roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

but this is bad English now. assist the classification of kindred expressions. rightly considered. A broader view. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. there is still much for the grammarian to do. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). from the question. if rightly presented. "Analysis. their forms. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Surely our noble language. its peculiar and abundant idioms. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. Making rules is risky. Few inflections. It is also evident. This will take in the usual divisions. then. as. it will at the same time. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Authority as a basis. Literary English. An æsthetic benefit. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. we have tabulated the inflections of the language." and "Syntax." What grammar is. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation.The province of English grammar is. with its enormous vocabulary. If. however. is worthy of serious study. and their uses and relations in the sentence. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. to those who have studied the language historically. and thus incite his observation. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). . wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. Mental training. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Coming back. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. as compared with Latin or Greek. so that a small grammar will hold them all. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. The work it will cover." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties.

the nation is free. three divisions:² Part I. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Occasionally. the words sons and master name objects. but.²GIBBON. or standard.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. and will are evidently names of a different kind. not objects. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. The following pages will cover. then. Such words are called nouns. by which is meant the free. from the eighteenth century on. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Analysis of Sentences. The plainest name is Arabs. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. which belongs to a people. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. The words state. NOUNS. The Parts of Speech. 1. as they stand for ideas. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. Vulgar English. Spoken English. . and Inflections. The Uses of Words. too. Part II. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Part III. reference will be made to vulgar English. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. besides this one. and the word nation stands for a whole group.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. that is. and may belong to any of those objects. or Syntax. In the more simple state of the Arabs. submission. PART I.

Proper. Abstract. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. or a congress. representing directly to the mind an object. place. or thing. and things separately. belonging to one. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. Name for a group or collection of objects. . 2. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. animals.Definition. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. This does not imply. possessed by all. because each group is considered as a unit. or a mob. the man here. Classes of nouns. as here used. Besides considering persons. Common. For instance. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. substance. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. we may think of them in groups. men in groups may be called a crowd. Thus. reducing it to a narrow application. (a) 4. We may say. A noun is a name word. 3. Thus. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. and appropriate names to the groups. They properly belong under common nouns. however. but Chicago names one city. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or the man in front of you. ATTRIBUTE. or things. is from a Latin word which means general. (b) Common. etc. or a council. MATERIAL. Individual. animals. or idea. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. whether person. Collective. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. a committee. 5. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Name for any individual of a class. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. the name of each is an individual or proper name. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only.

etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. sugar. potash. etc. or that which shows a thing has been proved. conditions. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. we speak of the wisdom of the man. 7. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. wheat.Names for things thought of in mass. The quality is still there as much as before. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. snow. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. such as sun. When we speak of a wise man. Words naturally of limited application not proper. The reason is. soap. etc. rubber. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. stone. or action. rice. Such are glass. . They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. granite. as in calling a city Cincinnati. Names of ideas. (3) Geological bodies: mud. or apart from their natural connection. moon. etc. considered abstractly. . expressing state. etc. rock. cloud. etc. sugar. gold. we may say." "a man of understanding.. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance." "Learning is hard to acquire. 6. mist. "Painting is a fine art. not things." 9. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. but in the words sun. clay. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. etc. Again. wheat. etc. It may. rain. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. world. frost.²There are some nouns. wine. expressing attributes or qualities. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. sand. condition. instead of to each individual or separate object. frost. but it is taken merely as a name. and so on. dew. and fasten a special name to the object considered. paint. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. They remain common class names. iron. proof means the act of proving. however. earth. NOTE. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. but which are not called proper names. there is no such intention. platinum. tea. or actions. celluloid. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. earth.

childhood from child. Verbal abstract nouns. five proper. etc. redness from red. etc. etc. theft from thieve. Underived abstract nouns. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. a wedding or a festival. he spread his blessings over the land. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. They are only the husks of verbs. II. 10. in the beginning of his life. day. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. action from act. kingship from king. speech from speak. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. 12. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. stupidity from stupid. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. the great Puritan awakening. the moon caused fearful forebodings. thunder. the main bearings of this matter. ease. hope. the well-being of her subjects. by altering its function. mastery from master. 273). summer. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. Exercises. but are merely names of actions. 272. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. Caution. five abstract. "a long run" "a bold move. energy. Thus. service from serve. (2) peerage from peer. as their name implies. The verb. is used as a noun.Attribute abstract nouns. (1) prudence from prudent. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. those opinions and feelings. hopeful²hope. lightning. winter. To avoid difficulty. her longing for their favor. They cannot govern a word." "a brisk walk. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. height from high. . there is time for such reasonings. NOTE. as in the expressions. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. Such are beauty. etc. night. the teachings of the High Spirit. 1. and they cannot express action..²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. joy. as glad²joy. the rude drawings of the book. shadow. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb.

pleurisy. Using a dictionary. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . (b) branches of knowledge. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. algebra. catarrh. geology.2. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. as pneumonia. diphtheria. typhus. as physics. mathematics? 3.

and lo! a new system. a Locke. in Portugal. damask. from Oporto. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. thus. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. for example.²EMERSON. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. Others of similar character are calico. a Lavoisier. 13. from the name of Dr. a Fourier. port (wine). above. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. 15. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. from China. etc. currants. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. from a town in France. Nouns change by use. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Proper names transferred to common use. but most of them are in the following groups. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. but we may say. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. We know a number of objects made of iron. Guillotin.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. a Hutton. or to go over to it entirely. arras. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. from Corinth. from Calicut." referring to flat- . "The cook made the irons hot.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. it imposes its classification on other men. 14. from Damascus. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. as a davy. who was its inventor. the guillotine. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. Material nouns may be used as class names. 119). a Bentham. levant and morocco (leather). the word port. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p.

Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. the abstract idea is partly lost. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. but differ in strength. though not confined to verse. For example. These are the same in material. tobaccos. slates. etc. and so on. papers. mists. as stones.In lightnings owned his secret stings. a steel to whet a knife on. 17.²BYRON. but in case an art or a science. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. or made plural. (3) By poetical use.²BRYANT. The words preceded by the article a. Personification of abstract ideas. smiled. They are not then pure abstract nouns. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. When it is said that art differs from science. or used as class nouns. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. on fire. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science.²HAYNE. purity. to prowl or to moan like night birds.²PERCIVAL.irons. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. paints. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. From all around²Earth and her waters. Class nouns in use. clouds. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance.²CARLYLE. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. or. but on dispositions which require to be created. that the power of art is founded on fact. oils. are still names of abstract ideas. which are made plural. clays. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. that disposition is the thing to be created. and only Vice and Misery. not material things. tins. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Death. abstract in meaning.²RUSKIN. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. A halfway class of words. coals. This is a poetic usage. are abroad. Test this in the following sentences:² . Traffic has lain down to rest. candies. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. etc. Next Anger rushed. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. 16. and say teas.²COLLINS. or the arts and sciences. a rubber for erasing marks. his eyes. be spoken of. nor are they common class nouns. that is.

but is still a noun. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. They are more like the possessive noun. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. By ellipses. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. Every why hath a wherefore. loves. Nouns used as descriptive terms. sir?" and the "No. meaning a walk in the morning. a bank in New York. a bill as to tax on the banks. Then comes the "Why. When I was young? Ah. But it is better to consider them as nouns. were mere terrors of the night.²BURNS. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. "a family quarrel. etc." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. fear thy blow. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. make our own so. as each repeated pleasure tired. if we must have great actions. for example. however. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. 19. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech.The Solitary can despise.²EMERSON. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Adjectives. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. But ah! those pleasures.²SHAKESPEARE.²SHAKESPEARE. And still. sir!" and the "What then.² BURNS." which contains a pure adjective. NOTE. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. All these.²IRVING. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns." "a New York bank. nouns used to modify. as descriptive adjectives are. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.² GOLDSMITH. 18. Conjunctions. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. the wealthy. or from any expression." "a morning walk. sir!"²MACAULAY ." "the State Bank Tax bill.Let us. they cannot be compared. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. which belongs to another word. Adverbs. or describe it. they do not express quality.

Mather's called "Essays to do Good. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. and tell to which class each belongs. 1. the wealthy.Nor iron bars a cage. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Learning. Exercise. is ambiguous.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. It is to be remembered. There are many of these. at the beginning. 20. etc. in speaking of the principal of a school.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. FRANKLIN. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. in a sentence above. In the other sentences. of course. or a criminal."²B. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. so. are used. why and wherefore. or a state secret. are spoken of as if pure nouns. is the word "just. 3. too. . but have an adjectival meaning. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. however." or "legal. 6. 8. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. NOTE. of words rather than of their meaning. the terms the great. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words.. Stone walls do not a prison make." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. 4. 5. The it. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods.²These remarks do not apply. Power laid his rod aside. Caution. or a faithful domestic. When. but as a figure of speech. 7." and another of Dr. and Then. without reference to its function in the sentence. Now. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. that cobweb of the brain. When. 2. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used.

17. In Latin. Greek. that waits you here. And see. 11. 21. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 22. female.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. but not so in English. 14. 21. 24. always feminine. and names of females are usually feminine.You seize the flower. What gender means in English. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine.Fair guests. Male beings are. 12. It is founded on sex. 18. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. The fleet. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. A fool speaks all his mind. The hours glide by. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 20. 13. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 15. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 23. A little weeping would ease my heart. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 19. returned to Spain. in English grammar. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. GENDER. shattered and disabled. and many other languages. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 10.9. . There are exceptions even to this general statement. But pleasures are like poppies spread. its bloom is shed. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 16. he cried. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. the welcome. the silver moon is gone. German.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. always masculine.

Some words either gender or neuter nouns. das Messer (knife) is neuter. if there were any signs of life in it. then. in English. those with which man comes in contact often.. that is. in other languages gender follows the form. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. Hence: Definition.. inanimate things are spoken of. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. if of the female sex. those distinguishing the sex of the object." . but are spoken of as neuter. Thus. Gender nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig. mensa (table) is feminine. the name of it is masculine.² I have seenA curious child .² IRVING.. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. hortus (garden) is masculine. 23. der Tisch (table) is masculine. 22. Of animals. in German." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. those which do not distinguish sex. with its gizzard under its wing. Neuter nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence. or additions to words. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. clapping his burnished wings. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. that pattern of a husband. the name of it is feminine. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. 24. or names of things without life. The great difference is. For instance: in Latin. however. and consequently without sex. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. must be divided into two principal classes. are named by gender nouns..²gender nouns. corpus (body) is neuter. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. .. No "common gender. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. according to use. "A little child shall lead them. according to their use. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. All nouns.. the sex being of no consequence. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. came to a stand just by the bridge.When. and neuter nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Gunpowder . that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.²masculine and feminine.²LAMB. or which arouse his interest most.²IRVING.

[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. 27. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. Very few of class I. I. . woman. only to masculine and feminine nouns. cousin. 28. If such words as parent. but spinster has now no connection with it. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. servant. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. 29. II. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. for from they said vram. generally to a masculine word. Native suffixes. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. as in wine vat. ruler.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. (2) By adding a suffix.25. These remain in vixen and spinster. Gender shown by Prefixes. relative. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes.. Male nouns beings. Put in convenient form. and for the older word fat they said vat. of course. The inflections for gender belong. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. One feminine. puts a prefix before the masculine man. According to the definition. teacher. as he-goat²she-goat. from the masculine fox. Hence vixen is for fyxen. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. domestic. though both words have lost their original meanings. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. Gender shown by Suffixes. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. is. (3) By using a different word for each gender. For fox they said vox. or the lack of it. 26. etc. they are neuter words. the division of words according to sex. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. he-bear²she-bear.

señorita. as seam-stress. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Unaltered and little used. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). executrix. song-str-ess. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. as czarina. These are attached to foreign words. punster. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. Low Latin issa). it has none now in the words huckster. Slightly changed and widely used.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Ending of masculine not changed. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. but in most cases it has not. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. 30. as. gamester. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. donna. trickster. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. the one most used. -ess (French esse. and are never used for words recognized as English.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. as. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes.

etc. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. as. others have in their origin the same root. editor. wagoness.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. or servauntesse. 32. frendesse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. we use the masculine termination. teacheresse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. chairman. teacher or lady teacher. Thus. We frequently use such words as author. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. fosteress. from the French -esse. the ending -ess. 31. from Latin imperatricem. to represent persons of either sex. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. neighboresse. In some of these pairs.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. Some of them have an interesting history. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. as in the fourteenth century. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases." III. Gender shown by Different Words. as was said in the sixteenth century. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. neighbor (masculine and feminine). Instead of saying doctress. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . as. NOTE. we use the feminine.

Witch is the Old English wicce. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom.² . but this has long been obsolete. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. 16). for example. as in many other words. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Danish gaas. Mare. Two masculines from feminines. It is not connected historically with our word duck. the old sign of the masculine. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. probably meaning house dweller). became identical. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. had the masculine mearh (horse). not immediately connected with witch.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. etc. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. though both are ultimately from the same root. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Besides gander and drake. widuwa²widuwe. finally gander. leaving our word drake. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. written loverd. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). lhauerd. among others) to be from the same root word. in Old English mere. Personification. Icelandic gás. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). 33. gand-ra. The masculine was formed by adding -a. 34. Madam is the French ma dame. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Three letters of ened have fallen away. The older forms. Widower. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. from Latin mea domina.). or lauerd in Middle English.

eyen (eyes). Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.No towers along the steep. The first two methods prevailed.²singular and plural. treen (trees). NUMBER. whenever we adopt a new word. 35. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.²COLERIDGE. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.Her home is on the deep. shoon (shoes). There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. etc. together with the third. (2) By changing the root vowel. This is not exclusively a poetic use. (3) By adding -s (or -es). . that is. 37. more than one."²BYRON. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of."Now. for instance. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. in Old English. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Effect of personification. I. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 39. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. In nouns. 36. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. the plural.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.²CAMPBELL. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. But other words were inflected afterwards. Our language has two numbers. the engineer speaks so of his engine.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. and not by the form of the noun. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. Britannia needs no bulwarks. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. Definition. 38. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. The -en inflection.²KEATS.

sail. people. or if preceded by the prepositions in. II. etc. folk. etc. ditch. then brothre or brethre. etc. by. Kine is another double plural.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. lens. and get settled. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. dozen. head. as.²Over the mountains winding down.²WHITTIER. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Instead of -s. The weakening of inflections led to this addition.Horse and foot. Akin to this class are some words.²THOREAU. quartz. after all.²MACAULAY.² The foot are fourscore thousand. after numerals (if not after numerals. but they now add the ending -s."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. Examples of this inflection are. pair. borough²formerly had the same inflection. wight. cross. into Frederick town. 41. brace. glass.² "God bless me! so then. 42. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. cannon. III. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. but has now no singular. originally neuter. . Other words following the same usage are. The words horse and foot. such as deer. they add -s): also trout. finally brethren. Children has passed through the same history. heathen. swine. Lee marched over the mountain wall. turf. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. retain the same form for plural meaning. salmon. Such are box. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.-En inflection imitated by other words. and is still found in dialects. sheep. The old plural was brothru.The horse are thousands ten. 40. that have the singular and plural alike. as. when they mean soldiery. Brethren has passed through three stages.

Two words. chaise²chaises. negro²negroes. fairies. shelf²shelves. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. half²halves. hero²heroes. optics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). and the real ending is therefore -s. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. allies. etc.g. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . race²races. some adding -s. Examples of these are. means: as. Proper nouns are regularly singular. also news. Formerly. daisies. that when thy summons comes. quoth then that ladie milde.²BRYANT. politics. mathematics. and some -es.² Politics. is both the science and the art of government. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. however. Some words are usually singular. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes.-Es added in certain cases. economics.g.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe..Of maladie the which he hadde endured. the Americas. So live. When such words take a plural ending. molasses. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. fancies. 15 and 17). niche²niches. 45. DANA. e. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. etc. e. knife²knives. pains (care). house²houses. It served simply as a means of sight. a new syllable is made.²PROF. etc. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. summons. though this sound combines readily with -s. as. the Washingtons. physics. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. 43. volcano² volcanoes. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. in its widest extent. though they are plural in form. Special Lists.. and many branches of learning.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. Words in -ies. prize²prizes. etc. means and politics. and go over to other classes (Secs. these words ended in -ie. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. they lose their identity. Means plural. 44. The lilie on hir stalke grene.

however.²G. Politics plural. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. by those means which we have already mentioned. I say. By these means.²MOTLEY.² MACAULAY. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. CURTIS.²GOLDSMITH.²J.²GOLDSMITH. . A relic which. 46. by strongly conveying the passions.Words. if I recollect right. L. Some words have no corresponding singular. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²GOLDSMITH. he pronounced to have been a tongs. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Sometimes. W.²BURKE. LAUGHLIN.²IRVING. it is furnished with a forceps. riches will accumulate. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Now I read all the politics that come out. Besides this.

pea²peas (separately). faculties. riches.²was it subdued when. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. pence (collectively). trouble. for the numbers came. etc. brethren (of a society or church). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. These make the last part plural. . in mournful numbers. part²parts: (1) divisions. 49. In speaking of coins. penny²pennies (separately). as two sixpences. (2) care. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.²LONGFELLOW.²one corresponding to the singular. genius²geniuses (men of genius). carry off chaff. fishes (individuals or kinds). shot²shot (collective balls). (2) revenue duties. One plural. 50. number²numbers: (1) figures.). (2) abilities.The air. clothes (garments). Tell me not.. fish²fish (collectively). cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). Three words were originally singular. or copies. of a periodical. (2) poetry. may add -s. Numbers also means issues. two meanings. or epistles. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. Two classes of compound words. two plurals.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. die²dies (stamps for coins.. etc. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.. DANA. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. making a double plural. index²indexes (to books). genii (spirits). shots (number of times fired). pease (collectively). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. indices (signs in algebra). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. eaves. (2) literature. 48. In Early Modern English thank is found. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). sixpence.²POPE. the other unlike it. ways.² I lisped in numbers. dice (for gaming). twopence. as in the lines. or work in a bellows?²PROF.

Brahman. Norman. woman singer. though the latter is often found. the Drs. Brown. firman. 52. or the name may be pluralized. and Mrs. woman servant.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. as man singer. such as talisman. Briggs. 51. for example. The title may be plural. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Two methods in use for names with titles. Mussulman. as the Messrs. The chief member adds -s in the plural. As to plurals of names with titles. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. manservant. but add -s.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Allen. the Misses Rich. there is some disagreement among English writers.²DR. and then the three Miss Spinneys.² Then came Mr. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. . Ottoman. HOLMES. German. then Silas Peckham. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.

Domesticated words. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. and retain their foreign plurals. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. or Anglicized.²GIBBON. or Englished. y y analysis antithesis . 53. Others have been adopted. These are said to be domesticated. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²GOLDSMITH. FROM THE LATIN. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. The Messrs.²DICKENS.²THE CRITIC. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. FROM THE GREEK.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. They are then said to be naturalized. Du Maurier. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. Exercise.

"He sleeps in a felon's cell. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. etc. also add -s or 's. figures." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. as.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. In the sentence. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). 55. Words quoted merely as words. and expresses a relation akin to possession. figures. Only two case forms." CASE. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. without reference to their meaning. In the general wearing-away of inflections. 56. etc. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. they form their plurals in the regular way. 54." the word felon's modifies cell. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. ." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). Definition. Letters. cell has another relation.. as.

(2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. . and merit. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Uses of the Nominative. excessive grief. when asked unawares. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. and experience.²person. Excuses are clothes which. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. may be said to have three cases. 2. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. 5.²the nominative. learning. completing a verb. I. then. 58.There are now only two case forms of English nouns." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. 1.²one for the nominative and objective. Human experience is the great test of truth." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. Three properties belong to wisdom. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 3. three things characterize man.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. and the possessive. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. must be understood for purposes of analysis. they returned to their homes. the objective. 4. whether inflected or not. 57. fate. Nouns." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word.²nature. the enemy of the living." (2) As a predicate noun. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.

68. and landlord of the inn. as will be seen in Sec. But of all plagues. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. Uses of the Objective. distance. and makest a calm. But the flood came howling one day. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. 2. reconciles. measure. the word toward which the preposition points. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. they are sands of precious gold." "Thou makest the storm a calm. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. good Heaven. how have I frighted thee? II." (3) Adverbially." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. (5) As the object of a preposition. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. 4.Save. 9. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 3. etc. They charged. . The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." Exercise. Set a high price on your leisure moments." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. and being equivalent to one verb. thy wrath can send. Conscience. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences." (4) As the second object.6. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. taking the object storm. her first law broken. taking the object enemies. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. a patriarch of the village. completing the verb. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. (in the older stages of the language. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. save. sword in hand and visor down. 8. and meaning calmest. wounded lies. 59. and tell which use each has:² 1.

²ADDISON. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. from day to day. (2) Objective possessive. 61. 6.Does his Creator's power display. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. 9. It is a poetic expression. Possession in some sense is the most common. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. 60.² The unwearied sun. the most common of all. as. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.²SHELLEY.²HAWTHORNE. 7. and forfeits paid. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.²BYRON. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. as shown in the sentences. tempests that . III. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. (3) Subjective possessive.His winter task a pastime made. 8. And whirling plate. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. 10. or in writing yesterday's elegy. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. The possessive case always modifies another word. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. The noblest mind the best contentment has. as in these expressions. expressed or understood. the Great Stone Face.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. Uses of the Possessive. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.e.And gave the leper to eat and drink..5.

56)." Use of the apostrophe.e.. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. and Obj. 64. Poss. A false theory." "mannes herte [heart]. As said before (Sec. A suggestion. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. 62. To form the possessive plural. The use of the apostrophe. as schoolboys sometimes write. Nom.. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his." etc. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. Declension or inflection of nouns." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war].e. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 63. 1. Nom.winter is likely to have). PLURAL. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. "From every schires ende. . and Obj. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. there are only two case forms. in Chaucer. the panther which the forest hides). Case Inflection. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. lady Poss. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. making the possessive singular. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. One is the simple form of a word. "George Jones his book. child NOTE. How the possessive is formed. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form." "at his beddes syde. 62. growth which several days had developed). however. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i.

Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. instead of the emperor their master's name.²CARLYLE. dwelling. Captain Scrapegrace's.. for goodness' sake. I remember him in his cradle at St.. 65. as. as. the items of my son's. the possessive sign is usually last.Though this opinion was untrue. James's. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.²THACKERAY. In compound expressions. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience." "A postscript is added. Possessive and no noun limited. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. know the amount of my income. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. and she walked off from the don's. containing words in apposition. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. Peter's. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. . some such word as house. in the name of the emperor their master. 66. church. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.²SWIFT.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. etc. my neighbors. a word with a phrase. etc. store. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead.² LOWELL." Possessive with compound expressions. as by the countess's command. Kate saw that. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. tailor's bill²THACKERAY."²DE QUINCEY. 67. being understood with it: for example. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.²HOLMES.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. stands up for God's truth one man. and from a desire to have distinct forms. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. but to the ear all may be alike. Cervantes' satirical work.

A peculiar form. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. E. especially when used with this or that. (See also Sec.²the introduction which Atterbury made. that. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. objective. the. 1.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. sometimes they are used together.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. 87. or subjective. corresponding to 's. HALE. ill-lighted except where she stands. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. and tell whether each is appositional. (3) It prevents ambiguity. For example. in such a sentence as. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . 2. (b) Rewrite the sentence. any. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. every.²FROUDE. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun.The double possessive. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. In most cases. a double possessive.. Emphasis. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony.²CARLYLE. Both of these are now used side by side. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. (1) When a word is modified by a.²E. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. 68. however. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. as one modifier. and at the same time by a possessive noun. the statement clearly means only one thing. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. Exercises. Clearness. the sentence might be understood as just explained. If. making a double possessive. each. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. Blair). there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. we use the phrase of Atterbury. this. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. no. etc.

we state. 14. 7. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. In parsing. therefore. Nature herself. 9. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 12. 11.Comes dancing from the East. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 6. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. day's harbinger.² . 4. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 70. 8. it seemed. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 15. in parsing a noun. 5. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 69. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 13. There Shakespeare's self. let him seasonably water the one. Hence. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.3. 10. some idioms²the double possessive. At lovers' perjuries. with every garland crowned. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.A weary waste expanding to the skies.They say. Now the bright morning star. and destroy the other. Friend.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. Jove laughs. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.

and number. and therefore nominative case. 2. has no governing word. like miller's.(1) The class to which it belongs. is a common class noun. the connection shows a male is meant. proper. . and relations.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. That in the captain's but a choleric word. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. a withered serving man. therefore neuter. a fresh tapster. it expresses time. 3. but is the adverbial objective. Neckcloth. In parsing any word. and to have it found out by accident. names one thing. Exercise. 68). inflections. Throat is neuter. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. it expresses possession or ownership. it denotes only one person. hence it is a gender noun. hence objective case. 4. hence it is a common noun. therefore masculine gender. determining its case. hence it is objective case. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. etc. therefore singular number. then make the grammatical statements as to its class.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. (4) Its office in the sentence. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. The correct method. subject of the verb is understood. NOTE. MODEL FOR PARSING. as to case. if the latter.²common. (3) Whether singular or plural number. therefore possessive case. Thief is a common class noun. it has no sex. gender. therefore singular number. 71. singular number. object of the verb takes. and limits neckcloth. it is the object of the preposition by. it is the name of a male being. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. which gender. masculine. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth.

where the Rhone enters the lake. were natives of Geneva. sleep! 6. 7. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. from a necessity for short. A pronoun is a reference word..²palace. Jarley's back being towards him. 11. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. instead of saying. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 73. 8. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. The need of pronouns. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Madame de Staël.And hated her for her pride. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. 9. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. 72. standing for a name. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house..5. or for a person or thing. Definition. and representative words. 76). castle. Now. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. (2) Interrogative pronouns. which distinguish person by their form (Sec." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. blessings light on him that first invented . Mrs. or for a group of persons or things. Necker. and his daughter. Time makes the worst enemies friends. definite. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. . but by a question we say. A few miles from this point." Again. For instance. Classes of pronouns. PRONOUNS. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. and prison. all in one. 10. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. He giveth his beloved sleep.. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. financial minister to Louis XVI.

the person or thing spoken to. Nom. I Poss. Person in grammar. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Three persons of pronouns. which relate or refer to a noun. which have forms for person. or other word or expression. as nouns have the same form. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. they are said to have person by agreement. 74. "the distinction of person.. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. (5) Indefinite pronouns. 77. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. that is. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. 75. Singular. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. pronoun. (4) Adjective pronouns. representing a person or thing spoken to. (3) Third person. which cannot be used as adjectives. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. mine." Person of nouns. words. primarily adjectives. ours . but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. (2) Second person. we our. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. representing the person speaking. 76.(3) Relative pronouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. even if it had a special form. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. standing for a person or thing spoken of. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. From analogy to pronouns. and the person or thing talked about. my Plural. This gives rise to a new term. they must represent the person talking.

or. Nom. Masc. they their. your. thine. yours Poss. . Poss. In Old English these three were formed from the same root.Obj. you your. theirs them Neut. by personification. and also for the neuter. Obj. Singular. SECOND PERSON. hers her Plur. First and second persons without gender. The speaker may be either male or female. he his him Fem. Poss. Obj. neuter hit. masculine h . 78. a separate form for each gender. yours you Plural. Third person singular has gender. neuter. Obj.. it its it Poss. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. so also with the person or thing spoken to. feminine h o. of all Three. Obj. Old forms. she her. Nom. in the singular. namely. But the third person has. Nom. thy Remarks on These Forms. yours you THIRD PERSON. me us Singular. Old Form Common Form. thou thee ye you you your. Nom.

²SHELLEY. (2) In addressing the Deity. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. thy. The form its. Second person always plural in ordinary English.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. The plurals were h .²BEECHER. In spoken English. thou Shepherd of Israel. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. 79. two modern uses of thou. as. thee. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. This is of comparatively recent growth. and sometimes its. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). their. etc.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. even when referring to a single object. heom. which was often sounded with the h silent. them. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. Thou. 80.² Oh. as possessive of it. etc. which is a neuter noun. The consequence is. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. as in prayers. etc. There are.. 82. 81. especially in poetry. just as we now say. to thy care we commit the helpless. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. heora. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. that didst comfort thy people of old.Thou lovest. the forms they. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. in Old English. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. Two uses of the old singulars. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. for example. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.:² (1) In elevated style. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. We use it with a plural verb always.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. it. however. The old form was his (from the nominative hit)." As shown above. .

Yet careful speakers avoid this. 83. II. The forms my. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Old use of mine and thine.²LANDOR.²BULWER. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. her. for. "I am sure it was him. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. him. her. Additional nominatives in spoken English. their. In spoken English. and has been slave to thousands. they have a nominative form. ye. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry.²COWPER. yours. thou. some say. them. its. to personify objects (Sec. Not a separate class. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. And since thou own'st that praise. though those named in Sec. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. hers. us. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns.Use of the pronouns in personification. The Possessive. The words I. 'tis his. he. his. in such a sentence as. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. or. him. they. when they occur in the predicate position. though ye is occasionally used as objective. thine. our. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. us. them. 86. however. Absolute personal pronouns. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. I The Nominative. her. thy. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. . and follow the usage of literary English." the literary language would require he after was. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. 84. besides a nominative use. sometimes his and its. we. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. I spare thee mine. ²SHAKESPEARE. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. note the following:² 'Twas mine. 84 are always subjects. 58). your. 34). have a peculiar use. and not make more classes. and sometimes in ordinary speech. me. she. theirs. That is. Nominative forms. The forms mine. 85.

No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. for example.²BIBLE. pluck it out. (3) To express contempt." said Henry Woodstall. If thine eye offend thee.²SWIFT. 87. thus. ours. or satire. we find. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²THACKERAY. Like the noun possessives.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.²J. theirs.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. it tells of good old times.²J. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. Long Allen. (2) To bring emphasis. as in nouns. The forms hers. are really double possessives. Double and triple possessives. Give every man thine ear. but few thy voice. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens."²SCOTT. thus. yours. ours. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. his. Their uses. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.² CARLYLE.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. F. Besides this. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. T. FIELDS. This usage is still preserved in poetry. theirs.²THACKERAY. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. . sometimes its. anger.²ID. we have. hers. and with mine. commenting upon a letter of mine.²CARLYLE. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²ID. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. thine. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. "Hold thy peace. yours. ²HOLMES. COOPER. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.

²ID. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. In pronouns. but expresses for whom. 90. The Objective. Both joined in making him a present. Now the objective. as it is called. mine stands for my praise in the second.²BIBLE. but the form is the same as the objective. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. his for his property. in the first sentence. 86: mine stands for my property.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. but nominative or objective in use." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. Curse me this people. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. this dative use. or use in a sentence.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. was marked by a separate case." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. for whose benefit. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." "None but the brave deserves the fair. but not in form. They all handled it. 88. . In such sentences as. 89. Besides this use of the objective. as shown in Sec. "The good alone are great. The old dative case. and mine in the second has an objective use. III. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. In their function. the thing is done. 20. But the first two have a nominative use. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.

²BACON. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. (3) In apposition. in this century. like Chinese skill. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. or that he has not a great deal more.²ADDISON.² NEWMAN. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. you must condense there. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. has not made its progress. as in the sentences. The word you. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²CARLYLE. 92. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. ²EMERSON. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. you sneeze. as. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.Time is behind them and before them. as. why. and they cry.²D. It is a pity that he has so much learning. Your mere puny stripling. Indefinite use of you and your. WEBSTER. or to the idea. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. thus. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.²IRVING To empty here.² . logical subject." (3) As a grammatical subject. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Society. which follows the verb. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²BULWER. to stand for the real. was passed by with indulgence. 91. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.

who teams it. peddles it. keeps a school. (ourself).²BURNS. as they are also called. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. itself. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. This occurs in poetry. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. they dropped their arms. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. but seldom in prose.²THOREAU. Of the two forms in parentheses. when they are direct objects.It is finger-cold. There was nothing for it but to return. And millions in those solitudes. that is. And when I awoke.²HOLMES."²IRVING. who in turn tries all the professions. yourselves.²EMERSON.. themselves. and its plural selves. 93. farms it.²SCOTT.²ID. They are myself. have laid them downIn their last sleep. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²BUNYAN. or COMPOUND PERSONAL." and there is an end of it.²HAWTHORNE. Poor Christian was hard put to it.²BRYANT. himself. it rained. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. "I found me a good book. yourself." etc. used in poetry. 94." "He bought him a horse.²DE QUINCEY. as. For when it dawned. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. For example.² Now I lay me down to sleep. however. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. since firstThe flight of years began. (thyself). we use such expressions as. It was late and after midnight. -selves. . The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. A sturdy lad . I made up my mind to foot it. ourselves. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. herself. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²ANON.²IRVING.²COLERIDGE. the second is the old form of the second person. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. I set me down and sigh.

I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.To you yourself. not the possessive forms.²MILTON.² The great globe itself .. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. to every one. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.. for example. after the analogy of myself. NOTE. shall dissolve. as we ourself have been. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.²ID. In Middle English the forms meself. BROWNING. ourselves.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. Threats to all. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.² TENNYSON. as in vulgar English. Held dead within them till myself shall die.²SHAKESPEARE. As if it were thyself that's here. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. for example. 96.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. to us. B.As girls were once.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. I shrink with pain. 95. and the others were formed by analogy with these.²E. and build the lofty rhyme. Origin of these reflexives. theself.²WORDSWORTH. were changed into the possessive myself.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.²EMERSON. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. The question might arise.² . Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. as. as. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. thyself. Use of the reflexives. with self. especially in the speech of rulers. etc.

On the light fantastic toe. Years ago. 3. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). Come and trip it as we go. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. 8. 2. where the word is one with that it tells of. and how to do it. father. And it grew wondrous cold. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. feminine. To know what is best to do. 97. One obsolete. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 6. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 4. .²B. which. 5. but it is the soonest spoiled. 7. some each of masculine.²DE QUINCEY. all conform to it. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. let him lowly confess it. fight it out. FRANKLIN. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved.² THACKERAY. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. some of them being double possessives. 10. Infancy conforms to nobody. is wisdom. and what. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Three now in use. 9. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. and neuter. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. Courage.

Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. it is selective. whispering sweet. but for case alone. Use of which. These show that what is not inflected for case. but now obsolete. ideas. Whose was that gentle voice. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects.There is an old word. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. shall we say. 99. etc. which is not inflected for gender. What wouldst thou do. Use of who and its forms. actions. having three forms. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. used formerly to mean which of two. 100. that is. as it always asks about somebody. the gold. . Use of what. 98. that it is always singular and neuter. whether. The use of who. it refers to either persons or things.Promised. with its possessive and objective. it is always third person. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. referring to things. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Which of you. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. number. methought. that. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. or case. not to persons.. As shown here. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. that it is not inflected for gender or number. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only.

It usually precedes the pronoun.² "The last of all the Bards was he. as. objective in the last. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. 104. 103. The antecedent. it may be shortened into. since it is subject of the verb had. Thus we may say. which and what. who is used as objective instead of whom. SING. For instance. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. pronoun. being the direct object of the verb shall take. 127). Further treatment of who. which. in Sec. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. who? Poss. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. 99. which is nominative in the first sentence. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. as.² . what may be an adverb in some expressions. which is called the antecedent of the relative. or other word or expression. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. which and what are sometimes adjectives. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 102. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Function of the relative pronoun. and so to make smoother discourse. "The last of all the Bards was he. as they take the place usually of a word already used.101. who evidently refers to Bards." In the latter sentence. subject of doth love. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. SINGULAR Nom. for which the pronoun stands. and what are also relative pronouns. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. AND PLUR. Who.²by the use of the words.Who sung of Border chivalry. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case." Or. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 105. and also in having a conjunctive use. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. nominative in the second also. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. whose? Obj. AND PLUR.

a thousand years. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 6. Who and its forms. Two kinds.. . the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.²W. 4. The origin of language is divine. WHITNEY.²PARTON Which and its forms.²MILTON. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1..² COX. a simple relative is meant. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. in the same sense in which man's nature.Whose flag has braved.²BYRON. which. 2. Indefinite relatives. will be discussed further on. Ye mariners of England. 4. the women whom women approve. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 108. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. that.²THACKERAY. D.That guard our native seas.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 3.²DR JOHNSON. 106. but the look which is not of the earth.²SCOTT.²LOWELL In this. 5. Generally speaking.Whom universal nature did lament.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. what. 2. both his and who have the antecedent priest. For her enchanting son. is a divine creation. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. The nurse came to us. The men whom men respect. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. with all its capabilities . are the men and women who bless their species. 3.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. They had not their own luster.. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. 107. When the word relative is used. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.

Reader. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.²EMERSON. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. 3.²IRVING. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. BEECHER 5. which it certainly is not.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.²BURKE. For what he sought below is passed above. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. stratagems. Who. The Tree Igdrasil. 111. What. 2.² SHAKESPEARE 2. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . you will not be angry with me for telling you.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS..²DE QUINCEY. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.5..²LAMB 3. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. 6. bought up all the pigs that could be had. Examples of the relative that:² 1. Already done is all that he would do. 107. else this description will seem exaggerated.²MARGARET FULLER.. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.Is fit for treasons.²GOLDSMITH. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and spoils. The man that hath no music in himself. 4. 110. 109. That. W..²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.. no bad type of what often happens in that country. ought to be kept in view. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. The judge . (a) This gradation . and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²H..

whose. 107. The little gorilla. (2) It has three case forms. whom. (3) It is nearly always third person. Cooper. My horse. a man. referring to animals.who. that man. 5. seemed as much excited as myself. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.²who. Examples of whose.²LEIGH HUNT.. It has been seen (Sec. or ideas. 112. whose is second person. In sentence 4. 113. and others. Gibbon. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. Smollett. Which. in the second. they are plural. . whom. son. p. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. things.²THACKERAY. JOHNSON. Who referring to animals. possessive case of which. the others are all third person. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former..²DR.²IRVING. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. whose for the possessive. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. The sentences in Sec. and so on. who is first person. The robins. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.. in 4. who. In 1.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. in the third. Scott. 96). and 6. not persons.. flung its arms around my neck..(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. 2. (4) It has two case forms.whose..²which for the nominative and objective. and 3. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. in 5. Sec.²SWIFT. whose wound I had dressed. the relatives are singular. Witness the following examples:² And you. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²LOWELL. Kingsley. in the first sentence.

²BEECHER. second.² And. Men may be ready to fight to the death. secondly (which made her stare). . (2) It has only one case form. let us enter the church itself. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. and things.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. and third persons. 116. and numerous others. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. the antecedent follows which. thus.114. Primarily. The last two sentences in Sec. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. and to persecute without pity. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Burke. This often occurs. too. 115.²SCOTT. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. In the sentences of Sec. 109. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. (3) It is the same form for first.²first. Kingsley. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. This moribund '61."²RUSKIN. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.² I swept the horizon.² MCMASTER. That. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. which is very notable and curious. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. no possessive. Which and its antecedents. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.²SHAKESPEARE. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. So in Matthew Arnold.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.²THACKERAY. Sometimes. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. animals. which is worse.

It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. we can. The gender. third person. as in sentence 6. and is emphatic. that do I not. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. by taking them out. What a man does. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed.²SHAKESPEARE. whose Obj. that he has.²BIBLE What fates impose." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. for example. 118. is always neuter. third person. . These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. that do I. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. but what I hate. Sec. plural number. as.²EMERSON. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. 119. When expressed. who Poss. 117. that men must needs abide. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. and person of the relatives who. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 109. Who plainly stands for those or the people. For example. which." (3) "These people heard him." That evidently refers to truths. what we said?²CARLYLE. number. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. either of which would be neuter. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. consequently is neuter. What. The sentences of Sec. Nom. it usually follows. plural number. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true.² What I would.

standing for the people understood. In the same way who. The word what. . the simple relative. in the following sentences:² 1. Exercise. What must be endured? Answer. so is in the objective case. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. and what is the direct object of the verb call. after all. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. in (3). "What can't be cured must be endured. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. however. Some prefer another method of treatment. then parse the relatives. I think they are trying to outwit nature. because it has usually no antecedent. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. people is the object of the preposition of. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. that takes the case of the truths in (2). First find the antecedents. Parsing what. 4. nobler souls with that which they are. it is subject of the verb heard. but of this. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. is in the nominative case. in (1). which is. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. subject of heard." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. 5. 7. we is the subject. above. The relative what is handled differently. 3. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. and hence is in the nominative case. How superior it is in these respects to the pear.. neuter. As shown by the following sentences. The whole expression is its subject. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. but is singular. etc. Truths in sentence (2). who is sure to be cunninger than they. In (2). is what we call nature. it is object of uttered. Now. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order." Here the subject of is. 120.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. 8. What can't be cured. the highest result of all education. 6. Another way. is subject of wrought upon and molded."²EMERSON. third person. is subject of the verb can't be cured. In the sentence.

3. 6. The simple relatives who. or stand on their head. and his friend a fool. being referred to. Death is there associated. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. Hence some take what as a double relative. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. object of with] which [singular. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. It is clear that in 1. . They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor.²MACAULAY. which. and parse that in the first clause. whosoever. List and examples. and in 2. What simple relative and what indefinite relative.²BURKE. They are whoever. whatever is equivalent to all things which. 7. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. whichsoever. to everything that. Meaning and use. that is.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. no particular thing. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. "common souls pay with that [singular. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. or what else soever. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. no certain antecedent. in a new and original way. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. 4. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. and which in the second clause. 2. Only itself can inspire whom it will. 122.²you cannot have both. So with the other indefinites. whatever. It is no proof of a man's understanding. 121. by meaning and use. whatsoever. Take which you please. whichever. that nothing else can stand in their presence. Do what we can.²BURKE. 5. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. summer will have its flies. not as direct as the simple relatives. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. 2. 123. less common are whoso. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. object of do] they do." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. whatsoever.

The examples in sentences 5 and 6. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. . whereupon.. everything that (or everything which). not following the word such. 120. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. etc. This. upon which. But and as.² 1.²EMERSON. as was used just as we use that or which. In early modern English. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. are used. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. 125. Proof that they have the force of relatives. 121. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. 126. the conjunctions wherein. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Other substitutes. either one that. but which only wealth could have purchased. Two words. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. Former use of as. thus.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 124. 121. for example.. Instead of the phrases in which. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. what means anything that. has been my heaviest affliction. 2. nothing that does not interest us. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. but and as.²HAWTHORNE. etc. whereby. for example. and that as after such is equivalent to which. 417). but mean any one whom. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.²DE QUINCEY. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. Sec. There is nothing but is related to us. etc.As shown in Sec.² some particular thing. 4. by which.

if not. "Who stood behind? We knew." Likewise with which in 3 (b). though the earthwork hid them. no antecedent is expressed. second. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. So in 2 (b). Another caution. and whether what = that + which (if so. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). which having the antecedent lines. it is an interrogative. But in 1 (b). if not. would be. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. "But what had become of them? They knew not. How to decide. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first." etc. Special caution needed here. and 3 (b). it is a simple relative. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. if expanded. 2 (b). 127. who having the antecedent gentleman.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. .. which would indicate that they are not relatives. 1 (b). Thus. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. the full expression being. In sentences 1 (a). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. what is interrogative. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. a question is disguised in each sentence. In studying such sentences.²EMERSON. it is an indefinite relative). 3. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. showing that who is plainly interrogative. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. 2.²ID.²WHITTIER.

OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.² These are the sounds we feed upon. ELIOT. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²FLETCHER. 129. . but the life of man in England. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Thus. In the third. Exercise. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. and Court Calendars. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²SWIFT. On the other hand. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. In the first. Examine the following:² 1. In the second. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. whence is the interrogative word. the question is asked by the verb. Relative omitted when object. whose has the antecedent you.²GOLDSMITH. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. which.²G. 4. I visited many other apartments. and asks no question. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 3. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists.² THACKERAY. 2.²HOLMES. which has the antecedent hue. Put in the relatives who. The insect I am now describing lived three years.128.²FORSTER 6.²CARLYLE. 5. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. When Goldsmith died.

5. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. 2. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. 6. The nobles looked at each other.²SCOTT. and comparatively so in poetry. simple relatives. There was such a crowd went. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. .²Id. which.7. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. which was already proceeding. who were to be rulers over whom. Examples are. the house was full. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 130. Function of adjective pronouns.²SHAKESPEARE. Relative omitted when subject. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. that. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 3.Ne'er looks upon the sun. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.² LOWELL. and what. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. Also in literary English we find the same omission. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. or indefinite relatives:² 1. It is rare in prose. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.²CAMPBELL.

"The dead are there. Adjectives. 132. and another to get cool under. "another bank. or use. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. and stand for a noun. etc. or may be the whole of a sentence. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns." in the others. in order to be an adjective pronoun. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. that. none.²IRVING. expressed or understood. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood." Classes of adjective pronouns. or they may stand for nouns." that is. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns.²BRYANT. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. but have lost their adjective use. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. a word. and on each is written. "these pranks. or an argument in a paragraph. ." "one man. any. such as this. in the first. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. In the first use they are adjectives.131. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. 'Truth. For example.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. either. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. neither. not pronouns. as some." in the second.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. 133. all. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Caution. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." "Where two men ride on a horse. etc. etc. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. but in this function. which we have seen in such expressions as. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. must not modify any word. many. For instance. "each cube. the former. Primarily they are adjectives. such as each.²EMERSON. necessarily thought of: thus. few. in letters of gold. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.

because he was not lying in wait for these.²EMERSON 4. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. or reclined. when the latter was the King of Spain. 134. accidentally preserved.All these he saw. 3. or sat. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. A man inspires affection and honor. Their minds accorded into one strain.²LOWELL. Even as I have seen. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. for example. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.² They stood. . Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Some of these are simple pronouns. but what he fain had seen He could not see. NOTE. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. and sow wickedness. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Such are a few isolated instances. reap the same. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose.²ID.²ID. 5. they that plow iniquity. Compound. 2.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. and they have well performed the other. Definition and examples. as seemed good to each. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. Simple. but these were of the best. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. They have not shunned the one. Exercises. They had fewer books.

²each other.²HAWTHORNE. as it were. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. for example.² One reflexive. Definition and examples. Much might be said on both sides. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. with the superstitions of his time. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²EMERSON. or melt for others' woe. None shall rule but the humble. another. 135. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. paused over a horoscope. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. The Soldan. you quickly come to the end of all. Exercise. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. ²HAWTHORNE. as most were. Men take each other's measure when they react.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Another opposes him with sound argument. as. Some inflected. such as one other. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²KINGSLEY. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The word one has a reflexive form.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.Two are compound pronouns. They led one another. one another. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. as some of the rangers had gone astray.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²HOLMES. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. we might the more easily discharge them. imbued. .

etc. every one else. nothing. Every one else stood still at his post. anybody else's. Exercise.² At lovers' perjuries. also aught. 136. Somebody. I tell you what. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. every one (or everyone). They indefinite means people in general. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. something. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. Now. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Jove laughs. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. anybody. Definition and examples.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. and was indefinite in Old English.²SHAKESPEARE. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man.Exercise." It means something. 137. in building of chaises. and they. . as shown in the words everybody's. any one (or anyone). everybody else. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. they say. everything. etc. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. somebody else. and somewhat.. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. as. anything. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. no one. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. but. anyone else. naught. everybody. unlike adjective pronouns. nobody. they are never used as adjectives. some one. what.

9. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 13. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 17. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. indeed. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 2. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 7. 4. 16. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 14. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 11. I first found myself among the mountains. to which. 138. and of no other. 5. All was now ready for action. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 6. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Exercise. in his negotiations. The table was good. 3. Others did the same thing. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. from my earliest days. O thou that rollest above.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. For this did God send her a great reward. A reminder. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 12. Whoever deals with M. 18. . were suffered to depart. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 10. 8.

They know not I knew thee. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble.19. 34. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. thou rollest now. behold now the semblance of my being. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. that let him communicate.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. and seized a pen. 32. hear. who take the world easy. variety. hear! 33. Whatever he knows and thinks. oh. 31. eat white bread or brown.Who knew thee too well.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. And I had done a hellish thing. in all its height. 30. 27. well-oiled dispositions. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. What can we see or acquire but what we are? .And it would work 'em woe. 21. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. 26. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 35. 29. He sate him down. 23. Who and what was Milton? That is to say.Destroyer and preserver. I who alone am. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 25. And will your mother pity me.

We are by nature observers. 38. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. who understands me. so that no other will be mistaken for it. brittle or tough. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. heavy or light. As to the kind of words used. Substantives." etc. If a chemist discovers a new substance. etc. white or red. 45. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. then. He teaches who gives. Who hears me. such as in the expressions "this man. "one hat. He knew not what to do." The office of an adjective. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. Again. the number is limited by adjectives. etc." "some cities." "that house. and so he read. if we are at a distance. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. We need to add some words to tell its color. and if we are near. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. or with persons. position. size. ADJECTIVES. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. and he learns who receives." "yonder hill. 40. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. So with any object. 139. 37. adjectives are used. which was no bad step towards my liberation. in pointing out an object. 42. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house.36." "a hundred men. 39. Instead of using nouns indefinitely.. or gaseous. that is our permanent state. 41. 44. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. becomes mine. For example. . as. 43. It may have this office alone. Office of Adjectives. or liquid. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun.

"Heaven-derived power. If he be thankful for small benefits. Infinitives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. used to tell how many things are spoken of. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. rash." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. 141. "an old English manuscript." the "and there.² BACON. To make this clear." . such as safe. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. to forgive. however." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. Examples are. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." and the still less significant "and so. (4) Pronominal adjectives. terrible. They include relative and interrogative words. fair. etc. such as." they constitute all his connections.²COLERIDGE. remotest. beautiful. Classes of adjectives. divine." "half-dead traveler.140. happy. 142. words primarily pronouns. 143." "unlooked-for burden. pointing out particular things." "ivory-handled pistols. With exception of the "and then." "the Christian pearl of charity." "ice-cold water. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "the Roman writer Palladius. to describe it or to limit its application." "this life-giving book." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. deep. Definition." "next-door neighbor.²POPE. or how much of a thing. Nouns are not. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. To err is human. and their trash. it shows that he weighs men's minds. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. derived from proper nouns.

Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. 2. . 145. in this. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. any. 1. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.²MACDONALD. and accomplished is an adjective." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. some." Caution." "It came on like the rolling simoom." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. no." was accomplished is a verb. in studying these last-named words. Exercises.But ever she looked on Mr. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. Examples are. sometimes small. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah.²COLERIDGE. much." was is the verb. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." "One is hungry.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. Care is needed. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. having some of each subclass named in Sec. Oxenham. For instance: in the sentence. but small thoughts have I of sleep. 144. 143. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." "trailing clouds. considerable. which are either pure participles used to describe. 'Tis midnight." "an aged man. and another is drunken." "The shattered squares have opened into line." "a charming sight. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.

any. "one blaze of musketry." "Then we wandered for many days." (b) Indefinite numerals. Not primarily pronouns. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. Exercise. latter.² Every town had its fair. those).It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." "He had lived by hunting for some months. its wake. that. but I have gained fourscore. An arrow was quivering in each body. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER.²KINGSLEY. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. no. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Examples.²THACKERAY. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. (plural these. How many. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. The list. as." "I have lost one brother. former. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. Thus. the former²the latter. 146.²ID. and with them a few negroes.²CARLYLE. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. The demonstrative adjectives are this." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound." "a dozen volunteers.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. are used with plural nouns. The following sentences present some examples:² . instead of modifying them." "In came some five and twenty more. When some." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²VAUGHAN." Single ones of any number of changes. they come under the next division of adjectives. yonder (or yon). every village. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.

"²B. ..²D. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Modify names of persons or things.but all these charms are fled. skill which was at pause. Indefinite relative adjectives. The taking of which bark. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. ²CARLYLE.²ID.²BULWER. 147. Exercise. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. tell how many things are meant.. but in the one case. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. just as the corresponding pronouns do. like the other numerals. The silver and laughing Xenil. These were thy charms.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. 149. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. Oxenham fought desperately. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²BANCROFT. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²KINGSLEY. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. As has been said. skill which was progressive²in the other.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²ID. When we speak of the seventeenth century. of equal skill. but.² It matters not what rank he has. FRANKLIN.²WORDSWORTH.²GOLDSMITH. WEBSTER.²RUSKIN. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. I verily believe. In which evil strait Mr. for example. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. they are changed to adjectives. what revenues or garnitures. 148. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. These do not. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. Definition. They are of two kinds.

or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.. whichsoever way I move. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. As in the pronouns. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. Whatsoever kind of man he is. nature will be sure to bear us out in. and gaze. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.²ID. which. Was there.²AGASSIZ. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. and new tormentedAround me. In indirect questions. you at least give him full authority over your son. Adjective what in exclamations. what inquires about things or persons not known. whichsoever. it is impossible to determine. In direct questions.²LAMB. Examples of their use are. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. whichever.²IRVING. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. But when the Trojan war comes. whatever. the debt to the rich. A lady once remarked. 151.²RUSKIN. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.150. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. which is selective among what is known. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.² EMERSON.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. proved not altogether displeasing to him. whatsoever. He was turned before long into all the universe.And whichsoever way I turn. New torments I behold. as it rather seemed.²CARLYLE. . or whether any.

or weight. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. weight.²but not the same degree.²number and comparison. etc. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. And yet.152. which changed its spelling to the modern form these.²This. 153 . This is the old demonstrative.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness.² Oh. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. 155. and those as the plural of that. we do so by means of their qualities. and when we compare the objects. In exclamatory expressions. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. Exercise. It is neither relative nor interrogative.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. the making of it right. or amount. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. etc. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. of the quality. alas. All these have certain qualities. The article that was used with neuter nouns. gold is heavier than iron. Thus. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. That. Meaning of comparison. But this had also another plural. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. When we place two objects side by side. . we notice some differences between them as to size. NUMBER. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE..Adjectives have two inflections. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. Those borrowed from this. which was fully inflected in Old English. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. 154. th s (modern those). color. as. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. COMPARISON. those). it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. History of this²these and that²those. or size.

supreme. red. The comparative is formed by adding -er. whose favorite pupil he was. with less wit. expressing a greater degree of quality." Words that cannot be compared. bluer. They came into use about the thirteenth century. Definition. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. A main difference betwixt men is. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. enormous." "the commonest speech. strictly considered. whether they attend their own affair or not." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree.²THACKERAY. universal institution." "the largest soul. and the superlative by adding -est. 159. and the superlative. reddest. The two forms. indefatigable. redder. they are not compared. bluest. easiest. great. but. 158.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. 156. blue. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. indomitable. and many others. "untamed thought. or amounts in quantity." "no fewer than a hundred. giant-like.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. Freedom is a perpetual. These are properly the only degrees. So with the words sole. 160. sufficient.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. easier. 157. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. expressing the greatest degree of quality. "more matter. to the simple form. though the simple. infinite.²SEWARD. immemorial. easy. as. These are called degrees of comparison. as." "It is a nobler valor. Substitute for inflection in comparison. but were not common until a century later. organic. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. for example. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. .

finest chiseling. These are adjectives irregularly compared.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. honestest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. 162. there needed to be a most genuine substance. 163.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. indisputablest.² CARLYLE A gentleman. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. which hung behind in the queerest way. easy. These long. harsh forms are usually avoided. etc. witty." said Henry Esmond. falling on his knees.²ID." "sorrowfulest spectacles. and other words are preceded by more and most.²The Nation." From Ruskin: "The sharpest." "more odd. was most finished. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression." "more austere and holy. madam." "the wonderfulest little shoes. and patientest fusing. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. mournfulest.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. most small. who. as.²ID. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. "So help me God. I will. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. though born in no very high degree. polished. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. strange. peaceablest.Which rule. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries." "distantest relationships." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. and yet familiar. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. The following lists include the majority of them:² . and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. The general rule is. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. admirablest." Carlyle uses beautifulest. Adjectives irregularly compared. quiet.

(2) In Old English. which has gone out of use. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. Hind 2. 6. 2. oldest Nighest. . [Out] Outer. outermost Utmost. though from a different root. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. innermost Outmost. lesser Elder. (3) Little is used as positive to less. is often used. There was an old comparative bet. bad. last Hindmost. latter Hinder LIST II. throw away the worser part of it. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. worst. [In] Inner Inmost. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 164. which has softened to the modern best. Good or well Evil. older Nigher Nearer Later. next Nearest Latest. 3. List I. 7.² O. 9. A double comparative. uppermost LIST III. evil was the positive to worse. as in Shakespeare.LIST I. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 4. 8. The superlative I form was betst.²HAMLET. lesser.² We have it in a much lesser degree. as. utter 3. uttermost Upmost. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. as in the sentence (14th century). further Farthest. a double comparative. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. least. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 1.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 5. hindermost Much or many More Farther. Worser was once used. furthest 10.

are earlier than older. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. or series. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. The latter. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. making the modern farther.²forth. first. as long. "Many a little makes a mickle. doubling the inflection. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. greatest. for example. List II..² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. eldest. is quite common. Since later. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. The meanings greater. oldest. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. etc.² The more part being of one mind. except the form next. there is scarcely any distinction. meaning the largest part. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective." Its spelling has been micel. latest. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. are shown in such phrases as. In imitation of further. First became entirely detached from the series. but originally the comparison was nigh. strong. furthest. but not in meaning. (9) Latter and last are the older forms.²HAWTHORNE. as. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. to which is added -ost. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. and refer to time. ²LAMB. th came into the others. further. farthest. (5) The forms elder. to England we sailed. great. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.²ID.²KINGSLEY. . instead of lenger. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. moche. the old forms. The most part kept a stolid indifference.. much. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. an old superlative ending. near. since the m is for -ma. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. strenger. and the superlative nearest. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. farrest. a distinction has grown up between the two series. next. Between the two sets as they now stand. etc. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. muchel. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. came into use. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. and on it were built a double comparative nearer.

Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. or each may modify a different word or group of words. but not in their meaning. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. and have no comparative force. by the by. 168.²SCOTT. 167. The comparatives are so in form. Her. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Decidedly handsome." "the innermost moral soul. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. . 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Highest and midmost. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." "far-seeing as the sun. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. but they have no adjective positives. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Her bows were deep in the water. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. or have no comparative forms." "The outer is of the day. all may belong to the same noun." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. are like the comparative forms in List II. In List II. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²DE QUINCEY. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN.²KINGSLEY." -Most added to other words. was descried The royal banner floating wide. 166.²H. They have no superlatives. but her after deck was still dry. the upper light of the world. on the very topmost twig.²DE QUINCEY. BEECHER. W. (Sec. List III. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace.²EMERSON. Think what each adjective belongs to. being merely descriptive. in having no adjective positives. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective.²HAWTHORNE. There." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing." "their utmost exertion. The adjectives in List III.165.

² My then favorite. bright.²HOLMES. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. now our queen. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. and heaven-defying oaths. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. Exercise. 169. instead of saying. round. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. STEPHENS 5. satisfactory.²HAWTHORNE. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. 3. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. For thy stomach's sake. 4.²BIBLE. we may say "the then king. our new government. Richard Hooker. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²HAWTHORNE. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. 7. not decision alone.²TRENCH. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. deep. Bradbury and Evans. The seldom use of it.For example. It may still be argued. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES.²NOAH PORTER. philosophical. as. . rich. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. May we not. But in this sentence. usual modifies incomparable decision." in which then is an adverb. "the one who was then king. A few improper jests and a volley of good. and thine often infirmities. In the following quotations.²RUSKIN. Our sometime sister. 6." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. solid. the then and still owners. and broken. 2.²MRS. ²TROLLOPE. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. in prose. therefore. By a convenient brevity. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank." making then an adjective. STOWE. This. Other instances are. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. in this sentence. H.²A. and moral truth. deeply black eyes. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.

8. To every several man. This gave the young people entire freedom. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. (3) Its degree of comparison. if it has number. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. (4) What word or words it modifies. this. Since adjectives have no gender. 3. These points out what truths. modifies the word truths. 5. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. and I waited for none. and very few have number. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 7. . 6. positive degree. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. 2. MODEL FOR PARSING. or case. manly way. 170. (2) Its number. In parsing an adjective. modifies truths.What to tell in parsing. cannot be compared. if it can be compared. seventy-five drachmas. 9. the method of parsing is simple. plural number. 4. therefore demonstrative. frank. Exercise. To every Roman citizen he gives. across the plain. person. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. then. therefore descriptive. with awkward but rapid pace. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 10. compared by prefixing more and most. having a singular. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Unfamiliar describes truths. I ask nothing of you. not inflected for number. She made no reply. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked.

yonder oxen in the pasture. 26. and many poles supported the lower ones. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 32. it is so noble a fruit. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 16. 20. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. oxen. 25. 24. growing in the most unfavorable position. those dogs in the yard. 13. 27. 29. he won affections with ease. suggests such thoughts as these. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. as for armies that were too many by half. and dogs. Like most gifted men. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. and therefore more interesting to us. 18. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. Most fruits depend entirely on our care.11. 23. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. it rests on reality. Two hours elapsed. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 33. 21. 31. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. is the settlement of our own country. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 28. With every third step. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 14. not so much for travelers that were few. I know not what course others may take. 19. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. the same love to France would have been nurtured. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. To say what good of fashion we can. 12. the tomahawk fell. Here lay two great roads. 22. Their name was the last word upon his lips. are immutably fishes. . Nearer to our own times. In music especially. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. during which time I waited.

172. or the tane. that other. Our expressions the one. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. sometimes the tother. In Middle English the became an article. a before consonant sounds. the other. Examples: "a house. for example. Two relics. 173. meaning one. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds." "a yelling crowd. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. Their origin. were formerly that one." "an orange. such as we have been attempting to describe. A hard-struggling.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. the tither. An historian. just as adjectives do. An before vowel sounds." An with consonant sounds. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.²BREWER. and that remained a demonstrative adjective.34. the latter is still preserved in the expression. but the former is used. weary-hearted man was he. Many writers use an before h." "an honor. An or a came from the old numeral n." "a European. 174. In the sentence. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. these occurring as the tane. in vulgar English. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. ðat. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. the tother. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. th o." the words the and an belong to nouns. and a before consonant sounds. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel.²MACAULAY. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. ARTICLES. . 35. with an ordinary little garden. the tother. later th . he is no literary man. 171. s o. 37. that) which was also an article in Old English. even when not silent.²SCOTT. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy.

²COLERIDGE. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. Kinds. An article is a limiting word..²THOMAS JEFFERSON. on opening a story. When the is prefixed to a proper name. which cannot be used alone. 176. not descriptive.²G. or any individual of a group or class. Definition.²THACKERAY. as in the sentence." "the Ohio. BANCROFT. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. a person is introduced by a. doubtless.² . 178. the older n. thus.²HEROES OF ASGARD. and when the word river is omitted. 175. An or a is the indefinite article.. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with." the article indicates clearly that a river. An and a are different forms of the same word. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. as "the Mississippi. The Dakota tribes.² Don't you remember how. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²This use is noticed when. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Articles are either definite or indefinite. To call attention to attributes. is referred to. The is the definite article. NOTE. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. 177. or a group or class of things. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. and not a state or other geographical division. or group. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. or class. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. since it points out a particular individual. An hereditary tenure of these offices. 179. With names of rivers.²IRVING. Reference to a known object..

The simple rise as by specific levity. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. NOTE. for example.²G. For possessive person pronouns. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.²KINGSLEY.²ID. so is the evil. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. her. 181. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. or a match put between the fingers.The Bacon.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. Caution.²GIBBON. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU.²MOTLEY. BANCROFT. the song sparrow. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. With plural of abstract nouns. One thing for its class. as. His messages to the provincial authorities. Schelling. 2. the Hume. not into a particular virtue.² The faint.²EMERSON. laid it on the miry spot. the Spinoza. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. With adjectives used as nouns. . 182. Half abstract. would speedily extract the required information.²ID. 183. The. Common. Kant. the gallant. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.² As she hesitated to pass on. 1. 180. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. etc. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²EMERSON. If the good is there. but into the region of all the virtues.²SCOTT. and the redwing.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

Now. In the first. and not a verb. the most penetrating. to say something to or about some person or thing. Hence Definition. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. as. which may be a person. representing something which it influences or controls. with some word understood. Each influences some object. an article. b). (can) shame also has an object. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. In giving a definition. Definition and caution. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. in (c). taking the staff which always guided her steps. all do not express it in the same way. the most astute. In each case. The nature of the transitive verb.²BULWER . can deceive has an object. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. or an idea. in (b). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. the word following. but cannot be predicates. in this sentence from Bulwer. care. we consider a verb as one word. hence is not a verb. 203. a). "Put thou money in thy purse. c). for example. in (2. but fearing is not a predicate. All these are called transitive verbs. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. in (2. 204. from the Latin transire. endured what? anguish. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. and to receive the action expressed. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. and a preposition unite as a verb. a verb. which means to go over. Of those expressing action. a noun.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. lone took what? answer. By examining a few verbs. in (3. A verb is a word used as a predicate. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. Has takes the object hypocrisy. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. 201. in (3. obeyed is a predicate. 200: In (1)." Examine the sentences in Sec. "Put money in thy purse. etc.In (a). or a material thing. In the sentence. 202. b). an adverb. The nature of intransitive verbs. and. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. to go is no predicate. a preposition. and shame the most astute. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it." put is the predicate. or the object. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

or be fulfilled. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.²D. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. 2). . for example. the representative system ultimately fail. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. and may or may not be regarded true.²MACAULAY. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. WEBSTER. Most excellent stranger. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. as. Ideal. the writer can make the statement following. as.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. he will see the need of these ethics. popular government must be pronounced impossible. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. If this be the glory of Julius. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. in our case.I could lie down like a tired child.²may or may not be true.²FRANKLIN. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. they were recorded in the Book of Life. Again. 222.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].²SHELLEY.² If. Unreal²cannot be true. ²EMERSON. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. 215. the second founder. the first great founder of the Empire.²LONGFELLOW. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. 221.² Now. I. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. Condition or Supposition.²BRYCE. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. but. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.

² It was necessary. 8. But in no case could it be justified. is used to express purpose. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. to drink strong beer. and what kind of condition:² 1.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. might.. Subjunctive of Purpose. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. Epaminondas.²CALHOUN. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. and striven energetically to save Ney." etc. and should. though.. as. but when the verb precedes the subject. especially be. that we cannot but regret its absence. and sonorous. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. 3. the clause being introduced by that or lest. ²LOWELL. 6. society could not hold together. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. is of similar physiognomy. 223. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. In the following conditional clauses. I told him. Exercise. II. The voice. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. would have sat still with joy and peace. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. .²MACAULAY. which cannot be true. 4. if he speak to you. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²FRANKLIN. he supposed. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. WILLIS. melodious. P. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. if his lot had been mine. 2. if he was the man I take him for. she was regarded as a prodigy. unless. thus. 5.. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.²N. The subjunctive. would you. clear. except. may. he had better not have written.² CARLYLE. since he [Byron] was dead. 7. NOTE. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. If he had reason to dislike him. that he might be strong to labor. etc. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. do you think.²EMERSON.²BAYNE. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled.²FRANKLIN..² If these things were true.²SWIFT.

like the Latin. Subjunctive of Result. WEBSTER. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. like the quarry-slave at night. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. III. In Temporal Clauses.That vain it were her eyes to close.. I would it were! ²EMERSON. 226.²COLERIDGE.²MOORE. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. 224. 225. So live.²WORDSWORTH. Rise up. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. I've wished that little isle had wings. 227. VI. Let it rise. VII. .Thou go not.I have been the more particular. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. V. The English subjunctive. Expressing a Wish.²CARLYLE.²D. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²BRYANT. In a Noun Clause.²DE QUINCEY.²SOUTHEY. within its fairy bowers. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. IV. none of us could say.. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. After a verb of wishing. till it meet the sun in his coming. In Indirect Questions. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.Were wafted off to seas unknown. Ask the great man if there be none greater. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²ID.. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.And we.. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. To tell of what had passed.

I have no thought what men they be.Subject.And see the Braes of Yarrow. .And look thou tell me true.²THOREAU.²WORDSWORTH. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. we'll turn aside.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Concessive Clauses. of cash. which may be (a) Pronoun. VIII. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²SHELLEY.² DICKENS. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. tell me all that thou hast seen. 229. for example. Whatever betide. Object. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. See that there be no traitors in your camp. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. or whatsoever victual it may be. The first merit. After verbs of commanding.²DE QUINCEY.²COLERIDGE. is the ultimate fact of man's life. That hunger of applause. 228. (b) Adjective. etc. often contains a subjunctive. The noun clause. that everything be in its place.² Be the matter how it may.²TENNYSON. Come.²SCOTT. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. in its various uses as subject. in apposition. object. Some might lament that I were cold. Complement.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. is.²COLERIDGE. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. The essence of originality is not that it be new.²CARLYLE.

It must be remembered. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. for example. entreaties. Oh. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. (3) Request.²BRYANT. however. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. In spoken English.²SHELLEY. 232. or requests. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. a concession. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.²J. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. (2) Entreaty. Q.The spirit he loves remains. IMPERATIVE MOOD. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. to express a wish. fear none. Definition. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. 231. we had found [should have found] a poem here. ADAMS. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. though. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²CHANNING. love all men. 230. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. point to their immortal works. Usually second person. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Honor all men.² CARLYLE.(c) Adverb. and condition contrary to fact. (1) Command. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. . At the present day.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were.

and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Whatever inconvenience ensue. request. receive my hand. 7." whispered Kit." Exercises on the Moods. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.²SCOTT. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. but I + you.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. there will her heart and her prayers be. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. "Come along with me. noble earl.One glance at their array! 5. child of earth!While each performs his part. 3."Hush! mother. nothing is to be preferred before justice."²DICKENS Tell me. 2. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. to you implied in it. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. "The Devil take the goose. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.And God forget the stranger!" . Meet is it changes should controlOur being. we may use the imperative with we in a command. etc. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. lest we rust in ease. or I + they. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Mark thou this difference. etc. Break we our watch up. 8. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Part we in friendship from your land.²CAMPBELL. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Oh.. Quoth she..²SHAKESPEARE." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 6.And.

Till you might faint with that delicious pain.9.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. That sheaf of darts. ruined. He. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. Though he were dumb. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar." 16. 18. she ought to have it. and opinion displace opinion. . That a man parade his doubt.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Forget thyself to marble. He is.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. as though an instrument. 13." cried he. how he may do his work.Except. Well. Though abyss open under abyss. whether he do it right or wrong. 14. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. in what pomps and prosperities he like." 25. 10. Marshall. but repentant child. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.High up in silver spikes! 22. 20. or do it at all. Think not that I speak for your sakes." continued Old Morgan. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. will it not fall unbound. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. let him live where else he like. "Oh. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. it would speak.That they might answer him. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 19. then. 23. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 11. my dear madam. "Mr. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 26. no literary man. 21. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. "tell me where I may find my poor. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt.

The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. TENSE. five in the imperative. "It is not in man that walketh. and future.²nothing could exceed the amiable." present.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. to direct his steps. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. in the third person singular. 233. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. such as be. Siddons. the past.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. Old English had only two tenses. also. past. have. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. shall. by means of the present. kind. and the future tense. or whether it were as one member of a general party. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. a form ending in -eth. "Thou walkest. and future perfect tenses. in the conjugations. 28. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. five in the subjunctive. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. as. "Thou walkedst. or future time. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present." "If he comes.²the present tense." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions.² present. and the past tense. which represented present and future time. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. past perfect. tell him to wait. past. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. When the older pronoun thou was in use." . as will be shown later on. or agree with it. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. as the classical languages have. PERSON AND NUMBER. as. The tenses in detail. such as Latin and Greek. Tense means time. called auxiliaries. "I go away tomorrow." past. Tenses in English. whatever she did. Definition. will. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. Meantime. 235. 234.27. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as.

Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Singular 1. I be 2. tenses. walking. walked. CONJUGATION. Singular 1. and numbers. been. chooses. walkedst. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. moods. You (thou) be 3. for example. choosest. are. wert) 3. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. tense. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. In classical languages. "He walks. chosest). [He] were [They] were . were. Few forms. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. choosing. Singular 1. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. but in English. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. PRESENT TENSE.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. [He] is [They] are 3. The verb be has more forms. as. 236. etc. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. chooseth. PRESENT TENSE. etc. You are 2. Singular 1. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. walk has walk. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. chose. I were 2. mood. This is the third person." and this only in the present tense indicative.²am.²choose. Such verbs as choose have five. Indicative Mood. singular number. 237. walketh. Definition. chosen (old. is. persons. 238. since it is composed of several different roots. walks.

Imperative Mood. Instead of the plural are. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (2) As auxiliary verbs. (d) With the infinitive. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²GOLDSMITH. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. in four ways. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. (2) was. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. to form the passive voice. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. as.²SHELLEY..²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. were. etc.²WORDSWORTH.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.. -en. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. which was now become an occasional banquet.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. (3) be. for example. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. 240. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²BURKE .²SCOTT. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.²THACKERAY. The light that never was on sea and land. to express intention.²ID. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (b) With the past participle in -ed. though it is usually a dialect form. same as the German sind. condition. is. 239.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. etc. obligation. thus.His infancy was nurtured. Remarks on the verb be.

FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). I choose 2. PRESENT TENSE. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. I chose 2. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. etc. We chose You chose 3. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. 242. [He] choose [They] choose 3. You choose Plural. "I have gone" (present perfect). 1. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. past perfect. future perfect. 1. "I had gone" (past perfect). "I shall be. I chose 2. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE. as. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. ." (2) Present perfect. 1. as. tenses. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. You choose Plural. Singular. 240." "He will choose. You chose Plural. Singular. had. In addition to the above inflected forms. I choose 2. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. Singular. Machinery of a verb in the voices. You chose Plural.241. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. We chose You chose 3. tenses. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 1. by placing have. (2). Indicative Mood. Some of these have been indicated in Sec.

Present definite. . Present perfect definite. as. ACTIVE VOICE. Past. Future definite. Present. He has chosen. Present perfect definite. though. He chose. "I was chosen. Future perfect definite. of each tense. Past perfect. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. he chose (or were to choose). [If. He was choosing. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He had chosen. " Be choosing. will be given. Same as indicative. He will have chosen. Past perfect definite. lest. (2d per. he have chosen. Present. as. Same as indicative. He is choosing. Past definite. Present." 243. Present perfect. He will choose. " " " " " " " he be choosing. singular number. etc." (4) The passive forms. Future perfect. Past perfect definite. Present perfect. He had been choosing. Present definite. Future. Imperative Mood. he have been choosing.) Choose. Past perfect.] he choose. He has been choosing." "They had been running. He chooses. "I am running. Indicative Mood. Only the third person. He will he choosing. Past definite. Past. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning.(3) The definite form of each tense. He will have been choosing. Subjunctive Mood." "You are chosen. Present definite.

. if learned at all. Future." [Note to Teacher. Indicative Mood. he have been chosen. as. Present definite. however. Present perfect. Future perfect. None.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Past. Present. He was chosen. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. None. Also. Present perfect definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. None. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Present perfect. He has been chosen. Past Perfect. He will be chosen. Present tense. ." "He did strike. He had been chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. Present definite. He is being chosen. None. in affirmative sentences. He will have been chosen.] he be chosen. He was being chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. "He does strike.] [If. Past definite. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He is chosen.) Be chosen. Subjunctive Mood. None.NOTE. Past definite. but verbals. he had been chosen. 262). Future definite. " " " " " " " None. Past perfect definite. Imperative Mood. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). he were being chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec. lest. Present. (2d per. Past. Future perfect definite. Exercises should be given. Present perfect definite. etc. though.

verbs are strong or weak.[adj. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. lay. run. bounden] bitten. ran. catch. and may or may not change the vowel: as. but adds no ending. bit blown broken chidden. 245. beg. Some of these also have weak forms. 244. Definition. laid. NOTE. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. sleep. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. slept. caught. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bid bound. as. Past Tense. Kinds. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. drive. drove. which are in parentheses Present Tense. According to form.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. begged.

drunken] driven eaten. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden.

The form clomb is not used in prose." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active." In this confusion of usage. especially in that of an earlier period. cleaved. The former used to be cleave. nor a dog barked. 246.² We had each drank three times at the well. clave or clove. as. When it means to carry or to endure.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. instead of ate and eaten. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²TENNYSON. as (from Holmes)."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.²B. and another (born) for the passive. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. Not a cock crew.²GOLDSMITH. Sometimes in literary English. cleaved. only one set remains certain.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.²as (from Shakespeare).²MILTON. cleft (to split).²one meaning to adhere or cling. and the latter. TAYLOR. "his bounden duty.²COLERIDGE. "stricken with paralysis. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. now told us it was time for repose. cleave.²cleave. for example. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. and. to split. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.² Thou hast clomb aloft. as. . instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. Historically. borne is also a passive. How fairy Mab the junkets eat." "a sunken snag. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. Our cock. but is much used in vulgar English." "a drunken wretch. cleft. as. and sometimes occurs in poetry.²IRVING. probably to avoid confusion with this. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. which always crew at eleven. ²THACKERAY." "the cloven hoof. cloven. the other. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.

²BYRON.The form gotten is little used. 8.² If. begun. 7.² We had all got safe on shore." but not much as a participle. as. Throw. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Give. shore is rare. even in poetry. Find. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 5. for example. The butler was hanged. and grasping at his sword. .²DE FOE. shook. 4. thrown. 10. Fling. flung. drove. He sate him down. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 6. fell. broke. began. found. maiden. Begin. Freeze. Shake."²KINGSLEY. found. gave. which is seldom used except in poetry. given.²WORDSWORTH.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Fall. 245). Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.²TENNYSON. frozen. and seized a pen. One example out of many is.²SCOTT. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Exercises. fallen. 3. as "a shorn lamb. 2. shaken. Usually shear is a weak verb. Drive. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. driven. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Break.²BIBLE. froze. We usually say. 9. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. threw. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. for example. (a) From the table (Sec. This heard Geraint. flung. broken." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective.

PRESENT.²SCOTT. 249. Could may be subjunctive. according to the infinitive used.." Must is present or past tense.²CHANNING. Ability. "far off his coming shines. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. from the obsolete verb motan.[To the Teacher. etc. there is one general principle. but came through analogy with should and would. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. "So mote it be.²PAINE. 220. His superiority none might question. . like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. or when it expresses wish.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. must have been an ocular deception. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. as in Sec. Can is used in the indicative only. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.. it is used only in the indicative mood. It is indicative when it expresses permission.²HAWTHORNE. for full drill on the forms.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. They are as follows:² PRESENT. HAMILTON.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. purpose. (See also Sec. Must is historically a past-tense form. Indicative Use: Permission.²CHANNING This. 247. The same remarks apply to ought.. ability. 251. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. which survives in the sentence. The l in could did not belong there originally. PAST. 250.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. Like must.. as it has two meanings. as. PAST. Have we valuable territories and important posts. or. of course. as it sometimes does. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. Subjunctive use."²WINIER. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. 223.. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. etc.

I shall be gone. C. Second and third persons. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. with pronouns of the first person.² Futurity and questions²first person. she should ride like a queen. promise. yea.² With respect to novels. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. WEBSTER. as. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. "I think I will go. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. Shall and Will. The following are examples:² Never mind. what shall I say?²N. while ought always has to.²IRVING. MOULTON. shall and should are used.² (a) To express authority. for example. BROCKDEN BROWN.²THAXTER.²COOPER.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. as. She rejects his suit with scorn." Uses of shall and should.Nay. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. (b) In questions asking for orders.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. my lad. The sea shall crush thee.e. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. and corn to hoe. to the neglect of shall and should.² The time will come full soon.²LONGFELLOW.²BULWER. shall and should are used. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. especially in the United States. not plod along like apeasant.²MACAULAY. She should not walk. in the form of command. future action). as. to use will and would. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. They shall have venison to eat. 252. he said. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.. (b) In indirect quotations. .²L. or confident prediction.

²SWIFT. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. LARNED. with the conviction that he should win in the end. I never was what I should be.² I will go myself now. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted..Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. etc.²WORDSWORTH. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. second and third persons.²ROGERS.²WINTER. for example. ..²WORDSWORTH. 253. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²CABLE. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. and is equivalent to ought. was to be expected. or a promise. for example. thus. time.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.²H. And promised. BROWN. as the sole inventor.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²WORDSWORTH. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²A. purpose. JR. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. First.²BYRON. JAMES. B. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. and will not return until all is finished. as.that I would do him justice. (c) With direct questions of the second person. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.²SCOTT.²C. Disguising a command.

Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. would is used to express a wish. To be sure. so you will. Thine was a dangerous gift. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. will and would often denote an action as customary. 254.²SCOTT. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.² Thou wilt take the skiff. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). and two of my people. They will go to Sunday schools. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.²IRVING. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.²War Records. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.. This puts the order more mildly. for example.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. without regard to future time.²BURKE. when thou wast born. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it..²SCOTT. (4) With FIRST. AND THIRD PERSONS. as. will and would are used to express simple futurity.. action merely expected to occur. Mere futurity. In this stately chair would he sit. as if it were merely expected action. SECOND.²the original meaning of the word will. PASSIVE VOICE.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. as. will is used to express command.²BANCROFT. The gift of Beauty. through storms their brothers are afraid of. for example. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. etc. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. BROWN. for punishment or intimidation.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.. When I am in town. Would thou hadst it not.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt..² DICKENS.²LANDOR. .² Subject I omitted: often so. Roland. and mark on the grounds the works. B.

(a) From Secs. I will be chosen. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. I shall choose. 2. He informed us. We shall be chosen. 3. Exercises on Shall and Will. Thou art what I would be. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 3. [He] shall choose. 2. . We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. Singular. I shall be chosen. promise. [He] shall be chosen. 6. You will choose. 5. You will choose. 252 and 253. We shall choose. Singular. 3. 3. Singular. Plural. 4. 2. I will choose. [They] will choose. 2. [They] shall be chosen. 1. You will be chosen. 1. You shall be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. [They] shall choose. [He] will be chosen. 3. 1. [He] will choose. 1. 3. We will be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. and justify the use of shall and will. To express determination.Singular. We will choose. PASSIVE VOICE. [They] will be chosen. You shall choose. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Plural. "I shall not run. Plural. Plural.:² ACTIVE VOICE. You shall be chosen. You will be chosen. You shall choose. 2." answered Herbert stubbornly. etc. and that of the newest cut. yet only seem. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 1. 2.

Lucy stood still. set. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. put. very anxious. "I am a wayfarer. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 256. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. my son.²ID. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. as. and I have nothing to say. No. 11. 255. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. need some attention and explanation. Past Tense. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. or mylk and wastel breed.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. 10. The beast made a sluggish movement. which may be called irregular weak verbs.²CHAUCER. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8." 14. Without having attended to this. 257. as if he would have more of the enchantment. But the rest. put. 13. WEAK VERBS. bereave besought Past Participle. Irregular Weak Verbs." the stranger said. bereft.²Class I. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. and have no change of vowel. Present Tense. bereave beseech bereft. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. This ending has now dropped off. put.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. 9. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. bereaved besought .7. was -de or -te. set. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. then. 12. Of smale houndes hadde she. The old ending to verbs of Class II.

leant leaped. leant leaped. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. spelt spilt staid. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made .burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

an imperfect. when inflections became fewer. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 9. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. Imperfect. Indefinite. I returned to reflection on my situation. 8. ACTIVE VOICE. 266. 267. expressing purpose.6. formed a kind of bedstead. [To] choose. Three saplings.²the creature warring against the creating power. to was used before the infinitive generally. and a perfect definite form. will (with should and would). It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. try clemency. [To] have been chosen. 268. [To] have chosen. Infinitives. INFINITIVES. [To] be chosen.. Indefinite. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. and when passive. PASSIVE VOICE. 10. .. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). they have an indefinite. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. an indefinite and a perfect form. like participles. To with the infinitive. In Sec. Perfect definite. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. [To] be choosing. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. a perfect. Perfect. Cases when to is omitted. Perfect. have no tense. 7. But later. Nothing of the kind having been done.. [To] have been choosing. as in the Old English. When active. to express action unconnected with a subject.

as the credulous imagine. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. But there was nothing to do.²DE QUINCEY. please.²TENNYSON. feel. While the gerund expresses action. "I do go" etc.² She was a kind. as. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. .²GOLDSMITH. HALE. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. and emphatic forms of the present and past.²HOWELLS.²it may be governed as a noun. and like a noun in use. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. it is often preceded by the definite article.²IRVING. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal." Examples are. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. "She ask my pardon. can (could). hear. it may be the subject of a verb." "I shall have chosen. under "Analysis. as in the expression.²MACAULAY. too. "He will choose. as. sometimes need (as. learn [doth learn is one verb." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. bid (command). negative. 272. or the object of a verb or a preposition. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.²COOPER. also in the imperative. also let. poor woman!" cried Charles. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).² What! doth she. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. make. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. see. watch. 270. as. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. "a house to let.(2) After the verbs may (might).." etc. GERUNDS.). E. The gerund is like the participle in form. liberal woman. do (as. 271. and corn to hoe. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. it has several attributes of a noun. They shall have venison to eat. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs." (4) In exclamations. must.²E. 269.

Sec. which name an action or state. which express action and also modify. II). but do not assert. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. five infinitives. (2) Pure participles." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. (5) Gerunds." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." also (2. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. above." Exercise. 273." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." "Certainly dueling is bad.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun.²Find sentences containing five participles. making the definite tenses. What a vast. brilliant. Then how pleasing is it. which have lost all verbal force. 2. after examining the nest." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. but cannot govern. to see the returning hope of the parents. (4) Pure adjectives. b). "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Words in -ing are of six kinds." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. 4." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. and wonderful store of learning! . when. and five gerunds. (6) Verbal nouns. and has been put down. which express action. Exercise. on your leaving the spot. which express action. (3) Participial adjectives. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. may govern and be governed. according to use as well as meaning.

much corroded. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. I. 10. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. he gave out sentence by sentence. I suppose I was dreaming about it. or imperative. (2) Voice. slowly. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. but. (b) as to use. (4) Tense. Thackeray did not. 14. 13.²strong or weak. round which is an iron railing. 16. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 275. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. dictating from his chair. bearing her national emblem. In parsing verbs. 234. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. (3) Mood. giving principal parts. . In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. by object lessons. give reality to your teaching.²indicative. He is one of the most charming masters of our language.²transitive or intransitive. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. What is dreaming? 8. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 12.²active or passive. like Sir Walter Scott. you must. 9. 6. VERBS.5. (5) Person and number. The only means of ascending was by my hands. He spread his blessings all over the land. Caution. subjunctive. 7. write twenty pages without stopping.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 15. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 11.

VERBALS. In 2. It has been intimated in Sec. 4." Sometimes it does. (a) From what verb derived. Especially frequent are those made up of should. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. imperfect. (b) its use (Sec. In such sentences as 1. call might a weak verb. 277. . and parting day linger and play on its summit. 278(2). see Sec. indicative. definite. past tense. active. III. (1) Participle. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. and should always be analyzed as phrases. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 2. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. give points (a) and (b). The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. perfect. intransitive. etc. etc. You are gathered to your fathers. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. till it meet the sun in his coming. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. (b) whether active or passive. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. has for its subject Lee. past tense. Let it rise! let it rise. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. then parse it as an adjective. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. might. could. would. indicative (as it means could). Take these examples:² 1. Exercise. 2. verbals. call should a weak verb. (c) to what word it belongs. The government might have been strong and prosperous. and not taken as single verbs. perfect. must. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. If a participial adjective." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. But unless the verb is present. (3) Gerund. and ends in -s. we must beware of the rule. therefore active. may. II. (2) Infinitive. in the world. has the subject government. 273).. Parse the verbs. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. 235. usually it does not. VERB PHRASES. can.276. followed by a pure infinitive without to. 3. (b) whether indefinite. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. intransitive. 278. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. no sin nor sorrow.

²a getting-out of their bodies to think. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 16. or. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 22. a deafening shout. as rolled from wing to wing. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. he thought only of her. see that it is in good condition.Henceforth in me instill. 10. 6.Down all the line. from a sort of temporary death. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 11. With them. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. The soul having been often born. 12. and wondered if she were yet awake. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things.O God. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 23. 9. When he arose in the morning. a sweet good will. as the Hindoos say. 24. 15. 18. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. In going for water. However that be. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor.5. 19. . a new bursting forth of the sun. So. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. 14." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. He passed across the room to the washstand. morning is not a new issuing of light. 8. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 13. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. as usual. leaving me upon the bed. a new waking up of all that has life. Right graciously he smiled on us. 21. 17. 20. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill.

To the almost terror of the persons present. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. place. for example.² The young man reveres men of genius. ADVERBS. and so on. and men of leisure and cultivation. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 29. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. or manner: as. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. Nor was it altogether nothing. 26. and limit adjectives or adverbs. as. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend.²THACKERAY. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. Is it only poets."²DE QUINCEY. Adverbs modify. . an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road.²time. When action is expressed. Oh. to consent." An adjective or an adverb. 279. and live ere life be spent. 27. who live with nature?²ID. for the hour of rest is at hand. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. And now wend we to yonder fountain.²CARLYLE. The word adverb means joined to a verb." "He was absolute.²EMERSON. they are more himself than he is. "William's private life was severely pure.25.Feast while we may. thou sayest. because. to speak truly." Sometimes a noun or pronoun." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. A verb. Better it were. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.²SHELLEY.

for example. An adverb.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. or a word group used as such. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. before. 281.²LEIGH HUNT. 169.²THOREAU. but some verb understood. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. NOTE. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. and that. being adverbs naturally and fitly. not the noun. Thus considered. ever. as now. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.²These last differ from the words in Sec. has induced some of us to attend it.² LOWELL.²T. 280. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. It may also modify a sentence. Definition. B. (2) according to their use in the sentence. I draw forth the fruit.² FRANKLIN. thus. while those in Sec. to-day.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. We are offered six months' credit. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed.He was incidentally news dealer. hitherto. Surely happiness is reflective. 169 are felt to be elliptical. ²IRVING. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. A phrase. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. as. there are six classes:² (1) Time. is a modifying word. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.²BYRON. 282. as shown in the sentences. and half awfully. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. not simply the forms used in predication. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.²TROLLOPE. perhaps. . which may qualify an action word or a statement. like the light of heaven. then. but still with a rich bloom to it. etc. NOTE. all wet and glossy. but really modifying. Make music to the lonely ear. lately. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. A clause or sentence. ALDRICH.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.

. too. The more they multiply. whithersoever..² The master. whencesoever.there. etc.thither. for example.²R. 283). singly. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. above. telling how much. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. etc. surely. especially the comparative of these words. telling how anything is done. (6) Assertion. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.²LECKY.²HAWTHORNE. the more perfect will be their obedience. that these adverbs form a very large class. enough.whence. . and not infrequently are found in literary English.was for this once of her opinion. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. etc. [Sidenote The status of such. beautifully. slowly. as here. So also in Grote. 283.yonder. and others. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. etc.²BURKE. greatly. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. (5) Degree. the more friends you will have. twice. maybe. (see also Sec. etc.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. as perhaps. bravely.near.(2) Place. very. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. LOUIS STEVENSON. as well. or how far he believes it to be true.²DE QUINCEY. White. just.which gained him such universal popularity.²BROWNING. Motley.where. better. possibly.thence. at least. slightly..²IRVING. two by two. partly.²SHAKESPEARE. as little. much. This long's the text. Emerson. thus.. while so precedes only the adjective usually. Thackeray. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. not. (4) Number. I was.. as hence. telling how many times: once. etc. probably. (3) Manner. the more evidently they love liberty. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.whither. as hither. Meekness.

²THACKERAY. Beau Fielding.² KINGSLEY. Mighty. have the additional function of asking a question. 286. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. STOWE. Again. Franklin. Some adverbs. Burke. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. It is only occasionally used in literary English. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. and its lawn before [place].² You are mighty courteous.²FIELDING. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Interrogative."²SCOTT. 285. and art but a fool. Simple. Notice meanings. Dickens." said the king.²GOLDSMITH." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. a mighty fine gentleman. Defoe.²"He walked too far [place]. . Aldrich. Emerson. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form." "That were far better [degree]. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. for example.²THACKERAY. Direct questions.² "Mighty well. besides modifying.²BAYNE. Holmes. 284. A pretty large experience." "The house." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. for example.Pretty." "He spoke positively [manner]. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Such are most of those given already in Sec. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Hard blows and hard money. De Quincey. Neville. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." "I have seen you before [time]. Pretty is also used by Prescott.²BULWER. Kingsley. "Peace. 282. and other writers. B.²HAWTHORNE.

CLAY. (4) Degree. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. . Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²BYRON (3) Manner.²BYRON. (5) Reason. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. 287. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. WEBSTER. (2) Place. I hearkened. I know not why.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. they smiled. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.²D. (4) Degree. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. for example.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. When did this humane custom begin?²H. (2) Place. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²POE. I will not ask where thou liest low.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. I do not remember when I was taught to read.²BULWER.

Many adverbs are compared. soon. as. 288.²SHAKESPEARE. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs.. higher. not an adverb.) rather 289. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. and. obs. when. only occasionally having -er and -est. have the same inflection as adjectives. Only that we may wiselier see. For further discussion. just as adjectives do. Its strings boldlier swept. use. representing four classes. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. high.But in reality. Then must she keep it safelier. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. soonest. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. Many adjectives have the same ending. when does not express time and modify.²BYRON.eyes. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. Exercise.. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. see Sec. highest. furthest (rathe. irregularly compared.²TENNYSON. but the whole clause. Tell what each word in ly modifies. when compared. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. The following. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.²COLERIDGE. Superlative. sooner. 290. Form vs. ." Exercise. further farthest.²EMERSON. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. well much little far late Comparative.

merely introduces a sentence. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. near. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. etc. instead of being used adverbially. many words without -ly have the same form. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Frequently the word there. There are eyes. 6." Compare these:² 1. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark.²TENNYSON.And his mien of kingly state. to be sure. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. kindly and good-natured in secret. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. Again. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. if it has the verb be. quick-flashing eye. 4.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 5. 3. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. With his proud. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. And all about. as.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. 8. Such are most.²WORDSWORTH. But he must do his errand right. hardly. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. He is inexpressibly mean.²IRVING. 291. Special use of there. or down the leaves laughed through. evenly. 292. nearly. 7. Not near so black as he was painted. hard. mostly. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. that in Old and Middle English. even. 2.²THACKERAY. . more courtly in their manners.²CHAUCER.²ID. 2. The reason is.1.² EMERSON. but with a different meaning. whether adverbs or adjectives. curiously jolly.

7. 10. 17.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. For the impracticable. 2. 16. but from my fall? 6. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Exercise. 5. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. But a few steps farther on. but continually shifted. 18. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. (2) Degree of comparison. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. according to meaning and also use. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. at the regular wine-shop. 4. 3. if the word is compared. It is the Cross that is first seen. the Madonna is in great glory. The higher we rise in the scale of being. In parsing adverbs. burning in the center of the temple. is always politically unwise. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. and always. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 12. 15. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 11. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 293. Thither we went. and sate down on the steps of a house. 9. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. however theoretically enticing. . give² (1) The class.

hence. but the student will readily find them. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. should be omnipotent for evil? 24.19. 295. 22. It was pretty bad after that. therefore. But now the wind rose again. however. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. 21. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. connecting words. then. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. Clauses. 294. ." Paragraphs. Definition." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Unlike adverbs. sentences. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. A conjunction is a linking word. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. but side by side within the American Union. 20. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. CONJUNCTIONS." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but." Sentences. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. nor. or sentence groups. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. word groups. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. upon which the sun now shone forth. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. etc.

296. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. then. The assertion.. of the same rank. as well as the room door. neither.nor. (2) Subordinate. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. the window being open. usually between two things.. as but. however. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.or. only.. and not man corn.Classes of conjunctions. While the earth bears a plant.or whether.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. Your letter. .. and. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Nor mark'd they less. as. neither. had its weight. Adversative.or. whether.. "Howbeit.. not only.. or the sea rolls its waves.or. Alternative. nor. as well as. introducing a reason or cause. joining words.. 297.but (or but also).but." Nevertheless.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. Causal. Correlatives. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. nor. The chief ones are. word groups. either.nor.. the bread was spent. (3) CAUSAL. (2) ADVERSATIVE.. likewise. 298.. however. Some of these go in pairs.. Some go in threes. therefore. (4) ALTERNATIVE... answering to each other in the same sentence. etc. whether. serves but to show their ignorance. as.. etc. as and. whether.. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE..or. either. both... also. either.. yet. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. else.. neither. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. while. but is emperor in his own right.and. They are or.. the butter too. moreover. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. hence. etc. still. for. not only. expressing a choice.

whereto. seeing..²DE QUINCEY.²J. 299. that. except. Time. even if. as. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. He is not only bold and vociferous. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me.²PAULDING. in apposition. on condition that. before. since. nor creeping thing. (3) MANNER: how.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. etc.²BURKE. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. nor green leaf. as. now. (2) TIME: when. although. QUINCY. so that. It is. in order that. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. so that. though. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. however. Neither the place in which he found himself. so. especially that after so. nor echo. as. whence. whither. etc. since. ²ALLSTON. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. etc. in case. sometimes if..²COOPER.²IRVING. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. nor wing of bird. wherever. (6) PURPOSE: that. (7) RESULT: that. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. howsoever.²WILSON. so. Where the treasure is. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. until. etc. ere. so.. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. whereas. after. unless. there will the heart be also. whether. object. whithersoever.. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. provided that. provided. while. whenever. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. lest. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican.²BIBLE. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. .

²BYRON. Comparison. Condition. not as they were expected or intended.So I behold them not. Manner. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.²COLERIDGE.²AMES. Result.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. We wish for a thousand heads. Purpose. I was again covered with water. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. a thousand bodies. As a soldier.²DEFOE. Substantive. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²BURKE.²IRVING.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Let the world go how it will.² HAWTHORNE.That he gave her wounds repose. Then Denmark blest our chief. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²EMERSON.²AMES. JACKSON. but not so long but I held it out.²EMERSON. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. reason. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. So many thoughts moved to and fro. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. H. Now he is dead. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.² H.²CAMPBELL. Cause.² WORDSWORTH. .² EMERSON. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²AMES.That vain it were her eyes to close. Concession. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.

the lady called her servant. While a faction is a minority. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 6. And they lived happily forever after. Exercises. 14. etc. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON.Let us see whether the greatest. 4. 5. 7. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. And then recovering. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. then.²RUSKIN. some words²for example.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 15. hold a subordinate rank. 2. and hid her there. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. No one had yet caught his character. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. as. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. He was brought up for the church. as he shot in air. the wisest. The moth fly. In what point of view. While patriotism glowed in his heart. however. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. she faintly pressed her hand. 300. After he was gone. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. Crept under the leaf. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 13. since. her real merit is known at home. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 12. it will remain harmless. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. . However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. that. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. 3. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. As will have been noticed. They. Besides. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. while. 10. 9.

as is often equivalent to as if.²BYRON. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. His voice . and part as though we parted not. . Consequently. they connect. "We meet. As for as if.²HOOD. 304. etc. as is shown by the use of as though..²IRVING. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. word groups. So silently we seemed to speak. GREELEY. As though. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. and the frame will suit the picture.. in this case.So slowly moved about. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. As if. thus. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. In parsing conjunctions. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.As though a rose should shut.Clouded." as. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. expressing degree if taken separately..² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. for example. even as they would weep. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. In Emerson's sentence. In poetry. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. 302. and be a bud again. If analyzed. none of the lashings having given way. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.²EMILY BRONTE.16. 301. 303.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. the expression would be. SPECIAL REMARKS. (2) What words. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.

dines with as good an appetite.²EMERSON 3. in 2. or in the forest. "Doctor.²I find them true in Concord. It may be safely trusted. When the gods come among men. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. he sleeps as warm. and its clause is independent. as beside his own chimneys. Some conjunctions. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.²that the fairies do not like to be named. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. in 3. but of the natural. because. 3. For example. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. the Sphinx was slain. that it might testify of that particular ray. he is also the correlative of nature. so that I could not stir abroad. It continued raining. He is the compend of time. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and the like. so means provided. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. All the postulates of elfin annals. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. and its clause depends on the other. . so means therefore. and. In classifying them. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. At sea. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. 9. others belong to several classes. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries." said his wife to Martin Luther. 7.Caution.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. so it be faithfully imparted. etc.²DEFOE 2. when. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. 6. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. If he could solve the riddle. 10. or in the snow. 12.²is subordinate of condition. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. He dismisses without notice his thought. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. are regularly of one particular class. compare the sentences. so they paddled on. and associates as happily.. 2. because it is his. Exercise. they are not known. 5. 4. so that expresses result. 13. and very seldom?" 8. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 11. such as nor.² 1.

but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. in many a heart. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. however. 20. enthroned. 30. 24. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 22. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 305. For. 21. And whether consciously or not. PREPOSITIONS. you must be. won't you lay on? 17.. in this they agree. 29.14. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties.²else it is none. whose names I omit. therefore. There was no iron to be seen. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. Goodness must have some edge to it. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. save it were sinful like herself. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. I speak. . to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. of good novels only. that both were wayward. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. the whole conditions are changed. 23. 27. It may be so in the majority of cases. 15. when it was presented to them. It is clear. 19. 26. 28. 18. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. Now you have the whip in your hand. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. Still. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 25. she might have the family countenance. 16.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

he stopped.²Find sentences with three different uses of at.²EVERETT. Exercise. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. etc.²DE QUINCEY. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at the best. STODDARD. etc. at first. H. at work. as. (4) Measure of excess. at peace. At St. at most. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at naught. by many a million of acres. by the ruins of nations. at random. By my faith.²B.²COOPER.² (1) The general meaning of place. Richard was standing by the window. at length. (2) Time. at play. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. by the wrecks of time.. at any rate. 320.²M. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. by means near or close to. at one. CONWAY. Exercise. By. expressing the degree of difference. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. (3) Agency or means. at war. by the blessed memory of the departed. For. the first port made by the ship.²SWIFT.²ALDRICH. at the worst. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²R. 321. Like at. at once. At that time [the earth] was richer. D. at all. at rest. She saw the boat headed for her.²WARNER. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. . at least. ²PARTON. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. Helena.²ID. TAYLOR The angel came by night. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside.

. (6) Like as. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.²H. "thou hast counseled wisely. they are now for us. incitement to action.²EMERSON. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.(2) In favor of.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline.²LAMB. for the benefit of. if your worship can accomplish that. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. in behalf of.²HOOD.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. BANCROFT. An Arab woman. a person or thing. considering that etc.²PARKMAN. (9) Motive. meaning with regard to. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. reason.²E. the Colonna motto would fit you best. (3) Duration of time. L. etc. There are gains for all our losses. (5) Reference. for all slips of hers. as being. He and they were for immediate attack. for famine.²W. ate her child. But the Colonel. For the rest. respecting.²IRVING. etc. Still. or in spite of.²ID. (4) Substitution or exchange." answered Master Brackett. GARRISON. and leaped for joy.² RUSKIN. H. had a forest of poor relations. "Nay. for all his title. poor fellow. meaning in the character of. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. cause. but a few sunsets since. (7) Concession. meaning although."²SCOTT By my faith. etc. he repented of his folly. or extent of space. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.. For him.²HOLMES. The twilight being.²PARKMAN. as to. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. "For a fool.." said the Lady of Lochleven. E.One of Eve's family.²STODDARD.

The original meaning of of was separation or source. (2) Origin. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. if not a desperate man. From. The young cavaliers. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. nay.²HIGGINSON. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. The king holds his authority of the people. From harmony.²HALE.²BANCROFT. cause.²MILTON.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. or reason. Of. The From Relation.²H. H.²ID. (1) Origin or source. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. like from. from a desire of seeming valiant.²HUME.²HUXLEY. The general idea in from is separation or source. A distrustful.²DRYDEN. Exercise. (3) Time. more. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. It was from no fault of Nolan's. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. 323. Exercise. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. . 322. (4) Motive. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. ceased to be merciful. Like boys escaped from school.

²GAVARRE. there were only twenty-one members present.²clear of. cure. south of.²PARKMAN. etc. rob. . Back of that tree. especially out of. He is away of his own free will. "I am glad of that.² HUXLEY. (b) After some adjectives. Asked no odds of. etc. out of the most unpromising materials. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. of his own knowledge. (5) Expressing agency. disarm. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. as north of.²SCOTT Who formed.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.²ALDRICH. Of the Forty. (6) Partitive. and grass. acquitted them of.²BANCROFT. (3) With expressions of material. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²BAYARD TAYLOR. or breastpin of native gold. E. demand."²E.²ID. etc. More than one altar was richer of his vows. that Cromwell once ruled England. free of. purge. weeds. relieve. deprivation. free. ask. Sandals. deprive. expressing a part of a number or quantity. White shirt with diamond studs. divest.²LEW WALLACE.. The hills were bare of trees. A singular want of all human relation. wide of. (d) With words expressing distance. reason. etc. clear. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. bare of. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. (c) After nouns expressing lack. ²PARTON. etc. such as ease. bound with thongs of boar's hide. The author died of a fit of apoplexy.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. Other Relations expressed by Of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. motive.²HIGGINSON. rid. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²DICKENS II. beg.²BOSWELL. HALE. You cannot make a boy know.

²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. (9) Of time. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. Idiomatic use with verbs. standing. etc. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²BANCROFT. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²BANCROFT.. could give shelter from his contumely. equal to about.²FROUDE. when the first is descriptive of the second. with its object.²COOPER. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. for the possessive. (8) Appositional. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. (10) Of reference.²BANCROFT.²ALDRICH. being equivalent to an infinitive.²LAMB. (c) Two nouns. of a sudden. 309.²HALLECK. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.He washed out some of the dirt. The nation of Lilliput. See also Sec.²ID. of late. CHANNING. (7) Possessive. with regard to. The fair city of Mexico. Not even woman's love. (b) Noun and gerund. and the dignity of a queen. E.²SWIFT. concerning.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. Besides the phrases of old.²LOWELL. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. . of is used in the sense of during. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²W. ²IRVING. Such a book as that of Job.²PRESCOTT. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.

²PARKMAN.²DE QUINCEY. etc. (b) With motion. To.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. such as admit. and others. complain. Upon my reputation and credit. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²MRS. SIGOURNEY. 325. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. Exercise. allow. It also accompanies the verbs tire. consist. (3) Reference. on the alert. repent. 324.²ALDRICH. disapprove.²EMERSON. on view.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. On. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. on a sudden. avail (one's self). and not a day more. The general meaning of on is position or direction. you are eighteen. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²BRYANT. . on the wing. accept. permit. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence.²PARKMAN.²Find sentences with six uses of of. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. ²BANCROFT. (4) In adjurations. Exercise. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. on trial. without adding to their meaning. On my life. on high. (2) Time. Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon. etc. on board. approve. equal to about. concerning. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. Upon is seldom used to express time.²PARKMAN.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire.

268).²BENTON To our great delight. 326.²B..²BULWER.²IRVING.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. it may be genuine poetry.. to my taste. To the few. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. unmasked.²PARTON.Come to the bridal chamber. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. had ceased to be.²PARKMAN. (b) Referring to be written over. mid meant in company with. .of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²HALE..²LANG.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. His brother had died. gay Comedy appears. whose influence is felt to this hour. Revolutions. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. In Old English..'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. to him.²often to the loss of vigor. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²GOLDSMITH. interest. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. We cook the dish to our own appetite. He usually gave his draft to an aid. With. does the mere music. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Nor. (2) Expressing result. Death!²HALLECK. But when. Exercise. (5) Equivalent to according to. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²BRYANT. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.

Exercise. but with you. 327.²Find sentences with four uses of with. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. E.²DE QUINCEY.²LANG. (2) Instrumentality.²SCOTT.²COOPER. reason.²HALE.²WALLACE (7) Time.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON. Messala.²HOWELLS. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. (3) Cause.²E. (4) Estimation. "poetry is not a pursuit. She seemed pleased with the accident. (5) Opposition. first of all.²CHANNING. he gave millions to the sword. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. it is necessary. as with you. . or with the haunch of our near leader. transmitted from the beginning. motive. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. It seemed a supreme moment with him.²DE QUINCEY. felt it unsafe to trifle further. With all his sensibility. had already reached the defile. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. He expired with these words. in spite of. to find the object of the preposition. with Heyward at its head. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. HALE. opinion.The advance.²ALDRICH. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. I think.²HOWELLS. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. He was wild with delight about Texas. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. with all his boldness. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. Either with the swingle-bar. but a pleasure"?²LANG.

3.²ID. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. The guns were cleared of their lumber. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. Exercises. I looked towards my windows. of without. In (2). (3) without a country. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. by which a dozen apples. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. The object of on board is ships. Be that as it will. In (1). one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. shook it directly over my head. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. the phrase answers the question where. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. came tumbling about my ears. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. which. of on. but all to no purpose. Whereupon. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. because I had given the provocation. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. . I heard a noise just over my head. beginning. In (3). he followed us one day into those gardens. country. telling what man. (4) from the beginning. we met the defaulter here. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board.²SWIFT 2. I speak these things from a love of justice. (2) on which. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. of from. 4. or was. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. and knocked me down flat on my face. I felt my box raised very high in the air.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. And so on. I called out several times. hence we say. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. To our general surprise. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. before the dwarf left the queen. without a country modifies man. 5. I remember. like the clapping of wings. the malicious rogue. but I received no other hurt. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. 2.

plumed for battle. 18. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 12. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. His breeches were of black silk. 16. . Carteret was far from being a pedant. grasping at the child. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road.Without stop or stay. in town. 15. With all his learning. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 9. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. to one dark and gloomy. when. He locked his door from mere force of habit.He spurred his courser on. For my part. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 17. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The mother sank and fell.6. 20. 19. 13. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. On all subjects known to man. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 7. 11. 24. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 14. in this respect. 23. after a restful morning. 25. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 22. he favored the world with his opinions. 26. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 21. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The savage army was in war-paint. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 29. 10. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 27. 8. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. I like to see the passing. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition.

Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²WEBSTER. That was a dreadful mistake. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. We wish that labor may look up here. A few are discussed below.²STOCKTON.²COLERIDGE. . 328. THAT.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (2) As an adjective pronoun.²BEECHER.²WEBSTER.²HUXLEY.²WEBSTER. that you might behold this joyous day. He will raise the price. 330. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (c) Substantive conjunction. That is what I understand by scientific education. and be proud in the midst of its toil. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. and not according to form. not merely by the amount of the tax. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (3) As a relative pronoun. (b) Of result.30.² JOHNSON. WHAT. And now it is like an angel's song. (1) Relative pronoun. 329. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (4) As an adverb of degree. That night was a memorable one. (a) Indefinite relative.That makes the heavens be mute. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.

.²S.²ID.²EMERSON.. silent still. (b) Copulative. it rests on reality.these sounds are only to be heard.. (6) Exclamatory adjective. Cox. "I'll tell you what. His very attack was never the inspiration of is impossible to determine.S.²EMERSON.²WEBSTER. nearly equivalent to partly. or not only. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.²WORDSWORTH. To say what good of fashion we can.Which be they what they may.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.. (9) As an exclamation.Those shadowy recollections. after not only. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying...but. (b) Indirect question. and silent all!²BYRON.. BUT. but the result of calculation. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Pera. 331. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. .. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.. he knows what good people are to be found there. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (7) Adverb of degree. (b) Indirect question. What. If he has [been in America]. partly.²ID.²THACKERAY. What. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (8) Conjunction." (4) Relative adjective. to see what might be hidden. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. What with the Maltese goats.

And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. after such. meaning otherwise . than.²IRVING. like the dog. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. at all moments. To lead but one measure. sometimes same. Who knows but.²LAMB.He yearned to our patriot bands. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. (5) Adverb. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. not. after a negative.²SHELLEY. equivalent to that . (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. I shall see but little of it.. not.Then arose not only tears.²FRANKLIN.²SCOTT.²IRVING. stands for that . but piercing cries. meaning except. (e) Introducing an appositive word. (2) Relative pronoun. (3) Preposition...²EMERSON. towards order. not. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. . (b) Substantive. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. ²CARLYLE. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (c) Of degree. AS. on all sides..²MRS BROWNING. (4) Relative pronoun.. (b) Of manner. (d) Of reason. or who .. meaning only. Doing duty as a guard.. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU..²HAWTHORNE. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.²IRVING. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. 332. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.

(2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. but its verb is omitted. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. like drops out. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²HIGGINSON.²EMERSON. That face. NOTE. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²HAWTHORNE.²DARWIN. nervous child. In each case. like Martin was.²ALDRICH.² A timid.²LONGFELLOW. and is followed by a dative-objective. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. like a cook beating eggs. Give Ruskin space enough. like summer ocean's. and as or as if takes its place. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. Through which they put their heads. In this second use. No Emperor.LIKE. If the verb is expressed.²SHAKESPEARE. This follows a verb or a verbal. like him awhile ago. but this is not considered good usage: for example. (1) An adjective. ²PARKMAN. Stirring it vigorously.²MAYHEW. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. Introduces a clause. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. and was clearly an adjective.²CASS. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.² HAWTHORNE. .²EMERSON. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. Note the difference between these two uses.²ALDRICH. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. 333. There is no statue like this living man. staring like a bewildered man.²HALLECK. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. indeed.-SCOTT. this. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²LAMB. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. They look.

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.. but it still retains its identity as noun. Value of analysis. in separating them into their component parts.²in determining case." PART II. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Some of these are imitative sounds." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.: for example. verb. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. etc. pronoun." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. that is. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. 334. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. that is. etc.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax.INTERJECTIONS. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Definition. entering into the structure of a sentence." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Definition. tut! buzz! etc. . What analysis is. subject and predicate. as. 335. 336. clauses introduced by conjunctions.

"The quality of mercy is not strained. according to form. or request. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Definition. interrogative. not according to the form in which a thought is put. always friends?" imperative. Division according to number of statements. which expresses command. ." "What wouldst thou do. 339. or command: for example. "Come to the bridal chamber. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. declarative. (3) Imperative. 2. Examples of these three kinds are. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. but according to how many statements there are." 340. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion.²a subject and a predicate. But now all is to be changed. or imperative. hence. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. old man?" "Be thou familiar. question. (2) Interrogative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. 337. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. "Old year. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Definition: Predicate. 338. you must not die!" interrogative. which puts the thought in a question. "Hath he not always treasures. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. Every sentence must contain two parts. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.Kinds of sentences as to form. entreaty. This is the most common one. SIMPLE SENTENCES. but by no means vulgar. but the sentence would still be declarative.

In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. But if we try this with the second sentence. 2. but about the ivy green. to suit all cases:² Subject. 3. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. 7. 341. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. all. 4. Consequently.²What is the ivy green? Answer. as. 8.²What is to be changed? Answer." Exercise. and the real subject is the latter. the subject is frequently after the verb. "[You] behold her single in the field. we have some trouble. Listen. 6. and our definition must be the following. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. not of a rare old plant. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. The last of all the Bards was he. and is to be supplied. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. thou. or adverb that asks about the subject. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. especially in poetry. we say all is the subject of the sentence. . In analyzing such sentences. Slavery they can have anywhere. the subject (you. 5. Thus. or an interrogative pronoun. on the other hand. In the interrogative sentence. adjective. or ye) is in most cases omitted. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. a rare old plant. always reduce them to the order of a statement. to an ignorant man. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.

for example." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. but of call chief. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. (5) Modifiers. Indirect object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (4) The complements. but chief belongs to the verb. in addition to the object.²transitive and intransitive. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. Direct Object. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed." indirect. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.10. but it is a true complement. direct. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. or second object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. (3) The object. (6) Independent elements. "Ye call me chief. The transitive verb often requires. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (2) The predicate. and means summoned." Complement: 344. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. and me here is not the object simply of call. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. "Ye honor me. and by object we mean the direct object. 343. Of a transitive verb. . just as if to say. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. The subject and predicate have been discussed. 342.

"She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." 345. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. especially the forms of be. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. as in drowning." All these complete intransitive verbs. seem. sir!' rang out in response. or." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . 355. appear. 'Ay. as. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. 351. Complement of an intransitive verb." (2) PARTICIPIAL. he was now getting old. 352. in the popular judgment. in exercise following Sec. 347. above sixty. See sentence 19. "Brow and head were round. but used as a single modifier." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. introduced by a preposition: for example. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. ay." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. As to form. become. as in the sentence. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. taste." Also an expression used as a noun. in the original Opium Confessions. to the completion of this man of the world. 346." Things used as Subject. and barring the door. A phrase is a group of words. 364." "The good man. and of massive weight. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." "He was termed Thomas." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. etc. for instance." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. not containing a verb." (3) INFINITIVE. and. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. An intransitive verb. "A cheery.. Phrases. Thom of the Gills. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. I mentioned a case of that nature. more familiarly. feel.

" (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. for which see Sec.²the infinitive phrase. prowling eyes." "The dead are there. was heard one syllable to justify. and by Saint George!' said the King. (2) In interrogative sentences. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). or their religion from their sect." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office.²the talent of starting the game. 341." "There are asking eyes. or the thundering of organs. from their lips. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." "Never. ." The for did not belong there originally. and ever will be." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. (4) After "there introductory. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. etc. but the real or logical subject is to print." In this sentence. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. I saw the quick and the dead. my deficiency. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. Disguised infinitive subject. "'By God." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. asserting eyes." Things used as Direct Object. but they will be given in detail here.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." etc. 349." 348." Things used as Complement. but obscures the real subject. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. "Therein has been.

As complement of a transitive verb. (3) Infinitive." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." "I hear the echoes throng." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly.²completing the predicate. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. and whenever the complement is a noun." Modifiers. at the same time. and explaining or modifying the subject. and the words italicized are still complements." (4) Participle. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. complements of the predicate." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. or the equivalent of the noun. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation.²heads or tails." "Serving others is serving us." "She asked her father's permission. Modifiers of Subject. doubtless." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. or Complement. Of a transitive verb." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Like all the complements in this list. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. and. As complement of an intransitive verb.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. 351. I." In this last sentence. the object is made the subject by being passive. the shepherd girl. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. Object.350." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." "Their tempers. they are adjuncts of the object." . Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.

austere. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. see further Secs." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "Him. and leading him from star to star." "In the twinkling of an eye. was now called upon for his defense. given at the request of a Dutch lady." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." Exercise. object." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. I have seasoned for thee. and modify the predicate in the same way. the prisoner at the bar. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. "He died like a God." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. but noble teachers." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." "Give them not only noble teachings." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. Modifiers of the Predicate. 357-363. II. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. 351." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. not with nature." (For participial and infinitive phrases. tell whether the subject. but it is really a contracted clause." In such a sentence as. no sociable angel." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. 352. Retained with passive.²In each sentence in Sec. the verb being omitted. Since the predicate is always a verb. was the scene from King John.²proud. Tells how. unforgiving.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. or . or complement is modified." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. but with other men. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. this young idolater.

Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. 8. 2. the indirect object is retained." (6) Adverbial objective. after dinner. 6. and. On the voyage to Egypt. I took. he liked. in regard to particulars. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. and the direct object is retained: for example. These answer the question when. etc. the man of ideas appears out of his reason." Exercises. a sort of personality to the whole writing. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. 6. predicate. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. 2. Fashion does not often caress the great. Evil. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. in this center? 4. how far. To the men of this world. (a) Pick out subject. (b) Pick out the subject. 7. His books have no melody. to the animal strength and spirits. no emotion. 4. according to old philosophers. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 5." "All such knowledge should be given her. 3. and (direct) object:² 1. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. is good in the making.. predicate. They do not wish to be lovely. . and complement: y y y y y y y 1. no humor. and other measures of precaution." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. but to be loved. 7." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. or how long. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. gives wonderful animation. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 5. but the children of the great." "One way lies hope.When the verb is changed from active to passive. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. But anger drives a man to say anything. 3. with my joy and grief. This. and as many to oppose it. negative. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy.

5. Unhorse me. . burthened with the anxieties of a man. in little peaceful Easedale. a room seventeen feet by twelve. downwards. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. this imperial rider. etc. that was thy portion in life. 3. this nun so martial. happy dinner. six children sat by a peat fire. Not compound sentences. the present Archbishop of Dublin. the blooming cornet. viz. A river formed the boundary. for the first time. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. the attorney. y y y y Compound Subject. 3. In one feature. Their intention was to have a gay. 3. Yes.y 8. 4.²the river Meuse.. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. and a member of the world. 2. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. this dragoon so lovely. at the chief hotel. after their long confinement to a ship. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. then. That night. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. to the right and to the left. 4. I gave him an address to my friend. 2. must visit again the home of her childhood. then. 2. I felt myself. Not the less I owe thee justice. I promised her protection against all ghosts.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. 6. To suffer and to do. expecting the return of their parents. Paint me. Compound Predicate. at length the warrior lady. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 4. 5. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. upwards.

with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. Bishop. The exclamatory expression. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. etc.. modifiers. exposes. "Ah. above: thus. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. the verb). It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. and its object or complement. may be the person or thing addressed. several modifiers. the object. that is. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. "The company broke up." Sentences with compound predicates are. etc. turned his steps homeward. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. then the grammatical subject and predicate. 355. in all such sentences as we quote below. complements. hurry. my brave young man!" . 354." "He shook his head. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. etc. Larger view of a sentence." "Voyages and travels I would also have. the predicate. Examples of compound subjects are. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. they are not a necessary part." "Ye crags and peaks. and. together with all its modifiers. together with its modifiers. I'm with you once again. the simple subject is situation. the tone of her voice. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. forming a sentence: "Oh." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. ulcer. in the sentence. same as (1). however. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. shouldered the rusty firelock. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. For example.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." "The name of the child. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. hurry. Of this. the air of the mother. and the rest is the logical predicate.353. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. but it is to be noticed that." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. Independent Elements of the Sentence. lurking far down in the depths of human nature." And so with complements.

351. In their use. therefore." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. (1) Adjectival." "Well.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb.. undoubtedly. . and so on." Another caution. moreover. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." (6) Single words: as." "Truth to say. yes! everybody knew them. 350. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. this story runs thus. that have an office in the sentence. 355. really. to the best of my remembrance. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example." (5) Participial phrase: "But. (b) As a modifier of subject. six quill-driving gentlemen." (3) Independent. modifying a noun. These need close watching. or word used as a noun: for example. her noticing even this is creditable. let him perish. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. how you're winking!" "Now. now. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. nevertheless." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat." "No." "Why. 4). 356. he somehow lived along. such as perhaps. 6). It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. the company broke up. 352. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. modifying the predicate. why. and some conjunctions. already noticed. 4)." (2) Adverbial. besides. The words well. or complement (see Sec." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. see Sec." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. see Sec. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 3. grandma. truly. he closed his literary toils at dinner. he was a conscientious man. There are some adverbs. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. such as however." "At all events. pronoun. prepositional phrases may be. object. generally speaking. y (2) The adverbial use. instances of which were seen in Sec. etc.. then. etc. "Oh. 357.

" "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. "Because I was.can (could).: as in the sentences. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. thus." (c) With the definite forms of go. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.should. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. The verbal use. This case excepted. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. but require somewhat closer attention. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. y (a) With may (might). therefore. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. ought. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. was speedily run through. modifying was speedily run through. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. but having no other office than a verbal one. "The letter of introduction.seem. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. I. and teach her how to be happy and good. being equivalent to a future with obligation. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.].would. 358.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. necessity. Wilt thou. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. etc. 355. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. etc. he should not have known them at all. and they will be presented here in full. and hence is adverbial." etc. containing no matters of business. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec." (b) With the forms of be." In this sentence. See Sec.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. my dear. or as nearly so as the student will require." "There. (5).

361. object. hang the idiot." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "He insisted on his right to forget her. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. 362." "Are you mad. to please is equivalent to that he may please. to look means that he might look." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. modifying a noun that may be a subject." "To say what good of fashion we can.²both purpose clauses. already examined. (4) In apposition." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. the Scotch fighting all the battles. to hear McOrator after dinner. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. The substantive use. complement. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. III. above. result. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. The adjectival use." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." 360. .moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). 351. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). etc. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. 361 are used adverbially. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. The adverbial use. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. To test this." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. II.. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "To teach is to learn. etc. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. 5). Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. "But there was no time to be lost.: for example. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. notice the following:² In (1). IV. Don Guzman." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec.

.In (2). (3). 352). 363. object." (See also Sec. 364. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. 351). and to say is equivalent to if we say. 355. In (5). which is of two kinds. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. must be in a life. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. to hear means if you should hear. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 3. 351). etc. 4. 347). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. . If it is an incomplete verb. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. savage and serene in one hour. 349). V. to find shows the result of the return. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. not in a book. (7) Independent elements (Sec. equivalent to that you betray.. In (4). Our life is March weather. etc. (5) The subject (Sec. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. The independent use." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. In (3). In analyzing simple sentences. to part means because I part. as in Sec. give the complement (Secs. etc. I will try to keep the balance true. 268.²both expressing condition. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. give² (1) The predicate. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 355). 2.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 351). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have.

This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 6. 22. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. and to the purpose. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. I have heard Coleridge talk. 24. 18. We are always in peril. nor money. like a witch's oils. 12. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. a graceful dancer. 19. Through the years and the centuries. The whole figure and air. to the moral sphere. 5. an accomplished scholar. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. to keep England out of war. 9. You may ramble a whole day together. To be hurried away by every event. a skilled musician. might be called flabby and irresolute. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. the carrion crow. good and amiable otherwise. is to have no political system at all. The word conscience has become almost confined. To these gifts of nature. Her aims were simple and obvious. with eager energy.Burnt green and blue and white. always in a bad plight. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 15. just on the edge of destruction.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. through evil agents. 10. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 17.²to preserve her throne. neither ammunition. 7. . nor generals. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. two stricken hours. nor troops. 21. a good shot.4. in popular use. His opinion is always original. 11. nor himself. 14. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 8. 16. to restore civil and religious order. Old Adam. and every moment discover something new. The water. He risked everything. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 20.He sat in the shower.The old crow of Cairo. and spared nothing. 23. 13. through toys and atoms.

35. 34. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. in front of all this mighty crowd. Oxford. 27. 29. I hate him and myself. still. Of the same grandeur. 40. the prime minister of Spain. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. I dare this. proud foe. in less heroic and poetic form. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. secluded. time-honored. the same Condé Olivarez. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 38. 32.Distant. and in my own garden. Now. 39. In the Acadian land. and. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. had but one foible. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. an elderly man. 36. haply. 30. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. the ship was in an uproar. and no provisions but wild berries. Few in number.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Supposing this computation to be correct. to bid you leave the place now and forever. The cry. 37. But yield. She had made a two days' march. Must we in all things look for the how.25. 26. ready to receive her. baggage far in the rear.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. or perhaps one virtue. 41. upon my own ground. and the wherefore? . in this world. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 31. the present capital of New England. and the why. Fair name might he have handed down. The villain. Upon this shore stood. This amiable relative. 33. it would not have been filial or ladylike. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. to be a reproach to such goodness.

but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. As shown in Part I. Words left out after than or as. 366. the expressions of manner introduced by like. . Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." To show that these words are really omitted.From her own loved island of sorrow. if they were expanded.CONTRACTED SENTENCES.² "She is like some tender tree. 333)." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly." This must. as would be the connective instead of like. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. (Sec." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. thus. the pride and beauty of the grove. though often treated as phrases.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. but. 365. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. are really contracted clauses. The simple sentence the basis. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. which is the unit of speech. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. however." Sentences with like. 367. made merely for convenience and smoothness. as. COMPLEX SENTENCES. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement.

that . Hence the following definition:² Definition. CLAUSES." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. each clause has its subject. etc. main. that is. which are so united that one member is the main one. . complements. logically depends on suffering. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. 371. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. is taken in. suffering. complement. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.²the backbone. and modifier. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. A principal. 368.. Independent clause. Definition. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. 369. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. we are aware.. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. as in this sentence.. how great . or it may be applied to the others.²the other members subordinate to it. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. object. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. containing a verb with its subject..² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. 370. and the next one. murmur. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. or dependent on it. object. then we recognize this as the main statement.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. A clause is a division of a sentence. predicate. and the last. modifiers.

night or day. (b) that are . or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. Noun Clauses. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. As to their office in the sentence. over which the torrent came tumbling. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. impertinences.. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. for example. with a noun clause in apposition with it. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex.. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. 372." 374. etc. is retained after a passive verb (Sec." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. for a time. or adverbs. verbal. but logically the sentence is. thus.." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.Dependent clause. put an end to my fancies.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. . for a hundred years. impertinences²would be grammatical. infinitive." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause." Just as the object noun. and the whole clause is not.. for example." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. 352." "I was told that the house had not been shut. attention is called to them here. so the object clause is retained. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. Kinds. 373.. ADJECTIVE. But since they are complex in form. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. and it is . but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. pronoun. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. clauses are divided into NOUN.' is an electric touch. 'I know that he can toil terribly." (4) Apposition. We ourselves are getting . (a) Ordinary apposition.. adjectives.. 5). and ADVERB clauses. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things." (2) Object of a verb.

sometimes by the conjunctions when. .that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. 9. that he was a scheming impostor. still remains reasonable. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 5. whether he should choose one or not. where. 10. Adjective Clauses. Frequently there is no connecting word. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. 8. What history it had. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. 4. Such a man is what we call an original man. Other examples of this construction are. whereby. as. of a nation. whence. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Examples of adjective clauses. or equivalent of a noun. and not on the sentiment. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. but. how it changed from shape to shape." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 375. etc. 2. wherein. a falsehood incarnate. in the sentence. Except by what he could see for himself. no man will ever know. that. I was napping. 3. whither. that all safe legislation must be based. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. a relative pronoun being understood." Exercise. The reply of Socrates. that. he would repent it. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. he could know nothing. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed.² "It is on the understanding. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. As the office of an adjective is to modify. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. which. 7. But the fact is. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 6.

" "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. whether subject. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. object. which formed the center of the mansion." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. or that essence we were looking for. all is vacancy. the champions advanced through the lists. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 1. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. Pick out the adjective clauses. No man is reason or illumination.e." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins.. 3. . which Rowena tasted." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. and tell what each one modifies. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 4. 9. he begins to help us more as an effect. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 6. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 7. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 8. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness.376. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. i. Adverbial Clauses." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 5. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. 2. etc. I walked home with Calhoun. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 10. 11. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture." Exercise.

" (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. however. or an adverb." (7) RESULT. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. introduced by indefinite relatives. no matter what remains." "When he was come up to Christian." "Who cares for that. the milestones are grave-stones. shaping our actions. however good she may be as a witness. whatever. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal.² whoever." (5) DEGREE. so far as we can. etc. an adjective. he goes away as if nothing had happened. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "The right conclusion is. but they require careful study.: "But still." "The broader their education is. it takes precedence of everything else. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. that we should try." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. and what it modifies:² . with examples.377. etc. to make up our shortcomings. the wider is the horizon of their thought. adverbs. Joanna is better." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. 378. since he was too great to care to be original. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." (3) REASON." "He went several times to England." (9) CONCESSION. a verbal. Exercise." These mean no matter how good." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. and adverbial conjunctions. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. expressing the degree in which the horizon. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming.. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. tell what kind each is." "After leaving the whole party under the table. etc. and will be given in detail. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. is wider. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand.

in the sentence. 3. so that the living were frightened out of their beds.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. of which clause Odin is the subject." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. when the wind was unruly. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. find the principal subject and principal predicate. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. object. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. For example. 379." 2. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. howling and whistling. If the children gathered about her. on a dark wintry night.1. incoherent exclamations. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. with shrill. etc. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. to tell the truth. then treat noun clauses as nouns. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . its object is that Odin was a reality. so as to picture the parts and their relations. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. they might perhaps say of their visitors. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. and modifiers. predicate. as they sometimes did. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. snatching up stones to fling at them. we are a little disappointed. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. 'Well. 380. banging about doors and windows. and twirling weathercocks. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists.

True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. as seen in the "map" (Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 3. . Exercises... 380). (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. (1) Find the principal clause. d. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 364.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 364. 2. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.

Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. that pressed her with an objection. dying for them. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 14. 9. Had they been better chemists. 23. who would yield to it least. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. bishop. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. that. . But now that she has become an establishment. 10. whom I choose. for yours. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. counselor that had none for herself. had we been worse. 7. 20. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. Here lay two great roads. 19. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature.4. 8. 13. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. namely. 5. M. the shepherd girl. of a light hazel. 24. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 22. 21. This is she. 12. as for armies that were too many by half. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. could not have been effected. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 18. Next came a wretched Dominican. The night proved unusually dark. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. The deep eyes. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 17. I like that representation they have of the tree. Whether she said the word is uncertain. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 11. 15. not so much for travelers that were few. 16. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. the mixed result. And those will often pity that weakness most. the flower should revive for us. 6. if applied to the Bible. He was what our country people call an old one. or whether any. Now. which. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer.

382." 4. . COMPOUND SENTENCES. 30." said Bentley. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. and stamped with his right number. Hence the definition. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 383. questions. or commands. if there be one to whom I am not equal. How formed. though we may repeat the words never so often. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. and not from his heart. 7.²which will not be disposed of. These things we are forced to say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 3. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. and temper. (b) First analyze. the following complex sentences:² 1. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. but above it. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. that it was no more than his daily walk. 28. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. "No book. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion.25. 6. That which we do not believe.² Definition. 27. "was ever written down by any but itself. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. then map out as in Sec. we cannot adequately say. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 5. 380. 2. It makes no difference how many friends I have. speed. 26. would easily reach. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. is to speak and write sincerely. if continuously extended.

which are simple statements. The division into members will be easier. he dilates. if there are any. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. moon-like ray" (adversative). nor does he know until he has tried. etc. 385. Speak your latent conviction. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. in (2). and which complex:² 1. and it shall be the universal sense. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and connects the first and second complex members. however. now adverbs or prepositions. a simple member. as in Sec. The coördinate conjunctions and. from the second. or but. while (whilst). in (3). as but. a complex member. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. Thus in (1). Study the thought. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights." 384. tell which are compound. Another example is. Connectives. "Only the star dazzles. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. others sometimes coördinate. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. . 386. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). etc." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. and nor the second and third complex members. Of the following illustrative sentences. Exercise. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. he walks with arms akimbo. Some of these are now conjunctions. 297). the planet has a faint.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. 383 (1). and not the form of the connective. whereas. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. the waving grass. nor. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. the semicolon separates the first. for.. he is twice a man. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. yet. he soliloquizes.

2. Love. 14. 6. to find a pot of buried gold. you lose something. 9. 12. Whilst the world is thus dual. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. All loss. however. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. Man does not stand in awe of man. the tax is certain. he grew up to be a mild. you have gained something else. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 5. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. quiet. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 364. for example. 381. and as yet very early in the morning. 11. 13. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. and thou shalt be loved. 10. However some may think him wanting in zeal. all pain. I can still receive. For everything you have missed. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. passed in that time. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. I can yet love. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 4. 387. 3. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. 2. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. that it was Easter Sunday. 8. from a happy yet often pensive child. so is every one of its parts. unobtrusive boy. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. and for everything you gain. or. and not by what each is. The gain is apparent. Exercise. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 4. is particular. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. nay. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. In this manner. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 3. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. (i) Separate it into its main members. yield to them heart and life. 7. .

" says the smith. and the cart as nigh the rake. and the other dares not.5. whilst frankness invites frankness. Stand aside. 14. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. treat them greatly. and he learns who receives. 11. 8. modesty. and the peace of society is often kept. 6. is as thin and timid as any. Trust men. but the day never shines in which this element may not work." says the haymaker. as children. abide by it. only that they may brag and conquer there. and they repel us. why should we intrude? 10. or hope. and not a thought has enriched either party. He teaches who gives. or we pursue persons. 19. 21. 17. give those merits room. and they will show themselves great. 16. let them mount and expand. We see the noble afar off. 20. 9. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. if you rip up his claims. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. They will shuffle and crow. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves." 13. 18. 7. one is afraid. crook and hide. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. Come into port greatly. puts the parties on a convenient footing. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and they will be true to you. that let him communicate. "Strike. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. We go to Europe. and each shows only what lies at its focus. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. feign to confess here. "the iron is white." "keep the rake. Whatever he knows and thinks. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. or we read books. . or sail with God the seas. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. When you have chosen your part. because. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and you are without effort impelled to truth. 15. and not an emotion of bravery. or men will never know and honor him aright. and makes their business a friendship.

We see young men who owe us a new world. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. and dodge the account. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . they lose themselves in the crowd. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Essential point in English syntax. they die young. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 23. pronoun and antecedent. so readily and lavishly they promise. PART III. or. Do not craze yourself with thinking. 380. 388. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. it never was known to fall into the rear. it ends in headache. if they live. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Following the Latin method. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. but they never acquit the debt.²agreement and government. 24. adjective and noun. 390. 25. verb and subject. but its leading characteristic is. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. INTRODUCTORY. the department of syntax will be a small affair. So does culture with us. but go about your business anywhere. By way of introduction. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. SYNTAX. Ground covered by syntax.22.

also expressing a possessive relation. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. When usage varies as to a given construction. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. The basis of syntax. sometimes verb and subject. This is not logical. but are not now. Also in the sentence. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and imitate it. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. then." In this there is a possessive form. Savage may be the subject. or the same writer will use both indifferently. In some cases. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. some of which conform to classical grammar. In Latin.² First. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. the order being inverted. . the sentence. good English. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. take the sentence. "None remained but he. For example. pronoun and antecedent. 392. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. therefore. etc. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion." that is. Why study syntax? 391. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. Some rules not rigid. As an illustration of the last remark." is ambiguous. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. following the regular order of subject. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and added to it the preposition of.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. distinct forms would be used. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. and it would not matter which one stood first. as to study inflected forms. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. or when they exist side by side in good usage. There is. "The savage here the settler slew. Second. and nothing but important points will be considered. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. both forms will be given in the following pages. 393. authorities²that is. or settler may be the subject. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. and whose judgment.

.²MILTON. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage." Juletta tells. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Woman. and Harley's. the antechamber of the High Priest. the shore of Galilee. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Bentham's principles together. Mill's and Mr. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. for example. and Paul's. 408).NOUNS. ²ID. but imply separate possession or ownership. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. as. 395. etc. and Pope's. PRONOUNS. the possessive sign is used with each noun. sense and nature's easy fool.²MCCULLOCH. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. 394. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. and Peterborough's. Separate possession. Putting Mr. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. 397.²BYRON.²THACKERAY. Use of the possessive. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²ROWE.² Live your king and country's best support. He kept Bolingbroke's.²MACAULAY.² He lands us on a grassy stage.²EMERSON. and Peter's.²RUSKIN. 396. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Joint possession.

"Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. thus. I. No mightier than thyself or me. there are two general rules that require attention.) "The young Harper. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²SOUTHEY. others are generally. for example. together with the relative who.²POPE. General rules.²TROLLOPE. Still.²THACKERAY. sanctioned.²WHITCHER. Since most of the personal pronouns. as. Objective for the nominative. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. 399.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville." 400. who. 398. . Bedott Papers. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.²BYRON. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. the last expression has the support of many good writers. the real thought being forgotten.²SHAKESPEARE. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. This should be "as she. whom is the complement after the verb am. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. But he must be a stronger than thee. and should be the nominative form. if not universally. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). Some of the violations are universally condemned. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.

as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. it will not be me. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. A safe rule."²KINGSLEY. and the other forms of the verb be.²PARTON.²MACAULAY. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.²LONGFELLOW. The camp of Richard of England."²WINTHROP. One exception is to be noted. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. . than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. are.² For there was little doubt that it was he." There is no special reason for this.²KINGSLEY. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. the objective form is regularly found. as. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. on the other hand. "If there is any one embarrassed. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. In spoken English. they are yet holier than we. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON.²THACKERAY." 401. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. namely. And it was heThat made the ship to go. unless a special.² One I remember especially.²SCOTT."²WM. "Who's there?"²"Me. both in England and America. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. but such is the fact. "Than whom. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²RUSKIN. But still it is not she. The usage is too common to need further examples. for example.²FIELDING. Patrick the Porter. is. BLACK.²COLERIDGE.

Truth is mightier than us all." the word being in apposition with murderer). Me in exclamations. verbal. 2. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 7. (3) By forgetting the construction. or us). or this. I speak not to" (he should be him. object of saw). "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Nominative for the objective. used after verbs. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger." 6. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. Whom they were I really cannot specify. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. as. but not he" (he should be him. and prepositions. 5. now. 11. You know whom it is that you thus charge. . 403.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. verbals. as. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. or preposition which governs it. you or me. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 3.Exercise.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. as. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. "Ask the murderer. the object of to). We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 8. It is not me you are in love with. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. as this from Shakespeare. 4.²MILTON. it is me. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 10. 9. 404.

² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Nature. etc. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. all but he. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.² All were knocked down but us two. but he. Exercise. Exception 2. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. 406. partial Nature. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Thy shores are empires. "Who were they talking to?" etc. Let you and I look at these.²KINGSLEY. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. as. "Who did you see?" or.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. and is usually avoided. Thou.²KINGSLEY. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. 2.²STEELE. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²KINGSLEY. I've sworn. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who have we here?²ID.²BYRON. 405. None. save thou and thine. for they say there are none such in the world. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. We regularly say.²GOLDSMITH.Exception 1. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. as well as the objective. . who interrogative.Shall be left upon the morn. for example.²BYRON. as. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. I arraign. changed in all save thee.

with Jortin and Thirlby. B. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 7. They crowned him long ago. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 6. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.3. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. As antecedent of a relative. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well.Ye I salute. Markland. This usage is not frequent. 10. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 407.²possessive. II. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. Bartholomew.²SCOTT.²MACAULAY. Preceding a gerund." 4. 5. and they know that as well as me. or objective? . We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. who. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. POSSESSIVE FORMS. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²THACKERAY. 11. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.²RUSKIN.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 8. BROWN. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 12. 9. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. "Nonsense!" said Amyas.²DE QUINCEY.²C.

The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. [who was] studying law. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. studying is a gerund. In the examples quoted. The use of the objective is older. We heard of Brown. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.²BREWER. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²MACAULAY. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. etc. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. . and the meaning is. that the bitterness of death was past. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.²RUSKIN. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. Why both are found. object of heard of.408.²CARLYLE. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason." That is. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. Possessive. and asked why it was not made. sometimes it has the objective. Both types of sentences are found. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. Here I state them only in brief. both are gerunds.² THACKERAY.² SCOTT. But in common use there is no such distinction." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. Objective.² IRVING. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. as he turned away from his wife. The last incident which I recollect. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.²DE QUINCEY.² CARLYLE. and that in the second.²DICKENS. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.

or is a distributive word. number. The pale realms of shade. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²HUXLEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. if the antecedent is neuter. 410. If any one did not know it. In such a case as the last three sentences. Every city threw open its gates.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²C.²EMERSON III. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. Examples of these constructions are. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. the pronoun will be neuter singular. preceded by a distributive.²HOLMES. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²DE QUINCEY. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. in one person. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. .²DE QUINCEY.²THOREAU.²when the antecedent.²CABLE. it was his own fault.²THACKERAY. taking in each of many persons.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. BROCKDEN BROWN. 409. and gender.²DEFOE. where there were examinations.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. and ought to agree with them in person. Everybody had his own life to think of.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. Watch for the real antecedent. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²RUSKIN. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.² BRYANT.²AUDUBON.

411. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²PALGRAVE. not a mowing idiot. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. till they have lost him.Avoided: By using both pronouns. If the part deserve any comment.²EMERSON. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²RUSKIN. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²ID. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²BYRON.²HUXLEY. Every one must judge of their own feelings. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²AUSTEN. let them break it off. . Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²FIELDING. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²SCOTT. The sun. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. This is not considered the best usage. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. By using the plural pronoun. Struggling for life.²DEFOE.² Not the feeblest grandame. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²THACKERAY. Whosoever hath any gold. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²BIBLE. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. as anybody in their senses would have done. for example.²ID.²PAULDING. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²PALEY. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. and giving them means of being so. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.

when coördinating.²HAWTHORNE. according to the practice of every modern writer. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. It adds a new statement to what precedes.²ID. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive." This means. As to their conjunctive use.Where she was gone. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate." It defines beggar. 1." A relative. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. . What these terms mean. the definite relatives who. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. which. unless both genders are implied. 2. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. etc. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. that being considered already clear. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. I. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. tell whether who. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. 413. in each instance:² Who. and that always restrictive. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. and that are restrictive or not.² SHERIDAN. In the following examples. or unrestrictive. but. A relative. as. but. or what was become of her. when restrictive.) and a personal pronoun.²In the above sentences. because. and does not add a new statement. and he went away. 412.²ADDISON. Exercise. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. which. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. no one could take upon them to say. Exercise. "I gave it to the beggar. who went away. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. That is in most cases restrictive. The clause is restricted to the antecedent.

that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. In what sense true. On hearing their plan. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.²DE QUINCEY. BEECHER 5. For example. Yet how many are there who up. Which. that were often vicious. but. 4. With narrow shoulders. because of its antecedent. 9. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. Hare has printed. she agreed to join the party. it makes the verb third person singular. etc. However. 414. 7.²H. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand.3. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 8. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. they." that is invariable as to person and number.² NEWMAN. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. etc.²ID. We say I. II. these or that which. The rule. That. which was to go over the Cordilleras. long arms and legs. 6. A grizzly-looking man appeared.² CARLYLE. you. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. which Mr. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. W. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. 12. who. as that does not vary for person or number.²HOLMES. 11. 10.²DE QUINCEY. The general rule is. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.. So different from the wild. and it is called logic. in the sentence. and over England are saying. he.²ID. 13. down. .² MOTLEY.²ADDISON.² IRVING. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.²THOREAU. etc. 14. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.

²M. and in improving a victory. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. .²HOWELLS.. ARNOLD..²J. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. who rarely speak at all. with one as the principal word." One of . [singular or plural.. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. He is one of those that deserve very well. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²LOWELL. French literature of the eighteenth century. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. The latter is rather more frequent..²whether we should say. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. Singular.²ADDISON.²LOWELL. The fiery youth .. T. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. JR.²LECKY. etc.. MORSE. 415. Franklin. "one of the finest books that have been published. but myself. but the former has good authority. in winning a battle. [plural] that who. when he derided the shams of society. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. or which .²ADDISON.²HOLMES. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal." or. others regard books as the antecedent.] Both constructions are frequently found. and write the verb in the plural. the true antecedent. A disputed point.²SCOTT. "one of the finest books that has been published.²BOWLES. but speaks of him as that sort. Let us be of good cheer. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural..Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. etc.²MACAULAY.

It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.And. IV. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. return.²VAUGHAN."²DICKENS. that is.A rare Roundabout performance. whence.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²BURNS. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²ID. when this dust falls to the urn. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²ADDISON. when the relative word is a pronoun. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. I could see nothing except the sky. Exercise.²EMERSON." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.² RUSKIN.In that same state I came. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. The same day I went aboard we set sail. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²IRVING.² .²CARLYLE.²GOLDSMITH. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. But I by backward steps would move. object of a preposition understood.² THACKERAY. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. 417. or where] he died.²SCOTT. and such like: as. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²EMERSON. where.²In the above sentences." "India is the place [in which. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. III.²SWIFT.²DEFOE. 416. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.

. 418. but.. boats.²WORDSWORTH. The regular construction.²FRANKLIN. . which.²ADDISON. Which. and working in the same spirit. Remember this applies only to as when used as a as his apprentice.He considered. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. was a discoverer. etc.² BURKE. W. or that. That. if same is followed by a complete clause. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. but we find the relative who. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. They believe the same of all the works of art. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. Caution. as of knives. if I had resolved to go on with. but which is usually carefully avoided. Mr. ²GOLDSMITH. she passed the lamp over her face and person.² MACAULAY. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.²SCOTT.²SWIFT. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.² THACKERAY. I might as well have staid at home. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. he. as is not used. CHURCH. for example. V.² Which. looking-glasses. with Turner. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles.²R. Anacoluthic use of which. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.

and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. (2) "Among the poorer sort.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. who are now thrown. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. but none is expressed. And who." etc. 3. Express both relatives." etc. or omit the conjunction. . and who are now thrown upon their compassion. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. etc. (1) "Among those who are poor. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and who are now. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. This was a gentleman. Exercise. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. Exercise. But who.²which if they once heard.. After this came Elizabeth herself. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. As the sentences stand. and this be placed in the proper clause. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. which when Mr..²RUSKIN. and which. but.²SHAKESPEARE. le Conte. 4. 1. 2.²SCOTT. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.She'd come again.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. or leave out both connective and relative.²THACKERAY. or.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. He delivered the letter." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.² Direction for rewriting. Thornhill had read. now thrown upon their. once a great favorite of M.²HAWTHORNE. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. (3) "Among the poorer sort. That is. etc.." etc. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. 419.²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY. he said that all submission was now too late. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.

but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. That . either from imitation of their frequent allies. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Or which. and which may even be heard a mile off. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. I shall have complete copies. "A mockery. etc. and which.²PEARSON. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. the French.²SCOTT. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.²DE QUINCEY.. indeed. Or who.²SCOTT. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. which the Scotch had learned. 6. etc. Akin to the above is another fault. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. . 12. 9.²HAWTHORNE. I saw upon the left a scene far different. 420. And which. and repeat this for any further reference. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. as a false and astucious mark. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. 11. and which has never been described. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 10. who. and to whom no door is closed. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.5.²DE QUINCEY. 7. But which.²IRVING. like that spoken in the towns. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 13.. then.² MOTLEY." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. English by name. "What knight so craven.. one of signal interest. 1. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. 8. Exercise. Dr. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.

He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²SCOTT That which . 7. I give to such men as do not belong to me. in his present condition. Such as .²W.²SCOTT. the dime. but which is perhaps not so different from it.²W. He flung into literature.2. Which . He. I grudge the dollar. which. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours..²EMERSON. It rose into a thrilling passion. 8. and whose examples and principles we inherit. 4. 9.²HOWELLS.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses..²HOLMES. SIMMS. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. E. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. was hung in air. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. the cent. that . I recommend some honest manual calling. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. that.²DE QUINCEY. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. whom... 3. but which. 11. 15. half a century ago. was a bustling wharf. at the head of what. 6.²HALLAM. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. 12.²DEFOE. In my native town of Salem. and to whom I do not belong. Such as .. CHANNING. such as they have very probably been bred to.. That .. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 5. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. 14.²EMERSON. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.. The Tree Igdrasil. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 10. 13. . G. in his Mephistopheles. which. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. what.²HAWTHORNE.²BEECHER. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.

Each other. Use of any. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. .²DICKENS. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. as.² Some one must be poor. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. 421. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. as it were. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. By their original meaning. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.² HAWTHORNE. that not all combined. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. as.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. in which case any should be used instead. We call ourselves a rich nation.²EMERSON. for example.²HAWTHORNE. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. one another.²MACAULAY. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²RUSKIN. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. and in want of his gold²or his corn. always at war with one another.²GOLDSMITH. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.²ID. Assume that no one is in want of either. 422.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. whether or not the two are equivalent. Distributives either and neither.²RUSKIN. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. England was then divided between kings and Druids.

then in Plotinus. In earlier Modern English. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.² If any. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.. when any of them are so good as to visit me.. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). any of his friends had died. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. usually plural. Caution. in Shakespeare. None usually plural. If any of you lack wisdom. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. at one time in Bacon. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.²SCOTT. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as. 424. even in Bettine..²BURKE. None of Nature's powers do better service. Do you think. etc.²PROF. afterwards in Goethe.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²CARLYLE. speak. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. that I know of. if ever man was.²SHAKESPEARE.²EMERSON.² In earnest. and is isolated. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²STIRLING.² EMERSON. then in Plutarch. 423. let him ask of God. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. Any usually plural. as. which is plural as often as singular.²BEECHER Whenever. in the prose of the present day. I beseech you. as none of the French philosophers were.²BIBLE. The adjective pronoun none is.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. . Do you think. during his stay at Yuste.²FRANKLIN. before that. whilst I still cherish their genius. Examples of its use are. any was often singular.²THACKERAY. for him have I offended.

The light troops thought . and Ford has nobody's else. and all was lost on the other.² PEARSON. etc. When all were gone.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. are treated as units.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. The compounds somebody else.. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. etc. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. etc. when it means all persons: for example. that all was lost. Somebody's else.²NAPIER Plural.²McMASTER. which is used absolutely.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²SCOTT Like the use of any.. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. as. the plural.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.²THOREAU. or somebody else's? 426. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. and less rarely in poetry. etc. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. any one else.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. 425. fixing his eyes on the mace.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. saving Naaman the Syrian. for example. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.² None of them was cleansed.² Singular.. nobody else.

²RUSKIN. and may be found not infrequently in literary English." "all manner of men. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.curled once all over it in long tendrils." the nouns being singular.²THACKERAY. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. or those sort of people." "those kind of trees. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. etc. all manner of. unlike anybody else's in the world. ELIOT.²SWEET.. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. London.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²RUSKIN. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. His hair.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case."²MRS. for example. ADJECTIVES. "Ye see.²G. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.² Saturday Review. WILLIS. STOWE.²DICKENS. These sort. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. etc. the adjectives plural.SYDNEY SMITH.²AUSTEN. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. Again.²in such as "these sort of books.²SHERIDAN.²MULOCH. Whitefield or Wesley. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. . 427. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²N. or some other such great man as a bishop.. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.² These kind of knaves I know. P. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.² FIELDING.

The library was open. with all manner of amusing books. and the adjective is. gradually displacing the old. as. "These kind of trees are best." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. when the necessary dispositions concur. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. Later form. "This kind of rules are the best. In Old and Middle English.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.² PRESCOTT. or the nouns to the plural. "A sort of uncertain sounds are." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. According to the approved usage of Modern English. "This sort of trees should be planted. Consequently we have a confused expression. such as. more alarming than a total silence. History of this construction.² Which is the better able to defend himself. At the source. for example. not "all kinds of wild animals. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. which accounts for the construction. ." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). they said. Should we say.²RUSKIN. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. made to agree with it. Use of the comparative degree. the victor or the vanquished. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Of two such lessons. and in this way may take a plural verb. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. in spoken English." A question. This the modern expression reverses. Burke's sentence. to express a higher degree of quality. or one object with a class of objects. The result. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. 428." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.

² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. would not have had the face. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Even Dodd himself. 5. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Other after the comparative form.²MACAULAY. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. Use of the superlative degree. Superlative with two objects. has sanctioned. He is taller. I am concerned to see that Mr.²CARLYLE.²HAWTHORNE. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²SWIFT. by almost the breadth of my nail. 429. than any of his court.²HUXLEY. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. Compare the first three sentences in Sec."²ID.²TROLLOPE. 2. 3. if not. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. Exercise. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. etc. Henry. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.A braver ne'er to battle rode. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. . To the man who plays well. Gary. the highest stakes are paid. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²SCOTT. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.² THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²WIRT. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²LOWELL.²THACKERAY. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. 4. 6. 430.

1611. who eat white bread or brown.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians."²HAWTHORNE. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. Double comparative and superlative. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. The eldest. Mary. I should say that one has the best cause. Also from the same period.²EMERSON.²GOLDSMITH. ha.²HAMLET.²Bible. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party..²IRVING. and differ only in form. OLIPHANT. "Ha. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. The following examples are used purposely. Rip was one of those . With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. whichever can be got easiest.²MRS. These two properties seem essential to wit.²SCOTT. and the other contains the best men.²TEMPEST. more particularly the last of them. After the most straitest sect of our religion. Examples from Shakespeare are. ."²BULWER. 431. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. CÆSAR. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. not a bit of high life among them. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense.²ADDISON. In all disputes between States. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size."²GOLDSMITH. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Come you more nearer.²RUSKIN.²DR BLAIR.²J.²BEN JONSON.

The meaning intended is the same. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. 433.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. not only so in popular speech. etc.²RUSKIN. These are the three first needs of civilized life. but in literary English. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The first five had specific names.² SMOLLETT. Definite article. and Secretary Walsingham also. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. .²GIBBON.²KINGSLEY.²DE QUINCEY.²ADDISON. ²COWPER. etc. jar upon us constantly. The delay in the first three lines. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.² With a singular noun. Instances of both are given below. Three first. the Spanish.²LAMB.²RUSKIN. For Carlyle.²PRESCOTT.²GIBBON. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. Examples of this construction are. ARTICLES. As to these two expressions. and conceit in the last. First three. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The merit of the Barb. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.

²MACAULAY. as. and the presents. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. the hour of parting came. of the eighteenth century. having been arranged.. 433. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. and flexible language. With a plural noun.. distinct. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. but is used with one only. as. 435.²CARLYLE. melodious. The lofty. The not repeated.²THACKERAY.²TAYLOR. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. . Meaning same as in Sec. were placed at a very tender age. as in Sec.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. Indefinite article. but inseparable from each other. of the higher and middling orders.²TENNYSON. the thought and the word. 433.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. 1508. He is master of the two-fold Logos. to distinguish clearly.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. Frequently.²SCOTT.²THE NATION. however. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. with a plural noun. Origin of the Aryans.² MACAULAY.²ID. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . No. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. I think. 434. the greatest poems.² RUSKIN. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. One object and several modifiers. with a singular noun. The flowers. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. Here the youth of both sexes. or to emphasize the meaning.²PRESCOTT.²NEWMAN.

Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. But in the following sentences. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. a murderer. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. 437. 438. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²JOHNSON. interest. as in the first three of Sec. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 433 and 436.² BURKE.²DICKENS. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²B.²MACAULAY. rich. . Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. T. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. 435. like the definite article. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. For rhetorical effect. as." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.436. 436). a collegian. a tyrant. COLERIDGE. The indefinite article (compare Sec. one noun is expressed.²THACKERAY." and "a red and a white geranium. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²BULWER.²S. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. a round and a square one alternately. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. or clearness to each of several nouns.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. The indefinite article is used. and inexhausted vein. JONSON.² MACAULAY. to limit two or more modified nouns.²BEECHER. He saw him in his mind's eye. and a usurper.²MACAULAY. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. In the sentences of Secs.²DRYDEN.An early. One article with several adjectives. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. Examples of this use are. only one of which is expressed.

² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. Sec. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. 276. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. then.²AGASSIZ. Another writer might.²COOPER. He sees that it is better to live in peace. 439. as.²G. as. has got already. and the following illustrations prove it.²W. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. without academies. ARNOLD. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Such. or the great intellectual life of our nation. 440. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. In English. Collective noun of singular meaning.. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. like some others in this series.²GIBBON.²CARLYLE This usage. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²M.²The Nation. This was spoken of in Part I. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. was the earliest American land.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. . A broad and loose rule.²FROUDE.VERBS. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. for example. ELIOT. Singular verb. all that academies can give. Singulars connected by or or nor. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.

the cheap defense of nations. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. ADAMS.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. No.² GOLDSMITH. as.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. or as making up one general idea. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. as.²J. Q.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. (4) When the subject is plural in form. Plural form and singular meaning. other names. a loss of friends. or considered as appositional.²DE QUINCEY. a cruel disappointment. A fever. and other singulars of plural form. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. nor John.²BURKE. is gone. Between ourselves. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. a mutilation. nor Paul. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²CRITIC. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²EMERSON . but each one emphatic. seems at the moment unpaid loss. a loss of wealth.² The unbought grace of life. nor Mahomet.Jesus is not dead. for example. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. for example.²WHITTIER. that of a large town. ²EMERSON. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.² In a word. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²GIBBON. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but considered as meaning about the same thing. and every four hours.

is divided into tragedy and Comedy. sir!" and the "What then. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.The rout. no matter if the second is plural). an impassioned countenance.²RUSKIN. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. Plural verb. as well as Europe.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. as. the ruin. was punished. Every fop. no. many a.²LONGFELLOW. To receive presents or a bribe.²SCOTT. the fine gentleman. Subjects after the verb.²ID. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. thus.²NEWMAN. Every week. a cuirass. every boor. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. was listened to for five hours. Here is no ruin. and such like adjectives. as well as the newest. does not take the place of the man. no spent ball.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²MACAULAY. is a man of wit. the dismay. Her back.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. as.²PRESCOTT. 441.²M ARNOLD. The oldest. as well as sides. the wit. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²MACAULAY. each.The author. as well as the Drama. and greaves.²PRESCOTT. the partisan. was dazzled. every valet. a gorget. There is a moving tone of voice.² Asia.² . wineBegins to stir itself.²BUTLER. sir?" and the "No. with death. almost every day. Every sound. The Epic.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²ID. an agitated gesture. sir!"²MACAULAY. no discontinuity. nay. every echo. was like to crack. Then comes the "Why. in a judge.

Conjunction omitted. shirt.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. . (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²FRANKLIN. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²GIBBON. 440 (5. A party of workmen were removing the horses. b). One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. All our household are at rest. the Duke of Berri.²B.²DE QUINCEY. as.²COLERIDGE.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²EMERSON. as in Sec. His clothes. as.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²SCOTT. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²GOLDSMITH. TAYLOR. a stream of fresh water. for example. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. are sufficient to attract a colony.²ADDISON.² GIBBON. of whom there were a number. The conjunction may be omitted. as with a subject of plural form. a green pasture. making up a plural subject.²FROUDE. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²SWIFT. were men of insignificant characters.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.²THOREAU.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. Philip of Anjou. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. A shady grove.² A multitude go mad about it. but the verb is plural.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²FROUDE. The travelers. its date. The Dauphin. far away thy children leave the land. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. Far.These bits of wood were covered on every square.

or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.But notice the construction of this. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. hadst been my lord. nor should I. Not Altamont. we never talk politics.²GOLDSMITH." or. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. "He or I can go. 444. as.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. that is. the subject being really equivalent to we.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.²ROWE. of different persons. 442. When the subjects. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. for example. Nothing which Mr. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Ah. the verb takes the construction of the first person. Not I. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN.²RUSKIN.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. You and I are tolerably modest people. If there is only one person in the subject.²WHITTIER. Pattison or I have said. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. 443. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it." etc. .²DE QUINCEY.).²D.²M. You and I are farmers. WEBSTER.²LOWELL. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. "You would not be wiser. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²SMOLLETT.²THACKERAY. Exceptional examples.²BYRON. Second or third and first person in the subject. nor has she")." "She or you may be sure. General usage. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. ARNOLD. This construction is at the best a little awkward. "I have never said so. his blood dost shed. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. but thou. but thou.

Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²SCOTT. In a word. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²G. Neither of them. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. Both death and I am found eternal. How each of these professions are crowded. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.²SMOLLETT.²MILTON. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Nor wood. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. as we would hope. 446.²ADDISON. 5. 11. In the following sentence. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 6." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. as illustrated above (Secs.²ADDISON. In this sentence from Defoe. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²BYRON. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 7.²EMERSON. Neither of their counselors were to be present. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.445. 4. 10. nor bush are there. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 3.Her course to intercept.That neither of their intellects are vast.²perhaps the devil. nor tree. BANCROFT.²THACKERAY. Exercise.²and. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. which it is proper to mention.²BURKE. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 9.²ID. 2. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. 12. in my opinion. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.² TROLLOPE. Also in verbals. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 440-444):² 1. 8.

448. Definitions. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. meaning. W. to have seen should be changed to to see.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. if not. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. 4. 447. Indirect discourse means reported speech. Two samples of indirect discourse.." . but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. Exercise. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. on my return.²MACAULAY. as. however. Of course. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Direct discourse²that is. I gave one quarter to Ann.²KINGSLEY.²DE QUINCEY 2. for exact connection. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.² PALGRAVE 5..²IRVING. change them to a better form:² 1. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. It should be remarked. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. to have divided with her whatever might remain. CHURCH.²R. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. The present rule is recent.²FRANKLIN 6.²THACKERAY.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. 3. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.

" etc. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. introductory verb is in the past tense. She thought to herself.. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. 1. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I.. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Sebastian's. . that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Her prudence whispered eternally. will. The substance of his lamentation was. interrogative adverbs.. This includes the auxiliaries be. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Oh. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Direct. His exact words were. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Summary of the expressions. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse." etc." Indirect. etc. 449.. 2. and the indirect question by whether or if. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. "Oh. have. "I cannot oblige you . Direct. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. or regular interrogatives.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. under interrogative pronouns. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect.

the first discoverer of the river and country. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. PARTICIPLES. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. in the sentences first quoted.²ADDISON. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. with his crew of the Half-moon.²B. like distant peals of thunder. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. 450. the sound of their balls." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. if this were expanded into a verb. VERBALS. handed down from his ancestor the historian. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. FRANKLIN. Notice this. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. and that he himself had heard.²ID. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. The trouble is.Exercise. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. . Careless use of the participial phrase.²GOLDSMITH. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. one summer afternoon. my first observation will be found nearly true. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.

." Exercise.. Exercise.. then.Correction. . or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. This is the more common arrangement. 451.²RUSKIN. avoid it. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.² HERBERT SPENCER. either "As I was pleased. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. many things to be carefully considered.²LAUGHLIN. There are. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. the first sentence would be. 3. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. purposely or not.. Adverb between to and the infinitive. It is a solemn. leaving the principal statement as it is. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.²ID. In the following citations. Standard writers often use it. INFINITIVES. my first collection was. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. universal assertion. 2. and often. if a strike is to succeed.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.²SCOTT. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. For example. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. ." etc. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. while defended or excused by others.

and earthenware. is to be very cautiously admitted. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. 13. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. etc.² MACAULAY.²The Nation. from Irving. when such adverbs as only.² ADDISON. Now. etc. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. even. even. The rigid rule in such a case would be. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.. Exercise. but they are often removed from the exact position. A little sketch of his. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. 7. are used. ADVERBS.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 6.. Position of only.²BURKE.²TROLLOPE. if they modify single words. this kind of grandeur.²SCOTT. BLAIR. 9. therefore. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.4. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. In works of art.²ID." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. but it is placed before the infinitive. which consists in multitude. The spirits. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 452. 1533. 5. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. china. 8. but cannot misunderstand the thought.²GOLDSMITH. 11. etc. 10. No.²RUSKIN. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. I wish the reader to clearly understand.²DR. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 12.

²ID. 14. No sonne. 453. were he never so old of yeares. 7. 5.²CHAUCER. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 2.²RUSKIN. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²ID. GROTE. . might not marry.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. ²ASCHAM. 9. My master.²THACKERAY. During the whole course of his administration.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.1. whence he was never destined to return. to avoid a crowd. He shouted in those clear. 3.²MACAULAY. Irving could only live very modestly. 8. He could only afford to keep one old horse. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²COOPER.²MOTLEY. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 10.²ID. In relating these and the following laws. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.² THACKERAY.²SYDNEY SMITH. 11. 6. 17. for example. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 15. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 16. P. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. In Old and Middle English. 4. 13. WILLIS. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²SWIFT. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²N.²MRS. 12. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.²EMERSON.²HIGGINSON. His last journey to Cannes.²PALGRAVE. The old usage.

I did not act so hastily. however. as. neither. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. one of the negatives is often a prefix. under the influence of Latin syntax. in Ole Virginia. when one of the negatives is a connective. Not only could man not acquire such information. uncommon. ²PAGE. can so agreeably affect.²GROTE. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. 2. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. nor the grandeur of no king. STOWE. and is still kept in vulgar English.²DE QUINCEY. the usual way of regarding the question now is. This.²DEFOE. denying each other. 4. There weren't no pies to equal hers. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.²BURKE. 3.²LOWELL. Exceptional use.²HOLMES. is not common. 6.²HAWTHORNE. and why:² 1. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. However. I never did see him again. who hadn't been to school for nothing. nor never shall. The prosperity of no empire. . that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. In the execution of this task. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort."²MRS. etc. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.²BAYNE.² HAMILTON. Regular law of negative in modern English. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. Exercise. STOWE. but ought not to labor after it.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. if two negatives are found together. Therefore. 7. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. But. 5. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house."²four negatives. In the latter case. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. as infrequent.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.²MRS.

²LOWELL. The sentences given in Secs. especially both .. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. either . The sentence.. the first should also.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. "well worthy to confer honor. not only . misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. but (also).. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. and which..." both of the above requirements are violated. not or is the proper correlative of neither. Things to be watched. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . or with advantage. CONJUNCTIONS." said the King..." . if the second precedes a phrase. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. 455. In the sentence. nor. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. but to their own safety. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.²SCOTT.. Choice and proper position of correlatives. nor is often changed to not²either . should be scrutinized. and. not merely . or."²SCOTT... And who.. "A weapon. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. or to reply to it. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace... or to reply to it. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.²PRESCOTT. neither . even neither .. as the use of the conjunction. not only to the success of their common cause. if the last precedes a verb. either. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. 454. there we were." may be changed to "This loose ." Besides neither . or.. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. as well as of the pronoun. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.8. but.. Correction.

² ADDISON. but. Some exceptions. 7.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. murder. 6. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. ." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. In the following sentences.²MACAULAY.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. O. 2.²S. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. as. Try and avoid the pronoun. Exercise. 456. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.²GIBBON. Try and for try to. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²FRANKLIN.²THACKERAY.²THACKERAY. They will. and I don't know but what he was right.Exercise.²BAIN. substitute that. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. Now. JEWETT.²GOLDSMITH. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. but. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. nor the disgrace of assailing him. as. 457. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. 3.²RUSKIN. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. etc. or but that. or the negative relative but. too. not merely interest children. But what. 5. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. but they will outrage. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. but grown-up persons. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. and chop up their own kin. 4. Correct the following sentences:² 1.²ID. 8. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous.

² SWIFT. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. see Sec.²SCOTT. no separation or division by twos being implied. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²EMERSON.²BURKE. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. 458.²EMERSON. Between is used most often with two things only. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²ADDISON. . No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.² BULWER. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²TROLLOPE. 4. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.²ADDISON. PREPOSITIONS. 3. 6. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 459. 313.2. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. Between and among. 305. 5. as already seen in Sec. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).

Paley. by custom. Conversant with. Conform to. Two groups or one and a group.²KINGSLEY. Accord with.²between philosophers like Spinoza. as. different.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. etc. averse.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. 460. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. 461. LIST I. involve. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Mackintosh. Derogatory to.: Words with particular prepositions. correspond. and Stewart.²RUSKIN What have I. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. or one object and a group. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Bestow on (upon). Comply with. and another to convey a different meaning. Different from. Abhorrent to. ²EMERSON. Dissent from. Averse to. Such are absolve. a soldier of the Cross. Kant. confer. and philosophers like Locke. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Affinity between. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. as. List I. Dependent on (upon). Some of them have. and Coleridge. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Such are derogatory. Acquit of. .

and sometimes creeps into standard books. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. List II. Reconcile to (note below). Confide to (intrust to). Change to (become). LIST II. Agree to (a proposal). 463. Involve in. Reconcile with (note below). as. Change with (a person). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. as. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Differ from (note below). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). but it is not good usage. Confide in (trust in). Correspond with (write to). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). as meaning to be in keeping with. Confer on (upon) (give to). Change for (a thing)." also of persons. A taste for (art. Independent of. as. LIST III. ." List III. Differ with (note below). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons.). Correspond to (a thing). A taste of (food)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Confer with (talk with). Disappointed in (a thing obtained).y y y Deprive of.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. in the sense of making friends with. etc. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. 462.

²THACKERAY." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²GOLDSMITH." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. as Cervantes informs us.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.:² "Die of. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. Take thought and die for Cæsar. instrument).²MACAULAY. "Die by. die with. "Die for. part with. "Die for. they shall die by this hand. die from. Expect of.²POPE." (in behalf of). ELIOT.²G. ELIOT. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.y y y Die by. die for.²MACAULAY.²FIELDING. die of." "die from.²SCOTT. Illustrations of "die of." etc. People do not die of trifling little colds. ²ATHENÆUM.²BOSWELL.²BURNETT. "Die from.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. . Part from. simply from old age. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²MACAULAY. One of them said he would die for her.²GOLDSMITH. "Die with. She died of hard work. If I meet with any of 'em. It would take me long to die of hunger.²SHAKESPEARE. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire." (material cause. expect from." (because of).²BULWER.²G. It is a man of quality who dies for her. privation. He died at last without disease. No one died from want at Longfeld.²ADDISON. and ill treatment." She would have been ready to die with shame. I am positively dying with hunger. Who. died for love of the fair Marcella.

as shown in the following quotations:² Of. "Expect from. His precious bag. 465. as my friend.²TROLLOPE.²MARRYAT. kind of you. ELIOT. nothing better was to be expected. 466. With words implying behavior or disposition. either of or in is used indifferently." She will expect more attention from you. I have long expected something remarkable from you. Kind in you. Of Doctor P.²WALPOLE.²G.²BULWER." "expect from:"² "Expect of. "Part from. which he would by no means part from.²G. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²G. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. ELIOT.²SCOTT.²POE. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. and hated to part with them. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²SHAW. 464. .²BULWER." "part from:"² "Part with." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. It was a little bad of you. I have just seen her. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²AUSTEN. I can part with my children for their good. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²WALLER. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general." To part from you would be misery. That is more than I expected of you.²MACAULAY. Illustrations of "part with. Illustrations of "expect of. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. ELIOT.²DICKENS. just parted from her.²MACAULAY.

thrown it over Amyas's head. 3. 9.²BEACONSFIELD. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. or artillery. . or which we are most imperatively required to do. 5. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. That is very unreasonable in a person so young.He did not think it handsome of you.²BULWER.²DICKENS. nor green. 8. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. it is commonly said that his profits are high. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. But this is idle of you.²CARLYLE. nor yellow. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. nor of a pale red. and ran up the alley. Thou tread'st. In the friction between an employer and workman. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. raging storms. Very natural in Mr. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 7. 10. thunder. 13. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 11. 1.²TENNYSON. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. The noise of vast cataracts. tedious perhaps. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. It will be anything but shrewd in you. but which the story renders necessary. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²BULWER. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. the vast abyss. Hampden. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. 4. with seraphims. 6. or that they are any way dependent on each other. nor blue. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. 14. This narrative. 15. In.

25. You have seen Cassio and she together. 21. 31. 19. When the glass or liquor are transparent. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. produce approbation. 17. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 32.) 34. 16. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. or how beautiful it is. Friday. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. the acquiescence of the understanding. what is a just and unjust act. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn.I would wish me only he. you or me. (Sec. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 20. were down with raging fever. Squares. 38. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. but in the price paid to them. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Every one of these letters are in my name. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 27. 28. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 26. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 24. The effect of proportion and fitness. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 37. 36. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 33. 18. 35. save Amyas. That night every man of the boat's crew. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 23. and almost as good as a pony. . triangles. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 30. and other angular figures. 22. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 411. 29. But every man may know.And were I anything but what I am. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. and most of us do know. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant.

Abstract with Active Address. 239. article. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. demonstrative. adjectives. as. . 133. syntax uses Absolute. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. numeral. from about 1500 to the present time. 119. 47. origin of. 310. 20. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. as comparison definition demonstrative. 260.000 between them. (2) Middle English. Adjectives. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. (3) Modern English. 102. 25. 116. from nominative clauses. 124. of. 90. of. 124. of. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. He had four children. voice. adverbs used complements. pronouns. nominative. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 107. nouns. 92. 40. INDEX. 98. 47. A. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 91. 89. of. of.39.

27. 325. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 106. adjectives. 302. 291. Against. quality. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. clauses. of. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. with with with subject. 323. 328. 242. 27. of. 275.from function how in not of of ordinal. 103. 187. from to of. 48. 194. plural pronominal. 97. 316. compared. 190. 207. antecedent. 109. between of. 303. of. of. 101. 42. parse. quantity. 287. 262. 99. nouns. predicate. nouns. modify. adjectives. 191. 325. 239. 184. and 185. as nouns. 116. Alms. of. conjunctions. 104. adjectives. 207. parse. 116. antecedent. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 148. to used of. 115. of. objective. 183. of. 194. . 303. sentence. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. conjunction. 190. 114. infinitive. Agreement. 195.

79. uses As At. of and pronoun of. of of of And Antecedent. pronouns. 84. 300. 67. 231. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. sentences. sentences. of. 67. See with definition complex compound simple who. of. Agreement. 296. An. 309. it. 225. Auxiliary if. syntax. which. 208. 275. 120. same. 49. to of. adjective. definition of of of Any. 74. of. A. agreement personal as pronoun. 252. though. parse. in in. 264. 120. 51. 150. . 271. 294. of. 148. definition how indefinite. 198. 101. 127. 207. 295. See 74. 124. which. syntax As. words between. and. derivation in definite.Among. Are. after of. possessive. 90. 331. Anacoluthon Analysis. Arrangement Articles. sentences. as uses verbs. which. 240. 287. 47. of.

conjunctions Cherub. 224. 210. of nouns. 62. in Old and Modern English. of. 262. Among. 47. forms. 66. Can. 48. 45. syntax of. uses Better. best. 37. 63. clauses of. 278. Case. 46. comparison conjugation of. 111. uses nominative of. of what. adjective. of pronouns. nominative. 54. 278. Clause. double possessive. 161. 150. number of. of pronouns. . 283. of nouns. 39. Be.Bad. 260. possessive. 39. objective. But. 149. of nouns. of nouns. 279. pronoun. Case. of. of pronouns. See of. definition could. 330. 110. adverb. 262. of pronouns. plurals of. of. 64. Brethren. Children. 279. 84. 110. Cause. 46. with But By. 195. 194. uses of. Between. 49. Bridegroom.

adverbs. subject. 263. in analysis. 315. 244. 189. 264. of. predicate of and from from of. 108. 18. of. sentence. of. 271. 18. 307. English. definition degrees irregular. predicate. analysis of. 257. 258. of. Cleave. 108. 43. 305. 113. 157. double.definition kinds noun. nouns. 257. Clomb. and sentence. of. 111. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 12. 239. clothes. nouns. of. 107. . 23. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. proper. superlative. 24. 53. and forms of. adjectives. 43. defective. 158. 110. plural of. 312. 307. Cloths. of. 257. verb. nouns. 268. infinitive. 248. of. material.

See analysis clauses. analysis.with Concord. of. 195. conjunctions. Dative Declarative Declension of case. sentences. 196. See in subjunctive. 139. replaced by objective. Can. and clause. 255. 138. sentence. pronoun. 194. in Old vs. same words. adverbs. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. of of Conjunctions. 73. definition how subordinate. to of. 194. 143. subjunctive. other other parts of speech. 151. 149. pronouns. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 269. 199. sentences. 193. definition be. verbs. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 188. . parse. pronoun. 231. interrogative pronouns. Conjunctions. 207. coördinate. 195. 194. 66. conjunction. Agreement. 328. 263. 289. correlative. See English. 149. conjunctions. of.

of. indirect. 303. nouns. 333. 242. 102. 35. for. pronouns. 185. tenses. of personal relative verbs. use of dies. nouns. comparative. pronouns. discourse. Case.Declension. Subordinate clause. 99. with. 51. See adjectives. by. from. possessive. 80. 60. Degrees. 102. passive adjectives. Comparison. Comparative. pronouns. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. clause. . duck. vs. object. 152. of. of. 315. See 148. 242. Articles. See See 48. adverbs See adjectives. 91. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. with of. 287. 26. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 160. 320. 43. 90. verb. 288. pronouns. of. article. 300.

pronoun. 299. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. of. 300. to suffix. adjective. older. possessive suffix. 287. 158. -En. another. conjunction. 234. 102. 90. 92. 38. adjective. 255. literary. pronouns. Each. object. the of sentence. pronoun. spoken. feminine plural English. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 40. error in sentence. 257. 92. 194. of. of. of. added suffix. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 240. predicate. 62. Empress. Elements Ellipsis. 112. one ( t). 33. 90. 12. ending. of.Drank. 34. plural. 328. 280. . 39. of. drunk. original. 42. 51. 33. suffix. 241. 110. 92. Either. other. 158. of subject. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. complement. vulgar. 287. 32. in 'Em.

Future Future tense. 235. plurals. 152. 29. Farther. as of from compared marking." 31. of.. 212. 30. have adjective. 110. 126. uses Foreign Former. two a further. adjective. few. 36. used of.Every. with in sex. modes "common goose. Few.. other languages. 91. 148. 152. as a noun. 334. two. 308. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 102. 238. 48. fishes. 32. . 189. from. uses redundant. 211. 30. 112. nouns. 43. 319. pronoun. 112. See Gander. perfect. of. 147. 287. 103. First Fish. object. First. definition distinguished in English. 212. 45. the. to of. of. Feminine. From. gender. 30. etc. Further. 102. etc. Gender. with infinitive. For. first. expect gone.

of. 173. 231. 60. 10. I. 60. His Husband. had hung. Grammar. 159. first sentence. definition basis of. possessive pronouns. 80. Got. 12. 43.of of Genii. 177. of. 176. participle. Government. 275. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. Had Hanged. 35. 101. 145. on. 13. an better. definition divisions opinions province H. pronoun. 61. adjective. and case verbal with. rather. pronouns. its. 120. person. 144. forms in Girl. personal relative geniuses. it. . of. He. 61. 36. she. from participle of. kinds of. 9. distinguished syntax. 12. Gerund. 159. for before. 175. noun. 285. of.

pronoun. elements. 176. of. adjectives. See Articles. 248. with of. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 231. adjectives. pronouns. indices. a object. questions. 136. 110. 93. words. in compared syntax. 43. sentence. of. 85. of. . 283. 73. Questions. your. 178. 153. Direct object. adverbs. 67. use article. 131. 276. 320. transitive. uses discourse. See you. verbs. summary See passive mood. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 72. 105. of. of clause. 323. indirect of. 188. questions. 245. meaning. mood.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 319. 227. 257. 131. 233.

these double kind. pronoun. 102. 12. was uses me. lie. Last. 281. 63." history etc. 91. Less. . of. Logic Logical Lord. 113. in little.. Kind. It.adverbs. etc. and See words in. Lay. See Madam. 61. English. 245. queen. Lay. subject form. King. 113. 36. lesser. 39. "It Its. 126. 36. plural. lord. 67. 226. a vs. 189. Lady. uses Literary Little. syntax the. latest. of. Like. Kine. Latter. Lie. of. predicate. 276. -Ly. 170. of. 110. syntax. 227. adjective. 303.. 110. 36. 190. Lady.

Modifiers. mistress. -Most. Mighty Mine. Much. 112. Neither. 195. of. superlatives. out of. 126. 188. 113. 189. Negative. 326. 64. of. 34. 36. Modifier. syntax nearer. 41. of. of. position adverb. 137-144. double. See definition 136. Enlargement. 325. nigh. 328. 110. 187. 265. Must.. of. 137. Means. syntax conjunction. comparison Near. adjective. etc. 287. 112.Manner. 102. May. 114. 161. subjunctive. 110. of. 112. of. imperative. Master. 160. 135. . 256. 185. indicative. conjunctions Many. construction as of adverb. sentences. mine. 189. 110. Mood. 144. 194. of. Many Mapping Mare. in adverbs comparison a. might.

32. 17. of. definition according of. 41 43. abstract. Not Noun Nouns. 30. 29. 25. of. number once other plural. to of.pronoun. abstract. kinds 90. 38-41. become neuter. nouns. 246. 30. 25. of. 41. 18. used as. class used singular. 19. formed. definition descriptive. syntax Neuter or two News. See 194. Case. 300. in. 38. gender how kinds material. 41. 92. of. of. analysis. No Nominative. 27. 45. etc. common. half abstract. 46. 21. clause. letters as 24. become become formation case collective. to use. 30. 125. 17 19. of. etc. syntax in gender nouns. 20. now plural. of of of of of a. Nor. . 56. gender nouns. 126. proper. 328. 46. of. parse. foreign. 26. 301. 124. 17. 258. words how compound. 42. material. and figures. nouns. None.

personal. in article. common. of different possessive definite of. Numeral Object. 102.of same two with proper. Preposition. 92. 278. of. and analysis. of. 285. 42. 281. singular. pronouns. 48. etc. See in in in Numeral distributive. 41. of. in nouns. 43. adjectives. 41. meaning. 242. definite. See verb. dative. as forms titles. adverbial. 148. 196. 240. 235. 106. . Nouns. verbs. of. plural form. 23. 42. indirect. of. passive adverbial. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. singular.. 39. 101. with case. conjunction. 121. adjectives. plural no two singular construction. 282. 48. 278. nominative. 42 44. 242. with with with Now Number. 66. pronouns. preposition. spoken of instead nouns. 48. become syntax use with with with Nouns. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. form. indefinite. 41. 195. 279. 48. 48. 60. meanings. 101. or plural. 124. plural. of. 18. English. article.

Older. 237. 216. of. 161. as of. 103. 87. 115. of. another. Ordinal Other Ought. 41. 213. position Order. See pronoun. 56. 293. Pains. definite relative uses of. a in adjectives. 194. inverted. 117. Our. Ourself. . 233. conjunctions. ours. with (the). 64. for. adverb. 103. of syntax. 127. 279. 38. as other. articles. 191. 93 other. uses numeral pronoun. of upon. One. conjunction. part analysis. Oxen. treatment comparatives. Elder. of. 199. adjective. 101.syntax Of. 91. of of of of of models adjectives. 94. adverbs. nouns. 116. Each adjective. 56. Omission On. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 69. 325 275. 306. Parsing. See the as of. pronoun.

317. -ing words. 172. 61. of. agreement of verb nouns. verbals. 287. verbs. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 64. with.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 148. of. phrases. 119. verbs. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. relatives. absolute with of. reflexive. 179. pennies. included various. 56. 59. and subject in. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. or of. 177. pronouns. . 172. phrase. not is. 62. of. 180. verb idioms it from. 219. 247. 281. 59. predicate use of. of. 62. 181. 69. nominative. in. Person. 43. article 150. parsed. from definition other of. 134. 28. 173. part adjective. pronouns. 43. 100. 322. 80. 70. 95. used as voice. 56. pronoun. Pence. of. of. speech. possessive and of. antecedent. 63. 59. 27. of. pease. 335. 174. them.

of. 278. 52. 285. pronoun. prepositional. or See of of See 185. of nouns. Personification. . relative. 245. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 63. appositional. 61. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 241. omitted. nouns. 's. as double. simple. participial. See 60. 195. Comparison. 41. 53. 67. 50. 49. 248. 281. 245. singular degree. 206. singular. of. of. kinds infinitive. of. antecedent of of pronouns. Nouns. 64. 281. of. 236. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. vs. 247. double. of. in of. 235. 247. complete. syntax of of Politics. 303. English. of. Personal subjective. 236. 60. of Phrase. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. adjectives. 25. nouns. spoken of. 188. Positive Possessive. 53. 303. plural. 278. pronouns. 106.objective syntax table triple uses of. adverbs of. 54. 51. it. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. objects. Place. of. 37. 232. nouns. pronoun. noun nouns.

plural. any. 206. 287. case. 331. of. forms of. 105. and form form form form of. 285. 95. none. what. parse. 59. 283. case. 187. 219. somebody definition how indefinite. 203. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. adverb. Prepositions. singular usually other. for predicate nominative. objective. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. neither. 205. 203. by with shown certain of. of. 208. who personal.Prefixes. parse. 93. 281. 332. 301. after but. 279. 104. of. 284. 282. usually to as than. as antecedent of relative. 64. all. 207. 303. 300. 58. by parts of of. 58. 72. Pronouns. objective. same used as adjectives. in exclamations. 105. 195. verbs. possessive nominative to of. . 300. plural. 147. another. each either. 186. 129. 302. words. by. 283. speech. adjective. plural. expressed as other of. 89. of. 280. and one with else's. 202. 32. 132. interrogative. 333. of. of. of. future. as 54. exclamatory. meaning. interrogative. 299. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. as. with tense certain.

discourse. personal pronoun. agreement anacoluthon and as. 142. or of. in. of. pronouns. 291. of. nouns. 87. 74. 99. 263. 69. in. 80. of. Quotations. 74. See of. Nouns. 58. of. 293. in. 289. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 286. adverbs in. to of. pronominal pronouns indirect. use of history formed. of. Quantity. 85. 295. 105. . and antecedent. 189. indirect compound. from and interrogative.possessive relative. parse. and which. questions. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. Rank. 289. 69. 83. which after same. 84. of. 297. conjunctions Quality. who. 279. 85. 188. Questions. same antecedent. 293. indirect. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 101. 296. unrestrictive. which. of. 68. of. with who. 74. Rather. Direct same and different. 195. of. 87. 295. and relatives. use in as. pronoun. with with gerund. that.

of of of complex Sentences. 29. of. complex. 159. Seeing. elliptical. Simple in sate. 252.syntax use Result. S. Same Sat. Self Sentences. in form. simple of. kinds Sequence Set. 51. reflexive analysis of compound. of. which. tenses. plural possessive as. 196. Shear. 319. gender. sentence. 40. and should. 255. in of. 74. of sit. that. ending. 196. 43. 162. suffix. forms shots. conjunctions Retained Riches. 26 271. effect. 259. of. 'S. 42. See Sentences. simple. 289. 263. of. would. 242. 69. conjunction. who. definition . 170. pronoun. 231. 159. 231. object. clauses of. 195. 294. Sex Shall. Shot. will.

36. logical. 245. etc. of. Spelling Spinster. 186. definition how kinds noun. 169. 33. adverb. .Singular Sir. of. names as a. vs. as. Modern use becoming else's. -es. 323. 303. used mood. 270. 262. 257. 303. literary clause. -en. 33. English. English. English. 257. in feminine suffix. 32. 257. verbs. for. 237. of. sort. 126. of. 12. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective.. 144. 137. 245. 257. 38. Split Spoken -Ster. Subject. of. of. distinguish. these number. 258. to of. 144. Somebody Sort. adverb. disuse in spoken complete. 38. definition 67. 258. in Middle English. 258. 233. English. 260. other Such Such Suffix -s. 138. 240. phonetic in infinitive. of. See -En.

Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. meaning. adjectives. of. 119. syntax of. plural as adverb. 88. 289. classical of. in double. of. Kind. 123. Then.Suffixes. not suggesting adjectives. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 222. 191. definition in English Tense. of.. 297. coördinating. as history syntax Their. when relative. Tenses. English. king. of. 116. as adverbs. "the then foreign. 33. 109. 148. 290. me. auxiliaries. that uses That. See etc. of. of. this. 120. subject. 152. which. 147. meaning made up in Old of. when as of. as history The. of. article.. ." introductory. 186. 306. 106. in comparison. 106. 147. degree. 61. 107. 275. than of. 319. 277. 280.. 186. omission whom. of . of languages. object. adverbs. There These kind. 307. form. 275. 309. 108. two basis not same definition definite. they. of. and and of. 189. 87. 147. 306. restrictive. objects. English.

61. of. tother. Utter. Upper. uses history of. certain as the before with of. 114. preposition. conjunctions prepositions To. 185. 248.. from cleft to 174. infinitive. of. 114. first adjective. infinitive. of. in of. 323. uses of. 172. 20. 217. phrases. 175. See On.These. 176. 308. parse. kinds participle. analysis. other noun. 322. . 181. of. 175. thy. 188. adverbs those. feminine and. 330. Try Two Under. gerund. 119. 128. -Trix. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. etc. of. 173. used. of. 33. Thou. 175. 207. Upon. try two. verbs. in omitted uses T'other. 21. 322. See That. carelessly uses syntax this. 195. words. thee. suffix. -ing 111. how infinitive. first. of. 180. 114. Time. 247. 172. to. exclamations. uttermost.

149. 148. . table of irregular. made transitive. sequence of. 157. 154. 169. table of. active. 319. 167. 312-316. 154. becoming irregular. how to parse. 245. weak. of English. mood of. agreement of. passive. person and number of. 236. definition of. 167. voice of. 148. 330. 133. tense of. 131. Vixen. spelling of. 135. in person. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 155. transitive and intransitive. 317. 159. 134. 154. but uses what. What. of incomplete predication. auxiliary. definition of. in indirect discourse.Verbs. 312. 169. change. remarks on certain. 179. Vocative in Voice. verbs. with subject in number. 223. of. definition of. conjugation of. passive form. of. 320. 129. past tense formed nominative. defective. 160. strong. 12. 242. regular. syntax of. 133. active meaning. retained object with passive. intransitive. 150. 151. 47. verbs by. phonetic. 33. formed by. analysis. 39. 147. 130.

72. a. 104. questions. questions. wizard. 85. 194. 85. Will. direct of. uses See Shall. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 75. 72. . 85.. in. questions. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 105. 83. animals. conjunction. antecedent adjective. 178. 75. Woman. 79. pronoun. 126. Words in Worse. 37. With. pronoun. 40. 299. Whether. questions. in -ly. Who. 83.what Whereby. relative. spoken in of. plural of in nouns -ing. relative. 246. 77. of. of. 295-299. 78. in in indefinite objective. 105. Wife. 36. 296. worser. referring syntax Widower. would. 190. Y. 218. 72. 111. 73. Yes ending analysis. 32. relative indirect relative. Witch. whereto. etc. interrogative Which. 36. English.

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