English Grammar | Grammatical Gender | Noun

roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases." and "Syntax. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Mental training. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. its peculiar and abundant idioms. is worthy of serious study. An æsthetic benefit. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. there is still much for the grammarian to do. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. It is also evident. Literary English. . and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. but this is bad English now. Coming back. A broader view." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. "Analysis. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. assist the classification of kindred expressions. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. as. and thus incite his observation. and their uses and relations in the sentence. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. their forms. from the question.The province of English grammar is. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. then. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Making rules is risky. as compared with Latin or Greek. so that a small grammar will hold them all. If. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. however. rightly considered. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions." What grammar is. The work it will cover. Authority as a basis. Few inflections. This will take in the usual divisions. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. with its enormous vocabulary. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. if rightly presented. to those who have studied the language historically. it will at the same time.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Surely our noble language.

and the word nation stands for a whole group. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. not objects. from the eighteenth century on. Occasionally. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. The words state. that is. reference will be made to vulgar English. . These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. Part II. PART I. and may belong to any of those objects. Vulgar English. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. and will are evidently names of a different kind. besides this one. NOUNS. In the more simple state of the Arabs. submission. but. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. or Syntax. and Inflections. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. Analysis of Sentences. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. then. or standard.²GIBBON.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. by which is meant the free. The Uses of Words. The plainest name is Arabs.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. the words sons and master name objects. The Parts of Speech. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Spoken English. Part III. the nation is free. three divisions:² Part I. too. The following pages will cover. 1. as they stand for ideas. Such words are called nouns. which belongs to a people.

These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. 3. or the man in front of you. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. 5. we may think of them in groups. They properly belong under common nouns. (a) 4. Proper. MATERIAL. men in groups may be called a crowd.Definition. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Individual. because each group is considered as a unit. place. etc. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. animals. substance. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. possessed by all. ATTRIBUTE. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. a committee. however. Classes of nouns. the name of each is an individual or proper name. 2. or a congress. or a council. and appropriate names to the groups. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. and things separately. whether person. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Name for a group or collection of objects. reducing it to a narrow application. Abstract. or a mob. . or things. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. is from a Latin word which means general. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Name for any individual of a class. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. (b) Common. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Besides considering persons. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. This does not imply. but Chicago names one city. Collective. representing directly to the mind an object. or thing. Common. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. as here used. animals. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. For instance. We may say. or idea. Thus. the man here. belonging to one. Thus. A noun is a name word.

celluloid. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. sand. The reason is. but in the words sun. Names of ideas. 7. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. rubber. frost. there is no such intention. . expressing state. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. Again. however. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. conditions. such as sun." 9. gold. or action. frost. etc. etc. tea. potash. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. expressing attributes or qualities. wheat. sugar. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. granite. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. not things. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. etc. It may. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known.²There are some nouns. etc. proof means the act of proving. or that which shows a thing has been proved. . or apart from their natural connection. etc. instead of to each individual or separate object. we may say. The quality is still there as much as before. we speak of the wisdom of the man. considered abstractly. cloud. but which are not called proper names. wine. sugar.. dew. wheat." "Learning is hard to acquire. Words naturally of limited application not proper. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. mist. and so on. earth.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. world. When we speak of a wise man. moon. "Painting is a fine art. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. as in calling a city Cincinnati. (3) Geological bodies: mud. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. Such are glass. They remain common class names. clay. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). 6. etc. earth. but it is taken merely as a name. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. condition. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. paint. stone. soap. NOTE. rock. rice. snow. platinum. or actions. rain. iron. and fasten a special name to the object considered." "a man of understanding.

From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. the teachings of the High Spirit. Exercises. shadow. energy. Thus. speech from speak. the rude drawings of the book. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words." "a brisk walk. the well-being of her subjects. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. the moon caused fearful forebodings. as glad²joy. etc. is used as a noun." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. 272. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. a wedding or a festival. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. Such are beauty. They are only the husks of verbs.. "a long run" "a bold move. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. the great Puritan awakening. there is time for such reasonings. five proper. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. and they cannot express action. 1. The verb. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. as in the expressions. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. They cannot govern a word. II. action from act. 12. hope. service from serve. he spread his blessings over the land. NOTE. five abstract. height from high. hopeful²hope. . childhood from child. 10. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. Caution. 273). day. winter. etc. lightning. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. Verbal abstract nouns. night. those opinions and feelings. etc. but are merely names of actions. etc. in the beginning of his life.Attribute abstract nouns. redness from red. ease. (1) prudence from prudent.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. Underived abstract nouns. summer. theft from thieve. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. joy. kingship from king. her longing for their favor. the main bearings of this matter. thunder. To avoid difficulty. by altering its function. mastery from master. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. (2) peerage from peer. stupidity from stupid. as their name implies.

2. catarrh. (b) branches of knowledge. pleurisy. typhus. geology. mathematics? 3. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. as physics. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. diphtheria. algebra. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Using a dictionary. as pneumonia.

15. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. in Portugal. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. it imposes its classification on other men. from Calicut.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. thus. as a davy." referring to flat- . 119). 14. from a town in France. a Bentham. from Corinth. and lo! a new system. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. from the name of Dr. the word port. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Others of similar character are calico. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. but most of them are in the following groups. Material nouns may be used as class names. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. We know a number of objects made of iron.²EMERSON. a Lavoisier. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. Guillotin. Nouns change by use. for example. Sodom was famous for wickedness. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. a Hutton. above. 13. etc. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Proper names transferred to common use. levant and morocco (leather). from China. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. but we may say. or to go over to it entirely. a Fourier. port (wine). currants. arras. who was its inventor. damask. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. from Oporto. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. from Damascus. a Locke. "The cook made the irons hot. the guillotine. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made.

or. but in case an art or a science. as stones.²BRYANT. This is a poetic usage. but differ in strength. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Class nouns in use. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. Traffic has lain down to rest. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. clouds. coals. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.²BYRON. purity.²HAYNE. 17.irons. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. but on dispositions which require to be created. or the arts and sciences. the abstract idea is partly lost. his eyes. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²RUSKIN. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. slates. which are made plural. and so on. Personification of abstract ideas. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. are still names of abstract ideas. tobaccos. are abroad. A halfway class of words. oils. paints. to prowl or to moan like night birds. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science.²COLLINS. (3) By poetical use. 16. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. These are the same in material. that is. and only Vice and Misery. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Test this in the following sentences:² . a steel to whet a knife on. nor are they common class nouns. Next Anger rushed. Death. From all around²Earth and her waters. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. etc. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. For example. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. smiled. on fire. abstract in meaning. and say teas. or made plural.In lightnings owned his secret stings. that disposition is the thing to be created. They are not then pure abstract nouns. not material things. though not confined to verse.²CARLYLE. etc. papers. When it is said that art differs from science. tins. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. clays. be spoken of. or used as class nouns. candies.²PERCIVAL. mists. a rubber for erasing marks. The words preceded by the article a. that the power of art is founded on fact.

as descriptive adjectives are. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS.The Solitary can despise. which belongs to another word. When I was young? Ah. Adjectives. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns.² GOLDSMITH. Adverbs. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. All these.² BURNS. "a family quarrel. for example. meaning a walk in the morning. By ellipses. the wealthy. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. 18. they do not express quality. They are more like the possessive noun. 19. Conjunctions." "a morning walk. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. or describe it. make our own so. or from any expression. if we must have great actions." "the State Bank Tax bill. Every why hath a wherefore. and joysWhich I too keenly taste." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. Then comes the "Why." "a New York bank. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.²IRVING.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. But it is better to consider them as nouns. nouns used to modify. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. a bank in New York.²SHAKESPEARE. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. NOTE. sir?" and the "No. but is still a noun.²BURNS. fear thy blow. however. sir!"²MACAULAY . etc.Let us. were mere terrors of the night.²SHAKESPEARE. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. But ah! those pleasures. as each repeated pleasure tired. they cannot be compared.²EMERSON. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns." which contains a pure adjective. Nouns used as descriptive terms. And still. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. loves. sir!" and the "What then. a bill as to tax on the banks.

they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. The it. the wealthy. or a state secret. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. or a criminal. at the beginning. of course." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. however. Power laid his rod aside. or a faithful domestic.Nor iron bars a cage. that cobweb of the brain. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. and Then. of words rather than of their meaning. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. Learning. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. the terms the great. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. There are many of these. When. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. 3.. why and wherefore. It is to be remembered. are used. Exercise." and another of Dr. in a sentence above."²B. FRANKLIN.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. 7. Stone walls do not a prison make.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. . A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. When. and tell to which class each belongs. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. but as a figure of speech. Now. 5. so. NOTE. in speaking of the principal of a school. are spoken of as if pure nouns. Caution. 6. whether it mean the sun or the cold. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 4. is ambiguous. but have an adjectival meaning." or "legal. 8. 1.²These remarks do not apply.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. 20. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. to such words as become pure nouns by use. without reference to its function in the sentence. In the other sentences. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. is the word "just. etc. 2. too.

shattered and disabled. he cried. and names of females are usually feminine. German. 12.You seize the flower. 14. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. And see.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. It is founded on sex. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. Male beings are. 22. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. always feminine. In Latin. 13. its bloom is shed. 10. 21. and many other languages. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much.Fair guests. always masculine.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. female. 17. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. . A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 20. What gender means in English. 16. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. that waits you here. but not so in English. A fool speaks all his mind. in English grammar. the silver moon is gone. 24.9. 18. 21. A little weeping would ease my heart. 15. But pleasures are like poppies spread. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 19. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. GENDER. 11. Greek. The hours glide by. the welcome. for every dropHinders needle and thread. The fleet. 23. returned to Spain.

" but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth.²LAMB. however. . All nouns. or which arouse his interest most.. or additions to words. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Neuter nouns. those which do not distinguish sex. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Gender nouns. with its gizzard under its wing.²IRVING. hortus (garden) is masculine. that pattern of a husband. inanimate things are spoken of. in English. clapping his burnished wings. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. 24. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Hence: Definition. mensa (table) is feminine. must be divided into two principal classes. those distinguishing the sex of the object. No "common gender. then. in other languages gender follows the form. and neuter nouns. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.²masculine and feminine. but are spoken of as neuter. For instance: in Latin... if there were any signs of life in it.. the name of it is feminine. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. 23. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. The great difference is.. came to a stand just by the bridge.When.²gender nouns. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. in German. are named by gender nouns. Of animals. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.. if of the female sex. those with which man comes in contact often. corpus (body) is neuter. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. and consequently without sex. the name of it is masculine.² I have seenA curious child .² IRVING." . according to their use. Gunpowder . Thus. that is. "A little child shall lead them. He next stooped down to feel the pig. das Messer (knife) is neuter. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. according to use. the sex being of no consequence. or names of things without life. 22.

Gender shown by Prefixes.25. 27. Native suffixes. they are neuter words. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. he-bear²she-bear. or the lack of it. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Very few of class I. 29. II. from the masculine fox. servant. and for the older word fat they said vat. 28. generally to a masculine word. puts a prefix before the masculine man. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. as he-goat²she-goat. of course. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. 26. I. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. teacher. The inflections for gender belong. Put in convenient form. For fox they said vox. ruler. Male nouns beings. According to the definition. as in wine vat. but spinster has now no connection with it. is. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. One feminine. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner.. . for from they said vram. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. etc. domestic. These remain in vixen and spinster. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Gender shown by Suffixes. cousin. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. If such words as parent. Hence vixen is for fyxen. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. relative. though both words have lost their original meanings. woman. only to masculine and feminine nouns. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. (2) By adding a suffix. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. the division of words according to sex.

² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. These are attached to foreign words. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Slightly changed and widely used. the one most used. gamester. Unaltered and little used. but in most cases it has not. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. as seam-stress. 30. trickster. as czarina. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as. Low Latin issa).² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. it has none now in the words huckster. punster. executrix. donna. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. and are never used for words recognized as English. Ending of masculine not changed. as. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. -ess (French esse. señorita. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. song-str-ess. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.

"George Eliot is an eminent authoress. the ending -ess. etc. as. as in the fourteenth century.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. In some of these pairs. from Latin imperatricem. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. wagoness. or servauntesse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Instead of saying doctress. as was said in the sixteenth century. Thus. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. teacheresse. Some of them have an interesting history. fosteress. as. editor. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . 31. Gender shown by Different Words. 32. from the French -esse.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. to represent persons of either sex. we use the masculine termination. we use the feminine. others have in their origin the same root. frendesse. neighbor (masculine and feminine). Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words." III. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. We frequently use such words as author. teacher or lady teacher. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. chairman. neighboresse. NOTE.

Icelandic gás.² . Personification. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Besides gander and drake. widuwa²widuwe. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Danish gaas. not immediately connected with witch. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). finally gander. probably meaning house dweller). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. It is not connected historically with our word duck. had the masculine mearh (horse). but this has long been obsolete. 16). Two masculines from feminines. from Latin mea domina. among others) to be from the same root word. leaving our word drake. The masculine was formed by adding -a. 33. became identical. gand-ra. The older forms. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). etc. as in many other words. Mare. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Witch is the Old English wicce. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). lhauerd. the old sign of the masculine. for example. Widower. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. written loverd. 34. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). in Old English mere. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). or lauerd in Middle English.). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. though both are ultimately from the same root. Madam is the French ma dame. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century.

for instance. Definition. together with the third."²BYRON. NUMBER. 38. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.²COLERIDGE. This is not exclusively a poetic use. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. eyen (eyes). Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. (3) By adding -s (or -es). Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible."Now. In nouns. 36.²KEATS.²CAMPBELL.²singular and plural. Britannia needs no bulwarks. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. Effect of personification. whenever we adopt a new word. that is. (2) By changing the root vowel. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 35. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. in Old English. . but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.No towers along the steep. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. The first two methods prevailed.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.Her home is on the deep. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. treen (trees). I. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. the plural. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. Our language has two numbers. 37. more than one. the engineer speaks so of his engine. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. and not by the form of the noun. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. shoon (shoes).Clustered around by all her starry Fays. etc. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. But other words were inflected afterwards. 39. The -en inflection. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en.

but they now add the ending -s. glass. pair. they add -s): also trout. into Frederick town. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. and is still found in dialects. or if preceded by the prepositions in. 42. 41. such as deer. Children has passed through the same history. Akin to this class are some words. Such are box. Examples of this inflection are. cross. retain the same form for plural meaning. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. borough²formerly had the same inflection.-En inflection imitated by other words. Instead of -s. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. . lens. as. as."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. originally neuter. swine. salmon. 40. Kine is another double plural. III. wight. head. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. II.² "God bless me! so then.²Over the mountains winding down. after all. when they mean soldiery. heathen. brace. Lee marched over the mountain wall.²WHITTIER.²THOREAU.Horse and foot. etc. Brethren has passed through three stages. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. then brothre or brethre. sail. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. folk.The horse are thousands ten. The old plural was brothru. and get settled. etc. quartz. turf. Other words following the same usage are. etc. but has now no singular. after numerals (if not after numerals. people. that have the singular and plural alike. cannon.² The foot are fourscore thousand. The words horse and foot. dozen.²MACAULAY. finally brethren. by. sheep. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. ditch.

Proper nouns are regularly singular.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. in its widest extent. Means plural. politics. niche²niches. means and politics. etc.g. they lose their identity. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. e. also news. The lilie on hir stalke grene. daisies. etc. as. means: as. mathematics. molasses.²CENTURY DICTIONARY.²BRYANT. DANA. the Americas. house²houses. Some words are usually singular. economics. shelf²shelves. though this sound combines readily with -s.. When such words take a plural ending. and go over to other classes (Secs. allies. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. half²halves. race²races. chaise²chaises. Two words. summons. fancies.² Politics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). Words in -ies. 15 and 17). quoth then that ladie milde. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. fairies. Special Lists. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name.-Es added in certain cases. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. though they are plural in form. and many branches of learning. these words ended in -ie. and the real ending is therefore -s. that when thy summons comes. It served simply as a means of sight. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. negro²negroes. physics. 45. is both the science and the art of government. prize²prizes. pains (care).²PROF. 44. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.g. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. optics. the Washingtons. however. etc. and some -es. a new syllable is made. e. some adding -s. Examples of these are. knife²knives. So live. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . 43. volcano² volcanoes. Formerly.. hero²heroes. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. etc.

²BURKE. A relic which. by strongly conveying the passions. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²IRVING. L.Words. LAUGHLIN. CURTIS. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. however.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²GOLDSMITH.² MACAULAY. 46. .²MOTLEY. it is furnished with a forceps. Politics plural. Sometimes. Besides this. By these means. riches will accumulate. W. by those means which we have already mentioned. Now I read all the politics that come out.²GOLDSMITH. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. Some words have no corresponding singular.²J. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²G. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. I say.

penny²pennies (separately). dice (for gaming).The air. In Early Modern English thank is found.).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. ways. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.. (2) revenue duties. Other words have one plural form with two meanings.²POPE. clothes (garments).. pence (collectively). or epistles. twopence. riches. as two sixpences. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. brethren (of a society or church). eaves.²LONGFELLOW. fish²fish (collectively). faculties. In speaking of coins. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). or work in a bellows?²PROF. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. 49. making a double plural. part²parts: (1) divisions. . pea²peas (separately). 50. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. (2) abilities. Three words were originally singular. (2) literature. die²dies (stamps for coins. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. Tell me not. for the numbers came. DANA. as in the lines. two plurals. indices (signs in algebra). the other unlike it. carry off chaff.² I lisped in numbers.²was it subdued when. (2) poetry. shots (number of times fired). genius²geniuses (men of genius). may add -s. fishes (individuals or kinds). etc. in mournful numbers. etc. sixpence. 48. (2) care. or copies. These make the last part plural. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood).²one corresponding to the singular. One plural. Numbers also means issues. two meanings. trouble. number²numbers: (1) figures.. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. genii (spirits). pease (collectively). shot²shot (collective balls). index²indexes (to books). Two classes of compound words. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. of a periodical.

the Misses Rich. German. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. . and Mrs.²DR. 51. woman singer. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. or the name may be pluralized. the Drs.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Norman. Brahman. The chief member adds -s in the plural. then Silas Peckham. Briggs. Brown. HOLMES. As to plurals of names with titles. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. but add -s.² Then came Mr. there is some disagreement among English writers. such as talisman. manservant. woman servant. for example. as the Messrs. though the latter is often found. firman. Ottoman. as man singer. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Two methods in use for names with titles. The title may be plural. 52.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Allen. Mussulman.

The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²THE CRITIC. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. or Englished. FROM THE LATIN. These are said to be domesticated.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. and retain their foreign plurals. FROM THE GREEK. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. 53. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Messrs.²GOLDSMITH. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. or Anglicized. They are then said to be naturalized.²GIBBON. Others have been adopted. y y analysis antithesis . Domesticated words. Exercise.²DICKENS. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Du Maurier.

" the word felon's modifies cell. In the general wearing-away of inflections." CASE. figures. without reference to their meaning. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. cell has another relation. etc. as. 56. 55. Definition. .² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. as. form their plurals by adding -s or 's." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Only two case forms. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. 54. they form their plurals in the regular way. Letters. and expresses a relation akin to possession. figures. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). In the sentence. also add -s or 's.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words.. etc. Words quoted merely as words. When the foreign words are fully naturalized.

Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. 58. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²the nominative. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. three things characterize man. and experience. I. 4. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. when asked unawares. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. 3." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. they returned to their homes. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 1. the enemy of the living." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Human experience is the great test of truth.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead." (2) As a predicate noun. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. Uses of the Nominative. .²nature.²person. completing a verb. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. learning.²one for the nominative and objective. 2. and the possessive. Three properties belong to wisdom. and merit. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. then. Excuses are clothes which. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. excessive grief. must be understood for purposes of analysis. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. may be said to have three cases. fate. whether inflected or not. 57." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. 5. the objective. Nouns.

(in the older stages of the language. They charged. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 8. Tender men sometimes have strong wills." "Thou makest the storm a calm. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. as will be seen in Sec. how have I frighted thee? II. etc. distance. save. her first law broken. the word toward which the preposition points." (3) Adverbially. 2. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Uses of the Objective." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. and landlord of the inn. and meaning calmest. thy wrath can send. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder." (4) As the second object. taking the object enemies.Save. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. and being equivalent to one verb. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. wounded lies. Conscience." Exercise. 4. But of all plagues." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. taking the object storm. and makest a calm. and tell which use each has:² 1. good Heaven. . 9. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. reconciles. 68." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. Set a high price on your leisure moments.6. (5) As the object of a preposition. But the flood came howling one day. measure. a patriarch of the village. 59. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. 3. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. they are sands of precious gold. sword in hand and visor down. completing the verb.

60. 61. from day to day.Does his Creator's power display.² The unwearied sun. as. (3) Subjective possessive. And whirling plate. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. and forfeits paid. as in these expressions. as shown in the sentences. or in writing yesterday's elegy. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. The possessive case always modifies another word. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.²SHELLEY. It is a poetic expression.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. the most common of all. 9. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. 7. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. III.e. tempests that .²ADDISON..² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.His winter task a pastime made.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. 8. 6. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.5. expressed or understood. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. the Great Stone Face. (2) Objective possessive. Possession in some sense is the most common. 10. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.²HAWTHORNE. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.And gave the leper to eat and drink. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. Uses of the Possessive.²BYRON. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. The noblest mind the best contentment has. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.

63. 64. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es.." etc. . the panther which the forest hides). Declension or inflection of nouns. Nom. A false theory. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe." "mannes herte [heart]. A suggestion. Poss. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case.. To form the possessive plural. 62.e." Use of the apostrophe. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. in Chaucer. As said before (Sec. lady Poss. however. How the possessive is formed. "George Jones his book. making the possessive singular. 1. Nom." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. and Obj. The use of the apostrophe. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. there are only two case forms. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. 56).winter is likely to have)." "at his beddes syde. One is the simple form of a word. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec.e. and Obj. as schoolboys sometimes write. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. "From every schires ende. 62. growth which several days had developed). Case Inflection. child NOTE. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. PLURAL.

some such word as house. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century..²SWIFT. the possessive sign is usually last. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. Cervantes' satirical work. but to the ear all may be alike. and she walked off from the don's. 66. Possessive and no noun limited. the items of my son's. know the amount of my income.²RUSKIN. being understood with it: for example. for goodness' sake. a word with a phrase. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike."²DE QUINCEY. James's. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. . Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. my neighbors. as.Though this opinion was untrue. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. instead of the emperor their master's name." Possessive with compound expressions. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. I remember him in his cradle at St. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence.²CARLYLE. stands up for God's truth one man. 67.²THACKERAY. In compound expressions. In other cases the s is seldom omitted." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. and from a desire to have distinct forms. containing words in apposition. Kate saw that. etc. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. though instances are found with both appositional words marked.²HOLMES.² LOWELL. in the name of the emperor their master.. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase." "A postscript is added. store. Captain Scrapegrace's. Peter's. 65. etc. church. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. as by the countess's command. dwelling. as. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.²DE QUINCEY.

. In most cases. etc. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. ill-lighted except where she stands. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. and tell whether each is appositional. If. however. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²FROUDE. each. making a double possessive. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me.²CARLYLE. Emphasis. 2. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. in such a sentence as. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. (b) Rewrite the sentence. (3) It prevents ambiguity.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. we use the phrase of Atterbury. objective. or subjective. that. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. Clearness. 1.²the introduction which Atterbury made. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. and at the same time by a possessive noun. For example. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. the statement clearly means only one thing. 68. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? .) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. A peculiar form.The double possessive. HALE.²E. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. (See also Sec. (1) When a word is modified by a. especially when used with this or that. the. Exercises. sometimes they are used together. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. this. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. corresponding to 's. as one modifier. Blair). I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. a double possessive. the sentence might be understood as just explained. no. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. any. E. 87. every. Both of these are now used side by side.

8. Hence. 13. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. There Shakespeare's self.They say. we state. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. Nature herself. 7.Comes dancing from the East. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 14. 15. 5. Now the bright morning star. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 4. At lovers' perjuries. it seemed. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. let him seasonably water the one. Friend.3. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. and destroy the other. In parsing. with every garland crowned. My quarrel and the English queen's are one.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. Jove laughs. some idioms²the double possessive. 10. 9. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.² . I must not see thee Osman's bride. 12. day's harbinger.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 11. 69. 6. therefore. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. in parsing a noun. 70.

names one thing. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. That in the captain's but a choleric word. In parsing any word. subject of the verb is understood. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. therefore masculine gender. like miller's. Thief is a common class noun. it is the name of a male being. a fresh tapster. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 68). it denotes only one person.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. has no governing word. it expresses time. determining its case. The correct method. it expresses possession or ownership. Neckcloth. and to have it found out by accident. hence it is a common noun. hence objective case. and number. and limits neckcloth. therefore singular number. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. if the latter. 71. it is the object of the preposition by. a withered serving man. .(1) The class to which it belongs. 4. object of the verb takes. as to case. is a common class noun. 2. 3. (3) Whether singular or plural number. which gender. but is the adverbial objective. and relations. hence it is objective case. the connection shows a male is meant. and therefore nominative case. hence it is a gender noun. it has no sex. Throat is neuter. proper. therefore neuter. therefore possessive case. MODEL FOR PARSING. singular number. Exercise. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class.²common.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. inflections. masculine. (4) Its office in the sentence. etc. therefore singular number. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. gender. NOTE.

Jarley's back being towards him. 7. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Mrs. definite. 76).And hated her for her pride. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. financial minister to Louis XVI. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. all in one.²palace. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. and prison. from a necessity for short. Madame de Staël.. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. PRONOUNS. The need of pronouns. 10. but by a question we say.. 72. 8. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. standing for a name." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 9. were natives of Geneva. 11.5. He giveth his beloved sleep. blessings light on him that first invented . which are used to ask questions about persons or things. A few miles from this point. A pronoun is a reference word. . or for a person or thing. and his daughter.. castle. (2) Interrogative pronouns. or for a group of persons or things. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. Necker. sleep! 6. Now. 73. For instance. and representative words. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. where the Rhone enters the lake. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name." Again. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. Classes of pronouns. instead of saying. Definition.

mine. 76.. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. representing a person or thing spoken to. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. and the person or thing talked about. (2) Second person. (4) Adjective pronouns. the person or thing spoken to. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Singular. representing the person speaking. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. they are said to have person by agreement. 77. which have forms for person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. 74. or other word or expression. (5) Indefinite pronouns. which relate or refer to a noun. (3) Third person. which cannot be used as adjectives. my Plural. pronoun. Nom. primarily adjectives. 75. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. words. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON." Person of nouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. even if it had a special form. ours . standing for a person or thing spoken of. Person in grammar. we our. they must represent the person talking. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. that is. From analogy to pronouns. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. as nouns have the same form. Three persons of pronouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. I Poss. "the distinction of person.(3) Relative pronouns. This gives rise to a new term. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person.

The speaker may be either male or female. Nom. Obj. . First and second persons without gender. Singular. SECOND PERSON. Obj. yours you Plural. Old Form Common Form. Nom. neuter. thy Remarks on These Forms. Poss. Obj. he his him Fem. Old forms.Obj. thou thee ye you you your. it its it Poss. Masc. by personification. or. your.. hers her Plur. yours you THIRD PERSON. neuter hit. theirs them Neut. Poss. masculine h . It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. of all Three. namely. But the third person has. and also for the neuter. yours Poss. Obj. in the singular. 78. thine. Nom. Nom. feminine h o. she her. a separate form for each gender. Third person singular has gender. me us Singular. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. they their. so also with the person or thing spoken to. you your.

heora. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. in Old English.Thou lovest.. just as we now say.²SHELLEY. Second person always plural in ordinary English. for example. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. the forms they. Two uses of the old singulars. 82. etc. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. as in prayers. The consequence is.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. thy. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. 80. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. 79. as. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. it. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). even when referring to a single object. The form its. (2) In addressing the Deity. as possessive of it. The plurals were h . and sometimes its. to thy care we commit the helpless.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his.:² (1) In elevated style. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. their. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. In spoken English. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. however. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. two modern uses of thou. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. . that didst comfort thy people of old.. them. especially in poetry.²BEECHER. This is of comparatively recent growth. which is a neuter noun.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. thee.² Oh. Thou. There are. thou Shepherd of Israel. 81." As shown above. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. etc. which was often sounded with the h silent. etc. We use it with a plural verb always. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. heom.

she. . 85. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. her. we.²COWPER. 34). there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. I The Nominative. their. and follow the usage of literary English. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. Not a separate class.Use of the pronouns in personification. 'tis his. they. yours. them. them. I spare thee mine. in such a sentence as. The forms my. its. The Possessive. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Old use of mine and thine. his. me. thine. when they occur in the predicate position. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. The forms mine. Nominative forms. 84 are always subjects. hers. to personify objects (Sec. note the following:² 'Twas mine. they have a nominative form." the literary language would require he after was. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. thou. us. ²SHAKESPEARE. And since thou own'st that praise. In spoken English. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. 58). The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. and not make more classes. Absolute personal pronouns. have a peculiar use. Additional nominatives in spoken English. "I am sure it was him. him. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. besides a nominative use. her. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. he. and sometimes in ordinary speech. or. our.²LANDOR. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. Yet careful speakers avoid this. thy. ye. him. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. for. theirs. That is. your. however. 86. The words I. some say. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. and has been slave to thousands. us.²BULWER. though ye is occasionally used as objective. her. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. 83. sometimes his and its. though those named in Sec. 84. II.

No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. ²HOLMES. commenting upon a letter of mine.²THACKERAY. pluck it out. theirs.²SWIFT. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. Their uses. FIELDS. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. (2) To bring emphasis. thus. and with mine. 87. yours. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.²ID. Double and triple possessives. or satire. it tells of good old times. sometimes its. we find. theirs.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. . ours."²SCOTT. we have. The forms hers. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. for example.² CARLYLE. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. but few thy voice. anger. ours. his. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master." said Henry Woodstall.²ID.²CARLYLE. thus. F. as in nouns. Besides this.²J.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. thine. This usage is still preserved in poetry.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. COOPER. are really double possessives. "Hold thy peace. If thine eye offend thee. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. T. Give every man thine ear. in that old Edinburgh house of his. This ancient silver bowl of mine. hers. yours. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²THACKERAY. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. Like the noun possessives. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.²J.²BIBLE. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. (3) To express contempt. Long Allen.

Curse me this people. 86: mine stands for my property. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. The old dative case. but the form is the same as the objective. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. and mine in the second has an objective use. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. but nominative or objective in use. 90. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. But the first two have a nominative use.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. III. In their function.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. as shown in Sec. . mine stands for my praise in the second. or use in a sentence. 88. "The good alone are great. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. Both joined in making him a present. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. 89. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In such sentences as. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec." "None but the brave deserves the fair. In pronouns." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. Besides this use of the objective. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. as it is called. but expresses for whom.²ID.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. 20. the thing is done. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. in the first sentence. was marked by a separate case. The Objective. for whose benefit. Now the objective. but not in form. his for his property. this dative use.²BIBLE." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. They all handled it.

It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.²CARLYLE.²IRVING To empty here. logical subject. why. 91. Indefinite use of you and your. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. was passed by with indulgence. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²BULWER. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. as. to stand for the real. which follows the verb. It is a pity that he has so much learning.²EMERSON. Society. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. has not made its progress.²D. as in the sentences.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.²BACON. 92. Your mere puny stripling. or that he has not a great deal more. thus. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. The word you. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.² NEWMAN. you must condense there.²ADDISON. like Chinese skill. (2) To refer to a preceding word group." (3) As a grammatical subject. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²DE QUINCEY. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. ²EMERSON. as. and they cry.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. you sneeze. (3) In apposition.Time is behind them and before them. in this century. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. WEBSTER.² . "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. or to the idea.

93. . yourself. And when I awoke.It is finger-cold. A sturdy lad . Of the two forms in parentheses. farms it. For example. peddles it.² Now I lay me down to sleep. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. it rained. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. I made up my mind to foot it. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. -selves. itself.²THOREAU. themselves. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. herself." "He bought him a horse. have laid them downIn their last sleep. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. Poor Christian was hard put to it. They are myself.²COLERIDGE. himself. There was nothing for it but to return. when they are direct objects.²DE QUINCEY. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. keeps a school. I set me down and sigh. as they are also called.. as. (ourself). (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. And millions in those solitudes. 94. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²SCOTT..²BRYANT.²ANON. we use such expressions as. (thyself).²HOLMES. they dropped their arms. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. used in poetry. however.²ID. yourselves. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. but seldom in prose.²EMERSON.²BUNYAN." etc. This occurs in poetry." and there is an end of it.²BURNS. since firstThe flight of years began. that is. For when it dawned. It was late and after midnight.²HAWTHORNE."²IRVING. ourselves. who teams it. who in turn tries all the professions. "I found me a good book. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. the second is the old form of the second person.²IRVING. and its plural selves.

There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. as. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. to us. In Middle English the forms meself. As if it were thyself that's here. with self. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. not the possessive forms. for example. I shrink with pain. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. as in vulgar English. theself.As girls were once. to every one. The question might arise. Held dead within them till myself shall die. 96. as we ourself have been. B. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. especially in the speech of rulers.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.To you yourself.² TENNYSON. BROWNING. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.²EMERSON. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. shall dissolve.²ID. Threats to all. for example. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. and the others were formed by analogy with these.² The great globe itself . as. etc. were changed into the possessive myself.²WORDSWORTH. Use of the reflexives.²SHAKESPEARE. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. NOTE. and build the lofty rhyme.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.² . In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. Origin of these reflexives.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. 95. ourselves.²MILTON. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. after the analogy of myself. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject...²E. thyself.

(b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. But if a man do not speak from within the veil.² THACKERAY.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. Biscuit is about the best thing I know.²B. And it grew wondrous cold. feminine. and how to do it. all conform to it. 5. and neuter. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. fight it out. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. 4. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 97. some of them being double possessives. 8. One obsolete. Infancy conforms to nobody. some each of masculine. but it is the soonest spoiled. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 10. Three now in use. and what. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. Come and trip it as we go. .On the light fantastic toe. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. 9. let him lowly confess it. Courage. 6. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). where the word is one with that it tells of. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. which. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. 3. Years ago. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. father. 2.²DE QUINCEY. FRANKLIN. is wisdom. 7. To know what is best to do.

that it is not inflected for gender or number. shall we say. used formerly to mean which of two. As shown here. having three forms. ideas.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. that it is always singular and neuter. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 99. These show that what is not inflected for case. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. but now obsolete. referring to things. Use of who and its forms. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. the gold. or case.Promised. etc. Use of which. methought. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Use of what.There is an old word.. it refers to either persons or things. number. as it always asks about somebody. . What wouldst thou do. Which of you. actions. whether. not to persons. but for case alone. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. 98. that. The use of who. that is. 100. it is always third person. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. which is not inflected for gender. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. it is selective. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Whose was that gentle voice. whispering sweet. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. with its possessive and objective.

102. 103. or other word or expression. Thus we may say. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English.² "The last of all the Bards was he. The antecedent. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. AND PLUR. who is used as objective instead of whom. in Sec. who? Poss. AND PLUR. SINGULAR Nom. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns.²by the use of the words." In the latter sentence.² . what may be an adverb in some expressions. for which the pronoun stands.Who sung of Border chivalry. SING. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. nominative in the second also.101. and so to make smoother discourse. 127). Who. which. as. and also in having a conjunctive use. which and what. Further treatment of who. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. which is nominative in the first sentence. Function of the relative pronoun. It usually precedes the pronoun." Or. it may be shortened into. as. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. since it is subject of the verb had. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. objective in the last. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. 99. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. and what are also relative pronouns. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. 105. who evidently refers to Bards. For instance. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which and what are sometimes adjectives. These bards sang of Border chivalry. being the direct object of the verb shall take. which is called the antecedent of the relative. pronoun. 104. as they take the place usually of a word already used. "The last of all the Bards was he. whose? Obj. subject of doth love.

Whom universal nature did lament. The origin of language is divine.. in the same sense in which man's nature.²W. Two kinds. 2. Who and its forms. with all its capabilities .²SCOTT. will be discussed further on. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.. Indefinite relatives. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.Whose flag has braved. Ye mariners of England. a thousand years. 2. but the look which is not of the earth. is a divine creation. The men whom men respect.²LOWELL In this. 5. D. . When the word relative is used. 4.²PARTON Which and its forms. For her enchanting son. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. which. a simple relative is meant. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 6. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 3. The nurse came to us. 106.. the women whom women approve. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.²BYRON. that.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. are the men and women who bless their species.² COX. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 4. 3. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 108. what.That guard our native seas. 107. They had not their own luster. WHITNEY. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.²THACKERAY. Generally speaking.²MILTON.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.²DR JOHNSON.

that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 109.5. The man that hath no music in himself. What. The Tree Igdrasil.. else this description will seem exaggerated.²MARGARET FULLER. BEECHER 5. Already done is all that he would do.²LAMB 3. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. you will not be angry with me for telling you.²IRVING. stratagems. The judge . which it certainly is not. Reader. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. Who. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. 3. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²EMERSON..² SHAKESPEARE 2. ought to be kept in view.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and spoils.²GOLDSMITH. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²DE QUINCEY. 111.. 6. 4. For what he sought below is passed above. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²H. bought up all the pigs that could be had.. no bad type of what often happens in that country.. Examples of the relative that:² 1. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.Is fit for treasons. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. W. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 110.²BURKE. (a) This gradation . 107. 2. That..

(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²who. The robins. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. they are plural. whose for the possessive. JOHNSON. Which. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Smollett.²LOWELL. flung its arms around my neck. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. (3) It is nearly always third person. seemed as much excited as myself. a man. and others. (2) It has three case forms.²DR. My horse. p. Kingsley. son. in the second. 113. things. that man. who is first person. 112. The little gorilla.²LEIGH HUNT..²which for the nominative and objective. or ideas. Examples of whose. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo... Witness the following examples:² And you.whose. and 3. 2. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. the relatives are singular. the others are all third person. 107. . While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. whom. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. in 4. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. In 1. 5. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. 96). (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whose. The sentences in Sec. possessive case of which. referring to animals..²IRVING. In sentence 4. Cooper. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin..²SWIFT. not persons.who. whose wound I had dressed. in 5. Sec. whom. who.²THACKERAY. Scott. in the first sentence.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. It has been seen (Sec. in the third. (4) It has two case forms. Who referring to animals. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.. Gibbon. whose is second person. and so on. and 6.

saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. which is worse. Primarily. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.²SCOTT. Men may be ready to fight to the death. and things. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. secondly (which made her stare). In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. So in Matthew Arnold. (2) It has only one case form. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. This often occurs. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. This moribund '61.²RUSKIN.114. the antecedent follows which. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. thus. The last two sentences in Sec.² I swept the horizon. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. Sometimes. That. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Burke. and to persecute without pity. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. which is very notable and curious. (3) It is the same form for first. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. 109. In the sentences of Sec. let us enter the church itself. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. . Kingsley. and third persons. 116.² And. second.² MCMASTER.²SHAKESPEARE. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. and numerous others. animals. no possessive. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.²first. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.²THACKERAY. too. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.²DE QUINCEY. Which and its antecedents."²RUSKIN.²BEECHER. 115.

as.² What I would. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. either of which would be neuter. as in sentence 6. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. For example. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Sec." That evidently refers to truths. 119. what we said?²CARLYLE. ." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. who Poss. that do I. and person of the relatives who. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent.²SHAKESPEARE. whose Obj. it usually follows. that he has. Nom. What a man does. plural number. When expressed. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 117. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. is always neuter. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. that men must needs abide. third person. plural number." (3) "These people heard him. What. that do I not. we can. and is emphatic. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. 109. The sentences of Sec. third person. number. 118. which. for example. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed.²BIBLE What fates impose." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. by taking them out. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. The gender.²EMERSON. consequently is neuter. but what I hate.

it is object of uttered."²EMERSON. Parsing what. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Another way. The word what. in the following sentences:² 1. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Truths in sentence (2). 4. Now. third person. etc. in (3). whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. that takes the case of the truths in (2). in (1). because it has usually no antecedent. "What can't be cured must be endured. How superior it is in these respects to the pear.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. 120. What can't be cured. the simple relative. In the sentence. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. . above." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. people is the object of the preposition of. The whole expression is its subject." Here the subject of is. however.. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. after all. 8. 6. 3. which is. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. is subject of the verb can't be cured. and what is the direct object of the verb call. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. is subject of wrought upon and molded. is what we call nature. Exercise. First find the antecedents. standing for the people understood. I think they are trying to outwit nature. and hence is in the nominative case. Some prefer another method of treatment. neuter. but is singular. is in the nominative case. nobler souls with that which they are. 5. subject of heard. so is in the objective case. As shown by the following sentences. 7. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. then parse the relatives. The relative what is handled differently. In (2). What must be endured? Answer. In the same way who. it is subject of the verb heard. but of this. the highest result of all education. we is the subject.

Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. being referred to. and his friend a fool. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. less common are whoso. and parse that in the first clause. 2. or stand on their head.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. by meaning and use. which. Take which you please. 3.²you cannot have both. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. The simple relatives who. 122. whatever. They are whoever. Death is there associated. that is. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. 121. object of do] they do. not as direct as the simple relatives. Only itself can inspire whom it will. 4. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. whichever. 123.²BURKE. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Hence some take what as a double relative. Do what we can. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. So with the other indefinites. "common souls pay with that [singular. List and examples. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. 7. to everything that. in a new and original way. object of with] which [singular. that nothing else can stand in their presence. It is clear that in 1. whichsoever. whatever is equivalent to all things which. summer will have its flies. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. It is no proof of a man's understanding. Meaning and use.²MACAULAY. whosoever. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. or what else soever. and which in the second clause. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe.²BURKE. 5. whatsoever. 6. no certain antecedent. whatsoever. 2. and in 2. no particular thing." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. .

²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE. 4. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. everything that (or everything which). The examples in sentences 5 and 6. 124. nothing that does not interest us. but and as. whereupon. Proof that they have the force of relatives. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. are used. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. but which only wealth could have purchased.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. thus. Sec. In early modern English. and that as after such is equivalent to which. whereby. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. Other substitutes. Former use of as. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. This.² 1. 121. etc. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed..² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.² some particular thing. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. 417). Instead of the phrases in which. the conjunctions wherein. 121. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Two words.²DE QUINCEY. etc. but mean any one whom.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 120. by which. . has been my heaviest affliction. 2. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. what means anything that. But and as. either one that. upon which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.. not following the word such. 126.As shown in Sec. for example. 125. etc. There is nothing but is related to us. as was used just as we use that or which. for example.

But compare the following in pairs:² 1. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. and 3 (b). It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun.. no antecedent is expressed. "Who stood behind? We knew. a question is disguised in each sentence. the full expression being. How to decide. In sentences 1 (a). In studying such sentences. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. Special caution needed here. if expanded. which having the antecedent lines. which would indicate that they are not relatives. But in 1 (b). (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed.²EMERSON. . (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. if not. Another caution. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 2. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. it is an interrogative. who having the antecedent gentleman. it is an indefinite relative). second.²WHITTIER. "But what had become of them? They knew not. So in 2 (b). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. it is a simple relative. 127. and whether what = that + which (if so. 3. showing that who is plainly interrogative. would be.²ID." etc. 1 (b).A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. what is interrogative. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. if not." Likewise with which in 3 (b). though the earthwork hid them. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). 2 (b). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. Thus.

which.² These are the sounds we feed upon. Put in the relatives who. whose has the antecedent you.128. the question is asked by the verb. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. On the other hand. but the life of man in England. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. 4. 129. ELIOT. I visited many other apartments. 5. 2. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. Examine the following:² 1.²FORSTER 6. When Goldsmith died. Relative omitted when object. The insect I am now describing lived three years. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²G. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. In the first. In the third.²FLETCHER. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. . Exercise. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²SWIFT. and Court Calendars.² THACKERAY. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. 3. whence is the interrogative word.²GOLDSMITH. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. and asks no question. In the second.²HOLMES. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. Thus. which has the antecedent hue. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.²CARLYLE.

There was such a crowd went. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.²CAMPBELL. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.² The silent truth that it was she was superior.²SHAKESPEARE. and what. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. 3. which.²SCOTT.Ne'er looks upon the sun. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. Relative omitted when subject. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. It is rare in prose. Examples are. 6. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. 2.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. Also in literary English we find the same omission. simple relatives. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. that. who were to be rulers over whom. the house was full. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. which was already proceeding. or indefinite relatives:² 1. and comparatively so in poetry. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. Function of adjective pronouns. . 5. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²Id. The nobles looked at each other. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. 130.7.² LOWELL. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.

²BRYANT. and another to get cool under. such as each. 133. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. in the first. either. necessarily thought of: thus. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. not pronouns. many." that is. or they may stand for nouns. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. etc. all. "each cube. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. 'Truth. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. etc. as some. "these pranks." "Where two men ride on a horse. that. a word. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. few. or use.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand." Classes of adjective pronouns. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. neither. Primarily they are adjectives." in the others. must not modify any word.²IRVING. "another bank. For instance." "one man." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. 132. but in this function. the former. or an argument in a paragraph. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. In the first use they are adjectives.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. or may be the whole of a sentence. and on each is written. For example. none. etc. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. which we have seen in such expressions as. in letters of gold.²EMERSON." in the second. but have lost their adjective use. and stand for a noun. any. expressed or understood. Caution. . "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. "The dead are there. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. Adjectives. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. such as this.131. in order to be an adjective pronoun.

because he was not lying in wait for these. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. they that plow iniquity. Some of these are simple pronouns. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface.² They stood. 2. accidentally preserved. Definition and examples. Their minds accorded into one strain. Exercises. They have not shunned the one. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. for example. reap the same. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²EMERSON 4. Simple. NOTE.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. 134. and they have well performed the other. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²ID.²ID. They had fewer books. Such are a few isolated instances. as seemed good to each. or sat. A man inspires affection and honor.²LOWELL. 5. but what he fain had seen He could not see. and sow wickedness. but these were of the best. or reclined. 3. . Even as I have seen.All these he saw. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. when the latter was the King of Spain. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Compound.

It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. imbued. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. The word one has a reflexive form.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²HOLMES.²each other. with the superstitions of his time. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. we might the more easily discharge them. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. you quickly come to the end of all. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. another. Much might be said on both sides. one another. Men take each other's measure when they react. Some inflected. or melt for others' woe.²HAWTHORNE. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. Definition and examples. They led one another. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. If hand of mine another's task has lightened.² One reflexive. Another opposes him with sound argument. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. as. as it were.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²KINGSLEY. as some of the rangers had gone astray. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.²EMERSON. None shall rule but the humble. Exercise. The Soldan. 135.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. as most were. such as one other. for example.Two are compound pronouns. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. ²HAWTHORNE. paused over a horoscope. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. .

" It means something. Now. nobody. Somebody. what. and they. Definition and examples. unlike adjective pronouns. 136. everybody.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. and somewhat. Exercise. every one else. no one. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. . in building of chaises. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. something. anybody. they are never used as adjectives. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.² At lovers' perjuries. as. some one. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. anybody else's. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. nothing.. everybody else. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. somebody else. They indefinite means people in general. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. 137. anything. I tell you what.Exercise. every one (or everyone). naught. any one (or anyone).²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. also aught. everything. they say. as shown in the words everybody's. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Jove laughs. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. etc. but. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. and was indefinite in Old English. anyone else. Every one else stood still at his post.

it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. . 7. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 14. 138. indeed. were suffered to depart. 17. 8. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 11. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 4. Others did the same thing. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. I first found myself among the mountains. in his negotiations. 12. The table was good. and of no other. All was now ready for action. A reminder. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 2. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. O thou that rollest above. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. For this did God send her a great reward. 13.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 18. 5. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 3. 6. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 9. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Hutchinson tells us of herself. from my earliest days. to which. Exercise. Whoever deals with M. 16. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. but not to quite so enormous an extent. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 10.

27. 25. 35. oh. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. He sate him down. behold now the semblance of my being. and seized a pen. variety. hear! 33. who slept last night like a corpse? 22.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. Whatever he knows and thinks.Who knew thee too well. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 32. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 30. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. 29. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. eat white bread or brown.19. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. well-oiled dispositions. thou rollest now. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. And will your mother pity me. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday.And it would work 'em woe. who take the world easy. 31.Destroyer and preserver. that let him communicate. 34. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. I who alone am. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. And I had done a hellish thing. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 21. in all its height. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 26. They know not I knew thee. 23. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. hear.

42. white or red. So with any object. Again. etc. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. and if we are near. . becomes mine. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit." "that house." "some cities. It may have this office alone. 38. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. If a chemist discovers a new substance. "one hat. Who hears me. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. 40. adjectives are used. He teaches who gives. such as in the expressions "this man. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. size. or with persons. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun." The office of an adjective. Office of Adjectives. ADJECTIVES. Substantives. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid.36. We are by nature observers. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say." etc. the number is limited by adjectives. that is our permanent state. 43. who understands me. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. 139. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 45. or gaseous. if we are at a distance. 39. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. or liquid. 37. As to the kind of words used. 44. in pointing out an object." "a hundred men.. heavy or light. etc. We need to add some words to tell its color. 41. and so he read. and he learns who receives. brittle or tough. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. so that no other will be mistaken for it. as." "yonder hill. then. position. He knew not what to do. For example. which was no bad step towards my liberation.

Infinitives." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. etc. deep." "next-door neighbor. words primarily pronouns. remotest. With exception of the "and then." "the Roman writer Palladius. divine." "unlooked-for burden. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. used to tell how many things are spoken of.²COLERIDGE. and their trash.140. Nouns are not. 141." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. such as. or how much of a thing." "this life-giving book. fair. If he be thankful for small benefits. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. beautiful. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. such as safe. however.²POPE. to describe it or to limit its application. Examples are. 142." "the Christian pearl of charity. To err is human." "ivory-handled pistols." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Definition. (2) Adjectives of quantity. pointing out particular things. 143.² BACON." the "and there." "half-dead traveler. "an old English manuscript. "Heaven-derived power. happy." they constitute all his connections." and the still less significant "and so." . terrible. rash. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. derived from proper nouns. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. Classes of adjectives. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. to forgive. it shows that he weighs men's minds. To make this clear. (4) Pronominal adjectives. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." "ice-cold water. They include relative and interrogative words.

in this." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." was accomplished is a verb. 2. no. ." "trailing clouds." Caution.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. Care is needed. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Examples are. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. considerable. 145. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "One is hungry. having some of each subclass named in Sec." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. much. Exercises. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "The shattered squares have opened into line. and accomplished is an adjective. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. any.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. sometimes small. 'Tis midnight.²COLERIDGE. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. in studying these last-named words." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. some. which are either pure participles used to describe." "It came on like the rolling simoom. For instance: in the sentence." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." "an aged man. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." was is the verb. 143.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished." "a charming sight. 144. 1. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. Oxenham. and another is drunken." "The clearness and quickness are amazing.But ever she looked on Mr.²MACDONALD. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun.

Not primarily pronouns. every village. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives." "Then we wandered for many days. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted." "I have lost one brother. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. those). Thus." "He had lived by hunting for some months. How many. yonder (or yon). former. any." "In came some five and twenty more.² Every town had its fair. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. 146. An arrow was quivering in each body. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. The demonstrative adjectives are this. When some." "a dozen volunteers.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. and with them a few negroes. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. instead of modifying them. Examples. are used with plural nouns. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. "one blaze of musketry." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. its wake. they come under the next division of adjectives. that. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity." (b) Indefinite numerals.²KINGSLEY. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. as.²CARLYLE. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. latter. The list. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS.²ID." Single ones of any number of changes. no.²THACKERAY. the former²the latter. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. but I have gained fourscore. Exercise. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. (plural these. The following sentences present some examples:² .²VAUGHAN.

They are of two kinds. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.but all these charms are fled. FRANKLIN. As has been said.²KINGSLEY.. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²D. 148. Indefinite relative adjectives.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions."²B. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. WEBSTER.² It matters not what rank he has. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love..²ID. The taking of which bark. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.²RUSKIN.²BULWER. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. Modify names of persons or things. When we speak of the seventeenth century. Definition.²BANCROFT. I verily believe. These were thy charms. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. The silver and laughing Xenil. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. but. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. skill which was progressive²in the other. of equal skill. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. . Exercise. like the other numerals. Oxenham fought desperately.²ID. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. they are changed to adjectives. ²CARLYLE. 149.²GOLDSMITH. tell how many things are meant. just as the corresponding pronouns do. but in the one case. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. skill which was at pause. for example. what revenues or garnitures.²WORDSWORTH. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. In which evil strait Mr. These do not. 147.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.

A lady once remarked. which. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. 151.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). and gaze.²ID. it is impossible to determine. Was there.. Examples of their use are. proved not altogether displeasing to him. But when the Trojan war comes. Adjective what in exclamations. He was turned before long into all the universe. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.150. In direct questions. what inquires about things or persons not known. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. and new tormentedAround me. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. as it rather seemed. .² EMERSON. which is selective among what is known.²IRVING. whatever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whichsoever way I move. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. nature will be sure to bear us out in. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. whichever.²RUSKIN. whichsoever.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.²CARLYLE.. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. you at least give him full authority over your son. New torments I behold. whatsoever. In indirect questions. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. or whether any. As in the pronouns. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.And whichsoever way I turn. the debt to the rich. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.²AGASSIZ. Whatsoever kind of man he is.²LAMB.

²number and comparison. as. It is neither relative nor interrogative. etc. we do so by means of their qualities. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. Exercise.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. Meaning of comparison. or amount. and when we compare the objects. But this had also another plural. th s (modern those). 154. Thus. which was fully inflected in Old English. This is the old demonstrative. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.²but not the same degree. COMPARISON. those). and those as the plural of that.² Oh. In exclamatory expressions. gold is heavier than iron.152. color. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. the making of it right. All these have certain qualities. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. 155.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. And yet.²This. or size. 153 . The article that was used with neuter nouns. NUMBER. alas. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. or weight. When we place two objects side by side.Adjectives have two inflections. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. of the quality. . Those borrowed from this. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. History of this²these and that²those. we notice some differences between them as to size. That. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. weight. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. etc. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.

universal institution.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. Freedom is a perpetual. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. So with the words sole. blue. These are called degrees of comparison. for example. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. The two forms. Substitute for inflection in comparison. expressing the greatest degree of quality. indefatigable. "more matter. bluer. 157. though the simple. with less wit. infinite. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. reddest. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms." "the commonest speech. indomitable. redder. . in harmony with the Constitution of the United States.²THACKERAY. giant-like." Words that cannot be compared. whether they attend their own affair or not. as. great." "the largest soul. whose favorite pupil he was." "no fewer than a hundred. to the simple form. expressing a greater degree of quality. These are properly the only degrees. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. Definition. but were not common until a century later. as. red. sufficient. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. supreme." "It is a nobler valor. 158. and many others. or amounts in quantity. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. 160. A main difference betwixt men is. "untamed thought. enormous. bluest. strictly considered. easiest. easy. 159. they are not compared.²SEWARD. The comparative is formed by adding -er. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. 156.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. and the superlative by adding -est.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. and the superlative. organic. but. immemorial. They came into use about the thirteenth century. easier.

The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. I will. honestest. harsh forms are usually avoided. and other words are preceded by more and most.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. madam. quiet. "So help me God." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." said Henry Esmond. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given." "more austere and holy. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. as." "distantest relationships.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain." "more odd. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. peaceablest. which hung behind in the queerest way. The following lists include the majority of them:² .²ID." "the wonderfulest little shoes. Adjectives irregularly compared. though born in no very high degree. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. These long. etc. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. and yet familiar.Which rule. there needed to be a most genuine substance. most small. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. 163. easy." Carlyle uses beautifulest. strange. indisputablest." "sorrowfulest spectacles." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. The general rule is. admirablest.²The Nation. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.² CARLYLE A gentleman. polished. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. falling on his knees. and patientest fusing. finest chiseling. was most finished.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression.²ID. who. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. witty. 162. These are adjectives irregularly compared. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. mournfulest.

though from a different root. which has softened to the modern best. [Out] Outer. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 5. Worser was once used. (2) In Old English. latter Hinder LIST II. A double comparative.LIST I. last Hindmost. worst. throw away the worser part of it. lesser. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. innermost Outmost. 7. [In] Inner Inmost. older Nigher Nearer Later. as in Shakespeare.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. List I. bad. further Farthest. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 8. as. evil was the positive to worse. outermost Utmost.² We have it in a much lesser degree. Good or well Evil. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. uppermost LIST III. There was an old comparative bet. 6. 3. oldest Nighest.² O. 1. 2. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. . next Nearest Latest. as in the sentence (14th century). which has gone out of use. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. furthest 10. Hind 2. The superlative I form was betst. utter 3. 9. lesser Elder. 4. hindermost Much or many More Farther.²HAMLET. uttermost Upmost. least. is often used. a double comparative. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. These have no adjective positive:² 1. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 164.

are shown in such phrases as. came into use. as. doubling the inflection.²HAWTHORNE. th came into the others. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. the old forms. making the modern farther. oldest. etc. next. (5) The forms elder. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.²ID.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. (10) Hinder is comparative in form." Its spelling has been micel. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. and the superlative nearest. as long. The meanings greater. ²LAMB. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte.² The more part being of one mind. further.²forth. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. etc. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. an old superlative ending. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. first. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. muchel. farrest. or series. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. for example.. instead of lenger. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. farthest. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. In imitation of further. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. eldest. except the form next. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. "Many a little makes a mickle. there is scarcely any distinction. Since later. but not in meaning. a distinction has grown up between the two series. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. The latter. much. strong. are earlier than older. near. great. to which is added -ost. is quite common. but originally the comparison was nigh. Between the two sets as they now stand. The most part kept a stolid indifference. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. First became entirely detached from the series. latest. furthest. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. since the m is for -ma. to England we sailed. . List II. moche. strenger. and refer to time. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. meaning the largest part. greatest..²KINGSLEY.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it.

The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Think what each adjective belongs to. the upper light of the world. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. . was descried The royal banner floating wide. 167. 166. but not in their meaning." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. are like the comparative forms in List II. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.²DE QUINCEY. (Sec.²KINGSLEY. and have no comparative force. Her." "their utmost exertion. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Highest and midmost." "far-seeing as the sun. on the very topmost twig. all may belong to the same noun." "The outer is of the day. W. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. List III. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain.²SCOTT. but they have no adjective positives.²H.²HAWTHORNE. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. 168. The comparatives are so in form. In List II. There. Her bows were deep in the water." -Most added to other words." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man." "the innermost moral soul. or each may modify a different word or group of words.²DE QUINCEY. in having no adjective positives. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. BEECHER. or have no comparative forms.165. Decidedly handsome. being merely descriptive. The adjectives in List III.²EMERSON. but her after deck was still dry. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. by the by. They have no superlatives.

and broken. satisfactory.²HAWTHORNE. But in this sentence.²HAWTHORNE. Bradbury and Evans. in prose. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. now our queen. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. "the one who was then king. philosophical. A few improper jests and a volley of good.²TRENCH.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²BIBLE. By a convenient brevity. Other instances are. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES." in which then is an adverb. deeply black eyes. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. therefore. not decision alone. we may say "the then king. rich. Our sometime sister. as. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. For thy stomach's sake." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. 7.²RUSKIN. It may still be argued. 2. and thine often infirmities. H. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. 6. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. The seldom use of it. May we not. STEPHENS 5. This.For example. and moral truth.²NOAH PORTER. 169. round. . those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. solid. usual modifies incomparable decision." making then an adjective.²MRS. 4. 3. Exercise." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. in this sentence. instead of saying. Richard Hooker. deep. ²TROLLOPE. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.² My then favorite. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. In the following quotations. bright. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. STOWE. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. our new government.²HOLMES. and heaven-defying oaths. the then and still owners.²A.

frank. To every Roman citizen he gives. and I waited for none. positive degree. (4) What word or words it modifies. if it has number.What to tell in parsing. Unfamiliar describes truths. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. therefore descriptive. This gave the young people entire freedom. Exercise. this. 7. 3. and very few have number. These points out what truths. Since adjectives have no gender. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. cannot be compared. the method of parsing is simple. (3) Its degree of comparison. compared by prefixing more and most. or case. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. not inflected for number. I ask nothing of you. then. person. 170. plural number. with awkward but rapid pace. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. (2) Its number. 6. seventy-five drachmas. manly way. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. having a singular. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 10. In parsing an adjective. therefore demonstrative. She made no reply. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 5. modifies the word truths. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. 8. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 9. across the plain. To every several man. 4. MODEL FOR PARSING. if it can be compared. . modifies truths. 2.

13. 25. and many poles supported the lower ones. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. oxen. he won affections with ease. 29. the same love to France would have been nurtured. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. the tomahawk fell. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 14. it rests on reality. In music especially. Two hours elapsed. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 27. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. and dogs. Their name was the last word upon his lips. Here lay two great roads. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. 23. 28. 32. To say what good of fashion we can. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. are immutably fishes. during which time I waited.11. Like most gifted men. not so much for travelers that were few. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 26. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. it is so noble a fruit. . 19. Nearer to our own times. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. as for armies that were too many by half. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 22. 21. growing in the most unfavorable position. 16. 20. yonder oxen in the pasture. With every third step. and therefore more interesting to us. those dogs in the yard. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 31. 18. 12. suggests such thoughts as these. is the settlement of our own country. 24. 33. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. I know not what course others may take.

nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. In Middle English the became an article. 171. Examples: "a house. 35. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. ARTICLES. were formerly that one. that other. weary-hearted man was he.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. meaning one. An before vowel sounds. in vulgar English. 174. the other. Many writers use an before h. 173. just as adjectives do.²MACAULAY. Our expressions the one." "a European. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds." "a yelling crowd." "an orange. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. that) which was also an article in Old English. even when not silent. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. sometimes the tother. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. or the tane. the tother. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Two relics. for example." the words the and an belong to nouns. the tother. such as we have been attempting to describe. but the former is used. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words." An with consonant sounds.34. the tither. ðat. An historian. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. In the sentence. th o. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. An or a came from the old numeral n." "an honor. later th . 37.²BREWER. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. s o.²SCOTT. and a before consonant sounds. . a before consonant sounds. the latter is still preserved in the expression. A hard-struggling. these occurring as the tane. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. Their origin. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. he is no literary man. with an ordinary little garden. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. 172.

177. Kinds. and when the word river is omitted. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. The Dakota tribes. as in the sentence. or group." the article indicates clearly that a river. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. or any individual of a group or class. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. An and a are different forms of the same word. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Reference to a known object. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. 176.²HEROES OF ASGARD. The is the definite article. is referred to. An hereditary tenure of these offices.. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. With names of rivers. as "the Mississippi.. and not a state or other geographical division. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. or a group or class of things.²G.²THOMAS JEFFERSON." "the Ohio. 175. NOTE. doubtless.²IRVING. on opening a story. An or a is the indefinite article. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. a person is introduced by a. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.² Don't you remember how. not descriptive. Articles are either definite or indefinite. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. An article is a limiting word. When the is prefixed to a proper name. 179.²COLERIDGE. thus. the older n. since it points out a particular individual.²THACKERAY. Definition.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. or class. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with.. 178. BANCROFT.² .²This use is noticed when. which cannot be used alone. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. To call attention to attributes. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.

. the Spinoza.² As she hesitated to pass on. Half abstract.²ID. so is the evil. Common. or a match put between the fingers. as. NOTE. The simple rise as by specific levity.²EMERSON. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. The. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. Kant. With adjectives used as nouns. Schelling. would speedily extract the required information.²GIBBON. not into a particular virtue. the song sparrow. If the good is there. Caution. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. laid it on the miry spot. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²EMERSON. 180. 182.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. but into the region of all the virtues.² The faint. etc. For possessive person pronouns. the gallant. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. 183.²G. One thing for its class. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.²MOTLEY. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. for example.²KINGSLEY. BANCROFT. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. 1.²ID. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. With plural of abstract nouns.The Bacon. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 181. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. the Hume.²SCOTT. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. His messages to the provincial authorities. and the redwing. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. 2. her.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. care. in (2. Now. lone took what? answer. can deceive has an object. and. 200: In (1). Each influences some object. In the sentence. "Put money in thy purse. and to receive the action expressed. or the object. we consider a verb as one word. which may be a person. a preposition. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. and not a verb.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. the most penetrating. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. which means to go over. 202. In the first. an adverb. all do not express it in the same way. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. A verb is a word used as a predicate. but fearing is not a predicate. 201. or a material thing. from the Latin transire. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. and a preposition unite as a verb. hence is not a verb. for example. (can) shame also has an object. a). All do not express action: some denote state or condition. All these are called transitive verbs.In (a). in this sentence from Bulwer. etc. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. a noun. "Put thou money in thy purse. and shame the most astute. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. c). Of those expressing action. obeyed is a predicate. but cannot be predicates. as. representing something which it influences or controls. Definition and caution. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. with some word understood. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. in (3. the most astute. b). By examining a few verbs. an article. 204.²BULWER . to go is no predicate. to say something to or about some person or thing." Examine the sentences in Sec. in (2. b). or an idea. in (c). The nature of the transitive verb. Hence Definition. The nature of intransitive verbs. In each case. in (b). to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. in (3. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. the word following. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. In giving a definition. 203." put is the predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. endured what? anguish. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. a verb. taking the staff which always guided her steps.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Condition or Supposition.²D. the first great founder of the Empire. as. Most excellent stranger.²MACAULAY. and may or may not be regarded true. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.²may or may not be true.²BRYCE. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. he will see the need of these ethics. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. Ideal.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. ²EMERSON. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. the representative system ultimately fail. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. 221. 2). as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.I could lie down like a tired child. . the second founder. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.² Now. the writer can make the statement following. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.² If.²FRANKLIN. Again. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. for example. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.²LONGFELLOW. they were recorded in the Book of Life. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. but. in our case. I. popular government must be pronounced impossible.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. If this be the glory of Julius. 222. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. 215. or be fulfilled. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.²SHELLEY. Unreal²cannot be true. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. as. WEBSTER. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.

The subjunctive. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. especially be. to drink strong beer. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. which cannot be true.. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. The voice. and should. Subjunctive of Purpose. 7. 2. and striven energetically to save Ney. 8. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. he had better not have written.²BAYNE. except.²CALHOUN. if he speak to you. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. if he was the man I take him for. he supposed.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. Exercise. But in no case could it be justified. ²LOWELL. but when the verb precedes the subject. though.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if..²MACAULAY. 6. and what kind of condition:² 1. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. 3. 223. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. since he [Byron] was dead. society could not hold together.²N. might.² It was necessary.²EMERSON. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. as. she was regarded as a prodigy.²FRANKLIN. If he had reason to dislike him.² CARLYLE. is of similar physiognomy. thus. Epaminondas. 4. P. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.. that we cannot but regret its absence.² If these things were true. NOTE.²FRANKLIN.. be any the happier?²THACKERAY." etc. I told him. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. WILLIS. that he might be strong to labor. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. may. . unless. clear. the clause being introduced by that or lest. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. if his lot had been mine. would have sat still with joy and peace. and sonorous. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. would you. 5. In the following conditional clauses. melodious. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. etc. II. do you think.²SWIFT. is used to express purpose.

²COLERIDGE.²DE QUINCEY. The English subjunctive. In Indirect Questions. So live. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.Thou go not.. . WEBSTER. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²WORDSWORTH..²BRYANT. till it meet the sun in his coming.²MOORE. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. like the quarry-slave at night. In a Noun Clause. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. IV. After a verb of wishing. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. In Temporal Clauses. 225.I have been the more particular. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. V. Ask the great man if there be none greater.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. like the Latin. I would it were! ²EMERSON. 224. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.. Rise up. Expressing a Wish.That vain it were her eyes to close. III. 226. the answer being regarded as doubtful. 227. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²CARLYLE. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²D. Let it rise. none of us could say. within its fairy bowers. VII.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. I've wished that little isle had wings. To tell of what had passed.And we.Were wafted off to seas unknown. Subjunctive of Result.²ID. VI.²SOUTHEY..

²SHELLEY.²WORDSWORTH. Come.And look thou tell me true. which may be (a) Pronoun. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. See that there be no traitors in your camp. . of cash. Whatever betide.²DE QUINCEY. The noun clause. Some might lament that I were cold. is the ultimate fact of man's life. is. Concessive Clauses. Complement. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. or whatsoever victual it may be. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²CARLYLE. (b) Adjective. in its various uses as subject.And see the Braes of Yarrow. I have no thought what men they be.. VIII.²COLERIDGE. 229. The first merit. The essence of originality is not that it be new.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. 228.²SCOTT. After verbs of commanding. object. That hunger of applause.²TENNYSON. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. Object. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. that everything be in its place.²COLERIDGE. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.² DICKENS. we'll turn aside.² Be the matter how it may. often contains a subjunctive.Subject. tell me all that thou hast seen.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. etc. for example.²THOREAU. in apposition. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.

232. or requests. Q.The spirit he loves remains. In spoken English. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. At the present day. Honor all men. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. (3) Request. 230. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. 231. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. fear none. we had found [should have found] a poem here. (2) Entreaty. Definition.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Oh.(c) Adverb. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought.²J.²BRYANT. Usually second person. . however. and condition contrary to fact. for example. It must be remembered.² CARLYLE. a concession. IMPERATIVE MOOD.²CHANNING. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. point to their immortal works. (1) Command. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. entreaties. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. though. love all men. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact.²SHELLEY. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. ADAMS. since commands are directed to a person addressed. to express a wish.

but I + you."Hush! mother. Mark thou this difference.. "Come along with me. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry." whispered Kit. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. "The Devil take the goose. there will her heart and her prayers be. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Whatever inconvenience ensue.. noble earl. etc. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.And God forget the stranger!" .And." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Break we our watch up.²SHAKESPEARE. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.²SCOTT. receive my hand. child of earth!While each performs his part. Part we in friendship from your land. to you implied in it. 2.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart.One glance at their array! 5. request. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I."²DICKENS Tell me.²CAMPBELL. Oh." Exercises on the Moods. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. 7. lest we rust in ease. Quoth she. 3. 8. nothing is to be preferred before justice. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. 6. or I + they. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Sometimes with first person in the plural. etc. we may use the imperative with we in a command.

my dear madam.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. whether he do it right or wrong. 13. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. 10. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. 11.9. 23. 14." cried he. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Though he were dumb. but repentant child." continued Old Morgan. Think not that I speak for your sakes. Well. Marshall. how he may do his work. 18. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. He. 19. "Mr. 21.Except. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 20." 16. she ought to have it. "Oh. That sheaf of darts. and opinion displace opinion. then. ruined. will it not fall unbound. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Forget thyself to marble. no literary man.High up in silver spikes! 22. 26.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.That they might answer him. "tell me where I may find my poor. Though abyss open under abyss. it would speak. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. in what pomps and prosperities he like. or do it at all. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. He is. . That a man parade his doubt." 25. as though an instrument. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. let him live where else he like. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.

or future time." . such as Latin and Greek. Tense means time. as." "If he comes. Definition. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. "I go away tomorrow. past. or agree with it. tell him to wait." past. a form ending in -eth. past. which represented present and future time. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. "Thou walkest. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. the past. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. by means of the present. The tenses in detail.²nothing could exceed the amiable. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. to direct his steps. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. called auxiliaries. PERSON AND NUMBER. and future perfect tenses.27. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. shall. such as be. five in the imperative. as will be shown later on. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. and the past tense. Meantime. kind. "Thou walkedst. whatever she did. five in the subjunctive." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. in the third person singular.² present. past perfect. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. 235. have. 28.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. or whether it were as one member of a general party. 233. will. When the older pronoun thou was in use. TENSE. and the future tense. in the conjugations. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no.²the present tense. 234." present. "It is not in man that walketh. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. Old English had only two tenses. also. Siddons. Tenses in English. and future.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. as the classical languages have. as. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs.

[He] is [They] are 3. persons. Indicative Mood. since it is composed of several different roots. etc. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. chooses. is. 238. as. Singular 1. tense. Such verbs as choose have five. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3.²choose. The verb be has more forms. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb." and this only in the present tense indicative. You are 2. PRESENT TENSE. walketh. CONJUGATION. walk has walk. mood. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. chose. I be 2. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. and numbers. walkedst. chosen (old. Singular 1. This is the third person. for example. walks. walked. singular number. are. In classical languages. Singular 1.²am. walking. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. choosest. choosing. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. tenses. 237. were. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. You (thou) be 3. Definition. Singular 1. moods. "He walks. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. etc. PRESENT TENSE. wert) 3. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. been. [He] were [They] were . chosest). 236. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. I were 2. chooseth. Few forms. but in English. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE.

This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. for example. same as the German sind. The light that never was on sea and land. in four ways.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. etc. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.His infancy was nurtured. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²SCOTT. which was now become an occasional banquet. -en. condition. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²BURKE . Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²GOLDSMITH. Instead of the plural are. 240. (2) As auxiliary verbs. as.. thus. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (2) was.²WORDSWORTH. 239. (d) With the infinitive.²SHELLEY. Remarks on the verb be. obligation. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.²ID. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. etc. is. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. to express intention.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. (b) With the past participle in -ed.. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. were.Imperative Mood. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. though it is usually a dialect form. to form the passive voice. (3) be.²THACKERAY.

Singular. by placing have. 1. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). You chose Plural. (2). 1. [He] choose [They] choose 3. We chose You chose 3. I chose 2. 240. past perfect. I chose 2. as. Singular. there are many periphrastic or compound forms." "He will choose. In addition to the above inflected forms. 1. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. etc. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. I choose 2. We chose You chose 3. PRESENT TENSE. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. "I had gone" (past perfect). The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. future perfect. had. as. 242. Indicative Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. Singular. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 1.241. Singular. PRESENT TENSE. I choose 2." (2) Present perfect. Machinery of a verb in the voices. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I shall be. tenses. . You choose Plural. tenses. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. "I have gone" (present perfect). You choose Plural. You chose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles.

He was choosing. of each tense. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He is choosing. Same as indicative. he have been choosing. Past perfect. " Be choosing. Present perfect. Only the third person. Past definite. Past. Present. Indicative Mood. singular number. Same as indicative. Present perfect definite. Imperative Mood. Future. Subjunctive Mood. Future definite. Future perfect." "They had been running. He chooses.) Choose." (4) The passive forms. he chose (or were to choose). He chose.] he choose. He will have chosen. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. as. lest. Present definite." "You are chosen. he have chosen. Present. ACTIVE VOICE. Future perfect definite. Present. though. He had been choosing. [If.(3) The definite form of each tense. "I am running. Past perfect definite. Past. He will choose. Past perfect. Present perfect. He will he choosing." 243. "I was chosen. Past definite. He has chosen. Present perfect definite. " " " " " " " he be choosing. etc. Present definite. Past perfect definite. (2d per. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present definite. He will have been choosing. He has been choosing. He had chosen. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). . will be given. as.

Future. None. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present perfect definite. Past definite. Past Perfect. None. Subjunctive Mood. He was being chosen. He is being chosen. Past. lest." [Note to Teacher. He has been chosen. but verbals.) Be chosen. as. Future perfect. etc..] he be chosen. Future definite. He was chosen. None.NOTE. they will be discussed later (Sec. Past perfect. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). He is chosen. Past perfect definite.] [If. Indicative Mood. Future perfect definite. however. He will have been chosen. He had been chosen. Present. Exercises should be given. in affirmative sentences. Present perfect. "He does strike. Present definite. though. he had been chosen. Past definite. Present. (2d per. . " " " " " " " None. Past. None. PASSIVE VOICE. None. he have been chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. if learned at all. Present perfect. Present perfect definite. Also.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. He will be chosen. Imperative Mood. Present definite.²This table is not to be learned now. Present tense. Past perfect definite. 262)." "He did strike. he were being chosen.

Some of these also have weak forms. drive. begged. verbs are strong or weak. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. 244. slept.[adj. beg. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. drove. bounden] bitten. Past Tense. Kinds. ran. but adds no ending.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. bid bound. lay. caught. Definition. According to form. sleep. which are in parentheses Present Tense. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . as. run. catch. laid. and may or may not change the vowel: as. bit blown broken chidden. 245. NOTE.

drank[adj. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sunken] sat slain slidden.

but is much used in vulgar English. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. cleft. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²as (from Shakespeare).²IRVING. especially in that of an earlier period. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. ²THACKERAY. to split.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. Historically. only one set remains certain." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. now told us it was time for repose.²one meaning to adhere or cling.²MILTON. and sometimes occurs in poetry. as. as. clave or clove. as (from Holmes)." In this confusion of usage.² We had each drank three times at the well. instead of ate and eaten. Our cock. cleaved.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. as.²B. Not a cock crew. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. cleave. "his bounden duty. "stricken with paralysis."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²COLERIDGE. ." "a sunken snag. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. and. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²GOLDSMITH. nor a dog barked. cloven. Sometimes in literary English. The form clomb is not used in prose. cleft (to split). which always crew at eleven. probably to avoid confusion with this.²cleave.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²TENNYSON. 246. the other. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). borne is also a passive. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. TAYLOR. When it means to carry or to endure.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. cleaved. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. and the latter.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. and another (born) for the passive." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. for example. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). How fairy Mab the junkets eat. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro." "the cloven hoof." "a drunken wretch. The former used to be cleave.

. This heard Geraint.²BIBLE. begun. even in poetry. fell. threw. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. flung.² We had all got safe on shore.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 245). 3. Begin. 7. broke. for example. One example out of many is. 8.²DE FOE. Give. 5. as "a shorn lamb.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. driven. Exercises. Freeze. 6.² If. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Fall. The butler was hanged." but not much as a participle. broken.²BYRON. 4. and seized a pen. Find.²SCOTT. Shake. gave.²TENNYSON. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. froze. and grasping at his sword. Fling. (a) From the table (Sec. frozen. Drive. shore is rare. 2. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. found. 10. found. drove. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. thrown. given. which is seldom used except in poetry. shook. began. shaken. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed."²KINGSLEY." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. We usually say. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Break. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. 9.The form gotten is little used.²WORDSWORTH. fallen. Usually shear is a weak verb. as. He sate him down. Throw. maiden. flung. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. for example.

(See also Sec. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. as it has two meanings. for full drill on the forms.. which survives in the sentence."²WINIER.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. .²SCOTT. "So mote it be. HAMILTON. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. 223.. His superiority none might question. it is used only in the indicative mood. purpose. Indicative Use: Permission. Like must. The l in could did not belong there originally. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise..) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. 251.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. but came through analogy with should and would. as it sometimes does. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.²CHANNING This.²CHANNING. Can is used in the indicative only." Must is present or past tense. from the obsolete verb motan. Have we valuable territories and important posts. They are as follows:² PRESENT. etc. Must is historically a past-tense form. 220. 247. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. "far off his coming shines.²PAINE.. there is one general principle. must have been an ocular deception. The same remarks apply to ought. or when it expresses wish. etc. PRESENT. or. Could may be subjunctive.. as in Sec. PAST. 249.[To the Teacher. ability. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. It is indicative when it expresses permission. Ability. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. 250. as.²HAWTHORNE. Subjunctive use. according to the infinitive used. PAST. of course.

future action).Nay. what shall I say?²N. C. WEBSTER. with pronouns of the first person. shall and should are used..e. as. (b) In indirect quotations. as. She should not walk. in the form of command.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. he said. (b) In questions asking for orders. MOULTON. while ought always has to. I shall be gone. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. shall and should are used. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. or confident prediction.²IRVING. to use will and would. promise. and corn to hoe. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. as. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. my lad. BROCKDEN BROWN. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. yea. Shall and Will.² The time will come full soon. The following are examples:² Never mind. not plod along like apeasant. to the neglect of shall and should. The sea shall crush thee. "I think I will go. especially in the United States. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. Second and third persons. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. They shall have venison to eat. She rejects his suit with scorn. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.² (a) To express authority.²THAXTER.²L. .²COOPER.²LONGFELLOW. she should ride like a queen. 252. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²BULWER." Uses of shall and should.² Futurity and questions²first person. for example.² With respect to novels.²MACAULAY.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.

time.²CABLE.² I will go myself now. was to be expected.²WORDSWORTH. LARNED. Disguising a command.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. as. JR. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. as the sole inventor.²BYRON. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. .²A.²C. thus. I never was what I should be. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. And promised. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²SCOTT. 253.that I would do him justice.²WORDSWORTH. for example. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. and will not return until all is finished. for example.. First. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. purpose.²H. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. with the conviction that he should win in the end. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.. etc. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. second and third persons. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. JAMES.²ROGERS.²WINTER. B. BROWN. or a promise.²WORDSWORTH. and is equivalent to ought.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²SWIFT.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.

and two of my people. Roland. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. AND THIRD PERSONS.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.²LANDOR.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. 254. and mark on the grounds the works. SECOND. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. B. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C..² Thou wilt take the skiff. would is used to express a wish. as. will and would are used to express simple futurity. when thou wast born. (4) With FIRST. will is used to express command. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.²SCOTT. In this stately chair would he sit. . etc. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. This puts the order more mildly. The gift of Beauty. without regard to future time. action merely expected to occur.. for punishment or intimidation. Thine was a dangerous gift.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.² Subject I omitted: often so.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. as. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. for example.. They will go to Sunday schools.. will and would often denote an action as customary. for example. To be sure.²War Records.²IRVING. as if it were merely expected action. Mere futurity. PASSIVE VOICE.²the original meaning of the word will. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke..²BURKE. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).²SCOTT. When I am in town. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. BROWN. Would thou hadst it not. so you will..² DICKENS. through storms their brothers are afraid of.²BANCROFT.

You shall choose. and that of the newest cut. (b) Examine the following sentences. 2. 1. 252 and 253. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 2. 3. Plural. . You will choose. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will.Singular. 1. 2. 3. [They] will be chosen. [They] shall choose. [They] shall be chosen. You shall be chosen. Plural. I shall choose. [He] will choose. I shall be chosen. 5. and justify the use of shall and will. Exercises on Shall and Will. [He] shall be chosen. You will choose. To express determination. 3. "I shall not run. [They] will choose. 1. Plural. promise. 2.:² ACTIVE VOICE. Plural. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. We will be chosen. We will choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 6. [He] shall choose. You will be chosen. Thou art what I would be. He informed us. Thou shalt have a suit. 4. 2. PASSIVE VOICE. Singular. [He] will be chosen. 3. Singular. We shall choose. You will be chosen. I will choose. yet only seem. Singular. 3." answered Herbert stubbornly. You shall choose. I will be chosen. 1. We shall be chosen. (a) From Secs. 3. You shall be chosen. 2. etc. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 1. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten.

Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. put. bereft. or mylk and wastel breed. bereave besought Past Participle. bereaved besought . set. Lucy stood still. Of smale houndes hadde she. 10. 13. then. as. Without having attended to this. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. put. 11. Past Tense. my son. 256. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. was -de or -te. No. Present Tense. 12. as if he would have more of the enchantment. set. need some attention and explanation." 14. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. and I have nothing to say.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]." the stranger said. 9. This ending has now dropped off. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Irregular Weak Verbs. 257. 255. very anxious. which may be called irregular weak verbs. bereave beseech bereft. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while.²Class I. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. "I am a wayfarer. and have no change of vowel.7. stirred her slightly with his muzzle.²CHAUCER. The beast made a sluggish movement. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. WEAK VERBS. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.²ID.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. But the rest. The old ending to verbs of Class II. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. put.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. spelt spilt staid. hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

7. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. ACTIVE VOICE. Nothing of the kind having been done. PASSIVE VOICE. when inflections became fewer. Indefinite. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. [To] have been chosen. . 266. 8. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. they have an indefinite. a perfect. try clemency. Cases when to is omitted. Infinitives. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). and when passive. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. When active. to was used before the infinitive generally. an imperfect. [To] have been choosing. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Three saplings... I returned to reflection on my situation. and a perfect definite form. an indefinite and a perfect form. 9. [To] be choosing. Perfect. 10.²the creature warring against the creating power. formed a kind of bedstead. Perfect definite. [To] choose. In Sec. [To] be chosen. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Indefinite. [To] have chosen. as in the Old English. Perfect. Imperfect. 268. like participles. to express action unconnected with a subject. But later. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE.6. 267. have no tense. To with the infinitive. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. will (with should and would). expressing purpose.. INFINITIVES.

it is often preceded by the definite article." etc. sometimes need (as.²COOPER. negative. also in the imperative. make. . it may be the subject of a verb. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. do (as.²HOWELLS. please. "He will choose. liberal woman. HALE. 269." (4) In exclamations. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. it has several attributes of a noun. "I do go" etc." Examples are. "She ask my pardon. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. 272. 271. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning." "I shall have chosen. and like a noun in use. can (could). Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative.(2) After the verbs may (might).² She was a kind. feel. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.. "a house to let.²GOLDSMITH. must. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. The gerund is like the participle in form. watch." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. as. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. as in the expression. learn [doth learn is one verb. While the gerund expresses action. bid (command). as.²TENNYSON.²IRVING. and corn to hoe. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.). as. too. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. also let.²MACAULAY. E.²E. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. GERUNDS. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. poor woman!" cried Charles. the gerund may be called a noun verbal.²DE QUINCEY. They shall have venison to eat.²it may be governed as a noun. and emphatic forms of the present and past.² What! doth she. 270. hear. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. or the object of a verb or a preposition. as the credulous imagine. see. under "Analysis. But there was nothing to do. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).

" also (2. but do not assert." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. 4. may govern and be governed. (4) Pure adjectives. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which express action. after examining the nest. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. Exercise. and has been put down. 2." Exercise. above. five infinitives. and wonderful store of learning! . 273. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. (2) Pure participles. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. Sec." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. b). II). It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." "Certainly dueling is bad. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. according to use as well as meaning. (6) Verbal nouns. Then how pleasing is it. which express action and also modify.²Find sentences containing five participles. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. making the definite tenses. (3) Participial adjectives. What a vast. which express action. which name an action or state. to see the returning hope of the parents.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. when. but cannot govern. brilliant." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. and five gerunds. which have lost all verbal force. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. on your leaving the spot. Words in -ing are of six kinds. (5) Gerunds." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use.

11. I suppose I was dreaming about it.²active or passive.5. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. much corroded. by object lessons. 14. 275. he gave out sentence by sentence. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. Caution. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. (b) as to use. subjunctive.²transitive or intransitive. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. slowly. give reality to your teaching. bearing her national emblem. 16. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. 12. Thackeray did not. (5) Person and number. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. but. (2) Voice. . like Sir Walter Scott. (3) Mood. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. or imperative. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. (4) Tense. giving principal parts. 6. write twenty pages without stopping. 9. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 234. I.²indicative. What is dreaming? 8.²which of the tenses given in Sec. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. round which is an iron railing. dictating from his chair. 10. 7. 15. The only means of ascending was by my hands. VERBS. 13. you must.²strong or weak. In parsing verbs. He spread his blessings all over the land.

must. till it meet the sun in his coming. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. past tense. In 2. 278. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. call should a weak verb. III. usually it does not. imperfect. indicative (as it means could). if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. II. 4. can. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. You are gathered to your fathers. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. (b) its use (Sec. might. would. Take these examples:² 1. call might a weak verb. has the subject government. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. no sin nor sorrow.. Let it rise! let it rise. VERBALS. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. 278(2). . then parse it as an adjective. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 3. we must beware of the rule. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. has for its subject Lee. Especially frequent are those made up of should. (b) whether indefinite. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. perfect. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (b) whether active or passive. Exercise. etc. But unless the verb is present. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. indicative. It has been intimated in Sec. and ends in -s. and not taken as single verbs. and parting day linger and play on its summit. VERB PHRASES. 2. therefore active. 273). The government might have been strong and prosperous. (2) Infinitive. If a participial adjective. could. In such sentences as 1. verbals. past tense. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. followed by a pure infinitive without to. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (3) Gerund. in the world." Sometimes it does. give points (a) and (b). may. 235.276. (c) to what word it belongs. 2. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. etc." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. (1) Participle. definite. see Sec. perfect. intransitive. Parse the verbs. 277. active. intransitive. and should always be analyzed as phrases. (a) From what verb derived. let the earliest light of the morning gild it.

6. 8. a new bursting forth of the sun. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 23. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence.Henceforth in me instill. he thought only of her. 16. leaving me upon the bed. He passed across the room to the washstand." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 12. and wondered if she were yet awake. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. as usual. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 11. morning is not a new issuing of light.O God. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. or. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. a deafening shout. However that be. 10. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. Right graciously he smiled on us. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 9. When he arose in the morning. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance.5.Down all the line. a new waking up of all that has life. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 19. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. . The soul having been often born. 17. With them. 24. So. as rolled from wing to wing. from a sort of temporary death. see that it is in good condition. as the Hindoos say. Whatever ground you sow or plant. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 22. a sweet good will. 13. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 20. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 18. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 21. 14. 15. In going for water.

and live ere life be spent. ADVERBS. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun." An adjective or an adverb. place. for example. When action is expressed.²time. because." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Adverbs modify. . Better it were. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. To the almost terror of the persons present. Nor was it altogether nothing. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. Oh. as. who live with nature?²ID. Is it only poets.²THACKERAY."²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE. 27." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. and so on. to speak truly. 29.²EMERSON. or manner: as." "He was absolute. 279. and men of leisure and cultivation. A verb. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 26.²SHELLEY. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. "William's private life was severely pure. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. and limit adjectives or adverbs. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. to consent. thou sayest. for the hour of rest is at hand.² The young man reveres men of genius. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. The word adverb means joined to a verb. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly.Feast while we may. And now wend we to yonder fountain.25. they are more himself than he is.

² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. and that. is a modifying word.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. We are offered six months' credit. to-day. I draw forth the fruit. which may qualify an action word or a statement. as shown in the sentences.² LOWELL. perhaps. there are six classes:² (1) Time.²BYRON. and half awfully. (2) according to their use in the sentence. then.He was incidentally news dealer. etc. not the noun. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. Thus considered. 281. NOTE. A clause or sentence. 280.²THOREAU. NOTE. has induced some of us to attend it. but some verb understood. 282. hitherto.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. ²IRVING. .² FRANKLIN. It may also modify a sentence. Definition. ALDRICH. Surely happiness is reflective. 169 are felt to be elliptical.²TROLLOPE. lately.²LEIGH HUNT. as. like the light of heaven.²T. for example. not simply the forms used in predication. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. or a word group used as such.²These last differ from the words in Sec. before. B. all wet and glossy. ever. thus. 169. A phrase. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. but still with a rich bloom to it. Make music to the lonely ear. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. as now. being adverbs naturally and fitly. while those in Sec. but really modifying.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. An adverb.

singly. as little. Thackeray. slightly. telling how anything is done. much. Emerson. thus..(2) Place.²LECKY. (see also Sec. for example.²SHAKESPEARE.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. partly.which gained him such universal popularity.. the more evidently they love liberty. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. maybe.² The master. [Sidenote The status of such. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.was for this once of her opinion. too. as hence.²HAWTHORNE. So also in Grote.²DE QUINCEY. and not infrequently are found in literary English.. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. Motley.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. Meekness. (5) Degree. bravely. I was.there. above. This long's the text. as here. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. twice. whencesoever. telling how much. White. especially the comparative of these words. . This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. etc. as hither. and others.. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. whithersoever. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.thence.where. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. as well.whence. as perhaps. (4) Number.near.thither. probably.²BROWNING. (3) Manner. greatly. not. that these adverbs form a very large class. telling how many times: once.. slowly. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.whither. etc. etc. two by two. (6) Assertion. beautifully. etc. or how far he believes it to be true. at least. The more they multiply.²R. etc. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. better. 283. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. 283). enough.yonder. possibly. LOUIS STEVENSON.²IRVING. the more perfect will be their obedience. surely. just. etc.²BURKE. while so precedes only the adjective usually. the more friends you will have. very.

Pretty is also used by Prescott. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Defoe. 282. Neville. A pretty large experience. 286. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.² KINGSLEY. B. Emerson. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Kingsley. and art but a fool. STOWE. Interrogative. besides modifying. for example. have the additional function of asking a question. and other writers. 285.Pretty." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.²THACKERAY. I perceived his sisters mighty busy." "I have seen you before [time].² "Mighty well. Such are most of those given already in Sec.²FIELDING." "The house. Holmes. Beau Fielding. Hard blows and hard money. Franklin. and its lawn before [place]. a mighty fine gentleman.²BULWER. ." "That were far better [degree]. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived.²"He walked too far [place]."²SCOTT. Dickens. 284. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Burke. Aldrich. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister." "He spoke positively [manner]. for example.²HAWTHORNE. Simple." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Mighty.²THACKERAY. Again.²BAYNE. It is only occasionally used in literary English. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form." said the king. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. De Quincey. Notice meanings. Some adverbs. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.²GOLDSMITH. Direct questions.² You are mighty courteous. "Peace.

And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. for example.²BYRON. I will not ask where thou liest low. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.²BULWER. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.²D.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON (3) Manner. (2) Place. CLAY. (2) Place. (5) Reason. WEBSTER.²POE. I do not remember when I was taught to read. they smiled. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. 287. (4) Degree. (4) Degree. I know not why. When did this humane custom begin?²H. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. . I hearkened.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.

²BYRON. . only occasionally having -er and -est.²TENNYSON. and. further farthest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. irregularly compared. when compared. soon. use. Then must she keep it safelier. see Sec. have the same inflection as adjectives.²COLERIDGE. highest.. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. sooner.) rather 289. For further discussion.²SHAKESPEARE. obs. when does not express time and modify.. The following. just as adjectives do. Form vs." Exercise. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. when. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. Many adverbs are compared.eyes. higher. Tell what each word in ly modifies. Its strings boldlier swept. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Many adjectives have the same ending. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.²EMERSON. 288.But in reality. Superlative. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. but the whole clause. Exercise. furthest (rathe. high. as. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. 290. soonest.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Only that we may wiselier see. not an adverb. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. representing four classes. well much little far late Comparative.

This e dropping off left both words having the same form. that in Old and Middle English. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. 6. near. but with a different meaning.²IRVING. 3.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. etc. But he must do his errand right. 5. Frequently the word there. And all about. or down the leaves laughed through. 2. more courtly in their manners. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. to be sure. . Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. nearly. Not near so black as he was painted. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence.²ID. as. There are eyes. Special use of there. merely introduces a sentence. He is inexpressibly mean. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. whether adverbs or adjectives. 291. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. even.²TENNYSON. Such are most. mostly.1. 2. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. if it has the verb be. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. 8.And his mien of kingly state." Compare these:² 1. hardly. instead of being used adverbially. hard.² EMERSON. The reason is. Again. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.²CHAUCER. 7. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. With his proud. 292. evenly. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. quick-flashing eye. 4.²THACKERAY. many words without -ly have the same form. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. curiously jolly. kindly and good-natured in secret.²WORDSWORTH.

and always. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 12. but continually shifted. 9. according to meaning and also use. however theoretically enticing. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 7. 11. 18. Exercise. 15. . The higher we rise in the scale of being. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 5. 293. at the regular wine-shop. but from my fall? 6. It is the Cross that is first seen. For the impracticable. 16. the Madonna is in great glory. In parsing adverbs. is always politically unwise. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. (3) What word or word group it modifies. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 4. burning in the center of the temple. 17. if the word is compared. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Thither we went. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 2. give² (1) The class. 10. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. and sate down on the steps of a house. (2) Degree of comparison. 3. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. But a few steps farther on.

" "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. sentences. But now the wind rose again. Unlike adverbs. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. nor. or sentence groups. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. etc. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. It was pretty bad after that. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. 21. A conjunction is a linking word. but the student will readily find them. Clauses. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. 295. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. then. Definition." Sentences. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. hence. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here." Paragraphs. but side by side within the American Union. 20. 294. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. therefore.19. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. word groups. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. upon which the sun now shone forth. CONJUNCTIONS. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. 22. connecting words. . however.

.or whether. the butter too. Your letter. therefore. as well as the room door. or the sea rolls its waves. neither. 296. not only. whether. joining words.. likewise. as but.or. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. either.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. also. nor. 298.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. (4) ALTERNATIVE. etc.or. only. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. introducing a reason or cause. whether.. as well as. either. "Howbeit. the bread was spent. Some of these go in pairs. usually between two things.. (2) ADVERSATIVE. however.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. had its weight.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. but is emperor in his own right. Nor mark'd they less.. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. as. and not man corn. . of the same rank. etc. and...nor. While the earth bears a plant. both. They are or. The chief ones are. hence. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. as and. the window being open. however. neither. whether..but (or but also). not only. Causal.." Nevertheless.Classes of conjunctions... Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. 297. then.. either. answering to each other in the same sentence.. else... etc. moreover. The assertion. still. (3) CAUSAL. (2) Subordinate.nor.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. neither. while.or. Adversative. Some go in threes. serves but to show their ignorance. as. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. expressing a choice.but. nor... Alternative... yet. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.and.or. Correlatives. word groups. for.

²BIBLE. It is. etc. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. so that. QUINCY. so. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. He is not only bold and vociferous. there will the heart be also. or whether such a body is moved along my hand..²DE QUINCEY. (7) RESULT: that. whence. although. provided. provided that. in apposition. whithersoever. etc. . Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. whenever. etc. whether. until. (6) PURPOSE: that. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. since.²J. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. unless. on condition that. after. Time.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. so. seeing.²WILSON. howsoever. Neither the place in which he found himself. especially that after so. even if. nor green leaf.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. in case. since.²IRVING. nor wing of bird.²COOPER. nor creeping thing. so that. ²ALLSTON. in order that... Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. however. (3) MANNER: how. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. (2) TIME: when. object. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. sometimes if. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. except. so. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. whereas. whereto. Where the treasure is.. nor echo. now. as. whither. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. 299. wherever.as.²PAULDING. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. etc. that. though. before. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste.²BURKE. as. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. lest. ere. as. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. while. etc.

² HAWTHORNE. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON. Let the world go how it will.²BURKE. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.²AMES. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. I was again covered with water.²DEFOE. H. We wish for a thousand heads. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. a thousand bodies.That he gave her wounds repose. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²IRVING. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²AMES. Manner. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Result. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.² EMERSON.²EMERSON. Substantive. JACKSON.²COLERIDGE.²BYRON.²EMERSON. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Then Denmark blest our chief. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.² WORDSWORTH. Concession. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²CARLYLE Events proceed.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. As a soldier. Now he is dead. Purpose. but not so long but I held it out. Condition.²AMES.So I behold them not. Comparison. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²CAMPBELL. not as they were expected or intended.² H. .That vain it were her eyes to close. Cause. reason. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.

And they lived happily forever after. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. she faintly pressed her hand. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. While a faction is a minority. The moth fly. 6. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 9. it will remain harmless. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions.²RUSKIN. In what point of view. After he was gone. Crept under the leaf. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. since. No one had yet caught his character. Besides. 12. and hid her there. some words²for example. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON.Let us see whether the greatest. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. While patriotism glowed in his heart. etc. 10. while. her real merit is known at home. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. that. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. hold a subordinate rank. 3. as. 7. . 15. the lady called her servant. Exercises. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. then. however. They. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 300.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 14. 2. As will have been noticed. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. as he shot in air. And then recovering. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 13. 5. 4. the wisest. He was brought up for the church.

. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if..Clouded. as is shown by the use of as though. As if.So slowly moved about. word groups. 304. expressing degree if taken separately. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. thus.²HOOD. (2) What words.16. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. As for as if. for example. His voice . none of the lashings having given way. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. So silently we seemed to speak. In Emerson's sentence. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. In poetry. 303.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. etc.²EMILY BRONTE. as is often equivalent to as if. Consequently. the expression would be. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. As though." as.As though a rose should shut. and the frame will suit the picture. If analyzed. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved..As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. 302.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. in this case.. SPECIAL REMARKS. "We meet. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. 301.²BYRON. even as they would weep. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. and be a bud again.²IRVING. In parsing conjunctions. they connect. GREELEY. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. and part as though we parted not.

For example. It continued raining. and the like. that it might testify of that particular ray. 9. in 2. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. It may be safely trusted. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. 6. he sleeps as warm. and.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. they are not known. so means provided. dines with as good an appetite. 13. compare the sentences. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 4. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. so means therefore. he is also the correlative of nature.. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. and associates as happily. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. etc. 2. 12. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. . 7. such as nor. so they paddled on. All the postulates of elfin annals.²is subordinate of condition. If he could solve the riddle. so it be faithfully imparted." said his wife to Martin Luther.²EMERSON 3. as beside his own chimneys. and its clause is independent. or in the snow. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. 3. Some conjunctions. 11. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. He is the compend of time. in 3. and very seldom?" 8. In classifying them. so that I could not stir abroad. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. the Sphinx was slain. so that expresses result. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. when.²that the fairies do not like to be named. others belong to several classes. At sea. Exercise.² 1. but of the natural. 10. are regularly of one particular class. or in the forest. When the gods come among men. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. because it is his. and its clause depends on the other. "Doctor.²DEFOE 2.Caution.²I find them true in Concord. He dismisses without notice his thought. 5. because. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness.

PREPOSITIONS. of good novels only. that both were wayward. however. Goodness must have some edge to it. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. It is clear. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 20. the whole conditions are changed. enthroned. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object.14. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. whose names I omit. 24. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. when it was presented to them. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 16. 26. 23. Now you have the whip in your hand. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 29. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 25. save it were sinful like herself. For. she might have the family countenance. 15. you must be. It may be so in the majority of cases. 21. 305. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. There was no iron to be seen. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 22. 28. . This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 19. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 27. 30. Still. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. therefore. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties.²else it is none. I speak. 18. in this they agree. won't you lay on? 17. in many a heart. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. And whether consciously or not..

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

. by many a million of acres. 320. At that time [the earth] was richer.²WARNER. at once.²B. etc.²SWIFT. at play.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail.²ID. by the wrecks of time. Richard was standing by the window. By my faith.²EVERETT. at random. By. at most. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at naught.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at length. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Like at. at rest. at one. . D. as. ²PARTON. STODDARD.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at any rate. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at work. (2) Time. etc. the first port made by the ship. at the best. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.²COOPER. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. CONWAY. at the worst.²R. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. by the blessed memory of the departed.²ALDRICH. Helena. Exercise.² (1) The general meaning of place. For. Exercise. (3) Agency or means. expressing the degree of difference. H. at least. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. (4) Measure of excess. She saw the boat headed for her. at peace. by means near or close to. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at first.²DE QUINCEY. he stopped. by the ruins of nations. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²M. At St. at war. 321. at all.

²IRVING. in behalf of.²EMERSON. . etc. Still. H.(2) In favor of.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. had a forest of poor relations.²E.²HOOD. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. For him. meaning in the character of. ate her child. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. as being. considering that etc. respecting. etc. the Colonna motto would fit you best. as to. (5) Reference. or in spite of. for all his title. L. (7) Concession. and leaped for joy. He and they were for immediate attack. For the rest." said the Lady of Lochleven. poor fellow. "thou hast counseled wisely. for famine. but a few sunsets since. BANCROFT. if your worship can accomplish that."²SCOTT By my faith." answered Master Brackett. An Arab woman.²PARKMAN. E..hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. "For a fool. The twilight being. meaning with regard to. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. etc. (3) Duration of time. But the Colonel. incitement to action. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. he repented of his folly. meaning although. "Nay. a person or thing. for the benefit of.²PARKMAN. There are gains for all our losses. cause. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²ID.²W. or extent of space.² RUSKIN.²HOLMES. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. for all slips of hers. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. (6) Like as.One of Eve's family. (9) Motive.. (4) Substitution or exchange. they are now for us.²STODDARD.²H. GARRISON. reason.²LAMB.

(1) Origin or source. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. ceased to be merciful.²HUXLEY. 322. (2) Origin.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. H.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²HALE. A distrustful. The young cavaliers. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. more.²BANCROFT. (4) Motive. The From Relation. cause. From.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²H.²MILTON.²HIGGINSON. From harmony.²DRYDEN. nay. (3) Time. or reason.²HUME. like from. . It was from no fault of Nolan's. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. from a desire of seeming valiant. 323. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. The king holds his authority of the people. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²ID. Like boys escaped from school. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. Exercise. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. if not a desperate man. Of. The general idea in from is separation or source. The original meaning of of was separation or source. Exercise.

(6) Partitive.²BOSWELL. beg. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. cure.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. (b) After some adjectives. free of. relieve.²HIGGINSON. More than one altar was richer of his vows. White shirt with diamond studs. there were only twenty-one members present. etc. as north of. bare of. and grass. out of the most unpromising materials.²BAYARD TAYLOR. deprivation. (c) After nouns expressing lack. Sandals. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. of his own knowledge.²PARKMAN.. ²GAVARRE. reason. rid. ²PARTON. HALE.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. Back of that tree. weeds.²DICKENS II.²LEW WALLACE. Asked no odds of. wide of. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. especially out of. . that Cromwell once ruled England. such as ease. E. Of the Forty. etc. disarm.²clear of. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. motive. etc. acquitted them of. clear. etc. A singular want of all human relation. divest. The hills were bare of trees. or breastpin of native gold. "Good for him!" cried Nolan.²ALDRICH. (3) With expressions of material. bound with thongs of boar's hide. free. demand.² HUXLEY. You cannot make a boy know.²SCOTT Who formed. Other Relations expressed by Of. he had raised a little Gothic chapel.²BANCROFT. "I am glad of that. rob. south of. (5) Expressing agency. deprive. (d) With words expressing distance. purge. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles."²E. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. He is away of his own free will. expressing a part of a number or quantity.²ID. etc. ask.

could give shelter from his contumely. 309.²SWIFT. (c) Two nouns. . or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. Such a book as that of Job.²COOPER. etc.²HALLECK. (b) Noun and gerund.²FROUDE. equal to about. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. with regard to. being equivalent to an infinitive. standing. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²BANCROFT. when the first is descriptive of the second. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. CHANNING. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²ID. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (9) Of time. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. The nation of Lilliput.²ALDRICH. (8) Appositional. Idiomatic use with verbs. The fair city of Mexico. of late.²LAMB.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. of a sudden.²BANCROFT. Besides the phrases of old. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²LOWELL.²PRESCOTT. with its object. concerning.He washed out some of the dirt. ²IRVING. of is used in the sense of during. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. Not even woman's love. (7) Possessive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. See also Sec..²BANCROFT.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. and the dignity of a queen. (10) Of reference.²W. E. for the possessive.

consist. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. complain.²PARKMAN.²DE QUINCEY. (4) In adjurations. On. 324. The general meaning of on is position or direction. allow. etc. avail (one's self). on board. and others. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. approve. on trial. repent. without adding to their meaning. and not a day more. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. etc. on a sudden.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.²ALDRICH. Upon my reputation and credit.²MRS. SIGOURNEY. permit. Upon. Exercise. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (2) Time. accept.²BRYANT.²PARKMAN. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. Upon is seldom used to express time. equal to about. To. such as admit. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats.²Find sentences with six uses of of. on view. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. . The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²PARKMAN. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. concerning. on high. On my life. on the alert. It also accompanies the verbs tire. (b) With motion. 325. Cannon were heard close on the left. on the wing. disapprove. ²BANCROFT. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²EMERSON. you are eighteen. Exercise. (3) Reference.

His brother had died.²BULWER. does the mere music.. to him.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.²often to the loss of vigor.²PARTON.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. it may be genuine poetry. But when. .²Find sentences containing three uses of to. He usually gave his draft to an aid. unmasked. Death!²HALLECK. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. We cook the dish to our own appetite. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. mid meant in company with.²PARKMAN. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. To the few.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. had ceased to be. (5) Equivalent to according to.²LANG. 326. Exercise. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. 268).²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²BRYANT. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.Come to the bridal chamber. gay Comedy appears.²HALE. interest. In Old English. (b) Referring to time..²GOLDSMITH.to be written over. With. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²B. Nor. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Revolutions. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²BENTON To our great delight. to my taste.. (2) Expressing result.. whose influence is felt to this hour.²IRVING.

He expired with these words.²DE QUINCEY. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. with Heyward at its head.²CHANNING. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. reason. He was wild with delight about Texas.The advance. transmitted from the beginning. (3) Cause. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. (2) Instrumentality. had already reached the defile. felt it unsafe to trifle further. as with you. I think. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. "poetry is not a pursuit. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²HALE. in spite of.²COLERIDGE. Messala. Either with the swingle-bar. She seemed pleased with the accident. (5) Opposition.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY.²ALDRICH. he gave millions to the sword. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. opinion.²LANG. but with you. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. but a pleasure"?²LANG. Exercise.²E. It seemed a supreme moment with him. it is necessary.²SCOTT. HALE. motive. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. E. . or with the haunch of our near leader. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²Find sentences with four uses of with. with all his boldness.²WALLACE (7) Time.²HOWELLS. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. (4) Estimation.²COOPER.²HOWELLS. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. 327. first of all. to find the object of the preposition. With all his sensibility.

(b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. I looked towards my windows. without a country modifies man. but all to no purpose. telling what man. In (1). (2) on which. like the clapping of wings.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. the phrase answers the question where. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. I felt my box raised very high in the air. . Exercises. or was. before the dwarf left the queen. he followed us one day into those gardens. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. because I had given the provocation. The guns were cleared of their lumber. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. Be that as it will. but I received no other hurt. 2. hence we say. beginning. To our general surprise. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. which. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. Whereupon. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. country. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. shook it directly over my head. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and knocked me down flat on my face. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. by which a dozen apples. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. came tumbling about my ears. we met the defaulter here. I called out several times. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. And so on. the malicious rogue. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. (3) without a country. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. I remember. I speak these things from a love of justice. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. of from. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. The object of on board is ships. of on. 4. (4) from the beginning.²ID. of without. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. In (3). 5. 3. I heard a noise just over my head.²SWIFT 2. In (2).

The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 14.6. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. plumed for battle. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 13. 16. 11. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 21. 15.He spurred his courser on. For my part. On all subjects known to man.Without stop or stay. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 24. to one dark and gloomy. in town. he favored the world with his opinions. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 18. . 22. 7. when. 23. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 8. 25. 10. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. in this respect. The savage army was in war-paint. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 19. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. after a restful morning. With all his learning. He locked his door from mere force of habit. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. grasping at the child. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 29. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. The mother sank and fell. 20. I like to see the passing. 17. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. His breeches were of black silk. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 27. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 9. 26. 12.

THAT. (1) Relative pronoun.30. He will raise the price. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (3) As a relative pronoun. (4) As an adverb of degree. WHAT. That was a dreadful mistake. (2) As an adjective pronoun.² JOHNSON. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²COLERIDGE. A few are discussed below. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. That night was a memorable one. (a) Indefinite relative. 329. 328. 330. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.²HUXLEY.²STOCKTON. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. . that you might behold this joyous day. That is what I understand by scientific education. We wish that labor may look up here. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. not merely by the amount of the tax. and not according to form. (b) Of result.²WEBSTER.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²BEECHER. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. and be proud in the midst of its toil.That makes the heavens be mute. (c) Substantive conjunction. And now it is like an angel's song.

To say what good of fashion we can. What. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.²ID. (b) Indirect question. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. after not only. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT..²WEBSTER.²EMERSON. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.it is impossible to determine.but. and silent all!²BYRON. partly. (8) Conjunction.²S. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.Which be they what they may.²EMERSON. but the result of calculation. What.these sounds are only to be heard.. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. or not only. What with the Maltese goats.. it rests on reality.in Pera. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.. to see what might be hidden..²THACKERAY.. Cox.. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (9) As an exclamation.²ID. At what rate these materials would be distributed. . If he has [been in America].S. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying." (4) Relative adjective. 331.²WORDSWORTH. BUT. nearly equivalent to partly. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. (b) Indirect question. (7) Adverb of degree.. silent still. "I'll tell you what.. he knows what good people are to be found there.Those shadowy recollections.. (b) Copulative.

(d) Of reason. equivalent to that . There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. after such. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.. meaning otherwise . As orphans yearn on to their mothers. ²CARLYLE.²MRS BROWNING.²CARLYLE. Who knows but. not.²IRVING..²IRVING.²HAWTHORNE. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. (4) Relative pronoun. AS. (5) Adverb. (e) Introducing an appositive word. at all moments.²SHELLEY.. or who .He yearned to our patriot bands. 332. like the dog. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. . towards order. meaning except. (b) Substantive. To lead but one measure.. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. meaning only. (3) Preposition. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. not.. sometimes same. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. (b) Of manner.²EMERSON. I shall see but little of it. than. not.²LAMB..²IRVING.. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. but piercing cries. on all sides..²SCOTT. stands for that . it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. after a negative. Doing duty as a guard. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²FRANKLIN. (2) Relative pronoun. (c) Of degree.Then arose not only tears.

²MAYHEW.² HAWTHORNE. and as or as if takes its place. and was clearly an adjective. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. NOTE. No Emperor. indeed. like a cook beating eggs.-SCOTT. That face.² A timid. Give Ruskin space enough. This follows a verb or a verbal. nervous child.²SHAKESPEARE. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. but this is not considered good usage: for example. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. like summer ocean's.²HAWTHORNE.²HALLECK. . In this second use.LIKE. Stirring it vigorously.²DARWIN. Introduces a clause. and is followed by a dative-objective.²ALDRICH.²EMERSON.²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW. There is no statue like this living man. Through which they put their heads.²ALDRICH. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. like him awhile ago. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In each case.²LAMB. Note the difference between these two uses.²CASS. They look. like Martin was. I do with my friends as I do with my books. (1) An adjective. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. this.²HIGGINSON. 333. but its verb is omitted. like drops out. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. staring like a bewildered man. If the verb is expressed. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. ²PARKMAN. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.

. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. in separating them into their component parts. Definition. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.²in determining case. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. that is." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. pronoun. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. tut! buzz! etc." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. Value of analysis. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. as. but it still retains its identity as noun. 334. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. that is. Definition. verb. etc. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Some of these are imitative sounds. subject and predicate. etc." PART II. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. entering into the structure of a sentence. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM.: for example. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed.. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. clauses introduced by conjunctions. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. What analysis is. 335.INTERJECTIONS. 336.

Definition. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement.²a subject and a predicate. Definition: Predicate." "What wouldst thou do. 2. or command: for example. A rare old plant is the ivy green. or imperative. which puts the thought in a question. 338. but by no means vulgar. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. "The quality of mercy is not strained. question. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Every sentence must contain two parts. This is the most common one. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. or request. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. old man?" "Be thou familiar. entreaty. SIMPLE SENTENCES. "Come to the bridal chamber. . hence. which expresses command. not according to the form in which a thought is put.Kinds of sentences as to form. 339. but the sentence would still be declarative. according to form. "Old year. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. you must not die!" interrogative. But now all is to be changed. (3) Imperative." 340. declarative. always friends?" imperative. (2) Interrogative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. Examples of these three kinds are. Division according to number of statements. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. but according to how many statements there are. "Hath he not always treasures. 337. interrogative. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS.

not of a rare old plant.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. all. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something.²What is to be changed? Answer. 4. . 8. adjective. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. 341. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. 3. we say all is the subject of the sentence. In analyzing such sentences. Slavery they can have anywhere. Consequently. "[You] behold her single in the field. In the interrogative sentence. or ye) is in most cases omitted. 5.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Thus. and the real subject is the latter." Exercise. to suit all cases:² Subject. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. on the other hand. or an interrogative pronoun. Listen. But if we try this with the second sentence. or adverb that asks about the subject. a rare old plant. 7. thou. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. The last of all the Bards was he. always reduce them to the order of a statement. the subject (you. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. and our definition must be the following. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. and is to be supplied. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. as. the subject is frequently after the verb. but about the ivy green. especially in poetry. we have some trouble. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. to an ignorant man. 2. 6. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made.

and me here is not the object simply of call. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (4) The complements. (2) The predicate." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. or second object." Complement: 344. "Ye honor me. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. just as if to say. 342. The subject and predicate have been discussed. and by object we mean the direct object. in addition to the object. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. but chief belongs to the verb. Direct Object. (6) Independent elements. direct. "Ye call me chief. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). but of call chief. but it is a true complement. The transitive verb often requires. for example. and means summoned. .²transitive and intransitive. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb." indirect. (3) The object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. Indirect object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object.10. Of a transitive verb. (5) Modifiers. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. 343.

"Brow and head were round. for instance." Things used as Subject. ay. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. become." (2) PARTICIPIAL. but used as a single modifier." "The good man. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. 351." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. Phrases. more familiarly." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. he was now getting old. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. taste. not containing a verb. 352.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. especially the forms of be." Also an expression used as a noun. in the original Opium Confessions. to the completion of this man of the world. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. An intransitive verb. I mentioned a case of that nature. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. sir!' rang out in response. etc." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. 'Ay." 345. and." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. "A cheery. or. above sixty. and barring the door. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." All these complete intransitive verbs." (3) INFINITIVE. As to form. A phrase is a group of words. feel. seem. 364. appear. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. 346." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. and of massive weight. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. as in drowning. Complement of an intransitive verb. in exercise following Sec. in the popular judgment. Thom of the Gills." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. introduced by a preposition: for example. 355. See sentence 19. as in the sentence." "He was termed Thomas. as. 347." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" ..

(4) After "there introductory. I saw the quick and the dead. "'By God. "Therein has been." Things used as Direct Object. my deficiency. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." Things used as Complement.²the talent of starting the game. and ever will be. but they will be given in detail here. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." "Never. or the thundering of organs. asserting eyes." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. etc." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. (2) In interrogative sentences. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party.²the infinitive phrase." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. was heard one syllable to justify. prowling eyes. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." "The dead are there.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. from their lips." "There are asking eyes. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." 348. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. 349." etc. for which see Sec. 341." The for did not belong there originally. but the real or logical subject is to print. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. Disguised infinitive subject." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. but obscures the real subject. ." In this sentence. and by Saint George!' said the King. or their religion from their sect." Also expressions used as nouns: for example.

the object is made the subject by being passive. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. the shepherd girl. As complement of a transitive verb." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. Object. doubtless. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. at the same time. (3) Infinitive. and. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. they are adjuncts of the object. Of a transitive verb." (4) Participle. Modifiers of Subject. 351." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." "Their tempers.²completing the predicate." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. and the words italicized are still complements. or the equivalent of the noun. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. complements of the predicate." "Serving others is serving us. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. and whenever the complement is a noun." . Like all the complements in this list." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. trusting the hearts of his countrymen.350." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." "I hear the echoes throng. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." "She asked her father's permission." In this last sentence.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. As complement of an intransitive verb. or Complement." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. I." Modifiers.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards.²heads or tails." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. and explaining or modifying the subject." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken.

the verb being omitted. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. Retained with passive. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. given at the request of a Dutch lady." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. was the scene from King John. 352. but with other men. 357-363. Since the predicate is always a verb." "In the twinkling of an eye. not with nature. II. see further Secs. the prisoner at the bar. but it is really a contracted clause." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." "Him. this young idolater." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies.²proud. I have seasoned for thee." In such a sentence as. and modify the predicate in the same way." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." Exercise. "He died like a God. object. was now called upon for his defense. Modifiers of the Predicate. austere. Tells how." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. but noble teachers.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. tell whether the subject. and leading him from star to star. or complement is modified." "Give them not only noble teachings. no sociable angel. or .²In each sentence in Sec. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." (For participial and infinitive phrases. interpreting for him the most difficult truths.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. unforgiving." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. 351.

5. 4. and (direct) object:² 1. and. but to be loved. no relief to the dead prosaic level. To the men of this world. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. predicate. 2." (6) Adverbial objective. I took. These answer the question when. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. 6. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. in regard to particulars." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. 7. a sort of personality to the whole writing. But anger drives a man to say anything.. to the animal strength and spirits. and other measures of precaution. after dinner. 7." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. They do not wish to be lovely. Fashion does not often caress the great." "All such knowledge should be given her. negative. is good in the making. 3. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. no emotion. 3." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. he liked. how far. 2. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. (a) Pick out subject. predicate. This. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 6. Evil. or how long. with my joy and grief. A merciless oppressor hast thou been." Exercises." "One way lies hope. the indirect object is retained. On the voyage to Egypt. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. and the direct object is retained: for example. in this center? 4. but the children of the great. according to old philosophers. no humor. and as many to oppose it. . etc. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. His books have no melody. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive.When the verb is changed from active to passive. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. gives wonderful animation. (b) Pick out the subject. 8. 5.

Compound Predicate.²the river Meuse. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 3. 2.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 4. Not the less I owe thee justice. the blooming cornet. etc. to the right and to the left. 6. this nun so martial. then. this dragoon so lovely.y 8. 3. upwards. the attorney. that was thy portion in life. six children sat by a peat fire. Their intention was to have a gay. must visit again the home of her childhood. this imperial rider. in little peaceful Easedale. then. at the chief hotel. downwards.. Yes. a room seventeen feet by twelve. for the first time. after their long confinement to a ship. 5. and a member of the world. viz. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. . 2. expecting the return of their parents. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. In one feature. at length the warrior lady. A river formed the boundary. 3. Paint me. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. To suffer and to do. 4. Unhorse me. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 4. 5. 2. Not compound sentences. burthened with the anxieties of a man. I felt myself. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. I gave him an address to my friend. y y y y Compound Subject. happy dinner. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. That night. the present Archbishop of Dublin. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth.

the verb). same as (1). etc. Examples of compound subjects are. and its object or complement. hurry. the simple subject is situation.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. "The company broke up. that is. but it is to be noticed that." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are." "Voyages and travels I would also have. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. my brave young man!" . The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. the air of the mother. then the grammatical subject and predicate. etc. in all such sentences as we quote below." "Ye crags and peaks." Sentences with compound predicates are. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements.353. the object.. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. and the rest is the logical predicate. however. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. exposes. forming a sentence: "Oh. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. 354. several modifiers. I'm with you once again. in the sentence. they are not a necessary part. etc. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. Larger view of a sentence." "He shook his head. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. "Ah. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. For example. The exclamatory expression. above: thus. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. turned his steps homeward. ulcer. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. shouldered the rusty firelock." "The name of the child." And so with complements. Of this. may be the person or thing addressed. hurry." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. the tone of her voice. modifiers. 355. Independent Elements of the Sentence. Bishop. together with all its modifiers. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. together with its modifiers. and. complements. the predicate.

There are some adverbs. (1) Adjectival. then. moreover.. this story runs thus. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. pronoun. etc. let him perish. . "Oh. he was a conscientious man. her noticing even this is creditable." "No." (6) Single words: as. he somehow lived along. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. y (2) The adverbial use. 357. or word used as a noun: for example. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. instances of which were seen in Sec." "At all events. truly. undoubtedly. etc. nevertheless. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. such as however. yes! everybody knew them." (2) Adverbial. now. or complement (see Sec. (b) As a modifier of subject. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. These need close watching. therefore." (5) Participial phrase: "But. 3.. and so on. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. besides. modifying the predicate. grandma. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 350. prepositional phrases may be. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES." "Why. In their use." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. object. to the best of my remembrance." "Well." (3) Independent. 356. that have an office in the sentence. see Sec. really. the company broke up. 351. 4). The words well. and some conjunctions." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. how you're winking!" "Now. 352. generally speaking. such as perhaps. 355. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. 4)." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. he closed his literary toils at dinner." "Truth to say." Another caution. already noticed. why. modifying a noun. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. six quill-driving gentlemen. see Sec. 6). not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples.

(5).There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. etc.seem. This case excepted. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . and they will be presented here in full. 358. modifying was speedily run through." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. thus." In this sentence. The verbal use. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. being equivalent to a future with obligation. and hence is adverbial. and teach her how to be happy and good. but require somewhat closer attention. Wilt thou." etc. but having no other office than a verbal one.would. I." (c) With the definite forms of go. containing no matters of business. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15.]. therefore. he should not have known them at all. 355. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. "The letter of introduction. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." "There." (b) With the forms of be. was speedily run through. ought. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. See Sec.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.should. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.: as in the sentences. necessity. "Because I was. my dear. etc." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. y (a) With may (might). or as nearly so as the student will require. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.can (could).000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years.

" 360." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. The adverbial use. to hear McOrator after dinner." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). IV. 351. 361. the Scotch fighting all the battles. object.: for example. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). III. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. etc. notice the following:² In (1). complement. is evident from the meaning of the sentences.²both purpose clauses." "To say what good of fashion we can. To test this. hang the idiot. to please is equivalent to that he may please. modifying a noun that may be a subject. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. 5)." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. Don Guzman." "Are you mad. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. The substantive use. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. etc. to look means that he might look. result. 362.." "To teach is to learn." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. The adjectival use. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. ." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. already examined. above. (4) In apposition. "But there was no time to be lost. 361 are used adverbially. II. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "He insisted on his right to forget her.

(4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 4. In (4). etc. If it is an incomplete verb. I will try to keep the balance true. to part means because I part. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. etc. 355).. 3. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. In (3). 352)." (See also Sec. to find shows the result of the return. 363. to hear means if you should hear. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1.. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 351). 268. not in a book. must be in a life.In (2). 364.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (3). In (5). Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. 355.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. In analyzing simple sentences. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. V. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. equivalent to that you betray. etc. . give² (1) The predicate.²both expressing condition. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 349). give the complement (Secs." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. The independent use. 351). and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. which is of two kinds. 2. (7) Independent elements (Sec. savage and serene in one hour. (5) The subject (Sec. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. Our life is March weather. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 347). as in Sec. 351). (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. and to betray and to bring express the reason. object.

Her aims were simple and obvious. nor himself. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 21. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. The whole figure and air. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. in popular use. Old Adam. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. a good shot. .He sat in the shower. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 17. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. with eager energy. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. To these gifts of nature. 5. an accomplished scholar. nor generals. 24. 20. 15. a graceful dancer.4. 10. and spared nothing. nor money. I have heard Coleridge talk. is to have no political system at all. The water. 13. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. good and amiable otherwise. a skilled musician. through evil agents. 16. To be hurried away by every event. We are always in peril. 19. and to the purpose. might be called flabby and irresolute. and every moment discover something new.The old crow of Cairo. to keep England out of war. to restore civil and religious order. He risked everything. to the moral sphere. 22. 12. like a witch's oils. through toys and atoms. 14. It is easy to sugar to be sweet.²to preserve her throne. 6. The word conscience has become almost confined. 11. two stricken hours. His opinion is always original. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. the carrion crow. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 23. 8. 7. just on the edge of destruction. always in a bad plight. neither ammunition. 9. Through the years and the centuries. You may ramble a whole day together.Burnt green and blue and white. 18. nor troops.

ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. baggage far in the rear. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground.Distant. and the wherefore? . surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. Now. I hate him and myself. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 33. in less heroic and poetic form. secluded. had but one foible. the ship was in an uproar. and. 29. still. 39. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. in front of all this mighty crowd. 41. and the why. Supposing this computation to be correct. Fair name might he have handed down. 37. 27. 35. But yield. 36. In the Acadian land. the same Condé Olivarez. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. The cry. and in my own garden. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. The villain. 30.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. This amiable relative. to be a reproach to such goodness. Must we in all things look for the how. it would not have been filial or ladylike. Upon this shore stood. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. in this world. 40. to bid you leave the place now and forever. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. Oxford. the prime minister of Spain. the present capital of New England. time-honored. 34. 26. and no provisions but wild berries. I dare this. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships.Effacing many a stain of former crime. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. upon my own ground.25. an elderly man. proud foe. ready to receive her. She had made a two days' march. 31. Few in number. or perhaps one virtue. Of the same grandeur. 32. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. 38. haply.

however. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." To show that these words are really omitted. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. though often treated as phrases. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. if they were expanded." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. 367. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. COMPLEX SENTENCES. The simple sentence the basis. which is the unit of speech. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. As shown in Part I." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. the pride and beauty of the grove. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 366. but. as. 365. are really contracted clauses. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence.² "She is like some tender tree. as would be the connective instead of like.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. made merely for convenience and smoothness. thus.From her own loved island of sorrow. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. .² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. (Sec. 333). Words left out after than or as." This must. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]." Sentences with like.

371. Independent clause. then we recognize this as the main statement. suffering. containing a verb with its subject. A clause is a division of a sentence. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). Definition. object. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. is taken in. or it may be applied to the others. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. 370. that . complement. that is. 368.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. which are so united that one member is the main one. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. modifiers. we are aware.²the other members subordinate to it.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. and the last. how great . or dependent on it. and modifier. main.. CLAUSES.²the backbone.. logically depends on suffering. and the next one. Hence the following definition:² Definition. etc. A principal. 369. each clause has its subject. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. as in this sentence. ." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint.. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. predicate. complements. murmur. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. object.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.

or adverbs. Kinds.' is an electric touch. We ourselves are getting .. put an end to my fancies." (4) Apposition." Just as the object noun. 352.. 5). impertinences²would be grammatical. infinitive. but logically the sentence is. with a noun clause in apposition with it. thus. 'I know that he can toil terribly. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. and the whole clause is not." 374. for example. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. and ADVERB clauses. for a hundred years. etc. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. adjectives. pronoun. clauses are divided into NOUN. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. and it is .. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. over which the torrent came tumbling. night or day. 372." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. ADJECTIVE. But since they are complex in form. verbal. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences." "I was told that the house had not been shut.. so the object clause is retained. (a) Ordinary apposition. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.. . according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. for example. impertinences.. (b) that are . explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. for a time." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. 373." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. As to their office in the sentence.. is retained after a passive verb (Sec.Dependent clause. Noun Clauses. attention is called to them here." (2) Object of a verb." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.

or equivalent of a noun. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. whether he should choose one or not. As the office of an adjective is to modify. 2. that he was a scheming impostor.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. a relative pronoun being understood." Exercise. etc. of a nation. no man will ever know. a falsehood incarnate. and not on the sentiment. still remains reasonable. 5. Adjective Clauses. What history it had. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 9. sometimes by the conjunctions when. Except by what he could see for himself. Such a man is what we call an original man. which. 3. in the sentence. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Examples of adjective clauses. 7. I was napping. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. that. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. The reply of Socrates. 8." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 6. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 10. as. But the fact is. whither. he could know nothing. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. where. whence. he would repent it. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. . how it changed from shape to shape. wherein. Other examples of this construction are. 375. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed.² "It is on the understanding. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. that all safe legislation must be based. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. that. 4. whereby. Frequently there is no connecting word. but.

Adverbial Clauses. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. or that essence we were looking for. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 10." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. which formed the center of the mansion. 6. 11. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. he begins to help us more as an effect. object. and tell what each one modifies. whether subject. . that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 4. No man is reason or illumination. Pick out the adjective clauses. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. etc. all is vacancy. One of the maidens presented a silver cup.e.376. i. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. which Rowena tasted. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 5." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 7. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. 9. I walked home with Calhoun. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 1. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 3." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." Exercise.. 8. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 2. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. the champions advanced through the lists.

and what it modifies:² . the wider is the horizon of their thought. a verbal. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. the milestones are grave-stones. Shakespeare is our city of refuge.. tell what kind each is. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. and will be given in detail. etc. to make up our shortcomings. shaping our actions." "When he was come up to Christian. no matter what remains. is wider. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. with examples. so far as we can. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly.² whoever." (7) RESULT. adverbs." "Who cares for that." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." "The broader their education is." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. expressing the degree in which the horizon." "After leaving the whole party under the table. however." (5) DEGREE. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." (3) REASON." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "The right conclusion is." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. however good she may be as a witness. an adjective. whatever." (9) CONCESSION. Exercise. etc." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. etc.377. 378. it takes precedence of everything else. or an adverb." "He went several times to England. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. introduced by indefinite relatives. and adverbial conjunctions. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. Joanna is better. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. he goes away as if nothing had happened." These mean no matter how good. since he was too great to care to be original." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. but they require careful study." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church.: "But still. that we should try.

It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. 380. then treat noun clauses as nouns. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject." 2. as they sometimes did. they might perhaps say of their visitors. with shrill. when the wind was unruly. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. howling and whistling. and twirling weathercocks. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. For example. its object is that Odin was a reality. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. snatching up stones to fling at them. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. in the sentence. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. find the principal subject and principal predicate. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. If the children gathered about her." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. to tell the truth. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. 3. 'Well. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. banging about doors and windows. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. object. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. on a dark wintry night. 379. we are a little disappointed. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. and modifiers.1. predicate. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. etc. so as to picture the parts and their relations. incoherent exclamations. of which clause Odin is the subject. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words.

(1) Find the principal clause. 3. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. as seen in the "map" (Sec. . that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 380). (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 364.. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Take the place and attitude which belong to you.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. Exercises. d. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 2.

17. 13. that. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Now. 6. bishop. And those will often pity that weakness most. Whether she said the word is uncertain. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 23. He was what our country people call an old one. 24. that pressed her with an objection. Had they been better chemists. 10. 21. the flower should revive for us. 9. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. counselor that had none for herself. not so much for travelers that were few. 12. could not have been effected. I like that representation they have of the tree. 7. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. dying for them. 5. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 22. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. The night proved unusually dark. the shepherd girl. had we been worse.4. who would yield to it least. 11. for yours. The deep eyes. Next came a wretched Dominican. Here lay two great roads. which. whom I choose. as for armies that were too many by half. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. . 16. 14. This is she. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. M. the mixed result. 8. 20. of a light hazel. 19. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. But now that she has become an establishment. namely. if applied to the Bible. or whether any. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 18. 15.

2. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. and temper.25." said Bentley. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 6. These things we are forced to say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. . speed. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 30. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. the following complex sentences:² 1. is to speak and write sincerely. we cannot adequately say. questions." 4. "was ever written down by any but itself. 26. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 7. 380. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 5. if continuously extended.² Definition.²which will not be disposed of. though we may repeat the words never so often. 3. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. would easily reach. 382. (b) First analyze. How formed. and not from his heart. "No book. that it was no more than his daily walk. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. COMPOUND SENTENCES. Hence the definition. then map out as in Sec. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 27. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 28. but above it. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. if there be one to whom I am not equal. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 383. or commands. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. and stamped with his right number. That which we do not believe. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face.

and none but he knows what that is which he can do. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. as in Sec. tell which are compound. moon-like ray" (adversative). a simple member. the waving grass. The division into members will be easier. Another example is. whereas. while (whilst). introduce independent clauses (see Sec. and connects the first and second complex members. now adverbs or prepositions." 384. he dilates. The coördinate conjunctions and. for. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). 297). and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. and nor the second and third complex members.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. "Only the star dazzles. and it shall be the universal sense. the semicolon separates the first. a complex member. from the second. Exercise. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. and not the form of the connective. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and which complex:² 1. if there are any. etc. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. Speak your latent conviction. Of the following illustrative sentences." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. Thus in (1). etc. 383 (1). Some of these are now conjunctions. which are simple statements. nor. as but. the planet has a faint. in (2). he walks with arms akimbo. or but. 385. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. he is twice a man. others sometimes coördinate. 386. nor does he know until he has tried. he soliloquizes. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. . Connectives. in (3).. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. yet. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. Study the thought. however.

the universe remains to the heart unhurt. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. passed in that time. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. quiet. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 364. you have gained something else. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. so is every one of its parts. (i) Separate it into its main members. However some may think him wanting in zeal. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. he grew up to be a mild. 2. For everything you have missed. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 11. the tax is certain. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 3. unobtrusive boy. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 14.2. that it was Easter Sunday. to find a pot of buried gold. . 13. 387. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 9. 3. I can still receive. all pain. and for everything you gain. The gain is apparent. 7. is particular. I can yet love. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 8. and not by what each is. 4. and thou shalt be loved. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 12. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. or. Whilst the world is thus dual. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 6. for example. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. and as yet very early in the morning. Love. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. 4. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. however. 5. 381. All loss. Exercise. yield to them heart and life. In this manner. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. nay. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. Man does not stand in awe of man. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. you lose something. 10. from a happy yet often pensive child.

Trust men. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 16. or sail with God the seas. let them mount and expand. 18. 20. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 9. whilst frankness invites frankness. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. "the iron is white. . Stand aside. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. We see the noble afar off. because. and the peace of society is often kept. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. 6. or we read books. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. or men will never know and honor him aright. "Strike." says the haymaker. We go to Europe. Whatever he knows and thinks. or hope. and not an emotion of bravery. 17. Come into port greatly. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. crook and hide. 19. and each shows only what lies at its focus. and they will be true to you. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads.5. and they repel us. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. puts the parties on a convenient footing. abide by it. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 14. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and not a thought has enriched either party. He teaches who gives. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and he learns who receives." says the smith. 21. They will shuffle and crow. feign to confess here. and the other dares not. or we pursue persons." "keep the rake. treat them greatly. that let him communicate. give those merits room. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. if you rip up his claims. 8. 7. 11. as children. and the cart as nigh the rake. and makes their business a friendship. and they will show themselves great. is as thin and timid as any. only that they may brag and conquer there. one is afraid." 13. why should we intrude? 10. 15. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. modesty. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. When you have chosen your part.

SYNTAX. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. they die young. verb and subject. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 23. Essential point in English syntax. pronoun and antecedent. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Ground covered by syntax.22. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. adjective and noun. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. but its leading characteristic is. it never was known to fall into the rear. We see young men who owe us a new world. or. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. INTRODUCTORY. and dodge the account. So does culture with us. so readily and lavishly they promise. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Do not craze yourself with thinking. they lose themselves in the crowd. 380. it ends in headache. 24. By way of introduction. but they never acquit the debt.²agreement and government. 390. if they live. the department of syntax will be a small affair. PART III. 388. Following the Latin method. but go about your business anywhere. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. 25.

take the sentence. . writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. distinct forms would be used. 393. Why study syntax? 391. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). In Latin.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. good English. then. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. pronoun and antecedent. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. authorities²that is. Also in the sentence. and imitate it. or settler may be the subject. There is. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. For example. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. Second. As an illustration of the last remark. the sentence. also expressing a possessive relation. and whose judgment." In this there is a possessive form. Some rules not rigid." is ambiguous. the order being inverted. therefore. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. or when they exist side by side in good usage. but are not now. In some cases. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and it would not matter which one stood first." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. etc. and nothing but important points will be considered. sometimes verb and subject. 392. as to study inflected forms. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. The basis of syntax. or the same writer will use both indifferently. some of which conform to classical grammar. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English.² First. following the regular order of subject. When usage varies as to a given construction. both forms will be given in the following pages. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. "None remained but he. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. "The savage here the settler slew. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts." that is. Savage may be the subject. and added to it the preposition of. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. This is not logical.

The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. ²ID. . In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²ROWE. the shore of Galilee. sense and nature's easy fool.²EMERSON. for example. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. and Peterborough's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.²MCCULLOCH. 395.² He lands us on a grassy stage.²BYRON. and Paul's. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. as.² Live your king and country's best support. but imply separate possession or ownership.²THACKERAY. and Harley's. and Pope's. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. 394. etc. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.²MACAULAY. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Woman." Juletta tells. Bentham's principles together. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²MILTON. 396. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Joint possession.NOUNS. Use of the possessive. PRONOUNS. 397. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Putting Mr. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²RUSKIN. Mill's and Mr. or indicate joint ownership or possession. He kept Bolingbroke's. Separate possession. 408). the antechamber of the High Priest. and Peter's.

whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. for example.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.²BYRON. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun." 400. as. Since most of the personal pronouns. But he must be a stronger than thee.²THACKERAY. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. who. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. 398. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. the last expression has the support of many good writers.²POPE. This should be "as she. I. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. No mightier than thyself or me. . Still. thus.) "The young Harper. 399. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.²TROLLOPE.²WHITCHER. there are two general rules that require attention. and should be the nominative form.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. others are generally. together with the relative who. Objective for the nominative. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. whom is the complement after the verb am. the real thought being forgotten. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.²SHAKESPEARE. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.²SOUTHEY." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. General rules. Some of the violations are universally condemned. Bedott Papers. sanctioned.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. if not universally. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.

and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent." There is no special reason for this. .²LONGFELLOW."²WINTHROP.²MACAULAY.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. One exception is to be noted." 401. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.² One I remember especially. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. And it was heThat made the ship to go. they are yet holier than we. The usage is too common to need further examples. it will not be me.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. the objective form is regularly found. as. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²SCOTT. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.² For there was little doubt that it was he. unless a special. are. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. for example. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. But still it is not she. on the other hand.²THACKERAY.²FIELDING. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. "Who's there?"²"Me. and the other forms of the verb be. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. The camp of Richard of England.²RUSKIN. namely. but such is the fact. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable."²KINGSLEY.²PARTON. A safe rule. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.²KINGSLEY.²COLERIDGE. In spoken English. Patrick the Porter. "Than whom."²WM. BLACK. is. both in England and America. "If there is any one embarrassed.

and prepositions. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 403. 8. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. 4. You know whom it is that you thus charge. "Ask the murderer. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. Whom they were I really cannot specify. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. Me in exclamations. Nominative for the objective. now. 3.Exercise. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. or preposition which governs it. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 404. 2. 11. or us).²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. as. used after verbs. you or me. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. as this from Shakespeare. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. or this. (3) By forgetting the construction. Truth is mightier than us all. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 10. the object of to). "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. verbal. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. as." the word being in apposition with murderer).² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life." 6. as. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. If there ever was a rogue in the world. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. . object of saw). It is not me you are in love with. 9. but not he" (he should be him. it is me. 7. I speak not to" (he should be him. verbals. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it.²MILTON. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 5. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me).

Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.²BYRON. Exercise.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. save thou and thine. 405. for example. None. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. "Who were they talking to?" etc. I've sworn. Exception 2. . I arraign. Thy shores are empires. as. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²STEELE. all but he. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²KINGSLEY. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. after the preposition but (sometimes save).Exception 1.² All were knocked down but us two. 406. partial Nature. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Nature. "Who did you see?" or.²KINGSLEY. as well as the objective. who interrogative. as. and is usually avoided.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.²BYRON.²GOLDSMITH. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²KINGSLEY. Let you and I look at these. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form.Shall be left upon the morn. 2. etc. We regularly say. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. changed in all save thee. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. but he. for they say there are none such in the world. Who have we here?²ID. Thou.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.

This usage is not frequent. As antecedent of a relative. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Preceding a gerund. 8. They crowned him long ago. 5. They are coming for a visit to she and I.²DE QUINCEY. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea.²THACKERAY. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.Ye I salute. BROWN.²possessive. who. 12. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²C. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. B.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. II.²SCOTT. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. and they know that as well as me.3. with Jortin and Thirlby. 6. or objective? . I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 407.²RUSKIN." 4. 9. Markland. 11.²MACAULAY. Bartholomew. 10. 7. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.

etc. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. object of heard of. studying is a gerund.²RUSKIN. Here I state them only in brief. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. The use of the objective is older. Objective.²DE QUINCEY. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.² SCOTT. The last incident which I recollect.²MACAULAY.²BREWER. But in common use there is no such distinction. and asked why it was not made. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. Possessive. both are gerunds. Both types of sentences are found. We heard of Brown. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.² IRVING. as he turned away from his wife." That is.²CARLYLE. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. and the meaning is. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. In the examples quoted. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and that in the second. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.408. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²DICKENS. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. sometimes it has the objective. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.² THACKERAY. that the bitterness of death was past. [who was] studying law. Why both are found.² CARLYLE. . He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.

²HOLMES.²HUXLEY.²THACKERAY. and gender. Everybody had his own life to think of. the pronoun will be neuter singular. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²C. 410. .² BRYANT. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. where there were examinations. or is a distributive word. Examples of these constructions are.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²THOREAU. BROCKDEN BROWN. Every city threw open its gates. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. Watch for the real antecedent. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. number. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. it was his own fault. preceded by a distributive.²RUSKIN. taking in each of many persons. The pale realms of shade.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²DEFOE. If any one did not know it.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. In such a case as the last three sentences. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²DE QUINCEY. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²EMERSON III.²AUDUBON.²DE QUINCEY.²CABLE. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²when the antecedent. and ought to agree with them in person. if the antecedent is neuter. 409. in one person.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.

but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²AUSTEN. let them break it off. If the part deserve any comment.²PALEY. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²ID. This is not considered the best usage. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²PAULDING.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN.²FIELDING.²PALGRAVE. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. 411. The sun. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Whosoever hath any gold. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. till they have lost him.²HUXLEY.² Not the feeblest grandame. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.Avoided: By using both pronouns. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Struggling for life. By using the plural pronoun. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²ID.²SCOTT.²BIBLE. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. and giving them means of being so. not a mowing idiot.²BYRON. as anybody in their senses would have done. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²DEFOE. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. for example. .²THACKERAY. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.

the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.² SHERIDAN. when restrictive. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. Exercise. who went away. that being considered already clear. as. 412. A relative. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. but." A relative. and that always restrictive. I. which. What these terms mean. and does not add a new statement. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. In the following examples. according to the practice of every modern writer." It defines beggar. As to their conjunctive use. "I gave it to the beggar.Where she was gone. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. That is in most cases restrictive. unless both genders are implied. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. the definite relatives who. etc. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating.²ADDISON. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. because. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. . It adds a new statement to what precedes.²In the above sentences." This means. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.²ID. tell whether who. Exercise. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. in each instance:² Who. but. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. or unrestrictive. 413. 1. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. 2. or what was become of her. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. and he went away. when coördinating.) and a personal pronoun. no one could take upon them to say. and that are restrictive or not.²HAWTHORNE. which.

they. which Mr." that is invariable as to person and number. We say I. A grizzly-looking man appeared. Which. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. BEECHER 5. 7.²DE QUINCEY. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. etc. 9.²ADDISON. because of its antecedent. W. II. 14. The general rule is. However.² CARLYLE. The rule. these or that which. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. it makes the verb third person singular. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. . who. Hare has printed. 13. and over England are saying. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.²ID. in the sentence. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. but. down. he. she agreed to join the party. Yet how many are there who up. 4. With narrow shoulders.3.²ID. 12. On hearing their plan. For example. 8. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.²THOREAU. 10. that were often vicious.² IRVING. which was to go over the Cordilleras.² MOTLEY. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 414. long arms and legs. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. you. etc. 11. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. etc. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.²HOLMES.² NEWMAN. That.²DE QUINCEY. In what sense true. and it is called logic. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. So different from the wild.²H. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 6. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. as that does not vary for person or number.

Singular. but the former has good authority. when he derided the shams of society.²ADDISON. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. The fiery youth . or which . It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. [plural] that who. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY." One of . MORSE.²HOLMES. The latter is rather more frequent. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.] Both constructions are frequently found.²whether we should say.. in winning a battle.²M. Let us be of good cheer..²LECKY.. A disputed point. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. etc. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. the true antecedent. [singular or plural. Franklin.²BOWLES. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.. He is one of those that deserve very well. who rarely speak at all. JR. "one of the finest books that has been published." or.. . but speaks of him as that sort.²MACAULAY. with one as the principal word. ARNOLD. etc.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.²SCOTT. and in improving a victory. "one of the finest books that have been published. but myself. others regard books as the antecedent. and write the verb in the plural. T.. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²J. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. 415. French literature of the eighteenth century. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books..²ADDISON.²LOWELL.²LOWELL.²HOWELLS.

Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. I could see nothing except the sky.² THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH.²CARLYLE. 417. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. and see if the sentence is made clearer.A rare Roundabout performance. that is. IV.²In the above sentences. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. when the relative word is a pronoun. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²ID.²VAUGHAN.And.In that same state I came. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. Exercise.²BURNS.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. and such like: as.²SWIFT. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE." "India is the place [in which.²EMERSON. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. The same day I went aboard we set sail. return.² . III. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. But I by backward steps would move. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. object of a preposition understood. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²EMERSON.²IRVING. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. whence." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. when this dust falls to the urn. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.² RUSKIN. 416.²DEFOE.²ADDISON. where. or where] he died.²SCOTT. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came."²DICKENS.

she passed the lamp over her face and person. for example. etc. Anacoluthic use of which. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles.² THACKERAY. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. W.²SWIFT. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² Which. or that. The regular construction. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. he.. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. Caution. and working in the same spirit. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. but which is usually carefully avoided. as of knives. That. with Turner.²R. as is not used. but we find the relative who. boats. I might as well have staid at home. 418.² BURKE.. . looking-glasses. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Which. ²GOLDSMITH. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. but. if I had resolved to go on with. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.² MACAULAY. was a discoverer. Mr. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. which. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.²WORDSWORTH. V.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.²FRANKLIN. CHURCH.me as his apprentice. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²ADDISON. They believe the same of all the works of art. if same is followed by a complete clause.He considered.²SCOTT.

but none is expressed. 419. now thrown upon their. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²SHAKESPEARE.²SCOTT. and this be placed in the proper clause. 2. Express both relatives. 4." etc. (1) "Among those who are poor. And who. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.²GOLDSMITH. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors.²HAWTHORNE. But who. which when Mr. he said that all submission was now too late.²THACKERAY. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. and which. He delivered the letter. or leave out both connective and relative. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. etc.. Exercise.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²DE QUINCEY.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. or. After this came Elizabeth herself. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who." etc.² Direction for rewriting. (2) "Among the poorer sort. once a great favorite of M." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.. That is. 3. 1. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. who are now thrown.²RUSKIN. Exercise. This was a gentleman.²which if they once heard. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. As the sentences stand. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. le Conte. or omit the conjunction. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. Thornhill had read. and who are now. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure..Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. but.She'd come again." etc. . etc.

13.² MOTLEY. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. . and to whom no door is closed.. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. 10. etc. But which. 7..²SCOTT. "What knight so craven.²DE QUINCEY. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. the French..²IRVING. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. as a false and astucious mark.²HAWTHORNE. That . and which. like that spoken in the towns. 12. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 1. who.5. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. one of signal interest. English by name. which the Scotch had learned. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Akin to the above is another fault. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. I shall have complete copies. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . indeed. and which has never been described. Or which. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²SCOTT. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 8. and repeat this for any further reference. I saw upon the left a scene far different. 11. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. which is likewise a variation from the best usage." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. etc. either from imitation of their frequent allies.. 6. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin.²DE QUINCEY. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. 9. Exercise. And which. 420. then.²PEARSON. "A mockery. Or who. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. and which may even be heard a mile off. Dr.

²HAWTHORNE. 5. whom. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.. 4. Which . I grudge the dollar. that . That . 14.. G.. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.2. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. at the head of what. SIMMS. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. in his Mephistopheles. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. such as they have very probably been bred to.. the cent. which. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. 11. Such as .²DEFOE. 3. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. was hung in air. 15.²HALLAM.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.²HOWELLS. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. I recommend some honest manual calling.²HOLMES. 12.. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. half a century ago. Such as .. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 10. I give to such men as do not belong to me. In my native town of Salem. 6.²W.... CHANNING. and whose examples and principles we inherit. but which is perhaps not so different from it. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. 9. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. E. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. was a bustling wharf. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.²SCOTT. what. the dime. but which.²DE QUINCEY. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. which. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. He.²SCOTT That which . that. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. 8. The Tree Igdrasil. It rose into a thrilling passion..²EMERSON.²W. in his present condition.²BEECHER. 7.. 13.²EMERSON. and to whom I do not belong. . He flung into literature.

Each other.²ID. . either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. 422. in which case any should be used instead.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²EMERSON. England was then divided between kings and Druids. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. 421.²HAWTHORNE. as it were. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. as. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. one another. We call ourselves a rich nation. By their original meaning. that not all combined. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²MACAULAY. always at war with one another.² Some one must be poor. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²RUSKIN. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²DICKENS.² HAWTHORNE. for example. as. Assume that no one is in want of either.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.²GOLDSMITH. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²RUSKIN. Use of any. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. Distributives either and neither. whether or not the two are equivalent.

then in Plutarch. Do you think.²EMERSON. Caution.. and is isolated. let him ask of God. Do you think. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. None usually plural.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.²FRANKLIN. at one time in Bacon. whilst I still cherish their genius. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²PROF. afterwards in Goethe. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²BEECHER Whenever. 424. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.²STIRLING. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. etc. any of his friends had died. . In earlier Modern English. I beseech you. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²SHAKESPEARE. in the prose of the present day. that I know of. as none of the French philosophers were.² EMERSON. The adjective pronoun none is. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. when any of them are so good as to visit me.. then in Plotinus. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. before that. as. Any usually plural.²BIBLE. during his stay at Yuste. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. if ever man was.²SCOTT.² In earnest. Examples of its use are. even in Bettine. If any of you lack wisdom.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . which is plural as often as singular. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). speak. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. in Shakespeare. as.² If any. any was often singular. None of Nature's powers do better service. for him have I offended. 423.²CARLYLE.²BURKE.²THACKERAY.. usually plural.

and Ford has nobody's else. the plural. nobody else. for example. The compounds somebody else. saving Naaman the Syrian.² None of them was cleansed. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²THOREAU.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. fixing his eyes on the mace. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and all was lost on the other. etc. When all were gone.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.² PEARSON. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. etc. The light troops thought . 425.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²McMASTER. which is used absolutely. etc. and less rarely in poetry. when it means all persons: for example. any one else. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . as.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.² Singular. etc. or somebody else's? 426... that all was lost. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.²NAPIER Plural. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. Somebody's else.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. are treated as units.

Whitefield or Wesley. for example. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²DICKENS. These sort. His hair. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. "Ye see. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. all manner of.²THACKERAY.²AUSTEN. STOWE.² These kind of knaves I know.²G. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²N. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.² Saturday Review. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. etc. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. unlike anybody else's in the world. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated."²MRS." "those kind of trees. or some other such great man as a bishop. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).SYDNEY SMITH.²SHERIDAN. P.² FIELDING. etc. ELIOT.curled once all over it in long tendrils. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. Again." the nouns being singular. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²RUSKIN..²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. or those sort of people.²SWEET. .²RUSKIN. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²MULOCH." "all manner of men. 427. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²in such as "these sort of books. London. ADJECTIVES.. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. WILLIS. the adjectives plural.

²RUSKIN. Should we say. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. not "all kinds of wild animals. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. more alarming than a total silence. in spoken English. which accounts for the construction. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." A question. At the source. Consequently we have a confused expression." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). "This sort of trees should be planted. gradually displacing the old. with all manner of amusing books. History of this construction. they said. "This kind of rules are the best." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. 428. to express a higher degree of quality. such as. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English.² PRESCOTT. or the nouns to the plural. In Old and Middle English. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. "A sort of uncertain sounds are.The library was open. This the modern expression reverses. the victor or the vanquished. and in this way may take a plural verb. or one object with a class of objects. The result. when the necessary dispositions concur." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. "These kind of trees are best. made to agree with it. Later form. . Burke's sentence.² Which is the better able to defend himself. Use of the comparative degree. as." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. and the adjective is. for example. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. Of two such lessons. According to the approved usage of Modern English. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract.

but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. Exercise. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. would not have had the face. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. etc.²MACAULAY. Henry.²MACAULAY.² THACKERAY.²HUXLEY. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men."²ID.A braver ne'er to battle rode. by almost the breadth of my nail.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 5. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 3. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Even Dodd himself. has sanctioned. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. 2. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. the highest stakes are paid. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. Use of the superlative degree. . He is taller. I am concerned to see that Mr. 429. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²CARLYLE. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. if not.²SCOTT. Superlative with two objects.²LOWELL. Gary.²HAWTHORNE. Other after the comparative form.²TROLLOPE.²WIRT. 6. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. To the man who plays well. than any of his court. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. 430. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. 4.

² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²SCOTT.²MRS.²TEMPEST.²BEN JONSON. Examples from Shakespeare are. .²HAMLET. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. Also from the same period. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature..²EMERSON. and the other contains the best men.²ADDISON. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. In all disputes between States. These two properties seem essential to wit. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²DR BLAIR. "Ha. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Double comparative and superlative.²IRVING. I should say that one has the best cause.²Bible. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Rip was one of those .. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Come you more nearer. 1611.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. The following examples are used purposely. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. more particularly the last of them.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense."²GOLDSMITH. and differ only in form."²BULWER. who eat white bread or brown. The eldest. not a bit of high life among them. ha. CÆSAR. OLIPHANT.²J. whichever can be got easiest. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. After the most straitest sect of our religion.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. 431."²HAWTHORNE. Mary.

²PRESCOTT. First three.²KINGSLEY. . over which a little war has so long been buzzing. ARTICLES. Three first. The meaning intended is the same.² With a singular noun. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.²DE QUINCEY. Definite article.²GIBBON. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²RUSKIN. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. etc.² SMOLLETT. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. Instances of both are given below. As to these two expressions. the Spanish. 433. The first five had specific names. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The merit of the Barb. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.²RUSKIN. The delay in the first three lines. and conceit in the last. For Carlyle. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²LAMB. and Secretary Walsingham also.²GIBBON. but in literary English. Examples of this construction are.²ADDISON.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. not only so in popular speech. etc. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. jar upon us constantly. ²COWPER.

At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²ID.² MACAULAY. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . The flowers. however. with a plural noun. distinct.²CARLYLE.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. the greatest poems. 434. He is master of the two-fold Logos. as. and the presents. as. the thought and the word. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. to distinguish clearly. 433.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. or to emphasize the meaning.²MACAULAY. One object and several modifiers. Frequently. The lofty. Origin of the Aryans.² RUSKIN. the hour of parting came. melodious. of the higher and middling orders.²THACKERAY.. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²SCOTT. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. 435.²TAYLOR. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.²PRESCOTT. I think. No. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. Here the youth of both sexes. With a plural noun. The not repeated. with a singular noun. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. Indefinite article. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. but is used with one only. as in Sec. but inseparable from each other. Meaning same as in Sec.²NEWMAN.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.²THE NATION. 1508. were placed at a very tender age. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. of the eighteenth century.. and flexible language. 433. having been arranged. .²TENNYSON.

²THACKERAY. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. a tyrant. or clearness to each of several nouns.² MACAULAY. He saw him in his mind's eye. a murderer. one noun is expressed.² BURKE.436." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. interest.²B. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. One article with several adjectives. 435. a round and a square one alternately.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. and a usurper. For rhetorical effect. as in the first three of Sec. 433 and 436. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. 438. But in the following sentences. 436). . and inexhausted vein. JONSON. like the definite article. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²BEECHER. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. T. In the sentences of Secs.²DICKENS. COLERIDGE.²S.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²MACAULAY. 437.²JOHNSON." and "a red and a white geranium. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. to limit two or more modified nouns. rich.An early. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. Examples of this use are.²MACAULAY. The indefinite article is used. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. as. a collegian. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²BULWER. only one of which is expressed. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.²DRYDEN. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.

for example. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. was the earliest American land. all that academies can give.²COOPER. Another writer might.²FROUDE. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Such. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. A broad and loose rule.²The Nation. has got already. He sees that it is better to live in peace. and the following illustrations prove it. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. then. . ARNOLD. as. 276. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.²CARLYLE This usage.²G. Singulars connected by or or nor. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. ELIOT. as. or the great intellectual life of our nation. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Collective noun of singular meaning.²M.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²GIBBON. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle..VERBS. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. 439. like some others in this series. In English. Sec. Singular verb. 440. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²AGASSIZ. without academies.²W. This was spoken of in Part I.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.

seems at the moment unpaid loss. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. ADAMS. as.Jesus is not dead.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. or considered as appositional.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²GOLDSMITH. ²EMERSON.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. as. Between ourselves. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. for example.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²BURKE. the cheap defense of nations.² Politics is the only field now open for me. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. but considered as meaning about the same thing. nor John. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. other names.²WHITTIER. for example. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. and other singulars of plural form.²EMERSON . No.²GIBBON. or as making up one general idea. a loss of friends. and every four hours. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but each one emphatic. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. (4) When the subject is plural in form. is gone.² The unbought grace of life.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. nor Paul. nor Mahomet. Plural form and singular meaning. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. A fever.² GOLDSMITH. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²CRITIC. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²DE QUINCEY. that of a large town. a loss of wealth.²J.² In a word. a cruel disappointment. Q. a mutilation.

²ID. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. the dismay. sir!" and the "What then. Every fop. the ruin. was like to crack. an agitated gesture. sir?" and the "No. almost every day. Her back. To receive presents or a bribe. was listened to for five hours. thus. a gorget. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. For wide is heard the thundering fray. the wit.²EMERSON.²MACAULAY. The oldest. Plural verb. every valet.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. Then comes the "Why. was dazzled. Every week. the partisan.The rout.²NEWMAN. no discontinuity. There is a moving tone of voice. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. as. as well as sides. Subjects after the verb. as. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. sir!"²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. Every sound. as well as the Drama.² Asia.² There is a right and a wrong in them. is a man of wit.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. and greaves. does not take the place of the man. Here is no ruin. a cuirass. as well as the newest. each. wineBegins to stir itself. The Epic. as well as Europe. every echo. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. with death.²PRESCOTT. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. was punished. many a. an impassioned countenance. nay. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. no.The author.²M ARNOLD. 441. the fine gentleman. in a judge.²ID.²HAWTHORNE.²SCOTT.²LONGFELLOW.² .²BUTLER.²RUSKIN. no spent ball. every boor.²MACAULAY. no matter if the second is plural). and such like adjectives.

(3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. a stream of fresh water. as. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²SWIFT. as in Sec. The Dauphin.² A multitude go mad about it.² One or two of these perhaps survive. Far.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. Philip of Anjou. a green pasture. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. . (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. the Duke of Berri. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. far away thy children leave the land. but the verb is plural.²SCOTT. as with a subject of plural form.²CARLYLE But its authorship. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. A shady grove.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²B. are sufficient to attract a colony.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. shirt.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. The travelers. for example.²THOREAU.²DE QUINCEY. of whom there were a number.²FROUDE.²GOLDSMITH. its date. were men of insignificant characters.²ADDISON.² GIBBON. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. His clothes.²COLERIDGE. 440 (5. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²EMERSON. The conjunction may be omitted.²FRANKLIN. as.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. Conjunction omitted. making up a plural subject.²GIBBON.²FROUDE.These bits of wood were covered on every square. b). TAYLOR. and its history are alike a mystery to us. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. All our household are at rest. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.

).²WHITTIER. Pattison or I have said." etc. "I have never said so. 444. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. This construction is at the best a little awkward. Exceptional examples. for example. .²D. of different persons. ARNOLD. General usage. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and." "She or you may be sure. 442. we never talk politics.²M.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. but thou. Not I.²RUSKIN. the subject being really equivalent to we. 443.²THACKERAY. When the subjects. but thou. nor has she").²LOWELL. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²DE QUINCEY. hadst been my lord. as. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. his blood dost shed. You and I are farmers.²SMOLLETT. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. that is.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY. If there is only one person in the subject.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²RUSKIN. nor should I. Not Altamont.²ROWE. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²BYRON.But notice the construction of this. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. "You would not be wiser. the verb takes the construction of the first person. WEBSTER. "He or I can go." or. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. Second or third and first person in the subject. You and I are tolerably modest people. Nothing which Mr. Ah.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.

" the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. 2.²BYRON.²perhaps the devil.²SCOTT. 7. Neither of their counselors were to be present. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.That neither of their intellects are vast. BANCROFT. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²G. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. 9. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²ADDISON.²EMERSON. 446. in my opinion. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. as illustrated above (Secs. 12.²THACKERAY. Also in verbals. Nor wood. as we would hope. How each of these professions are crowded. The following illustrate exceptional usage. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 8.² TROLLOPE. 440-444):² 1.²BURKE.²SMOLLETT. 10.²and.445. nor bush are there.Her course to intercept.²MILTON. In the following sentence.²ADDISON. 5. Exercise. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Neither of them. In a word. 6.²ID. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. In this sentence from Defoe. which it is proper to mention. 4. 3. Both death and I am found eternal. 11. nor tree. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.

as. Indirect discourse means reported speech. for exact connection.²THACKERAY. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. meaning. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. I gave one quarter to Ann. It should be remarked. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence..²MACAULAY. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . 4. to have divided with her whatever might remain." . He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. on my return.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. 3. however. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. The present rule is recent. change them to a better form:² 1. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. Two samples of indirect discourse. 448. W.²DE QUINCEY 2.²FRANKLIN 6. CHURCH.² PALGRAVE 5. But I found I wanted a stock of words. to have seen should be changed to to see.²R.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. Exercise. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.. Of course.²KINGSLEY.²IRVING. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. 447. if not. Direct discourse²that is. Definitions.

Oh. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. 1. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.. introductory verb is in the past tense. "I cannot oblige you . Sebastian's. Summary of the expressions. She thought to herself. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead.. interrogative adverbs. . have. "Oh. 2. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. will." etc. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. etc." Indirect.." etc. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk.. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. under interrogative pronouns. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. and the indirect question by whether or if. Direct. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. This includes the auxiliaries be. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. His exact words were.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Her prudence whispered eternally. The substance of his lamentation was. or regular interrogatives. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Direct. 449. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main.

. the first discoverer of the river and country." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. if this were expanded into a verb.²GOLDSMITH. 450. and that he himself had heard. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. my first observation will be found nearly true.Exercise. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Careless use of the participial phrase. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. being the course which his confessor had enjoined.²ID. the sound of their balls. The trouble is. with his crew of the Half-moon. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²ADDISON.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. in the sentences first quoted. like distant peals of thunder. VERBALS. one summer afternoon. FRANKLIN. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. handed down from his ancestor the historian. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. PARTICIPLES. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Notice this. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster.²B.

²ID.²RUSKIN. avoid it. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . For example. 451.Correction. There are. This is the more common arrangement. purposely or not. It is a solemn. leaving the principal statement as it is. 2." Exercise. many things to be carefully considered.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.²SCOTT. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. Adverb between to and the infinitive. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.² HERBERT SPENCER.. the first sentence would be.²LAUGHLIN. . to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.. . while defended or excused by others.. In the following citations. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. and often.. 3. either "As I was pleased. INFINITIVES. Exercise.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage." etc. then. if a strike is to succeed. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. universal assertion. my first collection was. Standard writers often use it.

ADVERBS.4.. Now. BLAIR. The spirits. is to be very cautiously admitted. A little sketch of his. this kind of grandeur. etc. and earthenware. In works of art. 9. I wish the reader to clearly understand.² ADDISON. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. etc. but it is placed before the infinitive." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.²The Nation. therefore. china. Exercise. if they modify single words. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.²TROLLOPE. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. 11.²RUSKIN. 12. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.²SCOTT. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. The rigid rule in such a case would be. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. but they are often removed from the exact position. even.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. which consists in multitude. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 13.²ID. etc. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. 1533. when such adverbs as only. 452. are used.² MACAULAY.. but cannot misunderstand the thought. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. from Irving. 5. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. No. 6. even. 10.²BURKE. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 8.²GOLDSMITH. Position of only. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned.²DR. 7.

Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 5. ²ASCHAM. 3. 6. 17. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. His last journey to Cannes. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. In Old and Middle English. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 15. were he never so old of yeares. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. might not marry. 7. Irving could only live very modestly. WILLIS. He shouted in those clear. 453. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²RUSKIN. 16. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²ID. 2. to avoid a crowd.²ID.1. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. The old usage.²ID.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²THACKERAY. 14.²COOPER.² THACKERAY. My master. 8. 9.²N.²PALGRAVE. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²MOTLEY. 10. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²MACAULAY.²CHAUCER. In relating these and the following laws. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. GROTE.²SWIFT. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²MRS.²SYDNEY SMITH. .²EMERSON. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 13. for example. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 11. whence he was never destined to return. 4. P. During the whole course of his administration. 12.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²HIGGINSON. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. No sonne.

one of the negatives is often a prefix. However. and is still kept in vulgar English. uncommon. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. ²PAGE.²BURKE. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.²BAYNE. if two negatives are found together. . The prosperity of no empire. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. as."²MRS. denying each other. 6. and why:² 1. STOWE. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. under the influence of Latin syntax. when one of the negatives is a connective.²HOLMES. in Ole Virginia.² HAMILTON.²HAWTHORNE. however. But. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. Exceptional use. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. who hadn't been to school for nothing. There weren't no pies to equal hers. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. 4. STOWE.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. as infrequent. I did not act so hastily. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. Not only could man not acquire such information. In the execution of this task. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. but ought not to labor after it. 7. the usual way of regarding the question now is.²LOWELL. 5. nor the grandeur of no king. can so agreeably affect. In the latter case. neither. Therefore. This. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. I never did see him again.²DEFOE. Regular law of negative in modern English.²DE QUINCEY.²MRS. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. nor never shall. is not common. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. 2.²GROTE. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. Exercise. 3."²four negatives. etc.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.

Things to be watched. In the sentence.. but. "A weapon. The sentences given in Secs.. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. if the last precedes a verb. should be scrutinized. Choice and proper position of correlatives. or to reply to it.. the first should also. either ." Besides neither ." said the King.... and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. nor. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. not or is the proper correlative of neither.²PRESCOTT. And who.. not merely . and. as the use of the conjunction. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. especially both . not only to the success of their common cause. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace... 454.²SCOTT. and which. CONJUNCTIONS. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. or to reply to it.. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. Correction.. if the second precedes a phrase. nor is often changed to not²either .." both of the above requirements are violated.. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs..²LOWELL. there we were. the first ought to be placed before a verb. but (also). or. but to their own safety. 455.. The sentence." may be changed to "This loose ... or with advantage. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. either." . not only .8. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. as well as of the pronoun. neither .. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. or.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever."²SCOTT. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. "well worthy to confer honor. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. even neither .

But what. etc.²THACKERAY.²FRANKLIN. Now. but they will outrage.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.²MACAULAY. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 4.²THACKERAY. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. Exercise.² ADDISON. and chop up their own kin. 457. 8. or but that for the words but what:² 1. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. or the negative relative but. . which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. O. 2. murder. We will try and get a clearer notion of them." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. Try and for try to. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous.²GIBBON. nor the disgrace of assailing him. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. but grown-up persons.²GOLDSMITH.Exercise.²ID. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. not merely interest children. Some exceptions. as.²S. In the following sentences. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. They will. 6. JEWETT. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²BAIN. but. 7. but. and I don't know but what he was right. 3. or but that. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 5. Try and avoid the pronoun.²RUSKIN. as. substitute that. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. too. 456. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.

2. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. see Sec. 313. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²BURKE. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.² BULWER. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²ADDISON. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. as already seen in Sec.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 458. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²EMERSON. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. no separation or division by twos being implied. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. . 5. Between is used most often with two things only. 459. 6. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 3. 4. Between and among.²TROLLOPE.² SWIFT. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. PREPOSITIONS. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 305.²ADDISON. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.

averse. Acquit of. Dissent from. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. . Kant. by custom. Such are absolve. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Dependent on (upon). between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.²RUSKIN What have I. 460. and another to convey a different meaning. Accord with. Mackintosh. Such are derogatory. as. as. or one object and a group. Some of them have. Comply with. Different from. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Two groups or one and a group. Conversant with. List I. Affinity between. 461. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. a soldier of the Cross.²KINGSLEY. and Stewart. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. and Coleridge.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Averse to. etc. LIST I. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. different. confer.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.: Words with particular prepositions. Abhorrent to. correspond. Derogatory to. involve. and philosophers like Locke. Bestow on (upon). Paley. ²EMERSON. Conform to.

Confer with (talk with). Change to (become)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Reconcile to (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with. in the sense of making friends with.y y y Deprive of. 463. and sometimes creeps into standard books. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Change with (a person)." also of persons. A taste for (art. Independent of. Differ from (note below). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). . Differ with (note below). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. as. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England.). Correspond to (a thing). Change for (a thing). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). "The king is reconciled to his minister. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Involve in. List II. A taste of (food).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Confide to (intrust to). LIST II. Agree to (a proposal). as. Confer on (upon) (give to). Reconcile with (note below). 462. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. as. LIST III. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Confide in (trust in). Correspond with (write to)." List III. etc. but it is not good usage.

Who.²G. they shall die by this hand." (material cause. "Die for. expect from. privation. part with. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²BURNETT.²MACAULAY.²SHAKESPEARE." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger." etc. If I meet with any of 'em.²POPE.²GOLDSMITH. die for. simply from old age. It would take me long to die of hunger. die with. Illustrations of "die of." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²ADDISON. No one died from want at Longfeld. died for love of the fair Marcella.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. "Die from. "Die for. and ill treatment. People do not die of trifling little colds. Part from. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. die of.y y y Die by.²MACAULAY.:² "Die of. "Die with. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²GOLDSMITH.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.²FIELDING. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²SCOTT. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. ²ATHENÆUM.²MACAULAY. She died of hard work. Expect of. One of them said he would die for her. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²G. ELIOT." (because of). die from. "Die by. . I am positively dying with hunger." (in behalf of). instrument). as Cervantes informs us." She would have been ready to die with shame.²BOSWELL." "die from. ²THACKERAY. ELIOT.²BULWER. He died at last without disease.

465.²MACAULAY. I part with all that grew so near my heart. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. "Expect from. kind of you. With words implying behavior or disposition. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. ELIOT.²WALLER. 464. "Part from. and hated to part with them. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²WALPOLE.²DICKENS." "expect from:"² "Expect of. Burke parted from him with deep emotion." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. Of Doctor P.²SHAW. That is more than I expected of you.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²BULWER. . ELIOT." To part from you would be misery. It was a little bad of you.²SCOTT. just parted from her.²POE." She will expect more attention from you. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. Illustrations of "expect of." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²G. nothing better was to be expected. Kind in you. His precious bag. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²G. I can part with my children for their good. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²MACAULAY. either of or in is used indifferently. 466. ELIOT. as my friend. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²MARRYAT." "part from:"² "Part with. which he would by no means part from. I have just seen her.²BULWER.²G.²AUSTEN. Illustrations of "part with. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²TROLLOPE.

nor yellow. and ran up the alley. 4. 3. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 10. it is commonly said that his profits are high. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 5. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. In.²DICKENS. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 6. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 8.He did not think it handsome of you. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. nor green. nor of a pale red. the vast abyss. Very natural in Mr. or which we are most imperatively required to do.²BULWER. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. But this is idle of you. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. The noise of vast cataracts. 15. In the friction between an employer and workman. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. or that they are any way dependent on each other. Thou tread'st. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. tedious perhaps.²TENNYSON. . 1. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. This narrative.²BULWER. nor blue. It will be anything but shrewd in you. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. raging storms. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. or artillery.²BEACONSFIELD. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. Hampden. 14. 13.²CARLYLE. thrown it over Amyas's head. 7. thunder. with seraphims. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 11. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. 9. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. but which the story renders necessary.

You have seen Cassio and she together. But every man may know. 20. you or me. save Amyas. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. When the glass or liquor are transparent. were down with raging fever. 32. and other angular figures. 26. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. Squares. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is.) 34. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. That night every man of the boat's crew. 36. Every one of these letters are in my name. The effect of proportion and fitness. produce approbation. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 24. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 27. the acquiescence of the understanding. 19. 22. 28. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 18. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 35. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. but in the price paid to them. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 30. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 25. Friday. 17. 16.I would wish me only he. (Sec. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. and most of us do know. 37. 29. 23.And were I anything but what I am. 411. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. and almost as good as a pony. what is a just and unjust act. 31. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 33. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. triangles. . 38. or how beautiful it is. 21. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it.

107. of. 239. adjectives. 102. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. demonstrative. as comparison definition demonstrative. 119. voice. from about 1500 to the present time. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 260. 98. 20. of. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. of.000 between them. 92. Abstract with Active Address. of. origin of. 47. INDEX. 124.39. . and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. adverbs used complements. (2) Middle English. 116. nominative. pronouns. Adjectives. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 40. article. syntax uses Absolute. 89. nouns. 133. of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. as. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 25. numeral. 124. 310. (3) Modern English. A. 47. from nominative clauses. 90. He had four children. 91.

303. Alms. modify. 287. adjectives. 115. 27. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 316. nouns. between of. of. quantity. infinitive. antecedent. 194. 302. objective. 239. 195. Against. 99. 103. adjectives. 291. 190. of. 303. 242. 325. 184. conjunctions. 97. 325. 109. of. conjunction. Agreement. 262. plural pronominal. 116. of. parse. of. 116. 183. 114. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. predicate. 194. from to of. . parse. and 185. sentence. adjectives. nouns. 275. of. 27. 323. antecedent. 190. quality. of.from function how in not of of ordinal. 104. clauses. as nouns. 42. 191. 328. 207. compared. 48. 207. 148. 101. to used of. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 106. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 187. with with with subject. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun.

264. 74. sentences. sentences. adjective. 300. 198. syntax. words between. 287. 120. after of. pronouns. of. of of of And Antecedent. which. 240. 101. 47. 331. A. of. of. though. 79. which. 271. to of. possessive. 49. 148. and. 90. 51. 296. agreement personal as pronoun. sentences. which. it. of and pronoun of. definition of of of Any. 67. uses As At. 84. 294. 309. derivation in definite. See 74. 120. Anacoluthon Analysis. 295. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. parse. syntax As. of. as uses verbs. Are. definition how indefinite. same. 127. 231. 225. . See with definition complex compound simple who. 124. 275.Among. Agreement. An. of. Arrangement Articles. 150. 208. Auxiliary if. 252. 207. 67. in in.

Clause. clauses of. Brethren. 46. 47. of what. adverb. Children. Bridegroom. 195. 262. 110. 45. uses of. of. 330. But. 150. Case. 110. 49. 39. uses nominative of. syntax of. See of. 224. definition could. number of. 39. of pronouns. . conjunctions Cherub. 278. uses Better. comparison conjugation of. best. double possessive. Among. 210. 149. 66.Bad. 279. 161. adjective. 279. forms. 48. of pronouns. of pronouns. 54. 111. of nouns. of nouns. Can. Case. objective. of. of. 260. pronoun. of nouns. 62. 64. of nouns. 278. 84. Between. plurals of. 283. Be. 262. 63. 37. 46. of pronouns. possessive. Cause. in Old and Modern English. nominative. with But By. 194.

of. 110. of. sentence. 43. 108. nouns. 263. 312. clothes. and sentence. verb. analysis of. 43. of. 24. nouns. of. proper. adjectives. infinitive. of. material. 264. definition degrees irregular. superlative. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 18. 268. of. plural of. 189.definition kinds noun. 53. 258. 257. double. 257. predicate of and from from of. defective. 108. in analysis. predicate. 157. subject. 257. 307. 111. of. 271. 113. Cloths. 248. 239. 315. 18. of. 244. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 158. 107. 307. nouns. Clomb. . adverbs. and forms of. 305. 12. 23. Cleave. of. English.

255. 289. See in subjunctive. to of. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. analysis. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. correlative. in Old vs. See English. 149. 199. pronoun. 195. same words. 73. sentences. 66. of of Conjunctions. Conjunctions. interrogative pronouns. 193. 143. definition how subordinate. 194. . 231. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. conjunctions. subjunctive. 138. Dative Declarative Declension of case. Can. and clause. pronouns. verbs. parse. definition be. See analysis clauses.with Concord. 149. of. 269. 196. Agreement. 263. adverbs. conjunction. coördinate. of. 195. 328. sentence. 151. 194. 194. 188. 207. replaced by objective. conjunctions. sentences. pronoun. other other parts of speech. 139.

Degrees. from. comparative. with. passive adjectives. object. Comparison. for. article. of. 43. use of dies. See See 48. 160. nouns. verb. possessive. 242. 60. 320. 26. See 148. 185. 90. by. 303. of personal relative verbs. discourse. 152. of. Case. . clause. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. See adjectives. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. pronouns. 287. 102. 242. nouns. 300. 102. adverbs See adjectives. indirect. pronouns. 80. pronouns. 51. 99. pronouns. tenses. vs. 288. of. 333. Comparative. duck. Subordinate clause.Declension. 35. Articles. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 91. with of. of. 315.

280. literary. 234. 299. other. 92. 62. the of sentence. of. in 'Em. of. 194. of subject. 257. 158. possessive suffix. of. feminine plural English. 287. one ( t). 34. adjective. predicate. object. 90. ending. 90. to suffix. 300. added suffix. 92. 12. of. 255. conjunction. drunk. pronouns. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. -En. another. older. Elements Ellipsis. 40. Either. 241. 110. 328. Empress. 33. 92. syntax Each Eat Eaves. . 51. adjective. complement. 33. vulgar. pronoun. plural. 240. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. pronoun. 112. error in sentence.Drank. 158. spoken. 39. of. of. original. 42. Each. 102. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 38. suffix. 287. 32.

103. See Gander. gender. have adjective.. two a further. with in sex. 110. as a noun.Every. 102. 189. 152. 29. object. 112. the. 32. to of. few. modes "common goose. 48. 36. first. nouns. Further. of. 148. other languages. 30. from. Few. uses redundant. . 91. 287.. 334." 31. fishes. 102. definition distinguished in English. 235. Feminine. Future Future tense. 43. 30. 45. 308. Gender. etc. First Fish. 212. 147. adjective. First. 152. Farther. plurals. pronoun. 126. of. From. 211. 112. perfect. expect gone. uses Foreign Former. with infinitive. For. 212. as of from compared marking. etc. of. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 238. 30. 319. used of. two.

120. on. 231. first sentence. Gerund. 36. Grammar. its. 159. 60. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. personal relative geniuses. of. 43. forms in Girl. pronoun. of. 145. 175. 80. 10. definition basis of. she. rather. 144. 176. 61. participle. of. . person. pronouns. 285. Government. 12. 60. 177. Got. definition divisions opinions province H. for before. and case verbal with. He. I. it. 61. had hung. 35. Had Hanged. 12. 275. 173. an better. 13. from participle of. adjective. kinds of. 101. His Husband. 159.of of Genii. 9. noun. of. possessive pronouns. distinguished syntax.

73. elements. 131. of. verbs. 257. your. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 233. 276. a object. of. questions. . mood. indirect of. 136. 245. meaning. Direct object. 85. See you. transitive. words. summary See passive mood. 188. indices. 248. of. 105. in compared syntax. adjectives. of. of clause. See Articles. 67. adverbs. adjectives. pronouns.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 178. questions. 43. 227. 72. 153. 320. 319. 283. sentence. 231. 93. uses discourse. 110. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 323. pronoun. Questions. use article. 131. 176. with of.

110. of. Kind. latest. It. 67. syntax the. 102. Kine. King. 91. uses Literary Little. 245. 61. Lay. of. of. 36. these double kind. 113. 303. Lay. was uses me. of. syntax. 113. Lie. 110. English. adjective. 63. -Ly. 126. 36. 227.. 190. 36. . 170. Less. 276. lesser. 226. and See words in. Like. Lady. Last. etc. lie. queen. 12. plural." history etc. 39. pronoun. Lady.adverbs. 189. See Madam. Latter. lord. 281. Logic Logical Lord. a vs.. predicate. subject form. "It Its. in little.

Must. Modifiers. etc. 195. sentences. Neither. Enlargement. Mighty Mine. 112. imperative. 189. 137-144. of. 189. . Negative. of. Mood.. of. indicative. adjective. 64. double. comparison Near. 185. 161. 36. in adverbs comparison a. 328. of. of. 135. position adverb. of. 187. 325. construction as of adverb. Modifier. Much. May. 110. 256. 41. 114. syntax nearer. 188. superlatives. mine. 137. 160. 112. Means. out of. 287. 144. nigh. 110. syntax conjunction. might. subjunctive. conjunctions Many. 113. 34. Master. See definition 136. 110. mistress. 326. 194. of. 112. 102. of. -Most. Many Mapping Mare. 126.Manner. 265.

20. 125. 29. syntax Neuter or two News. 42. foreign. class used singular. now plural. definition descriptive. 17 19. become become formation case collective. nouns. See 194. analysis. No Nominative. become neuter. 26. 32. 246. formed. syntax in gender nouns. abstract. half abstract. 92. 30. etc. None. 30. 46. in. nouns. 258. 301. words how compound. 17. 17. 19. of. 124. common. 328. etc. 38-41. clause. to of. Nor. 18. 46. of. Case. of. 25. 25. 45. abstract. 38. 300. letters as 24.pronoun. of. 56. gender nouns. material. 41 43. Not Noun Nouns. of. . parse. of. number once other plural. of of of of of a. proper. 27. kinds 90. of. and figures. 126. 41. definition according of. 41. used as. 30. gender how kinds material. to use. 21.

Nouns. plural no two singular construction. 196. singular. adjectives. 42 44. dative. 279. 242. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 282. and analysis. 281. 42. 48. definite. become syntax use with with with Nouns. or plural. personal. . 235.. adjectives. 195. 39. 278. in nouns. common. 92.of same two with proper. preposition. of. 106. Numeral Object. of. pronouns. 285. article. 121. 124. meanings. 148. 41. spoken of instead nouns. 48. nominative. English. 48. verbs. plural form. of. 48. indirect. of. 48. with with with Now Number. singular. 101. of. 66. 101. with case. 43. 23. indefinite. 60. Preposition. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. form. passive adverbial. 278. meaning. as forms titles. 41. pronouns. 240. conjunction. 242. See verb. adverbial. 102. 41. etc. plural. of different possessive definite of. in article. of. See in in in Numeral distributive. 18. 42.

as of. of. 191. One. adjective. conjunctions. Pains. another. position Order. 306. conjunction. 237. inverted. nouns. a in adjectives. Elder. 64. 216. with (the). adverbs. 293. 161. part analysis. 41. 213. Older. of. 103. 69. 199. indefinite possessive One One as Only. for. Our. 101. 103. . See pronoun.syntax Of. 233. pronoun. Ordinal Other Ought. 91. 117. Each adjective. of syntax. definite relative uses of. adverb. 279. as other. uses numeral pronoun. ours. 194. of of of of of models adjectives. 116. Parsing. 115. 94. of. 56. 127. Ourself. 93 other. Omission On. articles. Oxen. treatment comparatives. See the as of. 87. of upon. 56. 38. 325 275.

of. 281. in. 70. 174. 100. 69. part adjective. pronoun. of. reflexive. 27. of. parsed. 181. from definition other of. Person. of. verb idioms it from. 148. article 150. 287. 62. of. verbs. verbals. 61. 56. of. them. 80. 322. 59. -ing words. pronouns. 119. possessive and of. 180. absolute with of. 335. 95. 56. with. speech. pease. antecedent. 134. phrase. agreement of verb nouns. 59. nominative. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. included various. or of. verbs. pronouns. 62. of. predicate use of. relatives. 64. 59.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. phrases. 172. 177. 63. 317. . of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 43. 173. used as voice. 172. pennies. 219. and subject in. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 179. not is. 43. 28. 247. Pence.

Personal subjective. noun nouns. nouns. 281. adverbs of. of. antecedent of of pronouns. 37. 278. 206. appositional. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. relative. 278. Comparison. 67. English. 60. 195. nouns. of. pronoun. complete. in of. 49. of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 247. of. See 60. 106. 50. 248. 236. or See of of See 185. singular. 's. kinds infinitive. 232. 63. of. it. of. nouns. of. conjunctions prepositions Plural. of. 51. adjectives. 52. . double. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. spoken of. 285. participial. vs. 281. Nouns. 53. 64. 245. 241. syntax of of Politics. omitted. of Phrase. 188. pronoun. prepositional. 61. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. plural.objective syntax table triple uses of. pronouns. Positive Possessive. 235. of nouns. 41. objects. 303. 53. 54. as double. 236. Place. simple. Personification. 247. 245. 303. singular degree. 25.

in exclamations. all. and form form form form of. 195. as. Pronouns. 333. by. 279. 105.Prefixes. interrogative. 58. 300. future. another. of. and one with else's. 58. none. case. after but. same used as adjectives. 206. 132. 203. of. 282. 202. 208. 95. objective. of. 105. somebody definition how indefinite. of. 93. speech. 72. of. possessive nominative to of. 203. parse. expressed as other of. as antecedent of relative. 219. 104. who personal. adverb. case. interrogative. 147. 187. 332. plural. 283. 89. 299. 64. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. usually to as than. parse. 59. by with shown certain of. meaning. Prepositions. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. what. 285. verbs. adjective. words. 303. of. 331. 32. as 54. by parts of of. each either. 186. of. forms of. 300. . for predicate nominative. 301. 287. any. 207. exclamatory. plural. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 280. plural. with tense certain. 283. neither. 281. 205. objective. 302. 129. singular usually other. 284.

which after same. unrestrictive. pronoun. 74. 263. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 87. 69. pronouns. parse. Quantity.possessive relative. of. of. to of. 74. 142. Rather. and which. that. discourse. indirect compound. 85. which. of. of. 293. of. 69. 293. who. use in as. 295. and antecedent. 99. Nouns. of. adverbs in. See of. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 101. and relatives. 279. 68. conjunctions Quality. 297. of. or of. from and interrogative. Questions. . 74. 105. Quotations. 291. use of history formed. with who. of. 295. 296. questions. 289. same antecedent. Direct same and different. 188. 80. personal pronoun. 286. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. of. 84. in. Rank. 189. 83. 85. pronominal pronouns indirect. in. nouns. agreement anacoluthon and as. in. 289. 195. indirect. with with gerund. 58. 87.

289. simple of. Shear. reflexive analysis of compound. sentence. of sit. that. 29. of. 195. plural possessive as. kinds Sequence Set. complex. definition . forms shots. 42. effect. 26 271. pronoun. 252. tenses. would. 'S. 159. 263. simple. and should. 294. 69. 196. 319. Sex Shall. clauses of. conjunction. Simple in sate. elliptical. 231. 231. 162. of of of complex Sentences. in form. S. Seeing. 259. 196. Same Sat. Shot. 159. 40. object. ending. of. gender. 43. of. suffix. of. will. See Sentences. 51. which. 74. 170. conjunctions Retained Riches. Self Sentences. in of.syntax use Result. 242. 255. who.

260. 144. adverb. as. 38. 245. vs. 126. of. 237. Spelling Spinster. used mood. for. 323. phonetic in infinitive. English. of. 258. 144. names as a.Singular Sir. other Such Such Suffix -s. 258. 262. 303. 186. 257. 32. 245.. 12. See -En. 257. disuse in spoken complete. definition how kinds noun. English. in feminine suffix. 240. 33. of. English. 303. 169. in Middle English. literary clause. 233. 257. Modern use becoming else's. 137. of. Split Spoken -Ster. 33. distinguish. 138. -es. sort. of. to of. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. -en. English. Subject. of. definition 67. etc. 270. . 258. 36. verbs. these number. Somebody Sort. of. 38. logical. adverb. 257.

Kind. 309. 191. king. two basis not same definition definite.. 186. coördinating. that uses That. subject. 108. 275. 106. not suggesting adjectives. 147. 186. of. 307. as adverbs." introductory. 306. and and of. 119. auxiliaries. which. of. plural as adverb. as history The. 277. 319. me. 290. Then. 88. than of. omission whom..Suffixes. syntax of. 148. of languages. 109. English. in comparison. classical of. of. 189. adverbs. 289. 120. of. 297. 222. objects. 306. restrictive. 275. when as of. degree. . meaning. There These kind. 116. meaning made up in Old of. as history syntax Their. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. form. in double. 106. of. they. 61. "the then foreign. when relative. 123. of. of . 147. 33. article. object. 107. this. definition in English Tense. of.. See etc. 147. in Modern number sequence table Than That. English. 152. 87. adjectives. of. 280. Tenses.

175. in of. carelessly uses syntax this. 247. uses of. 20. first adjective. etc. verbs. Upon. Utter. 217. Try Two Under. exclamations. 188. 172. Time. feminine and. in omitted uses T'other. infinitive. used. conjunctions prepositions To. 175. 128. parse. thy. 323. try two. analysis. 322. kinds participle. preposition. uses history of. of. phrases. Thou. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. See On. . 114. thee. 330. from cleft to 174. of. tother. first.These. 181. -Trix. 119. words. uttermost. 21. other noun. 175. 180. Upper. See That. how infinitive. of. 248. 308. of. infinitive. 33. 114. 185. 114. 195. 173. 176. -ing 111. certain as the before with of. 61. 207. to. 322. 172.. of. of. gerund. of. suffix. adverbs those.

167. formed by. becoming irregular. spelling of.Verbs. 33. active meaning. verbs. in indirect discourse. of. . 133. verbs by. phonetic. 319. 167. regular. 133. person and number of. defective. strong. 312-316. of English. syntax of. 154. 312. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. definition of. 245. 330. 320. definition of. 129. definition of. voice of. change. 134. passive. sequence of. of incomplete predication. weak. active. tense of. conjugation of. 147. 12. remarks on certain. intransitive. 157. 148. 169. 47. Vocative in Voice. past tense formed nominative. 39. 169. 223. Vixen. 150. 130. 159. 154. in person. 236. how to parse. 160. mood of. analysis. passive form. made transitive. retained object with passive. of. 242. table of irregular. 155. table of. 317. 148. agreement of. transitive and intransitive. 179. 149. 151. 131. but uses what. 135. What. auxiliary. 154. with subject in number.

83. questions. spoken in of. relative indirect relative. 72. worser. English. antecedent adjective. . 85. 75. wizard. conjunction. 36. questions. whereto. interrogative Which. Y. Woman. 85. of. 111. 73. questions. animals. in. Whether. 295-299. Will. 194. Words in Worse. 36. Yes ending analysis. of. 296. uses See Shall. 78. Witch. 105. 79.. plural of in nouns -ing. would. referring syntax Widower. 126. 40. 218. 190. 72. Wife. Who. 72. 178. 299. 104. pronoun. 246. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 77. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 37. With. questions. 85. in in indefinite objective. 32. in -ly. direct of. relative. relative. 105. pronoun. 83. 75. etc. a.what Whereby.

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