roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

Surely our noble language. as compared with Latin or Greek. The work it will cover. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. its peculiar and abundant idioms. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. it will at the same time. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules." What grammar is. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. It is also evident. and thus incite his observation. from the question.The province of English grammar is. An æsthetic benefit. Authority as a basis. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. so that a small grammar will hold them all. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. but this is bad English now. if rightly presented. Making rules is risky. however. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. Literary English. to those who have studied the language historically. This will take in the usual divisions. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections)." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. is worthy of serious study. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes." and "Syntax. Coming back. Mental training. Few inflections. and their uses and relations in the sentence. assist the classification of kindred expressions. with its enormous vocabulary. there is still much for the grammarian to do. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. "Analysis. rightly considered. then. their forms. A broader view. as. . And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). If.

which belongs to a people. then. reference will be made to vulgar English. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Occasionally.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Part II. The plainest name is Arabs. The Uses of Words. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. or Syntax. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. but. Such words are called nouns. Analysis of Sentences. In the more simple state of the Arabs. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. The Parts of Speech. and may belong to any of those objects. not objects. 1. The words state. Spoken English. and the word nation stands for a whole group. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. submission. Part III. . The following pages will cover. or standard.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. besides this one. three divisions:² Part I. from the eighteenth century on.²GIBBON. that is. as they stand for ideas. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. and Inflections. too. the nation is free. the words sons and master name objects. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. by which is meant the free. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. NOUNS. PART I. Vulgar English. and will are evidently names of a different kind.

Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. MATERIAL. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. or thing. This does not imply. or a mob. 3. Common.Definition. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. place. Classes of nouns. possessed by all. however. (a) 4. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. whether person. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. and appropriate names to the groups. a committee. or a congress. belonging to one. Thus. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Individual. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. reducing it to a narrow application. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. ATTRIBUTE. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. the name of each is an individual or proper name. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Name for a group or collection of objects. 5. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. is from a Latin word which means general. animals. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. or idea. Besides considering persons. 2. A noun is a name word. For instance. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Abstract. as here used. because each group is considered as a unit. Proper. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. Collective. and things separately. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. They properly belong under common nouns. Name for any individual of a class. men in groups may be called a crowd. . (a) CLASS NAMES: i. representing directly to the mind an object. but Chicago names one city. we may think of them in groups. substance. animals. Thus. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. etc. or things. (b) Common. or the man in front of you. or a council. We may say. the man here.

NOTE. instead of to each individual or separate object. soap. . for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. celluloid. Names of ideas. dew. but in the words sun. When we speak of a wise man. . but it is taken merely as a name. cloud. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. sugar. or action. paint. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. etc. rain. etc. etc. or that which shows a thing has been proved. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. (3) Geological bodies: mud. there is no such intention. etc. frost. we speak of the wisdom of the man.Names for things thought of in mass. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. tea. as in calling a city Cincinnati. conditions." "Learning is hard to acquire. iron. It may. wheat. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. however. gold. and fasten a special name to the object considered. or apart from their natural connection. stone. or actions. and so on. sand. we may say. They remain common class names. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. proof means the act of proving. earth. 7. Again. earth. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). but which are not called proper names. The reason is. snow. rice. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. 6." "a man of understanding. such as sun. expressing state. rubber. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. etc. mist. wheat. wine. etc. not things. clay. etc. Words naturally of limited application not proper. moon. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. rock.²There are some nouns. sugar. The quality is still there as much as before. Such are glass. condition. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. platinum. expressing attributes or qualities. "Painting is a fine art." 9.. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. potash. world. frost. etc. considered abstractly. granite. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects.

joy. night. (1) prudence from prudent. her longing for their favor. thunder. childhood from child. height from high. five abstract. kingship from king. They cannot govern a word. service from serve. Exercises. They are only the husks of verbs. etc. those opinions and feelings. redness from red. 272. "a long run" "a bold move. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. 12. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. Verbal abstract nouns. The verb. lightning. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech.. there is time for such reasonings. Underived abstract nouns. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. (2) peerage from peer. stupidity from stupid." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. as in the expressions. To avoid difficulty. hopeful²hope. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. . action from act. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. by altering its function. 10. five proper. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. etc. a wedding or a festival. theft from thieve. the great Puritan awakening. the moon caused fearful forebodings. etc. NOTE. and they cannot express action. but are merely names of actions. mastery from master. ease. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. the main bearings of this matter. summer. Such are beauty. Caution. etc. energy.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. speech from speak. the rude drawings of the book. 1. II." "a brisk walk. winter. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. in the beginning of his life. 273). shadow. day. is used as a noun. the teachings of the High Spirit. hope.Attribute abstract nouns. as their name implies. he spread his blessings over the land. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. as glad²joy. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. Thus. the well-being of her subjects. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning.

Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. (b) branches of knowledge. algebra. geology. mathematics? 3. diphtheria. as physics. typhus. as pneumonia. catarrh. pleurisy. Using a dictionary. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases.2.

By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. from Corinth." referring to flat- . for example. from Damascus. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. as a davy. from Oporto.²EMERSON. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. thus. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. from Calicut. a Bentham. the guillotine. the word port. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. from China. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Proper names transferred to common use. but most of them are in the following groups. and lo! a new system. who was its inventor. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Nouns change by use. arras. a Fourier.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. a Lavoisier. Material nouns may be used as class names. currants. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Guillotin. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. etc. 13. port (wine). If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. 15. We know a number of objects made of iron. a Hutton. 14. in Portugal. it imposes its classification on other men. "The cook made the irons hot. from the name of Dr. 119). the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. a Locke. levant and morocco (leather). Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Others of similar character are calico. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. above. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. from a town in France. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. but we may say. or to go over to it entirely. damask.

abstract in meaning. to prowl or to moan like night birds.²HAYNE. and so on. paints. on fire. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. slates. They are not then pure abstract nouns. etc. and say teas. the abstract idea is partly lost. When it is said that art differs from science. tins. which are made plural. but in case an art or a science. candies.²CARLYLE. etc. This is a poetic usage. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. that disposition is the thing to be created. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. From all around²Earth and her waters. as stones. but on dispositions which require to be created. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. or the arts and sciences.²RUSKIN. Next Anger rushed. nor are they common class nouns. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Death.²COLLINS. These are the same in material. a steel to whet a knife on. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. are abroad.irons. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. or used as class nouns. are still names of abstract ideas. papers. The words preceded by the article a. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Test this in the following sentences:² . that the power of art is founded on fact. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind.In lightnings owned his secret stings. clays. 16. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. a rubber for erasing marks. tobaccos. Personification of abstract ideas. clouds. his eyes. smiled. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. mists.²BYRON. or. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. not material things. but differ in strength. and only Vice and Misery.²PERCIVAL. oils. though not confined to verse. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. 17. purity. or made plural. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. be spoken of. (3) By poetical use. Class nouns in use. coals. For example. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. Traffic has lain down to rest. A halfway class of words. that is.²BRYANT.

(1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. sir!" and the "What then. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. the wealthy. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. which belongs to another word. make our own so. 18. for example. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. a bill as to tax on the banks. however. sir!"²MACAULAY . fear thy blow. etc.The Solitary can despise. Adverbs.²IRVING.² GOLDSMITH. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Conjunctions. NOTE. sir?" and the "No. But ah! those pleasures." "the State Bank Tax bill. if we must have great actions. "a family quarrel. were mere terrors of the night.²SHAKESPEARE. or describe it. Adjectives.²SHAKESPEARE. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. All these. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. or from any expression. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.²EMERSON. Every why hath a wherefore. they cannot be compared.² BURNS. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. a bank in New York. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.²BURNS. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. nouns used to modify. but is still a noun. they do not express quality.Let us. Then comes the "Why." "a morning walk." "a New York bank. meaning a walk in the morning. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. But it is better to consider them as nouns. loves. as descriptive adjectives are. They are more like the possessive noun. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. When I was young? Ah." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. And still. as each repeated pleasure tired." which contains a pure adjective.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. 19. By ellipses. Nouns used as descriptive terms.

2. There are many of these. at the beginning. Caution.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage." and another of Dr. 8. and tell to which class each belongs. in speaking of the principal of a school. is the word "just. in a sentence above. however. or a state secret. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate.. Now. When. 3."²B. the wealthy. or a faithful domestic. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. 4. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. etc. . so. 5. but have an adjectival meaning. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. that cobweb of the brain. When. to such words as become pure nouns by use. are used.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. of course. too. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. or a criminal. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another.Nor iron bars a cage. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Learning. without reference to its function in the sentence. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. FRANKLIN. are spoken of as if pure nouns." or "legal. is ambiguous. but as a figure of speech. Stone walls do not a prison make. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. It is to be remembered.²These remarks do not apply. of words rather than of their meaning. NOTE.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. 6. whether it mean the sun or the cold. 1. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. In the other sentences. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. Power laid his rod aside. and Then. 7. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. The it. why and wherefore. 20. the terms the great. Exercise. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects.

in English grammar. 17. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine.9. female. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. but not so in English. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. 11. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much.Fair guests. 13. A fool speaks all his mind.You seize the flower. 24. A little weeping would ease my heart. Male beings are.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. shattered and disabled. 14. 18. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 10. The hours glide by. and names of females are usually feminine. What gender means in English. 19. But pleasures are like poppies spread. the welcome. And see. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 15. GENDER. 21. It is founded on sex. In Latin. its bloom is shed. 23. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. that waits you here. 20. Greek. The fleet. for every dropHinders needle and thread. German. 21. always feminine. 16. 12. he cried.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. returned to Spain. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. and many other languages. . but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 22. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. always masculine. the silver moon is gone. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day.

²IRVING. those distinguishing the sex of the object. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. 22. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. das Messer (knife) is neuter. that pattern of a husband.. those with which man comes in contact often. The great difference is. the name of it is masculine.²LAMB. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell.²masculine and feminine. hortus (garden) is masculine. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. or names of things without life.. 24.. 23. in German. Thus. and neuter nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig. according to use. or additions to words.² IRVING. mensa (table) is feminine. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. "A little child shall lead them. Gender nouns..When. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Of animals. corpus (body) is neuter." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. and consequently without sex. that is. are named by gender nouns. or which arouse his interest most. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. All nouns. but are spoken of as neuter.. the name of it is feminine.²gender nouns. inanimate things are spoken of. according to their use. Hence: Definition. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Gunpowder . the word child is neuter in the sentence. if of the female sex. those which do not distinguish sex.. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. No "common gender. if there were any signs of life in it. For instance: in Latin.² I have seenA curious child . . however. in English. in other languages gender follows the form. then. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. came to a stand just by the bridge. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. with its gizzard under its wing. the sex being of no consequence." . clapping his burnished wings. Neuter nouns. must be divided into two principal classes.

For fox they said vox. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. they are neuter words. (3) By using a different word for each gender. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. as in wine vat. teacher. or the lack of it. Gender shown by Suffixes. The inflections for gender belong. puts a prefix before the masculine man. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words.. only to masculine and feminine nouns.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Hence vixen is for fyxen. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. Very few of class I. relative.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. is. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. I. woman. generally to a masculine word. 29. though both words have lost their original meanings. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. for from they said vram. According to the definition. . There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. 27. 28. but spinster has now no connection with it.25. These remain in vixen and spinster. etc. domestic. If such words as parent. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. he-bear²she-bear. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. II. Gender shown by Prefixes. the division of words according to sex. as he-goat²she-goat. Put in convenient form. Male nouns beings. ruler. and for the older word fat they said vat. servant. One feminine. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. (2) By adding a suffix. Native suffixes. 26. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. cousin. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. of course. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. from the masculine fox.

Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. as. executrix. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. Low Latin issa). The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. trickster. but in most cases it has not. donna. as czarina. Ending of masculine not changed. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. señorita. as. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). gamester. the one most used. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. punster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. These are attached to foreign words. it has none now in the words huckster. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. and are never used for words recognized as English. 30. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. -ess (French esse. song-str-ess. Unaltered and little used. as seam-stress. Slightly changed and widely used.

we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. frendesse. neighboresse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. as in the fourteenth century. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. Thus. fosteress. editor. We frequently use such words as author. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse." III. as. we use the feminine. teacher or lady teacher. the ending -ess. wagoness. chairman.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. we use the masculine termination. teacheresse. or servauntesse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. as. 31. neighbor (masculine and feminine). "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. Instead of saying doctress. etc. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Gender shown by Different Words. as was said in the sixteenth century. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. 32. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . to represent persons of either sex. Some of them have an interesting history. NOTE. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. In some of these pairs. from Latin imperatricem. from the French -esse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. others have in their origin the same root.

lhauerd. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. in Old English mere. the old sign of the masculine. not immediately connected with witch. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. but this has long been obsolete. Besides gander and drake. Two masculines from feminines. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. leaving our word drake. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). 34. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. gand-ra. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Icelandic gás. It is not connected historically with our word duck. etc. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Witch is the Old English wicce. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Widower. from Latin mea domina. widuwa²widuwe. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not.). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. as in many other words. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). 33. Mare. Madam is the French ma dame. probably meaning house dweller). Danish gaas. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. 16). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). or lauerd in Middle English. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. The older forms. written loverd. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man).² . finally gander. Personification. for example. though both are ultimately from the same root. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. had the masculine mearh (horse). and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. among others) to be from the same root word. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. became identical. The masculine was formed by adding -a. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex.

There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en.No towers along the steep. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. This is not exclusively a poetic use. But other words were inflected afterwards. (3) By adding -s (or -es). number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. I. more than one. 39.²KEATS.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. together with the third. The -en inflection. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Effect of personification. 35. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. shoon (shoes).²CAMPBELL. whenever we adopt a new word. .Her march is o'er the mountain waves. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible."²BYRON. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. the engineer speaks so of his engine. that is. the plural. and not by the form of the noun. 36. Britannia needs no bulwarks. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch.²singular and plural. 38. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne.Her home is on the deep. eyen (eyes). treen (trees). NUMBER. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. The first two methods prevailed.²COLERIDGE. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. for instance. In nouns. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. 37. (2) By changing the root vowel. in Old English."Now. Definition. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. Our language has two numbers. etc.

²WHITTIER. cross.-En inflection imitated by other words. cannon. glass. but they now add the ending -s. Instead of -s. such as deer. The old plural was brothru. turf. after numerals (if not after numerals. Examples of this inflection are. they add -s): also trout. or if preceded by the prepositions in. . lens. II. as. head.²MACAULAY. when they mean soldiery. 41."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. then brothre or brethre. heathen. etc. sail. wight. and is still found in dialects.Horse and foot. ditch.² "God bless me! so then.² The foot are fourscore thousand. Children has passed through the same history. Such are box. salmon. into Frederick town. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. 42.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. Lee marched over the mountain wall. as. etc. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es.²Over the mountains winding down. brace. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. Other words following the same usage are. that have the singular and plural alike. finally brethren. etc. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. swine. people. and get settled. 40. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. The words horse and foot.The horse are thousands ten. III. after all. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. folk. originally neuter. Brethren has passed through three stages. Kine is another double plural.²THOREAU. retain the same form for plural meaning. but has now no singular. sheep. Akin to this class are some words. pair. borough²formerly had the same inflection. dozen. by. quartz.

etc. chaise²chaises. they lose their identity. and some -es. summons.g. half²halves. means: as. physics. the Americas. in its widest extent. prize²prizes. daisies. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. So live. however. pains (care). e. etc. allies. 43. quoth then that ladie milde.. and the real ending is therefore -s. The lilie on hir stalke grene.. though they are plural in form. 44. economics. that when thy summons comes.²BRYANT. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. the Washingtons. shelf²shelves. DANA. though this sound combines readily with -s. Special Lists. means and politics. volcano² volcanoes.² Politics. Two words. politics. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. Proper nouns are regularly singular. Some words are usually singular. Formerly. e. etc. When such words take a plural ending. niche²niches. 45. knife²knives. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. these words ended in -ie. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. mathematics. Words in -ies. a new syllable is made. also news. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. as. optics.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. Examples of these are.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. 15 and 17). Means plural.-Es added in certain cases. and go over to other classes (Secs. hero²heroes. house²houses. fairies. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. It served simply as a means of sight.g. molasses.²PROF. is both the science and the art of government. negro²negroes. fancies. race²races. etc. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. and many branches of learning. some adding -s.

by those means which we have already mentioned. With great dexterity these means were now applied. riches will accumulate. A relic which.²MOTLEY. by strongly conveying the passions. Politics plural.²J.²IRVING. Now I read all the politics that come out. LAUGHLIN. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. 46. Besides this. however. it is furnished with a forceps. if I recollect right.²GOLDSMITH. By these means. Some words have no corresponding singular. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. .² MACAULAY.Words.²GOLDSMITH. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²BURKE. L. CURTIS. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. Sometimes. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. W. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. I say.²G.²GOLDSMITH.

genii (spirits). brethren (of a society or church). etc. Three words were originally singular. faculties. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). or copies.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. indices (signs in algebra).²was it subdued when. number²numbers: (1) figures. or work in a bellows?²PROF.The air. pease (collectively).²one corresponding to the singular. die²dies (stamps for coins. riches. In speaking of coins. trouble. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. shots (number of times fired). index²indexes (to books). pea²peas (separately). genius²geniuses (men of genius). of a periodical. One plural. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. as in the lines. In Early Modern English thank is found.. eaves. clothes (garments). shot²shot (collective balls). in mournful numbers. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). 49. for the numbers came. Numbers also means issues. Two classes of compound words. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47.² I lisped in numbers.. (2) literature. fishes (individuals or kinds). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. ways. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. twopence. may add -s. as two sixpences. Tell me not. These make the last part plural. sixpence. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. fish²fish (collectively). (2) abilities. dice (for gaming). etc. DANA.²LONGFELLOW. (2) revenue duties. two plurals. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. the other unlike it. 48.). 50. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.. (2) poetry. penny²pennies (separately). or epistles. . carry off chaff. part²parts: (1) divisions. (2) care.²POPE. making a double plural. two meanings. pence (collectively).

y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. but add -s. for example. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. woman singer. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. . such as talisman. then Silas Peckham. as man singer. Two methods in use for names with titles. the Misses Rich. Brown. German. woman servant.² Then came Mr. the Drs. Briggs. and Mrs. or the name may be pluralized. HOLMES. 52. The chief member adds -s in the plural. as the Messrs. The title may be plural. firman. there is some disagreement among English writers. Mussulman.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Brahman. manservant. Norman. Allen. As to plurals of names with titles.²DR. 51. though the latter is often found. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Ottoman.

Domesticated words. 53. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²GIBBON. and retain their foreign plurals. FROM THE LATIN. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Exercise. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Du Maurier. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.²GOLDSMITH. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. FROM THE GREEK. These are said to be domesticated. The domesticated words may retain the original plural.²THE CRITIC. The Messrs. They are then said to be naturalized. Others have been adopted. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. or Englished. y y analysis antithesis . or Anglicized. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²DICKENS.

In the general wearing-away of inflections. as." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s).. they form their plurals in the regular way." CASE. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. Words quoted merely as words. and expresses a relation akin to possession. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. Letters. etc. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." the word felon's modifies cell. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. In the sentence. also add -s or 's. Definition. as. Only two case forms. 55. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. . 54. cell has another relation. etc." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). figures.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). 56. without reference to their meaning.

the enemy of the living. three things characterize man. then. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. ." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. may be said to have three cases. learning. whether inflected or not. and experience. and the possessive. they returned to their homes. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 2.There are now only two case forms of English nouns." (2) As a predicate noun. 3. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. Nouns. Uses of the Nominative. the objective. Three properties belong to wisdom. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 5. must be understood for purposes of analysis. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.²person. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Human experience is the great test of truth. fate.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. 57. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. I. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. and merit. excessive grief. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. 4.²the nominative.²one for the nominative and objective. completing a verb. 1. Excuses are clothes which." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word.²nature." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. 58. when asked unawares.

sword in hand and visor down. 59." (4) As the second object. they are sands of precious gold. Uses of the Objective. and makest a calm." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. good Heaven. (5) As the object of a preposition." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. They charged.Save. and tell which use each has:² 1. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. distance. But of all plagues." (3) Adverbially. 2. (in the older stages of the language. and being equivalent to one verb. 4." "Thou makest the storm a calm. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. 8. how have I frighted thee? II. Set a high price on your leisure moments. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. completing the verb. But the flood came howling one day. the word toward which the preposition points. Tender men sometimes have strong wills." Exercise. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. 3. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. taking the object enemies. etc. Conscience. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 68. 9. wounded lies. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. measure. reconciles. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. thy wrath can send. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. taking the object storm. as will be seen in Sec. and meaning calmest. .6. her first law broken. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. and landlord of the inn. a patriarch of the village. save.

the most common of all. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. 6.²HAWTHORNE. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. And whirling plate.² The unwearied sun. 60. Uses of the Possessive. tempests that . the Great Stone Face. The noblest mind the best contentment has. or in writing yesterday's elegy. The possessive case always modifies another word. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. as in these expressions. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. and forfeits paid. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. III. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. 7. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.His winter task a pastime made. (2) Objective possessive. as shown in the sentences. 10. as.And gave the leper to eat and drink.²BYRON.Does his Creator's power display.5. 8.²ADDISON. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. It is a poetic expression. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. expressed or understood. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. Possession in some sense is the most common. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. from day to day. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.. (3) Subjective possessive. 9. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.e.²SHELLEY. 61. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.

making the possessive singular." "at his beddes syde." etc. Case Inflection. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. "George Jones his book. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. 63. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. How the possessive is formed. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). As said before (Sec. child NOTE. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. Declension or inflection of nouns. . and Obj. 56). Nom.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i." "mannes herte [heart]. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. PLURAL. Nom. there are only two case forms. One is the simple form of a word. The use of the apostrophe. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. A false theory. "From every schires ende. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example." Use of the apostrophe.. and Obj.e. growth which several days had developed).. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. however. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. 62. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. 62. Poss. 1. A suggestion. in Chaucer.e.winter is likely to have). To form the possessive plural. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. as schoolboys sometimes write. 64." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. lady Poss. the panther which the forest hides).

The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. church."²DE QUINCEY. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. store. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. containing words in apposition. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience.²HOLMES. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. 65. Captain Scrapegrace's. some such word as house. I remember him in his cradle at St. Kate saw that. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. 67. as. dwelling. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. as. the possessive sign is usually last. Peter's. the items of my son's. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. tailor's bill²THACKERAY.Though this opinion was untrue. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. . know the amount of my income. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. James's.² LOWELL. instead of the emperor their master's name.²THACKERAY. Cervantes' satirical work. for goodness' sake. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. the poor miner Hans Luther's son." "A postscript is added. etc. a word with a phrase.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. my neighbors. but to the ear all may be alike. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.. and she walked off from the don's. as by the countess's command." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.²SWIFT.²RUSKIN. in the name of the emperor their master. and from a desire to have distinct forms." Possessive with compound expressions. 66. Possessive and no noun limited. etc. being understood with it: for example. In compound expressions.²CARLYLE. stands up for God's truth one man.. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.²DE QUINCEY. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.

a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. (1) When a word is modified by a. however.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. making a double possessive. this. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. 1. corresponding to 's. (3) It prevents ambiguity. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.The double possessive. HALE.²CARLYLE. Emphasis. Blair).²E. or subjective. (See also Sec. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . A peculiar form. the statement clearly means only one thing. In most cases.²FROUDE. in such a sentence as. 87. 68. that.²the introduction which Atterbury made. and tell whether each is appositional. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. If. (b) Rewrite the sentence. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. every. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. objective. and at the same time by a possessive noun. 2. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. the sentence might be understood as just explained. as one modifier. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. especially when used with this or that. sometimes they are used together. the. For example. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. E. each. Both of these are now used side by side. no.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark..²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. a double possessive. any. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. Clearness. etc. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. we use the phrase of Atterbury. ill-lighted except where she stands. Exercises.

At lovers' perjuries. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 9. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. Nature herself. 8. and destroy the other. we state. 12. Jove laughs. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.Comes dancing from the East. 70.² . 10. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. I must not see thee Osman's bride. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 13. with every garland crowned. Friend. In parsing. it seemed.A weary waste expanding to the skies. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 5.They say. Hence. 69.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. in parsing a noun. 15. let him seasonably water the one. 11. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 4. 6. some idioms²the double possessive. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. Now the bright morning star. 14. 7. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. therefore. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. There Shakespeare's self.3. day's harbinger.

it denotes only one person. masculine. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. it expresses possession or ownership. 3. but is the adverbial objective. That in the captain's but a choleric word.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. like miller's. determining its case. Throat is neuter. . it expresses time. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. it is the name of a male being.(1) The class to which it belongs. hence it is a gender noun. therefore possessive case. In parsing any word. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Exercise. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. gender. it is the object of the preposition by. if the latter. NOTE.²common. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. etc. and to have it found out by accident. MODEL FOR PARSING. and number. hence it is a common noun. singular number. subject of the verb is understood. hence it is objective case. therefore masculine gender. 68). 2. and therefore nominative case. Thief is a common class noun. (4) Its office in the sentence. (3) Whether singular or plural number. 4. The correct method. object of the verb takes. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. a fresh tapster. and relations. therefore singular number. has no governing word. 71. names one thing. a withered serving man. it has no sex.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. therefore singular number. Neckcloth. which gender. the connection shows a male is meant. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. proper. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. is a common class noun. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. hence objective case. inflections. therefore neuter. and limits neckcloth. as to case.

Necker.. which are used to ask questions about persons or things." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus.And hated her for her pride. and his daughter. Jarley's back being towards him. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome." Again. 72. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. Madame de Staël.. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. and prison. 9. A pronoun is a reference word. definite. sleep! 6. 8. instead of saying. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs.. financial minister to Louis XVI. all in one. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. and representative words. castle. A few miles from this point. . where the Rhone enters the lake. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.5. Definition. 76). were natives of Geneva. 7. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Time makes the worst enemies friends. (2) Interrogative pronouns. or for a person or thing. blessings light on him that first invented . "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Now. 10. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. Mrs. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. Classes of pronouns. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. PRONOUNS. The need of pronouns. He giveth his beloved sleep. but by a question we say. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. from a necessity for short. For instance.²palace. or for a group of persons or things. 11. standing for a name. 73.

(3) Relative pronouns. standing for a person or thing spoken of. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Nom. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. my Plural. ours . and the person or thing talked about. which relate or refer to a noun. Three persons of pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. 75. pronoun. they must represent the person talking. words. mine. "the distinction of person. even if it had a special form. as nouns have the same form." Person of nouns. which have forms for person. (4) Adjective pronouns. representing the person speaking. the person or thing spoken to. we our. (2) Second person. representing a person or thing spoken to. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. 77. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. Singular. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. or other word or expression. they are said to have person by agreement. (3) Third person. which cannot be used as adjectives. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. that is. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. I Poss. primarily adjectives. From analogy to pronouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns. 74.. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. 76. This gives rise to a new term. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. Person in grammar. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names.

a separate form for each gender. Obj.Obj. Singular. Old forms. Nom. . me us Singular. she her. yours Poss. namely. But the third person has. Old Form Common Form. hers her Plur. Obj. SECOND PERSON. Third person singular has gender.. yours you Plural. thou thee ye you you your. feminine h o. thy Remarks on These Forms. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. theirs them Neut. it its it Poss. in the singular. Poss. Nom. The speaker may be either male or female. Masc. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Obj. your. First and second persons without gender. yours you THIRD PERSON. by personification. of all Three. Nom. or. neuter. you your. Poss. and also for the neuter. neuter hit. so also with the person or thing spoken to. they their. Nom. he his him Fem. Obj. masculine h . 78. thine.

"I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. thou Shepherd of Israel. thy. them. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). as in prayers. even when referring to a single object. heom. The consequence is.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his.Thou lovest. heora. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. especially in poetry. 80.²SHELLEY. 79. etc. etc. as. Thou. etc. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. two modern uses of thou. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. which was often sounded with the h silent. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). in Old English. their..²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. The form its. We use it with a plural verb always.. to thy care we commit the helpless. 81. just as we now say. that didst comfort thy people of old. Two uses of the old singulars. The plurals were h . This is of comparatively recent growth. There are. the forms they. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. Second person always plural in ordinary English. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. 82. In spoken English. . and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. for example. it.² Oh. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. which is a neuter noun.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. thee.²BEECHER.:² (1) In elevated style. however." As shown above. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. (2) In addressing the Deity. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. and sometimes its. as possessive of it.

though ye is occasionally used as objective. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. they have a nominative form. he. however. note the following:² 'Twas mine. The words I. when they occur in the predicate position. to personify objects (Sec. Absolute personal pronouns. besides a nominative use. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. them. me. its. have a peculiar use. 84 are always subjects. thou. us. 85.Use of the pronouns in personification. Old use of mine and thine. and has been slave to thousands. 83. II. thy. 58). their. and not make more classes. for. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. 34). The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. . him. and sometimes in ordinary speech. her. though those named in Sec. thine. them. your. I The Nominative. she. That is. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. yours. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Not a separate class. The forms my. In spoken English. our. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. And since thou own'st that praise. 84. The Possessive. his. Nominative forms. ²SHAKESPEARE.²COWPER.²LANDOR. and follow the usage of literary English. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. us. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. in such a sentence as. her. we. The forms mine. 86." the literary language would require he after was. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns.²BULWER. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. some say. I spare thee mine. him. 'tis his. "I am sure it was him. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. they. her. hers. ye. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. Additional nominatives in spoken English. sometimes his and its. theirs. or. Yet careful speakers avoid this.

theirs.²ID. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity." said Henry Woodstall. "Hold thy peace."²SCOTT. we have. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. Like the noun possessives. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. Besides this. and with mine. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. thine.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. (3) To express contempt. (4) To make a noun less limited in application.²J. The forms hers. FIELDS. ours. are really double possessives. .²BIBLE. This usage is still preserved in poetry. Their uses. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. Double and triple possessives. pluck it out. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. yours.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. theirs. for example. anger. thus. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. Long Allen. COOPER. yours. it tells of good old times.²ID. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.²SWIFT. Give every man thine ear. (2) To bring emphasis. 87. F. thus.²THACKERAY. his. T. commenting upon a letter of mine. in that old Edinburgh house of his. This ancient silver bowl of mine.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. hers.²THACKERAY.²J.² CARLYLE. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. ²HOLMES. ours. If thine eye offend thee.²CARLYLE. we find. or satire.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. sometimes its. but few thy voice. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. as in nouns.

there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. 86: mine stands for my property. Besides this use of the objective. III. as it is called." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. The Objective. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. but nominative or objective in use. Curse me this people. "The good alone are great. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. .²SCOTT Other uses of the objective." "None but the brave deserves the fair." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. or use in a sentence. but not in form. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. Both joined in making him a present. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. 90. was marked by a separate case. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. The old dative case.²ID. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. but expresses for whom. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. mine stands for my praise in the second. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. They all handled it. In their function. In such sentences as.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. In pronouns. But the first two have a nominative use. this dative use.²BIBLE. and mine in the second has an objective use. his for his property.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. 89. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. but the form is the same as the objective. as shown in Sec. 88. 20. the thing is done. for whose benefit. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. Now the objective. in the first sentence.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition.

² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. Indefinite use of you and your.Time is behind them and before them. as. as. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.²ADDISON.²BULWER. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. logical subject. or that he has not a great deal more. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²IRVING To empty here. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. you sneeze.² NEWMAN. It is a pity that he has so much learning. The word you. or to the idea. has not made its progress.²EMERSON.²BACON.²CARLYLE. 92. thus. as in the sentences. 91. which follows the verb. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.² .²DE QUINCEY. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. why. and they cry. to stand for the real. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. Society. in this century. WEBSTER. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ²EMERSON. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. Your mere puny stripling. The peasants take off their hats as you pass." (3) As a grammatical subject.²D. you must condense there. (3) In apposition. like Chinese skill. was passed by with indulgence.

93. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. however. herself.²ANON. it rained. (ourself)." etc.² Now I lay me down to sleep. farms it. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively." "He bought him a horse. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. And when I awoke.. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. ourselves. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. themselves. A sturdy lad . who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined.²IRVING.²COLERIDGE. For example. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. but seldom in prose. as. (thyself).²SCOTT. 94.²HOLMES. that is. or COMPOUND PERSONAL." and there is an end of it.²DE QUINCEY. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²THOREAU. itself."²IRVING. "I found me a good book. This occurs in poetry. the second is the old form of the second person. peddles it.²EMERSON. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. we use such expressions as. since firstThe flight of years began. It was late and after midnight. -selves. who in turn tries all the professions.²BURNS. Poor Christian was hard put to it. yourselves.It is finger-cold. who teams it. I set me down and sigh. used in poetry. And millions in those solitudes. I made up my mind to foot it. yourself. .²ID. Of the two forms in parentheses. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition.²BRYANT. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. They are myself. For when it dawned. as they are also called. when they are direct objects. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²BUNYAN. have laid them downIn their last sleep. keeps a school. himself. they dropped their arms.²HAWTHORNE. and its plural selves. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. There was nothing for it but to return..

My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Held dead within them till myself shall die. and the others were formed by analogy with these. 95.² TENNYSON. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. as we ourself have been.²WORDSWORTH. as. Threats to all. In Middle English the forms meself. to us. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.²MILTON.² .²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.²E. as in vulgar English. with self.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. Use of the reflexives.² The great globe itself .As girls were once.²SHAKESPEARE.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. for example. after the analogy of myself. B. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. etc. ourselves. especially in the speech of rulers. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. 96. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.To you yourself. NOTE. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition..² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and build the lofty rhyme. As if it were thyself that's here. Origin of these reflexives. as.. I shrink with pain. were changed into the possessive myself. to every one. not the possessive forms. for example. shall dissolve. theself. thyself. The question might arise.²EMERSON.²ID. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. BROWNING.

fight it out. 10.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself.²DE QUINCEY. 97. Years ago.²B. Come and trip it as we go. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. let him lowly confess it. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. 9. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. and how to do it. But if a man do not speak from within the veil.On the light fantastic toe. Courage. To know what is best to do.² THACKERAY. and what. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). which. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 2. 4. all conform to it. father. 7. 6. FRANKLIN. One obsolete. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Infancy conforms to nobody. feminine. 3. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. some of them being double possessives. 5. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. and neuter. 8. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. where the word is one with that it tells of. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. . And it grew wondrous cold. some each of masculine. is wisdom. but it is the soonest spoiled. Three now in use.

Use of what. whispering sweet. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. the gold.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. used formerly to mean which of two. 98. that is. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. it is always third person. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. Which of you. etc. having three forms. actions. referring to things. but now obsolete. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. As shown here. that it is not inflected for gender or number. The use of who. 99. that. ideas.There is an old word. with its possessive and objective. 100.. Use of which. number. Use of who and its forms. which is not inflected for gender. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. These show that what is not inflected for case.Promised. not to persons. it is selective. or case. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. whether. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. that it is always singular and neuter. What wouldst thou do. . shall we say. but for case alone. Whose was that gentle voice. as it always asks about somebody. it refers to either persons or things. methought.

but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. as. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word.²by the use of the words. who? Poss. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. AND PLUR.101. SINGULAR Nom. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. being the direct object of the verb shall take. and also in having a conjunctive use. pronoun." In the latter sentence.Who sung of Border chivalry. For instance. which is nominative in the first sentence. Who. for which the pronoun stands. nominative in the second also. 102. Thus we may say. 99. what may be an adverb in some expressions. or other word or expression. who evidently refers to Bards. 105. which and what. and so to make smoother discourse. The antecedent.² "The last of all the Bards was he. "The last of all the Bards was he. 103. Further treatment of who.² ." Or. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. 127). These bards sang of Border chivalry. objective in the last. subject of doth love. which is called the antecedent of the relative. 104. and what are also relative pronouns. as they take the place usually of a word already used. It usually precedes the pronoun. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. which. SING. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. it may be shortened into. which and what are sometimes adjectives. as. Function of the relative pronoun. since it is subject of the verb had. who is used as objective instead of whom. AND PLUR. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. in Sec. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. whose? Obj.

The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Generally speaking. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²DR JOHNSON. with all its capabilities .² COX. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. Indefinite relatives. 6. D. WHITNEY.²PARTON Which and its forms. For her enchanting son. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.²THACKERAY. what. Ye mariners of England. They had not their own luster. that.²W. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. 4. are the men and women who bless their species. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.Whom universal nature did lament. 3. the women whom women approve.. 2.²LOWELL In this. will be discussed further on. .²SCOTT. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.That guard our native seas. 107. When the word relative is used.²MILTON. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. a simple relative is meant. 108. is a divine creation. The men whom men respect..The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. in the same sense in which man's nature. a thousand years. Who and its forms. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. The origin of language is divine. 106. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 2. but the look which is not of the earth. 5.²BYRON. both his and who have the antecedent priest. The nurse came to us. which.Whose flag has braved. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. Two kinds. 4. 3.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.

For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. For what he sought below is passed above. 3. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²BURKE. The judge .² SHAKESPEARE 2.²H. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them... you will not be angry with me for telling you. 4. What. and spoils. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²LAMB 3. ought to be kept in view. The man that hath no music in himself. 6. That.. Examples of the relative that:² 1. W. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.²MARGARET FULLER. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. 107.5. The Tree Igdrasil. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. BEECHER 5.. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. 111. bought up all the pigs that could be had. else this description will seem exaggerated. which it certainly is not. 2. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.Is fit for treasons. stratagems.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Who. Reader. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²IRVING.. 110. Already done is all that he would do. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²EMERSON. 109. (a) This gradation . Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to...²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY.

whose..²which for the nominative and objective.. possessive case of which.²who. Cooper. whose wound I had dressed. in 5. referring to animals.²SWIFT. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. 2.. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. Which. 96). in the first sentence. Who referring to animals. Examples of whose.²LEIGH HUNT. whom. son.who. The robins.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 5.²THACKERAY. The sentences in Sec. seemed as much excited as myself. 113. Scott. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 107.. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. not persons. In 1. in the third. who is first person. in the second. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. they are plural. and 3. who. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. in 4. (4) It has two case forms. and so on.²DR.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. p. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].²LOWELL. (3) It is nearly always third person. Smollett. Witness the following examples:² And you. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. whom.whose. JOHNSON. the others are all third person.. My horse.. whose for the possessive. whose is second person. and 6. things. It has been seen (Sec. flung its arms around my neck. In sentence 4. the relatives are singular. (2) It has three case forms. Kingsley. Sec. and others. The little gorilla. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. a man.²IRVING. . 112. Gibbon. that man. or ideas.

116. 109. let us enter the church itself. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. which is worse. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. for a religion whose creed they do not understand."²RUSKIN.²BEECHER. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.²DE QUINCEY. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. (2) It has only one case form. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.²RUSKIN. This often occurs. Burke.²SCOTT. animals. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain.114. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. too. and third persons. Which and its antecedents.² And. In the sentences of Sec. Primarily.² I swept the horizon. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.²SHAKESPEARE. which is very notable and curious. Sometimes. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. and numerous others. So in Matthew Arnold. thus. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. . This moribund '61. secondly (which made her stare).²THACKERAY. no possessive. The last two sentences in Sec. second. the antecedent follows which. and things. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.²first. 115. That. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. Kingsley. (3) It is the same form for first.² MCMASTER. Men may be ready to fight to the death. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. and to persecute without pity. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.

²BIBLE What fates impose. The sentences of Sec. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. either of which would be neuter. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. is always neuter. what we said?²CARLYLE. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. 119. as. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular.²SHAKESPEARE. The gender. it usually follows. When expressed. 109. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. Who plainly stands for those or the people. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. by taking them out. Sec. . consequently is neuter. for example. as in sentence 6. that do I not. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. and person of the relatives who. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. plural number. but what I hate. that men must needs abide." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. plural number. which.² What I would. we can. What. that do I. third person. third person.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. that he has. who Poss. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. number. 117.²EMERSON. What a man does. whose Obj. 118. and is emphatic. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths." That evidently refers to truths." (3) "These people heard him. For example. Nom.

standing for the people understood. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Truths in sentence (2). after all. people is the object of the preposition of. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. The relative what is handled differently. 7. First find the antecedents. The word what. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Some prefer another method of treatment. Another way. etc. but of this. What can't be cured. then parse the relatives. in (3). subject of heard. 6. that takes the case of the truths in (2). but is singular." Here the subject of is. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Now. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. In the sentence. and hence is in the nominative case. In the same way who. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. The whole expression is its subject. we is the subject. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. is what we call nature. 3."²EMERSON. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. above. the highest result of all education. in (1). As shown by the following sentences. Parsing what. the simple relative. because it has usually no antecedent. 5.. 8. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. I think they are trying to outwit nature. What must be endured? Answer. it is object of uttered. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. it is subject of the verb heard. In (2). Exercise." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. "What can't be cured must be endured.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. 4. so is in the objective case. nobler souls with that which they are. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. . neuter. is subject of wrought upon and molded. and what is the direct object of the verb call. in the following sentences:² 1. is in the nominative case. however. third person. which is. 120. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.

to everything that. object of do] they do. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. 7. Death is there associated. Do what we can. whatsoever. and which in the second clause. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. whichsoever. 123. by meaning and use. whatever. 4. It is clear that in 1. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. It is no proof of a man's understanding. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 6. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. 122. which.²BURKE. . not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. and in 2. whosoever. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 2. no particular thing. 5. The simple relatives who. Hence some take what as a double relative. or what else soever. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. Take which you please. that is. whatsoever. 121. being referred to. not as direct as the simple relatives. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. summer will have its flies. whatever is equivalent to all things which. object of with] which [singular. no certain antecedent.²you cannot have both. 2.²BURKE.²MACAULAY. They are whoever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. So with the other indefinites. Meaning and use. and his friend a fool. and parse that in the first clause. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whichever. Only itself can inspire whom it will. List and examples. or stand on their head. 3. less common are whoso. in a new and original way. "common souls pay with that [singular.

² some particular thing. There is nothing but is related to us. has been my heaviest affliction. but mean any one whom. upon which. Instead of the phrases in which. by which.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. etc. 2. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. Sec. whereby. but which only wealth could have purchased. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. whereupon.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. as was used just as we use that or which. Former use of as. Proof that they have the force of relatives. not following the word such. for example. 4. etc.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. But and as.²HAWTHORNE. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. what means anything that. either one that.²DE QUINCEY. are used. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. 121. In early modern English.. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Two words.As shown in Sec. Other substitutes. 126. 124. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.² 1. thus.²EMERSON. 121. nothing that does not interest us. for example. . but and as. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. and that as after such is equivalent to which. This. 120. the conjunctions wherein. 125. everything that (or everything which). are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. 417).

Another caution. and 3 (b). no antecedent is expressed. it is an indefinite relative).. showing that who is plainly interrogative. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. the full expression being. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 127. Special caution needed here.²WHITTIER. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which.²ID. 2. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. it is a simple relative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. which would indicate that they are not relatives. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. second. How to decide. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. if expanded. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does." etc. 2 (b). and whether what = that + which (if so. 3. if not. "Who stood behind? We knew. . which having the antecedent lines. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. if not. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. In studying such sentences. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. what is interrogative. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. who having the antecedent gentleman. would be. So in 2 (b)." Likewise with which in 3 (b). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. But in 1 (b). it is an interrogative. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. 1 (b). Thus. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide.²EMERSON. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. a question is disguised in each sentence. In sentences 1 (a). it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). though the earthwork hid them.

On the other hand. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. ELIOT. In the second.²SWIFT. 2.²FLETCHER.² These are the sounds we feed upon. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. I visited many other apartments. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. and asks no question. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. whence is the interrogative word. 3. 4.²GOLDSMITH. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. but the life of man in England. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. Relative omitted when object.²CARLYLE. When Goldsmith died. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. whose has the antecedent you. 129. In the third. Examine the following:² 1.²G. In the first. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. 5.128. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. . Exercise. Put in the relatives who.²FORSTER 6. The insect I am now describing lived three years. Thus. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. which. the question is asked by the verb. which has the antecedent hue. and Court Calendars. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences.²HOLMES.² THACKERAY.

The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. and comparatively so in poetry. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge.² LOWELL. Function of adjective pronouns. 6. It is rare in prose. which. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. the house was full. simple relatives. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. and what.Ne'er looks upon the sun. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.7. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. who were to be rulers over whom.²SHAKESPEARE. that. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. Relative omitted when subject. There was such a crowd went. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 2. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.²Id. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. or indefinite relatives:² 1.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. which was already proceeding. 130.²SCOTT. 5.²CAMPBELL. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. 3. Examples are. The nobles looked at each other. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. . Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. Also in literary English we find the same omission.

and stand for a noun. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. 132." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. Primarily they are adjectives. such as this. but have lost their adjective use. as some." Classes of adjective pronouns. necessarily thought of: thus. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. in order to be an adjective pronoun. must not modify any word. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples." in the second. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.131. that. Adjectives. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. in letters of gold. neither. but in this function. or an argument in a paragraph. It must come under the requirement of pronouns." in the others." "one man. In the first use they are adjectives. or they may stand for nouns.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. either. 'Truth. expressed or understood. few." that is. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. .²BRYANT. which we have seen in such expressions as. a word. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. For instance. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. in the first. many. etc.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these." "Where two men ride on a horse. etc. such as each. "another bank. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. and on each is written.²IRVING. Caution. any. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. and another to get cool under. the former. "these pranks. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. For example. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. all. none. "The dead are there. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence.²EMERSON. or may be the whole of a sentence. or use. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. etc. not pronouns. 133. "each cube.

(a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. when the latter was the King of Spain. Such are a few isolated instances. A man inspires affection and honor. Definition and examples. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. reap the same. Their minds accorded into one strain. Compound. 5. Even as I have seen. but what he fain had seen He could not see.² They stood. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. They had fewer books. . They have not shunned the one. accidentally preserved.²EMERSON 4. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. they that plow iniquity. or sat. Exercises. as seemed good to each. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.²ID. Simple. or reclined. but these were of the best. Some of these are simple pronouns. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. NOTE.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²LOWELL.²ID. 2. because he was not lying in wait for these. and sow wickedness. and they have well performed the other. 3. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. for example. 134.All these he saw. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose.

It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. imbued. as most were. The word one has a reflexive form. for example. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Exercise. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. They led one another.² One reflexive. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.²KINGSLEY. Much might be said on both sides. one another. Definition and examples. you quickly come to the end of all. Some inflected.²HOLMES. None shall rule but the humble. Men take each other's measure when they react. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²EMERSON. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. we might the more easily discharge them.²each other. such as one other. . The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.Two are compound pronouns. Another opposes him with sound argument. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. as.²HAWTHORNE. as it were. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. another.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. with the superstitions of his time. The Soldan. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. or melt for others' woe. 135. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. paused over a horoscope. ²HAWTHORNE.

etc.Exercise. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. They indefinite means people in general. Jove laughs. as. everybody. also aught. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. in building of chaises.²SHAKESPEARE. nothing.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. everybody else. every one (or everyone). Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. and they. anything. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Every one else stood still at his post. no one. unlike adjective pronouns. and was indefinite in Old English. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. naught. and somewhat. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. I tell you what. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. anybody. every one else. Definition and examples." It means something.² At lovers' perjuries. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. some one. something. anybody else's. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. nobody. what. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. but. Now.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. . Exercise. somebody else. 136. they are never used as adjectives. etc. 137. everything. any one (or anyone). as shown in the words everybody's. anyone else. they say.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Somebody.

Exercise. A reminder. 9.²a feature of natural scenery for which. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. indeed. 8. O thou that rollest above. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 11. were suffered to depart. to which. in his negotiations. 2. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got.See also "Syntax" (Sec. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 7. I first found myself among the mountains. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Others did the same thing. Whoever deals with M. 4. For this did God send her a great reward. Hutchinson tells us of herself. and of no other. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 10. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 6. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. The table was good. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 12. 138. 3. 16. All was now ready for action. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 5. from my earliest days. . 17. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 18. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 14. 13.

eat white bread or brown. thou rollest now. And will your mother pity me. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere.Who knew thee too well. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. And I had done a hellish thing. 21. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 29. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. hear. 32.Destroyer and preserver. who take the world easy. oh. hear! 33.And it would work 'em woe. 31. Whatever he knows and thinks. 27. I who alone am. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. well-oiled dispositions. variety. behold now the semblance of my being. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. in all its height. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. 30. 35. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. and seized a pen. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. They know not I knew thee. 25. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 34. that let him communicate. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 26. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. who slept last night like a corpse? 22.19. He sate him down.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 23.

38. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. So with any object. as. etc. etc. and so he read. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Again. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 41. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. It may have this office alone. white or red. 43. becomes mine. adjectives are used. 42. 139. . 39. and if we are near. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. then. or liquid. As to the kind of words used. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. that is our permanent state. He teaches who gives. "one hat. and he learns who receives. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. We are by nature observers. Substantives. or with persons." The office of an adjective." "a hundred men. 37.36. which was no bad step towards my liberation. If a chemist discovers a new substance. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. if we are at a distance. Who hears me. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. For example.. in pointing out an object. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. who understands me. We need to add some words to tell its color." "that house. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. such as in the expressions "this man. heavy or light. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. ADJECTIVES. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. Office of Adjectives. 45." "yonder hill. or gaseous. position. brittle or tough. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. 40. He knew not what to do. the number is limited by adjectives." "some cities. size." etc. 44. so that no other will be mistaken for it.

it shows that he weighs men's minds. Nouns are not. derived from proper nouns.140. and their trash." "half-dead traveler.²COLERIDGE." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Definition. 141." "ivory-handled pistols. or how much of a thing. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. pointing out particular things.²POPE. divine. such as. fair. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. etc." "ice-cold water." and the still less significant "and so. With exception of the "and then. They include relative and interrogative words. "Heaven-derived power. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets.² BACON. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. "an old English manuscript." "this life-giving book. If he be thankful for small benefits. (4) Pronominal adjectives. to forgive. (2) Adjectives of quantity. used to tell how many things are spoken of. such as safe." "the Roman writer Palladius. Examples are." "next-door neighbor." . notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. beautiful. To err is human. however. words primarily pronouns. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. terrible. rash. 143." they constitute all his connections. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. deep. remotest. Infinitives. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." the "and there. to describe it or to limit its application." "the Christian pearl of charity. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. 142. Classes of adjectives. happy. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. To make this clear." "unlooked-for burden.

" was is the verb. some. 143. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. 1. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "It came on like the rolling simoom. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by.But ever she looked on Mr. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. considerable. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. . and accomplished is an adjective. no.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. in this. in studying these last-named words. 'Tis midnight." "trailing clouds." Caution. 2. having some of each subclass named in Sec. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. Care is needed. and another is drunken. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. much.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit.²COLERIDGE. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "One is hungry. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "an aged man. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. For instance: in the sentence." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. Oxenham. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. which are either pure participles used to describe. Examples are. 145.²MACDONALD." "a charming sight." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. Exercises. any. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "The shattered squares have opened into line. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. 144. sometimes small." was accomplished is a verb.

(2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. and with them a few negroes. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. every village.² Every town had its fair. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. When some. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. latter." "He had lived by hunting for some months.²THACKERAY." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. instead of modifying them. The demonstrative adjectives are this." "Then we wandered for many days. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives.²ID. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. former. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. those). which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. "one blaze of musketry. as. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. its wake. any.²VAUGHAN. (plural these. Examples. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. are used with plural nouns. they come under the next division of adjectives." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. Exercise. Thus.²CARLYLE.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. The list." Single ones of any number of changes. that. How many. but I have gained fourscore. 146. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." (b) Indefinite numerals. the former²the latter. no." "I have lost one brother. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "a dozen volunteers.²KINGSLEY. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. An arrow was quivering in each body." "In came some five and twenty more. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. yonder (or yon).It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. The following sentences present some examples:² . Not primarily pronouns. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.

²WORDSWORTH. Indefinite relative adjectives.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. but.²ID. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²RUSKIN. Oxenham fought desperately. ²CARLYLE. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²KINGSLEY. but in the one case. WEBSTER. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The taking of which bark. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²BANCROFT. tell how many things are meant. Exercise.. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. FRANKLIN. These do not.. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.²ID.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. what revenues or garnitures."²B. skill which was at pause. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. 148.but all these charms are fled.² It matters not what rank he has. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. Modify names of persons or things. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. they are changed to adjectives. The silver and laughing Xenil. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. I verily believe. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. 149.²D. Definition. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. As has been said.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. for example. skill which was progressive²in the other. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. When we speak of the seventeenth century. like the other numerals. In which evil strait Mr. just as the corresponding pronouns do. of equal skill.²BULWER. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. These were thy charms. .²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²GOLDSMITH. 147. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. They are of two kinds.

nature will be sure to bear us out in.² EMERSON. In direct questions.. as it rather seemed. whichsoever. proved not altogether displeasing to him.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. it is impossible to determine.²CARLYLE. Whatsoever kind of man he is. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. Was there.²AGASSIZ. Adjective what in exclamations.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).. which is selective among what is known. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.²RUSKIN. whichever. whatsoever. A lady once remarked. As in the pronouns. whatever. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. and gaze.²IRVING. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. He was turned before long into all the universe. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. and new tormentedAround me. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. Examples of their use are. you at least give him full authority over your son. or whether any.150. what inquires about things or persons not known. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. But when the Trojan war comes.And whichsoever way I turn.²LAMB. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. whichsoever way I move. . the debt to the rich. New torments I behold. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. which.²ID. In indirect questions. 151. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.

And yet. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. or weight.. It is neither relative nor interrogative. When we place two objects side by side. etc.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness.² Oh.152. which was fully inflected in Old English. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. and when we compare the objects. th s (modern those). But this had also another plural. 155. of the quality. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. Thus. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. we do so by means of their qualities. or size. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.Adjectives have two inflections. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. alas. gold is heavier than iron. COMPARISON. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this.²number and comparison. Meaning of comparison. In exclamatory expressions.²This. weight. we notice some differences between them as to size. or amount. 154.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. All these have certain qualities. History of this²these and that²those. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. those). color. etc. This is the old demonstrative. as. the making of it right. That. Those borrowed from this. NUMBER. 153 . The article that was used with neuter nouns. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.²but not the same degree. . to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. Exercise. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. and those as the plural of that.

Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. These are called degrees of comparison. whether they attend their own affair or not. "untamed thought. universal institution. blue. and many others. with less wit. easy. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. bluest. 157.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. 156. red. to the simple form. though the simple. and the superlative by adding -est. giant-like. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative." "no fewer than a hundred. bluer. reddest. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. 159. Freedom is a perpetual. as. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality." "the largest soul. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. indefatigable.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE." "It is a nobler valor. or amounts in quantity. They came into use about the thirteenth century. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected.²SEWARD. indomitable. strictly considered. Substitute for inflection in comparison. The comparative is formed by adding -er. whose favorite pupil he was. expressing a greater degree of quality. infinite. great.²THACKERAY. A main difference betwixt men is. but. for example. The two forms. So with the words sole. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. 160. they are not compared. easier." Words that cannot be compared.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. as. expressing the greatest degree of quality. enormous." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. and the superlative. supreme. redder. . Definition. 158. immemorial. sufficient. but were not common until a century later. These are properly the only degrees." "the commonest speech. organic. "more matter. easiest.

"So help me God. was most finished. strange. etc. and yet familiar.²ID. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. peaceablest. Adjectives irregularly compared. witty." "distantest relationships. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. These long. there needed to be a most genuine substance. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.²ID.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. though born in no very high degree. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. finest chiseling. and other words are preceded by more and most. as. easy. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. and patientest fusing." "more odd. mournfulest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. harsh forms are usually avoided. madam." said Henry Esmond.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.² CARLYLE A gentleman." "sorrowfulest spectacles.Which rule. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. honestest." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. 162. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. 163. indisputablest. polished. falling on his knees. which hung behind in the queerest way." Carlyle uses beautifulest. who." "more austere and holy. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. most small." "the wonderfulest little shoes." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. admirablest.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. The following lists include the majority of them:² . I will. quiet. These are adjectives irregularly compared. The general rule is. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.²The Nation.

(3) Little is used as positive to less. Hind 2. List I. [Out] Outer. 1.LIST I. older Nigher Nearer Later. lesser Elder. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. further Farthest. (2) In Old English. latter Hinder LIST II. 8.² O. hindermost Much or many More Farther. 2. outermost Utmost. lesser. worst. innermost Outmost. The superlative I form was betst. Worser was once used. bad. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. next Nearest Latest. evil was the positive to worse. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. last Hindmost. 4. furthest 10. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 9. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 3. 7. is often used. oldest Nighest. throw away the worser part of it.² We have it in a much lesser degree. least. though from a different root. [In] Inner Inmost. as in the sentence (14th century). and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 164. There was an old comparative bet. utter 3. uttermost Upmost.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. . Good or well Evil. as. a double comparative. which has softened to the modern best. uppermost LIST III. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. as in Shakespeare. 5. A double comparative. which has gone out of use.²HAMLET. These have no adjective positive:² 1. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. 6.

and refer to time. further. ²LAMB.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. next. doubling the inflection. th came into the others. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. for example.²forth. greatest. near. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. and the superlative nearest. is quite common. a distinction has grown up between the two series. "Many a little makes a mickle. there is scarcely any distinction. are earlier than older. to England we sailed. as long. . latest. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. furthest. moche. are shown in such phrases as. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. The meanings greater. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. The form hindmost is really a double superlative.²ID. except the form next. farthest. The latter. great. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. First became entirely detached from the series. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. the old forms. to which is added -ost.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. first. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. List II. farrest.²HAWTHORNE. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. In imitation of further. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. but not in meaning. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. instead of lenger. oldest. much.. (5) The forms elder. etc. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. muchel. latter and last are used in speaking of succession.²KINGSLEY. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. an old superlative ending. or series." Its spelling has been micel. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. meaning the largest part. etc. eldest. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. making the modern farther. The most part kept a stolid indifference. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. Since later. as. but originally the comparison was nigh.. strenger. came into use. since the m is for -ma.² The more part being of one mind. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. strong. Between the two sets as they now stand.

having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. the upper light of the world.²SCOTT. but her after deck was still dry. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. ." "far-seeing as the sun. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Think what each adjective belongs to." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. 166." "the innermost moral soul. and have no comparative force. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. by the by. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. Her. are like the comparative forms in List II. The adjectives in List III.²KINGSLEY. or have no comparative forms.²DE QUINCEY.²H. (Sec. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. In List II." "The outer is of the day. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. 167. Decidedly handsome. on the very topmost twig. The comparatives are so in form. all may belong to the same noun. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." "their utmost exertion." -Most added to other words. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. or each may modify a different word or group of words. List III.165. but they have no adjective positives. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. but not in their meaning. W. 168. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. BEECHER. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. in having no adjective positives. There. They have no superlatives.²DE QUINCEY. being merely descriptive. Her bows were deep in the water.²EMERSON. Highest and midmost.²HAWTHORNE. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace.

" in which then is an adverb. our new government. deeply black eyes. in this sentence.²HOLMES. By a convenient brevity. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. Bradbury and Evans. and thine often infirmities. therefore. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. we may say "the then king. bright. now our queen. round. STEPHENS 5. satisfactory. Richard Hooker." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. It may still be argued.²TRENCH. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives." making then an adjective. The seldom use of it.²RUSKIN. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. deep. not decision alone. and broken. Other instances are. In the following quotations. usual modifies incomparable decision.²HAWTHORNE.²A. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. and moral truth. STOWE. 2. philosophical. H. rich. This. 169. and heaven-defying oaths.²HAWTHORNE. the then and still owners. But in this sentence. solid.²MRS. May we not." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. . 6.For example.²NOAH PORTER. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. For thy stomach's sake. instead of saying. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. 3.² My then favorite. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. "the one who was then king. 4.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. as. A few improper jests and a volley of good. ²TROLLOPE. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. in prose.²BIBLE. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. Exercise. Our sometime sister. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. 7. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision.

and very few have number. This gave the young people entire freedom. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. with awkward but rapid pace. (4) What word or words it modifies. 5. 7. MODEL FOR PARSING. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. 2. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. Exercise. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. having a singular. 4.What to tell in parsing. therefore demonstrative. modifies truths. cannot be compared. seventy-five drachmas. . and I waited for none. 8. this. These points out what truths. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 9. modifies the word truths. In parsing an adjective. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. Since adjectives have no gender. person. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 10. 3. then. if it can be compared. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. across the plain. (3) Its degree of comparison. if it has number. positive degree. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. manly way. and most astounding were those frightful yells. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. frank. 170. the method of parsing is simple. I ask nothing of you. not inflected for number. compared by prefixing more and most. To every several man. (2) Its number. plural number. 6. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. To every Roman citizen he gives. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. She made no reply. or case. therefore descriptive. Unfamiliar describes truths.

19. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 26. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. those dogs in the yard. Here lay two great roads. Like most gifted men. 29. 24.11. 28. growing in the most unfavorable position. 12. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 18. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. and dogs. 20. 31. not so much for travelers that were few. the tomahawk fell. 21. yonder oxen in the pasture. I know not what course others may take. Two hours elapsed. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. . With every third step. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Nearer to our own times. 16. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 32. 25. 13. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. it rests on reality. are immutably fishes. and therefore more interesting to us. 33. is the settlement of our own country. during which time I waited. To say what good of fashion we can. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. as for armies that were too many by half. he won affections with ease. oxen. 14. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 27. 22. it is so noble a fruit. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. and many poles supported the lower ones. In music especially. Their name was the last word upon his lips. suggests such thoughts as these. 23. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged.

" "a yelling crowd. were formerly that one. An before vowel sounds.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. that) which was also an article in Old English. ARTICLES. An historian. 174. the tother. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. later th . Their origin. th o. weary-hearted man was he. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. such as we have been attempting to describe. even when not silent. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. or the tane. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. In the sentence. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. and a before consonant sounds. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. 173. just as adjectives do. A hard-struggling. with an ordinary little garden. ðat. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment." "an orange. 172. for example. in vulgar English. . An or a came from the old numeral n. Two relics. In Middle English the became an article.²BREWER. Our expressions the one." An with consonant sounds. 37. s o. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the tother. 171. sometimes the tother. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. 35.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Examples: "a house. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy." the words the and an belong to nouns. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. the tither. these occurring as the tane. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. meaning one." "an honor. the latter is still preserved in the expression. a before consonant sounds. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. he is no literary man. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Many writers use an before h.34. that other. the other. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. but the former is used." "a European.

it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.. The Dakota tribes. or a group or class of things. on opening a story. 176. is referred to. Articles are either definite or indefinite. and when the word river is omitted.²COLERIDGE.²THACKERAY. An hereditary tenure of these offices. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. or any individual of a group or class. 175.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. as "the Mississippi. NOTE. When the is prefixed to a proper name. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. thus. the older n. BANCROFT. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with." the article indicates clearly that a river.² . An or a is the indefinite article. 179.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²HEROES OF ASGARD.. 177. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. not descriptive. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.. The is the definite article. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. An article is a limiting word. which cannot be used alone." "the Ohio. With names of rivers. and not a state or other geographical division. Reference to a known object. Definition. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Kinds. a person is introduced by a. An and a are different forms of the same word. doubtless. To call attention to attributes. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.² Don't you remember how. 178.²IRVING.²G. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. or group. or class. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. as in the sentence. since it points out a particular individual.²This use is noticed when.

as.The Bacon. For possessive person pronouns.²MOTLEY. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.² The faint. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. His messages to the provincial authorities.²EMERSON.²G.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. so is the evil. The. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. Kant. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. would speedily extract the required information. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. 2. 181. The simple rise as by specific levity. Common. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²EMERSON. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. the gallant. not into a particular virtue. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. and the redwing. With adjectives used as nouns. 180. Half abstract. for example.²KINGSLEY. . NOTE. the Spinoza. the Hume. Caution. etc. the song sparrow. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. 182. If the good is there.²ID.² As she hesitated to pass on. but into the region of all the virtues. 183. Schelling. or a match put between the fingers. With plural of abstract nouns. her. One thing for its class. laid it on the miry spot. 1.²GIBBON. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun.²SCOTT. BANCROFT.²ID.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. taking the staff which always guided her steps. By examining a few verbs. in (b)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. "Put thou money in thy purse. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. and to receive the action expressed. etc. which means to go over. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek.²BULWER . as. in this sentence from Bulwer. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. a preposition. Hence Definition. we consider a verb as one word. c). Each influences some object. Of those expressing action. representing something which it influences or controls. an article. 203. In the sentence. The nature of intransitive verbs. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. a noun. in (2. 204. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. in (c). or a material thing. b). In giving a definition. A verb is a word used as a predicate. or an idea. "Put money in thy purse. for example. with some word understood. and a preposition unite as a verb. Has takes the object hypocrisy. the word following. all do not express it in the same way. 201. to say something to or about some person or thing. a)." put is the predicate. In each case. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. in (2. which may be a person. and. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. and shame the most astute. to go is no predicate. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. a verb. 200: In (1). A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. an adverb. 202. care. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. in (3. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. can deceive has an object. lone took what? answer. but fearing is not a predicate. the most penetrating. but cannot be predicates. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. the most astute." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. In the first. (can) shame also has an object.In (a). to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. and not a verb. b). All these are called transitive verbs." Examine the sentences in Sec. Now. The nature of the transitive verb. or the object. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. Definition and caution. from the Latin transire. obeyed is a predicate. endured what? anguish. in (3. hence is not a verb.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

in our case. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.I could lie down like a tired child.² If. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. the writer can make the statement following. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. WEBSTER. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.²SHELLEY.² Now. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. 221.²FRANKLIN. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. or be fulfilled. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.²D. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. I. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. as. he will see the need of these ethics. they were recorded in the Book of Life. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. and may or may not be regarded true. If this be the glory of Julius. for example.²BRYCE. popular government must be pronounced impossible. the second founder.²LONGFELLOW. the first great founder of the Empire. Again.²may or may not be true. Unreal²cannot be true. as.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. 215. Ideal. but. the representative system ultimately fail.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. Most excellent stranger. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. ²EMERSON. 2). they were deeply read in the oracles of God. 222. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.²MACAULAY. Condition or Supposition. . if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.

what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. 4. The subjunctive. since he [Byron] was dead. 2. if his lot had been mine.²SWIFT. which cannot be true.² It was necessary. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. to drink strong beer. 223. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. she was regarded as a prodigy.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if.²CALHOUN." etc. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. would have sat still with joy and peace. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 3. 7. NOTE. society could not hold together. In the following conditional clauses..²EMERSON. as. that he might be strong to labor. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. II. Epaminondas. clear.² CARLYLE. P. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. Exercise. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. and striven energetically to save Ney. may. 8. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.²N. especially be.²FRANKLIN. he supposed.²MACAULAY. etc. But in no case could it be justified. would you. that we cannot but regret its absence. and should. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.² If these things were true. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. but when the verb precedes the subject. if he speak to you. Subjunctive of Purpose. WILLIS. I told him.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.. might. . ²LOWELL. except. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. If he had reason to dislike him. is of similar physiognomy. and sonorous. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. 6. he had better not have written. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. unless. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²BAYNE. and what kind of condition:² 1. if he was the man I take him for. though. 5. melodious.. The voice.. do you think.²FRANKLIN. thus. is used to express purpose. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.

226. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. Expressing a Wish. like the quarry-slave at night. I would it were! ²EMERSON.Were wafted off to seas unknown. The English subjunctive. To tell of what had passed. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. within its fairy bowers.. VI. .. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. 224. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. I've wished that little isle had wings.. the answer being regarded as doubtful.Thou go not.²WORDSWORTH. 225. 227. none of us could say. like the Latin.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Subjunctive of Result. WEBSTER. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. III.²BRYANT.²DE QUINCEY.²SOUTHEY. So live.And we. V.²D. Rise up. Ask the great man if there be none greater.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.²MOORE. IV. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. After a verb of wishing.That vain it were her eyes to close. till it meet the sun in his coming. VII.²CARLYLE. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. In a Noun Clause. Let it rise.I have been the more particular.. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. In Temporal Clauses.²ID. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. In Indirect Questions.

The essence of originality is not that it be new. object. Object. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. that everything be in its place. which may be (a) Pronoun. for example. Complement..²COLERIDGE. or whatsoever victual it may be. in its various uses as subject. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.And see the Braes of Yarrow. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. VIII.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. often contains a subjunctive. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.And look thou tell me true.² DICKENS. in apposition. tell me all that thou hast seen.²SCOTT. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. Concessive Clauses. .² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. That hunger of applause.²DE QUINCEY. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. Whatever betide. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. 228. See that there be no traitors in your camp. The first merit. is.²SHELLEY. I have no thought what men they be.²COLERIDGE. of cash.²WORDSWORTH. The noun clause. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. is the ultimate fact of man's life. Some might lament that I were cold.²TENNYSON. (b) Adjective.²THOREAU.Subject. After verbs of commanding. 229.²CARLYLE. etc. Come.² Be the matter how it may. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. we'll turn aside.

point to their immortal works. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. 232. It must be remembered. (1) Command. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²CHANNING. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Usually second person. however. since commands are directed to a person addressed. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. a concession.² CARLYLE. (2) Entreaty. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Honor all men.(c) Adverb. to express a wish. . entreaties. love all men. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²BRYANT. though.²SHELLEY. In spoken English. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. and condition contrary to fact. ADAMS. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. 230. fear none. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. Definition. Oh. for example.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. we had found [should have found] a poem here.²J. IMPERATIVE MOOD.The spirit he loves remains. Q. At the present day. 231. (3) Request. or requests. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative.

that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. receive my hand. 3." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Part we in friendship from your land." whispered Kit."²DICKENS Tell me." Exercises on the Moods. Oh.And."Hush! mother. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. etc. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. 6. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. "The Devil take the goose. to you implied in it.. Quoth she. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.. child of earth!While each performs his part. but I + you. lest we rust in ease. or I + they. "Come along with me. Mark thou this difference. 2. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.²CAMPBELL. 8. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. nothing is to be preferred before justice.²SHAKESPEARE. request. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. etc. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.²SCOTT. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Break we our watch up. Sometimes with first person in the plural.And God forget the stranger!" .One glance at their array! 5.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. there will her heart and her prayers be. noble earl. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. 7. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.

Though abyss open under abyss. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. whether he do it right or wrong.9. how he may do his work. then. That a man parade his doubt.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. "Mr. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. He is. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. let him live where else he like. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.That they might answer him. Well." 25.High up in silver spikes! 22. "Oh.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 23. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 13." continued Old Morgan. That sheaf of darts.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. and opinion displace opinion. or do it at all. Think not that I speak for your sakes. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. 19. 21. will it not fall unbound. 14. Forget thyself to marble. in what pomps and prosperities he like. 20. as though an instrument. "tell me where I may find my poor." 16. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. . Marshall. but repentant child. my dear madam. 10. Though he were dumb. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 26. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. no literary man. she ought to have it. 11.Except. He. ruined. 18. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. it would speak." cried he. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause.

shall. Old English had only two tenses. Siddons. 235. by means of the present." present.² present. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. a form ending in -eth. tell him to wait." "If he comes. and the past tense. which represented present and future time. the past. and the future tense. past perfect. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. "It is not in man that walketh. Tense means time. or agree with it. TENSE." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. Tenses in English. 234. "Thou walkedst.²the present tense. Meantime.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. called auxiliaries. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. 233. Definition. also. as. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. or whether it were as one member of a general party. whatever she did. kind. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. in the third person singular. as. PERSON AND NUMBER. past. five in the subjunctive. past. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no." . as the classical languages have. When the older pronoun thou was in use." past. will. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and future perfect tenses. "I go away tomorrow. such as be. and future. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. or future time.27. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs.²nothing could exceed the amiable. such as Latin and Greek. as will be shown later on. to direct his steps. "Thou walkest. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. 28. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. in the conjugations. have. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. five in the imperative. The tenses in detail.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents.

PRESENT TENSE. I were 2. 238. are. wert) 3." and this only in the present tense indicative.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. moods. is. been. This is the third person. tense. mood. chosest). Few forms. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. I be 2. Singular 1. The verb be has more forms. chosen (old. walketh. chose. Singular 1. PRESENT TENSE. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. choosing. CONJUGATION. "He walks. Singular 1. You (thou) be 3. walkedst. as. walks. [He] is [They] are 3. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. walked. etc. chooseth. 236. chooses. persons. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. [He] were [They] were . for example. You are 2. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. choosest. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. singular number.²am. In classical languages. 237. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. Definition. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. but in English. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. were. Singular 1. since it is composed of several different roots. and numbers. etc. walking. walk has walk.²choose. tenses. Such verbs as choose have five. Indicative Mood. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE.

If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.. to form the passive voice. in four ways.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.²GOLDSMITH.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.²SCOTT. as. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²THACKERAY. (d) With the infinitive. were. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. which was now become an occasional banquet.²WORDSWORTH.²ID. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. though it is usually a dialect form. The light that never was on sea and land. -en.²SHELLEY.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. (b) With the past participle in -ed. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. condition. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.His infancy was nurtured. for example.²BURKE . same as the German sind. etc. to express intention. 239.. obligation. Remarks on the verb be. etc. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.Imperative Mood. 240. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. is. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (2) As auxiliary verbs. thus. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. (3) be. (2) was. Instead of the plural are.

" "He will choose. You chose Plural. I choose 2. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. by placing have. Singular. "I had gone" (past perfect). PRESENT TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). We chose You chose 3. as. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. (2). 1. 240. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. Singular. Indicative Mood. I chose 2. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. past perfect. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. "I have gone" (present perfect). Singular. tenses. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. We chose You chose 3. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. 242. etc. I choose 2. You choose Plural. 1. .241. I chose 2. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. as. Machinery of a verb in the voices. You chose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. tenses. You choose Plural. 1." (2) Present perfect. 1. "I shall be. In addition to the above inflected forms. had. [He] choose [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. PRESENT TENSE. future perfect. Singular.

as. Past. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. He has chosen. (2d per. Present definite. Past definite.) Choose. He had chosen. Past definite. Present perfect definite. Subjunctive Mood. He will have been choosing. He was choosing." 243. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. he chose (or were to choose).(3) The definite form of each tense. Past. ACTIVE VOICE. lest. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. Future definite. "I was chosen. Same as indicative. Past perfect." "You are chosen. [If. Present. He chose.] he choose. will be given. of each tense. He has been choosing. as. He will have chosen. Past perfect definite. Future. though. singular number." "They had been running." (4) The passive forms. Present perfect definite. Present. He will he choosing. "I am running. he have been choosing. Present perfect. " Be choosing. He is choosing. Present perfect. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He chooses. . etc. Present definite. Future perfect. Future perfect definite. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He had been choosing. He will choose. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Same as indicative. Indicative Mood. he have chosen. Present. Present definite. Imperative Mood. Only the third person.

to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. He will have been chosen. Present perfect definite. He is chosen." "He did strike. Past perfect definite. but verbals. None. however. " " " " " " " None. Present. None. Future perfect definite. None. Past perfect definite. None. PASSIVE VOICE. Indicative Mood. though. . (2d per. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present definite. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. as. He is being chosen." [Note to Teacher. Also. Subjunctive Mood. None. Present definite. He will be chosen. Present perfect definite. if learned at all. in affirmative sentences. Past.. 262).²This table is not to be learned now. Past definite. etc. he have been chosen. Exercises should be given. He has been chosen. Past definite.NOTE. Future definite. Imperative Mood. Past. None.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. "He does strike. he were chosen (or were to be chosen).] he be chosen. He was chosen.] [If. Future perfect.) Be chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec. he had been chosen. he were being chosen. He was being chosen. Present. Past perfect. Present tense. Present perfect. He had been chosen. Present perfect. Future. lest. Past Perfect.

According to form. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. sleep. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. NOTE. catch. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. bounden] bitten. begged. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. Definition. bid bound. Kinds. lay. and may or may not change the vowel: as. ran. drove. 244. Past Tense. Some of these also have weak forms. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. laid. beg.[adj.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. verbs are strong or weak. caught. drive. as. 245. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . run. but adds no ending. which are in parentheses Present Tense. slept. bit blown broken chidden. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade.

drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate.

sunken] sat slain slidden. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

Historically.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. instead of ate and eaten. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. ²THACKERAY." "a drunken wretch.² Thou hast clomb aloft. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. and sometimes occurs in poetry. to split. but is much used in vulgar English. the other. "his bounden duty.² We had each drank three times at the well. only one set remains certain. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. which always crew at eleven. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. cloven. and another (born) for the passive. cleaved. as. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).²IRVING. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. The former used to be cleave." In this confusion of usage. for example. and." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. The form clomb is not used in prose.²one meaning to adhere or cling. and the latter.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. clave or clove. probably to avoid confusion with this. "stricken with paralysis.²GOLDSMITH. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.²as (from Shakespeare). nor a dog barked. 246." "the cloven hoof. TAYLOR. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). cleft (to split). "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.²COLERIDGE."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. as. . cleft." "a sunken snag. cleaved.²MILTON.²TENNYSON. as.²cleave. especially in that of an earlier period. Sometimes in literary English. now told us it was time for repose. Our cock.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²B. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. cleave. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. borne is also a passive. as (from Holmes). When it means to carry or to endure. Not a cock crew.

found. Drive. driven. and seized a pen. fallen. gave. This heard Geraint. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Find. 245). He sate him down. 5. broke. Exercises. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. 2.²SCOTT.² If. Begin. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. as "a shorn lamb. froze. Freeze.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. 9. given. 7. 6. (a) From the table (Sec. 3. begun.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting.²BIBLE. for example. drove. threw. thrown. began. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Fling. shook. Shake. One example out of many is. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. as. found. for example. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Break. The butler was hanged."²KINGSLEY. frozen. flung.The form gotten is little used. broken.²WORDSWORTH." but not much as a participle. maiden. Throw. shaken. 10. even in poetry.²BYRON.²DE FOE.² We had all got safe on shore. fell. which is seldom used except in poetry. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. 4. We usually say. .²TENNYSON. Fall. flung. shore is rare. 8. Give." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Usually shear is a weak verb. and grasping at his sword.

"So mote it be..²PAINE. must have been an ocular deception. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. as it has two meanings.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. from the obsolete verb motan. as. It is indicative when it expresses permission. 251. Could may be subjunctive. but came through analogy with should and would.²CHANNING. (See also Sec.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.. PRESENT. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. as in Sec. ability. as it sometimes does. 250. Can is used in the indicative only. The l in could did not belong there originally. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. His superiority none might question. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. . it is used only in the indicative mood.²CHANNING This. etc. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. or. 220. "far off his coming shines. Indicative Use: Permission.²HAWTHORNE. Like must."²WINIER. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. etc. PAST. purpose.. PAST. or when it expresses wish. which survives in the sentence. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 249. Subjunctive use. 223. Have we valuable territories and important posts. HAMILTON. Must is historically a past-tense form. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action." Must is present or past tense. there is one general principle. of course. Ability.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. 247.. according to the infinitive used.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.²SCOTT. The same remarks apply to ought.. for full drill on the forms. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged.[To the Teacher.

e. Second and third persons. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. future action). especially in the United States. for example. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.²MACAULAY. as.²L.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. The following are examples:² Never mind. She should not walk." Uses of shall and should. while ought always has to. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. my lad. yea. shall and should are used. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. Shall and Will. (b) In indirect quotations. not plod along like apeasant.² (a) To express authority.²IRVING.² The time will come full soon. to use will and would.²THAXTER. MOULTON. (b) In questions asking for orders.²COOPER. BROCKDEN BROWN.² Futurity and questions²first person. I shall be gone. in the form of command. or confident prediction.² With respect to novels. The sea shall crush thee. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. with pronouns of the first person. shall and should are used. to the neglect of shall and should. promise.Nay. They shall have venison to eat. what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER. She rejects his suit with scorn.²LONGFELLOW.²BULWER. as. as. 252. he said. and corn to hoe. "I think I will go. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. C. . she should ride like a queen. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.

with the conviction that he should win in the end. and is equivalent to ought. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²ROGERS.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.² I will go myself now. was to be expected. thus. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. Disguising a command.. as. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. or a promise. for example. (c) With direct questions of the second person.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²SCOTT. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²CABLE.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. purpose. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²WINTER.²A. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. And promised. LARNED.²SWIFT. time.²BYRON. 253. as the sole inventor.²WORDSWORTH. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.²C. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. and will not return until all is finished. JAMES.²H. for example. JR. etc. First. B. I never was what I should be. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. BROWN.²WORDSWORTH..²WORDSWORTH. . would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.that I would do him justice. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.. second and third persons.

She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. and mark on the grounds the works. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² Subject I omitted: often so. 254. without regard to future time. Mere futurity.²BANCROFT. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). (4) With FIRST.. action merely expected to occur. and two of my people. through storms their brothers are afraid of. when thou wast born. Thine was a dangerous gift. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. In this stately chair would he sit.²the original meaning of the word will. for punishment or intimidation. The gift of Beauty.² Thou wilt take the skiff. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. Would thou hadst it not. They will go to Sunday schools. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. To be sure.²IRVING. This puts the order more mildly.²SCOTT. for example. (5) With the THIRD PERSON..² DICKENS. . What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. AND THIRD PERSONS. When I am in town. will is used to express command. SECOND. BROWN.²LANDOR.²BURKE. so you will. etc.²SCOTT. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. would is used to express a wish. as..² All this will sound wild and chimerical. B. Roland.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt... will and would are used to express simple futurity. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. will and would often denote an action as customary.. for example. as. PASSIVE VOICE. as if it were merely expected action.²War Records.

[They] will choose. You shall choose. [They] shall choose. [He] will be chosen. You shall be chosen." answered Herbert stubbornly.Singular. 2. We will be chosen. You will be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. and justify the use of shall and will. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. You shall choose. [He] shall be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. (b) Examine the following sentences. 3. 1. I will be chosen. 1. [They] shall be chosen. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 1. [They] will be chosen. You will choose. 3. 2. To express determination. 3. We shall be chosen. You will choose. "I shall not run. Plural.:² ACTIVE VOICE. I will choose. etc. Thou art what I would be. and that of the newest cut. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 3. Plural. Singular. You will be chosen. 2. 1. 1. Exercises on Shall and Will. . 2. 2. promise. He informed us. [He] will choose. Plural. (a) From Secs. We shall choose. Singular. 4. 6. 252 and 253. yet only seem. [He] shall choose. You shall be chosen. 3. Plural. 5. PASSIVE VOICE. We will choose. Thou shalt have a suit. I shall be chosen. 2. I shall choose. 3. Singular.

bereaved besought . Irregular Weak Verbs. This ending has now dropped off. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 9. 11. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. as. bereave beseech bereft. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.²ID. set. bereave besought Past Participle.²Class I. need some attention and explanation. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. 257. Present Tense. then.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs." the stranger said. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes." 14. No. Of smale houndes hadde she. put. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. my son. 256. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. Past Tense. very anxious. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. Lucy stood still. put. set. "I am a wayfarer. or mylk and wastel breed. bereft. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. and I have nothing to say.7. The beast made a sluggish movement. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. 12. But the rest. was -de or -te. and have no change of vowel.²CHAUCER. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. 10. WEAK VERBS. as if he would have more of the enchantment. Without having attended to this. 255. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. put. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. 13. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Perfect. they have an indefinite. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Infinitives. 10. [To] have chosen. like participles. I returned to reflection on my situation. formed a kind of bedstead. When active. to express action unconnected with a subject. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. INFINITIVES. Nothing of the kind having been done.²the creature warring against the creating power.6. In Sec. But later. [To] be choosing. a perfect. 8. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. when inflections became fewer. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. will (with should and would). 7. an imperfect. . Indefinite. 266. [To] have been choosing. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). [To] be chosen.. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Perfect. have no tense. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. Three saplings. as in the Old English. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] choose. and when passive. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. 268. To with the infinitive. ACTIVE VOICE. try clemency. 9. Cases when to is omitted. Indefinite.. an indefinite and a perfect form. [To] have been chosen. Imperfect. 267. to was used before the infinitive generally.. and a perfect definite form. Perfect definite. expressing purpose. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE.

"I do go" etc.² She was a kind." Examples are. E. watch. it is often preceded by the definite article. make. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. "He will choose. and emphatic forms of the present and past. GERUNDS." etc. see. "She ask my pardon. . and corn to hoe." "I shall have chosen. as the credulous imagine. also let.). as. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.²TENNYSON. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. 270.²GOLDSMITH.²it may be governed as a noun. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. or the object of a verb or a preposition. it has several attributes of a noun. liberal woman. 272. too. sometimes need (as. negative. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. While the gerund expresses action. "a house to let. They shall have venison to eat." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. it may be the subject of a verb. But there was nothing to do.²E.² What! doth she. as in the expression. bid (command). must. under "Analysis.²HOWELLS. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). do (as. 269. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. please. can (could)." (4) In exclamations. and like a noun in use. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. as.²MACAULAY. learn [doth learn is one verb. 271. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT.(2) After the verbs may (might)..²COOPER. feel. poor woman!" cried Charles. also in the imperative.²DE QUINCEY. HALE. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. as. The gerund is like the participle in form. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.²IRVING. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. hear. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win.

when. to see the returning hope of the parents.²Find sentences containing five participles. above. but cannot govern. Sec." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. on your leaving the spot." "Certainly dueling is bad. (3) Participial adjectives.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. II). Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. 4. brilliant. (2) Pure participles. making the definite tenses. Then how pleasing is it." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. What a vast. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Exercise. and five gerunds. (6) Verbal nouns. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. which express action and also modify. and wonderful store of learning! ." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (5) Gerunds. which have lost all verbal force. which name an action or state. according to use as well as meaning. b)." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. and has been put down. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. may govern and be governed." also (2. which express action. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. (4) Pure adjectives. Words in -ing are of six kinds." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which express action. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. five infinitives. but do not assert. 273. after examining the nest." Exercise. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. 2.

²strong or weak. 13. 14. 6. (b) as to use. much corroded. (5) Person and number. slowly. Thackeray did not. or imperative. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 12.²active or passive. What is dreaming? 8. like Sir Walter Scott. He spread his blessings all over the land. 9. (4) Tense. but. write twenty pages without stopping. . HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. VERBS. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. you must. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. Caution. 15. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. In parsing verbs. dictating from his chair. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 10. by object lessons. subjunctive. giving principal parts.²transitive or intransitive. (2) Voice. bearing her national emblem. 11.²indicative. give reality to your teaching. round which is an iron railing. I suppose I was dreaming about it.5. 16. 234. 275. 7. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. (3) Mood. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. he gave out sentence by sentence. I.²which of the tenses given in Sec. The only means of ascending was by my hands. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form.

let the earliest light of the morning gild it. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. can. and should always be analyzed as phrases. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. perfect. VERBALS. usually it does not. 2. 278(2). The verb be has more forms than other verbs. has the subject government. indicative. followed by a pure infinitive without to. 4. etc. verbals. must. (2) Infinitive. Exercise. 278. III. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. etc. (b) whether active or passive. The government might have been strong and prosperous. till it meet the sun in his coming. could. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. 2. would. Especially frequent are those made up of should. past tense. then parse it as an adjective. call should a weak verb. 273). Take these examples:² 1.276. You are gathered to your fathers. II. If a participial adjective. and ends in -s. therefore active. . in the world. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. In such sentences as 1. (1) Participle. perfect. But unless the verb is present. imperfect. In 2. give points (a) and (b). or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. call might a weak verb. VERB PHRASES. (a) From what verb derived. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. 3. has for its subject Lee. and not taken as single verbs. intransitive. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. (3) Gerund. (b) its use (Sec. intransitive. It has been intimated in Sec. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. (b) whether indefinite. might." Sometimes it does. (c) to what word it belongs. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. past tense. we must beware of the rule. 277. may. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. definite. Parse the verbs. active. indicative (as it means could). see Sec. 235. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. no sin nor sorrow.. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Let it rise! let it rise. and parting day linger and play on its summit.

To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 18.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. leaving me upon the bed. So. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. as usual. 13. a new bursting forth of the sun. from a sort of temporary death. 21. morning is not a new issuing of light. 11. 19. Whatever ground you sow or plant. a new waking up of all that has life. 23. 6. The soul having been often born. 9. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring.Henceforth in me instill. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 14. as the Hindoos say. 20. Right graciously he smiled on us. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. a sweet good will. 22. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. With them. or. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. However that be. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill.Down all the line. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. he thought only of her. 8. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 15. 17. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements.O God. 24.5. 12. . 10. He passed across the room to the washstand. 16. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. a deafening shout. When he arose in the morning. as rolled from wing to wing. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. In going for water. and wondered if she were yet awake. see that it is in good condition.

" Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²EMERSON. Better it were. To the almost terror of the persons present. 27."²DE QUINCEY. Oh.² The young man reveres men of genius. 279. Nor was it altogether nothing. they are more himself than he is. A verb.²THACKERAY. 29. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. to speak truly. who live with nature?²ID. 26. "William's private life was severely pure. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. as. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. and so on." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Adverbs modify. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.²time. place. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²CARLYLE. for the hour of rest is at hand." "He was absolute. thou sayest. to consent. and live ere life be spent. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. When action is expressed. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].Feast while we may. and men of leisure and cultivation.25. or manner: as. And now wend we to yonder fountain. Is it only poets. for example." An adjective or an adverb. because." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. ADVERBS. The word adverb means joined to a verb. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.²SHELLEY. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. and limit adjectives or adverbs. .

Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. for example. It may also modify a sentence. 282. has induced some of us to attend it. An adverb. 280.He was incidentally news dealer.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. A phrase. thus. Surely happiness is reflective. 281. and that. or a word group used as such. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. is a modifying word. before. while those in Sec. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. I draw forth the fruit.²These last differ from the words in Sec. Make music to the lonely ear. and half awfully. all wet and glossy. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.²BYRON. hitherto.²T. (2) according to their use in the sentence. ²IRVING. there are six classes:² (1) Time. Definition. NOTE. 169. NOTE.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. lately.² FRANKLIN. .²THOREAU. as now. ever. A clause or sentence. B.² LOWELL. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. like the light of heaven. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. not the noun. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. as. Thus considered. We are offered six months' credit. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. but still with a rich bloom to it. but some verb understood. as shown in the sentences.²LEIGH HUNT. perhaps. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. which may qualify an action word or a statement. ALDRICH. but really modifying. then.²TROLLOPE. to-day. etc.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. being adverbs naturally and fitly. not simply the forms used in predication. 169 are felt to be elliptical.

So also in Grote. Emerson. 283. (3) Manner. or how far he believes it to be true. bravely. too. probably. partly. (6) Assertion.where. as hence. as perhaps. as here. and not infrequently are found in literary English.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. much. This long's the text. at least.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. Motley. 283). An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration..²LECKY. the more friends you will have. telling how many times: once. Thackeray.whence. greatly. two by two. etc. as well.was for this once of her opinion.yonder. (5) Degree. better. (see also Sec. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.which gained him such universal popularity. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. etc. very.²IRVING. slowly.thence..(2) Place. especially the comparative of these words. etc. while so precedes only the adjective usually. White. thus.²BURKE.there.²DE QUINCEY.²R. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. just.thither. as little.near. The more they multiply.. etc. beautifully.whither. Meekness. [Sidenote The status of such. and others. etc. not. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. twice. slightly.. as hither. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. (4) Number.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. the more perfect will be their obedience.. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. whencesoever. telling how anything is done. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. telling how much. .²BROWNING. LOUIS STEVENSON. I was. singly.²HAWTHORNE. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. for example. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. maybe. that these adverbs form a very large class. enough. possibly. surely. whithersoever. above. the more evidently they love liberty.² The master.

It is only occasionally used in literary English.² KINGSLEY. Direct questions. Interrogative." "The house." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. for example. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.²BULWER. 284. A pretty large experience.² "Mighty well. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples." "I have seen you before [time]. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Holmes.²FIELDING. and its lawn before [place]. Hard blows and hard money. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Such are most of those given already in Sec.²HAWTHORNE. Simple.Pretty. B. De Quincey. besides modifying. Neville." "That were far better [degree]. 282.² You are mighty courteous. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H."²SCOTT. Kingsley. Pretty is also used by Prescott. and other writers. Aldrich. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. for example. Some adverbs. "Peace. Franklin.²THACKERAY. STOWE. Again. . have the additional function of asking a question.²"He walked too far [place]. Defoe. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Notice meanings.²BAYNE. Beau Fielding. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." "He spoke positively [manner]. a mighty fine gentleman. 286. Emerson. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal." said the king. and art but a fool. 285.²THACKERAY. Dickens. Mighty. Burke.²GOLDSMITH. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.

Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²D. (2) Place. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. When did this humane custom begin?²H. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²POE. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²BYRON. . I hearkened. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. CLAY.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. WEBSTER. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. for example. (4) Degree. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (2) Place. (4) Degree. I will not ask where thou liest low. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. 287. (5) Reason.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. I do not remember when I was taught to read.²BYRON (3) Manner. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²BULWER. I know not why. they smiled.

last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Tell what each word in ly modifies.²TENNYSON. Superlative. Only that we may wiselier see. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. just as adjectives do. not an adverb.. . Its strings boldlier swept.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Many adverbs are compared.. The following. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. 288. high.eyes. see Sec. when. Form vs. representing four classes. For further discussion. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Then must she keep it safelier. obs. higher. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. soonest. Many adjectives have the same ending. 290. have the same inflection as adjectives. further farthest. but the whole clause. furthest (rathe. as.) rather 289. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb." Exercise. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. soon. well much little far late Comparative. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. use. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. only occasionally having -er and -est. Exercise.²EMERSON. sooner. when does not express time and modify.But in reality. when compared. irregularly compared.²COLERIDGE. highest.²BYRON.²SHAKESPEARE. and. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.

With his proud. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark.²CHAUCER. 6. .²IRVING. There are eyes. to be sure. 3.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. evenly. 8. as.²THACKERAY.² EMERSON. 7. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. 291. Frequently the word there. Such are most. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. kindly and good-natured in secret. Special use of there. instead of being used adverbially. Not near so black as he was painted. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. many words without -ly have the same form. but with a different meaning. 2. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth.²ID. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.1. curiously jolly. And all about. But he must do his errand right.²WORDSWORTH. hardly. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.²TENNYSON. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.And his mien of kingly state. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. whether adverbs or adjectives. quick-flashing eye. Again. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. The reason is. more courtly in their manners. He is inexpressibly mean. 4. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 292. or down the leaves laughed through. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. etc. mostly. even. near. if it has the verb be. 2." Compare these:² 1. that in Old and Middle English. merely introduces a sentence. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. hard. nearly. 5.

Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. but continually shifted. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 293. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 3. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 15. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. But a few steps farther on. Exercise. (2) Degree of comparison. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 18. In parsing adverbs. 12. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 16. is always politically unwise. 5. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. the Madonna is in great glory. at the regular wine-shop. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. according to meaning and also use. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 9. 17. Thither we went. give² (1) The class. if the word is compared. burning in the center of the temple. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. and always. but from my fall? 6. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 4. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 11. however theoretically enticing. It is the Cross that is first seen. 7. . and sate down on the steps of a house. 2. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 10. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. For the impracticable. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13.

Unlike adverbs." Sentences." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases.19. then. etc. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. hence. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. 20. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. word groups. nor. 21. It was pretty bad after that. therefore. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. CONJUNCTIONS. sentences. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. but side by side within the American Union." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. or sentence groups. Definition. 295. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. upon which the sun now shone forth. . Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. however. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. 294. But now the wind rose again. Clauses. A conjunction is a linking word. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. 22." Paragraphs. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. connecting words. but the student will readily find them. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but.

of the same rank. for.. both. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. neither. either.. joining words.. still." Nevertheless.. either.. etc. only. They are or. whether. the bread was spent. nor. (4) ALTERNATIVE. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.or. not only.. Some of these go in pairs.and. expressing a choice. also.. as but. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. whether. .. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. as and. Correlatives.. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. word groups. 296. then. The assertion.. hence. (2) Subordinate. 298. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. (2) ADVERSATIVE... nor. had its weight. and. neither. yet. but is emperor in his own right..or.. Alternative. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.. as well as the room door. not only.or whether. serves but to show their ignorance. Causal. the window being open. Your letter. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.Classes of conjunctions. moreover. "Howbeit. while. however.. the butter too. usually between two things.or.. as well as. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. likewise.. answering to each other in the same sentence. Adversative. Nor mark'd they less. The chief ones are. else. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.nor.nor.but (or but also)..or. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. etc. etc. as. whether. either. therefore. (3) CAUSAL. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. and not man corn.. or the sea rolls its waves.. Some go in threes.. however. 297..but. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. While the earth bears a plant.. neither. introducing a reason or cause. as.

even if.. that. whither.²IRVING. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. as. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. Neither the place in which he found himself. 299. lest. whithersoever. (6) PURPOSE: that.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. (2) TIME: when.²COOPER. so.. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. ²ALLSTON.²PAULDING. since. (7) RESULT: that. after.²J. however. especially that after so.. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. since. nor creeping thing. although. seeing. provided that. Where the treasure is. in order that. nor echo. so that. etc. as. sometimes if. though. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. etc. Time.²BIBLE. provided. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. in apposition. . so.²WILSON. etc.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. except. in case. etc. He is not only bold and vociferous. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. whether. until.. whereto. It is. wherever. etc.²DE QUINCEY. nor green leaf. howsoever. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. as. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. whence. whenever. whereas. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. on condition that. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. disturbed the self-possession of the young and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds.²BURKE. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. unless. so that. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. so. ere. before. now. QUINCY. there will the heart be also. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. nor wing of bird. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. object. (3) MANNER: how. while.

. Condition. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²CAMPBELL. JACKSON.²EMERSON. Let the world go how it will. Manner. Concession.²COLERIDGE. Then Denmark blest our chief. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. As a soldier. So many thoughts moved to and fro. a thousand bodies. Comparison.²DEFOE. H. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.That vain it were her eyes to close. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Purpose. Cause. Now he is dead. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.² WORDSWORTH.²EMERSON. I was again covered with water.²IRVING. Substantive. Result.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²AMES. Sparing neither whip nor spur. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.So I behold them not.²AMES.²BURKE.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.² HAWTHORNE. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²BYRON. reason.²AMES. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. We wish for a thousand heads.² H.²EMERSON. but not so long but I held it out.² EMERSON.That he gave her wounds repose. not as they were expected or intended.

9. . Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON.²RUSKIN. and hid her there. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. Crept under the leaf.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. since. 14. the wisest. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. as he shot in air. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 4. As will have been noticed. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 10. that. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 6. she faintly pressed her hand. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. while. 13.Let us see whether the greatest. Besides. 7. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. And then recovering. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. They. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. as. 15. While patriotism glowed in his heart. While a faction is a minority. He was brought up for the church. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 300. 3. however. 2. 5. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. then. the lady called her servant. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. it will remain harmless. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 12. some words²for example. etc. After he was gone. Exercises. hold a subordinate rank. No one had yet caught his character. And they lived happily forever after. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. The moth fly. In what point of view. her real merit is known at home.

As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. 302.²EMILY BRONTE. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. As though. "We meet. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. His voice .So slowly moved about. as is often equivalent to as if. and be a bud again. GREELEY.16.. 303. 301. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. and the frame will suit the picture.²BYRON. thus. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. as is shown by the use of as though. SPECIAL REMARKS. the expression would be. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.As though a rose should shut. In parsing conjunctions. If analyzed.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. In Emerson's sentence. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if." as. for example. 304." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. As for as if. even as they would weep.²HOOD. Consequently. ... As if. expressing degree if taken separately. In poetry. etc.²IRVING. (2) What words. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. So silently we seemed to speak. word groups. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.Clouded. none of the lashings having given way. in this case. they connect.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. and part as though we parted not. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.

so it be faithfully imparted. He dismisses without notice his thought. he is also the correlative of nature. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. and its clause depends on the other. and the like. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.Caution. He is the compend of time. 3. and associates as happily. compare the sentences. dines with as good an appetite.. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. are regularly of one particular class. the Sphinx was slain. Some conjunctions. It may be safely trusted. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. so that expresses result. so means provided. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. others belong to several classes.²that the fairies do not like to be named. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. because. and very seldom?" 8. It continued raining. but of the natural. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. In classifying them. that it might testify of that particular ray. or in the forest." said his wife to Martin Luther. Exercise. 10. they are not known. 2. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. he sleeps as warm. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries.²DEFOE 2. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.²is subordinate of condition. 6.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. At sea. when. so means therefore. 9. 7. in 3. When the gods come among men. as beside his own chimneys. so they paddled on. and. All the postulates of elfin annals. 11. For example. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.² 1. 13. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. 12. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. such as nor. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. or in the snow. in 2.²I find them true in Concord. because it is his. "Doctor. If he could solve the riddle.²EMERSON 3. and its clause is independent. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. so that I could not stir abroad. 5. . etc. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. 4.

and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field.²else it is none. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. I speak. 26. 18. Goodness must have some edge to it. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 305. 25.14. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. you must be. . 23. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 19. 28. 24. There was no iron to be seen. And whether consciously or not. It may be so in the majority of cases. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 15. Still. the whole conditions are changed. 22. however. 20. when it was presented to them. of good novels only. Now you have the whip in your hand. won't you lay on? 17. that both were wayward. 27. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. therefore. 29. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I rejoice to stand here no longer. enthroned. 16. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. in many a heart. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. It is clear. whose names I omit. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. save it were sinful like herself. 30. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. in this they agree.. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 21. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. she might have the family countenance. For. PREPOSITIONS.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at all.²R. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. at most.²B. at rest. CONWAY. by means near or close to. ²PARTON. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at work. At St.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. by many a million of acres. at random. at any rate. Richard was standing by the window. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at peace. She saw the boat headed for her. 321. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. by the ruins of nations. TAYLOR The angel came by night. H. STODDARD. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail.²ALDRICH. at the worst. at length. Helena.²DE QUINCEY. as. at least. by the wrecks of time. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. he stopped. at one. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. (2) Time.. (4) Measure of excess.²WARNER. etc. at the best. at war. By. expressing the degree of difference. 320.²EVERETT.²M.² (1) The general meaning of place. at naught. by the blessed memory of the departed. Exercise. Like at.²COOPER. D. At that time [the earth] was richer. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. (3) Agency or means. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at first. at once. For. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at play.²SWIFT. etc. the first port made by the ship. By my faith.²ID. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. Exercise. .

The twilight being. if your worship can accomplish that.²PARKMAN. but a few sunsets since. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. (5) Reference.²IRVING.²H.²W. (3) Duration of time.(2) In favor of. "For a fool." said the Lady of Lochleven. respecting. in behalf of. But the Colonel. they are now for us. BANCROFT. a person or thing.²HOOD. and leaped for joy.²HOLMES. reason. incitement to action.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. E. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. L. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. ate her child. considering that etc. as being. for all his title. he repented of his folly.. There are gains for all our losses. "Nay. etc. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. meaning with regard to. as to."²SCOTT By my faith. . for all slips of hers.One of Eve's family. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²E. (9) Motive. etc. "thou hast counseled wisely.²LAMB. For him. (4) Substitution or exchange. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. For the rest. (7) Concession. or in spite of.²ID.²EMERSON. for famine. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.² RUSKIN. poor fellow. had a forest of poor relations. H." answered Master Brackett. (6) Like as.²PARKMAN. GARRISON. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. etc. or extent of space.. the Colonna motto would fit you best. An Arab woman. for the benefit of.²STODDARD. meaning in the character of. meaning although. He and they were for immediate attack. cause. Still.

The young cavaliers. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. . BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. nay. H. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. The original meaning of of was separation or source. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²HALE. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. (2) Origin.²H.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²HUME. 323. (4) Motive.²MILTON. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. The king holds his authority of the people. or reason. The From Relation. Of.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Exercise. like from. From. 322. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. A distrustful. cause. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. Exercise. more.²DRYDEN.²HUXLEY. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²HIGGINSON. The general idea in from is separation or source.²ID. (1) Origin or source.²BANCROFT. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. ceased to be merciful. (3) Time. Like boys escaped from school. It was from no fault of Nolan's. From harmony. from a desire of seeming valiant. if not a desperate man.

Sandals. beg. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. especially out of. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place.²BAYARD TAYLOR. ask."²E.²ID. (c) After nouns expressing lack. He is away of his own free will. the finest army that Europe had yet seen.²PARKMAN. deprivation. wide of. "I am glad of that. that Cromwell once ruled England. bare of. rid. motive. purge.²BOSWELL. White shirt with diamond studs. divest. (6) Partitive. there were only twenty-one members present. rob. etc. clear. (b) After some adjectives. south of. such as ease. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. (5) Expressing agency. disarm. (3) With expressions of material. ²GAVARRE. etc.²HIGGINSON. expressing a part of a number or quantity. You cannot make a boy know. etc.²ALDRICH. etc. free of.²BANCROFT. A singular want of all human relation. of his own knowledge. weeds..² HUXLEY. reason. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. as north of. More than one altar was richer of his vows. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Other Relations expressed by Of. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²LEW WALLACE. cure. The hills were bare of trees. acquitted them of. demand. Asked no odds of.²DICKENS II. and grass. Of the Forty. (d) With words expressing distance.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.²clear of. ²PARTON. . bound with thongs of boar's hide.²SCOTT Who formed.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. relieve. etc. HALE. or breastpin of native gold. E. out of the most unpromising materials. free. deprive. Back of that tree.

An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.²LOWELL.He washed out some of the dirt. being equivalent to an infinitive. for the possessive. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. . separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. Not even woman's love. of is used in the sense of during.²BANCROFT. 309. Besides the phrases of old. E. (9) Of time. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²HALLECK. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. when the first is descriptive of the second. concerning. See also Sec. (b) Noun and gerund.. etc.²PRESCOTT. of late. could give shelter from his contumely.²FROUDE. CHANNING. (7) Possessive. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. (8) Appositional.²BANCROFT. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. with its object. standing. ²IRVING.²BANCROFT.²SWIFT.²ID. equal to about. with regard to. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²COOPER. and the dignity of a queen. of a sudden. The nation of Lilliput. Idiomatic use with verbs.²LAMB. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Such a book as that of Job.²W. (10) Of reference. The fair city of Mexico.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. (c) Two nouns.²ALDRICH.

He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. etc. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. equal to about. (3) Reference. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. on high. and others.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. Upon. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon is seldom used to express time.²PARKMAN. concerning. such as admit. 324. disapprove. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²PARKMAN. and not a day more. repent.²Find sentences with six uses of of.²BRYANT. Exercise.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. accept. To. you are eighteen. allow.²PARKMAN.²MRS. approve.²DE QUINCEY. Upon my reputation and credit. (2) Time. SIGOURNEY. (4) In adjurations. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. On my life. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. Exercise. It also accompanies the verbs tire. on trial.²EMERSON. consist. The general meaning of on is position or direction. 325. On. on view. without adding to their meaning. etc. on a sudden. on board. on the alert. (b) With motion. on the wing. avail (one's self).Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. ²BANCROFT. . permit.²ALDRICH. complain.

Come to the bridal chamber. mid meant in company with. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. whose influence is felt to this hour. With. it may be genuine poetry.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. We cook the dish to our own appetite. (2) Expressing result. to him. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. .²LANG. Exercise.. (5) Equivalent to according to. interest. But when. (b) Referring to time.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. He usually gave his draft to an aid. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²often to the loss of vigor. unmasked. With expresses the idea of be written over.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²B.²BULWER. In Old English.²IRVING. His brother had died..²BENTON To our great delight. To the few. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²PARKMAN. had ceased to be.²GOLDSMITH. Revolutions. 268). Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. does the mere music. Nor. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. 326..²BRYANT..'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. to my taste.²HALE. Death!²HALLECK. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. gay Comedy appears. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²PARTON.

After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. reason.²Find sentences with four uses of with. in spite of.²SCOTT. transmitted from the beginning. "poetry is not a pursuit. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²EMERSON. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. had already reached the defile. Either with the swingle-bar. He expired with these words. motive. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²CHANNING. E. She seemed pleased with the accident. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²COOPER. (2) Instrumentality.The advance. he gave millions to the sword. or with the haunch of our near leader.²DE QUINCEY. HALE. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²HALE. . (3) Cause. 327. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. as with you. Messala. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. I think. opinion. first of all. to find the object of the preposition.²ALDRICH.²E. (4) Estimation. with all his boldness. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. but a pleasure"?²LANG. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²COLERIDGE. With all his sensibility. He was wild with delight about Texas. with Heyward at its head.²WALLACE (7) Time.²LANG. (5) Opposition.²HOWELLS.²DE QUINCEY. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. Exercise. it is necessary. but with you. It seemed a supreme moment with him. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²HOWELLS.

They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. Whereupon. The object of on board is ships. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. without a country modifies man. we met the defaulter here. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The guns were cleared of their lumber. (4) from the beginning. And so on. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1.²ID. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. of on. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. 5. 2. To our general surprise. which. hence we say. 3. by which a dozen apples. Be that as it will. In (2). the malicious rogue. and knocked me down flat on my face. the phrase answers the question where. like the clapping of wings. I called out several times. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. of from. I heard a noise just over my head. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. (2) on which. I speak these things from a love of justice. country. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. he followed us one day into those gardens. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. shook it directly over my head. I remember. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. or was.²SWIFT 2. telling what man. but all to no purpose. came tumbling about my ears. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. 4. . before the dwarf left the queen. I looked towards my windows. of without. Exercises. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. but I received no other hurt. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. I felt my box raised very high in the air. In (3). (3) without a country. In (1). beginning. because I had given the provocation. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1.

10. 20.6. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 12. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 9. The savage army was in war-paint. in this respect. when. He locked his door from mere force of habit. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. I like to see the passing. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 17. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. to one dark and gloomy. 18. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 29. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 15. 14. 22. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 19. For my part. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 13. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. after a restful morning. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 26. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 27. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. With all his learning. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. grasping at the child. Carteret was far from being a pedant. plumed for battle. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. in town. 7. 25. The mother sank and fell. 8. His breeches were of black silk. 24. 21. 11.Without stop or stay. On all subjects known to man. 23. .He spurred his courser on. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. he favored the world with his opinions. 16.

A few are discussed below. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. He will raise the price.²BEECHER. 328. 330.30.²STOCKTON. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. That night was a memorable one. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (1) Relative pronoun.²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun.That makes the heavens be mute. (4) As an adverb of degree. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.² JOHNSON. .²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. 329. and be proud in the midst of its toil. that you might behold this joyous day. not merely by the amount of the tax. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. That is what I understand by scientific education. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²HUXLEY. THAT.²WEBSTER. (a) Indefinite relative. (2) As an adjective pronoun.²COLERIDGE.²WEBSTER. (c) Substantive conjunction. and not according to form. That was a dreadful mistake. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. WHAT. We wish that labor may look up here. And now it is like an angel's song. (b) Of result.

(a) Indefinite relative adjective. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.Are yet the fountain light of all our day....Which be they what they may. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (8) Conjunction.. and silent all!²BYRON.²THACKERAY.. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.these sounds are only to be Pera. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. BUT..²ID. "I'll tell you what. Cox. partly.²WORDSWORTH. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.Those shadowy recollections. What with the Maltese goats..²S. after not only. (b) Copulative. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. What.²WEBSTER. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. but the result of calculation. (b) Indirect question..²EMERSON. (6) Exclamatory adjective. At what rate these materials would be distributed.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.. .²EMERSON. nearly equivalent to partly. or not only.S. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.but. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.. it rests on reality. (b) Indirect question." (4) Relative is impossible to determine. he knows what good people are to be found there. If he has [been in America]. to see what might be hidden. silent still. (7) Adverb of degree..²ID. 331. What. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (9) As an exclamation. To say what good of fashion we can.

at all moments. (e) Introducing an appositive word. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. (c) Of degree. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.. AS. not. meaning only.²IRVING. meaning otherwise . .²FRANKLIN.. To lead but one measure. after such.²IRVING. Doing duty as a guard. equivalent to that . not.. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.Then arose not only tears. after a negative.²SHELLEY. sometimes same.²MRS BROWNING. towards order. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. (3) Preposition.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. (b) Substantive.. not. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.He yearned to our patriot bands.²IRVING. like the dog.. (2) Relative pronoun. stands for that . (d) Of reason. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. 332. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (b) Of manner.²EMERSON.. on all sides. I shall see but little of it. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. (5) Adverb.. or who . it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. ²CARLYLE.. but piercing cries. Who knows but.²CARLYLE. (4) Relative pronoun. meaning except.²LAMB. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. than.

²ALDRICH. Give Ruskin space enough. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²DARWIN. and was clearly an adjective. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. NOTE. In this second use.²HALLECK. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²LAMB. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. this. 333. but its verb is omitted. That face. like summer ocean's. Introduces a clause. Note the difference between these two uses. nervous child. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²MAYHEW.LIKE. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. .² HAWTHORNE. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. staring like a bewildered man. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. Through which they put their heads. No Emperor. There is no statue like this living man.-SCOTT. (1) An adjective.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. ²PARKMAN. If the verb is expressed. Stirring it vigorously.²EMERSON. and as or as if takes its place. like a cook beating eggs. In each case. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. This follows a verb or a verbal.²LONGFELLOW. They look.² A timid.²HIGGINSON. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²HAWTHORNE. but this is not considered good usage: for example. indeed. I do with my friends as I do with my books. and is followed by a dative-objective.²EMERSON. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. like him awhile ago. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. like Martin was.²ALDRICH. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²SHAKESPEARE. like drops out.²CASS.

but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Definition. etc.²in determining case. 334. Value of analysis. clauses introduced by conjunctions." PART II. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences.INTERJECTIONS. pronoun. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. it is necessary to become expert in analysis.: for example. in separating them into their component parts." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. subject and predicate. Some of these are imitative sounds. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. entering into the structure of a sentence. 336. Definition. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. as. ." "Up! for shame! [adverb]." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. tut! buzz! etc. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. etc.. 335. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. verb. that is. What analysis is. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. that is. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. but it still retains its identity as noun.

let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. but according to how many statements there are. old man?" "Be thou familiar. which expresses command. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. question. or request. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. "Come to the bridal chamber. according to form. entreaty. Definition. Every sentence must contain two parts. you must not die!" interrogative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. SIMPLE SENTENCES. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. Examples of these three kinds are. 339. "Hath he not always treasures. not according to the form in which a thought is put.Kinds of sentences as to form. Definition: Predicate. but by no means vulgar. "Old year. . declarative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. (3) Imperative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. but the sentence would still be declarative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. which puts the thought in a question. 2. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. always friends?" imperative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence." "What wouldst thou do. But now all is to be changed. 338. This is the most common one. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. or command: for example. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. interrogative.²a subject and a predicate. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Division according to number of statements. 337. or imperative." 340. hence. (2) Interrogative.

Listen. on the other hand. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. and our definition must be the following. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 7. but about the ivy green. always reduce them to the order of a statement. all. 6. In the interrogative sentence." Exercise. 341. 3. or adverb that asks about the subject. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. In analyzing such sentences. "[You] behold her single in the field. as. Thus. we say all is the subject of the sentence. . The last of all the Bards was he.²What is the ivy green? Answer. But if we try this with the second sentence. thou. especially in poetry. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 4. 8. the subject (you. 2. and the real subject is the latter. or ye) is in most cases omitted. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. to suit all cases:² Subject. a rare old plant. to an ignorant man. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Consequently. the subject is frequently after the verb. not of a rare old plant. we have some trouble. and is to be supplied. adjective.²What is to be changed? Answer. or an interrogative pronoun. 5. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Slavery they can have anywhere.

Indirect object. direct. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object." indirect. but it is a true complement. (3) The object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). 343. (2) The predicate.10. Direct Object. The transitive verb often requires. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (6) Independent elements. (4) The complements. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. "Ye honor me. and me here is not the object simply of call. . It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object." Complement: 344. "Ye call me chief. 342. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. (5) Modifiers. just as if to say. The subject and predicate have been discussed. Of a transitive verb. and by object we mean the direct object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.²transitive and intransitive. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. or second object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. for example. but of call chief. but chief belongs to the verb. and means summoned. in addition to the object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb.

and of massive weight. 351. Thom of the Gills. seem. 355." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. Phrases. above sixty. etc. ay. as in drowning." Also an expression used as a noun." "The good man.. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. An intransitive verb." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" ." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. I mentioned a case of that nature. taste. and. 364. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. or. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." All these complete intransitive verbs. A phrase is a group of words. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. "A cheery. more familiarly. as in the sentence. become." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. but used as a single modifier. As to form. especially the forms of be. he was now getting old. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. introduced by a preposition: for example." 345." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 352. 'Ay. in exercise following Sec. sir!' rang out in response. See sentence 19." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. in the original Opium Confessions." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. appear. as. 346. in the popular judgment. "Brow and head were round. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. feel." (3) INFINITIVE. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. and barring the door. 347." "He was termed Thomas. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. to the completion of this man of the world. for instance." Things used as Subject. not containing a verb. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." (2) PARTICIPIAL. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. Complement of an intransitive verb.

" (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. (2) In interrogative sentences. but the real or logical subject is to print. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. I saw the quick and the dead. . it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). but obscures the real subject. but they will be given in detail here." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." "There are asking eyes. my deficiency." The for did not belong there originally. "'By God. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. for which see Sec. from their lips." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. was heard one syllable to justify. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. and ever will be. Disguised infinitive subject. "Therein has been. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. or their religion from their sect. asserting eyes.²the talent of starting the game." 348." In this sentence. or the thundering of organs. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." etc. etc.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect.²the infinitive phrase." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." "The dead are there." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." "Never. prowling eyes." Things used as Direct Object." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." Things used as Complement. and by Saint George!' said the King. 349. 341. (4) After "there introductory. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud.

" (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. Like all the complements in this list. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. (3) Infinitive. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." "Serving others is serving us. and the words italicized are still complements.²completing the predicate. Object." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. Modifiers of Subject. As complement of a transitive verb. they are adjuncts of the object. the object is made the subject by being passive." "Their tempers." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. As complement of an intransitive verb. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. and whenever the complement is a noun." . at the same time." "I hear the echoes throng. doubtless. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. I.²heads or tails." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. and explaining or modifying the subject." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." In this last sentence. or the equivalent of the noun.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." "She asked her father's permission. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. and. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." (4) Participle.350. complements of the predicate." Modifiers. Of a transitive verb. the shepherd girl. 351. or Complement. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.

the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet.²In each sentence in Sec. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." "In the twinkling of an eye." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. no sociable angel. Retained with passive." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. 357-363." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." (For participial and infinitive phrases. this young idolater. the verb being omitted. austere." "Give them not only noble teachings." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. or . tell whether the subject. I have seasoned for thee. Modifiers of the Predicate. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. or complement is modified. see further Secs. but with other men.²proud. the prisoner at the bar. object. 352. unforgiving." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. II." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but noble teachers. and leading him from star to star. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. but it is really a contracted clause. Tells how. and modify the predicate in the same way." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. was now called upon for his defense." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. was the scene from King John." Exercise.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. "He died like a God. not with nature." In such a sentence as. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "Him. given at the request of a Dutch lady. Since the predicate is always a verb." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. 351.

But anger drives a man to say anything. This. These answer the question when." "All such knowledge should be given her. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. according to old philosophers." Exercises." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition." (6) Adverbial objective. no humor. Fashion does not often caress the great. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. in this center? 4. no emotion. 2. 6." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. but to be loved. 3. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. . he liked. 5. and as many to oppose it. or how long. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. how far. with my joy and grief. (b) Pick out the subject. to the animal strength and spirits. gives wonderful animation. negative. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. etc. and. Evil. I took. no relief to the dead prosaic level. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. 4. in regard to particulars. the indirect object is retained. 7. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 6. 7. 2. 3. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. and the direct object is retained: for example. is good in the making. and other measures of precaution. after dinner.When the verb is changed from active to passive. but the children of the great. predicate. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. To the men of this world. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 8. predicate. 5. Why does the horizon hold me fast. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. On the voyage to Egypt." "One way lies hope. (a) Pick out subject." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. His books have no melody. They do not wish to be lovely. and (direct) object:² 1.. a sort of personality to the whole writing.

and a member of the world. 3. this dragoon so lovely.²the river Meuse. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. after their long confinement to a ship. 2. expecting the return of their parents. burthened with the anxieties of a man. the blooming cornet. 3. A river formed the boundary. That night. at length the warrior lady. Their intention was to have a gay. 4. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. a room seventeen feet by twelve. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. to the right and to the left. then. etc. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. this imperial rider. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. must visit again the home of her childhood. the present Archbishop of Dublin.The cry of battle rises along their changing line.. downwards. Not the less I owe thee justice. six children sat by a peat fire. then. the attorney. this nun so martial. I gave him an address to my friend. 2. Compound Predicate. 6. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 5. 5. at the chief hotel. . 3.y 8. Yes. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. Unhorse me. viz. Paint me. 4. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. happy dinner. 4. To suffer and to do. In one feature. 2. in little peaceful Easedale. I promised her protection against all ghosts. for the first time. y y y y Compound Subject. that was thy portion in life. I felt myself. upwards. Not compound sentences.

lurking far down in the depths of human nature. For example." "Ye crags and peaks. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. however. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. then the grammatical subject and predicate. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. exposes. complements. that is. forming a sentence: "Oh. Of this. and. The exclamatory expression. may be the person or thing addressed." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. in all such sentences as we quote below. Examples of compound subjects are. they are not a necessary part.353.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. "The company broke up. and its object or complement." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. and the rest is the logical predicate." "Voyages and travels I would also have. turned his steps homeward. together with all its modifiers. ulcer. Independent Elements of the Sentence. etc. the simple subject is situation. the predicate. hurry. Bishop. several modifiers. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. same as (1)." "He shook his head." "The name of the child. in the sentence. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate.. the tone of her voice. the air of the mother. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. but it is to be noticed that. Larger view of a sentence. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. together with its modifiers. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. I'm with you once again. two or more subjects of the same predicate." Sentences with compound predicates are. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. my brave young man!" . the object. etc. "Ah. hurry. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. shouldered the rusty firelock. etc." And so with complements. modifiers. above: thus. the verb). Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. 355. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. 354. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject.

the company broke up." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. such as perhaps. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. pronoun." "No.. 3. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. grandma. moreover. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. 356. he closed his literary toils at dinner. In their use. really.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. to the best of my remembrance. 6). nevertheless. let him perish. or complement (see Sec. 357. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES." Another caution." (3) Independent. The words well." (5) Participial phrase: "But." "Truth to say." (6) Single words: as." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. and some conjunctions." (2) Adverbial. six quill-driving gentlemen. 351. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. why. modifying the predicate. instances of which were seen in Sec. already noticed. 350. etc. undoubtedly. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 355. now. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. There are some adverbs. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. how you're winking!" "Now. 4). y (2) The adverbial use." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. or word used as a noun: for example. therefore. besides. 352. generally speaking. then." "Well. see Sec. truly. 4). not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "At all events. (b) As a modifier of subject. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. . and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. etc. yes! everybody knew them. and so on. he was a conscientious man. he somehow lived along. that have an office in the sentence. modifying a noun. her noticing even this is creditable. prepositional phrases may be. this story runs thus. such as however." "Why. object.. see Sec. These need close watching. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. (1) Adjectival." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. "Oh.

thus.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. but having no other office than a verbal one.can (could). suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar." (b) With the forms of be. etc. was speedily run through. See Sec. therefore.should. and they will be presented here in full. (5).: as in the sentences." "There. he should not have known them at all.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. "The letter of introduction." etc. 358. my dear. and hence is adverbial. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. containing no matters of business. "Because I was. y (a) With may (might). necessity. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. and teach her how to be happy and good. Wilt thou. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. etc." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. The verbal use. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.]. This case excepted. 355.would. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. I. modifying was speedily run through. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec." (c) With the definite forms of go. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. but require somewhat closer attention." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion.seem. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. or as nearly so as the student will require. ought." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. being equivalent to a future with obligation." In this sentence.

such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. to please is equivalent to that he may please. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there.. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). modifying a noun that may be a subject. II. notice the following:² In (1)." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." 360." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. etc. "But there was no time to be lost." "He insisted on his right to forget her. above. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. complement." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. . Don Guzman. (4) In apposition." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. to look means that he might look. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. 362.²both purpose clauses. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. III. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. To test this. 351. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. The adjectival use." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. etc. 361. The substantive use." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). the Scotch fighting all the battles. already examined. result." "To say what good of fashion we can.: for example. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. 361 are used adverbially. hang the idiot. to hear McOrator after dinner. IV. object. 5). was to have the foe's life at their mercy. The adverbial use. and the eyes to fill?" 359. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." "Are you mad." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." "To teach is to learn. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive).

give² (1) The predicate. 349). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 355). to find shows the result of the return. as in Sec. must be in a life.. 351). The independent use. etc. and to say is equivalent to if we say. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 355. equivalent to that you betray. If it is an incomplete verb. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. object. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. In (3). which is of two kinds. (7) Independent elements (Sec. to part means because I part. V. . (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 352). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. and to betray and to bring express the reason. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. (5) The subject (Sec.In (2). 3. etc. In (4). and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. give the complement (Secs. (3). not in a book. In analyzing simple sentences. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 2. etc.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS.. I will try to keep the balance true.²both expressing condition. 351). 351). 4." (See also Sec. 347). 364. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 363. In (5). Our life is March weather. to hear means if you should hear. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. savage and serene in one hour. 268.

in popular use. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 8. to restore civil and religious order. To these gifts of nature. nor generals. always in a bad plight. through toys and atoms. 23. with eager energy. 20. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. and to the purpose. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 24. 12. 6. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 15. The word conscience has become almost confined. You may ramble a whole day together. 7. nor himself. 19. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. is to have no political system at all. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. . a graceful dancer. to the moral sphere. a skilled musician. Her aims were simple and obvious. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. to keep England out of war. nor troops. His opinion is always original. an accomplished scholar. nor money. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. and every moment discover something new. 11. 22. 5. He risked everything. might be called flabby and irresolute. The whole figure and air. neither ammunition. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 9. Through the years and the centuries. just on the edge of destruction. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 18. like a witch's oils. 17. Old Adam.²to preserve her throne. We are always in peril. 21. a good shot. through evil agents.Burnt green and blue and white. 10.4. two stricken hours. The water. 13. To be hurried away by every event. the carrion crow. 14. and spared nothing. I have heard Coleridge talk. good and amiable otherwise.The old crow of Cairo. 16.He sat in the shower. and only to be saved by invention and courage.

in less heroic and poetic form. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. 32. Oxford. to be a reproach to such goodness. The cry. The villain. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 26. and the wherefore? . to bid you leave the place now and forever. 34. haply. 31. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. time-honored. 33. the prime minister of Spain. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. and no provisions but wild berries. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. But yield. 36. still. 27. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. and. proud foe. in this world. I hate him and myself. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 41. upon my own ground. the ship was in an uproar. Fair name might he have handed down. 39. an elderly man. 40. Of the same grandeur. the same Condé Olivarez. Now. baggage far in the rear. This amiable relative. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. I dare this. 35. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. and in my own garden. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. in front of all this mighty crowd. 38. Must we in all things look for the how. 29. secluded. and the why. 37. In the Acadian land. or perhaps one virtue.25. the present capital of New England. had but one foible.Distant.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Supposing this computation to be correct. it would not have been filial or ladylike. Upon this shore stood. ready to receive her. She had made a two days' march. Few in number. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 30.Effacing many a stain of former crime.

however." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. the pride and beauty of the grove.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 333). COMPLEX SENTENCES. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. thus. which is the unit of speech. made merely for convenience and smoothness.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. though often treated as phrases. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." This must." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. 365. Words left out after than or as." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. the expressions of manner introduced by like.From her own loved island of sorrow. As shown in Part I. if they were expanded. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. (Sec." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. 366. are really contracted clauses. as. but. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. The simple sentence the basis. ." To show that these words are really omitted." Sentences with like. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing.² "She is like some tender tree. 367. as would be the connective instead of like.

" The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. and the next one. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. 371. Definition. complement. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. logically depends on suffering. as in this sentence. is taken in.²the other members subordinate to it. containing a verb with its subject. which are so united that one member is the main one. then we recognize this as the main statement. that . Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. complements. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). A principal. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur.. how great . or dependent on it. we are aware. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. 370. each clause has its subject. object.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. Hence the following definition:² Definition. suffering. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject.. and modifier. predicate. A clause is a division of a sentence. . Independent clause. murmur. CLAUSES.. etc. main. that is. or it may be applied to the others.²the backbone. 368.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. and the last. object. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. 369.. modifiers.

put an end to my fancies. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. adjectives. so the object clause is retained. impertinences²would be grammatical. pronoun. We ourselves are getting . over which the torrent came tumbling. with a noun clause in apposition with it. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. As to their office in the sentence. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. Noun Clauses. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. infinitive. for a time. 352. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. (b) that are . "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall.." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. verbal. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. 372. Kinds. and it is . attention is called to them here. for a hundred years. for example." "I was told that the house had not been shut. 373. night or day." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are..Dependent clause. impertinences. etc." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. clauses are divided into NOUN. 5). (a) Ordinary apposition. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living." 374." Just as the object noun. and the whole clause is not.. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. and ADVERB clauses." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.. But since they are complex in form... for example. . or adverbs." (4) Apposition. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." (2) Object of a verb.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. thus. but logically the sentence is.' is an electric touch. 'I know that he can toil terribly. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. ADJECTIVE..

8. 3. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity.² "It is on the understanding. how it changed from shape to shape. But the fact is. or equivalent of a noun. wherein. 4. Frequently there is no connecting word. whence. 7. a relative pronoun being understood. he would repent it. a falsehood incarnate. Such a man is what we call an original man. 10. but. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. that he was a scheming impostor. Other examples of this construction are. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. that all safe legislation must be based. The reply of Socrates. he could know nothing. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. whereby. that. which. 375. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. where. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. etc. Except by what he could see for himself. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. no man will ever know. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. whither. I was napping." Exercise. still remains reasonable. . What history it had. sometimes by the conjunctions when. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. 9. as. whether he should choose one or not. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. of a nation. 2. Examples of adjective clauses. 6. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. 5. in the sentence. and not on the sentiment. that. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Adjective Clauses. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense.

which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 9. and tell what each one modifies." Exercise. I walked home with Calhoun." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 7. the champions advanced through the lists." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 4. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 10. object. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. or that essence we were looking for." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. he begins to help us more as an effect. 5. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 1." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups.e.376. 2." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. which Rowena tasted. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. 11. i. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 8. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. etc. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. all is vacancy. 6.. No man is reason or illumination." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. . which formed the center of the mansion. Pick out the adjective clauses. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. Adverbial Clauses. whether subject. 3.

" (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. however. so far as we can. Exercise. shaping our actions.. expressing the degree in which the horizon. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. since he was too great to care to be original." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. and will be given in detail. etc." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. it takes precedence of everything else. tell what kind each is." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. and what it modifies:² ." (3) REASON." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent.² whoever. to make up our shortcomings. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. that we should try. 378." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." "The right conclusion is. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. or an adverb." "He went several times to England. he goes away as if nothing had happened." (5) DEGREE. Joanna is better." "When he was come up to Christian. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. adverbs. etc. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. an adjective.377. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. etc." "After leaving the whole party under the table. however good she may be as a witness. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. and adverbial conjunctions." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." (9) CONCESSION. with examples. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. the wider is the horizon of their thought." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. whatever." "The broader their education is. no matter what remains." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. the milestones are grave-stones. a verbal. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." These mean no matter how good.: "But still. but they require careful study. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. is wider." (7) RESULT." "Who cares for that. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. introduced by indefinite relatives.

etc. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. snatching up stones to fling at them. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. so as to picture the parts and their relations. incoherent exclamations. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. predicate. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. For example. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath." 2. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. If the children gathered about her. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. as they sometimes did. 380. 'Well. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. and modifiers. then treat noun clauses as nouns. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. 379. object. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. howling and whistling. on a dark wintry night. of which clause Odin is the subject. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. to tell the truth. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. and communicated itself to a thousand objects." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. 3. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. we are a little disappointed. when the wind was unruly.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. banging about doors and windows. and twirling weathercocks. in the sentence. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ .1. its object is that Odin was a reality. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. they might perhaps say of their visitors. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. find the principal subject and principal predicate. with shrill.

(2) Analyze it according to Sec. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. 380). Take the place and attitude which belong to you. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 3. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 364. d. 364. 2. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.. (1) Find the principal clause. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. Exercises. as seen in the "map" (Sec.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. .

4. 10. that. And those will often pity that weakness most. dying for them. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 9. . had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. But now that she has become an establishment. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 17. 21. 5. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 20. Now. 16. The night proved unusually dark. 13. 19. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. The deep eyes. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. Here lay two great roads. 18. namely. the shepherd girl. the flower should revive for us. whom I choose. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 6. if applied to the Bible. counselor that had none for herself. 12. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. Had they been better chemists. I like that representation they have of the tree. 24. 23. 15. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. M. 22. the mixed result. had we been worse. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 14. which. not so much for travelers that were few. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 8. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. of a light hazel. that pressed her with an objection. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. as for armies that were too many by half. bishop. could not have been effected. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. or whether any. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. Whether she said the word is uncertain. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. He was what our country people call an old one. for yours. Next came a wretched Dominican. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 7. 11. This is she. who would yield to it least. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit.

The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. . if there be one to whom I am not equal. 30. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face." 4. That which we do not believe. or commands. 26. It makes no difference how many friends I have. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 6. then map out as in Sec. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. and temper. would easily reach. and what content I can find in conversing with each.² Definition. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. Hence the definition. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 27. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. 28. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. and not from his heart. 5.25. These things we are forced to say. COMPOUND SENTENCES. 7. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. that it was no more than his daily walk. 382. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. (b) First analyze. if continuously extended. is to speak and write sincerely." said Bentley. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. questions. 2. but above it. "was ever written down by any but itself. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. though we may repeat the words never so often. 383. 380. we cannot adequately say. and stamped with his right number. the following complex sentences:² 1. 3.²which will not be disposed of. How formed. "No book. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. speed.

386. Connectives. in (2)." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. the planet has a faint. he walks with arms akimbo. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. for. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. as in Sec. tell which are compound. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. if there are any. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. which are simple statements. nor. and not the form of the connective. he dilates. while (whilst). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. Of the following illustrative sentences. etc. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. Another example is. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. or but. now adverbs or prepositions. he is twice a man. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. 385. and connects the first and second complex members. . and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). Thus in (1)." 384. The coördinate conjunctions and. moon-like ray" (adversative). for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. "Only the star dazzles." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. Study the thought. from the second. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. the waving grass.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. in (3). and it shall be the universal sense. however. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. the semicolon separates the first. Exercise. whereas. as but. 297). he soliloquizes. The division into members will be easier. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. others sometimes coördinate. a simple member. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. and which complex:² 1. 383 (1).. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. nor does he know until he has tried. etc. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. a complex member. and nor the second and third complex members. Speak your latent conviction. Some of these are now conjunctions. yet.

and sun-browned with labor in the fields. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. yield to them heart and life. from a happy yet often pensive child. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. For everything you have missed. In this manner. 12. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. or. he grew up to be a mild. 14. However some may think him wanting in zeal. . A man cannot speak but he judges himself. and as yet very early in the morning. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 387.2. to find a pot of buried gold. unobtrusive boy. 3. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. the tax is certain. is particular. and not by what each is. however. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. so is every one of its parts. for example. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. Man does not stand in awe of man. I can still receive. 7. 4. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 3. 9. Exercise. and for everything you gain. 5. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 381. nay. 8. 2. and thou shalt be loved. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. All loss. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 11. Whilst the world is thus dual. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. I can yet love. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. quiet. Love. 10. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. you have gained something else. you lose something. all pain. 13. 6. 4. The gain is apparent. that it was Easter Sunday. passed in that time. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 364. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. (i) Separate it into its main members.

in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. one is afraid. as children. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. that let him communicate. 15. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. why should we intrude? 10. or sail with God the seas. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. 19. 14. Come into port greatly. and they will be true to you. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. feign to confess here. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 18. is as thin and timid as any.5. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 8. and not a thought has enriched either party. He teaches who gives. or we pursue persons. let them mount and expand." says the smith. 21. and he learns who receives. . and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. modesty. or hope. "as nigh the scythe as you can." 13. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 9. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. 20. They will shuffle and crow. and the other dares not. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 17. and they will show themselves great. "the iron is white. We go to Europe. whilst frankness invites frankness. Trust men. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 11. which always make the Actual ridiculous. or men will never know and honor him aright. if you rip up his claims. and the peace of society is often kept. because." says the haymaker. We see the noble afar off. and makes their business a friendship. and not an emotion of bravery. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 16. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and they repel us. treat them greatly. When you have chosen your part. 7. give those merits room. abide by it. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. only that they may brag and conquer there. crook and hide. and you are without effort impelled to truth. or we read books. "Strike. and the cart as nigh the rake." "keep the rake. Stand aside. 6. Whatever he knows and thinks.

it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. 380. 25. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. By way of introduction. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. So does culture with us. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning.²agreement and government. PART III. Do not craze yourself with thinking. if they live. verb and subject. 24. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. 388. adjective and noun. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. pronoun and antecedent. and dodge the account. so readily and lavishly they promise. they lose themselves in the crowd. 390. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. INTRODUCTORY. Essential point in English syntax. the department of syntax will be a small affair. it ends in headache. it never was known to fall into the rear. or. 23. SYNTAX.22. but go about your business anywhere. but its leading characteristic is. Ground covered by syntax. Following the Latin method. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. they die young. We see young men who owe us a new world. but they never acquit the debt.

" that is. and it would not matter which one stood first. distinct forms would be used. or the same writer will use both indifferently. When usage varies as to a given construction. also expressing a possessive relation. Second. . both forms will be given in the following pages. following the regular order of subject. There is. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English." In this there is a possessive form. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. take the sentence." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition." is ambiguous. the sentence. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). as to study inflected forms. 392. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Some rules not rigid. In some cases. the order being inverted. sometimes verb and subject. and to think clearly of the meaning of words.² First. and added to it the preposition of. "None remained but he. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. etc. and whose judgment. "The savage here the settler slew. For example. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. Why study syntax? 391. pronoun and antecedent. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. In Latin. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. or settler may be the subject.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. but are not now. and imitate it. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. and nothing but important points will be considered. some of which conform to classical grammar. Also in the sentence. then. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. Savage may be the subject. authorities²that is. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. 393. The basis of syntax. therefore. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. As an illustration of the last remark. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. good English. This is not logical. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language.

the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. 396.²THACKERAY. the shore of Galilee.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.NOUNS. ²ID. for example. and Pope's. Mill's and Mr. the antechamber of the High Priest.²ROWE. Bentham's principles together. but imply separate possession or ownership. etc.²MILTON. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. and Peter's. . 397. Use of the possessive. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.² Live your king and country's best support. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Putting Mr.²MACAULAY. or indicate joint ownership or possession. and Paul's. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. as. and Peterborough's. and Harley's. sense and nature's easy fool.²BYRON. 394. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. 408).²MCCULLOCH. Woman. He kept Bolingbroke's. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.² He lands us on a grassy stage. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. PRONOUNS." Juletta tells. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²RUSKIN. Joint possession. 395. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Separate possession. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²EMERSON.

Objective for the nominative. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.²SHAKESPEARE. Some of the violations are universally condemned. sanctioned. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. for example. I." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. .PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 398. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Still. as. together with the relative who. No mightier than thyself or me. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.) "The young Harper.²TROLLOPE. whom is the complement after the verb am. 399. if not universally.²POPE. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. the real thought being forgotten. General rules. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. But he must be a stronger than thee. This should be "as she. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. thus.²BYRON." 400. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.²WHITCHER.²SOUTHEY.²THACKERAY. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. there are two general rules that require attention. the last expression has the support of many good writers. and should be the nominative form. who.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Bedott Papers. others are generally. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Since most of the personal pronouns.

unless a special." There is no special reason for this. both in England and America. on the other hand. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. The usage is too common to need further examples. But still it is not she. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²RUSKIN. are. namely.²MACAULAY. "Who's there?"²"Me. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²THACKERAY. is. "Than whom. The camp of Richard of England. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. "If there is any one embarrassed. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²LONGFELLOW.² For there was little doubt that it was he. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was."²WM. A safe rule."²KINGSLEY. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. the objective form is regularly found. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. . It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule." 401. One exception is to be noted.² One I remember especially. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²KINGSLEY. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²SCOTT. but such is the fact. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe."²WINTHROP. Patrick the Porter.²PARTON. And it was heThat made the ship to go. it will not be me.²COLERIDGE. In spoken English.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. for example. and the other forms of the verb be. as. BLACK. they are yet holier than we.²FIELDING.

5. 3. and prepositions. or us). 2. object of saw). "Ask the murderer. or preposition which governs it. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. now. as. . It is not me you are in love with. as. it is me. Whom they were I really cannot specify. 403. verbal. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. I speak not to" (he should be him. as. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 9. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. Nominative for the objective. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 11. as this from Shakespeare." the word being in apposition with murderer). the object of to)." 6. (3) By forgetting the construction. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 10. you or me. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 404.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. verbals. used after verbs. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 8.²MILTON. but not he" (he should be him. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Truth is mightier than us all. 4. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. or this. Me in exclamations. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. If there ever was a rogue in the world.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. You know whom it is that you thus charge. 7.Exercise.

The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Thy shores are empires.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. save thou and thine.²GOLDSMITH. etc. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Thou. for they say there are none such in the world. We regularly say. 405. 406. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.² All were knocked down but us two. Let you and I look at these. None.²KINGSLEY. who interrogative.Exception 1. but he. changed in all save thee. Exercise. Nature. Exception 2. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²KINGSLEY. for example. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. "Who did you see?" or. partial Nature. Who have we here?²ID.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. as.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. I arraign. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. and is usually avoided. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. as. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who.²BYRON. I've sworn. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²KINGSLEY. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²BYRON.Shall be left upon the morn. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²STEELE. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. all but he. as well as the objective. . 2.

who. As antecedent of a relative. 8. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. B. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.²RUSKIN.3. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²DE QUINCEY. 12.²possessive. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach.²C. BROWN. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. They crowned him long ago. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Bartholomew. 7.²SCOTT. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²THACKERAY. or objective? . and they know that as well as me. 11. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 6. 10. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. 407. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St." 4. Preceding a gerund. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 9.²MACAULAY. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. II.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. 5.Ye I salute. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. POSSESSIVE FORMS. with Jortin and Thirlby. This usage is not frequent. Markland.

that the bitterness of death was past. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. We heard of Brown. Here I state them only in brief. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. But in common use there is no such distinction. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. Objective." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. [who was] studying law. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.² SCOTT. In the examples quoted. Possessive.²MACAULAY. etc. object of heard of.²DICKENS.²CARLYLE. both are gerunds. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. The last incident which I recollect. and the meaning is. studying is a gerund.408. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. and asked why it was not made. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun." That is. The use of the objective is older.²DE QUINCEY. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. as he turned away from his wife. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and that in the second.² THACKERAY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²BREWER.² CARLYLE.² IRVING. Both types of sentences are found. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. Why both are found. . in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.²RUSKIN. sometimes it has the objective. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.

Every city threw open its gates. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. and gender. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²when the antecedent.²HOLMES. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. taking in each of many persons. preceded by a distributive.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. number.²HUXLEY. Everybody had his own life to think of. 409. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. in one person. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²DEFOE.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. and ought to agree with them in person. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. 410.² BRYANT. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. The pale realms of shade. BROCKDEN BROWN.²C. if the antecedent is neuter. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²DE QUINCEY. it was his own fault.²THACKERAY. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. .²AUDUBON. In such a case as the last three sentences. Examples of these constructions are. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²DE QUINCEY. or is a distributive word.²EMERSON III. where there were examinations.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²THOREAU. If any one did not know it. Watch for the real antecedent.²RUSKIN. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²CABLE.

²BYRON. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. not a mowing idiot.²THACKERAY. for example. as anybody in their senses would have done. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. till they have lost him. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Whosoever hath any gold.²PALEY. Struggling for life.²ID.²FIELDING.²BIBLE.²PALGRAVE.²DEFOE. This is not considered the best usage.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²AUSTEN. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²SCOTT.²HUXLEY. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. By using the plural pronoun. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²EMERSON. 411.² Not the feeblest grandame.²ID. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Every one must judge of their own feelings. and giving them means of being so. .²PAULDING. let them break it off. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. The sun. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²RUSKIN. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. If the part deserve any comment.

He could overhear the remarks of various individuals.Where she was gone.²HAWTHORNE. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. when restrictive. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Exercise. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. The clause is restricted to the antecedent.²In the above sentences. A relative. the definite relatives who. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. but. As to their conjunctive use. 412. according to the practice of every modern writer. Exercise. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers." This means. 413. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. 2. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. or what was become of her.²ID." It defines beggar. and that always restrictive. no one could take upon them to say.²ADDISON. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. because. but.² SHERIDAN. tell whether who. when coördinating. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. In the following examples.) and a personal pronoun. and does not add a new statement. who went away. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. in each instance:² Who. That is in most cases restrictive. which. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. I. and that are restrictive or not. 1. etc. What these terms mean. "I gave it to the beggar. ." A relative. unless both genders are implied. which. or unrestrictive. as. and he went away. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. It adds a new statement to what precedes. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. that being considered already clear.

as that does not vary for person or number. BEECHER 5. Hare has printed. because of its antecedent.²H.²DE QUINCEY. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive." that is invariable as to person and number. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. That. 6. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.² MOTLEY. Yet how many are there who up.²ADDISON. 12. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. and it is called logic. and over England are saying. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. II. For example.²DE QUINCEY. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. 414. that were often vicious. which was to go over the Cordilleras.² IRVING. it makes the verb third person singular. . In what sense true. long arms and legs. he. 13. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.²HOLMES. but. However. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. etc.. 11. etc. these or that which. 8. in the sentence.²ID. A grizzly-looking man appeared. Which.² CARLYLE. The rule. So different from the wild. 14. W. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. who. which Mr.²ID.3. With narrow shoulders. they. down. you. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. etc. 4. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 9.²THOREAU. 10. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. 7. On hearing their plan. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. The general rule is. We say I.² NEWMAN. she agreed to join the party.

when he derided the shams of society. etc. "one of the finest books that have been published." One of . but speaks of him as that sort. ARNOLD.²HOLMES. 415. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²HOWELLS. but myself.. Singular.²SCOTT. .²MACAULAY. who rarely speak at all.²LOWELL. [singular or plural.²ADDISON.. others regard books as the antecedent. etc.²ADDISON. The latter is rather more frequent. and write the verb in the plural. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. or which . struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. in winning a battle. T. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. [plural] that who. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. "one of the finest books that has been published..²J.²M. MORSE. He is one of those that deserve very well." or.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. with one as the principal word.²LOWELL.] Both constructions are frequently found.. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. but the former has good authority... I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. Franklin. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. A disputed point. The fiery youth . the true antecedent.²BOWLES.²LECKY. JR. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²whether we should say. and in improving a victory. Let us be of good cheer. French literature of the eighteenth century.

²EMERSON.²CARLYLE. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.² THACKERAY.²SWIFT.²GOLDSMITH." "India is the place [in which.²ADDISON. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. or where] he died.²SCOTT. return.²DEFOE. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.² . To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. 416. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.In that same state I came. when this dust falls to the urn. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. where. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. Exercise.²VAUGHAN. and such like: as."²DICKENS. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.A rare Roundabout performance. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. whence. object of a preposition understood.²IRVING. IV.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.And. But I by backward steps would move. and see if the sentence is made clearer. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. III. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²EMERSON.²In the above sentences. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.² RUSKIN. The same day I went aboard we set sail. when the relative word is a pronoun. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²ID. I could see nothing except the sky.²BURNS. 417. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. that is.

418.² MACAULAY. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. W. as is not used. That.² Which. was a discoverer. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. but which is usually carefully avoided. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.²ADDISON.. The regular construction.²FRANKLIN. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. as of knives. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. boats. etc.² BURKE. and working in the same spirit.He considered. looking-glasses. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. for example. . Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.²SWIFT. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. if I had resolved to go on with. I might as well have staid at as his apprentice. but we find the relative who. she passed the lamp over her face and person. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. but. which. Anacoluthic use of which.² THACKERAY. or that. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.. CHURCH.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. with Turner. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. Caution.²SCOTT. Which.²WORDSWORTH. Mr. ²GOLDSMITH.²R. he. V. if same is followed by a complete clause. They believe the same of all the works of art.

they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.. 3. 1. which when Mr. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. but none is expressed. Express both relatives. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. Exercise. and who are now. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. 419." etc." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.²DE QUINCEY. Exercise. As the sentences stand. or. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.She'd come again. He delivered the letter. le Conte. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. who are now thrown. 4.²which if they once heard. . There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. (1) "Among those who are poor. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. but. or omit the conjunction.²THACKERAY.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.²GOLDSMITH..²SCOTT. once a great favorite of M. That is. Thornhill had read. and this be placed in the proper clause. etc. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. or leave out both connective and relative. now thrown upon their. But who.. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. And who. This was a gentleman. After this came Elizabeth herself.²RUSKIN.²HAWTHORNE. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. (2) "Among the poorer sort. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. he said that all submission was now too late." etc.² Direction for rewriting.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. 2." etc. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and which.

²HAWTHORNE.. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²IRVING.²SCOTT. then. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. which the Scotch had learned. and which. 1. who. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. I saw upon the left a scene far different. 9. like that spoken in the towns. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. and which has never been described. 7. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. 11. Exercise. as a false and astucious mark. And which. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.²DE QUINCEY. one of signal interest. Akin to the above is another fault. 10.²PEARSON. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. 13. either from imitation of their frequent allies. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. . 8. etc. and repeat this for any further reference. etc. Or who..5. But which. English by name. and which may even be heard a mile off. 12.²DE QUINCEY. "A mockery." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. 420. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. 6.² MOTLEY.²SCOTT. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. I shall have complete copies.. indeed. and to whom no door is closed. "What knight so craven. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . That .. Or which. Dr. the French.

and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.. but which is perhaps not so different from it. 10. 6. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity..²DE QUINCEY. 9. That .²EMERSON. was a bustling wharf. G.²HAWTHORNE. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. such as they have very probably been bred to. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. CHANNING. and to whom I do not belong. 11. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.. The Tree Igdrasil. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. that ..²HOWELLS. in his Mephistopheles. E.²HALLAM. 8. which. 5. in his present condition. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. but which.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. 14. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. He. Such as .. was hung in air.. which. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.. the dime. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.. 15.²HOLMES.²SCOTT. that.. whom.²W. at the head of what. and whose examples and principles we inherit. I recommend some honest manual calling. 13. .²EMERSON. I grudge the dollar. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. In my native town of Salem.²BEECHER. the cent.. 12. It rose into a thrilling passion. 7. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.²W. Which .² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.2. He flung into literature. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. what. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. I give to such men as do not belong to me. half a century ago. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.²SCOTT That which .. SIMMS. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. 4. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. 3. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. Such as .²DEFOE.

²GOLDSMITH. as. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.² Some one must be poor.²EMERSON. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. that not all combined. England was then divided between kings and Druids. always at war with one another. 422. for example. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. . let us not increase them by dissension among each other. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. as.²DICKENS. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²HAWTHORNE. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. By their original meaning.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. in which case any should be used instead. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. Each other. one another. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²MACAULAY.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. Use of any. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²RUSKIN. as it were. Assume that no one is in want of either. Distributives either and neither.²RUSKIN.² HAWTHORNE. We call ourselves a rich nation.²ID. 421. whether or not the two are equivalent.

in Shakespeare.²STIRLING. during his stay at Yuste.. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²SHAKESPEARE. even in Bettine. usually plural. if ever man was. Examples of its use are.² If any. at one time in Bacon. that I know of. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²SCOTT. 423. etc.²EMERSON.²FRANKLIN. I beseech you. as none of the French philosophers were.² In earnest. then in Plotinus. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.²BURKE. let him ask of God. as. afterwards in Goethe. None usually plural. for him have I offended.² EMERSON.²BEECHER Whenever. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children..²BIBLE. None of Nature's powers do better service.. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. Caution.²CARLYLE. Do you think. speak. then in Plutarch. Any usually plural.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . in the prose of the present day. as. 424. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. any of his friends had died.²THACKERAY. and is isolated. The adjective pronoun none is. before that. If any of you lack wisdom. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.²PROF. . which is plural as often as singular. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. Do you think. any was often singular. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. In earlier Modern English. whilst I still cherish their genius.

When all were gone... and less rarely in poetry.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.² Singular. etc. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. fixing his eyes on the mace.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. saving Naaman the Syrian. etc. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. Somebody's else. and all was lost on the other.²McMASTER.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. nobody else. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. etc. are treated as units. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.. that all was lost. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. when it means all persons: for example.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. and Ford has nobody's else.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. etc. 425.²NAPIER Plural. The compounds somebody else.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.² None of them was cleansed. as. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. the plural.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.² PEARSON. for example. which is used absolutely. The light troops thought .²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²SCOTT Like the use of any.²THOREAU. or somebody else's? 426. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. any one else.

ELIOT.² FIELDING. . STOWE.²G. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. London. or those sort of people. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²in such as "these sort of books. and may be found not infrequently in literary English..²N." "all manner of men. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS." "those kind of trees. ADJECTIVES. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. P. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.SYDNEY SMITH. These sort. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²THACKERAY. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. all manner of. or some other such great man as a bishop. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. Again. His hair. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²RUSKIN.²DICKENS. "Ye see.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²AUSTEN. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. 427. Whitefield or Wesley.²RUSKIN. etc. unlike anybody else's in the world. etc. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²MULOCH. the adjectives plural.²SWEET. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.² Saturday Review." the nouns being singular."²MRS. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²SHERIDAN.² These kind of knaves I know. WILLIS. for example. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.

" or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. which accounts for the construction. "This kind of rules are the best. or the nouns to the plural. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. "This sort of trees should be planted." A question. According to the approved usage of Modern English. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). for example. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. the victor or the vanquished. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. . not "all kinds of wild animals. Use of the comparative degree. made to agree with it.² Which is the better able to defend himself." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. In Old and Middle English." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. Burke's sentence. The result. or one object with a class of objects. and the adjective is. History of this construction.²RUSKIN. "These kind of trees are best. such as. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. to express a higher degree of quality.² PRESCOTT. At the source.The library was open. gradually displacing the old. Consequently we have a confused expression. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. they said. This the modern expression reverses. and in this way may take a plural verb. Of two such lessons. Later form. with all manner of amusing books. when the necessary dispositions concur. Should we say. in spoken English. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. 428. more alarming than a total silence. as. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.

There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. has sanctioned. Gary.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise. He is taller. if not. 3. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²THACKERAY.²TROLLOPE. 4."²ID. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²CARLYLE. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. 5. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 2. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. 430.²SWIFT. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. than any of his court.²WIRT. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. Other after the comparative form. 429. Superlative with two objects.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. . When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²MACAULAY. To the man who plays well. Even Dodd himself. the highest stakes are paid. 6. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. etc.²LOWELL. Henry. I am concerned to see that Mr.²SCOTT. Use of the superlative degree. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.A braver ne'er to battle rode. would not have had the face.² THACKERAY. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²HUXLEY. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. by almost the breadth of my nail. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.

.²EMERSON. more particularly the last of them. whichever can be got easiest. not a bit of high life among them. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. The eldest.²HAMLET. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²ADDISON.²SCOTT.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. and differ only in form.²TEMPEST. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. Come you more nearer. Rip was one of those . "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Also from the same period. I should say that one has the best cause.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. and the other contains the best men. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.. After the most straitest sect of our religion. In all disputes between States.²MRS."²HAWTHORNE. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. 1611. 431."²GOLDSMITH. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Mary.²RUSKIN. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.. OLIPHANT.²GOLDSMITH. CÆSAR.²IRVING. ha. Double comparative and superlative. "Ha.²Bible. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. The following examples are used purposely.²J. Examples from Shakespeare are. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. These two properties seem essential to wit. who eat white bread or brown."²BULWER.²BEN JONSON. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²DR BLAIR. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.

The delay in the first three lines. Three first.² With a singular noun.²RUSKIN. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. Definite article. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²KINGSLEY. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²LAMB. For Carlyle. not only so in popular speech.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²GIBBON.² SMOLLETT. The first five had specific names. The merit of the Barb. and conceit in the last. etc. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. These are the three first needs of civilized life. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. . The meaning intended is the same.²DE QUINCEY. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. the Spanish.²RUSKIN. but in literary English. jar upon us constantly. etc. First three. As to these two expressions. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²GIBBON. 433. Examples of this construction are. ²COWPER.²PRESCOTT. and Secretary Walsingham also. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. Instances of both are given below.²ADDISON. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. ARTICLES.

²TENNYSON. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.²THACKERAY. 435.²PRESCOTT. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²TAYLOR.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. One object and several modifiers. and flexible language. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. distinct.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. the greatest poems. Here the youth of both sexes. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²NEWMAN. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. as in Sec. but is used with one only. of the higher and middling orders. Meaning same as in Sec. and the presents. the hour of parting came. the thought and the word.²ID.²SCOTT. No. With a plural noun. were placed at a very tender age. The flowers. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. Indefinite article. or to emphasize the meaning.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. with a plural noun. 433. The not repeated. 1508. as. I think. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.. .²CARLYLE.²MACAULAY. melodious. 433. of the eighteenth century..²THE NATION. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.² RUSKIN. with a singular noun. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.² MACAULAY. 434. but inseparable from each other. Origin of the Aryans.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. as. however. Frequently. The lofty. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. to distinguish clearly. having been arranged. He is master of the two-fold Logos.

like the definite article.²DRYDEN. 437.436. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. One article with several adjectives. For rhetorical effect. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. 433 and 436.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. COLERIDGE.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. a collegian. rich." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. The indefinite article (compare Sec. to limit two or more modified nouns. . or clearness to each of several nouns. T. one noun is expressed. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. 436). yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. and a usurper. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. He saw him in his mind's eye.²BEECHER. Examples of this use are. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.²DICKENS. a round and a square one alternately. interest. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. only one of which is expressed. 435.²JOHNSON.An early.²BULWER. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²B. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.²S." and "a red and a white geranium. But in the following sentences. JONSON. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. a tyrant. a murderer. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²THACKERAY.² BURKE. as. and inexhausted vein. as in the first three of Sec. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The indefinite article is used.² MACAULAY. 438. In the sentences of Secs.

Another writer might. as. ELIOT. He sees that it is better to live in peace. Such.²COOPER.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. 440. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. 276. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. without academies. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. ARNOLD.²W. for example.. all that academies can give. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. This was spoken of in Part I. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²CARLYLE This usage. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²GIBBON. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²G. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. has got already. A broad and loose rule. like some others in this series.VERBS.²FROUDE. Sec. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. or the great intellectual life of our nation. was the earliest American land. . then. Singular verb.²M. 439. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Collective noun of singular meaning. Singulars connected by or or nor.²AGASSIZ. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. In English.²The Nation. and the following illustrations prove it. as.

for example.²CRITIC. a loss of wealth. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. nor Mahomet. and other singulars of plural form. a cruel disappointment. as. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. Plural form and singular meaning.² In a word.² The unbought grace of life.²WHITTIER. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. that of a large town. ADAMS. or considered as appositional. other names. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. nor Paul. and every four hours.Jesus is not dead. but considered as meaning about the same thing. but each one emphatic.²EMERSON . nor John. or as making up one general idea.²GIBBON. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. as. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. seems at the moment unpaid loss. for example. Between ourselves.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. the cheap defense of nations. No. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.² Politics is the only field now open for me. is gone. a mutilation.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.² GOLDSMITH. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. Q. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²J. ²EMERSON.²GOLDSMITH. A fever.²BURKE. a loss of friends.²DE QUINCEY.

The oldest.²BUTLER. Here is no ruin. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. a gorget. as. the ruin. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. nay. Plural verb.²M ARNOLD. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²NEWMAN.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.²EMERSON. as well as the Drama.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²HAWTHORNE. every valet. wineBegins to stir itself.²MACAULAY.The author. Every fop.The rout. and such like adjectives. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. 441. as well as Europe. Then comes the "Why.²RUSKIN. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. the wit. sir?" and the "No.²MACAULAY.² . sir!" and the "What then. with death. Every week. as well as the newest. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. no spent ball. an agitated gesture.²LONGFELLOW. was dazzled. For wide is heard the thundering fray.² Asia. There is a moving tone of voice. as. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. was listened to for five hours. the dismay. a cuirass.²ID. sir!"²MACAULAY. each. every boor. as well as sides. thus. the partisan.²ID. an impassioned countenance. the fine gentleman. many a. no matter if the second is plural).² There is a right and a wrong in them. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. no discontinuity. almost every day. in a judge. and greaves. no. was punished.²PRESCOTT. does not take the place of the man. Every sound.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. To receive presents or a bribe. was like to crack. every echo. The Epic. Subjects after the verb. Her back.²PRESCOTT. is a man of wit.²SCOTT.

for example.²FROUDE. Far. His clothes. making up a plural subject.²SCOTT. Conjunction omitted.²EMERSON. Philip of Anjou.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²COLERIDGE.²SWIFT.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.² GIBBON. and its history are alike a mystery to us. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²GOLDSMITH. A shady grove. are sufficient to attract a colony. as.²ADDISON. All our household are at rest. A party of workmen were removing the horses. far away thy children leave the land. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²DE QUINCEY.These bits of wood were covered on every square. as. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²THOREAU.²GIBBON. but the verb is plural. were men of insignificant characters.²B. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. The Dauphin. a stream of fresh water. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. b). TAYLOR.²FROUDE. The conjunction may be omitted. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. The travelers. . a green pasture. of whom there were a number.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. its date. shirt.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.² A multitude go mad about it.²FRANKLIN. 440 (5. as in Sec. the Duke of Berri. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. as with a subject of plural form. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.² One or two of these perhaps survive.

but thou. 444.²SMOLLETT. If there is only one person in the subject.²M. 443. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. . Ah. Second or third and first person in the subject. ARNOLD.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. nor has she"). Pattison or I have said." or.²D. we never talk politics. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.But notice the construction of this.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN." etc. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Nothing which Mr. the verb takes the construction of the first person. for example." "She or you may be sure. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Not Altamont. that is. When the subjects. This construction is at the best a little awkward. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²THACKERAY.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.).²BYRON. "I have never said so.²WHITTIER. Exceptional examples. "You would not be wiser. but thou.²GOLDSMITH. General usage. his blood dost shed. You and I are tolerably modest people. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. 442.²RUSKIN.²LOWELL. nor should I. hadst been my lord. You and I are farmers.²THACKERAY. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. "He or I can go. Not I. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. WEBSTER.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²ROWE. of different persons. the subject being really equivalent to we. as.

give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.445. 10. Neither of their counselors were to be present. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). in my opinion." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²MILTON.²ADDISON. Nor wood. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. In this sentence from Defoe. as illustrated above (Secs.²G.²EMERSON.²perhaps the devil. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²ADDISON. 6. Also in verbals. 12.Her course to intercept.²and. How each of these professions are crowded.²BYRON.²BURKE. 4. In a word.²THACKERAY. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 9. 3. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. nor tree. 446. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.² TROLLOPE. 7. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²SMOLLETT.²ID. Neither of them. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. BANCROFT. nor bush are there. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Exercise. 8. 2. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. as we would hope. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . which it is proper to mention. Both death and I am found eternal. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 5. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 440-444):² 1. 11. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²SCOTT.That neither of their intellects are vast. In the following sentence.

Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . for exact connection. Of course.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.²IRVING. W.²R. 447. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. Indirect discourse means reported speech. Two samples of indirect discourse.. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. to have seen should be changed to to see. as. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. CHURCH. change them to a better form:² 1. on my return. 448. The present rule is recent. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence." .²MACAULAY.² PALGRAVE 5.²DE QUINCEY 2.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Definitions. if not. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Direct discourse²that is. It should be remarked. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²THACKERAY. however. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. I gave one quarter to Ann. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used.²KINGSLEY. 4. meaning. 3.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them.. But I found I wanted a stock of words.²FRANKLIN 6. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Exercise.

not attempting to follow the entire quotation. This includes the auxiliaries be. interrogative adverbs.. She thought to herself.. and the indirect question by whether or if. Sebastian's. "I cannot oblige you . but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Her prudence whispered eternally. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. The substance of his lamentation was. Oh.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words.. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Direct. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. have. under interrogative pronouns." etc. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. Summary of the expressions. Direct. . Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect.. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. "Oh. 2. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. will. introductory verb is in the past tense. His exact words were. 449." etc. 1. etc. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step." Indirect. or regular interrogatives.

²GOLDSMITH. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. VERBALS. with his crew of the Half-moon. and that he himself had heard.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. FRANKLIN. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. if this were expanded into a verb. . The trouble is.²ID. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.Exercise. the sound of their balls.²B. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Careless use of the participial phrase. my first observation will be found nearly true." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. he assured me that nothing was more easy. handed down from his ancestor the historian. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. the first discoverer of the river and country. in the sentences first quoted." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. 450. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²ADDISON. like distant peals of thunder. PARTICIPLES. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. Notice this. one summer afternoon. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.

leaving the principal statement as it is. avoid it.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. either "As I was pleased. purposely or not. 3.²SCOTT. . the first sentence would be. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. Adverb between to and the infinitive." Exercise. For example. then." etc. while defended or excused by others. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. This is the more common arrangement. and often. many things to be carefully considered. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. There are. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. if a strike is to succeed. 2. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.² HERBERT SPENCER. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. Exercise.. Standard writers often use it. 451.. It is a solemn. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.²LAUGHLIN. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . universal assertion.. In the following citations. INFINITIVES.Correction.²RUSKIN.²ID..² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. . my first collection was. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.

Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. BLAIR. The spirits. but it is placed before the infinitive. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. I wish the reader to clearly understand. from Irving. but cannot misunderstand the thought. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. 11. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. etc.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.² MACAULAY. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . are used. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another..²TROLLOPE.²DR.²GOLDSMITH.4. Position of only. but they are often removed from the exact position. even. and earthenware.²ID.²The Nation. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.²SCOTT.² ADDISON. is to be very cautiously admitted. ADVERBS. A little sketch of his. 9. 7. Now. 8. In works of art. china. 452. when such adverbs as only.²BURKE. Exercise. No. which consists in multitude. 5. 6.. 1533. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 13.²RUSKIN. etc. this kind of grandeur. The rigid rule in such a case would be. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. etc. therefore. 10. 12. even. if they modify single words.

7.²EMERSON.²PALGRAVE. In Old and Middle English. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 12. 6. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²CHAUCER. 3.² THACKERAY.²HIGGINSON. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 5. He shouted in those clear.²ID.²RUSKIN. 453. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. GROTE. 8. 16. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. to avoid a crowd. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.1. WILLIS.²MOTLEY. ²ASCHAM. might not marry. During the whole course of his administration. 2.²SYDNEY SMITH. .²ID. 9. 17. P. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. My master. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. whence he was never destined to return.²THACKERAY. In relating these and the following laws. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 14.²MACAULAY.²ID.²N.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 11.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. for example. 15. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²SWIFT. Irving could only live very modestly. No sonne. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 4. 13.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. were he never so old of yeares. His last journey to Cannes. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 10. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. The old usage.²COOPER.²MRS.

²GROTE.² HAMILTON."²MRS. There weren't no pies to equal hers. one of the negatives is often a prefix. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.²DE QUINCEY. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.²HOLMES. the usual way of regarding the question now is. Regular law of negative in modern English. nor never shall. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. 6.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. I did not act so hastily.²BAYNE. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. However.²LOWELL. and is still kept in vulgar English. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. STOWE. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. denying each other. can so agreeably affect. In the execution of this task. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. when one of the negatives is a connective.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. nor the grandeur of no king. 4. etc. Therefore. but ought not to labor after it. uncommon. 2. as. Not only could man not acquire such information. 7. . Exceptional use. if two negatives are found together. In the latter case. neither. STOWE. in Ole Virginia. I never did see him again. The prosperity of no empire. however. is not common. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. ²PAGE. under the influence of Latin syntax. 3. This. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.²DEFOE."²four negatives.²HAWTHORNE. But. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. 5. who hadn't been to school for nothing. as infrequent. Exercise.²MRS. and why:² 1.²BURKE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house.

²LOWELL. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.. either. there we were.."²SCOTT. or with advantage. either . These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. or to reply to it. or to reply to it.8.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it.. In the sentence.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.²SCOTT. "A weapon. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. or.. Choice and proper position of correlatives. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here... "well worthy to confer honor. and which. should be scrutinized. if the second precedes a phrase. not only . nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder... but. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace." Besides neither . not merely ." both of the above requirements are violated.... especially both . but to their own safety. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. CONJUNCTIONS. nor is often changed to not²either ." may be changed to "This loose . Things to be watched. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever.." said the King.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. not only to the success of their common cause. nor. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. Correction.. The sentence." .. not or is the proper correlative of neither. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. the first should also. but (also).²PRESCOTT. if the last precedes a verb. and. the first ought to be placed before a verb. And who. even neither .. neither . 455. as the use of the conjunction. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. 454. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ... or. The sentences given in Secs. as well as of the pronoun. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.

Now.²THACKERAY.² ADDISON. But what. 457. 5. 3. Some exceptions. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. . and I don't know but what he was right. as. substitute that. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Try and avoid the pronoun.²BAIN. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. as.Exercise.²GIBBON. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. O.²THACKERAY. but. or but that.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. murder. 6. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. In the following sentences. too.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. 2. Try and for try to. 8. but. 4. Correct the following sentences:² 1. not merely interest children. and chop up their own kin. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. or the negative relative but.²FRANKLIN. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. Exercise.²ID.²MACAULAY. etc. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. or but that for the words but what:² 1. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. but they will outrage. JEWETT. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 456. They will. 7. but grown-up persons. nor the disgrace of assailing him.²S.

At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. no separation or division by twos being implied. as already seen in Sec. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.²ADDISON.² SWIFT. 5. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²SCOTT. 4. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²ADDISON. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 6.²EMERSON.² BULWER.²BURKE.²EMERSON. . 313. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.2. PREPOSITIONS. 305. Between is used most often with two things only. 458. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. 3. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 459. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.²TROLLOPE. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Between and among. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. see Sec. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies.

come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Some of them have. Dissent from. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. List I. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Dependent on (upon). Two groups or one and a group. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. and another to convey a different meaning. Abhorrent to. Such are derogatory.: Words with particular prepositions. Affinity between. correspond. as. Conversant with. Accord with.²RUSKIN What have I. Kant. 461. ²EMERSON. Comply with. Derogatory to. Conform to.²between philosophers like Spinoza. averse. and philosophers like Locke. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. as. and Stewart. LIST I. . etc. and Coleridge. or one object and a group. Such are absolve. Different from. a soldier of the Cross. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. confer. different. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. by custom. Mackintosh. Acquit of.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. involve. Averse to. Bestow on (upon). Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. 460. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Paley.²KINGSLEY.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire.

Change with (a person). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Confer on (upon) (give to). Correspond to (a thing). etc.y y y Deprive of. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Confer with (talk with). Confide in (trust in). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. LIST III. Reconcile with (note below). 463. 462." also of persons. Reconcile to (note below). A taste of (food). Involve in. Confide to (intrust to). Agree to (a proposal). Independent of. Differ with (note below). Change to (become). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. as.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. as meaning to be in keeping with. Change for (a thing). as." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Differ from (note below). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons." List III.). Correspond with (write to). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. A taste for (art. . in the sense of making friends with. as. List II. LIST II. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. but it is not good usage. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings.

" etc. He died at last without disease. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. die from. instrument). ELIOT.²MACAULAY." "die from." (material cause. they shall die by this hand. She died of hard work.²BURNETT.²BOSWELL. One of them said he would die for her. "Die from.²BULWER.²GOLDSMITH. If I meet with any of 'em." (in behalf of). Who.²ADDISON. part with. died for love of the fair Marcella. . and ill treatment." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. It is a man of quality who dies for her. "Die by. die with. Illustrations of "die of.²MACAULAY.²POPE.²FIELDING.y y y Die by." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. as Cervantes informs us. Part from.²SCOTT. People do not die of trifling little colds.²GOLDSMITH.²G.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. ²THACKERAY. "Die with. Take thought and die for Cæsar. ELIOT.²SHAKESPEARE." (because of). "Die for. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. It would take me long to die of hunger.²MACAULAY.²G. die of. die for. "Die for. I am positively dying with hunger. simply from old age. Expect of. privation." She would have been ready to die with shame. ²ATHENÆUM. expect from. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.:² "Die of. No one died from want at Longfeld.

Burke parted from him with deep emotion. nothing better was to be expected. I can part with my children for their good. 464. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²MACAULAY." To part from you would be misery. It was a little bad of you. 466.²SCOTT.²G." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. . either of or in is used indifferently. and hated to part with them. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. ELIOT. "Part from.²MARRYAT.²DICKENS. 465.²BULWER.²WALPOLE. That is more than I expected of you." "part from:"² "Part with.²TROLLOPE." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²AUSTEN.²G. His precious bag. "Expect from.²MACAULAY. Kind in you.²WALLER. kind of you." She will expect more attention from you." "expect from:"² "Expect of. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²SHAW. ELIOT. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. With words implying behavior or disposition. Illustrations of "expect of.²POE.²G. I have long expected something remarkable from you. Of Doctor P. Illustrations of "part with. as my friend. I have just seen her.²BULWER. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. I part with all that grew so near my heart. which he would by no means part from. just parted from her. ELIOT. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.

6. Very natural in Mr. It will be anything but shrewd in you. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. The noise of vast cataracts. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 14. This narrative. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. In. In the friction between an employer and workman. thrown it over Amyas's head. 13. with seraphims. tedious perhaps.²DICKENS. nor of a pale red. and ran up the alley. 9. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12.²BEACONSFIELD. Hampden. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. 3. nor blue. 15. it is commonly said that his profits are high.²CARLYLE. 4. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 5. thunder. or artillery. or that they are any way dependent on each other. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 11. nor green. nor yellow. 8. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction.²TENNYSON. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. But this is idle of you. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. . Thou tread'st. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 7. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. but which the story renders necessary. 1. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 10. raging storms.²BULWER. the vast abyss. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2.²BULWER.He did not think it handsome of you. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking.

what is a just and unjust act. 30. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. Every one of these letters are in my name. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 411. But every man may know. You have seen Cassio and she together. Friday. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. the acquiescence of the understanding. 16. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 33.) 34. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 31. 29. When the glass or liquor are transparent. and most of us do know. but in the price paid to them. 17. were down with raging fever. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 27. 20. (Sec. . so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 38. Squares. The effect of proportion and fitness. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 22. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. save Amyas. 24. 18. 28. 19. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 23. 35. and other angular figures. and almost as good as a pony. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves.And were I anything but what I am. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 32. you or me. triangles. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 36. 21. 37. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. produce approbation. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. That night every man of the boat's crew. 26. 25. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. Neither of them are remarkable for precision.I would wish me only he. or how beautiful it is. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them.

nouns. origin of. 107. INDEX.000 between them. 116. 133. Adjectives. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century.39. 91. 89. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. of. 25. 310. 20. (3) Modern English. of. demonstrative. 119. . 90. of. 92. of. 124. Abstract with Active Address. 47. 239. of. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. adverbs used complements. from about 1500 to the present time. A. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 98. pronouns. syntax uses Absolute. from nominative clauses. 102. 47. (2) Middle English. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 124. 40. He had four children. 260. numeral. article. nominative. adjectives. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. as. as comparison definition demonstrative. voice.

27. 115. 323. of. of. to used of. 316. from to of. conjunctions. nouns. 27. plural pronominal. 207. nouns. quality. 48. 148. 99. clauses. 101. 116. 109. 275. with with with subject. of. 106. 262. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 239. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. infinitive. 325. . compared. Alms. 325. Agreement. 187. between of. parse. of. 191. predicate. 190. adjectives. modify. 302. 328. 184. 303. 104. 207. 195. objective. 194. antecedent. of. 287. quantity. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. conjunction. of.from function how in not of of ordinal. antecedent. and 185. 97. 116. form as as they to in as uses uses of. as nouns. 183. 291. 190. sentence. 242. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. of. 42. 194. Against. 114. adjectives. 303. 103. parse. adjectives.

Anacoluthon Analysis. sentences. An. 198. it. definition how indefinite. 271. sentences. 47. 127. as uses verbs. though. 294. after of. of. same. of. 240. which. 231. agreement personal as pronoun. words between. 120. 287. Agreement. 79. 120. 67.Among. Arrangement Articles. of. See 74. derivation in definite. 84. 300. 51. . of. syntax. uses As At. 295. 208. adjective. 124. 309. 74. and. syntax As. pronouns. possessive. See with definition complex compound simple who. parse. 101. of of of And Antecedent. 264. 150. A. of and pronoun of. Auxiliary if. 90. 67. 252. 275. in in. 49. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. which. 296. of. 225. definition of of of Any. sentences. 331. which. 148. 207. to of. Are.

of nouns. number of. plurals of. 330. syntax of. of pronouns. 279. of what. of. 150. 278. 161. of. 47. 64. of pronouns. of pronouns. best. 62. 111. 224. 110. 194. adverb. 46. Children. 45.Bad. possessive. 195. Between. 262. comparison conjugation of. clauses of. Cause. See of. double possessive. 46. 279. of nouns. Case. of nouns. Among. of nouns. 262. uses of. in Old and Modern English. 48. 37. adjective. 39. of. uses nominative of. Brethren. 63. Case. 54. definition could. Clause. forms. 84. of pronouns. uses Better. 39. with But By. 66. objective. conjunctions Cherub. . 210. 283. 110. 49. Can. 278. Be. 260. 149. pronoun. Bridegroom. But. nominative.

108. . 239. 248. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. superlative. 43. 108. 24. 53. 271. 23. Clomb. 113. sentence. 107. predicate of and from from of. Cleave. English. of. predicate. of. 305. 12. 307. and forms of. material. 257. of. proper. 43. infinitive. 315. 157.definition kinds noun. in analysis. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 18. double. of. of. definition degrees irregular. and sentence. of. of. clothes. nouns. verb. 312. 111. adverbs. Cloths. subject. 244. defective. 307. 158. plural of. of. 257. adjectives. 257. 264. analysis of. 18. nouns. 110. 268. nouns. 263. 189. of. 258.

194. . 149. 289. verbs. analysis. Dative Declarative Declension of case. and clause. 188. correlative. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 138. conjunction. pronouns. sentence. 199. adverbs. See analysis clauses.with Concord. of of Conjunctions. Conjunctions. interrogative pronouns. 195. sentences. replaced by objective. Can. See in subjunctive. 196. subjunctive. definition how subordinate. 207. Agreement. See English. 231. of. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 195. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 269. 151. same words. pronoun. other other parts of speech. 194. 193. in Old vs. conjunctions. 139. sentences. 328. to of. 73. 149. definition be. 194. 143. 66. pronoun. 263. parse. of. coördinate. 255. conjunctions.

26. Degrees. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. Articles. Subordinate clause. discourse. pronouns. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. from. 99. 102. 160. of. comparative. of. Comparative. nouns. 51. 91. vs. pronouns. tenses. by. 152. 287. clause. 315. 43. 102. adverbs See adjectives. article. of. indirect. See 148. duck. pronouns. 320. possessive. 185. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. See adjectives. with of. 60. See See 48. of. 333. 242. passive adjectives. 288. 80. pronouns. 90. . with. object. 35. Case. 300. Comparison. verb. of personal relative verbs. 303. 242.Declension. nouns. use of dies. for.

. 328. 158. syntax Each Eat Eaves. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. of. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. the of sentence. 240. 92. 33. 158. 51. 62. of. in 'Em. original. Empress. 287. other. -En. predicate. of. pronoun. 39. feminine plural English. Either. 194. of subject. 32. object. 12. literary. 34. older. 234. spoken. added suffix. adjective. Each. 241. 287. 42. 112. to suffix. 280. complement. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 40. pronoun. one ( t). drunk.Drank. pronouns. 92. 110. 90. another. plural. of. error in sentence. conjunction. 92. 102. 33. 38. 257. suffix. possessive suffix. vulgar. 299. Elements Ellipsis. 90. of. 255. 300. of. ending. adjective.

uses redundant. 36. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. perfect. of. two. Few. 29. Feminine. adjective. First Fish. modes "common goose. gender. . fishes. 30. Further. plurals. 32. 48. 102. 43.. 235. with in sex. Farther. as of from compared marking. 102. from. 212. First. 152. etc. as a noun. other languages. pronoun.. 319. 30. 112. of. 308. From. For. Gender. few. of. 45. 287. See Gander. 211. 112. 148. 189. Future Future tense. 152. 212. 103. etc. 91. uses Foreign Former. the. first. 30. with infinitive. have adjective. used of. nouns.Every. 126. expect gone. to of. object. 147." 31. 110. definition distinguished in English. 238. 334. two a further.

His Husband. first sentence. 101.of of Genii. 173. of. Gerund. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. distinguished syntax. participle. noun. of. . 159. 12. for before. 159. 43. Had Hanged. pronoun. I. of. 13. 36. 144. He. 145. kinds of. 61. its. she. 285. person. an better. personal relative geniuses. 231. definition divisions opinions province H. possessive pronouns. 10. and case verbal with. adjective. forms in Girl. 12. pronouns. 61. on. 177. from participle of. 275. 176. of. 175. rather. it. Government. had hung. 9. 120. Grammar. 35. 80. 60. Got. 60. definition basis of.

your. 67. 153. words. See Articles. of. 245. 320. . indirect of. indices. questions. 319. uses discourse. 233. adverbs. in compared syntax. 131. mood. Questions. 178. 136. adjectives. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 105. questions. 188. adjectives. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 110.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 85. 73. 43. summary See passive mood. of. 176. 276. 248. 257. of clause. transitive. 231. verbs. 131. Direct object. 283. 72. 93. use article. of. with of. pronouns. sentence. of. a object. meaning. 323. See you. 227. elements. pronoun.

Kine. lord. Latter. lie. was uses me. Lay. 36. It. in little. Less. Kind. of. -Ly. Logic Logical Lord. and See words in. Lady. 227. these double kind. 61. 102. 113. See Madam. 110. King.. subject form. Like. a vs. . 63. syntax the.. of. 189. 170. 12. 36. English. 113. 281. plural. 39. uses Literary Little. pronoun. 91. lesser. 67. of. "It Its.adverbs. Lay. 276. adjective. Last. syntax. Lady. latest. queen." history etc. Lie. 190. 245. 303. predicate. 226. 110. of. 126. etc. 36.

might. 137. 64. 126. superlatives. construction as of adverb. 137-144.. 326. 287. 113. -Most. 135. 110. of. . 325. sentences. Mood. etc. 189. of. syntax conjunction. syntax nearer. Many Mapping Mare. 265. of. Negative. of. 110. Modifier. 36. Master. adjective. Neither. 34. double. 189. 112. See definition 136. nigh. of. in adverbs comparison a. 144. mistress. 195. Must. 160. 112. mine. Enlargement. 194. 161. imperative. Mighty Mine. conjunctions Many. 185. Means. comparison Near. of. 256. position adverb. out of. 328. 187. 114. 110. 188. Much. 112. of.Manner. of. Modifiers. 41. 102. May. subjunctive. indicative.

No Nominative. Not Noun Nouns. proper. nouns. 32. letters as 24. analysis. common.pronoun. of. gender nouns. 18. of. 45. class used singular. 17 19. words how compound. of. kinds 90. to use. 30. 126. 124. used as. 17. 30. foreign. etc. definition according of. 41 43. 38-41. 258. gender how kinds material. syntax Neuter or two News. 46. abstract. definition descriptive. etc. Case. 56. parse. syntax in gender nouns. 300. formed. 42. Nor. of. None. 246. of of of of of a. to of. 41. See 194. material. 29. 46. number once other plural. become become formation case collective. of. 25. in. 19. 92. now plural. 41. 38. 125. 20. 17. 328. clause. of. 21. . and figures. become neuter. 26. half abstract. nouns. 301. abstract. 30. of. 25. 27.

279. passive adverbial. preposition. of. 148. spoken of instead nouns. Preposition.of same two with proper. English. pronouns. 195. 281. definite. 66. singular. article. and analysis. 23. personal. See in in in Numeral distributive. in article. form. 42 44. of. as forms titles. 102. 42. 48. of. 106. etc. meanings. 240. of. 41. of. of different possessive definite of. verbs. pronouns. 92. conjunction. 48. 285. . 242. 101. 41. 242. with with with Now Number. plural form. 278. 43. with case. 282. meaning. 18. 48. See verb. adjectives. of. Nouns. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 42. or plural. 48. dative. indirect. 39. singular. 196. Numeral Object. 101. 121. 124. adverbial. nominative. in nouns. 41. 235. plural no two singular construction. 60. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. common. 48. plural. adjectives. become syntax use with with with Nouns.. 278. indefinite.

ours. 233. of syntax. 279. 161. Oxen. 194. 94. as other. 293. uses numeral pronoun. Pains. with (the). articles. as of. of upon. See the as of. 191. 93 other. See pronoun. 69. Parsing.syntax Of. 64. a in adjectives. 127. adjective. 87. for. pronoun. 103. 41. of. treatment comparatives. position Order. adverbs. 101. Omission On. of. 115. 117. Ordinal Other Ought. 237. Elder. of of of of of models adjectives. 38. conjunctions. 325 275. 103. indefinite possessive One One as Only. another. 216. Ourself. inverted. Older. 213. . 116. Each adjective. 91. adverb. 56. 199. part analysis. conjunction. nouns. 56. 306. definite relative uses of. of. One. Our.

Pence. 28. 317. absolute with of. of. verb idioms it from. 181. Person. possessive and of. speech. 95. included various. 62. 59. 69. phrases. phrase. reflexive. used as voice. pronouns. relatives. 56. 70. verbals. 59. 173. antecedent. 148. 64. pronoun. in. agreement of verb nouns. -ing words. 100. verbs. of. 80. 174. 43. nominative. predicate use of. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 43. 287. 179. of. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. pronouns. or of.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 180. of. article 150. 59. 177. 281. 63. part adjective. of. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. pennies. 247. parsed. pease. . 56. them. 27. 61. and subject in. 322. 62. 172. not is. from definition other of. with. 134. of. 219. 335. 172. of. 119. verbs.

of. appositional. of. 278. 64. 41. syntax of of Politics. simple. Nouns. nouns. 281. of. antecedent of of pronouns. or See of of See 185. 50. 106. Personification. omitted. 236. in of. spoken of. 236. it. 245. 53. participial. of. pronoun. 37. Comparison. 232. singular. Positive Possessive. nouns. 281. 's. 61. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 54. 25. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. See 60. 245. kinds infinitive. adverbs of. 247. Place. 285. 51. 241. nouns. 278. vs. English. pronoun. 63. . 60. of. of Phrase. as double. 52. 67.objective syntax table triple uses of. 206. of. 303. 248. 247. pronouns. 235. of. plural. double. 195. singular degree. Personal subjective. 303. 49. relative. adjectives. of nouns. complete. of. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. prepositional. 188. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. noun nouns. objects. 53.

another. what. 187. . 59. objective. by with shown certain of. somebody definition how indefinite. 203. 206. 105. and form form form form of. 287. 58. singular usually other. 93. 282.Prefixes. 202. 219. of. 283. 302. all. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. of. and one with else's. forms of. 58. 195. case. none. 132. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 281. of. future. 205. interrogative. as antecedent of relative. of. same used as adjectives. objective. plural. adjective. 72. after but. 285. meaning. plural. 89. parse. case. 303. Prepositions. by parts of of. with tense certain. any. 284. 280. 105. interrogative. 64. 300. of. as 54. speech. 129. neither. as. 208. exclamatory. Pronouns. 95. expressed as other of. 279. 203. 333. who personal. 32. 186. in exclamations. 147. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. adverb. 283. 301. verbs. each either. parse. 207. 300. usually to as than. words. of. for predicate nominative. of. by. 299. plural. 331. possessive nominative to of. 332. 104.

in. of. who. which. 188. use in as. 58. and antecedent. 296. or of. 195. Rank. . See of. personal pronoun. 293. Direct same and different. Quotations. indirect compound. unrestrictive. 83. of. 295. parse. 101. 293. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. of. indirect. 295. of. nouns. Quantity. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. with who. which after same. 85. 85. 84. 87. 74. from and interrogative. and relatives. 297. in. 263. pronoun. 99. 68. 105. pronominal pronouns indirect. Nouns. 291. 289. Questions. 142. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. in. 87.possessive relative. 80. of. use of history formed. discourse. 279. 286. conjunctions Quality. of. Rather. of. pronouns. agreement anacoluthon and as. 74. of. 69. 289. to of. with with gerund. and which. adverbs in. 69. 189. same antecedent. questions. that. of. 74.

forms shots. of. 196. 319. and should. gender. Seeing. of of of complex Sentences. plural possessive as. 263. 289. 26 271. who. which. ending. effect. Same Sat. sentence. pronoun. 29. that. object. 162. Simple in sate. clauses of. would. 159. of. Self Sentences. elliptical. tenses. 294. in form. Shear. will. complex. Shot. 69. kinds Sequence Set. conjunctions Retained Riches. 196. of. 231. See Sentences. of. suffix. simple of. 159. of sit. 'S. 242. in of. reflexive analysis of compound. 259. 195. 252. definition .syntax use Result. simple. 51. 170. 42. conjunction. 74. 231. 255. S. Sex Shall. 43. 40.

144. 36. 262. 270. verbs. English. literary clause. 323. -en. 258. English. adverb. 144. 33. disuse in spoken complete. in feminine suffix. 257. names as a. 240. 32. 137. of.Singular Sir. definition 67. 169. English.. 237. phonetic in infinitive. 257. etc. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 245. of. definition how kinds noun. Split Spoken -Ster. 245. 233. 38. 258. 258. 257. Somebody Sort. 138. 33. of. adverb. for. English. of. 257. as. 303. sort. distinguish. other Such Such Suffix -s. of. 38. 186. Spelling Spinster. Modern use becoming else's. 126. . -es. vs. Subject. See -En. 303. of. to of. used mood. of. logical. in Middle English. these number. 12. 260.

of." introductory. omission whom. as history syntax Their.Suffixes.. 297. 87. when relative.. of. 152. 147. adverbs. adjectives. 33. article. 306. 191. objects. 88. Tenses. two basis not same definition definite. king. . syntax of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. Then. degree. 307. 147. of. 108. Kind. 61. of. of . form. than of. 280. 306. 277. of. English. 290. 106. 119. restrictive. 109. 275. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. coördinating. of. 116. classical of. object. 186. 289. subject. of languages. See etc. 186. 123. 120. 107. 275.. auxiliaries. 147. 189. meaning made up in Old of. this. as history The. of. that uses That. me. and and of. of. when as of. There These kind. 319. 309. plural as adverb. in double. which. 106. 222. in comparison. definition in English Tense. "the then foreign. as adverbs. English. meaning. 148. not suggesting adjectives. they.

See On. 176. -ing 111. Thou. verbs. Time. 207. 33. suffix. conjunctions prepositions To. 114. thy. parse. from cleft to 174. 322. of. of. 181. gerund. 248. 172. uses history of. other noun. uses of. in omitted uses T'other. try two. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. how infinitive. feminine and. preposition. 180. of. -Trix. carelessly uses syntax this. 128. 247. 322. 188. to. first. 175. 217. etc. 172. exclamations. 119. phrases.. words. Try Two Under. kinds participle. Utter. 330. analysis. 175. 173. infinitive. Upon. 175. . 114. 323. infinitive. 308. of. certain as the before with of. tother. first adjective. 185. adverbs those. 114. 21.These. of. Upper. of. thee. used. 20. uttermost. 61. See That. of. 195. in of.

169. in person. remarks on certain. verbs. strong. 169. transitive and intransitive. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. table of. of incomplete predication. spelling of. 47. 157. 12. 312-316. becoming irregular. active meaning. 149. table of irregular. 245. verbs by. 33. 147. made transitive. past tense formed nominative. of English. passive. 148. 320. 148. 131. 134. 179. 150. 154. sequence of. 155. how to parse. mood of. defective. conjugation of. 312. 133. with subject in number. definition of. 242. 317. 159. of. passive form. syntax of. 154. formed by.Verbs. 135. voice of. but uses what. 223. What. intransitive. 236. person and number of. 330. phonetic. 130. active. regular. Vocative in Voice. in indirect discourse. 39. change. 167. 167. 160. of. retained object with passive. agreement of. 319. analysis. 154. definition of. definition of. weak. 133. 151. . auxiliary. Vixen. 129. tense of.

direct of. With. Will. questions. in -ly. relative indirect relative. etc. questions. pronoun. 246. would. Words in Worse. Who. Woman. questions. interrogative Which. 83. 105. 40. 111. whereto. antecedent adjective. 126. of. 78. referring syntax Widower. 77. 79. 75. in in indefinite objective. pronoun. English. 85. Whether. wizard. Y. 36.. 73. Wife. 295-299. worser. 72. questions. 32. 299. animals. 75. 190. 83. . 85. relative. uses See Shall. Yes ending analysis. 37. Witch. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 72. 296. 194. 104. conjunction.what Whereby. 218. in. 178. spoken in of. 36. of. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. relative. 85. plural of in nouns -ing. 105. 72. a.

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