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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

so that a small grammar will hold them all. Coming back. This will take in the usual divisions. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. if rightly presented. there is still much for the grammarian to do. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. Mental training. from the question. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. Making rules is risky. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. to those who have studied the language historically. but this is bad English now. An æsthetic benefit. . Authority as a basis. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). Literary English." and "Syntax. their forms. as. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. it will at the same time. its peculiar and abundant idioms. with its enormous vocabulary. Surely our noble language. assist the classification of kindred expressions. A broader view. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. The work it will cover. however. Few inflections. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. "Analysis. then. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). and thus incite his observation. as compared with Latin or Greek. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. is worthy of serious study. It is also evident. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. If. and their uses and relations in the sentence." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties.The province of English grammar is.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words." What grammar is. rightly considered. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases.

or Syntax. which belongs to a people. and Inflections. The following pages will cover. Analysis of Sentences. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. .²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. but.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. The Parts of Speech. The plainest name is Arabs. Part II. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. besides this one. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. too. and the word nation stands for a whole group. reference will be made to vulgar English. NOUNS. and will are evidently names of a different kind. then.²GIBBON. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. the nation is free.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. from the eighteenth century on. the words sons and master name objects. three divisions:² Part I. In the more simple state of the Arabs. not objects. and may belong to any of those objects. 1. Vulgar English. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. that is. Spoken English. Occasionally. PART I. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. submission. as they stand for ideas. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. or standard. by which is meant the free. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Part III. Such words are called nouns. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. The Uses of Words. The words state. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself.

city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Abstract. or idea. 2. A noun is a name word. For instance. however. . possessed by all. because each group is considered as a unit. representing directly to the mind an object. We may say. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. is from a Latin word which means general. Proper. (b) Common. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. a committee. substance. place. They properly belong under common nouns. we may think of them in groups. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. or the man in front of you. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. Thus. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. the man here. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Collective. or thing. Common. animals. or a council. animals. etc.Definition. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. the name of each is an individual or proper name. men in groups may be called a crowd. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. 5. reducing it to a narrow application. This does not imply. and appropriate names to the groups. Individual. Name for a group or collection of objects. Classes of nouns. ATTRIBUTE. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. MATERIAL. (a) 4. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. whether person. and things separately. Thus. Name for any individual of a class. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or things. 3. Besides considering persons. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. belonging to one. or a congress. but Chicago names one city. or a mob. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. as here used. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application.

but in the words sun. NOTE. The quality is still there as much as before. rock. snow. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. mist. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. When we speak of a wise man. etc. or that which shows a thing has been proved.²There are some nouns." 9. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. etc. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. granite. earth. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. however. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). instead of to each individual or separate object. moon. The reason is." "a man of understanding. and so on. there is no such intention. wheat. Again. or action. It may. and fasten a special name to the object considered. stone. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. rubber. . etc. (3) Geological bodies: mud. world. but it is taken merely as a name. paint. cloud. clay. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. etc. wheat. Such are glass.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. earth. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. platinum. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. as in calling a city Cincinnati. Names of ideas. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. gold. wine. etc. tea. proof means the act of proving. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. condition. sugar. iron." "Learning is hard to acquire. etc. such as sun. sugar. or apart from their natural connection. "Painting is a fine art. dew. we may say. rain. expressing state. or actions. celluloid. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. 7. etc. expressing attributes or qualities. rice. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. potash. conditions. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. . considered abstractly. frost. Words naturally of limited application not proper. sand. They remain common class names. soap. but which are not called proper names. frost. 6. we speak of the wisdom of the man. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person.. not things.

the well-being of her subjects." "a brisk walk. Verbal abstract nouns. "a long run" "a bold move. 1. 273). To avoid difficulty. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. Exercises. as their name implies. service from serve. lightning. and they cannot express action. night. kingship from king. . winter. the main bearings of this matter. etc.. those opinions and feelings. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. 12. ease. Underived abstract nouns. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. five abstract. the rude drawings of the book. a wedding or a festival. action from act. Thus. (1) prudence from prudent. NOTE. as in the expressions. by altering its function. her longing for their favor. as glad²joy. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. They are only the husks of verbs. II. day." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. The verb. thunder. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. but are merely names of actions. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. height from high. he spread his blessings over the land. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. energy. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. the teachings of the High Spirit. 272. childhood from child. They cannot govern a word. etc. the moon caused fearful forebodings. Caution. mastery from master. etc. theft from thieve. is used as a noun. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. etc. hopeful²hope. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks.Attribute abstract nouns. five proper. Such are beauty. (2) peerage from peer. the great Puritan awakening. summer. in the beginning of his life. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. stupidity from stupid. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. 10. joy. shadow. hope. redness from red. speech from speak. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. there is time for such reasonings.

Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. pleurisy. algebra. Using a dictionary. catarrh. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . geology. as pneumonia. (b) branches of knowledge. mathematics? 3. diphtheria. typhus.2. as physics.

meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. it imposes its classification on other men. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. damask. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. levant and morocco (leather). we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. "The cook made the irons hot. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. etc. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. or to go over to it entirely." referring to flat- . from a town in France. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. arras. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. Guillotin. a Bentham. We know a number of objects made of iron. above. from Oporto. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. currants. from Corinth. a Hutton. a Fourier. a Locke. from Damascus. 15. from the name of Dr. Others of similar character are calico. but most of them are in the following groups. 14. as a davy. 119). Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. a Lavoisier. Nouns change by use.²EMERSON. the guillotine. in Portugal. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. for example. from China. thus. port (wine). the word port. and lo! a new system. but we may say. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. Material nouns may be used as class names. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. 13.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. who was its inventor. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. from Calicut. Proper names transferred to common use.

or the arts and sciences. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. Next Anger rushed. They are not then pure abstract nouns. not material things.²PERCIVAL. slates. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. smiled. clouds. but differ in strength. or made plural. and only Vice and Misery. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Death. or used as class nouns. a rubber for erasing marks. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²HAYNE. mists. candies. though not confined to verse. Test this in the following sentences:² . Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. that the power of art is founded on fact. on fire.²BRYANT. which are made plural.²COLLINS. For example. Class nouns in use. his eyes. These are the same in material. 17. This is a poetic usage. a steel to whet a knife on.²BYRON. papers. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. oils. (3) By poetical use. 16. the abstract idea is partly lost. to prowl or to moan like night birds. When it is said that art differs from science. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. paints. The words preceded by the article a. and say teas. are still names of abstract ideas. etc. Traffic has lain down to rest. Personification of abstract ideas. tobaccos. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. but in case an art or a science. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. but on dispositions which require to be created. nor are they common class nouns. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. From all around²Earth and her waters. as stones. abstract in meaning. tins. are abroad. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.In lightnings owned his secret stings. that disposition is the thing to be created. be spoken of.irons. purity. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. and so on. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. A halfway class of words. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this.²RUSKIN. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. that is. clays.²CARLYLE. coals. etc. or.

as each repeated pleasure tired. But it is better to consider them as nouns. for example. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. the wealthy. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. which belongs to another word. make our own so. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Conjunctions. a bill as to tax on the banks. they cannot be compared. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. Every why hath a wherefore. as descriptive adjectives are.²IRVING. By ellipses. fear thy blow. meaning a walk in the morning. NOTE." "the State Bank Tax bill. nouns used to modify. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions." which contains a pure adjective. And still.Let us. All these. loves. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. they do not express quality. etc." "a morning walk.²BURNS. if we must have great actions.² BURNS. When I was young? Ah." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. however.The Solitary can despise. Nouns used as descriptive terms. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. But ah! those pleasures. Then comes the "Why.²SHAKESPEARE.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. 19. sir?" and the "No. or describe it. sir!" and the "What then. Adverbs. were mere terrors of the night. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE." "a New York bank. or from any expression.² GOLDSMITH. a bank in New York. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. They are more like the possessive noun.²EMERSON. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. sir!"²MACAULAY . Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. Adjectives. but is still a noun. 18.²SHAKESPEARE. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. "a family quarrel.

Caution. FRANKLIN. 3. the wealthy. NOTE. is the word "just. and tell to which class each belongs.²These remarks do not apply. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. The it. in speaking of the principal of a school.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. in a sentence above. of words rather than of their meaning. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. 20. When. 7. Learning.Nor iron bars a cage. why and wherefore. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. at the beginning. Now. and Then. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Exercise. the terms the great.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. too. are spoken of as if pure nouns.. Hope springs eternal in the human breast." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. 2. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. so. Power laid his rod aside. of course. etc. 5. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. however. without reference to its function in the sentence. . or a faithful domestic. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another." and another of Dr. or a state secret. but as a figure of speech. When. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. or a criminal. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. It is to be remembered. 4. There are many of these. 1. Stone walls do not a prison make. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. to such words as become pure nouns by use." or "legal. that cobweb of the brain. is ambiguous. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. but have an adjectival meaning.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. In the other sentences. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. 6. are used. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. whether it mean the sun or the cold."²B. 8.

INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 19. but not so in English. the silver moon is gone.You seize the flower. Male beings are. always feminine. What gender means in English. 14. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 21. There are exceptions even to this general statement. and many other languages. It is founded on sex. A little weeping would ease my heart.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 15. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. female. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 23. The hours glide by. 10. GENDER. 22. 17. The fleet. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. the welcome.9. he cried. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. always masculine. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 24. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 21. German. A fool speaks all his mind. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 11. its bloom is shed. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 12. and names of females are usually feminine. In Latin. 18. that waits you here. 13.Fair guests. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. . And see. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 16. shattered and disabled. 20. in English grammar. Greek. for every dropHinders needle and thread. returned to Spain.

" . according to use.² I have seenA curious child . or additions to words. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. that pattern of a husband." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.. "A little child shall lead them. if there were any signs of life in it. or names of things without life. are named by gender nouns. that is. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. those with which man comes in contact often. must be divided into two principal classes. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. with its gizzard under its wing.. those which do not distinguish sex. the name of it is feminine. the sex being of no consequence. Some words either gender or neuter nouns.² IRVING. der Tisch (table) is masculine. or which arouse his interest most. inanimate things are spoken of. according to their use. The great difference is. 24. Thus. the name of it is masculine. if of the female sex.. came to a stand just by the bridge.²IRVING. Hence: Definition. in English. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.. Neuter nouns.²gender nouns. in German. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders.When. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. mensa (table) is feminine. but are spoken of as neuter. das Messer (knife) is neuter.. however. hortus (garden) is masculine. He next stooped down to feel the pig. and neuter nouns. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. 22. then. and consequently without sex. corpus (body) is neuter.²masculine and feminine. those distinguishing the sex of the object. Gender nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence. For instance: in Latin. All nouns. Of animals. in other languages gender follows the form. . Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. 23. No "common gender.. Gunpowder .²LAMB. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. clapping his burnished wings.

25. Native suffixes. puts a prefix before the masculine man. generally to a masculine word. Gender shown by Suffixes. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. they are neuter words. the division of words according to sex. The inflections for gender belong. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. is.. Gender shown by Prefixes. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. domestic. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. cousin. from the masculine fox. These remain in vixen and spinster. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. as in wine vat. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. or the lack of it. If such words as parent. for from they said vram. teacher. etc. I. One feminine. of course. II. For fox they said vox. as he-goat²she-goat. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. 26. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. 29. but spinster has now no connection with it. According to the definition. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. Hence vixen is for fyxen. only to masculine and feminine nouns. (2) By adding a suffix. woman. Put in convenient form. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. though both words have lost their original meanings. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Very few of class I. Male nouns beings. 28. relative. and for the older word fat they said vat. (3) By using a different word for each gender. . 27.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. servant. he-bear²she-bear. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. ruler.

as. it has none now in the words huckster. Low Latin issa). as seam-stress. Unaltered and little used. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). Slightly changed and widely used. executrix. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. and are never used for words recognized as English. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. donna. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. 30. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. song-str-ess.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. punster. These are attached to foreign words. the one most used. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as czarina. señorita. but in most cases it has not. trickster. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Ending of masculine not changed. -ess (French esse. gamester. as.

Thus. neighboresse." III. teacher or lady teacher. Some of them have an interesting history. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. Gender shown by Different Words. Instead of saying doctress. to represent persons of either sex. we use the masculine termination. neighbor (masculine and feminine). In some of these pairs. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. fosteress. frendesse. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. editor. teacheresse. wagoness. as was said in the sixteenth century. as. we use the feminine. 31. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. Ending -ess less used now than formerly.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. NOTE. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. or servauntesse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). from the French -esse. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. 32. etc. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . the ending -ess. as in the fourteenth century. as. others have in their origin the same root. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. chairman. We frequently use such words as author. from Latin imperatricem. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine.

among others) to be from the same root word. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Mare. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. etc. lhauerd. Danish gaas. as in many other words. The masculine was formed by adding -a. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. not immediately connected with witch. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). probably meaning house dweller). but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not.). finally gander. had the masculine mearh (horse). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. 34. for example. Two masculines from feminines. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. though both are ultimately from the same root. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. in Old English mere. Witch is the Old English wicce. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). 33. from Latin mea domina. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. became identical. Besides gander and drake. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. written loverd. leaving our word drake. Widower. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. 16). but this has long been obsolete. widuwa²widuwe.² . gand-ra. Personification. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). the old sign of the masculine. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. The older forms. Icelandic gás. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Three letters of ened have fallen away. or lauerd in Middle English. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Madam is the French ma dame. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning).

Her march is o'er the mountain waves. But other words were inflected afterwards. 35.²singular and plural. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. the engineer speaks so of his engine. 36. treen (trees). This inflection remains only in the word oxen. The first two methods prevailed. I. whenever we adopt a new word. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. that is. Britannia needs no bulwarks. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. in Old English. and not by the form of the noun."Now. . The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch.Her home is on the deep. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. 39.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. Our language has two numbers. 38. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. Definition. (3) By adding -s (or -es).²COLERIDGE.²CAMPBELL. In nouns. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. the plural. together with the third. for instance. NUMBER."²BYRON. This is not exclusively a poetic use. 37. shoon (shoes). eyen (eyes). Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en.²KEATS. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. The -en inflection. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Effect of personification. (2) By changing the root vowel. more than one. etc.No towers along the steep. we make its plural by adding -s or -es.

² The foot are fourscore thousand. cannon. quartz. as. after numerals (if not after numerals. turf. they add -s): also trout. 40. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. glass. after all. and is still found in dialects.² "God bless me! so then. Brethren has passed through three stages.²THOREAU. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. heathen. lens. swine.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. head. sheep.-En inflection imitated by other words. then brothre or brethre. Lee marched over the mountain wall. Children has passed through the same history.The horse are thousands ten. The words horse and foot. as. Instead of -s.²WHITTIER. wight. by. III. dozen. II. ditch. Examples of this inflection are. sail. The old plural was brothru. finally brethren. but they now add the ending -s. and get settled. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. folk. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. etc.²Over the mountains winding down. brace. pair. but has now no singular. etc. 41. salmon. people. Kine is another double plural."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.²MACAULAY. Other words following the same usage are. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. retain the same form for plural meaning.Horse and foot. that have the singular and plural alike. such as deer. . Akin to this class are some words. when they mean soldiery. Such are box. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. into Frederick town. cross. 42. originally neuter. borough²formerly had the same inflection. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. etc.

etc.g. in its widest extent. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. etc. chaise²chaises. Two words. etc. e. is both the science and the art of government.g. some adding -s. Examples of these are.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. means and politics. 15 and 17). molasses. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. as. house²houses.² Politics. allies. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. politics. 43. shelf²shelves. they lose their identity. Special Lists. knife²knives. prize²prizes. race²races.. means: as. and some -es. It served simply as a means of sight. physics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). The lilie on hir stalke grene. though this sound combines readily with -s. hero²heroes. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. pains (care). e. Words in -ies. Proper nouns are regularly singular. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. half²halves. fairies. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form.²BRYANT. and go over to other classes (Secs. and the real ending is therefore -s. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. the Washingtons.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. daisies. fancies. Means plural. that when thy summons comes. etc. quoth then that ladie milde. the Americas. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. negro²negroes. Formerly. When such words take a plural ending. niche²niches. these words ended in -ie. So live. summons.²PROF.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. optics.-Es added in certain cases. Some words are usually singular. mathematics. and many branches of learning. though they are plural in form. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² .. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. 45. 44. a new syllable is made. DANA. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. economics. also news. however. volcano² volcanoes.

CURTIS.²MOTLEY.Words. W.²J. 46. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. however. Politics plural.²GOLDSMITH. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²G. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Sometimes. I say. LAUGHLIN.²GOLDSMITH. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. it is furnished with a forceps. L.² MACAULAY. by strongly conveying the passions. Some words have no corresponding singular. by those means which we have already mentioned. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²BURKE. A relic which. Besides this. riches will accumulate. By these means. Now I read all the politics that come out. he pronounced to have been a tongs. if I recollect right.²IRVING.²GOLDSMITH. .

What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. or work in a bellows?²PROF. twopence. (2) literature. genius²geniuses (men of genius). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. number²numbers: (1) figures. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. genii (spirits).²LONGFELLOW.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. the other unlike it.The air. DANA. riches. die²dies (stamps for coins. Two classes of compound words. fish²fish (collectively). brethren (of a society or church). . index²indexes (to books). in mournful numbers..²was it subdued when.²one corresponding to the singular. Three words were originally singular. penny²pennies (separately). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. (2) revenue duties. part²parts: (1) divisions. or epistles. In speaking of coins. as in the lines. or copies. shot²shot (collective balls). eaves. two meanings.² I lisped in numbers. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. 48. etc. pea²peas (separately). pence (collectively). 50. One plural. trouble. faculties. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). indices (signs in algebra). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. 49. Numbers also means issues.²POPE. etc. ways. clothes (garments). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection.. as two sixpences. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). These make the last part plural. shots (number of times fired). In Early Modern English thank is found. fishes (individuals or kinds). of a periodical. making a double plural. two plurals. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. (2) abilities. (2) poetry. sixpence. dice (for gaming). (2) care.). pease (collectively). Tell me not. may add -s. for the numbers came. carry off chaff..

for example. HOLMES. the Drs. and Mrs. 51. Brown. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. firman. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. woman servant. . there is some disagreement among English writers. Brahman. German.² Then came Mr. as man singer. then Silas Peckham. Allen. manservant. though the latter is often found. woman singer. Two methods in use for names with titles. the Misses Rich.²DR. Norman. Briggs. Ottoman. 52. such as talisman. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. The chief member adds -s in the plural. or the name may be pluralized. but add -s. As to plurals of names with titles. as the Messrs. Mussulman.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. and then the three Miss Spinneys. The title may be plural.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.

Domesticated words. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.²GIBBON. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Others have been adopted.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²DICKENS. or Anglicized. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.²THE CRITIC.²GOLDSMITH. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. y y analysis antithesis . Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. FROM THE GREEK. Exercise. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. 53. They are then said to be naturalized. or Englished. These are said to be domesticated. The Messrs. and retain their foreign plurals. FROM THE LATIN. Du Maurier. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.

Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. 55. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). figures. cell has another relation. 56. Definition. etc. In the general wearing-away of inflections." the word felon's modifies cell. also add -s or 's..y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. . etc. and expresses a relation akin to possession. they form their plurals in the regular way. In the sentence. Letters. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). "He sleeps in a felon's cell." CASE. 54. as. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. figures. without reference to their meaning.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). as. Words quoted merely as words. Only two case forms.

Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 57. 58.²nature. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. I. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. 1. Uses of the Nominative. Human experience is the great test of truth. when asked unawares. Nouns. and experience. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. completing a verb. then. the enemy of the living. 4. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.²the nominative. the objective. may be said to have three cases. fate.²person. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 2. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. . 5.²one for the nominative and objective. they returned to their homes. learning." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Excuses are clothes which. three things characterize man. excessive grief. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen." (2) As a predicate noun. must be understood for purposes of analysis.There are now only two case forms of English nouns." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Three properties belong to wisdom. 3. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. and the possessive. and merit. whether inflected or not. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.

9. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. thy wrath can send. But of all plagues. and being equivalent to one verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. they are sands of precious gold. ." "Thou makest the storm a calm. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. distance. a patriarch of the village. (in the older stages of the language. They charged. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends.6. 68. good Heaven. completing the verb. as will be seen in Sec. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. taking the object storm. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and makest a calm. etc. But the flood came howling one day. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. Conscience.Save." (4) As the second object. how have I frighted thee? II." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. the word toward which the preposition points. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. 8. Set a high price on your leisure moments. 3. save. 2. and meaning calmest. wounded lies." (3) Adverbially. measure. reconciles. (5) As the object of a preposition. Uses of the Objective. and tell which use each has:² 1." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun." Exercise. 4. 59. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. sword in hand and visor down. and landlord of the inn. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. her first law broken. taking the object enemies.

6. The possessive case always modifies another word.. from day to day. (2) Objective possessive. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.²BYRON. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. tempests that . If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.Does his Creator's power display. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. as shown in the sentences.And gave the leper to eat and drink. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. 7. 10. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 61.²SHELLEY. 9. It is a poetic expression. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. expressed or understood. as in these expressions. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. the Great Stone Face. (3) Subjective possessive. 8. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.His winter task a pastime made. III. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. Possession in some sense is the most common. And whirling plate. the most common of all.²ADDISON. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.5. Uses of the Possessive.²HAWTHORNE. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. and forfeits paid. The noblest mind the best contentment has. 60.² The unwearied sun.e. as. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. or in writing yesterday's elegy. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.

Nom. Poss. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. and Obj. child NOTE. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. How the possessive is formed. Declension or inflection of nouns. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. The use of the apostrophe. 56). 1. A suggestion. To form the possessive plural. A false theory. 62." "mannes herte [heart]. "From every schires ende. 62. and Obj. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i." "at his beddes syde.winter is likely to have). in Chaucer. Nom.e. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. lady Poss. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. as schoolboys sometimes write. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. however. there are only two case forms. As said before (Sec. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). PLURAL. Case Inflection. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s..²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. the panther which the forest hides). growth which several days had developed)." Use of the apostrophe." etc. 64. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. One is the simple form of a word. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. "George Jones his book.e. ." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war].. 63. making the possessive singular.

and the connection must tell us what form is intended.²CARLYLE." Possessive with compound expressions. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that." "A postscript is added. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. store.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. the possessive sign is usually last. . and from a desire to have distinct forms. in the name of the emperor their master. as. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. etc. etc.²RUSKIN. as. but to the ear all may be alike. being understood with it: for example. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. In compound expressions. Cervantes' satirical work. dwelling. 65. Peter's. as by the countess's command. my neighbors. Captain Scrapegrace's. for goodness' sake. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.. stands up for God's truth one man. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. instead of the emperor their master's name.²DE QUINCEY."²DE QUINCEY. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. I remember him in his cradle at St.Though this opinion was untrue." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.²HOLMES. 67. church.²SWIFT. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. and she walked off from the don's. Possessive and no noun limited.² LOWELL. some such word as house. James's. the items of my son's. know the amount of my income. Kate saw that. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. a word with a phrase. containing words in apposition. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. 66.²THACKERAY.

the. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. A peculiar form. every. the statement clearly means only one thing.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. sometimes they are used together. If. objective. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief.²CARLYLE. Exercises.The double possessive. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. in such a sentence as. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. as one modifier. In most cases. 2. the sentence might be understood as just explained. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. we use the phrase of Atterbury. corresponding to 's. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.²FROUDE.. that. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. For example. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. 87. 68.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. especially when used with this or that. (See also Sec. any. Both of these are now used side by side. etc. or subjective. this.²E. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . a double possessive. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. E. Clearness. making a double possessive.²the introduction which Atterbury made. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. (b) Rewrite the sentence. Blair). (3) It prevents ambiguity.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. (1) When a word is modified by a. and tell whether each is appositional. 1. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. each. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. and at the same time by a possessive noun. HALE. ill-lighted except where she stands. no. however. Emphasis.

never in the tongueOf him that makes it. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 4.3. 70. 15. 13. in parsing a noun. 8. 11. Now the bright morning star. 9. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. some idioms²the double possessive.They say.Comes dancing from the East. let him seasonably water the one. 12. 10.A weary waste expanding to the skies. it seemed. There Shakespeare's self. At lovers' perjuries. 5. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. with every garland crowned. 69. therefore. 7. day's harbinger.² . Jove laughs. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. Nature herself. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. Friend. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. we state. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 14. In parsing. and destroy the other. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Hence. 6. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.

(2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. and relations. and therefore nominative case. 3.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. 4. and limits neckcloth. and number. is a common class noun. (3) Whether singular or plural number. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. as to case. it is the name of a male being. the connection shows a male is meant. Exercise. it is the object of the preposition by. and to have it found out by accident. hence objective case. 68). masculine. Thief is a common class noun. determining its case. it has no sex. hence it is a common noun. a withered serving man. if the latter.(1) The class to which it belongs. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. 2. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 71. which gender. That in the captain's but a choleric word. etc. Neckcloth. a fresh tapster. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. like miller's.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. therefore neuter. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. proper.²common. it expresses possession or ownership. object of the verb takes. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. therefore singular number. MODEL FOR PARSING. it denotes only one person. has no governing word. NOTE. but is the adverbial objective. hence it is objective case. therefore singular number. . hence it is a gender noun. subject of the verb is understood. The correct method. names one thing. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. inflections. Throat is neuter. In parsing any word. gender. singular number. it expresses time. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. therefore possessive case. therefore masculine gender. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. (4) Its office in the sentence.

financial minister to Louis XVI. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. For instance. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. Mrs. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. A pronoun is a reference word. were natives of Geneva. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. He giveth his beloved sleep.²palace. 76). This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. castle. Now. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 8. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. A few miles from this point. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. and prison.. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. instead of saying. 72. all in one.. The need of pronouns. where the Rhone enters the lake. PRONOUNS. Time makes the worst enemies friends. but by a question we say. 73. definite. (2) Interrogative pronouns. or for a group of persons or things.5..And hated her for her pride. sleep! 6. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. or for a person or thing. and his daughter. Madame de Staël. Definition." Again. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Classes of pronouns. 9. Necker. blessings light on him that first invented . 10. 11." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. . and representative words. standing for a name. Jarley's back being towards him. from a necessity for short. 7. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious.

(3) Relative pronouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. and the person or thing talked about. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. ours . I Poss. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. From analogy to pronouns. 76. 74. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. (5) Indefinite pronouns. "the distinction of person. Nom. 75. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. they must represent the person talking. standing for a person or thing spoken of. which have forms for person. as nouns have the same form. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. the person or thing spoken to. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON.. that is. even if it had a special form. 77. my Plural. mine. representing a person or thing spoken to. Singular." Person of nouns. This gives rise to a new term. which cannot be used as adjectives. (3) Third person. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Three persons of pronouns. Person in grammar. words. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. we our. (2) Second person. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (4) Adjective pronouns. they are said to have person by agreement. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. representing the person speaking. or other word or expression. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. which relate or refer to a noun. pronoun. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. primarily adjectives.

. First and second persons without gender. Singular. Obj. Poss. thou thee ye you you your. yours Poss. Nom. so also with the person or thing spoken to. But the third person has. feminine h o. theirs them Neut. in the singular. and also for the neuter. Nom. it its it Poss. Obj. The speaker may be either male or female. by personification. yours you THIRD PERSON. . namely. Old Form Common Form. or. of all Three. Third person singular has gender. me us Singular. neuter. Nom. you your. hers her Plur. Obj. she her. Old forms.Obj. a separate form for each gender. thy Remarks on These Forms. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. 78. Obj. Poss. masculine h . Masc. yours you Plural. neuter hit. he his him Fem. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Nom. your. they their. thine. SECOND PERSON.

it. just as we now say. the forms they. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. thy. etc. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century.. which is a neuter noun. There are. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. This is of comparatively recent growth. especially in poetry. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. thou Shepherd of Israel. Second person always plural in ordinary English. The form its. for example. The plurals were h . and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. etc. We use it with a plural verb always. as possessive of it. etc. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. 82. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. in Old English. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. even when referring to a single object. Thou. thee.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. heom. In spoken English.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. The old form was his (from the nominative hit).Thou lovest. as in prayers. two modern uses of thou.² Oh. to thy care we commit the helpless. 79. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. (2) In addressing the Deity. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. which was often sounded with the h silent. but make the plural you do duty for the singular.²BEECHER. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. .The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English." As shown above. Two uses of the old singulars. heora. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech.²SHELLEY. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 81.:² (1) In elevated style.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. 80. their. The consequence is. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). that didst comfort thy people of old. as. them.. however. and sometimes its.

The Possessive.²LANDOR. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. me. 58). 34). there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. its. ye. thou. sometimes his and its. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. The words I. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. her. though those named in Sec. have a peculiar use." the literary language would require he after was. yours. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. and follow the usage of literary English. 'tis his. her.Use of the pronouns in personification. The forms my. your. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. theirs. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 86. Nominative forms. they have a nominative form. us. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. 84 are always subjects. our. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. when they occur in the predicate position. her. him. Additional nominatives in spoken English. to personify objects (Sec. we. Absolute personal pronouns. hers. and not make more classes.²BULWER. and has been slave to thousands. us. "I am sure it was him. or. they. 83. them. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. note the following:² 'Twas mine. some say. he. ²SHAKESPEARE. The forms mine. Not a separate class. for. she. 84. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. besides a nominative use.²COWPER. though ye is occasionally used as objective. and sometimes in ordinary speech. thine. And since thou own'st that praise. 85. I spare thee mine. thy. in such a sentence as. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. II. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. That is. him. Yet careful speakers avoid this. I The Nominative. Old use of mine and thine. however. In spoken English. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. their. . them. his.

"I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee."²SCOTT. 87. theirs. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. his. Long Allen.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. sometimes its. Give every man thine ear.² CARLYLE. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes.²SWIFT. thus. FIELDS. and with mine. Their uses. as in nouns. T. it tells of good old times. thine.²THACKERAY. anger.²ID. yours. COOPER. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²THACKERAY. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. ²HOLMES. (2) To bring emphasis. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. F. This usage is still preserved in poetry. Besides this. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. pluck it out.²ID. but few thy voice.²CARLYLE.²J.²J. hers. (3) To express contempt.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. in that old Edinburgh house of his. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. theirs. or satire.²BIBLE. The forms hers. are really double possessives. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. thus. "Hold thy peace. ours. yours. . commenting upon a letter of mine. If thine eye offend thee. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. for example. ours. Like the noun possessives. we find. we have." said Henry Woodstall. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. Double and triple possessives.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.

or use in a sentence. In pronouns. 90. the thing is done. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. as shown in Sec. 86: mine stands for my property. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. was marked by a separate case. But the first two have a nominative use. Now the objective. but the form is the same as the objective. for whose benefit. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. 88. Both joined in making him a present. but nominative or objective in use." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. Besides this use of the objective. "The good alone are great. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. mine stands for my praise in the second.²ID.²BIBLE. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. They all handled it. In such sentences as. as it is called.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. Curse me this people. but expresses for whom. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. The Objective. . The old dative case. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. his for his property. in the first sentence. this dative use. and mine in the second has an objective use. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. 89.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine." "None but the brave deserves the fair. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. 20. but not in form. III.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. In their function.

²CARLYLE.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. (3) In apposition. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. The word you. or that he has not a great deal more. or to the idea. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.Time is behind them and before them.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. It is a pity that he has so much learning.²ADDISON. Your mere puny stripling." (3) As a grammatical subject. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. thus.²BACON. 91. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. 92. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. was passed by with indulgence. to stand for the real. you must condense there. logical subject. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. has not made its progress.² NEWMAN. which follows the verb. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. ²EMERSON. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. as in the sentences. and they cry. WEBSTER. Society.²BULWER.²EMERSON. Indefinite use of you and your.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. why. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.²IRVING To empty here.² . in this century. as. you sneeze. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.²D. as. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. like Chinese skill.²DE QUINCEY.

and its plural selves. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. herself.²ID.²SCOTT. They are myself. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.. It was late and after midnight. This occurs in poetry. (thyself). 93.² Now I lay me down to sleep. Of the two forms in parentheses.It is finger-cold. that is."²IRVING. himself." and there is an end of it. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. And millions in those solitudes. who teams it. For when it dawned. we use such expressions as. For example." "He bought him a horse. they dropped their arms. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. themselves. who in turn tries all the professions. (ourself).. A sturdy lad . when they are direct objects. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. farms it. . ourselves. Poor Christian was hard put to it. There was nothing for it but to return. as they are also called. -selves. since firstThe flight of years began.²HOLMES.²DE QUINCEY. peddles it. I made up my mind to foot it.²EMERSON. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. 94.²ANON. used in poetry. itself. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. but seldom in prose. keeps a school. And when I awoke. it rained.²BURNS. the second is the old form of the second person.²BUNYAN. "I found me a good book. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. I set me down and sigh.²THOREAU.²IRVING. yourselves. however.²HAWTHORNE. yourself. as. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. have laid them downIn their last sleep. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²BRYANT." etc.²COLERIDGE.

B. and build the lofty rhyme. Threats to all. thyself.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Use of the reflexives. 96.²WORDSWORTH.To you yourself.²E. Origin of these reflexives.²EMERSON. BROWNING. In Middle English the forms meself. Held dead within them till myself shall die.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. theself. As if it were thyself that's here. 95. and the others were formed by analogy with these. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. with self. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.. for example. as in vulgar English. for example. I shrink with pain.² The great globe itself . NOTE. as we ourself have been.As girls were once. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.² . to every one. The question might arise. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. not the possessive forms. to us.²MILTON.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.²SHAKESPEARE. shall dissolve. etc. especially in the speech of rulers.²ID.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. as. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. were changed into the possessive myself. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. ourselves. as.² TENNYSON. after the analogy of myself. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.

and neuter. some each of masculine. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. FRANKLIN. 4. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. 5. 8. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. and how to do it. but it is the soonest spoiled. feminine. To know what is best to do.² THACKERAY. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. Years ago. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. fight it out. father. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). One obsolete. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. which.On the light fantastic toe.²B. 7. 6.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 3. And it grew wondrous cold. 10. where the word is one with that it tells of. Biscuit is about the best thing I know.²DE QUINCEY. some of them being double possessives. 2. Three now in use. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Infancy conforms to nobody. 9. . If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 97. let him lowly confess it. and what. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. is wisdom. all conform to it. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Courage. Come and trip it as we go.

methought. whether. etc.. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. that it is not inflected for gender or number. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. it is always third person. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Use of who and its forms. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. whispering sweet. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. the gold. that.Promised. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. it refers to either persons or things. What wouldst thou do. as it always asks about somebody. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. used formerly to mean which of two. referring to things. with its possessive and objective. it is selective. 99. not to persons. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. 98. Use of what. Whose was that gentle voice. which is not inflected for gender. As shown here. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. or case. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. that is. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. shall we say. but now obsolete. number.There is an old word. The use of who. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. These show that what is not inflected for case. but for case alone. Use of which. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. 100. having three forms. ideas. that it is always singular and neuter. Which of you. actions. .

consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent.² . Who. being the direct object of the verb shall take. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. it may be shortened into. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. Function of the relative pronoun. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. It usually precedes the pronoun. 103. for which the pronoun stands. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. whose? Obj. which is called the antecedent of the relative.² "The last of all the Bards was he. subject of doth love. 104. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 99. For instance. AND PLUR. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. who is used as objective instead of whom. who? Poss. AND PLUR. in Sec. which. nominative in the second also.²by the use of the words. who evidently refers to Bards.101. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun." Or. which is nominative in the first sentence. SINGULAR Nom. since it is subject of the verb had. SING. These bards sang of Border chivalry. and so to make smoother discourse. 102. 127). or other word or expression. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. as. pronoun. The antecedent. "The last of all the Bards was he.Who sung of Border chivalry. which and what are sometimes adjectives. what may be an adverb in some expressions. objective in the last. Further treatment of who. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. and what are also relative pronouns. Thus we may say. and also in having a conjunctive use. as." In the latter sentence. 105. which and what.

4. 2.Whom universal nature did lament. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Who and its forms.. 3.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. which.²MILTON. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. Indefinite relatives. They had not their own luster. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.²BYRON. in the same sense in which man's nature. The origin of language is divine. 106.Whose flag has braved.²SCOTT. will be discussed further on. 5. what. WHITNEY. 6. Generally speaking. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. The men whom men respect. The nurse came to us. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.²PARTON Which and its forms. . the women whom women approve.²THACKERAY.²DR JOHNSON. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. 2. 108. is a divine creation. For her enchanting son. a simple relative is meant. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. 107. 3.² COX.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.²LOWELL In this. 4.. that. both his and who have the antecedent priest.²W. with all its capabilities . are the men and women who bless their species. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. a thousand years.. but the look which is not of the earth. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.That guard our native seas.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. Ye mariners of England. When the word relative is used. D. Two kinds.

(b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. The Tree Igdrasil. (a) This gradation . and spoils.. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. 111. What. The man that hath no music in himself. Reader. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²BURKE. Who. 109. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²MARGARET FULLER.²EMERSON. stratagems. The judge . they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²GOLDSMITH. which it certainly is not. For what he sought below is passed above. BEECHER 5.² SHAKESPEARE 2.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²LAMB 3. 3.Is fit for treasons. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²H. 2..²DE QUINCEY. else this description will seem exaggerated. Examples of the relative that:² 1.. 6... 4. 110. no bad type of what often happens in that country.5. Already done is all that he would do. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . W. ought to be kept in view. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.²IRVING. That. 107. you will not be angry with me for telling you. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.

under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. It has been seen (Sec.who. (2) It has three case forms. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. a man. in the first sentence.²who. Witness the following examples:² And you. who is first person. The robins. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. The little gorilla. whose wound I had dressed. Scott. 113.²IRVING. the relatives are singular.. The sentences in Sec.²which for the nominative and objective.. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. Examples of whose.²LEIGH HUNT. . and others.²THACKERAY. 112. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. they are plural.²LOWELL. Which. in the second. whose is second person. or ideas. things. whose for the possessive. whose. and so on. Sec. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.whose. in 5.²SWIFT. (4) It has two case forms. referring to animals. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. In sentence 4. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. and 3. JOHNSON.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. whom. 107. flung its arms around my neck.. Smollett. the others are all third person. p.. that man. possessive case of which. Kingsley. Cooper. 5. not persons. in 4.. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Gibbon. 96).have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. who. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. My horse. seemed as much excited as myself. Who referring to animals. in the third.²DR. 2. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. and 6. whom. In 1. (3) It is nearly always third person. son..

²DE QUINCEY. which is worse. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. no possessive. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. (3) It is the same form for first. In the sentences of Sec.114. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. which is very notable and curious. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. So in Matthew Arnold. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Men may be ready to fight to the death. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Kingsley. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. and numerous others.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. The last two sentences in Sec. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Sometimes.²SCOTT.²RUSKIN. second. . Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. This often occurs. 116."²RUSKIN. thus. Which and its antecedents. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.²THACKERAY. and third persons.²BEECHER. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.² And. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. 109. and to persecute without pity.² I swept the horizon. 115. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. animals.²first.²SHAKESPEARE. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. Primarily. This moribund '61. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. and things. (2) It has only one case form.² MCMASTER. too. the antecedent follows which. That. secondly (which made her stare). Burke. let us enter the church itself.

third person. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. as. 118. who Poss. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. Nom. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL.²EMERSON." That evidently refers to truths. that do I. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. . the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. as in sentence 6. plural number.² What I would. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. 117." (3) "These people heard him. that he has. for example. that do I not. we can. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. plural number. and person of the relatives who. by taking them out. What a man does. but what I hate. what we said?²CARLYLE. The sentences of Sec. The gender. consequently is neuter.²SHAKESPEARE. What. 119." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. whose Obj. 109. For example. When expressed. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. Who plainly stands for those or the people. and is emphatic.²BIBLE What fates impose. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. that men must needs abide. it usually follows." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. Sec. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. is always neuter. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. third person. number. which. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. either of which would be neuter.

neuter. the simple relative."²EMERSON. is subject of the verb can't be cured. which is. The whole expression is its subject. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Exercise. third person. I think they are trying to outwit nature. 6. 3.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. Truths in sentence (2). because it has usually no antecedent. Some prefer another method of treatment. after all. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. 120. In the same way who. First find the antecedents. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. is in the nominative case. but of this. .. but is singular. 7. it is subject of the verb heard. in the following sentences:² 1. subject of heard. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 8. In (2). we is the subject. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. What must be endured? Answer. then parse the relatives. standing for the people understood." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. nobler souls with that which they are. in (3). that takes the case of the truths in (2). and what is the direct object of the verb call. is what we call nature. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 4. "What can't be cured must be endured. As shown by the following sentences. is subject of wrought upon and molded." Here the subject of is. so is in the objective case. Now. The relative what is handled differently. 5. however. The word what. What can't be cured. in (1). Another way. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. and hence is in the nominative case. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. people is the object of the preposition of. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. it is object of uttered. etc. In the sentence. the highest result of all education. Parsing what. above.

whatsoever. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. no certain antecedent. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. . It is no proof of a man's understanding. So with the other indefinites. in a new and original way. and his friend a fool. 6. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. summer will have its flies. Death is there associated. whichever. The simple relatives who. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. to everything that. and which in the second clause.²BURKE. 123. Do what we can. 4. 5. List and examples. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. It is clear that in 1. Hence some take what as a double relative. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. 7. Take which you please. Meaning and use. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. "common souls pay with that [singular. whatever is equivalent to all things which. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. or what else soever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil.²MACAULAY. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. that nothing else can stand in their presence. or stand on their head. whatever. 121. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. which.²you cannot have both. object of with] which [singular. They are whoever. whosoever. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. whichsoever. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. less common are whoso. and parse that in the first clause. 2. object of do] they do. by meaning and use. and in 2." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Only itself can inspire whom it will.²BURKE. whatsoever. no particular thing. 122. that is. 3. being referred to. not as direct as the simple relatives. 2.

as what hardly ever has an antecedent. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.² 1. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which.. has been my heaviest affliction. etc.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. But and as. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. whereupon. This. 126. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. everything that (or everything which). either one that. for example. upon which. 125. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. but and as. thus. what means anything that. for example. In early modern English. the conjunctions wherein. whereby.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. etc. but which only wealth could have purchased. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. Two words. 121. Former use of as. Instead of the phrases in which. as was used just as we use that or which. 120. 4. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. 121. . not following the word such. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. There is nothing but is related to us. etc. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. and that as after such is equivalent to which. Proof that they have the force of relatives. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. but mean any one whom. 417).As shown in Sec. Sec.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. nothing that does not interest us. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. 124. Other substitutes.²DE QUINCEY.²HAWTHORNE. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. by which. are used..²EMERSON.² some particular thing. 2.

" etc. if not. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. no antecedent is expressed.²EMERSON. the full expression being. showing that who is plainly interrogative. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. How to decide. and whether what = that + which (if so. which would indicate that they are not relatives. what is interrogative. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. it is an interrogative. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. "Who stood behind? We knew.. But in 1 (b). it is a simple relative. a question is disguised in each sentence. So in 2 (b).A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. though the earthwork hid them. 2 (b). which having the antecedent lines. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. In sentences 1 (a). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. Special caution needed here.²WHITTIER. who having the antecedent gentleman. (b) Well we knew who stood behind." Likewise with which in 3 (b). what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 3. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. and 3 (b). Another caution. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. second. it is an indefinite relative). 127. if not. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. 2. 1 (b). In studying such sentences. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. would be. "But what had become of them? They knew not. if expanded. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. . Thus. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does.²ID. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power.

²GOLDSMITH. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. In the second.² THACKERAY.²HOLMES. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 4. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²SWIFT. whose has the antecedent you. On the other hand. Relative omitted when object. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. whence is the interrogative word. which has the antecedent hue. In the third.128. and Court Calendars.²FLETCHER. When Goldsmith died. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. 5.²FORSTER 6. and asks no question. 3. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. Put in the relatives who. 129. 2. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. I visited many other apartments. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. ELIOT. the question is asked by the verb.²G. Thus. but the life of man in England. Exercise. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. which. . In the first.² These are the sounds we feed upon. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew.²CARLYLE. Examine the following:² 1. The insect I am now describing lived three years.

5.²CAMPBELL. or indefinite relatives:² 1. that. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. and what.²SCOTT. which was already proceeding. Also in literary English we find the same omission. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. 6.² LOWELL.²Id. which.7. 2. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. 130. who were to be rulers over whom. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Examples are. . 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.Ne'er looks upon the sun. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. and comparatively so in poetry.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. Relative omitted when subject. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. simple relatives. the house was full. 3. There was such a crowd went. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Function of adjective pronouns. It is rare in prose.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. The nobles looked at each other. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns.²SHAKESPEARE. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.

or they may stand for nouns.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. 'Truth. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. or an argument in a paragraph. not pronouns. For instance." that is. For example.²EMERSON. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. but have lost their adjective use. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. etc. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. In the first use they are adjectives. none. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence.²IRVING. in letters of gold." "Where two men ride on a horse. "these pranks. or use. that. a word. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. as some. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. ." Classes of adjective pronouns. Caution. all. but in this function. etc. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. etc. which we have seen in such expressions as.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. such as each. expressed or understood. neither. in order to be an adjective pronoun." "one man. many. in the first. Primarily they are adjectives. or may be the whole of a sentence." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. and stand for a noun.131." in the second. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. few. "The dead are there. and on each is written. "another bank. and another to get cool under. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words.²BRYANT. 132. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these." in the others. such as this. "each cube. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. must not modify any word. necessarily thought of: thus. Adjectives. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. any. the former. 133. either. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory.

but these were of the best. Simple. and they have well performed the other. Even as I have seen. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. accidentally preserved. reap the same. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books.All these he saw. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. Compound. A man inspires affection and honor. 3. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. when the latter was the King of Spain. or sat. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Definition and examples. 5. Exercises. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Their minds accorded into one strain.²LOWELL.²ID.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. 134. They have not shunned the one. 2. they that plow iniquity.²EMERSON 4. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. and sow wickedness. NOTE. for example.²ID. because he was not lying in wait for these. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. or reclined.² They stood. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. as seemed good to each. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Some of these are simple pronouns. Such are a few isolated instances. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. . They had fewer books. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.

Much might be said on both sides. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. paused over a horoscope. you quickly come to the end of all. Another opposes him with sound argument. . one another. another. as most were. for example. imbued. or melt for others' woe. The Soldan.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.²EMERSON.²HOLMES. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. as some of the rangers had gone astray. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²each other. we might the more easily discharge them. ²HAWTHORNE.² One reflexive. as it were. such as one other. Some inflected.²KINGSLEY. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. Definition and examples. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.²HAWTHORNE. with the superstitions of his time. as.Two are compound pronouns. None shall rule but the humble. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. 135. Exercise. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The word one has a reflexive form. They led one another. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. Men take each other's measure when they react. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.

nobody. also aught. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. every one else. Somebody. everybody. 137. I tell you what. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. 136.²SHAKESPEARE.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. no one. anybody else's. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. anyone else. what. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. and they. they are never used as adjectives. anything. Every one else stood still at his post. and somewhat. Jove laughs. Now. everybody else. nothing. . William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. anybody. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. they say. naught.² At lovers' perjuries.Exercise. as. etc. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. something. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.. in building of chaises. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Exercise. every one (or everyone). etc.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. unlike adjective pronouns. somebody else. They indefinite means people in general. as shown in the words everybody's. Definition and examples. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. everything. and was indefinite in Old English. some one. any one (or anyone). but. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy." It means something. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America.

Others did the same thing. but not to quite so enormous an extent. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). Exercise. were suffered to depart.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 10. 138. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 14. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. from my earliest days. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 6. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 18. 17. 2. Hutchinson tells us of herself. to which. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 3.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Whoever deals with M. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. The table was good. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. All was now ready for action. 8. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 5. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. I first found myself among the mountains. A reminder. 13. 9. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. and of no other. For this did God send her a great reward. 12. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 11. O thou that rollest above. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. . in his negotiations. 4. 7. 16. indeed. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government.

They know not I knew thee. behold now the semblance of my being.And it would work 'em woe. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 34. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 32. And will your mother pity me. thou rollest now. 35. 21. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . that let him communicate. 25. I who alone am. who slept last night like a corpse? 22.Destroyer and preserver. eat white bread or brown. 30. Whatever he knows and thinks.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. in all its height. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. He sate him down. And I had done a hellish thing. 31. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. oh. 26. hear! 33. 29. variety. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning.19. 23. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. who take the world easy. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. hear.Who knew thee too well. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. and seized a pen. well-oiled dispositions. 27. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing.

or with persons. size. so that no other will be mistaken for it. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." "that house. who understands me. heavy or light. the number is limited by adjectives. As to the kind of words used. 42.36. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. ADJECTIVES." "some cities. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 39. adjectives are used. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun.. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Who hears me. For example. 38. or gaseous." "yonder hill. as. and if we are near. 37. and he learns who receives. 45." The office of an adjective. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. 40. that is our permanent state. He knew not what to do. position. It may have this office alone. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. We need to add some words to tell its color. Again. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. . 139. Office of Adjectives. He teaches who gives. etc. We are by nature observers. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. Substantives. then. and so he read. 43." etc. brittle or tough. 41." "a hundred men. which was no bad step towards my liberation. or liquid. white or red. etc. becomes mine. if we are at a distance. 44. So with any object. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. such as in the expressions "this man. If a chemist discovers a new substance. in pointing out an object. "one hat.

"an old English manuscript. or how much of a thing.² BACON. Definition. terrible. divine. to forgive.140. words primarily pronouns." "unlooked-for burden. (4) Pronominal adjectives." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 141. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. deep. such as safe." . derived from proper nouns. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. however. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "half-dead traveler. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. If he be thankful for small benefits. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. With exception of the "and then." and the still less significant "and so. Examples are. They include relative and interrogative words. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. pointing out particular things." they constitute all his connections. Nouns are not. it shows that he weighs men's minds. To make this clear. such as. remotest. Classes of adjectives. etc. 142. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives.²COLERIDGE. Infinitives. happy." "ice-cold water." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. and their trash." the "and there. 143." "the Christian pearl of charity. To err is human. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. fair. beautiful." "the Roman writer Palladius. (2) Adjectives of quantity. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. to describe it or to limit its application.²POPE. rash." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. "Heaven-derived power. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "this life-giving book." "ivory-handled pistols." "next-door neighbor.

" was is the verb. 144. and another is drunken." was accomplished is a verb. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." "a charming sight.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." Caution. in this." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. no." "trailing clouds. which are either pure participles used to describe. having some of each subclass named in Sec. 2." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." "One is hungry.²COLERIDGE. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. but small thoughts have I of sleep. 143." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. and accomplished is an adjective." "an aged man. much. . Oxenham. 1. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. sometimes small.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. 'Tis midnight." "The shattered squares have opened into line.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. considerable." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. Examples are." "It came on like the rolling simoom. Care is needed. some. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. 145." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.But ever she looked on Mr. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. Exercises. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. any.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. in studying these last-named words.²MACDONALD. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. For instance: in the sentence.

are used with plural nouns. Examples. the former²the latter. and with them a few negroes." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. Exercise.²ID. that. An arrow was quivering in each body. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "I have lost one brother." Single ones of any number of changes. but I have gained fourscore. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. instead of modifying them." "Then we wandered for many days." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. (plural these." "In came some five and twenty more. its wake. they come under the next division of adjectives.² Every town had its fair.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.²KINGSLEY. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. those). (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS.²VAUGHAN.²CARLYLE.²THACKERAY. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. When some." "He had lived by hunting for some months. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. yonder (or yon).²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity." "a dozen volunteers.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. former. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Thus. as. latter. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." (b) Indefinite numerals. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. The demonstrative adjectives are this. every village. "one blaze of musketry. 146. The list. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. The following sentences present some examples:² . no. How many. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Not primarily pronouns. any.

just as the corresponding pronouns do.²D. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. They are of two kinds.. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. The taking of which bark. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²ID.but all these charms are fled. In which evil strait Mr. like the other numerals. These were thy charms.² It matters not what rank he has. skill which was progressive²in the other. FRANKLIN. . we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.. what revenues or garnitures. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. but. 149.²WORDSWORTH.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. Oxenham fought desperately. of equal skill.²RUSKIN.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. I verily believe. but in the one case.²ID. WEBSTER. Definition. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. 148. ²CARLYLE. skill which was at pause. for example. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ."²B. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²KINGSLEY. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. Modify names of persons or things. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. As has been said. they are changed to adjectives. These do not. Indefinite relative adjectives.²GOLDSMITH. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. The silver and laughing Xenil. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. Exercise. 147.²BULWER. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. tell how many things are meant.²BANCROFT.

as it rather seemed. it is impossible to determine. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. Was there. New torments I behold. what inquires about things or persons not known. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). In direct questions. and gaze. or whether any. Whatsoever kind of man he is.²AGASSIZ. In indirect questions. 151. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whichsoever. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. But when the Trojan war comes. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. As in the pronouns. which. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.150. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.²CARLYLE. you at least give him full authority over your son. whatsoever.²RUSKIN. He was turned before long into all the universe. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whichsoever way I move.²ID. whatever.²IRVING. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. and new tormentedAround me. nature will be sure to bear us out in.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. .. which is selective among what is known. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. Adjective what in exclamations.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.And whichsoever way I turn. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. proved not altogether displeasing to him. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. the debt to the rich. A lady once remarked.²LAMB.² EMERSON. Examples of their use are. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. whichever.

INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. of the quality. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. All these have certain qualities. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. 155.²number and comparison. .² Oh. The article that was used with neuter nouns. which was fully inflected in Old English. or amount. and those as the plural of that.152. It is neither relative nor interrogative. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. 154.Adjectives have two inflections. In exclamatory expressions.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. Those borrowed from this. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. and when we compare the objects. Exercise. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. But this had also another plural. COMPARISON. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. or weight. This is the old demonstrative. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. When we place two objects side by side. a sapphire is bluer than the sky.. etc. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. or size. color. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. the making of it right. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. Meaning of comparison. And yet. which changed its spelling to the modern form these.²but not the same degree. History of this²these and that²those. Thus. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. etc. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. those).²This. we do so by means of their qualities. we notice some differences between them as to size. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. That. weight. alas. gold is heavier than iron.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. as. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. NUMBER. 153 . th s (modern those).

but. "more matter." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. expressing the greatest degree of quality. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. and the superlative. indomitable. Substitute for inflection in comparison. red. blue. A main difference betwixt men is. strictly considered.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. as. They came into use about the thirteenth century. for example.²SEWARD. bluer. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. easier. though the simple. 158." "no fewer than a hundred. reddest. as. bluest." "the largest soul. . Definition. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. So with the words sole. "untamed thought. universal institution. supreme. The comparative is formed by adding -er. Freedom is a perpetual. easy. to the simple form. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. expressing a greater degree of quality. immemorial. they are not compared.²THACKERAY. easiest. great. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. indefatigable." Words that cannot be compared. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. 159. These are called degrees of comparison. infinite. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. whether they attend their own affair or not." "It is a nobler valor. enormous. 157. The two forms. or amounts in quantity. whose favorite pupil he was. and many others. 160. sufficient. giant-like. with less wit.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms." "the commonest speech. but were not common until a century later. organic. redder. 156. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. These are properly the only degrees. and the superlative by adding -est.

The following lists include the majority of them:² .²ID.Which rule. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. as. quiet. there needed to be a most genuine substance." "more odd. harsh forms are usually avoided. and other words are preceded by more and most.²ID. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. mournfulest. and yet familiar. 162. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. falling on his knees. witty. easy." Carlyle uses beautifulest. I will. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.²The Nation. madam. peaceablest. strange. honestest. 163. polished.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.² CARLYLE A gentleman. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. Adjectives irregularly compared. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. who. These are adjectives irregularly compared." "distantest relationships. which hung behind in the queerest way. and patientest fusing." "the wonderfulest little shoes.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. was most finished. indisputablest." "sorrowfulest spectacles." said Henry Esmond. admirablest." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." "more austere and holy. etc. The general rule is. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. most small. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. These long. finest chiseling. though born in no very high degree. "So help me God. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.

hindermost Much or many More Farther. which has gone out of use. as. (3) Little is used as positive to less. further Farthest. These have no adjective positive:² 1. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 3. [Out] Outer. utter 3. older Nigher Nearer Later. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. Good or well Evil. uppermost LIST III. 164. as in Shakespeare. 8. 2. 4. worst. which has softened to the modern best.² O. [In] Inner Inmost.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. 1. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. latter Hinder LIST II. There was an old comparative bet. lesser.² We have it in a much lesser degree. though from a different root. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. least. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. innermost Outmost. outermost Utmost. evil was the positive to worse. 6. uttermost Upmost. Hind 2. is often used. 7. lesser Elder. Worser was once used. 5. furthest 10. a double comparative. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). last Hindmost.LIST I. next Nearest Latest. oldest Nighest. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. (2) In Old English.²HAMLET. . The superlative I form was betst. List I. throw away the worser part of it. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. bad. 9. A double comparative. as in the sentence (14th century).

²KINGSLEY. there is scarcely any distinction. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. much. doubling the inflection. ²LAMB.²HAWTHORNE. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. "Many a little makes a mickle. List II. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. further. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. are earlier than older. Between the two sets as they now stand. the old forms. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. etc. farrest. greatest. The meanings greater. as. as long. In imitation of further. next. except the form next. oldest. . since the m is for -ma. and the superlative nearest. to which is added -ost.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. (9) Latter and last are the older forms." Its spelling has been micel. farthest. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. an old superlative ending. to England we sailed. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. (5) The forms elder. are shown in such phrases as. etc. came into use. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms.. strong. First became entirely detached from the series. eldest. meaning the largest part. instead of lenger. latest. and refer to time. The most part kept a stolid indifference. th came into the others. muchel. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. for example. is quite common. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative.²forth.²ID. near. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. a distinction has grown up between the two series. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. moche.² The more part being of one mind. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.. but originally the comparison was nigh. or series.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. but not in meaning. The latter. first. Since later. great. furthest. strenger. making the modern farther.

or each may modify a different word or group of words. are like the comparative forms in List II. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Her. on the very topmost twig. being merely descriptive. The comparatives are so in form." "The outer is of the day. Highest and midmost." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. They have no superlatives. In List II. the upper light of the world. and have no comparative force. (Sec. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²DE QUINCEY. List III. by the by. or have no comparative forms. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.²DE QUINCEY. all may belong to the same noun." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man." "the innermost moral soul. but not in their meaning.²SCOTT. W. Think what each adjective belongs to. BEECHER. Her bows were deep in the water." "their utmost exertion. was descried The royal banner floating wide. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. 167.²HAWTHORNE. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.²H.²EMERSON. . The adjectives in List III. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. in having no adjective positives.165. 166. but they have no adjective positives. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. There. 168." -Most added to other words." "far-seeing as the sun. Decidedly handsome. but her after deck was still dry. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.²KINGSLEY. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.

But in this sentence. solid. philosophical. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. 4. in prose. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. we may say "the then king. usual modifies incomparable decision. A few improper jests and a volley of good. deeply black eyes.²RUSKIN. round. bright. as. 3. H. not decision alone. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. and thine often infirmities. 7.²HOLMES. our new government. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 169.²TRENCH. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation.²HAWTHORNE. "the one who was then king. rich. the then and still owners. and broken." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. STEPHENS 5.²HAWTHORNE. now our queen." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet.² My then favorite. satisfactory. Bradbury and Evans. 2. in this sentence. and moral truth.²BIBLE. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. For thy stomach's sake. Exercise. By a convenient brevity. May we not. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. 6. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. This.For example.²MRS. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES." making then an adjective. and heaven-defying oaths. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²NOAH PORTER. instead of saying. deep. The seldom use of it. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. Richard Hooker. therefore. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1." in which then is an adverb. . ²TROLLOPE. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. STOWE. Other instances are. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. It may still be argued.²A. In the following quotations. Our sometime sister.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs.

These points out what truths. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. or case. This gave the young people entire freedom. frank. 3. modifies truths. I ask nothing of you. To every several man. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. if it has number. 170. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 5. Exercise. To every Roman citizen he gives. . (2) Its number. MODEL FOR PARSING. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. (4) What word or words it modifies. not inflected for number. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. and I waited for none. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. person. cannot be compared. then. 4. manly way. In parsing an adjective. and very few have number. and most astounding were those frightful yells. positive degree. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. therefore demonstrative. plural number. 2. the method of parsing is simple. modifies the word truths. 10. 8. 6.What to tell in parsing. Since adjectives have no gender. if it can be compared. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. having a singular. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. compared by prefixing more and most. 7. with awkward but rapid pace. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. across the plain. therefore descriptive. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. (3) Its degree of comparison. Unfamiliar describes truths. She made no reply. seventy-five drachmas. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. this. 9.

16. To say what good of fashion we can. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 27. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 12. With every third step. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. are immutably fishes. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Nearer to our own times. I know not what course others may take. and therefore more interesting to us. 25. 23. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 18. 13. Their name was the last word upon his lips. Two hours elapsed. 31. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 14. suggests such thoughts as these. he won affections with ease. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 22. is the settlement of our own country. growing in the most unfavorable position. and many poles supported the lower ones. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. the tomahawk fell. 20. 19. 28. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 24. Like most gifted men. not so much for travelers that were few. oxen. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again.11. and dogs. as for armies that were too many by half. it is so noble a fruit. the same love to France would have been nurtured. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. yonder oxen in the pasture. those dogs in the yard. 33. 21. Here lay two great roads. In music especially. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. during which time I waited. it rests on reality. 26. 29. . 32.

37. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. An or a came from the old numeral n. 35. and that remained a demonstrative adjective." "a yelling crowd. 174." the words the and an belong to nouns. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. the tother." "an honor. ARTICLES. meaning one. sometimes the tother. he is no literary man. the tither.34. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. s o. An historian.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. weary-hearted man was he. the tother. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.²MACAULAY." An with consonant sounds. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. even when not silent. that) which was also an article in Old English. the other. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. just as adjectives do. were formerly that one. th o. these occurring as the tane. Our expressions the one." "a European. 173. In Middle English the became an article.²BREWER. the latter is still preserved in the expression. In the sentence. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. or the tane. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. a before consonant sounds. and a before consonant sounds. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . but the former is used. for example. later th . A hard-struggling. .²SCOTT. with an ordinary little garden. An before vowel sounds. ðat. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. in vulgar English. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. such as we have been attempting to describe. Examples: "a house. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. 171. Two relics. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. Many writers use an before h. Their origin. that other. 172. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road." "an orange.

²G. a person is introduced by a. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. as in the sentence. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. and when the word river is omitted. An and a are different forms of the same word. on opening a story. Reference to a known object. the older n. An hereditary tenure of these offices. The is the definite article.²IRVING. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE..²THOMAS JEFFERSON. 178." "the Ohio. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. 177. 176. which cannot be used alone.² Don't you remember how. since it points out a particular individual. or a group or class of things. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²THACKERAY. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. An or a is the indefinite article. or class.. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.²COLERIDGE.²This use is noticed when. Articles are either definite or indefinite. When the is prefixed to a proper name. Kinds. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. or group. To call attention to attributes. BANCROFT. The Dakota tribes. and not a state or other geographical division. is referred to. NOTE. An article is a limiting word.. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers." the article indicates clearly that a river. thus. not descriptive. or any individual of a group or class. as "the Mississippi. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. Definition. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. doubtless. 175. 179.²HEROES OF ASGARD. With names of rivers.² .

the gallant.²EMERSON. With plural of abstract nouns.² The faint. her. or a match put between the fingers. The. etc. NOTE. Caution.²EMERSON.The Bacon. With adjectives used as nouns. Schelling.²MOTLEY.²GIBBON.²ID. BANCROFT. so is the evil. Half abstract. For possessive person pronouns. 1. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²KINGSLEY. but into the region of all the virtues. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. not into a particular virtue. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 181. the Hume. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²ID. The simple rise as by specific levity. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.² As she hesitated to pass on. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. for example. One thing for its class.²SCOTT. 183. as. Common. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. His messages to the provincial authorities. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. laid it on the miry spot.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. . Kant. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. the Spinoza.²G. If the good is there. 2. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. 182. would speedily extract the required information. and the redwing. 180. the song sparrow.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

Of those expressing action.²BULWER . 202. to go is no predicate. In giving a definition. as. Now. in (c). in (b)." Examine the sentences in Sec. an article. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. In the first. the most astute. but fearing is not a predicate. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate." put is the predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. in (3. which means to go over. we consider a verb as one word. taking the staff which always guided her steps. all do not express it in the same way. or a material thing. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. can deceive has an object. endured what? anguish. 203. The nature of the transitive verb. but cannot be predicates. "Put thou money in thy purse. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. A verb is a word used as a predicate. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. to say something to or about some person or thing. or the object. representing something which it influences or controls. and not a verb. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. from the Latin transire. and. The nature of intransitive verbs. c). By examining a few verbs. in (2. b). b). In each case. in this sentence from Bulwer. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. (can) shame also has an object. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. lone took what? answer. "Put money in thy purse.In (a). 204. which may be a person."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. care. 201. etc. 200: In (1). All these are called transitive verbs. the most penetrating. and shame the most astute. an adverb. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. obeyed is a predicate. a noun. a). Hence Definition. hence is not a verb. the word following. with some word understood. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. and to receive the action expressed. in (2. In the sentence. and a preposition unite as a verb. Definition and caution. a verb. or an idea.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. in (3. Each influences some object. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. for example. a preposition.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

I could lie down like a tired child. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].²SHELLEY. 222. popular government must be pronounced impossible. for example. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. he will see the need of these ethics.²D. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. 221.² Now. Again. the second founder. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. in our case. they were recorded in the Book of Life. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²may or may not be true. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.²BRYCE. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. Most excellent stranger. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.²LONGFELLOW. but. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. 215. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. WEBSTER. Ideal. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. If this be the glory of Julius. Unreal²cannot be true. ²EMERSON. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. as. . I. Condition or Supposition. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. the writer can make the statement following.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. 2).²MACAULAY. the representative system ultimately fail. and may or may not be regarded true. as. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.² If. the first great founder of the Empire.²FRANKLIN. or be fulfilled. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec.

except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. 223.²MACAULAY. unless. .(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. 4.²FRANKLIN. 7. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. clear. thus.²EMERSON. but when the verb precedes the subject. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²CALHOUN. would you. and what kind of condition:² 1. if his lot had been mine. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if.² CARLYLE. NOTE.²BAYNE. if he was the man I take him for. as..²FRANKLIN. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. she was regarded as a prodigy. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. would have sat still with joy and peace. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. to drink strong beer. But in no case could it be justified. except. especially be. If he had reason to dislike him. Epaminondas. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. etc. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. that we cannot but regret its absence. 8. that he might be strong to labor. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 2.²SWIFT.² It was necessary. and sonorous. which cannot be true. if he speak to you.. do you think. I told him. is used to express purpose. and striven energetically to save Ney. might. 3. The voice.²N. 5. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. WILLIS. and should. II. The subjunctive. society could not hold together.. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. 6. is of similar physiognomy. may. he supposed. In the following conditional clauses. P. though. ²LOWELL. he had better not have written. Subjunctive of Purpose.. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. since he [Byron] was dead. Exercise. melodious." etc. the conjunction is often omitted: for example.² If these things were true. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors.

Subjunctive of Result.And we. 224. III.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. Let it rise.²D. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. 226. After a verb of wishing.That vain it were her eyes to close.²SOUTHEY. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. the answer being regarded as doubtful. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. Rise up. like the quarry-slave at night.²WORDSWORTH. I would it were! ²EMERSON. In a Noun Clause. 225. VI.²BRYANT.Were wafted off to seas unknown. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²DE QUINCEY. In Indirect Questions. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. So live.Thou go not. WEBSTER. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. till it meet the sun in his coming. The English subjunctive... To tell of what had passed. Ask the great man if there be none greater. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. none of us could say.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. like the Latin. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. . VII.²MOORE. I've wished that little isle had wings. 227. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²CARLYLE.²ID. V. In Temporal Clauses. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS..I have been the more particular..²COLERIDGE. IV. Expressing a Wish. within its fairy bowers.

Come.²CARLYLE. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²THOREAU. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.. or whatsoever victual it may be. Concessive Clauses.²SHELLEY. etc. tell me all that thou hast seen.And look thou tell me true. is the ultimate fact of man's life. in apposition. The first merit. of cash.And see the Braes of Yarrow.² Be the matter how it may.²SCOTT.² DICKENS. The essence of originality is not that it be new. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. often contains a subjunctive. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.Subject. in its various uses as subject. 229. VIII. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. for example. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. Whatever betide.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. Object.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Some might lament that I were cold. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. After verbs of commanding. I have no thought what men they be. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. object.²WORDSWORTH. .²COLERIDGE.²DE QUINCEY. that everything be in its place. which may be (a) Pronoun. 228. we'll turn aside. That hunger of applause.²TENNYSON. is.²COLERIDGE. (b) Adjective. The noun clause. Complement.

the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. (2) Entreaty. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. fear none. entreaties. Q. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. however. a concession. It must be remembered. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are.²CHANNING. In spoken English. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. to express a wish. or requests. (3) Request.(c) Adverb. Honor all men. and condition contrary to fact. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.²SHELLEY.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream.²BRYANT. (1) Command. though. IMPERATIVE MOOD. since commands are directed to a person addressed. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. At the present day. 230. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. ADAMS.The spirit he loves remains. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts.² CARLYLE. Oh. 231. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. point to their immortal works. for example. we had found [should have found] a poem here. 232. Usually second person. Definition.²J. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. . especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. love all men.

8.²CAMPBELL. 3.²SCOTT. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Oh. Mark thou this difference. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Quoth she.. etc. to you implied in it. but I + you. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.And. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person." whispered Kit."²DICKENS Tell me. etc."Hush! mother. noble earl. there will her heart and her prayers be." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.One glance at their array! 5. 7. Break we our watch up. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. or I + they. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry." Exercises on the Moods. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. 6. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. 2. request. Whatever inconvenience ensue. "Come along with me. child of earth!While each performs his part.And God forget the stranger!" . receive my hand. Sometimes with first person in the plural. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.²SHAKESPEARE. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.. nothing is to be preferred before justice. Part we in friendship from your land. "The Devil take the goose. we may use the imperative with we in a command. lest we rust in ease.

God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 10. 20. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. .Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17.9. Forget thyself to marble. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 18. whether he do it right or wrong. no literary man. 23. ruined. "Mr. Marshall." continued Old Morgan. let him live where else he like." 16. as though an instrument. "Oh. That a man parade his doubt. That sheaf of darts. 19." cried he. it would speak.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. she ought to have it. "tell me where I may find my poor.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. my dear madam. He is. and opinion displace opinion. 13. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. 11. 14. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. or do it at all.Except.That they might answer him.High up in silver spikes! 22. will it not fall unbound. then. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Well. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause." 25. 21. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. He. 26. Think not that I speak for your sakes. how he may do his work. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Though abyss open under abyss. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. but repentant child. Though he were dumb.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.

235.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. "Thou walkedst. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. 234. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. Meantime. to direct his steps. past perfect.² present. the past. When the older pronoun thou was in use." "If he comes. will. also. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. Siddons. 233. five in the imperative. and the past tense. whatever she did. such as be. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. Old English had only two tenses. or agree with it.²the present tense. and future perfect tenses. as will be shown later on. in the conjugations. five in the subjunctive. shall. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. PERSON AND NUMBER.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. such as Latin and Greek. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. and the future tense. TENSE. have. as the classical languages have. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. Definition. in the third person singular. kind. by means of the present. "Thou walkest. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. as. which represented present and future time." past. or future time. and future. "It is not in man that walketh." . past. Tenses in English. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as." present. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. "I go away tomorrow. past. as. tell him to wait. or whether it were as one member of a general party. 28.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Tense means time. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect.27. The tenses in detail. called auxiliaries. a form ending in -eth.

walkedst. chosen (old. walked. wert) 3. Indicative Mood. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. [He] is [They] are 3. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. were. I were 2. chooses. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb." and this only in the present tense indicative. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Singular 1. mood. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. been. choosest. etc. tenses. Singular 1. singular number. CONJUGATION. PRESENT TENSE. tense. [He] were [They] were . 237. 236. and numbers. etc. I be 2. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. Singular 1. You are 2. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. but in English. walketh. walks. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. moods.²am. since it is composed of several different roots. 238. This is the third person. walk has walk. Such verbs as choose have five. persons. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. are.²choose. "He walks. choosing. is. You (thou) be 3. Few forms. The verb be has more forms. In classical languages. walking. chosest).But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. PRESENT TENSE. as. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. chooseth. for example. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. chose. Singular 1. Definition.

etc. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.. is.His infancy was nurtured. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. Instead of the plural are. to form the passive voice.²SCOTT. in four ways. 240. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²THACKERAY. (d) With the infinitive. thus. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²ID..² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (2) As auxiliary verbs. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. same as the German sind. for example.²BURKE . Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. as.²GOLDSMITH. etc.Imperative Mood. -en. which was now become an occasional banquet.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Remarks on the verb be. The light that never was on sea and land.²SHELLEY.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. condition. obligation. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. (2) was. though it is usually a dialect form.²WORDSWORTH. to express intention. 239. were. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. (3) be.

You chose Plural. We chose You chose 3.241. (2). We chose You chose 3. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. tenses. by placing have. . PRESENT TENSE. "I have gone" (present perfect). PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. PRESENT TENSE. Machinery of a verb in the voices. [He] choose [They] choose 3. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. as. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. had. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. "I had gone" (past perfect). 1." (2) Present perfect. as. 240. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. I chose 2. 242. You choose Plural. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. future perfect. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). etc. Singular. 1. Singular. past perfect. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb." "He will choose. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I choose 2. 1. 1. You chose Plural. Indicative Mood. "I shall be. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. tenses. I chose 2. In addition to the above inflected forms. Singular. I choose 2. Singular. You choose Plural. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE.

etc. He will choose. Present perfect. ACTIVE VOICE. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs.] he choose. Present. Present. He will he choosing. Past definite. Subjunctive Mood. He was choosing. Same as indicative. as. Same as indicative. Present. Future perfect definite. He had been choosing. He chose. he have been choosing. ." "They had been running. Present perfect definite. He has chosen. though." (4) The passive forms. He will have chosen. Past perfect definite. Present perfect definite. as. Present perfect. He had chosen. He has been choosing. He will have been choosing. "I am running. Past perfect definite. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past perfect. "I was chosen. Past definite. He chooses. He is choosing. Past. Present definite. Present definite. Imperative Mood. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Past. he chose (or were to choose). will be given. he have chosen. lest. Future definite. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Future. Only the third person.) Choose. " Be choosing. Present definite. Past perfect." 243. singular number. Future perfect." "You are chosen. Indicative Mood. (2d per.(3) The definite form of each tense. [If. of each tense.

. Future perfect. None. Present definite. Past. Past definite. in affirmative sentences. though. Future. Past perfect. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. He is chosen.] he be chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). He has been chosen. Imperative Mood.) Be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. he have been chosen. as. Past. Present perfect definite. Present tense.. Present perfect definite. He will be chosen. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Past perfect definite. etc. he were being chosen. None. (2d per. Present. Future perfect definite. He had been chosen. but verbals. "He does strike. Subjunctive Mood. Present definite. None. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Future definite. Past perfect definite. if learned at all. he had been chosen. lest. He is being chosen. Past definite. He will have been chosen. He was chosen. Exercises should be given." "He did strike.NOTE. Present perfect. None. Present perfect. Indicative Mood. however.] [If. Past Perfect.²This table is not to be learned now. they will be discussed later (Sec. None. 262). " " " " " " " None. None. He was being chosen. Also. Present." [Note to Teacher.

Kinds. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. laid. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. and may or may not change the vowel: as. which are in parentheses Present Tense. caught. run. as. Past Tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. sleep. begged. catch. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. but adds no ending. Some of these also have weak forms. 245. Definition. slept. According to form. drive. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. NOTE. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . drove. 244. verbs are strong or weak. lay.[adj. bit blown broken chidden. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. beg. bounden] bitten. ran. bid bound. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

but is much used in vulgar English. nor a dog barked. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²as (from Shakespeare).²B. and. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. "stricken with paralysis. now told us it was time for repose. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. the other. probably to avoid confusion with this. borne is also a passive. cleft (to split). Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. only one set remains certain." "a sunken snag.² Thou hast clomb aloft." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²one meaning to adhere or cling. cleave. to split.² We had each drank three times at the well. cleft. Historically. cloven. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²COLERIDGE. as. TAYLOR. The former used to be cleave."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. and sometimes occurs in poetry." In this confusion of usage. which always crew at eleven.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. Sometimes in literary English. instead of ate and eaten. cleaved. especially in that of an earlier period. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. Our cock. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. When it means to carry or to endure. . clave or clove. 246.²cleave. as.²IRVING.²GOLDSMITH. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. as.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t)." "a drunken wretch. "his bounden duty. Not a cock crew. ²THACKERAY. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). cleaved.²MILTON. for example.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. and the latter.²TENNYSON. The form clomb is not used in prose." "the cloven hoof." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. as (from Holmes). and another (born) for the passive.

²TENNYSON. found. for example.²BYRON. 9. 4. fallen.² If.²SCOTT. which is seldom used except in poetry. thrown. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. drove. 2. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Freeze. and grasping at his sword. as "a shorn lamb." but not much as a participle. Usually shear is a weak verb. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 6. Fall. begun. Break. We usually say. shaken. threw. froze. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Exercises. fell. 10. even in poetry. began. Begin. maiden.²WORDSWORTH. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Shake. driven. (a) From the table (Sec.² We had all got safe on shore. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Drive. 5. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. gave."²KINGSLEY. and seized a pen. . broken. frozen. Fling. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Find. The butler was hanged." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. flung. shook. for example. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. as.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. He sate him down. 8. found. broke. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. flung. 3. This heard Geraint.²DE FOE. given. Give. One example out of many is. shore is rare. Throw. 7. 245).The form gotten is little used.²BIBLE.

as. which survives in the sentence.. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. 249. Ability.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. "far off his coming shines. 251.²HAWTHORNE.. as it has two meanings. Have we valuable territories and important posts. ability.²SCOTT. His superiority none might question. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. It is indicative when it expresses permission. Subjunctive use. The same remarks apply to ought.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. The l in could did not belong there originally.²PAINE. Like must. 220. . according to the infinitive used. 223. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 247.. 250. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive.[To the Teacher. etc. All must concede to him a sublime power of action."²WINIER. must have been an ocular deception. for full drill on the forms... purpose. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. but came through analogy with should and would.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. PAST. "So mote it be. from the obsolete verb motan. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. HAMILTON. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. Indicative Use: Permission.²CHANNING. Could may be subjunctive. Can is used in the indicative only. of course. as it sometimes does. (See also Sec. there is one general principle. PAST. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. as in Sec." Must is present or past tense.²CHANNING This. or when it expresses wish. or. etc. PRESENT. Must is historically a past-tense form. it is used only in the indicative mood.

through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. shall and should are used.²LONGFELLOW.. (b) In indirect quotations. . as. Second and third persons. or confident prediction. for example. She rejects his suit with scorn.²IRVING. Shall and Will. especially in the United States. The following are examples:² Never mind. "I think I will go. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.²L. what shall I say?²N. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.²MACAULAY. to the neglect of shall and should.²COOPER. future action).² Futurity and questions²first person. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.² The time will come full soon. to use will and would. WEBSTER.²THAXTER. while ought always has to. BROCKDEN BROWN. with pronouns of the first person. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. I shall be gone. as." Uses of shall and should. MOULTON. They shall have venison to eat. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. C. (b) In questions asking for orders.² (a) To express authority.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. she should ride like a queen. yea. The sea shall crush thee. not plod along like apeasant. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. he said. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. promise. 252.²BULWER. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. She should not walk. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. shall and should are used.Nay. in the form of command.e. as.² With respect to novels. my lad.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. and corn to hoe.

²H. JAMES. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. etc.. First.²WORDSWORTH. thus. B. LARNED.²WINTER. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. with the conviction that he should win in the end. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. and is equivalent to ought. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²BYRON.²ROGERS.that I would do him justice. second and third persons. was to be expected. and will not return until all is finished.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.² I will go myself now. for example.²C. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. And promised.²WORDSWORTH. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²SCOTT. as. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. for example.²CABLE.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. BROWN. JR..²WORDSWORTH. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. . 253.²A. time.. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. or a promise. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. purpose. Disguising a command. I never was what I should be. (c) With direct questions of the second person. as the sole inventor.

BROWN. 254. PASSIVE VOICE.²LANDOR. would is used to express a wish. for punishment or intimidation. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). .² Thou wilt take the skiff. To be sure. for example. etc.²IRVING.. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.²SCOTT.²SCOTT.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. when thou wast born. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. will and would often denote an action as customary. (4) With FIRST.²War Records. They will go to Sunday schools. action merely expected to occur. will and would are used to express simple futurity.²BANCROFT. Roland.² DICKENS. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. SECOND. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. When I am in town. and mark on the grounds the works. In this stately chair would he sit. Would thou hadst it not. This puts the order more mildly. The gift of Beauty.²the original meaning of the word will. Thine was a dangerous gift.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.² Subject I omitted: often so.. for example. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it... Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. without regard to future time. so you will. B. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. as if it were merely expected action.²BURKE. as. and two of my people. through storms their brothers are afraid of. AND THIRD PERSONS. Mere futurity. as. will is used to express command. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.

2. promise. [He] will be chosen. 252 and 253. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so.Singular. Singular. 6." answered Herbert stubbornly. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 3. Plural. Plural. You shall choose. 2. 3. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. and justify the use of shall and will. I shall be chosen. 4. yet only seem. Exercises on Shall and Will. You will be chosen. 1. (b) Examine the following sentences. You shall be chosen. To express determination. and that of the newest cut. 1. 1. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. [They] shall be chosen. We shall choose. 3. "I shall not run. [He] shall choose. 3. (a) From Secs. .:² ACTIVE VOICE. 2. Singular. [He] will choose. [He] shall be chosen. Plural. 2. etc. You will be chosen. [They] shall choose. I will choose. 5. You shall be chosen. Singular. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. [They] will be chosen. Thou art what I would be. 3. You will choose. We will be chosen. I shall choose. 2. He informed us. [They] will choose. Plural. I will be chosen. 2. You will choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 3. 1. We shall be chosen. You shall choose. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. We will choose. PASSIVE VOICE.

The beast made a sluggish movement.²ID. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. set. then. 10. need some attention and explanation." the stranger said. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. put. set. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. Of smale houndes hadde she. No. put. was -de or -te. WEAK VERBS.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. But the rest. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this." 14. 9. bereft. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. and I have nothing to say. as. Without having attended to this. 255. my son. put. 256. Irregular Weak Verbs. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. This ending has now dropped off. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. Lucy stood still. 12. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 257.²CHAUCER. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. Past Tense.7. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. and have no change of vowel. bereaved besought . But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. bereave beseech bereft. or mylk and wastel breed. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 11. "I am a wayfarer. as if he would have more of the enchantment. very anxious. Present Tense. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. bereave besought Past Participle.²Class I. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. 13. The old ending to verbs of Class II. which may be called irregular weak verbs. (2) Those which end in -d or -t.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leant leaped. leant leaped. spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

I returned to reflection on my situation. [To] be choosing. when inflections became fewer. 8. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Perfect. When active. In Sec. [To] have been choosing. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). But later. have no tense. [To] choose. they have an indefinite.²the creature warring against the creating power. try clemency. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. 9. Perfect definite. a perfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. Three saplings. . Nothing of the kind having been done. 7. will (with should and would). expressing purpose.. to was used before the infinitive generally.6. Infinitives. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. an indefinite and a perfect form. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] have chosen. Indefinite. an imperfect. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. ACTIVE VOICE. 10. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. and a perfect definite form. as in the Old English.. [To] have been chosen. INFINITIVES. 266.. and when passive. to express action unconnected with a subject. Cases when to is omitted. 268. Imperfect. Indefinite. Perfect. [To] be chosen. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. To with the infinitive. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. formed a kind of bedstead. like participles. 267.

. 269.²IRVING. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. "a house to let. as in the expression. make. as.²HOWELLS. They shall have venison to eat. "She ask my pardon. "I do go" etc. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. and corn to hoe. poor woman!" cried Charles. liberal woman. 271. 272. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. learn [doth learn is one verb. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. The gerund is like the participle in form. and like a noun in use. as. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. must.(2) After the verbs may (might). Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. can (could). Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. it is often preceded by the definite article. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. While the gerund expresses action. the gerund may be called a noun verbal." (4) In exclamations. ." "I shall have chosen. also in the imperative.² She was a kind.²DE QUINCEY.²TENNYSON. HALE. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. feel. watch. or the object of a verb or a preposition. as the credulous imagine. "He will choose." etc. sometimes need (as. GERUNDS. hear." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. and emphatic forms of the present and past.²E. bid (command).²COOPER.²GOLDSMITH. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. But there was nothing to do. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). please. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. do (as.²it may be governed as a noun. also let. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. 270. see. under "Analysis.²MACAULAY. negative.). E. as.² What! doth she. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. it has several attributes of a noun. too." Examples are. it may be the subject of a verb.

The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. What a vast." also (2." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. five infinitives. which have lost all verbal force. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Then how pleasing is it. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." "Certainly dueling is bad. which express action. b). above. (6) Verbal nouns. which name an action or state. II). to see the returning hope of the parents. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. and five gerunds.²Find sentences containing five participles. may govern and be governed. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. Words in -ing are of six kinds. which express action." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. Exercise. Sec. which express action and also modify. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. after examining the nest. but do not assert.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. according to use as well as meaning. making the definite tenses. brilliant. but cannot govern. 273. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. when. (3) Participial adjectives. 2." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. (5) Gerunds. on your leaving the spot. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. and has been put down." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. (2) Pure participles." Exercise. 4. (4) Pure adjectives." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. and wonderful store of learning! .

for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 10. but.²strong or weak.²indicative.5. (4) Tense. (3) Mood. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 11. or imperative. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. he gave out sentence by sentence. I suppose I was dreaming about it. The only means of ascending was by my hands. giving principal parts. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. What is dreaming? 8. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. Caution. 7. round which is an iron railing. (5) Person and number. dictating from his chair. In parsing verbs. write twenty pages without stopping.²which of the tenses given in Sec. like Sir Walter Scott. (b) as to use. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 16. you must. (2) Voice. slowly. VERBS. bearing her national emblem. much corroded. 14. give reality to your teaching. .²transitive or intransitive. subjunctive. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. by object lessons. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 9. 275. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. I. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. He spread his blessings all over the land. 6. 13. 234. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 15.²active or passive. Thackeray did not. 12.

definite. therefore active. 278(2). If a participial adjective. etc. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. Let it rise! let it rise. must. and not taken as single verbs.. active. VERB PHRASES. we must beware of the rule. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. see Sec. The government might have been strong and prosperous. has for its subject Lee. then parse it as an adjective. call might a weak verb. In such sentences as 1. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. It has been intimated in Sec. intransitive. may. In 2. and should always be analyzed as phrases. (2) Infinitive. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. 2. (b) its use (Sec. past tense." Sometimes it does. (3) Gerund. 4. usually it does not. no sin nor sorrow. . would. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. perfect. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. (1) Participle. can. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Exercise. indicative. III. followed by a pure infinitive without to. 273). 277. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. Parse the verbs." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. might. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. in the world. You are gathered to your fathers. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. intransitive.276. But unless the verb is present. (a) From what verb derived. 235. till it meet the sun in his coming. indicative (as it means could). Take these examples:² 1. 278. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. 2. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. and parting day linger and play on its summit. has the subject government. verbals. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. II. (b) whether active or passive. perfect. Especially frequent are those made up of should. VERBALS. and ends in -s. give points (a) and (b). let the earliest light of the morning gild it. (b) whether indefinite. imperfect. etc. 3. call should a weak verb. could. (c) to what word it belongs. past tense.

Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 23. 10. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 24. a sweet good will. However that be. When he arose in the morning. . as the Hindoos say. and wondered if she were yet awake. The soul having been often born. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. With them. leaving me upon the bed.5. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. he thought only of her. 14. 19. a new bursting forth of the sun. from a sort of temporary death. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 16. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. So. as usual. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 6. see that it is in good condition. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. In going for water. 9. 21. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. as rolled from wing to wing. 13. 17. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Whatever ground you sow or plant.Down all the line.O God. a new waking up of all that has life. Right graciously he smiled on us.Henceforth in me instill. 11. 15." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 18. 8.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. or. 12. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. morning is not a new issuing of light. He passed across the room to the washstand. 22. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 20. a deafening shout.

and limit adjectives or adverbs.²SHELLEY. place.Feast while we may.²THACKERAY. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. 27." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Better it were. who live with nature?²ID. "William's private life was severely pure. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. A verb. Oh." An adjective or an adverb.25. or manner: as."²DE QUINCEY. to speak truly. as. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. 29." "He was absolute. When action is expressed.²CARLYLE. thou sayest. for example. they are more himself than he is. To the almost terror of the persons present. 26. Is it only poets." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. ADVERBS. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. 279. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. to consent. . because. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. and so on. Nor was it altogether nothing. The word adverb means joined to a verb. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.²time. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road.² The young man reveres men of genius.²EMERSON. and live ere life be spent. for the hour of rest is at hand. and men of leisure and cultivation. Adverbs modify. And now wend we to yonder fountain.

because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. for example. thus. as now. B. NOTE. but some verb understood. while those in Sec. 280. has induced some of us to attend it. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. hitherto. I draw forth the fruit. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. all wet and glossy.²THOREAU. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. It may also modify a sentence.He was incidentally news dealer. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. A clause or sentence. Surely happiness is reflective. 281. 282. not simply the forms used in predication. being adverbs naturally and fitly. there are six classes:² (1) Time. Thus considered. not the noun.²LEIGH HUNT. ALDRICH. Definition.²T. An adverb. but still with a rich bloom to it. but really modifying. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.²BYRON. . like the light of heaven. 169 are felt to be elliptical. is a modifying word. ²IRVING.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. etc.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.² LOWELL. A phrase. Make music to the lonely ear. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. We are offered six months' credit. NOTE.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. and that. to-day.² FRANKLIN. (2) according to their use in the sentence. 169. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. and half awfully. which may qualify an action word or a statement.²TROLLOPE. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. or a word group used as such. lately. as.²These last differ from the words in Sec. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. then. as shown in the sentences. ever. before. perhaps. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.

yonder. as hence. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. This long's the text. above.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. and others. and not infrequently are found in literary English. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. especially the comparative of these words.where.²BURKE.which gained him such universal popularity.²BROWNING.. that these adverbs form a very large class.²DE QUINCEY. whithersoever. possibly. slightly. twice. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. the more perfect will be their obedience. telling how anything is done. partly. etc. as here. (3) Manner. Thackeray.. for example.thither. while so precedes only the adjective usually. surely.whence.there. the more evidently they love liberty. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. etc.whither.(2) Place. etc.. probably. the more friends you will have. too.. (4) Number. 283.²LECKY. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.thence.²SHAKESPEARE. Meekness. etc. telling how many times: once. or how far he believes it to be true. (5) Degree. (6) Assertion. White.² The master. I was. Emerson.near. as perhaps. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. just. better. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. as well. as hither. singly. as little.. enough.was for this once of her opinion. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. etc. (see also Sec. slowly. thus. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. So also in Grote. etc.²HAWTHORNE. Motley. whencesoever. telling how much.²IRVING. much. 283). not. [Sidenote The status of such. very. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. two by two. bravely. at least. .²R. beautifully. maybe. The more they multiply. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. LOUIS STEVENSON. greatly.

285. "Peace. Such are most of those given already in Sec. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. STOWE. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Burke. Hard blows and hard money. Direct questions. Neville. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. besides modifying. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.²HAWTHORNE. Emerson. Again. Franklin.² "Mighty well. 284."²SCOTT. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." "He spoke positively [manner]. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Simple.² KINGSLEY. Kingsley." "The house. Pretty is also used by Prescott. for example. Some adverbs. 282.²BAYNE." said the king." "I have seen you before [time]. for example. a mighty fine gentleman. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Holmes. and other writers. Mighty.²FIELDING. A pretty large experience.²"He walked too far [place]. and its lawn before [place].²BULWER." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Aldrich. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. and art but a fool. Beau Fielding. Interrogative.Pretty. 286. Defoe. have the additional function of asking a question. De Quincey.²THACKERAY." "That were far better [degree].²THACKERAY. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Dickens. Notice meanings.² You are mighty courteous.²GOLDSMITH. B. It is only occasionally used in literary English. .

I will not ask where thou liest low.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (4) Degree. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²BYRON (3) Manner.²POE. they smiled. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. (2) Place. for example. WEBSTER.²BULWER.²D. I hearkened. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (4) Degree. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (5) Reason.²BYRON. (2) Place. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. 287. I know not why. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. When did this humane custom begin?²H.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. CLAY. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. .

are often used as adjectives:² Positive. For further discussion. . then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. soon. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. Superlative. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. and. irregularly compared. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. when compared. well much little far late Comparative.) rather 289. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. higher. 290. representing four classes. Then must she keep it safelier.²TENNYSON. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. sooner. Tell what each word in ly modifies.²COLERIDGE. just as adjectives do. Its strings boldlier swept.²EMERSON. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. The following.²SHAKESPEARE. obs.. use. but the whole clause. Exercise. further farthest.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. furthest (rathe. Form vs.eyes. as.. high. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Many adverbs are compared. 288. have the same inflection as adjectives. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. only occasionally having -er and -est. when does not express time and modify." Exercise. see Sec. highest. when. soonest. Many adjectives have the same ending.²BYRON. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.But in reality. not an adverb. Only that we may wiselier see. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.

2.²WORDSWORTH. that in Old and Middle English. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 291. Not near so black as he was painted. But he must do his errand right. With his proud. The reason is. 4. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. He is inexpressibly mean. curiously jolly. mostly. but with a different meaning.And his mien of kingly state. merely introduces a sentence. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. whether adverbs or adjectives. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. 7. or down the leaves laughed through. 5. Again. There are eyes.²TENNYSON. even. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.²THACKERAY. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. many words without -ly have the same form.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. Such are most. Frequently the word there. And all about. 2. 8.² EMERSON. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 6. quick-flashing eye. hardly. 292. more courtly in their manners.²CHAUCER. etc.²IRVING. as. 3. instead of being used adverbially. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. kindly and good-natured in secret. to be sure. . evenly. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. nearly. near. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. if it has the verb be.1. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. hard. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. Special use of there." Compare these:² 1.²ID.

In parsing adverbs. 18. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 16. the Madonna is in great glory. 5. 11. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 12. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. and sate down on the steps of a house. 9. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. and always. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. but from my fall? 6. but continually shifted. 4.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. give² (1) The class. if the word is compared. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. at the regular wine-shop. For the impracticable. (3) What word or word group it modifies. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. It is the Cross that is first seen. 3. burning in the center of the temple. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 293. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Exercise. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. (2) Degree of comparison. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 7. 17. But a few steps farther on. is always politically unwise. however theoretically enticing. according to meaning and also use. 10. . How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 2. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 15. Thither we went.

A conjunction is a linking word. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. therefore. Clauses.19." Paragraphs. 295. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. word groups. 20. upon which the sun now shone forth. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. 21. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. but the student will readily find them. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives." Sentences." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. . Definition. sentences. etc. 294. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. Unlike adverbs. It was pretty bad after that. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. 22. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. But now the wind rose again. but side by side within the American Union. however. connecting words. or sentence groups. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. then. CONJUNCTIONS. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. hence." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. nor.

not only.. Your letter. nor. Nor mark'd they less. the butter too. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. neither. While the earth bears a plant.nor. Correlatives. yet. either. still.. Causal." Nevertheless. (3) CAUSAL. expressing a choice. neither. of the same rank.or. also. both..nor.or. and not man corn.. as and. whether..but.Classes of conjunctions... else. usually between two things. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. (4) ALTERNATIVE. . while... as well as the room door. however. hence. 296. joining words. word groups. (2) Subordinate. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. They are or. not only. for. etc.. whether. either. answering to each other in the same sentence. however.or. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. The assertion.but (or but also). Adversative. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Alternative. but is emperor in his own right. nor. Some go in threes.. whether.and. had its weight... 297. and. introducing a reason or cause. therefore. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. then. only. Some of these go in pairs. as well as.... either. The chief ones are. "Howbeit. as but.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. (2) ADVERSATIVE. as.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.. 298. neither. moreover. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. the bread was spent.or whether. or the sea rolls its waves.or.. etc. the window being open. as. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man... serves but to show their ignorance.. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. etc. likewise..

QUINCY. though. (7) RESULT: that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. sometimes if. wherever. until. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. as. whence. Time.²BIBLE.²IRVING. seeing. so.. ere. It is.²WILSON. etc. so that.²PAULDING. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. etc. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. (6) PURPOSE: that. especially that after so. lest. 299.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.²COOPER.²J. nor echo. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste.²DE QUINCEY. whereto. whether. in apposition. provided that. before. whithersoever.. howsoever. even if. so. in order that. although. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. there will the heart be also.. whenever.²BURKE. as. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. Neither the place in which he found himself. so that. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. . as. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. etc. nor wing of bird. Where the treasure is. provided. except. since. object. (2) TIME: when. on condition that. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. nor creeping thing. whereas. that. nor green leaf.as. in case. He is not only bold and vociferous. unless. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. etc. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. however. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me.. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. (3) MANNER: how. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. ²ALLSTON. while. after. since. now. so. etc. whither.

There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON. but not so long but I held it out.²DEFOE.² H.²COLERIDGE. JACKSON.²AMES.²CAMPBELL. Result. Purpose. H. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.² EMERSON.²EMERSON.²IRVING. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.That vain it were her eyes to close.²AMES.²BURKE. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. not as they were expected or intended. Concession. So many thoughts moved to and fro. We wish for a thousand heads. . seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Then Denmark blest our chief.²EMERSON.²BYRON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Let the world go how it will.² HAWTHORNE. reason. Comparison. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.² WORDSWORTH. As a soldier. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.That he gave her wounds repose.²AMES. Cause. Substantive.²CARLYLE Events proceed. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. a thousand bodies.So I behold them not. Condition. Now he is dead.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Manner. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Sparing neither whip nor spur. I was again covered with water.

9. In what point of view. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 5. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. however. as he shot in air. He was brought up for the church. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Crept under the leaf. while. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. And they lived happily forever after. that. While a faction is a minority. since. And then recovering. 10. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. . the wisest.Let us see whether the greatest. Besides. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. After he was gone. As will have been noticed. Exercises. she faintly pressed her hand. 4. The moth fly. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 300.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. and hid her there. some words²for example. then. it will remain harmless. her real merit is known at home. as. 3. No one had yet caught his character. 15. etc. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 2. 14. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 12. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. hold a subordinate rank. They.²RUSKIN. 13. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 6. the lady called her servant. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. 7. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie.

In Emerson's sentence. In poetry. and part as though we parted not. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. 301.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. even as they would weep. none of the lashings having given way.As though a rose should shut. the expression would be. As for as if. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.16.²IRVING. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. .²EMILY BRONTE. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. His voice . But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. "We meet. expressing degree if taken separately. So silently we seemed to speak. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. for example. as is often equivalent to as if. (2) What words.²BYRON. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. If analyzed. In parsing conjunctions.. As if. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. Consequently.So slowly moved about. 304. 302. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. and the frame will suit the picture. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. word groups." as.²HOOD. SPECIAL REMARKS. As though. they connect. as is shown by the use of as though. etc. GREELEY.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.. 303. in this case. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. thus.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.Clouded. and be a bud again.

Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. and the like. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery.²DEFOE 2. others belong to several classes. when. and very seldom?" 8. he is also the correlative of nature. so that I could not stir abroad. so that expresses result. He is the compend of time. 13. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. as beside his own chimneys. are regularly of one particular class. If he could solve the riddle. so it be faithfully imparted. they are not known. . or in the forest. but of the natural. 4. and its clause depends on the other. in 3. he sleeps as warm. dines with as good an appetite. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. It continued raining. so means therefore. the Sphinx was slain. In classifying them. 12. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. 6. that it might testify of that particular ray. 10." said his wife to Martin Luther. It may be safely trusted. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. 2. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. 11. compare the sentences. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. so they paddled on. such as nor.²is subordinate of condition. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word..²that the fairies do not like to be named. 3. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. and its clause is independent.²I find them true in Concord. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. so means provided. because. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. At sea. or in the snow. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. "Doctor. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. When the gods come among men.² 1. and.Caution. For example. Exercise. 9. etc. 7. Some conjunctions. All the postulates of elfin annals. and associates as happily. He dismisses without notice his thought. in 2. because it is his. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. 5.²EMERSON 3.

but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. you must be. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. in this they agree. 24. 16. however. And whether consciously or not. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. I rejoice to stand here no longer. the whole conditions are changed. enthroned. won't you lay on? 17. 19. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. Still. when it was presented to them. PREPOSITIONS. 18. 30. For. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. therefore. . 21. 26. 29. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 20. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. I speak. There was no iron to be seen. 23. of good novels only. Now you have the whip in your hand. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 28. 305. that both were wayward. whose names I omit.²else it is none. in many a heart. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. It is clear. she might have the family countenance. 25. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last.14. save it were sinful like herself. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 27.. 22. Goodness must have some edge to it. It may be so in the majority of cases. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 15. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at rest. at play. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. H.²SWIFT. at least. (2) Time.²ALDRICH. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at random. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at length. by the blessed memory of the departed. by the wrecks of time.²COOPER. .. Exercise.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last.²ID. STODDARD.² (1) The general meaning of place. (3) Agency or means. at first. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at any rate. at the best. expressing the degree of difference. She saw the boat headed for her. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. For. at the worst. By my faith.²B. at naught.²R. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at one. at most. 320. Like at. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. by the ruins of nations.²DE QUINCEY.²EVERETT. etc. by many a million of acres. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. he stopped. at peace.²WARNER. at once. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. 321. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. as. Helena. At St. By. (4) Measure of excess. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. CONWAY. Richard was standing by the window. etc.²M. at war. the first port made by the ship. at work. At that time [the earth] was richer. at all. ²PARTON. Exercise. TAYLOR The angel came by night. D. by means near or close to.

An Arab woman." said the Lady of Lochleven. in behalf of. etc. he repented of his folly. a person or thing. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. had a forest of poor relations. or in spite of. ate her child. "For a fool. cause. considering that etc.²PARKMAN. He and they were for immediate attack. (5) Reference. respecting. . as to. incitement to action. for famine.One of Eve's family. H. For him.²ID. poor fellow. (7) Concession. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²E.. But the Colonel. and leaped for joy.²EMERSON. BANCROFT. The twilight being. "Nay. Still. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. for all his title. For the rest.²PARKMAN. etc. etc."²SCOTT By my faith.²HOLMES. (6) Like as. "thou hast counseled wisely.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. they are now for us. or extent of space. There are gains for all our losses.² RUSKIN. meaning in the character of.²W. if your worship can accomplish that." answered Master Brackett. (9) Motive. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²LAMB.²HOOD. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. meaning although. GARRISON. as being.²H. but a few sunsets since.²IRVING. (4) Substitution or exchange.²STODDARD. for the benefit of. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. (3) Duration of time. L. for all slips of hers. the Colonna motto would fit you best. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.. reason. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. E. meaning with regard to. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.(2) In favor of.

323. if not a desperate man. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. H. Exercise. (4) Motive. 322. The young cavaliers. like from. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²HUME. ceased to be merciful. cause. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Of. .²DRYDEN.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. The From Relation. (3) Time. A distrustful. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Exercise. The general idea in from is separation or source.²HALE. (1) Origin or source.²HUXLEY.²H.²HIGGINSON. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. or reason.²BANCROFT.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²ID. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. (2) Origin. The king holds his authority of the people. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. From. Like boys escaped from school. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²MILTON. nay. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. from a desire of seeming valiant. It was from no fault of Nolan's. From harmony. more.

deprivation. bare of. especially out of. disarm. Other Relations expressed by Of.²BAYARD TAYLOR. or breastpin of native gold. purge. wide of.²PARKMAN. expressing a part of a number or quantity."²E. bound with thongs of boar's hide. . beg. ²PARTON. ²GAVARRE. cure. divest. relieve. there were only twenty-one members present. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. as north of. south of. he had raised a little Gothic chapel.²ALDRICH. A singular want of all human relation. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²ID. such as ease. (6) Partitive. ask. demand. (3) With expressions of material. Asked no odds of.²LEW WALLACE. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. E. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. clear.²clear of. out of the most unpromising materials. and grass. Back of that tree. rid. (d) With words expressing distance. deprive.²BANCROFT. etc.²HIGGINSON. etc. (5) Expressing agency. You cannot make a boy know. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. of his own knowledge. rob. More than one altar was richer of his vows. etc. weeds. Of the Forty. The hills were bare of trees. Sandals.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. (b) After some adjectives. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. acquitted them of. He is away of his own free will. free. that Cromwell once ruled England. motive.² HUXLEY.²DICKENS II.²BOSWELL. HALE.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.. etc. free of.²SCOTT Who formed. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. etc. White shirt with diamond studs. reason. "I am glad of that.

(b) Noun and gerund. E.²LAMB.²LOWELL. (9) Of time. CHANNING. when the first is descriptive of the second. for the possessive.He washed out some of the dirt. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. Idiomatic use with verbs. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. The nation of Lilliput.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. (8) Appositional. (10) Of reference.²BANCROFT. of a sudden.²BANCROFT. with its object. being equivalent to an infinitive..²W.²PRESCOTT. . Not even woman's love. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. could give shelter from his contumely. concerning.²ALDRICH. See also Sec.²HALLECK. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. of is used in the sense of during.²ID. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. Besides the phrases of old. The fair city of Mexico. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²SWIFT.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. of late. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²FROUDE. (c) Two nouns. etc.²COOPER. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. 309. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. equal to about.²BANCROFT. and the dignity of a queen. (7) Possessive. Such a book as that of Job. standing. with regard to. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. ²IRVING.

On my life. Exercise. (2) Time. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. (3) Reference.²PARKMAN. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. repent. on the alert.²ALDRICH. complain. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. On. on high. and not a day more. Exercise. Upon is seldom used to express time. equal to about. allow. ²BANCROFT. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. permit. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. SIGOURNEY. such as admit. Upon my reputation and credit. etc.²MRS.²EMERSON. To. consist. It also accompanies the verbs tire. 325. on board. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. . on trial. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. (b) With motion. avail (one's self). without adding to their meaning.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. 324. accept.²PARKMAN. disapprove. you are eighteen. on the wing. on view. Upon. and others. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. approve. on a sudden.²Find sentences with six uses of of. Cannon were heard close on the left. (4) In adjurations. The general meaning of on is position or direction.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.²PARKMAN.²BRYANT.²DE QUINCEY. etc. concerning.

²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. We cook the dish to our own appetite.. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.. He usually gave his draft to an aid. Death!²HALLECK.²PARTON. unmasked. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. interest.²LANG.. Nor.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. 268). Revolutions. to my taste.²B. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²BRYANT. With. . while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. to him.²IRVING. To the few.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. mid meant in company with. (5) Equivalent to according to. it may be genuine poetry. had ceased to be. (b) Referring to time. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. But when. Exercise.to be written over.²BENTON To our great delight. 326. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. gay Comedy appears. (2) Expressing result. does the mere music. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. whose influence is felt to this hour. His brother had died. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.²PARKMAN.²GOLDSMITH.²HALE. In Old English.Come to the bridal chamber.²BULWER.²often to the loss of vigor..²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.

²HOWELLS. Either with the swingle-bar. in spite of.²COOPER. had already reached the defile.²CHANNING. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. (4) Estimation. 327. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. (5) Opposition. (3) Cause. to find the object of the preposition. as with you. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. but a pleasure"?²LANG. it is necessary.²E. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. Messala.²EMERSON. HALE. opinion. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²LANG. E. (2) Instrumentality. It seemed a supreme moment with him. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. "poetry is not a pursuit.²HOWELLS. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. first of all.²WALLACE (7) Time. motive. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. I think. He expired with these words. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²HALE. He was wild with delight about Texas. transmitted from the beginning.The advance.²SCOTT. he gave millions to the sword. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²DE QUINCEY. with Heyward at its head. She seemed pleased with the accident.²ALDRICH. but with you. reason.²DE QUINCEY.²Find sentences with four uses of with. . Exercise. With all his sensibility. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. with all his boldness.²COLERIDGE. or with the haunch of our near leader.

the malicious rogue. like the clapping of wings. shook it directly over my head. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. of on. came tumbling about my ears. I heard a noise just over my head. I remember. beginning. In (3). 4. The object of on board is ships. which.²SWIFT 2. by which a dozen apples. I called out several times. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. To our general surprise. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. before the dwarf left the queen. (3) without a country. or was. I speak these things from a love of justice. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. of from. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. because I had given the provocation. hence we say. of without. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. (4) from the beginning. I looked towards my windows. The guns were cleared of their lumber. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. he followed us one day into those gardens. telling what man. country. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. Whereupon. but all to no purpose. without a country modifies man. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. (2) on which. Be that as it will. Exercises. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. the phrase answers the question where. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man.²ID. And so on. but I received no other hurt. and knocked me down flat on my face. In (1). 2. 3. In (2). with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I felt my box raised very high in the air. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. . 5. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. we met the defaulter here. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky.

23. His breeches were of black silk. 17. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. . the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 19. 11. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 7. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 15. 18. The mother sank and fell. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The savage army was in war-paint. 22. On all subjects known to man. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. I like to see the passing. to one dark and gloomy. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 24. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 16. 27. in this respect. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 13. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. after a restful morning.He spurred his courser on. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 10.Without stop or stay. plumed for battle. For my part. when. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 25. With all his learning. 20. grasping at the child. 9. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 29. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 8. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 26. 14. 12. Carteret was far from being a pedant.6. in town. he favored the world with his opinions. 21.

and be proud in the midst of its toil. That is what I understand by scientific education. That was a dreadful mistake. We wish that labor may look up here. (1) Relative pronoun. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. WHAT. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. and not according to form.30. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. not merely by the amount of the tax. that you might behold this joyous day.²HUXLEY. (b) Of result. (a) Indefinite relative. That night was a memorable one. (c) Substantive conjunction.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. And now it is like an angel's song. He will raise the price. 329. 330. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. 328.²WEBSTER. A few are discussed below.² JOHNSON. THAT.²STOCKTON. .That makes the heavens be mute.²COLERIDGE. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (2) As an adjective pronoun.²WEBSTER.²BEECHER.²WEBSTER. (4) As an adverb of degree. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (3) As a relative pronoun.

. (7) Adverb of degree. "I'll tell you what. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. nearly equivalent to partly. it rests on reality. Cox.. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (6) Exclamatory adjective. and silent all!²BYRON.it is impossible to determine. after not only.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.²S...²EMERSON." (4) Relative adjective.S. If he has [been in America]. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.. to see what might be hidden. To say what good of fashion we can.in Pera. (9) As an exclamation. (b) Indirect question. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. or not only.²ID. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (b) Indirect question. silent still. partly.²THACKERAY. 331.. but the result of calculation.²WORDSWORTH.. What. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. he knows what good people are to be found there. At what rate these materials would be distributed.these sounds are only to be heard. What. BUT...²ID. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. .²WEBSTER. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.Those shadowy recollections..Which be they what they may. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.but. (b) Copulative. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. What with the Maltese goats.²EMERSON.. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (8) Conjunction.

. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. at all moments.²MRS BROWNING. not..²SHELLEY. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. To lead but one measure. after a negative. not. (d) Of reason. or who . I shall see but little of it. Who knows but. (5) Adverb. on all sides.²IRVING. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.. stands for that . like the dog. AS. (4) Relative pronoun. (e) Introducing an appositive word. than. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.He yearned to our patriot bands. ²CARLYLE.²FRANKLIN.²SCOTT. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. equivalent to that .²IRVING..²IRVING. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. meaning otherwise . towards order. (b) Substantive. (c) Of degree.. after such. (b) Of manner. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.. Doing duty as a guard. (3) Preposition. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. 332. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. meaning only. not.²CARLYLE. but piercing cries..²HAWTHORNE.. meaning except.²EMERSON.²LAMB. sometimes same. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (2) Relative pronoun.Then arose not only tears.

staring like a bewildered man.²ALDRICH. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. but its verb is omitted.²MAYHEW.²EMERSON. They look.²HAWTHORNE. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²EMERSON. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²HIGGINSON. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like summer ocean's. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²ALDRICH. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. That face.²SHAKESPEARE. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. and is followed by a dative-objective.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. and as or as if takes its place. like drops out. In each case. If the verb is expressed. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. (1) An adjective. ²PARKMAN. Through which they put their heads. . this. and was clearly an adjective. This follows a verb or a verbal. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²LAMB. like a cook beating eggs. There is no statue like this living man. Introduces a clause.²DARWIN. nervous child. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. like Martin was. indeed.²LONGFELLOW.²HALLECK.² HAWTHORNE. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. like him awhile ago. NOTE. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. No Emperor.LIKE. 333. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.-SCOTT. In this second use.²CASS. Give Ruskin space enough. but this is not considered good usage: for example. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.² A timid. Note the difference between these two uses. I do with my friends as I do with my books. Stirring it vigorously.

INTERJECTIONS. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Definition. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. 336.: for example. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. verb. Definition. clauses introduced by conjunctions. subject and predicate. etc." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]." PART II. that is. but it still retains its identity as noun.. Some of these are imitative sounds. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. as. 335. Value of analysis.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. that is. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. . it is necessary to become expert in analysis. in separating them into their component parts. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric.²in determining case. entering into the structure of a sentence. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. 334. etc. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. tut! buzz! etc. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. What analysis is. pronoun." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].

but according to how many statements there are. Definition. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. you must not die!" interrogative. or imperative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. 339. "Hath he not always treasures. This is the most common one. but by no means vulgar.²a subject and a predicate. Examples of these three kinds are." 340. hence. SIMPLE SENTENCES. But now all is to be changed. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. interrogative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.Kinds of sentences as to form. "The quality of mercy is not strained. 2. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. entreaty. (2) Interrogative. "Come to the bridal chamber. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "Old year. which expresses command. . according to form. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. or request. Division according to number of statements. always friends?" imperative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. old man?" "Be thou familiar. Every sentence must contain two parts. not according to the form in which a thought is put." "What wouldst thou do. or command: for example. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. 338. question. which puts the thought in a question. declarative. Definition: Predicate. but the sentence would still be declarative. 337. (3) Imperative.

Listen. Slavery they can have anywhere. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. or an interrogative pronoun. 8. But if we try this with the second sentence. or ye) is in most cases omitted. thou.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. but about the ivy green. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 2. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. on the other hand. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. 5. as. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate.²What is to be changed? Answer. to an ignorant man. The last of all the Bards was he. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. "[You] behold her single in the field. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. we have some trouble. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. the subject is frequently after the verb. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. or adverb that asks about the subject. not of a rare old plant.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. and the real subject is the latter. to suit all cases:² Subject. all. Consequently. a rare old plant. and is to be supplied.²What is the ivy green? Answer. 4. and our definition must be the following. 7. the subject (you. always reduce them to the order of a statement. 6. 341. especially in poetry. In the interrogative sentence. In analyzing such sentences. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this." Exercise. Thus. . 3. adjective.

or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. (2) The predicate. "Ye honor me. and by object we mean the direct object." Complement: 344. (4) The complements.²transitive and intransitive. Direct Object. in addition to the object. just as if to say. (5) Modifiers. . a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. and means summoned. and me here is not the object simply of call. Indirect object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Of a transitive verb. The transitive verb often requires. "Ye call me chief. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. but of call chief. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. for example. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. direct. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds.10. 342." indirect." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. but chief belongs to the verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. The subject and predicate have been discussed. 343. (6) Independent elements." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. or second object. but it is a true complement. (3) The object.

appear." (3) INFINITIVE." (2) PARTICIPIAL." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. not containing a verb. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. in the popular judgment." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. ay. Complement of an intransitive verb. 346. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. in exercise following Sec. Thom of the Gills. 364. above sixty." Things used as Subject.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. and of massive weight. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. A phrase is a group of words. 351. especially the forms of be. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. for instance. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." 345." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. Phrases. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. as in the sentence. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." All these complete intransitive verbs. introduced by a preposition: for example. As to form." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" .. 347. 352. or. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. seem. etc. in the original Opium Confessions. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. See sentence 19. to the completion of this man of the world. "Brow and head were round. "A cheery. An intransitive verb. become." "He was termed Thomas." "The good man. as. taste. he was now getting old. as in drowning. 'Ay. sir!' rang out in response. and barring the door. but used as a single modifier. I mentioned a case of that nature. feel." Also an expression used as a noun. more familiarly. and. 355.

"Therein has been. but the real or logical subject is to print. 349. was heard one syllable to justify." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. (2) In interrogative sentences. or the thundering of organs." "There are asking eyes. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. but obscures the real subject." 348. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). etc. from their lips." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." Things used as Direct Object. I saw the quick and the dead. prowling eyes. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. and by Saint George!' said the King. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." "Never. .²the talent of starting the game. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." The for did not belong there originally. and ever will be." Things used as Complement. 341." In this sentence. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. Disguised infinitive subject. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." "The dead are there. my deficiency. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. or their religion from their sect.²the infinitive phrase. but they will be given in detail here. for which see Sec." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. (4) After "there introductory." etc. "'By God. asserting eyes.

the object is made the subject by being passive. they are adjuncts of the object. or Complement. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." "Serving others is serving us. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways.²completing the predicate." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. complements of the predicate. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." "I hear the echoes throng." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. I." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." "Their tempers. 351. or the equivalent of the noun. doubtless. Object." Modifiers.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. and explaining or modifying the subject. and whenever the complement is a noun. Modifiers of Subject. As complement of an intransitive verb. (3) Infinitive. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny.350." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. and." (4) Participle." . trusting the hearts of his countrymen. the shepherd girl. As complement of a transitive verb. at the same time. Of a transitive verb. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." In this last sentence. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. and the words italicized are still complements." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." "She asked her father's permission. Like all the complements in this list.²heads or tails.

" (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. was the scene from King John. 351.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written.²proud. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. the verb being omitted. Retained with passive.²In each sentence in Sec." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. Modifiers of the Predicate. and modify the predicate in the same way. or complement is modified. the prisoner at the bar." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. was now called upon for his defense. austere. no sociable angel. Tells how." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. but it is really a contracted clause." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. 357-363. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "Give them not only noble teachings. see further Secs. object." Exercise.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. Since the predicate is always a verb." In such a sentence as. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." "In the twinkling of an eye." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. given at the request of a Dutch lady. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. unforgiving. and leading him from star to star." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. tell whether the subject." "Him. I have seasoned for thee. this young idolater. II. 352. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. but with other men. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." (For participial and infinitive phrases. or . "He died like a God." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. but noble teachers. not with nature.

Evil. in this center? 4. 5. no humor. (a) Pick out subject. negative. the indirect object is retained." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. no relief to the dead prosaic level.When the verb is changed from active to passive. and. I took." (6) Adverbial objective. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. They do not wish to be lovely. 4. but to be loved. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. no emotion. 7. etc. Fashion does not often caress the great. and other measures of precaution. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. His books have no melody. and the direct object is retained: for example. But anger drives a man to say anything. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour." "All such knowledge should be given her. A merciless oppressor hast thou been.. and (direct) object:² 1. or how long. 5. 2. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. 6. gives wonderful animation. is good in the making. 8. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. he liked. with my joy and grief. To the men of this world. 3. to the animal strength and spirits. a sort of personality to the whole writing. 2. 3." "One way lies hope. in regard to particulars. On the voyage to Egypt. (b) Pick out the subject. and as many to oppose it. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. how far. but the children of the great. and complement: y y y y y y y 1." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. 7. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. This. These answer the question when." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. according to old philosophers. predicate. ." Exercises. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. predicate. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. 6. after dinner. Why does the horizon hold me fast.

Yes. a room seventeen feet by twelve. at length the warrior lady. 4. I promised her protection against all ghosts. upwards. 3. I felt myself. expecting the return of their parents. for the first time. Compound Predicate. the attorney. must visit again the home of her childhood. 5. the blooming cornet. 2. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 6. Not the less I owe thee justice. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Not compound sentences. .y 8. 2. in little peaceful Easedale. then. 3. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. six children sat by a peat fire. 4. at the chief hotel. then.²the river Meuse. In one feature. this imperial rider. y y y y Compound Subject. Their intention was to have a gay. 3. 5. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Unhorse me. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. Paint me.. I gave him an address to my friend. to the right and to the left. after their long confinement to a ship. downwards. burthened with the anxieties of a man. this dragoon so lovely. To suffer and to do.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. etc. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. That night. this nun so martial. that was thy portion in life. 2. happy dinner. and a member of the world. A river formed the boundary. viz. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 4.

The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. in the sentence. The exclamatory expression." "He shook his head. however. then the grammatical subject and predicate. Bishop. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. "Ah. together with its modifiers. I'm with you once again.. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. etc. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution.353. the object. but it is to be noticed that. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. hurry. the verb). the predicate. Larger view of a sentence. together with all its modifiers. may be the person or thing addressed. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. they are not a necessary part. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. 355. in all such sentences as we quote below." Sentences with compound predicates are. Examples of compound subjects are. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject." "Voyages and travels I would also have. etc. ulcer. and the rest is the logical predicate. "The company broke up. Of this. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. and." "The name of the child. forming a sentence: "Oh. Independent Elements of the Sentence. two or more subjects of the same predicate. exposes. complements. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. hurry. For example. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. my brave young man!" ." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. that is." "Ye crags and peaks. the air of the mother." And so with complements. above: thus.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. etc. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. shouldered the rusty firelock. turned his steps homeward. and its object or complement. same as (1). "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. several modifiers. the tone of her voice. modifiers. the simple subject is situation. 354." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated.

really. 356." "At all events. 3. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. . 352." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. or complement (see Sec. then." "Why. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. 4)." (3) Independent. truly.. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. 350.. he was a conscientious man. such as however. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. her noticing even this is creditable." (5) Participial phrase: "But. see Sec. six quill-driving gentlemen. such as perhaps. (b) As a modifier of subject. that have an office in the sentence. 357. In their use." (6) Single words: as. prepositional phrases may be. yes! everybody knew them. instances of which were seen in Sec. and so on. or word used as a noun: for example. see Sec. pronoun. object. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 355. nevertheless." (2) Adverbial. 351. why. 4). In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. "Oh." "Well. y (2) The adverbial use. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "Truth to say. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. to the best of my remembrance." Another caution." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. (1) Adjectival. now. There are some adverbs. he closed his literary toils at dinner. therefore. this story runs thus. besides." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. modifying a noun. The words well. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. let him perish. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. already noticed." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. how you're winking!" "Now. etc. grandma. modifying the predicate. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. and some conjunctions. 6). moreover. undoubtedly. etc. he somehow lived along. the company broke up. These need close watching." "No. generally speaking.

" (c) With the definite forms of go. being equivalent to a future with obligation. 355. but require somewhat closer attention.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. modifying was speedily run through. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. "Because I was. or as nearly so as the student will require. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. ought." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. and hence is adverbial. containing no matters of business.should. See Sec. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." (b) With the forms of be. I. but having no other office than a verbal one.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." etc.: as in the sentences. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.]. 358. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. was speedily run through. thus. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every .would. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. he should not have known them at all." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years." "There.can (could). Wilt thou." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. etc. and teach her how to be happy and good.seem. "The letter of introduction. The verbal use. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. my dear. therefore. This case excepted. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15." In this sentence. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. and they will be presented here in full. necessity. (5). but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. y (a) With may (might). the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. etc.

II. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." 360. etc.: for example." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. 362. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. result. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. (4) In apposition. 361 are used adverbially. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. IV. The adverbial use. and the eyes to fill?" 359. The substantive use." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. . it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. above. was to have the foe's life at their mercy." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. to hear McOrator after dinner." "To teach is to learn." "Are you mad. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. hang the idiot. 351." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. The adjectival use. etc. "But there was no time to be lost. 5).. already examined. notice the following:² In (1). to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. III. To test this. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). the Scotch fighting all the battles. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. complement. to please is equivalent to that he may please. 361. Don Guzman." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. modifying a noun that may be a subject. to look means that he might look." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this.²both purpose clauses." "He insisted on his right to forget her. object." "To say what good of fashion we can. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions.

etc. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. and to say is equivalent to if we say. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. as in Sec.²both expressing condition. (3). to hear means if you should hear. give the complement (Secs. In (3). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. In (4). to part means because I part. (7) Independent elements (Sec. 351). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. not in a book. equivalent to that you betray. (5) The subject (Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. Our life is March weather. The independent use. 4. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 352).. etc. etc. savage and serene in one hour. to find shows the result of the return. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 349). In (5).In (2). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. must be in a life. 2. In analyzing simple sentences. 363. 3." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. object. If it is an incomplete verb. V.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 364. 351). 355). 347). give² (1) The predicate. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec.. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. 351).) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. ." (See also Sec. 268. I will try to keep the balance true. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. which is of two kinds. 355.

and every moment discover something new. Old Adam. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings.Burnt green and blue and white. He risked everything. with eager energy.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. The word conscience has become almost confined. and to the purpose. 22. to the moral sphere. the carrion crow.4. to restore civil and religious order. 6. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. two stricken hours. to keep England out of war. nor generals. 5. The whole figure and air. through toys and atoms. 18. always in a bad plight. in popular use. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. nor troops. neither ammunition. through evil agents. You may ramble a whole day together. is to have no political system at all. We are always in peril. a graceful dancer. good and amiable otherwise. . and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. I have heard Coleridge talk. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. Through the years and the centuries. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 8. The water. Her aims were simple and obvious. 12. an accomplished scholar. 19. and spared nothing. 24. nor himself. 17. like a witch's oils. His opinion is always original. 23. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. To these gifts of nature. a good shot. and only to be saved by invention and courage. just on the edge of destruction. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 14. 10. 9. 21. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. a skilled musician.²to preserve her throne. 15.He sat in the shower. 13. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 16. 11.The old crow of Cairo. To be hurried away by every event. nor money. might be called flabby and irresolute. 7. 20.

ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. and. the present capital of New England. it would not have been filial or ladylike. in front of all this mighty crowd. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. But yield. and the why. and no provisions but wild berries. Of the same grandeur. haply. the ship was in an uproar. ready to receive her. 34. Now.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 31. and the wherefore? . 32. upon my own ground. Must we in all things look for the how. 38. had but one foible. an elderly man. Upon this shore stood. The cry. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 41. 39. to be a reproach to such goodness. The villain. Oxford. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. secluded. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. In the Acadian land.Distant. it must have been in the latitude of Boston.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. still. baggage far in the rear. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. the same Condé Olivarez. I dare this. 36. Supposing this computation to be correct. proud foe. 29. Few in number. This amiable relative. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. to bid you leave the place now and forever. 35. Fair name might he have handed down. the prime minister of Spain. or perhaps one virtue. and in my own garden. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches.25. She had made a two days' march. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. in less heroic and poetic form. 40. 37. 33. time-honored. 30. I hate him and myself. 26. 27. in this world.

however. are really contracted clauses. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. the pride and beauty of the grove." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. if they were expanded." This must. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. as. (Sec. made merely for convenience and smoothness. COMPLEX SENTENCES.From her own loved island of sorrow. the expressions of manner introduced by like." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. as would be the connective instead of like." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. .² "She is like some tender tree. The simple sentence the basis. 367. thus." Sentences with like. though often treated as phrases. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. Words left out after than or as. but. 365." To show that these words are really omitted. 366.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. 333). Some sentences look like simple ones in form. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. which is the unit of speech.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. As shown in Part I.

as in this sentence. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. which are so united that one member is the main one.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence..²the dependent or subordinate clauses. Independent clause. and modifier. that .²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. predicate. Definition. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. . is taken in. that is. complement. complements. etc. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject.. object. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur.²the other members subordinate to it. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. suffering. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. murmur. we are aware.. and the last.. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. main. 370. containing a verb with its subject. Hence the following definition:² Definition. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. CLAUSES. or it may be applied to the others. and the next one. or dependent on it. then we recognize this as the main statement. 368. each clause has its subject. logically depends on suffering. how great .²the backbone. A principal. object. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. 371. modifiers. A clause is a division of a sentence. 369.

'I know that he can toil terribly..' is an electric touch.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. for example. 372. As to their office in the sentence. and ADVERB clauses.." 374. Kinds. over which the torrent came tumbling. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. .Dependent clause.. pronoun. But since they are complex in form. adjectives. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. impertinences.. (a) Ordinary apposition. etc. for example. for a time. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. impertinences²would be grammatical." "I was told that the house had not been shut. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. attention is called to them here." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. ADJECTIVE. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. Noun Clauses. night or day." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition..." (2) Object of a verb." (4) Apposition. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. or adverbs. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. 352. put an end to my fancies. thus. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. infinitive. with a noun clause in apposition with it. clauses are divided into NOUN. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. verbal. 373. and the whole clause is not. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. but logically the sentence is. for a hundred years. and it is . and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. We ourselves are getting . so the object clause is retained. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. 5)." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. (b) that are ." Just as the object noun.

² "It is on the understanding. Examples of adjective clauses. whereby. he would repent it. As the office of an adjective is to modify. etc. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 3. . Adjective Clauses. of a nation. 4. What history it had. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. or equivalent of a noun. a relative pronoun being understood. Such a man is what we call an original man. sometimes by the conjunctions when. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. that all safe legislation must be based. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. 6. Except by what he could see for himself. he could know nothing. I was napping. no man will ever know. whence. but. and not on the sentiment. that. that he was a scheming impostor. how it changed from shape to shape." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 2. wherein. Other examples of this construction are. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. as. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 8. that. still remains reasonable. whether he should choose one or not. 5. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 10. 7." Exercise. which. The reply of Socrates. 9. in the sentence. Frequently there is no connecting word. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. whither. 375.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. a falsehood incarnate. But the fact is. where. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building.

5.. and tell what each one modifies. No man is reason or illumination. etc. which Rowena tasted. 10. the champions advanced through the lists. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. whether subject. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." Exercise. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. object. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. or that essence we were looking for. 11. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. i. which formed the center of the mansion. 1.376." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 8. 9. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 3. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 7. . 4. all is vacancy." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. Pick out the adjective clauses. 6." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 2. I walked home with Calhoun." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. Adverbial Clauses. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. he begins to help us more as an effect.e.

" "After leaving the whole party under the table. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future.² whoever. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. Joanna is better. the wider is the horizon of their thought. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. is wider. Exercise.. expressing the degree in which the horizon. etc. shaping our actions. the milestones are grave-stones. or an adverb." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." (9) CONCESSION." "Who cares for that." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. tell what kind each is. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." "The broader their education is. since he was too great to care to be original. and what it modifies:² . so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. that we should try." "When he was come up to Christian." (7) RESULT. with examples." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." (5) DEGREE." "The right conclusion is. and will be given in detail. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. no matter what remains. introduced by indefinite relatives." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. an adjective. etc. and adverbial conjunctions. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance.: "But still. it takes precedence of everything else." These mean no matter how good." (3) REASON. whatever." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. a verbal. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. to make up our shortcomings. however good she may be as a witness." "He went several times to England. etc." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. however.377. he goes away as if nothing had happened. adverbs." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. so far as we can. but they require careful study. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. 378. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet.

and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. we are a little disappointed. then treat noun clauses as nouns. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. object. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. on a dark wintry night. howling and whistling.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. to tell the truth. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much." 2. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . its object is that Odin was a reality. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. snatching up stones to fling at them. 379. 380. in the sentence. so as to picture the parts and their relations. 'Well. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence.1. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. as they sometimes did. and modifiers. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. with shrill. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. find the principal subject and principal predicate." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. predicate. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. For example. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. If the children gathered about her. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. 3. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. banging about doors and windows. and twirling weathercocks. they might perhaps say of their visitors. incoherent exclamations. of which clause Odin is the subject. when the wind was unruly. etc.

| r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. d. . 364. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 3... (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. Exercises. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 2. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. as seen in the "map" (Sec.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. (1) Find the principal clause. 380). True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 364. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.

13. if applied to the Bible. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 8. The night proved unusually dark. that pressed her with an objection. But now that she has become an establishment. 7. 22. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. could not have been effected. 17. for yours. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. counselor that had none for herself. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year.4. 23. dying for them. 24. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. Next came a wretched Dominican. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. The deep eyes. 6. 18. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. whom I choose. the flower should revive for us. M. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. the shepherd girl. or whether any. Had they been better chemists. 15. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. not so much for travelers that were few. of a light hazel. bishop. namely. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 10. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. He was what our country people call an old one. 20. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 9. 5. which. 21. 14. . were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. who would yield to it least. This is she. 11. Here lay two great roads. 19. Now. that. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. had we been worse. the mixed result. And those will often pity that weakness most. Whether she said the word is uncertain. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. as for armies that were too many by half. 16. I like that representation they have of the tree. 12.

The writer who takes his subject from his ear. 5. or commands. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. that it was no more than his daily walk.25. but above it. and not from his heart.² Definition. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. if there be one to whom I am not equal. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 28. COMPOUND SENTENCES." 4. "No book. 27. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 26. It makes no difference how many friends I have. These things we are forced to say. speed. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. Hence the definition. if continuously extended. 2. 7. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face." said Bentley. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. How formed. 380. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. though we may repeat the words never so often. is to speak and write sincerely. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 30. 383. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. "was ever written down by any but itself.²which will not be disposed of. the following complex sentences:² 1. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. we cannot adequately say. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. That which we do not believe. 3. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. and temper. . He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 382. would easily reach. questions. then map out as in Sec. (b) First analyze. 6. and stamped with his right number. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square.

Of the following illustrative sentences. and it shall be the universal sense.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. which are simple statements. others sometimes coördinate. a complex member." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. he dilates. a simple member. he soliloquizes. for. Thus in (1). he is twice a man. yet.. . for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Study the thought. "Only the star dazzles. tell which are compound. and which complex:² 1. whereas. and nor the second and third complex members. etc. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). 297). if there are any. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. and connects the first and second complex members. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. the semicolon separates the first. and not the form of the connective. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. 385. in (2)." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. from the second. 386. as but. Exercise. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. now adverbs or prepositions. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples." 384. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. The division into members will be easier. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. as in Sec. Some of these are now conjunctions. moon-like ray" (adversative). however. or but. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. 383 (1). (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. The coördinate conjunctions and. nor. etc. nor does he know until he has tried. while (whilst). the waving grass. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. Connectives. Speak your latent conviction. he walks with arms akimbo. the planet has a faint. in (3). Another example is.

you lose something. the tax is certain. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. I can still receive. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 2. 387. Man does not stand in awe of man. and as yet very early in the morning. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 364. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. from a happy yet often pensive child. 3. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. Whilst the world is thus dual. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. Exercise. so is every one of its parts. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. yield to them heart and life. all pain. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. Love. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. to find a pot of buried gold. All loss. (i) Separate it into its main members. 3. nay. 4. quiet. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. or. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 5. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. and for everything you gain. you have gained something else. and not by what each is. I can yet love. 11. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 6. The gain is apparent. For everything you have missed. 9. In this manner. 4. 8. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. . 10. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 7. 12. passed in that time. 13.2. for example. is particular. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. however. he grew up to be a mild. unobtrusive boy. 381. that it was Easter Sunday. and thou shalt be loved. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 14. the universe remains to the heart unhurt.

14. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and the other dares not. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. feign to confess here. Trust men. or hope. and not an emotion of bravery. let them mount and expand.5. 16. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and they repel us. 18. Whatever he knows and thinks. 8. or sail with God the seas. and makes their business a friendship. one is afraid. . or we read books. if you rip up his claims. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. 6." says the smith. or men will never know and honor him aright. treat them greatly. crook and hide. whilst frankness invites frankness. 9." 13. and they will be true to you. and you are without effort impelled to truth. which always make the Actual ridiculous. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. and he learns who receives. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 15. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. When you have chosen your part. and the cart as nigh the rake. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. They will shuffle and crow. We see the noble afar off. 19. as children. We go to Europe. 7. and they will show themselves great. 20. abide by it." "keep the rake. 11. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. He teaches who gives. why should we intrude? 10. give those merits room. modesty. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 17. or we pursue persons. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 21. because. only that they may brag and conquer there." says the haymaker. and the peace of society is often kept. "the iron is white. "as nigh the scythe as you can. Come into port greatly. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. "Strike. is as thin and timid as any. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. that let him communicate. Stand aside. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and not a thought has enriched either party.

388. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case.²agreement and government. Ground covered by syntax. the department of syntax will be a small affair. but its leading characteristic is. it never was known to fall into the rear. Following the Latin method. verb and subject. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. 24. so readily and lavishly they promise. INTRODUCTORY. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. pronoun and antecedent. but go about your business anywhere. We see young men who owe us a new world. adjective and noun. By way of introduction. PART III. 380. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. Do not craze yourself with thinking. 390. Essential point in English syntax. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. 23. they die young. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. SYNTAX. it ends in headache. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement.22. they lose themselves in the crowd. but they never acquit the debt. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. or. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. So does culture with us. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. 25. if they live. and dodge the account.

" grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. The basis of syntax. In some cases. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. but are not now. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). When usage varies as to a given construction. There is. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's." is ambiguous. good English. the order being inverted. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. following the regular order of subject. or settler may be the subject. and added to it the preposition of. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. or the same writer will use both indifferently. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. pronoun and antecedent.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. Second. and imitate it. "None remained but he.² First. Savage may be the subject. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. Why study syntax? 391. some of which conform to classical grammar. As an illustration of the last remark. also expressing a possessive relation. 392. and nothing but important points will be considered. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. etc. the sentence. take the sentence. For example. In Latin. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. This is not logical. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. and whose judgment. sometimes verb and subject. yet the expression is sustained by good authority." that is. . "The savage here the settler slew. Some rules not rigid. as to study inflected forms. Also in the sentence. both forms will be given in the following pages. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. 393. or when they exist side by side in good usage." In this there is a possessive form. and it would not matter which one stood first. distinct forms would be used. therefore. authorities²that is. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. then.

Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Mill's and Mr. and Pope's. for example. etc. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. 395. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. the shore of Galilee. and Peter's.²RUSKIN. Bentham's principles together. the possessive sign is used with each noun.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY." Juletta tells. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. He kept Bolingbroke's.NOUNS. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. and Paul's.² Live your king and country's best support. sense and nature's easy fool. and Peterborough's.²MACAULAY. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. the antechamber of the High Priest. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. or indicate joint ownership or possession. but imply separate possession or ownership. as.² He lands us on a grassy stage. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Separate possession. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. PRONOUNS.²EMERSON. 397.²BYRON. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²MILTON.²MCCULLOCH. Woman. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. 396. and Harley's. Putting Mr. 408).²ROWE. . ²ID. Joint possession. Use of the possessive. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. 394.²THACKERAY.

if not universally. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. and should be the nominative form. for example. 399. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²TROLLOPE. General rules. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Since most of the personal pronouns. This should be "as she. Bedott Papers. I. Still. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²THACKERAY. who. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me." 400. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. there are two general rules that require attention. as. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. 398.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. . whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. No mightier than thyself or me. But he must be a stronger than thee.) "The young Harper. Objective for the nominative. thus. the real thought being forgotten. whom is the complement after the verb am. Some of the violations are universally condemned. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.²SOUTHEY. others are generally. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. sanctioned. together with the relative who.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.²BYRON.²SHAKESPEARE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.²POPE.²WHITCHER.

In spoken English.²PARTON.²KINGSLEY. I have no other saint than thou to pray to."²KINGSLEY. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. "Who's there?"²"Me. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. "Than whom. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²RUSKIN."²WINTHROP. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. The usage is too common to need further examples. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. namely. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. they are yet holier than we. Patrick the Porter. the objective form is regularly found.²THACKERAY. The camp of Richard of England. A safe rule. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. One exception is to be noted.² For there was little doubt that it was he.²SCOTT. . as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so." There is no special reason for this."²WM.²LONGFELLOW. But still it is not she. are.²COLERIDGE. "If there is any one embarrassed.²FIELDING.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. on the other hand.² One I remember especially. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. as. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. and the other forms of the verb be. unless a special. BLACK. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed." 401.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. And it was heThat made the ship to go. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. both in England and America.²MACAULAY. it will not be me. but such is the fact. for example. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. is.

Whom they were I really cannot specify. it is me. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. but not he" (he should be him. Nominative for the objective. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 404. 3. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. . We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. object of saw). 4." 6. you or me. and prepositions. I speak not to" (he should be him. 5. now. 403. verbal. used after verbs. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. as this from Shakespeare. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 9. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 2. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. the object of to). or preposition which governs it. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. "Ask the murderer.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 11. or this. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Truth is mightier than us all.²MILTON. Me in exclamations." the word being in apposition with murderer). as. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. as. 10. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 8. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. verbals.Exercise. It is not me you are in love with. (3) By forgetting the construction. 7. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. or us). They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. as.

who interrogative. I've sworn. Let you and I look at these. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.²BYRON. Thy shores are empires. as. . for they say there are none such in the world. None. Nature.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. but he.²KINGSLEY. 2. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. 406. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Exception 2. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Who have we here?²ID. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. for example. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. partial Nature.² All were knocked down but us two. all but he.²STEELE. etc. "Who did you see?" or. as. We regularly say. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. save thou and thine.²KINGSLEY. as well as the objective. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. I arraign. 405. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²GOLDSMITH. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²KINGSLEY. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. and is usually avoided.Shall be left upon the morn. changed in all save thee. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Thou.²BYRON.Exception 1. Exercise. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.

²SCOTT. 11. 5. who.²C. Bartholomew.²THACKERAY.²possessive.²DE QUINCEY. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. 6. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. 8. POSSESSIVE FORMS. 7. or objective? . As antecedent of a relative. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. BROWN. 12. This usage is not frequent. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. B. 9. and they know that as well as me.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. Preceding a gerund. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²MACAULAY. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. with Jortin and Thirlby." 4. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.Ye I salute.3. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 10. Markland. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 407.²RUSKIN. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. They crowned him long ago. II. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.

studying is a gerund. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. etc. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.²RUSKIN.² SCOTT. both are gerunds. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²CARLYLE. In the examples quoted. Why both are found. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. and the meaning is. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. The use of the objective is older." That is. and asked why it was not made.²DICKENS. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.408.²MACAULAY. [who was] studying law. Here I state them only in brief. as he turned away from his wife. Possessive.² CARLYLE. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.² THACKERAY. The last incident which I recollect. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. Both types of sentences are found." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²BREWER. object of heard of. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. We heard of Brown. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. Objective. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. sometimes it has the objective. and that in the second. But in common use there is no such distinction.²DE QUINCEY. . The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. that the bitterness of death was past. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind.² IRVING.

²HUXLEY. BROCKDEN BROWN.²when the antecedent.²THOREAU.²DE QUINCEY. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. preceded by a distributive. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²C. and ought to agree with them in person. Examples of these constructions are.²DE QUINCEY.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. Every city threw open its gates. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. Watch for the real antecedent.²EMERSON III. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²THACKERAY. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. in one person. In such a case as the last three sentences. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. . Everybody had his own life to think of. 409. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. taking in each of many persons.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²AUDUBON. If any one did not know it.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The pale realms of shade. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. where there were examinations. number.²RUSKIN. 410. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²DEFOE. or is a distributive word.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. the pronoun will be neuter singular.² BRYANT. and gender.²CABLE. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²HOLMES. it was his own fault. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. if the antecedent is neuter.

² Not the feeblest grandame. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²AUSTEN. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. let them break it off.²PALGRAVE. By using the plural pronoun. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Whosoever hath any gold. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²ID.²BYRON. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²FIELDING. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. If the part deserve any comment. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. not a mowing idiot.²THACKERAY. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²PAULDING. till they have lost him. .²ID.²PALEY. as anybody in their senses would have done. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. The sun. Struggling for life.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN. for example.²SCOTT.²BIBLE.²DEFOE. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. 411. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. and giving them means of being so. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. This is not considered the best usage.²HUXLEY.

" A relative. which. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. 412. no one could take upon them to say. . unless both genders are implied.² SHERIDAN. the definite relatives who. or what was become of her.²ID. 2. What these terms mean. 413. In the following examples. It adds a new statement to what precedes. that being considered already clear. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. Exercise. when coördinating. or unrestrictive." It defines beggar. according to the practice of every modern writer. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate.Where she was gone. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. which. tell whether who. and he went away. but. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating.²In the above sentences. when restrictive. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. "I gave it to the beggar. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. etc. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES.) and a personal pronoun. as. because. and that always restrictive. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. Exercise. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. As to their conjunctive use. 1.²HAWTHORNE. but. who went away. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health." This means. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. in each instance:² Who. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. and does not add a new statement. A relative. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. That is in most cases restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. and that are restrictive or not.²ADDISON. I.

²DE QUINCEY. who. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 4.3. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. Hare has printed. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. On hearing their plan. The rule. The general rule is. 414. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. Yet how many are there who up. you. So different from the wild. BEECHER 5. We say I. they. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.² IRVING. etc. but. it makes the verb third person singular. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. long arms and legs. these or that which.² NEWMAN. she agreed to join the party. 9. With narrow shoulders. etc. that were often vicious. and over England are saying. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. 10.²HOLMES. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.²ID. and it is called logic.. However. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. II. 12. 11.² MOTLEY. 14. as that does not vary for person or number. 13. For example.²H. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. 6. in the sentence. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.²ADDISON. In what sense true." that is invariable as to person and number. which was to go over the Cordilleras. W. he. down. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. A grizzly-looking man appeared. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. . Which.² CARLYLE.²ID. etc.²DE QUINCEY. which Mr.²THOREAU. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. because of its antecedent. 8. That. 7.

²ADDISON.. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. JR. but speaks of him as that sort." One of . one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.] Both constructions are frequently found.²LOWELL. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. Singular. or which . He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. French literature of the eighteenth century. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. etc. Let us be of good cheer. 415. who rarely speak at all. ..²HOWELLS.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. He is one of those that deserve very well. Franklin.²J. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY..²LOWELL. when he derided the shams of society. A disputed point. The fiery youth . and in improving a victory. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. ARNOLD. "one of the finest books that have been published. and write the verb in the plural. the true antecedent.²SCOTT.. T. but myself. "one of the finest books that has been published. with one as the principal word.. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. The latter is rather more frequent.²M." or. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²LECKY. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come..²MACAULAY. MORSE. but the former has good authority. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. etc.²whether we should say.²BOWLES. others regard books as the antecedent.²HOLMES. in winning a battle. [singular or plural.²ADDISON.. [plural] that who.

when the relative word is a pronoun.In that same state I came.² THACKERAY. where.²ID. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²ADDISON. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. IV.²GOLDSMITH. return.²EMERSON. and such like: as. But I by backward steps would move. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. I could see nothing except the sky.²In the above sentences. when this dust falls to the urn." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. III. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. whence.²VAUGHAN. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. The same day I went aboard we set sail. 416. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.² .²IRVING. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²BURNS. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. object of a preposition understood. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.And.²EMERSON. or where] he died. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. Exercise.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. that is. 417.²DEFOE.²SCOTT.²SWIFT.A rare Roundabout performance.²CARLYLE. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country." "India is the place [in which.² RUSKIN. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. and see if the sentence is made clearer."²DICKENS.

I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. They believe the same of all the works of art. V. as of knives. CHURCH. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.me as his apprentice.He considered. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. which. but. Anacoluthic use of which..²WORDSWORTH. Mr. etc. looking-glasses. ²GOLDSMITH. but which is usually carefully avoided.²FRANKLIN. Caution. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. The regular construction. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. was a discoverer. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. 418. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.² BURKE. or that. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. boats. if same is followed by a complete clause.² MACAULAY.² Which. W. for example. as is not used. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. That. she passed the lamp over her face and person.²R. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. with Turner. and working in the same spirit.²SCOTT. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. if I had resolved to go on with. I might as well have staid at home. .² THACKERAY. Which.. he.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.²SWIFT. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner.²ADDISON. but we find the relative who. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.

" etc.. he said that all submission was now too late. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. After this came Elizabeth herself. le Conte. and who are now. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. (3) "Among the poorer sort. And who. Express both relatives. or omit the conjunction. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish." etc. 3. Exercise. 2.²GOLDSMITH. He delivered the letter. But who. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. As the sentences stand.²THACKERAY.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise. Thornhill had read. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. That is. or.²DE QUINCEY. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. 419. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them." etc.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. but none is expressed. etc. 4. This was a gentleman. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. . who are now thrown. once a great favorite of M.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. and this be placed in the proper clause. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.²RUSKIN..² Direction for rewriting. now thrown upon their. which when Mr. 1. but. or leave out both connective and relative. and which. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.²SCOTT.She'd come again." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.²which if they once heard. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. (1) "Among those who are poor. (2) "Among the poorer sort. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.

one of signal interest. who.. 7. and repeat this for any further reference. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 420. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. Exercise. and to whom no door is closed. etc.²IRVING. But which. 12.²SCOTT. as a false and astucious mark. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.5. That . and which may even be heard a mile off.. English by name. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. the French. 10. 1. "What knight so craven. and which has never been described.²SCOTT. Or who. Or which. And which. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. Dr. 8. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. 9. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.²DE QUINCEY. Akin to the above is another fault. 13. I shall have complete copies. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.²PEARSON. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . etc. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. 11. 6. . either from imitation of their frequent allies. "A mockery. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.²DE QUINCEY. then.. I saw upon the left a scene far different. like that spoken in the towns. indeed.²HAWTHORNE. which the Scotch had learned. and which.² MOTLEY. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.

He..²DE QUINCEY. 11.. Such as .²EMERSON. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. I grudge the dollar. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. 9. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. the cent. which.²HOWELLS. at the head of what.²EMERSON. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 7. 5.²SCOTT.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. that . 15. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.. the dime. but which. I recommend some honest manual calling.²SCOTT That which .²W. I give to such men as do not belong to me. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. what. that. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.²W. Such as . Which . and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. 10. G.. was a bustling wharf. and whose examples and principles we inherit. and to whom I do not belong. but which is perhaps not so different from it.. 6. 14.. E. 12.²HOLMES.. was hung in air. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. CHANNING.. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. half a century ago. SIMMS.2. 4. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. That . and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. The Tree Igdrasil. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.²HAWTHORNE. 13. in his Mephistopheles. whom. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. In my native town of Salem. He flung into literature. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. such as they have very probably been bred to. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.²BEECHER. 8. which. .²HALLAM..²DEFOE. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. 3. in his present condition. It rose into a thrilling passion.. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.

²DICKENS. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²GOLDSMITH. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. 421.²HAWTHORNE. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. . in which case any should be used instead.²RUSKIN. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²RUSKIN. Use of any. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. 422. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Assume that no one is in want of either. one another.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. England was then divided between kings and Druids. whether or not the two are equivalent. By their original meaning. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.²ID. that not all combined. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. as. and in want of his gold²or his corn. as it were. Each other. We call ourselves a rich nation. always at war with one another.²EMERSON.² Some one must be poor.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. as.²MACAULAY. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. for example.² HAWTHORNE. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. Distributives either and neither. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.

² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. for him have I offended.²SHAKESPEARE.²BIBLE. Caution.²SCOTT. in Shakespeare.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . as.²PROF. when any of them are so good as to visit me. If any of you lack wisdom. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. speak. None of Nature's powers do better service. even in Bettine. then in Plotinus. . In earlier Modern English. which is plural as often as singular. let him ask of God. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²BURKE. Examples of its use are. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. as none of the French philosophers were. that I know of. I beseech you. usually plural. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.² EMERSON. any was often singular.. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.² If any. and is isolated. if ever man was.²EMERSON.²BEECHER Whenever. etc. Do you think. before that.² In earnest.²FRANKLIN. afterwards in Goethe.. then in Plutarch. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. Any usually plural. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. in the prose of the present day. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.. 424. whilst I still cherish their genius.²CARLYLE. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. as. at one time in Bacon. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Do you think. The adjective pronoun none is.²THACKERAY. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. during his stay at Yuste.²STIRLING. any of his friends had died. None usually plural. 423.

saving Naaman the Syrian. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. which is used absolutely. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. fixing his eyes on the mace.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. nobody else. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. and Ford has nobody's else. when it means all persons: for example. The light troops thought . The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. etc. that all was lost. Somebody's else.²NAPIER Plural. for example.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. etc. etc.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. When all were gone.² Singular. the plural. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. The compounds somebody else. etc. and less rarely in poetry. are treated as units. any one else.²McMASTER.. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²THOREAU.²SCOTT Like the use of any. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything..² None of them was cleansed.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. 425.² PEARSON.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. or somebody else's? 426. and all was lost on the other. as.

I hoped we had done with those sort of things.SYDNEY SMITH. Again. WILLIS. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²THACKERAY.² These kind of knaves I know.²RUSKIN. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²SWEET. for example. or those sort of people.²N. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.² Saturday Review. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²AUSTEN. These sort." "those kind of trees.. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²SHERIDAN. all manner of. etc. "Ye see. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.²in such as "these sort of books. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences." the nouns being singular.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. 427. STOWE.²DICKENS. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. ADJECTIVES. ELIOT. etc. or some other such great man as a bishop.² FIELDING.. P.²RUSKIN. . London. His hair. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). unlike anybody else's in the world.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. the adjectives plural. Whitefield or Wesley. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English." "all manner of men. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²G.²MULOCH."²MRS.curled once all over it in long tendrils. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.

in spoken English. Later form. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. Consequently we have a confused expression. the victor or the vanquished. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. as.The library was open. In Old and Middle English. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. According to the approved usage of Modern English. made to agree with it. and in this way may take a plural verb. when the necessary dispositions concur. "These kind of trees are best. 428. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. they said." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. Should we say. such as. for example.²RUSKIN. more alarming than a total silence. which accounts for the construction. and the adjective is. History of this construction. At the source. not "all kinds of wild animals. gradually displacing the old." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. or the nouns to the plural.² Which is the better able to defend himself. The result." A question. "This kind of rules are the best. or one object with a class of objects. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. "This sort of trees should be planted. with all manner of amusing books.² PRESCOTT. Burke's sentence. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. . Use of the comparative degree. to express a higher degree of quality." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind).²a strong man with nothing but his fists. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. This the modern expression reverses." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. Of two such lessons. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract.

Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 430. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²LOWELL. by almost the breadth of my nail. Gary. would not have had the face. has sanctioned. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²TROLLOPE. Henry. Superlative with two objects.²HUXLEY. etc. To the man who plays well. He is taller. 5. . Even Dodd himself. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. the highest stakes are paid. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.A braver ne'er to battle rode. Exercise.²MACAULAY. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Other after the comparative form. if not. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own.²SWIFT.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn."²ID. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 4. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²HAWTHORNE. 2. Use of the superlative degree.²WIRT. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. 429.² THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. I am concerned to see that Mr. 3. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²SCOTT. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. 6. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. than any of his court.

who eat white bread or brown. Rip was one of those . and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²HAMLET.²ADDISON. 431.²DR BLAIR."²GOLDSMITH. CÆSAR. Come you more nearer. "Ha. In all disputes between States. Double comparative and superlative.²BEN JONSON.²MRS. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²EMERSON. ha. After the most straitest sect of our religion. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²TEMPEST. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.²Bible. not a bit of high life among them. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. and differ only in form.²J. Also from the same period."²BULWER. OLIPHANT. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party."²HAWTHORNE. more particularly the last of them. I should say that one has the best cause.. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. Mary. . Examples from Shakespeare are.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. The eldest. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²SCOTT. and the other contains the best men. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²IRVING. 1611. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. These two properties seem essential to wit.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians..Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. The following examples are used purposely. whichever can be got easiest.²RUSKIN. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²GOLDSMITH.

² With a singular noun. and conceit in the last. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. The merit of the Barb.²GIBBON. ²COWPER. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The delay in the first three lines.²GIBBON.² SMOLLETT.²RUSKIN.²KINGSLEY. and Secretary Walsingham also. As to these two expressions. Three first. The meaning intended is the same. etc.²PRESCOTT. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. These are the three first needs of civilized life. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. First three. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²ADDISON. not only so in popular speech. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²LAMB. but in literary English. For Carlyle. Definite article. jar upon us constantly. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Examples of this construction are.²RUSKIN.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. the Spanish. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²DE QUINCEY. Instances of both are given below. . The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. etc. ARTICLES. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. 433. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. The first five had specific names.

He is master of the two-fold Logos. as. I think.²THE NATION. of the eighteenth century. 1508. With a plural noun. were placed at a very tender age.²ID. with a plural noun. melodious. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.²THACKERAY. Indefinite article. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. 433.²PRESCOTT. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. and the presents. but inseparable from each other.. however. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²SCOTT. Origin of the Aryans. having been arranged. and flexible language. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. The not repeated. No. 434. . There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. the thought and the word. Frequently. The lofty.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. One object and several modifiers. to distinguish clearly.² MACAULAY. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. but is used with one only.² RUSKIN. or to emphasize the meaning.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. as.²TENNYSON. Meaning same as in Sec. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . 433.²MACAULAY. Here the youth of both sexes. The flowers. of the higher and middling orders. the greatest poems. with a singular noun.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.²TAYLOR.. as in Sec.²NEWMAN.²CARLYLE. 435. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. distinct. the hour of parting came.

436). a tyrant. 438.²MACAULAY. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. a collegian. 433 and 436. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. as in the first three of Sec. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. like the definite article. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.² BURKE." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. a murderer.²B. COLERIDGE.²THACKERAY. The indefinite article (compare Sec. a round and a square one alternately.An early. one noun is expressed.²DICKENS. and a usurper.²BEECHER. T. He saw him in his mind's eye. 437." and "a red and a white geranium. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.436. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²MACAULAY. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. One article with several adjectives. as. But in the following sentences. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. For rhetorical effect. JONSON. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. The indefinite article is used. Examples of this use are.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. interest. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. rich.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. In the sentences of Secs. 435.²BULWER. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.² MACAULAY. .²DRYDEN. and inexhausted vein. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. to limit two or more modified nouns.²JOHNSON.²S. only one of which is expressed. or clearness to each of several nouns.

In English.²G. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. then. as.²COOPER. 276. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²GIBBON. 440. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Singular verb. all that academies can give. ELIOT. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. 439. like some others in this series. Collective noun of singular meaning. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Sec.²The Nation. He sees that it is better to live in peace.²CARLYLE This usage. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. for example. has got already. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning..VERBS.²AGASSIZ.²FROUDE. Singulars connected by or or nor. Another writer might. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²M.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. was the earliest American land. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²W.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. A broad and loose rule. ARNOLD. and the following illustrations prove it. Such. without academies. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. This was spoken of in Part I. as. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. or the great intellectual life of our nation. .

²GOLDSMITH. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²J.² The unbought grace of life. other names. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. ADAMS. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. a cruel disappointment. that of a large town. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. No. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. for example.²EMERSON . ²EMERSON.² GOLDSMITH. (4) When the subject is plural in form. a mutilation. as. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. nor John. Plural form and singular meaning. as. Between ourselves. or considered as appositional.²BURKE. is gone. the cheap defense of nations. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. for example. nor Mahomet.² Politics is the only field now open for me.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. and other singulars of plural form.²WHITTIER. or as making up one general idea. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. but each one emphatic. nor Paul.²DE QUINCEY.²CRITIC.Jesus is not dead.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. but considered as meaning about the same thing.² In a word. Q. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. A fever.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. a loss of friends. and every four hours. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. a loss of wealth.²GIBBON.

Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. Plural verb.²NEWMAN.²EMERSON. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. no discontinuity. no matter if the second is plural). as.²ID. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. 441. a gorget. thus. no spent ball. Every fop. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. For wide is heard the thundering fray. and greaves. was listened to for five hours.² Asia.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. the ruin. each.²MACAULAY. Then comes the "Why. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT.²ID. no.²RUSKIN. There is a moving tone of voice.²BUTLER. The Epic. every echo. nay. in a judge. was punished.² . an impassioned countenance.²HAWTHORNE.The rout. every boor. the dismay. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. the wit. was dazzled.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²LONGFELLOW. almost every day. as well as the newest. as well as the Drama. a cuirass. Her back. and such like adjectives. as well as Europe. Here is no ruin. is a man of wit.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. sir?" and the "No. Every sound.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. the partisan. sir!" and the "What then. many a. was like to crack. as. wineBegins to stir itself. as well as sides.²PRESCOTT. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. every valet. the fine gentleman. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.The author. Every week. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. an agitated gesture. The oldest. To receive presents or a bribe. does not take the place of the man.²M ARNOLD. with death.²SCOTT. sir!"²MACAULAY. Subjects after the verb.

its date. making up a plural subject. of whom there were a number. as.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²EMERSON.² One or two of these perhaps survive. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²FROUDE.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. are sufficient to attract a colony. Philip of Anjou.²FROUDE. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. shirt.²FRANKLIN.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. A shady grove.²GOLDSMITH. as in Sec. Far. for example. b). were men of insignificant characters. far away thy children leave the land.²GIBBON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. but the verb is plural.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. a stream of fresh water. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. a green pasture. Conjunction omitted. His clothes. the Duke of Berri. TAYLOR. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.These bits of wood were covered on every square. .²SWIFT. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. 440 (5.²B.²DE QUINCEY. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²COLERIDGE. and its history are alike a mystery to us. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²SCOTT. The Dauphin.²ADDISON. All our household are at rest.² A multitude go mad about it.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. The conjunction may be omitted. A party of workmen were removing the horses. The travelers.² GIBBON. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. as.²THOREAU. as with a subject of plural form.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.

Nothing which Mr. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. If there is only one person in the subject." etc. ARNOLD. Ah. nor has she").² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. his blood dost shed.²SMOLLETT.²BYRON.²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. of different persons. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. General usage. 442. "You would not be wiser.²D.²ROWE. Not Altamont. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.But notice the construction of this. hadst been my lord. You and I are tolerably modest people. nor should I.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. "He or I can go. that is.²RUSKIN. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²LOWELL. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. the verb takes the construction of the first person. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. but thou. 443. Pattison or I have said. You and I are farmers.²DE QUINCEY. Not I. for example. This construction is at the best a little awkward. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. WEBSTER.). 444. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. but thou.²THACKERAY. Second or third and first person in the subject. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. . are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. When the subjects. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as." or. as. the subject being really equivalent to we.²M.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. "I have never said so. Exceptional examples.²WHITTIER. we never talk politics.²RUSKIN." "She or you may be sure.

"I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²THACKERAY. In this sentence from Defoe. 6.²ID. nor bush are there. Neither of them. 4. 7. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²ADDISON. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. nor tree.²EMERSON. BANCROFT. 10. In the following sentence.²ADDISON. Nor wood.²G. 11. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 446. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²SCOTT.That neither of their intellects are vast. in my opinion. 9. 5. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.445. The following illustrate exceptional usage. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. In a word.² TROLLOPE.²SMOLLETT. 8. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²and. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. as illustrated above (Secs. 440-444):² 1. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.Her course to intercept.²MILTON. as we would hope. which it is proper to mention. Also in verbals. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. How each of these professions are crowded.²perhaps the devil. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 2. Exercise. Both death and I am found eternal. 12.²BYRON. 3. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²BURKE. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Lack of logical sequence in verbs.

which I thought I should have acquired before that time. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²R. Direct discourse²that is. on my return. Two samples of indirect discourse." . W. to have divided with her whatever might remain. But I found I wanted a stock of words.²THACKERAY. 448. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. Exercise. CHURCH.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. meaning. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. however.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. The present rule is recent.²DE QUINCEY 2.²IRVING. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²MACAULAY.²KINGSLEY. 447. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . Indirect discourse means reported speech. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. 4. I gave one quarter to Ann. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. change them to a better form:² 1. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. It should be remarked. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.²FRANKLIN 6. as. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Definitions. if not.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. to have seen should be changed to to see. Of course.. 3.² PALGRAVE 5.. for exact connection.

introductory verb is in the past tense." etc. have.. interrogative adverbs. Summary of the expressions. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that.. 449. She thought to herself. and the indirect question by whether or if. Direct. This includes the auxiliaries be. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. will. 1. etc. under interrogative pronouns. . the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. His exact words were." etc... (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St." Indirect. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. Her prudence whispered eternally. and the subjunctive mood of verbs.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. The substance of his lamentation was. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. "Oh. or regular interrogatives. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. 2. Direct. Oh. "I cannot oblige you . unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Sebastian's. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat.

²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Careless use of the participial phrase. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²B. FRANKLIN. the first discoverer of the river and country. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²GOLDSMITH. . my first observation will be found nearly true. he assured me that nothing was more easy. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²ID." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. PARTICIPLES. Notice this. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. VERBALS. one summer afternoon.²ADDISON. in the sentences first quoted. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. The trouble is. if this were expanded into a verb.Exercise. 450. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. with his crew of the Half-moon. the sound of their balls." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. like distant peals of thunder. and that he himself had heard. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. being the course which his confessor had enjoined.

leaving the principal statement as it is.Correction..² HERBERT SPENCER.. . or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. There are.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. Exercise." Exercise. . either "As I was pleased. It is a solemn. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. For example. my first collection was. universal assertion.²ID. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible." etc. INFINITIVES.²RUSKIN. and often.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. the first sentence would be. 3. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . Consequently one of two courses must be taken. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. Standard writers often use it. Adverb between to and the infinitive. if a strike is to succeed. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.²LAUGHLIN. In the following citations.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. avoid it.. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. 451.. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. then.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. This is the more common arrangement. 2. many things to be carefully considered. purposely or not. while defended or excused by others.²SCOTT.

are used. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. 1533.² ADDISON. 5. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. ADVERBS. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. but it is placed before the infinitive. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. etc. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. which consists in multitude. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. No.²DR. 12. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. 9. but they are often removed from the exact position. but cannot misunderstand the thought. if they modify single words." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. 10.²TROLLOPE. therefore. Position of only.. and earthenware. china. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. even.. this kind of grandeur. when such adverbs as only. from Irving.4. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned.²The Nation.²SCOTT. Now. is to be very cautiously admitted.² MACAULAY. even. The rigid rule in such a case would be. The spirits. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.²GOLDSMITH. 7. I wish the reader to clearly understand. etc. 8. BLAIR.²BURKE. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. etc. 452. 11. In works of art. 6. A little sketch of his. 13. Exercise.²RUSKIN.²ID.

for example. P.²MRS. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. No sonne. might not marry. Irving could only live very modestly. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²HIGGINSON.1. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²N. 12. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 3.² THACKERAY.²ID.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²SWIFT. My master. His last journey to Cannes. 13. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²COOPER. 16. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 7.²SYDNEY SMITH.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. He shouted in those clear. 10. In Old and Middle English.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. were he never so old of yeares. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. In relating these and the following laws.²ID. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²RUSKIN. . 5. 17. The old usage. 8.²MACAULAY. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 15. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. whence he was never destined to return.²CHAUCER. 11.²MOTLEY. 9.²ID.²PALGRAVE. ²ASCHAM.²THACKERAY. WILLIS. 4. 14.²EMERSON. During the whole course of his administration. 6. GROTE. to avoid a crowd. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 2. 453. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.

that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. however.²LOWELL. denying each other."²MRS. STOWE. uncommon. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. Regular law of negative in modern English. 3.²HAWTHORNE. I never did see him again.²HOLMES. 4.²BURKE. is not common. if two negatives are found together. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. in Ole Virginia. can so agreeably affect. the usual way of regarding the question now is.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. under the influence of Latin syntax. but ought not to labor after it. In the execution of this task. nor never shall. and why:² 1. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort.²DE QUINCEY. The prosperity of no empire. as. 5. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. ²PAGE. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. when one of the negatives is a connective. as infrequent. However."²four negatives. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. Exercise. There weren't no pies to equal hers.²MRS. Not only could man not acquire such information. But. STOWE. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. one of the negatives is often a prefix. I did not act so hastily.²GROTE.²BAYNE. Therefore. etc. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. In the latter case. 6. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.² HAMILTON. and is still kept in vulgar English. 7. . who hadn't been to school for nothing. nor the grandeur of no king.²DEFOE. 2. This. neither. Exceptional use. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house.

. either... not only to the success of their common cause. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. should be scrutinized. or." may be changed to "This loose . and which." . and an equivalent pronoun by the other." Besides neither . CONJUNCTIONS. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. nor is often changed to not²either . even neither . These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel..... or to reply to it. and. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder."²SCOTT.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. not only . or to reply to it. but (also). there we were. Choice and proper position of correlatives... nor. 455.. "well worthy to confer honor. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . The sentences given in Secs. The sentence. especially both . the first should also." both of the above requirements are violated.²LOWELL. Things to be watched... Correction. 454. but.. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. neither . In the sentence. the first ought to be placed before a verb. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. or with advantage.²PRESCOTT. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. if the last precedes a verb.. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals." said the King. if the second precedes a phrase.. not merely . a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind...8. as the use of the conjunction. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. "A weapon. And who. but to their own safety. as well as of the pronoun.. either . not or is the proper correlative of neither. or. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever..²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it.²SCOTT.

Try and avoid the pronoun.²RUSKIN. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 5. JEWETT. but. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. Now. 2. etc.²GIBBON. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. nor the disgrace of assailing him. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. and I don't know but what he was right. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²MACAULAY.²S. as. 6. but. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²BAIN. but grown-up persons. 7. as. substitute that.²FRANKLIN. 4.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.² ADDISON. O. 456.Exercise. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Try and for try to." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. not merely interest children. Correct the following sentences:² 1. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. but they will outrage. Some exceptions. Exercise.²THACKERAY. 8. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. . Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. But what. and chop up their own kin. too. murder.²THACKERAY. They will. In the following sentences. or the negative relative but. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. or but that. 457. 3.

² SWIFT. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 3. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 6.²ADDISON. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. as already seen in Sec. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.2. . Between and among.²EMERSON. PREPOSITIONS. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Between is used most often with two things only. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²EMERSON. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²TROLLOPE. no separation or division by twos being implied. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. 458. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 305. 313. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 5. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 459.² BULWER.²ADDISON.²BURKE.²SCOTT. see Sec. 4.

etc.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. and Stewart. or one object and a group. Affinity between. correspond. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Dissent from.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. by custom. averse. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Paley. LIST I. as. Kant. ²EMERSON. and another to convey a different meaning. as. Conversant with. Mackintosh. and philosophers like Locke. different. Such are derogatory. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. confer. involve. Comply with. a soldier of the Cross. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. and Coleridge. Derogatory to. Different from. Averse to.²RUSKIN What have I. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Some of them have.: Words with particular prepositions. . 460.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Conform to. Accord with.²KINGSLEY. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Two groups or one and a group. Acquit of. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Such are absolve. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Abhorrent to. Bestow on (upon). List I. 461. Dependent on (upon).

A taste for (art. A taste of (food). Independent of. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. as. Agree to (a proposal)." List III.). 462. etc." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Involve in. Change with (a person). Differ with (note below). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Reconcile with (note below). Change to (become).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. in the sense of making friends with. Confide to (intrust to). as meaning to be in keeping with. and sometimes creeps into standard books. but it is not good usage. LIST II.y y y Deprive of. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. LIST III. as." also of persons. Confer with (talk with). Correspond to (a thing). Correspond with (write to). "The king is reconciled to his minister. 463. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Reconcile to (note below). List II. Change for (a thing). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. as. Confer on (upon) (give to). . Differ from (note below). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Confide in (trust in).

Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. ELIOT. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. Who. "Die by." (in behalf of).²MACAULAY. ELIOT. He died at last without disease. instrument). Expect of.²BULWER. die with.²BURNETT." The author died of a fit of apoplexy." She would have been ready to die with shame.²FIELDING." (because of)." (material cause. privation.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. die from. they shall die by this hand. "Die for. died for love of the fair Marcella. She died of hard work. People do not die of trifling little colds.²POPE.²MACAULAY." "die from. Part from. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. die for. If I meet with any of 'em.²MACAULAY." etc.²BOSWELL." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. as Cervantes informs us.²G. "Die for. Take thought and die for Cæsar. and ill treatment. One of them said he would die for her. die of.:² "Die of. "Die from.²ADDISON. Illustrations of "die of. simply from old age.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. "Die with.²G. expect from. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²GOLDSMITH. ²ATHENÆUM. ²THACKERAY. I am positively dying with hunger.²SCOTT.²SHAKESPEARE. . part with. It would take me long to die of hunger.²GOLDSMITH.y y y Die by. No one died from want at Longfeld.

Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²MACAULAY.²G." "part from:"² "Part with. ELIOT. "Part from. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. Kind in you. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²G. either of or in is used indifferently. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. 464.²AUSTEN. Of Doctor P." To part from you would be misery.²WALLER.²BULWER." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²DICKENS. ELIOT." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²SCOTT. It was a little bad of you. as my friend. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. I have long expected something remarkable from you. His precious bag. 466.²WALPOLE. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. Illustrations of "part with. kind of you. nothing better was to be expected.²POE. That is more than I expected of you. Illustrations of "expect of.²SHAW. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²G. 465. .²MARRYAT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²MACAULAY. I have just seen her." She will expect more attention from you.²TROLLOPE. just parted from her. I can part with my children for their good. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. and hated to part with them. "Expect from. ELIOT." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²BULWER. With words implying behavior or disposition. which he would by no means part from.

8. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 4.²DICKENS. nor yellow. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. nor blue. Thou tread'st. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 1. It will be anything but shrewd in you. This narrative. nor explained by accuracy of speaking.²BEACONSFIELD. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. with seraphims. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. But this is idle of you. In the friction between an employer and workman. 11. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 6. 14.²BULWER. thrown it over Amyas's head. it is commonly said that his profits are high. nor of a pale red. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 9. In. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. and ran up the alley.²BULWER.²CARLYLE. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. raging storms. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. nor green. 13. 15. Very natural in Mr. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. thunder. or artillery.He did not think it handsome of you. 5. The noise of vast cataracts. 7. the vast abyss. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean.²TENNYSON. 10. . Hampden. but which the story renders necessary. tedious perhaps. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 3. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2.

you or me. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. produce approbation. 25. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. what is a just and unjust act. save Amyas. But every man may know. 23. 20. The effect of proportion and fitness. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. . It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 37. 18. That night every man of the boat's crew. 22. Squares. Friday. 16. triangles. 26. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 21.And were I anything but what I am. (Sec.) 34. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 28.I would wish me only he. and most of us do know. 36. 30. 35. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 17. You have seen Cassio and she together. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Every one of these letters are in my name. 411. When the glass or liquor are transparent. but in the price paid to them. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 38. 27. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 24. and other angular figures. and almost as good as a pony. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. the acquiescence of the understanding. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. were down with raging fever. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 31. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 32. or how beautiful it is. 33. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 19. 29. whom he thinks would be better than a dog.

article. 47. Adjectives. syntax uses Absolute. 116. from nominative clauses. 124. . 40. voice. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. as. 98. 124.000 between them. 310. A. 133. 239. 25. adverbs used complements. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 91. INDEX. origin of. (3) Modern English. He had four children. demonstrative. (2) Middle English. 20. 260. pronouns. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 119. nouns. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. of. adjectives. from about 1500 to the present time. of. of. Abstract with Active Address. 92. 102. 90. of. 89. 107.39. numeral. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 47. nominative.

287. 101. 27. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. of. 207. 116. compared. nouns. 42. of. 207. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 239. antecedent. adjectives. sentence. Against. 195. parse. adjectives. Agreement. as nouns. 48. 191. 328. of. 194. 114. infinitive. 190. quantity. 183. plural pronominal. 302. conjunctions. from to of. 99. 275. clauses. of. to used of. objective. adjectives. 184. 97. 148. 323. 325. of. of. 115. 262. 303. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 291. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 187. 103. 194. 325. predicate. modify. . and 185. 104. parse. conjunction. 106. 242. of. antecedent.from function how in not of of ordinal. 27. with with with subject. between of. 190. Alms. 316. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 303. quality. nouns. 109. 116.

79. 271. 49. . of of of And Antecedent. Agreement. of. 120. 67. agreement personal as pronoun. parse. See with definition complex compound simple who. 252. uses As At. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 225. Anacoluthon Analysis. 331. 208. 124. definition how indefinite. of and pronoun of. Are. possessive. sentences. syntax. and. definition of of of Any. A. words between. sentences. as uses verbs. 120. 296. 287. 90. 300. 150. of. which. 309. it. 275. 264. See 74. which. after of. though. 51. 148. derivation in definite. of. Auxiliary if. to of. pronouns. 67. 198. 295. sentences.Among. which. 84. of. adjective. 101. 47. same. Arrangement Articles. 231. 240. 127. in in. syntax As. An. 294. of. 207. 74.

194. in Old and Modern English. Between. best. 161. 111. 195. 66. 62. 110. plurals of. pronoun. of. 279. number of. Among. double possessive. 279. 45. 64. objective. 150. 49. 46. comparison conjugation of. See of. of nouns. of what. But. uses of. possessive. Case.Bad. of pronouns. Be. 278. Brethren. nominative. of pronouns. 262. 149. uses nominative of. adverb. 84. 278. 54. with But By. of pronouns. . 39. 46. of nouns. Case. of. of nouns. Clause. 37. 210. Can. conjunctions Cherub. uses Better. 260. Cause. 39. clauses of. adjective. 262. 283. 47. forms. Bridegroom. 48. Children. of pronouns. 63. 110. syntax of. definition could. of. 330. of nouns. 224.

Cloths. of. 43. 108. nouns. 307. 113. of. definition degrees irregular. 263. verb. 23. 257. 110. 248. 264. of. analysis of. superlative. in analysis. . and sentence. and forms of. 12. 258. 43. of. adjectives. double. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. material. English. of. Clomb. 268. predicate of and from from of. subject. adverbs. 24. proper. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 315. 107. of. 18. of. nouns. plural of.definition kinds noun. 271. 158. predicate. 257. 189. of. 257. 244. 53. 111. 307. 239. defective. 305. 108. nouns. sentence. of. infinitive. 18. clothes. Cleave. 157. 312.

definition be. Can. 149. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 188. of. See English. in Old vs. 151. to of. conjunctions. verbs. 199. Dative Declarative Declension of case. analysis. interrogative pronouns. 193. 289. Agreement. See analysis clauses. pronoun. of. 194.with Concord. 138. conjunction. Conjunctions. 255. replaced by objective. 139. 194. 73. 231. 269. parse. 66. See in subjunctive. sentences. sentences. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 263. pronouns. adverbs. 149. other other parts of speech. 195. . sentence. 207. conjunctions. subjunctive. coördinate. 143. correlative. pronoun. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 194. 196. of of Conjunctions. and clause. 195. same words. 328. definition how subordinate.

Case. pronouns. discourse. with of. 303. Comparative. article. nouns.Declension. of. 320. 43. pronouns. 51. vs. Degrees. Articles. nouns. 102. possessive. duck. 288. for. indirect. Comparison. adverbs See adjectives. of personal relative verbs. pronouns. by. clause. 160. verb. 26. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 185. 90. with. See adjectives. passive adjectives. . of. of. 242. 300. pronouns. 99. 333. 60. 35. 102. 287. tenses. 80. Subordinate clause. from. 315. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. See See 48. of. 91. 242. comparative. 152. object. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. See 148. use of dies.

pronouns. of. 300. 280. 92. of. 92. 12. pronoun. 110. 90. 287. older. ending. 328. adjective. 234. 33. other. . spoken. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. added suffix. 42. syntax Each Eat Eaves. complement. another. 255. adjective. feminine plural English. to suffix. 33. 38. of. original. conjunction. of subject. 40. in 'Em. 299. pronoun. 257. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. one ( t). periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 51. predicate. of. 34. 158. 32. error in sentence.Drank. 102. object. the of sentence. suffix. drunk. 112. Either. Elements Ellipsis. 158. 39. literary. 90. 194. Each. 287. 62. possessive suffix. 241. of. of. 92. Empress. -En. plural. vulgar. 240.

211. 152. 189. 29. 45. 319. 102. 43. Few. modes "common goose. have adjective. 287. 147. 32. 308. etc. two a further.Every. 126. with in sex. fishes. two. first. See Gander. adjective. uses redundant. 91. as a noun. Farther. with infinitive. 36. pronoun. perfect. gender. plurals. few. uses Foreign Former. etc. 112. used of. the. 148. object. First Fish. Further. . First. of." 31. Feminine. 235. 30. 103. 212. of. 30. 334. as of from compared marking. 102. from. nouns. Gender. 212. 30. From. other languages. 238.. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 48. 152. definition distinguished in English. 110. of.. Future Future tense. expect gone. For. 112. to of.

176. it. personal relative geniuses. adjective. kinds of. rather. 60. of. definition basis of. Grammar. its. and case verbal with. 144. Government. first sentence. 177. possessive pronouns. 9. Got. of. forms in Girl. 80. from participle of. participle. 285. 159. 12. His Husband. person. for before. 61. 159. an better. of. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 101. 145. 35. Gerund. 175. 10. He. I. 61.of of Genii. on. Had Hanged. definition divisions opinions province H. 13. 275. noun. 173. distinguished syntax. . pronouns. 36. 43. she. 120. of. pronoun. 231. 60. 12. had hung.

transitive. uses discourse. of. 233. 93. in compared syntax. 153. of. 227. of. indirect of. See Articles. adjectives. 188. of. with of. Questions. 178. 73. words. 323. adjectives. 283. sentence. 245. elements. a object. 319. mood. 85. verbs. 72. 131. your. 276. questions. 110. adverbs. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 136. summary See passive mood. Direct object. See you. 43.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 176. use article. 67. pronouns. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. of clause. 320. 105. indices. 248. meaning. 131. questions. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 231. 257. . pronoun.

in little. 126. Logic Logical Lord. 12. Like. Kine. predicate. -Ly. 39.. . Less. 36. English. of. etc. 113. 276. uses Literary Little. a vs. 61. syntax the. Last. 189. lord. adjective. It. 113. 102. Lady. was uses me. lie.adverbs. 110. Lay. of. latest. 281. 67. and See words in. See Madam. of. of. Lie. syntax. lesser. Lady. these double kind. 190. plural. pronoun. Lay. queen. 245. Kind. 63.. 110." history etc. 36. 303. 227. Latter. subject form. 170. "It Its. 36. King. 226. 91.

64. construction as of adverb. subjunctive. 194. syntax conjunction. adjective. 187. 189. nigh. 126. Modifier. Neither. position adverb. sentences. Much. conjunctions Many. of. 114. of. of. Negative. See definition 136. 112. 34. of. of. 160. out of. Many Mapping Mare. 102. in adverbs comparison a. Mood. 328. 135. 110. 265. 287. 110. 161. mistress.Manner. Enlargement. double. 113. Must. 112. 256. of. May. syntax nearer. 110. might. Mighty Mine. 36. 189. 137. 195. 325. mine. 112. indicative. superlatives. etc.. 188. 144. 137-144. comparison Near. of. Means. 41. . 185. imperative. -Most. Master. 326. of. Modifiers.

30. number once other plural. clause. Nor. abstract. 328. gender how kinds material. 30. 17. 46. become neuter. half abstract. 29. abstract. formed. 17. letters as 24. of. 18. 25. 17 19. nouns. 300. analysis. class used singular. 27. material. definition according of. foreign. words how compound. of. 41 43. 41. of. 56. See 194. 258. Case. None. of. 42. in.pronoun. to of. 21. of of of of of a. etc. No Nominative. definition descriptive. 25. syntax Neuter or two News. . gender nouns. 301. kinds 90. 124. 46. 38. Not Noun Nouns. etc. 26. of. syntax in gender nouns. 92. 45. 41. of. become become formation case collective. 246. 20. 19. now plural. 38-41. common. 30. of. and figures. nouns. 126. 125. parse. used as. 32. to use. proper.

adjectives.of same two with proper. with with with Now Number. 39. 102. of. 278. 48. 278. 48. 101. and analysis. dative. conjunction. 41. common. 106. 42 44. 195. of. 148. 101. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. of different possessive definite of. singular. indirect. 48. 66. preposition. 279. 242. adverbial. plural form. 240. 42. of. passive adverbial. spoken of instead nouns. 23. 235. 42. 41. with case. etc. in nouns. English. Numeral Object. 48. 242. adjectives. 124. See verb. singular. of. or plural. pronouns. 92. nominative. 281. 282. of.. meaning. 48. Preposition. pronouns. plural. in article. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 285. 121. 196. become syntax use with with with Nouns. of. article. See in in in Numeral distributive. indefinite. personal. definite. verbs. Nouns. 41. . form. 60. plural no two singular construction. meanings. 18. 43. as forms titles.

233. conjunctions. as of. 38. 191. 69. 103. ours. pronoun. 115. 325 275. 103. another. Each adjective. See the as of. Ourself. 127. 117. 279. 94. 91. of. 41. 64. adverb. 93 other. with (the). conjunction. 87. See pronoun. Elder. Older. treatment comparatives.syntax Of. Ordinal Other Ought. 56. of upon. indefinite possessive One One as Only. for. 293. as other. inverted. 116. Oxen. 56. 101. definite relative uses of. 237. of syntax. Omission On. part analysis. 216. 161. Parsing. 194. adjective. uses numeral pronoun. articles. Pains. of of of of of models adjectives. 306. nouns. . One. Our. 199. adverbs. a in adjectives. 213. position Order. of. of.

59. possessive and of. part adjective. verb idioms it from. verbals. 172. 219. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. parsed. verbs. pennies. 27. article 150. 172. 174. 180. 148. agreement of verb nouns. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. not is. pronouns. 64. Person. 56. 43. 63. pronoun. absolute with of. Pence. them. speech. of. 335. 173. of. 28. 177. pronouns. and subject in. from definition other of. with. 287. or of. 59. 95. -ing words. nominative. relatives. in. 80. 59. of. included various. of. reflexive. 281. verbs. 69. of. 61. 70. 43. of. used as voice. phrase. 100. 247. 62. 119. predicate use of. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 322. 134. 56. phrases. 62. 181. of. . 179. pease. antecedent. 317.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle.

50. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. singular degree.objective syntax table triple uses of. of. it. spoken of. of. prepositional. of Phrase. 63. objects. 60. Place. or See of of See 185. 188. participial. omitted. pronoun. English. 303. 195. of. 248. . double. Personal subjective. 106. Positive Possessive. singular. 41. adverbs of. 241. 67. Nouns. simple. 278. of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 25. Personification. See 60. of. 236. 303. noun nouns. conjunctions prepositions Plural. kinds infinitive. in of. antecedent of of pronouns. 49. 61. 281. as double. Comparison. plural. 206. 53. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 51. relative. pronoun. of. 53. 278. 64. 232. 285. pronouns. nouns. 247. 247. 245. 52. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. appositional. 281. syntax of of Politics. complete. of nouns. 236. 37. 's. 235. nouns. 245. 54. of. nouns. vs. of. adjectives.

203. 282. case. 281. adjective. 208. 93. 302. meaning. 186. exclamatory. after but. parse. who personal. of. 187. 104. 58. objective. usually to as than. 195. 283. 105. as. 285. 219. as antecedent of relative. parse. same used as adjectives. singular usually other. none. of. with tense certain. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain.Prefixes. each either. as 54. by. and one with else's. of. plural. 59. in exclamations. Prepositions. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 300. 279. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 205. 280. possessive nominative to of. 203. speech. interrogative. 58. plural. of. 301. 331. another. for predicate nominative. any. 147. 202. 32. 299. and form form form form of. adverb. objective. neither. 64. 284. by with shown certain of. plural. 283. 206. . 303. by parts of of. Pronouns. somebody definition how indefinite. all. 95. of. 207. 89. 287. 129. of. what. of. case. 132. future. 72. 300. interrogative. 333. 332. forms of. 105. verbs. words. expressed as other of.

296. conjunctions Quality. of. with who. 58. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 289. 87. 195. of. same antecedent. 189. of. Rather. 188. 293. and antecedent. 69. in. 286. . of. Nouns. which after same. indirect. of. adverbs in. that. use of history formed. Quantity. of. and relatives. 101. 80. 85. 83. of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. pronominal pronouns indirect. and which. 69. See of. Rank. personal pronoun. in.possessive relative. 295. to of. with with gerund. indirect compound. 291. 74. 279. 74. Direct same and different. from and interrogative. of. in. 297. agreement anacoluthon and as. pronouns. 99. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. which. discourse. 87. 85. 293. 295. who. 263. 289. nouns. Questions. pronoun. of. 68. 142. unrestrictive. 84. questions. 105. 74. use in as. Quotations. parse. or of.

gender. simple. simple of. 29.syntax use Result. Self Sentences. 259. 231. 159. forms shots. conjunctions Retained Riches. 26 271. conjunction. 69. who. 319. of. S. 242. 'S. 255. definition . will. suffix. and should. 159. 289. elliptical. pronoun. effect. which. Sex Shall. complex. 40. of. would. clauses of. reflexive analysis of compound. 263. 162. 231. kinds Sequence Set. in form. Shot. 195. 51. 294. See Sentences. 196. Simple in sate. 196. Seeing. in of. 252. 74. 42. sentence. object. of. 170. 43. that. of of of complex Sentences. Shear. of sit. tenses. Same Sat. plural possessive as. ending. of.

Spelling Spinster. 126. of. 258. in Middle English. 32. 186. 144. See -En. these number. 169. as. used mood. 262. Somebody Sort. vs. definition 67. 233. English. in feminine suffix. other Such Such Suffix -s. of. 260. English. etc. 258. 137. verbs. 257. 33. 36. adverb. 138. 245. English. 257. 33. . distinguish. phonetic in infinitive. 270. of. 38. to of. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. of. of. 245. English. Split Spoken -Ster. for. names as a. 303. logical. -en. 38. definition how kinds noun. adverb. 144. 257. 257. -es. 240. sort. 237. literary clause. 12. of. disuse in spoken complete. Modern use becoming else's. 323. Subject.. of.Singular Sir. 258. 303.

two basis not same definition definite. 297. 107. 147. degree. of. 319. subject. 307. There These kind. 88. that uses That. plural as adverb. and and of. restrictive. in double. they. form. 116. article. 309. 275. See etc. 147. as history syntax Their. 186. classical of. adjectives. in comparison. king. 109. not suggesting adjectives. English. definition in English Tense. 108. Then. 119. 106. 87. of. 152. Tenses. when relative. 186. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. omission whom. of . 222. object. 191. "the then foreign. auxiliaries. meaning made up in Old of. 280. 33. of languages. of." introductory. .. 306. 147. than of. this. objects. 289. meaning. of. of. 189. adverbs. of. 275. which. of. as adverbs. 306. syntax of. as history The. 120.Suffixes. when as of. 61. me. Kind. 123. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 148. 277.. 290.. 106. English. coördinating. of.

of. 195. 248. 21. . 180. certain as the before with of. etc. adverbs those. from cleft to 174. conjunctions prepositions To. 119. 181. 330. 323. verbs. See That. phrases. of. of. 207. 175. to. of. 322. Upon. in omitted uses T'other. Thou. in of. 61. suffix. exclamations. 173. parse. used. how infinitive. 176. of.. uses history of. first adjective. Time. feminine and. tother. 128. first. uses of. carelessly uses syntax this. preposition. 114. try two. 308. uttermost. 33. infinitive. 172. 322. 175. 185. 114. Try Two Under. infinitive. 20. gerund. 217. of. 188. -ing 111. words. of. 114.These. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. kinds participle. thy. Utter. Upper. thee. See On. analysis. 175. 247. other noun. -Trix. 172.

154. Vocative in Voice. 330. in indirect discourse. syntax of. 12. . strong. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. table of irregular. retained object with passive. past tense formed nominative. 159. definition of. of English. 131. 149. 223. passive form. 147. of. table of. definition of. Vixen. 169. 154. phonetic. verbs by. spelling of. 157. What. active. 39. 130. formed by. 148. how to parse. 151. active meaning.Verbs. 133. 167. 319. passive. 317. 155. analysis. transitive and intransitive. conjugation of. 150. agreement of. definition of. 242. defective. 312-316. 154. 33. remarks on certain. made transitive. 160. 167. of incomplete predication. sequence of. mood of. voice of. 47. 312. 135. regular. 320. 236. becoming irregular. 148. change. with subject in number. of. 129. intransitive. weak. 179. but uses what. in person. 245. tense of. person and number of. 134. verbs. auxiliary. 133. 169.

218. Yes ending analysis. Will. 85. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 75. pronoun. wizard. 78. 83. questions. 295-299. direct of. Who. 178. 85. a. Witch. Woman. spoken in of. pronoun. 85. 32. 126. 37. questions. 111. relative indirect relative. interrogative Which. 40. Words in Worse. conjunction. relative. plural of in nouns -ing. questions. referring syntax Widower. in -ly. uses See Shall. antecedent adjective. relative. 246. 72. animals. 190. worser. Whether. 104. 105.. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. would. 105. 36. 72. 77. 83. Y. questions. in in indefinite objective. whereto. Wife. in. 296.what Whereby. of. With. 194. 299. . 36. English. etc. 75. 79. 73. 72. of.

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