roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

is worthy of serious study. so that a small grammar will hold them all. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. as compared with Latin or Greek. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). if rightly presented. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. assist the classification of kindred expressions." and "Syntax. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. Coming back. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. It is also evident. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. but this is bad English now. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections)." What grammar is. Making rules is risky." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. An æsthetic benefit. rightly considered. Mental training. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. its peculiar and abundant idioms. with its enormous vocabulary. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. . even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. then. Literary English. from the question. as. however. there is still much for the grammarian to do. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. "Analysis.The province of English grammar is. and their uses and relations in the sentence. and thus incite his observation. Surely our noble language. The work it will cover. to those who have studied the language historically. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. This will take in the usual divisions. If. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. Few inflections. A broader view. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Authority as a basis. it will at the same time. their forms. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions.

Part II. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Analysis of Sentences. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. 1. The Uses of Words. and the word nation stands for a whole group. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. the nation is free. and may belong to any of those objects. three divisions:² Part I.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. or Syntax. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. as they stand for ideas. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Vulgar English. from the eighteenth century on. then. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Such words are called nouns. Part III. reference will be made to vulgar English. submission. . by which is meant the free. not objects. PART I. but. Occasionally. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. The Parts of Speech. or standard. The words state. and Inflections. The plainest name is Arabs. which belongs to a people. Spoken English. that is. In the more simple state of the Arabs.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself.²GIBBON. The following pages will cover. NOUNS. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. the words sons and master name objects. too. and will are evidently names of a different kind. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. besides this one.

or the man in front of you. representing directly to the mind an object. Name for any individual of a class. Abstract. etc. reducing it to a narrow application. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Name for a group or collection of objects. For instance. or a mob. Common. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. a committee. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. They properly belong under common nouns. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. animals. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. ATTRIBUTE. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. We may say. however. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. as here used. Proper. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. possessed by all. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. men in groups may be called a crowd. Besides considering persons.Definition. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. whether person. animals. and things separately. . (a) CLASS NAMES: i. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. 2. Thus. 5. because each group is considered as a unit. belonging to one. MATERIAL. Classes of nouns. is from a Latin word which means general. place. or things. This does not imply. Individual. A noun is a name word. or a congress. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. and appropriate names to the groups. (b) Common. substance. Thus. 3. or a council. (a) 4. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. we may think of them in groups. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. or idea. the man here. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. or thing. Collective. but Chicago names one city. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object.

(2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. The reason is. NOTE.Names for things thought of in mass. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. sand. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. condition. earth. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. etc. as in calling a city Cincinnati. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. Names of ideas. Such are glass. dew. etc. earth. wheat. etc. etc. The quality is still there as much as before. platinum. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. "Painting is a fine art. celluloid. etc. paint. 7. expressing state. etc. moon. gold. sugar. frost. but which are not called proper names. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. It may. proof means the act of proving. there is no such intention. but in the words sun." "a man of understanding." 9. rain. snow. wheat. Again. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. granite. wine. considered abstractly. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. stone. soap. we speak of the wisdom of the man. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). rice. rubber. frost. sugar. . cloud. (3) Geological bodies: mud. but it is taken merely as a name. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. They remain common class names. rock. tea.. When we speak of a wise man. potash. we recognize in him an attribute or quality.²There are some nouns. etc. or apart from their natural connection. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. however. etc. or that which shows a thing has been proved. world. expressing attributes or qualities. Words naturally of limited application not proper. or actions. instead of to each individual or separate object. and so on. mist. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. or action." "Learning is hard to acquire. iron. such as sun. conditions. clay. . not things. and fasten a special name to the object considered. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. 6. we may say. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person.

etc. mastery from master. the teachings of the High Spirit. 10. kingship from king. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. Such are beauty. thunder. her longing for their favor. Underived abstract nouns. five proper. hopeful²hope. energy. lightning. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. as in the expressions. ease. hope. etc. but are merely names of actions. he spread his blessings over the land. winter. summer. there is time for such reasonings. Caution. theft from thieve. Verbal abstract nouns. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. Exercises. etc. the well-being of her subjects.. as their name implies. etc. "a long run" "a bold move. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. ." "a brisk walk. service from serve. in the beginning of his life.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. is used as a noun. action from act. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. speech from speak. (1) prudence from prudent. the great Puritan awakening. 12. shadow. as glad²joy. height from high. They are only the husks of verbs. day. joy. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. 273). but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. the moon caused fearful forebodings. those opinions and feelings. Thus. They cannot govern a word. by altering its function.Attribute abstract nouns. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. II. 1. the main bearings of this matter. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. NOTE. 272. and they cannot express action. (2) peerage from peer. The verb. redness from red. childhood from child. five abstract. the rude drawings of the book. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. To avoid difficulty. night. stupidity from stupid. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. a wedding or a festival.

as physics. pleurisy. Using a dictionary. mathematics? 3. (b) branches of knowledge. typhus. catarrh.2. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. geology. as pneumonia. algebra. diphtheria. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases.

The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. or to go over to it entirely. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. the guillotine. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. from Corinth. a Fourier. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. etc. from Oporto. who was its inventor. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. the word port. for example. from Calicut.²EMERSON. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. Nouns change by use. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. a Lavoisier. thus. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. from the name of Dr. 15. "The cook made the irons hot. port (wine). in Portugal. 119). meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. above. currants. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Material nouns may be used as class names. from China. it imposes its classification on other men. 14. from Damascus. but we may say. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. 13. Proper names transferred to common use. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. damask. Others of similar character are calico. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. a Hutton. We know a number of objects made of iron. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. from a town in France. arras.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. but most of them are in the following groups. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. as a davy. and lo! a new system. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class." referring to flat- . Guillotin. a Bentham. levant and morocco (leather). a Locke.

coals. though not confined to verse. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. When it is said that art differs from science. that the power of art is founded on fact. are abroad. that disposition is the thing to be created. his eyes. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. or the arts and sciences. or made plural. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. or. candies.²HAYNE. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Test this in the following sentences:² . Death. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. to prowl or to moan like night birds. oils. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²CARLYLE. Traffic has lain down to rest. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. The words preceded by the article a. purity. or used as class nouns. slates. which are made plural. as stones. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. smiled. the abstract idea is partly lost. are still names of abstract ideas. on fire.²COLLINS. abstract in meaning. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns.²BRYANT. This is a poetic usage. These are the same in material. mists. not material things. and so on. Personification of abstract ideas. but on dispositions which require to be created. 16. clouds. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. a steel to whet a knife on. etc. nor are they common class nouns. papers. (3) By poetical use. and say teas. that is. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. 17. etc. Class nouns in use. but in case an art or a science. tins. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural.²RUSKIN. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. tobaccos. be spoken of. For example. From all around²Earth and her waters. paints. They are not then pure abstract nouns. clays. and only Vice and Misery.In lightnings owned his secret stings.²BYRON. Next Anger rushed. a rubber for erasing marks. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. A halfway class of words.²PERCIVAL.irons. but differ in strength.

WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.²EMERSON." "the State Bank Tax bill. sir!"²MACAULAY .²SHAKESPEARE. loves.Let us. 18. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. Then comes the "Why. fear thy blow. By ellipses. they do not express quality. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns.The Solitary can despise. All these. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives.² BURNS. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.² GOLDSMITH. which belongs to another word." "a morning walk.²IRVING. They are more like the possessive noun.²BURNS. as descriptive adjectives are. But ah! those pleasures. NOTE. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. as each repeated pleasure tired. a bank in New York. however. if we must have great actions. Conjunctions. sir?" and the "No. but is still a noun. When I was young? Ah. And still. meaning a walk in the morning. Every why hath a wherefore. a bill as to tax on the banks. were mere terrors of the night. nouns used to modify. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. for example. But it is better to consider them as nouns. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. etc. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. make our own so. sir!" and the "What then." "a New York bank. Adverbs. Nouns used as descriptive terms. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective.²SHAKESPEARE. they cannot be compared. "a family quarrel. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. or describe it. Adjectives. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. or from any expression.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. the wealthy. 19. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms." which contains a pure adjective.

without reference to its function in the sentence. of course. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. in speaking of the principal of a school. the terms the great. but have an adjectival meaning." or "legal. 7. or a state secret. Learning.²These remarks do not apply. It is to be remembered. 1. in a sentence above. . that the above cases are shiftings of the use. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. that cobweb of the brain. FRANKLIN. so. Now. why and wherefore. at the beginning. When." and another of Dr. is ambiguous. or a criminal. 6. 3. etc. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. 20. The it. and Then."²B. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 4. Power laid his rod aside. to such words as become pure nouns by use. but as a figure of speech. however. Caution. When.Nor iron bars a cage. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. or a faithful domestic. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. 8. There are many of these. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. NOTE. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. In the other sentences. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. the wealthy. and tell to which class each belongs. too. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Exercise. Stone walls do not a prison make. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 5." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. is the word "just. are used. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods.And Ceremony doff'd her pride..(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. of words rather than of their meaning. 2.

11. But pleasures are like poppies spread. In Latin.Fair guests. 14.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. the welcome. What gender means in English.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 22. It is founded on sex. And see. the silver moon is gone. GENDER. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. shattered and disabled. 12. but not so in English. 21. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. A little weeping would ease my heart. The fleet.You seize the flower. The hours glide by. always feminine. 23. German. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Greek. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. A fool speaks all his mind. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. its bloom is shed. 10. and many other languages. always masculine. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 18. 24. 16. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 19. 20. Male beings are. he cried. 21.9. 17. that waits you here. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 15. returned to Spain. 13. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. in English grammar. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. female. and names of females are usually feminine. .

hortus (garden) is masculine.When. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Neuter nouns. 22. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. mensa (table) is feminine. must be divided into two principal classes..²LAMB. 23. that is. however. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. according to use. clapping his burnished wings.. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. . Some words either gender or neuter nouns. if of the female sex. the name of it is feminine. that pattern of a husband. those distinguishing the sex of the object. in other languages gender follows the form. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. For instance: in Latin. der Tisch (table) is masculine. The great difference is. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell.. those with which man comes in contact often. Thus. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. or names of things without life." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Hence: Definition. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.² IRVING. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. are named by gender nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig. and consequently without sex.² I have seenA curious child . All nouns. with its gizzard under its wing. if there were any signs of life in it." . or additions to words. corpus (body) is neuter. 24. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. the sex being of no consequence.²IRVING. and neuter nouns.²masculine and feminine. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. those which do not distinguish sex. or which arouse his interest most. then. in English. Of animals. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.²gender nouns. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. No "common gender... Gender nouns.. inanimate things are spoken of. came to a stand just by the bridge. the word child is neuter in the sentence. in German. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. das Messer (knife) is neuter. according to their use. the name of it is masculine. but are spoken of as neuter. "A little child shall lead them. Gunpowder .

By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. Gender shown by Prefixes. the division of words according to sex. Male nouns beings. 28. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. One feminine. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. For fox they said vox. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Very few of class I. domestic. ruler.. servant. (2) By adding a suffix. from the masculine fox. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. 29. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. as he-goat²she-goat. (3) By using a different word for each gender. II. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. for from they said vram. as in wine vat. 26. though both words have lost their original meanings. Gender shown by Suffixes. The inflections for gender belong. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Hence vixen is for fyxen. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. they are neuter words. Native suffixes. of course. puts a prefix before the masculine man. he-bear²she-bear. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. . generally to a masculine word. 27. but spinster has now no connection with it. cousin.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. I. teacher. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. According to the definition. woman.25. If such words as parent.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Put in convenient form. etc. is. only to masculine and feminine nouns. relative. These remain in vixen and spinster. and for the older word fat they said vat. or the lack of it.

The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. trickster. as czarina. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. señorita. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). executrix. Slightly changed and widely used. as. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. it has none now in the words huckster. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as. -ess (French esse. but in most cases it has not. song-str-ess. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Unaltered and little used. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. Low Latin issa). These are attached to foreign words. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. donna. and are never used for words recognized as English. Ending of masculine not changed. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. as seam-stress. gamester. 30. the one most used. punster.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess.

Ending -ess less used now than formerly. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. fosteress. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. In some of these pairs. we use the masculine termination.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. or servauntesse. as was said in the sixteenth century. from the French -esse. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. We frequently use such words as author. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. editor. chairman. neighbor (masculine and feminine).'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. the ending -ess. Some of them have an interesting history. as. we use the feminine. to represent persons of either sex. frendesse. teacheresse." III. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Thus. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. wagoness. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. 32. Gender shown by Different Words. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. etc. Instead of saying doctress. as. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. from Latin imperatricem. as in the fourteenth century. NOTE. 31. others have in their origin the same root. teacher or lady teacher.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. neighboresse.

Two masculines from feminines. finally gander. became identical. Three letters of ened have fallen away. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Personification. had the masculine mearh (horse). Witch is the Old English wicce. Danish gaas. It is not connected historically with our word duck. The masculine was formed by adding -a.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. lhauerd. but this has long been obsolete. King and queen are said by some (Skeat.). and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Mare. Madam is the French ma dame. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. 34. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. in Old English mere. for example. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. among others) to be from the same root word. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. probably meaning house dweller). but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). as in many other words. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Besides gander and drake. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. leaving our word drake. from Latin mea domina. etc. or lauerd in Middle English. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Icelandic gás. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. widuwa²widuwe. though both are ultimately from the same root. written loverd. not immediately connected with witch. 16).² . Husband and wife are not connected in origin. The older forms. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). 33. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. gand-ra. Widower. the old sign of the masculine. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper).

In nouns.²COLERIDGE. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 38. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. Definition. the plural. Our language has two numbers.²KEATS.Her home is on the deep. But other words were inflected afterwards."Now.²singular and plural. 36. eyen (eyes). treen (trees). In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. I. (3) By adding -s (or -es). And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. NUMBER. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. the engineer speaks so of his engine. that is. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.²CAMPBELL. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. 35. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. shoon (shoes). but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. in Old English.No towers along the steep. and not by the form of the noun. whenever we adopt a new word. This is not exclusively a poetic use. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. (2) By changing the root vowel. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. together with the third. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. etc. The first two methods prevailed. more than one. 37. The -en inflection. 39. for instance.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. ."²BYRON. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. Britannia needs no bulwarks. Effect of personification.

they add -s): also trout. sheep. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. lens. Brethren has passed through three stages.² "God bless me! so then. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. Such are box. dozen. 40.²MACAULAY.²WHITTIER.²Over the mountains winding down. II. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.Horse and foot. 41. folk. or if preceded by the prepositions in. but has now no singular. etc. wight."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. cross. brace. The old plural was brothru. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Examples of this inflection are. Lee marched over the mountain wall. after numerals (if not after numerals.The horse are thousands ten. sail. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. etc. Instead of -s. III. turf. pair. 42. such as deer. finally brethren. heathen. salmon. The words horse and foot. Children has passed through the same history. Akin to this class are some words. as.² The foot are fourscore thousand. . and is still found in dialects. cannon. as.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. after all. Kine is another double plural. and get settled. Other words following the same usage are. people.²THOREAU. that have the singular and plural alike.-En inflection imitated by other words. retain the same form for plural meaning. borough²formerly had the same inflection. ditch. swine. originally neuter. into Frederick town. head. when they mean soldiery. by. then brothre or brethre. quartz. glass. etc. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. but they now add the ending -s.

is both the science and the art of government. optics.² Politics. Proper nouns are regularly singular. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. Examples of these are. half²halves. negro²negroes. means and politics. fancies. prize²prizes. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. It served simply as a means of sight. 44. etc. hero²heroes. summons. etc. politics. that when thy summons comes. When such words take a plural ending. means: as. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. knife²knives.-Es added in certain cases. Means plural. Formerly. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . molasses. fairies. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. economics. and some -es. Special Lists. quoth then that ladie milde. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). etc. and the real ending is therefore -s. and go over to other classes (Secs.²BRYANT. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes.g. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. etc. race²races. DANA. pains (care). though they are plural in form. chaise²chaises. also news. some adding -s. and many branches of learning. The lilie on hir stalke grene.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. 45.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. these words ended in -ie.. daisies. in its widest extent. however. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. though this sound combines readily with -s. they lose their identity. volcano² volcanoes. as. Words in -ies. the Americas. Some words are usually singular. So live. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. shelf²shelves.²PROF. physics. 15 and 17). a new syllable is made. 43. e. house²houses. Two words.. e. the Washingtons.g. mathematics. niche²niches.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. allies.

Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²J.² MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING. Politics plural.Words. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Some words have no corresponding singular. I say. Now I read all the politics that come out. however. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. . by those means which we have already mentioned.²GOLDSMITH. Besides this. Sometimes. riches will accumulate. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. L. W. By these means.²MOTLEY. LAUGHLIN. 46.²BURKE. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps. if I recollect right.²G. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. A relic which. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. by strongly conveying the passions. CURTIS.

carry off chaff. (2) abilities. of a periodical. in mournful numbers. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. In speaking of coins. as two sixpences.. etc. Three words were originally singular. brethren (of a society or church). (2) poetry. sixpence. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. genii (spirits). (2) care. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. the other unlike it.² I lisped in numbers. dice (for gaming). clothes (garments). two plurals. as in the lines. or work in a bellows?²PROF. genius²geniuses (men of genius). ways. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. DANA. One plural.²was it subdued when. or epistles.). die²dies (stamps for coins. pease (collectively). indices (signs in algebra). pea²peas (separately).²one corresponding to the singular. making a double plural.. .the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. etc. or copies. twopence. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. These make the last part plural. riches. In Early Modern English thank is found.The air. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. fish²fish (collectively). for the numbers came. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. trouble. number²numbers: (1) figures. 50. Two classes of compound words. eaves. shot²shot (collective balls). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). 48. fishes (individuals or kinds). (2) literature. faculties. pence (collectively). may add -s. part²parts: (1) divisions. shots (number of times fired).. Numbers also means issues. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. penny²pennies (separately). two meanings. (2) revenue duties. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). index²indexes (to books).²POPE. Tell me not. 49.²LONGFELLOW.

51. manservant. HOLMES. woman singer. Allen. as man singer. Two methods in use for names with titles. for example. the Misses Rich. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Mussulman.²DR.² Then came Mr. The title may be plural. . As to plurals of names with titles. though the latter is often found. German. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. the Drs. or the name may be pluralized. then Silas Peckham. firman. Briggs. Norman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. and Mrs. Brahman. but add -s. such as talisman. Ottoman. woman servant. 52.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. there is some disagreement among English writers. Brown. as the Messrs.

and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.²GIBBON. Domesticated words.²GOLDSMITH. or Anglicized. The domesticated words may retain the original plural.²DICKENS. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. FROM THE GREEK.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²THE CRITIC. and retain their foreign plurals. They are then said to be naturalized. Others have been adopted. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. These are said to be domesticated. The Messrs. FROM THE LATIN. Du Maurier. Exercise. 53. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. or Englished. y y analysis antithesis . A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.

" "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. Letters. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. and expresses a relation akin to possession. . etc. figures. 54. as. Only two case forms. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). as. etc. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. figures." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)." CASE.. cell has another relation." the word felon's modifies cell. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. In the sentence. Words quoted merely as words. also add -s or 's. 55. they form their plurals in the regular way. Definition. without reference to their meaning. In the general wearing-away of inflections. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. 56.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters.

learning." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. whether inflected or not. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. must be understood for purposes of analysis. I." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. completing a verb. 1. . may be said to have three cases. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 5. and the possessive. and merit. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. then. three things characterize man.²one for the nominative and objective. 57. 2.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Excuses are clothes which. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Nouns. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.²nature. 4.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. the objective. excessive grief. when asked unawares. they returned to their homes. 3. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. and experience. fate." (2) As a predicate noun. the enemy of the living. Three properties belong to wisdom. Human experience is the great test of truth. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. Uses of the Nominative.²person. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²the nominative. 58.

the word toward which the preposition points." (4) As the second object. (in the older stages of the language. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. 3. Uses of the Objective. Conscience. measure. But of all plagues. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. But the flood came howling one day. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse.Save. 9. good Heaven. distance. save." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. and tell which use each has:² 1. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and being equivalent to one verb. etc. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. and landlord of the inn. completing the verb. how have I frighted thee? II. reconciles." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. They charged. taking the object storm. . Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. wounded lies. and makest a calm. (5) As the object of a preposition." (3) Adverbially. 8. and meaning calmest. thy wrath can send. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. 4. 59. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder.6. sword in hand and visor down. as will be seen in Sec. taking the object enemies. 2. they are sands of precious gold." Exercise. her first law broken. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. 68. Set a high price on your leisure moments. a patriarch of the village. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object.

It is a poetic expression. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. The noblest mind the best contentment has. as shown in the sentences. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. 60. 6. (3) Subjective possessive. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.And gave the leper to eat and drink. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.5. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. 10. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 9.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.e. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. expressed or understood.²ADDISON. from day to day.His winter task a pastime made.²HAWTHORNE. 61. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. 7. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. as. the most common of all. as in these expressions. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.Does his Creator's power display. (2) Objective possessive. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. III. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.²SHELLEY.² The unwearied sun. And whirling plate. the Great Stone Face. Uses of the Possessive.²BYRON. or in writing yesterday's elegy. The possessive case always modifies another word.. Possession in some sense is the most common. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. and forfeits paid. 8. tempests that . I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.

Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 56). A suggestion. the panther which the forest hides).e. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. Nom. As said before (Sec. . "From every schires ende. there are only two case forms. child NOTE. and Obj. 62. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. expressing the relations of nominative and objective." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. as schoolboys sometimes write. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. One is the simple form of a word. PLURAL. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. "George Jones his book." "mannes herte [heart]. The use of the apostrophe.winter is likely to have). By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. Nom. lady Poss. 64." etc.. To form the possessive plural. Case Inflection. Declension or inflection of nouns. A false theory. however. How the possessive is formed. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. Poss. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. making the possessive singular. in Chaucer. 62." Use of the apostrophe. 63. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. 1. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. and Obj. growth which several days had developed).. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his." "at his beddes syde.e.

a word with a phrase. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. In compound expressions. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.²RUSKIN. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.²CARLYLE. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. dwelling. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. etc.²THACKERAY. Captain Scrapegrace's. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Peter's. being understood with it: for example. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. and from a desire to have distinct forms.²SWIFT. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. I remember him in his cradle at St. containing words in apposition. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. 65. the items of my son's. 67. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. James's. store. instead of the emperor their master's name. 66. stands up for God's truth one man. .²DE QUINCEY. as by the countess's command. In other cases the s is seldom omitted.Though this opinion was untrue. as. Possessive and no noun limited. Kate saw that. and she walked off from the don's.² LOWELL. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. Cervantes' satirical work."²DE QUINCEY. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. my neighbors.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. in the name of the emperor their master. for goodness' sake.." "A postscript is added. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign." Possessive with compound expressions.²HOLMES. some such word as house. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. but to the ear all may be alike. etc. know the amount of my income. church. as." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. the possessive sign is usually last.

he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. Exercises. objective. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. or subjective. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. and at the same time by a possessive noun. making a double possessive. the sentence might be understood as just explained. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. For example. (See also Sec. however. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns.²the introduction which Atterbury made. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. especially when used with this or that. A peculiar form. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. that. as one modifier.²CARLYLE. Clearness. a double possessive. (b) Rewrite the sentence. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. E. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. and tell whether each is appositional. If. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Both of these are now used side by side. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. corresponding to 's. HALE.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. sometimes they are used together. Emphasis. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. etc. 1.The double possessive. the statement clearly means only one thing. In most cases. Blair). The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.. every. 2. (1) When a word is modified by a. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? .²FROUDE. 87. each. we use the phrase of Atterbury. this. 68. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²E. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. (3) It prevents ambiguity. ill-lighted except where she stands. any. no. the. in such a sentence as.

9. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. Friend. 8. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Now the bright morning star.They say. it seemed. 11. 15.A weary waste expanding to the skies. therefore.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. In parsing. Nature herself. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. day's harbinger. 70. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. There Shakespeare's self. 14. some idioms²the double possessive. 10. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 4. At lovers' perjuries.Comes dancing from the East.² . 12. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. in parsing a noun. we state. 13.3. with every garland crowned. 7. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. let him seasonably water the one. Jove laughs. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 69. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. Hence. 6. 5. and destroy the other. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience.

the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. which gender. and relations. 4. a withered serving man. like miller's. but is the adverbial objective. if the latter. it is the object of the preposition by. The correct method. subject of the verb is understood. therefore possessive case. 2. That in the captain's but a choleric word. and number. as to case. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. it denotes only one person. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. Throat is neuter. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. hence objective case. the connection shows a male is meant. 68). then make the grammatical statements as to its class. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. Neckcloth. 71. object of the verb takes. . therefore singular number. determining its case. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. inflections.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. names one thing. gender. a fresh tapster. and therefore nominative case. Exercise. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. therefore singular number. is a common class noun. it has no sex. therefore neuter. 3. In parsing any word. (4) Its office in the sentence. has no governing word. Thief is a common class noun. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. etc. masculine. proper. therefore masculine gender. it expresses possession or ownership. hence it is objective case. NOTE.²common. and limits neckcloth. it is the name of a male being.(1) The class to which it belongs. singular number. it expresses time. hence it is a common noun. MODEL FOR PARSING. and to have it found out by accident.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. hence it is a gender noun. (3) Whether singular or plural number.

Classes of pronouns. castle. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome." Again. and representative words. For instance. Jarley's back being towards him. 11. Now. (2) Interrogative pronouns. which distinguish person by their form (Sec.. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. Mrs. Madame de Staël. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. 7. or for a person or thing. Necker.5. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. where the Rhone enters the lake. Definition. definite. standing for a name. sleep! 6. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. 72. Time makes the worst enemies friends. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. all in one. from a necessity for short. A few miles from this point. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. . and prison. A pronoun is a reference word. instead of saying.. were natives of Geneva. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 8. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. 73. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. blessings light on him that first invented . but by a question we say. financial minister to Louis XVI. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. 9.. PRONOUNS. 10. The need of pronouns. 76). and his daughter. or for a group of persons or things.And hated her for her pride.²palace." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. He giveth his beloved sleep.

whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of.. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. words. (5) Indefinite pronouns. we our. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. they must represent the person talking. Person in grammar. (4) Adjective pronouns. Singular. standing for a person or thing spoken of. or other word or expression. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. that is. From analogy to pronouns. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. representing the person speaking. pronoun. (2) Second person. as nouns have the same form. 75. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. and the person or thing talked about.(3) Relative pronouns. 77. which have forms for person. 74. which relate or refer to a noun. representing a person or thing spoken to. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. 76. even if it had a special form. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. the person or thing spoken to." Person of nouns. my Plural. "the distinction of person. primarily adjectives. I Poss. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. mine. they are said to have person by agreement. This gives rise to a new term. ours . which cannot be used as adjectives. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. (3) Third person. Nom. Three persons of pronouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

in the singular. thou thee ye you you your. you your.Obj. Nom. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. SECOND PERSON. thy Remarks on These Forms. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Obj. yours you Plural. 78. Old forms. thine. namely. First and second persons without gender. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Poss. Nom. masculine h . of all Three. Old Form Common Form. he his him Fem. theirs them Neut. Poss. The speaker may be either male or female. by personification. Masc. yours you THIRD PERSON. Nom. neuter hit. Nom. your. it its it Poss. or. they their. a separate form for each gender. feminine h o. Obj. she her. hers her Plur. . Obj. Obj. Singular. But the third person has. me us Singular. and also for the neuter. yours Poss. neuter. Third person singular has gender..

even when referring to a single object. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. 81. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. to thy care we commit the helpless.:² (1) In elevated style. Thou. them. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. 82. as in prayers. etc. In spoken English. especially in poetry. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. however. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). thy. This is of comparatively recent growth. heora. for example. 79. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. The plurals were h . . We use it with a plural verb always. it. The form its.. There are. thou Shepherd of Israel. thee. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them.²SHELLEY. that didst comfort thy people of old. heom. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. their. etc. which was often sounded with the h silent. two modern uses of thou. 80.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be.² Oh. Second person always plural in ordinary English. It is worth while to consider the possessive its.Thou lovest. the Old English objective was hem (or heom).." As shown above. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. just as we now say. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. and sometimes its. which is a neuter noun.²BEECHER. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. the forms they. in Old English.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. as. (2) In addressing the Deity. The consequence is.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. Two uses of the old singulars. etc. as possessive of it.

though ye is occasionally used as objective. they. his." the literary language would require he after was. your. 58). its. they have a nominative form. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. their. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. and not make more classes. Additional nominatives in spoken English. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. her. and sometimes in ordinary speech. them. he. yours. That is. ²SHAKESPEARE. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. And since thou own'st that praise. him. besides a nominative use. to personify objects (Sec. II. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 'tis his. she. though those named in Sec. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. him. Not a separate class. ye. we. Absolute personal pronouns. 84 are always subjects. I The Nominative. The forms my.²LANDOR. theirs. Yet careful speakers avoid this. The words I. In spoken English. 84. I spare thee mine. 34). 86. Nominative forms.²COWPER. thine. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. when they occur in the predicate position. us. our. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. her. for. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. or. and follow the usage of literary English. "I am sure it was him. thou. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. hers. some say. The forms mine. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. 85. The Possessive. her. have a peculiar use.Use of the pronouns in personification. me. 83. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. them. and has been slave to thousands. in such a sentence as. us. note the following:² 'Twas mine. sometimes his and its. . however. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are.²BULWER. thy. Old use of mine and thine.

. Long Allen. Double and triple possessives. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. FIELDS. theirs.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. we have. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.²THACKERAY. ours. we find. The forms hers. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes.²BIBLE. theirs. commenting upon a letter of mine. "Hold thy peace. it tells of good old times."²SCOTT. F. Their uses. anger.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. or satire. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²ID. thus. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. ours. This usage is still preserved in poetry. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. sometimes its. yours.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. are really double possessives. as in nouns. thus. Besides this. ²HOLMES. This ancient silver bowl of mine. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. pluck it out. T. (2) To bring emphasis. If thine eye offend thee. Give every man thine ear. and with mine. (3) To express contempt.²THACKERAY. COOPER.²SWIFT. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.²J.²CARLYLE. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²J. for example. hers. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. 87. yours. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. thine. Like the noun possessives." said Henry Woodstall.² CARLYLE.²ID. his. but few thy voice.

but nominative or objective in use. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. the thing is done. this dative use. for whose benefit. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. or use in a sentence. 90. but the form is the same as the objective. Now the objective. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. in the first sentence. 88. mine stands for my praise in the second. Both joined in making him a present. In such sentences as.²ID. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. Curse me this people. 86: mine stands for my property. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. was marked by a separate case.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. Besides this use of the objective. They all handled it." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb." "None but the brave deserves the fair. III.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. The Objective." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. The old dative case. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. as shown in Sec. 20. and mine in the second has an objective use. his for his property. In pronouns. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. as it is called. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. but expresses for whom. But the first two have a nominative use. "The good alone are great. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec.²BIBLE. . 89. In their function. but not in form.

thus.²CARLYLE.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. or that he has not a great deal more. has not made its progress. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. Society. in this century. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²BACON. (3) In apposition.²DE QUINCEY. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² .² NEWMAN. why. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. logical subject. and they cry. like Chinese skill. ²EMERSON. to stand for the real. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. as. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. as. you must condense there. which follows the verb. It is a pity that he has so much learning. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. WEBSTER. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. The word you. 91. was passed by with indulgence.²ADDISON. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. or to the idea.²EMERSON. Your mere puny stripling.Time is behind them and before them.²IRVING To empty here." (3) As a grammatical subject. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. Indefinite use of you and your.²BULWER. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. you sneeze. 92.²D. as in the sentences.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.

as.²COLERIDGE. keeps a school. used in poetry. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. ourselves. herself.. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. the second is the old form of the second person.²SCOTT. For example.²DE QUINCEY." etc. or COMPOUND PERSONAL." "He bought him a horse.²THOREAU. It was late and after midnight.²HOLMES."²IRVING. For when it dawned. . itself. A sturdy lad . peddles it. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. 93. And when I awoke. as they are also called. but seldom in prose. (thyself).²IRVING. And millions in those solitudes.²ID. themselves.²BUNYAN. that is. when they are direct objects. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. There was nothing for it but to return. we use such expressions as.It is finger-cold. they dropped their arms. who in turn tries all the professions. however. himself. This occurs in poetry." and there is an end of it. They are myself.²BRYANT. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. (ourself). who teams it. "I found me a good book.² Now I lay me down to sleep. -selves.²ANON. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. I set me down and sigh. it rained. I made up my mind to foot it. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. yourself. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. have laid them downIn their last sleep. and its plural selves..²BURNS. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 94. farms it. yourselves. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²HAWTHORNE. Of the two forms in parentheses. since firstThe flight of years began. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.²EMERSON. Poor Christian was hard put to it.

² TENNYSON. especially in the speech of rulers. and the others were formed by analogy with these.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. to us. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. for example.²WORDSWORTH. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.²SHAKESPEARE. for example.²MILTON. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. In Middle English the forms meself.. as we ourself have been. As if it were thyself that's here. theself. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. and build the lofty rhyme. Use of the reflexives. BROWNING. Held dead within them till myself shall die. with self. as. I shrink with pain. etc. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. ourselves.² . not the possessive forms. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. shall dissolve.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.² The great globe itself . after the analogy of myself.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. Threats to all.²E. 96.As girls were once. were changed into the possessive myself.To you yourself. 95. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. B. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. as.²ID.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. NOTE. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. thyself. Origin of these reflexives. The question might arise. as in vulgar English. to every one.²EMERSON.

The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 2. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Years ago. which. 8. Infancy conforms to nobody. let him lowly confess it. some each of masculine.²B. 4. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. but it is the soonest spoiled. 10. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. feminine. and how to do it. Come and trip it as we go. 9. Courage.On the light fantastic toe. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. .² THACKERAY. 6. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Three now in use. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.²DE QUINCEY. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. some of them being double possessives. 7. all conform to it. 97. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. fight it out.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. FRANKLIN. One obsolete. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 3. 5. and what. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. and neuter. father. And it grew wondrous cold. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. where the word is one with that it tells of. To know what is best to do. is wisdom. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active.

. The use of who. Use of who and its forms. that. whispering sweet. methought. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. number. having three forms. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. used formerly to mean which of two. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. it is always third person.Promised.There is an old word. or case. which is not inflected for gender. whether. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. What wouldst thou do. it is selective. not to persons. the gold. shall we say. etc. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.. As shown here. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. that it is not inflected for gender or number. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. These show that what is not inflected for case. actions. but for case alone. 98. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. that is. 99. referring to things. 100. but now obsolete. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. Use of which. ideas. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. it refers to either persons or things. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. as it always asks about somebody. Use of what. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. that it is always singular and neuter. Whose was that gentle voice. Which of you. with its possessive and objective.

99. AND PLUR. subject of doth love. objective in the last. who is used as objective instead of whom. who evidently refers to Bards. nominative in the second also. which and what are sometimes adjectives. which." Or. as. For instance. since it is subject of the verb had. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which and what. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING." In the latter sentence. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. for which the pronoun stands. which is nominative in the first sentence. These bards sang of Border chivalry. Who. in Sec.² . "The last of all the Bards was he. 103. whose? Obj. Further treatment of who. as they take the place usually of a word already used. or other word or expression. Thus we may say. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. 104. 102. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. AND PLUR. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. which is called the antecedent of the relative. being the direct object of the verb shall take. pronoun. Function of the relative pronoun. It usually precedes the pronoun. 127). who? Poss.² "The last of all the Bards was he. it may be shortened into. SINGULAR Nom. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec.Who sung of Border chivalry. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. 105. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. and so to make smoother discourse. and also in having a conjunctive use. and what are also relative pronouns. The antecedent. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. SING. as.101.²by the use of the words. what may be an adverb in some expressions. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun.

²DR JOHNSON. but the look which is not of the earth. Who and its forms. the women whom women approve. is a divine creation. 3.²LOWELL In this. 4. For her enchanting son. 108. 4. what. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. in the same sense in which man's nature. 6. . The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.²PARTON Which and its forms. The origin of language is divine. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 5. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.²MILTON.²SCOTT.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. 106. are the men and women who bless their species. 3. They had not their own luster. Two kinds. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. which. The nurse came to us. Ye mariners of England. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. will be discussed further on.²BYRON.²THACKERAY.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. that. D. a thousand years.. 2. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. both his and who have the antecedent priest. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. with all its capabilities .. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. The men whom men respect. Indefinite relatives.² COX.²W. 2.That guard our native seas.Whom universal nature did lament. a simple relative is meant. Generally speaking.. 107. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. WHITNEY. When the word relative is used.Whose flag has braved. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE.

The judge . and spoils. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²DE QUINCEY.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . Who. W. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. ought to be kept in view. 6.. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. 3.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²BURKE. (a) This gradation .²IRVING.Is fit for treasons. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²EMERSON. 107.. you will not be angry with me for telling you. The man that hath no music in himself... 4.. The Tree Igdrasil. 2. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. What. 109.. Reader. That. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²MARGARET FULLER. which it certainly is not.²GOLDSMITH.²H. BEECHER 5. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. bought up all the pigs that could be had. For what he sought below is passed above.5. 111. Already done is all that he would do.²LAMB 3. else this description will seem exaggerated. stratagems. 110. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. Examples of the relative that:² 1. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.

²IRVING. the others are all third person.. Witness the following examples:² And you. in the second.²SWIFT. Examples of whose. possessive case of which. The robins.. In sentence 4. 2. Cooper. 96). JOHNSON. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. It has been seen (Sec. (4) It has two case forms. Which. whose for the possessive. in 4. 112. in 5.²LOWELL. (3) It is nearly always third person. who is first person. whom. flung its arms around my neck.²who. in the third. or ideas.²THACKERAY. in the first sentence. who. a man. things. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. . (2) It has three case forms. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.whose.. the relatives are singular. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. Sec. In 1. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. Gibbon. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. whose is second person. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. and others.²LEIGH HUNT. Who referring to animals. that man. 107.. The little gorilla. Kingsley. The sentences in Sec... they are plural. and so on. 5. and 6. seemed as much excited as myself. son. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. and 3. whose.²DR. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. whom. not persons. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. referring to animals. Smollett. 113. My horse. Scott.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.who. whose wound I had dressed. p. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature.²which for the nominative and objective.

and third persons. 109. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. no possessive. 115. and to persecute without pity.² MCMASTER. The last two sentences in Sec. which is very notable and curious. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. So in Matthew Arnold. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.²SHAKESPEARE. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. too. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²SCOTT. the antecedent follows which. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.² I swept the horizon. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. Primarily. thus. (2) It has only one case form. This moribund '61. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Sometimes. Kingsley. let us enter the church itself. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. animals. Which and its antecedents. Men may be ready to fight to the death.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. secondly (which made her stare). 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. This often occurs.²BEECHER. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.²first.² And."²RUSKIN. In the sentences of Sec. and things. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.114. That. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. (3) It is the same form for first. 116.²THACKERAY. second. which is worse. .²RUSKIN. Burke. and numerous others.²DE QUINCEY.

as in sentence 6. number. What. When expressed. as. Sec. it usually follows. 117. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. and person of the relatives who. which. . but this is not sanctioned as good usage." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. What a man does. that he has. we can. that do I. third person. The gender. 119. The sentences of Sec. consequently is neuter. whose Obj." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. who Poss. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. that men must needs abide. plural number. by taking them out. and is emphatic. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular." (3) "These people heard him. Who plainly stands for those or the people. Nom. plural number. 118.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose.²SHAKESPEARE. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. either of which would be neuter. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause.² What I would. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. is always neuter. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. third person. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. for example." That evidently refers to truths. that do I not.²BIBLE What fates impose. what we said?²CARLYLE. 109.²EMERSON. For example. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. but what I hate.

" Here the subject of is.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. is in the nominative case. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. and hence is in the nominative case. it is subject of the verb heard. Parsing what. What can't be cured. nobler souls with that which they are. the simple relative.. which is. and what is the direct object of the verb call. Another way. standing for the people understood. that takes the case of the truths in (2). "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. 3. is subject of the verb can't be cured. In the sentence. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. The whole expression is its subject. however. because it has usually no antecedent. Now. neuter. 6. in (1). above. 120. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. First find the antecedents. who is sure to be cunninger than they. but of this. in (3). third person. I think they are trying to outwit nature. 7. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. In the same way who. Some prefer another method of treatment. so is in the objective case. The relative what is handled differently. As shown by the following sentences. after all. 4. people is the object of the preposition of. subject of heard. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. the highest result of all education."²EMERSON. etc. but is singular. 8. Truths in sentence (2). The word what. it is object of uttered. then parse the relatives. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. "What can't be cured must be endured. in the following sentences:² 1. we is the subject. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. What must be endured? Answer. Exercise. . is what we call nature. 5. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. In (2). is subject of wrought upon and molded.

whatever is equivalent to all things which. They are whoever. 2. whatsoever. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. and which in the second clause. Take which you please. whosoever. It is no proof of a man's understanding. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. or what else soever. whichsoever. 121. 6. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. object of do] they do. 4. 2. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are.²MACAULAY. object of with] which [singular. List and examples. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. or stand on their head. that is. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.²BURKE. and parse that in the first clause. and in 2. in a new and original way.²you cannot have both. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. less common are whoso. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror.²BURKE. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. It is clear that in 1. Only itself can inspire whom it will. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. being referred to. 3. Hence some take what as a double relative. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. summer will have its flies. Meaning and use. Do what we can. 122. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and his friend a fool. whatever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. which. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. no particular thing. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. So with the other indefinites. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. to everything that. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 5. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Death is there associated. 123. by meaning and use. The simple relatives who. "common souls pay with that [singular. whichever. no certain antecedent. . 7. not as direct as the simple relatives. whatsoever.

etc. whereby. and that as after such is equivalent to which.² 1. but mean any one whom. 4. whereupon. for example. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. nothing that does not interest us. Proof that they have the force of relatives. 121. as was used just as we use that or which. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.²DE QUINCEY. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.²HAWTHORNE. etc. has been my heaviest affliction. Former use of as. Two words. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have.²EMERSON. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. 417). The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 121. not following the word such. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 125. Sec. for example. There is nothing but is related to us. Other substitutes. . The examples in sentences 5 and 6. 120. 2.. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. but which only wealth could have purchased. the conjunctions wherein.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. by which. thus. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. 126. In early modern English.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. Instead of the phrases in which.As shown in Sec. But and as. everything that (or everything which).² some particular thing. are used. 124. upon which. what means anything that. either one that.. etc. but and as. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. This. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.

it is an indefinite relative). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. the full expression being. would be. Another caution. . although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. But in 1 (b).²EMERSON. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. a question is disguised in each sentence. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. if not. "Who stood behind? We knew. which would indicate that they are not relatives. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. "But what had become of them? They knew not. if not. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed.²ID. In studying such sentences. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. Thus. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first." etc. Special caution needed here. and 3 (b). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. second. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. it is a simple relative. showing that who is plainly interrogative.. 3. So in 2 (b). 2 (b). though the earthwork hid them. if expanded. who having the antecedent gentleman. no antecedent is expressed. In sentences 1 (a).A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. what is interrogative. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure.²WHITTIER. 1 (b). and whether what = that + which (if so. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. How to decide. which having the antecedent lines. it is an interrogative." Likewise with which in 3 (b). It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 127. 2.

²HOLMES. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. 4. whose has the antecedent you.²SWIFT. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. ELIOT. 5. and asks no question. When Goldsmith died.² These are the sounds we feed upon. but the life of man in England. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. which has the antecedent hue. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 3. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. In the third. the question is asked by the verb. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. 129. and Court Calendars. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.128. Relative omitted when object.²FLETCHER.²FORSTER 6. Exercise. whence is the interrogative word. Thus.²GOLDSMITH. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. . In the first.²CARLYLE. In the second. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²G. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. Put in the relatives who. On the other hand. The insect I am now describing lived three years. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. which. I visited many other apartments.² THACKERAY. Examine the following:² 1. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. 2.

Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. that. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. and what. which. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.²Id.² LOWELL. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. or indefinite relatives:² 1. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.²CAMPBELL. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.²SHAKESPEARE. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. which was already proceeding. simple relatives. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Examples are. There was such a crowd went. 6. and comparatively so in poetry. 130. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.Ne'er looks upon the sun. It is rare in prose.7. 5. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. who were to be rulers over whom. 3.²SCOTT. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Relative omitted when subject. the house was full. 2. . Also in literary English we find the same omission. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. Function of adjective pronouns. The nobles looked at each other.

all. For example. but in this function. either. "The dead are there. "these pranks. such as each.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. Caution. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. must not modify any word.131. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. a word. many. any. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. 133. or an argument in a paragraph. in the first. not pronouns. . etc. 'Truth. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. Primarily they are adjectives. "another bank. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS." in the second. necessarily thought of: thus. or use. as some. and stand for a noun. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. such as this. etc. For instance. few. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. and another to get cool under. 132. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. in the second they retain an adjective meaning." in the others. or may be the whole of a sentence.²IRVING. "each cube. and on each is written. neither. which we have seen in such expressions as. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. in letters of gold. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. none. that.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these.²BRYANT. or they may stand for nouns. in order to be an adjective pronoun. but have lost their adjective use. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will." "Where two men ride on a horse.²EMERSON." "one man. etc. Adjectives. the former." Classes of adjective pronouns. expressed or understood. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. In the first use they are adjectives." that is.

²ID. and sow wickedness.² They stood. they that plow iniquity. or sat. NOTE. Some of these are simple pronouns. and they have well performed the other. because he was not lying in wait for these. Simple. Compound.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Definition and examples. 134. 2. 5.²ID.²LOWELL. but these were of the best. 3. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. reap the same. A man inspires affection and honor. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.²EMERSON 4. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. for example. accidentally preserved. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. when the latter was the King of Spain.All these he saw.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. as seemed good to each. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. They have not shunned the one. Even as I have seen. They had fewer books. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Such are a few isolated instances. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. Their minds accorded into one strain. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. or reclined. Exercises. . (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.

²HOLMES.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²each other. or melt for others' woe. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. for example. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.Two are compound pronouns. None shall rule but the humble. Some inflected. you quickly come to the end of all. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.²HAWTHORNE. as some of the rangers had gone astray.² One reflexive. Men take each other's measure when they react. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. Much might be said on both sides. Another opposes him with sound argument. as. as it were. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. They led one another. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. with the superstitions of his time. imbued. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. paused over a horoscope. ²HAWTHORNE. The Soldan. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. 135. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²KINGSLEY.²EMERSON. The word one has a reflexive form. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. such as one other.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. . one another. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. as most were. another. Definition and examples. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. Exercise. we might the more easily discharge them. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.

²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. unlike adjective pronouns. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. etc. I tell you what. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. anybody. and they. but. They indefinite means people in general. nobody. some one. also aught. anybody else's. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. Jove laughs. . The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. everybody. 136. everything.² At lovers' perjuries. every one else. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered.²SHAKESPEARE. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. no one. any one (or anyone). what.Exercise. Definition and examples. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS." It means something. in building of chaises. as. and somewhat. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. etc. Somebody. 137. somebody else. naught. Exercise. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. they are never used as adjectives. as shown in the words everybody's. anything. and was indefinite in Old English. nothing. Every one else stood still at his post. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Now. every one (or everyone). they say. everybody else. anyone else.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. something.

8. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. from my earliest days.See also "Syntax" (Sec. to which. 11. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 138. Others did the same thing. 5. 16. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. For this did God send her a great reward. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 12. and of no other. 7.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 2. O thou that rollest above. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. The table was good. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. indeed. I first found myself among the mountains. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 17. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Whoever deals with M. 3. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. in his negotiations. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 14. 13. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 6. 10. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 18. Exercise. A reminder. 9. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. . were suffered to depart. All was now ready for action. 4.

19. 25. hear! 33. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. behold now the semblance of my being.And it would work 'em woe. well-oiled dispositions. 23.Who knew thee too well. I who alone am. Whatever he knows and thinks. variety. They know not I knew thee. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 27.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. and seized a pen. 35. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 32. And I had done a hellish thing.Destroyer and preserver. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . who take the world easy. He sate him down. thou rollest now. that let him communicate. hear. 26. oh. 30. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 31. eat white bread or brown. 29. 34. in all its height. 21. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. And will your mother pity me.

" "some cities. 40. white or red. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. position. becomes mine. such as in the expressions "this man. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. We are by nature observers. If a chemist discovers a new substance. that is our permanent state. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. He teaches who gives. 139." "yonder hill. in pointing out an object." "a hundred men." "that house. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. We need to add some words to tell its color. For example.36.. 37. if we are at a distance. He knew not what to do. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." The office of an adjective. then. 39. 42. as. which was no bad step towards my liberation." etc. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. 44. Office of Adjectives. or with persons. As to the kind of words used. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. So with any object. and so he read. so that no other will be mistaken for it. ADJECTIVES. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. 45. Who hears me. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. etc. It may have this office alone. etc. adjectives are used. who understands me. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. or liquid. and if we are near. and he learns who receives. "one hat. 38. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. . or gaseous. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Again. size. Substantives. 43. heavy or light. the number is limited by adjectives. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 41. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. brittle or tough.

used to tell how many things are spoken of. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. fair." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "this life-giving book. 143. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." "unlooked-for burden. however. and their trash. Infinitives." "the Christian pearl of charity. or how much of a thing.²POPE." "half-dead traveler. Nouns are not." ." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. deep." "ice-cold water." "the Roman writer Palladius. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. words primarily pronouns." the "and there. to describe it or to limit its application." "next-door neighbor. Classes of adjectives. it shows that he weighs men's minds. divine. such as. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. To err is human." they constitute all his connections. to forgive. pointing out particular things. derived from proper nouns." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. etc. (4) Pronominal adjectives. "an old English manuscript. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. terrible. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. beautiful.² BACON. With exception of the "and then. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality.140. Definition. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. They include relative and interrogative words. To make this clear. remotest. 141. 142. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. such as safe." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. Examples are. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression.²COLERIDGE. rash." "ivory-handled pistols. (2) Adjectives of quantity. "Heaven-derived power. If he be thankful for small benefits. happy." and the still less significant "and so.

. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. any. which are either pure participles used to describe. 143. and another is drunken." "The shattered squares have opened into line. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. They have these three subdivisions:² How much." "a charming sight. no." "trailing clouds. For instance: in the sentence." was is the verb. in studying these last-named words. and accomplished is an adjective. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. considerable.But ever she looked on Mr.²COLERIDGE. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "It came on like the rolling simoom. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Examples are." was accomplished is a verb. 144. some. having some of each subclass named in Sec. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. sometimes small. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. much. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. Exercises.²MACDONALD. 2. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." Caution. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. in this. 145. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "One is hungry. Oxenham.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. 1." "an aged man. Care is needed.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. 'Tis midnight.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.

" "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. yonder (or yon). former." (b) Indefinite numerals. Not primarily pronouns. The demonstrative adjectives are this.²CARLYLE." Single ones of any number of changes.² Every town had its fair. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. are used with plural nouns. Exercise. instead of modifying them. The following sentences present some examples:² . also the pairs one (or the one)²the other." "Then we wandered for many days. Examples. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. the former²the latter. those).Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.²KINGSLEY. and with them a few negroes. An arrow was quivering in each body." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. 146. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "He had lived by hunting for some months. any. every village. that. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. The list. latter. "one blaze of musketry.²THACKERAY. as. no. its wake. When some." "I have lost one brother. (plural these. Thus. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. How many. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.²ID. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "a dozen volunteers. they come under the next division of adjectives. but I have gained fourscore. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence." "In came some five and twenty more." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²VAUGHAN. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.

but. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Definition. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. what revenues or garnitures. The taking of which bark.²D. skill which was progressive²in the other. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. The silver and laughing Xenil.²ID. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.²WORDSWORTH. These do not. ²CARLYLE. In which evil strait Mr. These were thy charms. Oxenham fought desperately. Exercise. of equal skill. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. tell how many things are meant.²RUSKIN. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.² It matters not what rank he has.²ID..The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. skill which was at pause. As has been said. 147. 148. they are changed to adjectives. just as the corresponding pronouns do. but in the one case. 149. I verily believe. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. WEBSTER..²BANCROFT.²GOLDSMITH. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. for example. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²KINGSLEY. FRANKLIN. They are of two kinds.but all these charms are fled.²BULWER. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns."²B. Indefinite relative adjectives. like the other numerals.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. Modify names of persons or things. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. .

and points to yonder glade?² POPE. it is impossible to determine. as it rather seemed. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. nature will be sure to bear us out in.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. In indirect questions. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.² EMERSON. which. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²AGASSIZ. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. or whether any. the debt to the rich. A lady once remarked. which is selective among what is known. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.²IRVING. 151.²LAMB. . proved not altogether displeasing to him. As in the pronouns. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. But when the Trojan war comes. what inquires about things or persons not known. New torments I behold. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whichsoever way I move. and new tormentedAround me. Examples of their use are. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.²ID. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.²RUSKIN.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. and gaze. Whatsoever kind of man he is. whichsoever. you at least give him full authority over your son. Adjective what in exclamations. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. He was turned before long into all the universe.150. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.. In direct questions.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). Was there. whichever. whatsoever.²CARLYLE. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whatever.And whichsoever way I turn. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.

we do so by means of their qualities. 155. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. alas. of the quality.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. And yet. COMPARISON. or amount.Adjectives have two inflections. It is neither relative nor interrogative.²number and comparison. and when we compare the objects. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE.²but not the same degree. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. etc. In exclamatory expressions. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. th s (modern those). and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. those). but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. Those borrowed from this. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.² Oh. the making of it right. color. That. 153 . When we place two objects side by side. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. 154. which was fully inflected in Old English. .. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. Meaning of comparison. Thus. NUMBER. All these have certain qualities. or size. and those as the plural of that. Exercise.152. or weight. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. weight. as.²This. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. we notice some differences between them as to size. The article that was used with neuter nouns. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. etc. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. This is the old demonstrative. History of this²these and that²those. But this had also another plural. gold is heavier than iron. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness.

A main difference betwixt men is. Substitute for inflection in comparison. 158. but were not common until a century later. "more matter." "the largest soul. expressing the greatest degree of quality. 159. and the superlative. giant-like. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. 160. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. enormous. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree." "It is a nobler valor. but. and the superlative by adding -est. or amounts in quantity. bluest. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most." "no fewer than a hundred. indefatigable. they are not compared. So with the words sole. with less wit. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. sufficient. "untamed thought. redder. The two forms. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. . to the simple form. infinite. These are properly the only degrees. for example. strictly considered. Definition. easy. Freedom is a perpetual. The comparative is formed by adding -er. They came into use about the thirteenth century.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. immemorial. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. whether they attend their own affair or not. easiest. indomitable. red. though the simple. easier. bluer. organic. 156. and many others. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. expressing a greater degree of quality. 157. great. universal institution. as.²THACKERAY. blue.²SEWARD. These are called degrees of comparison." Words that cannot be compared. as." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. reddest. supreme. whose favorite pupil he was.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality." "the commonest speech. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms.

so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. quiet. there needed to be a most genuine substance. witty." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. "So help me God. finest chiseling. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. who. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. polished.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. I will. indisputablest.² -er and -est or more and most? 161.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. and other words are preceded by more and most. 162." "sorrowfulest spectacles. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.Which rule. admirablest." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. was most finished. falling on his knees." "more austere and holy.²ID.² CARLYLE A gentleman. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." said Henry Esmond. easy. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. Adjectives irregularly compared. strange. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. which hung behind in the queerest way. and yet familiar. These long. The following lists include the majority of them:² . No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. peaceablest." "more odd. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.²The Nation. The general rule is. madam." Carlyle uses beautifulest. 163." "distantest relationships.²ID. and patientest fusing. mournfulest. etc. honestest. These are adjectives irregularly compared. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. harsh forms are usually avoided. though born in no very high degree. as." "the wonderfulest little shoes. most small.

. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. [In] Inner Inmost.LIST I. [Out] Outer. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. next Nearest Latest. The superlative I form was betst. furthest 10.² O. uttermost Upmost. 8. hindermost Much or many More Farther. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 1.²HAMLET. 9. utter 3. 164.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. bad. throw away the worser part of it. as.² We have it in a much lesser degree. which has softened to the modern best. is often used. A double comparative. further Farthest. least. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. innermost Outmost. latter Hinder LIST II. lesser Elder. List I. Good or well Evil. (3) Little is used as positive to less. uppermost LIST III. last Hindmost. as in Shakespeare. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. a double comparative. Worser was once used. (2) In Old English. as in the sentence (14th century). Hind 2. 4. 3. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 7. evil was the positive to worse. though from a different root. 2. lesser. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. These have no adjective positive:² 1. worst. outermost Utmost. There was an old comparative bet. 5. older Nigher Nearer Later. 6. which has gone out of use. oldest Nighest. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.

moche. instead of lenger. and the superlative nearest. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. as. is quite common. an old superlative ending. farrest. strenger. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. next." Its spelling has been micel. Since later. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. oldest. eldest. great. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer.²forth. . doubling the inflection. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte.²ID. etc. near. there is scarcely any distinction. to which is added -ost. List II. further. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. furthest. came into use. th came into the others. farthest. The meanings greater. but not in meaning. making the modern farther. etc. are earlier than older.. but originally the comparison was nigh. "Many a little makes a mickle. muchel. but in former times much was used in the sense of large.. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. the old forms. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. to England we sailed. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. a distinction has grown up between the two series. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. are shown in such phrases as. since the m is for -ma.²KINGSLEY. except the form next. much. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. (5) The forms elder. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. meaning the largest part. Between the two sets as they now stand. or series.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. strong.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. greatest. first.² The more part being of one mind. In imitation of further. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. for example. First became entirely detached from the series. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. as long. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. The latter. ²LAMB. The most part kept a stolid indifference. latest.²HAWTHORNE. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. and refer to time. The form hindmost is really a double superlative.

The comparatives are so in form." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. but they have no adjective positives.²SCOTT. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove." -Most added to other words. 168. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Her. Think what each adjective belongs to. W. but her after deck was still dry. BEECHER. 166. In List II. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. Highest and midmost. or have no comparative forms. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Her bows were deep in the water.²DE QUINCEY. The adjectives in List III. are like the comparative forms in List II. the upper light of the world. and have no comparative force.165. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. or each may modify a different word or group of words. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. (Sec.²H. by the by. in having no adjective positives." "the innermost moral soul. There." "far-seeing as the sun. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. List III. was descried The royal banner floating wide. all may belong to the same noun. being merely descriptive. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. They have no superlatives. 167. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²EMERSON." "The outer is of the day. on the very topmost twig." "their utmost exertion.²HAWTHORNE. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. but not in their meaning. Decidedly handsome.²KINGSLEY.²DE QUINCEY. .

those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. we may say "the then king. and thine often infirmities. H. STOWE. philosophical. the then and still owners. 7. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. instead of saying. 6. and heaven-defying oaths. usual modifies incomparable decision. Exercise. 169. bright. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. deeply black eyes. A few improper jests and a volley of good. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. . "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. in prose. May we not." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. STEPHENS 5.²HAWTHORNE. and moral truth. not decision alone. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID.²TRENCH. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. satisfactory. Bradbury and Evans.²BIBLE." making then an adjective. therefore. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. solid. In the following quotations. as." in which then is an adverb. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. By a convenient brevity.For example. Our sometime sister. rich. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. 4. The seldom use of it. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. our new government." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²A. 2. This. Richard Hooker. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. But in this sentence. in this sentence.²HAWTHORNE.²HOLMES.²NOAH PORTER. For thy stomach's sake. "the one who was then king.²RUSKIN.²MRS. ²TROLLOPE. and broken.² My then favorite. 3. deep. Other instances are. It may still be argued. round. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. now our queen.

whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. therefore descriptive. (4) What word or words it modifies. and most astounding were those frightful yells. In parsing an adjective. then. therefore demonstrative. not inflected for number. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. 2. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. positive degree. MODEL FOR PARSING. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. These points out what truths.What to tell in parsing. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. having a singular. 4. across the plain. modifies truths. (2) Its number. or case. 8. Since adjectives have no gender. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. plural number. 170. 3. I ask nothing of you. To every several man. She made no reply. manly way. 10. modifies the word truths. 6. To every Roman citizen he gives. seventy-five drachmas. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. This gave the young people entire freedom. with awkward but rapid pace. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. and I waited for none. 9. the method of parsing is simple. Unfamiliar describes truths. compared by prefixing more and most. if it can be compared. (3) Its degree of comparison. and very few have number. . on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. Exercise. if it has number. frank. this. person. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. 7. cannot be compared. 5.

and dogs. 16. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 19. In music especially. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. it rests on reality. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. during which time I waited. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Here lay two great roads. is the settlement of our own country. 27. Their name was the last word upon his lips. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 33. as for armies that were too many by half. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 18. . 14. 26. and many poles supported the lower ones. 32. To say what good of fashion we can. With every third step. Nearer to our own times. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 25. 21. and therefore more interesting to us. are immutably fishes. 13. he won affections with ease. 20. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. growing in the most unfavorable position. yonder oxen in the pasture. 31. it is so noble a fruit. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 12. those dogs in the yard. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 29. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 28. 22. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Like most gifted men. 24.11. oxen. Two hours elapsed. 23. the tomahawk fell. suggests such thoughts as these. I know not what course others may take. not so much for travelers that were few. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves.

that other. that) which was also an article in Old English. were formerly that one. 173." "an honor. just as adjectives do." "a European. In Middle English the became an article. In the sentence. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. 35. weary-hearted man was he." An with consonant sounds. later th .² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Two relics. An or a came from the old numeral n. s o. he is no literary man. in vulgar English. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. th o. sometimes the tother. 37. 172. An historian. the tither. and a before consonant sounds." "a yelling crowd. Our expressions the one. with an ordinary little garden.²MACAULAY. but the former is used." the words the and an belong to nouns. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. the latter is still preserved in the expression." "an orange. 174. ARTICLES. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel.²SCOTT. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. a before consonant sounds. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. meaning one. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. such as we have been attempting to describe. ðat. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. for example. the tother. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. . the other. Their origin. Many writers use an before h. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. Examples: "a house. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. An before vowel sounds. the tother. or the tane. even when not silent.34. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. these occurring as the tane.²BREWER. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. 171. A hard-struggling.

The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. or class.. 178. When the is prefixed to a proper name. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. or any individual of a group or class.²COLERIDGE. To call attention to attributes..He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business.² Don't you remember how. or a group or class of things. a person is introduced by a. 175. and not a state or other geographical division. not descriptive. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. The is the definite article. An article is a limiting word. on opening a story. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. An and a are different forms of the same word. thus. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.² . The Dakota tribes. or group.²IRVING. With names of rivers.²This use is noticed when.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. which cannot be used alone." "the Ohio. since it points out a particular individual. Definition. the older n. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Reference to a known object. as "the Mississippi. doubtless. An hereditary tenure of these offices. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. BANCROFT. Articles are either definite or indefinite. An or a is the indefinite article. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.²G. Kinds. is referred to.²HEROES OF ASGARD..²THACKERAY. NOTE. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. as in the sentence. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. 176. 179." the article indicates clearly that a river. and when the word river is omitted. 177.

He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. her. With adjectives used as nouns. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.²G. Schelling.²SCOTT. Common. His messages to the provincial authorities. With plural of abstract nouns.²ID. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. the Hume. laid it on the miry spot.² The faint.The Bacon. and the redwing.²EMERSON. 1. BANCROFT. not into a particular virtue. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. The simple rise as by specific levity. Kant. or a match put between the fingers. the gallant. 183. If the good is there. the Spinoza.²EMERSON. The. Half abstract.²GIBBON. Caution. 181. 2. .²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.²ID. for example. 182. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. etc. would speedily extract the required information. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. 180. but into the region of all the virtues. NOTE. For possessive person pronouns. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. the song sparrow.²KINGSLEY.² As she hesitated to pass on.²MOTLEY. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. One thing for its class. so is the evil. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. as.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

all do not express it in the same way. 202. In each case. and shame the most astute. a). to say something to or about some person or thing. and to receive the action expressed. b). for example. and. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. the word following. hence is not a verb. or a material thing. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. The nature of intransitive verbs. Now. can deceive has an object. b)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. representing something which it influences or controls. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. and not a verb. "Put thou money in thy purse. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. in (2." Examine the sentences in Sec. Each influences some object. In the first. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. "Put money in thy purse. but fearing is not a predicate. A verb is a word used as a predicate. The nature of the transitive verb. in (3. Has takes the object hypocrisy. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. we consider a verb as one word. in (c).²BULWER . etc.In (a). 201. the most penetrating. endured what? anguish. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. 204. a verb. Definition and caution. the most astute. might have been anticipated is also one predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. or an idea. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. All these are called transitive verbs. which may be a person. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. In giving a definition. with some word understood. 203. taking the staff which always guided her steps. in (2. to go is no predicate. By examining a few verbs. which means to go over. in this sentence from Bulwer. in (3. In the sentence. in (b). obeyed is a predicate. a preposition. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. Hence Definition. lone took what? answer. 200: In (1). care. an adverb. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. an article. c). Of those expressing action. but cannot be predicates. (can) shame also has an object. or the object. as. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and a preposition unite as a verb." put is the predicate. a noun. from the Latin transire.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Ideal. If this be the glory of Julius.² Now. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.²FRANKLIN. popular government must be pronounced impossible. the first great founder of the Empire. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. Most excellent stranger. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. 221.² If. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. 222. but. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. as. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. as.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. Again. or be fulfilled.I could lie down like a tired child. WEBSTER. Unreal²cannot be true. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. he will see the need of these ethics. and may or may not be regarded true.²D. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. I. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. Condition or Supposition. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. .² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. 215. 2).²may or may not be true. for example. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. they were recorded in the Book of Life.²MACAULAY. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. the representative system ultimately fail.²BRYCE.²SHELLEY. the writer can make the statement following.²LONGFELLOW. the second founder. ²EMERSON. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. in our case.

that we cannot but regret its absence. unless. In the following conditional clauses. and what kind of condition:² 1. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. etc. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. 5. which cannot be true. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. the clause being introduced by that or lest.. I told him.²FRANKLIN. clear. 7. WILLIS.. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. may. if his lot had been mine. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding.²N. as..²SWIFT. Exercise. is of similar physiognomy. would have sat still with joy and peace. and striven energetically to save Ney. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²BAYNE. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. since he [Byron] was dead. 4. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. except. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. might. 6. especially be. is used to express purpose.²CALHOUN.² It was necessary.²FRANKLIN. she was regarded as a prodigy. that he might be strong to labor.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. ²LOWELL. 3. he had better not have written. NOTE. Epaminondas.² CARLYLE. The subjunctive. he supposed. If he had reason to dislike him. if he speak to you. 2. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. but when the verb precedes the subject. . although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. to drink strong beer. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. though. melodious." etc. 223. thus. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire.²EMERSON. II. would you. do you think. Subjunctive of Purpose.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. 8. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.. society could not hold together. and should. The voice.² If these things were true.²MACAULAY. But in no case could it be justified. if he was the man I take him for. and sonorous. P.

²DE QUINCEY..²COLERIDGE. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. WEBSTER. within its fairy bowers. none of us could say. After a verb of wishing. I would it were! ²EMERSON.That vain it were her eyes to close. like the Latin. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. 227. Rise up. like the quarry-slave at night. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE. till it meet the sun in his coming.And we. III.²MOORE. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²WORDSWORTH. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.Thou go not. So live.²BRYANT. Expressing a Wish. VII. IV. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. Let it rise. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.²ID. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. In Indirect Questions.Were wafted off to seas unknown. the answer being regarded as doubtful. In a Noun Clause.²SOUTHEY. 224. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²D. The English subjunctive. Ask the great man if there be none greater.. V. In Temporal Clauses. To tell of what had passed. I've wished that little isle had wings. Subjunctive of Result.. VI. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. 226.. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. . 225.I have been the more particular.

tell me all that thou hast seen. etc. 228.²COLERIDGE.² Be the matter how it may. The noun clause. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.Subject.²DE QUINCEY. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. object.²SHELLEY. VIII.²COLERIDGE.And see the Braes of Yarrow. for example. Whatever betide.²TENNYSON. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²THOREAU. Concessive Clauses.²SCOTT. 229. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. that everything be in its place. is. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. I have no thought what men they be. Object. The first merit. often contains a subjunctive. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. is the ultimate fact of man's life. After verbs of commanding. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. in apposition.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. of cash. (b) Adjective. Come.² DICKENS.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. or whatsoever victual it may be. The essence of originality is not that it be new. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²WORDSWORTH. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.. Complement. . in its various uses as subject. That hunger of applause. we'll turn aside. Some might lament that I were cold.And look thou tell me true.²CARLYLE. which may be (a) Pronoun.

we had found [should have found] a poem here. a concession. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. and condition contrary to fact. 231. though. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Oh. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. to express a wish. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. 230.The spirit he loves remains. entreaties. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Usually second person. or requests. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.(c) Adverb. point to their immortal works. 232.² CARLYLE. (3) Request. (1) Command. (2) Entreaty. In spoken English. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Definition. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. It must be remembered. ADAMS. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²SHELLEY.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. Q. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. for example. . fear none. At the present day. love all men. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. however. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.²CHANNING. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Honor all men. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood.²BRYANT. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts.²J. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.

but I + you.One glance at their array! 5.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart." Exercises on the Moods." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.²CAMPBELL. "Come along with me. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. 6. Part we in friendship from your land. or I + they. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. nothing is to be preferred before justice. 3. request. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. noble earl. there will her heart and her prayers be. Sometimes with first person in the plural. 7.²SHAKESPEARE. child of earth!While each performs his part.²SCOTT. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. receive my hand. Mark thou this difference. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. lest we rust in ease. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Break we our watch up. Oh. "The Devil take the goose."²DICKENS Tell me. Whatever inconvenience ensue. etc. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.And. 2." whispered Kit. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. to you implied in it. Quoth she. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.And God forget the stranger!" . etc. 8.."Hush! mother. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.

is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. it would speak. 10. Though abyss open under abyss. or do it at all. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. no literary man." 16. let him live where else he like. That a man parade his doubt.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 21. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. 14. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. then. 19. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. 18. . 13.Except. she ought to have it. whether he do it right or wrong. He is." cried he. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Forget thyself to marble. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. ruined.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. 23. 20.High up in silver spikes! 22. "Oh. That sheaf of darts. my dear madam. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 11. "tell me where I may find my poor. 26. "Mr. Think not that I speak for your sakes. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. but repentant child. Though he were dumb. Well." 25." continued Old Morgan.That they might answer him. and opinion displace opinion. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. will it not fall unbound.9. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Marshall. how he may do his work. as though an instrument. He.

The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. which represented present and future time. and future perfect tenses. also. as. called auxiliaries. to direct his steps. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages." "If he comes." .² present. in the third person singular. When the older pronoun thou was in use." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. "Thou walkedst. five in the subjunctive. Meantime. Old English had only two tenses. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as." present. shall. such as be. 234. and the past tense.27.²nothing could exceed the amiable. tell him to wait. 28. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. "I go away tomorrow. whatever she did. Tense means time. Definition.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. five in the imperative. PERSON AND NUMBER. such as Latin and Greek." past. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. as will be shown later on. TENSE. the past. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. past. and future. and the future tense. or future time. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. as the classical languages have. past. The tenses in detail. "It is not in man that walketh. or whether it were as one member of a general party. 233. as. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. "Thou walkest.²the present tense. by means of the present. kind. have. 235. Siddons. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. Tenses in English. or agree with it. in the conjugations. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. past perfect. will. a form ending in -eth.

" and this only in the present tense indicative. wert) 3. [He] is [They] are 3. tenses. Such verbs as choose have five. chosen (old. etc. and numbers. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. CONJUGATION. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. chosest). choosest. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. [He] were [They] were . I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walking. You (thou) be 3. This is the third person. The verb be has more forms. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. tense. Indicative Mood. mood.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. 238. but in English. 236. walked.²choose.²am. persons. I were 2. etc. Definition. In classical languages. Singular 1. Singular 1. is. for example. Singular 1. walkedst. singular number. Singular 1. chooseth. since it is composed of several different roots. were. moods. PRESENT TENSE. "He walks. as. walketh. are. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Few forms. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. choosing. You are 2. walk has walk. 237. I be 2. chose. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. walks. chooses. been.

etc. (2) was. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²WORDSWORTH. condition. thus. were. to form the passive voice.²THACKERAY. -en. Remarks on the verb be. is.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. The light that never was on sea and land. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. as. (3) be. for example. etc.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.. to express intention. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. in four ways. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. which was now become an occasional banquet.²SHELLEY. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (2) As auxiliary verbs. 239. (b) With the past participle in -ed. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.²GOLDSMITH. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (d) With the infinitive.²SCOTT.Imperative Mood.. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. same as the German sind.²ID. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. though it is usually a dialect form. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²BURKE . 240. Instead of the plural are. obligation.His infancy was nurtured.

" (2) Present perfect. I choose 2." "He will choose. 1. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. You chose Plural. You choose Plural. I chose 2. I chose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. etc. "I have gone" (present perfect). "I shall have gone" (future perfect). future perfect. You chose Plural. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [He] choose [They] choose 3. 1. as. as. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. (2). and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. In addition to the above inflected forms. "I shall be. PRESENT TENSE. had. tenses. past perfect. "I had gone" (past perfect). I choose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. by placing have. Singular. Singular. Singular. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. Machinery of a verb in the voices. tenses. We chose You chose 3. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Indicative Mood. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. You choose Plural. We chose You chose 3. . INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. 240. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. Singular. 1. 242.241. 1. PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose.

"I was chosen. Same as indicative. Past perfect definite. Imperative Mood. He was choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. Past. etc." "They had been running. He will choose. Subjunctive Mood. Present. Past definite. of each tense. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. will be given. as." (4) The passive forms. he chose (or were to choose). Same as indicative. Past definite. He is choosing. Future perfect definite. Future. [If. He will he choosing. as. Future definite. Present perfect definite. lest. Present perfect definite. Present perfect. He has chosen. Present definite. Past perfect. "I am running. Future perfect. he have chosen. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Present definite. Present perfect. Present. He has been choosing. though. He will have been choosing. He will have chosen. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. (2d per. . singular number. Only the third person. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He had been choosing. He chose. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He had chosen. Indicative Mood. Present. Present definite. Past perfect." "You are chosen.) Choose. Past.] he choose. he have been choosing." 243. " Be choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. Past perfect definite. He chooses.

He will be chosen. Present perfect definite. Present definite. None. None. he were being chosen. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Past perfect. they will be discussed later (Sec. Future perfect. lest. He was being chosen. Present perfect definite. Past. Future perfect definite. Present perfect. . etc.] he be chosen. Present tense. as. Exercises should be given." [Note to Teacher. "He does strike. Present definite. He will have been chosen. 262). Past definite. Present. Past. None. Past definite. (2d per. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. if learned at all. Past perfect definite. however. Future. Imperative Mood. Indicative Mood.NOTE. he have been chosen.) Be chosen.. Present perfect. None. " " " " " " " None. but verbals. he had been chosen. He had been chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Past Perfect. though." "He did strike. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He is being chosen. Past perfect definite. Also. Present. He has been chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. in affirmative sentences. He is chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. He was chosen. Subjunctive Mood. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). None. None. Future definite.] [If.

beg. and may or may not change the vowel: as. verbs are strong or weak.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. caught. sleep. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. lay. slept. drove. 244. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. bounden] bitten. bit blown broken chidden. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) .[adj. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. According to form. which are in parentheses Present Tense. 245. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. begged. run. catch. Past Tense. bid bound. as. Some of these also have weak forms. but adds no ending. ran. Definition. Kinds. laid. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. drive. NOTE.

drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. sunken] sat slain slidden. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

Historically. When it means to carry or to endure. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. 246. Our cock. borne is also a passive. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.²GOLDSMITH. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. cleaved." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²cleave.²one meaning to adhere or cling." Stricken is used mostly of diseases." "a drunken wretch. "his bounden duty." "the cloven hoof. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. as. Not a cock crew. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. TAYLOR. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²COLERIDGE. to split. and sometimes occurs in poetry.²B. and. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.²as (from Shakespeare).wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. instead of ate and eaten. as (from Holmes). probably to avoid confusion with this."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²TENNYSON. cloven. cleave. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. cleft (to split). for example. The former used to be cleave. "stricken with paralysis.²IRVING. but is much used in vulgar English. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.² We had each drank three times at the well." In this confusion of usage.²MILTON. cleft. as. The form clomb is not used in prose. which always crew at eleven. ²THACKERAY. . and another (born) for the passive. Sometimes in literary English. as. the other. nor a dog barked. and the latter. now told us it was time for repose. cleaved. especially in that of an earlier period. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain." "a sunken snag. clave or clove. only one set remains certain.

² We had all got safe on shore. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. found." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. thrown. 9. shook." but not much as a participle. One example out of many is. Find. We usually say. frozen. .²WORDSWORTH. 7. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. as. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. 2. Give.The form gotten is little used. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. fallen. froze. found. 4. 245). He sate him down.²BYRON. and grasping at his sword. shaken.²TENNYSON. began.²SCOTT.²DE FOE.² If. Drive.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. Freeze. as "a shorn lamb.²BIBLE. and seized a pen. Fling. which is seldom used except in poetry. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. (a) From the table (Sec. 8. flung. even in poetry. Break. broken. maiden. shore is rare. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. gave. flung."²KINGSLEY. The butler was hanged. Throw. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Exercises. broke. Shake. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. for example. begun. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. 5. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Fall.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. 3. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Usually shear is a weak verb. given. fell. drove. 10. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. for example. Begin. 6. This heard Geraint. driven. threw.

(See also Sec." Must is present or past tense..) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. It is indicative when it expresses permission. it is used only in the indicative mood. Must is historically a past-tense form. or. which survives in the sentence. The l in could did not belong there originally. Can is used in the indicative only. The same remarks apply to ought. there is one general principle. "far off his coming shines.[To the Teacher.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. PAST.²CHANNING.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. PRESENT. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. according to the infinitive used. or when it expresses wish.²CHANNING This. as it has two meanings. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. PAST. Have we valuable territories and important posts.²HAWTHORNE. etc. as. His superiority none might question.. Like must. purpose. "So mote it be. from the obsolete verb motan. They are as follows:² PRESENT. as in Sec. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. Ability. etc. of course. must have been an ocular deception."²WINIER. ability.. 247.²SCOTT. 223. HAMILTON. 249. Subjunctive use.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. 250. as it sometimes does. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. but came through analogy with should and would. 251. Could may be subjunctive. .²PAINE. Indicative Use: Permission. for full drill on the forms. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. 220.

my lad. future action).² With respect to novels. shall and should are used. or confident prediction. (b) In questions asking for orders. for example.Nay. (b) In indirect quotations. to the neglect of shall and should. The sea shall crush thee. with pronouns of the first person. She rejects his suit with scorn. he said. The following are examples:² Never mind.e. She should not walk.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. and corn to hoe. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. especially in the United States. Second and third persons.²LONGFELLOW. to use will and would. as.²L.² The time will come full soon.² (a) To express authority. she should ride like a queen. C." Uses of shall and should. MOULTON. They shall have venison to eat. as. I shall be gone. WEBSTER. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. . Shall and Will. not plod along like apeasant. as. while ought always has to. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. promise. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. shall and should are used. in the form of command. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.. "I think I will go.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.²MACAULAY.²IRVING.²BULWER.²THAXTER. 252. what shall I say?²N.²COOPER. yea. BROCKDEN BROWN.² Futurity and questions²first person.

If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. and is equivalent to ought.. as. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. Disguising a command.²SWIFT. 253.²CABLE.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. for example.²A.²WORDSWORTH. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. for example. And promised. or a promise. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. B.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. First. thus.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. second and third persons.²WINTER. etc.²BYRON. JR. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. and will not return until all is finished. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.. LARNED. was to be expected. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. (c) With direct questions of the second person.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²H. JAMES. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²C.²WORDSWORTH.²ROGERS. . purpose.² I will go myself now. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. BROWN.that I would do him justice. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. as the sole inventor. I never was what I should be. time. with the conviction that he should win in the end.

they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. B.. as. (4) With FIRST. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.²SCOTT. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. will is used to express command. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. would is used to express a wish.²LANDOR. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. Thine was a dangerous gift. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.. In this stately chair would he sit.²BURKE.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²SCOTT. Mere futurity. and two of my people. This puts the order more mildly. 254. through storms their brothers are afraid of. .² Thou wilt take the skiff. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. so you will. action merely expected to occur. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. Roland. AND THIRD PERSONS. for punishment or intimidation. To be sure..²BANCROFT. will and would often denote an action as customary. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. as if it were merely expected action. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). etc. The gift of Beauty. BROWN. When I am in town. when thou wast born. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. for example. SECOND. for example. without regard to future time. PASSIVE VOICE..(2) With the SECOND PERSON. Would thou hadst it not.. will and would are used to express simple futurity. as.²the original meaning of the word will..² Subject I omitted: often so. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. They will go to Sunday schools.²IRVING.² DICKENS.²War Records. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. and mark on the grounds the works. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.

yet only seem. 1. [He] will be chosen. I will be chosen. Singular. To express determination. 2. I shall be chosen. 1. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. We will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. 5. 1. etc. We shall be chosen. Plural. [They] will choose. 3. Singular. Plural. 2. [They] shall choose. I shall choose. Thou art what I would be. [They] will be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. [He] shall be chosen. We shall choose. You shall be chosen. 1. You will choose. 3. [They] shall be chosen. [He] will choose. You shall choose. 2. 252 and 253.:² ACTIVE VOICE. 2. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. (b) Examine the following sentences. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. You shall be chosen." answered Herbert stubbornly. Singular. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 6. You will be chosen. You shall choose. 2. 3. Thou shalt have a suit. . 1. promise. and that of the newest cut. "I shall not run. You will choose. 2. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. PASSIVE VOICE. Plural. 3. Plural. He informed us. I will choose. 3. You will be chosen. [He] shall choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. We will be chosen. 4. 3.Singular. (a) From Secs.

No. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. The beast made a sluggish movement. which may be called irregular weak verbs. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. my son. This ending has now dropped off. 12. as if he would have more of the enchantment. 256. bereave besought Past Participle. bereft. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 10. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.²ID. WEAK VERBS. very anxious.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Irregular Weak Verbs. then. need some attention and explanation. Without having attended to this. "I am a wayfarer. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. bereave beseech bereft. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. Lucy stood still. Past Tense. or mylk and wastel breed. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes." 14. put. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense." the stranger said. put. bereaved besought . The old ending to verbs of Class II. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle.7. 255. 13.²CHAUCER. But the rest. and have no change of vowel. as. set. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. 11. Present Tense. 257. set. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. Of smale houndes hadde she.²Class I. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 9. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. put. and I have nothing to say. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. was -de or -te. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.

hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

But later. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. formed a kind of bedstead.6. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Cases when to is omitted. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). have no tense. [To] be chosen. I returned to reflection on my situation. and a perfect definite form. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. an imperfect. [To] have chosen. 268.. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. and when passive. When active. [To] have been chosen. INFINITIVES. ACTIVE VOICE. PASSIVE VOICE. they have an indefinite. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Indefinite. 7. Perfect definite. 9. Infinitives. Perfect. Nothing of the kind having been done. [To] have been choosing. like participles. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. [To] choose. expressing purpose. 267. To with the infinitive. Indefinite.²the creature warring against the creating power. [To] be choosing. 10.. an indefinite and a perfect form. when inflections became fewer. a perfect. as in the Old English. will (with should and would). . to express action unconnected with a subject. try clemency. Imperfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Three saplings. In Sec. Perfect. 8. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. to was used before the infinitive generally.. 266.

They shall have venison to eat.²TENNYSON. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. 270. see.²E. feel. GERUNDS. and emphatic forms of the present and past. poor woman!" cried Charles.). HALE. under "Analysis.²MACAULAY. But there was nothing to do. hear. learn [doth learn is one verb. "He will choose. sometimes need (as." etc.²it may be governed as a noun. watch. While the gerund expresses action. it has several attributes of a noun. "She ask my pardon." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms.²HOWELLS. please. can (could).² What! doth she. as. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. and corn to hoe.²DE QUINCEY.² She was a kind. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. it is often preceded by the definite article. also let. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). E. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. 272.²IRVING. and like a noun in use. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. do (as. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. . Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.²GOLDSMITH. 269. liberal woman. The gerund is like the participle in form. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II." Examples are. too. it may be the subject of a verb. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. as in the expression. or the object of a verb or a preposition. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun." (4) In exclamations. "I do go" etc. also in the imperative. as. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. 271. as the credulous imagine.²COOPER.(2) After the verbs may (might). negative. as. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. must. "a house to let. bid (command). make.." "I shall have chosen.

II). Words in -ing are of six kinds. (6) Verbal nouns. after examining the nest. which express action." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. What a vast. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. (2) Pure participles. which express action. but cannot govern." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. (4) Pure adjectives.²Find sentences containing five participles. may govern and be governed. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. and has been put down. 273. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability." also (2. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. Then how pleasing is it.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. according to use as well as meaning. b). Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. but do not assert. making the definite tenses. Exercise. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. Sec. 4." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. 2. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. on your leaving the spot. which name an action or state. which express action and also modify. and wonderful store of learning! . (3) Participial adjectives. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." "Certainly dueling is bad. above. to see the returning hope of the parents." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. which have lost all verbal force. (5) Gerunds." Exercise. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. brilliant. five infinitives. and five gerunds. when.

A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. (4) Tense. He spread his blessings all over the land. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. dictating from his chair. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. (b) as to use. . I. Caution. giving principal parts. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. The only means of ascending was by my hands. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. (2) Voice. by object lessons. slowly.5. 14. write twenty pages without stopping. What is dreaming? 8. 275.²active or passive. VERBS. 11. (5) Person and number. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. 13. like Sir Walter Scott. In parsing verbs. give reality to your teaching. 15. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. he gave out sentence by sentence. but. much corroded. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. subjunctive. 6. 234. 12. bearing her national emblem. Thackeray did not. you must.²transitive or intransitive. round which is an iron railing.²which of the tenses given in Sec. (3) Mood. I suppose I was dreaming about it.²strong or weak. 7. 10. 9. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 16.²indicative. or imperative.

2. no sin nor sorrow. III. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. active. might. intransitive.. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. II. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Exercise. past tense. usually it does not." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. (c) to what word it belongs. In 2. 2. definite. 4. indicative. 277. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. . could. imperfect. and not taken as single verbs. then parse it as an adjective. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. (2) Infinitive. 273). and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. has the subject government." Sometimes it does. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. (3) Gerund. 278. But unless the verb is present. (b) whether active or passive. Especially frequent are those made up of should. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. may. has for its subject Lee. give points (a) and (b). VERB PHRASES. etc. perfect. we must beware of the rule. therefore active. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. Parse the verbs. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 3. (1) Participle. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. must. and parting day linger and play on its summit. and ends in -s. indicative (as it means could). Take these examples:² 1. till it meet the sun in his coming. intransitive. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Let it rise! let it rise. VERBALS. see Sec. past tense. If a participial adjective. (b) whether indefinite. (a) From what verb derived. call might a weak verb. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. You are gathered to your fathers. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. 235. 278(2). and should always be analyzed as phrases. etc. would. It has been intimated in Sec. The government might have been strong and prosperous. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. followed by a pure infinitive without to. can. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. perfect. verbals. call should a weak verb. (b) its use (Sec. in the world.276. In such sentences as 1.

12. from a sort of temporary death.Down all the line. 13. Right graciously he smiled on us. 8. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.Henceforth in me instill. 22. a new waking up of all that has life. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 14. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor.O God. 11. or. 21. see that it is in good condition. 6. 15. 23. 20. 16. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. as the Hindoos say. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. So. as rolled from wing to wing. a deafening shout. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. morning is not a new issuing of light. When he arose in the morning. Whatever ground you sow or plant. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. In going for water. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.5. and wondered if she were yet awake. 17." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. a new bursting forth of the sun. . However that be. as usual. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 18. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. With them. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. The soul having been often born. 9. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. he thought only of her. 10. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. He passed across the room to the washstand. 19. a sweet good will. leaving me upon the bed. 24.

and live ere life be spent.²THACKERAY. Better it were. 29. 279."²DE QUINCEY. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. And now wend we to yonder fountain. who live with nature?²ID. or manner: as. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. 27. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. thou sayest." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²time. as. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. place.²EMERSON. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Nor was it altogether nothing. for example. A verb. "William's private life was severely pure. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. Adverbs modify. and so on. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. they are more himself than he is. because. to speak truly. for the hour of rest is at hand. and men of leisure and cultivation. to consent.Feast while we may. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. To the almost terror of the persons present." An adjective or an adverb." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. . Is it only poets. Oh.25. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].²CARLYLE.²SHELLEY. 26.² The young man reveres men of genius. The word adverb means joined to a verb. When action is expressed." "He was absolute. ADVERBS. and limit adjectives or adverbs.

²IRVING. but some verb understood. but really modifying. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. for example.² FRANKLIN. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. not the noun. as shown in the sentences. like the light of heaven. is a modifying word. etc. B. It may also modify a sentence. hitherto. We are offered six months' credit.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. A phrase. there are six classes:² (1) Time. 169 are felt to be elliptical.²BYRON. perhaps. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. 280. to-day. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. which may qualify an action word or a statement. then. A clause or sentence. Make music to the lonely ear.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. has induced some of us to attend it. but still with a rich bloom to it. and that. as. An adverb. all wet and glossy. thus. Definition. . 169. NOTE. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. Surely happiness is reflective. Thus considered. as now.²LEIGH HUNT. lately. (2) according to their use in the sentence. and half awfully. ALDRICH. being adverbs naturally and fitly. ever. NOTE. 281. before.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. 282. while those in Sec.²T. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.² LOWELL.²TROLLOPE.²These last differ from the words in Sec.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.He was incidentally news dealer.²THOREAU. or a word group used as such. not simply the forms used in predication. I draw forth the fruit. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.

(3) Manner. and not infrequently are found in literary English. thus.²SHAKESPEARE. above.²LECKY. White. possibly.was for this once of her opinion. whithersoever. Emerson. etc. and others. This long's the text.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.yonder. etc. for example. partly.whither. enough.. as little. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. maybe. as here. as perhaps.² The master. . probably. the more evidently they love liberty. while so precedes only the adjective usually. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. Motley. 283). (5) Degree. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.²BROWNING. So also in Grote. The more they multiply. better. singly. at least. slowly. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. as hence.²DE QUINCEY.²HAWTHORNE. I was. slightly.. 283.(2) Place. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. just. telling how many times: once.thither. telling how anything is done. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. etc..²R. surely. telling how much. bravely. whencesoever. etc. [Sidenote The status of such. as well. too. two by two. much. twice.which gained him such universal popularity. beautifully. as hither. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.²IRVING. or how far he believes it to be true.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.²BURKE. (4) Number.whence. the more perfect will be their obedience. not. LOUIS STEVENSON.. Meekness. greatly. Thackeray.near. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.thence. etc. (see also Sec.. that these adverbs form a very large class. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. the more friends you will have.there. very. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. especially the comparative of these words. (6) Assertion.where. etc.

STOWE.²THACKERAY." said the king.² "Mighty well. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.²"He walked too far [place]. Holmes." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. besides modifying. Hard blows and hard money. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.² KINGSLEY. Defoe. a mighty fine gentleman. Kingsley.² You are mighty courteous." "That were far better [degree]. Dickens." "He spoke positively [manner]." "I have seen you before [time]. Neville. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. and its lawn before [place].²GOLDSMITH. and art but a fool. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister." "The house. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. and other writers. B. De Quincey. Notice meanings.²BULWER. "Peace.Pretty."²SCOTT. Some adverbs. 286. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Franklin. have the additional function of asking a question. Again. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Mighty. .²FIELDING. for example. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.²HAWTHORNE. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Interrogative. Simple. 285. Beau Fielding. for example.²BAYNE. 284. A pretty large experience. Emerson. Burke. Pretty is also used by Prescott." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. 282. Aldrich.²THACKERAY. Direct questions. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.

Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. I hearkened. I do not remember when I was taught to read. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. for example. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (4) Degree. 287. (4) Degree. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. they smiled.²BULWER.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. (2) Place. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. .²BYRON (3) Manner. When did this humane custom begin?²H.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²POE.²D. (5) Reason. CLAY. I know not why. (2) Place. I will not ask where thou liest low. WEBSTER. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²BYRON. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.

only occasionally having -er and -est. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. see Sec. obs. Form vs. use. . irregularly compared. 288. just as adjectives do. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Many adverbs are compared. are often used as adjectives:² Positive.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. higher. Superlative.. have the same inflection as adjectives. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. well much little far late Comparative. Only that we may wiselier see..But in reality. and. sooner.) rather 289. Then must she keep it safelier. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Exercise. representing four classes. high. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. soon. when does not express time and modify. Its strings boldlier swept. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.²BYRON." Exercise.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE. Many adjectives have the same ending. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. furthest (rathe. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. when.²SHAKESPEARE. further farthest. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 290.eyes. The following. when compared. soonest. For further discussion.²TENNYSON. not an adverb. highest. as. but the whole clause.

He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. Again. Special use of there. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. whether adverbs or adjectives. .²ID.1. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. hardly. hard. or down the leaves laughed through. Such are most. Frequently the word there. etc. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. nearly. With his proud. mostly. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. more courtly in their manners. merely introduces a sentence. The reason is. even. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 291. 2. kindly and good-natured in secret. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.²THACKERAY. curiously jolly. evenly. to be sure. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.² EMERSON.²CHAUCER. 3. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.And his mien of kingly state. instead of being used adverbially. But he must do his errand right.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. 6. There are eyes. 4. Not near so black as he was painted.²IRVING. quick-flashing eye. as. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. 292. if it has the verb be.²WORDSWORTH. many words without -ly have the same form. 7. 8. He is inexpressibly mean. And all about. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. 2. 5. that in Old and Middle English.²TENNYSON. near." Compare these:² 1.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. but with a different meaning.

293. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 9. Exercise. but from my fall? 6. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Thither we went. however theoretically enticing. 11. at the regular wine-shop. 7. and sate down on the steps of a house. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 12. In parsing adverbs. if the word is compared. burning in the center of the temple. For the impracticable. 16. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. and always. 3. is always politically unwise. But a few steps farther on. 10. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. but continually shifted. 18. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 4. 2. 17. 15. . the Madonna is in great glory. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. (3) What word or word group it modifies. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. according to meaning and also use. It is the Cross that is first seen. 5. give² (1) The class.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. (2) Degree of comparison. The higher we rise in the scale of being.

in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. etc. hence. 20. however. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. It was pretty bad after that. Unlike adverbs. but the student will readily find them. Definition. therefore. A conjunction is a linking word. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words." Paragraphs." Sentences. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. word groups. 294. upon which the sun now shone forth." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. nor. but side by side within the American Union. Clauses. 22. sentences. 21. or sentence groups. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. .19. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. connecting words. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. 295. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. CONJUNCTIONS. But now the wind rose again. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. then.

(2) ADVERSATIVE. Nor mark'd they less.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.or. yet.. the butter too.. moreover. While the earth bears a plant. likewise. as. the bread was spent. else. as. still. but is emperor in his own right.or whether.. however. 296. 298. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. not only.. neither. joining words.. also. The chief ones are. not only. (2) Subordinate. as well as the room door. only. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.or.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. Adversative.. "Howbeit. as well as.. and not man corn. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. Alternative.. Causal.. of the same rank.nor. therefore.. either.. 297.and. and. usually between two things. etc. hence. word groups. as but... For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. whether. both. Your letter. for.. Some of these go in pairs.nor. either. however.but (or but also).. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. etc. had its weight. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. etc.Classes of conjunctions." Nevertheless. The assertion.or.... connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. expressing a choice. the window being open. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.. or the sea rolls its waves... whether. nor.or. answering to each other in the same sentence. while. serves but to show their ignorance. as and.but. (4) ALTERNATIVE. nor. They are or. then. neither. Correlatives. either. . whether.. (3) CAUSAL. neither. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. Some go in threes. introducing a reason or cause.

nor creeping thing. so. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.²BURKE. until. nor green leaf. since. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. provided. (6) PURPOSE: that.. however.²J. that. sometimes if. Neither the place in which he found himself. 299. as. after. It is. whence.²IRVING. whither. . etc. since. in apposition. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. especially that after so.²COOPER.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. etc. as. unless. howsoever. whenever. even if. etc. whereto. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican.²BIBLE. Where the treasure is. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. whereas.. so that. ²ALLSTON. QUINCY. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. (3) MANNER: how.. before. although. except. so. object. (7) RESULT: that. (2) TIME: when. whether.. etc.²PAULDING.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. seeing. in case. on condition that. while. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. whithersoever. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. etc. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. He is not only bold and vociferous. so that. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. ere. nor echo. as. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. provided that. Time. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. lest.²DE QUINCEY. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. in order that.²WILSON. there will the heart be also. now. wherever. nor wing of bird. though.

Manner.²AMES.²EMERSON. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²IRVING. JACKSON. Comparison. Let the world go how it will.That vain it were her eyes to close. H. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Substantive.²AMES. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²CAMPBELL.²DEFOE. Concession. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. a thousand bodies. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.² EMERSON. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.² WORDSWORTH. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. but not so long but I held it out. not as they were expected or intended. . Condition.² HAWTHORNE. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. So many thoughts moved to and fro. We wish for a thousand heads.That he gave her wounds repose.² H. Purpose.²EMERSON.So I behold them not. Now he is dead.²AMES. As a soldier. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²BURKE.²BYRON.²COLERIDGE. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Then Denmark blest our chief. reason.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Cause.²EMERSON. I was again covered with water. Result.

Exercises. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. Besides. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. As will have been noticed. however. 7. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. He was brought up for the church. 6.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 10. 4. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. Crept under the leaf. while. hold a subordinate rank. While patriotism glowed in his heart. as he shot in air. some words²for example. her real merit is known at home. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. she faintly pressed her hand. classify them if conjunctions:² 1.²RUSKIN. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. And then recovering. They. While a faction is a minority. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. And they lived happily forever after. the wisest. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. 12. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence.Let us see whether the greatest. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. as. 13. and hid her there. In what point of view. 2. . since. it will remain harmless. 14. the lady called her servant. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. etc. The moth fly. 15. 3. 5. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 9. 300. After he was gone. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. that. No one had yet caught his character. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. then.

So slowly moved about.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H." as. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. as is often equivalent to as if. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. So silently we seemed to speak.. 301. His voice . . "We meet. As if. the expression would be. expressing degree if taken separately. GREELEY. and the frame will suit the picture. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.²IRVING.²EMILY BRONTE. word groups. in this case. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. (2) What words. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.16.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. 304. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. thus. even as they would weep. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²HOOD. etc. 303.. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. as is shown by the use of as though. If analyzed.Clouded. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. Consequently. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. SPECIAL REMARKS. they connect. In poetry. As for as if.²BYRON. and part as though we parted not. 302. and be a bud again.As though a rose should shut.. As though. none of the lashings having given way. In Emerson's sentence. for example. In parsing conjunctions.

² 1. 13. 2." said his wife to Martin Luther. and associates as happily. . so they be each honest and natural in their hour. when. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason.²DEFOE 2. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. compare the sentences. or in the forest. 9. they are not known. It continued raining.Caution. because it is his. so that I could not stir abroad. 5. so means therefore. but of the natural. and its clause is independent. such as nor. because. or in the snow. 12. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. dines with as good an appetite. as beside his own chimneys. In classifying them. "Doctor. Some conjunctions. 11. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. so that expresses result. and very seldom?" 8.²is subordinate of condition.²EMERSON 3. in 3. When the gods come among men. 6. 10. in 2. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. He dismisses without notice his thought.²that the fairies do not like to be named. If he could solve the riddle. At sea. 4. he is also the correlative of nature. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. etc. and. he sleeps as warm.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.²I find them true in Concord. others belong to several classes. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. so they paddled on. Exercise. that it might testify of that particular ray. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries.. so means provided. All the postulates of elfin annals. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 7. It may be safely trusted. and its clause depends on the other. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. the Sphinx was slain. are regularly of one particular class. and the like. For example. He is the compend of time. 3. so it be faithfully imparted. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word.

which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 15. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 25. I rejoice to stand here no longer. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. in many a heart. whose names I omit. PREPOSITIONS. 23. It is clear. 26. 19. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 22. 18. the whole conditions are changed. For. I speak. It may be so in the majority of cases. . There was no iron to be seen. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. And whether consciously or not. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns.. enthroned. however. 29. 21. 27. 305. she might have the family countenance. Now you have the whip in your hand.14. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. of good novels only. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 20. 16. 30. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 24. save it were sinful like herself. Goodness must have some edge to it. when it was presented to them. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. therefore. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 28.²else it is none. Still. you must be. that both were wayward. in this they agree. won't you lay on? 17.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

by the blessed memory of the departed. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. by the wrecks of time. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. by the ruins of nations. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. At that time [the earth] was richer. etc. at peace.²DE QUINCEY. as. By.²WARNER. at one. (2) Time.²ALDRICH. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. by means near or close to. 320. at the best. Helena. at rest. Richard was standing by the window. (4) Measure of excess. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at war. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. H. STODDARD. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at any rate.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. Exercise. For.²COOPER. etc. at least. CONWAY. 321. at most. the first port made by the ship.²EVERETT. at once. at first. at work. She saw the boat headed for her. at length. at play. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at all. . Like at.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. by many a million of acres.²SWIFT.. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²R. ²PARTON.² (1) The general meaning of place. expressing the degree of difference.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last.²B. he stopped. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. D. Exercise. (3) Agency or means. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at the worst. By my faith. At St. at naught.²M. at random.²ID.

incitement to action.²LAMB. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. had a forest of poor relations. cause. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous." said the Lady of Lochleven. for famine. etc. (6) Like as.²HOOD.²STODDARD.²E. they are now for us. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. in behalf of. ate her child.One of Eve's family. (9) Motive.²ID. (5) Reference. the Colonna motto would fit you best.²H.²EMERSON. and leaped for joy." answered Master Brackett. or extent of space. poor fellow. (3) Duration of time. considering that etc.(2) In favor of. as being. he repented of his folly.²PARKMAN. . For the rest. for all his title. (4) Substitution or exchange. as to. He and they were for immediate attack. There are gains for all our losses.² RUSKIN. "For a fool. Still. meaning although. The twilight being. But the Colonel..²PARKMAN The people were then against us. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. for all slips of hers. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. etc. BANCROFT. "Nay. (8) Meaning notwithstanding.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. H. GARRISON. An Arab woman. or in spite of. a person or thing.²IRVING. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. for the benefit of. (7) Concession. etc. meaning with regard to. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²W. but a few sunsets since.. meaning in the character of."²SCOTT By my faith. L. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. E. reason. "thou hast counseled wisely. if your worship can accomplish that. For him.²HOLMES. respecting.²PARKMAN.

it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. From harmony.²H.²DRYDEN.²MILTON. like from. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. (4) Motive. Exercise. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²HALE. ceased to be merciful.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²BANCROFT.²HUME. H. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. from a desire of seeming valiant. nay.²HIGGINSON. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. 322. Of. Like boys escaped from school. The From Relation. The general idea in from is separation or source. if not a desperate man. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. Exercise.²ID. cause. The young cavaliers. . From. 323. A distrustful. or reason.²HUXLEY. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The king holds his authority of the people. (2) Origin. (3) Time. more. (1) Origin or source.

clear. ask. wide of. He is away of his own free will. beg. etc. HALE. relieve. Of the Forty. deprivation. . Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. ²PARTON. (c) After nouns expressing lack. bound with thongs of boar's hide. etc.²BAYARD TAYLOR. weeds. divest.. Back of that tree. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Asked no odds of. free of. out of the most unpromising materials. of his own knowledge. acquitted them of. rid. bare of. More than one altar was richer of his vows. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. You cannot make a boy know. White shirt with diamond studs.²LEW WALLACE. "I am glad of that.²PARKMAN. such as ease. free.²BANCROFT. there were only twenty-one members present.²SCOTT Who formed. or breastpin of native gold. (5) Expressing agency. etc. expressing a part of a number or quantity.²ALDRICH.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. A singular want of all human relation.² HUXLEY. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. (d) With words expressing distance. reason. (6) Partitive. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. and grass. demand. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. purge.²HIGGINSON. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. (3) With expressions of material. especially out of. etc.²ID.²DICKENS II.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. south of. ²GAVARRE. etc. The hills were bare of trees. E."²E.²clear of. as north of. Other Relations expressed by Of. motive. rob. that Cromwell once ruled England. disarm.²BOSWELL. deprive. Sandals. (b) After some adjectives. cure.

equal to about. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. (8) Appositional. with regard to. CHANNING. (7) Possessive. (10) Of reference. concerning. See also Sec.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²LOWELL.. being equivalent to an infinitive. (b) Noun and gerund. of a sudden. The fair city of Mexico. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²ID. ²IRVING. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. etc. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. 309. .²W. (c) Two nouns. Such a book as that of Job. Not even woman's love. standing. when the first is descriptive of the second. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. E. for the possessive. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²LAMB.²ALDRICH. of is used in the sense of during. The nation of Lilliput.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²COOPER. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²BANCROFT.²FROUDE.He washed out some of the dirt. of late. with its object. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. (9) Of time.²SWIFT. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²BANCROFT. and the dignity of a queen.²HALLECK.²BANCROFT. Idiomatic use with verbs. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. Besides the phrases of old.²PRESCOTT. could give shelter from his contumely. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.

allow. It also accompanies the verbs tire. 325. avail (one's self). accept. (b) With motion.²MRS.²PARKMAN. The general meaning of on is position or direction. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. SIGOURNEY. On. etc. To. on the wing. etc. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.²PARKMAN.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. on a sudden.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. concerning. (4) In adjurations.²PARKMAN. on trial. . Exercise. Upon. consist. on view. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. Exercise. ²BANCROFT. on the alert. equal to about. approve. such as admit. permit.²ALDRICH.²DE QUINCEY. you are eighteen. (2) Time. disapprove. Cannon were heard close on the left. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (3) Reference. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²Find sentences with six uses of of. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. without adding to their meaning. Upon my reputation and credit. 324. Upon is seldom used to express time. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. and others. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. and not a day more. on board. On my life. complain.²EMERSON. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. repent.²BRYANT. on high.

²BRYANT.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.. does the mere music. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.. 326.²B. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. gay Comedy appears. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. (2) Expressing result. Little mattered to them occasional privations² be written over.²GOLDSMITH. We cook the dish to our own appetite. had ceased to be.²LANG.²BULWER. interest. With. (b) Referring to time. In Old English. Death!²HALLECK. He usually gave his draft to an aid. To the few. 268).²often to the loss of vigor.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. . to my taste.²HALE. Exercise.²PARTON. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Revolutions. His brother had died. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment...'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.Come to the bridal chamber. it may be genuine poetry. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. mid meant in company with. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²IRVING. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. unmasked.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. whose influence is felt to this hour.²PARKMAN. (5) Equivalent to according to. to him. But when.²BENTON To our great delight. Nor.

had already reached the defile. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. reason. opinion.²ALDRICH. but with you. HALE. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (5) Opposition. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²DE QUINCEY.²Find sentences with four uses of with. E. Either with the swingle-bar. or with the haunch of our near leader.²LANG. 327. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²WALLACE (7) Time. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. With all his sensibility. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. "poetry is not a pursuit. it is necessary. He expired with these words.²CHANNING. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. He was wild with delight about Texas. motive. he gave millions to the sword.²EMERSON.²COOPER. (3) Cause. to find the object of the preposition. She seemed pleased with the accident. as with you.²HOWELLS. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.²HOWELLS.²DE QUINCEY. with Heyward at its head. first of all. It seemed a supreme moment with him. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.The advance. transmitted from the beginning.²SCOTT. Messala. Exercise. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. I think. (2) Instrumentality. in spite of. felt it unsafe to trifle further. (4) Estimation.²HALE. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. . How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²COLERIDGE.²E. with all his boldness.

with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. of without. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. The object of on board is ships. . came tumbling about my ears. I speak these things from a love of justice. country. 2. but all to no purpose. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. Whereupon. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. or was. The guns were cleared of their lumber. And so on. before the dwarf left the queen. (4) from the beginning. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. of from. In (1). The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation.²SWIFT 2. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. Be that as it will. In (2). without a country modifies man. because I had given the provocation. by which a dozen apples. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. To our general surprise. 5. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. shook it directly over my head. In (3). I heard a noise just over my head. the phrase answers the question where. he followed us one day into those gardens. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. 3. but I received no other hurt. (2) on which. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. (3) without a country. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. I remember. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. 4. I looked towards my windows. beginning. like the clapping of wings. we met the defaulter here. I called out several times. which. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. telling what man. Exercises. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. hence we say. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted.²ID. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. the malicious rogue. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I felt my box raised very high in the air. of on. and knocked me down flat on my face.

20.Without stop or stay. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 25. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 17. 8.He spurred his courser on. 26. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. He locked his door from mere force of habit.6. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 23. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. grasping at the child. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. in town. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 11. . to one dark and gloomy. 7. he favored the world with his opinions. I like to see the passing. when. His breeches were of black silk. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 12. 19. after a restful morning. 10. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. For my part. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 15. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 13. 29. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 21. The mother sank and fell. 27. 9. On all subjects known to man. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. The savage army was in war-paint. in this respect. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. With all his learning. Carteret was far from being a pedant. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. plumed for battle. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 14. 22. 18. 24. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 16.

(1) Relative pronoun. and be proud in the midst of its toil. A few are discussed below. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. 329. that you might behold this joyous day. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (b) Of result.² JOHNSON. And now it is like an angel's song.30.²COLERIDGE. 330.²WEBSTER. 328. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.That makes the heavens be mute. We wish that labor may look up here. WHAT. (a) Indefinite relative. not merely by the amount of the tax. (c) Substantive conjunction.²HUXLEY. . That is what I understand by scientific education.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. That night was a memorable one.²WEBSTER. and not according to form. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.²BEECHER. That was a dreadful mistake.²STOCKTON. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. He will raise the price.²WEBSTER. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (3) As a relative pronoun. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (4) As an adverb of degree. THAT. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.

But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (6) Exclamatory adjective. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. he knows what good people are to be found there. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.Those shadowy recollections.²ID.. nearly equivalent to partly.²S.. What.. What. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. to see what might be hidden.S. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning." (4) Relative adjective. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.. (7) Adverb of degree.²EMERSON. (b) Indirect question.. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. Cox. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.. "I'll tell you what. silent still. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. partly. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. ..²EMERSON.. What with the Maltese goats. 331. At what rate these materials would be distributed.but.. (b) Copulative. (b) Indirect question.²THACKERAY.²WORDSWORTH.. or not is impossible to determine. (9) As an exclamation. To say what good of fashion we can.Which be they what they may. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. If he has [been in America]. after not only. (a) Indefinite relative Pera.these sounds are only to be heard. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.²WEBSTER. but the result of calculation. (8) Conjunction. it rests on reality.²ID. and silent all!²BYRON. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. BUT.

(2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. Doing duty as a guard. ²CARLYLE.²MRS BROWNING. meaning only.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.. 332.²SHELLEY. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. like the dog. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain..²EMERSON.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. meaning otherwise . stands for that . not. equivalent to that . (d) Of reason. I shall see but little of it.²HAWTHORNE. Who knows but.. (3) Preposition. To lead but one measure.²IRVING.²LAMB.²SCOTT. (c) Of degree. (b) Substantive.Then arose not only tears. or who .²CARLYLE. (e) Introducing an appositive word.. (2) Relative pronoun. meaning except. at all moments. (5) Adverb. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²FRANKLIN. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. . on all sides. after a negative. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. after such. (4) Relative pronoun.. AS. not. not. towards order. but piercing cries. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven..²IRVING. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. than. sometimes same. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (b) Of manner.He yearned to our patriot bands.²IRVING.

like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. like Martin was. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. There is no statue like this living man.²ALDRICH. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. I do with my friends as I do with my books. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. this. Through which they put their heads. and is followed by a dative-objective. ²PARKMAN. This follows a verb or a verbal. indeed. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. Note the difference between these two uses. like him awhile ago. nervous child. That face. Stirring it vigorously. staring like a bewildered man.²DARWIN.-SCOTT. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. In each case.²EMERSON. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²CASS. No Emperor. but this is not considered good usage: for example. They look.²LONGFELLOW. 333. (1) An adjective. Give Ruskin space enough. like drops out.²HIGGINSON. NOTE. . like a cook beating eggs.²HALLECK. In this second use.LIKE.²ALDRICH.²LAMB. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.² A timid.² HAWTHORNE. Introduces a clause. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²MAYHEW.²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE.²SHAKESPEARE. and as or as if takes its place. If the verb is expressed. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like summer ocean's. and was clearly an adjective.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. but its verb is omitted.

Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. . Value of analysis. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Some of these are imitative sounds. as. 336. that is. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. etc.INTERJECTIONS. but it still retains its identity as noun. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. that is. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell.²in determining case. subject and predicate. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. etc. clauses introduced by conjunctions." "Up! for shame! [adverb]." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. pronoun. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. tut! buzz! etc.: for example. 334. verb. Definition.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. Definition. in separating them into their component parts.. What analysis is. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. entering into the structure of a sentence. 335." PART II.

Examples of these three kinds are. A rare old plant is the ivy green. (3) Imperative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. 2. you must not die!" interrogative. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Every sentence must contain two parts. entreaty. question. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. but the sentence would still be declarative. Definition." 340. always friends?" imperative. 337. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. according to form. Division according to number of statements. "Hath he not always treasures. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. This is the most common one. 338." "What wouldst thou do. . not according to the form in which a thought is put. which puts the thought in a question. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. 339. But now all is to be changed. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. declarative. "Old year. which expresses command. hence. Definition: Predicate. or request. but by no means vulgar. or command: for example. (2) Interrogative. "The quality of mercy is not strained.Kinds of sentences as to form. "Come to the bridal chamber.²a subject and a predicate. SIMPLE SENTENCES. old man?" "Be thou familiar. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. but according to how many statements there are. interrogative. or imperative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.

thou. as. 2. and the real subject is the latter. 6." Exercise. Slavery they can have anywhere. especially in poetry. and our definition must be the following. or ye) is in most cases omitted. In the interrogative sentence. . Listen. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. 3.²What is the ivy green? Answer. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. we say all is the subject of the sentence. all. not of a rare old plant. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 5. 4. 341. But if we try this with the second sentence. adjective. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. the subject is frequently after the verb. 8. or adverb that asks about the subject. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. and is to be supplied. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. a rare old plant. to suit all cases:² Subject. In analyzing such sentences. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. to an ignorant man. always reduce them to the order of a statement. Thus. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Consequently. "[You] behold her single in the field. but about the ivy green. The last of all the Bards was he. or an interrogative pronoun. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9.²What is to be changed? Answer. we have some trouble. 7.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. on the other hand. the subject (you.

Examples of direct and indirect objects are. for example. (3) The object. "Ye call me chief. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (2) The predicate. (6) Independent elements. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. "Ye honor me. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. but it is a true complement. . or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. Indirect object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. or second object. in addition to the object. 343. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. Of a transitive verb." indirect. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. and means summoned. but chief belongs to the verb. direct. The transitive verb often requires." Complement: 344. (5) Modifiers. and me here is not the object simply of call. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. Direct Object. but of call chief. just as if to say." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief).10. (4) The complements. 342. and by object we mean the direct object.²transitive and intransitive.

"She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. feel." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . seem. sir!' rang out in response. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. I mentioned a case of that nature. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. 355." (2) PARTICIPIAL. in exercise following Sec.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. become. 364. 351. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. and. to the completion of this man of the world. appear. Complement of an intransitive verb. taste. 346." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." Also an expression used as a noun. ay. See sentence 19." "The good man. 'Ay." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." "He was termed Thomas." 345." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. not containing a verb." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. 347. as. "A cheery. and barring the door. he was now getting old. "Brow and head were round. and of massive weight. as in the sentence." (3) INFINITIVE." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. 352. but used as a single modifier. A phrase is a group of words. in the original Opium Confessions." Things used as Subject. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. more familiarly. above sixty." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. or. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. for instance. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. As to form. as in drowning. especially the forms of be.. in the popular judgment. Thom of the Gills. Phrases. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. etc." All these complete intransitive verbs. An intransitive verb. introduced by a preposition: for example.

292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. "'By God.²the talent of starting the game. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. or the thundering of organs. etc." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. 341. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." etc. or their religion from their sect. (4) After "there introductory. "Therein has been. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. (2) In interrogative sentences. prowling eyes. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. but the real or logical subject is to print." 348." Things used as Complement." The for did not belong there originally. my deficiency. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. for which see Sec. Disguised infinitive subject.²the infinitive phrase. ." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. and by Saint George!' said the King.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. asserting eyes." "The dead are there. was heard one syllable to justify. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. from their lips." "There are asking eyes." Things used as Direct Object. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." In this sentence. but obscures the real subject. 349. I saw the quick and the dead. but they will be given in detail here." "Never." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. and ever will be. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation.

As complement of a transitive verb.350. and the words italicized are still complements." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." "Their tempers." ." Modifiers." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. Modifiers of Subject.²heads or tails. or Complement. (3) Infinitive. and whenever the complement is a noun." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. Like all the complements in this list. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. and. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. I." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. or the equivalent of the noun." (4) Participle." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. they are adjuncts of the object. 351. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. Object.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. Of a transitive verb." "I hear the echoes throng." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. at the same time. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. complements of the predicate." "She asked her father's permission." "Serving others is serving us. and explaining or modifying the subject. the object is made the subject by being passive." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. doubtless. the shepherd girl. As complement of an intransitive verb.²completing the predicate." In this last sentence." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.

unforgiving." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. the verb being omitted. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. Modifiers of the Predicate. was the scene from King John. object." Exercise." "In the twinkling of an eye. no sociable angel. see further Secs. 357-363. or complement is modified. this young idolater. austere.²proud. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. the prisoner at the bar." In such a sentence as. but with other men." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but noble teachers. and leading him from star to star." "Him. was now called upon for his defense. I have seasoned for thee. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. but it is really a contracted clause.²In each sentence in Sec. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. tell whether the subject.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. or . not with nature. Retained with passive." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. 352. and modify the predicate in the same way. "He died like a God." (For participial and infinitive phrases. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." "Give them not only noble teachings. II. Since the predicate is always a verb. given at the request of a Dutch lady. 351.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Tells how." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him.

They do not wish to be lovely. Fashion does not often caress the great. 5." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 6. with my joy and grief. etc. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. or how long. in regard to particulars." "All such knowledge should be given her. no emotion. On the voyage to Egypt. after dinner. and (direct) object:² 1. he liked. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. and as many to oppose it." "One way lies hope. These answer the question when. negative. 6. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. and the direct object is retained: for example. no relief to the dead prosaic level. but to be loved. 4. 7." (6) Adverbial objective. 2. no humor." Exercises. This. 3. gives wonderful animation. a sort of personality to the whole writing.When the verb is changed from active to passive. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 8. Why does the horizon hold me fast. is good in the making." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. predicate. (b) Pick out the subject. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. I took.. to the animal strength and spirits. according to old philosophers. and. (a) Pick out subject. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. . how far. Evil. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. 7. predicate. and other measures of precaution. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. 5. 3. His books have no melody. the indirect object is retained. but the children of the great. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. To the men of this world. But anger drives a man to say anything. in this center? 4. 2.

. I promised her protection against all ghosts. downwards. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 3. A river formed the boundary. in little peaceful Easedale. for the first time. at the chief hotel. this nun so martial. this imperial rider. the attorney. y y y y Compound Subject. Yes. etc. then. Paint me. Not the less I owe thee justice. happy dinner. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 3. and a member of the world. six children sat by a peat fire.. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. after their long confinement to a ship. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. at length the warrior lady. then. the blooming cornet. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 2. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. viz. 5. To suffer and to do. 2. 4. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 2. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 5. 4. upwards. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. That night. Not compound sentences. this dragoon so lovely.y 8. 6. must visit again the home of her childhood.²the river Meuse. Compound Predicate. expecting the return of their parents. to the right and to the left. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. 4. a room seventeen feet by twelve. Unhorse me. that was thy portion in life. Their intention was to have a gay. In one feature. 3. I gave him an address to my friend. I felt myself.

with a heart full of trouble and anxiety." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. may be the person or thing addressed. Independent Elements of the Sentence. in the sentence. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. Of this. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. the simple subject is situation. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. Examples of compound subjects are. "Ah. For example. ulcer." "He shook his head. etc. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution." "Voyages and travels I would also have. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. shouldered the rusty firelock. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. Larger view of a sentence. and. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. same as (1). "The company broke up. they are not a necessary part. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms.353. then the grammatical subject and predicate." And so with complements. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. exposes. the air of the mother.. above: thus. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. turned his steps homeward. etc. Bishop. and the rest is the logical predicate. and its object or complement." "The name of the child. together with its modifiers. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. 355." Sentences with compound predicates are. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. 354.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. that is. the verb). the tone of her voice. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. hurry. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. modifiers. together with all its modifiers. complements. in all such sentences as we quote below. etc." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. forming a sentence: "Oh. however." "Ye crags and peaks. the predicate. several modifiers." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. hurry. but it is to be noticed that. the object. The exclamatory expression. I'm with you once again. my brave young man!" . two or more subjects of the same predicate.

" "Why. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. such as however. y (2) The adverbial use. already noticed. 350. or complement (see Sec. (1) Adjectival." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. These need close watching." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. instances of which were seen in Sec. pronoun." "Truth to say. see Sec. nevertheless. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. now. he closed his literary toils at dinner. 356. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary.. undoubtedly. modifying a noun. In their use. modifying the predicate. moreover. why. or word used as a noun: for example. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. "Oh. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." Another caution.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above." "At all events. object. 3." "No." (6) Single words: as. besides. he was a conscientious man. 355. her noticing even this is creditable. 4). In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." (3) Independent. etc." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. There are some adverbs." (5) Participial phrase: "But. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. . (b) As a modifier of subject. 4). generally speaking. The words well. therefore. the company broke up. six quill-driving gentlemen. that have an office in the sentence. to the best of my remembrance. truly. etc. such as perhaps.. then. prepositional phrases may be. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. yes! everybody knew them. 357. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. 351. let him perish. 352." "Well. 6). the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. this story runs thus." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes." (2) Adverbial. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. grandma. he somehow lived along. how you're winking!" "Now. see Sec. and some conjunctions. and so on. really.

"Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. "Because I was." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.can (could). etc. was speedily run through.: as in the sentences. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. thus. being equivalent to a future with obligation. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. 355. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . I. and they will be presented here in full. This case excepted. my dear. therefore.would. "The letter of introduction. modifying was speedily run through. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes." (c) With the definite forms of go. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. and hence is adverbial.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. or as nearly so as the student will require. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. y (a) With may (might). Wilt thou." In this sentence. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." (b) With the forms of be." "There. but require somewhat closer attention. ought." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. (5). 358. The verbal use." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.seem. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.]." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. containing no matters of business. and teach her how to be happy and good. necessity. he should not have known them at all. etc.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years." etc. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. See Sec. but having no other office than a verbal one.should.

" "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. 361 are used adverbially." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. . complement. Don Guzman. notice the following:² In (1). sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. etc. already examined. above. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." 360." "To teach is to learn. The adjectival use. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. III." "He insisted on his right to forget her. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. "But there was no time to be lost. II. modifying a noun that may be a subject. hang the idiot. to hear McOrator after dinner. The adverbial use. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. IV. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. 351. result. 5)." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. the Scotch fighting all the battles. The substantive use.. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." "Are you mad. to look means that he might look. (4) In apposition. to please is equivalent to that he may please." (5) Condition: "You would fancy.: for example. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. 361. 362. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." "To say what good of fashion we can.²both purpose clauses. To test this. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. object. etc.

equivalent to that you betray. (7) Independent elements (Sec. etc. (3). give² (1) The predicate. 351). 3. 4.²both expressing condition. In (3)." (See also Sec. The independent use. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. must be in a life. (5) The subject (Sec. savage and serene in one hour. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. In (5). etc. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. to hear means if you should hear. etc. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. to find shows the result of the return. to part means because I part. 347). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. In analyzing simple sentences. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. In (4). and to say is equivalent to if we say.. 355). 351). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 355.In (2). 363. 268. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. and to betray and to bring express the reason.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. object. as in Sec. which is of two kinds. 352). 364. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. 351). 349). V. not in a book. . give the complement (Secs.. 2. If it is an incomplete verb.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. Our life is March weather. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. I will try to keep the balance true.

nor troops. a graceful dancer. 23. nor himself. He risked everything. an accomplished scholar.The old crow of Cairo.4. and only to be saved by invention and courage. always in a bad plight. to the moral sphere. Through the years and the centuries. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 9. You may ramble a whole day together.Burnt green and blue and white. 17. The water. 20. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. two stricken hours. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. The word conscience has become almost confined. a good shot. a skilled musician. 19. 22. 12. to restore civil and religious order. I have heard Coleridge talk. might be called flabby and irresolute. through toys and atoms.He sat in the shower. 8. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. We are always in peril. To these gifts of nature. and every moment discover something new.²to preserve her throne. His opinion is always original. . like a witch's oils. 14. and spared nothing. 6. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. is to have no political system at all. 5. 10. and to the purpose. 18. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. just on the edge of destruction. with eager energy. 7. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. neither ammunition. in popular use.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. nor generals. 13. good and amiable otherwise. Her aims were simple and obvious. 21. 16. to keep England out of war. To be hurried away by every event. through evil agents. the carrion crow. Old Adam. 11. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 15. nor money. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 24. The whole figure and air.

still. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. upon my own ground. 40. 41. Upon this shore stood. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. Few in number. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 38. the prime minister of Spain. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. She had made a two days' march. 29.Effacing many a stain of former crime. baggage far in the rear. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Oxford. secluded. 33. 39. to bid you leave the place now and forever. in this world.Distant. 27. had but one foible. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. and no provisions but wild berries. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Of the same grandeur. 35. the ship was in an uproar. 31.25. in less heroic and poetic form. it would not have been filial or ladylike. the present capital of New England. time-honored. This amiable relative. In the Acadian land. the same Condé Olivarez. 32. and the why. and in my own garden. 34. Now. I dare this. proud foe.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. in front of all this mighty crowd. The cry. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. or perhaps one virtue. The villain. I hate him and myself. Fair name might he have handed down. to be a reproach to such goodness. an elderly man. 26. and. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. and the wherefore? . it must have been in the latitude of Boston. ready to receive her. Must we in all things look for the how. haply. But yield. 30. 36. Supposing this computation to be correct. 37.

but. 365. COMPLEX SENTENCES. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. (Sec. 367.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. are really contracted clauses. As shown in Part I. 366. however. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." Sentences with like.² "She is like some tender tree. Words left out after than or as. The simple sentence the basis. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. which is the unit of speech." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. as. the expressions of manner introduced by like. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. as would be the connective instead of like. . the pride and beauty of the grove. thus. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. though often treated as phrases." This must.From her own loved island of sorrow. 333). Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. made merely for convenience and smoothness." To show that these words are really omitted. if they were expanded." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.

| how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.²the other members subordinate to it. 368. containing a verb with its subject. or it may be applied to the others." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. etc. object. main. modifiers. murmur. or dependent on it. as in this sentence.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. predicate. object. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. complement. that . that is. then we recognize this as the main statement. 369. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. and modifier. . or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. how great .²the backbone. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. complements. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. Hence the following definition:² Definition... A clause is a division of a sentence.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. each clause has its subject. which are so united that one member is the main one. is taken in. A principal. suffering. 371. CLAUSES. 370. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence.. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. and the next one. and the last. logically depends on suffering. Independent clause. we are aware. Definition.

Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. But since they are complex in form. ADJECTIVE. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some.. and it is . impertinences²would be grammatical. 373. 372. adjectives. for example. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are.. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. thus. (b) that are ." 374.Dependent clause. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.. Noun Clauses. for example.. but logically the sentence is. . according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.. with a noun clause in apposition with it. is retained after a passive verb (Sec.' is an electric touch. or adverbs." Just as the object noun. night or day. so the object clause is retained. pronoun. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. for a time. attention is called to them here. 'I know that he can toil terribly. Kinds." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. and ADVERB clauses. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. 5). A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.." (4) Apposition." "I was told that the house had not been shut." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. for a hundred years.. impertinences. etc. verbal. We ourselves are getting . infinitive." (2) Object of a verb. and the whole clause is not. clauses are divided into NOUN. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. put an end to my fancies. over which the torrent came tumbling. 352. (a) Ordinary apposition." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. As to their office in the sentence.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.

I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. which. Adjective Clauses. whether he should choose one or not.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. he could know nothing. 7. But the fact is. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 4. 3. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. Except by what he could see for himself. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 2. 9. 8. whence. 5. that." Exercise. wherein. as.² "It is on the understanding. Such a man is what we call an original man. sometimes by the conjunctions when. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. still remains reasonable." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. that. a falsehood incarnate. 10. a relative pronoun being understood. but. that all safe legislation must be based. What history it had. Frequently there is no connecting word. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. in the sentence. 375. 6. . It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. he would repent it. Examples of adjective clauses. how it changed from shape to shape. The reply of Socrates. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. of a nation. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Other examples of this construction are. I was napping. whereby. that he was a scheming impostor. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. no man will ever know. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. etc. whither. where. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. and not on the sentiment. or equivalent of a noun.

10. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. and tell what each one modifies." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 8. or that essence we were looking for." Exercise. 7. which Rowena tasted. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. I walked home with Calhoun. etc. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. 9." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 1. object. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 6. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 4. 3. the champions advanced through the lists. Pick out the adjective clauses. Adverbial Clauses. 11. i.376. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 2. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. No man is reason or illumination. which formed the center of the mansion. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. . From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. whether subject." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups.e. he begins to help us more as an effect. all is vacancy. 5. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive.

" (7) RESULT. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. shaping our actions. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." "The broader their education is." "After leaving the whole party under the table. a verbal. expressing the degree in which the horizon. and adverbial conjunctions. so far as we can. etc. Exercise. however good she may be as a witness. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance.. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries.377. that we should try. however. and will be given in detail. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. adverbs." (5) DEGREE. is wider. but they require careful study. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." "He went several times to England. and what it modifies:² ." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. whatever. since he was too great to care to be original. no matter what remains." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. Joanna is better." "The right conclusion is." (3) REASON. tell what kind each is. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." (9) CONCESSION.: "But still. an adjective." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. he goes away as if nothing had happened. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. etc. with examples. introduced by indefinite relatives." "When he was come up to Christian. 378. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. or an adverb. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. the milestones are grave-stones." These mean no matter how good. etc." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. the wider is the horizon of their thought. it takes precedence of everything else.² whoever. to make up our shortcomings. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "Who cares for that." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself.

if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. as they sometimes did. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. of which clause Odin is the subject. they might perhaps say of their visitors. snatching up stones to fling at them. find the principal subject and principal predicate. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. when the wind was unruly. and twirling weathercocks. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. For example. so as to picture the parts and their relations. and modifiers. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath.1. etc. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. howling and whistling. with shrill. 379. we are a little disappointed. banging about doors and windows. If the children gathered about her. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words." 2. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. object. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. its object is that Odin was a reality. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . then treat noun clauses as nouns. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 3. in the sentence. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. incoherent exclamations. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. predicate. 'Well. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. 380. to tell the truth. on a dark wintry night.

(2) Analyze it according to Sec. . That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 3. Take the place and attitude which belong to you.. d. 364. as seen in the "map" (Sec. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec.. 380). 2. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Exercises. (1) Find the principal clause. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381.

where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 10. The night proved unusually dark. 16. 21. which. This is she. 18. namely. for yours. 5. who would yield to it least. . the shepherd girl. 6. 23. if applied to the Bible. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. or whether any. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. Here lay two great roads. He was what our country people call an old one. dying for them. as for armies that were too many by half. 12. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer.4. 9. 8. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. that pressed her with an objection. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Next came a wretched Dominican. had we been worse. 13. bishop. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. And those will often pity that weakness most. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. could not have been effected. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. of a light hazel. whom I choose. that. Now. 24. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 15. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. counselor that had none for herself. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. the flower should revive for us. But now that she has become an establishment. 22. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 17. Had they been better chemists. the mixed result. 7. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. The deep eyes. 14. I like that representation they have of the tree. 11. 19. not so much for travelers that were few. M. 20.

26. and temper. and not from his heart. 27. or commands. 380.² Definition. then map out as in Sec." said Bentley. questions. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. (b) First analyze. 7. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. the following complex sentences:² 1." 4. 30. "was ever written down by any but itself. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 382.25. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. and stamped with his right number. and what content I can find in conversing with each. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. but above it. "No book. speed. 5. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. would easily reach. 383. we cannot adequately say. Hence the definition. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion.²which will not be disposed of. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. How formed. These things we are forced to say. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 6. COMPOUND SENTENCES. is to speak and write sincerely. if continuously extended. . 3. that it was no more than his daily walk. 28. That which we do not believe. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. though we may repeat the words never so often. 2. It makes no difference how many friends I have. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. if there be one to whom I am not equal.

introduce independent clauses (see Sec. he walks with arms akimbo. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. . while (whilst). and nor the second and third complex members. The division into members will be easier. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. as but. nor does he know until he has tried. the semicolon separates the first. he is twice a man. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). Connectives. "Only the star dazzles. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. nor. Study the thought. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. moon-like ray" (adversative). tell which are compound. others sometimes coördinate.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. The coördinate conjunctions and. for. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. and it shall be the universal sense. and connects the first and second complex members. a simple member. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. he dilates. yet. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. from the second. Exercise. the planet has a faint. Thus in (1). (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. Some of these are now conjunctions." 384. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. 386. Speak your latent conviction. etc. and not the form of the connective. Of the following illustrative sentences. 385. now adverbs or prepositions. if there are any.. whereas. 297). in (3). in (2). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. the waving grass. or but. however. 383 (1). The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. which are simple statements." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. etc. he soliloquizes. a complex member. and which complex:² 1. Another example is. as in Sec.

passed in that time. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 4. 8. and thou shalt be loved. 3. you have gained something else. and for everything you gain. or. 11. For everything you have missed. 2. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. In this manner. I can still receive. he grew up to be a mild. 14. 13. you lose something. 3. for example. from a happy yet often pensive child. 12. All loss. nay. quiet. . I can yet love. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. so is every one of its parts. yield to them heart and life. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. unobtrusive boy. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 4. 10. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. the tax is certain. 364. 387. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. However some may think him wanting in zeal. however. 5. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. (i) Separate it into its main members. and not by what each is. 381. to find a pot of buried gold. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 9. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. that it was Easter Sunday. Whilst the world is thus dual. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 7. the universe remains to the heart unhurt.2. is particular. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. all pain. 6. and as yet very early in the morning. Love. Man does not stand in awe of man. Exercise. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. The gain is apparent. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium.

5. 16. or sail with God the seas. modesty. We see the noble afar off. 15. 9. "as nigh the scythe as you can. give those merits room. and they will show themselves great. only that they may brag and conquer there. and he learns who receives. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and makes their business a friendship. and they repel us. treat them greatly. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. or men will never know and honor him aright. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue." 13. They will shuffle and crow. "the iron is white. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. why should we intrude? 10. Trust men. 19. Stand aside. because. and the other dares not. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. When you have chosen your part. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 21. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. is as thin and timid as any. as children. and they will be true to you. and the cart as nigh the rake. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and not an emotion of bravery. We go to Europe. or we pursue persons. or hope. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and the peace of society is often kept." "keep the rake. He teaches who gives. 14." says the haymaker. 8. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 17. that let him communicate. 6. one is afraid. 18. Come into port greatly. and you are without effort impelled to truth. ." says the smith. abide by it. feign to confess here. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. and each shows only what lies at its focus. crook and hide. if you rip up his claims. and not a thought has enriched either party. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. 20. 7. puts the parties on a convenient footing. "Strike. Whatever he knows and thinks. which always make the Actual ridiculous. let them mount and expand. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 11. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. or we read books. whilst frankness invites frankness.

23. they die young. Do not craze yourself with thinking. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. but they never acquit the debt. Following the Latin method. INTRODUCTORY. if they live. Ground covered by syntax. 380. verb and subject. PART III. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. and dodge the account. so readily and lavishly they promise. 388. it never was known to fall into the rear. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. 390. 25. the department of syntax will be a small affair. or. So does culture with us. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English.22. it ends in headache. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. 24. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . We see young men who owe us a new world. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Essential point in English syntax. By way of introduction. they lose themselves in the crowd. pronoun and antecedent. adjective and noun. SYNTAX. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. but go about your business anywhere. but its leading characteristic is. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us.²agreement and government. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement.

392. and nothing but important points will be considered. both forms will be given in the following pages. In some cases. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. In Latin. the order being inverted. pronoun and antecedent. As an illustration of the last remark. When usage varies as to a given construction. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. Also in the sentence. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. This is not logical." is ambiguous. "None remained but he. Savage may be the subject. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. For example. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. "The savage here the settler slew. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. sometimes verb and subject. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. good English. therefore. or the same writer will use both indifferently. or settler may be the subject. Some rules not rigid. some of which conform to classical grammar. as to study inflected forms." In this there is a possessive form. and it would not matter which one stood first. distinct forms would be used. and imitate it. but are not now. authorities²that is. then. Why study syntax? 391. the sentence. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. 393. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. . Second. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. also expressing a possessive relation. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. etc.² First. There is. The basis of syntax. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund." that is. take the sentence. following the regular order of subject. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and whose judgment. and added to it the preposition of. or when they exist side by side in good usage. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language.

and Peter's. ²ID. 395. the shore of Galilee. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.NOUNS. the antechamber of the High Priest. and Harley's. as. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Putting Mr.²MILTON. 396. . sense and nature's easy fool. 397.² Live your king and country's best support.² He lands us on a grassy stage. and Pope's. and Paul's. and Peterborough's. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. 408). for example. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.²RUSKIN. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. etc. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Mill's and Mr.²MCCULLOCH. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom." Juletta tells. 394. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²MACAULAY. but imply separate possession or ownership. Joint possession. Woman.²THACKERAY.²BYRON.²EMERSON. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Separate possession. Bentham's principles together.²ROWE. Use of the possessive. He kept Bolingbroke's. PRONOUNS. or indicate joint ownership or possession.

Bedott Papers.²THACKERAY.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Some of the violations are universally condemned. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. I. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. together with the relative who. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. as. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Objective for the nominative. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. there are two general rules that require attention. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. whom is the complement after the verb am. 398. sanctioned." 400.²BYRON. . Since most of the personal pronouns.²SHAKESPEARE. others are generally. if not universally.²POPE. and should be the nominative form. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. But he must be a stronger than thee. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. thus.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. who." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. No mightier than thyself or me. This should be "as she. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. General rules. for example.) "The young Harper. 399. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Still.²WHITCHER. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²TROLLOPE. the real thought being forgotten.²SOUTHEY. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.

²LONGFELLOW." There is no special reason for this. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. for example. unless a special. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. is.²FIELDING.²COLERIDGE." 401. One exception is to be noted. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²MACAULAY. A safe rule. the objective form is regularly found. they are yet holier than we."²KINGSLEY.²RUSKIN. The usage is too common to need further examples. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON.²KINGSLEY. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. And it was heThat made the ship to go. both in England and America. are. "Than whom.²PARTON. . Patrick the Porter. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. "If there is any one embarrassed. but such is the fact. and the other forms of the verb be. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. namely."²WINTHROP. as.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee."²WM. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. BLACK. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. But still it is not she. "Who's there?"²"Me.²THACKERAY.² For there was little doubt that it was he. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. In spoken English. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. on the other hand.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. it will not be me.²SCOTT.² One I remember especially. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. The camp of Richard of England. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.

object of saw). 404. the object of to). Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. as. it is me. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 2. used after verbs. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. verbal. 7. or preposition which governs it. 5. 11. as. in the case of words used in apposition with the object.²MILTON. you or me. as this from Shakespeare. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. If there ever was a rogue in the world.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. "Ask the murderer. It is not me you are in love with. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned.Exercise. Truth is mightier than us all. verbals. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. and prepositions. Me in exclamations. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 3. as. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 9." 6. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. I speak not to" (he should be him. . but not he" (he should be him. 10. or us). 403. (3) By forgetting the construction. 4. 8. Nominative for the objective." the word being in apposition with murderer). Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. or this. You know whom it is that you thus charge. now. Whom they were I really cannot specify.

²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. as. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²KINGSLEY. for they say there are none such in the world.²BYRON. but he. "Who were they talking to?" etc. etc. 405. and is usually avoided. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. for example. Thou. Exercise.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.²KINGSLEY. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²BYRON. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Nature.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. None. all but he. "Who did you see?" or. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. 2.Exception 1. Thy shores are empires.²STEELE. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. I arraign.Shall be left upon the morn. . save thou and thine. who interrogative. Who have we here?²ID. Let you and I look at these. as. We regularly say. partial Nature. I've sworn.² All were knocked down but us two. as well as the objective.²KINGSLEY. changed in all save thee. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²GOLDSMITH. 406. Exception 2. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.

who. They are coming for a visit to she and I. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 7. Markland. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. They crowned him long ago. Preceding a gerund. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. This usage is not frequent. 11.3." 4. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.²DE QUINCEY. with Jortin and Thirlby. 5. 10. 6. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²SCOTT. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²THACKERAY. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 407. As antecedent of a relative.Ye I salute. or objective? . B. and they know that as well as me. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. POSSESSIVE FORMS. BROWN.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. 12.²C.²MACAULAY. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. II. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²possessive. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. Bartholomew. 9. 8. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.²RUSKIN.

and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. Possessive. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. [who was] studying law.²BREWER. The last incident which I recollect.² IRVING.² SCOTT. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. Objective. sometimes it has the objective. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and that in the second.²RUSKIN. Here I state them only in brief.² THACKERAY. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.408. The use of the objective is older. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.²CARLYLE. Both types of sentences are found. and asked why it was not made." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.² CARLYLE." That is. both are gerunds. But in common use there is no such distinction. studying is a gerund. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and the meaning is. etc. as he turned away from his wife.²DICKENS. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. In the examples quoted. that the bitterness of death was past. . object of heard of. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²DE QUINCEY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. We heard of Brown.²MACAULAY. Why both are found. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.

Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. and ought to agree with them in person. if the antecedent is neuter.²AUDUBON.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. 409.²DEFOE. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²C. in one person.²CABLE. preceded by a distributive. or is a distributive word. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²when the antecedent.²HUXLEY. taking in each of many persons. Every city threw open its gates. In such a case as the last three sentences.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. and gender. number. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. If any one did not know it.² BRYANT. where there were examinations. BROCKDEN BROWN. the pronoun will be neuter singular. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. 410.²HOLMES. Everybody had his own life to think of. . Watch for the real antecedent. it was his own fault. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²THOREAU. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²EMERSON III. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²DE QUINCEY.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. Examples of these constructions are. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. The pale realms of shade.²DE QUINCEY.

Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. The sun. By using the plural pronoun.²THACKERAY. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Whosoever hath any gold. and giving them means of being so.²RUSKIN. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²BYRON. Every one must judge of their own feelings. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²HUXLEY.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. till they have lost him. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²SCOTT. as anybody in their senses would have done.²ID. let them break it off. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²BIBLE. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²FIELDING. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. . the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²PALEY. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. not a mowing idiot. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²EMERSON.²PALGRAVE.²DEFOE.Avoided: By using both pronouns. If the part deserve any comment. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. 411. Struggling for life. This is not considered the best usage.²ID. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.² Not the feeblest grandame. for example. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²AUSTEN. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²PAULDING.

.²HAWTHORNE. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. but. etc. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. and that always restrictive. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. which. and that are restrictive or not. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. which. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. or what was become of her. 2." This means. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent.²ADDISON. that being considered already clear. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.) and a personal pronoun. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. 412." A relative. who went away. tell whether who. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. That is in most cases restrictive. but. As to their conjunctive use. "I gave it to the beggar.Where she was gone. or unrestrictive. no one could take upon them to say." It defines beggar. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. as. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.² SHERIDAN. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. and does not add a new statement. because. in each instance:² Who.²ID. I. Exercise. A relative. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. 1. Exercise.²In the above sentences. the definite relatives who. when coördinating. according to the practice of every modern writer. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. unless both genders are implied. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. What these terms mean. In the following examples. and he went away. It adds a new statement to what precedes. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. when restrictive. 413.

down. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. it makes the verb third person singular.² NEWMAN. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. W. Yet how many are there who up. On hearing their plan. The rule.²ID. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. these or that which. BEECHER 5. A grizzly-looking man appeared. etc. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. Hare has printed. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 14. 11. 414. he.²HOLMES.² IRVING. 7. Which. II. However. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. In what sense true. which was to go over the Cordilleras. you. because of its antecedent.²DE QUINCEY. that were often vicious. 9. who. which Mr. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. We say I. she agreed to join the party. in the sentence. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. That. and over England are saying. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. So different from the wild. 8. as that does not vary for person or number.² MOTLEY.²ADDISON. The general rule is. but. . that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.3. 6. 10. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. For example. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun." that is invariable as to person and number. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. 13. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. long arms and legs.²DE QUINCEY. they. With narrow shoulders. etc.² CARLYLE. and it is called logic. 12. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.²H. 4.²ID.. etc.²THOREAU.

"one of the finest books that has been published.²ADDISON. others regard books as the antecedent. but the former has good authority. The fiery youth . A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed." One of . Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. Singular. or which . A disputed point. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²LOWELL.²whether we should say. etc.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²HOLMES. but speaks of him as that sort.²SCOTT..²J. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. who rarely speak at all. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. Franklin.. etc. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. . and write the verb in the plural. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. ARNOLD.. JR. and in improving a victory. [singular or plural. French literature of the eighteenth century. He is one of those that deserve very well.²M. but myself. the true antecedent. [plural] that who. T.²ADDISON...²LOWELL. MORSE.²LECKY. 415. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. with one as the principal word.²MACAULAY. when he derided the shams of society. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.] Both constructions are frequently found. The latter is rather more frequent.²BOWLES.. Let us be of good cheer..²HOWELLS. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal." or. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. "one of the finest books that have been published. in winning a battle.

insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. I could see nothing except the sky.²DEFOE. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²In the above sentences. that is. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.And. IV. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country."²DICKENS.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series." "India is the place [in which. 417. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. Exercise. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²EMERSON. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²EMERSON." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²ADDISON.²VAUGHAN. III.² THACKERAY.²SCOTT. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. where. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.² RUSKIN. or where] he died.²ID.²BURNS.A rare Roundabout performance. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. when this dust falls to the urn. whence. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. return.²GOLDSMITH. when the relative word is a pronoun.²SWIFT.In that same state I came. But I by backward steps would move.²CARLYLE. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²IRVING. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.² . "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. 416. and such like: as. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. and see if the sentence is made clearer. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. object of a preposition understood.

and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. boats.²SWIFT. Caution. she passed the lamp over her face and person. That.² BURKE. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.. 418. which. or that. was a discoverer. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Mr. and working in the same spirit. if I had resolved to go on with.. if same is followed by a complete clause.² as his apprentice. for example. I might as well have staid at home. .² MACAULAY.He considered. as is not used. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²WORDSWORTH. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. looking-glasses. Anacoluthic use of which. but. They believe the same of all the works of art.²FRANKLIN. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. he. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. but we find the relative who. as of knives.²ADDISON.² THACKERAY. but which is usually carefully avoided.² Which. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. The regular construction. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. CHURCH. ²GOLDSMITH. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. with Turner. etc.²R.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. W. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. V. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Which.

² Direction for rewriting. 3. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. (2) "Among the poorer sort..She'd come again. and which.²DE QUINCEY." etc.²which if they once heard. 2. once a great favorite of M. le Conte." etc. etc. but. (1) "Among those who are poor. 1. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²SHAKESPEARE. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. This was a gentleman. but none is expressed. Thornhill had read. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.²RUSKIN. or omit the conjunction.²HAWTHORNE. 4.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. and this be placed in the proper clause.²SCOTT. But who. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. 419.²GOLDSMITH. and who are now. who are now thrown. As the sentences stand.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. or leave out both connective and relative. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. Express both relatives. He delivered the letter. And who." etc. he said that all submission was now too late.²THACKERAY." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. which when Mr. Exercise. That is. or. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. etc. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. Exercise. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. .. now thrown upon their.. After this came Elizabeth herself.

5. . Dr.²DE QUINCEY.² MOTLEY. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. like that spoken in the towns. Or which. as a false and astucious mark. I shall have complete copies. one of signal interest. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.. 420. 10. 6.²IRVING. "A mockery. 13.²PEARSON. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. then.²SCOTT. the French. etc. 12. and which may even be heard a mile off. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . indeed. That .²HAWTHORNE. either from imitation of their frequent allies. 1. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. English by name. and which. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character.. I saw upon the left a scene far different. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. who. Exercise.²DE QUINCEY. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. And which. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.. 8. 11. which the Scotch had learned. "What knight so craven. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. 7. 9. and repeat this for any further reference. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.. etc. and to whom no door is closed. Akin to the above is another fault. But which. Or who.²SCOTT. and which has never been described. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.

5.²EMERSON. 12. 9. half a century ago. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.. 6. 11. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 4.. in his Mephistopheles...²DEFOE. CHANNING. 10. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death..²SCOTT That which ...²SCOTT. 14. such as they have very probably been bred to. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. 7. which. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. I give to such men as do not belong to me. that . but which is perhaps not so different from it. and whose examples and principles we inherit...²HAWTHORNE. 13. what. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. Such as . at the head of what.²HALLAM. was a bustling wharf.²BEECHER. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. which. the cent. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 15. SIMMS.²HOWELLS. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. that. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. and to whom I do not belong. I recommend some honest manual calling. whom.²DE QUINCEY.. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. I grudge the dollar. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. That . Such as . G. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with..²W. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. He flung into literature. He. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. 8. The Tree Igdrasil. It rose into a thrilling passion. but which. the dime. Which . .² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.²EMERSON.. In my native town of Salem. E.2. was hung in air. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.²W. 3. in his present condition.²HOLMES.

as. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²MACAULAY.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. as. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. By their original meaning. England was then divided between kings and Druids. one another. We call ourselves a rich nation.²ID. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. and in want of his gold²or his corn. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. whether or not the two are equivalent. Distributives either and neither.²EMERSON.²DICKENS. Use of any. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.² Some one must be poor.²GOLDSMITH. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. as it were.²HAWTHORNE. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. . and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. for example. Assume that no one is in want of either. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. 422.²RUSKIN.² HAWTHORNE. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. that not all combined. 421.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. in which case any should be used instead. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. Each other. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. always at war with one another. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.²RUSKIN.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.

I beseech you. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. which is plural as often as singular.²BEECHER Whenever. speak. 423.² If any. if ever man was. in the prose of the present day. The adjective pronoun none is. as. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²CARLYLE. Do you think. usually plural. as.. None of Nature's powers do better service.² In earnest.² EMERSON. etc. afterwards in Goethe.²BURKE. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. that I know of. let him ask of God.. when any of them are so good as to visit me. for him have I offended. then in Plotinus. before that. If any of you lack wisdom.²STIRLING. during his stay at Yuste. any of his friends had died. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. and is isolated.²SHAKESPEARE.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . 424. at one time in Bacon. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. None usually plural. Caution. Examples of its use are. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. . any was often singular.²BIBLE. whilst I still cherish their genius. even in Bettine. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). Any usually plural.²SCOTT.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.²EMERSON. then in Plutarch. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY..²PROF.²THACKERAY. Do you think. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.²FRANKLIN. In earlier Modern English. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. as none of the French philosophers were. in Shakespeare. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.

etc. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. fixing his eyes on the mace. The compounds somebody else. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. which is used absolutely. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. and less rarely in poetry. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. The light troops thought . etc.² None of them was cleansed.²THOREAU.. nobody else. are treated as units.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. as.²SCOTT Like the use of any. Somebody's else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none..²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. etc.² PEARSON. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.² Singular. or somebody else's? 426. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. etc.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. 425. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. that all was lost. any one else. When all were gone. for example.²NAPIER Plural.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. and all was lost on the other.. when it means all persons: for example. saving Naaman the Syrian.²McMASTER. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. the plural. and Ford has nobody's else.

and may be found not infrequently in literary English. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic." "all manner of men. or those sort of people. for example.²DICKENS.²RUSKIN. all manner of. or some other such great man as a bishop. etc. ELIOT. STOWE.. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). etc." the nouns being singular.. 427.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case." "those kind of trees. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. London. WILLIS. unlike anybody else's in the world."²MRS. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²AUSTEN. "Ye see. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. Again. . ADJECTIVES. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.²G. the adjectives plural.²RUSKIN.²N.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.² FIELDING. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. His hair.²SWEET. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²SHERIDAN. Whitefield or Wesley.curled once all over it in long tendrils. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.²in such as "these sort of books. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.² Saturday Review.²MULOCH.SYDNEY SMITH. P. These sort.² These kind of knaves I know.²THACKERAY.

² Which is the better able to defend himself. Should we say. or the nouns to the plural." A question. when the necessary dispositions concur. such as. as. or one object with a class of objects. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. more alarming than a total silence. Burke's sentence. The result. for example. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. "These kind of trees are best. and in this way may take a plural verb. 428. made to agree with it. gradually displacing the old. in spoken English. they said. Later form. Use of the comparative degree. Of two such lessons. According to the approved usage of Modern English. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.The library was open. "This kind of rules are the best. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. At the source. "This sort of trees should be planted.²RUSKIN. which accounts for the construction. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. and the adjective is." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. not "all kinds of wild animals." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). . to express a higher degree of quality. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. This the modern expression reverses." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. Consequently we have a confused expression. In Old and Middle English.²a strong man with nothing but his fists.² PRESCOTT. the victor or the vanquished. History of this construction. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. with all manner of amusing books. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects.

²SWIFT. Exercise.²WIRT. 429. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. than any of his court. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. Henry.²LOWELL. 6. 430. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. I am concerned to see that Mr. Other after the comparative form.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. if not. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 3. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived."²ID.²HUXLEY.²TROLLOPE. 2. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. etc.²HAWTHORNE. To the man who plays well. He is taller. by almost the breadth of my nail.²MACAULAY. Gary. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. Use of the superlative degree. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Even Dodd himself. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. has sanctioned. Superlative with two objects. 4. . but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. would not have had the face. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 5. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²MACAULAY. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.² THACKERAY. the highest stakes are paid. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²CARLYLE.

²EMERSON. These two properties seem essential to wit. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²J.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²GOLDSMITH.²BEN JONSON.²SCOTT.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. The following examples are used purposely. Mary. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²DR BLAIR.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. I should say that one has the best cause.²IRVING. 431.²MRS. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. who eat white bread or brown.²TEMPEST. "Ha. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.. Also from the same period. Examples from Shakespeare are. Double comparative and superlative. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est."²GOLDSMITH. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature."²HAWTHORNE. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. whichever can be got easiest. Come you more nearer. CÆSAR. and differ only in form. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. ha. In all disputes between States. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. . was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. 1611.²Bible. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. The eldest.. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²RUSKIN. and the other contains the best men. more particularly the last of them. not a bit of high life among them."²BULWER. Rip was one of those .²HAMLET. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. After the most straitest sect of our religion. OLIPHANT. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²ADDISON.

²DE QUINCEY. First three. 433. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The merit of the Barb. Examples of this construction are.²RUSKIN. As to these two expressions. and conceit in the last. The first five had specific names.² With a singular noun. etc.²RUSKIN. Definite article. The meaning intended is the same. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. ARTICLES. and Secretary Walsingham also. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. The delay in the first three lines. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. Three first. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. ²COWPER. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. the Spanish.² SMOLLETT.²PRESCOTT. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²KINGSLEY. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. . etc. These are the three first needs of civilized life.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²LAMB. Instances of both are given below. jar upon us constantly. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. not only so in popular speech. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²ADDISON.²GIBBON. but in literary English.²GIBBON. For Carlyle. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.

as. but inseparable from each other. were placed at a very tender age.²TAYLOR. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. the hour of parting came. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . 434. 1508. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.² RUSKIN. with a singular noun. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.²SCOTT.²THACKERAY.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.²THE NATION.²TENNYSON. 433. I think. He is master of the two-fold Logos. and flexible language. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.² MACAULAY. 435.²PRESCOTT. as in Sec. having been arranged. or to emphasize the meaning. Frequently.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. Indefinite article. to distinguish clearly.²NEWMAN. No. however. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. The flowers.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. . the greatest poems.²ID. of the higher and middling orders.. melodious. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. The not repeated. Here the youth of both sexes. but is used with one only. the thought and the word. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. With a plural noun. of the eighteenth century. Origin of the Aryans..²MACAULAY. distinct.²CARLYLE. Meaning same as in Sec. The lofty. One object and several modifiers. and the presents. with a plural noun. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. 433. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. as.

² BURKE. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. The indefinite article (compare Sec. . only one of which is expressed. a collegian. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. 437." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON. 435. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. JONSON. as in the first three of Sec. and inexhausted vein. rich.436.²DICKENS.² MACAULAY.²B. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. a murderer. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. T. COLERIDGE. One article with several adjectives.²S. one noun is expressed. interest. 436). Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. and a usurper. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²MACAULAY. For rhetorical effect.An early. or clearness to each of several nouns." and "a red and a white geranium.²MACAULAY. a round and a square one alternately. 433 and 436. a tyrant. 438.²THACKERAY.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. Examples of this use are. He saw him in his mind's eye. to limit two or more modified nouns. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²BULWER.²BEECHER. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. In the sentences of Secs. But in the following sentences.²DRYDEN. The indefinite article is used. as. like the definite article.

In this work there was grouped around him a score of men..²W. In English. like some others in this series. This was spoken of in Part I.²COOPER. then.²CARLYLE This usage. as. without academies. Singulars connected by or or nor. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. 276.²FROUDE. ARNOLD.²AGASSIZ.VERBS. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. A broad and loose rule. He sees that it is better to live in peace.²GIBBON. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. for example. ELIOT. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. was the earliest American land. Sec.²M. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Such.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. Another writer might. . It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²The Nation. 439.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. and the following illustrations prove it. Collective noun of singular meaning. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. 440. all that academies can give. as.²G. Singular verb. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. has got already. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. or the great intellectual life of our nation.

(5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.²J. seems at the moment unpaid loss. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. No.²WHITTIER. and other singulars of plural form.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. (4) When the subject is plural in form. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. as. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. for example. nor John. but considered as meaning about the same thing. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. nor Mahomet.² Politics is the only field now open for me. or as making up one general idea.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. but each one emphatic. Plural form and singular meaning. other names.²EMERSON .²DE QUINCEY.²CRITIC. is gone. ADAMS. or considered as appositional. A fever.²GIBBON.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. nor Paul.Jesus is not dead. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. a loss of friends.²BURKE. a cruel disappointment.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Between ourselves.²GOLDSMITH.² The unbought grace of life. and every four hours. as. the cheap defense of nations. that of a large town. a mutilation. ²EMERSON. Q.² In a word.² GOLDSMITH.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. for example. a loss of wealth. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.

no matter if the second is plural). This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. the wit.²PRESCOTT. no.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. in a judge.The rout. as well as sides. no spent ball. Subjects after the verb. the dismay. does not take the place of the man. The oldest.²PRESCOTT. every echo.²MACAULAY. Every week.² Asia.²EMERSON.The author. an impassioned countenance. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²ID. nay. Every sound. as well as Europe. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. the fine gentleman. the ruin. sir?" and the "No.² There is a right and a wrong in them. wineBegins to stir itself.² .²RUSKIN.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. Plural verb.²SCOTT. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²HAWTHORNE. the partisan. 441. was listened to for five hours.²LONGFELLOW. and such like adjectives. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. as.²NEWMAN.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. To receive presents or a bribe. The Epic. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. and greaves. many a. every valet. Here is no ruin. each.²BUTLER. as well as the newest. is a man of wit. as. Every fop. There is a moving tone of voice. Then comes the "Why. sir!"²MACAULAY. with death. thus. as well as the Drama. every boor. no discontinuity. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²MACAULAY. was punished. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. almost every day. sir!" and the "What then. Her back.²M ARNOLD. was like to crack.²ID. a gorget. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. was dazzled. a cuirass. an agitated gesture.

but the verb is plural.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. All our household are at rest.²COLERIDGE. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. are sufficient to attract a colony.²FROUDE. .These bits of wood were covered on every square. The travelers. TAYLOR. Philip of Anjou.²THOREAU. of whom there were a number.²B. as.² A multitude go mad about it. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²GIBBON. 440 (5. Far.² GIBBON. The Dauphin. far away thy children leave the land.²EMERSON. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²CARLYLE But its authorship. a stream of fresh water. Conjunction omitted. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²DE QUINCEY. were men of insignificant characters. as in Sec.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. b). as with a subject of plural form.²ADDISON. a green pasture.²SCOTT. as. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. the Duke of Berri. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. making up a plural subject. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. its date. A party of workmen were removing the horses. A shady grove. for example.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. The conjunction may be omitted.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²SWIFT. His clothes. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. shirt.²FRANKLIN.²FROUDE. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.

ARNOLD. Not I.²M. nor has she").² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. as. Nothing which Mr.²THACKERAY. WEBSTER. . When the subjects.²DE QUINCEY. "I have never said so. If there is only one person in the subject. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.)." or. This construction is at the best a little awkward. Pattison or I have said.²WHITTIER. we never talk politics.But notice the construction of this. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²GOLDSMITH.²SMOLLETT. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. You and I are farmers. 444.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. of different persons. his blood dost shed. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. nor should I. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. Ah. hadst been my lord. Exceptional examples.²BYRON. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²RUSKIN. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. General usage. 443." "She or you may be sure. for example.²RUSKIN.²ROWE." etc.²D. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. "You would not be wiser. that is.²THACKERAY. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. Second or third and first person in the subject.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. 442. the verb takes the construction of the first person. the subject being really equivalent to we. "He or I can go.²LOWELL. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Not Altamont. but thou. You and I are tolerably modest people. but thou.

And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²SCOTT.That neither of their intellects are vast. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.²ADDISON. 446. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²BURKE. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 10. 12.²MILTON. Exercise. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 4. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. 2. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²ADDISON. in my opinion. which it is proper to mention. In this sentence from Defoe.²BYRON. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Both death and I am found eternal.² TROLLOPE. 7. 8. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 9. Neither of them. 5." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²ID. How each of these professions are crowded. nor bush are there. In a word. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 11. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.Her course to intercept. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²and. BANCROFT. Nor wood. Neither of their counselors were to be present. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). In the following sentence.445. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. as illustrated above (Secs.²G. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²THACKERAY. 6. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²EMERSON. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. nor tree.²perhaps the devil. Also in verbals. 440-444):² 1. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 3.²SMOLLETT. as we would hope.

that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. however.²KINGSLEY. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. as.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. INDIRECT DISCOURSE.. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. 4. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Definitions.. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. CHURCH. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²MACAULAY. 447. 3. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. to have divided with her whatever might remain. to have seen should be changed to to see.²R.²THACKERAY. Exercise.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. 448. Of course. Direct discourse²that is. I gave one quarter to Ann. change them to a better form:² 1. if not.²DE QUINCEY 2. on my return. meaning. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. for exact connection. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²IRVING. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Two samples of indirect discourse." . The present rule is recent. W. It should be remarked.² PALGRAVE 5. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²FRANKLIN 6.

" etc." Indirect." etc. Her prudence whispered eternally. and the indirect question by whether or if. under interrogative pronouns. The substance of his lamentation was. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. 2. 449. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. "Oh. have... but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. His exact words were. Direct. will. "I cannot oblige you . Summary of the expressions. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. Direct. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. She thought to herself. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. introductory verb is in the past tense. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. This includes the auxiliaries be... (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Sebastian's. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. interrogative adverbs. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. 1. . Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. etc. or regular interrogatives. Oh. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person.

" and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. if this were expanded into a verb. . like distant peals of thunder. one summer afternoon.²GOLDSMITH. with his crew of the Half-moon. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. VERBALS. he assured me that nothing was more easy. and that he himself had heard. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. The trouble is.Exercise.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. the first discoverer of the river and country. handed down from his ancestor the historian. Notice this. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.²ID. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²B. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. my first observation will be found nearly true. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. PARTICIPLES. the sound of their balls. in the sentences first quoted. 450. Careless use of the participial phrase. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. FRANKLIN. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise.²ADDISON." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster.

deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject.. 2. then. For example. purposely or not.. This is the more common arrangement. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . while defended or excused by others." Exercise. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. In the following citations. Exercise. the first sentence would be.. my first collection was. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. There are. either "As I was pleased.²ID. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible." etc. INFINITIVES.² HERBERT SPENCER.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. and often... avoid it. It is a solemn. Adverb between to and the infinitive. if a strike is to succeed. 3. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. universal assertion.Correction. . see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. Standard writers often use it.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. . The practice is condemned by many grammarians.²SCOTT. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.²RUSKIN. many things to be carefully considered. leaving the principal statement as it is. 451. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.²LAUGHLIN. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.

etc. Position of only. A little sketch of his. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. from Irving. 1533. but it is placed before the infinitive. Now. 11. No.. even." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. but cannot misunderstand the thought. this kind of grandeur. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.²BURKE. 7. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation.. 9. etc. if they modify single words. ADVERBS. 5. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. china. Exercise. even.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. I wish the reader to clearly understand. 6. BLAIR.²RUSKIN. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. 8. The spirits.²GOLDSMITH.²TROLLOPE. is to be very cautiously admitted.4. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. are used. when such adverbs as only.²ID. 10.²SCOTT. The rigid rule in such a case would be. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. In works of art.²The Nation. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.² MACAULAY.²DR. etc. but they are often removed from the exact position. 452. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. and earthenware. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 13. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 12. therefore.² ADDISON. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. which consists in multitude.

piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 16. 8.²N. 9. GROTE.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. ²ASCHAM. Irving could only live very modestly. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. P. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.1. 15. 17. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. He could only afford to keep one old horse. for example. He shouted in those clear. No sonne. 13. whence he was never destined to return. 453.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. . I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²RUSKIN. 2. During the whole course of his administration.²ID. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²ID. were he never so old of yeares.²EMERSON. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²CHAUCER.²COOPER. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. might not marry.²SWIFT. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 7.² THACKERAY. In relating these and the following laws. 10.²PALGRAVE.²SYDNEY SMITH. WILLIS. In Old and Middle English. to avoid a crowd.²THACKERAY. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²MOTLEY. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 11.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 4. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 14.²MRS.²MACAULAY. 12. 6. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 3. 5.²HIGGINSON. My master. The old usage. His last journey to Cannes. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²ID.

But. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. who hadn't been to school for nothing. In the execution of this task.²LOWELL.²MRS.²BURKE. STOWE. 5.²HAWTHORNE. denying each other. one of the negatives is often a prefix."²MRS. can so agreeably affect. etc. . Not only could man not acquire such information. There weren't no pies to equal hers. In the latter case.²GROTE. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.²DE QUINCEY. neither. 4. 2. and is still kept in vulgar English. in Ole Virginia.²HOLMES. Exercise. when one of the negatives is a connective. is not common. This.²DEFOE. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. as. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. nor never shall. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. STOWE. However. but ought not to labor after it. nor the grandeur of no king. however. The prosperity of no empire.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. I did not act so hastily. the usual way of regarding the question now is. I never did see him again."²four negatives. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.²BAYNE. Regular law of negative in modern English. uncommon. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. Therefore. if two negatives are found together. under the influence of Latin syntax. 3. 6.² HAMILTON. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. Exceptional use. and why:² 1. as infrequent. 7. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. ²PAGE.

as the use of the conjunction."²SCOTT.. if the last precedes a verb. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs." Besides neither ...²SCOTT. and which. even neither . but to their own safety." .²LOWELL. Things to be watched. and. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. The sentence.. 454.. but (also). should be scrutinized.²PRESCOTT. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ." both of the above requirements are violated.. nor is often changed to not²either . not only .. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever." may be changed to "This loose .²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. if the second precedes a phrase.. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. the first ought to be placed before a verb. "A weapon.. In the sentence. as well as of the pronoun. either . or with advantage. 455. Correction. or. or to reply to it. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.. And who. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. The sentences given in Secs. neither . but. especially both . not merely . "well worthy to confer honor.8.. CONJUNCTIONS." said the King. there we were.. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. or. nor. either... not only to the success of their common cause. the first should also.. Choice and proper position of correlatives. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. or to reply to it. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. In these examples it will be noticed that nor... nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.

substitute that. or the negative relative but.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Try and for try to. but. etc. as. or but that for the words but what:² 1. JEWETT. They will. 3. 5. too. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. but. but they will outrage. Now. murder.²THACKERAY.²BAIN.²GIBBON. O.²MACAULAY. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. 7. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. In the following sentences. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²FRANKLIN. and chop up their own kin.² ADDISON.Exercise. 8. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 457. as. . but grown-up persons. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. But what.²ID. 6. or but that. 4. Exercise.²S. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. Correct the following sentences:² 1. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. 2.²RUSKIN. and I don't know but what he was right.²GOLDSMITH. Some exceptions. 456. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. not merely interest children. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Try and avoid the pronoun. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²THACKERAY.

Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.2. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. 3. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 305. 4. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 459. . We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. as already seen in Sec. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²EMERSON. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. 458. no separation or division by twos being implied.²EMERSON. 5. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²SCOTT.² SWIFT.²ADDISON. Between is used most often with two things only. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.²BURKE. 313. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. PREPOSITIONS.² BULWER. 6. Between and among. see Sec.²TROLLOPE. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²ADDISON.

and philosophers like Locke. as. correspond. Affinity between. different. List I. Some of them have.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Different from. confer. and Stewart.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Mackintosh. 460. 461. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. as. involve. etc. Accord with. and Coleridge. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conversant with.²KINGSLEY. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. . Paley. or one object and a group. and another to convey a different meaning. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Averse to. LIST I. Bestow on (upon). Comply with.²between philosophers like Spinoza. a soldier of the Cross. Derogatory to. averse. Abhorrent to. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. ²EMERSON. Two groups or one and a group. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Kant. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. by custom. Such are derogatory. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.: Words with particular prepositions. Dissent from. Acquit of. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Conform to. Such are absolve. Dependent on (upon).²RUSKIN What have I.

A taste of (food). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. as. Confide in (trust in)." List III. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. . and sometimes creeps into standard books. as. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. "The king is reconciled to his minister." also of persons. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). LIST II. 463. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England.y y y Deprive of. Change to (become). Correspond to (a thing). 462. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Reconcile to (note below). as. Change for (a thing). but it is not good usage. Independent of." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. etc. Reconcile with (note below). List II. Differ from (note below). Involve in.). Correspond with (write to). in the sense of making friends with. Confer with (talk with). Agree to (a proposal). Differ with (note below).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Confer on (upon) (give to). A taste for (art. Change with (a person). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). as meaning to be in keeping with. LIST III. Confide to (intrust to).

part with.²ADDISON. ²THACKERAY. die of. She died of hard work. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. He died at last without disease. and ill treatment." (because of). "Die with. died for love of the fair Marcella. as Cervantes informs us. If I meet with any of 'em. instrument).²G. I am positively dying with hunger. Expect of. ELIOT. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²BULWER." She would have been ready to die with shame. .²BOSWELL. simply from old age. Take thought and die for Cæsar. ELIOT." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. "Die from. privation. "Die for.²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT. Who." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. die for.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. die from.²MACAULAY. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²BURNETT. die with.y y y Die by. Part from. "Die by. Illustrations of "die of.²G.²GOLDSMITH. People do not die of trifling little colds.²FIELDING.²POPE. expect from.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. "Die for.²MACAULAY. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. ²ATHENÆUM." (material cause. One of them said he would die for her. No one died from want at Longfeld." etc.²MACAULAY. they shall die by this hand. It would take me long to die of hunger.:² "Die of." (in behalf of)." "die from.²SHAKESPEARE.

Illustrations of "part with." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. ELIOT." She will expect more attention from you. I have long expected something remarkable from you. Illustrations of "expect of. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²WALPOLE.²MARRYAT. either of or in is used indifferently.²G." "part from:"² "Part with.²WALLER.²SCOTT. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. 465. 464. With words implying behavior or disposition. I have just seen her. I can part with my children for their good. 466.²BULWER.²TROLLOPE. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²MACAULAY.²G.²POE." To part from you would be misery. "Part from.²G. . just parted from her. kind of you.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. and hated to part with them. as my friend. ELIOT. nothing better was to be expected. That is more than I expected of you. ELIOT.²DICKENS." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH." "expect from:"² "Expect of. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. His precious bag. "Expect from.²AUSTEN. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. Of Doctor P.²BULWER.²SHAW. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. It was a little bad of you.²MACAULAY. Kind in you. which he would by no means part from.

. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 7. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 8. 11. thunder. nor of a pale red. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 3. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. In the friction between an employer and workman. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing.²BULWER. but which the story renders necessary. In. It will be anything but shrewd in you. nor yellow. tedious perhaps. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. nor blue. 13. 15. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. nor green. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. The noise of vast cataracts. 9. raging storms.²CARLYLE. the vast abyss. thrown it over Amyas's head. But this is idle of you. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2.²DICKENS. This narrative. Hampden.²TENNYSON. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 6. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 10. 5. or artillery.He did not think it handsome of you. and ran up the alley. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. 4. 1.²BEACONSFIELD. with seraphims. Very natural in Mr. Thou tread'st. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. it is commonly said that his profits are high.²BULWER. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 14. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak.

When the glass or liquor are transparent. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. and other angular figures. 36. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 20. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 21. 23. Every one of these letters are in my name. 411. save Amyas. You have seen Cassio and she together. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 17. 25. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. Squares. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. triangles. 31. 24. were down with raging fever. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. but in the price paid to them. the acquiescence of the understanding. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. (Sec. 28. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 22. 19. 38. and almost as good as a pony. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. produce approbation. 29.) 34.I would wish me only he. 27.And were I anything but what I am. 37. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. and most of us do know. But every man may know. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. That night every man of the boat's crew. . are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 26. what is a just and unjust act. you or me. 33. Friday. 30. The effect of proportion and fitness. or how beautiful it is. 35. 32. 16. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 18. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once.

from about 1500 to the present time. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 124. syntax uses Absolute. of. 107. (3) Modern English. 91. Adjectives. 89. 116. of. 102. (2) Middle English. 25. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 239. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. origin of. A. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 90. demonstrative. adverbs used complements. numeral. 47. 260. from nominative clauses. of. 20. He had four children. voice. article. as. 47. . 124. of. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. nominative.000 between them. nouns. pronouns. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 92. 98. Abstract with Active Address. 119. 310. INDEX. 40. 133. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. adjectives.39.

184. conjunctions. 287. 116. . adjectives. from to of. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 291. adjectives. objective. clauses. 302. 97. conjunction. 325. antecedent. of. Agreement. quantity. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. infinitive. 104. Against. quality. 115. form as as they to in as uses uses of. sentence. plural pronominal. and 185. 325. 48. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 27. 275. 207. 194. 328. 316. 99. 187. of. 239. 103. of. between of. to used of. 114. Alms. 106. of. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 190. as nouns. 242. 42. nouns. adjectives. predicate. compared. of. 195. 207. 303. 303. modify. 27. of. 183. of. 323. 116. parse. 262. with with with subject. 191. 148. parse.from function how in not of of ordinal. 101. antecedent. 190. 194. 109. nouns.

of of of And Antecedent. sentences. An. pronouns. 271. as uses verbs. 295. which. A. same. 331. 225. 120. it. sentences. Auxiliary if. See with definition complex compound simple who. in in. 309. adjective. of. of. sentences. Are. 208. 275. to of. of. 148. 79. 67. 84. syntax As. parse. which. 240. Anacoluthon Analysis. Arrangement Articles. 67. 207. 47. of and pronoun of. 49. uses As At. of. possessive. 287. after of. agreement personal as pronoun. 90. words between. derivation in definite. 252. 198. though. Agreement. 300. 51. 294. 101. 74. definition how indefinite. 124. 120. definition of of of Any. 296.Among. . 264. 127. which. and. See 74. of. 150. 231. syntax. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition.

49. 39. Between. best. 54. 279. Brethren. possessive. But. 39. 161. of nouns. 62. 84. syntax of. plurals of. 48. with But By. 149. Can. 110. forms. 224. of pronouns. 260. Cause. of nouns. 63. Children. 64. 330. 46. 150. Clause. 278. of pronouns. 194. 210. 66. of what. adjective. Be. uses Better. 278. Among. 262. uses nominative of. 262. comparison conjugation of. uses of. clauses of. pronoun. of nouns. 111. 46. 47. Case. 110. of nouns. 195. of pronouns. 283. Case. of. of. double possessive. definition could. 37. Bridegroom. 45.Bad. of. 279. See of. nominative. objective. adverb. . number of. of pronouns. in Old and Modern English. conjunctions Cherub.

and sentence. 268. predicate of and from from of. and forms of. 189. 43. 110. clothes. of. infinitive. analysis of. subject. 12. nouns. 157. defective. 239. 23. 305. 307. Cloths. 113. 158. . of. definition degrees irregular. of. Clomb. 307. 24. 248. verb. 257. adjectives. English. 257. 18. double. of. 258. 244. 263. 107. of. 312. predicate. 108. adverbs. superlative. sentence. Cleave. 53. 111. plural of. of. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 257. 264. 18. 271. 108. 43.definition kinds noun. of. material. in analysis. nouns. of. proper. nouns. 315. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause.

Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. . adverbs. pronouns. coördinate.with Concord. 151. See English. 143. subjunctive. definition how subordinate. 139. in Old vs. conjunction. 328. sentences. 207. 149. 255. 195. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 193. 269. Conjunctions. Agreement. sentences. Can. correlative. interrogative pronouns. 196. 263. 194. of. 188. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 149. Dative Declarative Declension of case. pronoun. 231. conjunctions. 289. See in subjunctive. definition be. replaced by objective. verbs. of. See analysis clauses. 194. 66. of of Conjunctions. to of. parse. 138. sentence. and clause. 199. 195. same words. other other parts of speech. conjunctions. pronoun. analysis. 194. 73.

160. for. pronouns. 26. by. Subordinate clause. 90. from. 185. 287. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. comparative. 80. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 333. of. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. passive adjectives. with. of. 320. 300. Degrees. of. of personal relative verbs. 35. 102. Articles. See 148. object. Comparison. of. 51. 60. tenses. pronouns. with of. 315. 288. 91.Declension. verb. vs. use of dies. indirect. 43. adverbs See adjectives. . 102. pronouns. Case. nouns. 152. 242. See adjectives. See See 48. Comparative. discourse. possessive. clause. article. 99. duck. pronouns. 242. nouns. 303.

33. 255. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. added suffix. 62. 42. 110. 12. 38. object. 51. 234. 158. adjective. other. 287. original. 287. of. 300. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 90. of. 92. ending. 102. 34. 39.Drank. error in sentence. 40. 92. plural. one ( t). the of sentence. 32. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 328. conjunction. another. predicate. . vulgar. 257. 90. Empress. complement. in 'Em. 299. Elements Ellipsis. of. possessive suffix. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. of. pronoun. 92. 112. pronoun. -En. 194. of. adjective. 240. drunk. pronouns. 158. 280. Each. to suffix. 241. of subject. suffix. of. spoken. Either. feminine plural English. literary. 33. older.

modes "common goose. etc. of. 30. fishes. 45. Future Future tense. perfect.Every. definition distinguished in English. Gender.. 235. two a further. 308. adjective. 102. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 32. 212.. First. Feminine. 211. nouns. 43. as a noun. used of. . have adjective. object. with in sex. 319. 148. the. with infinitive. 112. 91. 30. 102. 152. two. uses Foreign Former." 31. of. Few. from. 103. gender. pronoun. 147. 334. First Fish. From. For. expect gone. See Gander. 287. 30. 48. 110. plurals. Further. as of from compared marking. few. other languages. 212. 29. uses redundant. 189. of. Farther. first. 238. 152. to of. etc. 36. 112. 126.

definition basis of. Got. 159. 144. 13. 145. had hung. 80. forms in Girl. Government. for before. 12. and case verbal with.of of Genii. He. noun. definition divisions opinions province H. distinguished syntax. an better. from participle of. Had Hanged. 60. His Husband. personal relative geniuses. on. 231. 176. 12. of. its. rather. 175. participle. pronoun. 60. possessive pronouns. kinds of. of. pronouns. Grammar. 35. first sentence. adjective. 9. 36. Gerund. I. 120. she. 159. of. . 275. 61. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 177. person. 285. 101. 173. of. it. 43. 61. 10.

85. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. pronouns. 323. 136. 227. a object. 153. in compared syntax. words. 248. 93. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. verbs. with of. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 231. pronoun. 73. See you. meaning. 131. of clause. indices. mood. elements. 276. indirect of. questions. 245. 188. 257. 105. 110. adjectives. 320. See Articles. 283. summary See passive mood. adverbs. your. 233. 319. sentence. of. of. . 72. 67. 131. 176. questions. of. adjectives. of. Questions. Direct object. 43.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 178. transitive. uses discourse. use article.

King. predicate. Less. syntax. 113. 91. -Ly. 39. Like. and See words in. 110. English. of. Last. Logic Logical Lord. 226. Lady. 303. syntax the. "It Its. Lay. . 63. 281. uses Literary Little. 245. 61. of. 36. lesser. subject form.. adjective. 36. 170. of. 67. 227. Lay. 126. 276.. See Madam. pronoun. these double kind. Lady. It. etc. 102. of. in little. latest. Latter. was uses me. 190." history etc. 189. 36. Lie. 113. lord. Kind. Kine. queen. 110.adverbs. plural. lie. a vs. 12.

syntax conjunction. 189. 110. Negative. 194. of. Many Mapping Mare. 102. imperative. 161. 188. superlatives. Enlargement. of. might. nigh. conjunctions Many. of. comparison Near. 328. 189. 160. Much. Master. 112. in adverbs comparison a. syntax nearer. 36. position adverb. of. double. Modifiers. 110. 135. Modifier. indicative. of. 114.. May. of. mistress. construction as of adverb. 187.Manner. 113. 34. 64. 325. sentences. out of. See definition 136. 112. 265. mine. -Most. 126. Mighty Mine. Must. Mood. 41. 256. 137. . Neither. 185. of. 112. 144. 137-144. adjective. of. 110. 326. etc. 287. Means. 195. subjunctive.

Nor. in. material. 41 43. letters as 24. 26. of. 301. No Nominative. parse. of. 246. 41. class used singular. 38-41. 45. 21. 30. of. definition according of. of. number once other plural. nouns. of. gender nouns. proper. 19. and figures. analysis. 18. 17 19. See 194. to of. 25. Not Noun Nouns. of. gender how kinds material. nouns. half abstract. of. 300. formed. become neuter. syntax in gender nouns. 328. 32. now plural.pronoun. 56. common. . 38. syntax Neuter or two News. 46. become become formation case collective. definition descriptive. foreign. None. 17. 92. 30. 27. 125. 25. 20. clause. kinds 90. 126. abstract. 17. 124. 41. to use. 258. 46. etc. 29. used as. 30. abstract. etc. of of of of of a. Case. words how compound. 42.

101. conjunction. 124. meanings.. 41. Nouns. of different possessive definite of. 281. 42. 242. as forms titles. passive adverbial. . dative. and analysis. 242. of. 42. verbs. form. 278. 148. meaning. indirect. 240. 41. indefinite. 23. preposition. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. English. plural. definite. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. See verb. 195. pronouns. 106. with case. become syntax use with with with Nouns. Preposition. adjectives. 48. with with with Now Number. of. 282. of. adjectives. article. 101. of. of. singular. common. in article. or plural. 66.of same two with proper. 121. spoken of instead nouns. nominative. in nouns. 41. personal. 285. See in in in Numeral distributive. pronouns. 279. singular. 60. 43. 39. 42 44. of. 102. 196. 92. 48. etc. plural form. 278. 48. plural no two singular construction. Numeral Object. 48. 48. adverbial. 18. 235.

of. Ourself. Omission On. 213. of. Each adjective. adverb. 64. Parsing. . of syntax. 117. 127. 199. 325 275. inverted. a in adjectives. position Order. treatment comparatives. 94. another. part analysis. articles. Ordinal Other Ought. 115. One. ours. 103. Older. definite relative uses of. Our. 237. 191. 91. pronoun. 103. 87. 116. See pronoun. 194. conjunctions. 69. 161. 93 other. conjunction. Oxen. 216. adjective. adverbs. 293. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 279. uses numeral pronoun. 41. as other. nouns. with (the). for. of of of of of models adjectives. 56. Pains. of upon. Elder. See the as of. 101. as of. of.syntax Of. 56. 306. 233. 38.

335. 247. pronouns. used as voice. 61. 173. Person. 70. verbals. of. pronoun. pronouns. of. -ing words. pennies. . absolute with of. verbs. verbs. reflexive. 287. 28. 100. speech. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 69. possessive and of. 62. Pence. in. 317. phrase. of. verb idioms it from. 172. 172. of. 180. 148. 43. 322.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. pease. of. 281. 56. or of. of. 95. 62. with. 63. 134. 219. 174. of. 59. 59. 59. 181. 56. 177. article 150. 119. and subject in. agreement of verb nouns. nominative. them. antecedent. predicate use of. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. included various. 179. 27. from definition other of. parsed. relatives. 43. 80. not is. phrases. 64. part adjective. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas.

236. spoken of. of Phrase. pronoun. of. complete. 's. 106. 245. appositional. Nouns. Personification. vs. in of. 50. Place. adverbs of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 53. omitted. 235. 281. noun nouns. 236. plural.objective syntax table triple uses of. 54. 188. nouns. Comparison. 206. or See of of See 185. 61. 247. nouns. 278. 60. 51. adjectives. simple. of. prepositional. nouns. 285. 247. conjunctions prepositions Plural. See 60. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. pronoun. it. as double. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 37. of. 303. relative. of nouns. 195. participial. of. 53. Positive Possessive. kinds infinitive. 248. of. 232. antecedent of of pronouns. 303. pronouns. 63. singular. 41. 49. 241. Personal subjective. 281. of. 67. of. 64. 52. 278. . of. English. 25. 245. double. singular degree. objects. syntax of of Politics.

105. plural. 303. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 219. 186. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. after but. another. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. in exclamations. same used as adjectives. 283. all. of. none. exclamatory. Prepositions. case. objective. meaning. 59. of.Prefixes. 104. 207. 187. possessive nominative to of. 93. and form form form form of. 333. 206. by with shown certain of. with tense certain. 202. speech. somebody definition how indefinite. 95. objective. 280. as 54. any. forms of. 58. usually to as than. 129. adjective. neither. 89. 203. case. 132. 302. 285. 283. interrogative. by parts of of. 58. by. 281. parse. interrogative. 208. 64. words. 287. future. plural. adverb. 195. 284. Pronouns. plural. 331. verbs. 279. . of. 72. 301. of. expressed as other of. for predicate nominative. 300. 300. of. singular usually other. each either. 282. who personal. 299. 32. parse. 205. of. as antecedent of relative. 105. and one with else's. 147. 332. what. 203. of. as.

. 263.possessive relative. conjunctions Quality. of. pronoun. 87. See of. 142. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. or of. Rank. and antecedent. in. 99. 296. 87. 85. which after same. with who. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 69. 293. use of history formed. Quotations. 188. and relatives. parse. of. 68. that. Nouns. 295. nouns. 74. in. 195. of. personal pronoun. and which. 289. unrestrictive. of. Quantity. questions. 105. 291. 58. who. 69. 293. 289. of. 85. with with gerund. pronominal pronouns indirect. of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 297. indirect. pronouns. of. 279. Direct same and different. adverbs in. 101. in. 74. from and interrogative. indirect compound. Rather. 84. Questions. 80. of. 286. to of. use in as. same antecedent. 74. discourse. 295. which. of. 189. agreement anacoluthon and as. 83.

29. See Sentences. 255. Simple in sate. 263. object. 'S. 40. Shot. 162. Shear. 195. of. Same Sat. of sit. conjunctions Retained Riches. Seeing. 231. 252. clauses of. of. simple of. of. in form. effect. forms shots. Sex Shall. gender. simple. elliptical. 74. 170. 259. suffix.syntax use Result. 159. 69. 319. plural possessive as. Self Sentences. 43. reflexive analysis of compound. conjunction. will. S. 26 271. would. that. 42. 196. pronoun. kinds Sequence Set. which. 289. ending. 231. tenses. definition . complex. in of. and should. 294. 242. of of of complex Sentences. 159. 51. who. of. sentence. 196.

. vs. 303. 245. 169. 138. of. 257. of. Modern use becoming else's. adverb. 144. verbs. Spelling Spinster. Split Spoken -Ster. 270. 257. definition how kinds noun. adverb. of. disuse in spoken complete. 32. these number. 303. Somebody Sort. logical. Subject. English. 38. 323. as. of. -es. 258.Singular Sir. 237. 36. English. of. 245. See -En. 12. 258. 258. 186. other Such Such Suffix -s. for. phonetic in infinitive. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. literary clause. English. 257. 240. English. 38. -en. 33. distinguish. used mood. 33. in Middle English. 233. etc. in feminine suffix. 144. sort. definition 67. to of. of. of. 262.. 137. 260. 257. 126. names as a.

147. 297. 152.. Kind. in double.. when as of. 307. coördinating. 222. There These kind. auxiliaries. 189. of. and and of. 319. of . in Modern number sequence table Than That. 88. 306. 108.. restrictive. this. which. me. 116. subject. form. 147. English. as adverbs. 106. of. 306. 275. 61. "the then foreign. 280. 289. 186. that uses That. as history The. Then. of." introductory. 147. 148. 119. 309. adjectives. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. syntax of. 87.Suffixes. two basis not same definition definite. See etc. of languages. 120. 33. definition in English Tense. 275. classical of. they. omission whom. 290. king. adverbs. objects. not suggesting adjectives. 109. as history syntax Their. of. object. 123. of. plural as adverb. of. when relative. 107. meaning made up in Old of. 277. English. Tenses. . than of. 106. 191. in comparison. degree. of. of. article. meaning. 186.

first. other noun. 33. 21. how infinitive. 172. 308. certain as the before with of. verbs. adverbs those. phrases. 128. Upper. preposition. Try Two Under. 188. of. tother. 195. 172. 180. uses history of. of. 185. gerund. See That. 173. from cleft to 174. 114. uses of. 119. . of. uttermost. first adjective. -ing 111. See On. Utter. infinitive. 330. Upon. Thou. 217. 175. of. 61. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 176. 20. used. 207. exclamations. to. in of. 323. in omitted uses T'other. 114. 114. 175. -Trix. 322. thee. analysis. Time. carelessly uses syntax this. 247. of. 248.These. feminine and. parse.. kinds participle. thy. try two. of. of. conjunctions prepositions To. 322. 175. 181. words. etc. infinitive. suffix.

319. past tense formed nominative. strong. table of. transitive and intransitive. What.Verbs. intransitive. 150. 179. active. remarks on certain. 47. 39. 154. definition of. of. weak. definition of. regular. of incomplete predication. passive. of. change. analysis. 147. 154. 245. verbs by. with subject in number. 160. tense of. 133. 159. 320. 131. 33. but uses what. person and number of. verbs. 133. syntax of. 242. 317. 129. conjugation of. 312. mood of. 134. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. becoming irregular. retained object with passive. agreement of. 157. 151. 169. in person. Vocative in Voice. 12. active meaning. how to parse. 330. 167. Vixen. voice of. auxiliary. defective. 167. formed by. in indirect discourse. 154. 148. sequence of. phonetic. 149. 236. 155. definition of. 169. 312-316. 130. of English. 135. passive form. made transitive. spelling of. . 148. table of irregular. 223.

spoken in of. animals. Witch. Yes ending analysis. uses See Shall. Words in Worse. 77. 75. 85. 85. direct of. 78. With. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 85. 72. 73. 72. relative indirect relative. Will. Who. 105. questions. 104. 79. Woman. in in indefinite objective. of.. 190.what Whereby. 299. 111. plural of in nouns -ing. Whether. Wife. pronoun. 296. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. referring syntax Widower. 295-299. 178. 32. relative. a. . wizard. questions. whereto. worser. conjunction. relative. 83. 246. pronoun. English. 36. 83. antecedent adjective. 75. questions. of. Y. in -ly. etc. 37. 40. 218. 126. questions. in. 72. interrogative Which. 194. 105. 36. would.

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