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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

rightly considered. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. from the question. "Analysis. It is also evident." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. . its peculiar and abundant idioms. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). so that a small grammar will hold them all. but this is bad English now. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Literary English. Making rules is risky. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. Surely our noble language. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places." What grammar is. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Coming back. If. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. with its enormous vocabulary. as. there is still much for the grammarian to do. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. their forms. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. This will take in the usual divisions. Few inflections. Mental training. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. to those who have studied the language historically. and their uses and relations in the sentence. it will at the same time. if rightly presented. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. The work it will cover. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. Authority as a basis. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. A broader view." and "Syntax.The province of English grammar is. however. as compared with Latin or Greek. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. then. and thus incite his observation. is worthy of serious study. An æsthetic benefit. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections).

This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. or standard. and the word nation stands for a whole group. and will are evidently names of a different kind. then. Part II. which belongs to a people. three divisions:² Part I. The following pages will cover. Such words are called nouns. The Uses of Words. Part III. by which is meant the free. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. the nation is free. but. Vulgar English. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. too.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English.²GIBBON. reference will be made to vulgar English. submission. Occasionally.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. that is. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. not objects. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. PART I. NOUNS. The words state. 1. Analysis of Sentences. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. and Inflections. The plainest name is Arabs. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. the words sons and master name objects. The Parts of Speech. from the eighteenth century on. . and may belong to any of those objects. as they stand for ideas. besides this one. Spoken English. or Syntax. In the more simple state of the Arabs.

5. A noun is a name word. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. 2. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. We may say. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. however. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. we may think of them in groups. Name for any individual of a class. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. but Chicago names one city. reducing it to a narrow application. For instance. animals. Common. Thus. (b) Common.Definition. Individual. animals. or things. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. as here used. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. the name of each is an individual or proper name. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. belonging to one. or thing. Proper. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Besides considering persons. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. and appropriate names to the groups. or a congress. because each group is considered as a unit. Classes of nouns. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. etc. substance. and things separately. MATERIAL. Name for a group or collection of objects. They properly belong under common nouns. men in groups may be called a crowd. the man here. a committee. place. possessed by all. ATTRIBUTE. or the man in front of you. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Thus. (a) 4. 3. is from a Latin word which means general. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. or a mob. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. or idea. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. whether person. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Abstract. This does not imply. or a council. . representing directly to the mind an object. Collective.

we may say. cloud. . etc. instead of to each individual or separate object. clay. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. soap. etc. (3) Geological bodies: mud. wheat." 9. rock. 7. wheat. frost. granite. expressing state. paint. platinum. and so on. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known.²There are some nouns. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. conditions. Such are glass. expressing attributes or qualities. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. there is no such intention. potash. such as sun. etc. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. "Painting is a fine art. rain. but it is taken merely as a name.Names for things thought of in mass. Names of ideas. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. snow. wine. not things. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. moon. etc. dew. tea. etc. iron. 6. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. frost. as in calling a city Cincinnati. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. however. etc. The quality is still there as much as before." "Learning is hard to acquire. sand. etc. but which are not called proper names. It may. or actions. rubber. we speak of the wisdom of the man. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. considered abstractly. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. proof means the act of proving. condition. earth. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. or action. Again. .. earth. or apart from their natural connection. and fasten a special name to the object considered. rice. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. NOTE. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth)." "a man of understanding. When we speak of a wise man. celluloid. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. They remain common class names. world. etc. or that which shows a thing has been proved. gold. stone. sugar. mist. Words naturally of limited application not proper. sugar. The reason is. but in the words sun. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class.

(2) peerage from peer. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. night. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. he spread his blessings over the land. and they cannot express action. etc. redness from red. etc. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. Verbal abstract nouns. theft from thieve. The verb. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. as glad²joy. (1) prudence from prudent. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. but are merely names of actions. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. winter. those opinions and feelings. 273). 12. kingship from king. . To avoid difficulty. the rude drawings of the book. Thus. Such are beauty. shadow. 10. summer. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. the great Puritan awakening. They cannot govern a word." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move.Attribute abstract nouns. is used as a noun. hope. service from serve. as in the expressions. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. NOTE. 1. a wedding or a festival. as their name implies. her longing for their favor. the teachings of the High Spirit. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. height from high. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. "a long run" "a bold move. day. Underived abstract nouns. lightning. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. etc. there is time for such reasonings. Exercises. ease. They are only the husks of verbs. Caution. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. hopeful²hope. stupidity from stupid. II. speech from speak. childhood from child. mastery from master. by altering its function. joy.. the main bearings of this matter. 272. thunder. action from act. etc.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. the well-being of her subjects. in the beginning of his life. five proper. the moon caused fearful forebodings." "a brisk walk. energy. five abstract.

typhus.2. mathematics? 3. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. algebra. catarrh. diphtheria. (b) branches of knowledge. Using a dictionary. as pneumonia. geology. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as physics. pleurisy.

port (wine). a Hutton.²EMERSON. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. currants. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. but we may say. damask. thus. from the name of Dr. and lo! a new system. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. from Oporto. it imposes its classification on other men. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. 119). from Corinth. but most of them are in the following groups. Proper names transferred to common use. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. a Fourier. a Locke. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. a Lavoisier. in Portugal. arras." referring to flat- . For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. 14. 13. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. or to go over to it entirely. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. the word port. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. 15.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. etc. Material nouns may be used as class names. for example. the guillotine. We know a number of objects made of iron.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. a Bentham. who was its inventor. Guillotin. from Calicut. as a davy. above. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. levant and morocco (leather). from China. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. from Damascus. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Nouns change by use. "The cook made the irons hot. Others of similar character are calico. from a town in France. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class.

17. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural.In lightnings owned his secret stings. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. purity. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. clays. Death.²PERCIVAL. the abstract idea is partly lost. on fire. a rubber for erasing marks. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. tins.²CARLYLE.²RUSKIN. but differ in strength. abstract in meaning. mists. etc. They are not then pure abstract nouns. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²COLLINS. Personification of abstract ideas. or. coals. clouds. that is.²BYRON. etc.irons. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. that disposition is the thing to be created. (3) By poetical use. 16. A halfway class of words. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. that the power of art is founded on fact. These are the same in material. to prowl or to moan like night birds. oils. as stones. or the arts and sciences. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. For example. slates. and so on. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. but on dispositions which require to be created. smiled. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Class nouns in use. Traffic has lain down to rest.²HAYNE. The words preceded by the article a. not material things. When it is said that art differs from science. From all around²Earth and her waters. nor are they common class nouns. Test this in the following sentences:² . which are made plural. Next Anger rushed. or used as class nouns.²BRYANT. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. a steel to whet a knife on. or made plural. paints. papers. and only Vice and Misery. tobaccos. are abroad. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. though not confined to verse. candies. but in case an art or a science. This is a poetic usage. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. and say teas. his eyes. be spoken of. are still names of abstract ideas.

² GOLDSMITH. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. however." "a morning walk.²SHAKESPEARE. Adjectives. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. for example.²IRVING. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. were mere terrors of the night.² BURNS.²SHAKESPEARE. But it is better to consider them as nouns. or describe it.²EMERSON." which contains a pure adjective. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective.The Solitary can despise. etc. By ellipses. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. a bill as to tax on the banks. nouns used to modify. sir!"²MACAULAY ." "the State Bank Tax bill. loves. 18. Every why hath a wherefore. All these. "a family quarrel. or from any expression. which belongs to another word.Let us. meaning a walk in the morning. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. as each repeated pleasure tired." "a New York bank. 19. When I was young? Ah. the wealthy.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. sir?" and the "No. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. Adverbs. They are more like the possessive noun. a bank in New York. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Conjunctions. And still. sir!" and the "What then. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. Nouns used as descriptive terms.²BURNS. fear thy blow. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. they cannot be compared. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. but is still a noun. NOTE. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. make our own so. But ah! those pleasures. if we must have great actions. Then comes the "Why. they do not express quality. as descriptive adjectives are. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns.

Hope springs eternal in the human breast. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. 3. is ambiguous. 20. 8. Caution. When. however. Exercise. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. the terms the great. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Power laid his rod aside. 7. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. The it. whether it mean the sun or the cold. of course. or a criminal. but have an adjectival meaning. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. .²Dr BLAIR In this definition. There are many of these.Nor iron bars a cage. 5. are used. 2.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. FRANKLIN. 4. etc. In the other sentences. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named.. so. When.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. in speaking of the principal of a school. and Then. the wealthy. of words rather than of their meaning. It is to be remembered. NOTE. in a sentence above. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 6.²These remarks do not apply. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. and tell to which class each belongs. Learning. without reference to its function in the sentence. Now. is the word "just. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. that cobweb of the brain. too." or "legal. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies."²B. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. why and wherefore. or a state secret. but as a figure of speech. or a faithful domestic. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. at the beginning. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. to such words as become pure nouns by use." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. 1. Stone walls do not a prison make." and another of Dr. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force.

22. the welcome. 10. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 23. its bloom is shed. always masculine.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. GENDER. 24. and names of females are usually feminine. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more.Fair guests. 21. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. but not so in English. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. German.You seize the flower. always feminine. and many other languages. 17. Greek. In Latin. A fool speaks all his mind. the silver moon is gone. 20. . some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. he cried. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 13. 11. female. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. What gender means in English. in English grammar. 21. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. There are exceptions even to this general statement. that waits you here. 15. A little weeping would ease my heart. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. And see. But pleasures are like poppies spread. The hours glide by. The fleet.9. It is founded on sex. returned to Spain. 16. 14.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 12. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. Male beings are. shattered and disabled. 19. 18. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands.

the name of it is feminine. the sex being of no consequence. if of the female sex. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. clapping his burnished wings. Gunpowder .²gender nouns. 23.. Neuter nouns. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex...²IRVING.When.. Gender nouns. with its gizzard under its wing." . das Messer (knife) is neuter. corpus (body) is neuter. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.²LAMB. or additions to words. inanimate things are spoken of. and consequently without sex. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.²masculine and feminine. . Thus. mensa (table) is feminine. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. according to their use. those with which man comes in contact often.. in German. or names of things without life.² IRVING.² I have seenA curious child . that is. however. the name of it is masculine. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig. 22. but are spoken of as neuter. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. or which arouse his interest most. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. if there were any signs of life in it. then. For instance: in Latin. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. in English. Of animals. those which do not distinguish sex. All nouns. 24. those distinguishing the sex of the object. Hence: Definition. the word child is neuter in the sentence. that pattern of a husband. der Tisch (table) is masculine. "A little child shall lead them. came to a stand just by the bridge. and neuter nouns. according to use. are named by gender nouns. The great difference is. hortus (garden) is masculine. must be divided into two principal classes. in other languages gender follows the form. No "common gender..

or the lack of it. servant. According to the definition. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. as he-goat²she-goat. woman. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. One feminine.25. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. generally to a masculine word. cousin. Very few of class I. . 28. (3) By using a different word for each gender. he-bear²she-bear. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. but spinster has now no connection with it. The inflections for gender belong. Hence vixen is for fyxen. Native suffixes. only to masculine and feminine nouns. domestic. For fox they said vox. etc. 29. from the masculine fox. as in wine vat. puts a prefix before the masculine man. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. 26. These remain in vixen and spinster. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. and for the older word fat they said vat. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. (2) By adding a suffix.. Gender shown by Prefixes. Male nouns beings. Put in convenient form. teacher. they are neuter words. the division of words according to sex. II.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. 27. ruler. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. I. for from they said vram. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. of course. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. relative. If such words as parent. is. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. though both words have lost their original meanings. Gender shown by Suffixes.

as czarina. as seam-stress. Ending of masculine not changed. trickster. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. señorita. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . as.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. the one most used. 30. -ess (French esse. gamester. it has none now in the words huckster. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. These are attached to foreign words. Low Latin issa). The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. as. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). and are never used for words recognized as English. Slightly changed and widely used. executrix. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. song-str-ess. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. punster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. but in most cases it has not. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Unaltered and little used. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. donna.

etc. teacher or lady teacher. Some of them have an interesting history. as was said in the sixteenth century. neighbor (masculine and feminine). we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Thus. or servauntesse. from Latin imperatricem.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century).²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words." III. 32. 31. frendesse. teacheresse. we use the masculine termination. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. Gender shown by Different Words. editor. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. We frequently use such words as author. Instead of saying doctress. others have in their origin the same root. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. to represent persons of either sex. NOTE. the ending -ess. we use the feminine. from the French -esse.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . fosteress. In some of these pairs. chairman. as in the fourteenth century. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. neighboresse. as. wagoness.

wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Mare. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. from Latin mea domina. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. widuwa²widuwe.). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). King and queen are said by some (Skeat. though both are ultimately from the same root. or lauerd in Middle English. written loverd. Besides gander and drake. Three letters of ened have fallen away. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). became identical. for example. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Danish gaas. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Icelandic gás. Madam is the French ma dame. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Personification. Witch is the Old English wicce. in Old English mere. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Two masculines from feminines. not immediately connected with witch. had the masculine mearh (horse). The older forms. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. leaving our word drake. lhauerd. 16). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Widower.² . Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. the old sign of the masculine. but this has long been obsolete. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. as in many other words. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. 33. It is not connected historically with our word duck. gand-ra. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). etc. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. finally gander. among others) to be from the same root word. 34. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). probably meaning house dweller). The masculine was formed by adding -a.

Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. The first two methods prevailed. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. 35. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. (2) By changing the root vowel. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. 38. Britannia needs no bulwarks. together with the third. But other words were inflected afterwards. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. 37. The -en inflection. .²CAMPBELL. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. Effect of personification. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.No towers along the steep.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.²COLERIDGE. whenever we adopt a new word. eyen (eyes). This is not exclusively a poetic use. etc. In nouns. the plural. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. 39."Now. and not by the form of the noun. (3) By adding -s (or -es). but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.²KEATS."²BYRON. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. in Old English. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. 36. for instance. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. NUMBER. more than one. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. that is. Definition. treen (trees). in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. I. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. Our language has two numbers. the engineer speaks so of his engine.²singular and plural. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en.Her home is on the deep. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. shoon (shoes). In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.

²THOREAU. The words horse and foot.Horse and foot. etc. originally neuter. 40. Instead of -s. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. quartz. The old plural was brothru.² "God bless me! so then. salmon. 41. glass. ditch. after all. . etc. Lee marched over the mountain wall. Brethren has passed through three stages. Children has passed through the same history.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book.²Over the mountains winding down.²MACAULAY. turf. Other words following the same usage are. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. and is still found in dialects. pair. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Such are box. after numerals (if not after numerals. finally brethren.-En inflection imitated by other words. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. such as deer. but has now no singular. that have the singular and plural alike.²WHITTIER. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. but they now add the ending -s. etc. when they mean soldiery. and get settled. head. people. then brothre or brethre. lens. brace. Examples of this inflection are. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. Akin to this class are some words. III. wight. sail.² The foot are fourscore thousand."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. sheep. they add -s): also trout. II. into Frederick town. heathen. swine. or if preceded by the prepositions in. by. as. borough²formerly had the same inflection. folk. cannon. Kine is another double plural. as. 42. dozen.The horse are thousands ten. cross. retain the same form for plural meaning.

daisies. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. etc. the Americas. half²halves. prize²prizes. physics. race²races. though this sound combines readily with -s. hero²heroes. Two words. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. Formerly. 43. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. 45. also news. Proper nouns are regularly singular. quoth then that ladie milde.²BRYANT. etc. 15 and 17). these words ended in -ie. shelf²shelves.g. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. etc. fairies.g. It served simply as a means of sight. e. niche²niches. politics.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. etc. and some -es. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. 44. The lilie on hir stalke grene. DANA. they lose their identity..²PROF. Means plural. allies. chaise²chaises. Special Lists. volcano² volcanoes.² Politics. When such words take a plural ending.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. means: as. a new syllable is made. means and politics. is both the science and the art of government. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . as. optics. though they are plural in form. Words in -ies. in its widest extent. house²houses. the Washingtons. Some words are usually singular. that when thy summons comes. and the real ending is therefore -s.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. summons. and go over to other classes (Secs. and many branches of learning. e. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). some adding -s. pains (care).. fancies. So live. Examples of these are. economics. molasses.-Es added in certain cases. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. negro²negroes. however. knife²knives. mathematics. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe.

a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. he pronounced to have been a tongs. W. Politics plural. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.² MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. Now I read all the politics that come out. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²GOLDSMITH. LAUGHLIN. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. if I recollect right. riches will accumulate. Sometimes. Besides this.²IRVING. 46. it is furnished with a forceps. .²BURKE. L.²G. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. by those means which we have already mentioned. I say.²J.²MOTLEY.²GOLDSMITH. however. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. CURTIS. A relic which.Words. By these means. by strongly conveying the passions. Some words have no corresponding singular.

Numbers also means issues. (2) literature. Three words were originally singular. shots (number of times fired). genii (spirits). In speaking of coins. die²dies (stamps for coins. (2) revenue duties.. Two classes of compound words. making a double plural. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). for the numbers came. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. twopence. etc. pence (collectively). 50. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. pea²peas (separately). of a periodical. (2) poetry. fish²fish (collectively). two plurals. clothes (garments). ways. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet.²was it subdued when. faculties. penny²pennies (separately). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. DANA. Tell me not. shot²shot (collective balls). sixpence.²LONGFELLOW. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). or epistles. In Early Modern English thank is found.. dice (for gaming). the other unlike it. part²parts: (1) divisions. fishes (individuals or kinds). trouble.. . in mournful numbers. index²indexes (to books). two meanings. eaves.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. These make the last part plural. riches. or work in a bellows?²PROF. as in the lines. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. pease (collectively). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. genius²geniuses (men of genius).²one corresponding to the singular. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. etc. (2) care. number²numbers: (1) figures. as two sixpences. indices (signs in algebra). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. brethren (of a society or church). 49.The air. One plural.). (2) abilities.²POPE. or copies. 48.² I lisped in numbers. carry off chaff. may add -s.

Ottoman. or the name may be pluralized. but add -s. Norman. firman.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Mussulman. Allen. The chief member adds -s in the plural. 51. Briggs. Two methods in use for names with titles. as man singer. the Drs. 52. for example. The title may be plural. such as talisman. manservant. Brahman. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. there is some disagreement among English writers. though the latter is often found. Brown. woman servant. HOLMES. then Silas Peckham. as the Messrs. the Misses Rich. and then the three Miss Spinneys. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. and Mrs. As to plurals of names with titles. German.²DR. . woman singer.² Then came Mr.

Domesticated words. Exercise. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. FROM THE LATIN. They are then said to be naturalized. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. and retain their foreign plurals. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. or Englished.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Others have been adopted. or Anglicized.²GIBBON. These are said to be domesticated.²GOLDSMITH. FROM THE GREEK. y y analysis antithesis . and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Messrs. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Du Maurier. 53.²DICKENS. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.²THE CRITIC.

Letters. 54. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). and expresses a relation akin to possession. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. also add -s or 's. they form their plurals in the regular way. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words." the word felon's modifies cell. In the sentence. figures. Definition.. etc. 55. cell has another relation. as.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. as. Words quoted merely as words." CASE. In the general wearing-away of inflections." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). Only two case forms. without reference to their meaning. etc. 56. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). . Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. When the foreign words are fully naturalized.

57. whether inflected or not. 5. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. the objective. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. and experience. Excuses are clothes which. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Three properties belong to wisdom. 1. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Uses of the Nominative. they returned to their homes. may be said to have three cases. the enemy of the living. three things characterize man." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers.²person. I. . excessive grief. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. learning. and the possessive." (2) As a predicate noun. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 58. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead.²the nominative. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. fate. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 4.²one for the nominative and objective. when asked unawares. and merit.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 2. 3.²nature. then. completing a verb. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Human experience is the great test of truth." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. Nouns.

sword in hand and visor down. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. Set a high price on your leisure moments. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. 2. and meaning calmest. and being equivalent to one verb. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. etc. good Heaven. taking the object storm. 8. the word toward which the preposition points. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. They charged. as will be seen in Sec. and tell which use each has:² 1. (in the older stages of the language. they are sands of precious gold." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 59. distance." (3) Adverbially. a patriarch of the village." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. 9. save. and landlord of the inn. reconciles. Uses of the Objective. thy wrath can send. Tender men sometimes have strong wills.6. completing the verb. wounded lies. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. and makest a calm. her first law broken. taking the object enemies. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. measure. (5) As the object of a preposition. 3. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect." (4) As the second object. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. But of all plagues. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. how have I frighted thee? II. Conscience." Exercise. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. But the flood came howling one day. 68. . 4. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object.Save." "Thou makest the storm a calm.

And whirling plate. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. 9. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. (3) Subjective possessive.And gave the leper to eat and drink. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. or in writing yesterday's elegy.Does his Creator's power display. (2) Objective possessive. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.²BYRON. the Great Stone Face. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.e. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.² The unwearied sun. as shown in the sentences. 7. 8. expressed or understood.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. The possessive case always modifies another word. 61. tempests that . and forfeits paid.His winter task a pastime made. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. as in these expressions. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. 6. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.²SHELLEY. 60. The noblest mind the best contentment has. as. from day to day. Possession in some sense is the most common.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. Uses of the Possessive.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.²HAWTHORNE. It is a poetic expression. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.²ADDISON. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. 10. III.5. the most common of all..

only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s." etc. Poss. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. in Chaucer. The use of the apostrophe. As said before (Sec. Declension or inflection of nouns. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. the panther which the forest hides). "George Jones his book. lady Poss. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. A false theory. there are only two case forms. making the possessive singular. growth which several days had developed). In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. A suggestion.. To form the possessive plural. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. 56)." Use of the apostrophe.e. One is the simple form of a word. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. PLURAL." "at his beddes syde. 64. How the possessive is formed. and Obj. 1. Case Inflection. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.e. 62. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. child NOTE. . was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. as schoolboys sometimes write. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i.winter is likely to have). 63.. and Obj." "mannes herte [heart]. "From every schires ende. however. Nom. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. 62. Nom.

instead of the emperor their master's name." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. the possessive sign is usually last. some such word as house. store. Possessive and no noun limited. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. containing words in apposition. but to the ear all may be alike. for goodness' sake. 67. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign."²DE QUINCEY. and she walked off from the don's. church. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. as.²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. etc. In other cases the s is seldom omitted.Though this opinion was untrue. James's. 65. In compound expressions. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. my neighbors. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²DE QUINCEY. as. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. I remember him in his cradle at St. Captain Scrapegrace's. and from a desire to have distinct forms. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.²CARLYLE. They invited me in the emperor their master's name." Possessive with compound expressions. the items of my son's.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves." "A postscript is added.²RUSKIN. a word with a phrase. Peter's. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead.. in the name of the emperor their master. know the amount of my income. . the poor miner Hans Luther's son. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. being understood with it: for example. Cervantes' satirical work. 66. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. as by the countess's command. etc. stands up for God's truth one man. dwelling. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.. Kate saw that.² LOWELL.²HOLMES.

(2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. A peculiar form. in such a sentence as. and at the same time by a possessive noun. For example.. the statement clearly means only one thing. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. every.²FROUDE. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.²the introduction which Atterbury made. (See also Sec. etc.The double possessive. this.²CARLYLE. no. (b) Rewrite the sentence. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. corresponding to 's. and tell whether each is appositional. HALE. we use the phrase of Atterbury. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. especially when used with this or that. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. as one modifier. the sentence might be understood as just explained. each. (1) When a word is modified by a. If. Clearness. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. or subjective.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. that.²E. E. 1. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Both of these are now used side by side. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. Blair). however. a double possessive.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. Emphasis. ill-lighted except where she stands. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. objective. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. making a double possessive. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. In most cases. 68. (3) It prevents ambiguity.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. sometimes they are used together. 87. the. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. Exercises. 2. any. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's.

8. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip.Comes dancing from the East. day's harbinger. and destroy the other.3. At lovers' perjuries. Nature herself. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 12. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. There Shakespeare's self. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 10. 6. therefore. In parsing. 4. it seemed. 11. let him seasonably water the one. in parsing a noun. with every garland crowned. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 14. 7. we state. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 13. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.² . 9. 70. some idioms²the double possessive. 69. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Hence. 15.They say. 5. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Friend. Now the bright morning star.A weary waste expanding to the skies. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. Jove laughs.

71. a fresh tapster. 68). "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. (4) Its office in the sentence. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. therefore singular number. and relations. In parsing any word. therefore singular number. Throat is neuter. 3. and limits neckcloth.(1) The class to which it belongs. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. gender.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. therefore neuter. therefore masculine gender. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. hence it is a common noun. which gender. it is the object of the preposition by. hence objective case. like miller's. and to have it found out by accident. The correct method. but is the adverbial objective. it expresses time. Neckcloth. (3) Whether singular or plural number. hence it is a gender noun. determining its case. it expresses possession or ownership. and number. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. NOTE. inflections. proper. That in the captain's but a choleric word. MODEL FOR PARSING. has no governing word. it is the name of a male being. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. if the latter. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. hence it is objective case. subject of the verb is understood. the connection shows a male is meant. Exercise. Thief is a common class noun.²common. a withered serving man. is a common class noun. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. as to case. it denotes only one person. 2. singular number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. masculine. etc. 4. . names one thing. and therefore nominative case. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. it has no sex. object of the verb takes. therefore possessive case.

Mrs.. PRONOUNS. 72. A pronoun is a reference word. 8. Classes of pronouns. Time makes the worst enemies friends. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. sleep! 6. from a necessity for short. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. but by a question we say. which are used to ask questions about persons or things.. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Now. financial minister to Louis XVI.And hated her for her pride. standing for a name. 11." Again. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally.²palace. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. For instance. 10. blessings light on him that first invented . all in one. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. He giveth his beloved sleep. where the Rhone enters the lake. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. and his daughter. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. 73. or for a person or thing. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. and representative words. 76). instead of saying. Necker. and prison. Definition. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. 9.. (2) Interrogative pronouns. castle. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. were natives of Geneva. or for a group of persons or things." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. definite. Jarley's back being towards him. . This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome.5. 7. A few miles from this point. The need of pronouns. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Madame de Staël.

and the person or thing talked about. representing a person or thing spoken to. Singular. they must represent the person talking. as nouns have the same form." Person of nouns. Nom. This gives rise to a new term. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. (4) Adjective pronouns. mine. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things.(3) Relative pronouns. even if it had a special form. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. that is. pronoun. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. which cannot be used as adjectives. or other word or expression. they are said to have person by agreement. we our. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. "the distinction of person. 77. standing for a person or thing spoken of. the person or thing spoken to. Person in grammar. words. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. my Plural. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. which relate or refer to a noun. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated.. (2) Second person. I Poss. primarily adjectives. From analogy to pronouns. which have forms for person. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. 75. (5) Indefinite pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (3) Third person. 74. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. ours . representing the person speaking. 76. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Three persons of pronouns.

namely. Masc. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. thy Remarks on These Forms. so also with the person or thing spoken to. thine. Obj. Nom. they their. Obj. Singular. by personification. or. neuter hit. theirs them Neut. me us Singular. of all Three. thou thee ye you you your. Old Form Common Form. Old forms. Obj.Obj. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. a separate form for each gender. Nom. yours you THIRD PERSON. you your. in the singular. But the third person has. masculine h . it its it Poss. hers her Plur. Third person singular has gender. Obj. . Nom. feminine h o. yours Poss. your. Nom. The speaker may be either male or female. Poss. she her. SECOND PERSON.. neuter. and also for the neuter. he his him Fem. 78. First and second persons without gender. yours you Plural. Poss.

which is a neuter noun. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. (2) In addressing the Deity." As shown above.²SHELLEY.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. two modern uses of thou.²BEECHER. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. etc. heora.Thou lovest. just as we now say. perhaps being from the English demonstrative.² Oh. and sometimes its. however.:² (1) In elevated style. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. thou Shepherd of Israel. The form its. as. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). 80. 82. as in prayers. it. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. to thy care we commit the helpless. which was often sounded with the h silent. them. Thou. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. especially in poetry.. thy. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. for example. etc.. There are. The consequence is. even when referring to a single object. . We use it with a plural verb always. the forms they. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. Two uses of the old singulars. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. as possessive of it.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. 81. in Old English. thee. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. Second person always plural in ordinary English. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. This is of comparatively recent growth. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. In spoken English. that didst comfort thy people of old. their. heom. 79. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. etc. The plurals were h .

theirs. 83. he. thy. "I am sure it was him. she. however. though ye is occasionally used as objective. 58). and not make more classes. their. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. its.²LANDOR. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. I spare thee mine. . note the following:² 'Twas mine. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. II. they. thou. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. thine. Old use of mine and thine. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. our.²COWPER.²BULWER. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. besides a nominative use. Yet careful speakers avoid this. Not a separate class. 'tis his. her." the literary language would require he after was. to personify objects (Sec. ye. have a peculiar use. your. or. The forms my. 84. me. them. some say. him. and sometimes in ordinary speech. we. when they occur in the predicate position. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. Nominative forms. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. us. and follow the usage of literary English. The forms mine. sometimes his and its. Absolute personal pronouns. 85. them. 34). him. And since thou own'st that praise. That is. In spoken English. ²SHAKESPEARE. hers. her. 86. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. I The Nominative. The words I. his. her. they have a nominative form. Additional nominatives in spoken English. in such a sentence as. for. The Possessive. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. and has been slave to thousands.Use of the pronouns in personification. though those named in Sec. 84 are always subjects. us. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. yours.

anger. T.²ID. . This usage is still preserved in poetry." said Henry Woodstall.²THACKERAY. it tells of good old times. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. theirs. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.²ID. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.² CARLYLE. thus. F.²J. his. The forms hers. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee."²SCOTT. yours. FIELDS. Give every man thine ear. thus. yours. Their uses. or satire. we have. "Hold thy peace. (3) To express contempt. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. Besides this.²SWIFT. as in nouns. Long Allen. ours. If thine eye offend thee. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. Like the noun possessives. for example. hers. theirs. pluck it out. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. sometimes its. 87.²CARLYLE. commenting upon a letter of mine. (2) To bring emphasis. COOPER. and with mine. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. thine. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²THACKERAY. we find. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²BIBLE. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. but few thy voice. are really double possessives. ²HOLMES.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. Double and triple possessives. ours.²J. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.

or use in a sentence. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. In their function." "None but the brave deserves the fair. They all handled it. . according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.²BIBLE. Both joined in making him a present.²ID." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. "The good alone are great. 90. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. as shown in Sec. in the first sentence. III. Now the objective. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. Besides this use of the objective. the thing is done. mine stands for my praise in the second. and mine in the second has an objective use. Curse me this people. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. In pronouns. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. 20. but nominative or objective in use. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. but not in form.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. but the form is the same as the objective. In such sentences as. The old dative case. his for his property.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. for whose benefit. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. 88. 86: mine stands for my property. The Objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. this dative use. was marked by a separate case. but expresses for whom." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. They may be spoken of as possessive in form.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. as it is called. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. But the first two have a nominative use. 89.

in this century. or that he has not a great deal more.²EMERSON. as.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. was passed by with indulgence.²D.²CARLYLE. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. logical subject. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.Time is behind them and before them. you must condense there. as. or to the idea. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. which follows the verb. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. 91. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. like Chinese skill. to stand for the real. you sneeze. ²EMERSON. Indefinite use of you and your. WEBSTER. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²BACON. why.²BULWER. (3) In apposition. Society. The word you.²ADDISON. 92. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. has not made its progress. thus. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber." (3) As a grammatical subject.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.²IRVING To empty here.² . and they cry. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.² NEWMAN.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. Your mere puny stripling. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.²DE QUINCEY. It is a pity that he has so much learning. as in the sentences. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.

²EMERSON. A sturdy lad . This occurs in poetry. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. There was nothing for it but to return. who teams it. that is. they dropped their arms.²ID. I set me down and sigh. keeps a school. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. ourselves. -selves. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. used in poetry. farms it. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. It was late and after midnight. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. as they are also called. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²BUNYAN. herself. since firstThe flight of years began. And millions in those solitudes. we use such expressions as. peddles it. but seldom in prose.. 93. Of the two forms in parentheses.²COLERIDGE.It is finger-cold. Poor Christian was hard put to it. who in turn tries all the professions. have laid them downIn their last sleep. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. the second is the old form of the second person. 94. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. For example. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition." "He bought him a horse. himself. itself. as. themselves."²IRVING.²BRYANT. however. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English." etc.. (ourself).²ANON. yourselves. I made up my mind to foot it.²BURNS.²THOREAU. "I found me a good book.²DE QUINCEY. when they are direct objects. (thyself). and its plural selves.²IRVING. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.² Now I lay me down to sleep.²HAWTHORNE. And when I awoke.²HOLMES.²SCOTT." and there is an end of it. it rained. They are myself. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. For when it dawned. yourself. .

² . Held dead within them till myself shall die. I shrink with pain. shall dissolve. thyself. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. for example. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.As girls were once. etc.² The great globe itself . as. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. with self.²E.²ID. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. after the analogy of myself. for example.²EMERSON.²MILTON.²WORDSWORTH. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Origin of these reflexives. to us.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. The question might arise.To you yourself. and build the lofty rhyme. as we ourself have been. BROWNING. B. and the others were formed by analogy with these. As if it were thyself that's here.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. Threats to all. to every one. 96.²SHAKESPEARE. were changed into the possessive myself..? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. 95. as in vulgar English. as. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. ourselves. Use of the reflexives.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. not the possessive forms.² TENNYSON. In Middle English the forms meself. especially in the speech of rulers..² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. theself. NOTE.

(a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. . The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). and neuter. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Three now in use. and how to do it. Courage. One obsolete. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 97. 4. father. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. and what. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved.² THACKERAY. Come and trip it as we go. 9. feminine. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 6.²DE QUINCEY. 10. where the word is one with that it tells of.²B. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. all conform to it. is wisdom. 5. let him lowly confess it. FRANKLIN. 2. fight it out. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. To know what is best to do. 7. which. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. some each of masculine. Years ago. 3. And it grew wondrous cold. Infancy conforms to nobody. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. some of them being double possessives. but it is the soonest spoiled. 8.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1.On the light fantastic toe.

Use of which.. actions. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. having three forms. but now obsolete.Promised. Which of you. whispering sweet. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID.There is an old word. referring to things. that it is always singular and neuter. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. with its possessive and objective. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. whether. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. that. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. Whose was that gentle voice. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. it refers to either persons or things. not to persons. 99.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. or case. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. as it always asks about somebody. it is selective. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. . Use of what. 98. As shown here. etc. that is. Use of who and its forms. used formerly to mean which of two. methought. These show that what is not inflected for case. number. it is always third person. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. ideas. The use of who. the gold. shall we say. 100. but for case alone. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. which is not inflected for gender. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. What wouldst thou do. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

for which the pronoun stands. 127). RELATIVE PRONOUNS. It usually precedes the pronoun. AND PLUR.101. SING. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. The antecedent.²by the use of the words. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. as. which is called the antecedent of the relative. 103. which and what. or other word or expression. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. Further treatment of who. "The last of all the Bards was he. who is used as objective instead of whom. and what are also relative pronouns.Who sung of Border chivalry. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. pronoun. who? Poss. and so to make smoother discourse. 105. which. AND PLUR. which is nominative in the first sentence. as. as they take the place usually of a word already used. it may be shortened into. since it is subject of the verb had. 104. Who. 99. and also in having a conjunctive use.² "The last of all the Bards was he. subject of doth love. Function of the relative pronoun." In the latter sentence. in Sec. objective in the last. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. who evidently refers to Bards. nominative in the second also. Thus we may say. whose? Obj." Or.² . Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. SINGULAR Nom. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. what may be an adverb in some expressions. These bards sang of Border chivalry. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. 102. being the direct object of the verb shall take. For instance. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. which and what are sometimes adjectives.

and the indefinite use of simple relatives. that. They had not their own luster. which. 2. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 3. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.Whose flag has braved.²BYRON. 108. D. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. Indefinite relatives.²LOWELL In this. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.. . 2. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. The nurse came to us. 4. is a divine creation. 107. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. will be discussed further on. Two kinds.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.. but the look which is not of the earth. When the word relative is used. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²W.²THACKERAY. the women whom women approve. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. The men whom men respect. For her enchanting son. 5. a simple relative is meant. The origin of language is divine. Ye mariners of England.² COX.²DR JOHNSON. Generally speaking. WHITNEY. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 6. with all its capabilities . 106. in the same sense in which man's nature.. what.That guard our native seas.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Who and its forms. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 4. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.²MILTON. are the men and women who bless their species. a thousand years. both his and who have the antecedent priest.²SCOTT. 3.Whom universal nature did lament.²PARTON Which and its forms.

Already done is all that he would do. That.² SHAKESPEARE 2. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. What.²EMERSON.Is fit for treasons. 3..²DE QUINCEY. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.²H. 6. Reader. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. W. Who. stratagems. BEECHER 5. and spoils. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. you will not be angry with me for telling you. which it certainly is not.. 2. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²IRVING. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²GOLDSMITH. The man that hath no music in himself. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .. For what he sought below is passed above. 4. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. 107.²LAMB 3. The judge ...] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples of the relative that:² 1. 110. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.²BURKE. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 109. ought to be kept in view.. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²MARGARET FULLER. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. else this description will seem exaggerated. (a) This gradation . The Tree Igdrasil. bought up all the pigs that could be had.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. 111.5.

Examples of whose. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²IRVING. The little gorilla. . (2) It has three case forms. Witness the following examples:² And you. 113. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. 5. who is first person. JOHNSON. son.²THACKERAY. things. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. who. in the third. in the first sentence.who.²LEIGH HUNT. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. seemed as much excited as myself.²which for the nominative and objective. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. that man. 96). Sec. and 6. Smollett. p.. Gibbon. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.²who. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. In 1. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. whom. a man. Who referring to animals. the relatives are singular. in 4.²LOWELL.. whom.. in the second. they are plural. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. whose is second person. whose. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.. It has been seen (Sec. not persons. In sentence 4. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. referring to animals. Which. whose for the possessive. Kingsley. possessive case of which. and others. The robins. (3) It is nearly always third person. Scott.whose. My horse.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. the others are all third person.. Cooper. (4) It has two case forms. and 3.²DR. 2. and so on. who class With those who think the candles come too soon.. whose wound I had dressed. 107. The sentences in Sec. in 5.²SWIFT. flung its arms around my neck. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. 112.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. or ideas.

Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²BEECHER. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Burke. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Which and its antecedents. too. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. So in Matthew Arnold.² I swept the horizon.²THACKERAY. 115. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. animals. Men may be ready to fight to the death.114. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. and numerous others. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.²SCOTT. which is worse. which is very notable and curious. Kingsley. and things.²SHAKESPEARE. That. This often occurs. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. thus."²RUSKIN. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.²RUSKIN.² And. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. (2) It has only one case form. This moribund '61. 109. the antecedent follows which. secondly (which made her stare). whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. and third persons. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. second. (3) It is the same form for first. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. The last two sentences in Sec.²first. Sometimes.² MCMASTER.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. .²DE QUINCEY. and to persecute without pity. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. no possessive. In the sentences of Sec. let us enter the church itself. Primarily. 116.

Nom. that men must needs abide. third person. plural number. it usually follows. that do I. whose Obj. and is emphatic. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. is always neuter. as in sentence 6. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. but what I hate. 117. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. . which. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. number. The sentences of Sec. 119. Who plainly stands for those or the people. plural number. that do I not.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. 118." That evidently refers to truths. we can." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. for example. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. that he has. 109.²SHAKESPEARE. third person. by taking them out." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people.² What I would. What a man does. The gender. as. What.²EMERSON. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. For example. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths." (3) "These people heard him.²BIBLE What fates impose. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. what we said?²CARLYLE. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. either of which would be neuter. and person of the relatives who. Sec. who Poss. consequently is neuter. When expressed. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him.

In the same way who. In (2). so is in the objective case. that takes the case of the truths in (2). subject of heard. which is. but of this. the highest result of all education. in (3). 5. is what we call nature. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. 7. is in the nominative case. and hence is in the nominative case.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. because it has usually no antecedent. In the sentence. after all. First find the antecedents. above. who is sure to be cunninger than they. but is singular. third person. etc. is subject of wrought upon and molded. 6. What must be endured? Answer. it is object of uttered. nobler souls with that which they are. in the following sentences:² 1. 4. people is the object of the preposition of. however. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. As shown by the following sentences. The word what. 8."²EMERSON. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody.. The whole expression is its subject. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. I think they are trying to outwit nature. the simple relative. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. neuter. Parsing what. 3. and what is the direct object of the verb call." Here the subject of is. "What can't be cured must be endured. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. The relative what is handled differently. it is subject of the verb heard. . Exercise. in (1). Now. Another way. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Some prefer another method of treatment. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. standing for the people understood. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. we is the subject. What can't be cured. 120. Truths in sentence (2). then parse the relatives.

whosoever. whichsoever. The simple relatives who. 2. 3. It is clear that in 1. or what else soever. and parse that in the first clause. whatever is equivalent to all things which. "common souls pay with that [singular. no particular thing. whichever. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 2. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. in a new and original way. . There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. which.²you cannot have both. that nothing else can stand in their presence. summer will have its flies. whatsoever. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. no certain antecedent. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. They are whoever. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 123. that is. not as direct as the simple relatives. object of do] they do. less common are whoso. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. It is no proof of a man's understanding. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. 6. and his friend a fool. or stand on their head. List and examples. by meaning and use. and which in the second clause. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are.²MACAULAY. Do what we can. Take which you please.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. Only itself can inspire whom it will. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 5. object of with] which [singular. Death is there associated. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. whatsoever. Meaning and use. to everything that. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 122. So with the other indefinites. 4. and in 2.²BURKE. Hence some take what as a double relative. whatever.²BURKE. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. being referred to. 121. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. 7.

not following the word such. etc. Other substitutes. by which.²DE QUINCEY. There is nothing but is related to us. 121. thus..²HAWTHORNE.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 121. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. This. nothing that does not interest us. etc. are used. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. 124. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. Sec. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. In early modern English. the conjunctions wherein. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. 2. 120. what means anything that. has been my heaviest affliction. whereby. 125. but and as. upon which.As shown in Sec. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. for example. as was used just as we use that or which. Two words. either one that. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. Former use of as. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.. . OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. but which only wealth could have purchased. and that as after such is equivalent to which. whereupon.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Instead of the phrases in which. etc. 126. for example. Proof that they have the force of relatives. But and as.²EMERSON.² 1. 4. 417). but mean any one whom. everything that (or everything which).² some particular thing. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which.

3. though the earthwork hid them. a question is disguised in each sentence.. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). 1 (b). PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. it is an indefinite relative). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. showing that who is plainly interrogative. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. the full expression being." etc. In sentences 1 (a). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. which having the antecedent lines. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. if not. Another caution. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. "Who stood behind? We knew.²WHITTIER. who having the antecedent gentleman. if expanded. 2 (b). there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. But in 1 (b)." Likewise with which in 3 (b). So in 2 (b). The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. In studying such sentences. no antecedent is expressed. it is a simple relative. .²EMERSON. and whether what = that + which (if so. Special caution needed here. How to decide. second. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. it is an interrogative. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. what is interrogative. 2. 127. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. Thus. "But what had become of them? They knew not. would be. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. and 3 (b). if not. which would indicate that they are not relatives.²ID.

Examine the following:² 1.²FORSTER 6. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 2. 129. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.² THACKERAY.²HOLMES. and asks no question. In the second. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Exercise. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 4.128. . whose has the antecedent you. When Goldsmith died. In the third. Put in the relatives who. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²GOLDSMITH.² These are the sounds we feed upon. which. and Court Calendars. but the life of man in England.²FLETCHER. which has the antecedent hue. I visited many other apartments. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. 3. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. 5. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of.²SWIFT. whence is the interrogative word. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. the question is asked by the verb. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²CARLYLE. Thus.²G. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. On the other hand. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Relative omitted when object. ELIOT. In the first. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences.

²Id.²SCOTT. Also in literary English we find the same omission. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 5. or indefinite relatives:² 1. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. and what. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.7. Function of adjective pronouns. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. 3. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. the house was full. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. It is rare in prose. The nobles looked at each other. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. and comparatively so in poetry. 130. 2. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.Ne'er looks upon the sun. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.²SHAKESPEARE. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. . who were to be rulers over whom. simple relatives. that. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.² LOWELL. There was such a crowd went. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. Relative omitted when subject. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Examples are. 6.²CAMPBELL. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. which was already proceeding. which. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball.

How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. as some. etc. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. many. 'Truth. few. and on each is written. In the first use they are adjectives.²BRYANT. that. 132. or may be the whole of a sentence.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these." in the others. a word. not pronouns. expressed or understood. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. etc. "The dead are there. ." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. or they may stand for nouns. or an argument in a paragraph. but in this function.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "these pranks. and stand for a noun. either." Classes of adjective pronouns." that is. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. necessarily thought of: thus. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. such as each. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. all.131.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. the former. "each cube. Adjectives." in the second.²EMERSON. For instance. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. etc.²IRVING. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. any. For example. in letters of gold. Caution. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns." "one man. but have lost their adjective use. Primarily they are adjectives. such as this. which we have seen in such expressions as. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 133. and another to get cool under. none. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. in order to be an adjective pronoun. must not modify any word. or use. neither. in the first. "another bank." "Where two men ride on a horse. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.

and they have well performed the other. Simple.²ID. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. A man inspires affection and honor. they that plow iniquity. as seemed good to each. Even as I have seen. and sow wickedness. 2. Such are a few isolated instances. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. 5.All these he saw. or reclined. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. reap the same. or sat.²ID. Their minds accorded into one strain. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Compound. 134. because he was not lying in wait for these. accidentally preserved. for example. Definition and examples. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Some of these are simple pronouns. NOTE.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Exercises. 3. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. They had fewer books. when the latter was the King of Spain. but these were of the best.²EMERSON 4. . but what he fain had seen He could not see. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. They have not shunned the one.²LOWELL. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.² They stood.

Much might be said on both sides.Two are compound pronouns. as it were. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. another. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. The Soldan.²each other. 135. They led one another. as. .²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. Some inflected. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²EMERSON. Exercise. we might the more easily discharge them.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²KINGSLEY. imbued. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. Another opposes him with sound argument.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²HOLMES. with the superstitions of his time. or melt for others' woe. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. as most were. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. The word one has a reflexive form. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Definition and examples. as some of the rangers had gone astray. for example. ²HAWTHORNE.²HAWTHORNE. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. paused over a horoscope. such as one other. Men take each other's measure when they react. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. None shall rule but the humble. one another. you quickly come to the end of all.² One reflexive.

I tell you what. naught. somebody else. Now.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Exercise. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. some one.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Definition and examples. anybody else's.²SHAKESPEARE. everybody else. They indefinite means people in general. as shown in the words everybody's. and was indefinite in Old English. anyone else. etc. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. and they. 136. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. and somewhat. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. also aught. every one (or everyone). Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America.Exercise. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. everybody. something. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. unlike adjective pronouns. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered.² At lovers' perjuries.. etc. anybody. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. in building of chaises. everything. Jove laughs. they are never used as adjectives. they say. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. nobody. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. .There is always somewhere a weakest spot. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. every one else." It means something. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Every one else stood still at his post. nothing. no one. but. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. anything. 137. as. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. what. any one (or anyone). Somebody.

Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. A reminder. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. from my earliest days. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Exercise. 138. 12. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. in his negotiations. O thou that rollest above. 13. 17. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Others did the same thing. 8. 10. 3. 4. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. All was now ready for action. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 6. I first found myself among the mountains. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 18. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 7. The table was good. . 14. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. For this did God send her a great reward. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 16. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 2. Hutchinson tells us of herself. were suffered to depart. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 11. Whoever deals with M. indeed. and of no other. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 5. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 9. to which.

whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. thou rollest now. who take the world easy. 34.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 35. Whatever he knows and thinks. He sate him down. 32. 25. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. And I had done a hellish thing. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. and seized a pen. They know not I knew thee. 21. 27. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. variety.Who knew thee too well. that let him communicate. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. in all its height. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 29. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish.And it would work 'em woe. eat white bread or brown. 26. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . And will your mother pity me. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. well-oiled dispositions.Destroyer and preserver. behold now the semblance of my being. hear! 33. 31. I who alone am. 30. hear.19. 23. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. oh. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.

Again. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. adjectives are used. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. We are by nature observers. the number is limited by adjectives. Substantives. etc. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 45. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. becomes mine. It may have this office alone. For example. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. and if we are near. 37. so that no other will be mistaken for it. "one hat. 38." "some cities. 42. if we are at a distance. size. who understands me. or with persons. ADJECTIVES. brittle or tough. or liquid. As to the kind of words used. position. Who hears me. So with any object. . if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 139. in pointing out an object. Office of Adjectives. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. or gaseous. which was no bad step towards my liberation. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. If a chemist discovers a new substance. 39. 43. and he learns who receives.. white or red. that is our permanent state." "that house. He teaches who gives. as. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. and so he read." "a hundred men. such as in the expressions "this man. 40. heavy or light." etc. He knew not what to do.36. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning." The office of an adjective. 41. We need to add some words to tell its color. 44." "yonder hill. then. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. etc.

fair." they constitute all his connections.²POPE. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. to describe it or to limit its application. Examples are. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. and their trash. (4) Pronominal adjectives. rash. remotest. happy. 142. 141. divine." and the still less significant "and so." "half-dead traveler." the "and there. however. Nouns are not." . such as. or how much of a thing. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. pointing out particular things. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. to forgive. terrible. To make this clear. "Heaven-derived power." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. such as safe. (2) Adjectives of quantity. it shows that he weighs men's minds. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "the Roman writer Palladius. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. Infinitives. With exception of the "and then. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." "ivory-handled pistols. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. Definition.140. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. etc. 143." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. words primarily pronouns.²COLERIDGE. They include relative and interrogative words. If he be thankful for small benefits." "this life-giving book. "an old English manuscript." "the Christian pearl of charity.² BACON." "next-door neighbor." "unlooked-for burden. To err is human." "ice-cold water. deep. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. beautiful. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. Classes of adjectives. derived from proper nouns.

" Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. Examples are. . Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. 144. 2. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." "It came on like the rolling simoom. having some of each subclass named in Sec. For instance: in the sentence.²COLERIDGE. in this.But ever she looked on Mr. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. any. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. 145." was is the verb. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. and accomplished is an adjective." "The shattered squares have opened into line." "One is hungry." was accomplished is a verb. much.²MACDONALD. some. Oxenham. in studying these last-named words." "trailing clouds." Caution. Care is needed. sometimes small. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. 143." "a charming sight. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. and another is drunken. which are either pure participles used to describe. Exercises. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. 1. no. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." "an aged man. considerable. 'Tis midnight.

the former²the latter.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Examples. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. instead of modifying them.² Every town had its fair." "I have lost one brother. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other." "In came some five and twenty more. 146. The following sentences present some examples:² .²ID." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. any. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. "one blaze of musketry. The list.²KINGSLEY. Exercise. yonder (or yon). Thus. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted." "He had lived by hunting for some months. as. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. every village." "a dozen volunteers." "Then we wandered for many days. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. they come under the next division of adjectives. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. latter. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. its wake. and with them a few negroes. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. Not primarily pronouns. no. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.²THACKERAY. The demonstrative adjectives are this." Single ones of any number of changes. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. When some. are used with plural nouns." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards.²VAUGHAN. (plural these. that. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. but I have gained fourscore. How many. those). An arrow was quivering in each body. former.²CARLYLE.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking." (b) Indefinite numerals.

Oxenham fought desperately. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. I verily believe. skill which was progressive²in the other. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. ²CARLYLE.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives."²B. they are changed to adjectives. what revenues or garnitures. In which evil strait Mr. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²KINGSLEY. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. FRANKLIN. 148. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. WEBSTER.²GOLDSMITH.but all these charms are fled. They are of two kinds. 147. Indefinite relative adjectives.²D. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. of equal skill.²ID. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. These were thy charms.²BULWER. Definition. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. tell how many things are meant. but.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²RUSKIN. As has been said. Exercise. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. skill which was at pause. 149. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE..²ID. like the other numerals.²WORDSWORTH. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²BANCROFT. . careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. for example. The taking of which bark.² It matters not what rank he has. The silver and laughing Xenil. These do not. just as the corresponding pronouns do. Modify names of persons or things. but in the one case. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.. When we speak of the seventeenth century.

But when the Trojan war comes. as it rather seemed. the debt to the rich. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. In indirect questions.² EMERSON. Adjective what in exclamations. which is selective among what is known. New torments I behold.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. whichever. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whatsoever. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. Was there. A lady once remarked. whatever. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. Whatsoever kind of man he is. what inquires about things or persons not known.²IRVING. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.²LAMB. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. it is impossible to determine. or whether any..²CARLYLE. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. . make what sour mouths he would for pretense. you at least give him full authority over your son. which. Examples of their use are. and new tormentedAround me. As in the pronouns.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).²RUSKIN.²ID. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. 151.And whichsoever way I turn. proved not altogether displeasing to him. and gaze.150.²AGASSIZ. In direct questions. nature will be sure to bear us out in. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. whichsoever way I move. He was turned before long into all the universe. whichsoever.

²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. Exercise. we do so by means of their qualities. and those as the plural of that. That. and when we compare the objects.²number and comparison. History of this²these and that²those. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. . to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. The article that was used with neuter nouns.Adjectives have two inflections. we notice some differences between them as to size.²but not the same degree. of the quality. gold is heavier than iron. etc. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. All these have certain qualities. or size. as. Thus. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. th s (modern those). etc. Those borrowed from this. which was fully inflected in Old English. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. 154. When we place two objects side by side. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. 155. Meaning of comparison.² Oh. This is the old demonstrative. those). In exclamatory expressions.152. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. the making of it right. It is neither relative nor interrogative. NUMBER. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. COMPARISON. alas.²This. or amount. color. or weight. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. And yet. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. But this had also another plural. 153 .. weight. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. a sapphire is bluer than the sky.

"more matter." "It is a nobler valor.²SEWARD. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. immemorial. . These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. and the superlative. 157. blue. giant-like." "no fewer than a hundred. great. They came into use about the thirteenth century. redder. "untamed thought. universal institution. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. with less wit. supreme." Words that cannot be compared. The comparative is formed by adding -er.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. organic. indomitable. but were not common until a century later. and many others.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms." "the largest soul. whose favorite pupil he was. bluer. These are properly the only degrees. Definition. 160. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. A main difference betwixt men is. bluest. enormous. indefatigable. The two forms. as. 156. So with the words sole.²THACKERAY. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. strictly considered. easiest. Freedom is a perpetual. Substitute for inflection in comparison.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. These are called degrees of comparison. but. they are not compared. 159. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. expressing a greater degree of quality. though the simple. and the superlative by adding -est. easier. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. red. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. as. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. whether they attend their own affair or not. 158. for example. to the simple form. infinite. sufficient. reddest. expressing the greatest degree of quality." "the commonest speech. easy. or amounts in quantity.

so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. These are adjectives irregularly compared. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. strange." "more odd.Which rule. admirablest. honestest. 162." "more austere and holy. 163. quiet." "sorrowfulest spectacles. mournfulest. was most finished.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.²The Nation. I will. These long." said Henry Esmond.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain.²ID. Adjectives irregularly compared. madam. falling on his knees. "So help me God. The general rule is. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. and patientest fusing. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. though born in no very high degree. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words." Carlyle uses beautifulest." "distantest relationships. etc. which hung behind in the queerest way. who. easy. most small. indisputablest. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. as. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. harsh forms are usually avoided. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. witty. there needed to be a most genuine substance.² -er and -est or more and most? 161.² CARLYLE A gentleman. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." "the wonderfulest little shoes. peaceablest. finest chiseling. The following lists include the majority of them:² . but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. and other words are preceded by more and most.²ID. and yet familiar." From Ruskin: "The sharpest." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. polished. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most.

8. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. throw away the worser part of it. There was an old comparative bet. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 5. 1. which has gone out of use. 4. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less.² O. as. List I.LIST I. hindermost Much or many More Farther. evil was the positive to worse. outermost Utmost. 6. [In] Inner Inmost. utter 3. older Nigher Nearer Later. lesser Elder. which has softened to the modern best. least. as in Shakespeare. [Out] Outer. last Hindmost. furthest 10. 7. oldest Nighest. 164. Good or well Evil. (2) In Old English. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. is often used.²HAMLET. innermost Outmost. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 9. lesser.² We have it in a much lesser degree. uppermost LIST III. 2. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. These have no adjective positive:² 1. though from a different root. next Nearest Latest. The superlative I form was betst. a double comparative. latter Hinder LIST II. Worser was once used. bad. as in the sentence (14th century). further Farthest. A double comparative. Hind 2. . worst.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. uttermost Upmost. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. 3. (3) Little is used as positive to less.

²KINGSLEY. further. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. came into use. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. as long. first. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. instead of lenger. The meanings greater. In imitation of further. for example. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. but originally the comparison was nigh. etc. etc. "Many a little makes a mickle. the parallel form mickle being rarely used.. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. The most part kept a stolid indifference. and refer to time. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. great.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. (9) Latter and last are the older forms.²ID. but not in meaning. and the superlative nearest. The latter. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. doubling the inflection. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. Between the two sets as they now stand. strenger. as. are earlier than older. Since later. next. (5) The forms elder. the old forms.² The more part being of one mind. much. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. farthest. making the modern farther. ²LAMB. moche. . an old superlative ending. near. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. greatest. strong. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. First became entirely detached from the series. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. there is scarcely any distinction. farrest. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. eldest. oldest. a distinction has grown up between the two series. except the form next. are shown in such phrases as. to which is added -ost. muchel. to England we sailed. th came into the others." Its spelling has been micel.. List II. meaning the largest part. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. The form hindmost is really a double superlative.²HAWTHORNE.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. furthest. since the m is for -ma. is quite common. or series. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. latest.²forth.

166. 168. and have no comparative force. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. being merely descriptive. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. The comparatives are so in form. or have no comparative forms. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region.²HAWTHORNE.²H. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. was descried The royal banner floating wide. There. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.²KINGSLEY. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Highest and midmost." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. 167.²DE QUINCEY. the upper light of the world.²EMERSON. In List II. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. but they have no adjective positives. on the very topmost twig. but her after deck was still dry. The adjectives in List III. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. in having no adjective positives. by the by. (Sec. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection." "The outer is of the day.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. Her bows were deep in the water. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace." "the innermost moral soul. Decidedly handsome. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. Her. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. are like the comparative forms in List II." "their utmost exertion.165." "far-seeing as the sun. . W. BEECHER. or each may modify a different word or group of words. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. They have no superlatives. List III. but not in their meaning. Think what each adjective belongs to. all may belong to the same noun." -Most added to other words. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective.

This." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. as. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision.For example. The seldom use of it. instead of saying. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives." making then an adjective. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. May we not. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. and heaven-defying oaths. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. we may say "the then king. ²TROLLOPE. 7. the then and still owners. Richard Hooker. Bradbury and Evans. 3. deep. For thy stomach's sake.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. bright. our new government. It may still be argued." in which then is an adverb. A few improper jests and a volley of good.²BIBLE. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. 4. now our queen. and moral truth. In the following quotations. "the one who was then king. 2.²RUSKIN. . Other instances are.²HOLMES. usual modifies incomparable decision. in this sentence. But in this sentence. satisfactory. therefore. Exercise. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. round. 6. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. 169. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. in prose. not decision alone. philosophical. deeply black eyes. STOWE. and broken. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.²HAWTHORNE. By a convenient brevity. H.²A. solid. STEPHENS 5. and thine often infirmities.²HAWTHORNE. rich.²TRENCH.²MRS. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical.² My then favorite. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.²NOAH PORTER. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. Our sometime sister.

5. if it has number. or case. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. MODEL FOR PARSING. if it can be compared. cannot be compared. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. modifies truths. (4) What word or words it modifies. person. I ask nothing of you. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. To every several man. not inflected for number. (2) Its number. 170. 2. 3. positive degree. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. with awkward but rapid pace. having a singular. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. therefore descriptive. 10. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. . frank. compared by prefixing more and most. and very few have number. She made no reply. therefore demonstrative. and I waited for none. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 4. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. Unfamiliar describes truths. manly way.What to tell in parsing. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. These points out what truths. Since adjectives have no gender. then. seventy-five drachmas. 8. modifies the word truths. This gave the young people entire freedom. this. To every Roman citizen he gives. 9. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. plural number. (3) Its degree of comparison. 7. 6. In parsing an adjective. across the plain. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. the method of parsing is simple. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. Exercise.

those dogs in the yard. it is so noble a fruit. In music especially. is the settlement of our own country. are immutably fishes. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. and therefore more interesting to us. 32. 12. . What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 16. 21. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. I know not what course others may take. oxen. 13. Two hours elapsed. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. he won affections with ease. 14. 19. and many poles supported the lower ones. 28. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 27. Nearer to our own times. 31. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. not so much for travelers that were few. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 20. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. yet are remarkably self-forgetful.11. yonder oxen in the pasture. Their name was the last word upon his lips. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. and dogs. the tomahawk fell. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. during which time I waited. Like most gifted men. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 25. 26. suggests such thoughts as these. 23. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 33. growing in the most unfavorable position. 18. 24. as for armies that were too many by half. it rests on reality. 29. With every third step. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Here lay two great roads. To say what good of fashion we can. 22.

the tother. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. he is no literary man. the tother." An with consonant sounds.²MACAULAY. ARTICLES. later th . or the tane. 172. a before consonant sounds. the latter is still preserved in the expression. An before vowel sounds. An historian. these occurring as the tane." "an orange. that other.²BREWER. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. . but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . s o. 35. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. weary-hearted man was he. 37. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. An or a came from the old numeral n. in vulgar English. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. In the sentence. Many writers use an before h. sometimes the tother." "a European. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. and a before consonant sounds. Examples: "a house. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. In Middle English the became an article. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. for example. the other. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. ðat. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel." "a yelling crowd. A hard-struggling. 173. were formerly that one. but the former is used." "an honor. Our expressions the one. Two relics. the tither. meaning one. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. with an ordinary little garden." the words the and an belong to nouns. 174. 171. Their origin. th o. just as adjectives do.34.²SCOTT. such as we have been attempting to describe. even when not silent. that) which was also an article in Old English.

The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. thus. or class. 179. is referred to. as "the Mississippi.²G. as in the sentence. since it points out a particular individual. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. on opening a story. Definition. The is the definite article. An hereditary tenure of these offices. 178. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.²This use is noticed when.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. Kinds.² .² Don't you remember how. The Dakota tribes. An or a is the indefinite article. 176. and when the word river is omitted. NOTE. An and a are different forms of the same word. 175. Articles are either definite or indefinite. To call attention to attributes.. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. With names of rivers.²COLERIDGE. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. or any individual of a group or class. or a group or class of things. the older n. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. and not a state or other geographical division. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. or group.²THACKERAY. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. BANCROFT." the article indicates clearly that a river.. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. An article is a limiting word. Reference to a known object. doubtless. which cannot be used alone." "the Ohio.²IRVING. not descriptive. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.. 177.²HEROES OF ASGARD. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. a person is introduced by a. When the is prefixed to a proper name.

²KINGSLEY. With adjectives used as nouns.²GIBBON.²G. her. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. 182.²SCOTT. 1. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. and the redwing. as. the song sparrow. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. The simple rise as by specific levity.²MOTLEY. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. NOTE. BANCROFT. The. Schelling. the Hume. If the good is there. the gallant.²ID.²ID. for example. Common. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. or a match put between the fingers. etc. 2.The Bacon. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. For possessive person pronouns. Caution. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.² The faint. would speedily extract the required information. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. With plural of abstract nouns. His messages to the provincial authorities. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. the Spinoza. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. so is the evil.²EMERSON. Half abstract. One thing for its class. laid it on the miry spot.²EMERSON. 181. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. but into the region of all the virtues. not into a particular virtue. 183. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. . Kant. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 180.² As she hesitated to pass on.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. as. the most astute. 200: In (1). In each case. "Put thou money in thy purse. (can) shame also has an object. obeyed is a predicate. Of those expressing action. to say something to or about some person or thing. 204. the most penetrating. and to receive the action expressed. an article. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. in (c). an adverb. In the sentence. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. All these are called transitive verbs. or the object."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it." Examine the sentences in Sec. taking the staff which always guided her steps. The nature of the transitive verb. to go is no predicate. a noun. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis." put is the predicate.²BULWER . may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. b). and shame the most astute. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. which may be a person.In (a). c)." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. from the Latin transire. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. we consider a verb as one word. care. By examining a few verbs. In giving a definition. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. which means to go over. in (2. representing something which it influences or controls. a preposition. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. Now. a). all do not express it in the same way. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. 202. lone took what? answer. and not a verb. Hence Definition. for example. hence is not a verb. b). might have been anticipated is also one predicate. or an idea. In the first. in (3. but cannot be predicates. or a material thing. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. in (b). the word following. Each influences some object. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. etc. endured what? anguish. can deceive has an object. Definition and caution. and. in (2. "Put money in thy purse. in (3. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. Has takes the object hypocrisy. and a preposition unite as a verb. The nature of intransitive verbs. but fearing is not a predicate. 203. with some word understood. in this sentence from Bulwer. A verb is a word used as a predicate. a verb. 201.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Ideal.²BRYCE.I could lie down like a tired child. the writer can make the statement following. in our case. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. ²EMERSON.²MACAULAY. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. Unreal²cannot be true.²FRANKLIN. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. he will see the need of these ethics. Condition or Supposition.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. for example. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.²D.²may or may not be true. they were recorded in the Book of Life. 215. or be fulfilled. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. the first great founder of the Empire. 222.² If. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. Again. as. 2). Most excellent stranger.²LONGFELLOW. popular government must be pronounced impossible. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. as.²SHELLEY. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. I. . Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. WEBSTER. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. the second founder. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. the representative system ultimately fail. If this be the glory of Julius. but.² Now. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. and may or may not be regarded true. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. 221. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.

²EMERSON. ²LOWELL. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. he supposed. 6.²BAYNE. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. and striven energetically to save Ney. 3. do you think. and should. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. melodious. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. since he [Byron] was dead. unless. I told him.² If these things were true. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. if he was the man I take him for. may. is used to express purpose.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.²MACAULAY. But in no case could it be justified. clear.²FRANKLIN. might. to drink strong beer. the conjunction is often omitted: for example.²FRANKLIN. though. Exercise. that he might be strong to labor. etc. 8. he had better not have written. and sonorous. if his lot had been mine. except. Epaminondas. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.²SWIFT. but when the verb precedes the subject. thus..²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. that we cannot but regret its absence. and what kind of condition:² 1.² CARLYLE. especially be. society could not hold together. she was regarded as a prodigy. II. 7. would have sat still with joy and peace. P. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. Subjunctive of Purpose. if he speak to you. as.²CALHOUN.² It was necessary. which cannot be true. would you. 2." etc. 223. the clause being introduced by that or lest.. . If he had reason to dislike him. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. The voice. In the following conditional clauses. is of similar physiognomy.. 5. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. NOTE. 4. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. WILLIS.²N. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. The subjunctive. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created..

Rise up. within its fairy bowers. In a Noun Clause.²ID.²MOORE. till it meet the sun in his coming. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. 225. WEBSTER. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. like the Latin. 226.Thou go not.²D. Subjunctive of Result.. So live.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.. 227. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²WORDSWORTH. In Temporal Clauses. VI.²DE QUINCEY. the answer being regarded as doubtful. IV. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. Ask the great man if there be none greater.²COLERIDGE. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. III. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. To tell of what had passed. none of us could say. I've wished that little isle had wings. like the quarry-slave at night. Expressing a Wish. . before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.That vain it were her eyes to close. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.²SOUTHEY.And we. V.²BRYANT. I would it were! ²EMERSON. The English subjunctive.I have been the more particular. After a verb of wishing. In Indirect Questions.²CARLYLE. Let it rise. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. VII.Were wafted off to seas unknown.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. 224..

The first merit.²COLERIDGE. in apposition. Complement. Some might lament that I were cold. Whatever betide. often contains a subjunctive.And see the Braes of Yarrow.Subject.²WORDSWORTH. which may be (a) Pronoun.² Be the matter how it may. in its various uses as subject. The noun clause. object. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Concessive Clauses. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. . See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. or whatsoever victual it may be. is.²TENNYSON. 229. (b) Adjective. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. After verbs of commanding.²SHELLEY.² DICKENS. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²CARLYLE. Object.²SCOTT. I have no thought what men they be. Come. we'll turn aside. VIII. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. that everything be in its place.²COLERIDGE. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. The essence of originality is not that it be new. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²THOREAU. of cash.And look thou tell me true. etc. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. That hunger of applause.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. 228.²DE QUINCEY. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. is the ultimate fact of man's life. for example. tell me all that thou hast seen.

entreaties.²BRYANT. and condition contrary to fact.²J.(c) Adverb. since commands are directed to a person addressed. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Definition.The spirit he loves remains. (1) Command. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²SHELLEY. a concession. Q. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. (2) Entreaty. . Oh. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. point to their immortal works. 232. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. At the present day. we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used.² CARLYLE. to express a wish. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. fear none. for example. or requests. 230. ADAMS. 231. In spoken English. though. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.²CHANNING. however. love all men. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. IMPERATIVE MOOD. It must be remembered. (3) Request. Honor all men. Usually second person. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.

" Exercises on the Moods. 2." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. "Come along with me. Part we in friendship from your land.²SCOTT.One glance at their array! 5. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. nothing is to be preferred before justice. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID."²DICKENS Tell me. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.And. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Oh. receive my hand.. but I + you. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. 3. Quoth she. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. Sometimes with first person in the plural. etc. "The Devil take the goose. Break we our watch up.²CAMPBELL. 8. we may use the imperative with we in a command. to you implied in it. lest we rust in ease. 6. or I + they. Whatever inconvenience ensue.And God forget the stranger!" ." whispered Kit. Meet is it changes should controlOur being.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. child of earth!While each performs his part. etc. 7. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. request.²SHAKESPEARE. noble earl. there will her heart and her prayers be."Hush! mother. Mark thou this difference.

He. 26. whether he do it right or wrong. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12." 25. Marshall. or do it at all. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. 23. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 20.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. That a man parade his doubt. 18. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.Till you might faint with that delicious pain." 16.That they might answer him. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. Though he were dumb. in what pomps and prosperities he like. 19. Well. no literary man. 11.High up in silver spikes! 22. but repentant child. how he may do his work. it would speak." continued Old Morgan. "Oh. ruined. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 14.9. . That sheaf of darts. then. as though an instrument. 13. Forget thyself to marble. she ought to have it.Except. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. will it not fall unbound. "tell me where I may find my poor. He is. let him live where else he like. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. 10. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. "Mr." cried he. 21. and opinion displace opinion. Though abyss open under abyss. my dear madam. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause.

shall. as. in the third person singular. or whether it were as one member of a general party. called auxiliaries. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. as. TENSE. as will be shown later on. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. 234. the past. or agree with it. have." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. as the classical languages have. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. by means of the present. to direct his steps. in the conjugations. a form ending in -eth. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. which represented present and future time." past. Meantime. tell him to wait. or future time. "Thou walkest. and future. and the future tense. past. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. and future perfect tenses. five in the subjunctive. and the past tense. kind. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. "It is not in man that walketh.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. such as be. will. past. "I go away tomorrow. Siddons. The tenses in detail.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. When the older pronoun thou was in use. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.27. 28. past perfect." present.²nothing could exceed the amiable. 235.²the present tense. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. "Thou walkedst. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. whatever she did.² present. Tense means time. Definition." . 233. such as Latin and Greek. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. five in the imperative. PERSON AND NUMBER. also. Tenses in English." "If he comes. Old English had only two tenses.

persons. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. mood. moods. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. were. singular number. wert) 3. choosest. I be 2. tense. 237. PRESENT TENSE. You are 2. "He walks. etc. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. and numbers. [He] were [They] were . tenses. CONJUGATION. Indicative Mood.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. been. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. In classical languages. chooseth. You (thou) be 3. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. for example. Singular 1. Few forms. This is the third person. walks. walketh. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. 236. as. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. but in English. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. 238. Singular 1. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. Definition. I were 2. walkedst.²choose. is. The verb be has more forms. walking. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. walk has walk. chose. Such verbs as choose have five.²am. Singular 1. walked. are. PRESENT TENSE. choosing. since it is composed of several different roots. etc. [He] is [They] are 3. chosen (old. Singular 1. chooses." and this only in the present tense indicative. chosest).

(2) was. obligation.. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (d) With the infinitive.His infancy was nurtured. though it is usually a dialect form. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. etc. in four ways. Instead of the plural are. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. which was now become an occasional banquet.²THACKERAY. same as the German sind. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²SHELLEY. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. -en. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. to express intention.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.Imperative Mood. Remarks on the verb be. (3) be. were. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²GOLDSMITH. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²BURKE . thus.²SCOTT. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon..²WORDSWORTH. etc.²ID. condition. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. to form the passive voice.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. 239. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. for example. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. The light that never was on sea and land. 240. as. is.

as. "I had gone" (past perfect). Machinery of a verb in the voices. You chose Plural. future perfect. We chose You chose 3. You chose Plural. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. PRESENT TENSE. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). . In addition to the above inflected forms. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. 1. Singular. etc. I choose 2. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb." (2) Present perfect. as. (2). by placing have. Indicative Mood. We chose You chose 3." "He will choose. I chose 2. You choose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. "I have gone" (present perfect). I choose 2. 1. had. past perfect. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 1. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. Singular. 240. PRESENT TENSE. I chose 2. 1. "I shall be. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 242. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. [He] choose [They] choose 3. tenses. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Singular.241. tenses. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE.

Past perfect definite. "I am running. as. Past. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Present perfect definite. Present definite. He will he choosing. Present. Past perfect. Future perfect. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. "I was chosen. ACTIVE VOICE. " " " " " " " he be choosing." (4) The passive forms. He will choose. He had been choosing. Present perfect. Future definite. Indicative Mood. though. Imperative Mood. Past definite. Subjunctive Mood. Future.) Choose. He had chosen." 243. Present. (2d per. singular number. He chooses. Present definite. he have chosen. He will have chosen. Future perfect definite. as.] he choose. he have been choosing. Same as indicative. Past. lest. Present perfect definite. He has chosen. etc. He has been choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present. Only the third person. Past definite. will be given. Present perfect. He was choosing. He will have been choosing. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. he chose (or were to choose). of each tense. ." "They had been running. He is choosing. [If. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs." "You are chosen. He chose. " Be choosing. Same as indicative. Present definite.

Present definite. Present. Also.] he be chosen. however. Past Perfect. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. (2d per. Present perfect. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present perfect. if learned at all. Present perfect definite." [Note to Teacher. Future definite. He has been chosen. Future perfect. etc. He is being chosen. Past perfect definite. He was being chosen. None.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present definite. Future. Imperative Mood. he had been chosen." "He did strike. None. 262). None. None. He is chosen. he have been chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec. PASSIVE VOICE. Past definite. He was chosen. He will be chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. None. lest. Present tense.] [If. Past perfect. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect definite. None. in affirmative sentences. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Future perfect definite. . "He does strike. Past. he were being chosen. Exercises should be given. Present.) Be chosen.NOTE. Past definite. Past. as. He will have been chosen. Past perfect definite. but verbals. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Indicative Mood. " " " " " " " None. though. He had been chosen..

TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Definition. beg. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. laid. 245. According to form. bid bound. bit blown broken chidden. run. Kinds. Past Tense. NOTE. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. Some of these also have weak forms. caught. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. ran. begged. verbs are strong or weak. sleep. 244. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. but adds no ending. drove. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . which are in parentheses Present Tense. as. and may or may not change the vowel: as. bounden] bitten. lay. drive.[adj. slept. catch.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate.

stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang.

to split. and the latter. and another (born) for the passive. cleft (to split). TAYLOR. especially in that of an earlier period. as (from Holmes). Historically. Not a cock crew.²COLERIDGE.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. probably to avoid confusion with this. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).²one meaning to adhere or cling. instead of ate and eaten.²IRVING. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. for example."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).² Thou hast clomb aloft.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.²TENNYSON." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active." "the cloven hoof. The former used to be cleave. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. "his bounden duty. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.²GOLDSMITH.² We had each drank three times at the well.²as (from Shakespeare). This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. cloven. only one set remains certain. 246. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. the other. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. . cleave. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain.²cleave. "stricken with paralysis. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. but is much used in vulgar English. as. as." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. now told us it was time for repose. Our cock. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle." "a drunken wretch. Sometimes in literary English. as. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. cleaved. and.²B." In this confusion of usage. which always crew at eleven. The form clomb is not used in prose. ²THACKERAY.²MILTON. borne is also a passive. cleft." "a sunken snag. and sometimes occurs in poetry. When it means to carry or to endure. nor a dog barked. cleaved. clave or clove.

for example. We usually say. frozen. as. Throw. maiden. Freeze. Fling. and grasping at his sword. begun. broken.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. which is seldom used except in poetry. 2.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. as "a shorn lamb. The butler was hanged. threw.²BIBLE. drove. This heard Geraint." but not much as a participle. Usually shear is a weak verb. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. shore is rare. .² We had all got safe on shore. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. thrown. 245). "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.² If. Give.The form gotten is little used. Shake. found. driven. Break. 8. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. gave. 10. shook. One example out of many is." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. He sate him down. 3. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang."²KINGSLEY.²TENNYSON. fell. 9.²WORDSWORTH. Drive. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town.²DE FOE. Fall. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. 5.²BYRON. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. fallen. Begin. began. Exercises. for example. 6. froze. flung. Find. and seized a pen. broke. (a) From the table (Sec. 7. 4. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. given. even in poetry. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1.²SCOTT. flung. found. shaken.

) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. which survives in the sentence. The same remarks apply to ought. (See also Sec. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise.. but came through analogy with should and would. Have we valuable territories and important posts.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. Could may be subjunctive. or when it expresses wish. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.²HAWTHORNE. etc. Subjunctive use. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. 251. Can is used in the indicative only. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 250. etc. 223. "far off his coming shines. The l in could did not belong there originally. or. PRESENT. must have been an ocular deception. as. 249.. HAMILTON. 220."²WINIER. it is used only in the indicative mood. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.²CHANNING This. according to the infinitive used. Ability. as in Sec.²SCOTT. PAST." Must is present or past tense.²PAINE. It is indicative when it expresses permission. ability. Like must. . Must is historically a past-tense form. "So mote it be. purpose.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. for full drill on the forms.. His superiority none might question..²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. Indicative Use: Permission.[To the Teacher. of course. as it has two meanings. PAST. there is one general principle. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. as it sometimes does. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.²CHANNING. from the obsolete verb motan. 247.

my lad. yea. not plod along like apeasant. in the form of command. "I think I will go. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. or confident prediction. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.²THAXTER.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. as. especially in the United States. future action). Shall and Will. She rejects his suit with scorn. The sea shall crush thee. promise.e. while ought always has to. MOULTON. with pronouns of the first person.² The time will come full soon. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.²LONGFELLOW. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.Nay.²IRVING.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.²MACAULAY. what shall I say?²N.² Futurity and questions²first person.² With respect to novels. shall and should are used. she should ride like a queen. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.²COOPER. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i.²L.²BULWER.² (a) To express authority.. 252. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. for example. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. Second and third persons. and corn to hoe. . C. he said. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. (b) In questions asking for orders. She should not walk." Uses of shall and should. They shall have venison to eat. The following are examples:² Never mind. (b) In indirect quotations. to the neglect of shall and should. as. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. shall and should are used. BROCKDEN BROWN. WEBSTER. I shall be gone. to use will and would. as.

and will not return until all is finished. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²WORDSWORTH. .² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. BROWN. second and third persons. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. And promised. purpose.²CABLE. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. and is equivalent to ought. JAMES.²ROGERS. for example. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. as the sole inventor.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. with the conviction that he should win in the end. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. or a promise.²WORDSWORTH. JR. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. Disguising a command. B..² I will go myself now. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²A.²WORDSWORTH.that I would do him justice.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. time. thus. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. I never was what I should be. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²WINTER. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener..²BYRON.²SCOTT. etc. was to be expected. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. as.. for example. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.²C.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. LARNED.²SWIFT.²H. 253. First.

but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²the original meaning of the word will. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).²IRVING. BROWN. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. Thine was a dangerous gift. as if it were merely expected action. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.. action merely expected to occur. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. as. and two of my people. will and would often denote an action as customary. In this stately chair would he sit. etc.. (4) With FIRST. and mark on the grounds the works. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. B. for example. will is used to express command.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.²SCOTT.. The gift of Beauty.. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. when thou wast born.²SCOTT. To be sure. SECOND. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. as. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. will and would are used to express simple futurity. PASSIVE VOICE. Mere futurity.²BANCROFT.²War Records.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. through storms their brothers are afraid of.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.. for example. When I am in town. would is used to express a wish. This puts the order more mildly. so you will. Roland.²LANDOR. .. for punishment or intimidation. without regard to future time.² Thou wilt take the skiff.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.²BURKE. AND THIRD PERSONS. They will go to Sunday schools. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. 254.² DICKENS.² Subject I omitted: often so. Would thou hadst it not. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.

Thou art what I would be. [They] shall choose. 1." answered Herbert stubbornly. I shall choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 5. [He] shall choose. promise. yet only seem. I shall be chosen. Plural. Singular. You will choose. 3. 3. 6. Thou shalt have a suit. (a) From Secs. 4. Plural. 3. You shall be chosen. etc. 2. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. . [He] will be chosen. 3. 2. 3. You will be chosen. 1. Exercises on Shall and Will. [They] will choose. 252 and 253. (b) Examine the following sentences. Singular. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 1. Singular. We will be chosen. and that of the newest cut. 2. I will be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. Plural. [They] will be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. You will choose. We will choose. "I shall not run. 1. Plural. You shall be chosen. We shall be chosen. You shall choose. 2. 2. I will choose. He informed us. [He] will choose. You will be chosen. You shall choose. 2. We shall choose. 1. To express determination. [They] shall be chosen. and justify the use of shall and will. 3.:² ACTIVE VOICE. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1.Singular.

255.²ID. put. bereave besought Past Participle. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. need some attention and explanation. "I am a wayfarer." 14. my son. The old ending to verbs of Class II. bereave beseech bereft. 13. Present Tense. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. set. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. or mylk and wastel breed.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. This ending has now dropped off. 9. bereft. 257. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.7. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. No. and have no change of vowel. 11. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Lucy stood still.²CHAUCER. 12. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 10. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. bereaved besought . and I have nothing to say. set. 256. WEAK VERBS. was -de or -te. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. put. Without having attended to this. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Irregular Weak Verbs. then.²Class I. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. Of smale houndes hadde she. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. The beast made a sluggish movement. as if he would have more of the enchantment. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. put. as. very anxious. Past Tense. But the rest." the stranger said.

leant leaped. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

267. Three saplings. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. will (with should and would). Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Indefinite. Nothing of the kind having been done. 266. But later. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow).6. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. [To] have been chosen. I returned to reflection on my situation. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. Perfect. they have an indefinite. [To] have been choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. 10. To with the infinitive. as in the Old English. when inflections became fewer. [To] be choosing. 9.. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] have chosen. [To] choose. Infinitives. an indefinite and a perfect form. [To] be chosen. a perfect. 7. 268. . Imperfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. 8. Perfect definite. INFINITIVES. expressing purpose.²the creature warring against the creating power. to was used before the infinitive generally. Perfect. When active. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Cases when to is omitted. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Indefinite. and when passive. an imperfect. try clemency.. like participles.. and a perfect definite form. to express action unconnected with a subject. formed a kind of bedstead. In Sec. have no tense.

"a house to let. do (as. please. "She ask my pardon. as in the expression. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William.² What! doth she.). While the gerund expresses action. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. "He will choose. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. bid (command). make." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. sometimes need (as. liberal woman. negative.²IRVING. as the credulous imagine. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. as. . also in the imperative. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. "I do go" etc. They shall have venison to eat. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. and like a noun in use. watch.²MACAULAY. as. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb." etc. poor woman!" cried Charles.. can (could). hear.²GOLDSMITH. see.(2) After the verbs may (might). The gerund is like the participle in form. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. feel. must. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. or the object of a verb or a preposition. also let. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. learn [doth learn is one verb." (4) In exclamations.²COOPER.²DE QUINCEY. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. GERUNDS. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. and emphatic forms of the present and past. 269. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. HALE. But there was nothing to do. 272." "I shall have chosen. it has several attributes of a noun. it may be the subject of a verb. 270. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. 271. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. it is often preceded by the definite article." Examples are.²it may be governed as a noun. too.²TENNYSON.²E. as.² She was a kind. and corn to hoe. under "Analysis. E.²HOWELLS.

Sec. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." also (2. but do not assert. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. 2. on your leaving the spot. Exercise. 273. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (3) Participial adjectives. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. which name an action or state. (6) Verbal nouns. brilliant. which express action." Exercise. which express action. making the definite tenses." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. but cannot govern. II). according to use as well as meaning.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. (5) Gerunds. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. when. five infinitives." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. to see the returning hope of the parents. and has been put down. above. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. b). Words in -ing are of six kinds. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. may govern and be governed." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (4) Pure adjectives." "Certainly dueling is bad.²Find sentences containing five participles. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. What a vast. and wonderful store of learning! . after examining the nest. and five gerunds. (2) Pure participles. 4. which have lost all verbal force. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. which express action and also modify. Then how pleasing is it.

The only means of ascending was by my hands. In parsing verbs. 15. 9. . 6. What is dreaming? 8. write twenty pages without stopping. (4) Tense. like Sir Walter Scott. you must. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. (2) Voice. He is one of the most charming masters of our language.²active or passive. (5) Person and number. much corroded. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. giving principal parts.²strong or weak. Thackeray did not.²which of the tenses given in Sec. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. I suppose I was dreaming about it. (3) Mood. 7.²transitive or intransitive. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. He spread his blessings all over the land. give reality to your teaching. slowly. Caution.5. subjunctive. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. round which is an iron railing. bearing her national emblem. 234. he gave out sentence by sentence. VERBS. 12. but.²indicative. 14. 10. or imperative. 11. dictating from his chair. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. by object lessons. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. I. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 16. (b) as to use. 275. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 13. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature.

VERB PHRASES. . 277. 278(2). etc. In such sentences as 1. You are gathered to your fathers. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. till it meet the sun in his coming. It has been intimated in Sec. (b) whether indefinite. then parse it as an adjective. (b) its use (Sec. (3) Gerund. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. no sin nor sorrow. and should always be analyzed as phrases. Parse the verbs. II. 2. In 2." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. VERBALS. must. indicative. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. active. indicative (as it means could). and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. etc. (b) whether active or passive. 278.276. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. The government might have been strong and prosperous.. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. definite. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. 235. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. and parting day linger and play on its summit. (a) From what verb derived. intransitive. past tense. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. in the world. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. (2) Infinitive. (c) to what word it belongs. and ends in -s. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. may. 4." Sometimes it does. 2. (1) Participle. perfect. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Exercise. intransitive. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. give points (a) and (b). Take these examples:² 1. But unless the verb is present. and not taken as single verbs. usually it does not. 3. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. imperfect. perfect. past tense. followed by a pure infinitive without to. III. verbals. could. would. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. call should a weak verb. 273). might. Let it rise! let it rise. can. Especially frequent are those made up of should. has the subject government. call might a weak verb. we must beware of the rule. therefore active. see Sec. If a participial adjective. has for its subject Lee.

5. 22. as the Hindoos say. 6. 16. Right graciously he smiled on us. 10. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. and wondered if she were yet awake. The soul having been often born. see that it is in good condition. 19. 11. he thought only of her. However that be. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. a new waking up of all that has life. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. He passed across the room to the washstand. from a sort of temporary death. or. 21. 9. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 15. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. as rolled from wing to wing. When he arose in the morning. 20. 17. a sweet good will. . 14. 12. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. Whatever ground you sow or plant. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring.Down all the line. morning is not a new issuing of light. In going for water. 18. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.Henceforth in me instill. 13. leaving me upon the bed. as usual. With them.O God. a deafening shout. 23. 24. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. So. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. 8. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. a new bursting forth of the sun.

thou sayest. 279.Feast while we may.²time. as. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. Better it were. "William's private life was severely pure. for example.²EMERSON. A verb." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly.²SHELLEY. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. because. ADVERBS. Is it only poets. to consent. 29. Nor was it altogether nothing.²CARLYLE. Oh. or manner: as. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it." "He was absolute. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. and so on. . Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. 26.² The young man reveres men of genius. who live with nature?²ID. for the hour of rest is at hand." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. and limit adjectives or adverbs. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. and men of leisure and cultivation. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. and live ere life be spent. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.25. When action is expressed." Sometimes a noun or pronoun."²DE QUINCEY. Adverbs modify.²THACKERAY. And now wend we to yonder fountain. to speak truly. place. they are more himself than he is. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way." An adjective or an adverb. The word adverb means joined to a verb. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 27. To the almost terror of the persons present.

ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.² LOWELL. as shown in the sentences. or a word group used as such. there are six classes:² (1) Time. all wet and glossy. 169 are felt to be elliptical. thus. and that. but some verb understood. is a modifying word. Surely happiness is reflective.²T. Definition. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. lately. for example. and half awfully. being adverbs naturally and fitly. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. ever. Thus considered.²LEIGH HUNT. ²IRVING. but really modifying.²These last differ from the words in Sec. I draw forth the fruit. 169. not simply the forms used in predication. Make music to the lonely ear. NOTE. A clause or sentence. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. has induced some of us to attend it. hitherto. NOTE. before. An adverb. while those in Sec. like the light of heaven.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. not the noun.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. which may qualify an action word or a statement.²THOREAU. 282. but still with a rich bloom to it. perhaps. 281. as now. . to-day. then. (2) according to their use in the sentence. B. A phrase.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. It may also modify a sentence. 280.²TROLLOPE. etc. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb.² FRANKLIN. ALDRICH.²BYRON.He was incidentally news dealer. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. We are offered six months' credit. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. as. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.

singly. White. probably. Thackeray. LOUIS STEVENSON.where. etc. as hither. 283. for example. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. especially the comparative of these words. greatly. as well. possibly. The more they multiply.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. surely.was for this once of her opinion.which gained him such universal popularity. bravely.whither. etc. enough. just. etc.²HAWTHORNE. above. etc. the more friends you will have. [Sidenote The status of such.²DE QUINCEY... (5) Degree.²IRVING. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. telling how anything is done. Emerson.thither. as hence. (6) Assertion.(2) Place. better. whithersoever.²BROWNING. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.²SHAKESPEARE. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. maybe. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. while so precedes only the adjective usually. partly.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. as little. as perhaps.²BURKE. not. So also in Grote. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. as here. whencesoever. at least. thus. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. etc.²R. beautifully. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.yonder. very. the more evidently they love liberty.²LECKY. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.. or how far he believes it to be true. (4) Number. (see also Sec. twice.² The master. (3) Manner. slightly. Meekness. 283). This long's the text. telling how much. Motley. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.there.thence. much. two by two. that these adverbs form a very large class. etc. telling how many times: once... the more perfect will be their obedience. slowly. and not infrequently are found in literary English.near. and others.whence. too. . I was.

" "That were far better [degree]. Again. 286. I perceived his sisters mighty busy." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Hard blows and hard money. Mighty.² You are mighty courteous. Emerson. "Peace.²THACKERAY. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. have the additional function of asking a question. Beau Fielding.²FIELDING. Some adverbs. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Dickens. 284. B. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. for example." "He spoke positively [manner]. 282. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Simple. A pretty large experience. It is only occasionally used in literary English.²"He walked too far [place]. Kingsley." said the king.²GOLDSMITH. Aldrich. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Holmes. De Quincey. 285.²BULWER. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.²BAYNE. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Neville. Defoe. for example.Pretty. Notice meanings. Burke." "I have seen you before [time]. . besides modifying.²THACKERAY. Franklin. Direct questions.² KINGSLEY. and its lawn before [place]. STOWE. Interrogative. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. and art but a fool." "The house.²HAWTHORNE. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. a mighty fine gentleman. and other writers."²SCOTT.² "Mighty well. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.

² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. (2) Place. I know not why. for example. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. I hearkened. 287. (4) Degree. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BYRON (3) Manner. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.²BULWER. I do not remember when I was taught to read. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. (2) Place. .These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. When did this humane custom begin?²H. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. they smiled. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (5) Reason.²BYRON.²D. I will not ask where thou liest low. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.²POE. (4) Degree. WEBSTER. CLAY.

obs. 290. The following. Then must she keep it safelier. just as adjectives do. when. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. as. furthest (rathe. sooner. see Sec. not an adverb.. For further discussion. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. Only that we may wiselier see.²SHAKESPEARE.²TENNYSON. only occasionally having -er and -est. when compared. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. and.²COLERIDGE.. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.) rather 289. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Tell what each word in ly modifies. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. .eyes." Exercise. 288. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Superlative. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.²BYRON. soon. high. Exercise. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. higher. have the same inflection as adjectives. representing four classes. well much little far late Comparative. Many adjectives have the same ending. further farthest. soonest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Many adverbs are compared.²EMERSON. when does not express time and modify. highest.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. use. Form vs.But in reality. Its strings boldlier swept. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. irregularly compared. but the whole clause.

adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. 4. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. But he must do his errand right.²ID. etc. curiously jolly.²IRVING. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. more courtly in their manners. nearly.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. whether adverbs or adjectives.²TENNYSON. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. Again. With his proud. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 291." Compare these:² 1. hardly. Special use of there. The reason is. Frequently the word there. near. . 8. There are eyes. mostly. merely introduces a sentence. 292. as. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. that in Old and Middle English. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 6. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. 3.² EMERSON. Not near so black as he was painted. instead of being used adverbially.²CHAUCER. Such are most. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.²THACKERAY. 2. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.1. He is inexpressibly mean. even. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. if it has the verb be. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly.And his mien of kingly state. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. kindly and good-natured in secret. hard. to be sure. or down the leaves laughed through. 2.²WORDSWORTH. 5. but with a different meaning. And all about. many words without -ly have the same form. evenly. 7. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. quick-flashing eye.

the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. and sate down on the steps of a house. 293. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. give² (1) The class. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. For the impracticable. 17. if the word is compared. It is the Cross that is first seen. 7. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. is always politically unwise. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 18. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. (3) What word or word group it modifies. the Madonna is in great glory.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 12. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 15. but from my fall? 6. But a few steps farther on. 9. 3. Thither we went. according to meaning and also use. . 2. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Exercise. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. and always. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 11. 10. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 5. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. but continually shifted. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. (2) Degree of comparison. 4. at the regular wine-shop. In parsing adverbs. burning in the center of the temple. however theoretically enticing. 16.

(1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. hence. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. therefore. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. A conjunction is a linking word. . 22. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. but side by side within the American Union." Paragraphs. 21. etc. But now the wind rose again. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. sentences. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. 295. but the student will readily find them." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. nor. or sentence groups." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. 294. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. 20. It was pretty bad after that. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. upon which the sun now shone forth." Sentences. CONJUNCTIONS. Clauses. word groups. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. Unlike adverbs. however. then. connecting words. Definition.19.

.or whether. 298." Nevertheless. etc. had its weight. as but. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. hence. and not man corn.. Causal. Correlatives.. usually between two things. as well as the room door. moreover. Alternative. not only. the butter too. whether. the bread was spent. Nor mark'd they less... however.. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.nor. either. of the same rank. neither..or. Some go in threes. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks... word groups.or. expressing a choice.or. still. neither. joining words. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.nor. Some of these go in pairs. Adversative. introducing a reason or cause. 296. likewise. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. serves but to show their ignorance... as... for. therefore. (2) Subordinate. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. not only..but. While the earth bears a plant.. The chief ones are. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.... (4) ALTERNATIVE. etc. (2) ADVERSATIVE. whether. answering to each other in the same sentence. "Howbeit. both. (3) CAUSAL. neither. and. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.but (or but also). yet. else. then.and. as and. . Your letter. 297. or the sea rolls its waves.. as. but is emperor in his own right. They are or. The assertion.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.. nor. nor. while. only. either. whether. the window being open.Classes of conjunctions... as well as... however.or. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. etc. either. also.

provided that.. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. as..²PAULDING. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place.²IRVING. (2) TIME: when. in apposition. etc. even if. nor green leaf. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where.²DE QUINCEY. howsoever. so. after. nor echo. especially that after so. so. that. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. while. until. however. provided. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. 299. since. before.²COOPER. sometimes if. nor wing of bird. or whether such a body is moved along my hand.²J. in case. there will the heart be also. except. now. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. though.. lest. whether. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. Time. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. etc. whenever. (6) PURPOSE: that. on condition that.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. whence. It is. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. as. since. (7) RESULT: that. ²ALLSTON. object. unless. in order that. QUINCY. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. Where the treasure is. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. whereas. whither. . etc. whithersoever. nor creeping thing. Neither the place in which he found etc. ere. although.²BURKE. He is not only bold and vociferous. as. so that. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that.²WILSON. so. so that. wherever.²BIBLE.. (3) MANNER: how. seeing. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. whereto. etc.

but not so long but I held it out.²EMERSON. Now he is dead. As a soldier.²BURKE. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Manner.²AMES.²DEFOE. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²COLERIDGE. Result. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²CAMPBELL.That vain it were her eyes to close. not as they were expected or intended.²EMERSON. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Condition. JACKSON.²AMES. Comparison. Let the world go how it will. Concession. . I was again covered with water.² WORDSWORTH. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²BYRON.So I behold them not. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²AMES. a thousand bodies. Substantive. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.² H.² EMERSON. reason.That he gave her wounds repose. We wish for a thousand heads. Purpose.² HAWTHORNE. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²IRVING. H. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²CARLYLE Events proceed. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Cause.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Then Denmark blest our chief.

as he shot in air. since.²RUSKIN. 14. however. While patriotism glowed in his heart. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. some words²for example. While a faction is a minority. . 300. her real merit is known at home. 2. that. while. 15. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. and hid her there. then.Let us see whether the greatest. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. hold a subordinate rank. 10. And then recovering. 9. And they lived happily forever after. The moth fly. Crept under the leaf. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 7. 12. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 3. etc. In what point of view. the wisest. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. it will remain harmless. They. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 13. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. she faintly pressed her hand. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. He was brought up for the church. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. 6. After he was gone. No one had yet caught his character. the lady called her servant. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. As will have been noticed. 4. 5. as. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Exercises. Besides. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions.

In Emerson's sentence.. So silently we seemed to speak. .. In parsing conjunctions.16. as is shown by the use of as though. in this case. "We meet. (2) What words.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. 302.As though a rose should shut. none of the lashings having given way. 303.. and the frame will suit the picture. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.²IRVING." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. expressing degree if taken separately.Clouded. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. Consequently. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. and be a bud again. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. 304." as. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.²HOOD. as is often equivalent to as if. for example. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. etc. SPECIAL REMARKS. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. GREELEY. the expression would be. As though. As if. they connect.So slowly moved about. word groups. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. thus. even as they would weep. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.²BYRON.²EMILY BRONTE.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. 301. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. If analyzed. In poetry.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. His voice . As for as if. and part as though we parted not.

7. but of the natural. 11. 12. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. others belong to several classes. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and its clause is independent. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.²that the fairies do not like to be named. 6.²is subordinate of condition. Some conjunctions. they are not known. when. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. 10. such as nor. 9. 13. It may be safely trusted. It continued raining. For example. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. All the postulates of elfin annals. and very seldom?" 8. Exercise. 5. because it is his. In classifying them. because. 2. and its clause depends on the other. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. When the gods come among men. as beside his own chimneys. and. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1.²DEFOE 2. or in the snow. in 2. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.. At sea. dines with as good an appetite. so they paddled on. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. or in the forest. 4. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. etc. and associates as happily. he sleeps as warm. so that expresses result. . so means provided.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1." said his wife to Martin Luther. 3.²EMERSON 3. so it be faithfully imparted.² 1. in 3. the Sphinx was slain.²I find them true in Concord. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. He is the compend of time. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. He dismisses without notice his thought. are regularly of one particular class. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. that it might testify of that particular ray. so means therefore. compare the sentences. "Doctor. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. so that I could not stir abroad. If he could solve the riddle. and the like.Caution. he is also the correlative of nature.

Now you have the whip in your hand. you must be. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. I rejoice to stand here no longer. For. . 305. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 28. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. therefore. 29. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 24. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 26. It may be so in the majority of cases. won't you lay on? 17.²else it is none. 18. And whether consciously or not. 23. enthroned. 25. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 20.14. 22. I speak. that both were wayward. however. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field.. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. the whole conditions are changed. 19. when it was presented to them. Still. Goodness must have some edge to it. 30. 21. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 16. 15. of good novels only. 27. in many a heart. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. save it were sinful like herself. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. she might have the family countenance. whose names I omit. in this they agree. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. PREPOSITIONS. There was no iron to be seen. It is clear.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²ID.²DE QUINCEY.²B. 320. by the blessed memory of the departed. etc. at war. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.²ALDRICH. at once. at first. (4) Measure of excess.²EVERETT. by means near or close to. expressing the degree of difference. Exercise. At St.²WARNER. at all. at most. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. ²PARTON. Helena. Richard was standing by the window. STODDARD. as. Like at. H. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at the best. CONWAY. By my faith.²SWIFT. At that time [the earth] was richer. he stopped. 321.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. the first port made by the ship. She saw the boat headed for her. By. Exercise.² (1) The general meaning of place. at random. D.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. For. (2) Time. by many a million of acres. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. . at length. at any rate. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at one. and phrases signifying state or condition of being.²COOPER. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at work. by the wrecks of time.²M. at peace.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at the worst.. by the ruins of nations. at rest. at least. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. etc. at play.²R. at naught. (3) Agency or means.

²HOOD. (7) Concession. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. (5) Reference. reason.²H.²ID. H. for famine. (3) Duration of time. he repented of his folly. (4) Substitution or exchange." said the Lady of Lochleven.(2) In favor of. GARRISON. for all slips of hers.²PARKMAN. considering that etc. etc. for the benefit of. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²PARKMAN."²SCOTT By my faith. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. L. E..²EMERSON. The twilight being.One of Eve's family. ate her child. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. in behalf of. but a few sunsets since. . for all his title. For him. or extent of space.²HOLMES. had a forest of poor relations." answered Master Brackett. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. "thou hast counseled wisely. For the rest. But the Colonel. meaning with regard to. meaning although.²W.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. "Nay. (9) Motive. or in spite of.² RUSKIN. they are now for us. Still. meaning in the character of.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. An Arab woman. He and they were for immediate attack. and leaped for joy.²IRVING. There are gains for all our losses. "For a fool. BANCROFT.. as being.²E. (6) Like as. respecting.²LAMB. a person or thing.²STODDARD. as to. cause. incitement to action. etc. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. etc. if your worship can accomplish that. poor fellow. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. the Colonna motto would fit you best. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.

like from.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. cause.²HALE. 323. Of. Like boys escaped from school.²DRYDEN. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. (1) Origin or source.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²ID. if not a desperate man.²BANCROFT. From.²HUME. The original meaning of of was separation or source. The young cavaliers. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²HIGGINSON.²HUXLEY. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. Exercise. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. from a desire of seeming valiant. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²H. (2) Origin. The general idea in from is separation or source. The king holds his authority of the people. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. A distrustful. nay. From harmony. 322.²MILTON.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. It was from no fault of Nolan's. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. . more. H. ceased to be merciful. The From Relation. or reason. (3) Time. Exercise. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. (4) Motive.

(b) After some adjectives.²PARKMAN.²ID. or breastpin of native gold.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. demand.² HUXLEY. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. ask. Other Relations expressed by Of. out of the most unpromising materials. ²PARTON. and grass. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. More than one altar was richer of his vows. Asked no odds of. bare of. (5) Expressing agency.²ALDRICH. relieve. (c) After nouns expressing lack. etc. purge.²BANCROFT."²E. weeds. Back of that tree. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. etc. You cannot make a boy know. wide of. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. of his own knowledge. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. A singular want of all human relation.. divest. E. rob. free of. cure. expressing a part of a number or quantity. beg. disarm.²DICKENS II. White shirt with diamond studs. bound with thongs of boar's hide. reason. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. deprive.²LEW WALLACE. He is away of his own free will. clear.²SCOTT Who formed.²BAYARD TAYLOR.²BOSWELL. especially out of.²HIGGINSON. rid. acquitted them of. . south of. etc. (3) With expressions of material. Sandals. there were only twenty-one members present. as north of. deprivation. (6) Partitive. (d) With words expressing distance. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. HALE. such as ease. etc. ²GAVARRE. free. Of the Forty. "I am glad of that. motive. The hills were bare of trees.²clear of.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. etc. that Cromwell once ruled England.

when the first is descriptive of the second. . In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²LOWELL. being equivalent to an infinitive. (8) Appositional. of is used in the sense of during. and the dignity of a queen.²ID.²HALLECK.²BANCROFT. of late. 309. of a sudden. with its object. (7) Possessive.²SWIFT.²PRESCOTT. equal to about.²BANCROFT. with regard to. ²IRVING.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. Such a book as that of Job. E. See also Sec.²COOPER. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. (c) Two nouns. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.. (b) Noun and gerund. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. etc. (10) Of reference. (9) Of time. could give shelter from his contumely. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. concerning. Idiomatic use with verbs. Besides the phrases of old.²W. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. Not even woman's love. The nation of Lilliput.He washed out some of the dirt. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. CHANNING. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. The fair city of Mexico.²FROUDE.²LAMB. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. standing.²ALDRICH.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. for the possessive.²BANCROFT. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.

²ALDRICH. and others.²PARKMAN. SIGOURNEY. It also accompanies the verbs tire. on the wing.²PARKMAN. accept. The general meaning of on is position or direction. (b) With motion. on board. on a sudden. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²DE QUINCEY. (3) Reference. repent. complain. Upon my reputation and credit. permit. Upon is seldom used to express time. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. on trial. Cannon were heard close on the left. On.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. Exercise. (4) In adjurations.²PARKMAN. etc. allow. ²BANCROFT. . Exercise. on view. 324. you are eighteen. approve. avail (one's self). On my life. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. consist.²BRYANT. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. To. (2) Time.²MRS. concerning. equal to about. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. on the alert. Upon.²Find sentences with six uses of of. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. such as admit. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. 325. etc. disapprove.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. without adding to their meaning. and not a day more. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. on high.²EMERSON.

Nor..²often to the loss of vigor.²LANG.²BRYANT. to him. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²BULWER.. does the mere music. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. (5) Equivalent to according to. (b) Referring to time. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. had ceased to be. We cook the dish to our own appetite. Revolutions. With. . interest. To the few. 326. (2) Expressing result. With expresses the idea of be written over.²PARKMAN. But when.²GOLDSMITH. it may be genuine poetry. In Old English. whose influence is felt to this hour. He usually gave his draft to an aid.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern..Come to the bridal chamber. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. Death!²HALLECK.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. gay Comedy appears. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²B.²BENTON To our great delight. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. unmasked. mid meant in company with.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²PARTON. Exercise.²HALE. 268).. to my taste. His brother had died.²IRVING.

With all his sensibility.²HOWELLS. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. had already reached the defile. Either with the swingle-bar. Messala. 327. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. HALE. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. E.²COLERIDGE.²COOPER.²ALDRICH. She seemed pleased with the accident. reason. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. transmitted from the beginning. It seemed a supreme moment with him. (3) Cause.²CHANNING. motive. but a pleasure"?²LANG. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. but with you. "poetry is not a pursuit.²Find sentences with four uses of with. as with you.The advance. I think. He was wild with delight about Texas.²DE QUINCEY. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. with all his boldness.²HALE. to find the object of the preposition. (4) Estimation.²LANG. in spite of.²SCOTT. (2) Instrumentality. . With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. felt it unsafe to trifle further. first of all.²HOWELLS.²E.²EMERSON. with Heyward at its head. it is necessary. or with the haunch of our near leader. Exercise.²WALLACE (7) Time. (5) Opposition. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. He expired with these words. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. opinion.²DE QUINCEY. he gave millions to the sword.

which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. but all to no purpose. I remember. 5. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. I looked towards my windows. I speak these things from a love of justice. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. 4. without a country modifies man. of without. telling what man. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. of from. like the clapping of wings. came tumbling about my ears. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I felt my box raised very high in the air. which. (3) without a country. shook it directly over my head. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. 2. To our general surprise. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. In (2). the malicious rogue. he followed us one day into those gardens. Whereupon. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. The object of on board is ships. of on. country. Be that as it will. beginning. I heard a noise just over my head. . that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. In (3). before the dwarf left the queen. because I had given the provocation. Exercises. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. hence we say. In (1). which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. by which a dozen apples. we met the defaulter here.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. the phrase answers the question where. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. I called out several times. or was. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. (4) from the beginning. 3. but I received no other hurt. The guns were cleared of their lumber. and knocked me down flat on my face.²ID. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. (2) on which. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean.²SWIFT 2. And so on.

26. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day.He spurred his courser on. 20. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 25. to one dark and gloomy. His breeches were of black silk. in town. Carteret was far from being a pedant. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. I like to see the passing. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. . 19. For my part. The savage army was in war-paint. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. grasping at the child. The mother sank and fell. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 24. plumed for battle. 11. With all his learning. 22. 21. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 7. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 9. 23.Without stop or stay. he favored the world with his opinions. after a restful morning. 8. 17. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 14. 15. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 16. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 10. On all subjects known to man. in this respect. 12. when. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 18. 27. 13.6. 29.

²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. That was a dreadful mistake.30. WHAT. A few are discussed below. 329. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That night was a memorable one. (4) As an adverb of degree.²HUXLEY.²BEECHER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. We wish that labor may look up here. (3) As a relative pronoun. THAT. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.²COLERIDGE. .²WEBSTER. And now it is like an angel's song. (a) Indefinite relative. (1) Relative pronoun.² JOHNSON. 328. 330. and not according to form.²WEBSTER. (c) Substantive conjunction.That makes the heavens be mute. not merely by the amount of the tax. (b) Of result. He will raise the price. that you might behold this joyous day.²WEBSTER. That is what I understand by scientific education. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (2) As an adjective pronoun.²STOCKTON.

What with the Maltese goats.²WORDSWORTH.²S.²THACKERAY. and silent all!²BYRON. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. but the result of calculation.²ID.. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (b) Copulative. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT..²EMERSON. or not only.these sounds are only to be heard. partly. BUT. (b) Indirect question. to see what might be hidden. nearly equivalent to partly. If he has [been in America]. he knows what good people are to be found there.. At what rate these materials would be distributed. it rests on is impossible to determine. 331.S.. (7) Adverb of degree. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. "I'll tell you what.Which be they what they may. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²WEBSTER. Cox. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.²EMERSON. What.. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (9) As an exclamation. What.. silent still.. (6) Exclamatory adjective.Those shadowy recollections.Are yet the fountain light of all our day...²ID. after not only.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage... (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct Pera. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. To say what good of fashion we can. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (8) Conjunction. . what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (b) Indirect question." (4) Relative adjective.

²CARLYLE. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. Who knows but. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (5) Adverb. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. than.He yearned to our patriot bands. but piercing cries. on all sides. 332. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. stands for that .²LAMB. meaning otherwise . As orphans yearn on to their mothers.. meaning except.²IRVING.²SHELLEY. (4) Relative pronoun.²IRVING. ²CARLYLE.. or who . (2) Relative pronoun. To lead but one measure.²HAWTHORNE.Then arose not only tears. meaning only..²IRVING. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²SCOTT. Doing duty as a guard.. equivalent to that .²EMERSON. towards order. not. (3) Preposition. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. . (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.²FRANKLIN. sometimes same. at all moments.. (e) Introducing an appositive word.. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result... (b) Substantive. (b) Of manner. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. after a negative. after such. AS. (c) Of degree.²MRS BROWNING. I shall see but little of it. (d) Of reason. not. like the dog. not.

That face. this. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. This follows a verb or a verbal. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²EMERSON. .²DARWIN.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²ALDRICH. Through which they put their heads.²CASS.²ALDRICH.² HAWTHORNE. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. Stirring it vigorously. indeed. Note the difference between these two uses. They look.²EMERSON. NOTE. like a cook beating eggs. (1) An adjective. No Emperor. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. 333.²HAWTHORNE.-SCOTT.²HIGGINSON.²MAYHEW. Give Ruskin space enough.² A timid. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. I do with my friends as I do with my books. ²PARKMAN. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. nervous child. In each case. like summer ocean's. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. and was clearly an adjective. and as or as if takes its place.²LONGFELLOW.²HALLECK. and is followed by a dative-objective. There is no statue like this living man. Introduces a clause. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. like Martin was. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. but this is not considered good usage: for example. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²SHAKESPEARE. If the verb is expressed. In this second use. like him awhile ago. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²LAMB. like drops out. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. but its verb is omitted. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.LIKE. staring like a bewildered man.

that is. subject and predicate. clauses introduced by conjunctions. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. pronoun. as. tut! buzz! etc.INTERJECTIONS. Definition." PART II. 336. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. etc. Definition..²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. but it still retains its identity as noun. . ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. What analysis is. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. 334." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].²in determining case. in separating them into their component parts. verb.: for example. that is. 335. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. etc. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Some of these are imitative sounds. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Value of analysis." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. entering into the structure of a sentence." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell.

" "What wouldst thou do. old man?" "Be thou familiar. 339. A rare old plant is the ivy green. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Definition. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. 337. entreaty. but according to how many statements there are. which expresses command. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence." 340. This is the most common one. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. hence. according to form. . which puts the thought in a question. (2) Interrogative. (3) Imperative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. SIMPLE SENTENCES. Every sentence must contain two parts. or command: for example. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. "Come to the bridal chamber. interrogative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. declarative. Division according to number of statements. "Hath he not always treasures. Definition: Predicate. 338.Kinds of sentences as to form.²a subject and a predicate. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. or request. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. but by no means vulgar. question. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. But now all is to be changed. not according to the form in which a thought is put. always friends?" imperative. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. 2. but the sentence would still be declarative. you must not die!" interrogative. Examples of these three kinds are. "Old year. or imperative.

In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 7. to an ignorant man.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.²What is to be changed? Answer. the subject (you. Listen. or an interrogative pronoun. 2. In the interrogative sentence. all. thou. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. But if we try this with the second sentence. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. always reduce them to the order of a statement. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. "[You] behold her single in the field. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. especially in poetry. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 5. 4. 6. but about the ivy green. Thus. we have some trouble. 8. and is to be supplied. 341. and the real subject is the latter. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. a rare old plant." Exercise. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. to suit all cases:² Subject. In analyzing such sentences. . Slavery they can have anywhere. and our definition must be the following. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. The last of all the Bards was he. as. on the other hand. Consequently. the subject is frequently after the verb. not of a rare old plant. or adverb that asks about the subject. 3. or ye) is in most cases omitted. adjective. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate.

" Complement: 344. Direct Object. The transitive verb often requires. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. (5) Modifiers." indirect. just as if to say. (2) The predicate. (6) Independent elements. but it is a true complement. . Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. "Ye call me chief." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Of a transitive verb. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. Indirect object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. 342. and by object we mean the direct object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief).²transitive and intransitive. or second object. but of call chief. The subject and predicate have been discussed.10. (4) The complements. 343. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. but chief belongs to the verb. in addition to the object. and means summoned. "Ye honor me. and me here is not the object simply of call. direct. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. (3) The object. for example.

The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. See sentence 19." "The good man. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 351. as in drowning. "Brow and head were round.." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. 'Ay. more familiarly. 352." (2) PARTICIPIAL. An intransitive verb. especially the forms of be." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. I mentioned a case of that nature. above sixty. Complement of an intransitive verb. 364." (3) INFINITIVE. and. he was now getting old. or. become. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." 345. and of massive weight.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. for instance. sir!' rang out in response. introduced by a preposition: for example. A phrase is a group of words." Also an expression used as a noun. 347. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. as in the sentence. 355." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. Thom of the Gills. taste. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. in the popular judgment. but used as a single modifier. Phrases. and barring the door. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. etc. in exercise following Sec. "A cheery." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . 346." All these complete intransitive verbs. feel. seem. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. As to form." "He was termed Thomas. appear. as. not containing a verb." Things used as Subject. to the completion of this man of the world." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. ay. in the original Opium Confessions.

There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.²the infinitive phrase. for which see Sec. from their lips. etc.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. "'By God. (4) After "there introductory. (2) In interrogative sentences. but they will be given in detail here. or their religion from their sect." Things used as Direct Object. but obscures the real subject. .²the talent of starting the game. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). and by Saint George!' said the King." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. but the real or logical subject is to print. "Therein has been." 348. was heard one syllable to justify." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." Things used as Complement. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." The for did not belong there originally." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. 349." "Never. I saw the quick and the dead." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. 341. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." "The dead are there. prowling eyes. or the thundering of organs." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. Disguised infinitive subject. my deficiency. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." In this sentence." "There are asking eyes. asserting eyes." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. and ever will be." etc.

" . Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. Modifiers of Subject. at the same time. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. or Complement.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot.350. I." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." (4) Participle." "Serving others is serving us. they are adjuncts of the object." Modifiers. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. Of a transitive verb. Like all the complements in this list. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." In this last sentence." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. and explaining or modifying the subject. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." "I hear the echoes throng. (3) Infinitive. trusting the hearts of his countrymen.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards.²heads or tails.²completing the predicate." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Object. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. or the equivalent of the noun. As complement of an intransitive verb. the object is made the subject by being passive." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. As complement of a transitive verb." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." "Their tempers. and. 351." "She asked her father's permission. and the words italicized are still complements. complements of the predicate. the shepherd girl. doubtless. and whenever the complement is a noun.

tell whether the subject. the verb being omitted. object. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." "Give them not only noble teachings." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. Retained with passive. and modify the predicate in the same way." "Him. Tells how." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. not with nature. "He died like a God." "In the twinkling of an eye." Exercise. or . austere. the prisoner at the bar. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. and leading him from star to star." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. but it is really a contracted clause. was now called upon for his defense. this young idolater." In such a sentence as." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. 351. was the scene from King John. no sociable angel. but with other men. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. see further Secs." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but noble teachers.²proud.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland.²In each sentence in Sec. II. I have seasoned for thee.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Since the predicate is always a verb." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. 352. unforgiving. or complement is modified." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." (For participial and infinitive phrases. Modifiers of the Predicate. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. given at the request of a Dutch lady. 357-363.

3. I took. 8." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. the indirect object is retained." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 7. predicate. gives wonderful animation. (a) Pick out subject. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. a sort of personality to the whole writing. These answer the question when. predicate. and other measures of precaution. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 6. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. he liked. and (direct) object:² 1. in this center? 4. 2. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 2. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. after dinner. 6. etc. in regard to particulars." "All such knowledge should be given her. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation." "One way lies hope. (b) Pick out the subject. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 4. Fashion does not often caress the great. according to old philosophers. 3. no humor. 7. To the men of this world. how far. no emotion. 5. negative. and. They do not wish to be lovely. Evil. and as many to oppose it. His books have no melody. or how long.When the verb is changed from active to passive. On the voyage to Egypt. but the children of the great. with my joy and grief. and the direct object is retained: for example. to the animal strength and spirits. This." Exercises. 5.. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. . But anger drives a man to say anything. is good in the making. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. but to be loved. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition." (6) Adverbial objective.

I promised her protection against all ghosts. I gave him an address to my friend. 2. etc. 6. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. expecting the return of their parents. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 3.²the river Meuse. y y y y Compound Subject. this imperial rider. viz. that was thy portion in life. upwards. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. after their long confinement to a ship. 5. to the right and to the left. 2. That night. 4. this nun so martial. the blooming cornet. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 3. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste.y 8. this dragoon so lovely. 4. I felt myself. Their intention was to have a gay. To suffer and to do. burthened with the anxieties of a man. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. . and a member of the world. 5. at length the warrior lady. happy dinner. then. the attorney. must visit again the home of her childhood. Yes. Unhorse me. Not the less I owe thee justice. 2. at the chief hotel. 3. Compound Predicate. for the first time. Paint me. in little peaceful Easedale. A river formed the boundary. the present Archbishop of Dublin. then. a room seventeen feet by twelve. In one feature. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 4. downwards.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. six children sat by a peat fire.. Not compound sentences.

"By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. the object. turned his steps homeward. the predicate. I'm with you once again." "He shook his head. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. they are not a necessary part. above: thus. For example. Of this." And so with complements. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. modifiers. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. Bishop. complements. that is. Examples of compound subjects are. "The company broke up. in the sentence. shouldered the rusty firelock. "Ah. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. ulcer. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. same as (1). forming a sentence: "Oh. the simple subject is situation. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. the verb). my brave young man!" ." Sentences with compound predicates are. and the rest is the logical predicate." "The name of the child. hurry.353. several modifiers. exposes. the air of the mother. together with all its modifiers. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. two or more subjects of the same predicate." "Ye crags and peaks. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. then the grammatical subject and predicate. however.. Independent Elements of the Sentence. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. etc. and. together with its modifiers. etc. but it is to be noticed that. 355. and its object or complement." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. The exclamatory expression. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. etc." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. 354. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. lurking far down in the depths of human nature.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. hurry. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. in all such sentences as we quote below. Larger view of a sentence." "Voyages and travels I would also have. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. may be the person or thing addressed. the tone of her voice.

are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary.. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. that have an office in the sentence. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. this story runs thus. (1) Adjectival. (b) As a modifier of subject. modifying the predicate. undoubtedly. 356." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. modifying a noun. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. The words well. see Sec. let him perish. etc. and some conjunctions. such as perhaps." "Well. really. already noticed." "At all events. or complement (see Sec. 355. six quill-driving gentlemen. y (2) The adverbial use. etc. now. . 351. truly." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. instances of which were seen in Sec." Another caution. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. generally speaking. he somehow lived along. why. nevertheless." "No. such as however." (3) Independent. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. or word used as a noun: for example. object. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. In their use. and so on. grandma. see Sec. her noticing even this is creditable. 4)." (2) Adverbial. 4). 352. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." (6) Single words: as. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. how you're winking!" "Now.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. These need close watching." "Why. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 350." (5) Participial phrase: "But.. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. therefore. to the best of my remembrance. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. he was a conscientious man. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. then. pronoun." "Truth to say. he closed his literary toils at dinner." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. "Oh. the company broke up. yes! everybody knew them. prepositional phrases may be. besides. 6)." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. There are some adverbs. 357. 3. moreover.

There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. and they will be presented here in full. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. See Sec. I.should. or as nearly so as the student will require. he should not have known them at all. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. and hence is adverbial. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. but having no other office than a verbal one. modifying was speedily run through. 355. y (a) With may (might). thus. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. "The letter of introduction. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . This case excepted. containing no matters of business. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. "Because I was. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. and teach her how to be happy and good." "There. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. therefore. etc. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. necessity.seem. being equivalent to a future with obligation. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. etc. was speedily run through. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule.: as in the sentences. Wilt thou. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15." etc. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec.can (could). my dear. (5).]. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings." In this sentence." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. ought. The verbal use. 358. but require somewhat closer attention." (b) With the forms of be.would." (c) With the definite forms of go.

"She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. notice the following:² In (1). and the eyes to fill?" 359." "He insisted on his right to forget her.²both purpose clauses. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. modifying a noun that may be a subject." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death.." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories.: for example. (4) In apposition." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. The adverbial use. hang the idiot. 361 are used adverbially. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. IV." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. already examined. to hear McOrator after dinner. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "To teach is to learn. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. To test this. etc. above." 360. object." "To say what good of fashion we can. complement." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. .moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. 5). Don Guzman. III. 362. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). result. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. to please is equivalent to that he may please. The substantive use." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. The adjectival use. 361." "Are you mad." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. 351. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. "But there was no time to be lost. the Scotch fighting all the battles. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. etc. to look means that he might look. II. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck.

to part means because I part. . (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 364. (5) The subject (Sec. object. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. which is of two kinds.²both expressing condition. The independent use. 4. (7) Independent elements (Sec. must be in a life.In (2). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec.. 363. and to say is equivalent to if we say. In (3). 351). If it is an incomplete verb. not in a book.. In analyzing simple sentences. etc. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. give the complement (Secs. to hear means if you should hear. 351). and to betray and to bring express the reason. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 349). 352). 3. as in Sec. to find shows the result of the return. 351). 355).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1." (See also Sec. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. V. equivalent to that you betray. 347). etc. (3). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. In (5). 355. I will try to keep the balance true. 2.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. give² (1) The predicate. Our life is March weather. In (4). etc. savage and serene in one hour. 268. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree.

He risked everything. . 9. 16. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men.4. I have heard Coleridge talk. a good shot. a skilled musician. 5. always in a bad plight. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. nor troops. and to the purpose. is to have no political system at all. 6. The water. in popular use.The old crow of Cairo. Through the years and the centuries. neither ammunition. might be called flabby and irresolute. 24. two stricken hours. 12. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. and spared nothing.²to preserve her throne. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. We are always in peril. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 10. His opinion is always original. 22. to restore civil and religious order. an accomplished scholar. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 8. nor money. like a witch's oils.He sat in the shower. a graceful dancer. 13. through evil agents. nor generals. 17. The whole figure and air. and every moment discover something new. To be hurried away by every event. with eager energy. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. Her aims were simple and obvious. Old Adam. 23. You may ramble a whole day together. 14. to keep England out of war. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. The word conscience has become almost confined.Burnt green and blue and white. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. nor himself. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. To these gifts of nature. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 21. 18. 20. the carrion crow. 7. good and amiable otherwise. 19. through toys and atoms. 11. just on the edge of destruction. to the moral sphere. 15.

and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. and in my own garden. 34. and no provisions but wild berries. Now. 39. In the Acadian land. I hate him and myself. 30.Distant. and. 35. it would not have been filial or ladylike. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. haply. secluded. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. She had made a two days' march. still. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. ready to receive her. Oxford. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. to bid you leave the place now and forever. 37. 27.25. 32. proud foe. Of the same grandeur. 26. the same Condé Olivarez. in front of all this mighty crowd. I dare this. 38. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. But yield. 29. baggage far in the rear. time-honored. The villain. in less heroic and poetic form. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. in this world.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Upon this shore stood. 41. 36. or perhaps one virtue. and the wherefore? . 33. The cry. an elderly man. 31. 40. the prime minister of Spain. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Fair name might he have handed down. and the why. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Must we in all things look for the how. had but one foible. Few in number. This amiable relative. the ship was in an uproar. the present capital of New England. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. upon my own ground. to be a reproach to such goodness. Supposing this computation to be correct.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings.

to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. thus. . as. COMPLEX SENTENCES. as would be the connective instead of like. As shown in Part I. however. which is the unit of speech." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. 366." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. the pride and beauty of the grove.² "She is like some tender tree. 367." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. the expressions of manner introduced by like. but. (Sec. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. The simple sentence the basis. 333)." Sentences with like. are really contracted clauses." To show that these words are really omitted. if they were expanded. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].From her own loved island of sorrow. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. 365. Some sentences look like simple ones in form.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. though often treated as phrases.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. made merely for convenience and smoothness." This must. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. Words left out after than or as.

²the other members subordinate to it. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. as in this sentence. Hence the following definition:² Definition.. and the next one. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. CLAUSES. object. or dependent on it. complements." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. suffering. murmur. A principal. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. how great . etc. we are aware. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. each clause has its subject. Independent clause.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. 369. . or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. logically depends on suffering. predicate. and the last.²the backbone. that is. object. 370. that .²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. then we recognize this as the main statement. 371. main. is taken in.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. and modifier. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). or it may be applied to the others.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. containing a verb with its subject.. which are so united that one member is the main one. A clause is a division of a sentence... The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. modifiers. complement. Definition. 368.

" (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. and it is . that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend." (4) Apposition. (a) Ordinary apposition. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.. 5)." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. and ADVERB clauses. night or day. so the object clause is retained. thus. or adverbs. and the whole clause is not. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. 'I know that he can toil terribly. ADJECTIVE. but logically the sentence is. pronoun. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject.. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living.. verbal." Just as the object noun. We ourselves are getting . according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. 372. attention is called to them here." (2) Object of a verb. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. adjectives. Kinds...." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. for example." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. impertinences²would be grammatical." 374. clauses are divided into NOUN. for example. put an end to my fancies. . etc. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. As to their office in the sentence. over which the torrent came tumbling. for a hundred years. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. 352. for a time." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.Dependent clause. with a noun clause in apposition with it. 373. impertinences.. (b) that are . "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.' is an electric touch. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. Noun Clauses. But since they are complex in form. infinitive. is retained after a passive verb (Sec." "I was told that the house had not been shut. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.

that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Other examples of this construction are. 2. that. 7. that all safe legislation must be based. no man will ever know. What history it had. 5. that he was a scheming impostor. Examples of adjective clauses. as. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. sometimes by the conjunctions when. of a nation. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. . a falsehood incarnate." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. Adjective Clauses. But the fact is. whither. Except by what he could see for himself. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 10. how it changed from shape to shape. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. The reply of Socrates. where. Frequently there is no connecting word. 9.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis." Exercise. but. still remains reasonable. Such a man is what we call an original man. a relative pronoun being understood. whether he should choose one or not. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. in the sentence. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 6.² "It is on the understanding. 4. I was napping. wherein. 375. and not on the sentiment. whence. that. 8. whereby. 3. he would repent it. he could know nothing. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. etc. which. or equivalent of a noun.

In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. . Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 2. 11. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. he begins to help us more as an effect." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. which formed the center of the mansion. Pick out the adjective clauses. Adverbial Clauses." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 9." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse.376. whether subject. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. i. etc. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. all is vacancy. which Rowena tasted. 5." Exercise. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. and tell what each one modifies. object..e. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 6. 7." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. the champions advanced through the lists. 1. 8. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. No man is reason or illumination. 10. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. I walked home with Calhoun. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. or that essence we were looking for. 4. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 3.

" "Who cares for that. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go.: "But still." "When he was come up to Christian. shaping our actions. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were.² whoever. so far as we can." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. 378. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. an adjective. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. expressing the degree in which the horizon. no matter what remains." (3) REASON. or an adverb.377. but they require careful study. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. and adverbial conjunctions." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. Joanna is better. he goes away as if nothing had happened." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. the wider is the horizon of their thought. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." "After leaving the whole party under the table." "The right conclusion is. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. is wider. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. it takes precedence of everything else. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. introduced by indefinite relatives. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." (9) CONCESSION. whatever." (5) DEGREE. with examples." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. and will be given in detail." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. however. adverbs. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. a verbal." These mean no matter how good. however good she may be as a witness. Exercise. to make up our shortcomings." (7) RESULT." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. etc. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. since he was too great to care to be original. tell what kind each is. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "The broader their education is.." "He went several times to England. and what it modifies:² . etc. that we should try. etc. the milestones are grave-stones.

" 2. when the wind was unruly. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. its object is that Odin was a reality. etc. with shrill. in the sentence. on a dark wintry night. 379. howling and whistling. and modifiers. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. of which clause Odin is the subject. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. banging about doors and windows. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. predicate. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 380.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. 3. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and twirling weathercocks. find the principal subject and principal predicate. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. so as to picture the parts and their relations.1. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. 'Well. to tell the truth. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. incoherent exclamations. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. as they sometimes did. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. snatching up stones to fling at them. object. If the children gathered about her. then treat noun clauses as nouns. we are a little disappointed. they might perhaps say of their visitors. For example." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death.

(2) Analyze it according to Sec. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 2. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.. Exercises. 3. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. as seen in the "map" (Sec. Take the place and attitude which belong to you..| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. . | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 380). True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 364. 364. (1) Find the principal clause. d.

16. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. as for armies that were too many by half. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. the mixed result. 15. had we been worse. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 11. 23. 17. M. that. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. Here lay two great roads. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 24. This is she. or whether any. The deep eyes. The night proved unusually dark. Had they been better chemists. 9. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 6. counselor that had none for herself. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. whom I choose. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 12. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. which. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. I like that representation they have of the tree. And those will often pity that weakness most. could not have been effected. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. not so much for travelers that were few. 10. bishop. who would yield to it least. 22. namely. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. the shepherd girl. 7. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 21. that pressed her with an objection. He was what our country people call an old one. the flower should revive for us. . 13.4. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 8. dying for them. if applied to the Bible. 14. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. But now that she has become an establishment. 5. 19. of a light hazel. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. Next came a wretched Dominican. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Now. 20. for yours. 18.

The writer who takes his subject from his ear. if continuously extended. speed. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. or commands. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. 30. 382. 27. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. COMPOUND SENTENCES. . In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. and not from his heart. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. and stamped with his right number. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. but above it. 3. though we may repeat the words never so often. How formed." 4. "No book. 383. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. That which we do not believe. 2. "was ever written down by any but itself. 5. we cannot adequately say. that it was no more than his daily walk. It makes no difference how many friends I have. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. (b) First analyze. 6. 380. the following complex sentences:² 1. and temper. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. 26.² Definition. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 28. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 7. Hence the definition. questions. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. These things we are forced to say.25.²which will not be disposed of. is to speak and write sincerely. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. would easily reach. if there be one to whom I am not equal. then map out as in Sec." said Bentley.

Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. in (3). the waving grass. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. he is twice a man. and connects the first and second complex members. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. the planet has a faint. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. Thus in (1). "Only the star dazzles. he soliloquizes. etc. Speak your latent conviction. tell which are compound. which are simple statements. .." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. Another example is. he walks with arms akimbo. Some of these are now conjunctions.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. now adverbs or prepositions. or but. others sometimes coördinate. and nor the second and third complex members. Exercise. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. nor. for. yet. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. and it shall be the universal sense. however. 385. etc. a simple member. and not the form of the connective. he dilates. Of the following illustrative sentences." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. while (whilst). in (2). The coördinate conjunctions and. nor does he know until he has tried. The division into members will be easier. moon-like ray" (adversative). from the second. as but. whereas. 383 (1). and which complex:² 1." 384. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. as in Sec. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. if there are any. 297). The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. Study the thought. a complex member. 386. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. Connectives. the semicolon separates the first.

If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. you lose something. 364. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. . I can yet love. 5. that it was Easter Sunday. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 4. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. passed in that time. (i) Separate it into its main members. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. In this manner. you have gained something else. 3. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 14. 11. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. 12. 4. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. he grew up to be a mild. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. The gain is apparent. the tax is certain. from a happy yet often pensive child. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 381. however. All loss. all pain. or. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 6. Exercise. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. and not by what each is. so is every one of its parts. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 2. 387. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. Whilst the world is thus dual. 8. and thou shalt be loved. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. However some may think him wanting in zeal. and for everything you gain. I can still receive. 13. 9. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. Man does not stand in awe of man. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. to find a pot of buried gold. nay. quiet. For everything you have missed. yield to them heart and life. 10. and as yet very early in the morning. is particular. 3.2. for example. 7. unobtrusive boy. Love.

The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. one is afraid. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. that let him communicate. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 17. 7. is as thin and timid as any. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. only that they may brag and conquer there. Whatever he knows and thinks. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. and the cart as nigh the rake. 6. modesty. They will shuffle and crow. if you rip up his claims. When you have chosen your part. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. 21. . and not a thought has enriched either party. 9.5. or sail with God the seas. 19. He teaches who gives. 15. 14. or hope. and they will show themselves great. puts the parties on a convenient footing. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. why should we intrude? 10. as children." 13. and each shows only what lies at its focus. "as nigh the scythe as you can. We see the noble afar off. treat them greatly. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. because. and makes their business a friendship. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 8. and the peace of society is often kept. 16. or men will never know and honor him aright. feign to confess here. Come into port greatly. Stand aside. and you are without effort impelled to truth." says the haymaker. or we pursue persons. We go to Europe." "keep the rake. 20. whilst frankness invites frankness. Trust men. let them mount and expand. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. abide by it. and they repel us. crook and hide. and not an emotion of bravery. "Strike. which always make the Actual ridiculous. give those merits room. "the iron is white. 11. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and the other dares not." says the smith. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. and he learns who receives. or we read books. and they will be true to you. 18. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies.

adjective and noun. it ends in headache.22. SYNTAX. they lose themselves in the crowd. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. 388. or. but go about your business anywhere.²agreement and government. 23. INTRODUCTORY. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. they die young. so readily and lavishly they promise. PART III. Ground covered by syntax. the department of syntax will be a small affair. but they never acquit the debt. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. and dodge the account. but its leading characteristic is. 380. Essential point in English syntax. Following the Latin method. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . pronoun and antecedent. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. So does culture with us. 25. We see young men who owe us a new world. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. it never was known to fall into the rear. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. 390. if they live. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. By way of introduction. 24. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. verb and subject.

"The savage here the settler slew. pronoun and antecedent." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. . Second." In this there is a possessive form. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. following the regular order of subject. therefore. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). 393. distinct forms would be used. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. authorities²that is.² First. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. In Latin. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. There is. or the same writer will use both indifferently. sometimes verb and subject. etc. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. The basis of syntax. the sentence. also expressing a possessive relation. Some rules not rigid. good English. the order being inverted. This is not logical. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. some of which conform to classical grammar. or settler may be the subject. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. then. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Savage may be the subject. As an illustration of the last remark. When usage varies as to a given construction. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. and imitate it. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. and added to it the preposition of. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. as to study inflected forms. Why study syntax? 391. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. but are not now. take the sentence. and whose judgment. and it would not matter which one stood first. both forms will be given in the following pages. For example. In some cases. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and nothing but important points will be considered. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion." is ambiguous. or when they exist side by side in good usage." that is. "None remained but he. Also in the sentence. 392.

When two or more possessives modify the same noun. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. and Peter's.² Live your king and country's best support.²MCCULLOCH. ²ID. Bentham's principles together. 394. 395. Joint possession. Putting Mr. for example. Mill's and Mr. the shore of Galilee. 408). Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²ROWE.²THACKERAY. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Use of the possessive. and Paul's. PRONOUNS. but imply separate possession or ownership.²RUSKIN. and Harley's.²MILTON. . as. the antechamber of the High Priest. He kept Bolingbroke's.² He lands us on a grassy stage. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. and Pope's.²MACAULAY. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Woman.NOUNS. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. the possessive sign is used with each noun. and Peterborough's. 397. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. etc. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²BYRON. sense and nature's easy fool. 396. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY." Juletta tells. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Separate possession. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²EMERSON.

Some of the violations are universally condemned. as. This should be "as she.²POPE.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. sanctioned. and should be the nominative form. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. who.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. whom is the complement after the verb am. thus. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. others are generally. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. 398.²TROLLOPE. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). the true relation of the words is misunderstood. I. if not universally. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Objective for the nominative. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.²BYRON.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Since most of the personal pronouns. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. together with the relative who. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.²SOUTHEY. Still. for example. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. the real thought being forgotten." 400. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. the last expression has the support of many good writers. . Bedott Papers.²THACKERAY. No mightier than thyself or me.) "The young Harper. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE. there are two general rules that require attention. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²WHITCHER. But he must be a stronger than thee. 399. General rules.

And it was heThat made the ship to go.²KINGSLEY. "Than whom. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²FIELDING." There is no special reason for this. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. The camp of Richard of England. for example. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. are.²PARTON.² One I remember especially.²COLERIDGE."²WM." 401."²WINTHROP. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. BLACK. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²MACAULAY. the objective form is regularly found. Patrick the Porter.² For there was little doubt that it was he. both in England and America. "Who's there?"²"Me.²SCOTT. One exception is to be noted.²THACKERAY. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. The usage is too common to need further examples. as.²RUSKIN. unless a special. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. and the other forms of the verb be. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. it will not be me. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. In spoken English. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. they are yet holier than we.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant."²KINGSLEY. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. but such is the fact. "If there is any one embarrassed. namely.²LONGFELLOW. on the other hand. is. But still it is not she. . A safe rule.

The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. verbal. 404. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 3. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. or preposition which governs it. . (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. 403. Truth is mightier than us all. and prepositions. or this. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 7. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. but not he" (he should be him.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 5. or us). the object of to). 11." the word being in apposition with murderer). 2. (3) By forgetting the construction. I speak not to" (he should be him. It is not me you are in love with. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Me in exclamations.²MILTON. as. 4. verbals. as. now.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. it is me. you or me. 10. object of saw). They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me)." 6. Nominative for the objective. 9. Whom they were I really cannot specify. as this from Shakespeare. 8.Exercise. used after verbs. as. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. "Ask the murderer.

"Who were they talking to?" etc. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Let you and I look at these. I arraign. Thy shores are empires. None. 406. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. and is usually avoided. Exercise.Exception 1. 405. Exception 2. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. save thou and thine. etc. but he. as.² All were knocked down but us two.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. as well as the objective. I've sworn.²KINGSLEY. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Nature. "Who did you see?" or. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.Shall be left upon the morn. Thou. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. . We regularly say. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. partial Nature. changed in all save thee. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.²BYRON. Who have we here?²ID.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. as. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²KINGSLEY. for example. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. for they say there are none such in the world. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. who interrogative.²BYRON. 2. all but he. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²GOLDSMITH.²KINGSLEY.²STEELE.

Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. BROWN. II. 6. Markland.3.²MACAULAY." 4. 9. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 7. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 11. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St.Ye I salute. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. who. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates.²THACKERAY. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. They crowned him long ago. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 10.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²DE QUINCEY.²C. and they know that as well as me. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. or objective? . with Jortin and Thirlby. 5. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. This usage is not frequent.²possessive. 8. B. 407. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 12. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.²RUSKIN.²SCOTT. As antecedent of a relative. POSSESSIVE FORMS. Preceding a gerund. Bartholomew.

both are gerunds.²RUSKIN. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. Why both are found. But in common use there is no such distinction. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. studying is a gerund.²CARLYLE. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. Both types of sentences are found. Possessive. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²BREWER.² CARLYLE.²MACAULAY. [who was] studying law. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. .²DICKENS. The use of the objective is older. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and asked why it was not made. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.² THACKERAY. and that in the second.² SCOTT. In the examples quoted. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.² IRVING." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.408. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. etc.²DE QUINCEY. as he turned away from his wife. sometimes it has the objective. We heard of Brown. and the meaning is. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. that the bitterness of death was past. Objective. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle." That is. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. Here I state them only in brief. The last incident which I recollect. object of heard of.

²HOLMES. and ought to agree with them in person. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²THACKERAY. .²CABLE. In such a case as the last three sentences. number. Every city threw open its gates.²DE QUINCEY. 410. Watch for the real antecedent.²AUDUBON. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. if the antecedent is neuter.²DEFOE.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. 409.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. Examples of these constructions are. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²RUSKIN. Everybody had his own life to think of. and gender. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²C. in one person.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. or is a distributive word. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²when the antecedent.²EMERSON III. If any one did not know it. BROCKDEN BROWN. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. it was his own fault. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. The pale realms of shade. where there were examinations. the pronoun will be neuter singular. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. preceded by a distributive.² BRYANT. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²HUXLEY. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²DE QUINCEY.²THOREAU. taking in each of many persons.

²ID. If the part deserve any comment. . Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Whosoever hath any gold.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²PAULDING.²HUXLEY. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²BYRON. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. This is not considered the best usage. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²EMERSON.²AUSTEN.²DEFOE.²PALGRAVE. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. and giving them means of being so.²FIELDING. Struggling for life. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. till they have lost him. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²RUSKIN. The sun. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.² Not the feeblest grandame.²PALEY.²ID. for example. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. as anybody in their senses would have done. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. let them break it off.²SCOTT.²THACKERAY.²BIBLE. not a mowing idiot. 411. By using the plural pronoun.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.

. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. or what was become of her.²HAWTHORNE. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES.) and a personal pronoun." It defines beggar. and that are restrictive or not.Where she was gone. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. That is in most cases restrictive. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. and he went away. What these terms mean. A relative. tell whether who. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. when coördinating. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. or unrestrictive. according to the practice of every modern writer. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. Exercise. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive.²ADDISON. which.² SHERIDAN. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide.²In the above sentences. because. etc. Exercise. no one could take upon them to say. in each instance:² Who. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. who went away. I. unless both genders are implied. the definite relatives who. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. and that always restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. 1. 413. as. 2.²ID. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. when restrictive. In the following examples. but. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. As to their conjunctive use. that being considered already clear. which. and does not add a new statement." A relative. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. RELATIVE PRONOUNS." This means. 412. but. "I gave it to the beggar. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. It adds a new statement to what precedes.

"He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public.² NEWMAN. We say I. 9. 10. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. these or that which. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.²DE QUINCEY. With narrow shoulders. 4. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. The general rule is.²ADDISON. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 11. . etc. 13. 12. which Mr. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. but.²H.²ID. 6. as that does not vary for person or number. that were often vicious. 14. On hearing their plan. For example. which was to go over the Cordilleras. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. they. down. and it is called logic. However.²THOREAU. long arms and legs. etc. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.²HOLMES. Which.² CARLYLE. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. she agreed to join the party. That. So different from the wild.²DE QUINCEY. A grizzly-looking man appeared. and over England are saying. Hare has printed. you.² IRVING. 8. In what sense true. 414. who. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.²ID.² MOTLEY. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. Yet how many are there who up. he. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. The rule. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 7." that is invariable as to person and number.. W. BEECHER 5.3. in the sentence. it makes the verb third person singular. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. etc. because of its antecedent. II. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.

A disputed point. with one as the principal word. The latter is rather more frequent.²whether we should say. but speaks of him as that sort. or which . T. [singular or plural. The fiery youth . etc.. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²LOWELL.²SCOTT. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. but the former has good authority. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. ARNOLD. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. etc. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest..²ADDISON. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²M. others regard books as the antecedent.. .²ADDISON.²MACAULAY.. when he derided the shams of society.²HOLMES. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²J. He is one of those that deserve very well." or. and write the verb in the plural. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²LECKY. Let us be of good cheer.²BOWLES. "one of the finest books that have been published. "one of the finest books that has been published. who rarely speak at all. Franklin.²HOWELLS. French literature of the eighteenth century. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. and in improving a victory. JR. Singular. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. but myself. the true antecedent. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company." One of . 415. in winning a battle... [plural] that who.] Both constructions are frequently found. MORSE. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions..²LOWELL. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.

there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. when this dust falls to the urn. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²EMERSON. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²DEFOE.²In the above sentences. that is.²EMERSON.²ID. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. whence. return. when the relative word is a pronoun. IV.A rare Roundabout performance."²DICKENS.² RUSKIN. III.² THACKERAY.²IRVING. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. 416. or where] he died.And.²BURNS.² . The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.In that same state I came." "India is the place [in which. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²GOLDSMITH.²VAUGHAN.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.²SWIFT. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. Exercise. where. I could see nothing except the sky. 417. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²SCOTT. But I by backward steps would move. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²ADDISON. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²CARLYLE. object of a preposition understood. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. The same day I went aboard we set sail. and such like: as.

Mr. as is not used. was a discoverer.He considered. as of knives. etc. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. with Turner. for example. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. That. Caution.²R. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. as his apprentice. but which is usually carefully avoided. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.² BURKE.²WORDSWORTH. CHURCH. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. ²GOLDSMITH. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. and working in the same spirit. if same is followed by a complete clause. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.. W.² Which. which. she passed the lamp over her face and person. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.² MACAULAY.²SWIFT. but.. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.²FRANKLIN. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. he. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. or that. but we find the relative who. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. V.² THACKERAY. . or lack of proper connection between the clauses. They believe the same of all the works of art. I might as well have staid at home.²ADDISON. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. Which. The regular construction. looking-glasses. boats. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. Anacoluthic use of which. if I had resolved to go on with.²SCOTT.

. and this be placed in the proper clause. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. This was a gentleman. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. once a great favorite of M.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. which when Mr.. or leave out both connective and relative.She'd come again.²DE QUINCEY. He delivered the letter. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. That is. But who. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. etc. and who are now. Express both relatives. who are now thrown. 2. 4." etc. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.²GOLDSMITH. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. Thornhill had read. 1. le Conte. now thrown upon their. 419. but.² Direction for rewriting. but none is expressed. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. After this came Elizabeth herself. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²SCOTT.. (3) "Among the poorer sort. etc. . There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. And who.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²RUSKIN. (2) "Among the poorer sort. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish." etc. and which.²THACKERAY.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise. Exercise. or. or omit the conjunction. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. (1) "Among those who are poor. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.²which if they once heard. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. 3." etc. As the sentences stand. he said that all submission was now too late. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.²SHAKESPEARE." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.

then. like that spoken in the towns. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. 13. I saw upon the left a scene far different." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.5. That . Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. indeed..²HAWTHORNE. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. And which. who.²DE QUINCEY. 10. "What knight so craven. and to whom no door is closed. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.²DE QUINCEY. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. etc. 9. 420. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. Akin to the above is another fault. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . either from imitation of their frequent allies. 11.²PEARSON. 7. . I shall have complete copies.. English by name. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.² MOTLEY. the French. and which has never been described. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. 1. 12. Dr. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. one of signal interest.. as a false and astucious mark.²SCOTT. But which. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. and repeat this for any further reference. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and which. 6.²SCOTT.. and which may even be heard a mile off. Exercise. Or who. etc. which the Scotch had learned.²IRVING. Or which. "A mockery. 8.

In my native town of Salem. 10. was hung in air... but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.²EMERSON. the cent. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. whom. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. that.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.. was a bustling wharf.²W.. and to whom I do not belong. I recommend some honest manual calling. half a century ago. which. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. He flung into literature. 8. 12.²W. Which . that . such as they have very probably been bred to. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. Such as . 15. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²HALLAM.. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. . and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.2. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.²SCOTT That which .² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. E. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. Such as . 5. the dime. 13. in his present condition. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. which.²EMERSON. SIMMS. That . 11. 4. 6. and whose examples and principles we inherit.²DE QUINCEY.²HOLMES. in his Mephistopheles. at the head of what. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. what. The Tree Igdrasil. but which. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. He. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.²HAWTHORNE. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me..²SCOTT. 3.²DEFOE. 7. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.²BEECHER.... I give to such men as do not belong to me. It rose into a thrilling passion. but which is perhaps not so different from it. I grudge the dollar. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. 14..²HOWELLS. 9. CHANNING. G. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.

The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²DICKENS. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. one another. Distributives either and neither.²EMERSON. as it were. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. as. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.² Some one must be poor. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²HAWTHORNE. 421.²RUSKIN.² HAWTHORNE. always at war with one another. By their original meaning. We call ourselves a rich nation. 422.²MACAULAY. that not all combined. Assume that no one is in want of either. Each other. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. for example. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. .²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. as.²RUSKIN. and in want of his gold²or his corn. Use of any. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. in which case any should be used instead. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²ID. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. whether or not the two are equivalent.²GOLDSMITH.

. Caution. if ever man was. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. in the prose of the present day. I beseech you.²SHAKESPEARE.. Any usually plural. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. Examples of its use are. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²STIRLING.²EMERSON.. 423. that I know of.²CARLYLE. when any of them are so good as to visit me. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. The adjective pronoun none is. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.² In earnest. any was often singular. any of his friends had died. whilst I still cherish their genius. as none of the French philosophers were. etc. before that. even in Bettine. as. In earlier Modern English. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.²SCOTT. None of Nature's powers do better service.²PROF.²BEECHER Whenever. for him have I offended. then in Plutarch.²THACKERAY. 424.² If any. then in Plotinus. afterwards in Goethe. which is plural as often as singular. Do you think. If any of you lack wisdom. as. usually plural.²BIBLE. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. let him ask of God. speak. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.²FRANKLIN. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²BURKE. during his stay at Yuste.. Do you think.² EMERSON.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . at one time in Bacon. in Shakespeare. None usually plural. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. and is isolated.

which is used absolutely. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. The light troops thought . or somebody else's? 426. the plural. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. for example. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. and Ford has nobody's else. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. etc. saving Naaman the Syrian.² Singular. are treated as units... and less rarely in poetry. and all was lost on the other.² PEARSON. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. 425.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. when it means all persons: for example.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. fixing his eyes on the mace.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. etc.² None of them was cleansed. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. any one else.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. When all were gone.²NAPIER Plural.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. that all was lost. etc.. The compounds somebody else. Somebody's else.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²THOREAU. nobody else. as. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. etc. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²McMASTER. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.

² Saturday Review. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Whitefield or Wesley.²DICKENS. or those sort of people. all manner of. Again. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). unlike anybody else's in the world.. London. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. etc." the nouns being singular. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. 427.² FIELDING.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.² These kind of knaves I know."²MRS. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS." "all manner of men. WILLIS.curled once all over it in long tendrils. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. the adjectives plural." "those kind of trees. "Ye see. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²THACKERAY. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²RUSKIN.²G. His hair. These sort. .²N.SYDNEY SMITH. etc.²in such as "these sort of books. for example.²AUSTEN.²SWEET. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.²SHERIDAN. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²MULOCH. ADJECTIVES. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.. STOWE. ELIOT.²RUSKIN. P. or some other such great man as a bishop.

"This kind of rules are the best. they said." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. "These kind of trees are best. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. and the adjective is. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. not "all kinds of wild animals. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. . or one object with a class of objects.²RUSKIN. or the nouns to the plural. Later form.²a strong man with nothing but his fists." A question. and in this way may take a plural verb.² Which is the better able to defend himself. Of two such lessons. when the necessary dispositions concur. The result. 428. History of this construction. the victor or the vanquished. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. In Old and Middle English. Use of the comparative degree. "This sort of trees should be planted. for example. more alarming than a total silence. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. made to agree with it." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Burke's sentence. which accounts for the construction. with all manner of amusing books. At the source. as. According to the approved usage of Modern English. to express a higher degree of quality.² PRESCOTT. in spoken English. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. gradually displacing the old. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. such as. Consequently we have a confused expression. Should we say." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. This the modern expression reverses.The library was open. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects.

the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. if not.²LOWELL. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²CARLYLE. 3. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 430. has sanctioned. Superlative with two objects. 429. etc.²THACKERAY. . would not have had the face. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²SWIFT. by almost the breadth of my nail. He is taller. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.A braver ne'er to battle rode."²ID. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. than any of his court. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²HUXLEY. To the man who plays well. Other after the comparative form. I am concerned to see that Mr.²WIRT.²TROLLOPE. the highest stakes are paid.²HAWTHORNE.²SCOTT. 4.² THACKERAY. Exercise. 6.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Henry.²MACAULAY. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 5. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. Gary.²MACAULAY. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Even Dodd himself. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. 2. Use of the superlative degree. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.

"²GOLDSMITH. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. not a bit of high life among them. After the most straitest sect of our religion.. Come you more nearer. CÆSAR.²Bible. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Also from the same period. OLIPHANT. The eldest. and the other contains the best men. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. and differ only in form. I should say that one has the best cause. ha..²EMERSON. 431. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²TEMPEST.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Double comparative and superlative.²GOLDSMITH. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. 1611. .²HAMLET. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. The following examples are used purposely.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. These two properties seem essential to wit. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²J.²IRVING.²DR BLAIR."²BULWER. "Ha."²HAWTHORNE.²BEN JONSON. whichever can be got easiest. more particularly the last of them.²RUSKIN. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. who eat white bread or brown. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Mary.²SCOTT.²ADDISON. Examples from Shakespeare are.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. Rip was one of those . and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. In all disputes between States.²MRS. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.

etc. Definite article.²GIBBON. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The delay in the first three lines. and Secretary Walsingham also. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. . Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. 433.²PRESCOTT.²RUSKIN. For Carlyle.² SMOLLETT. not only so in popular speech. ARTICLES. etc. Three first. ²COWPER. As to these two expressions.²DE QUINCEY. The meaning intended is the same. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Instances of both are given below. The first five had specific names.²LAMB. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²RUSKIN. Examples of this construction are. and conceit in the last. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²ADDISON.²KINGSLEY. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The merit of the Barb.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.²GIBBON.² With a singular noun. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. These are the three first needs of civilized life. First three. but in literary English. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. the Spanish. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. jar upon us constantly.

of the eighteenth century. as. as in Sec. Meaning same as in Sec.²NEWMAN. 433.²ID. of the higher and middling orders. the thought and the word.²MACAULAY. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. melodious. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.²SCOTT. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. No. as.²TAYLOR. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.² MACAULAY. the hour of parting came. with a singular noun. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .² RUSKIN. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. with a plural noun. Indefinite article. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.. and the presents. He is master of the two-fold Logos. the greatest poems. 1508.. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. were placed at a very tender age. One object and several modifiers. or to emphasize the meaning. With a plural noun. 434. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. Frequently. but is used with one only. but inseparable from each other. 433. The flowers.²THE NATION. The not repeated. 435. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. I think. The lofty. distinct. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. . Origin of the Aryans. to distinguish clearly.²PRESCOTT. Here the youth of both sexes.²TENNYSON. and flexible language. however. having been arranged.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.

²THACKERAY. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. to limit two or more modified nouns. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. as. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. 437. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²DRYDEN.² BURKE.²S. The indefinite article (compare Sec. COLERIDGE.²MACAULAY. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. only one of which is expressed. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.²B. or clearness to each of several nouns. rich. He saw him in his mind's eye. a round and a square one alternately. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. interest.² MACAULAY.²DICKENS.²BEECHER. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. But in the following sentences.436. One article with several adjectives. one noun is expressed. The indefinite article is used. 433 and 436. a murderer. In the sentences of Secs.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²BULWER. For rhetorical effect." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 438. a collegian. T. 436). Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²MACAULAY. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.An early. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. a tyrant. Examples of this use are. . like the definite article.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. and inexhausted vein. and a usurper. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. as in the first three of Sec. 435. JONSON." and "a red and a white geranium.

This was spoken of in Part I..VERBS. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. Another writer might.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. ARNOLD. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. for example. In English.²M. was the earliest American land. like some others in this series. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Singulars connected by or or nor. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²The Nation. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²COOPER. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. 439. 440. .² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. ELIOT. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning.²FROUDE.²G. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. A broad and loose rule. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. all that academies can give. Sec. Singular verb. then. He sees that it is better to live in peace.²GIBBON. or the great intellectual life of our nation. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²AGASSIZ. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. Such. and the following illustrations prove it.²W. 276.²CARLYLE This usage. Collective noun of singular meaning. as. without academies. as. has got already.

the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²CRITIC. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. as. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.² The unbought grace of life.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. as. nor Mahomet.Jesus is not dead. Q. ²EMERSON. nor Paul. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²J. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.²WHITTIER. No. a loss of wealth.²BURKE. a mutilation. for example. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. but each one emphatic. Plural form and singular meaning. that of a large town. the cheap defense of nations.²DE QUINCEY.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. ADAMS. for example.²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. a loss of friends. or considered as appositional. seems at the moment unpaid loss.² GOLDSMITH. nor John.² In a word. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. other names. and other singulars of plural form. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. is gone. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.² Politics is the only field now open for me. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. Between ourselves.²EMERSON .²GIBBON. or as making up one general idea. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. and every four hours. A fever. a cruel disappointment. but considered as meaning about the same thing.

Plural verb. the wit. every valet. was punished.²RUSKIN. as well as the newest. is a man of wit. no. almost every day. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. was listened to for five hours.²MACAULAY. the fine gentleman. wineBegins to stir itself.²SCOTT.² There is a right and a wrong in them. as well as sides. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. nay. The Epic. sir!" and the "What then. the partisan. Her back.² . no spent ball. with death. sir?" and the "No.²HAWTHORNE.²ID.² Asia. many a.²MACAULAY. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. Then comes the "Why. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. as well as Europe.²ID.²PRESCOTT. as. There is a moving tone of voice. To receive presents or a bribe. Subjects after the verb. an agitated gesture. The oldest. Here is no ruin.²NEWMAN. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. a gorget. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. the dismay.²PRESCOTT. Every sound. every echo. sir!"²MACAULAY. as well as the Drama. in a judge.²LONGFELLOW.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. an impassioned countenance. Every week. no discontinuity. the ruin. Every fop. 441. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. does not take the place of the man.²BUTLER. a cuirass. no matter if the second is plural).The rout.The author. was like to crack.²M ARNOLD. and greaves.²EMERSON. was dazzled. every boor. as. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. each. and such like adjectives. thus.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.

Far. A party of workmen were removing the horses. for example.²COLERIDGE. A shady grove.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.² One or two of these perhaps survive. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.² A multitude go mad about it. of whom there were a number. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. The conjunction may be omitted. Conjunction omitted. 440 (5. as. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. the Duke of Berri. His clothes. shirt.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²FRANKLIN.²FROUDE. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. a stream of fresh water.²EMERSON. a green pasture.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²CARLYLE But its authorship. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²ADDISON.²GIBBON. as in Sec. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²SCOTT. as with a subject of plural form. All our household are at rest. are sufficient to attract a colony. . TAYLOR. The Dauphin. far away thy children leave the land. but the verb is plural. its date. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²SWIFT. The travelers.² GIBBON.²GOLDSMITH. making up a plural subject. Philip of Anjou. b).²DE QUINCEY. were men of insignificant characters.²THOREAU. as.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²B.²FROUDE.

" etc. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²WHITTIER. Nothing which Mr. that is.²M. 442.). as. 443." or. ARNOLD. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²LOWELL. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. Ah. . Pattison or I have said. we never talk politics. but thou. Second or third and first person in the subject. You and I are farmers. "He or I can go. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. of different persons. Not Altamont. 444. "You would not be wiser. General usage. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. nor has she"). or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.²THACKERAY. hadst been my lord.²SMOLLETT. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.²BYRON.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. his blood dost shed. You and I are tolerably modest people.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. nor should I.²ROWE.But notice the construction of this. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Not I. If there is only one person in the subject.²THACKERAY. for example.²RUSKIN. Exceptional examples.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness." "She or you may be sure.²RUSKIN. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²GOLDSMITH.²D. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. but thou. WEBSTER.²DE QUINCEY. "I have never said so. the subject being really equivalent to we. When the subjects.

the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²ADDISON.²BYRON. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. as illustrated above (Secs.²MILTON.²EMERSON. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 2. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²BURKE.²SMOLLETT.²perhaps the devil. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. 446. 11. 10.That neither of their intellects are vast. In this sentence from Defoe.² TROLLOPE. In the following sentence.Her course to intercept. in my opinion. 8. Exercise. 6.²ID. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 9. BANCROFT. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. Neither of their counselors were to be present. nor bush are there.²ADDISON. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.445. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. How each of these professions are crowded. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Nor wood. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 7. Both death and I am found eternal. nor tree.²and. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 5.²SCOTT. 3. The following illustrate exceptional usage. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. 4. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. In a word. as we would hope.²G. which it is proper to mention. 12. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Neither of them. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²THACKERAY. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. Also in verbals." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. 440-444):² 1. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.

448. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. change them to a better form:² 1. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence." .²THACKERAY. to have seen should be changed to to see. Definitions. It should be remarked. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. for exact connection..²FRANKLIN 6. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. Indirect discourse means reported speech. on my return. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. Of course. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²DE QUINCEY 2.² PALGRAVE 5. 4. CHURCH. 3.²R.²MACAULAY.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. 447.. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. W. however.²KINGSLEY. Two samples of indirect discourse. meaning. The present rule is recent. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. I gave one quarter to Ann. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²IRVING. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. But I found I wanted a stock of words.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. as. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Direct discourse²that is. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. if not. Exercise.

interrogative adverbs. and the indirect question by whether or if. under interrogative pronouns. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. Her prudence whispered eternally. His exact words were. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. She thought to herself.. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. 2. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Direct. The substance of his lamentation was." Indirect. or regular interrogatives. "Oh. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main.. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. etc. ." etc. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. have. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. This includes the auxiliaries be. 449. Oh. Direct. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. introductory verb is in the past tense. "I cannot oblige you . (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. will.. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I." etc. Sebastian's. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words.. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. 1. Summary of the expressions.

The trouble is. PARTICIPLES. one summer afternoon. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. like distant peals of thunder. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. the sound of their balls." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. Careless use of the participial phrase. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. FRANKLIN.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. if this were expanded into a verb. 450.²GOLDSMITH. my first observation will be found nearly true. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²ADDISON. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²ID. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. . the first discoverer of the river and country. he assured me that nothing was more easy. in the sentences first quoted. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. and that he himself had heard.Exercise. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. Notice this." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. VERBALS.²B. with his crew of the Half-moon. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected.

" Exercise." etc. It is a solemn.²LAUGHLIN. For example.Correction. 451. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . avoid it.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. leaving the principal statement as it is.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. universal assertion. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.. 3. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. then.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. my first collection was. . This is the more common arrangement. Exercise. There are.. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.²SCOTT. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress.²RUSKIN.² HERBERT SPENCER. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. and often.. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. if a strike is to succeed..²ID. INFINITIVES. Adverb between to and the infinitive. many things to be carefully considered. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. Standard writers often use it. the first sentence would be. purposely or not. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. In the following citations. 2. . while defended or excused by others.. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. either "As I was pleased.

²DR. but it is placed before the infinitive. and earthenware. 10. A little sketch of his. china. which consists in multitude. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. ADVERBS. The rigid rule in such a case would be.²ID. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. etc. 452.²SCOTT. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. but they are often removed from the exact position.² MACAULAY. BLAIR. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. Now. 1533. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. if they modify single words. 8. even.. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .. etc. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. are used. 13. this kind of grandeur. is to be very cautiously admitted.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 9. 7. when such adverbs as only. but cannot misunderstand the thought. etc. 12. Position of only. Exercise. from Irving." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. 11. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.²TROLLOPE.4. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.²RUSKIN.² ADDISON.²GOLDSMITH.²The Nation. even. In works of art. The spirits. No. therefore. 6. I wish the reader to clearly understand. 5. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²BURKE.

²EMERSON.²ID. 15.²ID. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. He shouted in those clear. The old usage. 9. 14. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. My master. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²RUSKIN. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 8. During the whole course of his administration. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. No sonne.²COOPER.²MOTLEY. 3.²CHAUCER. P. 17. In Old and Middle English.²HIGGINSON. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 453. whence he was never destined to return.1. ²ASCHAM. to avoid a crowd. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²THACKERAY. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²PALGRAVE. 12. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 4. 11. 7. .²ID.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. His last journey to Cannes.²SWIFT. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 6. 10. 13.² THACKERAY. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. In relating these and the following laws. 2. Irving could only live very modestly. 5. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²MRS.²MACAULAY. might not marry. were he never so old of yeares. 16.²SYDNEY SMITH. for example.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. WILLIS. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. GROTE.²N. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.

2. under the influence of Latin syntax.²LOWELL.² HAMILTON.²DEFOE. can so agreeably affect. Exercise. as. denying each other. Therefore. In the latter case.²HAWTHORNE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. when one of the negatives is a connective."²MRS. 7. as infrequent. But. Not only could man not acquire such information. however. nor the grandeur of no king. uncommon. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.²HOLMES. In the execution of this task. one of the negatives is often a prefix. but ought not to labor after it. is not common.²DE QUINCEY. 5. if two negatives are found together.²BURKE. This. nor never shall. I never did see him again. However. neither. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. and is still kept in vulgar English. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. ²PAGE. the usual way of regarding the question now is. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. 6. STOWE. . who hadn't been to school for nothing.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. I did not act so hastily. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²MRS. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. Regular law of negative in modern English. There weren't no pies to equal hers. etc. and why:² 1. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.²BAYNE.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. 3. in Ole Virginia.²GROTE. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. STOWE. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect."²four negatives. 4. The prosperity of no empire. Exceptional use.

These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. not only to the success of their common cause. 455." Besides neither .. 454. or..²PRESCOTT.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. as the use of the conjunction.²LOWELL. Correction. nor is often changed to not²either . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. The sentence. either .. "A weapon.. but (also).. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. In the sentence. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. the first should also.. Choice and proper position of correlatives. especially both . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. or with advantage. and which. there we were. or. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. should be scrutinized.8. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.²SCOTT. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here." both of the above requirements are violated. And who. neither . either.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.... CONJUNCTIONS.. nor. the first ought to be placed before a verb. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. Things to be watched.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. not only . if the second precedes a phrase." . or to reply to it... not merely . "well worthy to confer honor." said the King. as well as of the pronoun. if the last precedes a verb. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. and. even neither . The sentences given in Secs. but to their own safety. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind..."²SCOTT." may be changed to "This loose . or to reply to it. but.

Exercise. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²RUSKIN." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. Try and avoid the pronoun. but. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. too. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. but they will outrage. and chop up their own kin. .²BAIN. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²FRANKLIN. 457. as. 6. but grown-up persons. 7.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. etc. 3. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Now. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. or the negative relative but.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. They will.²GIBBON. Try and for try to. but. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Some exceptions. 456.²THACKERAY. and I don't know but what he was right. not merely interest children.² ADDISON. substitute that. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 2. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Exercise. But what. 8. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. nor the disgrace of assailing him. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. murder. Correct the following sentences:² 1.²ID.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. O.²S. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. 5. or but that. 4. In the following sentences. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²GOLDSMITH. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. as. JEWETT.

²TROLLOPE.²EMERSON.2.² SWIFT. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 6. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. 5.²ADDISON. see Sec. 459. . 3. 313. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.²SCOTT.² BULWER. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 4. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. no separation or division by twos being implied. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. as already seen in Sec.²BURKE. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. 458. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. 305. Between and among. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. PREPOSITIONS. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Between is used most often with two things only.²EMERSON.²ADDISON.

Bestow on (upon). as. and another to convey a different meaning. different. or one object and a group. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Different from. and Coleridge. confer. Abhorrent to.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Accord with. Conform to. Dissent from. ²EMERSON. and philosophers like Locke. Two groups or one and a group. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Mackintosh.²RUSKIN What have I. Some of them have. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. as.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. . come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Paley. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Kant. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Affinity between. 460. Dependent on (upon). by custom. Acquit of. Averse to. Such are absolve.²between philosophers like Spinoza. and Stewart. averse. a soldier of the Cross. List I. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. etc. LIST I. involve. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. 461.²KINGSLEY. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Derogatory to. Such are derogatory.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Conversant with. correspond.: Words with particular prepositions. Comply with.

A taste for (art." also of persons. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Confide in (trust in). and sometimes creeps into standard books. Confer with (talk with). LIST III. Confide to (intrust to). but it is not good usage. Involve in. Independent of. 463.). Differ with (note below)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with." List III. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Reconcile with (note below). 462.y y y Deprive of.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Agree to (a proposal). Correspond to (a thing). Change for (a thing). . as. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Differ from (note below). Confer on (upon) (give to). A taste of (food). etc. as. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Correspond with (write to). as meaning to be in keeping with. as. in the sense of making friends with. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Change with (a person). Change to (become). "The king is reconciled to his minister. Reconcile to (note below). LIST II.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). List II.

Take thought and die for Cæsar. I am positively dying with hunger. He died at last without disease." etc." (material cause. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²POPE.²MACAULAY.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. One of them said he would die for her. expect from. "Die from." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. Expect of. die from." (in behalf of).²ADDISON. and ill treatment." "die from. privation. ²ATHENÆUM. simply from old age.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. "Die for. died for love of the fair Marcella.²FIELDING. She died of hard work. part with.²BURNETT. Illustrations of "die of. "Die by.²G.²SHAKESPEARE. die for. Part from. die of.:² "Die of. die with.²SCOTT.²G. "Die with. as Cervantes informs us.y y y Die by.²BULWER. People do not die of trifling little colds. ²THACKERAY. No one died from want at Longfeld.²MACAULAY. ELIOT.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. It is a man of quality who dies for her." (because of). It would take me long to die of hunger. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. If I meet with any of 'em. . Who." She would have been ready to die with shame. they shall die by this hand. ELIOT.²BOSWELL. instrument). I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. "Die for.

" She will expect more attention from you. "Part from. "Expect from. Illustrations of "part with." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. I can part with my children for their good. 464. Cleveland was sorry to part with him." "part from:"² "Part with.²MARRYAT.²POE. either of or in is used indifferently.²MACAULAY. I part with all that grew so near my heart. ELIOT. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things." To part from you would be misery. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²BULWER. Of Doctor P. as my friend. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. Illustrations of "expect of.²DICKENS. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. 466." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. 465.²G. Kind in you. and hated to part with them. . which he would by no means part from. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. kind of you.²WALLER.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. With words implying behavior or disposition. just parted from her. ELIOT. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²BULWER. ELIOT. That is more than I expected of you.²SHAW.²WALPOLE. It was a little bad of you. I have just seen her. His precious bag.²MACAULAY.²TROLLOPE.²AUSTEN." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²G.²SCOTT.²G. nothing better was to be expected. I have long expected something remarkable from you.

4. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12.²BULWER. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. raging storms. or artillery. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 7. 8.²TENNYSON. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. This narrative. . 6. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 13. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 3. But this is idle of you. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.²BEACONSFIELD.²DICKENS. 15. with seraphims. The noise of vast cataracts. 1. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. nor yellow. nor of a pale red. In. 14.He did not think it handsome of you. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. it is commonly said that his profits are high. and ran up the alley. the vast abyss. but which the story renders necessary. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2.²CARLYLE. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. thrown it over Amyas's head. In the friction between an employer and workman. nor blue. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. nor green. Thou tread'st. thunder. 5. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 11. 10.²BULWER. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. Hampden. 9. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. tedious perhaps. or that they are any way dependent on each other. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. Very natural in Mr.

The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 36. 22. and other angular figures. That night every man of the boat's crew. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. and almost as good as a pony. you or me. 16. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 33. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 37.I would wish me only he. . 27. triangles. (Sec. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. Every one of these letters are in my name. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Friday. or how beautiful it is. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 18. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 31. what is a just and unjust act. the acquiescence of the understanding. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. Squares. were down with raging fever. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 17. save Amyas. 25. 23. 38. The effect of proportion and fitness. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 29.) 34. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 20. the light is sometimes softened in the passage.And were I anything but what I am. 30. 32. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 35. produce approbation. 19. But every man may know. 28. 411. You have seen Cassio and she together. but in the price paid to them. 21. 26. and most of us do know. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. When the glass or liquor are transparent. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 24.

92. of. of. from nominative clauses. 25. 124. from about 1500 to the present time. of. 260. (3) Modern English. 98. A. 20. voice. 47. 310. adjectives. article. 90. pronouns.39. 91. Abstract with Active Address. 124. 47. adverbs used complements. 89. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. as comparison definition demonstrative. nouns. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 119. INDEX. He had four children. numeral. of. 239.000 between them. Adjectives. 133. nominative. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 102. as. of. (2) Middle English. 40. 116. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. . the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. syntax uses Absolute. demonstrative. 107. origin of.

conjunction. 99. 116. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. . 194. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 287. 27. nouns. 109. sentence. nouns. antecedent. 187. adjectives. clauses. Alms. 207. 323. modify. 106. 103. objective.from function how in not of of ordinal. 303. 42. between of. 325. of. 148. parse. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. of. as nouns. of. Agreement. adjectives. predicate. 207. Against. 97. 316. plural pronominal. adjectives. 325. 191. from to of. 242. antecedent. 115. 27. 183. 291. of. 101. parse. of. with with with subject. 239. 328. quantity. 114. 194. 104. 303. 195. and 185. quality. conjunctions. 48. compared. 262. 190. of. to used of. 184. 302. of. 275. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 190. 116. infinitive.

74. 240. sentences. which. Anacoluthon Analysis. 120. 101. which. 252. words between. Auxiliary if. 296. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. it. 67. pronouns. possessive. of and pronoun of. . Arrangement Articles. 90. after of. definition of of of Any. 225. 150. 67. in in. 207. syntax. adjective. of. 294. uses As At. 198. 49. A. 148. 127. 300. 120. 287. of. 231. 309. sentences. See 74. 331. of. as uses verbs. An. 295. See with definition complex compound simple who. definition how indefinite. though. and. which. 271. agreement personal as pronoun.Among. 124. 47. to of. 51. 208. 79. Agreement. of. same. 264. derivation in definite. syntax As. parse. Are. of. sentences. of of of And Antecedent. 275. 84.

49. 110. possessive. 62. 279. clauses of. adverb. Case. 149. 63. conjunctions Cherub. of what. of. best. objective. Bridegroom. See of. nominative. number of. Can. 150. 46. 111. 39. forms. of pronouns. 39. of nouns. 278. of. But. uses nominative of. of pronouns. in Old and Modern English. 47. Among. 110. 262. 66. 194. Clause. Cause. double possessive. 37. of nouns. . plurals of. of pronouns. Children.Bad. 283. 46. Be. 48. of pronouns. 330. 262. of. pronoun. definition could. 260. of nouns. Brethren. Between. 84. 224. 210. with But By. Case. 54. 195. 279. adjective. 161. of nouns. comparison conjugation of. 64. syntax of. uses of. uses Better. 45. 278.

257. adverbs. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. in analysis. 239. 189. 307. . verb. 264. nouns. adjectives. nouns. 315. of. 248. analysis of. of. of. 108. 268. 157. 312. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 18. and forms of. defective. sentence. Clomb. 158. 113. double. and sentence. 12. material. 24. 53. 43. of. 244. proper. subject. of. predicate of and from from of. 305. Cloths. of. 107. 108. of. 271.definition kinds noun. 307. 263. 257. definition degrees irregular. of. 257. infinitive. predicate. clothes. 18. superlative. plural of. nouns. English. 110. 258. of. Cleave. 23. 43. 111.

pronoun. adverbs. 196. 195. 269. sentence. 328. Conjunctions. 66. 231. correlative. Can. replaced by objective. 195. 149. 255. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. . 73. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. coördinate. subjunctive. sentences. of. 289. See English. analysis. conjunctions. Agreement. 194. conjunction. of of Conjunctions. 138. to of. interrogative pronouns. Dative Declarative Declension of case. conjunctions. 149. See in subjunctive. 194. 143. 151.with Concord. pronouns. 194. verbs. 139. same words. and clause. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. definition how subordinate. of. 188. 263. See analysis clauses. 207. other other parts of speech. pronoun. 199. definition be. parse. sentences. 193. in Old vs.

333. duck. See See 48. 185. 300. Comparison. Degrees. by. 242. 91. 43. with of. 60. use of dies. from. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. clause. pronouns. pronouns. 90. 160. of. pronouns. 242. indirect. tenses. 102. 315. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 102. Comparative. See adjectives. adverbs See adjectives. possessive. pronouns. . of. 303. vs. 320. for. of personal relative verbs. nouns. 287. passive adjectives. Subordinate clause. 99. article. nouns. comparative. Articles. Case. of. 80.Declension. 51. discourse. of. verb. 152. See 148. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. with. 26. 288. object. 35.

92. 299. . adjective. vulgar. pronoun. 90. 241. 33. ending. 328. predicate. complement. of. to suffix. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. Elements Ellipsis. suffix. pronouns. one ( t). 51. of. of. object. 92. 194. 158. error in sentence. Empress. 112. 12. the of sentence. Either. another. of. 38.Drank. pronoun. 62. literary. 240. 300. 158. Each. 102. drunk. feminine plural English. adjective. of. 280. 40. 110. 34. of. 287. plural. original. 255. 234. conjunction. added suffix. 33. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. older. 92. 90. other. 287. 39. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 42. in 'Em. 257. possessive suffix. -En. spoken. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 32. of subject.

43. 152. First. with infinitive. used of. from. First Fish. plurals. of. 103. Feminine. etc. fishes. modes "common goose. two a further. 110. 212. definition distinguished in English. gender. to of. first.. 45. 112. 148. 29. 48. 235. 112. 147. perfect. 287. Gender. the. 126. 102. Farther. nouns. 319. Future Future tense. object. as of from compared marking. of. pronoun. other languages. 32. 212. 308. Further. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. two. 152. uses Foreign Former. with in sex. 102. expect gone. etc.. few. 189. as a noun. of. 30. 238. 30. adjective. uses redundant. 36. 91. From. Few. 334. have adjective.Every. See Gander. . 30." 31. 211. For.

personal relative geniuses. 176. 36. of. 144. 159. from participle of. Gerund. 173. 120. on. person. Government. 43. Had Hanged. definition basis of. 61. 61. 9. His Husband. I. forms in Girl. rather. . 231. 275. of. for before. 175. 285. 13. it. first sentence. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. He. noun. she. an better. Grammar. of. 12. possessive pronouns. 10. 80. pronoun. 101. 177. had hung. of. 60. its. pronouns.of of Genii. kinds of. adjective. 35. Got. 159. 12. and case verbal with. 145. distinguished syntax. participle. definition divisions opinions province H. 60.

elements. 105. summary See passive mood. with of. a object. pronoun. of. See you. pronouns. 176. questions. 131. in compared syntax. verbs. 188. 227. 245. use article. 178. of. 153. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 67. indirect of. meaning. . 136. adverbs. words.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 233. adjectives. indices. transitive. 320. 73. 283. of. 131. 110. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. Questions. of clause. 276. 248. your. 323. adjectives. 43. See Articles. questions. 257. uses discourse. Direct object. of. 319. 85. sentence. 93. 231. 72. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. mood.

61. Latter. 245. 281. Lady. King. 189. 126. of. Lay. these double kind. -Ly. in little. uses Literary Little. of. "It Its. pronoun. lie. queen. syntax. adjective.. Lady. See Madam. was uses me. 102. Like. subject form." history etc. latest. Last. lesser. 113. of. 36. . lord. 36. English. 39. predicate. etc. syntax the. of. 91. plural. 227. 190. 276. 36. 170. 113.. 110. Lay. 67. Logic Logical Lord.adverbs. Kine. Less. 63. 226. 110. Lie. 12. Kind. and See words in. a vs. 303. It.

144. -Most. syntax conjunction. construction as of adverb. conjunctions Many. syntax nearer. 110. Negative. adjective. 113. 36. 102. 194. 126. of. Many Mapping Mare. of. of. Enlargement. 112. 114. Modifier. comparison Near. 137. 161.Manner. 325. in adverbs comparison a. 287. 64. superlatives. Modifiers. mine.. Means. 189. position adverb. sentences. out of. 188. mistress. 189. Neither. subjunctive. 110. 265. 110. 187. Much. of. May. Mighty Mine. of. Mood. double. 34. 112. 137-144. might. imperative. Master. 185. nigh. 195. 160. Must. 41. 328. 256. 112. of. 135. of. . etc. of. See definition 136. indicative. 326.

18. in. abstract. of. used as. of. Nor. 56. 41. . number once other plural. syntax Neuter or two News. 29. definition according of. 30. 17. 38-41. 27. 41. 20. class used singular. parse. 25. nouns. 258. 124. Not Noun Nouns. formed. 46. 19. proper. of of of of of a. of. 301. gender how kinds material. of. 30. analysis. of. 328. Case. common. half abstract. 42. 17. 32. 25. clause. 126. See 194. etc. gender nouns. 246. become become formation case collective. to of. become neuter. No Nominative. to use. 41 43. 300. 38. abstract. words how compound. definition descriptive. None. etc. syntax in gender nouns. kinds 90. 26. now plural. 125. 92. of. nouns. 30. 46. 21. 45. foreign.pronoun. and figures. 17 19. of. letters as 24. material.

singular. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. personal. etc. become syntax use with with with Nouns. of. 48. 278. as forms titles. form. 48. 281. in nouns. 43. 66. adverbial. 235. 242. Preposition. conjunction. or plural. 279. 240. 106. See verb. in article. indefinite. 101. 42 44. plural form. adjectives. of. with case. 41. nominative. definite. common. 148. meaning. 101. meanings. 282. 48. of. 41. verbs. plural. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 285. . English. 278. spoken of instead nouns. 124. 60. Numeral Object. with with with Now Number. of different possessive definite of. 23.. 48. and analysis. 242. 39. dative. 42. 196. singular. 102. pronouns. pronouns. indirect. 41. preposition. 195. 48. Nouns. 18. of. 42. See in in in Numeral distributive. 121. plural no two singular construction. 92. of. passive adverbial. article. adjectives. of.of same two with proper.

127. 194. of. 91. adverbs. of. 101. 325 275. Each adjective. of syntax. 38. with (the). 213. 94. 56. 293. Pains. 56. 64. 279. Elder. 115. Ourself. pronoun. as other. 103. Omission On. 41. treatment comparatives. adjective. Older. a in adjectives. for. articles. See pronoun. 306. position Order. See the as of. 233.syntax Of. 161. 199. 117. of upon. part analysis. Oxen. One. 103. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Ordinal Other Ought. 93 other. nouns. ours. 69. 191. as of. Our. conjunctions. 87. definite relative uses of. 116. inverted. adverb. 237. of of of of of models adjectives. Parsing. uses numeral pronoun. 216. another. of. . conjunction.

. -ing words. of. verbs. 27. of. nominative. 95. 247. speech. pronouns. 287. 180. 59. in. 43. 43. 172. article 150. of. 28. phrases. 134. absolute with of. 100. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 70. Person. 177. Pence.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. them. 80. verb idioms it from. of. reflexive. antecedent. predicate use of. verbs. 219. with. agreement of verb nouns. 173. pronouns. used as voice. 181. 148. pease. phrase. of. 56. 62. of. 59. of. not is. 59. 119. part adjective. or of. and subject in. 317. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 322. from definition other of. pennies. pronoun. included various. 335. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 64. 63. 179. 56. relatives. parsed. 61. 69. 62. possessive and of. 172. verbals. 281. 174.

prepositional. of. omitted. 236. syntax of of Politics. 53. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 232. 281. 106. 247. of. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 53. See 60. 41. Comparison. 241. singular. 236. nouns. 195. complete. as double. spoken of. 52. . in of. 248. nouns. 25.objective syntax table triple uses of. conjunctions prepositions Plural. of. 54. 50. 37. participial. 49. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. Personal subjective. plural. 188. pronouns. 51. double. 245. adverbs of. simple. vs. appositional. objects. Positive Possessive. antecedent of of pronouns. of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 60. it. English. nouns. of Phrase. 61. kinds infinitive. of. 206. 's. 64. Nouns. singular degree. 303. 285. of. of nouns. 67. 278. relative. adjectives. pronoun. 281. pronoun. or See of of See 185. of. 303. 235. of. Personification. 278. 247. Place. 63. 245. noun nouns.

another. expressed as other of. case. of. as 54. same used as adjectives. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 58. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 186. 105. 331. 332. 279. 333. 147. adjective. of. Pronouns. 287. 203. . 281. forms of.Prefixes. any. 202. 95. 300. 207. interrogative. 59. who personal. in exclamations. by parts of of. objective. 93. as antecedent of relative. possessive nominative to of. interrogative. exclamatory. 203. parse. usually to as than. somebody definition how indefinite. 284. 285. singular usually other. 299. neither. all. case. 132. what. 58. 195. 104. none. of. Prepositions. 283. 187. parse. with tense certain. 205. by. of. of. 302. 64. adverb. and form form form form of. future. by with shown certain of. after but. of. and one with else's. 303. 219. 208. words. plural. for predicate nominative. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. objective. verbs. 300. meaning. 72. plural. plural. as. each either. 32. 129. of. 283. 282. 89. speech. 105. 206. 280. 301.

188. Questions. and which. from and interrogative. 142. indirect compound. 74. 83. 279. 101. parse. Nouns. of. 295. questions. in. which. 295. to of. 105. pronoun. of. pronominal pronouns indirect. 85. unrestrictive. 74. 293. 85. 189. 69. Quantity. discourse. Direct same and different. 296. in. with who. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. conjunctions Quality. 289. or of. 68. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 87. of. and relatives. of. use of history formed. with with gerund. nouns. 99. See of. of. 74. in. 291. of. that. same antecedent. who. 87. 58. 263. indirect. of. which after same. use in as. personal pronoun. Quotations. of. 286. 84. Rather. 195. 293. Rank. of. adverbs in. agreement anacoluthon and as. pronouns. 69.possessive relative. 289. . and antecedent. 297. 80. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose.

Self Sentences. plural possessive as. 242. Simple in sate. 159. simple of. 255. conjunction. kinds Sequence Set. definition . gender. and should. 159. simple. clauses of. 319. 170. 'S. which. in form. forms shots. 43. object. of. 289. 74. 51. Shear. 162. suffix. 196. in of. 231. 195. elliptical. of. conjunctions Retained Riches. pronoun. 294. 259. who. will. S. Seeing. 29. 42. 231. that. would. of. Shot. 69. 263. See Sentences. of. ending. tenses. of of of complex Sentences. 26 271. of sit. 252. complex. reflexive analysis of compound. effect. Same Sat. Sex Shall.syntax use Result. 40. sentence. 196.

237. of. Somebody Sort. definition 67. 270. 258. 144. in feminine suffix. these number. English. 257. Split Spoken -Ster. -en. of. for. etc. 245. of. 33. Subject. used mood. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 323. of. 303. 33. 186. names as a. 257. English. 36. distinguish. other Such Such Suffix -s. 233. literary clause. disuse in spoken complete. 257. -es. 260. 258. definition how kinds noun. verbs. 138. English. 169. phonetic in infinitive. 12.Singular Sir. Spelling Spinster. 38. 126. of. 240. of. . 38. Modern use becoming else's. logical. 303. 144. See -En. 262. 257. adverb. 32. of. 245. adverb. 258. 137.. vs. as. to of. sort. in Middle English. English.

object. of. There These kind. 277. degree. when as of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 147. meaning made up in Old of. 309. 275. form. "the then foreign. of. as history The. which. 106. meaning. 297. than of. two basis not same definition definite. in comparison. plural as adverb. 147. adverbs. restrictive. 191. See etc. of. me." introductory. of. as history syntax Their. of . omission whom. Tenses. of. .. of. 307. as adverbs. 33. 148. that uses That. Then. definition in English Tense. 186. 108. objects. 120. 119. 280. 152.Suffixes. 222. 107. 123. they. 289. 290. of languages. syntax of. king. 106.. 306.. 116. not suggesting adjectives. adjectives. this. auxiliaries. when relative. in double. article. 189. 319. 275. 88. and and of. 186. 61. 87. of. English. 109. of. coördinating. 147. English. subject. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. classical of. Kind. 306.

first. 175. 175. etc. Upper. 172. uses of. to. 248. 195. uses history of. preposition. kinds participle. feminine and. exclamations. 247. thee. in of. certain as the before with of. 114. infinitive. tother. of. of. 322. 21. try two. analysis. 172. of.These. 217. 128. thy. of. of. parse. 330. 33. See On. 180. adverbs those. used. carelessly uses syntax this. 175. . Utter. how infinitive. infinitive. 173. 61. -Trix. verbs. 322. 119. 207. Thou. gerund. conjunctions prepositions To. uttermost. other noun. in omitted uses T'other. 308. 185. suffix. 181. 20. words. Time. from cleft to 174. 114. 114. -ing 111. Try Two Under. See That.. phrases. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 323. of. first adjective. Upon. of. 188. 176.

active meaning. 154. active. 169. 167. 33. weak. 12. 147.Verbs. mood of. What. . definition of. table of irregular. 135. retained object with passive. strong. 129. 167. of incomplete predication. voice of. person and number of. 312. 319. passive. analysis. 47. verbs. 317. of. in indirect discourse. definition of. 149. phonetic. 169. 154. 148. 39. Vocative in Voice. becoming irregular. 151. verbs by. Vixen. passive form. 148. 179. 150. tense of. formed by. 242. of. syntax of. 236. change. 131. 245. past tense formed nominative. remarks on certain. transitive and intransitive. 159. with subject in number. 330. 160. sequence of. 154. agreement of. in person. 130. 157. 320. intransitive. 133. made transitive. 134. but uses what. table of. definition of. spelling of. 133. how to parse. defective. of English. 312-316. conjugation of. regular. 223. auxiliary. 155. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went.

296. relative. etc. 72. of. 83. 75. 40. pronoun.what Whereby. spoken in of. interrogative Which. 83. 85. would. questions. conjunction. whereto. 190. Y. referring syntax Widower. 194. 105. in. 246. in -ly. 105. animals. wizard. 178. 85. Yes ending analysis. 36. Wife. a.. 104. questions. 126. 36. questions. 77. 85. Whether. . worser. plural of in nouns -ing. English. questions. With. 295-299. direct of. Who. antecedent adjective. pronoun. 78. 75. in in indefinite objective. 299. uses See Shall. 111. 72. of. Witch. 72. 37. Words in Worse. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. relative. Woman. Will. 79. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 32. 73. relative indirect relative. 218.

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