roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. to those who have studied the language historically. It is also evident. as compared with Latin or Greek. from the question. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. If. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. but this is bad English now. The work it will cover. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. An æsthetic benefit. Surely our noble language.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). their forms. its peculiar and abundant idioms. however. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.The province of English grammar is. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). there is still much for the grammarian to do. Few inflections." and "Syntax. A broader view. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. so that a small grammar will hold them all. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Making rules is risky. then. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. . apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. Coming back. "Analysis. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Authority as a basis. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. if rightly presented. and thus incite his observation. and their uses and relations in the sentence. This will take in the usual divisions. rightly considered. Literary English. it will at the same time. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. as. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. Mental training. is worthy of serious study. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. with its enormous vocabulary." What grammar is.

Occasionally. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. the nation is free. The plainest name is Arabs. The words state. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. besides this one. 1. The Parts of Speech.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Vulgar English. three divisions:² Part I. too. then. reference will be made to vulgar English. that is. Part II. The following pages will cover.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. by which is meant the free.²GIBBON. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. PART I. . and Inflections. NOUNS. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. Spoken English. Analysis of Sentences. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Part III. and the word nation stands for a whole group. or standard. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. or Syntax. Such words are called nouns. and will are evidently names of a different kind. but. The Uses of Words. which belongs to a people. as they stand for ideas. not objects. from the eighteenth century on. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. the words sons and master name objects. and may belong to any of those objects. submission.

MATERIAL. because each group is considered as a unit. ATTRIBUTE. a committee. We may say. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. animals. (b) Common. and things separately. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied.Definition. we may think of them in groups. place. . animals. (a) 4. Thus. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Classes of nouns. however. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or a council. men in groups may be called a crowd. belonging to one. Besides considering persons. or things. 2. Name for a group or collection of objects. or idea. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. They properly belong under common nouns. the man here. A noun is a name word. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Thus. This does not imply. 5. is from a Latin word which means general. whether person. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. reducing it to a narrow application. For instance. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. 3. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. or thing. the name of each is an individual or proper name. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Name for any individual of a class. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or a mob. Proper. or the man in front of you. Abstract. representing directly to the mind an object. Common. possessed by all. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Individual. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. as here used. etc. substance. Collective. and appropriate names to the groups. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. or a congress. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. but Chicago names one city.

sand. . frost. earth. stone. "Painting is a fine art. expressing attributes or qualities. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. instead of to each individual or separate object. When we speak of a wise man. platinum. granite. etc. frost. (3) Geological bodies: mud. wheat. etc. Words naturally of limited application not proper. rice. Such are glass. as in calling a city Cincinnati. not things. potash. or actions. but it is taken merely as a name." "Learning is hard to acquire. celluloid." "a man of understanding. however. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. cloud. etc. snow. etc. 7. The quality is still there as much as before. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. dew. expressing state. . gold. but which are not called proper names. mist. or apart from their natural connection. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. sugar. tea. condition. wine. It may. rain. The reason is. moon.. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. etc. clay. iron.²There are some nouns. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. such as sun. we may say. etc. soap. considered abstractly. we speak of the wisdom of the man. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. 6. Names of ideas. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. etc. but in the words sun. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth).Names for things thought of in mass. and so on. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. Again. or that which shows a thing has been proved. rubber. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. world. NOTE. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. etc. conditions. rock. sugar. wheat. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. paint. or action. and fasten a special name to the object considered. earth. there is no such intention." 9. They remain common class names. proof means the act of proving.

Underived abstract nouns. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. her longing for their favor. . Such are beauty. etc. etc. They are only the husks of verbs. etc. energy. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. the moon caused fearful forebodings. (2) peerage from peer. Caution. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. as glad²joy. mastery from master. as their name implies. 10. ease. kingship from king. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. a wedding or a festival. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. II. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. service from serve." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. five abstract. lightning. the teachings of the High Spirit. hopeful²hope. 273). feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. stupidity from stupid. etc. To avoid difficulty. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. hope. action from act. day. summer. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. joy. five proper. those opinions and feelings. by altering its function. NOTE. Exercises. speech from speak. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. theft from thieve. and they cannot express action. The verb. night. the rude drawings of the book. (1) prudence from prudent. height from high. shadow.Attribute abstract nouns. 272. he spread his blessings over the land. thunder. "a long run" "a bold move. childhood from child. redness from red. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. Verbal abstract nouns. the well-being of her subjects. in the beginning of his life. there is time for such reasonings. the main bearings of this matter. 12. is used as a noun.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. the great Puritan awakening. winter." "a brisk walk. 1. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. Thus. but are merely names of actions. as in the expressions.. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. They cannot govern a word.

tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as physics. (b) branches of knowledge. as pneumonia. typhus. Using a dictionary.2. geology. mathematics? 3. diphtheria. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. algebra. pleurisy. catarrh.

meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. We know a number of objects made of iron. arras. levant and morocco (leather). as a davy. damask. above. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. the word port. but we may say. Guillotin. the guillotine. a Bentham. it imposes its classification on other men. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. from a town in France. who was its inventor. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. currants. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. port (wine). Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. 13. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Others of similar character are calico. Material nouns may be used as class names. in Portugal. from Calicut. 119)." referring to flat- . or to go over to it entirely. from Oporto. a Locke. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. a Lavoisier. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. thus. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. from the name of Dr.²EMERSON. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. Nouns change by use. but most of them are in the following groups. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. a Fourier. from Corinth. "The cook made the irons hot. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. for example. Sodom was famous for wickedness. from China. and lo! a new system. Proper names transferred to common use. 14. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. a Hutton. from Damascus. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. etc. 15.

and only Vice and Misery. etc. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. that is. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. the abstract idea is partly lost. on fire. his eyes.²COLLINS. slates. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks.²HAYNE. are abroad. nor are they common class nouns. clouds. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. or used as class nouns. candies. smiled. etc.irons. but on dispositions which require to be created. mists. Traffic has lain down to rest. For example. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. or made plural. abstract in meaning. (3) By poetical use. Death.In lightnings owned his secret stings. 17. papers. which are made plural. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. as stones. paints.²RUSKIN. coals. that disposition is the thing to be created. These are the same in material. Class nouns in use. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. but in case an art or a science. or. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. a rubber for erasing marks. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. tins. but differ in strength. oils. and so on. Next Anger rushed. They are not then pure abstract nouns. The words preceded by the article a. not material things. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. a steel to whet a knife on. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. This is a poetic usage. clays. 16.²BRYANT. tobaccos. purity.²CARLYLE. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. that the power of art is founded on fact. Test this in the following sentences:² . be spoken of. Personification of abstract ideas. though not confined to verse. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. and say teas. When it is said that art differs from science. A halfway class of words. to prowl or to moan like night birds.²BYRON. From all around²Earth and her waters. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. or the arts and sciences.²PERCIVAL. are still names of abstract ideas.

etc. When I was young? Ah. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. But ah! those pleasures. 18. a bank in New York. NOTE. But it is better to consider them as nouns. "a family quarrel. Nouns used as descriptive terms. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. All these. nouns used to modify. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.² GOLDSMITH. were mere terrors of the night. Adjectives. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. the wealthy. as descriptive adjectives are. Conjunctions. a bill as to tax on the banks. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. however. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. sir!"²MACAULAY . if we must have great actions. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. meaning a walk in the morning. sir!" and the "What then.Let us. they cannot be compared. fear thy blow. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. as each repeated pleasure tired." "a morning walk. which belongs to another word. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. or describe it. Then comes the "Why.²EMERSON. but is still a noun." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. They are more like the possessive noun. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question.²SHAKESPEARE.² BURNS. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. they do not express quality." "the State Bank Tax bill. loves. make our own so." "a New York bank. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. 19.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. or from any expression.²BURNS. And still.²SHAKESPEARE.²IRVING. Adverbs.The Solitary can despise. sir?" and the "No. Every why hath a wherefore. for example. By ellipses." which contains a pure adjective. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.

in a sentence above. and Then. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. 8. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. 7. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.And Ceremony doff'd her pride.Nor iron bars a cage. There are many of these. the wealthy.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. to such words as become pure nouns by use. but have an adjectival meaning. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. without reference to its function in the sentence." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. and tell to which class each belongs. FRANKLIN. Stone walls do not a prison make. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. It is to be remembered. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. the terms the great. etc. 5. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Now. 2. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. but as a figure of speech. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 3. The it. too. When. that cobweb of the brain. Exercise. When. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage.. is ambiguous. of words rather than of their meaning. Learning. are used. so. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. In the other sentences." and another of Dr. of course. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. 4. or a state secret. 1. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. is the word "just.²These remarks do not apply.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. Caution."²B. or a criminal. 6. Power laid his rod aside." or "legal. 20. however. . at the beginning. NOTE. in speaking of the principal of a school. or a faithful domestic. why and wherefore. are spoken of as if pure nouns.

17. but not so in English. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. the silver moon is gone. Greek. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. the welcome. German. And see.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 22. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 21. A little weeping would ease my heart. There are exceptions even to this general statement.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much.Fair guests. 10. 21. female. GENDER. In Latin. 19. A fool speaks all his mind. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. always masculine. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 24. 11. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS.You seize the flower. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. and many other languages. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. . The hours glide by. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 12. 18. 20. But pleasures are like poppies spread. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 13. 23. It is founded on sex. What gender means in English. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. always feminine. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. The fleet. Male beings are. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 16. 15. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 14. shattered and disabled. in English grammar. and names of females are usually feminine. that waits you here. its bloom is shed.9. he cried. returned to Spain.

according to their use. All nouns. came to a stand just by the bridge. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Gunpowder . that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. clapping his burnished wings. Gender nouns... that is. and consequently without sex. No "common gender. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig. but are spoken of as neuter. those with which man comes in contact often.. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words.²IRVING. For instance: in Latin. hortus (garden) is masculine. corpus (body) is neuter. the sex being of no consequence. those distinguishing the sex of the object." . neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects.. however. 24. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. if there were any signs of life in it. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. then. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. der Tisch (table) is masculine. das Messer (knife) is neuter. according to use. the name of it is feminine. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. in other languages gender follows the form." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. mensa (table) is feminine. with its gizzard under its wing. or names of things without life. or which arouse his interest most. must be divided into two principal classes. that pattern of a husband. those which do not distinguish sex.²LAMB.²masculine and feminine.²gender nouns. "A little child shall lead them. inanimate things are spoken of. the name of it is masculine. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. Thus. or additions to words.. in English. if of the female sex. Hence: Definition. 22. are named by gender nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Neuter nouns.. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.² I have seenA curious child . with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. The great difference is. in German. Of animals. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. 23.² IRVING. and neuter nouns.When. .

{ Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. domestic. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. 26. Put in convenient form.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. and for the older word fat they said vat. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. for from they said vram. 28. only to masculine and feminine nouns. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Gender shown by Prefixes. Male nouns beings. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. servant. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. relative. puts a prefix before the masculine man. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. of course. from the masculine fox. cousin. If such words as parent. though both words have lost their original meanings. Native suffixes. he-bear²she-bear. I. One feminine. the division of words according to sex. as in wine vat. teacher. they are neuter words. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. 29. etc. Hence vixen is for fyxen. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. For fox they said vox. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. . since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. (2) By adding a suffix. These remain in vixen and spinster. According to the definition. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. or the lack of it.. Gender shown by Suffixes. The inflections for gender belong. as he-goat²she-goat. II. woman. ruler. but spinster has now no connection with it. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English.25. is. 27. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Very few of class I. generally to a masculine word. (3) By using a different word for each gender.

gamester.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. song-str-ess. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Unaltered and little used. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. These are attached to foreign words. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as. trickster. and are never used for words recognized as English. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Low Latin issa). but in most cases it has not. as czarina. the one most used. Ending of masculine not changed. -ess (French esse.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). señorita. it has none now in the words huckster. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. as seam-stress. donna. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . executrix. punster. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. 30. Slightly changed and widely used.

to represent persons of either sex." III. Some of them have an interesting history. as. Gender shown by Different Words. as in the fourteenth century. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Instead of saying doctress. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. etc. or servauntesse. 31.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. chairman. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. editor. teacheresse. from Latin imperatricem. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. others have in their origin the same root. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. we use the feminine. 32. wagoness. fosteress. teacher or lady teacher. We frequently use such words as author. as was said in the sixteenth century. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. from the French -esse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. the ending -ess. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. NOTE. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Thus. neighboresse. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. frendesse. neighbor (masculine and feminine).²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. In some of these pairs. we use the masculine termination. as.

Two masculines from feminines. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. 16). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). but this has long been obsolete. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Danish gaas. Three letters of ened have fallen away. finally gander. lhauerd. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Besides gander and drake. widuwa²widuwe. gand-ra. among others) to be from the same root word. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. not immediately connected with witch. etc. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). 33. from Latin mea domina. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. or lauerd in Middle English. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Widower. the old sign of the masculine. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. written loverd. though both are ultimately from the same root. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. in Old English mere. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). for example. had the masculine mearh (horse). Witch is the Old English wicce. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. It is not connected historically with our word duck. as in many other words. became identical. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Personification.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. 34. Icelandic gás. probably meaning house dweller). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used.).² . and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). The older forms. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. leaving our word drake. Mare. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Madam is the French ma dame. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word.

Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. that is. 35.²KEATS."Now. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. for instance.²CAMPBELL. 39. in Old English. The -en inflection. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. Our language has two numbers. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. etc. The first two methods prevailed. 38. and not by the form of the noun. 36. Britannia needs no bulwarks. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. I. NUMBER.²COLERIDGE. whenever we adopt a new word. the engineer speaks so of his engine. Effect of personification. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine.Clustered around by all her starry Fays.No towers along the steep. This is not exclusively a poetic use. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England.²singular and plural. together with the third. eyen (eyes). . Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. But other words were inflected afterwards. shoon (shoes).Her march is o'er the mountain waves.Her home is on the deep. treen (trees). which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. the plural. (3) By adding -s (or -es). number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one."²BYRON. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. (2) By changing the root vowel. 37. more than one. In nouns. Definition.

when they mean soldiery.²MACAULAY. quartz.²WHITTIER. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. 41. sheep. etc. The old plural was brothru. 42. head. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Other words following the same usage are.² The foot are fourscore thousand. by. then brothre or brethre. they add -s): also trout. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. heathen. cannon. Instead of -s. salmon.²Over the mountains winding down. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. III. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. and get settled. wight. turf. Brethren has passed through three stages. such as deer. originally neuter. dozen. and is still found in dialects. folk. glass. brace.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. retain the same form for plural meaning. people. that have the singular and plural alike. sail. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. etc. Akin to this class are some words. but has now no singular. Lee marched over the mountain wall. finally brethren. as. as. etc. lens.² "God bless me! so then. Examples of this inflection are.-En inflection imitated by other words. cross. Children has passed through the same history. The words horse and foot.Horse and foot. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. 40. after all. ditch. after numerals (if not after numerals. or if preceded by the prepositions in. pair."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. .The horse are thousands ten.²THOREAU. II. Kine is another double plural. but they now add the ending -s. into Frederick town. Such are box. swine.

allies.. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. volcano² volcanoes.-Es added in certain cases. the Washingtons. means: as. in its widest extent. means and politics. these words ended in -ie.g. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. though they are plural in form. Words in -ies. The lilie on hir stalke grene. half²halves. and some -es. though this sound combines readily with -s. 45.. Means plural.g. the Americas. they lose their identity. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. fancies. 43. pains (care). e. daisies.²BRYANT. prize²prizes. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. also news. is both the science and the art of government. economics. mathematics. niche²niches. fairies.²PROF. molasses. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. 15 and 17). Formerly. etc. chaise²chaises. When such words take a plural ending. negro²negroes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. So live. DANA. knife²knives. some adding -s. Two words.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. e. etc. summons. as. It served simply as a means of sight. that when thy summons comes. physics. and many branches of learning. Some words are usually singular. shelf²shelves. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. a new syllable is made. 44. etc. Proper nouns are regularly singular. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. race²races.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. quoth then that ladie milde. Examples of these are.² Politics. and go over to other classes (Secs. however. Special Lists. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). etc. politics. optics. and the real ending is therefore -s. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . house²houses. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. hero²heroes.

A relic which. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. With great dexterity these means were now applied. . CURTIS.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps. however. by those means which we have already mentioned. he pronounced to have been a tongs. L.Words.²GOLDSMITH.²BURKE. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. I say.²GOLDSMITH. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.² MACAULAY. Sometimes.²IRVING. Some words have no corresponding singular. LAUGHLIN.²J. W.²G. riches will accumulate. Besides this. if I recollect right. Now I read all the politics that come out. Politics plural. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. by strongly conveying the passions. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²MOTLEY. By these means. 46.

²one corresponding to the singular. die²dies (stamps for coins. of a periodical. penny²pennies (separately). Numbers also means issues. riches. brethren (of a society or church). fish²fish (collectively).. fishes (individuals or kinds). dice (for gaming). twopence. or copies. clothes (garments). two meanings. One plural. Two classes of compound words. These make the last part plural. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). etc. making a double plural. DANA. ways. In speaking of coins. sixpence. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. or work in a bellows?²PROF. shots (number of times fired). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. index²indexes (to books).²POPE.). 49. faculties. (2) care. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. trouble. shot²shot (collective balls). 50.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. in mournful numbers. (2) poetry.² I lisped in numbers. (2) literature. pease (collectively).²LONGFELLOW. or epistles. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. 48. as in the lines. for the numbers came.. genius²geniuses (men of genius). pence (collectively). genii (spirits). Three words were originally singular. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. (2) revenue duties. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. pea²peas (separately). number²numbers: (1) figures. carry off chaff. as two sixpences. Tell me not. . cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). (2) abilities. etc..The air. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. part²parts: (1) divisions. In Early Modern English thank is found. the other unlike it. may add -s. two plurals. indices (signs in algebra).²was it subdued when. eaves.

woman servant. As to plurals of names with titles.²DR. 51. manservant. Mussulman. Two methods in use for names with titles. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. the Drs. as the Messrs. and Mrs.² Then came Mr.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. and then the three Miss Spinneys. as man singer. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Norman. Ottoman. German. such as talisman. then Silas Peckham. or the name may be pluralized. the Misses Rich. The title may be plural. Brahman. though the latter is often found. for example. Briggs. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. HOLMES. firman. Allen. but add -s. there is some disagreement among English writers. woman singer. . The chief member adds -s in the plural. 52. Brown. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.

Others have been adopted.²THE CRITIC.²GOLDSMITH. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. and retain their foreign plurals. They are then said to be naturalized. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. or Anglicized. 53.²GIBBON. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. FROM THE LATIN. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. or Englished. Du Maurier. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²DICKENS. Domesticated words. Exercise. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. These are said to be domesticated. FROM THE GREEK. The domesticated words may retain the original plural.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. The Messrs. y y analysis antithesis .

Only two case forms." CASE." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). as.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. In the sentence. cell has another relation. . form their plurals by adding -s or 's. etc. etc. In the general wearing-away of inflections." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). as. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. without reference to their meaning. Words quoted merely as words. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. 54. Definition. Letters. figures..² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. they form their plurals in the regular way. and expresses a relation akin to possession. figures. also add -s or 's. 55." the word felon's modifies cell. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). 56. helping to express the idea of place with the word in.

excessive grief. and experience. whether inflected or not.²person. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.²the nominative. Excuses are clothes which. Human experience is the great test of truth. they returned to their homes. . the enemy of the living." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. Three properties belong to wisdom. 3.²nature." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Nouns. fate. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. may be said to have three cases. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. completing a verb. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. I.There are now only two case forms of English nouns." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 58.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. then. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. three things characterize man. 2. and merit. 5. 1. must be understood for purposes of analysis. 4. 57. learning." (2) As a predicate noun. Uses of the Nominative.²one for the nominative and objective. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. when asked unawares. and the possessive. the objective.

The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." (4) As the second object. Conscience." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. (in the older stages of the language. reconciles. 4. 2. they are sands of precious gold. 3. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. (5) As the object of a preposition. as will be seen in Sec. the word toward which the preposition points." (3) Adverbially. taking the object enemies. and tell which use each has:² 1. 68. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 9. . Tender men sometimes have strong wills. save. how have I frighted thee? II. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. wounded lies. Set a high price on your leisure moments. her first law broken. and landlord of the inn. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. and meaning calmest. good Heaven. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. distance. completing the verb." "Thou makest the storm a calm. But the flood came howling one day. Uses of the Objective. and makest a calm. and being equivalent to one verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. 59. But of all plagues. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. etc. sword in hand and visor down. a patriarch of the village. thy wrath can send. 8. measure.Save.6. taking the object storm. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences." Exercise." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. They charged.

Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. the Great Stone Face.²HAWTHORNE.5. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.. 6. The possessive case always modifies another word. (3) Subjective possessive. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. III.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. or in writing yesterday's elegy. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. the most common of all. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. 61. Possession in some sense is the most common. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.²ADDISON. expressed or understood. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. as shown in the sentences. tempests that .Does his Creator's power display. as in these expressions. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. The noblest mind the best contentment has.²BYRON. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.And gave the leper to eat and drink. It is a poetic expression. 9. as. and forfeits paid. 60.²SHELLEY. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 10. (2) Objective possessive. 7.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. Uses of the Possessive. And whirling plate. from day to day.His winter task a pastime made. 8.² The unwearied sun.e.

. The use of the apostrophe. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. PLURAL. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. 62. 56). Nom. Poss. there are only two case forms. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. How the possessive is formed. A suggestion. One is the simple form of a word. in Chaucer. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s.winter is likely to have). 1. growth which several days had developed)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. and Obj.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 62. 63. and Obj. As said before (Sec." "at his beddes syde. "From every schires ende." Use of the apostrophe. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. however. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. lady Poss. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case." "mannes herte [heart]. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.. Declension or inflection of nouns. making the possessive singular. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.e. the panther which the forest hides).. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. 64." etc. Nom. child NOTE.e. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). A false theory. To form the possessive plural. as schoolboys sometimes write. Case Inflection. "George Jones his book. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i.

as. know the amount of my income. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase.²CARLYLE. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. containing words in apposition. store. etc."²DE QUINCEY.² LOWELL. Cervantes' satirical work.. I remember him in his cradle at St. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. . They invited me in the emperor their master's name. my neighbors. the possessive sign is usually last. in the name of the emperor their master." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Possessive and no noun limited. stands up for God's truth one man." "A postscript is added. Peter's. dwelling. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. Kate saw that. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. the items of my son's. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. as by the countess's command. being understood with it: for example. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.²THACKERAY. 65. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.²HOLMES. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Captain Scrapegrace's. but to the ear all may be alike. church. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. and she walked off from the don's.²SWIFT. some such word as house. In compound expressions. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.²RUSKIN. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. as. James's. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. and from a desire to have distinct forms. 66.. etc. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.²DE QUINCEY. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. a word with a phrase. for goodness' sake.Though this opinion was untrue. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. 67." Possessive with compound expressions. instead of the emperor their master's name.

For example. Blair). a double possessive.The double possessive. sometimes they are used together. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief.²FROUDE. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. however. making a double possessive. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? .²E. If. etc. every. In most cases. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. that.²the introduction which Atterbury made. or subjective. any. Emphasis. Exercises. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. especially when used with this or that. objective. (1) When a word is modified by a. 2. and tell whether each is appositional. we use the phrase of Atterbury. (b) Rewrite the sentence. and at the same time by a possessive noun.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. (3) It prevents ambiguity. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. 68. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. E. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. 1. the sentence might be understood as just explained. 87. as one modifier. Clearness. no.. A peculiar form. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. HALE.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. the statement clearly means only one thing. each. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. ill-lighted except where she stands. corresponding to 's. in such a sentence as.²CARLYLE. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. this. the. (See also Sec. Both of these are now used side by side. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.

therefore. There Shakespeare's self. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience.Comes dancing from the East. 70. Friend. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. we state. 9. 13. let him seasonably water the one. In parsing. Nature herself. some idioms²the double possessive.3. At lovers' perjuries. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. it seemed. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 15. Now the bright morning star. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Hence. 10. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 6. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. Jove laughs. in parsing a noun. 12. 7. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 8.² .A weary waste expanding to the skies. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.They say. 14. 4. 11. 69. 5. day's harbinger. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. and destroy the other. with every garland crowned. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.

2. (3) Whether singular or plural number. as to case. but is the adverbial objective. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. 3. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. hence it is objective case. and therefore nominative case. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. it is the object of the preposition by. and limits neckcloth. a withered serving man. 4. has no governing word. gender. hence objective case. the connection shows a male is meant. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. The correct method. like miller's. it denotes only one person. proper. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. hence it is a gender noun. determining its case. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. masculine. 71. therefore neuter. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. it expresses possession or ownership. therefore singular number. Exercise. therefore possessive case. therefore masculine gender. it expresses time. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. Thief is a common class noun. hence it is a common noun. MODEL FOR PARSING. That in the captain's but a choleric word. NOTE. subject of the verb is understood. and relations.(1) The class to which it belongs. names one thing. therefore singular number. Throat is neuter. Neckcloth. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. object of the verb takes. a fresh tapster. it is the name of a male being. and number. In parsing any word.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. etc. is a common class noun. it has no sex. . inflections. if the latter. 68). which gender.²common. (4) Its office in the sentence. and to have it found out by accident. singular number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.

. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. from a necessity for short. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Now. or for a person or thing. He giveth his beloved sleep. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. and prison. 11. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. were natives of Geneva. 8. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. where the Rhone enters the lake. instead of saying. standing for a name. Time makes the worst enemies friends.5.²palace. and his daughter. Jarley's back being towards him. but by a question we say. Madame de Staël. For instance. Classes of pronouns. 73. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. blessings light on him that first invented . 10. 9. Mrs. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. 72. A few miles from this point. castle. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. (2) Interrogative pronouns. financial minister to Louis XVI. A pronoun is a reference word.. definite. PRONOUNS. 7. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. and representative words. or for a group of persons or things.And hated her for her pride. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. 76). This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs.. Necker. all in one. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun." Again. Definition. The need of pronouns. sleep! 6..

(3) Relative pronouns. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. This gives rise to a new term. Singular. representing the person speaking. words. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. (2) Second person. that is. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. (4) Adjective pronouns. which relate or refer to a noun. and the person or thing talked about. my Plural. primarily adjectives. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. pronoun. representing a person or thing spoken to.. or other word or expression. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. (5) Indefinite pronouns. they must represent the person talking. 77. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. 75. they are said to have person by agreement. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. From analogy to pronouns. 74. we our. 76. (3) Third person. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. as nouns have the same form. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. the person or thing spoken to. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. which have forms for person. I Poss." Person of nouns. Person in grammar. which cannot be used as adjectives. even if it had a special form. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ours . Nom. "the distinction of person. mine. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Three persons of pronouns.

. hers her Plur. SECOND PERSON. neuter. so also with the person or thing spoken to. you your. Poss. a separate form for each gender. 78. Nom. namely. theirs them Neut. of all Three. Old forms. Poss. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. he his him Fem. Singular. The speaker may be either male or female. yours Poss. Obj. your. Old Form Common Form. she her. it its it Poss. yours you Plural. Nom. thine. But the third person has. neuter hit. and also for the neuter. by personification. First and second persons without gender. Nom. Third person singular has gender. feminine h o. yours you THIRD PERSON. Nom. masculine h . In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Masc. they their. me us Singular. Obj. thou thee ye you you your.. in the singular. Obj. Obj. or.Obj. thy Remarks on These Forms.

79.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. Two uses of the old singulars. them. etc.²BEECHER.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be.² Oh. etc. as. (2) In addressing the Deity. Second person always plural in ordinary English. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. their. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. two modern uses of thou.. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). There are. heora. etc. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. thee.Thou lovest. as possessive of it. especially in poetry. however. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. 80. that didst comfort thy people of old. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. This is of comparatively recent growth.. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. . heom. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. to thy care we commit the helpless. which was often sounded with the h silent. and sometimes its. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century." As shown above.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. Thou. as in prayers. The consequence is. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. In spoken English. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. thou Shepherd of Israel.²SHELLEY. The form its. which is a neuter noun. thy. it. We use it with a plural verb always. in Old English. 81. just as we now say. the forms they. for example. The plurals were h .:² (1) In elevated style. 82. even when referring to a single object. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.

83. That is. ²SHAKESPEARE. Additional nominatives in spoken English. thou. us. In spoken English. his. ye. Old use of mine and thine. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. 84. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. her. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. And since thou own'st that praise. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. her. 'tis his. we. our. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. your. him. when they occur in the predicate position. theirs. Absolute personal pronouns. besides a nominative use. in such a sentence as. note the following:² 'Twas mine. some say. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. to personify objects (Sec. and has been slave to thousands. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. have a peculiar use.²BULWER. they. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. thine. 84 are always subjects. 86. The forms mine. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. for. him. Not a separate class. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are.Use of the pronouns in personification. thy. 58). though those named in Sec. and not make more classes. however. me.²LANDOR. her. II. I The Nominative. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. Nominative forms. its. 85. and follow the usage of literary English. 34). he. hers. them. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. them. and sometimes in ordinary speech. Yet careful speakers avoid this. . "I am sure it was him. she. The words I. sometimes his and its. The forms my. us. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. or.²COWPER. their. yours. I spare thee mine. though ye is occasionally used as objective." the literary language would require he after was. The Possessive. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. they have a nominative form.

as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. anger. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict."²SCOTT. ours. hers. F. or satire.²BIBLE.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. but few thy voice.²THACKERAY. COOPER. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. . He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.²THACKERAY. "Hold thy peace. in that old Edinburgh house of his. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. thine. Their uses. This usage is still preserved in poetry. and with mine. commenting upon a letter of mine. are really double possessives. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. for example. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. we have.²ID. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.²CARLYLE. This ancient silver bowl of mine. thus. ²HOLMES. T. (2) To bring emphasis. pluck it out. as in nouns.²ID. Like the noun possessives. yours. 87. his. we find. FIELDS. Besides this. If thine eye offend thee. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. thus.²J. theirs.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.²SWIFT. The forms hers. ours. it tells of good old times. yours. sometimes its.²J.² CARLYLE. Give every man thine ear.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham." said Henry Woodstall. Long Allen. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. theirs. Double and triple possessives. (3) To express contempt.

mine stands for my praise in the second. Both joined in making him a present. and mine in the second has an objective use. but nominative or objective in use. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. for whose benefit. The Objective. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. was marked by a separate case. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. 86: mine stands for my property.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. . In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. as it is called.²BIBLE. 20. the thing is done. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. Besides this use of the objective. or use in a sentence." "None but the brave deserves the fair. The old dative case. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. in the first sentence. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. Curse me this people. 89. but the form is the same as the objective.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. but not in form. III. But the first two have a nominative use. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. 88. 90. They all handled it." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb.²ID. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In pronouns. In such sentences as. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. but expresses for whom. as shown in Sec. "The good alone are great.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. Now the objective." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. In their function. his for his property.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. this dative use.

thus. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. you sneeze. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. which follows the verb. to stand for the real." (3) As a grammatical subject. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. (3) In apposition.²EMERSON.²D. WEBSTER. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. in this century. as. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. as. The word you. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. as in the sentences. has not made its progress. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. was passed by with indulgence.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. you must condense there.²IRVING To empty here. and they cry.²DE QUINCEY. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. Your mere puny stripling. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²ADDISON.² .Time is behind them and before them.²BACON. 92.²CARLYLE. ²EMERSON.² NEWMAN.²BULWER.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. Indefinite use of you and your. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. like Chinese skill. Society. or to the idea. logical subject. or that he has not a great deal more. why. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. It is a pity that he has so much learning. 91.

however. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. I made up my mind to foot it. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. as they are also called. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. as. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²EMERSON. (ourself). This occurs in poetry.²HOLMES. . peddles it. yourself.²IRVING. since firstThe flight of years began. I set me down and sigh.²BRYANT. A sturdy lad . And when I awoke. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. -selves. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. we use such expressions as. And millions in those solitudes. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. For example.² Now I lay me down to sleep. that is. 94. yourselves. used in poetry. it rained. There was nothing for it but to return. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²THOREAU. and its plural selves."²IRVING. when they are direct objects. itself. ourselves.²HAWTHORNE. himself. "I found me a good book. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. who teams it. themselves. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS." "He bought him a horse. (thyself)..²ANON.²ID. For when it dawned. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. have laid them downIn their last sleep.. 93. Of the two forms in parentheses." etc. keeps a school.²COLERIDGE. who in turn tries all the professions. they dropped their arms. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively." and there is an end of it. herself. Poor Christian was hard put to it.It is finger-cold.²DE QUINCEY. but seldom in prose.²SCOTT. the second is the old form of the second person. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. It was late and after midnight. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.²BUNYAN.²BURNS. They are myself. farms it.

theself. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. 96.² The great globe itself . In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.As girls were once.²WORDSWORTH. especially in the speech of rulers. Use of the reflexives.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.²E. The question might arise. after the analogy of myself. with self. NOTE.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted..² . not the possessive forms. I shrink with pain. as. were changed into the possessive myself. As if it were thyself that's here. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. B. Origin of these reflexives. In Middle English the forms meself.² TENNYSON. as in vulgar English. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. 95.²SHAKESPEARE.²EMERSON. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.. for example.²ID. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. as we ourself have been.²MILTON. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. and the others were formed by analogy with these. Held dead within them till myself shall die. to us. etc. ourselves. to every one. as. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. shall dissolve. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. and build the lofty rhyme. for example. thyself.To you yourself. Threats to all. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. BROWNING.

²DE QUINCEY. 4. but it is the soonest spoiled. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. FRANKLIN. feminine. fight it out. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Three now in use. One obsolete. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and neuter. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. 3. where the word is one with that it tells of. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. . To know what is best to do.²B. 9. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. and what. 5. some of them being double possessives. 97. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. Years ago. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. Come and trip it as we go.On the light fantastic toe. Infancy conforms to nobody. father.² THACKERAY. 7. and how to do it. all conform to it. Courage. is wisdom. 6. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 10. some each of masculine. let him lowly confess it. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). which. 8. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. 2. And it grew wondrous cold.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself.

that it is not inflected for gender or number. the gold. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. etc. with its possessive and objective. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. referring to things. it is always third person. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. 98. As shown here.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. whether. Use of who and its forms. that. it is selective. 100. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer.There is an old word. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. but now obsolete. actions. What wouldst thou do. but for case alone. shall we say. methought. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. used formerly to mean which of two. whispering sweet. that is. . 99. Whose was that gentle voice. or case. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID.Promised. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. The use of who. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. as it always asks about somebody. not to persons. having three forms. which is not inflected for gender. Use of which. it refers to either persons or things. number. These show that what is not inflected for case. ideas.. Use of what. that it is always singular and neuter. Which of you.

whose? Obj. SING. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. AND PLUR. and so to make smoother discourse. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. 104. for which the pronoun stands. subject of doth love. AND PLUR. These bards sang of Border chivalry. who is used as objective instead of whom. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. Further treatment of who. as. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. The antecedent. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. It usually precedes the pronoun. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. which. nominative in the second also. and also in having a conjunctive use. which is called the antecedent of the relative. being the direct object of the verb shall take.101. Thus we may say. which is nominative in the first sentence. which and what are sometimes adjectives.²by the use of the words. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. objective in the last. "The last of all the Bards was he. SINGULAR Nom. 105. it may be shortened into. pronoun. Function of the relative pronoun. For instance." In the latter sentence.Who sung of Border chivalry. which and what." Or. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. 99. as they take the place usually of a word already used. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Who. what may be an adverb in some expressions. 127). The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. and what are also relative pronouns. 102. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. who? Poss. in Sec. 103. or other word or expression. as.² .² "The last of all the Bards was he. who evidently refers to Bards. since it is subject of the verb had.

Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.²DR JOHNSON. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. Two kinds. The men whom men respect.²PARTON Which and its forms. is a divine creation. WHITNEY. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. Who and its forms. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. will be discussed further on. 5. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. . both his and who have the antecedent priest.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.²BYRON. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.²MILTON. but the look which is not of the earth.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.²W. The origin of language is divine. in the same sense in which man's nature.. D. with all its capabilities . that.Whom universal nature did lament. 3.That guard our native seas. 6.² COX.. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. 2. Ye mariners of England. Indefinite relatives. Generally speaking.²LOWELL In this. For her enchanting son. The nurse came to us. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.. a thousand years. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. the women whom women approve.²SCOTT. They had not their own luster. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. a simple relative is meant. 106. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. 107. 3. are the men and women who bless their species. 108. which.²THACKERAY. 4.Whose flag has braved.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. When the word relative is used. 4. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 2. what.

and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. stratagems. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.²EMERSON.²H. The Tree Igdrasil. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.. Who. which it certainly is not. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.5. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.² SHAKESPEARE 2. 111. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. Already done is all that he would do. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. you will not be angry with me for telling you. (a) This gradation .. The judge . 110.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.²IRVING. For what he sought below is passed above.²LAMB 3. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.²DE QUINCEY. Examples of the relative that:² 1. What.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. Reader. else this description will seem exaggerated.. That. 6. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. 2. W.... and spoils.²MARGARET FULLER. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . no bad type of what often happens in that country. The man that hath no music in himself. 4. BEECHER 5.Is fit for treasons. bought up all the pigs that could be had. 107.²BURKE. 3.²GOLDSMITH. 109. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. ought to be kept in view.. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.

(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. whose wound I had dressed. whose is second person. and so on. referring to animals. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.²which for the nominative and objective. The sentences in Sec.. whose for the possessive..²who. in 5. In 1. 107. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Gibbon. 113.²DR. The little gorilla.who. Who referring to animals. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. in the second. Witness the following examples:² And you. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. Which.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. and others. whose. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.. p.²LOWELL. they are plural. JOHNSON. whom. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. a man. Examples of whose. . under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. flung its arms around my neck. 2... the others are all third person. not persons. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. in 4. 112. in the first sentence. Scott. Smollett. In sentence 4. possessive case of which. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. that man. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. (2) It has three case forms. whom. in the third.²THACKERAY. seemed as much excited as myself. My horse. things. and 6. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.whose. Kingsley. (4) It has two case forms. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. Cooper. 5.²SWIFT. or ideas. It has been seen (Sec.²LEIGH HUNT. 96). and 3. who.. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. The robins.²IRVING. the relatives are singular. son. Sec. who is first person. (3) It is nearly always third person.

Men may be ready to fight to the death. This often occurs. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. . as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. (3) It is the same form for first.²SCOTT. Kingsley. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.² And. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction."²RUSKIN. In the sentences of Sec. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. This moribund '61. thus. So in Matthew Arnold. no possessive. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²RUSKIN. Primarily. and to persecute without pity. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. Burke. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. and third persons. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. the antecedent follows which. too. That. 109. (2) It has only one case form. The last two sentences in Sec. let us enter the church itself.²first. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.² I swept the horizon. 116. and things. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. 115. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²BEECHER. animals.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.² MCMASTER. which is very notable and curious. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. Which and its antecedents. second.²SHAKESPEARE. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. secondly (which made her stare). which is worse.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain.114. Sometimes. and numerous others.

that do I not. third person. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. as. what we said?²CARLYLE. third person. who Poss." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. plural number. 118. 117. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. plural number." That evidently refers to truths. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. number. For example. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. 109. What. Sec. What a man does.²BIBLE What fates impose. that men must needs abide. 119. we can. but this is not sanctioned as good usage.² What I would. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. that he has." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. . but what I hate. and person of the relatives who. Nom. whose Obj." (3) "These people heard him. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. When expressed. which. The gender. and is emphatic. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. for example. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. either of which would be neuter. as in sentence 6.²EMERSON. The sentences of Sec. consequently is neuter.²SHAKESPEARE. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. that do I. is always neuter. it usually follows. by taking them out.

We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. it is subject of the verb heard. that takes the case of the truths in (2). what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. Another way. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Some prefer another method of treatment. which is. 7. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 8. is subject of the verb can't be cured. . is subject of wrought upon and molded. subject of heard. 6. is in the nominative case."²EMERSON. Truths in sentence (2). and what is the direct object of the verb call." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. 120. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. in (3). What can't be cured. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. etc. the highest result of all education.. I think they are trying to outwit nature. but of this. in the following sentences:² 1. 5. In the sentence. third person. Exercise. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. neuter. In (2). people is the object of the preposition of. after all. then parse the relatives. and hence is in the nominative case. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. in (1). As shown by the following sentences." Here the subject of is. What must be endured? Answer. "What can't be cured must be endured. because it has usually no antecedent. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. we is the subject. Now. however. who is sure to be cunninger than they. The whole expression is its subject. so is in the objective case. 3. it is object of uttered. is what we call nature. nobler souls with that which they are. standing for the people understood. The relative what is handled differently. First find the antecedents. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 4. In the same way who. above. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. but is singular. the simple relative. Parsing what. The word what.

less common are whoso. object of with] which [singular.²MACAULAY. by meaning and use. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. whichever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. and which in the second clause. 5. object of do] they do. "common souls pay with that [singular. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. in a new and original way. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. 7.²BURKE. that nothing else can stand in their presence. The simple relatives who. and in 2. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. 123. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. whatsoever. and his friend a fool. 2. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. It is no proof of a man's understanding. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Hence some take what as a double relative." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. 4. They are whoever.²you cannot have both. being referred to. which. to everything that. 122. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. whatsoever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. Death is there associated. whatever. So with the other indefinites. It is clear that in 1.²BURKE. 6. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. Meaning and use. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. and parse that in the first clause. List and examples. or what else soever. whichsoever. Take which you please. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. no certain antecedent. or stand on their head. that is. 2. summer will have its flies. no particular thing. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. whosoever. 121. not as direct as the simple relatives. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. Do what we can. . 3.

show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. 417). There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. but which only wealth could have purchased. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. whereby.²EMERSON. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. But and as. This. 4. 120. Instead of the phrases in which. Two words. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. upon which.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. for example. 121. as was used just as we use that or which. nothing that does not interest us.² 1. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. but mean any one whom. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Other substitutes. 126. whereupon..² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. etc. everything that (or everything which). There is nothing but is related to us.As shown in Sec. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. either one that. thus. 121. but and as. In early modern English. and that as after such is equivalent to which. are used. what means anything that. . Former use of as. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. has been my heaviest affliction. etc. by which.. 2.² some particular thing. the conjunctions wherein.²HAWTHORNE. Sec. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. not following the word such. 124.²DE QUINCEY. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 125. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. for example. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. etc. Proof that they have the force of relatives.

(b) But what had become of them they knew not. it is an indefinite relative). 1 (b). In studying such sentences. who having the antecedent gentleman. Another caution.²WHITTIER. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. the full expression being. which would indicate that they are not relatives.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 3. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. would be. if not. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak.. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent.²EMERSON. though the earthwork hid them. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. 2 (b). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. second. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by." Likewise with which in 3 (b)." etc.²ID. So in 2 (b). But compare the following in pairs:² 1. it is a simple relative. In sentences 1 (a). it is an interrogative. "Who stood behind? We knew. if expanded. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. a question is disguised in each sentence. "But what had become of them? They knew not. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. showing that who is plainly interrogative. How to decide. Thus. what is interrogative. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). Special caution needed here. which having the antecedent lines. and whether what = that + which (if so. no antecedent is expressed. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. . (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. if not. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. But in 1 (b). 127. 2. and 3 (b). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power.

I visited many other apartments. In the first. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. . On the other hand. The insect I am now describing lived three years. and Court Calendars. 4. In the third. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²G. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. ELIOT.²FLETCHER. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.² These are the sounds we feed upon. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. 129.²FORSTER 6.²SWIFT. which.² THACKERAY. 5.²HOLMES. the question is asked by the verb. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 2. which has the antecedent hue. whose has the antecedent you. whence is the interrogative word. Examine the following:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. and asks no question. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Relative omitted when object.128. but the life of man in England. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. 3. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. When Goldsmith died.²CARLYLE. In the second. Thus. Exercise. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. Put in the relatives who.

6.²SCOTT. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. the house was full. who were to be rulers over whom. 130. Also in literary English we find the same omission.² LOWELL. There was such a crowd went. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 2.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. or indefinite relatives:² 1. and what. Function of adjective pronouns. which. simple relatives. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. It is rare in prose.7.²CAMPBELL. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. 5. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Examples are. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. Relative omitted when subject. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. 3.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.²SHAKESPEARE. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. The nobles looked at each other. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. which was already proceeding.²Id. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. .Ne'er looks upon the sun. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. and comparatively so in poetry. that.

they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. . etc. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. such as this. in order to be an adjective pronoun. "these pranks. in the first. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. must not modify any word. Primarily they are adjectives. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. in letters of gold. For example." Classes of adjective pronouns. and another to get cool under." in the others. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." that is. or they may stand for nouns. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. that." "Where two men ride on a horse.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. all. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. many. etc. 'Truth. or use. necessarily thought of: thus. "The dead are there. 133. neither. expressed or understood.²BRYANT. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. as some. but in this function." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. 132. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. any. which we have seen in such expressions as. or an argument in a paragraph. such as each. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. Adjectives. and stand for a noun. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. either. none." "one man. "each cube. For instance. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory.131." in the second. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. In the first use they are adjectives. or may be the whole of a sentence. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. the former. "another bank. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples.²EMERSON. few.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns.²IRVING. not pronouns. a word. Caution. but have lost their adjective use. and on each is written. etc.

Some of these are simple pronouns. Even as I have seen. and sow wickedness. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. 2. Their minds accorded into one strain. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.² They stood. because he was not lying in wait for these. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. as seemed good to each. reap the same. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 134. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.²ID. A man inspires affection and honor. . but what he fain had seen He could not see. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. but these were of the best. they that plow iniquity. Exercises. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Compound. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. 5. accidentally preserved. Definition and examples. when the latter was the King of Spain. They have not shunned the one.²ID. Such are a few isolated instances. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²LOWELL. for example. They had fewer books. NOTE.²EMERSON 4. Simple. 3. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. and they have well performed the other. or reclined.All these he saw. or sat.

It felt the guidance that it does not claim. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²HOLMES.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²HAWTHORNE. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. . into a high pavilion of their thoughts. Some inflected. Exercise. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.²EMERSON. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.²KINGSLEY. Another opposes him with sound argument. you quickly come to the end of all. we might the more easily discharge them. as some of the rangers had gone astray.² One reflexive. as most were. They led one another. imbued. one another. ²HAWTHORNE. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. for example. None shall rule but the humble. such as one other. with the superstitions of his time. NUMERAL PRONOUNS.Two are compound pronouns. paused over a horoscope. Men take each other's measure when they react. The word one has a reflexive form. The Soldan. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. another. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. or melt for others' woe.²each other. Definition and examples. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. as it were.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. as. Much might be said on both sides. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. 135.

in building of chaises. Now. etc. They indefinite means people in general. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else.. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. unlike adjective pronouns. any one (or anyone). That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. as. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Every one else stood still at his post. every one else.²SHAKESPEARE. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. somebody else. everybody else. but. anybody. I tell you what. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. anybody else's. they are never used as adjectives. something. they say.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. also aught. . some one. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. and was indefinite in Old English. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. anything." It means something. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. as shown in the words everybody's. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. 136. Jove laughs. and they.² At lovers' perjuries. naught. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. what. everything. nothing. Somebody.Exercise. and somewhat. every one (or everyone). nobody. Definition and examples. Exercise. everybody. no one. anyone else. etc. 137. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy.

8. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 14. 5. but not to quite so enormous an extent. The table was good. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 10.²a feature of natural scenery for which. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. I first found myself among the mountains. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 18. from my earliest days. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 4. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 2. Exercise. indeed. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. in his negotiations. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. All was now ready for action. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. . and of no other. to which. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 6. Hutchinson tells us of herself. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 138. A reminder. 7. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 3. 12. For this did God send her a great reward. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 17. 11. Others did the same thing. O thou that rollest above. Whoever deals with M. 9. 16. 13. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. were suffered to depart.

and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. that let him communicate. I who alone am. He sate him down. 35. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. behold now the semblance of my being. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld.And it would work 'em woe. Who and what was Milton? That is to say.19. Whatever he knows and thinks. well-oiled dispositions. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . hear! 33. They know not I knew thee.Who knew thee too well. 31. And I had done a hellish thing. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 27. 32. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. in all its height. 34. 21. thou rollest now. 23. oh. hear. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. and seized a pen. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 25. who take the world easy. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. eat white bread or brown. 29. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish.By the old Hall which may be mine no more.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 30. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. variety. 26. And will your mother pity me. A smile of hers was like an act of grace.Destroyer and preserver.

Again. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. who understands me. 139. For example. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." "some cities. Who hears me. if we are at a distance. white or red. We are by nature observers. size." "a hundred men. that is our permanent state. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. 40. position.36. 41. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. in pointing out an object. 39. etc. As to the kind of words used. He teaches who gives. etc." The office of an adjective. If a chemist discovers a new substance. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. heavy or light. then. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house." etc. the number is limited by adjectives. . or with persons. 37. Office of Adjectives. and so he read. It may have this office alone. brittle or tough. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. such as in the expressions "this man. or gaseous. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. ADJECTIVES. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 44. and he learns who receives. "one hat. Substantives. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. 43.." "that house. as. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. So with any object. adjectives are used. We need to add some words to tell its color. or liquid. 38. 45. He knew not what to do. 42." "yonder hill. which was no bad step towards my liberation. becomes mine. so that no other will be mistaken for it. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. and if we are near. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun.

This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. divine. etc." and the still less significant "and so. Classes of adjectives. Infinitives." "ivory-handled pistols. deep. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. If he be thankful for small benefits. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. 142. (2) Adjectives of quantity. They include relative and interrogative words. (4) Pronominal adjectives. Definition. "an old English manuscript. To make this clear." "next-door neighbor. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. To err is human." "ice-cold water. to describe it or to limit its application. Examples are." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. happy. fair. Nouns are not. or how much of a thing." . "Heaven-derived power. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. beautiful. remotest." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. it shows that he weighs men's minds. however. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES.²COLERIDGE." "unlooked-for burden. to forgive." "the Christian pearl of charity. With exception of the "and then." they constitute all his connections. terrible.² BACON. used to tell how many things are spoken of.²POPE. words primarily pronouns." "half-dead traveler. such as safe. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. 141." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White.140." "this life-giving book." the "and there." "the Roman writer Palladius. rash. 143. such as. derived from proper nouns. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. and their trash. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. pointing out particular things.

and accomplished is an adjective." Caution. 2. having some of each subclass named in Sec. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. some.But ever she looked on Mr." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "It came on like the rolling simoom." "an aged man. sometimes small. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. much. Care is needed." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. . 'Tis midnight." was is the verb. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. 144." "a charming sight. which are either pure participles used to describe. 143. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. in studying these last-named words. Exercises.²COLERIDGE." "One is hungry." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. and another is drunken." "The shattered squares have opened into line.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. For instance: in the sentence. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "trailing clouds. in this. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. Oxenham. considerable.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. 1." was accomplished is a verb. 145. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. any. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²MACDONALD. no." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. Examples are.

The demonstrative adjectives are this." "He had lived by hunting for some months. they come under the next division of adjectives. as. "one blaze of musketry. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. Exercise. Examples. and with them a few negroes. former.²ID. latter. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. Not primarily pronouns." Single ones of any number of changes.² Every town had its fair. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." "a dozen volunteers. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. Thus." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. no. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "I have lost one brother. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "Then we wandered for many days." (b) Indefinite numerals.²CARLYLE.²KINGSLEY. the former²the latter. The list. yonder (or yon). How many. The following sentences present some examples:² . An arrow was quivering in each body.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²THACKERAY. (plural these. but I have gained fourscore." "In came some five and twenty more. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts.²VAUGHAN. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. are used with plural nouns. that. every village. When some. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. its wake. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. any. instead of modifying them. 146. those)." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.

"²B. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. but in the one case. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. for example.²ID. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.²ID. what revenues or garnitures. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. but. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.²GOLDSMITH. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. Indefinite relative adjectives.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. 148. Definition. skill which was progressive²in the other. just as the corresponding pronouns do. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. like the other numerals.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. of equal skill. 149. WEBSTER. I verily believe. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²BANCROFT. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²KINGSLEY. tell how many things are meant.² It matters not what rank he has. They are of two kinds. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. In which evil strait Mr. . ²CARLYLE.²D. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²RUSKIN.. Exercise. These do not. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. Modify names of persons or things. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. The taking of which bark.²BULWER.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. FRANKLIN. As has been said. The silver and laughing Xenil. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.but all these charms are fled. 147.²WORDSWORTH. Oxenham fought desperately. When we speak of the seventeenth century. they are changed to adjectives. skill which was at pause. These were thy charms.

and gaze. as it rather seemed. Whatsoever kind of man he is. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. what inquires about things or persons not known. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. nature will be sure to bear us out in. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whatever. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. In indirect questions.²IRVING.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). New torments I behold. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. whichsoever. . But when the Trojan war comes.²AGASSIZ. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. proved not altogether displeasing to him. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. or whether any.150. the debt to the rich. and new tormentedAround me.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. it is impossible to determine. As in the pronouns. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. Was there. you at least give him full authority over your son. Examples of their use are.²RUSKIN. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. whichsoever way I move.²CARLYLE.²ID. 151. which is selective among what is known. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. He was turned before long into all the universe. which. A lady once remarked. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.And whichsoever way I turn. Adjective what in exclamations.²LAMB. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.² EMERSON..² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whatsoever. whichever. In direct questions.

²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. In exclamatory expressions. color. COMPARISON. 153 .152. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. Those borrowed from this. This is the old demonstrative. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. of the quality. All these have certain qualities. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. The article that was used with neuter nouns. But this had also another plural.²but not the same degree. th s (modern those). and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. etc. or size. Meaning of comparison. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. etc. History of this²these and that²those. NUMBER. Thus. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.² Oh. Exercise. and those as the plural of that. When we place two objects side by side. gold is heavier than iron. That. and when we compare the objects. we do so by means of their qualities.Adjectives have two inflections. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. the making of it right.²This. . or weight. 154. those). alas. which was fully inflected in Old English. It is neither relative nor interrogative. as. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. we notice some differences between them as to size.²number and comparison. or amount.. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. weight. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. And yet. 155. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have.

158. reddest. great. The comparative is formed by adding -er." "It is a nobler valor. easiest. indefatigable. or amounts in quantity. immemorial. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. but were not common until a century later. as. Substitute for inflection in comparison. but. 160. whether they attend their own affair or not. Definition. though the simple. for example. giant-like. universal institution. easier. 156. bluest. redder. Freedom is a perpetual.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. "untamed thought. red. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. A main difference betwixt men is. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. and many others. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. These are properly the only degrees.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality." "the commonest speech. blue. and the superlative by adding -est. bluer. 159. expressing a greater degree of quality. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison." Words that cannot be compared. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 157. supreme. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. strictly considered. enormous. These are called degrees of comparison.²THACKERAY. "more matter. indomitable." "the largest soul." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. The two forms. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. expressing the greatest degree of quality. whose favorite pupil he was. easy. as. sufficient. . organic." "no fewer than a hundred. they are not compared.²SEWARD. So with the words sole. and the superlative. to the simple form. with less wit.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. infinite.

" From Ruskin: "The sharpest. honestest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. witty." "distantest relationships." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. The following lists include the majority of them:² . was most finished.²The Nation. there needed to be a most genuine substance. who. indisputablest. These are adjectives irregularly compared." "more austere and holy. falling on his knees. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. 162. 163. most small.²ID. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. etc. madam." "sorrowfulest spectacles." "the wonderfulest little shoes. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. and other words are preceded by more and most. I will. admirablest.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries." Carlyle uses beautifulest. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. which hung behind in the queerest way. quiet. These long. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. peaceablest.² CARLYLE A gentleman." said Henry Esmond. finest chiseling.Which rule. "So help me God. Adjectives irregularly compared. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. harsh forms are usually avoided. mournfulest. though born in no very high degree.²ID. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. strange. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. and yet familiar. The general rule is. and patientest fusing. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. as. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. easy." "more odd. polished.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain.

7. Worser was once used. latter Hinder LIST II. These have no adjective positive:² 1. as in Shakespeare. Good or well Evil. 164. utter 3. uttermost Upmost. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. Hind 2. least. . throw away the worser part of it. A double comparative. 3. innermost Outmost. oldest Nighest. 4. is often used. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. outermost Utmost. worst. which has gone out of use. The superlative I form was betst.LIST I.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. bad. 8. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. [In] Inner Inmost. 5. hindermost Much or many More Farther. 1. a double comparative. as in the sentence (14th century). [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. (2) In Old English.² We have it in a much lesser degree. lesser Elder. further Farthest. 9. older Nigher Nearer Later. There was an old comparative bet. List I. lesser. which has softened to the modern best. though from a different root.² O. (3) Little is used as positive to less. furthest 10. uppermost LIST III. [Out] Outer. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. last Hindmost. evil was the positive to worse. next Nearest Latest. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less.²HAMLET. 6. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 2. as.

The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer." Its spelling has been micel.²forth. as. first. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. making the modern farther.²ID. next. or series. near. to England we sailed. but originally the comparison was nigh. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. for example. farrest. are earlier than older. List II. eldest. and the superlative nearest. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. greatest. since the m is for -ma. muchel. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.. strong. much.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective.. meaning the largest part. an old superlative ending. . coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. The latter. etc. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. Between the two sets as they now stand. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. (5) The forms elder. In imitation of further. furthest. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. strenger. the old forms. ²LAMB. moche. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. and refer to time. there is scarcely any distinction. th came into the others. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. as long. except the form next. but not in meaning. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. etc. instead of lenger. further. is quite common. The most part kept a stolid indifference. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. to which is added -ost. farthest. are shown in such phrases as. The meanings greater. "Many a little makes a mickle.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it.²KINGSLEY. great. First became entirely detached from the series. came into use. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. latest.²HAWTHORNE. Since later.² The more part being of one mind. a distinction has grown up between the two series. doubling the inflection. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. oldest. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative.

168." "the innermost moral soul. or each may modify a different word or group of words. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. was descried The royal banner floating wide. by the by. They have no superlatives. but they have no adjective positives. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives." -Most added to other words. all may belong to the same noun. . 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. 166. Her." "far-seeing as the sun.²DE QUINCEY. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. in having no adjective positives. the upper light of the world. There. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.165." "The outer is of the day.²KINGSLEY. but her after deck was still dry.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink.²SCOTT. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. are like the comparative forms in List II.²DE QUINCEY. The adjectives in List III. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Think what each adjective belongs to. Highest and midmost. W.²H." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. Decidedly handsome. and have no comparative force. 167." "their utmost exertion. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. List III. BEECHER. or have no comparative forms. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. In List II. being merely descriptive. The comparatives are so in form. on the very topmost twig. (Sec. Her bows were deep in the water. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. but not in their meaning.

²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. and thine often infirmities. But in this sentence.²NOAH PORTER. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. not decision alone. Exercise. The seldom use of it. Richard Hooker. Bradbury and Evans. deep. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²A. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. "the one who was then king. instead of saying. bright. and heaven-defying oaths. as. the then and still owners.²HAWTHORNE. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 7. and broken. STOWE. usual modifies incomparable decision. ²TROLLOPE.For example.²MRS. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. now our queen. 2. deeply black eyes. A few improper jests and a volley of good. In the following quotations. solid. our new government. rich.²BIBLE. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. . STEPHENS 5.²HOLMES." in which then is an adverb.²HAWTHORNE. It may still be argued." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. round.² My then favorite. Our sometime sister. 6. 4. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. For thy stomach's sake. By a convenient brevity." making then an adjective. H. 3. satisfactory.²TRENCH. This. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. philosophical. we may say "the then king. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. in prose. in this sentence. May we not. 169. therefore. and moral truth. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet.²RUSKIN. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. Other instances are.

seventy-five drachmas. modifies truths. and I waited for none. cannot be compared. MODEL FOR PARSING. therefore demonstrative. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. (3) Its degree of comparison. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. manly way. 5. 10. Unfamiliar describes truths. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. (4) What word or words it modifies. 4. therefore descriptive. 8. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. Since adjectives have no gender. 6. 7. 170. person. To every several man. with awkward but rapid pace. this. across the plain. modifies the word truths. 9. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. frank. . Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. if it has number. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. or case. Exercise. not inflected for number. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. I ask nothing of you. In parsing an adjective. having a singular. These points out what truths. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. This gave the young people entire freedom. 2. and very few have number. and most astounding were those frightful yells. compared by prefixing more and most. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. positive degree. To every Roman citizen he gives. then. plural number. the method of parsing is simple. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. 3.What to tell in parsing. if it can be compared. She made no reply. (2) Its number.

14. 13. are immutably fishes. 19. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 29. as for armies that were too many by half. 24. 18. 23. 25. those dogs in the yard. 12. Here lay two great roads. 31. not so much for travelers that were few. and many poles supported the lower ones. yonder oxen in the pasture. I know not what course others may take. Like most gifted men. is the settlement of our own country. . His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 28. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 21. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. To say what good of fashion we can. 16. it is so noble a fruit. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30.11. suggests such thoughts as these. 27. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. With every third step. and dogs. oxen. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 32. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. the same love to France would have been nurtured. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. and therefore more interesting to us. 20. 22. 33. Two hours elapsed. the tomahawk fell. during which time I waited. he won affections with ease. Nearer to our own times. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. it rests on reality. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 26. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. growing in the most unfavorable position. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. In music especially.

Many writers use an before h. In the sentence. An or a came from the old numeral n. 174. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. . with an ordinary little garden. meaning one. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. were formerly that one. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. these occurring as the tane." "a European. sometimes the tother. Their origin. 35.34. 37. and a before consonant sounds." An with consonant sounds. Two relics.²BREWER. Our expressions the one. the tother. Examples: "a house. 172. the latter is still preserved in the expression." "an honor. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. 171. later th . would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. An before vowel sounds. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment." the words the and an belong to nouns. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . that) which was also an article in Old English. weary-hearted man was he." "an orange. 173. the tother. ðat. just as adjectives do. or the tane. that other. s o. in vulgar English. the tither. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. ARTICLES. In Middle English the became an article. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. for example." "a yelling crowd.²MACAULAY. but the former is used. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. th o. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. he is no literary man. even when not silent. A hard-struggling. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. a before consonant sounds. An historian. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. the other. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. such as we have been attempting to describe.²SCOTT. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant.

or a group or class of things. as in the sentence. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.²HEROES OF ASGARD. or group. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. or class. and not a state or other geographical division. on opening a story.²IRVING. 177. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. as "the Mississippi. With names of rivers. Reference to a known object. which cannot be used alone.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. or any individual of a group or class. 178.²THACKERAY.. The is the definite article. An hereditary tenure of these offices.. NOTE." "the Ohio. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. a person is introduced by a. The Dakota tribes. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. since it points out a particular individual.²G. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. the older n. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. When the is prefixed to a proper name. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. not descriptive. Kinds." the article indicates clearly that a river. doubtless.² Don't you remember how. 175. thus. To call attention to attributes. An and a are different forms of the same word.²COLERIDGE. BANCROFT. 176.² .. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. Definition. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. is referred to. and when the word river is omitted. 179. An or a is the indefinite article.²This use is noticed when. An article is a limiting word. Articles are either definite or indefinite.

and the redwing. the Hume.² As she hesitated to pass on.²EMERSON. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. BANCROFT.²ID. not into a particular virtue. If the good is there. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. so is the evil. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.²GIBBON. but into the region of all the virtues. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. With plural of abstract nouns. The simple rise as by specific levity. His messages to the provincial authorities. etc. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. would speedily extract the required information. as. The. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²KINGSLEY. 180.The Bacon. the song sparrow. 2. or a match put between the fingers. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. Caution. NOTE. Half abstract.² The faint. laid it on the miry spot. 183. 182. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. Schelling. for example.²ID. 1. For possessive person pronouns. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. 181. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. Kant. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. Common. . In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. With adjectives used as nouns.²SCOTT.²MOTLEY. her.²G. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. the Spinoza. the gallant.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. One thing for its class. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.²EMERSON. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

with some word understood. to go is no predicate. and shame the most astute. lone took what? answer. in (3. The nature of intransitive verbs. obeyed is a predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. b). and. Each influences some object." put is the predicate. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. c). All these are called transitive verbs. By examining a few verbs. etc. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. Of those expressing action. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. the word following. in (b). or a material thing. Now.²BULWER ." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. hence is not a verb. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. we consider a verb as one word.In (a). 202. as. which may be a person. Definition and caution. an adverb. "Put thou money in thy purse. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. an article. in this sentence from Bulwer. (can) shame also has an object. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. but fearing is not a predicate. 201. "Put money in thy purse. 203. to say something to or about some person or thing. a). she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. in (c). The nature of the transitive verb. or an idea. and to receive the action expressed. in (2.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. In the sentence. A verb is a word used as a predicate. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. or the object. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. 200: In (1). a preposition. and a preposition unite as a verb. in (2. the most astute. 204. care. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. which means to go over. Hence Definition." Examine the sentences in Sec. In each case. a verb. but cannot be predicates. can deceive has an object. a noun. In the first. endured what? anguish. in (3. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. all do not express it in the same way. b). representing something which it influences or controls. the most penetrating. taking the staff which always guided her steps. from the Latin transire. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. and not a verb. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. In giving a definition. for example. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

²MACAULAY. in our case.²LONGFELLOW. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.²BRYCE. the writer can make the statement following.² Now. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. they were recorded in the Book of Life. as.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. but. Unreal²cannot be true. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. as. WEBSTER. Ideal. 215. for example.²SHELLEY.²may or may not be true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. 221.²FRANKLIN. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. the representative system ultimately fail. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. 2). 222. Most excellent stranger. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. Again. popular government must be pronounced impossible. and may or may not be regarded true. Condition or Supposition.² If.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. I. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. . (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. he will see the need of these ethics. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. If this be the glory of Julius. the second founder. the first great founder of the Empire.I could lie down like a tired child. or be fulfilled.²D. ²EMERSON.

to drink strong beer. 3. especially be. if he was the man I take him for. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. and what kind of condition:² 1. The voice. In the following conditional clauses. 6. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories..²FRANKLIN. if he speak to you. if his lot had been mine. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. as. thus. clear. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 4. might. melodious.² It was necessary. she was regarded as a prodigy. NOTE. and sonorous. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. is of similar physiognomy.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. which cannot be true.²EMERSON. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. etc. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. WILLIS. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.² If these things were true. ²LOWELL.²SWIFT. But in no case could it be justified.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. The subjunctive. he had better not have written...²MACAULAY. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.² CARLYLE. 8." etc. and striven energetically to save Ney. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. may.²N. 2. is used to express purpose. except. would have sat still with joy and peace.²FRANKLIN. he supposed. do you think.²BAYNE. since he [Byron] was dead. P. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. If he had reason to dislike him. Epaminondas. I told him. that he might be strong to labor. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. 7. II. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. . but when the verb precedes the subject. Exercise. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. Subjunctive of Purpose. 5. unless. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. would you. and should. society could not hold together.²CALHOUN. 223. that we cannot but regret its absence. though.

is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.That vain it were her eyes to close.²D. Expressing a Wish. III.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. within its fairy bowers. In Temporal Clauses. Subjunctive of Result. To tell of what had passed. like the quarry-slave at night. IV.. 227. In Indirect Questions. VII. In a Noun Clause... V.²CARLYLE. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²WORDSWORTH. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.I have been the more particular. 226. WEBSTER. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. Rise up.²BRYANT.²DE QUINCEY. Let it rise. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. So live. the answer being regarded as doubtful. The English subjunctive. I would it were! ²EMERSON.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. 225. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.Were wafted off to seas unknown. VI.And we. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.²MOORE. I've wished that little isle had wings. none of us could say. .²SOUTHEY. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.Thou go not.²ID. till it meet the sun in his coming. like the Latin. 224.²COLERIDGE. After a verb of wishing.. Ask the great man if there be none greater.

for example.²COLERIDGE.² DICKENS. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²COLERIDGE. in apposition. 229. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. is. That hunger of applause. tell me all that thou hast seen.²DE QUINCEY. we'll turn aside. Complement. in its various uses as subject. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. VIII.²WORDSWORTH. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. Whatever betide. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. The noun clause. Come. often contains a subjunctive.² Be the matter how it may. Concessive Clauses. See that there be no traitors in your camp. I have no thought what men they be. which may be (a) Pronoun. of cash.And look thou tell me true.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. that everything be in its place. or whatsoever victual it may be.²CARLYLE.. After verbs of commanding. object.²TENNYSON. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.And see the Braes of Yarrow.²THOREAU. (b) Adjective. Some might lament that I were cold.²SCOTT. The first merit.Subject. etc. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. 228. Object.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. The essence of originality is not that it be new. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²SHELLEY. . the sentence is the same²that rejects it. is the ultimate fact of man's life.

²CHANNING. It must be remembered. 231. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. At the present day. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Q. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. or requests. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Definition. . In spoken English. Oh. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. 232.² CARLYLE. for example. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. point to their immortal works.(c) Adverb. though. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine.²J. (3) Request. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. fear none. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. a concession. and condition contrary to fact. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. we had found [should have found] a poem here.The spirit he loves remains.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. love all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Usually second person.²BRYANT. however. Honor all men. to express a wish. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. 230. entreaties. (1) Command.²SHELLEY. ADAMS. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. (2) Entreaty. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. since commands are directed to a person addressed.

7. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go."Hush! mother." Exercises on the Moods. receive my hand. 6.²SCOTT. or I + they. etc." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.One glance at their array! 5. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.²CAMPBELL. to you implied in it. there will her heart and her prayers be.. Quoth she." whispered Kit. etc.And God forget the stranger!" . 2. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.. Whatever inconvenience ensue. lest we rust in ease.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Mark thou this difference. Break we our watch up. noble earl. nothing is to be preferred before justice. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.²SHAKESPEARE. "The Devil take the goose. request. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life."²DICKENS Tell me. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. "Come along with me. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.And. child of earth!While each performs his part. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Oh. 3. 8. Part we in friendship from your land. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. but I + you. Meet is it changes should controlOur being.

Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 18. 23. He is. "tell me where I may find my poor. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. but repentant child. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 10. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 19. 26. "Oh.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. will it not fall unbound. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. ruined.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. Marshall. . 21. let him live where else he like. how he may do his work." cried he. whether he do it right or wrong. and opinion displace opinion.Except. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. He. Though he were dumb. it would speak. 13." 16. no literary man." 25. as though an instrument. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 20. my dear madam. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.9. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. Think not that I speak for your sakes. or do it at all. 11. That sheaf of darts. she ought to have it. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 14. Though abyss open under abyss. "Mr. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12.High up in silver spikes! 22. That a man parade his doubt. Well. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.That they might answer him. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast." continued Old Morgan. Forget thyself to marble. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. then.

Old English had only two tenses." "If he comes. "I go away tomorrow. "Thou walkest. will. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. and future perfect tenses. Tenses in English. 235. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. kind. Meantime. also. the past. or agree with it. and future. 234. to direct his steps. or whether it were as one member of a general party. as the classical languages have. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. have. past. The tenses in detail. which represented present and future time. PERSON AND NUMBER. and the future tense. tell him to wait. Siddons. such as Latin and Greek. or future time. five in the imperative.² present.27." present. in the conjugations. called auxiliaries. shall. as." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. such as be. Tense means time. TENSE.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. 28. five in the subjunctive. past. in the third person singular. past perfect. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. Definition. whatever she did. 233." past. When the older pronoun thou was in use. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. by means of the present. "It is not in man that walketh. as will be shown later on. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. and the past tense. as. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. a form ending in -eth. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present." .²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents.²nothing could exceed the amiable.²the present tense. "Thou walkedst. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person.

" and this only in the present tense indicative. are. CONJUGATION. persons. I were 2. tenses.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. The verb be has more forms. wert) 3. walks. PRESENT TENSE. chooses. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. walketh. You are 2. chosest). sometimes adding the old forms walkest. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. walk has walk. as. mood. choosest. chooseth. choosing. etc. You (thou) be 3. [He] is [They] are 3. since it is composed of several different roots. walking. walkedst. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. Singular 1. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. 238. chose. for example. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. In classical languages. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. [He] was Subjunctive Mood.²choose. been. Indicative Mood. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. Definition. is. "He walks. 236.²am. This is the third person. and numbers. moods. Such verbs as choose have five. chosen (old. but in English. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. tense. 237. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. PRESENT TENSE. walked. Singular 1. etc. Singular 1. Singular 1. Few forms. I be 2. [He] were [They] were . were. singular number.

² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. as. The light that never was on sea and land.²THACKERAY.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. etc.Imperative Mood. which was now become an occasional banquet. thus. were.²SCOTT. for example. though it is usually a dialect form. to form the passive voice. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. (b) With the past participle in -ed. 239. Instead of the plural are.²WORDSWORTH.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. is. (d) With the infinitive.²ID. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. (2) was. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be..His infancy was nurtured. to express intention. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. (2) As auxiliary verbs. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. in four ways. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. Remarks on the verb be.²SHELLEY.²BURKE . Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²GOLDSMITH. (3) be. same as the German sind. condition. 240. obligation. -en. etc.

INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE.241. tenses. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. PRESENT TENSE. 242. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. You choose Plural. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. [He] choose [They] choose 3." "He will choose. You choose Plural. I chose 2. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. as. as. Singular. (2). You chose Plural. Singular. by placing have. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 1. I choose 2. 240. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. past perfect. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. "I had gone" (past perfect). We choose You choose PAST TENSE. future perfect." (2) Present perfect. I choose 2. Singular. We chose You chose 3. . PRESENT TENSE. 1. In addition to the above inflected forms. Machinery of a verb in the voices. I chose 2. had. "I have gone" (present perfect). You chose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. Indicative Mood. Singular. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. "I shall be. tenses. 1. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. etc. 1. We chose You chose 3.

Past definite. Present perfect. as. Past perfect. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Same as indicative. he chose (or were to choose). He chose. Future. Present. He will choose. will be given. . etc. He will have been choosing. Future definite." "You are chosen. Only the third person. (2d per. He has chosen." 243. he have been choosing. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Present definite. He has been choosing. "I was chosen. ACTIVE VOICE. Same as indicative. He chooses. lest. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Present perfect definite. He will he choosing. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He is choosing. Present definite. singular number. Past perfect definite. Present perfect definite. Present definite. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect. Imperative Mood. though. Past perfect. Present.(3) The definite form of each tense." (4) The passive forms. Future perfect. as. [If. Future perfect definite. He had been choosing. Present. he have chosen.) Choose. He will have chosen. He had chosen. " Be choosing. Past perfect definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Past. "I am running. of each tense." "They had been running. Indicative Mood.] he choose. Past. Past definite. He was choosing.

he had been chosen. None. He had been chosen.] [If. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Past Perfect. he were being chosen. Past perfect definite. in affirmative sentences. Present perfect. Present tense. but verbals. Present definite. he were chosen (or were to be chosen).²This table is not to be learned now. Indicative Mood. He will have been chosen. Past perfect definite. None. Past. Present. they will be discussed later (Sec. Future definite. lest. None. "He does strike. Past. Present perfect definite. Present. He has been chosen. He will be chosen. He was chosen. He is being chosen. Imperative Mood. . 262). Also. Future perfect definite. Present definite. None. as. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature.) Be chosen. He is chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. he have been chosen." "He did strike. though. None. Exercises should be given. Present perfect definite. Past definite. Future. None. " " " " " " " None. Future perfect. Subjunctive Mood. if learned at all. He was being chosen. Past perfect." [Note to Teacher.NOTE.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. etc..] he be chosen. Present perfect. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. (2d per. Past definite. however.

Definition. 245. ran. NOTE. laid. bit blown broken chidden. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Some of these also have weak forms. verbs are strong or weak. 244. drive. which are in parentheses Present Tense. lay. slept. bid bound. caught. run. bounden] bitten. begged. as. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. drove. and may or may not change the vowel: as.[adj. Past Tense. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. but adds no ending. sleep. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. Kinds. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . catch. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. According to form. beg.

drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.

But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle." In this confusion of usage. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. the other. cleft (to split). as (from Holmes). as. "stricken with paralysis. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." "a sunken snag.²one meaning to adhere or cling. as. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. Our cock. for example." "a drunken wretch." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. The form clomb is not used in prose. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²B. 246.²GOLDSMITH. "his bounden duty. as. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).²as (from Shakespeare). to split.²cleave. instead of ate and eaten. especially in that of an earlier period. and the latter. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²TENNYSON." "the cloven hoof.²COLERIDGE. ²THACKERAY. and another (born) for the passive.²MILTON. but is much used in vulgar English. cleaved.² We had each drank three times at the well.² Thou hast clomb aloft. cleft. nor a dog barked.²IRVING. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Historically." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. cleave. When it means to carry or to endure. cloven.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. and sometimes occurs in poetry. Not a cock crew. TAYLOR. probably to avoid confusion with this. clave or clove. only one set remains certain. The former used to be cleave. now told us it was time for repose. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. . cleaved. borne is also a passive. Sometimes in literary English. and. which always crew at eleven. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.

even in poetry. gave.² We had all got safe on shore. flung. shaken. frozen. 8. thrown. Begin. found. flung. Exercises.²BYRON. We usually say. as "a shorn lamb.The form gotten is little used. broken. 10. found. 7. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Find. and grasping at his sword. Drive. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. One example out of many is. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.²SCOTT. 5. shook. 6. Shake. fallen. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. fell. given. which is seldom used except in poetry. Throw.²WORDSWORTH.²TENNYSON. threw. broke." but not much as a participle. Fall. 4. and seized a pen. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. shore is rare. 9. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. Freeze. drove. maiden. froze. 2. He sate him down.²DE FOE. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Break.² If. This heard Geraint. Give. The butler was hanged. for example. began. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. begun. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. driven. 245).Shore thro' the swarthy neck." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend."²KINGSLEY. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 3. Fling. Usually shear is a weak verb. (a) From the table (Sec. . for example. as.²BIBLE. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.

A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise."²WINIER. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. as in Sec. or when it expresses wish. 247. for full drill on the forms. ability. of course.²PAINE. as it sometimes does. etc. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.. PAST. . 220.. it is used only in the indicative mood. as it has two meanings. from the obsolete verb motan. Have we valuable territories and important posts. HAMILTON.. Ability. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. purpose.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. The l in could did not belong there originally. there is one general principle. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. but came through analogy with should and would. (See also Sec. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. PAST. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive.²CHANNING This. etc. Like must. 251. as. or. The same remarks apply to ought. They are as follows:² PRESENT. must have been an ocular deception. 223. 250. It is indicative when it expresses permission. Indicative Use: Permission.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. Could may be subjunctive.²SCOTT." Must is present or past tense. according to the infinitive used. His superiority none might question. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.. 249.. "far off his coming shines. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. which survives in the sentence. Can is used in the indicative only. "So mote it be.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.²HAWTHORNE.²CHANNING. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. Must is historically a past-tense form. Subjunctive use.[To the Teacher. PRESENT.

but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. while ought always has to.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. shall and should are used.²IRVING. in the form of command. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. she should ride like a queen.² With respect to novels." Uses of shall and should. 252. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. what shall I say?²N.²COOPER.²THAXTER. She should not walk. Second and third persons.²BULWER. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. shall and should are used. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. to use will and would. to the neglect of shall and should. and corn to hoe. The sea shall crush thee. especially in the United States.²LONGFELLOW. She rejects his suit with scorn. WEBSTER.² The time will come full soon. he said.. not plod along like apeasant. .e. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. future action). yea. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. (b) In indirect quotations. (b) In questions asking for orders. They shall have venison to eat. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. MOULTON. my lad. for example. as. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. Shall and Will. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. C.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. I shall be gone. as.Nay. or confident prediction.²MACAULAY. "I think I will go.²L. BROCKDEN BROWN. as.² Futurity and questions²first person. The following are examples:² Never mind. promise. with pronouns of the first person.² (a) To express authority.

BROWN. purpose.²CABLE. JR.. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. JAMES. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. (c) With direct questions of the second person.² I will go myself now.²H.²A. for example. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. as. . Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²SWIFT. second and third persons. B..²WINTER. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. etc. LARNED.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. and will not return until all is finished.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. Disguising a command. for example. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. was to be expected.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²WORDSWORTH.²C. I never was what I should be. and is equivalent to ought. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²BYRON.²SCOTT. 253. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. First. time.²WORDSWORTH. thus.²WORDSWORTH.that I would do him justice. or a promise.²ROGERS. as the sole inventor. with the conviction that he should win in the end. And promised. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.

PASSIVE VOICE. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. In this stately chair would he sit. They will go to Sunday schools. for example... as.²LANDOR. AND THIRD PERSONS.²BANCROFT.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. will and would often denote an action as customary. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. To be sure. action merely expected to occur. would is used to express a wish. when thou wast born. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.² Thou wilt take the skiff. etc.. as if it were merely expected action. will and would are used to express simple futurity. Mere futurity. Roland. without regard to future time. and mark on the grounds the works. for example. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). will is used to express command. as. When I am in town. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. BROWN. (4) With FIRST.. The gift of Beauty. 254.²SCOTT.²BURKE. for punishment or intimidation.²IRVING. and two of my people. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. Would thou hadst it not. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.²the original meaning of the word will. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. so you will. SECOND.² DICKENS. .² Subject I omitted: often so. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. Thine was a dangerous gift..²SCOTT.²War Records.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. through storms their brothers are afraid of. B. This puts the order more mildly.

Singular. I shall choose. I shall be chosen. I will choose. 1. [They] shall choose. [He] shall choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE. You will be chosen. We shall be chosen. 3. You shall be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. You will choose. Thou shalt have a suit. You shall choose. 2. Plural. etc. "I shall not run. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1." answered Herbert stubbornly. Exercises on Shall and Will. 3. 4. You shall choose. [He] will choose. 3. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. [They] will choose. [He] shall be chosen.Singular. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. yet only seem. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 252 and 253. You will choose. (a) From Secs. 2. Plural. You shall be chosen. 3. promise. and justify the use of shall and will. PASSIVE VOICE. [He] will be chosen. You will be chosen. He informed us. To express determination. 3. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 1. 1. I will be chosen. 3. Plural. 2. 2. [They] will be chosen. and that of the newest cut. (b) Examine the following sentences. Thou art what I would be. 5. . We will choose. 1. 1. 6. We will be chosen. 2. Plural. Singular. Singular. 2. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. We shall choose.

bereave besought Past Participle. was -de or -te. Present Tense. WEAK VERBS. Past Tense. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. The beast made a sluggish movement. as if he would have more of the enchantment. put. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. bereft.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. or mylk and wastel breed. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. This ending has now dropped off. set. need some attention and explanation. set. 12. "I am a wayfarer. Irregular Weak Verbs. Without having attended to this.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 257. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. bereave beseech bereft.²CHAUCER. and I have nothing to say. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 11. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. 10. very anxious. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 13. which may be called irregular weak verbs. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. No. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 255. 256. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. put. 9.7. as. then. and have no change of vowel. bereaved besought . my son." 14.²Class I. put.²ID. Lucy stood still." the stranger said. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. But the rest. Of smale houndes hadde she.

stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

to express action unconnected with a subject. 10.6. when inflections became fewer. will (with should and would). [To] be choosing. and a perfect definite form. 268. Infinitives. Three saplings. 9. 267. an indefinite and a perfect form. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. and when passive. an imperfect. Perfect. a perfect. But later. [To] choose. When active. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Indefinite.. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. have no tense.. like participles. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Perfect. as in the Old English. 8. [To] have chosen. try clemency. they have an indefinite. Perfect definite. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. [To] have been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] be chosen. 7. Indefinite. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Imperfect.. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. to was used before the infinitive generally. expressing purpose. formed a kind of bedstead. Cases when to is omitted. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). .²the creature warring against the creating power. ACTIVE VOICE. INFINITIVES. I returned to reflection on my situation. Nothing of the kind having been done. In Sec. To with the infinitive. [To] have been choosing. 266.

it may be the subject of a verb. "a house to let. do (as. 269.²TENNYSON. They shall have venison to eat. also let. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms.²GOLDSMITH. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²MACAULAY.. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. please. bid (command). also in the imperative. as in the expression. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. "He will choose. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.(2) After the verbs may (might). "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. can (could). learn [doth learn is one verb. as. E. must. as.² What! doth she.²DE QUINCEY. watch. poor woman!" cried Charles. see. 271. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. too. hear. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. The gerund is like the participle in form. and corn to hoe.²COOPER." (4) In exclamations. and emphatic forms of the present and past. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. feel. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). HALE. under "Analysis.²HOWELLS." etc. negative.).²IRVING. sometimes need (as. "I do go" etc. the gerund may be called a noun verbal." Examples are. 270. as the credulous imagine. as. GERUNDS. liberal woman. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. . it is often preceded by the definite article.²it may be governed as a noun. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. it has several attributes of a noun. "She ask my pardon. and like a noun in use. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.² She was a kind. or the object of a verb or a preposition." "I shall have chosen. make. While the gerund expresses action. 272. But there was nothing to do.²E.

Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. but cannot govern. above. Exercise. What a vast. which express action. may govern and be governed. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. when. (2) Pure participles. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. (5) Gerunds." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. making the definite tenses. Then how pleasing is it. (6) Verbal nouns. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. and has been put down. brilliant. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. after examining the nest." Exercise. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. according to use as well as meaning." "Certainly dueling is bad. b). The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. II). which express action.²Find sentences containing five participles. (3) Participial adjectives. on your leaving the spot. 2. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. and wonderful store of learning! . in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. and five gerunds.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. 273. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. which have lost all verbal force. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. but do not assert. 4. Sec. to see the returning hope of the parents. five infinitives. Words in -ing are of six kinds. (4) Pure adjectives." also (2." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which name an action or state. which express action and also modify.

It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. 234. 10.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 11. slowly.²active or passive. 14. 15. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature.²indicative. 275. 13. (3) Mood. you must. 9. round which is an iron railing. 12. What is dreaming? 8. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. Thackeray did not. much corroded. subjunctive. In parsing verbs.²strong or weak. like Sir Walter Scott.²transitive or intransitive. dictating from his chair. 16. . 6. or imperative. but. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. I suppose I was dreaming about it. VERBS. He spread his blessings all over the land.5. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. (2) Voice. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. he gave out sentence by sentence. give reality to your teaching. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 7. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. (4) Tense. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. bearing her national emblem. giving principal parts. (b) as to use. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. The only means of ascending was by my hands. by object lessons. I. write twenty pages without stopping. Caution. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. (5) Person and number.

273). Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. Especially frequent are those made up of should. give points (a) and (b). Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. But unless the verb is present. (b) its use (Sec. (b) whether active or passive. VERBALS. (a) From what verb derived. 278. till it meet the sun in his coming. In 2. II. III. (b) whether indefinite. (1) Participle. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. could. perfect. see Sec. no sin nor sorrow. intransitive. in the world. Exercise. (c) to what word it belongs. 277. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 3. we must beware of the rule. might. call should a weak verb. 235. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. call might a weak verb. followed by a pure infinitive without to. and not taken as single verbs. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. In such sentences as 1. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock.. perfect. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. therefore active. 2. If a participial adjective. and ends in -s. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. (3) Gerund. has the subject government. imperfect. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. 2. indicative. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. and parting day linger and play on its summit. past tense. and should always be analyzed as phrases. has for its subject Lee. active. usually it does not. . then parse it as an adjective. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Parse the verbs. etc. intransitive. Take these examples:² 1. indicative (as it means could). would. VERB PHRASES. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. can. definite. must. Have been is a perfect active infinitive." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. You are gathered to your fathers. It has been intimated in Sec. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 278(2). past tense. verbals. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance.276. Let it rise! let it rise. etc. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. 4." Sometimes it does. (2) Infinitive. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. may.

13. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. a new waking up of all that has life. Right graciously he smiled on us. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. he thought only of her. a new bursting forth of the sun. 24. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 19. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.O God. 16.Henceforth in me instill. 8. from a sort of temporary death. leaving me upon the bed.5. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 6. 18. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 20. 14. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 9. 22. 21. 17. 11. or. . Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. as the Hindoos say.²a getting-out of their bodies to think.Down all the line. When he arose in the morning. He passed across the room to the washstand. Whatever ground you sow or plant. a sweet good will. as usual. 23. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. morning is not a new issuing of light. So. In going for water. a deafening shout. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. However that be. see that it is in good condition. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 15. 12. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. as rolled from wing to wing. The soul having been often born." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. and wondered if she were yet awake. With them. 10. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation.

or manner: as." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Better it were. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. to speak truly. for the hour of rest is at hand.²THACKERAY. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.²time. and live ere life be spent. for example. Adverbs modify. . Oh. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. to consent. And now wend we to yonder fountain. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. To the almost terror of the persons present. place.² The young man reveres men of genius. and so on. ADVERBS. 27." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. as. 26." An adjective or an adverb. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].25. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. The word adverb means joined to a verb. they are more himself than he is. When action is expressed. Nor was it altogether nothing. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. who live with nature?²ID.²CARLYLE. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 29. 279. and men of leisure and cultivation. thou sayest. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28."²DE QUINCEY. A verb. and limit adjectives or adverbs. Is it only poets.²EMERSON. because. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].²SHELLEY." "He was absolute.Feast while we may. "William's private life was severely pure. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.

ever. We are offered six months' credit. has induced some of us to attend it. An adverb. there are six classes:² (1) Time.²BYRON. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. A clause or sentence.²T. 282. and that. and half awfully. not simply the forms used in predication. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. perhaps. etc. then. NOTE. while those in Sec. . An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. as now. lately. before. (2) according to their use in the sentence.He was incidentally news dealer.²TROLLOPE. being adverbs naturally and fitly. as. hitherto. 169. A phrase.²These last differ from the words in Sec.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. for example. or a word group used as such. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. ²IRVING. B. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. to-day.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.²THOREAU. ALDRICH. as shown in the sentences. 280. 281.² FRANKLIN. thus. It may also modify a sentence. but some verb understood. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. Make music to the lonely ear.²LEIGH HUNT.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. but really modifying. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. like the light of heaven. not the noun. Definition. 169 are felt to be elliptical. NOTE. Thus considered. is a modifying word.² LOWELL. Surely happiness is reflective. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. I draw forth the fruit. all wet and glossy. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. which may qualify an action word or a statement. but still with a rich bloom to it.

just. twice. especially the comparative of these words. maybe. . etc.²DE QUINCEY.thither. etc.yonder.²BROWNING. Motley. telling how many times: once. 283).where. etc. slowly. Emerson.. and others. as little. too.²HAWTHORNE. two by two.²SHAKESPEARE. 283. as hither. (4) Number. beautifully.which gained him such universal popularity. So also in Grote. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. bravely. the more perfect will be their obedience. and not infrequently are found in literary English. while so precedes only the adjective usually. etc.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. telling how much. greatly.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. (5) Degree. as well. etc. for example.whence. not.whither. The more they multiply. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. as hence. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. partly.thence.²LECKY. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. very. whencesoever. much.there. Thackeray. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. as here. (3) Manner. as perhaps. I was.²BURKE.. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. probably. Meekness. [Sidenote The status of such. the more evidently they love liberty. or how far he believes it to be true. whithersoever. LOUIS STEVENSON.(2) Place. enough. slightly. above. singly. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. at least. surely. the more friends you will have.was for this once of her opinion. (see also Sec. telling how anything is done.. possibly.. thus. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. better. etc..² The master.²R. White. (6) Assertion. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.near.²IRVING. that these adverbs form a very large class. This long's the text. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.

Franklin. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. have the additional function of asking a question. Emerson.Pretty. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.²"He walked too far [place]. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. 285.² "Mighty well. and art but a fool. a mighty fine gentleman. and its lawn before [place]." "That is positively untrue [assertion].²GOLDSMITH. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.² KINGSLEY. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. "Peace. Aldrich. Holmes. . 286." "The house. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Neville. Some adverbs. Defoe." "He spoke positively [manner]. STOWE. 282. Burke." said the king. B. Notice meanings." "That were far better [degree]. for example. Direct questions. Interrogative. for example.²THACKERAY.²BAYNE. De Quincey. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Beau Fielding. besides modifying. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Mighty. Pretty is also used by Prescott." "I have seen you before [time]." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. 284.²HAWTHORNE. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Kingsley."²SCOTT. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Hard blows and hard money.² You are mighty courteous. and other writers.²BULWER. Again. Such are most of those given already in Sec. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived.²FIELDING. Simple. Dickens. A pretty large experience.²THACKERAY.

I will not ask where thou liest low. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (4) Degree.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BYRON. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. (5) Reason. When did this humane custom begin?²H.²BULWER. CLAY. 287. they smiled. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.²D. for example. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. (2) Place. I know not why.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. I do not remember when I was taught to read. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²BYRON (3) Manner. (2) Place. WEBSTER. (4) Degree. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. . while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²POE. I hearkened.

Superlative. Exercise. high. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. not an adverb. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. soon.²EMERSON. well much little far late Comparative. Form vs. representing four classes.But in reality. Then must she keep it safelier. but the whole clause. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.²BYRON. higher. 288. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. irregularly compared. Many adverbs are compared.²TENNYSON. use. obs. when.eyes. and. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. just as adjectives do." Exercise. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. as. sooner. Only that we may wiselier see.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. 290.. Tell what each word in ly modifies. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. further farthest. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Many adjectives have the same ending. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. see Sec. soonest. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Its strings boldlier swept. For further discussion. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.. have the same inflection as adjectives. only occasionally having -er and -est. highest. .²COLERIDGE. furthest (rathe. when does not express time and modify. when compared.²SHAKESPEARE. The following.) rather 289.

curiously jolly.²CHAUCER. or down the leaves laughed through. 6. mostly. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. many words without -ly have the same form. The reason is. hardly. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.1. 292.²ID. as. Such are most. that in Old and Middle English. nearly. even. 2. He is inexpressibly mean." Compare these:² 1. With his proud. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. evenly. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. Again.² EMERSON. etc. . Frequently the word there. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 8. 7. hard.And his mien of kingly state. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. but with a different meaning. to be sure. Not near so black as he was painted. 2.²IRVING. if it has the verb be. merely introduces a sentence.²WORDSWORTH. quick-flashing eye. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. There are eyes. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. kindly and good-natured in secret.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 3. 4. Special use of there. more courtly in their manners. And all about. 5.²TENNYSON. But he must do his errand right.²THACKERAY. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. instead of being used adverbially. 291. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. whether adverbs or adjectives. near.

the Madonna is in great glory. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. Exercise. and sate down on the steps of a house. (3) What word or word group it modifies. however theoretically enticing. 3. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. and always. but from my fall? 6. For the impracticable. 16. It is the Cross that is first seen. The higher we rise in the scale of being. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. give² (1) The class. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. is always politically unwise. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. at the regular wine-shop. But a few steps farther on. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. . Thither we went. 293. 18. 7. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 10. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 15. 2. In parsing adverbs. 17. 12. 9. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 4. if the word is compared. burning in the center of the temple. 5. (2) Degree of comparison. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. but continually shifted. 11. according to meaning and also use. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell.

word groups. 21. Clauses. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. should be omnipotent for evil? 24." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. nor. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. It was pretty bad after that. A conjunction is a linking word. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. CONJUNCTIONS. But now the wind rose again. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. therefore. 295.19. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. upon which the sun now shone forth. 20. Definition. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. however." Sentences." Paragraphs. but side by side within the American Union. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. sentences. or sentence groups. . etc. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. connecting words. Unlike adverbs. then. 22. but the student will readily find them. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. 294. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. hence. and found room to wonder how it could have got there.

nor. 298. etc. then..nor.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. of the same rank." Nevertheless. and not man corn. as well as. either. not only. Nor mark'd they less. Causal. Correlatives.. neither.. not only. but is emperor in his own right.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. whether. as but. introducing a reason or cause.or whether.and. still. neither. however... Some of these go in pairs. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. joining words.. (2) ADVERSATIVE. both. also. whether. moreover. The assertion.or. either. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.. word groups. as. or the sea rolls its waves.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. "Howbeit... Some go in threes.but.Classes of conjunctions. likewise. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. therefore. They are or.. serves but to show their ignorance. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.. whether. (4) ALTERNATIVE. the window being open. else. as and.. hence.but (or but also). had its weight. Your letter. and.... Alternative. .. either. usually between two things. While the earth bears a plant. (3) CAUSAL. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. (2) Subordinate. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.nor. 297.. The chief ones are. Adversative. however. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. neither.or. etc.or. while. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. etc. 296. as.or. nor.... for. the bread was spent. as well as the room door.. expressing a choice.. the butter too. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. answering to each other in the same sentence. yet. only. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.

provided. 299. on condition that. unless. in apposition. etc. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. until. wherever.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. etc.. whereto..²DE QUINCEY. so. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. whenever. in case. sometimes if. howsoever. nor echo. in order that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. however. ²ALLSTON. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. so. provided that. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. . as. while. nor creeping thing. so that. nor wing of bird. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. as. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. whether. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. so. (7) RESULT: that. QUINCY. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. whithersoever. lest. Time.²IRVING. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where.²WILSON. It is. He is not only bold and vociferous. since. except.²PAULDING. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. though. whither. (6) PURPOSE: that. seeing. etc. there will the heart be also. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. now. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.²COOPER. as. since.²J. or whether such a body is moved along my object. whereas. Where the treasure is. even if.. (2) TIME: when. whence. (3) MANNER: how. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. that. ere.²BURKE..²BIBLE. although. etc. after. nor green leaf. Neither the place in which he found himself. especially that after so. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. so that. before.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. etc. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds.

he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. I was again covered with water.² EMERSON. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²AMES. We wish for a thousand heads. Now he is dead. Sparing neither whip nor spur. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²BYRON.²AMES.That he gave her wounds repose. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²COLERIDGE. not as they were expected or intended. H.²EMERSON. Substantive.² HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE Events proceed. As a soldier. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.² WORDSWORTH. but not so long but I held it out.²EMERSON. Condition. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²DEFOE. Cause. Result. Concession. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.That vain it were her eyes to close.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. JACKSON.²IRVING. Purpose.² H.²CAMPBELL.²AMES. Then Denmark blest our chief. a thousand bodies. Let the world go how it will. Manner. Comparison.So I behold them not.²BURKE. reason. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²EMERSON. .

hold a subordinate rank. and hid her there. Crept under the leaf. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. the wisest. her real merit is known at home. that.²RUSKIN. as. 7.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. as he shot in air. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. He was brought up for the church. They. And then recovering. . 12. And they lived happily forever after. 3. since. the lady called her servant. some words²for example. while. 2. 5. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. After he was gone. 6. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 10. Besides. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. she faintly pressed her hand. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. No one had yet caught his character. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 14. 13. 9. 300. The moth fly. As will have been noticed. Exercises. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. etc. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. however.Let us see whether the greatest. In what point of view. it will remain harmless. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 4. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 15. While a faction is a minority. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. then. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11.

In poetry.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out..16. thus. 304.²IRVING. even as they would weep.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.As though a rose should shut. ." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. they connect.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. His voice . 302. etc. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.Clouded." as. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. in this case. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. as is shown by the use of as though. and part as though we parted not. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. 303.²EMILY BRONTE. So silently we seemed to speak.So slowly moved about. none of the lashings having given way. and the frame will suit the picture. In Emerson's sentence.²BYRON. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.²HOOD. word groups. (2) What words.. If analyzed. for example. GREELEY. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. "We meet.. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. as is often equivalent to as if. As if. 301.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. In parsing conjunctions. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. the expression would be. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. Consequently. As though. expressing degree if taken separately. and be a bud again. As for as if. SPECIAL REMARKS.

in 3. and its clause is independent. or in the snow. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. he is also the correlative of nature. as beside his own chimneys. the Sphinx was slain. so it be faithfully imparted. so that I could not stir abroad. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. dines with as good an appetite. etc. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness.²I find them true in Concord. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. When the gods come among men. and very seldom?" 8. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. when. others belong to several classes. 11. or in the forest.Caution.²EMERSON 3. "Doctor. He dismisses without notice his thought. are regularly of one particular class. 6. he sleeps as warm. so means provided. they are not known. such as nor. At sea. 4. in 2. 9. and.²is subordinate of condition. 2. If he could solve the riddle. because. that it might testify of that particular ray. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. so means therefore. . and associates as happily. 12. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. because it is his." said his wife to Martin Luther.²DEFOE 2. All the postulates of elfin annals. 13.²that the fairies do not like to be named. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. It may be safely trusted.. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. In classifying them. For example.² 1. so they paddled on. but of the natural. 10. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. and the like. Exercise. 3. Some conjunctions. 7. 5. and its clause depends on the other. compare the sentences. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. He is the compend of time. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. It continued raining. so that expresses result.

The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. And whether consciously or not. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. For. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. I rejoice to stand here no longer. in this they agree. 29. you must be. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 15. 26. 19. 27. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. enthroned. It is clear.14. 16.²else it is none. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. that both were wayward. 24. however. won't you lay on? 17. 28. 22. 18.. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. of good novels only. whose names I omit. the whole conditions are changed. save it were sinful like herself. 25. It may be so in the majority of cases. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. I speak. when it was presented to them. 20. in many a heart. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. There was no iron to be seen. 30. 305. Still. Goodness must have some edge to it. she might have the family countenance. PREPOSITIONS. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. Now you have the whip in your hand. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 23. . God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 21. therefore.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

he stopped.²COOPER.²DE QUINCEY. by many a million of acres. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at the best. ²PARTON. by means near or close to. . at length. at peace. Helena. At that time [the earth] was richer.. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at one. at rest. At St.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. 321.²M. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at war. D. at random. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. (4) Measure of excess. at naught. by the ruins of nations. the first port made by the ship. by the wrecks of time. By. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at least. at play.²SWIFT. CONWAY.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. expressing the degree of difference.²R. (3) Agency or means. at any rate. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at first.²WARNER. etc. at all. as. H. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. Like at. at work. (2) Time. at the worst.²ALDRICH. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at once. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. Exercise. 320. Richard was standing by the window.² (1) The general meaning of place.²EVERETT.²B.²ID. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. She saw the boat headed for her. Exercise. For. by the blessed memory of the departed. etc. STODDARD. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at most. By my faith.

the Colonna motto would fit you best.²PARKMAN. or extent of space. GARRISON. "Nay. as to. BANCROFT. H. in behalf of. if your worship can accomplish that. . An Arab woman. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. meaning in the character of.²EMERSON. (5) Reference." answered Master Brackett. as being. cause. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline.²IRVING. Still. meaning with regard to.²E. a person or thing. For the rest. L.²HOLMES.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.² RUSKIN. (3) Duration of time. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. had a forest of poor relations. But the Colonel. for all slips of hers. considering that etc. incitement to action.. "thou hast counseled wisely. respecting.²H.. for all his title. he repented of his folly."²SCOTT By my faith. but a few sunsets since. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. For him.(2) In favor of. (6) Like as.²PARKMAN. for the benefit of. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.One of Eve's family. "For a fool. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. and leaped for joy.²STODDARD. for famine. (8) Meaning notwithstanding.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. ate her child. He and they were for immediate attack. (7) Concession. they are now for us. etc. or in spite of. The twilight being. poor fellow.²HOOD." said the Lady of Lochleven.²ID. etc. meaning although. There are gains for all our losses. reason. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²LAMB. etc. E.²W. (4) Substitution or exchange. (9) Motive.

Exercise.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. (4) Motive. Like boys escaped from school. cause.²BANCROFT. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²HALE. A distrustful. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The young cavaliers.²HUME.²H. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. H. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. more. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²HIGGINSON.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. (2) Origin.²DRYDEN. or reason. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. if not a desperate man. (3) Time. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²MILTON. The From Relation. The king holds his authority of the people. from a desire of seeming valiant. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. nay.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. 323. Of. From harmony. (1) Origin or source. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. From. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. ceased to be merciful. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²HUXLEY. like from. The general idea in from is separation or source. . 322. Exercise.²ID.

deprive. reason. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. White shirt with diamond studs. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. divest.²clear of.²PARKMAN. or breastpin of native gold. A singular want of all human relation. etc. bound with thongs of boar's hide. beg. Asked no odds of.²LEW WALLACE. (3) With expressions of material. acquitted them of. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. .²SCOTT Who formed. deprivation. weeds. south of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. HALE. More than one altar was richer of his vows. ask. free of. expressing a part of a number or quantity. that Cromwell once ruled England.²ID.. motive. "I am glad of that. ²GAVARRE. Of the Forty. bare of. rob.²BANCROFT."²E.²BAYARD TAYLOR. disarm. ²PARTON. E.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. You cannot make a boy know. Other Relations expressed by Of. etc. as north of.² HUXLEY. He is away of his own free will. wide of. especially out of. Sandals. such as ease. the finest army that Europe had yet seen.²BOSWELL. out of the most unpromising materials. relieve. (c) After nouns expressing lack. etc.²HIGGINSON. (5) Expressing agency. cure. of his own knowledge. (d) With words expressing distance.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. Back of that tree. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. etc. there were only twenty-one members present. and grass. demand. free. (b) After some adjectives. The hills were bare of trees. etc.²ALDRICH.²DICKENS II. clear. (6) Partitive. purge. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. rid.

when the first is descriptive of the second.²ALDRICH. concerning. Besides the phrases of old. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. See also Sec. (7) Possessive.²W. equal to about. .²ID.²LAMB.²FROUDE. etc.. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. CHANNING. could give shelter from his contumely. (b) Noun and gerund. with regard to. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. (10) Of reference. (c) Two nouns. for the possessive. with its object. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²BANCROFT. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. being equivalent to an infinitive. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. The fair city of Mexico. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.²BANCROFT. of late. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. ²IRVING. of a sudden.²LOWELL. and the dignity of a queen. (9) Of time. Not even woman's love.²HALLECK. (8) Appositional.²COOPER. The nation of Lilliput. Such a book as that of Job.²PRESCOTT. Idiomatic use with verbs.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²SWIFT.He washed out some of the dirt. standing. 309. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. E.²BANCROFT. of is used in the sense of during.

Exercise. The general meaning of on is position or direction. 324.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. (b) With motion. It also accompanies the verbs tire. avail (one's self). The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²PARKMAN. repent. on a sudden. disapprove.²EMERSON. etc. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence.²PARKMAN. On.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. Upon my reputation and credit. ²BANCROFT. SIGOURNEY. consist.²ALDRICH.²MRS. permit. accept. on trial.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. complain. Exercise. on board. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. approve. Upon. . on the wing. etc.²Find sentences with six uses of of.²DE QUINCEY. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. without adding to their meaning. On my life. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²BRYANT. on view. (3) Reference. allow. Upon is seldom used to express time. on the alert. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. such as admit. you are eighteen. and others. Cannon were heard close on the left. on high. concerning. (4) In adjurations. 325. equal to about.²PARKMAN. To. (2) Time. and not a day more.

gay Comedy appears. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²LANG. In Old English.. (5) Equivalent to according to. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²B. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. (2) Expressing result. (b) Referring to time.Come to the bridal chamber.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. to my taste. it may be genuine poetry.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise. But when. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. whose influence is felt to this hour. had ceased to be. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. With.²HALE. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. To the few. .²BENTON To our great delight. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. does the mere music.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²BULWER.²IRVING. 268).²PARKMAN. His brother had died..²BRYANT. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²often to the loss of vigor.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.. Revolutions. interest. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Death!²HALLECK. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. mid meant in company with. to him. We cook the dish to our own be written over. unmasked.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Nor. He usually gave his draft to an aid.. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. 326.²PARTON.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.

Messala. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. in spite of.²LANG. as with you.²CHANNING.²DE QUINCEY. with Heyward at its head. (2) Instrumentality. 327. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. he gave millions to the sword. but with you.²WALLACE (7) Time. it is necessary. .²HOWELLS.²COOPER. E. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. with all his boldness.²DE QUINCEY. (3) Cause. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. or with the haunch of our near leader. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. to find the object of the preposition. It seemed a supreme moment with him. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. With all his sensibility. Either with the swingle-bar.The advance. (4) Estimation. I think. Exercise. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. opinion. He was wild with delight about Texas. had already reached the defile. reason. HALE.²ALDRICH.²HALE. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²HOWELLS. "poetry is not a pursuit.²E. felt it unsafe to trifle further. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²Find sentences with four uses of with. She seemed pleased with the accident.²SCOTT. He expired with these words. transmitted from the beginning. but a pleasure"?²LANG. first of all. (5) Opposition. motive.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.

There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. of on. The object of on board is ships. but I received no other hurt. came tumbling about my ears. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. (2) on which. I heard a noise just over my head. To our general surprise. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. (3) without a country. Be that as it will. (4) from the beginning. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. I called out several times. The guns were cleared of their lumber. like the clapping of wings. 4.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. of without. but all to no purpose. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. before the dwarf left the queen.²SWIFT 2. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. the phrase answers the question where. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. And so on. he followed us one day into those gardens. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. I remember. In (2). In (3). by which a dozen apples. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. hence we say. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. I felt my box raised very high in the air.²ID. Exercises. of from. telling what man. 5. and knocked me down flat on my face. . and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. Whereupon. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. 2. shook it directly over my head. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. I speak these things from a love of justice. or was. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. without a country modifies man. because I had given the provocation. country. we met the defaulter here. beginning. In (1). the malicious rogue. I looked towards my windows. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. which. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. 3.

though unbroken by the peal of church bells. to one dark and gloomy. 20. in town. 13. grasping at the child. 16. For my part. 14. 26. 22. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 11. 12. His breeches were of black silk. 7. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 21. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 24. 9. he favored the world with his opinions. He locked his door from mere force of habit. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 15. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone.He spurred his courser on. after a restful morning. 10. . plumed for battle. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 18. On all subjects known to man. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 29. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. I like to see the passing. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. With all his learning. in this respect. 25. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The savage army was in war-paint. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 27. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent.Without stop or stay. 23. 8. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition.6. when. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 17. 19. The mother sank and fell.

That was a dreadful mistake. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²WEBSTER. (2) As an adjective pronoun.² JOHNSON.²COLERIDGE. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 330. (a) Indefinite relative. and not according to form. THAT. .²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²WEBSTER. We wish that labor may look up here. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That is what I understand by scientific education. WHAT. not merely by the amount of the tax.²HUXLEY. (3) As a relative pronoun. that you might behold this joyous day.²WEBSTER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (c) Substantive conjunction. 329. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.That makes the heavens be mute. (b) Of result.²BEECHER. He will raise the price. 328. A few are discussed below. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (1) Relative pronoun. And now it is like an angel's song. (4) As an adverb of degree.30. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. That night was a memorable one.²STOCKTON.

. BUT.²EMERSON. If he has [been in America].it is impossible to determine. (6) Exclamatory adjective.these sounds are only to be heard. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.S. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative... "I'll tell you what." (4) Relative adjective.²THACKERAY..²WORDSWORTH. after not only.²ID. To say what good of fashion we can. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (b) Indirect question... What..²ID. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. or not only. but the result of calculation. (9) As an exclamation. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.Those shadowy recollections. silent still. nearly equivalent to partly. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. Cox. to see what might be hidden. (b) Copulative. partly. (7) Adverb of degree. What with the Maltese goats. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. it rests on reality.²EMERSON.Which be they what they may. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. .in Pera. 331. (8) Conjunction.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. he knows what good people are to be found there...but... What. and silent all!²BYRON. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (b) Indirect question..²S.²WEBSTER.

or who . meaning only. like the dog. after a negative.²IRVING. (5) Adverb. meaning otherwise . as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage..Then arose not only tears. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²EMERSON.²IRVING. 332. than.²CARLYLE. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²SHELLEY. not. not.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. ²CARLYLE. (2) Relative pronoun.. (d) Of reason. towards order...²HAWTHORNE. stands for that . meaning except.²MRS BROWNING. Doing duty as a guard. AS. not. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²SCOTT. I shall see but little of it. equivalent to that .. after such.He yearned to our patriot bands. Who knows but.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (4) Relative pronoun. To lead but one measure. on all sides. (e) Introducing an appositive word. at all moments.²LAMB. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. .²FRANKLIN. (b) Substantive. (3) Preposition.. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²IRVING. but piercing cries. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (c) Of degree. (b) Of manner. sometimes same.

staring like a bewildered man. nervous child. like drops out. . Introduces a clause. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.² HAWTHORNE. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. and is followed by a dative-objective. No Emperor.LIKE.²ALDRICH. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²DARWIN. (1) An adjective. In each case. They look. NOTE. 333. This follows a verb or a verbal.²MAYHEW. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Give Ruskin space enough. I do with my friends as I do with my books. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. this.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²ALDRICH.² A timid. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. and as or as if takes its place. like Martin was. but its verb is omitted.-SCOTT. Through which they put their heads. like him awhile ago. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²HAWTHORNE. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. Note the difference between these two uses. ²PARKMAN.²EMERSON. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. indeed. Stirring it vigorously.²HIGGINSON.²LONGFELLOW. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. If the verb is expressed.²CASS.²SHAKESPEARE. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²HALLECK. In this second use. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. like a cook beating eggs. There is no statue like this living man.²LAMB. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²EMERSON. That face. and was clearly an adjective. like summer ocean's.

334. tut! buzz! etc. 336. verb. clauses introduced by conjunctions.. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. it is necessary to become expert in analysis.INTERJECTIONS. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].²in determining case. subject and predicate. in separating them into their component parts. Definition." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. that is. pronoun. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. What analysis is. Some of these are imitative sounds. Value of analysis. but it still retains its identity as noun. 335.: for example. etc. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. . entering into the structure of a sentence. etc. as. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. that is." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed." PART II. Definition. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

But now all is to be changed. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. (2) Interrogative. Division according to number of statements. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. Definition: Predicate. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. 2. 337. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. (3) Imperative. but by no means vulgar. Examples of these three kinds are. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. .Kinds of sentences as to form. always friends?" imperative. but according to how many statements there are. 338." 340. declarative. entreaty. or request. not according to the form in which a thought is put. interrogative. Every sentence must contain two parts. old man?" "Be thou familiar. "Come to the bridal chamber. or command: for example. "Old year." "What wouldst thou do. you must not die!" interrogative. but the sentence would still be declarative. which expresses command. This is the most common one. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. according to form. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. Definition. hence. "Hath he not always treasures.²a subject and a predicate. which puts the thought in a question. question. or imperative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. 339. "The quality of mercy is not strained. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. SIMPLE SENTENCES.

we say all is the subject of the sentence. or ye) is in most cases omitted.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. and the real subject is the latter. especially in poetry.²What is the ivy green? Answer. or adverb that asks about the subject.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. to suit all cases:² Subject. In analyzing such sentences. all. 341. Consequently. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. But if we try this with the second sentence. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. on the other hand. we have some trouble. 8. 3. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. always reduce them to the order of a statement. adjective. and is to be supplied. the subject (you. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. "[You] behold her single in the field. to an ignorant man. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. 2." Exercise. 5. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. but about the ivy green. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. not of a rare old plant. Listen. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. The last of all the Bards was he.²What is to be changed? Answer. 6. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. and our definition must be the following. thou. the subject is frequently after the verb. 4. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. or an interrogative pronoun. 7. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. a rare old plant. Slavery they can have anywhere. as. . In the interrogative sentence. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Thus.

What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. "Ye call me chief. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. and means summoned." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. (4) The complements. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. but it is a true complement. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). The transitive verb often requires." Complement: 344. 343. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. direct. . for example. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. and me here is not the object simply of call. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. (6) Independent elements.10. (2) The predicate. or second object. but chief belongs to the verb. Direct Object." indirect. but of call chief.²transitive and intransitive. Of a transitive verb. (3) The object. and by object we mean the direct object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. The subject and predicate have been discussed. Indirect object. "Ye honor me. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. just as if to say. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. (5) Modifiers. 342. in addition to the object.

" "The good man. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. appear." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . in the popular judgment. in exercise following Sec. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. "A cheery. 346.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. "Brow and head were round. and. seem. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. 352. for instance. An intransitive verb. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. etc. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. feel. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. A phrase is a group of words. more familiarly." (3) INFINITIVE. Thom of the Gills. as. Complement of an intransitive verb." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. See sentence 19. I mentioned a case of that nature. 355." Also an expression used as a noun.. as in the sentence." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. but used as a single modifier. in the original Opium Confessions. 364. 'Ay. ay. or. as in drowning." (2) PARTICIPIAL. and of massive weight." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. Phrases." Things used as Subject." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." All these complete intransitive verbs. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. not containing a verb. he was now getting old. introduced by a preposition: for example. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. above sixty. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. and barring the door." 345." "He was termed Thomas. sir!' rang out in response. 351. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. to the completion of this man of the world." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. taste. become. 347. especially the forms of be. As to form.

etc.²the talent of starting the game. "'By God. for which see Sec. or their religion from their sect. "Therein has been. (4) After "there introductory. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. asserting eyes. 341. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. but the real or logical subject is to print. but they will be given in detail here. and ever will be." "The dead are there." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. 349." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. or the thundering of organs." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. ." 348." "Never." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. prowling eyes." Things used as Direct Object." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." "There are asking eyes. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." In this sentence. and by Saint George!' said the King." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust).²the infinitive phrase. from their lips. (2) In interrogative sentences. my deficiency. Disguised infinitive subject. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. was heard one syllable to justify. but obscures the real subject." etc. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." The for did not belong there originally. I saw the quick and the dead. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." Things used as Complement.

" "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. complements of the predicate." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and. and explaining or modifying the subject. the object is made the subject by being passive.350." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. I. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation.²completing the predicate." "She asked her father's permission." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." In this last sentence. Of a transitive verb. and whenever the complement is a noun. or the equivalent of the noun. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. at the same time." "I hear the echoes throng. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Modifiers of Subject.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (4) Participle." . Like all the complements in this list." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. As complement of a transitive verb. As complement of an intransitive verb." "Their tempers. or Complement." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. 351. they are adjuncts of the object. Object." "Serving others is serving us. and the words italicized are still complements. the shepherd girl." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. (3) Infinitive.²heads or tails. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." Modifiers. doubtless.

I have seasoned for thee. and leading him from star to star." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. "He died like a God. no sociable angel." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. was the scene from King John." In such a sentence as. II.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. or complement is modified. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. but it is really a contracted clause. tell whether the subject. but noble teachers." Exercise. Tells how." "Give them not only noble teachings. Retained with passive." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. given at the request of a Dutch lady." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing.²In each sentence in Sec." "In the twinkling of an eye. or . the prisoner at the bar. not with nature." "Him. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. but with other men. the verb being omitted." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." (For participial and infinitive phrases. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. unforgiving. 351. Since the predicate is always a verb. and modify the predicate in the same way. see further Secs. was now called upon for his defense.²proud. austere. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. object." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. 357-363. Modifiers of the Predicate. 352. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. this young idolater.

etc. he liked. 8. His books have no melody. 3. To the men of this world." Exercises. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. or how long. Why does the horizon hold me fast. with my joy and grief." "One way lies hope. These answer the question when. how far. 7. and (direct) object:² 1. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. a sort of personality to the whole writing. and the direct object is retained: for example. predicate. and as many to oppose it. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. 3. On the voyage to Egypt." (6) Adverbial objective. no emotion. and. predicate.. 2. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. according to old philosophers. and other measures of precaution. but to be loved. 5. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. But anger drives a man to say anything." "All such knowledge should be given her. to the animal strength and spirits. Evil. (a) Pick out subject. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. negative. but the children of the great. in this center? 4.When the verb is changed from active to passive." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 7. no relief to the dead prosaic level." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. . after dinner. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. I took. 4. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. They do not wish to be lovely. in regard to particulars. 6. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. is good in the making. 5. no humor. This. 2. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. the indirect object is retained. (b) Pick out the subject. 6. Fashion does not often caress the great. gives wonderful animation.

5. 4. Not compound sentences. viz. expecting the return of their parents. at the chief hotel. the blooming cornet. this imperial rider. this dragoon so lovely. then. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1.. happy dinner. after their long confinement to a ship. six children sat by a peat fire. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 2. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. Compound Predicate. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 4. 3. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. A river formed the boundary. and a member of the world. burthened with the anxieties of a man. must visit again the home of her childhood. 4. Paint me. Unhorse me. downwards. 2. 6. to the right and to the left.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. I gave him an address to my friend. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. this nun so martial. That night. y y y y Compound Subject. etc. . 5. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. Their intention was to have a gay. at length the warrior lady. upwards. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately.y 8. 3. Yes. a room seventeen feet by twelve. then. I promised her protection against all ghosts. I felt myself. the attorney. In one feature. in little peaceful Easedale.²the river Meuse. for the first time. 3. Not the less I owe thee justice. To suffer and to do. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. 2. that was thy portion in life.

they are not a necessary part. etc. I'm with you once again. then the grammatical subject and predicate. exposes.353. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. hurry. the air of the mother. Examples of compound subjects are. forming a sentence: "Oh. ulcer.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. the simple subject is situation. turned his steps homeward. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. may be the person or thing addressed. etc. above: thus. 355. "The company broke up. the object. and the rest is the logical predicate. complements. the predicate. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. The exclamatory expression. together with its modifiers. but it is to be noticed that. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. in the sentence." And so with complements. shouldered the rusty firelock." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. 354. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. the tone of her voice. modifiers. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. however." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. For example. my brave young man!" . "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. same as (1). and. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. Of this. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. hurry." Sentences with compound predicates are. Independent Elements of the Sentence. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence." "Voyages and travels I would also have. together with all its modifiers. that is. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. Bishop. two or more subjects of the same predicate." "Ye crags and peaks. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate.. in all such sentences as we quote below. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. etc. Larger view of a sentence." "He shook his head. "Ah." "The name of the child. the verb). and its object or complement." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. several modifiers. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first.

modifying a noun." "Well." "At all events." (2) Adverbial. let him perish." "No. In their use. prepositional phrases may be. object. 6). PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. he closed his literary toils at dinner. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. 357. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. modifying the predicate. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. moreover. etc. already noticed. see Sec. to the best of my remembrance. and so on. or complement (see Sec. nevertheless. then. 4). 350. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. such as perhaps. The words well. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases.. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. really." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. or word used as a noun: for example. the company broke up." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon." Another caution. yes! everybody knew them. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. besides. he somehow lived along. why." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. see Sec. therefore. that have an office in the sentence. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. this story runs thus. 352." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. undoubtedly. (b) As a modifier of subject. such as however.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. 4). "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. now." "Why. These need close watching. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared." (3) Independent. her noticing even this is creditable. y (2) The adverbial use. (1) Adjectival. There are some adverbs. and some conjunctions.. how you're winking!" "Now. 356. 351. 3." (6) Single words: as. six quill-driving gentlemen. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." (5) Participial phrase: "But. pronoun. he was a conscientious man. etc. 355. "Oh. instances of which were seen in Sec. grandma. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. generally speaking." "Truth to say. . truly.

" y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. (1) Completing an incomplete verb.should. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. The verbal use. y (a) With may (might). but having no other office than a verbal one. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. etc. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes." etc. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec." In this sentence. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . Wilt thou." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years." "There. and hence is adverbial. containing no matters of business. my dear. "The letter of introduction. I. or as nearly so as the student will require. modifying was speedily run through.can (could). etc.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. 358." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. "Because I was. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. and teach her how to be happy and good. See Sec. and they will be presented here in full. was speedily run through. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing.]. therefore." (c) With the definite forms of go." (b) With the forms of be. necessity.: as in the sentences. but require somewhat closer attention. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. 355. he should not have known them at all. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES.would. being equivalent to a future with obligation. (5). suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. thus. ought. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. This case excepted. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes.seem. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts.

but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. Don Guzman. to please is equivalent to that he may please. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. already examined. 5). the Scotch fighting all the battles. complement. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. The adjectival use. The substantive use." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. The adverbial use. 362. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. "But there was no time to be lost. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. notice the following:² In (1). to look means that he might look. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. II." "He insisted on his right to forget her.²both purpose clauses. To test this." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). The fact that the infinitives in Sec. and the eyes to fill?" 359.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive).: for example." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. . to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. etc. IV. modifying a noun that may be a subject. III. hang the idiot. result." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. etc. 361 are used adverbially." "Are you mad." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." 360. object." "To teach is to learn. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "To say what good of fashion we can. (4) In apposition." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. 351. above." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec.. to hear McOrator after dinner. 361.

to find shows the result of the return. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. to part means because I part. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. 352). If it is an incomplete verb. I will try to keep the balance true. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. etc. In (3). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. which is of two kinds. The independent use.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 355. 351). In analyzing simple sentences. etc. (5) The subject (Sec. (3). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 268.²both expressing condition. In (4). 3. and to say is equivalent to if we say. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. In (5). not in a book. etc. as in Sec." (See also Sec. 351). give² (1) The predicate. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. . equivalent to that you betray. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec.. 355). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec.. (7) Independent elements (Sec. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 347). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. give the complement (Secs. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. V. object. 4. Our life is March weather." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 363. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 351). 2.In (2). savage and serene in one hour. 349). must be in a life. to hear means if you should hear. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 364.

to the moral sphere. 8. nor generals. 17. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 21. 19. and spared nothing. through evil agents. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams.4. 12. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. nor troops. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 11. a skilled musician.Burnt green and blue and white. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. a good shot. 22. neither ammunition. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. might be called flabby and irresolute. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. the carrion crow. nor himself. Old Adam. 23.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. The water. in popular use. always in a bad plight. He risked everything.The old crow of Cairo. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 5. 24. two stricken hours. The word conscience has become almost confined. 9. is to have no political system at all. like a witch's oils. . You may ramble a whole day together.²to preserve her throne. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 6. To be hurried away by every event. 15. The whole figure and air. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. We are always in peril. an accomplished scholar.He sat in the shower. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. Her aims were simple and obvious. 16. 7. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. His opinion is always original. 13. through toys and atoms. good and amiable otherwise. and to the purpose. a graceful dancer. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. nor money. 10. 18. and every moment discover something new. To these gifts of nature. 20. to restore civil and religious order. I have heard Coleridge talk. just on the edge of destruction. with eager energy. Through the years and the centuries. to keep England out of war. 14.

39. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. I hate him and myself. Oxford. Of the same grandeur. 32. upon my own ground. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 37. the same Condé Olivarez. The cry. 35. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. an elderly man. 40.Distant. 33. She had made a two days' march. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. to be a reproach to such goodness. In the Acadian land. and the wherefore? . haply. and no provisions but wild berries. the present capital of New England.Effacing many a stain of former crime. in this world.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. the prime minister of Spain. 29. Few in number. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. Now. 34. I dare this. The villain. in less heroic and poetic form. But yield. secluded. and. 27. and in my own garden. 41. 36. the ship was in an uproar. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 30. Fair name might he have handed down. to bid you leave the place now and forever. in front of all this mighty crowd.25. ready to receive her. Must we in all things look for the how. had but one foible. baggage far in the rear. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. still. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 31. or perhaps one virtue. 26. proud foe. This amiable relative. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 38. Supposing this computation to be correct. time-honored. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. and the why. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. Upon this shore stood.

though often treated as phrases.From her own loved island of sorrow. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. 366. however. if they were expanded. the pride and beauty of the grove.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. Words left out after than or as.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." This must. which is the unit of speech. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. as would be the connective instead of like. 365. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. COMPLEX SENTENCES.² "She is like some tender tree." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. (Sec." To show that these words are really omitted. but. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. As shown in Part I. made merely for convenience and smoothness. are really contracted clauses. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 367." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. 333)." Sentences with like. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. as. . The simple sentence the basis. thus.

Hence the following definition:² Definition. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. main. complement. modifiers.. CLAUSES. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. how great . Definition. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. Independent clause. that . then we recognize this as the main statement. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. 368.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. 370. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). A clause is a division of a sentence. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. and the last. complements. each clause has its subject." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. object.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. suffering. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. logically depends on suffering.²the other members subordinate to it. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second.. etc. as in this sentence. A principal.. or it may be applied to the others.. and modifier. we are aware. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. murmur. . predicate. which are so united that one member is the main one.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. 371. or dependent on it. object. 369. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. is taken in.²the backbone. and the next one. that is. containing a verb with its subject. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur.

thus. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. impertinences." (2) Object of a verb. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise.. and ADVERB clauses. We ourselves are getting . for a hundred years.. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. over which the torrent came tumbling." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition." Just as the object noun." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. As to their office in the sentence." 374. adjectives. Kinds. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. for example. infinitive. 5). but logically the sentence is." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. put an end to my fancies. for a time.Dependent clause. etc. with a noun clause in apposition with it... according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. and the whole clause is not. for example. clauses are divided into NOUN.. (b) that are . is retained after a passive verb (Sec.." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. (a) Ordinary apposition. so the object clause is retained. 'I know that he can toil terribly.' is an electric touch. impertinences²would be grammatical. 372. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. attention is called to them here." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. ADJECTIVE.. pronoun. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. But since they are complex in form." (4) Apposition. verbal. 373. night or day. or adverbs." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. and it is . Noun Clauses. . and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend." "I was told that the house had not been shut. 352.

Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. no man will ever know. he could know nothing. 10. that all safe legislation must be based. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 4. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. etc. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 375. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. a relative pronoun being understood. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. whither. 6. Other examples of this construction are. Frequently there is no connecting word. he would repent it." Exercise. as. 3. that. 8. whether he should choose one or not. sometimes by the conjunctions when. still remains reasonable. Such a man is what we call an original man. But the fact is.² "It is on the understanding. where. 5. of a nation. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. As the office of an adjective is to modify. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. that. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. whence. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. whereby. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. I was napping. how it changed from shape to shape. or equivalent of a noun. that he was a scheming impostor. a falsehood incarnate. What history it had. 9. 2. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. . and not on the sentiment." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. wherein. The reply of Socrates. Examples of adjective clauses. Except by what he could see for himself. which. 7. but. in the sentence. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Adjective Clauses.

" "Those who see the Englishman only in town." Exercise. or that essence we were looking for. object. he begins to help us more as an effect." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 10. which Rowena tasted. 6. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities.. . all is vacancy." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 11. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 7. etc. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 1. 9. which formed the center of the mansion. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 5. Pick out the adjective clauses. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other.376. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. Adverbial Clauses. I walked home with Calhoun. the champions advanced through the lists. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 8. 4. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character.e." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. No man is reason or illumination. i. 2. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 3. and tell what each one modifies. whether subject.

" "He went several times to England. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. with examples. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. an adjective." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. or an adverb." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. so far as we can. etc. etc. 378. adverbs. the milestones are grave-stones. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." "After leaving the whole party under the table. to make up our shortcomings. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. expressing the degree in which the horizon. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." "Who cares for that. is wider. however good she may be as a witness.: "But still." (5) DEGREE. Joanna is better. since he was too great to care to be original. a verbal. however. but they require careful study. no matter what remains.. shaping our actions." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. introduced by indefinite relatives. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." (9) CONCESSION." (7) RESULT. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." These mean no matter how good. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." (3) REASON." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church.² whoever. and adverbial conjunctions. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "The broader their education is." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. and will be given in detail." "When he was come up to Christian. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. it takes precedence of everything else. the wider is the horizon of their thought. whatever." "The right conclusion is. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. he goes away as if nothing had happened. etc. tell what kind each is." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. and what it modifies:² . Exercise." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience.377. that we should try.

so that the living were frightened out of their beds. then treat noun clauses as nouns. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. as they sometimes did. object. howling and whistling. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. its object is that Odin was a reality. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. snatching up stones to fling at them. etc. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. to tell the truth.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. so as to picture the parts and their relations. and twirling weathercocks. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . 379. with shrill. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. they might perhaps say of their visitors. 380. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. in the sentence. on a dark wintry night. of which clause Odin is the subject. If the children gathered about her. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. 'Well. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. and communicated itself to a thousand objects." 2. 3. find the principal subject and principal predicate. incoherent exclamations. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. banging about doors and windows. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. For example. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. predicate. we are a little disappointed. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and modifiers. when the wind was unruly. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air.1. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject.

d. as seen in the "map" (Sec. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. . True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. Exercises.. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. 2. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 3. 364. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (1) Find the principal clause.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 380).

or whether any. who would yield to it least. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. the shepherd girl. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. Had they been better chemists. of a light hazel. if applied to the Bible. 6. 12. 9. . counselor that had none for herself. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 11. Next came a wretched Dominican. 8. He was what our country people call an old one. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 22. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 19. The night proved unusually dark. namely. M. 15. that has clung to her faith in the imagination.4. 21. 14. The deep eyes. 24. This is she. as for armies that were too many by half. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. Here lay two great roads. 18. for yours. the flower should revive for us. 5. And those will often pity that weakness most. not so much for travelers that were few. the mixed result. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 20. 23. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. Whether she said the word is uncertain. bishop. dying for them. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. that pressed her with an objection. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 13. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. Now. But now that she has become an establishment. 17. 16. could not have been effected. 7. I like that representation they have of the tree. that. whom I choose. had we been worse. 10. which. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone.

though we may repeat the words never so often. 383." 4. (b) First analyze. 7. 5. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. is to speak and write sincerely. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 3. COMPOUND SENTENCES. or commands. These things we are forced to say. Hence the definition. but above it. and not from his heart.²which will not be disposed of. 380. we cannot adequately say. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 26.25.² Definition. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. "No book. questions. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. that it was no more than his daily walk. It makes no difference how many friends I have. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 6. . What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 27. would easily reach. That which we do not believe. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 28. then map out as in Sec. How formed. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. speed. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 382. if continuously extended. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 30. and temper. 2. and what content I can find in conversing with each. the following complex sentences:² 1. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. "was ever written down by any but itself. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. and stamped with his right number." said Bentley.

and it shall be the universal sense." 384. nor. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. The coördinate conjunctions and. 297). Some of these are now conjunctions. he walks with arms akimbo. The division into members will be easier. while (whilst). for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. "Only the star dazzles. the planet has a faint. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. . moon-like ray" (adversative). Thus in (1). nor does he know until he has tried. the semicolon separates the first. 385. Exercise. and connects the first and second complex members.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. a simple member. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. as but. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. the waving grass. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. a complex member. yet. he soliloquizes. Of the following illustrative sentences.. 383 (1). Speak your latent conviction. he is twice a man. etc. in (2). others sometimes coördinate. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). 386. and nor the second and third complex members. now adverbs or prepositions. for. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. as in Sec. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. or but." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. etc. he dilates. tell which are compound. Another example is. and which complex:² 1. which are simple statements. if there are any. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Study the thought. Connectives. from the second. however. and none but he knows what that is which he can do." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. and not the form of the connective. in (3). whereas.

he grew up to be a mild. nay. 11. passed in that time. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 2. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. For everything you have missed. however. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. yield to them heart and life. for example. I can yet love. Man does not stand in awe of man. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. . (i) Separate it into its main members. and as yet very early in the morning. so is every one of its parts. and thou shalt be loved. 5. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 12. unobtrusive boy. or. I can still receive. 4. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. Whilst the world is thus dual. However some may think him wanting in zeal. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. is particular. 364. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 7. 9. The gain is apparent. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. All loss. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. to find a pot of buried gold. 10. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 381. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has.2. you have gained something else. 13. you lose something. and for everything you gain. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. the tax is certain. all pain. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. quiet. 6. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 3. Love. In this manner. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. Exercise. from a happy yet often pensive child. that it was Easter Sunday. 387. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 4. 8. and not by what each is. 3. 14.

abide by it. let them mount and expand. "the iron is white. and you are without effort impelled to truth. puts the parties on a convenient footing. or hope. 19. "Strike. and each shows only what lies at its focus. We see the noble afar off. Whatever he knows and thinks. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and not an emotion of bravery. They will shuffle and crow. and the peace of society is often kept. or we pursue persons. is as thin and timid as any. or sail with God the seas. one is afraid. if you rip up his claims. why should we intrude? 10. Stand aside. which always make the Actual ridiculous. that let him communicate." "keep the rake. and they repel us. "as nigh the scythe as you can. because. and they will show themselves great. ." 13. and the other dares not. 21. treat them greatly. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. Trust men. When you have chosen your part. whilst frankness invites frankness. 11. or we read books. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. 7. We go to Europe. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. and not a thought has enriched either party. but the day never shines in which this element may not work.5. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 15. give those merits room. and he learns who receives. and they will be true to you. 14. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. only that they may brag and conquer there. crook and hide. 16. 20. and makes their business a friendship. 9. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and the cart as nigh the rake. modesty. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. as children. or men will never know and honor him aright. 18. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. Come into port greatly. 6. He teaches who gives. 8." says the smith. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. feign to confess here. 17. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue." says the haymaker.

SYNTAX. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. So does culture with us. 388. but they never acquit the debt. Do not craze yourself with thinking. they die young. 25. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. but its leading characteristic is. so readily and lavishly they promise.22. verb and subject. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. or. By way of introduction. PART III. adjective and noun. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 24. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. the department of syntax will be a small affair. it ends in headache. INTRODUCTORY. it never was known to fall into the rear. pronoun and antecedent. 23. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. 380. Ground covered by syntax. and dodge the account. if they live. but go about your business anywhere. Following the Latin method. Essential point in English syntax. We see young men who owe us a new world. 390.²agreement and government. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. they lose themselves in the crowd.

" that is. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. In Latin. and whose judgment. and added to it the preposition of. There is. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. or the same writer will use both indifferently. distinct forms would be used. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). therefore. Some rules not rigid. For example. or when they exist side by side in good usage. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used." is ambiguous. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. sometimes verb and subject." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. pronoun and antecedent. Second. Also in the sentence. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and imitate it. The basis of syntax. and nothing but important points will be considered. . This is not logical. 392. the order being inverted. or settler may be the subject. some of which conform to classical grammar. Why study syntax? 391. In some cases. authorities²that is. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. As an illustration of the last remark. then. "None remained but he. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. 393. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. following the regular order of subject. the sentence." In this there is a possessive form. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. but are not now. good English. "The savage here the settler slew. as to study inflected forms. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. and it would not matter which one stood first.² First. Savage may be the subject. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. take the sentence. also expressing a possessive relation. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. both forms will be given in the following pages. When usage varies as to a given construction. etc. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language.

Separate possession.NOUNS. Woman. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. etc. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. and Pope's.²RUSKIN. sense and nature's easy fool." Juletta tells. Use of the possessive. and Peter's. 395. 397. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²MACAULAY. the antechamber of the High Priest. the shore of Galilee. as.²EMERSON.² Live your king and country's best support. for example.²BYRON. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. the possessive sign is used with each noun.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.²MILTON. and Paul's. He kept Bolingbroke's. and Harley's.² He lands us on a grassy stage. . 394. Joint possession. and Peterborough's. Bentham's principles together. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. PRONOUNS. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²MCCULLOCH. 408). 396. Mill's and Mr. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²THACKERAY. Putting Mr. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²ROWE. ²ID. but imply separate possession or ownership.

²SHAKESPEARE.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE." 400. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. 399. But he must be a stronger than thee. General rules. Bedott Papers. if not universally. there are two general rules that require attention." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. for example. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²TROLLOPE. .²WHITCHER. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. the last expression has the support of many good writers.) "The young Harper. as. and should be the nominative form. Since most of the personal pronouns. 398. together with the relative who. the real thought being forgotten. No mightier than thyself or me.²BYRON. Still. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²POPE. sanctioned. This should be "as she. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. thus.²THACKERAY. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. who.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. Objective for the nominative.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. others are generally. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. I. whom is the complement after the verb am. Some of the violations are universally condemned.²SOUTHEY.

namely. "Who's there?"²"Me.² One I remember especially. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. The usage is too common to need further examples. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. both in England and America. One exception is to be noted. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee."²WINTHROP. The camp of Richard of England." 401. and the other forms of the verb be. is. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²FIELDING. on the other hand.²COLERIDGE. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²LONGFELLOW. they are yet holier than we. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²KINGSLEY.²MACAULAY. it will not be me. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²RUSKIN.²PARTON. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. unless a special. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. In spoken English. are. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. but such is the fact. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. for example." There is no special reason for this.²SCOTT. as. Patrick the Porter."²WM. And it was heThat made the ship to go."²KINGSLEY. "If there is any one embarrassed. BLACK.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant.² For there was little doubt that it was he. . But still it is not she. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. "Than whom. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²THACKERAY. the objective form is regularly found. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. A safe rule.

but not he" (he should be him. . 403. Me in exclamations. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. as. as. 3. 10. 7. object of saw). verbal. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. (3) By forgetting the construction. 5.²MILTON. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person." 6.Exercise. used after verbs. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. Truth is mightier than us all. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 9. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. you or me. it is me. If there ever was a rogue in the world. It is not me you are in love with.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. You know whom it is that you thus charge. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. verbals. 11. 2. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. or us). Nominative for the objective. "Ask the murderer. 4. as. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 8. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away." the word being in apposition with murderer). I speak not to" (he should be him. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. Whom they were I really cannot specify. the object of to). as this from Shakespeare. now. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 404. or this. and prepositions.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. or preposition which governs it. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me).

as. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. "Who did you see?" or. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. for they say there are none such in the world. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²KINGSLEY. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. changed in all save thee. Nature. partial Nature. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. after the preposition but (sometimes save). He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT.²STEELE. 2.²KINGSLEY. Exception 2. 406. Thou. We regularly say.² All were knocked down but us two. for example. as well as the objective. .²BYRON.²KINGSLEY. etc. None. and is usually avoided. save thou and thine. "Who were they talking to?" etc. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.Exception 1. 405.²GOLDSMITH. all but he. Let you and I look at these. I arraign. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.Shall be left upon the morn. I've sworn. but he.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. who interrogative. Exercise.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²BYRON. as. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. Thy shores are empires. Who have we here?²ID.

7. 6. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. Markland. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set." 4.²MACAULAY. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 11.²C. 12. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. 9. 5. BROWN.3. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. This usage is not frequent. They crowned him long ago. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. They are coming for a visit to she and I.²SCOTT. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Bartholomew.²RUSKIN.²possessive.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. 8. who. B. 407. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. II.Ye I salute. and they know that as well as me. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. As antecedent of a relative. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. Preceding a gerund. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. with Jortin and Thirlby. or objective? . 10. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. POSSESSIVE FORMS.

408." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²DE QUINCEY.² THACKERAY. Why both are found. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. [who was] studying law.²MACAULAY. The last incident which I recollect. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.² IRVING. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.² SCOTT.² CARLYLE. and the meaning is. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²RUSKIN. We heard of Brown. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. and that in the second. etc. . as he turned away from his wife. In the examples quoted. studying is a gerund. Both types of sentences are found. The use of the objective is older. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.²BREWER. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. Objective. Possessive.²CARLYLE." That is. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. and asked why it was not made. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.²DICKENS. Here I state them only in brief. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. sometimes it has the objective. object of heard of. that the bitterness of death was past. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. both are gerunds. But in common use there is no such distinction. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.

it was his own fault. where there were examinations.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²DEFOE.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. The pale realms of shade.²DE QUINCEY. 410. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. Every city threw open its gates.²when the antecedent. If any one did not know it. Examples of these constructions are. or is a distributive word. number. Everybody had his own life to think of.²EMERSON III. and gender. if the antecedent is neuter. Watch for the real antecedent. BROCKDEN BROWN. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. .²AUDUBON. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. the pronoun will be neuter singular. preceded by a distributive.² BRYANT. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²THOREAU. In such a case as the last three sentences. and ought to agree with them in person. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. in one person. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. 409.²HOLMES.²C.²THACKERAY.²CABLE.²HUXLEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. taking in each of many persons. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.

Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²FIELDING.²PALEY. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²BIBLE.² Not the feeblest grandame. The sun. If the part deserve any comment. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²DEFOE.Avoided: By using both pronouns. as anybody in their senses would have done. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. let them break it off. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²THACKERAY. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Struggling for life. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²AUSTEN. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. 411. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²RUSKIN. This is not considered the best usage. and giving them means of being so. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²PAULDING.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Whosoever hath any gold. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. for example.²ID.²ID.²HUXLEY.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²PALGRAVE. till they have lost him. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²BYRON. not a mowing idiot. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. . By using the plural pronoun.

I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. As to their conjunctive use. or unrestrictive. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. A relative. because. according to the practice of every modern writer. no one could take upon them to say. Exercise.²ID. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. 2.) and a personal pronoun.²HAWTHORNE. In the following examples. is equivalent to a conjunction (and.Where she was gone. unless both genders are implied. and does not add a new statement. that being considered already clear. the definite relatives who.²In the above sentences. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. . and that always restrictive. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. who went away. when restrictive. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. "I gave it to the beggar. but. which. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. tell whether who.² SHERIDAN. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. and that are restrictive or not. etc. 412. It adds a new statement to what precedes. What these terms mean. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. in each instance:² Who. which. 413. as. but. Exercise." It defines beggar. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. or what was become of her." This means." A relative. That is in most cases restrictive. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. 1. when coördinating.²ADDISON. and he went away. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. I.

A grizzly-looking man appeared. 14. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. BEECHER 5. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand..3. Yet how many are there who up. it makes the verb third person singular. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. etc. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public.² MOTLEY.²ID. We say I. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.²ID. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.² NEWMAN.² CARLYLE. 10. 7.²ADDISON.²HOLMES. as that does not vary for person or number. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. she agreed to join the party. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. etc." that is invariable as to person and number. and over England are saying. which was to go over the Cordilleras. because of its antecedent. The rule. in the sentence. 11. 9.²THOREAU. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.² IRVING. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. 4. you. they. which Mr. and it is called logic. 12.²DE QUINCEY. 414. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. In what sense true.²H. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. but. 8. The general rule is. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. On hearing their plan. 13. that were often vicious. 6. who. II. Hare has printed. these or that which. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. down.²DE QUINCEY. So different from the wild. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. That. . With narrow shoulders. W. etc. For example. he. However. Which. long arms and legs. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.

Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²ADDISON. Singular. MORSE.²ADDISON. . ARNOLD.²HOLMES. French literature of the eighteenth century. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign..²whether we should say. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest..] Both constructions are frequently found. 415. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. in winning a battle. etc. "one of the finest books that has been published. but myself.²M.²LECKY. and in improving a victory.²LOWELL.²HOWELLS. Franklin. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. but speaks of him as that sort.. The latter is rather more frequent. others regard books as the antecedent.²MACAULAY. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. [plural] that who.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. but the former has good authority.²J. JR.²SCOTT. who rarely speak at all. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.. T.. and write the verb in the plural. the true antecedent. etc. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. [singular or plural. Let us be of good cheer. or which . He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. "one of the finest books that have been published. when he derided the shams of society. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent." or. The fiery youth . A disputed point. with one as the principal word. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor." One of ..²LOWELL. He is one of those that deserve very well.²BOWLES..

The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. when the relative word is a pronoun. The same day I went aboard we set sail. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²CARLYLE. 417. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going." "India is the place [in which.²DEFOE. 416. whence. or where] he died. But I by backward steps would move."²DICKENS.² THACKERAY.²In the above sentences. Exercise. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²EMERSON. object of a preposition understood.²BURNS. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²GOLDSMITH. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. III.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.² RUSKIN. I could see nothing except the sky. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.² .²ID.²SWIFT. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.²ADDISON. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.And. and such like: as.²SCOTT. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²EMERSON. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. when this dust falls to the urn. that is." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²VAUGHAN. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²IRVING. IV. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.In that same state I came. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. where.A rare Roundabout performance. and see if the sentence is made clearer. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. return. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.

There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²WORDSWORTH.²ADDISON. and working in the same spirit.² MACAULAY.²SCOTT.² BURKE. CHURCH. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.He considered. W. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. but. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. he.²R. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. she passed the lamp over her face and person. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. Mr.. I might as well have staid at home. for example. boats. . as is not used. Anacoluthic use of as his apprentice.²FRANKLIN. but which is usually carefully avoided. if I had resolved to go on with.²SWIFT. with Turner. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. which. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² Which. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. V. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. Which. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. as of knives. They believe the same of all the works of art. was a discoverer.² THACKERAY. etc. but we find the relative who. 418. if same is followed by a complete clause. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival..²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. That. or that. looking-glasses. The regular construction. ²GOLDSMITH. Caution. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.

²SCOTT. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors.. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. which when Mr.²which if they once heard. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. who are now thrown.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. etc. 4. and who are now.²RUSKIN.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. or leave out both connective and relative. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. After this came Elizabeth herself. Exercise. Thornhill had read." etc. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. (1) "Among those who are poor. He delivered the letter.²DE QUINCEY. or omit the conjunction.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²GOLDSMITH. (2) "Among the poorer sort. 419. but. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 3. 1. once a great favorite of M. 2. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.. .. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. le Conte. And who. etc." etc.²HAWTHORNE. As the sentences stand. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.² Direction for rewriting." etc. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. and this be placed in the proper clause. But who. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. Express both relatives. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.She'd come again. and which.²THACKERAY. (3) "Among the poorer sort. or." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. This was a gentleman. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. Exercise. he said that all submission was now too late.²SHAKESPEARE. That is. now thrown upon their. but none is expressed. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.

6. etc. English by name. etc.²HAWTHORNE. 13. and which may even be heard a mile off. as a false and astucious mark. indeed. 8. and which has never been described. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.²IRVING. 7. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.. "A mockery.²DE QUINCEY. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. like that spoken in the towns. who. I saw upon the left a scene far different. I shall have complete copies. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. "What knight so craven.²PEARSON. one of signal interest. 12.² MOTLEY. 10.²SCOTT. That . which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Dr..5. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. 1. 9. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . then. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. And which. the French.. . Or which. Or who. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. and to whom no door is closed." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. which the Scotch had learned. Akin to the above is another fault. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and which.²DE QUINCEY. Exercise. either from imitation of their frequent allies. 11.²SCOTT. But which. 420.. and repeat this for any further reference.

5. 12. 7. 13. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. SIMMS. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.. In my native town of Salem. G. 14.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.²SCOTT That which . That . that . but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. He flung into literature. 3. 15. The Tree Igdrasil. I recommend some honest manual calling. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.. in his Mephistopheles.²EMERSON.2.²HAWTHORNE..² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.. 11. 10. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.²W.²BEECHER.. I give to such men as do not belong to me. and whose examples and principles we inherit. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 9.²DEFOE.²HOWELLS. Such as . Such as . that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and to whom I do not belong.. at the head of what. Which .. half a century ago. I grudge the dollar. whom.. that.²HOLMES. in his present condition. He.. 8.²W. which. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. It rose into a thrilling passion. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²EMERSON. 6. E. but which is perhaps not so different from it. the cent. but which. which.²SCOTT. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.²DE QUINCEY. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. .²HALLAM. such as they have very probably been bred to. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 4. was hung in air. what. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. CHANNING. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. the dime. was a bustling wharf.

carrying off each other's cattle and wives. England was then divided between kings and Druids. as.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. as it were. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. Distributives either and neither. We call ourselves a rich nation. in which case any should be used instead.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. 421. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. Each other. that not all combined. one another.² Some one must be poor. for example.² HAWTHORNE. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. and in want of his gold²or his corn. 422. as. Assume that no one is in want of either. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. .²RUSKIN. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. whether or not the two are equivalent. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²ID.²MACAULAY. By their original meaning. always at war with one another.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²HAWTHORNE. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. Use of any.²RUSKIN.²EMERSON.²GOLDSMITH.²DICKENS. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.

²BURKE.²STIRLING.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.²SHAKESPEARE. and is isolated. during his stay at Yuste. which is plural as often as singular. Do you think.² In earnest.²BIBLE.²PROF.²CARLYLE. Any usually plural. even in Bettine. I beseech you. 424. before that. If any of you lack wisdom. then in Plutarch. usually plural. as. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. as. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. as none of the French philosophers were. let him ask of God. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.. any of his friends had died. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. at one time in Bacon.²THACKERAY. any was often singular. in Shakespeare. None usually plural. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. then in Plotinus. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).² EMERSON.²EMERSON..Once I took such delight in Montaigne . 423. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. afterwards in Goethe. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. The adjective pronoun none is. Examples of its use are. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.² If any. . in the prose of the present day.²FRANKLIN. if ever man was.²BEECHER Whenever. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.²SCOTT. when any of them are so good as to visit me. etc. that I know of. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. In earlier Modern English. None of Nature's powers do better service. speak.. whilst I still cherish their genius. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. for him have I offended. Caution. Do you think.

² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. nobody else. etc. Somebody's else.² None of them was cleansed. and all was lost on the other. any one else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . for example. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. as. The light troops thought .²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. saving Naaman the Syrian.² Singular.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.² PEARSON. 425. fixing his eyes on the mace.²McMASTER. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. and less rarely in poetry.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²THOREAU. which is used absolutely. When all were gone. etc. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.. etc. or somebody else's? 426.. etc. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. when it means all persons: for example.²NAPIER Plural.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. the plural. are treated as units. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. and Ford has nobody's else. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. The compounds somebody else.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.. that all was lost. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.

²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. . etc. etc. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.SYDNEY SMITH. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²SHERIDAN. WILLIS. London. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's." "all manner of men.curled once all over it in long tendrils.² Saturday Review. or those sort of people."²MRS..² These kind of knaves I know. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. unlike anybody else's in the world. Again. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. His hair.²in such as "these sort of books.. all manner of.²AUSTEN. 427. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²G. for example.²SWEET. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. P. ELIOT. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. These sort. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.² FIELDING.²THACKERAY.²MULOCH. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. Whitefield or Wesley. "Ye see. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. the adjectives plural.²RUSKIN.²DICKENS.²N.²RUSKIN." "those kind of trees. STOWE. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. or some other such great man as a bishop. ADJECTIVES." the nouns being singular.

. or one object with a class of objects." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. Should we say. with all manner of amusing books. not "all kinds of wild animals." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. "This kind of rules are the best. in spoken English. According to the approved usage of Modern English. more alarming than a total silence. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Burke's sentence. Of two such lessons. Use of the comparative degree. The result." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind).²a strong man with nothing but his fists. 428. such as. when the necessary dispositions concur." A question. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. This the modern expression reverses. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. or the nouns to the plural. for example. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. which accounts for the construction. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. and the adjective is. "This sort of trees should be planted. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. Consequently we have a confused expression. made to agree with it. History of this construction. Later form. and in this way may take a plural verb.The library was open." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. gradually displacing the old. In Old and Middle English. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON.² Which is the better able to defend himself.²RUSKIN. the victor or the vanquished. as.² PRESCOTT. "These kind of trees are best. they said. to express a higher degree of quality. At the source.

² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn.²WIRT. Superlative with two objects. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. To the man who plays well. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. than any of his court.² THACKERAY. He is taller. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²THACKERAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²HAWTHORNE. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. Henry. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator."²ID.²TROLLOPE. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. 5.²SCOTT.²MACAULAY. Use of the superlative degree. 2.A braver ne'er to battle rode. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. Exercise. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. 4. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. . 3. 430. has sanctioned. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. if not. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. Gary. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. I am concerned to see that Mr.²MACAULAY. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²CARLYLE. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. the highest stakes are paid. etc. 429. Even Dodd himself.²LOWELL. Other after the comparative form. 6. would not have had the face. by almost the breadth of my nail.²HUXLEY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.

² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. In all disputes between States."²HAWTHORNE. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²IRVING. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. The eldest.²EMERSON. who eat white bread or brown. ha."²BULWER. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. "Ha.²BEN JONSON. Examples from Shakespeare are. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²Bible.²HAMLET. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Rip was one of those .²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. Also from the same period. I should say that one has the best cause.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. 431. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. and the other contains the best men. not a bit of high life among them.. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.²MRS. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. OLIPHANT.²J.²SCOTT. Mary. . Come you more nearer. and differ only in form. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. Double comparative and superlative.²ADDISON. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. These two properties seem essential to wit.. whichever can be got easiest. CÆSAR. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. The following examples are used purposely. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²TEMPEST. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. more particularly the last of them.²DR BLAIR."²GOLDSMITH. 1611.

over which a little war has so long been buzzing. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²ADDISON. ARTICLES. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.² SMOLLETT. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. etc. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²DE QUINCEY. not only so in popular speech. the Spanish. and conceit in the last.²RUSKIN. As to these two expressions. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The meaning intended is the same. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. Three first. The delay in the first three lines. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. and Secretary Walsingham also. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. but in literary English. For Carlyle. These are the three first needs of civilized life. ²COWPER. Examples of this construction are. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. jar upon us constantly. etc. 433. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²GIBBON. First three.²PRESCOTT. The first five had specific names. Definite article.²GIBBON. Instances of both are given below. The merit of the Barb. .² With a singular noun.²RUSKIN.²LAMB.²KINGSLEY.

of the higher and middling orders. melodious. The flowers.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. The lofty..²CARLYLE. the greatest poems. Origin of the Aryans. 433. the thought and the word. He is master of the two-fold Logos.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²MACAULAY.²NEWMAN. but inseparable from each other. of the eighteenth century. 1508. 434. The not repeated. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . . the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. as in Sec.²TENNYSON. and the presents. the hour of parting came.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.² RUSKIN. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. and flexible language. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. 435. with a plural noun. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. or to emphasize the meaning.²ID. 433.²TAYLOR.²THACKERAY. however. Here the youth of both sexes. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. having been arranged.²THE NATION. I think. were placed at a very tender age. No. to distinguish clearly.²PRESCOTT. with a singular noun. With a plural noun. as. but is used with one only. Indefinite article.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. Meaning same as in Sec.. One object and several modifiers. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. distinct. as.²SCOTT. Frequently.² MACAULAY.

435. JONSON. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²BEECHER. 437. But in the following sentences. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.²S. to limit two or more modified nouns.436. One article with several adjectives.²THACKERAY.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. a murderer. or clearness to each of several nouns.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. He saw him in his mind's eye. a round and a square one alternately. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. 438. and inexhausted vein. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. a collegian.²JOHNSON. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. The indefinite article (compare Sec. like the definite article. 433 and 436. T. and a usurper.An early. as. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. only one of which is expressed. as in the first three of Sec.² BURKE. COLERIDGE. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² MACAULAY. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.²DRYDEN. The indefinite article is used. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. one noun is expressed. . rich. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. Examples of this use are. interest. In the sentences of Secs. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.²B. 436)." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. a tyrant. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²MACAULAY. For rhetorical effect.²DICKENS." and "a red and a white geranium.

as. Another writer might. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. A broad and loose rule. 440. then.²GIBBON. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.. ELIOT. Collective noun of singular meaning. . Such. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.²COOPER.²The Nation. ARNOLD.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²FROUDE. all that academies can give. and the following illustrations prove it.²CARLYLE This usage. has got already. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning.²M. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. was the earliest American land. He sees that it is better to live in peace. like some others in this series. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. This was spoken of in Part I. Singulars connected by or or nor. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²AGASSIZ. Singular verb. Sec.²W. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. as. without academies. for example. In English. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. 276. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²G.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.VERBS. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. 439. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. or the great intellectual life of our nation.

²EMERSON. or considered as appositional. seems at the moment unpaid loss.² In a word.²BURKE. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. that of a large town. but each one emphatic.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. as.²GOLDSMITH. or as making up one general idea. and other singulars of plural form. A fever. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. and every four hours. for example. is gone.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. No. Q. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. but considered as meaning about the same thing. the cheap defense of nations.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²J. other names. for example. nor John.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. (4) When the subject is plural in form. a mutilation.²CRITIC.²DE QUINCEY.²GIBBON.² The unbought grace of life. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²EMERSON . as.²WHITTIER. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.Jesus is not dead.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. a cruel disappointment. a loss of friends. nor Mahomet. nor Paul. Plural form and singular meaning. ADAMS. a loss of wealth.² GOLDSMITH. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. Between ourselves. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.

Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. many a.The author. a gorget. Plural verb. nay. was dazzled. the dismay. with death.² Asia. Her back. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. as well as the newest.²M ARNOLD. as well as Europe.²PRESCOTT. Subjects after the verb. The oldest.²BUTLER. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. sir!"²MACAULAY. an impassioned countenance. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. is a man of wit. in a judge. does not take the place of the man.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. each.²MACAULAY. no discontinuity. There is a moving tone of voice. no. wineBegins to stir itself. and greaves. was like to crack.² .²MACAULAY.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. a cuirass. as well as the Drama.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. almost every day. thus.²HAWTHORNE. Every week. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. the partisan.²ID. To receive presents or a bribe.The rout. was listened to for five hours. 441. no matter if the second is plural). every boor. Here is no ruin. sir?" and the "No. and such like adjectives.²NEWMAN. every valet. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT. Then comes the "Why.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²RUSKIN. the fine gentleman. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. as.²LONGFELLOW. no spent ball.²ID. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. every echo. as. an agitated gesture. as well as sides. Every sound. sir!" and the "What then. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. the wit. the ruin. Every fop. was punished.²EMERSON. The Epic.

a stream of fresh water.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. the Duke of Berri. making up a plural subject.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. its date.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. A party of workmen were removing the horses. as.² A multitude go mad about it. The Dauphin.²GOLDSMITH. and its history are alike a mystery to us. A shady grove.²SCOTT.²COLERIDGE. are sufficient to attract a colony.These bits of wood were covered on every square. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. for example.²ADDISON. of whom there were a number.²EMERSON. a green pasture. The conjunction may be omitted. TAYLOR. were men of insignificant characters. shirt. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. as in Sec. The travelers. Philip of Anjou.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²FRANKLIN. b). as.²SWIFT. His clothes.²CARLYLE But its authorship. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. Far. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²GIBBON. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. but the verb is plural.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. Conjunction omitted. . All our household are at rest. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²FROUDE.² GIBBON. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. 440 (5.²B. far away thy children leave the land.²THOREAU.²FROUDE. as with a subject of plural form.²DE QUINCEY.

we never talk politics. Second or third and first person in the subject.²LOWELL. Ah.²RUSKIN. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²D. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. Not I. as. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. nor should I.²ROWE. General usage.²BYRON. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. WEBSTER. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²M." etc." "She or you may be sure. Not Altamont. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²SMOLLETT. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. the verb takes the construction of the first person. You and I are tolerably modest people. of different persons. Exceptional examples. but thou.²RUSKIN. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.²THACKERAY. 444. nor has she"). . Nothing which Mr. but thou. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. 442. 443.But notice the construction of this. "I have never said so. his blood dost shed.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²WHITTIER. If there is only one person in the subject." or. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. ARNOLD. "He or I can go. You and I are farmers.²DE QUINCEY. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. Pattison or I have said. When the subjects. "You would not be wiser. for example. the subject being really equivalent to we. hadst been my lord. that is.).² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.

" the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Nor wood. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. How each of these professions are crowded. 446. as we would hope. 2.Her course to intercept. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²SMOLLETT. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. which it is proper to mention. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 11.² TROLLOPE. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 3.²perhaps the devil.445.²ADDISON. 12. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. 7.²ADDISON. Neither of their counselors were to be present. nor tree.²and.²G.²EMERSON. 5. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²THACKERAY.²BYRON. 4. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Neither of them.²BURKE. 440-444):² 1. nor bush are there. Both death and I am found eternal. The following illustrate exceptional usage. as illustrated above (Secs. In this sentence from Defoe. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. In the following sentence. Exercise. 6. BANCROFT. 10. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). 9.²SCOTT. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. in my opinion. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. In a word.That neither of their intellects are vast. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 8. Also in verbals.²ID.²MILTON. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.

change them to a better form:² 1. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. to have seen should be changed to to see. I gave one quarter to Ann.² PALGRAVE 5. But I found I wanted a stock of words. for exact connection. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.²FRANKLIN 6. Exercise.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Indirect discourse means reported speech. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. 447. CHURCH. Definitions. W. 4. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. on my return." . if not. 3. Direct discourse²that is.²MACAULAY. The present rule is recent. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. It should be remarked. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. 448. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²THACKERAY. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²DE QUINCEY 2.²R. Of course. however. meaning. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Two samples of indirect discourse. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²IRVING.²KINGSLEY. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. as.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.. INDIRECT DISCOURSE..

.. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. introductory verb is in the past tense. Summary of the expressions. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. "I cannot oblige you . and the indirect question by whether or if. have.." etc. Her prudence whispered eternally. or regular interrogatives. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk." etc. under interrogative pronouns. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. interrogative adverbs. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Direct. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. She thought to herself. 449. The substance of his lamentation was. etc. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words.. His exact words were. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. This includes the auxiliaries be. Direct. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. "Oh. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. 1.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. will. 2. Oh. Sebastian's.." Indirect.

like distant peals of thunder. my first observation will be found nearly true. PARTICIPLES. he assured me that nothing was more easy. and that he himself had heard.²GOLDSMITH. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. if this were expanded into a verb. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. the first discoverer of the river and country. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. FRANKLIN. The trouble is.²B. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. in the sentences first quoted. . Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.Exercise. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Notice this." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. handed down from his ancestor the historian. Careless use of the participial phrase. one summer afternoon. VERBALS. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²ADDISON." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise.²ID. with his crew of the Half-moon. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. the sound of their balls. 450.

For example. the first sentence would be... 3. avoid it. It is a solemn. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.²RUSKIN. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. many things to be carefully considered. then. leaving the principal statement as it is. Adverb between to and the infinitive. either "As I was pleased. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. There are. . That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. universal assertion. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. my first collection was. 451.. and often. . In the following citations. Standard writers often use it. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. if a strike is to succeed.²ID.²SCOTT. 2. purposely or not..²LAUGHLIN.. Exercise." etc. INFINITIVES." Exercise.² HERBERT SPENCER.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.Correction. while defended or excused by others. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. This is the more common arrangement.

Exercise.. is to be very cautiously admitted. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.²SCOTT. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 452.² MACAULAY. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. even.²RUSKIN. which consists in multitude.²ID. BLAIR. In works of art. 9.²The Nation. Position of only.4.²GOLDSMITH. when such adverbs as only.²TROLLOPE. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²DR. 1533. 11. etc. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. etc. this kind of grandeur. china. The spirits.²BURKE. ADVERBS. No. 10. from Irving. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. if they modify single words. and earthenware.. therefore. but it is placed before the infinitive. The rigid rule in such a case would be.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. but cannot misunderstand the thought. but they are often removed from the exact position. 5." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.² ADDISON. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. etc. are used. 12. 13. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 7. Now. 8. A little sketch of his. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 6. even. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. I wish the reader to clearly understand. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.

I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²THACKERAY. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 10. His last journey to Cannes. 7.²CHAUCER. to avoid a crowd.²COOPER. 8.²MOTLEY. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. During the whole course of his administration.1. He shouted in those clear.²SWIFT. whence he was never destined to return. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 6. The old usage. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. for example.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. In Old and Middle English.²ID. might not marry. 2. WILLIS. 453.²ID. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 12. 16. 14. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. My master.²MRS. 13. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²HIGGINSON. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. Irving could only live very modestly.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²ID. 15. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 5.²SYDNEY SMITH. were he never so old of yeares. 9. ²ASCHAM.²EMERSON. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. P. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 3.² THACKERAY. GROTE.²N. In relating these and the following laws.²PALGRAVE. 17. 11. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²MACAULAY. He could only afford to keep one old horse. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 4. No sonne. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. .²RUSKIN.

²GROTE. There weren't no pies to equal hers. Regular law of negative in modern English."²four negatives. Not only could man not acquire such information. In the latter case.² HAMILTON. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. nor never shall. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. when one of the negatives is a connective. STOWE.²MRS. The prosperity of no empire. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²BAYNE. STOWE. 5. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. Exceptional use. I never did see him again. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.²LOWELL. 6. Therefore.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. is not common. who hadn't been to school for nothing.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. Exercise. nor the grandeur of no king. neither. This. In the execution of this task. But. However. can so agreeably affect. . I did not act so hastily. 2. in Ole Virginia. ²PAGE. denying each other. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. as infrequent.²HOLMES."²MRS. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. uncommon. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.²DE QUINCEY.²HAWTHORNE.²BURKE. as. 3.²DEFOE. one of the negatives is often a prefix. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. 4. under the influence of Latin syntax. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. etc. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. and is still kept in vulgar English. however. but ought not to labor after it. the usual way of regarding the question now is. if two negatives are found together. and why:² 1. 7.

not or is the proper correlative of neither.. In these examples it will be noticed that nor... there we were. either. CONJUNCTIONS. nor.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it... as well as of the pronoun." said the King." ... The sentence.. even neither .. not only .²LOWELL. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. neither . Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. should be scrutinized. Things to be watched.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. or with advantage."²SCOTT.." both of the above requirements are violated.²PRESCOTT. "A weapon. nor is often changed to not²either . if the last precedes a verb. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here." may be changed to "This loose . or to reply to it.8.." Besides neither . but. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. and. In the sentence. if the second precedes a phrase. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. but to their own safety. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. and which. or.. 455. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. 454. but (also). not merely . not only to the success of their common cause. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. or. the first should also.²SCOTT.. Correction. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. "well worthy to confer honor.. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace... nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. especially both . either . And who. or to reply to it. Choice and proper position of correlatives. as the use of the conjunction. the first ought to be placed before a verb. The sentences given in Secs.

I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. etc. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.²S. 5. but. 2.²GIBBON. 7. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. 457. In the following sentences.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.²MACAULAY. Exercise. JEWETT. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²THACKERAY. or but that. not merely interest children. Correct the following sentences:² 1.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. 6. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. 456. or the negative relative but. and I don't know but what he was right.Exercise. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²GOLDSMITH. 8. .²THACKERAY. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. But what. nor the disgrace of assailing him. They will. 4. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. as.²FRANKLIN. too. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. and chop up their own kin. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. but grown-up persons. Try and for try to. O. but. as. but they will outrage.²RUSKIN. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. substitute that.²ID.²BAIN." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. Try and avoid the pronoun. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Now. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Some exceptions. murder. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. 3.² ADDISON. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.

Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²EMERSON. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 313. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 4. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²BURKE.² BULWER.²SCOTT.²ADDISON.² SWIFT. . but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. PREPOSITIONS. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²TROLLOPE. no separation or division by twos being implied. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 305. 5. Between and among.²ADDISON. 6. 458. Between is used most often with two things only.²EMERSON. 459.2. as already seen in Sec. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. see Sec. 3.

461.: Words with particular prepositions. and another to convey a different meaning. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. LIST I. Dependent on (upon).² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Averse to. Conform to. involve. Bestow on (upon). Comply with. Dissent from.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Abhorrent to. and philosophers like Locke. Conversant with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. or one object and a group. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. correspond. Derogatory to. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. etc. Different from. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. as. Kant. Such are derogatory.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Mackintosh. by custom. . Affinity between. 460. Such are absolve. Accord with. a soldier of the Cross.²RUSKIN What have I. Two groups or one and a group. Some of them have. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. averse. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects.²KINGSLEY. and Coleridge. confer. Paley. List I. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. as. Acquit of. ²EMERSON. different. and Stewart. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.

as meaning to be in keeping with. Confer on (upon) (give to).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings." also of persons. List II. Change for (a thing).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). LIST III. Differ from (note below). Change to (become). Confer with (talk with)." List III. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. 463." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with.y y y Deprive of. Differ with (note below). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. etc. Reconcile to (note below). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Change with (a person). "The king is reconciled to his minister. and sometimes creeps into standard books. A taste for (art. but it is not good usage. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Correspond with (write to). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). as. Confide in (trust in). as. in the sense of making friends with. Involve in. . as. Reconcile with (note below). A taste of (food). 462. Agree to (a proposal). LIST II. Confide to (intrust to). Correspond to (a thing). Independent of.).

ELIOT." "die from. "Die for. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²SCOTT.²POPE.²GOLDSMITH. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. It would take me long to die of hunger. part with. die for.²BULWER.²GOLDSMITH." etc. No one died from want at Longfeld.²FIELDING." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²ADDISON. People do not die of trifling little colds. Expect of.²BURNETT. "Die by. ²ATHENÆUM. die from. Take thought and die for Cæsar. "Die for.²G. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²SHAKESPEARE.²BOSWELL. ELIOT.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²MACAULAY. ²THACKERAY. simply from old age.²G." (in behalf of). Part from. I am positively dying with hunger. as Cervantes informs us. "Die from. they shall die by this hand." (material cause. She died of hard work. Illustrations of "die of." (because of)." She would have been ready to die with shame. instrument). . Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. and ill treatment.:² "Die of.²MACAULAY. privation." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. Who. He died at last without disease. died for love of the fair Marcella. expect from. One of them said he would die for her. die of. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.y y y Die by. "Die with.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. die with. If I meet with any of 'em.²MACAULAY.

²DICKENS. as my friend." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²WALPOLE. His precious bag.²G. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. "Expect from. nothing better was to be expected. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²MARRYAT. 466." To part from you would be misery. ." She will expect more attention from you.²WALLER. I part with all that grew so near my heart. which he would by no means part from." "part from:"² "Part with.²SHAW. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. ELIOT.²G. Illustrations of "part with." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. I can part with my children for their good. With words implying behavior or disposition. 465.²SCOTT.²BULWER. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. kind of you. just parted from her.²TROLLOPE. I have just seen her.²G.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. That is more than I expected of you. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. Illustrations of "expect of." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²BULWER. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. Kind in you.²AUSTEN. "Part from. It was a little bad of you. either of or in is used indifferently. and hated to part with them. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. ELIOT. ELIOT. I have long expected something remarkable from you. 464. Of Doctor P.²POE.

Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. nor yellow. with seraphims. This narrative. the vast abyss. . Thou tread'st.²BEACONSFIELD. tedious perhaps. or which we are most imperatively required to do.²TENNYSON. In. 10. But this is idle of you. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 6. Very natural in Mr. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers.He did not think it handsome of you. but which the story renders necessary. thunder. 7. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 4. nor of a pale red. raging storms. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking.²CARLYLE. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing.²BULWER. or artillery. 3. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 5. nor green. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. In the friction between an employer and workman.²DICKENS. 13. 11. and ran up the alley. 9. 15. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 14. 1. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. thrown it over Amyas's head. nor blue. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. it is commonly said that his profits are high.²BULWER. The noise of vast cataracts. Hampden. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 8.

(Sec. 20. 30. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 17. and almost as good as a pony.I would wish me only he. 21. Friday. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. The effect of proportion and fitness. 36. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. Squares. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 23. produce approbation. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. You have seen Cassio and she together. That night every man of the boat's crew. 411. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. save Amyas. 27. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. but in the price paid to them. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. and most of us do know. 24. were down with raging fever. 26. . 32. But every man may know. 28. When the glass or liquor are transparent. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud.And were I anything but what I am. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 37. 35. 29. 38. 16. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 33. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 18. and other angular figures. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 25. 19. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. triangles. Every one of these letters are in my name. or how beautiful it is. 22. the acquiescence of the understanding. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. you or me. what is a just and unjust act. 31. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled.) 34.

He had four children. from nominative clauses. as comparison definition demonstrative. adjectives. (2) Middle English. of. 91. 102. of. 47. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. voice. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. numeral. adverbs used complements. 116. A. 260. 119. article.39. 124. 133. 25. 90. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. Adjectives. of. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. as. syntax uses Absolute. INDEX. . 92. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. Abstract with Active Address. pronouns. nouns. 20. demonstrative.000 between them. of. 40. 107. 47. nominative. (3) Modern English. origin of. of. 310. from about 1500 to the present time. 124. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 239. 89. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 98.

328. 275. 104. of. adjectives. antecedent. Agreement. adjectives. 190. 101. of. 191. 207. between of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. modify. 194. adjectives. 303. Against. quantity. 303. 116. 183. of. compared. of. antecedent. 103. of. sentence. parse. as nouns. 291. . 99.from function how in not of of ordinal. infinitive. 42. of. and 185. plural pronominal. 106. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. quality. 302. 207. 239. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 48. 242. from to of. 287. 27. 116. 325. 184. 115. 148. predicate. parse. nouns. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 195. 325. objective. with with with subject. 262. 316. 187. 194. Alms. nouns. 27. conjunction. conjunctions. 109. to used of. 323. 114. 97. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. clauses. 190. of.

331. possessive. as uses verbs. 148. See 74. of of of And Antecedent. 295. which. 101. An. 67. syntax. of. which. in in. See with definition complex compound simple who. 90. definition how indefinite. to of. 198. 231. sentences.Among. 124. 47. 296. 207. 287. 225. adjective. syntax As. . of. 120. 309. A. 49. of. 120. and. 127. pronouns. definition of of of Any. Arrangement Articles. 208. 294. it. 79. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. same. sentences. 84. of and pronoun of. parse. 240. 150. of. derivation in definite. which. 271. 275. after of. though. 67. agreement personal as pronoun. 51. Anacoluthon Analysis. of. uses As At. 300. 264. Auxiliary if. Agreement. Are. 74. 252. words between. sentences.

210. 37. 63. 279. 39. of pronouns. But. 48. 66. forms. 330. of nouns. 45. . Children. conjunctions Cherub. 149. 150. Cause. 195. nominative. of nouns. of pronouns. Case. adverb. 46. Can. 262. of. possessive. 54. objective. uses nominative of. definition could. double possessive. Among. clauses of. in Old and Modern English. 194. uses Better. pronoun.Bad. 161. Clause. 262. 279. 224. uses of. Bridegroom. 62. of what. Brethren. 46. with But By. 260. 64. adjective. 283. of. 84. of nouns. comparison conjugation of. of nouns. 39. 49. 111. of pronouns. best. Be. number of. of. 47. See of. 278. plurals of. syntax of. 110. 278. Between. of pronouns. 110. Case.

material. of. definition degrees irregular. 307. 24. infinitive. 312. clothes. 53. 264. 18. and sentence. of. of. 244. Clomb. double. of. 258. analysis of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. 108. sentence. 23. superlative. 271. of. 43. 268. of. 12. predicate. 305. of. . 113. predicate of and from from of. 43. 108. 257. Cleave. nouns. 189. of. 263. 257. 18. in analysis. 315. 158. subject. 107. 239. nouns. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. plural of. 111. and forms of. 248. 157. proper. English. adjectives. adverbs. nouns. Cloths.definition kinds noun. defective. 110. 307. 257. verb.

and clause. 195. Agreement. 255. 194.with Concord. sentences. 231. analysis. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. of of Conjunctions. See English. Conjunctions. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. definition be. 196. See in subjunctive. 199. 194. 66. coördinate. 151. definition how subordinate. 188. 194. 149. 139. 193. Dative Declarative Declension of case. pronoun. interrogative pronouns. of. other other parts of speech. 289. to of. adverbs. conjunction. 195. in Old vs. replaced by objective. 138. sentences. verbs. subjunctive. pronoun. 207. 263. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 328. 269. 149. . 143. conjunctions. sentence. See analysis clauses. parse. Can. conjunctions. 73. same words. correlative. of. pronouns.

possessive. of. nouns. 26. pronouns. See adjectives. 35. 51. indirect. 60. verb. Comparison. 242. 288. Degrees. from. pronouns. pronouns. 303. object. 333. 102. Articles. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. clause. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 102. 91. of. with. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 300. of. 99. article. nouns. with of. pronouns. Comparative. . of personal relative verbs. for. 315. 90. comparative. tenses. 242. See 148. Subordinate clause. 185. 160. discourse. 287. adverbs See adjectives. Case. by. duck. See See 48. passive adjectives. use of dies. 80. 320.Declension. 152. vs. of. 43.

pronoun. 300. Each. 40. Elements Ellipsis. drunk. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. object. 234. Empress. conjunction. 328. 257. of. older. one ( t). 112. 287. 194. of.Drank. 33. ending. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 158. 33. 90. 34. predicate. 299. error in sentence. 90. 102. 280. of. the of sentence. 240. 42. 110. plural. other. 12. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. pronoun. of. 38. pronouns. added suffix. 287. 62. 92. adjective. Either. 32. -En. of. another. to suffix. possessive suffix. literary. of subject. adjective. 241. feminine plural English. 39. vulgar. spoken. complement. original. 51. 255. 158. 92. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. . suffix. in 'Em. 92. of.

two. fishes. with in sex. of. etc. 43. 45. of. perfect. plurals. 48. few. 319. 235. Further. 110. of. have adjective. 211. First." 31. 152. See Gander. 152. 308. modes "common goose. pronoun. as a noun. definition distinguished in English. uses redundant. gender. 287. 30. to of. Future Future tense. etc. For. with infinitive. 334. 126. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. from. 212. Farther. other languages. Few. 30. 148. uses Foreign Former. 30. first. two a further. the. nouns. 102. Feminine. 212. 189. 32. as of from compared marking. 147. 36.. 112. adjective. 238. used of. expect gone. Gender. From. 29. 112. 102. . First Fish.Every. object.. 103. 91.

61.of of Genii. had hung. Had Hanged. I. from participle of. 175. 120. 10. 177. Gerund. she. 159. participle. Got. it. 36. 35. pronoun. 275. 13. 60. of. 12. its. 176. He. on. possessive pronouns. first sentence. definition divisions opinions province H. 101. 145. Grammar. pronouns. of. person. His Husband. 61. adjective. 144. personal relative geniuses. and case verbal with. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. rather. 80. kinds of. 43. 9. 173. 159. distinguished syntax. 12. of. . noun. of. 60. an better. Government. forms in Girl. 231. 285. definition basis of. for before.

uses discourse. 131. of. 73. summary See passive mood. meaning. 257. 110. 93. 188. indices. 72. . pronoun. 320. 67. 43. 178. a object. transitive. 231. adjectives. of clause. pronouns. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. See you. 276. 176. 105. 283. Direct object. your. See Articles. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. of. of. questions. 153. with of. 233. 319. questions. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. in compared syntax. 85. 227. 245. words. Questions.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. adverbs. 323. sentence. of. mood. 248. use article. 136. indirect of. verbs. 131. adjectives. elements.

lord. 91. Lay. 190. of. a vs.. 303. 36. 12. "It Its. in little.adverbs. 245. 110. 63. King. uses Literary Little. lie. Latter. Less. 227. Lady.. 276. was uses me. 67. of. 170. syntax. 110. Lay. of. English. lesser. etc. 61. 36. latest. Last. It." history etc. pronoun. of. 126. Lady. . See Madam. queen. syntax the. 36. 113. these double kind. 226. 102. Like. predicate. 39. Lie. Kind. 281. adjective. 113. Kine. and See words in. plural. subject form. 189. -Ly. Logic Logical Lord.

112. 36. 110. imperative. 102. 194. of. Modifiers. 41. nigh. Negative. 110. Mighty Mine. 144. 187. double. 287. superlatives. of.Manner. Must. 160. 188. construction as of adverb. 325. 137. Modifier. Much. 113. 137-144. position adverb. conjunctions Many. 189. subjunctive. Master. 114. in adverbs comparison a. comparison Near. out of. Means.. Enlargement. 256. of. 185. 112. syntax conjunction. of. 34. Many Mapping Mare. of. mine. May. Mood. 326. See definition 136. etc. adjective. indicative. 265. of. sentences. -Most. 195. might. 328. syntax nearer. 161. 189. Neither. of. 110. of. 112. mistress. 126. 64. . 135.

18. become neuter. in. 300. of. 92. half abstract. 17. 30. 32. abstract. See 194. 56. material. Not Noun Nouns. of of of of of a. letters as 24. 25. 46. nouns. nouns. of. analysis. 26. 17 19. 126. None. 42. 19. 20. number once other plural. definition descriptive. No Nominative. of. common. 45. 25. 328. 46. 38-41. become become formation case collective. now plural. etc. gender how kinds material. class used singular. of.pronoun. 125. 41 43. etc. clause. 246. proper. Case. kinds 90. to use. syntax Neuter or two News. 41. of. 30. definition according of. 29. 258. of. 30. formed. 41. 38. gender nouns. 21. 27. used as. abstract. . parse. 17. of. and figures. 301. syntax in gender nouns. foreign. 124. to of. Nor. words how compound.

nominative. article. preposition. 48. verbs. 285. 42. with case. conjunction. of. 240. English. of different possessive definite of. become syntax use with with with Nouns. in article. pronouns. 41. dative. passive adverbial. plural form. meaning. form. 101. common. etc. adjectives. 39. 282. as forms titles. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. definite. personal. 18. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. of. See verb. 279. 106. 48. 48. or plural. 92. 42. pronouns. Preposition.of same two with proper. 242. of. 102. in nouns. 42 44. spoken of instead nouns. 278. of. 48. 101. 121. adverbial. 195. 196. 41. 242. 43.. See in in in Numeral distributive. indefinite. 278. 148. . with with with Now Number. 23. 235. 66. indirect. meanings. adjectives. Numeral Object. and analysis. 48. 124. 60. 41. 281. plural. of. of. singular. plural no two singular construction. Nouns. singular.

91. of. adjective. 293. as other. Pains. of of of of of models adjectives. treatment comparatives. Ordinal Other Ought. adverb. 41. definite relative uses of. Oxen. with (the). 64. Ourself. 56. 325 275. 38. One. nouns. Each adjective. part analysis. 194. 103. as of. 56. conjunctions. 116. for. Our. 93 other. Older. 279. 103. 191. of. 94. Omission On. See the as of. See pronoun. conjunction. 306. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 87. 117. 161. a in adjectives. Elder. 213. ours. uses numeral pronoun. 115. another. 101.syntax Of. pronoun. inverted. Parsing. 233. articles. of. adverbs. 199. 216. 237. 127. of syntax. . of upon. position Order. 69.

43. of. part adjective. 61. 172. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 180. Pence. 59. verbs. verb idioms it from. phrases. 56. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 177. parsed. with. 59. 62. or of. included various. relatives. absolute with of. 134. of. 63. pronoun. 119. 287. from definition other of. phrase. 95. in. of. possessive and of. pennies. nominative. used as voice. pease. 172. 181. pronouns. 27. 43. and subject in. 70. 59.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. pronouns. verbals. Person. 28. 174. of. predicate use of. not is. of. 247. 148. 62. 100. 64. 219. reflexive. 335. of. them. 281. 322. of. article 150. 69. 179. antecedent. speech. 317. 173. 80. agreement of verb nouns. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. verbs. 56. . -ing words.

303. 63. 188. of. or See of of See 185. 248. pronouns. syntax of of Politics. simple. 25. complete. 247. 232. Personal subjective. participial. of. as double. pronoun. spoken of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. singular degree. See 60. of. of. in of. nouns. of nouns. adjectives. 281. Comparison. 64. of. noun nouns. 195. plural. nouns. of Phrase. of. adverbs of. relative. 53. 278. 54. 285. 236. kinds infinitive. omitted. 41. 61. 49. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 245. 52. prepositional. Nouns. appositional. it. 60. nouns. singular. 50. objects. 303. 53. 241. 67. vs. double. 236. Positive Possessive. 235. . of. of. 278. Personification. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 's. English. antecedent of of pronouns. 247. 245. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 51. 206. 281. pronoun. Place.objective syntax table triple uses of. 106. 37.

somebody definition how indefinite. 300. another. meaning. . 104. and form form form form of. all. objective. of. words. 202. who personal. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 95. 285. 281. 58. 207. 299. of. possessive nominative to of. 279. as 54. any. 208. expressed as other of. usually to as than. what. 219. 187. 186.Prefixes. 287. forms of. 302. Pronouns. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 303. 72. 195. Prepositions. by with shown certain of. 132. 301. exclamatory. speech. case. 205. 280. objective. 93. verbs. parse. 284. 89. plural. 147. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. future. of. of. adverb. with tense certain. adjective. 64. case. plural. same used as adjectives. 129. 206. 283. for predicate nominative. interrogative. neither. 32. 105. 332. by. 331. interrogative. as. 300. 203. 283. singular usually other. 333. of. 59. each either. 203. as antecedent of relative. 282. in exclamations. after but. plural. of. 105. and one with else's. 58. by parts of of. none. of. parse.

use of history formed. Direct same and different. 58. 293. 99. in. 80. 286. of. and relatives. 295. Quantity. in. 291. which after same. 293. of. conjunctions Quality. of.possessive relative. Rather. with who. Nouns. 85. pronominal pronouns indirect. 74. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. who. of. 142. with with gerund. parse. that. 263. nouns. in. 105. or of. 289. 87. questions. pronouns. 85. unrestrictive. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. same antecedent. 189. which. and antecedent. 87. 83. See of. of. 295. 296. 74. indirect. to of. Rank. 289. Questions. 279. of. from and interrogative. 74. pronoun. 69. 84. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. Quotations. 101. use in as. personal pronoun. 297. adverbs in. agreement anacoluthon and as. of. 195. . discourse. 69. indirect compound. of. and which. 188. 68. of.

Self Sentences. 196. ending. in form. simple. which. Same Sat. of of of complex Sentences. gender. 170. conjunctions Retained Riches. 231. 252. 162. conjunction. 'S. in of. plural possessive as. 159. kinds Sequence Set. effect. sentence. of. S. of. pronoun. that. 255. clauses of. 51. Seeing. complex. definition . 26 271. Sex Shall. reflexive analysis of compound. 289. and should. 263. object. Shot. forms shots. who. 29. 294. Shear. 74.syntax use Result. would. 195. 159. 319. will. simple of. 40. 259. 42. elliptical. 231. 43. of. of. 69. See Sentences. tenses. suffix. Simple in sate. 242. 196. of sit.

258. 257. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. definition 67. 33. -en. as. disuse in spoken complete. 33. . of. 257. 144. 262. 233. 138. English. sort. of. 126. 169. verbs. of. English. 32. adverb. used mood. 36. 303. of. 186. etc. vs. 270. logical. 38. 257.. 257. of. 245. 260. for. adverb. Subject. 240. 12. 144. these number. English. See -En. distinguish. in Middle English. 258. English. Spelling Spinster. names as a.Singular Sir. 258. -es. literary clause. Split Spoken -Ster. in feminine suffix. 245. to of. phonetic in infinitive. of. 38. 303. 323. other Such Such Suffix -s. Modern use becoming else's. 137. of. 237. Somebody Sort. definition how kinds noun.

in comparison. of . English. of. than of. of. 297. classical of. 108. 147. 123. 152. of. 277. meaning. 107. as history The. form. 306.. restrictive. two basis not same definition definite. 222. 306. omission whom. Kind. 280. Then. 106.. 319. 275. subject. . of languages. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 147. degree. See etc. adjectives. they. and and of. of. 289. 61. 116. 290. 147. article. 309.Suffixes. There These kind. 120. me. 186. Tenses. "the then foreign. as history syntax Their. 88. object. which. plural as adverb. this. adverbs. auxiliaries. of. 191. meaning made up in Old of. king. syntax of. that uses That. 275. when as of. 109. coördinating. 189. definition in English Tense. 87. 186.. in double. 33. English. when relative. of." introductory. of. 119. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 307. 148. not suggesting adjectives. of. as adverbs. objects. 106.

tother. 188. 175. of. 308. 195. etc. to. 33. 114. 248. conjunctions prepositions To. 175.. thee. adverbs those. of. certain as the before with of. Try Two Under. suffix. of. 114. how infinitive. used. parse. Upper. Time. uses history of. of. of. infinitive. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. of. of. thy. 180. first. gerund. in omitted uses T'other. -ing 111. 322. uses of. Utter. phrases. -Trix. 21. verbs. . 175.These. first adjective. other noun. Upon. 172. feminine and. 330. 61. kinds participle. words. try two. carelessly uses syntax this. 20. 207. 247. 128. 217. from cleft to 174. analysis. Thou. See On. 322. 176. 114. 119. 181. See That. exclamations. preposition. 172. in of. infinitive. 323. 173. uttermost. 185.

definition of. person and number of. 245. 147. auxiliary. 154. 169. 134. in indirect discourse. Vixen.Verbs. 12. becoming irregular. mood of. 242. 151. agreement of. 167. . 167. defective. 320. 47. Vocative in Voice. 149. 133. retained object with passive. spelling of. syntax of. 223. definition of. 317. strong. 179. of English. tense of. but uses what. phonetic. of incomplete predication. sequence of. verbs by. remarks on certain. 159. intransitive. weak. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 312. active. What. definition of. voice of. 135. analysis. 131. 39. 33. 160. verbs. change. 154. transitive and intransitive. 154. 130. 312-316. made transitive. of. 157. 129. passive form. past tense formed nominative. 150. 148. with subject in number. 319. active meaning. 148. 330. of. table of irregular. 155. in person. regular. 133. table of. formed by. passive. how to parse. conjugation of. 236. 169.

questions. worser. With.. Words in Worse. 36. referring syntax Widower. interrogative Which. 218. Will. in in indefinite objective. pronoun. Witch. questions. 83. pronoun. 40. 105. 85. questions. a. conjunction. 246. 296. direct of. in -ly. 72. Yes ending analysis. spoken in of.what Whereby. 79. 37. 36. whereto. relative. uses See Shall. 104. would. in. etc. 75. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 178. 75. 190. 77. Who. 295-299. relative. 194. 72. 73. of. 78. plural of in nouns -ing. Wife. 299. questions. 32. Woman. 111. antecedent adjective. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 105. 126. wizard. Whether. 72. relative indirect relative. animals. . 85. 83. Y. English. 85. of.

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