roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. Literary English. The work it will cover. if rightly presented. and thus incite his observation. Few inflections. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). is worthy of serious study. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. rightly considered. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. assist the classification of kindred expressions.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. and their uses and relations in the sentence. An æsthetic benefit. their forms. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. its peculiar and abundant idioms. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Authority as a basis. but this is bad English now. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. there is still much for the grammarian to do. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Coming back. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. then. "Analysis. as. as compared with Latin or Greek. with its enormous vocabulary. This will take in the usual divisions. so that a small grammar will hold them all.The province of English grammar is." and "Syntax. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. however. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). A broader view. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). to those who have studied the language historically. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. It is also evident. Surely our noble language. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition." What grammar is. . from the question. If. it will at the same time. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. Mental training. Making rules is risky.

then. reference will be made to vulgar English. .²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. In the more simple state of the Arabs. but. the words sons and master name objects. Part II. Vulgar English. Analysis of Sentences. Such words are called nouns. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. as they stand for ideas. which belongs to a people. NOUNS. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. The Parts of Speech. the nation is free. besides this one. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. or standard. and will are evidently names of a different kind. from the eighteenth century on.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. too. three divisions:² Part I. and Inflections. or Syntax. not objects. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. and may belong to any of those objects. The following pages will cover. 1. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Part III. PART I. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. The Uses of Words. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Occasionally. by which is meant the free. Spoken English. The plainest name is Arabs. The words state. that is. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²GIBBON. submission. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood.

3. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. reducing it to a narrow application. representing directly to the mind an object. and things separately. For instance. Classes of nouns. (b) Common. MATERIAL. Individual. but Chicago names one city. men in groups may be called a crowd. belonging to one. place. substance. animals. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. (a) 4. or a congress. Thus. Abstract. Proper. 2. whether person. Thus. or thing. and appropriate names to the groups. ATTRIBUTE. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Besides considering persons. because each group is considered as a unit. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. 5. or a council. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. a committee. and fixes the attention upon that particular city.Definition. Name for a group or collection of objects. This does not imply. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Common. possessed by all. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. we may think of them in groups. animals. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. . the man here. as here used. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. or things. etc. is from a Latin word which means general. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. A noun is a name word. however. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. or the man in front of you. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. They properly belong under common nouns. We may say. Name for any individual of a class. the name of each is an individual or proper name. or a mob. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. or idea. Collective.

(3) Geological bodies: mud. They remain common class names. Such are glass. stone. instead of to each individual or separate object. wine. cloud. not things. rice. frost. It may. wheat." "Learning is hard to acquire. etc. rain. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. The quality is still there as much as before. Words naturally of limited application not proper. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). however. NOTE. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. 6. snow. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. granite. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. etc. but in the words sun. tea." "a man of understanding. sugar. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. expressing state. world. . or actions. mist. platinum. potash. When we speak of a wise man. considered abstractly. etc. condition. "Painting is a fine art. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. and so on. . or that which shows a thing has been proved. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. paint." 9. The reason is. or apart from their natural connection. conditions. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. moon. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. etc. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. expressing attributes or qualities. Again. etc. 7.Names for things thought of in mass. we speak of the wisdom of the man. dew. rock. sugar. and fasten a special name to the object considered.. soap. celluloid. as in calling a city Cincinnati. gold. Names of ideas. clay. earth. sand. but it is taken merely as a name. iron. earth. rubber. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. frost. there is no such intention. etc. such as sun. we may say. proof means the act of proving. or action. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. but which are not called proper names. wheat.²There are some nouns. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. etc. etc.

the well-being of her subjects. childhood from child. service from serve. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. he spread his blessings over the land. Exercises. and they cannot express action. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. the rude drawings of the book. speech from speak. there is time for such reasonings. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. (2) peerage from peer. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. the great Puritan awakening. the main bearings of this matter. the moon caused fearful forebodings. The verb. five abstract. Verbal abstract nouns. as glad²joy. . is used as a noun. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. redness from red. hope. NOTE. 12. They are only the husks of verbs. shadow. Such are beauty. but are merely names of actions. those opinions and feelings. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. summer. mastery from master. joy. (1) prudence from prudent. thunder.Attribute abstract nouns. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. height from high. lightning. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. stupidity from stupid. II.. her longing for their favor. "a long run" "a bold move." "a brisk walk. kingship from king. To avoid difficulty. by altering its function. 273). Thus. the teachings of the High Spirit. winter. day. 1.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. night. action from act. as in the expressions. Underived abstract nouns. in the beginning of his life. etc. They cannot govern a word. ease. as their name implies. 10. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. a wedding or a festival. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. hopeful²hope. etc. Caution. etc. energy. five proper. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. theft from thieve. 272. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. etc.

catarrh. geology. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. (b) branches of knowledge. Using a dictionary. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. algebra. diphtheria. mathematics? 3.2. typhus. as pneumonia. as physics. pleurisy. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice .

Nouns change by use. the word port. it imposes its classification on other men. damask. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. etc. Proper names transferred to common use." referring to flat- . Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. in Portugal. a Bentham. thus. from China. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. the guillotine. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. currants. a Fourier. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. but most of them are in the following groups. from Oporto. who was its inventor. from Damascus. above. Guillotin. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. from Corinth. from the name of Dr. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. but we may say. 15. 119). Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. from Calicut. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. for example.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. as a davy. a Locke.²EMERSON.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. a Hutton. from a town in France. or to go over to it entirely. levant and morocco (leather). "The cook made the irons hot. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. a Lavoisier. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Others of similar character are calico. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. port (wine). nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. We know a number of objects made of iron. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. arras. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. 13. Material nouns may be used as class names. 14. and lo! a new system. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word.

abstract in meaning. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this.²CARLYLE. purity. and only Vice and Misery.²COLLINS. clouds. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. though not confined to verse. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. Traffic has lain down to rest. candies. They are not then pure abstract nouns. Personification of abstract ideas. (3) By poetical use. etc.²RUSKIN. a rubber for erasing marks. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. to prowl or to moan like night birds. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. on fire. papers. 16. his eyes. are still names of abstract ideas. Class nouns in use. tobaccos. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. or made plural.²BRYANT. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. slates. coals. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. etc. but in case an art or a science.In lightnings owned his secret stings. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. or used as class nouns. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. but on dispositions which require to be created.²HAYNE. A halfway class of words. smiled. be spoken of. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. Test this in the following sentences:² . or the arts and sciences. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract.²BYRON. or. that disposition is the thing to be created. These are the same in material. and so on. nor are they common class nouns. oils. not material things.irons. tins. that is.²PERCIVAL. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. and say teas. paints. clays. From all around²Earth and her waters. which are made plural. are abroad. that the power of art is founded on fact. 17. a steel to whet a knife on. When it is said that art differs from science. the abstract idea is partly lost. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. The words preceded by the article a. mists. as stones. but differ in strength. Next Anger rushed. For example. This is a poetic usage. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Death.

nouns used to modify. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Conjunctions. Nouns used as descriptive terms.²EMERSON.The Solitary can despise." "a New York bank. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. the wealthy." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. 19. a bank in New York. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. which belongs to another word. By ellipses. for example. but is still a noun. sir!"²MACAULAY .²SHAKESPEARE. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. fear thy blow. meaning a walk in the morning. they cannot be compared. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. Adverbs. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. etc. or from any expression.²BURNS. as each repeated pleasure tired. make our own so.² BURNS. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.²If the descriptive word be a material noun.Let us. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Then comes the "Why. sir?" and the "No. as descriptive adjectives are. or describe it. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great." "a morning walk. were mere terrors of the night. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. All these. 18." which contains a pure adjective. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. "a family quarrel. however. When I was young? Ah. a bill as to tax on the banks. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired." "the State Bank Tax bill. loves. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. But ah! those pleasures. And still.²SHAKESPEARE. They are more like the possessive noun. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. if we must have great actions.²IRVING. Adjectives. sir!" and the "What then. Every why hath a wherefore. they do not express quality.² GOLDSMITH. But it is better to consider them as nouns. NOTE.

Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. of words rather than of their meaning. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. etc. FRANKLIN. When. or a state secret. are spoken of as if pure nouns. but have an adjectival meaning. the terms the great. too. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. The it. and Then. that the above cases are shiftings of the use." and another of Dr. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. Power laid his rod aside.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. There are many of these. are used. Caution. Exercise. without reference to its function in the sentence. 4. or a faithful domestic. of course. but as a figure of speech. 6. in speaking of the principal of a school. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. . There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. 8. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. in a sentence above. however. that cobweb of the brain. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. whether it mean the sun or the cold. to such words as become pure nouns by use. 5. at the beginning. 1. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns.. is the word "just. Now. It is to be remembered. so. When. Learning. 2. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. Stone walls do not a prison make. or a criminal. why and wherefore. In the other sentences. 3." finally to stand?²RUSKIN."²B. 20. the wealthy.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. is ambiguous. 7. NOTE.²These remarks do not apply.Nor iron bars a cage." or "legal. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. and tell to which class each belongs.

20. . The hours glide by. Greek. 12. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands.9. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 18.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. returned to Spain. 21. shattered and disabled. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 13. 16. 14. 11. 21. but not so in English. always feminine. in English grammar. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. A fool speaks all his mind. and names of females are usually feminine. 15. The fleet. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. the silver moon is gone. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. and many other languages.You seize the flower. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. Male beings are. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. And see. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. always masculine. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. It is founded on sex. he cried. that waits you here. its bloom is shed. A little weeping would ease my heart. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 23. the welcome. 17. 22. What gender means in English. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. In Latin. 19. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. German.Fair guests. for every dropHinders needle and thread. GENDER. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. female. 24. 10.

the name of it is masculine." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. those with which man comes in contact often. or additions to words. according to use. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. if of the female sex. or which arouse his interest most. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. in English. and consequently without sex.² IRVING. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. that is. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. Gender nouns.²LAMB. Thus. must be divided into two principal classes.²masculine and feminine. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. . applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell.. and neuter nouns. Neuter nouns. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. das Messer (knife) is neuter. the word child is neuter in the sentence. All nouns. "A little child shall lead them. in other languages gender follows the form. The great difference is. that pattern of a husband. but are spoken of as neuter. 22. He next stooped down to feel the pig." . Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words.. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. or names of things without life. For instance: in Latin. in German.When. Hence: Definition. der Tisch (table) is masculine. then. 24. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. the sex being of no consequence. if there were any signs of life in it. mensa (table) is feminine. the name of it is feminine.²gender nouns. those distinguishing the sex of the object. however. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. corpus (body) is neuter. hortus (garden) is masculine. Of animals. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word..² I have seenA curious child . neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Gunpowder . according to their use.. came to a stand just by the bridge.. with its gizzard under its wing. clapping his burnished wings. those which do not distinguish sex. 23. inanimate things are spoken of..²IRVING. No "common gender. are named by gender nouns.

The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. (2) By adding a suffix. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. II. If such words as parent. Native suffixes.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. These remain in vixen and spinster.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. 29. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. servant. is. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. . relative. For fox they said vox. etc. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. or the lack of it. Male nouns beings. the division of words according to sex. they are neuter words. and for the older word fat they said vat. generally to a masculine word. from the masculine fox. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. as in wine vat. One feminine. 26. but spinster has now no connection with it. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. (3) By using a different word for each gender. ruler. I.. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. domestic. of course. woman. though both words have lost their original meanings. teacher. 27. The inflections for gender belong. puts a prefix before the masculine man. only to masculine and feminine nouns. for from they said vram. 28. Hence vixen is for fyxen. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Gender shown by Prefixes. According to the definition. as he-goat²she-goat. Very few of class I. cousin. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. he-bear²she-bear. Put in convenient form.25. Gender shown by Suffixes. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English.

as czarina. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . but in most cases it has not. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. Ending of masculine not changed. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. 30. and are never used for words recognized as English. Slightly changed and widely used. executrix. as. as. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. trickster.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. señorita. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. punster. -ess (French esse. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. song-str-ess. as seam-stress. Low Latin issa).The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. gamester. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. it has none now in the words huckster. Unaltered and little used. the one most used. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. These are attached to foreign words. donna. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or).² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped.

teacher or lady teacher. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. as was said in the sixteenth century. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. NOTE." III. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. the ending -ess. others have in their origin the same root. from the French -esse. wagoness. chairman. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as in the fourteenth century. neighboresse. as. from Latin imperatricem. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. Gender shown by Different Words. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. Some of them have an interesting history. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Thus. as. etc. In some of these pairs. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). we use the masculine termination. teacheresse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. fosteress. Instead of saying doctress. We frequently use such words as author.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. neighbor (masculine and feminine). or servauntesse. we use the feminine. 32. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. editor. frendesse. to represent persons of either sex. 31.

). but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Widower. but this has long been obsolete. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). as in many other words. gand-ra. though both are ultimately from the same root. the old sign of the masculine. finally gander. probably meaning house dweller). had the masculine mearh (horse). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. among others) to be from the same root word. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. written loverd. lhauerd. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Personification. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Two masculines from feminines. Three letters of ened have fallen away. leaving our word drake. Danish gaas. not immediately connected with witch. Icelandic gás. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). The masculine was formed by adding -a. Mare. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. 16). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). for example. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. from Latin mea domina. became identical. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). It is not connected historically with our word duck. The older forms.² . etc. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. 33. Besides gander and drake. widuwa²widuwe. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). 34. in Old English mere. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Witch is the Old English wicce. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. or lauerd in Middle English. Madam is the French ma dame.

I. Effect of personification. 37. shoon (shoes). This is not exclusively a poetic use. together with the third.No towers along the steep. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. eyen (eyes). treen (trees). though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. in Old English. The first two methods prevailed. for instance. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England."²BYRON. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. Definition.²singular and plural. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. . In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. 35. But other words were inflected afterwards. 38.²KEATS. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. and not by the form of the noun. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. (3) By adding -s (or -es). But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. (2) By changing the root vowel. Britannia needs no bulwarks. etc. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. whenever we adopt a new word. the engineer speaks so of his engine. 36.²COLERIDGE. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. that is.Her home is on the deep. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. the plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural."Now. The -en inflection. In nouns.²CAMPBELL. NUMBER. more than one. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. Our language has two numbers. 39.

turf. dozen. heathen.²Over the mountains winding down. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. etc. sail. as. 42. The words horse and foot. finally brethren.² "God bless me! so then. Children has passed through the same history. brace.Horse and foot. by."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. cannon. into Frederick town. folk. after all. etc. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. and get settled. sheep. lens. Instead of -s. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. glass. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Akin to this class are some words. or if preceded by the prepositions in.² The foot are fourscore thousand. originally neuter.-En inflection imitated by other words.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. pair. swine. that have the singular and plural alike. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. after numerals (if not after numerals. but has now no singular. quartz. Examples of this inflection are. as. Lee marched over the mountain wall. 41. they add -s): also trout. but they now add the ending -s.²THOREAU. wight. III.²WHITTIER. and is still found in dialects. retain the same form for plural meaning. cross. then brothre or brethre. Brethren has passed through three stages. Other words following the same usage are.The horse are thousands ten. Such are box. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. etc. when they mean soldiery. 40. ditch. such as deer. II. Kine is another double plural.²MACAULAY. The old plural was brothru. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. people. . head. salmon.

Examples of these are. DANA.g. e. prize²prizes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. half²halves. 43. 45. fancies. Special Lists. negro²negroes. mathematics. When such words take a plural ending.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. is both the science and the art of government. etc. means: as. Means plural. and many branches of learning. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class.²BRYANT. physics. and go over to other classes (Secs. allies. shelf²shelves. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). e. and the real ending is therefore -s. etc. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. volcano² volcanoes. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves.² Politics. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. chaise²chaises. hero²heroes.g. pains (care). some adding -s. economics. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. however. Some words are usually singular. as. So live. the Americas. molasses.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. Words in -ies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. though this sound combines readily with -s. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. that when thy summons comes. in its widest extent. they lose their identity. fairies. though they are plural in form. It served simply as a means of sight.²PROF.. optics. race²races. these words ended in -ie. etc. summons. knife²knives. The lilie on hir stalke grene. a new syllable is made. and some -es.-Es added in certain cases. Two words. Proper nouns are regularly singular. niche²niches. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s.. Formerly. politics. daisies. 15 and 17). etc. 44. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. also news. the Washingtons. means and politics. house²houses. quoth then that ladie milde.

By these means.²G. Politics plural.²IRVING. however. if I recollect right. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. W.²GOLDSMITH. Sometimes. Now I read all the politics that come out. I say. . by strongly conveying the passions. he pronounced to have been a tongs.Words. L. Besides this. it is furnished with a forceps. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. With great dexterity these means were now applied.² MACAULAY. Some words have no corresponding singular.²MOTLEY. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. riches will accumulate.²BURKE. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. by those means which we have already mentioned.²GOLDSMITH. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. A relic which.²GOLDSMITH.²J. 46. CURTIS. LAUGHLIN.

genius²geniuses (men of genius). ways. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. or epistles. genii (spirits). One plural. indices (signs in algebra). etc.The air. These make the last part plural. pea²peas (separately).. part²parts: (1) divisions. dice (for gaming). (2) revenue duties. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. twopence. index²indexes (to books). 49. two meanings.). trouble. fishes (individuals or kinds). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). (2) abilities. or copies.. die²dies (stamps for coins. number²numbers: (1) figures. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. 50. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. pence (collectively).²LONGFELLOW. sixpence. the other unlike it. clothes (garments).²was it subdued when. In Early Modern English thank is found. fish²fish (collectively). penny²pennies (separately). as in the lines. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. as two sixpences. In speaking of coins.²one corresponding to the singular. riches.² I lisped in numbers.. making a double plural. etc. faculties. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). in mournful numbers. . (2) poetry. of a periodical. eaves. carry off chaff. DANA. 48. Three words were originally singular. Numbers also means issues. shots (number of times fired). Two classes of compound words. shot²shot (collective balls). pease (collectively).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. Tell me not.²POPE. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. brethren (of a society or church). (2) care. for the numbers came. (2) literature. may add -s. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. or work in a bellows?²PROF. two plurals.

woman servant. but add -s. Mussulman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Two methods in use for names with titles. Norman. woman singer. Brahman. as man singer. though the latter is often found. and then the three Miss Spinneys. German. there is some disagreement among English writers. . Briggs. for example.²DR. Brown. The chief member adds -s in the plural. the Drs. such as talisman. firman. Ottoman. 52. and Mrs.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.² Then came Mr. or the name may be pluralized. then Silas Peckham. 51. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. HOLMES.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. manservant. The title may be plural. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Allen. as the Messrs. As to plurals of names with titles. the Misses Rich.

Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. FROM THE GREEK. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. and retain their foreign plurals. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.²GOLDSMITH. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Others have been adopted.²THE CRITIC. FROM THE LATIN. Domesticated words. Exercise. They are then said to be naturalized. Du Maurier.²GIBBON. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. 53. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. or Englished. The Messrs. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. These are said to be domesticated.²DICKENS. y y analysis antithesis . y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. or Anglicized. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.

they form their plurals in the regular way. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). In the sentence. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). figures. In the general wearing-away of inflections. 54. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. and expresses a relation akin to possession. etc. also add -s or 's. 55. Words quoted merely as words. Letters. 56. cell has another relation. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. without reference to their meaning.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. etc. Only two case forms. . figures." CASE. Definition. as. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." the word felon's modifies cell.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. as.

Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. they returned to their homes. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Human experience is the great test of truth.²one for the nominative and objective. and merit. when asked unawares. 3. three things characterize man. 2. . the objective. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.²person. the enemy of the living. completing a verb.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. 57." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. may be said to have three cases. 58." (2) As a predicate noun.²nature. learning. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. I. whether inflected or not. Excuses are clothes which. excessive grief." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Uses of the Nominative.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 4. and experience. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 5. 1. Nouns. Three properties belong to wisdom. then. fate. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers.²the nominative. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. and the possessive. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.

and being equivalent to one verb. 59. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. sword in hand and visor down. Set a high price on your leisure moments. But of all plagues. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. they are sands of precious gold." (4) As the second object. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." (3) Adverbially. and tell which use each has:² 1." "Thou makest the storm a calm. taking the object storm. and meaning calmest. how have I frighted thee? II. thy wrath can send. the word toward which the preposition points. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. wounded lies. a patriarch of the village. 8. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. completing the verb." Exercise. Uses of the Objective. and makest a calm. But the flood came howling one day. . (in the older stages of the language. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. Conscience." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. save. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. (5) As the object of a preposition. 2. etc. reconciles. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. They charged. distance. taking the object enemies.6. her first law broken. measure. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences.Save. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 3. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 68." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. 4. and landlord of the inn. good Heaven. as will be seen in Sec. 9.

the Great Stone Face. 8. 7.²ADDISON. 10. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. The noblest mind the best contentment has. (3) Subjective possessive. III.²SHELLEY. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.5. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. tempests that . 6.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. Possession in some sense is the most common. as in these expressions. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.²HAWTHORNE.And gave the leper to eat and drink. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. as shown in the sentences.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. The possessive case always modifies another word. 61. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. Uses of the Possessive. 60.His winter task a pastime made. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. It is a poetic expression. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.. (2) Objective possessive. and forfeits paid. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. or in writing yesterday's elegy. expressed or understood. as. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.Does his Creator's power display. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. the most common of all.²BYRON. And whirling plate.e. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. from day to day.² The unwearied sun. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. 9.

By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. lady Poss. however. A suggestion. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. The use of the apostrophe. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2." "at his beddes syde. growth which several days had developed). Nom. 1. As said before (Sec. "George Jones his book. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. 64. there are only two case forms. Case Inflection. as schoolboys sometimes write. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. and Obj. A false theory." "mannes herte [heart].²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. in Chaucer.e. "From every schires ende. 56). To form the possessive plural." etc. Declension or inflection of nouns. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. How the possessive is formed. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). Poss. child NOTE. 62.. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. 62. 63. .." Use of the apostrophe.winter is likely to have).e. Nom. the panther which the forest hides)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. making the possessive singular. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. and Obj. PLURAL. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. One is the simple form of a word.

. and the connection must tell us what form is intended.²HOLMES.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE. the possessive sign is usually last. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows." "A postscript is added. James's. store. a word with a phrase. and she walked off from the don's.Though this opinion was untrue. 65. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. as." Possessive with compound expressions."²DE QUINCEY. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. but to the ear all may be alike. Cervantes' satirical work. dwelling. and from a desire to have distinct forms. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. know the amount of my income. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. for goodness' sake. In compound expressions. my neighbors. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. 67.. stands up for God's truth one man. church. etc. the items of my son's. containing words in apposition.²SWIFT.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Possessive and no noun limited. instead of the emperor their master's name. being understood with it: for example.²THACKERAY. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. Peter's. as by the countess's command. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. 66. Captain Scrapegrace's. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. Kate saw that.²RUSKIN. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. some such word as house. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. I remember him in his cradle at St. as.² LOWELL. etc. in the name of the emperor their master. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.

has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²E. a double possessive. as one modifier. the statement clearly means only one thing. Blair). however. E.²FROUDE. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. any. 1. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. making a double possessive. objective.²CARLYLE. A peculiar form. each. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. Exercises. Emphasis. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. ill-lighted except where she stands. the sentence might be understood as just explained. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. HALE. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.The double possessive. corresponding to 's. Both of these are now used side by side. (b) Rewrite the sentence. no. this. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . every. (3) It prevents ambiguity. 2. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. sometimes they are used together. (See also Sec. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. 87. If. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es.²the introduction which Atterbury made. For example. that. (1) When a word is modified by a. etc. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. we use the phrase of Atterbury. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. and at the same time by a possessive noun. especially when used with this or that. or subjective. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. 68.. the. and tell whether each is appositional. Clearness. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. in such a sentence as. In most cases. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me.

4. 8. therefore. Jove laughs. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 13. some idioms²the double possessive. 70. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 15. Hence.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. let him seasonably water the one. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 69. 6. At lovers' perjuries.A weary waste expanding to the skies. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. In parsing. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 10. 9. it seemed. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence.Comes dancing from the East. 11. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Friend. in parsing a noun. 5. and destroy the other. Nature herself. Now the bright morning star. day's harbinger. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 14.² . 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.They say. 12. 7.3. we state. There Shakespeare's self. with every garland crowned. I must not see thee Osman's bride. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it.

Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. and therefore nominative case. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. 68). Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. and number. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. hence objective case.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. (4) Its office in the sentence. Exercise. In parsing any word. etc. the connection shows a male is meant. 2. therefore singular number. inflections. hence it is objective case.(1) The class to which it belongs.²common. it has no sex. has no governing word. Thief is a common class noun. therefore singular number. object of the verb takes. it expresses possession or ownership. is a common class noun. proper. gender. names one thing. it expresses time. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. masculine. and to have it found out by accident. it is the object of the preposition by.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. therefore masculine gender. hence it is a common noun. (3) Whether singular or plural number. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. Neckcloth. as to case. a withered serving man. it is the name of a male being. but is the adverbial objective. That in the captain's but a choleric word. and limits neckcloth. 71. singular number. . of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Throat is neuter. a fresh tapster. which gender. hence it is a gender noun. it denotes only one person. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. 4. 3. therefore neuter. MODEL FOR PARSING. if the latter. The correct method. determining its case. NOTE. therefore possessive case. like miller's. subject of the verb is understood. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. and relations.

The need of pronouns.²palace. castle. 76). Necker. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. the military gentleman shook his forefinger.. connected with the shore by a drawbridge.And hated her for her pride. Definition. financial minister to Louis XVI. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. blessings light on him that first invented . Mrs. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. For instance. Now. were natives of Geneva. sleep! 6. or for a group of persons or things. 9. 8. Time makes the worst enemies friends. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Madame de Staël. 10. He giveth his beloved sleep. 72. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome.. A pronoun is a reference word. Jarley's back being towards him. all in one. or for a person or thing. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. from a necessity for short. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. 7. 73. instead of saying. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. and his daughter." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. standing for a name. but by a question we say. A few miles from this point. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun." Again.5. and representative words. . where the Rhone enters the lake.. definite. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. and prison. 11. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. PRONOUNS. Classes of pronouns. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious.

Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. 75. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. (3) Third person. Three persons of pronouns. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. pronoun. we our. that is." Person of nouns. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. "the distinction of person. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. This gives rise to a new term. which relate or refer to a noun. my Plural. (2) Second person. representing a person or thing spoken to. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. From analogy to pronouns. representing the person speaking. primarily adjectives.. 74. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. 76. as nouns have the same form. Person in grammar. (4) Adjective pronouns. or other word or expression. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Nom.(3) Relative pronouns. words. 77. I Poss. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (5) Indefinite pronouns. the person or thing spoken to. mine. which cannot be used as adjectives. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. even if it had a special form. Singular. they are said to have person by agreement. and the person or thing talked about. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. which have forms for person. ours . they must represent the person talking.

Poss. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. they their. . thine. namely. yours you THIRD PERSON. yours Poss. 78. of all Three. yours you Plural. you your. Singular. she her. SECOND PERSON. Nom. or. Old forms. by personification. me us Singular. thy Remarks on These Forms. Obj. Masc. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. But the third person has. Obj. Obj. Nom. masculine h . he his him Fem.Obj. neuter hit. so also with the person or thing spoken to. The speaker may be either male or female. Obj. First and second persons without gender. Poss. neuter. Nom. thou thee ye you you your. Old Form Common Form. hers her Plur. in the singular. theirs them Neut.. feminine h o. Third person singular has gender. a separate form for each gender. your. it its it Poss. and also for the neuter. Nom.

82. The consequence is. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. Second person always plural in ordinary English. Two uses of the old singulars. however. them. as. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. 79. Thou. to thy care we commit the helpless. it. The form its. etc. even when referring to a single object. especially in poetry. There are. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. .²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.²BEECHER. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. the forms they. heom. 81. for example. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time.. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. (2) In addressing the Deity. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. in Old English. thou Shepherd of Israel. We use it with a plural verb always. just as we now say. This is of comparatively recent growth. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). etc. as in prayers. perhaps being from the English demonstrative.²SHELLEY.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. which was often sounded with the h silent. 80.² Oh. thee. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. heora. and sometimes its. their. etc. two modern uses of thou. which is a neuter noun. as possessive of it. that didst comfort thy people of old. The plurals were h ..:² (1) In elevated style." As shown above. thy. the Old English objective was hem (or heom).The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. In spoken English.Thou lovest.

Nominative forms. thy. hers. ²SHAKESPEARE. and not make more classes. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. or. in such a sentence as. Old use of mine and thine. Additional nominatives in spoken English. they have a nominative form. their. I spare thee mine. 86. 84. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. The forms my. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. for. she.Use of the pronouns in personification. to personify objects (Sec. sometimes his and its. though ye is occasionally used as objective. thine. her. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. II. and follow the usage of literary English. ye. note the following:² 'Twas mine. Yet careful speakers avoid this. they. theirs. 58). but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. some say. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. however.²BULWER. them. them. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 84 are always subjects. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. 85. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. I The Nominative. yours. him. 'tis his. In spoken English. 83. and has been slave to thousands. us. his. . The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. "I am sure it was him. her. besides a nominative use. we. have a peculiar use. Absolute personal pronouns. The forms mine. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. and sometimes in ordinary speech. him. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. 34). but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS." the literary language would require he after was. That is. us. he. me.²COWPER. Not a separate class. though those named in Sec. its. your. her. when they occur in the predicate position. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. our. The words I. thou. The Possessive.²LANDOR. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. And since thou own'st that praise.

if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.²THACKERAY. "Hold thy peace. anger. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. . since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. are really double possessives.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. T. as in nouns. and with mine. Give every man thine ear. thine. Besides this. theirs.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. This ancient silver bowl of mine. for example.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.²BIBLE. Like the noun possessives. ²HOLMES. hers. thus. his. pluck it out. ours. we have. COOPER. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. or satire. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. F. FIELDS. we find. yours. The forms hers.²ID. sometimes its. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. If thine eye offend thee.²THACKERAY. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. it tells of good old times. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²CARLYLE.²J. 87.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. Double and triple possessives.²J.² CARLYLE. thus.²SWIFT."²SCOTT.²ID. commenting upon a letter of mine. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. theirs. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. but few thy voice." said Henry Woodstall. Long Allen. yours. (3) To express contempt. (2) To bring emphasis. ours. Their uses. This usage is still preserved in poetry.

In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In their function. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. in the first sentence." "None but the brave deserves the fair.²BIBLE. Both joined in making him a present. but not in form. 88. and mine in the second has an objective use. his for his property. 90. Curse me this people. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. "The good alone are great. as it is called. but nominative or objective in use. but the form is the same as the objective. The old dative case. But the first two have a nominative use. for whose benefit.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. 89. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. this dative use. the thing is done. The Objective. Now the objective. 86: mine stands for my property." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. In pronouns. Besides this use of the objective. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. III. as shown in Sec. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.²ID. but expresses for whom. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In such sentences as. They all handled it.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. or use in a sentence. . the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. mine stands for my praise in the second. 20. was marked by a separate case.

" (3) As a grammatical subject. why. has not made its progress. Indefinite use of you and your.²EMERSON. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. logical subject.² NEWMAN. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.Time is behind them and before them. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²CARLYLE. was passed by with indulgence. thus. or that he has not a great deal more. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. It is a pity that he has so much learning.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.²BACON. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. The word you.² . She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²BULWER. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. as. Society. as. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. you must condense there. 91. WEBSTER. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. like Chinese skill.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. (3) In apposition. Your mere puny stripling. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. ²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.²IRVING To empty here.²ADDISON. and they cry. you sneeze. in this century. to stand for the real. 92.²DE QUINCEY. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²D. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. as in the sentences. which follows the verb. or to the idea. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.

as.²HOLMES. they dropped their arms. as they are also called. who in turn tries all the professions. the second is the old form of the second person. They are myself. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples." and there is an end of it. itself. "I found me a good book. that is. keeps a school.² Now I lay me down to sleep. I set me down and sigh. This occurs in poetry. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. herself. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. 94. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²COLERIDGE." etc. when they are direct objects.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. I made up my mind to foot it.. however. Of the two forms in parentheses. yourselves. And millions in those solitudes. we use such expressions as. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. There was nothing for it but to return.²BRYANT. peddles it. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. A sturdy lad . 93.. since firstThe flight of years began. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. ourselves. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²BURNS. yourself. used in poetry.²ID. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. it rained. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. themselves."²IRVING. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. or COMPOUND PERSONAL.It is finger-cold. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined.²DE QUINCEY. farms it. For example. himself.²BUNYAN. It was late and after midnight. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb." "He bought him a horse. . And when I awoke. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but seldom in prose.²ANON. have laid them downIn their last sleep.²SCOTT. -selves.²THOREAU. Poor Christian was hard put to it. (ourself).²IRVING. For when it dawned. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. (thyself). and its plural selves. who teams it.

to every one. as in vulgar English. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.As girls were once.² The great globe itself .²EMERSON.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. The question might arise. B.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. as. were changed into the possessive myself. ourselves. not the possessive forms. theself. for example.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. NOTE. Held dead within them till myself shall die..²SHAKESPEARE. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. shall dissolve. 96. Threats to all. and the others were formed by analogy with these. to us. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. for example. especially in the speech of rulers.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. after the analogy of myself.²MILTON. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. 95. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.² .²WORDSWORTH. and build the lofty rhyme.To you yourself. as. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.²ID.²E. Origin of these reflexives. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. with self. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.. thyself. In Middle English the forms meself. BROWNING. as we ourself have been. Use of the reflexives. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. etc. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. I shrink with pain. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. As if it were thyself that's here.² TENNYSON. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.

Three now in use. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 8. and how to do it. Come and trip it as we go. But if a man do not speak from within the veil.² THACKERAY. One obsolete. some each of masculine. 2.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 4. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. 7. 6. fight it out. Courage. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. Years ago. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. And it grew wondrous cold. and what. . 5. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. all conform to it. and neuter. 97. 3. some of them being double possessives. father. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 9. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR.²DE QUINCEY. is wisdom. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). To know what is best to do.On the light fantastic toe. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. FRANKLIN. let him lowly confess it. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. but it is the soonest spoiled. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language.²B. feminine. Infancy conforms to nobody. where the word is one with that it tells of. 10. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. which.

it is always third person. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. it is selective. having three forms. etc. that is. which is not inflected for gender. with its possessive and objective. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. or case. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. methought. The use of who. . whether. Whose was that gentle voice. 99. As shown here. Use of who and its forms. What wouldst thou do. it refers to either persons or things. ideas. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. the gold. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. These show that what is not inflected for case. number. used formerly to mean which of two. referring to things. whispering sweet. that it is not inflected for gender or number. as it always asks about somebody. not to persons. actions. but for case alone. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. 98.Promised. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 100. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Use of which.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT.There is an old word. but now obsolete. shall we say. that. that it is always singular and neuter. Which of you.. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Use of what.

Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. SING." Or. which is nominative in the first sentence. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. and what are also relative pronouns. who? Poss. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. or other word or expression. "The last of all the Bards was he. whose? Obj. 102. 103. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Further treatment of who. The antecedent. as. AND PLUR.² . who is used as objective instead of whom. AND PLUR.²by the use of the words. in Sec.101. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. 104. pronoun. Thus we may say. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. 99. SINGULAR Nom. which.Who sung of Border chivalry. which is called the antecedent of the relative. for which the pronoun stands.² "The last of all the Bards was he. objective in the last. since it is subject of the verb had. It usually precedes the pronoun." In the latter sentence. who evidently refers to Bards. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. 105. as. Who. which and what are sometimes adjectives. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. nominative in the second also. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. and also in having a conjunctive use. as they take the place usually of a word already used. These bards sang of Border chivalry. which and what. 127). The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. being the direct object of the verb shall take. it may be shortened into. For instance. what may be an adverb in some expressions. subject of doth love. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. Function of the relative pronoun. and so to make smoother discourse.

Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. a thousand years.That guard our native seas. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²THACKERAY. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Generally speaking.²LOWELL In this. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Two kinds. both his and who have the antecedent priest. When the word relative is used.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. For her enchanting son. but the look which is not of the earth. The men whom men respect..²SCOTT. Who and its forms.²W. a simple relative is meant. 4. Indefinite relatives. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 106. which. that.²MILTON.Whose flag has braved. The nurse came to us. the women whom women approve. 3. what. D. in the same sense in which man's nature. 6. . are the men and women who bless their species. The origin of language is divine. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 4.²PARTON Which and its forms. 108. WHITNEY.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. 2. with all its capabilities . The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.. 3.² COX.²DR JOHNSON. They had not their own luster.. 5. Ye mariners of England. 2.Whom universal nature did lament.²BYRON. will be discussed further on. is a divine creation. 107.

you will not be angry with me for telling you.5. 6. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 4.²LAMB 3. which it certainly is not.Is fit for treasons. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.. Who. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.²MARGARET FULLER. Already done is all that he would do. What. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. The Tree Igdrasil. and spoils..²H. That. Examples of the relative that:² 1.²DE QUINCEY. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. The judge .. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. 109. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²EMERSON. ought to be kept in view.²BURKE. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²GOLDSMITH. 2.²IRVING. BEECHER 5.² SHAKESPEARE 2. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. Reader.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 3. 107. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. The man that hath no music in himself. stratagems.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.. W. For what he sought below is passed above.. else this description will seem exaggerated. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . 110. 111. (a) This gradation .

a man.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. (2) It has three case forms. It has been seen (Sec. who. in the third. My horse. or ideas. flung its arms around my neck. whose wound I had dressed. The robins.²IRVING.. 5. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. whom. and 3. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.²LOWELL. who class With those who think the candles come too soon.whose. In 1. 107..²DR. things. (3) It is nearly always third person. Cooper. whose. and so on.²who. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. referring to animals. Kingsley. The little gorilla. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].²THACKERAY. in 4. in the second. who is first person. they are plural. (4) It has two case forms.. Examples of whose. Gibbon. . Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. not persons. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. the relatives are singular. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. and 6.²LEIGH HUNT. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whose for the possessive. and others. Scott. 113. Sec.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.. son. 2. whom. p.. possessive case of which.. 112.who. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. the others are all third person. Who referring to animals. in the first sentence.²SWIFT. The sentences in Sec. whose is second person. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Witness the following examples:² And you. JOHNSON.²which for the nominative and objective. seemed as much excited as myself. in 5. that man. Smollett. 96). Which. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. In sentence 4.

Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. Burke. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. .²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. (3) It is the same form for first.²DE QUINCEY.² MCMASTER. Kingsley. and to persecute without pity. and third persons. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. and numerous others. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. That. thus. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. (2) It has only one case form. Primarily. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. This moribund '61.²first. animals.²SCOTT. which is very notable and curious.² And. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. In the sentences of Sec. too. which is worse. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. Men may be ready to fight to the death. 116.²SHAKESPEARE. secondly (which made her stare). as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. and things. let us enter the church itself. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. 115. Which and its antecedents. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. The last two sentences in Sec. 109. second. no possessive.²THACKERAY."²RUSKIN.114. Sometimes.²BEECHER. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. This often occurs. So in Matthew Arnold. the antecedent follows which.² I swept the horizon.²RUSKIN.

which. but what I hate.²BIBLE What fates impose. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. What. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. who Poss. it usually follows. 109. plural number. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Sec. third person. plural number. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. When expressed.² What I would. The sentences of Sec." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. by taking them out. third person. either of which would be neuter. number.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. What a man does. Nom. consequently is neuter.²SHAKESPEARE. as. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. For example. Who plainly stands for those or the people. that do I." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. is always neuter. what we said?²CARLYLE. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. as in sentence 6. whose Obj.²EMERSON. that men must needs abide. and person of the relatives who. that he has. . 119. and is emphatic. 118. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent." (3) "These people heard him. 117." That evidently refers to truths. The gender. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. that do I not. we can. for example.

is subject of the verb can't be cured. it is object of uttered." Here the subject of is. "What can't be cured must be endured. but of this. standing for the people understood. it is subject of the verb heard. in (1). . Another way. The word what. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Now. The relative what is handled differently. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. in (3). 7. I think they are trying to outwit nature. 5. which is. Some prefer another method of treatment. the simple relative. and what is the direct object of the verb call. In the sentence. but is singular. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do."²EMERSON. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. Parsing what. What can't be cured. First find the antecedents. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. 3. however. in the following sentences:² 1. because it has usually no antecedent. Exercise." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. nobler souls with that which they are. What must be endured? Answer. the highest result of all education. etc. As shown by the following sentences. 4. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 8. and hence is in the nominative case. third person. so is in the objective case. is in the nominative case. neuter. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. subject of heard. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. In the same way who. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. The whole expression is its subject. Truths in sentence (2). above. 120. In (2).. then parse the relatives. 6. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. is subject of wrought upon and molded. that takes the case of the truths in (2). is what we call nature. people is the object of the preposition of. we is the subject. after all.

object of with] which [singular. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. or stand on their head. to everything that. object of do] they do. or what else soever. which. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. whatever. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 4. "common souls pay with that [singular. whatsoever." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. .²BURKE. not as direct as the simple relatives. and which in the second clause.²MACAULAY. whichsoever. being referred to.²BURKE. and in 2. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. They are whoever. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. Do what we can. Hence some take what as a double relative. 123. in a new and original way. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. whosoever. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. It is no proof of a man's understanding. whichever. that is. It is clear that in 1. by meaning and use. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. 122. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. less common are whoso. no certain antecedent. Death is there associated. So with the other indefinites. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 121. whatever is equivalent to all things which. summer will have its flies. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. Meaning and use. whatsoever. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. List and examples. 7.²you cannot have both. no particular thing. 2. Take which you please.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 6. 3. 5. 2. and parse that in the first clause. and his friend a fool. The simple relatives who.

. nothing that does not interest us. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. thus. Sec. but which only wealth could have purchased.As shown in Sec. Former use of as. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. not following the word such. This.²HAWTHORNE. are used. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. 126.² 1. and that as after such is equivalent to which. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. Instead of the phrases in which. But and as. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. everything that (or everything which). There is nothing but is related to us. 121.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 120. Two words. but and as.²EMERSON.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. 121. Other substitutes. 417). either one that. the conjunctions wherein.. by which. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. whereupon. 125.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. as was used just as we use that or which. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. has been my heaviest affliction. In early modern English. what means anything that. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. Proof that they have the force of relatives. upon which. 2. etc. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. but mean any one whom.²DE QUINCEY. for example. 4. 124. for example. whereby. etc. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² some particular thing. .

(a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. In studying such sentences. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. who having the antecedent gentleman. In sentences 1 (a). Another caution. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. Special caution needed here. and 3 (b). (b) Well we knew who stood behind. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. Thus. But in 1 (b). it is a simple relative. if not. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. So in 2 (b). "Who stood behind? We knew. ." etc. what is interrogative. a question is disguised in each sentence. which having the antecedent lines. no antecedent is expressed. which would indicate that they are not relatives. "But what had become of them? They knew not.²ID.²EMERSON. 2 (b). 3. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. and whether what = that + which (if so. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. if not. though the earthwork hid them." Likewise with which in 3 (b). it is an indefinite relative). PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. would be. it is an interrogative. second. How to decide.²WHITTIER. if expanded.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. showing that who is plainly interrogative. 2. 1 (b). it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). the full expression being. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. 127. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun.. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by.

Thus.² These are the sounds we feed upon. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. 2. ELIOT. which has the antecedent hue. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. the question is asked by the verb. whence is the interrogative word. When Goldsmith died. The insect I am now describing lived three years. and asks no question. In the third. 3. On the other hand. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²GOLDSMITH.²FORSTER 6. but the life of man in England. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Put in the relatives who. In the first. I visited many other apartments. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. 4. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²SWIFT. 129. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. whose has the antecedent you. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence.²HOLMES. and Court Calendars. 5. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr.²FLETCHER. which. Relative omitted when object.128. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. Exercise.² THACKERAY. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. Examine the following:² 1.²G.²CARLYLE. In the second. .

²Id. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.²SHAKESPEARE.7. 2. who were to be rulers over whom. Also in literary English we find the same omission.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. . but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.Ne'er looks upon the sun.²CAMPBELL. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. Examples are.²SCOTT. which was already proceeding. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. simple relatives. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. or indefinite relatives:² 1. The nobles looked at each other. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. 6. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge.² LOWELL. that. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. 5. There was such a crowd went. and what. It is rare in prose. which. Relative omitted when subject. 130. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. the house was full. 3. and comparatively so in poetry. Function of adjective pronouns. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.

"these pranks. which we have seen in such expressions as. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. few. and on each is written. . none. all. a word. For instance. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. but have lost their adjective use." Classes of adjective pronouns.²EMERSON. "each cube. Primarily they are adjectives." "Where two men ride on a horse. Caution." in the second. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. 'Truth. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. "The dead are there. etc. either. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." "one man. any. or may be the whole of a sentence. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. expressed or understood. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. such as this. or use." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon.²BRYANT. etc. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. many." in the others. that. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples.131.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. such as each. in order to be an adjective pronoun. in the first.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. in letters of gold. in the second they retain an adjective meaning." that is. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. the former. 132. For example. In the first use they are adjectives. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. must not modify any word. and stand for a noun. 133. Adjectives. neither. or they may stand for nouns. not pronouns.²IRVING. or an argument in a paragraph. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. necessarily thought of: thus. but in this function. as some. "another bank. etc. and another to get cool under.

As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. 134. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. but what he fain had seen He could not see. accidentally preserved. when the latter was the King of Spain. for example. because he was not lying in wait for these.²EMERSON 4.²ID.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Some of these are simple pronouns. or sat. They had fewer books. They have not shunned the one. and they have well performed the other. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Exercises. A man inspires affection and honor.²ID. reap the same. 2. Such are a few isolated instances. Compound. they that plow iniquity. Definition and examples. Even as I have seen. Their minds accorded into one strain. Simple. 3. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. . The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. and sow wickedness. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²LOWELL. or reclined. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface.All these he saw.² They stood. 5. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. as seemed good to each. NOTE. but these were of the best.

such as one other. .²HOLMES.²HAWTHORNE.²KINGSLEY. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Some inflected. another. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. paused over a horoscope. Definition and examples. as. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The Soldan. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. or melt for others' woe. one another.²EMERSON. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. Much might be said on both sides.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.² One reflexive. imbued. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. Men take each other's measure when they react.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²each other.Two are compound pronouns. None shall rule but the humble. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. 135. with the superstitions of his time. The word one has a reflexive form. ²HAWTHORNE. we might the more easily discharge them. Exercise. as it were. for example. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. you quickly come to the end of all. Another opposes him with sound argument. as most were. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. They led one another.

but. Jove laughs. They indefinite means people in general. everything.²SHAKESPEARE. something. as shown in the words everybody's. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. somebody else. nobody. they say. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. in building of chaises. unlike adjective pronouns. anybody. 136. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Now.. Every one else stood still at his post.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. as. Definition and examples. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. I tell you what." It means something. everybody else. anything. naught. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. they are never used as adjectives. anyone else.² At lovers' perjuries. and was indefinite in Old English. some one. nothing. and they.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. everybody. also aught. etc.Exercise.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Somebody. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. anybody else's. and somewhat. Exercise. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. no one. 137. etc. what. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. every one (or everyone). What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. any one (or anyone). every one else. . Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues.

17. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. to which. Exercise. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. O thou that rollest above. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. All was now ready for action. 10. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 14. from my earliest days. Others did the same thing. were suffered to depart. 9. 8. The table was good. 4. 7. indeed.See also "Syntax" (Sec. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). Whoever deals with M. 3. I first found myself among the mountains. 5. 12. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. For this did God send her a great reward. and of no other. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. . 11.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. A reminder. in his negotiations. 2. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 6. Hutchinson tells us of herself. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 138. 18. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 13. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 16. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1.

Destroyer and preserver. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. behold now the semblance of my being.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28.And it would work 'em woe. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake.Who knew thee too well. who take the world easy. hear. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. Whatever he knows and thinks. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. And I had done a hellish thing. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. thou rollest now. eat white bread or brown. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. variety. 31. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 26. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 32. 35. He sate him down. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. well-oiled dispositions. 34. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. hear! 33. I who alone am.19. in all its height. and seized a pen. 27. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 29. 25. They know not I knew thee. 30. that let him communicate. 21. oh. And will your mother pity me. 23.

" "that house. 42. the number is limited by adjectives. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master." "yonder hill. who understands me." "some cities. We are by nature observers. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. As to the kind of words used. in pointing out an object. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say.36." etc. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. If a chemist discovers a new substance. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. etc. position. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. and if we are near. 43. white or red. 40. if we are at a distance. that is our permanent state. etc. or with persons. and so he read. So with any object. 39. and he learns who receives. Again. adjectives are used. We need to add some words to tell its color. so that no other will be mistaken for it. It may have this office alone.. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. He knew not what to do. 45. such as in the expressions "this man. 139. Who hears me. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. For example. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. or gaseous. which was no bad step towards my liberation. brittle or tough. size. or liquid. Substantives. 44. He teaches who gives." The office of an adjective. Office of Adjectives. as. 38. . we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. "one hat. 41. then. heavy or light. 37." "a hundred men. becomes mine. ADJECTIVES.

" and the still less significant "and so." "this life-giving book." "unlooked-for burden. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. Definition. Infinitives." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. 142. "an old English manuscript. divine. to forgive. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. (2) Adjectives of quantity. beautiful. Examples are." "the Roman writer Palladius." "ice-cold water." the "and there. remotest." "next-door neighbor. words primarily pronouns. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." "the Christian pearl of charity. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. rash." "half-dead traveler." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. terrible. etc.²COLERIDGE. To err is human. it shows that he weighs men's minds. happy.²POPE. 141. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." they constitute all his connections. "Heaven-derived power. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. however. (4) Pronominal adjectives. and their trash. Nouns are not. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. such as safe.² BACON. Classes of adjectives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. 143." "ivory-handled pistols. They include relative and interrogative words." . to describe it or to limit its application. To make this clear. or how much of a thing. used to tell how many things are spoken of. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. such as. derived from proper nouns. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun.140. pointing out particular things. deep. If he be thankful for small benefits. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. With exception of the "and then. fair.

" was accomplished is a verb. and another is drunken. 2. much. no. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. considerable. Exercises." "trailing clouds.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. Care is needed." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. but small thoughts have I of sleep.²MACDONALD." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds.²COLERIDGE. 144. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. 'Tis midnight. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. in this. 1. which are either pure participles used to describe. sometimes small. any. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "a charming sight." "It came on like the rolling simoom. having some of each subclass named in Sec." "One is hungry. Examples are. Oxenham. 145. . 143. in studying these last-named words. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. some.But ever she looked on Mr. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." Caution. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. and accomplished is an adjective." was is the verb. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." "The shattered squares have opened into line." "an aged man. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. For instance: in the sentence.

yonder (or yon).² Every town had its fair. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. How many.²VAUGHAN. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. instead of modifying them." "Then we wandered for many days." "I have lost one brother.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. latter." (b) Indefinite numerals. that." "He had lived by hunting for some months.²CARLYLE. 146. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. but I have gained fourscore. Exercise. "one blaze of musketry. are used with plural nouns. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. those). The demonstrative adjectives are this. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening." Single ones of any number of changes. Thus.²THACKERAY. any." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers." "In came some five and twenty more." "a dozen volunteers. and with them a few negroes. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. The following sentences present some examples:² . (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Not primarily pronouns. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. (plural these. When some. The list. they come under the next division of adjectives. no. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection.²KINGSLEY. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. Examples. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. the former²the latter. former. as. every village.²ID. An arrow was quivering in each body." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. its wake. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.

but in the one case. As has been said. 148. skill which was at pause. Exercise. WEBSTER. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. they are changed to adjectives. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove."²B. They are of two kinds. Indefinite relative adjectives.²D. The taking of which bark. I verily believe. like the other numerals.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. 147. 149. These were thy charms.but all these charms are fled.²RUSKIN. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²ID. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. .²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.²BANCROFT.²GOLDSMITH. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.²BULWER. The silver and laughing Xenil. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.² It matters not what rank he has. Modify names of persons or things.²ID. In which evil strait Mr. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. of equal skill. but. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. tell how many things are meant. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. for example. just as the corresponding pronouns do. what revenues or garnitures. These do not.²KINGSLEY. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. Oxenham fought desperately.. skill which was progressive²in the other. FRANKLIN. Definition.²WORDSWORTH.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.. ²CARLYLE. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. When we speak of the seventeenth century.

or whether any. which is selective among what is known. and new tormentedAround me. whichsoever way I move. . proved not altogether displeasing to him. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. Whatsoever kind of man he is. Examples of their use are.²RUSKIN. As in the pronouns. whichever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. whatsoever. it is impossible to determine.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.²ID.²LAMB. nature will be sure to bear us out in.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). the debt to the rich. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.And whichsoever way I turn. A lady once remarked.²CARLYLE. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. whichsoever. Was there. 151. what inquires about things or persons not known. But when the Trojan war comes. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.²IRVING. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.² EMERSON. In indirect questions.²AGASSIZ. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. which. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.150. Adjective what in exclamations. and gaze... as it rather seemed. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whatever. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. He was turned before long into all the universe. New torments I behold. you at least give him full authority over your son. In direct questions.

or amount. weight. 153 . which was fully inflected in Old English. we do so by means of their qualities.²but not the same degree. Thus. NUMBER.152. the making of it right. When we place two objects side by side. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. we notice some differences between them as to size. And yet. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. 155. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. It is neither relative nor interrogative. and those as the plural of that.²This. color.²number and comparison. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. th s (modern those). Those borrowed from this. History of this²these and that²those. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. or size. etc. of the quality.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. That.. etc. The article that was used with neuter nouns. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. and when we compare the objects. COMPARISON. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. This is the old demonstrative.Adjectives have two inflections. In exclamatory expressions.² Oh. those). or weight. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. But this had also another plural. 154. alas. Meaning of comparison. All these have certain qualities. Exercise. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. gold is heavier than iron. as. . Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE.

enormous. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. blue. . with less wit. for example.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. redder." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. 158." "the largest soul. expressing the greatest degree of quality. bluest.²THACKERAY. easiest. easy." Words that cannot be compared. whether they attend their own affair or not. though the simple. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. bluer. universal institution. Substitute for inflection in comparison. or amounts in quantity. great. and the superlative by adding -est. supreme. immemorial. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. indomitable. and many others. expressing a greater degree of quality. These are properly the only degrees. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. The comparative is formed by adding -er. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. but were not common until a century later. as. red. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. as. whose favorite pupil he was." "no fewer than a hundred. and the superlative. These are called degrees of comparison. "untamed thought. reddest. to the simple form. Definition. 156. The two forms. strictly considered. easier. 159. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. They came into use about the thirteenth century." "It is a nobler valor. giant-like. A main difference betwixt men is. So with the words sole. organic. 160. "more matter. sufficient. infinite.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. Freedom is a perpetual. they are not compared. indefatigable. but." "the commonest speech.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. 157.²SEWARD.

Adjectives irregularly compared." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. which hung behind in the queerest way." said Henry Esmond. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. madam. indisputablest. honestest. admirablest. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. I will. there needed to be a most genuine substance.²ID." "distantest relationships. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. and other words are preceded by more and most. The general rule is." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. harsh forms are usually avoided. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." "sorrowfulest spectacles. falling on his knees. was most finished. as. easy. and patientest fusing.² -er and -est or more and most? 161.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. "So help me God. 163.Which rule.²The Nation. most small. etc. strange. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. and yet familiar." "more austere and holy." "more odd. polished. These long. witty. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.² CARLYLE A gentleman. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. finest chiseling. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. quiet. though born in no very high degree. mournfulest. 162. The following lists include the majority of them:² . who.²ID. These are adjectives irregularly compared." "the wonderfulest little shoes. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given." Carlyle uses beautifulest. peaceablest.

furthest 10. lesser. The superlative I form was betst.² O. lesser Elder. evil was the positive to worse. further Farthest. A double comparative. which has softened to the modern best. utter 3. hindermost Much or many More Farther.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. Worser was once used. 8. [In] Inner Inmost. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). as in Shakespeare. though from a different root. least. There was an old comparative bet. 5. latter Hinder LIST II. worst. 164. next Nearest Latest. Good or well Evil.² We have it in a much lesser degree. Hind 2. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 7. uppermost LIST III. innermost Outmost. 1. outermost Utmost. uttermost Upmost. 4.LIST I. 2. (2) In Old English. [Out] Outer. older Nigher Nearer Later. oldest Nighest. bad. a double comparative. last Hindmost. (3) Little is used as positive to less. . is often used. which has gone out of use. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. List I. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 6. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. throw away the worser part of it. as in the sentence (14th century). ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less.²HAMLET. 3. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 9. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. as. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.

for example. oldest. In imitation of further. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.²ID.. and was the same word that is found in the proverb.² The more part being of one mind. furthest. meaning the largest part. as long. further. The form hindmost is really a double superlative.²forth.²HAWTHORNE. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. doubling the inflection. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. first. . List II. farrest.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. etc.²KINGSLEY. (5) The forms elder. greatest. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. the old forms. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. The latter. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. First became entirely detached from the series. instead of lenger. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. came into use. to which is added -ost. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. latest. next. strenger. "Many a little makes a mickle. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. and refer to time. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. farthest. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. since the m is for -ma. moche. ²LAMB. except the form next.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. and the superlative nearest. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. eldest." Its spelling has been micel. are earlier than older. making the modern farther. but originally the comparison was nigh. strong. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. muchel. great. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. The most part kept a stolid indifference. Between the two sets as they now stand. or series. Since later. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. much. there is scarcely any distinction. as. to England we sailed. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. near. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. but not in meaning. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. a distinction has grown up between the two series. latter and last are used in speaking of succession.. is quite common. The meanings greater. th came into the others. etc. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. are shown in such phrases as. an old superlative ending.

The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. on the very topmost twig.²EMERSON. was descried The royal banner floating wide.²SCOTT. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Highest and midmost. Decidedly handsome. being merely descriptive. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. are like the comparative forms in List II. Her bows were deep in the water. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. 166. the upper light of the world. The comparatives are so in form. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Her. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove.²KINGSLEY. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. and have no comparative force. 168. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. 167." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man." -Most added to other words. but they have no adjective positives." "far-seeing as the sun. by the by.165. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. . 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²H. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. in having no adjective positives. There. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. or have no comparative forms. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective." "The outer is of the day.²HAWTHORNE. but her after deck was still dry.²DE QUINCEY. but not in their meaning. (Sec. They have no superlatives. all may belong to the same noun.²DE QUINCEY. or each may modify a different word or group of words. W." "the innermost moral soul. In List II. Think what each adjective belongs to. List III. BEECHER. The adjectives in List III." "their utmost exertion.

we may say "the then king. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. May we not.² My then favorite. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. Bradbury and Evans. therefore. and moral truth. deep. H." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. For thy stomach's sake. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. philosophical. STOWE. In the following quotations. Our sometime sister. The seldom use of it. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. our new government. 4. and thine often infirmities. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²MRS. But in this sentence.²HAWTHORNE.²BIBLE. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. Exercise.²NOAH PORTER.²TRENCH.For example. usual modifies incomparable decision. round." in which then is an adverb. rich. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. 7. By a convenient brevity. and heaven-defying oaths. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. as. now our queen." making then an adjective. not decision alone. This. bright. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical.²HOLMES.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. solid. in prose. 3. satisfactory. deeply black eyes. It may still be argued. A few improper jests and a volley of good. 169. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. "the one who was then king. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. Richard Hooker.²A. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision.²HAWTHORNE. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 6. STEPHENS 5." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. and broken. ²TROLLOPE. instead of saying. . Other instances are.²RUSKIN. in this sentence. 2. the then and still owners.

Unfamiliar describes truths. therefore demonstrative. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. To every Roman citizen he gives. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. She made no reply. if it has number. therefore descriptive. 10. with awkward but rapid pace. 2. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 4. person. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday.What to tell in parsing. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. In parsing an adjective. 8. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. 9. 6. then. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. manly way. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. not inflected for number. These points out what truths. or case. seventy-five drachmas. cannot be compared. modifies the word truths. positive degree. 3. (3) Its degree of comparison. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 7. and I waited for none. (2) Its number. this. I ask nothing of you. compared by prefixing more and most. . Exercise. plural number. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. and most astounding were those frightful yells. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. having a singular. and very few have number. if it can be compared. the method of parsing is simple. 5. 170. (4) What word or words it modifies. Since adjectives have no gender. MODEL FOR PARSING. To every several man. frank. This gave the young people entire freedom. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. across the plain. modifies truths.

What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. oxen. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. suggests such thoughts as these. 13. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. he won affections with ease. 19. and many poles supported the lower ones. Two hours elapsed. 23. the same love to France would have been nurtured. To say what good of fashion we can. are immutably fishes. 14. I know not what course others may take. 22. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 29. 26. it is so noble a fruit. it rests on reality. 27. 28. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. yonder oxen in the pasture. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 24. growing in the most unfavorable position. With every third step. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Nearer to our own times. Like most gifted men. the tomahawk fell. 16. and therefore more interesting to us. as for armies that were too many by half. . is the settlement of our own country. 12. 18.11. Here lay two great roads. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. In music especially. 33. 20. Their name was the last word upon his lips. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 32. during which time I waited. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 25. and dogs. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 31. those dogs in the yard. not so much for travelers that were few. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 21. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves.

An historian. in vulgar English. the tither. th o. An before vowel sounds. Examples: "a house. or the tane." "a European. ðat. 172. these occurring as the tane. a before consonant sounds. sometimes the tother.²BREWER. were formerly that one. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. 37. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general." "a yelling crowd. Two relics. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. later th . ." "an orange. In Middle English the became an article. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.34. that) which was also an article in Old English.²MACAULAY. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. the latter is still preserved in the expression. s o. 171. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant." "an honor. In the sentence. that other. but the former is used. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. the tother. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. An or a came from the old numeral n. he is no literary man. Many writers use an before h. 174. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. 35. and a before consonant sounds. meaning one. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the tother." An with consonant sounds. A hard-struggling. just as adjectives do." the words the and an belong to nouns. with an ordinary little garden. for example. even when not silent. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. ARTICLES. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. weary-hearted man was he.²SCOTT. 173. such as we have been attempting to describe. Their origin. the other. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. Our expressions the one.

When the is prefixed to a proper name.² .²This use is noticed when. as "the Mississippi.. Reference to a known object. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. NOTE. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. and when the word river is omitted. The Dakota tribes. An and a are different forms of the same word. To call attention to attributes. thus. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. 176. or class.²IRVING.² Don't you remember how.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. or group. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. as in the sentence. Kinds. 179.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. a person is introduced by a. which cannot be used alone. or any individual of a group or class. With names of rivers. the older n." "the Ohio.. and not a state or other geographical division. on opening a story. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. 175. An hereditary tenure of these offices.²COLERIDGE. An or a is the indefinite article. Definition. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. is referred to.²G. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.. Articles are either definite or indefinite. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. doubtless. or a group or class of things." the article indicates clearly that a river. The is the definite article. An article is a limiting word. 177. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. BANCROFT.²HEROES OF ASGARD. not descriptive.²THACKERAY. since it points out a particular individual. 178.

His messages to the provincial authorities. . and the redwing. the gallant. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons.²ID. laid it on the miry spot. or a match put between the fingers. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. etc.²EMERSON. The simple rise as by specific levity. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. Schelling. the Spinoza. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. but into the region of all the virtues.²GIBBON. BANCROFT. Common. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 183.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. With plural of abstract nouns.²KINGSLEY. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. Half abstract. For possessive person pronouns.²MOTLEY.²SCOTT. Caution. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. 181. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. If the good is there. her. 180.²G.²EMERSON. the Hume. NOTE. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. not into a particular virtue.The Bacon. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. One thing for its class. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. The. 1. the song sparrow.² The faint. With adjectives used as nouns. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. Kant. would speedily extract the required information.² As she hesitated to pass on.²ID. as. 182. so is the evil. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 2. for example.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. care. in (3." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. might have been anticipated is also one predicate." Examine the sentences in Sec. etc. c). it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. 200: In (1). b). Definition and caution. 204. and shame the most astute. A verb is a word used as a predicate. the most astute. in (2. with some word understood. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. all do not express it in the same way. (can) shame also has an object. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. in (3. but fearing is not a predicate. a preposition. to go is no predicate. as."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. "Put thou money in thy purse. for example. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. Of those expressing action. representing something which it influences or controls. Now. In the first.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. taking the staff which always guided her steps. the word following. or the object.In (a). All do not express action: some denote state or condition. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. lone took what? answer. an adverb. but cannot be predicates. and. The nature of intransitive verbs. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. In giving a definition. in (b). or an idea. which may be a person. In the sentence. the most penetrating. in this sentence from Bulwer. which means to go over. 202. and to receive the action expressed. All these are called transitive verbs. a noun. b). Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. in (c). The nature of the transitive verb. from the Latin transire. and not a verb. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. obeyed is a predicate.²BULWER . and a preposition unite as a verb." put is the predicate. a verb. to say something to or about some person or thing. Has takes the object hypocrisy. "Put money in thy purse. endured what? anguish. In each case. 201. an article. hence is not a verb. By examining a few verbs. Hence Definition. can deceive has an object. we consider a verb as one word. a). in (2. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. 203. or a material thing. Each influences some object. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. WEBSTER.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. but. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. If this be the glory of Julius. they were recorded in the Book of Life. ²EMERSON. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. he will see the need of these ethics. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.²SHELLEY.²D. for example. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. as. 221. in our case. Unreal²cannot be true.²LONGFELLOW. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.² Now. popular government must be pronounced impossible. Condition or Supposition. . 2).²FRANKLIN. or be fulfilled. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.²may or may not be true. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. Most excellent stranger. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. the first great founder of the Empire.²MACAULAY. Again. I. and may or may not be regarded true.² If. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.²BRYCE. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. 222. 215. the representative system ultimately fail. Ideal. as.I could lie down like a tired child. the second founder. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. the writer can make the statement following.

is of similar physiognomy. the conjunction is often omitted: for example.²MACAULAY. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. 6. etc. might. NOTE. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. 8. the clause being introduced by that or lest. society could not hold together." etc. may. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. that we cannot but regret its absence..² CARLYLE. But in no case could it be justified. thus. .² It was necessary. 5. The subjunctive. to drink strong beer. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. is used to express purpose.²EMERSON. If he had reason to dislike him.²BAYNE. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. that he might be strong to labor. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.²CALHOUN. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.²FRANKLIN. and what kind of condition:² 1. II. I told him. 223.² If these things were true. she was regarded as a prodigy. and should.²SWIFT. do you think. 7.²FRANKLIN. ²LOWELL. but when the verb precedes the subject. unless. Epaminondas. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. which cannot be true. especially be. melodious. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. and sonorous. 3. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. as. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. WILLIS.. since he [Byron] was dead. if he was the man I take him for.²N. P. except. if he speak to you. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. would you. The voice. though. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. if his lot had been mine. 4. would have sat still with joy and peace. he supposed.. and striven energetically to save Ney. 2. In the following conditional clauses. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. he had better not have written. Exercise. Subjunctive of Purpose. clear.. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE.

²COLERIDGE. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. In Indirect Questions. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.I have been the more particular. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. After a verb of wishing.That vain it were her eyes to close. 225. VII. VI. The English subjunctive.And we.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. 226.. Rise up.. Let it rise. IV. like the quarry-slave at night. within its fairy bowers.²D. V.²ID.Were wafted off to seas unknown. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. the answer being regarded as doubtful. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.²SOUTHEY. till it meet the sun in his coming.Thou go not. Ask the great man if there be none greater. Subjunctive of Result. In a Noun Clause. Expressing a Wish. So live.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²MOORE. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. I've wished that little isle had wings. like the Latin. WEBSTER.²WORDSWORTH. III. 227. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²CARLYLE. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. none of us could say. .²BRYANT. In Temporal Clauses. 224. To tell of what had passed. I would it were! ²EMERSON.. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.

See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.² DICKENS. in apposition. VIII. etc. that everything be in its place. Some might lament that I were cold. The noun clause. in its various uses as subject. (b) Adjective.²THOREAU. we'll turn aside. often contains a subjunctive. 229. which may be (a) Pronoun. tell me all that thou hast seen. After verbs of commanding. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. or whatsoever victual it may be. object.²SHELLEY. I have no thought what men they be.²COLERIDGE. for example. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. Come. The essence of originality is not that it be new. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. .²SCOTT.²CARLYLE. That hunger of applause.²WORDSWORTH. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.Subject. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. Object. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.And look thou tell me true. is the ultimate fact of man's life.²DE QUINCEY. of cash. Concessive Clauses.²COLERIDGE.²TENNYSON. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. is. The first merit.And see the Braes of Yarrow.² Be the matter how it may.. See that there be no traitors in your camp. 228. Whatever betide. Complement.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.

232. though.²BRYANT. or requests. (3) Request. fear none. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream.²SHELLEY.²CHANNING. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Oh. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. however. Q. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. At the present day. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. and condition contrary to fact. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected.The spirit he loves remains. a concession. entreaties. In spoken English. point to their immortal works. 231. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. 230. for example. It must be remembered. Honor all men. . love all men. (1) Command. Usually second person. ADAMS. (2) Entreaty.² CARLYLE. Definition.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. to express a wish.²J.(c) Adverb. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. IMPERATIVE MOOD.

we may use the imperative with we in a command. child of earth!While each performs his part. request." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.One glance at their array! 5. 8. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. but I + you." whispered Kit.²SCOTT. 3.. or I + they. lest we rust in ease."²DICKENS Tell me. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. "The Devil take the goose. Break we our watch up. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID."Hush! mother. Sometimes with first person in the plural. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.²CAMPBELL." Exercises on the Moods. nothing is to be preferred before justice. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. to you implied in it. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Whatever inconvenience ensue. there will her heart and her prayers be. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Part we in friendship from your land. noble earl.And God forget the stranger!" . Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Mark thou this difference.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. receive my hand. Oh. 2..And. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. 6. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Quoth she. etc. "Come along with me. 7.

And dart their arrowy odor through the brain." 16. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. 10. Though abyss open under abyss. whether he do it right or wrong. Well. That a man parade his doubt." cried he.Except.Till you might faint with that delicious pain." 25. but repentant child. That sheaf of darts. "tell me where I may find my poor. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. Think not that I speak for your sakes.That they might answer him. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. will it not fall unbound. how he may do his work. 13. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 21. my dear madam. she ought to have it. 20. as though an instrument. Though he were dumb. He. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. in what pomps and prosperities he like. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. . "Mr. He is. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. let him live where else he like. ruined. 11. Forget thyself to marble. and opinion displace opinion. no literary man.High up in silver spikes! 22. 18. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. or do it at all. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. it would speak.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 19. 26. Marshall. 14. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. then. 23. "Oh." continued Old Morgan.9.

Tense means time. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. tell him to wait. as the classical languages have.²the present tense. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. the past. 235. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. Meantime. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. and future perfect tenses. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. called auxiliaries.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. five in the subjunctive. in the conjugations. a form ending in -eth." past. past. such as Latin and Greek. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. such as be. Definition.²nothing could exceed the amiable. to direct his steps." present. as. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. "I go away tomorrow. as." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. whatever she did. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. and the future tense. will. "It is not in man that walketh. TENSE. 28. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. Siddons. "Thou walkedst.² present. or future time." "If he comes. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. which represented present and future time. When the older pronoun thou was in use. in the third person singular. have. five in the imperative. "Thou walkest. kind. or whether it were as one member of a general party. shall. 234. and unassuming deportment of Mrs.27. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. past perfect. Old English had only two tenses. also. or agree with it. and the past tense. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and future. The tenses in detail. past. Tenses in English. as will be shown later on. PERSON AND NUMBER. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. 233." . by means of the present.

conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. You (thou) be 3. moods. Singular 1. Singular 1." and this only in the present tense indicative. choosing. CONJUGATION. were. choosest. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Singular 1. etc. since it is composed of several different roots. [He] is [They] are 3. 237. The verb be has more forms. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. walk has walk. singular number. walked. You are 2. walking. walketh. been. PRESENT TENSE. "He walks. mood. chose.²choose. tenses.²am. as. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. for example. but in English. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. In classical languages. and numbers. walks. chosest). chooseth. PRESENT TENSE. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. persons. I were 2. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. 238. chooses. Indicative Mood. is. Such verbs as choose have five. are. Singular 1. Definition. etc. I be 2.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. wert) 3. Few forms. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. chosen (old. tense. [He] were [They] were . Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. This is the third person. 236. walkedst.

Remarks on the verb be.²SCOTT. (2) As auxiliary verbs. etc. etc. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. condition. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. (3) be.²WORDSWORTH. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²GOLDSMITH. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²THACKERAY. thus. 239.Imperative Mood. as. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. is. (d) With the infinitive. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. were. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²SHELLEY. to form the passive voice. to express intention. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²BURKE . in four ways.His infancy was nurtured. Instead of the plural are. -en. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²ID. obligation.. though it is usually a dialect form. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. which was now become an occasional banquet. 240. (2) was. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. The light that never was on sea and land.. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. same as the German sind. for example.

Singular. 242. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. future perfect. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. "I shall be. 1. . had. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. [He] choose [They] choose 3. "I have gone" (present perfect). by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. etc. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. past perfect. In addition to the above inflected forms.241. PRESENT TENSE. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. PRESENT TENSE. You chose Plural. Singular. I chose 2." "He will choose. Indicative Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. I chose 2. tenses. 1. I choose 2. You choose Plural. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. as. "I had gone" (past perfect). You chose Plural. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. as. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). We chose You chose 3. by placing have. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You choose Plural. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. tenses. I choose 2. 240." (2) Present perfect. Singular. Singular. Machinery of a verb in the voices. 1. (2). PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. 1. We chose You chose 3.

He has chosen. He had been choosing. (2d per. He will choose. as. He will he choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. He will have been choosing. He has been choosing. Present perfect. Future. Past.] he choose. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. will be given. Past perfect. Present. he chose (or were to choose)." (4) The passive forms. He is choosing. Present perfect definite. Present. Future definite.) Choose. he have been choosing. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. " Be choosing. " " " " " " " he be choosing." 243. Same as indicative. Only the third person. Present perfect definite. Past perfect. of each tense. Indicative Mood. He had chosen. etc. He chooses. He chose. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Present definite. Past definite. Past perfect definite. lest. he have chosen. Same as indicative. Future perfect definite. Past perfect definite. Present definite." "They had been running.(3) The definite form of each tense. Past. singular number. He will have chosen. He was choosing. Present. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present perfect. as. "I am running. Past definite. though. ." "You are chosen. Present definite. Subjunctive Mood. [If. "I was chosen. Imperative Mood. Future perfect.

Present definite. Present perfect. Indicative Mood. he were being chosen. None. though. Future.²This table is not to be learned now. He is being chosen. "He does strike. Present. He was being chosen. if learned at all. None. in affirmative sentences. Present definite." [Note to Teacher. Past. He is chosen. " " " " " " " None. Future definite." "He did strike. None.) Be chosen. Past definite. He will have been chosen. Past perfect. Present perfect definite. Also. he had been chosen. Subjunctive Mood.NOTE. He was chosen.] [If. (2d per. Imperative Mood. 262).] he be chosen. Past definite. Past Perfect. Exercises should be given. as. None. however. . Future perfect definite. they will be discussed later (Sec. etc. He will be chosen. lest. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Present perfect definite. He has been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). he have been chosen. but verbals. Past perfect definite. Present perfect. Present. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. He had been chosen. Future perfect. Past. None.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs.. None. Past perfect definite. Present tense. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form.

abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . verbs are strong or weak. Kinds. Some of these also have weak forms. slept. begged. which are in parentheses Present Tense. NOTE. caught. run. as. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. Past Tense. but adds no ending. 245. Definition. bounden] bitten. lay. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. bit blown broken chidden. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. bid bound.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. 244. According to form. beg. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. laid.[adj. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. catch. and may or may not change the vowel: as. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. drive. drove. sleep. ran.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drunken] driven eaten.

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.

. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. cleft. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). instead of ate and eaten. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²as (from Shakespeare)." "a sunken snag.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. cleaved. as. "stricken with paralysis.² We had each drank three times at the well.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. as (from Holmes). Crew is seldom found in present-day English." "a drunken wretch.²B. only one set remains certain. The former used to be cleave. the other. cleave. and sometimes occurs in poetry.²GOLDSMITH. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). cleaved." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. When it means to carry or to endure.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. ²THACKERAY." "the cloven hoof. especially in that of an earlier period.²IRVING.²one meaning to adhere or cling. now told us it was time for repose. as. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. but is much used in vulgar English." In this confusion of usage. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. "his bounden duty. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. and. as. Historically. borne is also a passive. cloven. to split." Stricken is used mostly of diseases."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. nor a dog barked. and another (born) for the passive. clave or clove. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. 246. probably to avoid confusion with this.²MILTON. which always crew at eleven. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. Not a cock crew. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²TENNYSON. Our cock. for example. Sometimes in literary English.²cleave.² Thou hast clomb aloft. and the latter. The form clomb is not used in prose.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²COLERIDGE. TAYLOR. cleft (to split).

broken. maiden. fallen. Begin. 5. Break. found. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. and seized a pen.²SCOTT. which is seldom used except in poetry. shook. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. fell. began. begun.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.²WORDSWORTH. 7. We usually say. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. broke.² If. 4. for example. Usually shear is a weak verb. One example out of many is. thrown. The butler was hanged. threw. gave. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging.²TENNYSON. froze. Fall. as "a shorn lamb. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. flung. shaken. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. 10. 6. (a) From the table (Sec. 2.²BYRON. given. This heard Geraint." but not much as a participle. .²BIBLE. Drive. 8. Give. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense.²DE FOE. as. drove. even in poetry. Freeze.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. driven. 9. 3. found."²KINGSLEY.The form gotten is little used. shore is rare. and grasping at his sword. flung. 245). He sate him down. Fling. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Find. Shake. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town.² We had all got safe on shore. for example. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. frozen." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Throw. Exercises.

It is indicative when it expresses permission. Indicative Use: Permission. as in Sec. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. or when it expresses wish.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.[To the Teacher. PRESENT. from the obsolete verb motan. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. PAST. PAST. it is used only in the indicative mood. 251. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. etc. there is one general principle." Must is present or past tense.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. 220. They are as follows:² PRESENT.. for full drill on the forms. (See also Sec. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. as it has two meanings. of course.²CHANNING This. Can is used in the indicative only..²HAWTHORNE. . 247. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. as it sometimes does. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. ability. The l in could did not belong there originally. as.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. must have been an ocular deception. "So mote it be.²PAINE. 250. according to the infinitive used. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Must is historically a past-tense form. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. Subjunctive use..²CHANNING. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. but came through analogy with should and would.. Like must. Could may be subjunctive. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. 223. Ability. HAMILTON. The same remarks apply to ought. which survives in the sentence. Have we valuable territories and important posts."²WINIER. etc.²SCOTT. His superiority none might question. or.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. "far off his coming shines. purpose.. 249.

²COOPER.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.²L. MOULTON. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. for example.² The time will come full soon.. C. Shall and Will. what shall I say?²N. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.² Futurity and questions²first person. WEBSTER." Uses of shall and should.² (a) To express authority. (b) In indirect quotations. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. to the neglect of shall and should. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. 252. as. with pronouns of the first person.²IRVING. promise. shall and should are used. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. as. she should ride like a queen. in the form of command.²THAXTER. (b) In questions asking for orders. The following are examples:² Never mind. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. They shall have venison to eat. not plod along like apeasant. and corn to hoe. future action).e. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. he said. as. She should not walk. "I think I will go. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. to use will and would. Second and third persons.² With respect to novels. while ought always has to. or confident prediction.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. She rejects his suit with scorn. yea.²MACAULAY.²BULWER. I shall be gone. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.Nay. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. The sea shall crush thee. BROCKDEN BROWN.²LONGFELLOW. especially in the United States. . my lad. shall and should are used.

when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²WORDSWORTH. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²A.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. was to be expected. JAMES.²SCOTT. Disguising a command.that I would do him justice. (c) With direct questions of the second person. BROWN. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. second and third persons. LARNED. for example. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. and will not return until all is finished. as the sole inventor. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. with the conviction that he should win in the end. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. for example. as. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²WINTER.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.² I will go myself now. B. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. and is equivalent to ought. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. or a promise.²BYRON. And promised. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²SWIFT.²C. JR..²H.²ROGERS. I never was what I should be. time. thus.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. purpose. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. etc.²WORDSWORTH. .. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.²CABLE. First. 253.²WORDSWORTH.. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.

through storms their brothers are afraid of. for punishment or intimidation.²War Records. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.²the original meaning of the word will.²BURKE. when thou wast born. as if it were merely expected action. AND THIRD PERSONS. Roland. (4) With FIRST.. and two of my people. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.² Thou wilt take the skiff. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. Thine was a dangerous gift. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.. and mark on the grounds the works. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). . and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. In this stately chair would he sit. as. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.² DICKENS. action merely expected to occur.² Subject I omitted: often so. B. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. will and would often denote an action as customary.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.²IRVING.²BANCROFT. BROWN. To be sure.²SCOTT. Would thou hadst it not. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. will and would are used to express simple futurity. SECOND. When I am in town. as. for example. for example.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.. will is used to express command.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. Mere futurity. The gift of Beauty.. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. etc. would is used to express a wish. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. PASSIVE VOICE. without regard to future time.²SCOTT. so you will. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²LANDOR. This puts the order more mildly. 254. They will go to Sunday schools...

PASSIVE VOICE. We shall choose. Exercises on Shall and Will. 3. We will be chosen. "I shall not run. You shall be chosen. I will be chosen. You shall choose. 1. 3. 3. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Plural. I shall be chosen. Thou art what I would be. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 4. You shall be chosen. 6. You will be chosen.:² ACTIVE VOICE. Plural. You shall choose. [They] shall be chosen. [He] will choose. He informed us. etc. Thou shalt have a suit. [They] will be chosen. 1. To express determination. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. [They] will choose. [They] shall choose. Plural. 1. [He] shall be chosen. 3. 252 and 253. Singular." answered Herbert stubbornly. 3. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Plural. and that of the newest cut. 1. . that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. You will be chosen. 2. Singular. 2. I shall choose. 1. [He] will be chosen. Singular. yet only seem. 5. You will choose. (a) From Secs. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 3. 2.Singular. promise. and justify the use of shall and will. We shall be chosen. 2. (b) Examine the following sentences. I will choose. 2. 2. You will choose. [He] shall choose. We will choose.

Of smale houndes hadde she. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. 13. put. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. 12. 10. and have no change of vowel. need some attention and explanation. as.²ID. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please.²CHAUCER. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. which may be called irregular weak verbs. No. Present Tense. 257. The old ending to verbs of Class II.²Class I. The beast made a sluggish movement. set.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. 9. as if he would have more of the enchantment. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. and I have nothing to say. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. Past Tense. then.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. WEAK VERBS. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. put. my son. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. set. This ending has now dropped off. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. 11. bereave besought Past Participle. very anxious. 256. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. or mylk and wastel breed. put. Lucy stood still. But the rest." the stranger said. bereave beseech bereft.7. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while." 14. 255. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. bereft. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. Without having attended to this. "I am a wayfarer. Irregular Weak Verbs. was -de or -te. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. bereaved besought .

stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. leant leaped. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. hid kept knelt laid leaned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

267. Perfect. In Sec.6. Cases when to is omitted. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. 7.. [To] have been choosing. 10. Three saplings. INFINITIVES. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Indefinite. Indefinite. Perfect. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). To with the infinitive. when inflections became fewer. a perfect. and a perfect definite form. . PASSIVE VOICE. I returned to reflection on my situation.. 266. Nothing of the kind having been done. like participles. [To] be chosen.²the creature warring against the creating power. 9. expressing purpose. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. will (with should and would). formed a kind of bedstead. an indefinite and a perfect form. an imperfect. 8. try clemency. [To] have been chosen. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Infinitives. [To] choose. Perfect definite. Imperfect. they have an indefinite. 268. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. and when passive. to express action unconnected with a subject. [To] be choosing.. as in the Old English. ACTIVE VOICE. But later. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. When active. have no tense. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [To] have chosen. to was used before the infinitive generally.

While the gerund expresses action. The gerund is like the participle in form.²TENNYSON. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²IRVING. and corn to hoe. 272. also in the imperative. bid (command). under "Analysis. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. as in the expression.²DE QUINCEY. and emphatic forms of the present and past.(2) After the verbs may (might). "a house to let. it is often preceded by the definite article. GERUNDS.²MACAULAY. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative.²GOLDSMITH. 269. poor woman!" cried Charles. or the object of a verb or a preposition. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT.²it may be governed as a noun. HALE. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs.). "He need not go") and dare (to venture)." Examples are. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. liberal woman. as. E. "I do go" etc. see." etc. negative. must. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. sometimes need (as. too.² What! doth she.²E. make. hear. it may be the subject of a verb. and like a noun in use. please. "He will choose.. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. But there was nothing to do. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. "She ask my pardon. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. it has several attributes of a noun. learn [doth learn is one verb." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. 271. as. They shall have venison to eat. as the credulous imagine. watch. feel. also let." (4) In exclamations. do (as.²HOWELLS. 270.² She was a kind. can (could). Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. ." "I shall have chosen.²COOPER. as. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay.

" also (2. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." Exercise. when. to see the returning hope of the parents. and has been put down. after examining the nest. (6) Verbal nouns. which express action and also modify. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. II). which express action. and five gerunds. making the definite tenses. and wonderful store of learning! . may govern and be governed. (4) Pure adjectives. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which name an action or state. on your leaving the spot." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. Words in -ing are of six kinds. 2. which have lost all verbal force." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. What a vast. according to use as well as meaning." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. 273. which express action.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. but do not assert. Exercise. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. 4. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. above. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. (5) Gerunds. (2) Pure participles. Sec. Then how pleasing is it." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." "Certainly dueling is bad. (3) Participial adjectives. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. but cannot govern. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. b). brilliant. five infinitives.²Find sentences containing five participles.

15. much corroded. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 16. round which is an iron railing. like Sir Walter Scott. (2) Voice. 12. (4) Tense. slowly. giving principal parts. 275.²transitive or intransitive. What is dreaming? 8. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. He spread his blessings all over the land. by object lessons. 7. (b) as to use. you must. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. write twenty pages without stopping. 234. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 9. subjunctive.²indicative. dictating from his chair. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. VERBS. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. In parsing verbs. Thackeray did not. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. (3) Mood. . I.5. 13. The only means of ascending was by my hands.²active or passive. 11. 10. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 14.²strong or weak.²which of the tenses given in Sec. Caution. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 6. or imperative. (5) Person and number. but. he gave out sentence by sentence. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. bearing her national emblem. give reality to your teaching. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS.

(a) From what verb derived. usually it does not. 235. Parse the verbs. VERB PHRASES. . see Sec. It has been intimated in Sec. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. followed by a pure infinitive without to. verbals. You are gathered to your fathers. perfect. intransitive. could. II. and ends in -s. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. 277. 2. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. indicative (as it means could).. and should always be analyzed as phrases. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. 278(2). and not taken as single verbs. and parting day linger and play on its summit. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. etc. (3) Gerund. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. Take these examples:² 1." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. In such sentences as 1. The government might have been strong and prosperous. 4. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. (1) Participle. must. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. no sin nor sorrow. may. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. The verb be has more forms than other verbs." Sometimes it does. give points (a) and (b). we must beware of the rule. call might a weak verb. (2) Infinitive. (b) whether active or passive. in the world. then parse it as an adjective. imperfect. till it meet the sun in his coming. call should a weak verb. etc. (b) whether indefinite. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. might. intransitive. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. Exercise. (b) its use (Sec. Let it rise! let it rise. 278. (c) to what word it belongs. past tense.276. But unless the verb is present. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. has for its subject Lee. Especially frequent are those made up of should. therefore active. indicative. 3. 2. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. VERBALS. can. past tense. III. definite. has the subject government. If a participial adjective. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. perfect. active. would. In 2. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 273).

a sweet good will. 11.Henceforth in me instill. 14. 15. 19. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. as usual. The soul having been often born. 9. 12. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 17. a new waking up of all that has life. see that it is in good condition. 6. or. 24. 8.O God. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. Whatever ground you sow or plant. With them. . Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 16. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. he thought only of her. Read this Declaration at the head of the army.Down all the line. 18. Right graciously he smiled on us. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. So. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. He passed across the room to the washstand. 20. 22. a new bursting forth of the sun. 21. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. from a sort of temporary death. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. In going for water.5. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. as rolled from wing to wing. 23. leaving me upon the bed. a deafening shout. and wondered if she were yet awake. 13. morning is not a new issuing of light. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. as the Hindoos say. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. When he arose in the morning. 10. However that be." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers.

thou sayest. A verb. and live ere life be spent. for the hour of rest is at hand. 279. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree.²SHELLEY. The word adverb means joined to a verb. Nor was it altogether nothing. 27. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. 26. And now wend we to yonder fountain." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. . an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. and so on. and limit adjectives or adverbs." An adjective or an adverb. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. or manner: as.²THACKERAY. Better it were. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.²CARLYLE. they are more himself than he is.² The young man reveres men of genius.²time. for example."²DE QUINCEY. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. ADVERBS. as. to speak truly. Adverbs modify. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.Feast while we may." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. "William's private life was severely pure. To the almost terror of the persons present. to consent. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road.²EMERSON. place. Oh." "He was absolute. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. When action is expressed.25. who live with nature?²ID. because. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. Is it only poets. 29." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. and men of leisure and cultivation.

²T. 169 are felt to be elliptical. (2) according to their use in the sentence.²BYRON. Thus considered. there are six classes:² (1) Time. being adverbs naturally and fitly. NOTE. ever.² LOWELL. as. while those in Sec. 169. We are offered six months' credit. etc.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. and half awfully. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. but still with a rich bloom to it. all wet and glossy. not the noun. as now. 281. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. An adverb. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.²THOREAU. has induced some of us to attend it. A clause or sentence. to-day. but some verb understood.²These last differ from the words in Sec. NOTE. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. for example. ALDRICH. ²IRVING. B. perhaps.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.²TROLLOPE. 282. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. I draw forth the fruit. and that. like the light of heaven. Definition.He was incidentally news dealer.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. 280. not simply the forms used in predication. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. is a modifying word. before.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.² FRANKLIN. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. lately. .²LEIGH HUNT. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. hitherto. Surely happiness is reflective. as shown in the sentences. A phrase. which may qualify an action word or a statement. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. It may also modify a sentence. Make music to the lonely ear. but really modifying. thus. then. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. or a word group used as such.

²BROWNING.²IRVING.. slightly. enough.²R. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. thus.²BURKE. [Sidenote The status of such.which gained him such universal popularity. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. at least. 283. greatly.thither. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. etc. too..there. whencesoever.thence. two by two.(2) Place. (4) Number. as perhaps. the more evidently they love liberty. maybe. etc.where. very. (5) Degree. while so precedes only the adjective usually. partly. etc.²DE QUINCEY. the more perfect will be their obedience. Meekness. White. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. Motley.²HAWTHORNE. telling how many times: once.whither. (6) Assertion.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. especially the comparative of these words. bravely. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. just. that these adverbs form a very large class. better. beautifully. Thackeray. (3) Manner. the more friends you will have. etc. possibly. This long's the text. twice. or how far he believes it to be true.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. I was. much.²LECKY. as well.whence.² The master. telling how much. (see also Sec. Emerson. etc. as hence. for example. whithersoever. singly. as little.. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. 283). not. surely. slowly. and not infrequently are found in literary English. etc. as here.. as hither. probably.²SHAKESPEARE. telling how anything is done. ..yonder. The more they multiply. LOUIS STEVENSON. So also in Grote. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.was for this once of her opinion. above. and others.near.

The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived.²BAYNE.²GOLDSMITH. A pretty large experience. Aldrich. Mighty. It is only occasionally used in literary English. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. besides modifying.² "Mighty well. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Dickens. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.²FIELDING. a mighty fine gentleman. Kingsley. have the additional function of asking a question.²THACKERAY. Direct questions. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.²BULWER. Hard blows and hard money. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister." "The house."²SCOTT." "That were far better [degree]. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Franklin. Beau Fielding. .²THACKERAY. 284. Simple. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Burke. Emerson. Pretty is also used by Prescott. "Peace. 285. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Again." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.²"He walked too far [place]. Interrogative." said the king. 282. Defoe. Holmes. B. De Quincey.² You are mighty courteous. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. for example." "I have seen you before [time]." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. and other writers. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Neville. and its lawn before [place]. and art but a fool. for example.² KINGSLEY." "He spoke positively [manner]. Notice meanings. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.Pretty. STOWE. Some adverbs.²HAWTHORNE. 286.

as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²BULWER. I know not why. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. 287. I will not ask where thou liest low. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²D. WEBSTER. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON (3) Manner. When did this humane custom begin?²H. they smiled.²BYRON. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. (4) Degree. (4) Degree. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. I do not remember when I was taught to read.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. (2) Place. for example. .²POE. (5) Reason. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. I hearkened. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. (2) Place. CLAY.

The following. . are often used as adjectives:² Positive. sooner.But in reality..²EMERSON. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. not an adverb. use.eyes. Exercise. well much little far late Comparative. representing four classes. irregularly compared. high. soonest. Superlative. when. see Sec. soon. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. have the same inflection as adjectives.. 288. only occasionally having -er and -est. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. when compared. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.²TENNYSON. but the whole clause. furthest (rathe. highest. Many adjectives have the same ending. Its strings boldlier swept. as. Then must she keep it safelier. Many adverbs are compared.²SHAKESPEARE. just as adjectives do. For further discussion. when does not express time and modify. 290.²BYRON. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Only that we may wiselier see. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. obs. further farthest. Form vs. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. and. higher.²COLERIDGE.) rather 289." Exercise. Tell what each word in ly modifies. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.

1. near. hard. evenly. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. to be sure. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. Again.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. 2. curiously jolly. if it has the verb be. And all about. nearly. more courtly in their manners.²THACKERAY. quick-flashing eye. 291. as. Such are most.²WORDSWORTH. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.²TENNYSON. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. whether adverbs or adjectives. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence.And his mien of kingly state. even. 6. Frequently the word there. Not near so black as he was painted. kindly and good-natured in secret. etc. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. The reason is. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. With his proud. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. But he must do his errand right. many words without -ly have the same form. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark." Compare these:² 1. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. hardly. . It is true he was rarely heard to speak. but with a different meaning. 2. 4.² EMERSON. Special use of there. mostly. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 7.²IRVING. He is inexpressibly mean. 292. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. merely introduces a sentence.²ID. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. instead of being used adverbially. There are eyes. 5.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. or down the leaves laughed through. 8.²CHAUCER. 3. that in Old and Middle English.

For the impracticable. (2) Degree of comparison. . if the word is compared.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. the Madonna is in great glory. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. and always. and sate down on the steps of a house. burning in the center of the temple. 4. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. Thither we went. Exercise. But a few steps farther on. according to meaning and also use. In parsing adverbs. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 2. 16. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 9. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. give² (1) The class. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 12. but continually shifted. 11. however theoretically enticing. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. but from my fall? 6. 5. is always politically unwise. 293. at the regular wine-shop. (3) What word or word group it modifies. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 15. 3. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 17. 7. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 18. 10. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. It is the Cross that is first seen. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion.

in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. But now the wind rose again. CONJUNCTIONS. then. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. connecting words. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. Definition. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. 295. A conjunction is a linking word." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. 22." Paragraphs." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. 21. word groups. 294. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. It was pretty bad after that. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. Clauses. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. or sentence groups." Sentences. therefore. but side by side within the American Union. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. 20. Unlike adverbs. nor. etc. upon which the sun now shone forth. but the student will readily find them. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. hence. . He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air.19. however. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. sentences.

the butter too. neither. then. They are or. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. Some of these go in pairs. therefore. serves but to show their ignorance. as. Some go in threes. for.. expressing a choice. usually between two things. yet. word groups. and.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. nor. whether. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. etc. while. the window being open. as... both.or. (2) Subordinate. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. Nor mark'd they less.or. (4) ALTERNATIVE. etc. not only. Alternative.but (or but also). where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. either. answering to each other in the same sentence. only. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. also. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.Classes of conjunctions. not only. nor. 297. (3) CAUSAL.. The assertion. however. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. or the sea rolls its waves.or whether. The chief ones are. "Howbeit. moreover.. however. whether.or... else.nor.but. joining words. as well as. (2) ADVERSATIVE. and not man corn. of the same rank.and.or. whether. Correlatives." Nevertheless..... 298. . neither. While the earth bears a plant.. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. neither. as and. likewise. Causal... etc. the bread was spent. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. but is emperor in his own right.nor. hence. as but... either.. either.. had its weight.. still. introducing a reason or cause.. 296. Your letter. as well as the room door. Adversative.

An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. lest. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. He is not only bold and vociferous. whence. ²ALLSTON. so that. nor echo. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. while.. as.. nor green leaf. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. in order that. etc.. seeing. on condition that. whereto. etc. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. though. there will the heart be also. sometimes if. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. wherever. so that. (5) COMPARISON: than and as..²COOPER. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. so. etc. in apposition. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.²BURKE.²PAULDING. (6) PURPOSE: that.²J. in case. since. etc. QUINCY. (2) TIME: when.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.²IRVING. even if. object. 299. that. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. provided. (3) MANNER: nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. until. ere. except. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. etc. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. nor wing of bird. before. whether. Time.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. howsoever. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. provided that. although. nor creeping thing. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if.²DE QUINCEY. as. It is. now. whithersoever. so. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. as. whither. unless. whereas. however.²BIBLE. since. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. Where the treasure is. whenever. (7) RESULT: that. especially that after so.²WILSON. . Neither the place in which he found himself. so. after.

²AMES. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²IRVING. H. Manner. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²AMES.So I behold them not. but not so long but I held it out. As a soldier.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²EMERSON.² EMERSON. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. We wish for a thousand heads.²EMERSON. .²AMES. I was again covered with water.² WORDSWORTH. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. a thousand bodies.That vain it were her eyes to close. Purpose.²BYRON.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Substantive. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Let the world go how it will. JACKSON.²DEFOE.² H. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Concession.²EMERSON. reason. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Cause. Then Denmark blest our chief. not as they were expected or intended.That he gave her wounds repose.²COLERIDGE. Now he is dead. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Result.²BURKE.² HAWTHORNE.²CAMPBELL. Comparison. Condition.

some words²for example. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. she faintly pressed her hand. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. the lady called her servant. . is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. while. 13. Exercises. 7. 4. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. After he was gone.²RUSKIN. Besides. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. then. While a faction is a minority.Let us see whether the greatest. As will have been noticed. The moth fly. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 5. 15. While patriotism glowed in his heart. He was brought up for the church. it will remain harmless. 2. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. and hid her there. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 6. that. 12. as. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. etc. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 3. Crept under the leaf.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 10. 14. 300. her real merit is known at home. the wisest. 9. as he shot in air. They. And they lived happily forever after. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. hold a subordinate rank. In what point of view. No one had yet caught his character. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. however. since. And then recovering.

none of the lashings having given way. (2) What words. "We meet. Consequently. as is often equivalent to as if.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. 301. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. SPECIAL REMARKS.16." as.²IRVING." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.Clouded.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.. If analyzed. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. His voice . In parsing conjunctions. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. 304. they connect. word groups. 302. In Emerson's sentence. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. the expression would be. As for as if. . GREELEY.²BYRON.²EMILY BRONTE. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. thus. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. expressing degree if taken separately.As though a rose should shut. as is shown by the use of as though. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. As though.. and the frame will suit the picture. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.So slowly moved about. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. and part as though we parted not. In poetry. As if. and be a bud again. So silently we seemed to speak..²HOOD. in this case. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. even as they would weep. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. etc. 303. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. for example.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.

whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. are regularly of one particular class. when. and the like. He dismisses without notice his thought.² 1. but of the natural. 4. He is the compend of time. 5. "Doctor. so they paddled on. 9. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. 2. and associates as happily. If he could solve the riddle. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions.²that the fairies do not like to be named.Caution. 11. and. so that I could not stir abroad. 3. Exercise. etc. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. and its clause is independent. At sea. in 2. For example. or in the forest. When the gods come among men. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 7.²I find them true in Concord. he is also the correlative of nature. 12. It continued raining. . In classifying them. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. because it is his. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.²DEFOE 2. 10. that it might testify of that particular ray.. so it be faithfully imparted. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. so they be each honest and natural in their hour.²EMERSON 3. so means provided.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. Some conjunctions. the Sphinx was slain." said his wife to Martin Luther. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason.²is subordinate of condition. such as nor. others belong to several classes. or in the snow. It may be safely trusted. so that expresses result. so means therefore. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. he sleeps as warm. compare the sentences. 13. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. All the postulates of elfin annals. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. dines with as good an appetite. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. and its clause depends on the other. and very seldom?" 8. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. in 3. 6. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. they are not known. as beside his own chimneys. because. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.

23. I rejoice to stand here no longer. It is clear. 25.14. And whether consciously or not. 24. 16. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 27. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. whose names I omit. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 21. however. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. For.²else it is none. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 20. in many a heart. in this they agree. you must be. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. It may be so in the majority of cases. 26. save it were sinful like herself. 22. Still. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 30. the whole conditions are changed. PREPOSITIONS. therefore. that both were wayward. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 28. 18. I speak. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. won't you lay on? 17. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 29. of good novels only. . He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter.. when it was presented to them. 19. Now you have the whip in your hand. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 15. There was no iron to be seen. Goodness must have some edge to it. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. she might have the family countenance. 305. enthroned. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

by the wrecks of time.²B. TAYLOR The angel came by night. by means near or close to. Exercise. by the ruins of nations. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at any rate. etc. he stopped.²Find sentences with three different uses of at.²EVERETT. Like at.. At that time [the earth] was richer. 320. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. the first port made by the ship. D. at all. For. at once. CONWAY.²DE QUINCEY. at length. (2) Time. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at rest. Helena. at first. at work. at peace. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. At St. expressing the degree of difference. ²PARTON.²M.²SWIFT. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.² (1) The general meaning of place.²ALDRICH. (4) Measure of excess. 321. etc. She saw the boat headed for her. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. at naught. at play. H.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at the worst. at the best. Exercise. at one. . at least.²WARNER. Richard was standing by the window. by many a million of acres. by the blessed memory of the departed.²R. By. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. STODDARD. at most. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. (3) Agency or means. at random.²COOPER.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at war. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. as.²ID. By my faith. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation.

One of Eve's family. respecting.²LAMB. considering that etc. (3) Duration of time.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²HOOD. he repented of his folly. H. incitement to action. The twilight being.²PARKMAN. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. (9) Motive. For him. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.. E. for famine. (6) Like as. etc. GARRISON."²SCOTT By my faith. An Arab woman. BANCROFT.(2) In favor of. the Colonna motto would fit you best. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.²EMERSON.²IRVING.²STODDARD. meaning with regard to.² RUSKIN. reason. a person or thing. Still.²H. He and they were for immediate attack. etc. in behalf of. for all slips of hers. (7) Concession. ate her child. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. . (5) Reference. cause. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. or in spite of. meaning although. etc. if your worship can accomplish that. had a forest of poor relations. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. But the Colonel." said the Lady of Lochleven.²W. There are gains for all our losses. they are now for us. meaning in the character of. and leaped for joy. for all his title. "thou hast counseled wisely. (4) Substitution or exchange. but a few sunsets since.²ID. for the benefit of. L.²PARKMAN. "For a fool. For the rest. as being. as to. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. or extent of space..²E." answered Master Brackett. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. "Nay.²HOLMES. poor fellow.

²DRYDEN. cause.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²HUXLEY. Exercise. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²H. The From Relation.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Exercise.²HIGGINSON.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²HALE. (4) Motive. (1) Origin or source. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. more. from a desire of seeming valiant. if not a desperate man. From harmony. or reason. Of. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. A distrustful. H. 322. The original meaning of of was separation or source. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²ID. The general idea in from is separation or source. nay. From.²MILTON. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. . Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. 323. ceased to be merciful. (2) Origin. Like boys escaped from school. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The young cavaliers. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. The king holds his authority of the people.²HUME. like from. (3) Time.²BANCROFT. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.

Asked no odds of.²BANCROFT. ask. rob. More than one altar was richer of his vows. etc. etc. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. bare of. Back of that tree. (c) After nouns expressing lack. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place.. especially out of. as north of. A singular want of all human relation.²ALDRICH.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. south of. acquitted them of.²ID. . (d) With words expressing distance. He is away of his own free will. (5) Expressing agency.²BAYARD TAYLOR. (3) With expressions of material. "I am glad of that. White shirt with diamond studs. and grass. ²PARTON. HALE. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. clear.²LEW WALLACE. that Cromwell once ruled England. Sandals.² HUXLEY."²E. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. purge. The hills were bare of trees. disarm. rid. such as ease.²SCOTT Who formed.²clear of. free of. (6) Partitive. there were only twenty-one members present. free. divest. cure.²PARKMAN. etc. out of the most unpromising materials. etc.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. You cannot make a boy know. Other Relations expressed by Of. E. expressing a part of a number or quantity. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. ²GAVARRE. relieve. (b) After some adjectives. etc. reason. bound with thongs of boar's hide. beg.²HIGGINSON. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Of the Forty. deprivation. demand. motive.²DICKENS II. weeds. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. or breastpin of native gold. of his own knowledge. wide of.²BOSWELL. deprive.

Not even woman's love. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. The fair city of Mexico. E. equal to about. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. for the possessive. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. . which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. of a sudden. Idiomatic use with verbs.He washed out some of the dirt. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²BANCROFT. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²ALDRICH. of late. (10) Of reference. (8) Appositional.²LAMB.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. being equivalent to an infinitive. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. The nation of Lilliput.²W. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²COOPER. and the dignity of a queen. 309. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. when the first is descriptive of the second. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. of is used in the sense of during.²FROUDE. etc. concerning. CHANNING. (b) Noun and gerund.²PRESCOTT. ²IRVING. standing. (7) Possessive.²BANCROFT.²SWIFT. Besides the phrases of old. (c) Two nouns. with its object.²HALLECK. See also Sec. could give shelter from his contumely.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²ID.²BANCROFT. (9) Of time. with regard to.²LOWELL.. Such a book as that of Job.

²BANCROFT. on the alert. Upon is seldom used to express time.²PARKMAN. concerning. such as admit. on trial. on the wing. permit. (b) With motion. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. complain. and not a day more. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. (3) Reference. allow. 325. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats.²BRYANT. Exercise. It also accompanies the verbs tire. and others. on a sudden. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. On. equal to about. To. you are eighteen. Cannon were heard close on the left.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. etc. avail (one's self). Exercise. The general meaning of on is position or direction. . The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. Upon.²PARKMAN. Upon my reputation and credit. approve.²MRS. disapprove. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. without adding to their meaning. 324.²EMERSON. on high. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²DE QUINCEY.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²PARKMAN. on board.²Find sentences with six uses of of. SIGOURNEY. accept. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. consist. (4) In adjurations.²ALDRICH. etc. On my life. (2) Time. repent.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. on view. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.

²often to the loss of vigor..²BULWER. . Ben Lomond was unshrouded. to my taste.. 326. it may be genuine poetry.²LANG.Come to the bridal chamber. (b) Referring to time. We cook the dish to our own appetite. To the few. gay Comedy appears. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Revolutions.²BENTON To our great delight.²HALE. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²PARTON. interest. (2) Expressing result. mid meant in company with. does the mere music.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. But when.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. unmasked. to him. (5) Equivalent to according to.²BRYANT. had ceased to be. With.²PARKMAN.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. 268). Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Nor. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. In Old English.²B. He usually gave his draft to an be written over. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²GOLDSMITH. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²IRVING.. whose influence is felt to this hour.. Death!²HALLECK. His brother had died. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Exercise.

Messala.²HALE.²Find sentences with four uses of with. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. with all his boldness. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. first of all. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. E. "poetry is not a pursuit. he gave millions to the sword. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.The advance. as with you. with Heyward at its head. It seemed a supreme moment with him. but a pleasure"?²LANG. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. (2) Instrumentality. I think.²E. had already reached the defile.²COLERIDGE. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²COOPER. He was wild with delight about Texas. but with you. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. She seemed pleased with the accident.²DE QUINCEY. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²LANG. it is necessary.²WALLACE (7) Time.²SCOTT. HALE. Either with the swingle-bar. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²EMERSON.²HOWELLS. (3) Cause. or with the haunch of our near leader. reason. Exercise. opinion.²DE QUINCEY. motive. 327.²ALDRICH.²CHANNING. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. .²HOWELLS. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. in spite of. (4) Estimation. transmitted from the beginning. He expired with these words. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. (5) Opposition. With all his sensibility. to find the object of the preposition.

he followed us one day into those gardens. the malicious rogue.The phrases are (1) on board the ships.²ID. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. 5. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. but I received no other hurt. I remember. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. country. In (3). each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. but all to no purpose. and knocked me down flat on my face. hence we say. The guns were cleared of their lumber. I heard a noise just over my head. Be that as it will. came tumbling about my ears. beginning. The object of on board is ships.²SWIFT 2. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. telling what man. of from. I looked towards my windows. which. Exercises. by which a dozen apples. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. 4. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. I felt my box raised very high in the air. without a country modifies man. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. like the clapping of wings. I called out several times. In (2). In (1). which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. of on. we met the defaulter here. shook it directly over my head. or was. the phrase answers the question where. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. Whereupon. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. (2) on which. I speak these things from a love of justice. before the dwarf left the queen. To our general surprise. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. . because I had given the provocation. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. (4) from the beginning. (3) without a country. And so on. 2. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. 3. of without. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man.

23. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 16. The savage army was in war-paint. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. he favored the world with his opinions. in town. With all his learning. 29. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 26. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 10. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. after a restful morning. in this respect. 21. though unbroken by the peal of church bells.He spurred his courser on. 9. 22. 20. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. plumed for battle.Without stop or stay. 13. 15. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 7. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 25. 24. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 11. 8. 12. For my part. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 18. when. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. On all subjects known to man. to one dark and gloomy. His breeches were of black silk. The mother sank and fell. 17. I like to see the passing. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 14. Carteret was far from being a pedant.6. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 27. grasping at the child. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. . 19. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road.

(2) As an adjective pronoun. A few are discussed below. and be proud in the midst of its toil.That makes the heavens be mute. And now it is like an angel's song. We wish that labor may look up here.²WEBSTER. THAT. 329. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (a) Indefinite relative. (c) Substantive conjunction. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. 330. (4) As an adverb of degree. (b) Of result.²WEBSTER. not merely by the amount of the tax. (1) Relative pronoun. (3) As a relative pronoun.²WEBSTER. That was a dreadful mistake. 328.²HUXLEY. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.² JOHNSON. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. and not according to form.²BEECHER. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. that you might behold this joyous day. WHAT. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. That night was a memorable one.30. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. He will raise the price. That is what I understand by scientific education.²COLERIDGE. .²STOCKTON.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.

"I'll tell you what.. (6) Exclamatory adjective... 331.²WORDSWORTH.. (b) Indirect question. nearly equivalent to partly. What... At what rate these materials would be distributed." (4) Relative Pera..²ID. Cox.²ID.. To say what good of fashion we can.²THACKERAY.²WEBSTER. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. after not only. but the result of calculation. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.Which be they what they may. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. What with the Maltese goats. (8) Conjunction.² is impossible to determine. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. BUT. to see what might be hidden. silent still. If he has [been in America].S.²EMERSON. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.. What..Those shadowy recollections.these sounds are only to be heard. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.²EMERSON. or not only. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. he knows what good people are to be found there. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. partly.but. and silent all!²BYRON. (7) Adverb of degree. (b) Indirect question. (b) Copulative. it rests on reality.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (9) As an exclamation. . (a) Indefinite relative adjective.

And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²SHELLEY.. meaning only. 332. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.. after such. meaning otherwise . (d) Of reason. (4) Relative pronoun. than.. Who knows but.²HAWTHORNE.²MRS BROWNING.²IRVING. sometimes same.²LAMB.²CARLYLE.²IRVING. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (c) Of degree.Then arose not only tears. but piercing cries.. towards order. not. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. at all moments. meaning except. after a negative. (b) Of manner. like the dog. I shall see but little of it. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. stands for that .. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. .²IRVING... not. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. not. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²EMERSON. Doing duty as a guard. on all sides. or who . To lead but one measure.. (5) Adverb. (e) Introducing an appositive word. (2) Relative pronoun. equivalent to that . As orphans yearn on to their mothers. ²CARLYLE.He yearned to our patriot bands. (3) Preposition.²SCOTT. (b) Substantive. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²FRANKLIN. AS. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.

333.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. .²LAMB. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. and was clearly an adjective. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²HIGGINSON. like Martin was. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²HALLECK. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. nervous child. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²ALDRICH. Give Ruskin space enough. indeed. That face. like him awhile ago. (1) An adjective.²LONGFELLOW. Stirring it vigorously. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²ALDRICH. like drops out. ²PARKMAN. In this second use. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²EMERSON. If the verb is expressed.² HAWTHORNE. but its verb is omitted.-SCOTT. and as or as if takes its place. and is followed by a dative-objective. In each case. NOTE.LIKE. this. like summer ocean's. There is no statue like this living man. They look. I do with my friends as I do with my books. Introduces a clause. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²DARWIN.²MAYHEW. No Emperor. This follows a verb or a verbal. like a cook beating eggs. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. staring like a bewildered man. Through which they put their heads.²CASS. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.² A timid. Note the difference between these two uses. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.

Value of analysis. in separating them into their component parts. but it still retains its identity as noun. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. clauses introduced by conjunctions. pronoun. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. Definition. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. verb." "Up! for shame! [adverb]." PART II. 334.. that is. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. as. . 335. etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. What analysis is.: for example.²in determining case.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. entering into the structure of a sentence. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. that is. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.INTERJECTIONS. 336. Definition. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. Some of these are imitative sounds. tut! buzz! etc." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. etc. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. subject and predicate. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.

according to form. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. "The quality of mercy is not strained. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "Hath he not always treasures. (3) Imperative. Definition: Predicate. interrogative. entreaty. A rare old plant is the ivy green. "Old year. or request. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. not according to the form in which a thought is put. 2. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. but the sentence would still be declarative. Definition. SIMPLE SENTENCES. Every sentence must contain two parts. Division according to number of statements. 337. But now all is to be changed. which expresses command. but according to how many statements there are. 338. This is the most common one. .²a subject and a predicate. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. you must not die!" interrogative. or command: for example. "Come to the bridal chamber." 340. always friends?" imperative. 339. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject." "What wouldst thou do. or imperative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. which puts the thought in a question. Examples of these three kinds are. but by no means vulgar. old man?" "Be thou familiar. hence.Kinds of sentences as to form. (2) Interrogative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. declarative. question. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1.

or an interrogative pronoun. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. 8. the subject is frequently after the verb. Slavery they can have anywhere.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. not of a rare old plant. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. a rare old plant.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. especially in poetry. and is to be supplied. Consequently. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1." Exercise. as. The last of all the Bards was he. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. but about the ivy green. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. adjective. all. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. 6. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. or adverb that asks about the subject. 4. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. or ye) is in most cases omitted. and our definition must be the following. . 5. the subject (you. we have some trouble. In analyzing such sentences. Listen. 2. 7. 3.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Thus. thou. "[You] behold her single in the field.²What is to be changed? Answer. always reduce them to the order of a statement. In the interrogative sentence. and the real subject is the latter. to suit all cases:² Subject. But if we try this with the second sentence. 341. we say all is the subject of the sentence. on the other hand. to an ignorant man.

or second object. in addition to the object. "Ye honor me.10. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. and by object we mean the direct object. just as if to say. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. but chief belongs to the verb. (5) Modifiers. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. Of a transitive verb. and me here is not the object simply of call. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.²transitive and intransitive. (6) Independent elements. (4) The complements. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. direct. Indirect object. but it is a true complement. but of call chief. for example. 343. 342." Complement: 344." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. "Ye call me chief." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). "I give thee this to wear at the collar. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. (2) The predicate. . and means summoned. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. The transitive verb often requires. (3) The object. Direct Object." indirect.

Thom of the Gills." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. "Brow and head were round. as in the sentence. appear. 352. but used as a single modifier. As to form. introduced by a preposition: for example." "He was termed Thomas. in the popular judgment. 364. A phrase is a group of words." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. Complement of an intransitive verb. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. he was now getting old. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. An intransitive verb." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . taste. ay. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. 351. feel. "A cheery. and of massive weight. and barring the door. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. for instance." Also an expression used as a noun. to the completion of this man of the world. 'Ay." (2) PARTICIPIAL. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. or." Things used as Subject." (3) INFINITIVE. sir!' rang out in response. I mentioned a case of that nature. as in drowning. etc. 355. seem. in exercise following Sec." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. more familiarly. See sentence 19. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. as. above sixty. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." "The good man." All these complete intransitive verbs..The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. in the original Opium Confessions. 347. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." 345." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. 346. especially the forms of be. and. not containing a verb. become." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. Phrases.

341." "Never." "There are asking eyes. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." The for did not belong there originally. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. . or their religion from their sect. 349." Things used as Complement. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. I saw the quick and the dead. my deficiency." 348. but obscures the real subject." "The dead are there. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. from their lips. and ever will be. "'By God.²the infinitive phrase. asserting eyes.²the talent of starting the game. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. "Therein has been." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. and by Saint George!' said the King. for which see Sec. prowling eyes. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. Disguised infinitive subject." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." Things used as Direct Object." etc. (2) In interrogative sentences." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. or the thundering of organs. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. but the real or logical subject is to print. but they will be given in detail here." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. was heard one syllable to justify. (4) After "there introductory. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. etc. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." In this sentence.

are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. and." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." Modifiers. Of a transitive verb." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." ." In this last sentence. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. Modifiers of Subject. As complement of a transitive verb. doubtless." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. Like all the complements in this list." "She asked her father's permission. complements of the predicate.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. or Complement." (4) Participle." "Their tempers. and the words italicized are still complements.²completing the predicate. and explaining or modifying the subject. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. 351.²heads or tails." "Serving others is serving us. at the same time. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. the shepherd girl. (3) Infinitive." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. they are adjuncts of the object. I. Object." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. or the equivalent of the noun. the object is made the subject by being passive." "I hear the echoes throng. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. As complement of an intransitive verb." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.350. and whenever the complement is a noun.

" "Him. tell whether the subject." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. and modify the predicate in the same way. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. 351." "In the twinkling of an eye. II. but it is really a contracted clause. Retained with passive. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. no sociable angel. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. and leading him from star to star. 352. or . this young idolater. "He died like a God." "Give them not only noble teachings." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. the prisoner at the bar." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." In such a sentence as. but noble teachers." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. Tells how. 357-363. or complement is modified." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." Exercise." (For participial and infinitive phrases." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. Since the predicate is always a verb." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle.²In each sentence in Sec. unforgiving. Modifiers of the Predicate. but with other men. object. was the scene from King John. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. not with nature. was now called upon for his defense." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. see further Secs. the verb being omitted." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. I have seasoned for thee. austere. given at the request of a Dutch lady.²proud.

Why does the horizon hold me fast. This. 7. is good in the making. gives wonderful animation." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. 5. but the children of the great. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. to the animal strength and spirits. he liked. no emotion. the indirect object is retained. I took. how far. and other measures of precaution. (a) Pick out subject. 3. Fashion does not often caress the great. They do not wish to be lovely. His books have no melody. and (direct) object:² 1. 5. with my joy and grief. or how long. according to old philosophers. 4." "All such knowledge should be given her. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. These answer the question when. But anger drives a man to say anything. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. 6." (6) Adverbial objective. and as many to oppose it." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. (b) Pick out the subject. in this center? 4. negative. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. On the voyage to Egypt. a sort of personality to the whole writing. and the direct object is retained: for example. 6. but to be loved. Evil.When the verb is changed from active to passive. after dinner. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. 3. in regard to particulars. 2. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause." "One way lies hope. . Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. predicate. 8. no relief to the dead prosaic level. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. and. no humor. To the men of this world.. 7." Exercises. etc. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. predicate. 2. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition." subject of passive verb and direct object retained.

the present Archbishop of Dublin. this imperial rider. 5. Paint me. 6. y y y y Compound Subject. after their long confinement to a ship. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. . 3. must visit again the home of her childhood. 5. I felt myself. the attorney. then. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 4. upwards. 2. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. then. in little peaceful Easedale. I promised her protection against all ghosts. That night. to the right and to the left. a room seventeen feet by twelve. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. downwards. Not compound sentences. burthened with the anxieties of a man. Unhorse me.. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. viz. 2. 2. I gave him an address to my friend. To suffer and to do.y 8. expecting the return of their parents. A river formed the boundary. Compound Predicate. 4. In one feature. that was thy portion in life. at length the warrior lady. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. happy dinner.²the river Meuse. for the first time. Yes. this dragoon so lovely. etc. 3. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. at the chief hotel. the blooming cornet. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. Not the less I owe thee justice. six children sat by a peat fire. 4. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. and a member of the world. this nun so martial. 3. Their intention was to have a gay.

but it is to be noticed that." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. they are not a necessary part. together with its modifiers. above: thus." "Voyages and travels I would also have." And so with complements. same as (1). I'm with you once again. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. exposes. then the grammatical subject and predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. the predicate." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. the air of the mother. in all such sentences as we quote below. Bishop. the tone of her voice. etc. 355. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. several modifiers. turned his steps homeward. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. Of this." "He shook his head. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. that is." "Ye crags and peaks. may be the person or thing addressed. and. Examples of compound subjects are. For example. and the rest is the logical predicate.. "The company broke up. my brave young man!" . complements." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. Independent Elements of the Sentence. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. hurry. etc. "Ah. the verb). lurking far down in the depths of human nature. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. The exclamatory expression. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. Larger view of a sentence. modifiers. etc. shouldered the rusty firelock. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. the simple subject is situation. forming a sentence: "Oh. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. 354. two or more subjects of the same predicate. the object. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence." Sentences with compound predicates are. and its object or complement." "The name of the child. hurry. in the sentence. together with all its modifiers. ulcer.353. however.

he was a conscientious man. y (2) The adverbial use. The words well. truly. how you're winking!" "Now. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb." Another caution." "Truth to say. (b) As a modifier of subject. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. 3. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. undoubtedly." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. besides. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. (1) Adjectival. such as however. and some conjunctions. In their use. moreover. and so on. or complement (see Sec. such as perhaps. now. pronoun. therefore. that have an office in the sentence. These need close watching. yes! everybody knew them. or word used as a noun: for example. . to the best of my remembrance. 356.. he closed his literary toils at dinner. see Sec. why. There are some adverbs. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. object. etc. 350..(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. her noticing even this is creditable. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. already noticed. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. grandma. let him perish." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat." "Well." "At all events. modifying a noun. 4). 355. then. 357. etc. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. modifying the predicate. instances of which were seen in Sec. 352. "Oh. this story runs thus." (5) Participial phrase: "But. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 351." (2) Adverbial. 6). he somehow lived along. really. generally speaking. nevertheless." (3) Independent. 4). the company broke up. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. six quill-driving gentlemen." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. prepositional phrases may be. see Sec." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use." "Why." (6) Single words: as. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES." "No.

but require somewhat closer attention. containing no matters of business. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.should. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. 355. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. being equivalent to a future with obligation. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. etc. therefore. but having no other office than a verbal one. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. etc.can (could). thus. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. "Because I was. was speedily run through. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. my dear. modifying was speedily run through. This case excepted." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. and they will be presented here in full. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15." "There. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. or as nearly so as the student will require. (5)." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.seem.]." In this sentence. and teach her how to be happy and good. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. 358. ought.would. Wilt thou. The verbal use. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. he should not have known them at all.: as in the sentences. "The letter of introduction. See Sec." etc. and hence is adverbial.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. y (a) With may (might). I." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. necessity." (c) With the definite forms of go." (b) With the forms of be.

etc. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. 351. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "Are you mad." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "To teach is to learn. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. II." "He insisted on his right to forget her. The adjectival use." 360. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. to please is equivalent to that he may please. and the eyes to fill?" 359.." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. etc." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). The fact that the infinitives in Sec. to hear McOrator after dinner. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. ." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death.²both purpose clauses. 362. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. object. (4) In apposition. IV. 361 are used adverbially.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). III. notice the following:² In (1).: for example. hang the idiot. 361. result. modifying a noun that may be a subject. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. To test this. to look means that he might look." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. 5). the Scotch fighting all the battles. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. The adverbial use. above. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. already examined." "To say what good of fashion we can." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. complement. Don Guzman." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. "But there was no time to be lost. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. The substantive use. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives.

Our life is March weather. (3).In (2). In (4). 4. In (5). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. etc. and to say is equivalent to if we say. as in Sec. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. In analyzing simple sentences. which is of two kinds. 355. V. I will try to keep the balance true. 351). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. give the complement (Secs. not in a book. object. savage and serene in one hour. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 347). 352)." (See also Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. equivalent to that you betray. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. In (3). 349). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 2." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 364.. The independent use. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 3. to find shows the result of the return. 363.²both expressing condition. 355). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. give² (1) The predicate. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. to hear means if you should hear. etc. 351). 351). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 268. . (5) The subject (Sec. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. If it is an incomplete verb. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. must be in a life. and to betray and to bring express the reason.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. etc. to part means because I part. (7) Independent elements (Sec..

through evil agents. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 11. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 6. The water. 14.The old crow of Cairo. might be called flabby and irresolute. To be hurried away by every event. 7. Through the years and the centuries. 24. nor generals. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. . just on the edge of destruction. The whole figure and air.He sat in the shower.4. He risked everything. a graceful dancer.²to preserve her throne. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 21. 8. nor himself. to restore civil and religious order. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. a skilled musician. nor money. the carrion crow. and every moment discover something new. 16. in popular use. I have heard Coleridge talk. nor troops. 12. and to the purpose. The word conscience has become almost confined. To these gifts of nature. to keep England out of war. We are always in peril.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 5. 19. two stricken hours. 10. and spared nothing. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 17. You may ramble a whole day together. with eager energy. good and amiable otherwise.Burnt green and blue and white. a good shot. 9. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 22. Old Adam. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. always in a bad plight. to the moral sphere. 20. Her aims were simple and obvious. through toys and atoms. is to have no political system at all. 18. like a witch's oils. 23. neither ammunition. His opinion is always original. 15. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. an accomplished scholar. 13. and only to be saved by invention and courage. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest.

the ship was in an uproar. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 36. She had made a two days' march. The villain. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. and no provisions but wild berries. an elderly man. 39. 38. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. and. 35. and in my own garden. 40. Of the same grandeur. I dare this. the prime minister of Spain. 37. or perhaps one virtue. and the why.Effacing many a stain of former crime. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. the present capital of New England. still. 26. to be a reproach to such goodness. But yield. Supposing this computation to be correct. in this world. ready to receive her. I hate him and myself. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. had but one foible.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Now. and the wherefore? . the same Condé Olivarez. 29. The cry. 33. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 32.Distant. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. secluded. in front of all this mighty crowd. it would not have been filial or ladylike. upon my own ground. 34.25. 30. 27. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Upon this shore stood. Few in number. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. time-honored. Oxford. This amiable relative. 41. 31. proud foe. haply. in less heroic and poetic form. baggage far in the rear. In the Acadian land. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. to bid you leave the place now and forever. Fair name might he have handed down. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. Must we in all things look for the how.

like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. The simple sentence the basis. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. Words left out after than or as.² "She is like some tender tree. 367. 366." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. 365. are really contracted clauses. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. however. which is the unit of speech. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. as would be the connective instead of like. . though often treated as phrases." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." Sentences with like. As shown in Part I." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. the pride and beauty of the grove." This must. but. made merely for convenience and smoothness." To show that these words are really omitted.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. COMPLEX SENTENCES. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. as. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement.From her own loved island of sorrow. 333). thus. (Sec. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. if they were expanded.

. or dependent on it. complement. and modifier. . But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. object. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. as in this sentence. predicate. 369. Independent clause. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. containing a verb with its subject.²the backbone.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. CLAUSES. modifiers.. main. and the next one. each clause has its subject. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. we are aware. and the last. then we recognize this as the main statement. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. murmur.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. object. Definition. 368. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. or it may be applied to the others. complements. etc. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause)." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. A clause is a division of a sentence.. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. that is. how great . is taken in.²the other members subordinate to it. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. A principal.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. logically depends on suffering. which are so united that one member is the main one. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. that . Hence the following definition:² Definition. suffering. 370.. 371.

But since they are complex in form. 5).Dependent clause." (4) Apposition. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. (b) that are .' is an electric touch. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. for a hundred years. adjectives. for a time." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. 372. and ADVERB clauses. attention is called to them here. verbal. ." "I was told that the house had not been shut. night or day.." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." Just as the object noun. impertinences²would be grammatical. and it is . but logically the sentence is." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. for example. We ourselves are getting ." (2) Object of a verb." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. 352. etc. or adverbs. so the object clause is retained. Kinds." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. with a noun clause in apposition with it. (a) Ordinary apposition. pronoun.. put an end to my fancies. over which the torrent came tumbling.. 'I know that he can toil terribly. clauses are divided into NOUN. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.. impertinences.. and the whole clause is not. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." 374. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. 373. is retained after a passive verb (Sec.. thus.. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. for example. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. Noun Clauses. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. As to their office in the sentence. ADJECTIVE." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. infinitive.

Frequently there is no connecting word. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. and not on the sentiment. 5. which. he would repent it. whereby. whether he should choose one or not. 9. Adjective Clauses. as." Exercise. 375. But the fact is.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. that he was a scheming impostor. 2. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 4. 10. or equivalent of a noun. he could know nothing. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. whence. 3. Such a man is what we call an original man. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who.² "It is on the understanding. As the office of an adjective is to modify. but. wherein. whither. . still remains reasonable. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. a relative pronoun being understood. Other examples of this construction are. 8. I was napping. The reply of Socrates. no man will ever know. 7. that all safe legislation must be based. of a nation. etc. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. sometimes by the conjunctions when. What history it had. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. 6. where. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. how it changed from shape to shape. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. that. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. that. in the sentence. a falsehood incarnate. Examples of adjective clauses. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Except by what he could see for himself. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream.

which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. whether subject. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive.e. etc. 3. 6. i. 1. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture." Exercise. No man is reason or illumination. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds.. the champions advanced through the lists. all is vacancy. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 7. 11. and tell what each one modifies." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 8. 4. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. or that essence we were looking for. 5. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. which formed the center of the mansion. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. .376. 2. I walked home with Calhoun. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. Pick out the adjective clauses." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. which Rowena tasted. 10." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. Adverbial Clauses. he begins to help us more as an effect." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. 9. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. object." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse.

" (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "The right conclusion is. and what it modifies:² ." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." (3) REASON. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. an adjective. shaping our actions. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. so far as we can. etc. to make up our shortcomings. but they require careful study." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." (7) RESULT." "Who cares for that.: "But still. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. expressing the degree in which the horizon. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. whatever." "After leaving the whole party under the table. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "He went several times to England. he goes away as if nothing had happened. however." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." (5) DEGREE.377. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. and adverbial conjunctions. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries.." "When he was come up to Christian. the wider is the horizon of their thought." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. since he was too great to care to be original. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. a verbal. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. and will be given in detail. it takes precedence of everything else. is wider. or an adverb. Joanna is better. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. the milestones are grave-stones.² whoever. 378. introduced by indefinite relatives." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. however good she may be as a witness. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. that we should try. no matter what remains. etc. tell what kind each is. etc." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." These mean no matter how good. Exercise. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." "The broader their education is. with examples. adverbs." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." (9) CONCESSION.

so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and modifiers. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. object. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. predicate. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. incoherent exclamations. and twirling weathercocks.1. they might perhaps say of their visitors." 2. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. on a dark wintry night. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. find the principal subject and principal predicate. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. howling and whistling. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. as they sometimes did. 3. its object is that Odin was a reality. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. to tell the truth. when the wind was unruly. in the sentence. then treat noun clauses as nouns. with shrill. etc. 380. we are a little disappointed. If the children gathered about her. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. so as to picture the parts and their relations. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. of which clause Odin is the subject. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . 379. banging about doors and windows. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. snatching up stones to fling at them. For example. 'Well. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath.

3.. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 2. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. . This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.. (1) Find the principal clause.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 364. Exercises. 364. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. as seen in the "map" (Sec. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Take the place and attitude which belong to you. d. 380). (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec.

Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 8. that. 7. that pressed her with an objection. if applied to the Bible. 22. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 24. 15. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. had we been worse. bishop. Now. of a light hazel. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. dying for them.4. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. The deep eyes. . I like that representation they have of the tree. 17. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. not so much for travelers that were few. 16. 13. But now that she has become an establishment. 9. 6. which. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. M. The night proved unusually dark. namely. 5. the mixed result. the flower should revive for us. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. Had they been better chemists. or whether any. 19. He was what our country people call an old one. 23. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 11. counselor that had none for herself. who would yield to it least. Next came a wretched Dominican. 20. as for armies that were too many by half. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. the shepherd girl. 10. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. whom I choose. This is she. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 14. Here lay two great roads. 12. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. And those will often pity that weakness most. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. for yours. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. could not have been effected. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 18. 21.

COMPOUND SENTENCES. "No book. but above it. we cannot adequately say.² Definition. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. These things we are forced to say. speed. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. the following complex sentences:² 1. 26. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 383. "was ever written down by any but itself. It makes no difference how many friends I have. or commands. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 30.25." said Bentley. if continuously extended. questions. if there be one to whom I am not equal. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 5. and not from his heart. would easily reach. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. That which we do not believe. 6. then map out as in Sec.²which will not be disposed of. Hence the definition. 380. (b) First analyze. is to speak and write sincerely. 2. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. . and what content I can find in conversing with each. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. 7. that it was no more than his daily walk. 27. 382. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. How formed." 4. and stamped with his right number. though we may repeat the words never so often. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. 28. and temper. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 3. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength.

as in Sec. Exercise. he is twice a man. or but. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. if there are any. Thus in (1). Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. 297). 383 (1). "Only the star dazzles. as but. Of the following illustrative sentences. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. the waving grass. however. Some of these are now conjunctions. a simple member. etc." 384. which are simple statements. he dilates. tell which are compound. etc. in (3). a complex member. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. Study the thought. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. The coördinate conjunctions and. in (2). and nor the second and third complex members. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. and connects the first and second complex members. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. Connectives. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). Speak your latent conviction." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. for. and it shall be the universal sense. moon-like ray" (adversative).This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. others sometimes coördinate. 386." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. and not the form of the connective. while (whilst). from the second. 385. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and which complex:² 1. nor. Another example is. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. now adverbs or prepositions. the semicolon separates the first. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. the planet has a faint. nor does he know until he has tried. whereas. he soliloquizes. The division into members will be easier. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights.. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. yet. he walks with arms akimbo. .

11. to find a pot of buried gold. For everything you have missed. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. Whilst the world is thus dual. The gain is apparent. Man does not stand in awe of man. and not by what each is. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 10. 4. 7. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. I can yet love. In this manner. All loss. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. nay. all pain. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. you have gained something else. you lose something. 9. 13. . and as yet very early in the morning. is particular. 8. 5. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. I can still receive. or. 387. passed in that time. 6. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. the tax is certain. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 364. 3. however. 4. and for everything you gain. yield to them heart and life. 14. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. quiet. (i) Separate it into its main members. 2. from a happy yet often pensive child. However some may think him wanting in zeal. that it was Easter Sunday. 12. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. Love. 3. unobtrusive boy. and thou shalt be loved. Exercise.2. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. for example. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. so is every one of its parts. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 381. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. he grew up to be a mild.

or we pursue persons. "the iron is white. 9. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. We go to Europe. because. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and the peace of society is often kept. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. Stand aside. and they will be true to you. one is afraid. 17. and not a thought has enriched either party." says the haymaker. or hope. 8. Whatever he knows and thinks. "Strike. We see the noble afar off. or sail with God the seas.5. puts the parties on a convenient footing. and the other dares not. . "as nigh the scythe as you can. He teaches who gives. and they repel us. and makes their business a friendship. and he learns who receives. and they will show themselves great. abide by it. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. let them mount and expand. 7. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow." "keep the rake. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. whilst frankness invites frankness." 13. Trust men. or we read books. treat them greatly. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 15. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. feign to confess here. 11. as children. 20. They will shuffle and crow. When you have chosen your part. and not an emotion of bravery. 14. only that they may brag and conquer there. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and the cart as nigh the rake. that let him communicate." says the smith. why should we intrude? 10. 19. 18. 6. if you rip up his claims. give those merits room. or men will never know and honor him aright. crook and hide. 21. modesty. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 16. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. and each shows only what lies at its focus. is as thin and timid as any. Come into port greatly.

but its leading characteristic is. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. but go about your business anywhere. 390. 24. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. 23. adjective and noun. 25. it ends in headache. INTRODUCTORY. So does culture with us.22. Following the Latin method. so readily and lavishly they promise. Essential point in English syntax. but they never acquit the debt. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. or. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. 388. it never was known to fall into the rear. By way of introduction. Ground covered by syntax. 380. PART III. pronoun and antecedent. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . We see young men who owe us a new world. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement.²agreement and government. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. verb and subject. the department of syntax will be a small affair. Do not craze yourself with thinking. they lose themselves in the crowd. and dodge the account. they die young. if they live. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. SYNTAX.

yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and imitate it. Second. There is. When usage varies as to a given construction. and nothing but important points will be considered. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. distinct forms would be used. both forms will be given in the following pages. therefore. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. etc. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. 393. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. but are not now. good English. Why study syntax? 391." that is. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. In Latin. or settler may be the subject. and whose judgment. 392. authorities²that is. the sentence. . writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. In some cases. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. also expressing a possessive relation. As an illustration of the last remark. the order being inverted. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. some of which conform to classical grammar.² First. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and added to it the preposition of. then. "The savage here the settler slew. This is not logical." is ambiguous." In this there is a possessive form. pronoun and antecedent. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. or the same writer will use both indifferently. The basis of syntax. and it would not matter which one stood first. For example. Savage may be the subject. as to study inflected forms. sometimes verb and subject. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. Also in the sentence. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. take the sentence. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). "None remained but he. Some rules not rigid. following the regular order of subject.

394. Joint possession. the antechamber of the High Priest.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. but imply separate possession or ownership.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Separate possession.²EMERSON. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. and Peterborough's. and Harley's. as. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. the shore of Galilee. . Bentham's principles together. 408). the possessive sign is used with each noun. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Woman.²MILTON. 396. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. and Peter's. PRONOUNS. ²ID.²ROWE.NOUNS. or indicate joint ownership or possession.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. and Paul's. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. etc. for example. 395. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. He kept Bolingbroke's." Juletta tells. Putting Mr. Use of the possessive.²THACKERAY.² Live your king and country's best support. Mill's and Mr.²MCCULLOCH.²BYRON. and Pope's. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. sense and nature's easy fool. 397.

sanctioned. there are two general rules that require attention. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. the last expression has the support of many good writers.²THACKERAY." 400.²SOUTHEY. I. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. Objective for the nominative.²WHITCHER. 399.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. thus. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.) "The young Harper. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. the real thought being forgotten. others are generally. together with the relative who.²POPE. who. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.²SHAKESPEARE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. . NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. for example. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). No mightier than thyself or me. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. But he must be a stronger than thee. Some of the violations are universally condemned. and should be the nominative form. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.²TROLLOPE.²BYRON. whom is the complement after the verb am. as. if not universally. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Still. Bedott Papers. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. Since most of the personal pronouns. General rules. 398. This should be "as she.

² For there was little doubt that it was he. unless a special.² One I remember especially.²SCOTT."²KINGSLEY. it will not be me. . A safe rule. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. both in England and America.²THACKERAY. "If there is any one embarrassed. One exception is to be noted. for example."²WINTHROP."²WM. "Than whom.²LONGFELLOW. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²MACAULAY. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²FIELDING. and the other forms of the verb be.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. are. they are yet holier than we. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²KINGSLEY. The usage is too common to need further examples. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. namely.²PARTON. "Who's there?"²"Me. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. the objective form is regularly found. Patrick the Porter. But still it is not she." 401. on the other hand. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. but such is the fact. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne." There is no special reason for this. The camp of Richard of England. In spoken English. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON.²RUSKIN. as. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. is. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²COLERIDGE. BLACK.

object of saw). or preposition which governs it. 10. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. it is me. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. Whom they were I really cannot specify. used after verbs. You know whom it is that you thus charge.²MILTON. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1." the word being in apposition with murderer)." 6. I speak not to" (he should be him. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. (3) By forgetting the construction. 11. 3. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. the object of to). "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. It is not me you are in love with. 7. as this from Shakespeare. verbals. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. Truth is mightier than us all. 5.Exercise. 4. "Ask the murderer. Nominative for the objective. 9. as. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. . Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. verbal. 404. and prepositions. as. now. 403. as. or this. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. but not he" (he should be him. 2. you or me. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. or us). "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. If there ever was a rogue in the world. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 8. Me in exclamations. in the case of words used in apposition with the object.

Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. for example.²BYRON. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.Shall be left upon the morn. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. all but he.²KINGSLEY.² All were knocked down but us two. None. I arraign. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. "Who did you see?" or. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²BYRON. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Exception 2. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. save thou and thine. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Who have we here?²ID. for they say there are none such in the world. after the preposition but (sometimes save). and is usually avoided. We regularly say. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Let you and I look at these. .²KINGSLEY. Thou. etc.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Exercise. as. who interrogative. partial Nature.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²GOLDSMITH. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. as well as the objective. changed in all save thee. but he. 2. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²STEELE. Nature. as.Exception 1. I've sworn. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Thy shores are empires. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. 405. 406.²KINGSLEY. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form.

I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²SCOTT. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. Bartholomew.²possessive. with Jortin and Thirlby. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. Preceding a gerund. 407. As antecedent of a relative." 4.²C.²THACKERAY. BROWN. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. or objective? . 11. II. who. 5. 12.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. They are coming for a visit to she and I.3. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. B. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. 10. 8. 6. They crowned him long ago. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²DE QUINCEY. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.Ye I salute.²RUSKIN. and they know that as well as me. This usage is not frequent. 7.²MACAULAY. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Markland. 9. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.

Why both are found. and that in the second. We heard of Brown. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.²CARLYLE. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.² SCOTT. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. and asked why it was not made. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.²DICKENS. But in common use there is no such distinction. .²MACAULAY. as he turned away from his wife. Both types of sentences are found. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. In the examples quoted.²RUSKIN. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. Objective. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and the meaning is. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. Here I state them only in brief.² CARLYLE. [who was] studying law. both are gerunds. object of heard of. studying is a gerund. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. that the bitterness of death was past. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. sometimes it has the objective. The last incident which I recollect. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be." That is.²BREWER. etc.² IRVING.² THACKERAY. The use of the objective is older. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.408. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. Possessive.²DE QUINCEY.

Everybody had his own life to think of. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²AUDUBON. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. taking in each of many persons. where there were examinations.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²C. number.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. or is a distributive word.²DEFOE. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. preceded by a distributive. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. The pale realms of shade.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²DE QUINCEY. if the antecedent is neuter. Every city threw open its gates. 409.²EMERSON III. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. If any one did not know it. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²HUXLEY. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. BROCKDEN BROWN. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²HOLMES.² BRYANT. and ought to agree with them in person. 410. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. In such a case as the last three sentences. and gender.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. it was his own fault. in one person.²when the antecedent. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. Watch for the real antecedent.²CABLE. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²THOREAU.²THACKERAY.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. Examples of these constructions are. .

and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. for example. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. This is not considered the best usage. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²RUSKIN. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. till they have lost him. The sun.²HUXLEY. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Whosoever hath any gold.²BYRON. not a mowing idiot. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. If the part deserve any comment. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Struggling for life.²DEFOE.²BIBLE. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²ID. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. By using the plural pronoun.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²ID. and giving them means of being so.²EMERSON. . Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. 411.²THACKERAY. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²SCOTT.²AUSTEN. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. as anybody in their senses would have done.² Not the feeblest grandame.²FIELDING.²PALEY. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²PALGRAVE. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²PAULDING. let them break it off.

That is in most cases restrictive. which. 413.²ADDISON. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating.²In the above sentences. according to the practice of every modern writer. tell whether who. As to their conjunctive use. or what was become of her. but." This means. 412. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word.Where she was gone. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. . Exercise. A relative." A relative. I.² SHERIDAN. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. the definite relatives who. It adds a new statement to what precedes. and he went away. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. or unrestrictive. and that are restrictive or not. 1. In the following examples. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.) and a personal pronoun. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. who went away. as. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. no one could take upon them to say. when coördinating. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. What these terms mean. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. 2. because.²ID. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. that being considered already clear. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. "I gave it to the beggar. in each instance:² Who. but. when restrictive. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. which.²HAWTHORNE. unless both genders are implied. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. etc." It defines beggar. and does not add a new statement. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. and that always restrictive. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. Exercise. is equivalent to a conjunction (and.

she agreed to join the party.. W. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.²THOREAU. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. and over England are saying. 4. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. that were often vicious. down. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand.²ID. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. A grizzly-looking man appeared. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. 9. as that does not vary for person or number. In what sense true. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.²DE QUINCEY. because of its antecedent. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. etc. etc. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.² MOTLEY. 7. BEECHER 5. . II. For example. who.²HOLMES. he. which was to go over the Cordilleras.² CARLYLE. 14. but. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. With narrow shoulders. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. Yet how many are there who up. 8.²ID. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. you. That.² IRVING. Which.² NEWMAN." that is invariable as to person and number. On hearing their plan. 13. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. it makes the verb third person singular. etc. long arms and legs. in the sentence.3. However. The general rule is. The rule. 12. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 11. We say I. which Mr. So different from the wild.²ADDISON. 6. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.²H. Hare has printed. 10. these or that which. and it is called logic. 414. they. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.²DE QUINCEY.

He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. or which . but the former has good authority. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. JR. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.²ADDISON. The latter is rather more frequent. in winning a battle. MORSE.²SCOTT. "one of the finest books that have been published. Let us be of good cheer. but myself. others regard books as the antecedent. with one as the principal word. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²LOWELL. who rarely speak at all. when he derided the shams of society. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. etc.²LOWELL.²ADDISON.²M. ARNOLD. T.." or. Singular..²HOLMES.] Both constructions are frequently found.. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. etc.²BOWLES. Franklin..Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.²J.²HOWELLS. The fiery youth .. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. A disputed point.. 415. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. and write the verb in the plural. "one of the finest books that has been published. [plural] that who. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²whether we should say. .²LECKY. and in improving a victory. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. French literature of the eighteenth century. [singular or plural. He is one of those that deserve very well.." One of . remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²MACAULAY. the true antecedent. but speaks of him as that sort.

"He returned by the same route [by which] he came. and see if the sentence is made clearer.A rare Roundabout performance.² THACKERAY.²EMERSON. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²IRVING. object of a preposition understood. or where] he died.²VAUGHAN."²DICKENS. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²SWIFT. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²BURNS.²In the above sentences.²DEFOE.² RUSKIN. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts." "India is the place [in which. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. The same day I went aboard we set sail. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. 417. IV.² . It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. 416. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. return. when this dust falls to the urn.²SCOTT. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. and such like: as.²EMERSON.²GOLDSMITH. I could see nothing except the sky. But I by backward steps would move. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.And. Exercise.²ADDISON. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.In that same state I came. III. whence. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. when the relative word is a pronoun. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²ID. where.²CARLYLE. that is.

but we find the relative who. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. CHURCH. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. as of knives. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. or that. They believe the same of all the works of art. V. Anacoluthic use of which. but which is usually carefully avoided. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. which. That.²WORDSWORTH.² BURKE. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. etc.²SCOTT. W. boats. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. I might as well have staid at home. with Turner. Mr. if same is followed by a complete clause. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. .²R.²FRANKLIN. 418. if I had resolved to go on with. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles.² THACKERAY.²ADDISON. looking-glasses. The regular construction. he.²SWIFT.² MACAULAY. and working in the same spirit.He considered. Caution. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.. was a as his apprentice. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. Which. for example.. but. she passed the lamp over her face and person. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. ²GOLDSMITH.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. as is not used.² Which.

(2) "Among the poorer sort. he said that all submission was now too late.²RUSKIN. which when Mr. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. But who.² Direction for rewriting. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²THACKERAY. . As the sentences stand. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. and which. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. Express both relatives.²HAWTHORNE. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. now thrown upon their. and who are now.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. or leave out both connective and relative. or omit the conjunction. or.. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²SCOTT. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 1. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. This was a gentleman. but none is expressed. le Conte.. (1) "Among those who are poor. 419. Thornhill had read. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort.²GOLDSMITH. He delivered the letter. After this came Elizabeth herself." etc. Exercise. Exercise. but.²which if they once heard. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. once a great favorite of M. etc. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. That is.She'd come again. and this be placed in the proper clause." etc. who are now thrown." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself." etc.²DE QUINCEY. 2. etc..²SHAKESPEARE. And who. (3) "Among the poorer sort. 3. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. 4.

and which has never been described. 6. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.²PEARSON. one of signal interest. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. That . indeed.² MOTLEY. I saw upon the left a scene far different." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 9. and to whom no door is closed. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING. 7. then. and repeat this for any further reference. English by name. 420. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. as a false and astucious mark. etc. 11. "What knight so craven. the French.. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. either from imitation of their frequent allies. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. like that spoken in the towns. . Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.. which the Scotch had learned. Dr. 13. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. And which. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.²HAWTHORNE. 12. "A mockery. Or who. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Or which. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 1. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . and which..²DE QUINCEY. 10. Exercise.²SCOTT. etc. 8.5. But which. Akin to the above is another fault. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties..²DE QUINCEY. who. I shall have complete copies. and which may even be heard a mile off.²SCOTT. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.

..²SCOTT. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.²DE QUINCEY.²BEECHER. half a century ago.²HOWELLS... In my native town of Salem. Which . that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. whom.²W. in his Mephistopheles. the dime. in his present condition. It rose into a thrilling passion.²DEFOE.²EMERSON. 8. The Tree Igdrasil. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. CHANNING. 7. and to whom I do not belong. Such as . He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 14. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. such as they have very probably been bred to. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. 10. G. He flung into literature. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. the cent. 3. was a bustling wharf..²SCOTT That which . even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. He. 15.²W. but which is perhaps not so different from it. I grudge the dollar. 11..²HOLMES. was hung in air. which.²EMERSON. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. at the head of what.. that. 13. that . 9. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. what. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. but which. Such as . . that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 4. 12.. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. SIMMS. I recommend some honest manual calling. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.2. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. E. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 5. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. and whose examples and principles we inherit. which. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. I give to such men as do not belong to me.. That ... such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after..²HAWTHORNE.²HALLAM. 6.

In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²RUSKIN. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. in which case any should be used instead. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. Distributives either and neither.² Some one must be poor. . were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. whether or not the two are equivalent. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.² HAWTHORNE.²GOLDSMITH. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. and in want of his gold²or his corn. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. as. Use of any. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. one another. always at war with one another. as.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²MACAULAY.²RUSKIN. for example. 422. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. England was then divided between kings and Druids. Assume that no one is in want of either. that not all combined.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Each other. By their original meaning. We call ourselves a rich nation.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²ID. as it were.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. 421.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.²DICKENS.

²SCOTT.²FRANKLIN. usually plural. before that. for him have I offended. even in Bettine..² In earnest.²BURKE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as none of the French philosophers were. afterwards in Goethe.² If any. whilst I still cherish their genius. any of his friends had died. when any of them are so good as to visit me. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. None of Nature's powers do better service. which is plural as often as singular. any was often singular. None usually plural. Examples of its use are. and is isolated. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. then in Plutarch. The adjective pronoun none is. Caution. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. let him ask of God. Do you think.²EMERSON.²BEECHER Whenever. 424. at one time in Bacon. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. . that I know of. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²STIRLING. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. Do you think. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). etc. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. as. in Shakespeare.²THACKERAY. 423.²BIBLE.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. then in Plotinus. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. Any usually plural. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. in the prose of the present day.. speak. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory..²SHAKESPEARE. as. If any of you lack wisdom.²PROF. if ever man was.²CARLYLE.² EMERSON. In earlier Modern English. during his stay at Yuste. I beseech you.

that all was lost. The compounds somebody else.² Singular. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. The light troops thought .²McMASTER.. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. Somebody's else.² None of them was cleansed. which is used absolutely. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. or somebody else's? 426. the plural. etc. when it means all persons: for example.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. etc. and Ford has nobody's else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. for example. When all were gone. any one else. nobody else.² PEARSON. and less rarely in poetry..²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. etc. and all was lost on the other. as. fixing his eyes on the mace. are treated as units.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²THOREAU. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²SCOTT Like the use of any.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. saving Naaman the Syrian.²NAPIER Plural. etc. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. 425. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.

²SWEET. Again. etc. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. 427. ADJECTIVES."²MRS.. These sort.² FIELDING. or those sort of people.²in such as "these sort of books. for example.SYDNEY SMITH. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. etc.²MULOCH. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²RUSKIN.²G. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. "Ye see. STOWE. . and may be found not infrequently in literary English." the nouns being singular.²DICKENS. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.² Saturday Review. His hair. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.²THACKERAY. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. P. all manner of. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. ELIOT.²RUSKIN.² These kind of knaves I know. London.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case." "those kind of trees. WILLIS.curled once all over it in long tendrils." "all manner of men.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²N. the adjectives plural. unlike anybody else's in the world. Whitefield or Wesley. or some other such great man as a bishop. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²AUSTEN. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²SHERIDAN. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.

"This sort of trees should be planted. or the nouns to the plural." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. "This kind of rules are the best.²RUSKIN. or one object with a class of objects. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. they said. in spoken English.² PRESCOTT.The library was open. made to agree with it. more alarming than a total silence. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. In Old and Middle English. which accounts for the construction. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Should we say. . Of two such lessons. This the modern expression reverses." A question. such as. as. Burke's sentence. gradually displacing the old. and in this way may take a plural verb. with all manner of amusing books." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. not "all kinds of wild animals. for example. "These kind of trees are best. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. Use of the comparative degree.² Which is the better able to defend himself. when the necessary dispositions concur. The result. and the adjective is. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. At the source. to express a higher degree of quality. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. According to the approved usage of Modern English. Consequently we have a confused expression. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. History of this construction. the victor or the vanquished. 428. Later form.

430. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. Even Dodd himself. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. Henry.²SWIFT. Superlative with two objects. Use of the superlative degree. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. etc. 2. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²MACAULAY. I am concerned to see that Mr.²MACAULAY. 3. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. by almost the breadth of my nail.²TROLLOPE. than any of his court. . The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. To the man who plays well."²ID.²THACKERAY. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. if not. 5. 6. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²HUXLEY. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²CARLYLE. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²LOWELL. 429. the highest stakes are paid. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²SCOTT. He is taller. Other after the comparative form. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²WIRT.A braver ne'er to battle rode. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. would not have had the face.² THACKERAY. 4. Gary.²HAWTHORNE. has sanctioned. Exercise. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.

ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Come you more nearer. Examples from Shakespeare are. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.²EMERSON.²BEN JONSON. Also from the same period. These two properties seem essential to wit.²ADDISON. I should say that one has the best cause. more particularly the last of them. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong."²BULWER.²DR BLAIR. In all disputes between States.²IRVING. . 431. The following examples are used purposely. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²SCOTT. The eldest. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature."²GOLDSMITH..²Bible.²HAMLET. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²J. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. 1611. who eat white bread or brown. Rip was one of those . Mary. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. OLIPHANT. and the other contains the best men. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. and differ only in form. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. whichever can be got easiest. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. After the most straitest sect of our religion. not a bit of high life among them. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest..²MRS. "Ha.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense."²HAWTHORNE.²TEMPEST. CÆSAR.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Double comparative and superlative.²RUSKIN.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. ha.²GOLDSMITH.

Instances of both are given below. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.² SMOLLETT. For Carlyle. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²ADDISON. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Three first. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.²GIBBON. the Spanish. The merit of the Barb. First three. As to these two expressions. Definite article. and Secretary Walsingham also. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²GIBBON.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. jar upon us constantly. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. but in literary English. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²RUSKIN. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²RUSKIN. and conceit in the last. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. etc.²KINGSLEY.²PRESCOTT. Examples of this construction are. The meaning intended is the same. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. ²COWPER. ARTICLES. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. .²DE QUINCEY. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. etc. not only so in popular speech. The delay in the first three lines. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.² With a singular noun. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²LAMB. 433. The first five had specific names.

²MACAULAY. to distinguish clearly. Frequently. distinct. of the higher and middling orders.² RUSKIN. Indefinite article. with a plural noun. with a singular noun. as in Sec. the greatest poems. the hour of parting came. or to emphasize the meaning. The lofty.² MACAULAY.. I think.²TENNYSON.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. Meaning same as in Sec. and the presents.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.. as.²NEWMAN. of the eighteenth century.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. .²CARLYLE.²ID. With a plural noun. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. having been arranged. The not repeated.²PRESCOTT.²THACKERAY. Origin of the Aryans.²TAYLOR. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. 1508. and flexible language. 435.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. He is master of the two-fold Logos. 433. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. however. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²SCOTT. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. 434. the thought and the word. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. No. but is used with one only. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . melodious. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. The flowers. were placed at a very tender age. Here the youth of both sexes. 433.²THE NATION. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. as. but inseparable from each other. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. One object and several modifiers. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.

James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The indefinite article is used.²THACKERAY.²DICKENS. He saw him in his mind's eye.² BURKE.An early. rich. In the sentences of Secs. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²JOHNSON. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. T. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. a round and a square one alternately. 435. and inexhausted vein. 438. a murderer. a tyrant. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²S. For rhetorical effect." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. like the definite article. JONSON. 436). and a usurper. as.436. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. or clearness to each of several nouns. But in the following sentences.²MACAULAY. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. one noun is expressed.²B. 433 and 436. Examples of this use are. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. interest. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. as in the first three of Sec. . a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²MACAULAY. COLERIDGE." and "a red and a white geranium. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.² MACAULAY. The indefinite article (compare Sec. only one of which is expressed.²BULWER. 437.²DRYDEN.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²BEECHER. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. One article with several adjectives. a collegian. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. to limit two or more modified nouns. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.

like some others in this series. all that academies can give. Another writer might. Singular verb.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. Sec. as. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Such. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. In English.²W. 440.VERBS. without academies. and the following illustrations prove it.²G. Singulars connected by or or nor. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. . He sees that it is better to live in peace. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. This was spoken of in Part I.²The Nation. was the earliest American land. or the great intellectual life of our nation. for example. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. 439.²GIBBON. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.²COOPER. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. Collective noun of singular meaning. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²AGASSIZ. then.²FROUDE. has got already.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. ARNOLD. ELIOT. 276. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. as. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²CARLYLE This usage.²M. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. A broad and loose rule. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.

Between ourselves. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. and other singulars of plural form. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. Q. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. ADAMS. a loss of wealth. or considered as appositional. Plural form and singular meaning. for example.²CRITIC.²DE QUINCEY. a mutilation. seems at the moment unpaid loss. as. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²GOLDSMITH.² The unbought grace of life. other names.²WHITTIER. or as making up one general idea.² GOLDSMITH.²BURKE.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. a loss of friends.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. nor Mahomet.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. that of a large town. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. A fever. but considered as meaning about the same thing. as. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. No.² Politics is the only field now open for me. for example.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. nor Paul. and every four hours. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. ²EMERSON. a cruel disappointment.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. nor John. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²J.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.² In a word. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. (4) When the subject is plural in form. but each one emphatic.Jesus is not dead.²EMERSON . the cheap defense of nations. is gone. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²GIBBON.

sir!" and the "What then. was punished.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. Every week. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. the partisan.² There is a right and a wrong in them. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. The Epic.²PRESCOTT. an impassioned countenance. many a. as well as Europe.²NEWMAN.The author. no matter if the second is plural). a cuirass.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. no discontinuity. as. is a man of wit. the dismay. with death. Her back.² Asia. wineBegins to stir itself. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. as well as the newest. the ruin. For wide is heard the thundering fray. no.²M ARNOLD. an agitated gesture. every echo. sir!"²MACAULAY. no spent ball. Here is no ruin.The rout. There is a moving tone of voice.²RUSKIN. thus. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. was listened to for five hours. The oldest.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²SCOTT. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. almost every day.²HAWTHORNE. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. Plural verb. each.²EMERSON.²BUTLER. Then comes the "Why. Every sound. as well as the Drama. every valet. the wit. and greaves. Every fop.²MACAULAY. a gorget. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. does not take the place of the man. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²ID. and such like adjectives.²MACAULAY. nay. Subjects after the verb.²LONGFELLOW. To receive presents or a bribe. as.² .²ID. the fine gentleman. sir?" and the "No.²PRESCOTT. in a judge. as well as sides. 441. was dazzled. was like to crack. every boor.

²CARLYLE But its authorship. and its history are alike a mystery to us. . (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. The conjunction may be omitted. 440 (5. the Duke of Berri. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. TAYLOR.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.² GIBBON.²SWIFT.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. for example.²THOREAU.²EMERSON. as. were men of insignificant characters.²SCOTT. its date. b).These bits of wood were covered on every square.²DE QUINCEY. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. Far. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. but the verb is plural. Philip of Anjou. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²FRANKLIN. far away thy children leave the land.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. as. A shady grove. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. Conjunction omitted. as in Sec. as with a subject of plural form. shirt. All our household are at rest. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. a stream of fresh water. His clothes. The travelers.²B.²FROUDE.²GIBBON. are sufficient to attract a colony. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. making up a plural subject. of whom there were a number.² A multitude go mad about it. The Dauphin.²COLERIDGE.²GOLDSMITH.²ADDISON.²FROUDE.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. a green pasture. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.

It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.²THACKERAY. that is. "You would not be wiser. Not Altamont. nor should I. as. If there is only one person in the subject. Not I. "I have never said so.²THACKERAY.But notice the construction of this. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. 444. Nothing which Mr.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. but thou. General usage.²M.²DE QUINCEY. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²ROWE. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²LOWELL. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. WEBSTER. When the subjects.²SMOLLETT.). his blood dost shed. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. the verb takes the construction of the first person. Ah. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²D." "She or you may be sure. You and I are tolerably modest people. nor has she"). 442." etc. Second or third and first person in the subject.²BYRON. we never talk politics. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. This construction is at the best a little awkward. the subject being really equivalent to we. "He or I can go.²WHITTIER. You and I are farmers. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. Pattison or I have said. 443. of different persons." or. ARNOLD. for example.²RUSKIN. but thou.²RUSKIN. . hadst been my lord. Exceptional examples.²GOLDSMITH.

²THACKERAY.²G. 10. which it is proper to mention. In the following sentence. The following illustrate exceptional usage. In a word. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 440-444):² 1." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²SCOTT. BANCROFT. Nor wood.²and. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 11. 9.²BYRON. Exercise. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²ID.Her course to intercept. Both death and I am found eternal. in my opinion. nor bush are there. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Also in verbals.That neither of their intellects are vast. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 446.²ADDISON. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Neither of them. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. How each of these professions are crowded.²BURKE. 2. nor tree. as illustrated above (Secs. 6. 4. 7.445.²MILTON.²EMERSON. 8. 12. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²SMOLLETT. 3. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.² TROLLOPE.²ADDISON. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 5.²perhaps the devil. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . as we would hope. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. In this sentence from Defoe. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.

a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. But I found I wanted a stock of words. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece." . on my return.²THACKERAY. for exact connection. 4.² PALGRAVE 5. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²MACAULAY. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. to have seen should be changed to to see.. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. as. W. Indirect discourse means reported speech. change them to a better form:² 1. 448. 447. 3.²IRVING. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. Direct discourse²that is. I gave one quarter to Ann. Definitions. Of course.²KINGSLEY. however. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. if not. meaning.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Exercise. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. It should be remarked. CHURCH.²FRANKLIN 6. Two samples of indirect discourse. INDIRECT DISCOURSE.²DE QUINCEY 2. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . to have divided with her whatever might remain.²R. The present rule is recent.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.

Direct. The substance of his lamentation was. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Summary of the expressions. "I cannot oblige you . (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. and the indirect question by whether or if. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. "Oh." Indirect. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Oh. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. under interrogative pronouns. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. have. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect." etc.. introductory verb is in the past tense. .. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. 1. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. 2. This includes the auxiliaries be.. She thought to herself. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. or regular interrogatives. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Her prudence whispered eternally. will. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. interrogative adverbs. His exact words were. etc. Direct. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words." etc. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. Sebastian's.. 449.

Exercise. he assured me that nothing was more easy. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. if this were expanded into a verb. like distant peals of thunder." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact.²B. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Careless use of the participial phrase. the sound of their balls.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. my first observation will be found nearly true. PARTICIPLES. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²ADDISON. 450. the first discoverer of the river and country. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. one summer afternoon. with his crew of the Half-moon. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. in the sentences first quoted. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²ID.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. FRANKLIN. .²GOLDSMITH. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. Notice this. The trouble is. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. and that he himself had heard. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. VERBALS.

For example. while defended or excused by others.Correction. the first sentence would be. 451..² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. Exercise. if a strike is to succeed. 2.² HERBERT SPENCER. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. In the following citations. avoid it." Exercise. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. many things to be carefully considered. This is the more common arrangement. 3.²SCOTT. There are. INFINITIVES. leaving the principal statement as it is. my first collection was. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1..²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. either "As I was pleased. universal assertion.. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. then.²RUSKIN.. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress.²ID." etc. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. Adverb between to and the infinitive. . . Standard writers often use it. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .²LAUGHLIN. and often.. It is a solemn.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. purposely or not.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.

Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. when such adverbs as only. from Irving.. etc. 7.² ADDISON. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. ADVERBS.²BURKE. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.²GOLDSMITH. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.² MACAULAY.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. even. and earthenware. Position of only. are used.²RUSKIN. 1533. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. even. is to be very cautiously admitted. which consists in multitude. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. Exercise. 9. etc. china. Now. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. In works of art. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. I wish the reader to clearly understand. 13.. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. etc.²ID." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. BLAIR. No. 452.4. therefore. but cannot misunderstand the thought. 12. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. 8. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . this kind of grandeur.²SCOTT.²The Nation. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. A little sketch of his. if they modify single words. 5. 10.²DR. 6. The spirits. The rigid rule in such a case would be. but it is placed before the infinitive. 11.²TROLLOPE. but they are often removed from the exact position.

were he never so old of yeares.²COOPER. P.²ID. 10. 16. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. Irving could only live very modestly.²MOTLEY.²CHAUCER. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. ²ASCHAM. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²MACAULAY.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²MRS. 15. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 2.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²SYDNEY SMITH. 8.1.²THACKERAY. for example. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 6.²EMERSON. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 13. 9. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²HIGGINSON. In relating these and the following laws.²N. The old usage. No sonne. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. WILLIS. 11. whence he was never destined to return. GROTE. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 14.² THACKERAY.²PALGRAVE. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 453.²ID. might not marry. 12. In Old and Middle English. 4. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 3. He shouted in those clear.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. to avoid a crowd. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. During the whole course of his administration. His last journey to Cannes. 17. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 5. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²ID. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²RUSKIN. . 7.²SWIFT. My master.

²BURKE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Not only could man not acquire such information.² HAMILTON. 2. Exercise. is not common.²HAWTHORNE. ²PAGE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. etc. STOWE. as.²DE QUINCEY. but ought not to labor after it. But. 6. however. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. I never did see him again. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. denying each other. and why:² 1. when one of the negatives is a connective.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. 4. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. nor never shall. .²BAYNE. under the influence of Latin syntax. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. as infrequent. Exceptional use. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. uncommon. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. and is still kept in vulgar English. 3. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. nor the grandeur of no king."²MRS. can so agreeably affect. Therefore. The prosperity of no empire.²LOWELL.²HOLMES. In the latter case."²four negatives. neither. 7. I did not act so hastily. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. Regular law of negative in modern English. In the execution of this task. if two negatives are found together.²DEFOE. However. in Ole Virginia. STOWE. one of the negatives is often a prefix. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. 5. There weren't no pies to equal hers. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.²MRS. the usual way of regarding the question now is. This.²GROTE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.

. not only .. even neither . not or is the proper correlative of neither. And who. the first ought to be placed before a verb. either . or to reply to it. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. especially both . either. or with advantage. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. Choice and proper position of correlatives. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. or. 454. if the last precedes a verb. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. the first should also. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals... "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. but (also).. as the use of the conjunction. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. The sentence. The sentences given in Secs. but. 455.8.. should be scrutinized." said the King.. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. Things to be watched. Correction.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel... and which. "well worthy to confer honor. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.²SCOTT.. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. nor is often changed to not²either . not only to the success of their common cause."²SCOTT. there we were. neither . not merely . The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. and an equivalent pronoun by the other." . "A weapon. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ...²LOWELL. In the sentence. or to reply to it... if the second precedes a phrase." Besides neither . and." both of the above requirements are violated. but to their own safety.. or.²PRESCOTT.. CONJUNCTIONS. nor.." may be changed to "This loose .²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. as well as of the pronoun. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.

In the following sentences. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. but. 8. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. 6. Now. 7. or but that.²BAIN.²THACKERAY.Exercise. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. nor the disgrace of assailing him. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. 3. They will. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 4. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. Try and for try to. 456. But what.² ADDISON. 5. 2. murder. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. and I don't know but what he was right. JEWETT. as.²GOLDSMITH. . Exercise. etc. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. 457. O. as. but they will outrage. too. Some exceptions. but grown-up persons.²ID. substitute that.²S. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son.²GIBBON. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²FRANKLIN. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. and chop up their own kin.²THACKERAY. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Try and avoid the pronoun. but. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. or the negative relative but. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²RUSKIN.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. not merely interest children.²MACAULAY.

²ADDISON. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 459. 6. no separation or division by twos being implied. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 458. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 5. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 3. 4. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 305.²TROLLOPE. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 313. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. see Sec. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. .²BURKE. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. Between and among. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. as already seen in Sec.²SCOTT. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.2.²EMERSON.² BULWER. Between is used most often with two things only.²ADDISON. PREPOSITIONS. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²EMERSON.² SWIFT.

Affinity between.²KINGSLEY. Derogatory to. List I.²RUSKIN What have I. Conform to. Abhorrent to. Such are derogatory. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. ²EMERSON. Mackintosh. correspond. averse. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Different from. and Stewart. Some of them have. etc. Kant. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Conversant with. involve. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Bestow on (upon). a soldier of the Cross. 461. Averse to. by custom. Dependent on (upon). and another to convey a different meaning. Paley.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.²between philosophers like Spinoza. confer. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. as.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. .² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. and Coleridge. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. and philosophers like Locke. as. or one object and a group. Accord with. different. Two groups or one and a group. LIST I. Acquit of. Such are absolve. Comply with. 460. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.: Words with particular prepositions. Dissent from.

Reconcile to (note below). 463. Confide to (intrust to)." also of persons. Change to (become). Agree to (a proposal). Independent of. "The exile became reconciled to his fate." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Confide in (trust in). Reconcile with (note below). and sometimes creeps into standard books. as meaning to be in keeping with. as. as.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Differ with (note below). 462. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. but it is not good usage. in the sense of making friends with. . as. List II.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. LIST II. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). A taste of (food). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Correspond with (write to). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Change with (a person). A taste for (art. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Correspond to (a thing). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons.). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). LIST III. Confer on (upon) (give to). etc. Change for (a thing). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Involve in. Confer with (talk with)." List III. Differ from (note below).y y y Deprive of. "The king is reconciled to his minister.

One of them said he would die for her.²FIELDING.y y y Die by. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²SHAKESPEARE.:² "Die of.²GOLDSMITH. and ill treatment. She died of hard work. "Die by. ELIOT. privation.²POPE." She would have been ready to die with shame. die for. instrument). part with.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. People do not die of trifling little colds. expect from.²MACAULAY. No one died from want at Longfeld." (in behalf of). He died at last without disease. "Die with. they shall die by this hand." (material cause. ²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. ." etc. "Die for. Part from. die with. "Die for. simply from old age. ²ATHENÆUM. die of. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. Illustrations of "die of. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." "die from.²ADDISON. Expect of. "Die from. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²G.²BURNETT.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. died for love of the fair Marcella. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. It would take me long to die of hunger.²BULWER. Take thought and die for Cæsar." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²MACAULAY. ELIOT. die from.²G." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Who." (because of).²BOSWELL. as Cervantes informs us. If I meet with any of 'em. I am positively dying with hunger.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT.

which he would by no means part from. ELIOT. just parted from her. nothing better was to be expected.²TROLLOPE.²BULWER.²BULWER.²G. 466. Kind in you.²G. kind of you." "part from:"² "Part with.²WALPOLE. ELIOT. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²DICKENS.²G. 465. His precious bag.²POE." To part from you would be misery.²WALLER. I have just seen her. Illustrations of "expect of.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²AUSTEN. Burke parted from him with deep emotion." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²MACAULAY. With words implying behavior or disposition. ELIOT. Of Doctor P." She will expect more attention from you. That is more than I expected of you. 464.²SHAW. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²MARRYAT.²MACAULAY. I have long expected something remarkable from you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. . but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. It was a little bad of you.²SCOTT. either of or in is used indifferently." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. I can part with my children for their good. "Part from. Illustrations of "part with. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. "Expect from. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. and hated to part with them. as my friend." "expect from:"² "Expect of.

The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. Very natural in Mr. nor of a pale red. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 5. 11.²BEACONSFIELD. 1.²TENNYSON. Thou tread'st. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 7. It will be anything but shrewd in you. . raging storms. or artillery.He did not think it handsome of you. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. or that they are any way dependent on each other.²DICKENS. In. and ran up the alley. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. But this is idle of you. or which we are most imperatively required to do. but which the story renders necessary. 10. the vast abyss. 14. This narrative. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. nor yellow.²BULWER. In the friction between an employer and workman.²BULWER. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 8. Hampden. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. with seraphims. 3. 9.²CARLYLE. nor green. 4. thrown it over Amyas's head. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. tedious perhaps. 6. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. nor blue. 13. 15. The noise of vast cataracts. thunder.

and other angular figures. 23. 24. the acquiescence of the understanding. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. you or me. 37. When the glass or liquor are transparent. produce approbation. and almost as good as a pony. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 31. Squares. 27. 38. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 29.) 34. (Sec. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 17.I would wish me only he. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. You have seen Cassio and she together. Friday. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. Every one of these letters are in my name. But every man may know. 25.And were I anything but what I am. 411. 26. . I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 32. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. The effect of proportion and fitness. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 36. 33. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. were down with raging fever. 18. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 30. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 28. 22. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. and most of us do know. 35. save Amyas. but in the price paid to them. or how beautiful it is. That night every man of the boat's crew. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 19. triangles. 21. 20. 16. what is a just and unjust act. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough.

numeral. 92. from nominative clauses. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. nominative. of. Adjectives. of. 47. 89. syntax uses Absolute. 40.39. of. 90. (2) Middle English. 124. of. origin of. 91. 133. nouns. 107. 102. 116. INDEX. He had four children. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 124. as. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 119. Abstract with Active Address. 239.000 between them. from about 1500 to the present time. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. A. . 47. 98. 310. 20. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. article. 25. demonstrative. pronouns. (3) Modern English. adverbs used complements. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. as comparison definition demonstrative. adjectives. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 260. voice. of.

as nouns. 183. 116. 287. 328. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 184. Against. 115. 148. conjunctions. 116. of. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 99. objective. adjectives. predicate. and 185. 207. 239. Alms. 187. sentence. 316. 302. between of. 103. nouns. 190. parse. compared.from function how in not of of ordinal. of. . antecedent. of. infinitive. antecedent. 303. quality. 291. 101. 109. Agreement. to used of. clauses. 190. of. parse. 48. from to of. 275. 27. with with with subject. 114. 194. 242. 42. 207. 323. 303. 195. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. adjectives. 97. nouns. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. adjectives. 27. 191. of. modify. of. of. plural pronominal. 104. 106. conjunction. 194. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 262. quantity. 325. 325.

309. 198. See 74. 120. 101. See with definition complex compound simple who. 208. derivation in definite. 240. 148. definition how indefinite. as uses verbs. 225. it. 252. possessive. 79. same. which. 300. 47. Arrangement Articles. after of. words between. 294. Agreement. of. sentences. An. Auxiliary if. 296.Among. 331. 51. agreement personal as pronoun. 275. to of. 84. which. 74. in in. 67. of of of And Antecedent. 264. adjective. 124. . 271. pronouns. though. 150. 120. 231. 90. of. sentences. 67. A. 287. definition of of of Any. 207. of. 127. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. uses As At. of and pronoun of. syntax. 49. and. of. which. parse. sentences. of. Anacoluthon Analysis. Are. syntax As. 295.

adverb. of nouns. 149. best. of pronouns. 37. objective. number of. 278. 110. 46. of nouns. 46. double possessive. Case. 194. of pronouns. 39. comparison conjugation of. 111. . 224. 150. 110. 262. nominative. 47. 54. Be. 278. 62. 49. uses nominative of. in Old and Modern English. of nouns. 210. plurals of. adjective. Among. 283. clauses of. 260. of nouns. forms. uses of. See of. Brethren. But. possessive. of. syntax of. 279. 330. pronoun. 262. with But By. Can. Clause. Children. Between. definition could. of. 279. Case. 45. of pronouns. uses Better. 64. conjunctions Cherub. of what. Bridegroom. 161. 66. 39. Cause. of. 84. 195.Bad. 63. 48. of pronouns.

definition kinds noun. of. subject. Clomb. of. 108. 189. and forms of. 264. 257. predicate of and from from of. Cleave. 111. 23. 305. of. superlative. 108. 157. 158. material. of. 312. adverbs. 307. analysis of. nouns. double. 12. . 24. 239. of. plural of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. proper. 110. defective. 113. 307. of. 248. 258. 53. nouns. 268. of. 257. nouns. of. 263. of. clothes. Cloths. 43. predicate. 18. 257. in analysis. infinitive. 271. adjectives. 107. 315. 43. and sentence. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. sentence. verb. definition degrees irregular. 18. English. 244.

149. 66. pronoun. same words. 207. sentences. Can. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. pronouns.with Concord. replaced by objective. 328. to of. sentence. 194. 195. conjunctions. 143. analysis. 289. definition how subordinate. 151. 231. 138. 149. 195. 255. See in subjunctive. interrogative pronouns. verbs. See analysis clauses. 199. of. definition be. 269. sentences. 263. correlative. 194. . 196. in Old vs. 193. Conjunctions. and clause. 194. See English. of of Conjunctions. conjunctions. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. subjunctive. pronoun. 73. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 188. parse. of. conjunction. coördinate. Dative Declarative Declension of case. other other parts of speech. 139. Agreement. adverbs.

of. nouns. vs. See See 48. pronouns. verb. 80. possessive. comparative. clause. passive adjectives. tenses. 315. 185. duck. from. 287. object. 160. indirect. 35. nouns. Degrees. 303. 300. pronouns. discourse. . Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. Comparative. See adjectives. 242. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. article. 320. by. 242. 43. 51. Subordinate clause. use of dies. 152. 99. of personal relative verbs. 91. 90. with of. of. of. pronouns. 26. pronouns. for. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. adverbs See adjectives. 288. 333. See 148. 60.Declension. Comparison. 102. Articles. of. with. 102. Case.

. original. 42. 255. adjective. of. of. complement. to suffix. 92. literary. drunk. pronoun. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 32. 287. 33. Each. in 'Em. 40. 51. object. predicate. 300. feminine plural English. of. adjective. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. vulgar. Empress. 112. of. 38. pronoun. pronouns. 194. of subject. 158. of. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. another. 280. 287. error in sentence. 257. added suffix. 90. of. 102. older. 92.Drank. 110. possessive suffix. 234. spoken. 12. 90. Elements Ellipsis. suffix. 62. 241. 158. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. -En. conjunction. ending. 33. 92. one ( t). 328. 240. the of sentence. plural. 39. 34. Either. other. 299.

of. etc. as a noun. First. First Fish. Further. Farther. 287. 189. fishes. expect gone. 36. 112. 91. 308. Future Future tense. with in sex.. of. from. . Feminine. to of. adjective. uses redundant. See Gander.Every. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 32. 112. 30. 212. 152." 31. as of from compared marking. 45. 152. 238. For. 110. etc. Few. 102. 43. 211. 334. with infinitive. nouns. the. 103. uses Foreign Former. 148. of. pronoun. 212. gender. modes "common goose. perfect.. 126. two a further. have adjective. few. first. other languages. 235. 30. 102. definition distinguished in English. 29. 147. 48. From. Gender. 30. used of. two. object. plurals. 319.

had hung. I. its. 173. she. of. 35. 80. noun. 60. 12. 159. 60. 285. definition divisions opinions province H. 144. Government. 61. participle. Got. . on. Grammar. from participle of. pronoun. first sentence. 175.of of Genii. 13. and case verbal with. 43. 61. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 231. 36. 101. definition basis of. kinds of. person. 12. possessive pronouns. 176. Gerund. an better. of. 159. of. distinguished syntax. 120. 9. 177. of. rather. His Husband. pronouns. Had Hanged. personal relative geniuses. it. for before. adjective. He. forms in Girl. 145. 275. 10.

questions. use article. adjectives. mood. of. 320. 136. 105. pronoun. 233. 178. 67. with of. 73. adjectives. a object.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. Questions. of. of clause. 248. meaning. verbs. summary See passive mood. . 188. transitive. sentence. 85. 319. indices. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 323. elements. 283. of. 43. questions. indirect of. 93. Direct object. 110. 153. 227. 176. in compared syntax. adverbs. 257. of. 231. 131. 245. your. words. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. See you. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. See Articles. 131. 72. 276. uses discourse. pronouns.

63. Lie. pronoun. of. 189. plural. 110.. Lady.. Lady. of. Like. 102. Less. 36. -Ly. "It Its." history etc. 190. lesser. of. lord. syntax the. 170. 61. latest. syntax. Lay. King. and See words in. etc. Lay. in little. 36. Kine. Latter. 226. adjective. uses Literary Little. lie. 126. predicate. 303. 276. was uses me. 227. Logic Logical Lord. 281. these double kind. 110. English. 113. 12. 36. It. 245. See Madam.adverbs. 113. a vs. 67. Last. 39. . Kind. 91. subject form. of. queen.

326. 114. 41. 110. out of. 102. 265. 144. 188. Master. 287. etc. double. Mighty Mine. See definition 136. Negative. mistress. of. 64. of. 112. 189. syntax conjunction. 34. 160. position adverb. 256. of. 110. -Most. superlatives. might. of. May. adjective. subjunctive.. Modifiers. conjunctions Many. 135. Modifier. Enlargement. of. 194. 110. 137. imperative. of. in adverbs comparison a. Means. . 187.Manner. 195. of. Many Mapping Mare. 137-144. construction as of adverb. Much. 325. Mood. 36. syntax nearer. 126. 161. nigh. 328. 185. Must. comparison Near. sentences. indicative. of. Neither. mine. 112. 112. 189. 113.

now plural. 27. half abstract. to of. 41 43. . etc. kinds 90. 46. to use. 18. 42. used as. 26. analysis. 41. gender nouns. 17. letters as 24. 25. of of of of of a. in. 246. become neuter. Not Noun Nouns. 126. 328. nouns. 38.pronoun. number once other plural. of. proper. 258. of. syntax in gender nouns. None. words how compound. 21. etc. definition descriptive. parse. Case. clause. 38-41. 17 19. abstract. nouns. 20. 17. common. 301. abstract. definition according of. 46. 124. 92. syntax Neuter or two News. 45. become become formation case collective. 25. 30. formed. 30. 41. and figures. of. See 194. of. 32. gender how kinds material. 19. material. 30. Nor. of. 300. 29. class used singular. foreign. of. of. 125. No Nominative. 56.

of. 66. 101. and analysis.of same two with proper. of. 242. pronouns. 106. 48. 279. 195. as forms titles. indefinite. of. singular. English. etc. plural. verbs. with case. 41. adverbial. adjectives. in article. plural no two singular construction. indirect. 285. 41. common. definite. form. 281. 42. Nouns. passive adverbial. or plural. Preposition.. 282. spoken of instead nouns. dative. nominative. 242. Numeral Object. conjunction. 48. of. 23. 101. 121. meanings. 48. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 102. 278. See verb. meaning. 196. 42 44. personal. preposition. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. in nouns. 48. 42. 92. adjectives. of different possessive definite of. 60. 18. with with with Now Number. 43. 235. 148. of. 278. 124. article. pronouns. of. 39. 48. plural form. See in in in Numeral distributive. 240. . singular. 41.

of syntax. 116. 293. Oxen. 199. 213. position Order. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 56. part analysis. definite relative uses of. a in adjectives. with (the). of. as of. Each adjective. 103. inverted. 94. 103. nouns. articles. ours. 161. 325 275. 93 other. conjunctions. 306. Elder. Omission On. . conjunction. 69. another. Older. 194. Ourself. Our. adjective. 87. 279. of upon. adverb. One. pronoun. as other. 101. 64. 237. 56. for. of. 216. 115. treatment comparatives. 41. 91. Pains. Ordinal Other Ought. 191. adverbs.syntax Of. See pronoun. of. 127. of of of of of models adjectives. Parsing. 117. 38. See the as of. uses numeral pronoun. 233.

pronoun. phrase. of. from definition other of. not is. 281. verbals. predicate use of. of. phrases. speech. of. 28. 43. relatives. 317. or of. included various. 59. reflexive. 172. 59. 59. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 322. 172. them. . 174. pennies. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. of. verb idioms it from. 173. parsed. absolute with of. of. 247. verbs. 56. 70. pease. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 177. and subject in. 61. antecedent. Person. 134. 119. 181. 287. pronouns. 64. 27. part adjective. 80. 43. pronouns. verbs. used as voice. 148. -ing words. 100. 179. article 150. 62. with.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. in. 63. 56. Pence. 219. possessive and of. of. 180. 335. 95. nominative. 62. of. agreement of verb nouns. 69.

51. 285. double. 's. 37. of. 188. of. singular degree. pronoun. vs. nouns. 303. omitted. 236. 52. 248. 64. 232. simple. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 60. 25. adverbs of. plural. Place. 63. 106. 50. 278. Personal subjective. 281. prepositional. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. noun nouns. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. Nouns. of. 67. pronoun. 195. 241. singular. adjectives. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. Positive Possessive. 245.objective syntax table triple uses of. See 60. of. nouns. it. of nouns. in of. nouns. syntax of of Politics. 206. antecedent of of pronouns. 236. complete. 53. 247. of. 278. Personification. 53. relative. pronouns. participial. 41. of Phrase. 247. 49. as double. English. 303. appositional. 235. Comparison. 54. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. or See of of See 185. of. kinds infinitive. objects. . 245. 281. spoken of. of. of. 61.

279. 59. 89. parse. 206. 283. usually to as than. somebody definition how indefinite. 186. 287. 332. forms of. interrogative. 207. by. verbs. 147. 93. of. 195. as antecedent of relative. by parts of of. of. and one with else's. 331. who personal. plural. adverb. as. case. 72. Pronouns. 95. plural. after but. 105. 202. 299. 333. 203. 58. plural. another. 280. what. . 132. 58. 105. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 284. speech. and form form form form of. with tense certain. case. 282. 104. 303. objective. objective. of. 129. all. of. 283. 208. expressed as other of. any. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 300. each either. 64. words. 301. meaning. 302. of. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. in exclamations. adjective. 219. as 54. possessive nominative to of. by with shown certain of.Prefixes. neither. 205. 300. interrogative. future. 203. 32. same used as adjectives. 285. singular usually other. parse. 187. none. of. Prepositions. of. exclamatory. 281. for predicate nominative.

of. personal pronoun. 189. and relatives. in. parse. which after same. discourse. of. of. and which. 142. 188. 74. 68. who. 289. 101. 295. 195. of. Direct same and different. 293. 87. use in as. 291. agreement anacoluthon and as. which. conjunctions Quality. 80. Rank. in. 279. indirect. pronouns. . 84. 99. of. 58. 286. of. pronoun. Quantity. that. 293. of. Rather. 263. 83. 74.possessive relative. indirect compound. adverbs in. to of. use of history formed. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 85. same antecedent. Quotations. 69. Questions. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 85. with with gerund. See of. from and interrogative. unrestrictive. 69. in. pronominal pronouns indirect. of. 295. 87. 105. 74. 297. with who. 289. nouns. questions. Nouns. 296. or of. of. and antecedent.

Simple in sate. ending. Sex Shall. 74. 159. Shear. 263. gender. 289. 42. elliptical. 195. 170. 231. of. kinds Sequence Set. 242. sentence. simple. S.syntax use Result. 51. of. 255. conjunction. in form. that. effect. 29. object. 231. 69. suffix. definition . plural possessive as. 319. Seeing. simple of. clauses of. will. of. 'S. and should. would. 252. 196. 259. Same Sat. 162. reflexive analysis of compound. of sit. in of. forms shots. conjunctions Retained Riches. of. complex. Shot. 196. 26 271. tenses. pronoun. 159. Self Sentences. of of of complex Sentences. 40. 294. who. See Sentences. 43. which.

270. 257. 138. Modern use becoming else's. English. 144. 257. these number. 257. See -En. 36. 260. adverb. -en. of. of. distinguish. 233. 257. of. 258. sort. -es. disuse in spoken complete. 144. 262. of.Singular Sir. as. 323. etc. vs. 33. names as a. 137. adverb. to of. . other Such Such Suffix -s. 32. Split Spoken -Ster. 240. verbs. definition how kinds noun.. for. 303. 186. Subject. 126. 258. logical. of. English. phonetic in infinitive. literary clause. 303. of. definition 67. used mood. 245. 245. in feminine suffix. 169. 33. 237. in Middle English. of. 258. English. Somebody Sort. English. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 38. 38. 12. Spelling Spinster.

when as of. 61. "the then foreign. 309. objects. 319. article. 186. 88. 109. as history The. 189. of languages. restrictive. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. classical of. of. of. There These kind. meaning made up in Old of. as adverbs. 119. 87. king.. definition in English Tense. that uses That. English. coördinating. of. 147. 297. two basis not same definition definite. 148. than of. when relative. 290. of. me. and and of. of. Kind. as history syntax Their. See etc. English. 306. of. they. of. 289. 106. which. meaning. 307...Suffixes. 275. auxiliaries. 306. adverbs. object. omission whom. Then. 120. of . 108. plural as adverb. subject. ." introductory. 186. adjectives. 275. 277. 106. degree. of. this. 222. syntax of. 280. in comparison. 33. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 147. 107. 147. in double. form. Tenses. 191. 152. 116. 123. not suggesting adjectives.

infinitive. of. adverbs those. tother. analysis. uses history of. 173. from cleft to 174. other noun. 330. of. 172. in of. 175. 119. first. phrases. 176. 175. 195. 180. 20. 217.These. verbs. kinds participle. 185. conjunctions prepositions To. -ing 111. how infinitive. Upon. gerund. of. of. words. 172. 207. of. 308. See On. Time. 21. of. 188. first adjective. thy. certain as the before with of. 323. suffix. preposition. 61. uses of. uttermost. infinitive. 181. etc. .. Try Two Under. 114. 247. parse. 175. 114. to. carelessly uses syntax this. Thou. 33. try two. 128. in omitted uses T'other. Utter. 114. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. Upper. 248. feminine and. 322. -Trix. used. thee. exclamations. 322. See That. of.

47. 160. conjugation of. defective. weak. sequence of. 133. Vocative in Voice. 242. 148. 133. retained object with passive. with subject in number. how to parse. but uses what. 320. 245. change. definition of. of incomplete predication. 157.Verbs. 312-316. 319. mood of. 167. active. 159. remarks on certain. in indirect discourse. 167. regular. of. 33. 149. 312. 236. intransitive. phonetic. of. analysis. 12. passive form. 330. person and number of. Vixen. voice of. 134. . 150. active meaning. past tense formed nominative. 154. 147. 135. transitive and intransitive. verbs by. formed by. 179. spelling of. strong. 155. 223. 169. definition of. auxiliary. 131. passive. 39. 154. of English. table of irregular. table of. verbs. 151. agreement of. made transitive. in person. 169. 129. 317. What. 154. syntax of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 148. becoming irregular. definition of. 130. tense of.

178. 72. uses See Shall. Who. worser. 190. in in indefinite objective. 218. 40. relative indirect relative. 75. Woman. would. spoken in of. 36. 36. questions. of. Will. 105. 72. 104. of. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. . Whether. questions. 72. English. 194. 78. direct of. 79. antecedent adjective. questions. 85. etc. animals. whereto. Yes ending analysis. relative. With. 295-299. 111. Y. questions. 75. 83. 32. a. Words in Worse. referring syntax Widower. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 73. 85.what Whereby.. interrogative Which. 77. 299. plural of in nouns -ing. 85. in -ly. wizard. pronoun. in. Wife. 83. relative. 105. 126. conjunction. 296. Witch. 246. 37. pronoun.

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