. III. (3) Gerund. intransitive. etc. If a participial adjective. indicative. till it meet the sun in his coming. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. (b) its use (Sec. 278. and should always be analyzed as phrases. 2. In 2. VERB PHRASES. perfect. 2. 277. But unless the verb is present. in the world. 4. (2) Infinitive.. (1) Participle. (b) whether indefinite. In such sentences as 1. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. past tense. might. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. VERBALS. give points (a) and (b). The government might have been strong and prosperous. has for its subject Lee. see Sec. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. call should a weak verb. verbals.

as rolled from wing to wing. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. morning is not a new issuing of light. 17. He passed across the room to the washstand. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 20. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 21.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Whatever ground you sow or plant. . 19.O God.Down all the line. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. However that be. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. he thought only of her. see that it is in good condition. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. So." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. The soul having been often born. 10. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. In going for water.5. a sweet good will. 14. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 6. and wondered if she were yet awake.Henceforth in me instill. or. Right graciously he smiled on us. 13. 9. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. a deafening shout. With them. from a sort of temporary death. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. as usual. 22. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 15. a new waking up of all that has life. 8. 16. 12. When he arose in the morning. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. a new bursting forth of the sun. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. leaving me upon the bed. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. as the Hindoos say. 18. 23. 11. 24.

and so on." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²SHELLEY. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. 26. to speak truly. Nor was it altogether nothing.²EMERSON. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. to consent. for example. . Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. thou sayest. 29. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. When action is expressed. 279. 27. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. "William's private life was severely pure." "He was absolute.Feast while we may. ADVERBS.²CARLYLE. because.²THACKERAY.² The young man reveres men of genius. and live ere life be spent. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. A verb. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. who live with nature?²ID. as." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. and men of leisure and cultivation. Better it were. for the hour of rest is at hand. Is it only poets."²DE QUINCEY. And now wend we to yonder fountain.²time. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Oh. they are more himself than he is. place." An adjective or an adverb. and limit adjectives or adverbs. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. or manner: as. Adverbs modify. The word adverb means joined to a verb.25. To the almost terror of the persons present.

281.²BYRON.²TROLLOPE. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. Surely happiness is reflective. all wet and glossy. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.² LOWELL. ²IRVING. We are offered six months' credit. not simply the forms used in predication.² FRANKLIN.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. as. thus. 282. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed.²THOREAU. before. Definition. but some verb understood. which may qualify an action word or a statement. (2) according to their use in the sentence.²LEIGH HUNT. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. Thus considered. and that. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. or a word group used as such.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. ALDRICH. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. 169. NOTE. A clause or sentence. hitherto. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. It may also modify a sentence. but really modifying. for example. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. ever. lately.He was incidentally news dealer. 169 are felt to be elliptical. NOTE. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. An adverb. but still with a rich bloom to it. A phrase. I draw forth the fruit. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. perhaps.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.²T. 280. as now. Make music to the lonely ear. B. to-day. etc.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. being adverbs naturally and fitly. has induced some of us to attend it. while those in Sec. there are six classes:² (1) Time. as shown in the sentences. is a modifying word. like the light of heaven. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. not the noun. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. and half awfully.²These last differ from the words in Sec. then. .

] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. telling how much. that these adverbs form a very large class. etc. just. etc. The more they multiply..whence.thence. much. This long's the text.there. etc. and others.which gained him such universal popularity. etc. probably.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. etc.²R.where.²HAWTHORNE. the more friends you will have.was for this once of her opinion. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. (6) Assertion. greatly.. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. as well. as perhaps. especially the comparative of these words. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. bravely. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. (see also Sec. White. (3) Manner. two by two. enough.yonder. partly. Meekness. So also in Grote.²SHAKESPEARE. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. 283.near. maybe..²LECKY. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Motley. not. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. for example.. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. twice.²BURKE. surely. the more evidently they love liberty. singly. possibly.. Emerson. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. .thither.² The master. telling how anything is done. very. as hither. whencesoever. better.whither.²IRVING. etc.²BROWNING.²DE QUINCEY. thus. Thackeray. as hence. the more perfect will be their obedience. at least. too. or how far he believes it to be true. above. while so precedes only the adjective usually. [Sidenote The status of such.(2) Place. whithersoever. telling how many times: once. I was. 283). (4) Number. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. and not infrequently are found in literary English. slowly. LOUIS STEVENSON. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. as here. beautifully. as little. slightly. (5) Degree.

" "That is positively untrue [assertion].²THACKERAY. ." "The house. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Burke. 284."²SCOTT. a mighty fine gentleman. Holmes. Some adverbs.²FIELDING. A pretty large experience. Interrogative. Mighty. Simple. Direct questions.² You are mighty courteous.²GOLDSMITH.²BULWER. Dickens. and its lawn before [place]. Again. and art but a fool. for example. and other writers.²BAYNE. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.² KINGSLEY. Pretty is also used by Prescott.²"He walked too far [place]. Emerson. Neville. Hard blows and hard money. B. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. have the additional function of asking a question." "I have seen you before [time]. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.² "Mighty well. 282. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Notice meanings. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." said the king.Pretty. "Peace. for example. De Quincey. Beau Fielding. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. STOWE. It is only occasionally used in literary English. besides modifying. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Defoe.²HAWTHORNE." "He spoke positively [manner]. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived." "That were far better [degree]. Kingsley. Franklin. 286. Aldrich." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.²THACKERAY. 285.

²POE. When did this humane custom begin?²H. I do not remember when I was taught to read. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. WEBSTER. (2) Place. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²BYRON. .²BYRON (3) Manner. 287.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. they smiled. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.²BULWER.²D. CLAY. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (5) Reason. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. (2) Place. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. I hearkened. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I will not ask where thou liest low. I know not why. (4) Degree. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (4) Degree. for example.

Then must she keep it safelier. well much little far late Comparative. use. higher. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. further farthest.²SHAKESPEARE. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. Many adjectives have the same ending.²EMERSON. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. not an adverb. Exercise. furthest (rathe. when does not express time and modify. when compared. soon. The following.. highest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. when. but the whole clause. 288. 290. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.. and. Many adverbs are compared. Its strings boldlier swept. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.) rather 289. Form vs. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. sooner.eyes. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. irregularly compared.²BYRON. only occasionally having -er and -est. obs. For further discussion." Exercise. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. representing four classes.²COLERIDGE. Superlative. just as adjectives do. have the same inflection as adjectives. high. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Only that we may wiselier see. soonest. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Tell what each word in ly modifies.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. see Sec. as.²TENNYSON. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. .But in reality.

1. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. evenly. curiously jolly. Again.²WORDSWORTH. etc. He is inexpressibly mean. nearly. merely introduces a sentence.²IRVING. The reason is. many words without -ly have the same form. instead of being used adverbially. But he must do his errand right. And all about. With his proud. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 291.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Special use of there.²CHAUCER. but with a different meaning. or down the leaves laughed through. 8. mostly. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. as. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. 2. 3. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. It is true he was rarely heard to speak.² EMERSON. near. 2. Not near so black as he was painted. more courtly in their manners. whether adverbs or adjectives. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.²TENNYSON. if it has the verb be.²THACKERAY. Such are most. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. . that in Old and Middle English. quick-flashing eye. 6. There are eyes. 4. hard. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly." Compare these:² 1. even. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. to be sure. hardly. 292. Frequently the word there.²ID. 5. 7.And his mien of kingly state. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. kindly and good-natured in secret.

Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 15. and always. The higher we rise in the scale of being. the Madonna is in great glory. Exercise. 7. . at the regular wine-shop. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 4. but continually shifted. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. burning in the center of the temple. 10. 293. It is the Cross that is first seen. 3. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 12. 18. 11. For the impracticable. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 9. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. however theoretically enticing. 2. is always politically unwise. give² (1) The class. if the word is compared. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. according to meaning and also use. Thither we went. In parsing adverbs. 17. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 16. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. (3) What word or word group it modifies. but from my fall? 6. and sate down on the steps of a house. But a few steps farther on. 5. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. (2) Degree of comparison.

" "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. Clauses. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. nor. etc. word groups. then. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. Definition. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. connecting words. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. 20. 21. 294. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. . (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. 295. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. CONJUNCTIONS. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. sentences. but the student will readily find them. Unlike adverbs. she would undoubtedly have succumbed.19. therefore. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. hence. It was pretty bad after that. however. or sentence groups." Paragraphs. but side by side within the American Union. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. upon which the sun now shone forth." Sentences. A conjunction is a linking word." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. But now the wind rose again. 22.

I have nothing to do with the governor and council. both. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Your letter.. answering to each other in the same sentence. Causal.or whether.. The assertion. etc. 297. Correlatives. either. and not man corn. expressing a choice. introducing a reason or cause. only.nor.. either. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. usually between two things. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. either. not only.Classes of conjunctions. The chief ones are.and. the window being open....or... neither. likewise. else. Nor mark'd they less. but is emperor in his own right. for. moreover. nor.or. as well as. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. yet. nor. whether. had its weight. whether. neither. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. word groups. Some go in threes. therefore.. Alternative. They are or.or. "Howbeit. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.. however. While the earth bears a plant.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. as but. (2) ADVERSATIVE. the butter too.. neither." Nevertheless.or.. 296... . etc. etc. while.. as. of the same rank. Adversative. not only. the bread was spent. as.. joining words. as and. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.but. still. then. (3) CAUSAL.but (or but also). connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. as well as the room door. 298. however.. Some of these go in pairs... (2) Subordinate. or the sea rolls its waves.. serves but to show their ignorance. hence. also.. whether.nor... coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.. and. (4) ALTERNATIVE. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.

on condition that. though. as.²J. so. there will the heart be also. etc. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. in order that. whither. even if. whithersoever. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS..²IRVING. lest. whereto. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. He is not only bold and vociferous. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. unless. 299.²BURKE. object. wherever. nor wing of bird. whenever. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. (7) RESULT: that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. (3) MANNER: how. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. QUINCY.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. (6) PURPOSE: that. as.²PAULDING. especially that after so. sometimes if. since. so. nor green leaf. before. as. now. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. except. whether. since. that. in case.²COOPER. nor creeping thing. ²ALLSTON. It is. while.²DE QUINCEY. however. Where the treasure is. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. etc. Time. etc. whereas. in apposition. nor echo.²WILSON. etc. Neither the place in which he found himself. howsoever. so that. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. so. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. seeing. provided. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. although. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. after. so that.²BIBLE.. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. until. ere. provided that.as.. etc.. . whence. (2) TIME: when.

A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Substantive.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²EMERSON. JACKSON. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²AMES. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²IRVING. .²DEFOE. I was again covered with water.² WORDSWORTH. Let the world go how it will.² HAWTHORNE. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Now he is dead. Purpose. reason.²COLERIDGE. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Result.That vain it were her eyes to close.²EMERSON. not as they were expected or intended.²AMES. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Condition.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²CAMPBELL. Comparison.² EMERSON. Then Denmark blest our chief. As a soldier.That he gave her wounds repose. H.²AMES.²BYRON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²BURKE. We wish for a thousand heads. Cause.² H. a thousand bodies.So I behold them not. Manner. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Concession. but not so long but I held it out. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.

(b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. Crept under the leaf. then. 10. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 7. The moth fly. 9. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. hold a subordinate rank. the wisest. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war.Let us see whether the greatest. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence.²RUSKIN. He was brought up for the church. some words²for example. her real merit is known at home. that. In what point of view. And they lived happily forever after. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 12. Exercises. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 300. etc. 4. since. And then recovering. After he was gone. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 6. as. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. the lady called her servant. . and hid her there. 14. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. she faintly pressed her hand. No one had yet caught his character. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. As will have been noticed. 5. it will remain harmless. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 2. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 13. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. as he shot in air. While patriotism glowed in his heart. Besides. 15. They.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. While a faction is a minority. however. while. 3. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions.

302. If analyzed. As if.. the expression would be.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²HOOD. In Emerson's sentence. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. none of the lashings having given way. as is often equivalent to as if. in this case. 304.So slowly moved about. As though. In poetry. and be a bud again. GREELEY. and part as though we parted not. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. they connect. . As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. So silently we seemed to speak. even as they would weep.. and the frame will suit the picture.As though a rose should shut. (2) What words. etc.²BYRON. 303. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. SPECIAL REMARKS." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.16. expressing degree if taken separately.²IRVING. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. As for as if." as. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. as is shown by the use of as though. His voice . HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.. thus.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. "We meet. In parsing conjunctions. word groups.Clouded. 301. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.²EMILY BRONTE. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. Consequently. for example. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.

4. etc. so means therefore. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. in 2. 10. and its clause is independent. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. because.Caution. "Doctor. When the gods come among men. the Sphinx was slain. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. 6. 3. in 3. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. that it might testify of that particular ray. so it be faithfully imparted. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.²is subordinate of condition. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1.. he sleeps as warm. such as nor.²I find them true in Concord. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. and associates as happily. he is also the correlative of nature.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.²EMERSON 3. He is the compend of time. and the like. because it is his. 13. For example. as beside his own chimneys. or in the forest. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. 11. so that I could not stir abroad. 2. when. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries.²that the fairies do not like to be named. It may be safely trusted. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. In classifying them. He dismisses without notice his thought. and its clause depends on the other. At sea." said his wife to Martin Luther. others belong to several classes. It continued raining. dines with as good an appetite. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. so that expresses result.² 1. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. 12. so they paddled on. 9. If he could solve the riddle. they are not known. 5.²DEFOE 2. Some conjunctions. or in the snow. Exercise. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. but of the natural. All the postulates of elfin annals. are regularly of one particular class. so means provided. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 7. and. and very seldom?" 8. . compare the sentences.

therefore. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 22. 19. 29. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. It is clear. 24.. It may be so in the majority of cases. There was no iron to be seen. Still. 20. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. enthroned. whose names I omit. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 18. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. that both were wayward. 26. And whether consciously or not. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 25. 23. in this they agree. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. however. in many a heart. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. save it were sinful like herself. 21. won't you lay on? 17. PREPOSITIONS. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 30. . she might have the family countenance. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. of good novels only. you must be.²else it is none. 15. I speak.14. I rejoice to stand here no longer. the whole conditions are changed. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. Goodness must have some edge to it. 305. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. For. Now you have the whip in your hand. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. when it was presented to them. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 28. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 16. 27.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at random. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. H. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. Exercise.²COOPER.²ID. at length. (2) Time. at first. Like at. at naught. By. At that time [the earth] was richer. . etc. as. at war. by the wrecks of time. Exercise. Helena. at most. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. By my faith. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. 321. at play. (3) Agency or means. D. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. by the blessed memory of the departed. by the ruins of nations. by means near or close to.² (1) The general meaning of place. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. ²PARTON. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at one.²B. at all.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. etc. STODDARD. at rest.²SWIFT.²EVERETT. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. At St.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. Richard was standing by the window. She saw the boat headed for her. TAYLOR The angel came by night.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. the first port made by the ship. by many a million of acres. at once.²WARNER. at the worst.²R. (4) Measure of excess. 320. at the best. at peace.²ALDRICH. at work. he stopped. For. expressing the degree of difference. at least.²M. CONWAY. at any rate..²DE QUINCEY.

(2) In favor of. meaning in the character of. "Nay.² RUSKIN.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. "thou hast counseled wisely. He and they were for immediate attack. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. had a forest of poor relations. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. or in spite of." said the Lady of Lochleven. (5) Reference.²H. But the Colonel.²HOOD. For the rest.²ID. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. but a few sunsets since. he repented of his folly. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. as to. (4) Substitution or exchange. or extent of space. GARRISON.²E.²LAMB.²W. . cause.One of Eve's family. for famine. BANCROFT. meaning although. (6) Like as. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. if your worship can accomplish that.²PARKMAN. Still."²SCOTT By my faith. (7) Concession. reason.²PARKMAN. E. considering that etc. for all slips of hers. for all his title. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. etc.²STODDARD. they are now for us.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. incitement to action.. in behalf of. (3) Duration of time. etc. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. a person or thing.. the Colonna motto would fit you best. respecting. as being. meaning with regard to.²HOLMES.²IRVING." answered Master Brackett. For him. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. for the benefit of. L. An Arab woman. H. "For a fool. There are gains for all our losses. The twilight being. ate her child.²EMERSON. and leaped for joy. (9) Motive. etc. poor fellow.

(3) Time.²BANCROFT. Exercise. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. like from. (1) Origin or source. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. nay.²ID. ceased to be merciful. H. The young cavaliers. (2) Origin. It was from no fault of Nolan's. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. 323.²HIGGINSON. A distrustful. The From Relation. or reason. Exercise.²MILTON.²H. cause. if not a desperate man. from a desire of seeming valiant. more. From harmony. (4) Motive. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. The general idea in from is separation or source. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. .(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. 322. The king holds his authority of the people.²HUME. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. From. Like boys escaped from school. The original meaning of of was separation or source. Of. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²DRYDEN.²HALE.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²HUXLEY.

² HUXLEY. disarm. (3) With expressions of material."²E. etc. or breastpin of native gold.²ALDRICH. wide of. reason. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. "I am glad of that. More than one altar was richer of his vows. The hills were bare of trees. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²PARKMAN. clear. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. Sandals. that Cromwell once ruled England. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. E. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. You cannot make a boy know.²BOSWELL. rid. ask. free. relieve.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. beg.²HIGGINSON. deprive. as north of. . Other Relations expressed by Of. Back of that tree. deprivation. (b) After some adjectives. etc. ²PARTON.. A singular want of all human relation. HALE. there were only twenty-one members present.²BANCROFT. south of. weeds.²BAYARD TAYLOR.²DICKENS II. demand. rob. etc. cure. He is away of his own free will. bare of. bound with thongs of boar's hide.²clear of. Of the Forty. divest. etc. especially out of. (5) Expressing agency. White shirt with diamond studs. (d) With words expressing distance. etc.²SCOTT Who formed. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. and grass. out of the most unpromising materials. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. of his own knowledge.²LEW WALLACE. acquitted them of.²ID. (c) After nouns expressing lack. motive. such as ease. purge. (6) Partitive. expressing a part of a number or quantity. free of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. ²GAVARRE. Asked no odds of.

with its object. being equivalent to an infinitive.²PRESCOTT. (b) Noun and gerund. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. of a sudden.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. CHANNING.²LAMB. with regard to.²COOPER. could give shelter from his contumely. Such a book as that of Job. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. of is used in the sense of during. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. 309. Idiomatic use with verbs. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. (c) Two nouns.²SWIFT. concerning. of late. The fair city of Mexico. . See also Sec. standing. (10) Of reference. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²LOWELL.²BANCROFT. The nation of Lilliput. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Besides the phrases of old. (8) Appositional. E. etc.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²ID.²BANCROFT. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²BANCROFT.²FROUDE. for the possessive.. when the first is descriptive of the second.²ALDRICH.²W. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²HALLECK. and the dignity of a queen. equal to about. (7) Possessive. Not even woman's love. ²IRVING. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. (9) Of time.He washed out some of the dirt. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.

²PARKMAN. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (b) With motion. avail (one's self). (4) In adjurations. consist.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. Upon my reputation and credit. and not a day more. concerning. allow. on board. you are eighteen.²ALDRICH. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. on the wing. Upon is seldom used to express time. Exercise. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. repent. without adding to their meaning. The general meaning of on is position or direction.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. equal to about. accept. 325. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. To. etc. Cannon were heard close on the left. SIGOURNEY. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. on the alert. on view. It also accompanies the verbs tire. ²BANCROFT. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²DE QUINCEY. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. Upon. approve. and others. such as admit. disapprove.²PARKMAN.²EMERSON. on a sudden. on trial. 324. (2) Time. Exercise. . as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.²MRS. On.²BRYANT. etc.²PARKMAN.²Find sentences with six uses of of. (3) Reference. permit. On my life. complain. on high.

With. 326.²IRVING.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. interest. His brother had died.. unmasked.²BULWER.to be written over. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears..²often to the loss of vigor. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.Come to the bridal chamber. (2) Expressing result. To the few. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. (b) Referring to time. to him.²PARTON. But when. (5) Equivalent to according to.²B. Exercise. In Old English. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.²BENTON To our great delight. mid meant in company with. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. 268). He usually gave his draft to an aid. had ceased to be.. does the mere music.²LANG.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²GOLDSMITH. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. We cook the dish to our own appetite. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. gay Comedy appears.²BRYANT..²HALE. it may be genuine poetry. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. to my taste. Death!²HALLECK.²PARKMAN. whose influence is felt to this hour. Revolutions. . Nor.

²CHANNING. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. (3) Cause.²WALLACE (7) Time. reason. 327. he gave millions to the sword.²HOWELLS. She seemed pleased with the accident. (5) Opposition. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. . Messala. opinion.²LANG. with all his boldness. motive. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. Either with the swingle-bar. to find the object of the preposition. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. it is necessary.²SCOTT. but a pleasure"?²LANG. E. (2) Instrumentality. He was wild with delight about Texas.²COLERIDGE. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. or with the haunch of our near leader. felt it unsafe to trifle further. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. had already reached the defile.²EMERSON. with Heyward at its head. HALE. I think.²Find sentences with four uses of with. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. (4) Estimation. first of all. With all his sensibility.²DE QUINCEY. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. It seemed a supreme moment with him.The advance. as with you. transmitted from the beginning. in spite of. He expired with these words. but with you.²HALE.²DE QUINCEY. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²E. "poetry is not a pursuit.²HOWELLS.²COOPER. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²ALDRICH. Exercise.

3. of from. he followed us one day into those gardens. 4. 5. (2) on which. country. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. In (3). and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. I heard a noise just over my head. . of without. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. but I received no other hurt. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I remember. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. beginning. shook it directly over my head. The object of on board is ships. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. which. I speak these things from a love of justice. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. the malicious rogue. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. 2. the phrase answers the question where. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. To our general surprise. (3) without a country. I felt my box raised very high in the air. but all to no purpose. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. or was. without a country modifies man. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. because I had given the provocation. I called out several times. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. And so on.²ID. Be that as it will. came tumbling about my ears. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. (4) from the beginning. we met the defaulter here. Whereupon. of on. hence we say. In (1). Exercises. before the dwarf left the queen. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. and knocked me down flat on my face. In (2). The guns were cleared of their lumber. I looked towards my windows. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. by which a dozen apples. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours.²SWIFT 2. telling what man. like the clapping of wings.

the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 23. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 24. 18. 27. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 21. With all his learning. he favored the world with his opinions. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 25. The mother sank and fell. His breeches were of black silk. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 29. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. when. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 19. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 7. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent.He spurred his courser on. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. On all subjects known to man.6. 9. 17. 26.Without stop or stay. I like to see the passing. For my part. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 11. in town. 14. plumed for battle. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 10. 12. . 16. The savage army was in war-paint. 13. grasping at the child. 22. to one dark and gloomy. 8. in this respect. 15. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 20. after a restful morning.

328. that you might behold this joyous day. A few are discussed below.30.²BEECHER. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²WEBSTER. (4) As an adverb of degree. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That is what I understand by scientific education. and not according to form.That makes the heavens be mute. not merely by the amount of the tax. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²STOCKTON. (3) As a relative pronoun. THAT. (a) Indefinite relative. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (b) Of result. WHAT. And now it is like an angel's song. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (c) Substantive conjunction.²WEBSTER.²HUXLEY.²COLERIDGE. That night was a memorable one.²WEBSTER. 329. He will raise the price. and be proud in the midst of its toil. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. We wish that labor may look up here. That was a dreadful mistake. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (1) Relative pronoun. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. 330.² JOHNSON. .

²ID. Cox. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.these sounds are only to be heard. (7) Adverb of degree. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. What with the Maltese goats.. (8) Conjunction. "I'll tell you what. to see what might be hidden. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. BUT. (b) Indirect question. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. it rests on reality.but. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.. nearly equivalent to partly..Are yet the fountain light of all our day..²EMERSON.²WORDSWORTH. To say what good of fashion we can. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. partly. (b) Indirect question. 331. (9) As an exclamation. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.²WEBSTER. .²S.S. but the result of calculation. and silent all!²BYRON... (b) Copulative. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. he knows what good people are to be found there. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT..²ID.²EMERSON.²THACKERAY.in Pera. after not only. If he has [been in America]. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.it is impossible to determine. What. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY... or not only. silent still.Those shadowy recollections.." (4) Relative adjective.. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. What.Which be they what they may..

²SHELLEY. (5) Adverb. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.He yearned to our patriot bands. after such. ²CARLYLE. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction..Then arose not only tears. I shall see but little of it.. 332. on all sides. . meaning except...²FRANKLIN..²EMERSON. not. (e) Introducing an appositive word..²SCOTT. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (3) Preposition. (2) Relative pronoun. (b) Of manner. but piercing cries.²LAMB. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. than. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. (4) Relative pronoun. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. AS. stands for that . as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.²MRS BROWNING. after a negative.²IRVING. not. To lead but one measure. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²HAWTHORNE. (c) Of degree. sometimes same. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²CARLYLE. meaning otherwise . (d) Of reason.. equivalent to that . at all moments. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. (b) Substantive. Who knows but. meaning only. like the dog.²IRVING. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. Doing duty as a guard. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. or who . towards order. not.²IRVING.

but this is not considered good usage: for example.²EMERSON. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. nervous child.²LAMB. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. Through which they put their heads. and is followed by a dative-objective. like him awhile ago. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. There is no statue like this living man.²HIGGINSON. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Note the difference between these two uses. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. .²HAWTHORNE. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. No Emperor. like Martin was. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. Introduces a clause. NOTE.LIKE. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²EMERSON. In each case. and as or as if takes its place. (1) An adjective.²HALLECK. They look. indeed.²CASS. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.² HAWTHORNE. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. this. but its verb is omitted. like summer ocean's.² A timid.²MAYHEW.²ALDRICH. This follows a verb or a verbal. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. like a cook beating eggs. That face.²SHAKESPEARE. I do with my friends as I do with my books. ²PARKMAN. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. If the verb is expressed. like drops out. Give Ruskin space enough. In this second use.-SCOTT.²LONGFELLOW. 333. staring like a bewildered man. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²DARWIN.²ALDRICH. Stirring it vigorously. and was clearly an adjective.

" "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. 334. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Some of these are imitative sounds. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences.: for example. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Definition. as. verb. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. clauses introduced by conjunctions." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. etc.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. tut! buzz! etc. pronoun. subject and predicate." PART II. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. entering into the structure of a sentence. 336. Value of analysis. that is.²in determining case. etc." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].INTERJECTIONS. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. . that is. in separating them into their component parts. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Definition. What analysis is. but it still retains its identity as noun.. 335. it is necessary to become expert in analysis.

In order to get a correct definition of the subject. which expresses command. 2. always friends?" imperative. but by no means vulgar." 340. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. not according to the form in which a thought is put. or request. interrogative.Kinds of sentences as to form. "Hath he not always treasures. Definition: Predicate. according to form. or imperative. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. (2) Interrogative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. declarative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. 338. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. question. This is the most common one. . "Come to the bridal chamber. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. 337. but according to how many statements there are. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. Every sentence must contain two parts. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. which puts the thought in a question. but the sentence would still be declarative. (3) Imperative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Definition. hence. or command: for example. you must not die!" interrogative. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. A rare old plant is the ivy green. But now all is to be changed." "What wouldst thou do.²a subject and a predicate. Examples of these three kinds are. Division according to number of statements. 339. entreaty. "The quality of mercy is not strained. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. "Old year. old man?" "Be thou familiar.

Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. "[You] behold her single in the field. and our definition must be the following. 341. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. as. a rare old plant. the subject is frequently after the verb. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. on the other hand. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 2. and is to be supplied. In analyzing such sentences. especially in poetry. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. always reduce them to the order of a statement. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general.²What is the ivy green? Answer. 7. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. The last of all the Bards was he. or ye) is in most cases omitted. to suit all cases:² Subject. 8. or an interrogative pronoun. 5. In the interrogative sentence. the subject (you. but about the ivy green. Consequently. or adverb that asks about the subject. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. . and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. and the real subject is the latter. to an ignorant man." Exercise. Listen. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. thou.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. Thus.²What is to be changed? Answer. 4. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. 3. not of a rare old plant. Slavery they can have anywhere. adjective. we have some trouble. 6. all. But if we try this with the second sentence.

" This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. Direct Object. 343. (5) Modifiers. 342." Complement: 344. . A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. The transitive verb often requires. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. and me here is not the object simply of call. just as if to say. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.²transitive and intransitive. in addition to the object. (2) The predicate. Of a transitive verb. but chief belongs to the verb. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. but of call chief. (6) Independent elements. or second object. "Ye call me chief. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. and by object we mean the direct object." indirect. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (3) The object. Indirect object. for example. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. and means summoned.10. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). Examples of direct and indirect objects are. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (4) The complements. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. but it is a true complement. direct. "Ye honor me.

The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 352. for instance. introduced by a preposition: for example. Complement of an intransitive verb." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. especially the forms of be. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. 'Ay." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. etc. more familiarly. to the completion of this man of the world. and. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. he was now getting old. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds." "The good man. and barring the door. above sixty. feel. seem. or. An intransitive verb. sir!' rang out in response." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . appear. 355. become." Also an expression used as a noun. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (2) PARTICIPIAL." All these complete intransitive verbs. taste. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 351. 347. Phrases." (3) INFINITIVE. and of massive weight. in the popular judgment." "He was termed Thomas. 346. as in drowning. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." 345. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. "A cheery. 364. I mentioned a case of that nature." Things used as Subject. in exercise following Sec. "Brow and head were round. A phrase is a group of words. See sentence 19. as in the sentence. As to form. in the original Opium Confessions." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. Thom of the Gills.. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. as." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. but used as a single modifier. ay. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. not containing a verb.

it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. but the real or logical subject is to print. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. or their religion from their sect. my deficiency.²the talent of starting the game." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. from their lips. (2) In interrogative sentences. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." etc. etc." The for did not belong there originally. prowling eyes. ." In this sentence. I saw the quick and the dead. 341." Things used as Direct Object." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies.²the infinitive phrase." 348. but obscures the real subject." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. Disguised infinitive subject. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. and by Saint George!' said the King. or the thundering of organs. "'By God. "Therein has been. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." Things used as Complement. 349. but they will be given in detail here. (4) After "there introductory." "There are asking eyes." "The dead are there.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. for which see Sec. asserting eyes." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. was heard one syllable to justify." "Never. and ever will be.

351.²heads or tails." "Their tempers." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." "Serving others is serving us. complements of the predicate. As complement of an intransitive verb. the object is made the subject by being passive. As complement of a transitive verb. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. I." "I hear the echoes throng. at the same time. the shepherd girl. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. Object. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.350. and the words italicized are still complements. doubtless." "She asked her father's permission.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. they are adjuncts of the object." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." . trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. Modifiers of Subject. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." Modifiers. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. Of a transitive verb." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." In this last sentence." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. Like all the complements in this list." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. or the equivalent of the noun. and explaining or modifying the subject.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.²completing the predicate. (3) Infinitive. and whenever the complement is a noun. or Complement." (4) Participle. and.

or complement is modified." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written.²In each sentence in Sec. 357-363. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "In the twinkling of an eye. II. "He died like a God. Modifiers of the Predicate. and modify the predicate in the same way." In such a sentence as.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." "Him. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. was the scene from King John." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. but it is really a contracted clause. see further Secs. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. unforgiving.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Tells how.²proud. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." "Give them not only noble teachings." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. 351." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. was now called upon for his defense." (For participial and infinitive phrases. Since the predicate is always a verb. but with other men." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. 352. and leading him from star to star. given at the request of a Dutch lady. but noble teachers. austere. the verb being omitted. this young idolater. or . Retained with passive." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. object. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. not with nature. tell whether the subject." Exercise. the prisoner at the bar. no sociable angel. I have seasoned for thee. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.

6. is good in the making. 3." Exercises. or how long. no relief to the dead prosaic level. after dinner. predicate. with my joy and grief. To the men of this world. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. in regard to particulars. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. Evil. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. (b) Pick out the subject. They do not wish to be lovely. 6. how far. etc. 5. he liked." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. and as many to oppose it. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. On the voyage to Egypt. 5. to the animal strength and spirits. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. no humor. . in this center? 4." (6) Adverbial objective. according to old philosophers. His books have no melody. 7. I took. the indirect object is retained. 7. 2. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. but the children of the great. 3.. and the direct object is retained: for example. and (direct) object:² 1.When the verb is changed from active to passive. and other measures of precaution. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. Fashion does not often caress the great. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. These answer the question when. no emotion. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 8. This. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why." "All such knowledge should be given her." "One way lies hope. negative. but to be loved. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. a sort of personality to the whole writing." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. gives wonderful animation. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. But anger drives a man to say anything. predicate. (a) Pick out subject. 2." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 4. and.

y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1.y 8. 2. after their long confinement to a ship. etc. viz. a room seventeen feet by twelve. 3. 2. then. to the right and to the left. Not the less I owe thee justice. the blooming cornet. I gave him an address to my friend. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. y y y y Compound Subject. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 4. 3. this dragoon so lovely. downwards.. 4. In one feature. Compound Predicate. Not compound sentences. must visit again the home of her childhood. A river formed the boundary. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. that was thy portion in life. To suffer and to do. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 3. then. in little peaceful Easedale. for the first time. the attorney. Unhorse me. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. Paint me. I felt myself. I promised her protection against all ghosts. at the chief hotel. six children sat by a peat fire. 5. this imperial rider. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. 5. Their intention was to have a gay. Yes. this nun so martial. 4. That night.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. burthened with the anxieties of a man. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 6. at length the warrior lady. 2. happy dinner. and a member of the world.²the river Meuse. . And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. upwards. expecting the return of their parents.

"The company broke up.353." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. modifiers. The exclamatory expression. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." Sentences with compound predicates are. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms." "The name of the child.. complements." "He shook his head. the object. shouldered the rusty firelock. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. etc." "Voyages and travels I would also have. together with all its modifiers. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. For example. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. in all such sentences as we quote below. etc. same as (1)." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. turned his steps homeward. but it is to be noticed that. may be the person or thing addressed. however.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. then the grammatical subject and predicate. 354. Examples of compound subjects are. ulcer. Independent Elements of the Sentence. the tone of her voice. they are not a necessary part. and the rest is the logical predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. in the sentence. etc. my brave young man!" . and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. above: thus. forming a sentence: "Oh. together with its modifiers." And so with complements. and its object or complement. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. hurry. the air of the mother. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. hurry. Larger view of a sentence. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. the simple subject is situation. Bishop. exposes. the verb). several modifiers. and." "Ye crags and peaks. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. two or more subjects of the same predicate. that is. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. 355. the predicate. Of this. I'm with you once again. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. "Ah.

"All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. 351. 356. instances of which were seen in Sec. y (2) The adverbial use. generally speaking. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. pronoun. moreover. 355. such as perhaps. 350." Another caution. object. and some conjunctions. In their use. modifying a noun..(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. see Sec." (3) Independent. he was a conscientious man. really. or complement (see Sec. how you're winking!" "Now. then. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use.. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. prepositional phrases may be. to the best of my remembrance. such as however. the company broke up. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 4)." (6) Single words: as." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. (b) As a modifier of subject. 3. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion." (2) Adverbial." "No." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes." "Well. why. that have an office in the sentence. There are some adverbs. modifying the predicate. he somehow lived along." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife." (5) Participial phrase: "But. he closed his literary toils at dinner. six quill-driving gentlemen. The words well. 4). therefore." "Truth to say. 352. "Oh." "At all events. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. this story runs thus. (1) Adjectival. These need close watching. and so on. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. nevertheless. yes! everybody knew them. besides. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." "Why. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. etc. 6). It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. already noticed. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. truly. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. . let him perish. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. etc. her noticing even this is creditable. see Sec. or word used as a noun: for example. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. undoubtedly. grandma." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 357. now.

equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor." etc. "The letter of introduction.: as in the sentences." (c) With the definite forms of go." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.should. "Because I was. The verbal use. was speedily run through. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. and they will be presented here in full. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. containing no matters of business. but having no other office than a verbal one. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. ought. or as nearly so as the student will require. thus." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. modifying was speedily run through. he should not have known them at all. (5).can (could). 355. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. and teach her how to be happy and good. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. but require somewhat closer attention. necessity." In this sentence. Wilt thou.]." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. See Sec.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. y (a) With may (might).: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. etc. etc. 358. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec." "There." (b) With the forms of be. therefore. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. I.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public.would. and hence is adverbial. my dear. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. being equivalent to a future with obligation. This case excepted.seem.

which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. object.²both purpose clauses. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. already examined. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. (4) In apposition. complement.: for example. "But there was no time to be lost. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). 361. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. To test this. etc." "He insisted on his right to forget her. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. hang the idiot." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. above. result. The adverbial use. II." "Are you mad. the Scotch fighting all the battles. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. notice the following:² In (1). 362." "To say what good of fashion we can. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. The substantive use. III. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." 360." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. to look means that he might look. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. The adjectival use. 361 are used adverbially.. ." "To teach is to learn. etc. Don Guzman. to hear McOrator after dinner. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. modifying a noun that may be a subject. 5)." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. to please is equivalent to that he may please. 351. IV." (5) Condition: "You would fancy.

" "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 352). . 2. must be in a life. object. give the complement (Secs. to part means because I part. 268.. 349). and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. etc. (3). 351). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers.. (5) The subject (Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. give² (1) The predicate. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. In (5). In analyzing simple sentences. etc. equivalent to that you betray. 351). not in a book. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. savage and serene in one hour. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 355). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 355.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 3. I will try to keep the balance true. which is of two kinds." (See also Sec. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. If it is an incomplete verb. V. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. to hear means if you should hear.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (7) Independent elements (Sec. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 363. 351). The independent use. (2) The object of the verb (Sec.In (2). 4. as in Sec. In (3). and to betray and to bring express the reason.²both expressing condition. 364. to find shows the result of the return. Our life is March weather. In (4). etc. 347). (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have.

23. a graceful dancer.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 6. 22. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. nor money. always in a bad plight. 9. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 12. We are always in peril. a skilled musician. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 18. To be hurried away by every event. 21. Old Adam. His opinion is always original. nor generals. to restore civil and religious order. 13. with eager energy.He sat in the shower. through toys and atoms. You may ramble a whole day together. just on the edge of destruction. 10. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 24. Through the years and the centuries. nor himself. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. To these gifts of nature. 14. 16. He risked everything. to the moral sphere. . good and amiable otherwise. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. an accomplished scholar. 19. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 8. a good shot. and spared nothing. I have heard Coleridge talk. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 20.²to preserve her throne. is to have no political system at all. The water. nor troops. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. and only to be saved by invention and courage. and every moment discover something new. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. and to the purpose.Burnt green and blue and white.The old crow of Cairo. The word conscience has become almost confined. the carrion crow. two stricken hours. to keep England out of war. 15. might be called flabby and irresolute. 5. 17. in popular use. neither ammunition. like a witch's oils. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. The whole figure and air. Her aims were simple and obvious.4. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 7. 11. through evil agents.

upon my own ground. 27. Oxford. Of the same grandeur. proud foe. to be a reproach to such goodness. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. in less heroic and poetic form. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. and the why. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 39. 32. had but one foible. But yield. This amiable relative. Upon this shore stood. In the Acadian land. 40. to bid you leave the place now and forever. and. 30. ready to receive her. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. The villain. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. in front of all this mighty crowd. 31. the present capital of New England. an elderly man. 38. Fair name might he have handed down. 41. in this world. and in my own garden. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 34. I dare this. still. 37.Effacing many a stain of former crime. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. Must we in all things look for the how. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 29. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. 26. and no provisions but wild berries.Distant.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. I hate him and myself. time-honored. the ship was in an uproar. Few in number. She had made a two days' march. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. baggage far in the rear. Supposing this computation to be correct. or perhaps one virtue. and the wherefore? . it would not have been filial or ladylike. Now. haply. The cry. 33. the prime minister of Spain. secluded.25. 36. the same Condé Olivarez. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 35. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes.

be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. 365. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. 366.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. As shown in Part I. (Sec." To show that these words are really omitted. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. however. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. which is the unit of speech. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. the expressions of manner introduced by like. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. the pride and beauty of the grove." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. as would be the connective instead of like.² "She is like some tender tree." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. 367." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. thus." Sentences with like. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. if they were expanded. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. as. 333)." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. are really contracted clauses. Words left out after than or as. though often treated as phrases. The simple sentence the basis. but.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. made merely for convenience and smoothness." This must.From her own loved island of sorrow. .

A clause is a division of a sentence. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. modifiers.. each clause has its subject. . or it may be applied to the others.. and the last. that . Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. etc. containing a verb with its subject. 370." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. predicate.. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. or dependent on it.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject.. Hence the following definition:² Definition. which are so united that one member is the main one. and modifier. and the next one. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. logically depends on suffering. we are aware. A principal. CLAUSES. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. Definition. then we recognize this as the main statement. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. 369.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. object. 371.²the backbone. how great . 368. suffering.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. that is. complement. is taken in. main. as in this sentence. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).²the other members subordinate to it. Independent clause. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. object. complements. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. murmur.

with a noun clause in apposition with it. 'I know that he can toil terribly. 352. but logically the sentence is." 374. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. impertinences²would be grammatical.. put an end to my fancies. (a) Ordinary apposition. for a time." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. thus.." "I was told that the house had not been shut. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. night or day. for example. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. We ourselves are getting .. 372. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall.. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. (b) that are ." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. attention is called to them here. Kinds. clauses are divided into NOUN. and the whole clause is not. and it is .. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. ADJECTIVE. pronoun. As to their office in the sentence. But since they are complex in form." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. impertinences. verbal. 5).." Just as the object noun. Noun Clauses. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.Dependent clause.' is an electric touch. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. so the object clause is retained. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. adjectives. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. etc. for a hundred years. over which the torrent came tumbling.. and ADVERB clauses. for example." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. or adverbs. 373." (2) Object of a verb. ." (4) Apposition." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. infinitive.

that. which. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 375. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. But the fact is. no man will ever know. or equivalent of a noun. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Frequently there is no connecting word. 3. 4. still remains reasonable. 7. he would repent it. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 9. wherein. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. I was napping. that all safe legislation must be based. how it changed from shape to shape. a falsehood incarnate. that. that he was a scheming impostor. a relative pronoun being understood. and not on the sentiment. 6. in the sentence. Examples of adjective clauses. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. as. Other examples of this construction are. 8.² "It is on the understanding. . whereby. he could know nothing. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. etc. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. As the office of an adjective is to modify. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Adjective Clauses. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Except by what he could see for himself. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. but. 5. sometimes by the conjunctions when. whence. 10. What history it had. whither. 2. of a nation. where. Such a man is what we call an original man. whether he should choose one or not." Exercise. The reply of Socrates.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis.

5. whether subject. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. etc." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice.. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. the champions advanced through the lists. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 11. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. No man is reason or illumination. i. 7. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. Pick out the adjective clauses. 9.376. all is vacancy. and tell what each one modifies." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. 10. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. Adverbial Clauses. 4. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 1." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 3. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. object. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. he begins to help us more as an effect." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. . are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 6. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 8. 2.e." Exercise. which formed the center of the mansion. or that essence we were looking for. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. I walked home with Calhoun. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. which Rowena tasted.

expressing the degree in which the horizon. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. shaping our actions." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. etc." "The broader their education is. however. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. or an adverb." These mean no matter how good. tell what kind each is. no matter what remains.377. an adjective. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. he goes away as if nothing had happened.² whoever. etc. whatever. so far as we can." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." (9) CONCESSION. but they require careful study." "Who cares for that. a verbal. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. with examples. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. the milestones are grave-stones.. is wider. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. and will be given in detail. and what it modifies:² ." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. since he was too great to care to be original. the wider is the horizon of their thought. to make up our shortcomings. that we should try. introduced by indefinite relatives. etc." "When he was come up to Christian." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." (3) REASON. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. however good she may be as a witness." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." "After leaving the whole party under the table." "The right conclusion is. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. it takes precedence of everything else.: "But still. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. Exercise. adverbs." "He went several times to England. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." (7) RESULT. Joanna is better." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. 378." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. and adverbial conjunctions." (5) DEGREE.

so that the living were frightened out of their beds. then treat noun clauses as nouns. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter." 2. of which clause Odin is the subject. For example. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. as they sometimes did. 3. object. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. on a dark wintry night. in the sentence. incoherent exclamations. 'Well. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. find the principal subject and principal predicate. and modifiers. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. so as to picture the parts and their relations. 380. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. its object is that Odin was a reality. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. they might perhaps say of their visitors. etc. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. If the children gathered about her.1. howling and whistling. when the wind was unruly. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and twirling weathercocks. 379. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. banging about doors and windows. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. to tell the truth. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. snatching up stones to fling at them. with shrill. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. we are a little disappointed. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. predicate.

3. Exercises. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 2. 364.. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 364. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. (1) Find the principal clause. . d.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. 380). Take the place and attitude which belong to you. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.

that pressed her with an objection. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man.4. or whether any. 7. bishop. if applied to the Bible. whom I choose. 6. . 13. 9. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Here lay two great roads. He was what our country people call an old one. could not have been effected. 21. the shepherd girl. But now that she has become an establishment. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. the mixed result. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 20. 8. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. had we been worse. who would yield to it least. for yours. that. This is she. M. 24. namely. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. counselor that had none for herself. dying for them. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 14. Next came a wretched Dominican. Had they been better chemists. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. as for armies that were too many by half. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 5. 11. not so much for travelers that were few. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 17. And those will often pity that weakness most. 22. Now. 19. 12. the flower should revive for us. 23. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. of a light hazel. The deep eyes. which. 18. 16. 15. The night proved unusually dark. I like that representation they have of the tree. 10. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve.

until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. 7. would easily reach. if there be one to whom I am not equal. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. though we may repeat the words never so often. Hence the definition. the following complex sentences:² 1. we cannot adequately say. 5. that it was no more than his daily walk. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation." said Bentley. 382. and temper. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. 30. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days." 4. "was ever written down by any but itself. 28. 6. 27. 3. 383. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will.² Definition. . should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. or commands. 26.²which will not be disposed of. is to speak and write sincerely. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. questions.25. 2. but above it. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 380. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. How formed. and not from his heart. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. COMPOUND SENTENCES. then map out as in Sec. if continuously extended. speed. (b) First analyze. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. That which we do not believe. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. It makes no difference how many friends I have. and stamped with his right number. These things we are forced to say. "No book. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. The writer who takes his subject from his ear.

while (whilst).This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. for. in (2). yet. Of the following illustrative sentences. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. and connects the first and second complex members. 297). if there are any.. or but. . The division into members will be easier." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. 385. Some of these are now conjunctions. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. Thus in (1). and which complex:² 1. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). etc. in (3). moon-like ray" (adversative). the semicolon separates the first. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. he walks with arms akimbo. 383 (1). Connectives. etc. 386. whereas. tell which are compound. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. he dilates. as in Sec. Study the thought. from the second. now adverbs or prepositions. Another example is. he soliloquizes. and nor the second and third complex members. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. nor. which are simple statements. however. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. nor does he know until he has tried. and it shall be the universal sense. the waving grass. The coördinate conjunctions and. as but." 384. a complex member. the planet has a faint. and not the form of the connective." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. a simple member. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. he is twice a man. "Only the star dazzles. Exercise. Speak your latent conviction. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. others sometimes coördinate. sometimes subordinate conjunctions.

12. yield to them heart and life. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. he grew up to be a mild. 13. The gain is apparent. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 14. you lose something. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. the tax is certain. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 4. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. I can yet love. Whilst the world is thus dual. that it was Easter Sunday. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. . unobtrusive boy. from a happy yet often pensive child. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. I can still receive. In this manner. However some may think him wanting in zeal. for example. 387. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. All loss. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. (i) Separate it into its main members. 8. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. and thou shalt be loved. 2. nay. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 4. however. 6. to find a pot of buried gold. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. For everything you have missed. 3.2. 5. quiet. is particular. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 3. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. or. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 7. 11. 381. all pain. and not by what each is. Man does not stand in awe of man. and as yet very early in the morning. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. and for everything you gain. you have gained something else. 9. so is every one of its parts. Exercise. passed in that time. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 364. Love. 10.

as children. let them mount and expand. Come into port greatly. one is afraid. only that they may brag and conquer there. Stand aside. 7. and they will show themselves great. feign to confess here. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. give those merits room." says the smith. crook and hide. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and the peace of society is often kept. 19. puts the parties on a convenient footing. He teaches who gives. 18. whilst frankness invites frankness.5. and you are without effort impelled to truth. 17. 11. We go to Europe. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 20. 9. or sail with God the seas. 16. Trust men. We see the noble afar off. and not a thought has enriched either party. is as thin and timid as any. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. "Strike. and each shows only what lies at its focus. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world." says the haymaker. abide by it. and the cart as nigh the rake. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 8." "keep the rake. or men will never know and honor him aright. why should we intrude? 10. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. Whatever he knows and thinks. and makes their business a friendship. if you rip up his claims. modesty. or hope. 15. When you have chosen your part. 14. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and he learns who receives. 21. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and they repel us. and the other dares not. They will shuffle and crow. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. because. that let him communicate. . "the iron is white. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. or we read books. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. and they will be true to you. and not an emotion of bravery." 13. or we pursue persons. 6. treat them greatly. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade.

Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment.²agreement and government. By way of introduction. if they live. 380. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. pronoun and antecedent. Do not craze yourself with thinking. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . but its leading characteristic is. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. adjective and noun. the department of syntax will be a small affair. but they never acquit the debt. 24. INTRODUCTORY. 388. it ends in headache. it never was known to fall into the rear. 25. SYNTAX. Ground covered by syntax. or. We see young men who owe us a new world. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. and dodge the account. so readily and lavishly they promise. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. 23. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. PART III. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. but go about your business anywhere. So does culture with us. they lose themselves in the crowd. Essential point in English syntax. they die young. 390. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. verb and subject.22. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Following the Latin method.

The basis of syntax. Why study syntax? 391. take the sentence. and whose judgment. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. authorities²that is. good English. or settler may be the subject. For example. This is not logical. etc. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. following the regular order of subject. then. and it would not matter which one stood first." that is. "None remained but he. some of which conform to classical grammar. sometimes verb and subject. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. also expressing a possessive relation. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. Savage may be the subject. Second. There is. the order being inverted. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used." is ambiguous. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. the sentence. pronoun and antecedent. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. but are not now. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Also in the sentence. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). In some cases. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. therefore. When usage varies as to a given construction. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. In Latin." In this there is a possessive form. both forms will be given in the following pages. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. As an illustration of the last remark. as to study inflected forms. "The savage here the settler slew. and nothing but important points will be considered. or the same writer will use both indifferently. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and imitate it.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly.² First. distinct forms would be used. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. . Some rules not rigid. 392. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. and added to it the preposition of. 393.

and Harley's. sense and nature's easy fool. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Separate possession. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. 395. the possessive sign is used with each noun. and Paul's. but imply separate possession or ownership.²EMERSON. etc. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²MACAULAY.²MCCULLOCH.²ROWE. Putting Mr. 397. the shore of Galilee. 394. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²RUSKIN.² He lands us on a grassy stage. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. and Peterborough's. the antechamber of the High Priest. Use of the possessive. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage." Juletta tells.²MILTON. 396. or indicate joint ownership or possession. PRONOUNS.² Live your king and country's best support. . Oliver and Boyd's printing office. as.NOUNS. for example. Bentham's principles together. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²THACKERAY. He kept Bolingbroke's. Mill's and Mr.²BYRON. and Peter's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. 408). When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. ²ID. Joint possession. Woman. and Pope's.

"Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This should be "as she. Objective for the nominative. if not universally. for example. Still." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. General rules. thus. whom is the complement after the verb am. No mightier than thyself or me. sanctioned.²SOUTHEY. as. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. the real thought being forgotten.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. I. Bedott Papers.) "The young Harper. . Since most of the personal pronouns. the last expression has the support of many good writers. have separate forms for nominative and objective use." 400. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. there are two general rules that require attention. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. But he must be a stronger than thee. 398. and should be the nominative form. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. together with the relative who. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. who. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. 399.²POPE.²WHITCHER.²THACKERAY.²TROLLOPE. others are generally.²BYRON. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²SHAKESPEARE. Some of the violations are universally condemned.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.

. A safe rule.² One I remember especially.² For there was little doubt that it was he." There is no special reason for this. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. on the other hand. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. they are yet holier than we." 401. both in England and America. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. is. Patrick the Porter. the objective form is regularly found. are."²KINGSLEY. The usage is too common to need further examples.²PARTON. it will not be me. "If there is any one embarrassed.²LONGFELLOW. And it was heThat made the ship to go. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. The camp of Richard of England. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was."²WM. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. In spoken English. unless a special. "Than whom. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. but such is the fact.²SCOTT. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²RUSKIN.²KINGSLEY. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. But still it is not she.²MACAULAY. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. namely. BLACK. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²COLERIDGE. for example. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²FIELDING. as."²WINTHROP. One exception is to be noted. "Who's there?"²"Me. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. and the other forms of the verb be.²THACKERAY.

9. (3) By forgetting the construction. or us). Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. 8. 7. Truth is mightier than us all. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. object of saw).² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. used after verbs. 3." 6. verbal.Exercise. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 5. 10. I speak not to" (he should be him. It is not me you are in love with. Nominative for the objective. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. as. If there ever was a rogue in the world." the word being in apposition with murderer). 404. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. You know whom it is that you thus charge. . but not he" (he should be him. as this from Shakespeare. as. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. now. you or me. as. verbals.²MILTON. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. Me in exclamations. or this. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. the object of to). "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 2. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 11. 403. it is me. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. "Ask the murderer. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. Whom they were I really cannot specify. 4. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. and prepositions. or preposition which governs it.

Exercise. as.²STEELE. 406. all but he. Exception 2.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. and is usually avoided. We regularly say. Thou. . as.² All were knocked down but us two. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. but he. save thou and thine. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. changed in all save thee. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. partial Nature. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. for example. 2. "Who were they talking to?" etc. 405. Thy shores are empires.²KINGSLEY. None.Shall be left upon the morn. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. for they say there are none such in the world. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Let you and I look at these. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²KINGSLEY. Nature. "Who did you see?" or. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. I've sworn.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. etc. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.²BYRON.²KINGSLEY. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who.²BYRON. who interrogative. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. as well as the objective. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. I arraign.Exception 1. Who have we here?²ID.

or objective? . They are coming for a visit to she and I. BROWN. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. As antecedent of a relative. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 8. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. Preceding a gerund. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea.Ye I salute. with Jortin and Thirlby. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.²DE QUINCEY. 11. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. 6. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 9. 10. This usage is not frequent. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²C. B. 407." 4.²RUSKIN.²possessive. 12. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. Bartholomew. and they know that as well as me. Markland. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 5. II. who. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.3. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. They crowned him long ago.²SCOTT. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 7.

both are gerunds. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. In the examples quoted. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. Here I state them only in brief. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. and that in the second. etc. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.² THACKERAY. Why both are found. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.² SCOTT. [who was] studying law. We heard of Brown. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. But in common use there is no such distinction. and the meaning is. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.²BREWER. as he turned away from his wife. Objective.²DE QUINCEY. The use of the objective is older. object of heard of. . we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.² CARLYLE. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²CARLYLE.²RUSKIN. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. Both types of sentences are found. that the bitterness of death was past.² IRVING. and asked why it was not made. sometimes it has the objective. The last incident which I recollect.408. studying is a gerund." That is.²MACAULAY.²DICKENS. Possessive.

If any one did not know it. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. Every city threw open its gates. . The pale realms of shade. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²HOLMES. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. where there were examinations. BROCKDEN BROWN.²CABLE. In such a case as the last three sentences. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²C. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. Everybody had his own life to think of. 410. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. and ought to agree with them in person. the pronoun will be neuter singular. preceded by a distributive. taking in each of many persons.²THACKERAY. or is a distributive word.²DE QUINCEY. in one person. if the antecedent is neuter. Examples of these constructions are. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²EMERSON III. it was his own fault.²DEFOE.²when the antecedent.²AUDUBON. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²DE QUINCEY. Watch for the real antecedent. 409.²HUXLEY. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.² BRYANT.²THOREAU.²RUSKIN. number. and gender.

not a mowing idiot. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. till they have lost him.²PALGRAVE. let them break it off.²HUXLEY. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²FIELDING. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Whosoever hath any gold.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²DEFOE. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Struggling for life.²RUSKIN. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. 411. This is not considered the best usage. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²THACKERAY.²PALEY.Avoided: By using both pronouns. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.² Not the feeblest grandame. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. The sun. and giving them means of being so. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²BYRON.²ID. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²PAULDING. . for example.²ID. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²AUSTEN. If the part deserve any comment. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²SCOTT. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²EMERSON. as anybody in their senses would have done. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. By using the plural pronoun. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²BIBLE. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.

²HAWTHORNE.Where she was gone." A relative. in each instance:² Who. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. It adds a new statement to what precedes. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. . The clause is restricted to the antecedent. but. That is in most cases restrictive. that being considered already clear. 413.²ADDISON. unless both genders are implied. "I gave it to the beggar. A relative. which. and does not add a new statement. no one could take upon them to say. but. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. and he went away. who went away. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. when coördinating. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. In the following examples. when restrictive.) and a personal pronoun. as. according to the practice of every modern writer. Exercise. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. I. What these terms mean. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. 2. or what was become of her. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.²ID. 412. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. As to their conjunctive use. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.²In the above sentences." It defines beggar.² SHERIDAN. and that always restrictive. and that are restrictive or not. the definite relatives who. Exercise. 1. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. etc. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. tell whether who. or unrestrictive." This means. which. because.

He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.² IRVING. etc. 10. down. and it is called logic. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 414. it makes the verb third person singular. . which was to go over the Cordilleras.²DE QUINCEY. 11. 7. you. as that does not vary for person or number. 9. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. Yet how many are there who up." that is invariable as to person and number.² CARLYLE. So different from the wild. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. 13. which Mr. in the sentence. Which. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand.²HOLMES. 4. etc. she agreed to join the party. With narrow shoulders.²H.. long arms and legs.²DE QUINCEY. BEECHER 5. That. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. On hearing their plan. W. and over England are saying.²ID. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 6. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. However. that were often vicious. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. but. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.²ADDISON.² NEWMAN. 14. Hare has printed. We say I. etc.²ID.² MOTLEY. In what sense true. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. II. 8. these or that which.3.²THOREAU. The rule. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. who. For example. because of its antecedent. The general rule is. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. A grizzly-looking man appeared. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. they. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. 12. he.

JR.²ADDISON." or. and write the verb in the plural. Let us be of good cheer.²SCOTT. "one of the finest books that have been published.²MACAULAY. but the former has good authority. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²ADDISON.. the true antecedent.. He is one of those that deserve very well. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.²J. ARNOLD. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. [plural] that who. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²BOWLES.] Both constructions are frequently found. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. 415. in winning a battle. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. A disputed point.²LOWELL. [singular or plural.²M." One of . It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²HOWELLS. French literature of the eighteenth century.. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. when he derided the shams of society. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. T. etc. Singular. but myself. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. or which ... but speaks of him as that sort.²LECKY.²whether we should say. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. with one as the principal word.²HOLMES.²LOWELL. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. "one of the finest books that has been published. etc. MORSE. Franklin. ..Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.. The fiery youth . others regard books as the antecedent. and in improving a victory. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. who rarely speak at all. The latter is rather more frequent.

III.² THACKERAY. return. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²GOLDSMITH.²VAUGHAN. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. and such like: as.²ADDISON. 417. I could see nothing except the sky.²SWIFT.²BURNS.²DEFOE. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. The same day I went aboard we set sail. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²IRVING. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²EMERSON.And. when the relative word is a pronoun.²EMERSON." "India is the place [in which."²DICKENS.²In the above sentences.²CARLYLE. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²SCOTT. whence.² RUSKIN. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. But I by backward steps would move. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. object of a preposition understood. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. IV. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.A rare Roundabout performance. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. and see if the sentence is made clearer.² .²ID. when this dust falls to the urn.In that same state I came. or where] he died. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. that is. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. 416. where. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. Exercise.

. which. if same is followed by a complete clause. as of knives. They believe the same of all the works of art. for example. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.² BURKE.He considered. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. 418. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. V.² MACAULAY. I might as well have staid at home.me as his apprentice. or that. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. he. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Which.²WORDSWORTH.² THACKERAY. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Anacoluthic use of which. but we find the relative who. etc.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. The regular construction. boats.²SCOTT. with Turner. but which is usually carefully avoided. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.. she passed the lamp over her face and person. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. but. That. was a discoverer. W.² Which. if I had resolved to go on with..²FRANKLIN.²R. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. Caution. CHURCH. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. ²GOLDSMITH. as is not used. looking-glasses. Mr.²ADDISON.²SWIFT. and working in the same spirit. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.

. (1) "Among those who are poor. etc. or.²HAWTHORNE. 2. le Conte. Exercise. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. 419.. now thrown upon their. or leave out both connective and relative. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. etc. He delivered the letter. but none is expressed. Exercise. and who are now." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.²GOLDSMITH. he said that all submission was now too late.²SHAKESPEARE. who are now thrown. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.²RUSKIN. This was a gentleman. and in whom I myself was not a little interested." etc.² Direction for rewriting. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. but. or omit the conjunction. which when Mr.. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.She'd come again. But who. 1. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. 3. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. And who. As the sentences stand. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. Express both relatives. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who." etc. Thornhill had read. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus.²SCOTT. . and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago." etc.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²THACKERAY. (2) "Among the poorer sort. That is. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. After this came Elizabeth herself.²DE QUINCEY.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²which if they once heard. and this be placed in the proper clause.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. and which. 4. (3) "Among the poorer sort. once a great favorite of M.

and which may even be heard a mile off. either from imitation of their frequent allies. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 1.²SCOTT.²SCOTT. "A mockery. which the Scotch had learned. But which.. 6. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. and which. 420.. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. and repeat this for any further reference.²DE QUINCEY. Or which. 8. 7. as a false and astucious mark. etc.²PEARSON.²HAWTHORNE. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. who. English by name.²IRVING. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. one of signal interest. Akin to the above is another fault. etc. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. 10. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.²DE QUINCEY. and which has never been described. then. . but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. and to whom no door is closed.. indeed." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. 9. the French. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. And which. 13.5. like that spoken in the towns. Dr. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house.. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Or who. That . I saw upon the left a scene far different. 11. I shall have complete copies. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Exercise.² MOTLEY. 12. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. "What knight so craven.

Such as . E.... and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. He flung into literature. He.²SCOTT That which . but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.²DE QUINCEY. I grudge the dollar.²HOWELLS. Which . and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.²DEFOE. but which.. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. 9. That . in his Mephistopheles. 3. in his present condition. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.²BEECHER. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.²W. but which is perhaps not so different from it. and to whom I do not belong.²W. whom. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. 15. I give to such men as do not belong to me. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. which. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.²HALLAM. SIMMS. that . His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. In my native town of Salem. 10. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. the dime. CHANNING. It rose into a thrilling passion. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. was hung in air.²HAWTHORNE.²HOLMES.2.²EMERSON. . G. at the head of what. was a bustling wharf. 4.²SCOTT. 12.. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. The Tree Igdrasil. 7. Such as .. the cent.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 13. and whose examples and principles we inherit. I recommend some honest manual calling. 14... such as they have very probably been bred to. 11. which. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.. half a century ago. what.²EMERSON. 5. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 6. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 8.. that. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.

in which case any should be used instead. Distributives either and neither. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²GOLDSMITH. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. whether or not the two are equivalent. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. England was then divided between kings and Druids. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. 422. Assume that no one is in want of either. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²EMERSON.² Some one must be poor. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. Each other. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. We call ourselves a rich nation. that not all combined.²MACAULAY. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. By their original meaning. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.²RUSKIN.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. and in want of his gold²or his corn. Use of any. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. one another.²HAWTHORNE. for example.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²ID. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.² HAWTHORNE.²DICKENS. as. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. as it were. always at war with one another. 421.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. as. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. .²RUSKIN.

²FRANKLIN. as.²SCOTT. and is isolated.²THACKERAY. in the prose of the present day. which is plural as often as singular. in Shakespeare. None usually plural.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.²BIBLE. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. whilst I still cherish their genius. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²PROF. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. before that. let him ask of God. if ever man was. I beseech you. afterwards in Goethe. then in Plotinus. then in Plutarch.² EMERSON. for him have I offended.² If any.. as none of the French philosophers were. None of Nature's powers do better service. during his stay at Yuste. even in Bettine.² In earnest. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . Examples of its use are. as.. 423. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. etc. Caution. 424. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²STIRLING. usually plural. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. The adjective pronoun none is. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.. . DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.²SHAKESPEARE. Any usually plural. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. at one time in Bacon. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BURKE. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²EMERSON. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. In earlier Modern English. speak. any was often singular. Do you think. any of his friends had died. Do you think.²BEECHER Whenever.²CARLYLE. that I know of. If any of you lack wisdom.

etc.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others..²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. any one else. When all were gone.² None of them was cleansed. The light troops thought .²McMASTER. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.² PEARSON. etc.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. which is used absolutely.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. fixing his eyes on the mace. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. The compounds somebody else. etc. nobody else. or somebody else's? 426. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. and all was lost on the other.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. Somebody's else. saving Naaman the Syrian. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²SCOTT Like the use of any.. that all was lost. the plural. and Ford has nobody's else. 425. when it means all persons: for example.²THOREAU. as. are treated as units. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.²NAPIER Plural. and less rarely in poetry.² Singular. for example.. etc.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.

SYDNEY SMITH. Again. ADJECTIVES. 427.curled once all over it in long tendrils. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. etc.²MULOCH. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. These sort.²AUSTEN. London." "those kind of trees. all manner of. the adjectives plural.²SHERIDAN. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²N. etc. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. for example." the nouns being singular. or those sort of people.. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. "Ye see.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. P.²RUSKIN. STOWE. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. . ELIOT.²in such as "these sort of books.²DICKENS. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.² These kind of knaves I know.²SWEET..²THACKERAY.² Saturday Review. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.² FIELDING." "all manner of men. or some other such great man as a bishop."²MRS. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. His hair.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Whitefield or Wesley. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.²RUSKIN. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²G. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. WILLIS. unlike anybody else's in the world. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.

each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. when the necessary dispositions concur. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. or the nouns to the plural. Of two such lessons. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization." A question. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. "This sort of trees should be planted. 428. such as." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). gradually displacing the old. The result.² Which is the better able to defend himself. Use of the comparative degree. In Old and Middle English. History of this construction. Consequently we have a confused expression. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.²RUSKIN." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. Later form. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. and the adjective is. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. in spoken English.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. This the modern expression reverses. Burke's sentence. they said.² PRESCOTT. with all manner of amusing books. According to the approved usage of Modern English. more alarming than a total silence. to express a higher degree of quality. Should we say. "These kind of trees are best. At the source. for example. made to agree with it. . "This kind of rules are the best.The library was open. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. which accounts for the construction. and in this way may take a plural verb. or one object with a class of objects. not "all kinds of wild animals." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. as. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. the victor or the vanquished.

Other after the comparative form. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 429. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²MACAULAY.² THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. Use of the superlative degree. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²SCOTT. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. 2.²THACKERAY.²TROLLOPE. Superlative with two objects.²HAWTHORNE. than any of his court. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. He is taller. I am concerned to see that Mr. has sanctioned. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. etc.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. To the man who plays well. Henry. would not have had the face.²MACAULAY.²WIRT. if not. Even Dodd himself. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. Exercise. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived."²ID. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. by almost the breadth of my nail. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. . 6. the highest stakes are paid. 4.²SWIFT. 430. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 3. Gary.A braver ne'er to battle rode.²LOWELL. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²HUXLEY. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. 5.

²Bible. .²J.²TEMPEST. and differ only in form. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. ha.. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²GOLDSMITH. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. not a bit of high life among them.²MRS. whichever can be got easiest. 1611."²GOLDSMITH. OLIPHANT.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²SCOTT.²IRVING. Come you more nearer. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. CÆSAR.²EMERSON.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. I should say that one has the best cause. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. The following examples are used purposely. Also from the same period. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. Examples from Shakespeare are. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Mary. Rip was one of those . She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. more particularly the last of them. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²ADDISON. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. 431. "Let us see which will laugh loudest."²BULWER. These two properties seem essential to wit."²HAWTHORNE. The eldest.²HAMLET. and the other contains the best men. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²BEN JONSON. Double comparative and superlative.²DR BLAIR.. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. In all disputes between States. "Ha.²RUSKIN. who eat white bread or brown.

we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.²LAMB. and conceit in the last. etc. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²GIBBON.²ADDISON. Examples of this construction are.²DE QUINCEY.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. ²COWPER. and Secretary Walsingham also. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. ARTICLES. . and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. For Carlyle. not only so in popular speech. The meaning intended is the same. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. These are the three first needs of civilized life.² With a singular noun. The first five had specific names. Instances of both are given below. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²KINGSLEY. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. First three.²RUSKIN. The delay in the first three lines. the Spanish. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. jar upon us constantly. The merit of the Barb. etc. 433.²RUSKIN. As to these two expressions. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²GIBBON. but in literary English. Three first. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.² SMOLLETT. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. Definite article.²PRESCOTT.

and the trunks and bonnet boxes . 433. and the presents.²ID. were placed at a very tender age. 433.²THE NATION. 1508. One object and several modifiers..²THACKERAY. Frequently. Indefinite article. 434. of the eighteenth century. The flowers. . the greatest poems. The lofty.²TENNYSON.² MACAULAY. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. distinct.²TAYLOR. Here the youth of both sexes.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. as. the hour of parting came.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. with a singular noun. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.²NEWMAN. but inseparable from each other. of the higher and middling orders. the thought and the word. as.²PRESCOTT. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.. and flexible language.²SCOTT. to distinguish clearly. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. or to emphasize the meaning. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. Meaning same as in Sec. however. I think. He is master of the two-fold Logos. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. The not repeated. With a plural noun. with a plural noun.² RUSKIN. as in Sec. having been arranged. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. but is used with one only.²MACAULAY.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. 435. Origin of the Aryans.²CARLYLE. melodious. No.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.

and a usurper. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. a collegian. For rhetorical effect. One article with several adjectives. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. as. a round and a square one alternately. 438.²THACKERAY.²JOHNSON.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²S. interest.² MACAULAY. 435. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. COLERIDGE. as in the first three of Sec. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.An early. The indefinite article is used. He saw him in his mind's eye. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²DICKENS. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. .²MACAULAY.²DRYDEN. Examples of this use are. rich. T. 436). In the sentences of Secs. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.436.²BEECHER. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. to limit two or more modified nouns. like the definite article. or clearness to each of several nouns.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. JONSON. a murderer. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.² BURKE.²BULWER.²B. a tyrant. one noun is expressed. and inexhausted vein. 433 and 436. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian." and "a red and a white geranium.²MACAULAY. only one of which is expressed. The indefinite article (compare Sec." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. But in the following sentences. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. 437.

depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. as.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. like some others in this series. Another writer might. was the earliest American land. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.²The Nation.²G. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. for example.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. without academies. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.VERBS. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. all that academies can give. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. ARNOLD. Collective noun of singular meaning. Singulars connected by or or nor. .²GIBBON. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. and the following illustrations prove it. Such.²CARLYLE This usage. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. as.²FROUDE.²COOPER.²AGASSIZ. Singular verb. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. In English. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. He sees that it is better to live in peace. Sec. then. A broad and loose rule. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. 440. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. ELIOT. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.²M. 439..²W. has got already. or the great intellectual life of our nation. 276. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. This was spoken of in Part I.

Jesus is not dead.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. nor John. nor Mahomet.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²DE QUINCEY. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²GIBBON.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. other names. ²EMERSON. and other singulars of plural form. (4) When the subject is plural in form. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. that of a large town. a loss of wealth. for example. seems at the moment unpaid loss. as. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²J. No.²GOLDSMITH.² In a word. for example. a loss of friends. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. or considered as appositional.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. Q.²CRITIC. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.² The unbought grace of life. A fever. the cheap defense of nations. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. nor Paul.² GOLDSMITH. or as making up one general idea. and every four hours. but each one emphatic. a mutilation.²WHITTIER. is gone.² Politics is the only field now open for me. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. as.²EMERSON . the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. but considered as meaning about the same thing. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. Between ourselves. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. ADAMS. Plural form and singular meaning.²BURKE. a cruel disappointment.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.

Her back. as well as sides.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.The author. no matter if the second is plural). almost every day. sir!"²MACAULAY. nay. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. Every fop. each. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. To receive presents or a bribe. a gorget. sir!" and the "What then. was punished. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. as well as the Drama.²PRESCOTT. was dazzled.²PRESCOTT. Every week. every echo.² Asia. the dismay. the partisan.²LONGFELLOW. was listened to for five hours. every valet. does not take the place of the man.²EMERSON.²M ARNOLD. no.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. Subjects after the verb. with death. no spent ball. as well as the newest. an impassioned countenance.²RUSKIN. There is a moving tone of voice. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. an agitated gesture. The oldest.²MACAULAY. no discontinuity. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. in a judge.² There is a right and a wrong in them. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. the ruin. as well as Europe.²ID. The Epic. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.² . as.²BUTLER. sir?" and the "No.²MACAULAY. is a man of wit. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. 441.The rout. the wit.²HAWTHORNE. Then comes the "Why. Plural verb. was like to crack. the fine gentleman. thus. every boor. Every sound. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²NEWMAN. Here is no ruin. wineBegins to stir itself.²ID.²SCOTT. a cuirass. For wide is heard the thundering fray. and greaves. many a.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. and such like adjectives. as.

were men of insignificant characters. a green pasture. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. . its date.²FROUDE. Far.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²SCOTT. of whom there were a number. All our household are at rest. Philip of Anjou. as.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.² GIBBON.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.² A multitude go mad about it.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. shirt. 440 (5. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²SWIFT. as.²B.²THOREAU. and its history are alike a mystery to us. are sufficient to attract a colony. far away thy children leave the land.²FRANKLIN. Conjunction omitted. b). for example. TAYLOR.²GOLDSMITH. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. as in Sec. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²GIBBON. His clothes.²FROUDE.²CARLYLE But its authorship. The travelers. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. making up a plural subject.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. a stream of fresh water. A shady grove. as with a subject of plural form.²DE QUINCEY. but the verb is plural.²COLERIDGE.²ADDISON. the Duke of Berri.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²EMERSON.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. The conjunction may be omitted. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. The Dauphin.

WEBSTER.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. his blood dost shed. "He or I can go. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. Ah.²LOWELL.²DE QUINCEY. 442. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as." etc.²M. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Exceptional examples. the verb takes the construction of the first person. If there is only one person in the subject. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. Not Altamont. You and I are farmers. but thou. we never talk politics. Pattison or I have said.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.But notice the construction of this. Nothing which Mr. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. the subject being really equivalent to we. of different persons. hadst been my lord. but thou." "She or you may be sure. that is.²GOLDSMITH. 444.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²D.²ROWE.²THACKERAY.). "You would not be wiser. nor should I. "I have never said so. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. as. Second or third and first person in the subject.²RUSKIN. Not I. ARNOLD. When the subjects. This construction is at the best a little awkward. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²THACKERAY.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²BYRON. for example. 443.²WHITTIER. . AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. You and I are tolerably modest people." or.²SMOLLETT. nor has she"). General usage.²RUSKIN.

nor bush are there. which it is proper to mention. 12. as we would hope. BANCROFT. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.²and. nor tree. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . in my opinion.²ID.²EMERSON. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). 6. 2.²ADDISON. 446.²ADDISON.²MILTON. 9. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 440-444):² 1. Both death and I am found eternal.²SCOTT. 5.445. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.Her course to intercept. In this sentence from Defoe. 8. Exercise. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. as illustrated above (Secs.²SMOLLETT. Lack of logical sequence in verbs." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. In a word. How each of these professions are crowded. 4. Neither of them. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 7. In the following sentence.²BURKE. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²G. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. 11. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²THACKERAY. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²perhaps the devil.² TROLLOPE.That neither of their intellects are vast. Nor wood. Also in verbals. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 10. 3.²BYRON.

²FRANKLIN 6.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.²R. Exercise. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. as.²IRVING. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. 4. meaning. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. to have divided with her whatever might remain. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. on my return. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. CHURCH.²KINGSLEY.²MACAULAY. Two samples of indirect discourse. if not. Definitions. 448..² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. change them to a better form:² 1. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. W. however. Indirect discourse means reported speech. Direct discourse²that is. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. The present rule is recent. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. It should be remarked. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. 3.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. But I found I wanted a stock of words.²DE QUINCEY 2.² PALGRAVE 5. 447. Of course. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. for exact connection.." . I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. I gave one quarter to Ann.²THACKERAY. to have seen should be changed to to see.

From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. will. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. interrogative adverbs. Oh. His exact words were. 449. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. etc. She thought to herself. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Direct. introductory verb is in the past tense. "Oh. Her prudence whispered eternally. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. or regular interrogatives. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect.. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat." etc. . and the indirect question by whether or if. Direct. "I cannot oblige you . unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Summary of the expressions. Sebastian's. have. under interrogative pronouns. The substance of his lamentation was. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. This includes the auxiliaries be.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St." Indirect. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step.." etc.. 1. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. 2.

²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. if this were expanded into a verb. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. FRANKLIN. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²GOLDSMITH. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. VERBALS. in the sentences first quoted. Notice this.²ID. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. the first discoverer of the river and country.Exercise. one summer afternoon.²ADDISON. with his crew of the Half-moon. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. 450. like distant peals of thunder. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.²B. he assured me that nothing was more easy. the sound of their balls. The trouble is. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. . The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. and that he himself had heard." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. PARTICIPLES. Careless use of the participial phrase. my first observation will be found nearly true. handed down from his ancestor the historian. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.

. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. . It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . For example. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. leaving the principal statement as it is." Exercise. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.Correction.²ID. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. INFINITIVES. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. then.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. the first sentence would be. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers." etc. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. if a strike is to succeed. Exercise. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. Standard writers often use it. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive..' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. 2.. either "As I was pleased. avoid it.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. while defended or excused by others.²LAUGHLIN. Adverb between to and the infinitive. and often. It is a solemn. In the following citations.² HERBERT SPENCER. universal assertion.²RUSKIN. 451. my first collection was. purposely or not. many things to be carefully considered. This is the more common arrangement.. There are..²SCOTT. 3.

²BURKE. when such adverbs as only.. and earthenware.²DR. but cannot misunderstand the thought. I wish the reader to clearly understand. even. ADVERBS. The rigid rule in such a case would be.²The Nation. 9. etc. 5.² ADDISON. are used. 1533.²TROLLOPE. therefore. 10. 11. but they are often removed from the exact position. BLAIR.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. from Irving. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. etc. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. Now. even. In works of art. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 13. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²SCOTT. 7.² MACAULAY. Exercise. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. but it is placed before the infinitive. 452. 8. etc.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. The spirits. 12.4. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. this kind of grandeur. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . which consists in multitude. is to be very cautiously admitted.²RUSKIN.. china. 6. if they modify single words. No. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. Position of only. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. A little sketch of his.

whence he was never destined to return.²HIGGINSON.²ID. 13. 12. Irving could only live very modestly. ²ASCHAM. In Old and Middle English. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. 16. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. His last journey to Cannes. P. My master. WILLIS. 2. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. GROTE. 10. . In relating these and the following laws. He shouted in those clear.²N. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²ID. 9. 5. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.1. might not marry. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²ID.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²COOPER.²RUSKIN. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 17. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²SYDNEY SMITH. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²THACKERAY. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 453. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. The old usage.²SWIFT. to avoid a crowd. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. During the whole course of his administration.²PALGRAVE. 7.² THACKERAY. for example. 14. 4.²MRS.²CHAUCER. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²MACAULAY. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 6. 8. 3. 15.²EMERSON. were he never so old of yeares.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²MOTLEY. No sonne. 11.

when one of the negatives is a connective. neither. . Exercise. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. the usual way of regarding the question now is. 3. who hadn't been to school for nothing. In the latter case. STOWE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. In the execution of this task. denying each other. Not only could man not acquire such information. Therefore. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. 7. STOWE. 4. etc."²four negatives.²HOLMES. however. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. 5. as.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man."²MRS. This. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.²BURKE. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. 2. nor the grandeur of no king.²GROTE. Regular law of negative in modern English. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. but ought not to labor after it.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²HAWTHORNE. and is still kept in vulgar English. uncommon. is not common.²BAYNE. I did not act so hastily. in Ole Virginia. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. However. The prosperity of no empire. 6. nor never shall.²LOWELL.²DEFOE. I never did see him again. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. under the influence of Latin syntax. can so agreeably affect.²DE QUINCEY. But. There weren't no pies to equal hers.² HAMILTON. one of the negatives is often a prefix. as infrequent. Exceptional use. if two negatives are found together. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. and why:² 1.²MRS. ²PAGE.

The sentence. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. nor is often changed to not²either . CONJUNCTIONS.."²SCOTT.. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.8.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. but. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. And who... "well worthy to confer honor.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. if the last precedes a verb. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. but (also)." said the King. not only . nor. or. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace... These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel... Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. Choice and proper position of correlatives. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . but to their own safety.²LOWELL. if the second precedes a phrase. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it." may be changed to "This loose . and which. Correction.... not merely . even neither .. or to reply to it. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. not or is the proper correlative of neither." both of the above requirements are violated." .. or. In the sentence. neither .. or with advantage. either. the first should also. either . as well as of the pronoun. not only to the success of their common cause. "A weapon... 455. there we were. Things to be watched. as the use of the conjunction.. or to reply to it.²SCOTT. The sentences given in Secs.²PRESCOTT. especially both . and." Besides neither . should be scrutinized. 454. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. the first ought to be placed before a verb.

but grown-up persons.²GOLDSMITH.²BAIN.Exercise. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²RUSKIN. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²MACAULAY. 8.²THACKERAY. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²THACKERAY. 3. Exercise. or but that. 7. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. O. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²GIBBON. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. Some exceptions. too. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. as. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. JEWETT. not merely interest children. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. 457. but they will outrage.² ADDISON. . and chop up their own kin. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. nor the disgrace of assailing him. In the following sentences.²ID.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. 5. but. or the negative relative but. murder. 6. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²FRANKLIN. substitute that.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. as. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. They will. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. But what. 4. Try and for try to. etc. 2. but. Now.²S." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. Correct the following sentences:² 1. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 456. and I don't know but what he was right. Try and avoid the pronoun.

They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. no separation or division by twos being implied. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. PREPOSITIONS.2. see Sec. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. 3. . Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²ADDISON. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.² BULWER.²BURKE. 458. as already seen in Sec.²TROLLOPE.²ADDISON. Between and among.²EMERSON. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 313. 459. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.² SWIFT. 5. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Between is used most often with two things only. 305. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 6.²SCOTT. 4. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²EMERSON.

and philosophers like Locke. 461. . and Coleridge. correspond. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. as. ²EMERSON.: Words with particular prepositions. etc.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. LIST I. involve. Dependent on (upon). and another to convey a different meaning. Paley. 460. Such are derogatory. Two groups or one and a group. Accord with. Averse to. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. and Stewart. Bestow on (upon). Acquit of.²KINGSLEY. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Affinity between.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. or one object and a group. Dissent from. Derogatory to. different. Mackintosh. Such are absolve. Abhorrent to. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. averse. Conform to. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. confer. by custom.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Kant. Comply with. as. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Some of them have. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Conversant with. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Different from.²RUSKIN What have I. a soldier of the Cross.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. List I.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). in the sense of making friends with. as meaning to be in keeping with. Differ with (note below). A taste for (art. but it is not good usage." also of persons. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct.y y y Deprive of. Confide in (trust in). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. A taste of (food). LIST II." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. as. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Correspond with (write to). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Change with (a person). Differ from (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Confer with (talk with). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Confer on (upon) (give to).). Confide to (intrust to). . Change for (a thing). Change to (become). Agree to (a proposal). etc. 463. Correspond to (a thing). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. as." List III. and sometimes creeps into standard books. as. Involve in. List II. Independent of. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Reconcile with (note below). 462. Reconcile to (note below). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. LIST III.

²SHAKESPEARE. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²GOLDSMITH. part with." (material cause. .²G.²BURNETT. If I meet with any of 'em. One of them said he would die for her. "Die for.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. they shall die by this hand. "Die with. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." "die from.²POPE.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. die for. ²ATHENÆUM. She died of hard work. He died at last without disease. privation. died for love of the fair Marcella.²BULWER. ELIOT. die from. "Die for.²BOSWELL." (because of). I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²FIELDING. It would take me long to die of hunger. I am positively dying with hunger. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. die with." She would have been ready to die with shame.:² "Die of. Expect of." (in behalf of).²SCOTT.y y y Die by." etc.²ADDISON. and ill treatment. die of.²G. People do not die of trifling little colds. as Cervantes informs us. It is a man of quality who dies for her. instrument). ²THACKERAY. expect from. Illustrations of "die of. "Die by. ELIOT. No one died from want at Longfeld. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²MACAULAY. "Die from." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Part from.²MACAULAY. Who. simply from old age.

²SCOTT. 464." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²POE. ELIOT.²WALPOLE." To part from you would be misery. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²AUSTEN. I have just seen her. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. just parted from her. Kind in you.²G. Illustrations of "part with.²WALLER. "Expect from.²G.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. That is more than I expected of you. 466. and hated to part with them.²MACAULAY. nothing better was to be expected. His precious bag. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²BULWER." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²MARRYAT. Of Doctor P.²TROLLOPE. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. ELIOT.²BULWER.²G. ELIOT. . Cleveland was sorry to part with him. I can part with my children for their good." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. kind of you. either of or in is used indifferently. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. 465. It was a little bad of you.²MACAULAY. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man." "part from:"² "Part with. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²SHAW." She will expect more attention from you.²DICKENS. With words implying behavior or disposition. Illustrations of "expect of. which he would by no means part from. "Part from. as my friend.

4. 7. but which the story renders necessary.²TENNYSON. 15. 3. It will be anything but shrewd in you. . 10. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. 14. raging storms. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. thrown it over Amyas's head. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. In the friction between an employer and workman. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak.He did not think it handsome of you. nor yellow. Hampden. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. or which we are most imperatively required to do. nor green. or artillery. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 6. Very natural in Mr. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. But this is idle of you.²BEACONSFIELD.²DICKENS. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. nor blue. 5. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²BULWER. 13. it is commonly said that his profits are high. the vast abyss. 1. with seraphims. or that they are any way dependent on each other.²CARLYLE. 11. The noise of vast cataracts. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking.²BULWER. In. tedious perhaps. nor of a pale red. This narrative. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. thunder. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 9. and ran up the alley. Thou tread'st. 8.

It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. or how beautiful it is. save Amyas. 26. 411. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. and almost as good as a pony. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 38. and other angular figures. but in the price paid to them.And were I anything but what I am. 22. produce approbation. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 35. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. the acquiescence of the understanding. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 24.) 34. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 18. Squares. When the glass or liquor are transparent. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. You have seen Cassio and she together. what is a just and unjust act. 30. 21. That night every man of the boat's crew. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. But every man may know. 36. were down with raging fever. 20. Every one of these letters are in my name. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 17. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. The effect of proportion and fitness. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 33. 19. 32. 29. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 27.I would wish me only he. 23. (Sec. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. . triangles. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. and most of us do know. 16. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 37. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 25. 28. you or me. 31. Friday. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled.

310. 133. Adjectives. 124. 107. of. numeral. 47. pronouns. 119. from about 1500 to the present time. 90. 116. 89. of. syntax uses Absolute. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. demonstrative. (2) Middle English. of. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. A. INDEX. adverbs used complements. nouns.000 between them. origin of. 124. . 98. article. of. 92. 239. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. adjectives. 102. 91. (3) Modern English. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. from nominative clauses. 260. of. He had four children. as comparison definition demonstrative. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 25. 47. as. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. Abstract with Active Address. 20.39. nominative. voice. 40.

parse. 116. sentence. of. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. of. 191. of. predicate. conjunctions. to used of. 97. 291. 101. Agreement. 328. 184. 239. compared. plural pronominal. 148. 190. 194. infinitive. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 207. and 185. antecedent. Against. 316. 48. 114. 103. quality. 262. 242. 207. 109. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 303. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 325. 42. between of. Alms. of. adjectives. 27. nouns. nouns. of. adjectives. adjectives. 325. 27. 115. 106. of. 302. quantity. 104. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 183. . clauses. 194. of. 303. with with with subject. 187. 195. objective. 323. from to of. as nouns. modify. 116. 287. 99. 275. antecedent. parse. 190. conjunction.from function how in not of of ordinal.

252. 67. 271. of. Agreement. definition of of of Any. words between. 300. 67. derivation in definite. See with definition complex compound simple who. agreement personal as pronoun. 79. definition how indefinite. 127. 264. 198. Arrangement Articles. after of. 207. of. A. of. . 331. 225. 231. 148. 101. parse.Among. 275. to of. same. of and pronoun of. sentences. syntax. sentences. of. 240. 296. 124. 47. 49. Are. adjective. 294. of. An. Anacoluthon Analysis. 287. See 74. Auxiliary if. 150. which. 84. which. it. as uses verbs. possessive. though. 120. 51. 120. which. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. pronouns. sentences. syntax As. 208. in in. 74. 90. 309. 295. of of of And Antecedent. uses As At. and.

clauses of. 48. Bridegroom. 66. Case. 39. Cause. comparison conjugation of. 37. 110. 283. of pronouns. uses of. . of. forms. adverb. 161. of pronouns. 330. of nouns. 278. See of. But. of nouns. 47. Can. uses Better. 46. definition could. uses nominative of. Be. 64. Between. 54. Children. best. of pronouns. of. of nouns. 224. double possessive. 63. 260. 210. Among. 49. objective. 149. 195. in Old and Modern English. possessive. of.Bad. 39. 110. 46. 111. 150. number of. 279. 194. of pronouns. 84. 45. Case. 262. Clause. syntax of. 279. 278. Brethren. with But By. 62. conjunctions Cherub. pronoun. 262. adjective. plurals of. of what. of nouns. nominative.

110. 113. 53. 312. and forms of. 111. sentence. nouns. 108. predicate of and from from of. 23. 157. 268. plural of. 244. 107. subject. in analysis. of. 12. 307. and sentence. 24. of. proper. Cloths. 264. double. of. 189. adverbs. 257. 239. nouns. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. of. Cleave. clothes. infinitive. defective. 248. 43. predicate. 18. material. of. definition degrees irregular. 271. 305. 257. of. 258. adjectives. . of. 307. of. 257. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. English. Clomb. 158. analysis of. 315. 263. 18. superlative. nouns.definition kinds noun. verb. 43. 108.

other other parts of speech. coördinate. verbs. of. subjunctive. 255. pronoun. Can. to of. correlative. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. Agreement. 193. 138. 289. 231. conjunction. 143. Conjunctions. 149. 269. parse. 151. 195. definition be. 207. 196. interrogative pronouns. sentences. 194. 139. of of Conjunctions. analysis. sentences. 263. Dative Declarative Declension of case. of. pronouns. pronoun.with Concord. 188. 194. replaced by objective. 194. 328. conjunctions. 66. See in subjunctive. 73. See English. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 195. and clause. definition how subordinate. same words. 199. 149. . sentence. See analysis clauses. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. conjunctions. adverbs. in Old vs.

of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 333. 160. nouns. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. pronouns. discourse. duck. tenses. with. Comparison. verb. passive adjectives. nouns. 99. of. pronouns. use of dies. 43. of personal relative verbs. of. by. article. comparative. indirect. for. 185. See See 48. of. Articles. object. 60. adverbs See adjectives. Case. clause. 80. from. See adjectives. Comparative.Declension. 35. Subordinate clause. 26. 315. 242. 51. 242. vs. pronouns. . 102. 320. of. 303. See 148. 90. 152. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 91. 287. Degrees. pronouns. possessive. with of. 288. 300. 102.

complement. Each. suffix. spoken. 102. conjunction. 110. Elements Ellipsis. 287. error in sentence. 32. 328. 33. 12. older. 90. Empress. original. 51. 42. other. 112. adjective. of. of. 240. ending. . possessive suffix. 38. 39. 92. 300. 194. of subject. 299. added suffix. another. adjective. 287. vulgar. 280. -En. feminine plural English. drunk. one ( t). 90. 92. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 158.Drank. the of sentence. 92. 158. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. of. literary. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. of. of. pronoun. pronoun. object. 255. 241. to suffix. 234. 62. 33. pronouns. Either. plural. 34. of. predicate. 40. in 'Em. 257.

From. object. from. 148. 112. For. 152. 102. plurals. 103. Further. gender. 308. as a noun. with infinitive. perfect. expect gone. few. 334. 30. 48. Gender. 91. 30. 189. first.." 31. the. 112. etc. Feminine. nouns. with in sex. 29. uses redundant. Farther. of. adjective. Few. 45. used of. to of. 319. fishes. 235. . 126. 211. modes "common goose. 287. of. 212. 238. 147. First. 30. uses Foreign Former. two. 212. of. etc. 32. 36.. have adjective. 110. definition distinguished in English. two a further. Future Future tense. other languages.Every. See Gander. 152. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 43. 102. First Fish. as of from compared marking. pronoun.

His Husband. . 60. and case verbal with. possessive pronouns. 80. 36. pronoun. 12. distinguished syntax. 175. 176. I. adjective. participle. on. definition divisions opinions province H. Grammar. for before. 60. 10. 159. person. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. Had Hanged. 120. 35. 13. He. definition basis of. of. 12. she. of. from participle of. 145. first sentence. 144. 173. 101. pronouns. an better. rather. 159. 275. Got. its. forms in Girl. noun. Gerund. 61. 177. 285. personal relative geniuses. kinds of. 61. of. it. 9. Government.of of Genii. of. had hung. 43. 231.

85. 176. 319. 110. uses discourse. questions. 131. 276. adjectives. elements. a object. 283. 43. of clause. 73. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. of. meaning. summary See passive mood. adverbs. verbs. sentence. transitive. 323. indirect of. pronouns.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. Direct object. adjectives. 245. 72. 105. 93. See you. of. your. indices. questions. 67. 131. 227. 233. of. See Articles. use article. 153. 248. words. 178. 231. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 320. 188. in compared syntax. with of. of. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 257. 136. Questions. pronoun. . mood.

lord." history etc. Lay. 91. Lady. predicate. of. 61. Less. these double kind. Last. syntax. 190. Logic Logical Lord. plural. Kind. of. Lady. 39. a vs. King. lesser. queen. of. in little. Latter.adverbs. "It Its. 102. pronoun. 226. 12. of.. was uses me. Lay. See Madam. 36. syntax the. Kine. and See words in. It. 110. 36. uses Literary Little. 170. 113. 63. lie. 67. Lie. 227. Like. 281. 126. subject form. 245.. -Ly. latest. 113. 189. English. adjective. 276. 303. etc. . 36. 110.

194. sentences. Modifier. 256. superlatives. 126. 113. subjunctive. Mighty Mine. syntax nearer. 135. mistress. Modifiers. 112. out of. of. of. 112. May. 34. 102. syntax conjunction. 112. 326. adjective. in adverbs comparison a. comparison Near.. . 41. of. 160. 187. See definition 136. mine. double. -Most. Much. nigh. etc. imperative. Negative. construction as of adverb. 110. Enlargement. 328. of. indicative. 325. Many Mapping Mare. of. Neither. position adverb. 137-144.Manner. 110. might. 36. 189. 189. 137. 195. Master. 110. 64. 265. 287. 185. Must. of. 161. of. 188. 144. 114. Mood. conjunctions Many. Means. of.

27. class used singular.pronoun. nouns. of. half abstract. words how compound. 45. 19. 30. clause. 30. letters as 24. number once other plural. 20. 17. formed. kinds 90. of. 258. None. 26. 38-41. 17. to of. and figures. abstract. 30. definition according of. 124. 17 19. proper. 126. 46. definition descriptive. 32. 42. 21. etc. 41 43. See 194. of. syntax in gender nouns. 92. 18. foreign. No Nominative. 25. to use. 246. gender nouns. of. become become formation case collective. Not Noun Nouns. 38. . nouns. material. 46. used as. of. 41. etc. become neuter. of. parse. 125. 56. now plural. of of of of of a. 25. 301. common. gender how kinds material. 300. Nor. in. analysis. abstract. 29. 41. Case. syntax Neuter or two News. 328. of.

41. 48. of. 195. English. 23. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. 106. 285. 41. 281. 148. preposition. 278. etc. of. plural. indefinite. in nouns. 48. 92. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 39. 282. of. 66. verbs. and analysis. 196. Numeral Object. 102. See verb. Nouns. adjectives. 121. of. 242. or plural. of. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. pronouns. adjectives. 41. form. Preposition.of same two with proper. pronouns. singular. 48. article. 101. . 42. meanings. plural form. definite. 18. 242. 240. in article. dative. 235. 101. of. passive adverbial. personal.. spoken of instead nouns. plural no two singular construction. indirect. with with with Now Number. meaning. 48. 42. 43. conjunction. 42 44. with case. 278. singular. nominative. 124. adverbial. as forms titles. common. of different possessive definite of. 48. 60. 279.

Omission On. 56. 94. inverted. treatment comparatives. One. of. See the as of.syntax Of. Ourself. part analysis. conjunctions. 306. of of of of of models adjectives. 101. 325 275. ours. Parsing. position Order. 191. 64. 199. definite relative uses of. Older. of. 127. with (the). 194. Oxen. 103. Our. 279. pronoun. articles. as other. 115. 93 other. Elder. a in adjectives. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Each adjective. of upon. 161. . 116. 91. 87. 38. adverb. another. adjective. as of. of syntax. uses numeral pronoun. 103. 69. 213. See pronoun. Pains. 56. of. 216. 41. conjunction. Ordinal Other Ought. adverbs. 237. 233. for. 117. 293. nouns.

173. of. -ing words. phrase. in. possessive and of.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. reflexive. verbs. of. 180. phrases. 59. 43. 62. 322. them. agreement of verb nouns. 172. 59. of. 56. 69. parsed. 100. 181. 148. 172. pronouns. of. article 150. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 119. 59. 335. 43. of. 70. speech. pease. relatives. 317. antecedent. pennies. part adjective. 28. 27. with. 219. Pence. 64. pronoun. 63. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. verbs. not is. 247. from definition other of. of. . 56. and subject in. pronouns. of. 62. 174. included various. used as voice. absolute with of. verbals. 177. 80. verb idioms it from. 134. 61. Person. 179. 287. predicate use of. nominative. 281. 95. or of.

it. 25. 236. 50. singular degree. Comparison. Place. Personification. See 60. 235. complete. or See of of See 185. adverbs of. 247. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. plural. 67. . 49. nouns. 236. antecedent of of pronouns. in of. prepositional. 61. of. Personal subjective. of. 303. 241. omitted. noun nouns. 245. of. Nouns. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. of Phrase. 106. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 206. of nouns. 281. double. 53. English. 303. objects. nouns. syntax of of Politics. 245. of. 278. 232. 53. simple. participial. 285. nouns. singular. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 64. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 54. pronoun. appositional. of. 41. 51. 188. 278. adjectives. 248. 63. of. spoken of. Positive Possessive. of. vs. 52. 247. pronouns. relative. 37. 's. pronoun. 195. of. 281. 60. kinds infinitive.objective syntax table triple uses of. as double.

of. 331. 95. 283. each either. 284. 203. 206. 282. who personal. 300. 287. 283. 187. any. possessive nominative to of. parse. 279. of. 195. another. 299. neither. 105. 32. adverb. with tense certain. verbs. 332. plural. of. forms of. plural. of.Prefixes. 333. 219. objective. what. 186. 105. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. of. Prepositions. 285. 64. somebody definition how indefinite. 207. by. 129. all. 303. as 54. singular usually other. 89. by with shown certain of. interrogative. 281. plural. of. exclamatory. 302. of. 202. same used as adjectives. case. Pronouns. and one with else's. 72. meaning. by parts of of. speech. after but. 93. case. as. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. adjective. 104. usually to as than. interrogative. parse. future. none. 301. 280. 58. expressed as other of. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 300. 208. 203. 59. . 147. 58. words. as antecedent of relative. 132. 205. objective. and form form form form of. for predicate nominative. in exclamations.

289. and relatives. of. 296. 295. 69. 286. conjunctions Quality. same antecedent. that. Nouns. Questions. 105. Direct same and different. 99. 297. who. or of. adverbs in. 293. pronoun. See of. 263. 87. indirect. discourse. 101. in. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. and which. of. 189. which after same. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. pronouns. of. 291. in. indirect compound.possessive relative. questions. of. agreement anacoluthon and as. with with gerund. to of. 69. 87. 279. of. 85. 293. parse. pronominal pronouns indirect. 83. Quantity. in. 68. use in as. 195. of. 74. which. 80. 188. Quotations. nouns. unrestrictive. of. Rank. and antecedent. 58. 74. personal pronoun. 74. from and interrogative. of. of. 142. 289. with who. use of history formed. 295. 84. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. . Rather. 85.

kinds Sequence Set. sentence. tenses. which. who. 26 271. 196. 294. 51. object. reflexive analysis of compound. 231.syntax use Result. 195. in form. See Sentences. 162. 40. Seeing. conjunction. Sex Shall. would. 196. of of of complex Sentences. Same Sat. 255. 242. ending. Shear. forms shots. of. and should. plural possessive as. 259. 29. 289. 69. 42. will. that. complex. 319. of. 'S. 159. 252. of sit. elliptical. 159. simple of. of. clauses of. S. effect. of. gender. 74. 263. pronoun. conjunctions Retained Riches. Shot. 43. simple. Self Sentences. definition . 231. 170. suffix. Simple in sate. in of.

38. sort. definition 67. English. 32. 240. 262. 237. distinguish. literary clause.Singular Sir. names as a. 38. of. 258. 257. 270. adverb. English. of. English. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. disuse in spoken complete. 12. 126. 144. etc. 169. -es. 257. 33. -en. Split Spoken -Ster. to of. adverb. 258. . 137. these number. of. phonetic in infinitive. verbs. 303. as. Spelling Spinster. of. used mood. 257. 138. 245. 36. in feminine suffix. Somebody Sort. for. other Such Such Suffix -s. English. 233. Subject. definition how kinds noun. logical. 33. 186. of. 260. of. 144. 245. in Middle English. 323. 258. 303. of. See -En. Modern use becoming else's. vs. 257..

of. 306. 106. . 189. 222. 275. 275. subject. of. 191. 148. 109. plural as adverb. "the then foreign. 297. of. 108. objects. that uses That. omission whom. Tenses. and and of. syntax of. English. when as of. 186. 186. than of. There These kind. coördinating. this. meaning. 61. 307. definition in English Tense. they. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 306. meaning made up in Old of." introductory. 147. as adverbs. 33. English. 107. as history syntax Their. degree..Suffixes. 87. auxiliaries. when relative. as history The. of. of. two basis not same definition definite. 152. of languages. 277. 88. 147. not suggesting adjectives. of. 120. 123. 319. 309. in comparison. Then. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. adjectives. 147. king. adverbs. 290.. which. 280. restrictive. form. 116. 119. 289. Kind. of. article. me. of. in double. See etc. classical of. object.. 106. of .

330. Utter. how infinitive. parse. 114. 185. See That. 21. of. 172. thee. 322. tother. verbs. 33. 217. 180. 181. carelessly uses syntax this. Thou. gerund. 114. in omitted uses T'other. of. 20. 172. kinds participle. first. uttermost. certain as the before with of. infinitive. 173. of. of. etc.. . Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. in of. See On. -Trix. uses history of. try two. used. 175. 322. to. preposition. 175. analysis. of. 207. feminine and. of. 176. of. infinitive. 195. 61. 119.These. phrases. Upon. adverbs those. 128. -ing 111. other noun. thy. 323. 188. conjunctions prepositions To. 175. suffix. first adjective. 248. 114. exclamations. 308. Time. uses of. Try Two Under. words. Upper. 247. from cleft to 174.

verbs. passive form. verbs by. 135. tense of. 148. 33. definition of. . 157. 12. regular. mood of. 133. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 134. 154. 147. becoming irregular. phonetic. conjugation of. sequence of. of incomplete predication. Vixen. 167. 133. of English. 47. agreement of. 149. 151. syntax of. change. 319. 312. 154. retained object with passive. 320. Vocative in Voice. made transitive. 330. definition of. intransitive. 131. in indirect discourse. table of. 223. 236. how to parse. remarks on certain. active meaning. table of irregular. passive. voice of. 169. person and number of. but uses what. formed by. 129. of. of. 159. 130. 150. What. in person. weak. definition of. 155. 179. 148. 169. past tense formed nominative. 245. spelling of. with subject in number. 242. 39. 167.Verbs. analysis. active. 160. strong. defective. 317. 154. transitive and intransitive. auxiliary. 312-316.

in in indefinite objective. 111. spoken in of. 73. Whether. 105. 178. questions. 246. a. 296. Witch. questions. 79. 75. 104. questions. relative. in -ly. etc. 72. 105. 299. 85. direct of. uses See Shall. animals. wizard. pronoun. 83. 126. 36. 32. would. pronoun. plural of in nouns -ing. 72. 295-299. conjunction. interrogative Which. Woman. 78. whereto. 190. Yes ending analysis. With. Y. 218. 37. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. Who. in. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. of. Words in Worse. 83. relative indirect relative. antecedent adjective.. Wife. Will. 194. 77. 85. of. 75. 40. English. 85. 72. worser. . 36. questions. referring syntax Widower. relative.what Whereby.

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