roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

with its enormous vocabulary. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). to those who have studied the language historically. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. however. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. "Analysis. A broader view. Authority as a basis. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition.The province of English grammar is. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). rightly considered. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. but this is bad English now. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. their forms. Few inflections. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. This will take in the usual divisions. if rightly presented. it will at the same time. as. assist the classification of kindred expressions. as compared with Latin or Greek. Mental training. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). An æsthetic benefit. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. its peculiar and abundant idioms. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. Surely our noble language. there is still much for the grammarian to do. is worthy of serious study. from the question." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. Literary English. and thus incite his observation. and their uses and relations in the sentence. then. If. . so that a small grammar will hold them all. Coming back. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. It is also evident." and "Syntax. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Making rules is risky." What grammar is. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. The work it will cover.

When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. by which is meant the free. Analysis of Sentences.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Occasionally. from the eighteenth century on. the nation is free. not objects. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. which belongs to a people. and will are evidently names of a different kind. that is. Such words are called nouns. The plainest name is Arabs. or Syntax. as they stand for ideas.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. The following pages will cover. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. or standard. NOUNS. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. PART I. and Inflections. Part III. too. then. reference will be made to vulgar English. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. submission. and may belong to any of those objects. and the word nation stands for a whole group. In the more simple state of the Arabs.²GIBBON. The Parts of Speech. Spoken English. but. The Uses of Words. The words state. . because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. three divisions:² Part I. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. Vulgar English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. besides this one. Part II. the words sons and master name objects. 1.

Common. 2. Individual. For instance. (a) 4. Collective. Thus. etc. as here used. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. or a council. (b) Common. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Abstract. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. men in groups may be called a crowd. or things. Classes of nouns. or thing. whether person. We may say. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. ATTRIBUTE. and things separately. Name for a group or collection of objects. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. representing directly to the mind an object. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. This does not imply. or a mob. substance. or idea. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. the man here. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. 3. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. reducing it to a narrow application. is from a Latin word which means general. They properly belong under common nouns. animals.Definition. but Chicago names one city. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Proper. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. possessed by all. or a congress. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. a committee. 5. belonging to one. however. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. MATERIAL. . Name for any individual of a class. because each group is considered as a unit. and appropriate names to the groups. Besides considering persons. or the man in front of you. Thus. animals. A noun is a name word. we may think of them in groups. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. place.

wheat. etc. granite. iron. etc. etc. or action. snow. Words naturally of limited application not proper. etc. paint. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. etc. soap. but which are not called proper names. Names of ideas. cloud. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. not things. rubber. potash. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. earth. or actions. conditions. proof means the act of proving. "Painting is a fine art. wheat. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. there is no such intention. etc. but in the words sun. rain. or apart from their natural connection. earth. (3) Geological bodies: mud. 7." "a man of understanding. condition. but it is taken merely as a name. mist. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. stone. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. wine. frost. clay." 9. dew. They remain common class names. sand. we may say. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth.. (2) VERBAL NOUNS." "Learning is hard to acquire. however. Again. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. NOTE. moon. etc. celluloid.²There are some nouns. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. . instead of to each individual or separate object. gold. frost. considered abstractly. platinum. 6. such as sun. Such are glass. sugar. rock. we speak of the wisdom of the man. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. world. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. etc. expressing state. When we speak of a wise man. rice. or that which shows a thing has been proved. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. sugar. The quality is still there as much as before. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth).Names for things thought of in mass. The reason is. and fasten a special name to the object considered. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. expressing attributes or qualities. tea. It may. . and so on. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. as in calling a city Cincinnati.

those opinions and feelings. Verbal abstract nouns. stupidity from stupid. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. They are only the husks of verbs. as in the expressions. the main bearings of this matter.. lightning. summer. the rude drawings of the book. redness from red. 1. the moon caused fearful forebodings. 272. Thus. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. there is time for such reasonings.Attribute abstract nouns. but are merely names of actions. winter. as their name implies. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. The verb. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. by altering its function. height from high. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. They cannot govern a word. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. Such are beauty. he spread his blessings over the land. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. Exercises. (2) peerage from peer. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. ease. mastery from master. joy. in the beginning of his life. night. kingship from king. . five abstract. service from serve. 12. five proper. (1) prudence from prudent. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. To avoid difficulty. shadow. NOTE. etc. etc. childhood from child. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. 10. the well-being of her subjects. energy. Underived abstract nouns. hopeful²hope. etc. a wedding or a festival. her longing for their favor. etc. "a long run" "a bold move. thunder. II. speech from speak. hope. day. theft from thieve. 273)." "a brisk walk. and they cannot express action. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. action from act. is used as a noun." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. the great Puritan awakening. Caution. as glad²joy. the teachings of the High Spirit.

pleurisy. Using a dictionary. typhus. diphtheria. algebra. as pneumonia.2. (b) branches of knowledge. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. catarrh. as physics. geology. mathematics? 3.

from Calicut. a Lavoisier. 14. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. or to go over to it entirely. who was its inventor. Sodom was famous for wickedness. We know a number of objects made of iron. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Nouns change by use. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. a Locke. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. but most of them are in the following groups. etc. from Oporto. from a town in France. above. a Fourier." referring to flat- . levant and morocco (leather). and lo! a new system. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. Proper names transferred to common use. Guillotin. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. 119).y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. the guillotine. 13. "The cook made the irons hot. damask. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. from the name of Dr. for example. arras.²EMERSON. port (wine). 15. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. it imposes its classification on other men. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. from Damascus. Others of similar character are calico. from Corinth. in Portugal. a Bentham. as a davy. a Hutton. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. currants. from China. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. thus. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. the word port. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. but we may say. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Material nouns may be used as class names.

Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. tobaccos. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Next Anger rushed. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Personification of abstract ideas. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. nor are they common class nouns. For example. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. 17. mists. etc. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. This is a poetic usage. which are made plural. paints. but in case an art or a science.²PERCIVAL. These are the same in material. or used as class nouns. papers. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. smiled. Traffic has lain down to rest. that the power of art is founded on fact. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. or the arts and sciences. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. that is. When it is said that art differs from science. and say teas. a rubber for erasing marks.²RUSKIN. tins. a steel to whet a knife on. on fire. that disposition is the thing to be created. clays. candies. are still names of abstract ideas. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. (3) By poetical use. Test this in the following sentences:² . the abstract idea is partly lost. slates. purity. but differ in strength. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. A halfway class of words. oils. clouds.²BYRON. 16. as stones. They are not then pure abstract nouns. From all around²Earth and her waters. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. and only Vice and Misery. are abroad. The words preceded by the article a. coals. though not confined to verse. or made plural. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract.²BRYANT. to prowl or to moan like night birds. not material things. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. of certain words necessarily singular in idea.²COLLINS.In lightnings owned his secret stings. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. Death.²CARLYLE. be spoken of. etc. Class nouns in use. but on dispositions which require to be created.²HAYNE. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. abstract in meaning.irons. or. his eyes. and so on.

Conjunctions.²SHAKESPEARE. Then comes the "Why." "the State Bank Tax bill. When I was young? Ah. But it is better to consider them as nouns. were mere terrors of the night. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. nouns used to modify. however.²EMERSON.² GOLDSMITH.Let us. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. as descriptive adjectives are. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. which belongs to another word. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. they cannot be compared. etc. And still. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. the wealthy. The noun may borrow from any part of speech." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. or describe it. 18.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. or from any expression. Adjectives. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.²BURNS. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. make our own so. They are more like the possessive noun. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. they do not express quality. By ellipses. if we must have great actions. for example.²SHAKESPEARE. Every why hath a wherefore. sir?" and the "No.The Solitary can despise. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. but is still a noun. a bank in New York." "a morning walk. sir!" and the "What then. loves." "a New York bank. "a family quarrel. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. 19. But ah! those pleasures. sir!"²MACAULAY . and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. a bill as to tax on the banks. NOTE. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. as each repeated pleasure tired. Adverbs. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. fear thy blow.²IRVING. Nouns used as descriptive terms. meaning a walk in the morning." which contains a pure adjective.² BURNS. All these.

to such words as become pure nouns by use. are used. without reference to its function in the sentence. etc. 8. or a state secret.Nor iron bars a cage. When. The it. 5. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. is ambiguous. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. whether it mean the sun or the cold.. in speaking of the principal of a school. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. and tell to which class each belongs. the wealthy. of words rather than of their meaning. Power laid his rod aside. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. and Then. Now. There are many of these." or "legal." and another of Dr. at the beginning. in a sentence above. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. It is to be remembered. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. Caution.²These remarks do not apply. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. 3. are spoken of as if pure nouns. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. so. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. In the other sentences.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. of course. . why and wherefore. 4. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage."²B. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. however. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. but as a figure of speech. 7. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. Exercise. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. is the word "just. but have an adjectival meaning. the terms the great. or a faithful domestic.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. too." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. that cobweb of the brain. FRANKLIN. Stone walls do not a prison make. When. 6. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. NOTE. 1. 2. Learning. or a criminal. 20.

returned to Spain. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. in English grammar. There are exceptions even to this general statement. A fool speaks all his mind. 17. for every dropHinders needle and thread. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. The hours glide by.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 11. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. always feminine. And see. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. always masculine. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter.Fair guests. but not so in English. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. Male beings are. In Latin. 20. The fleet. 13. GENDER. . 12. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. Greek.You seize the flower. the welcome. he cried. 21. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. German. female. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 14. its bloom is shed. It is founded on sex.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. What gender means in English. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 10. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.9. the silver moon is gone. that waits you here. 23. 18. A little weeping would ease my heart. 16. 19. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 15. and many other languages. 24. shattered and disabled. 21. and names of females are usually feminine. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 22. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands.

He next stooped down to feel the pig. No "common gender. must be divided into two principal classes. those which do not distinguish sex. those with which man comes in contact often. if there were any signs of life in it. in English. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders.²LAMB. in other languages gender follows the form. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. but are spoken of as neuter. 24. 23.. the word child is neuter in the sentence. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals.²masculine and feminine.² IRVING. that is. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. clapping his burnished wings... corpus (body) is neuter. hortus (garden) is masculine. or which arouse his interest most. however. according to use. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. Of animals. that pattern of a husband." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. then. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. came to a stand just by the bridge. Neuter nouns. For instance: in Latin. those distinguishing the sex of the object. . Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. das Messer (knife) is neuter. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. mensa (table) is feminine. or names of things without life. All nouns.. 22.. "A little child shall lead them. and neuter nouns. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. are named by gender nouns. the name of it is masculine.²gender nouns. with its gizzard under its wing. Gender nouns. if of the female sex. Thus. inanimate things are spoken of. Gunpowder . Hence: Definition. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID.. der Tisch (table) is masculine. in German. according to their use.When. the sex being of no consequence.²IRVING. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. The great difference is. or additions to words. and consequently without sex. the name of it is feminine." .² I have seenA curious child .

but spinster has now no connection with it. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. teacher. (2) By adding a suffix. Put in convenient form. The inflections for gender belong. According to the definition. I. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Male nouns beings. Gender shown by Suffixes. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. If such words as parent. For fox they said vox. is. of course. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. though both words have lost their original meanings. . he-bear²she-bear. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. 27. woman. relative. One feminine. These remain in vixen and spinster. the division of words according to sex. generally to a masculine word. or the lack of it. for from they said vram. only to masculine and feminine nouns. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. 29. etc. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Hence vixen is for fyxen. Very few of class I.25. Native suffixes.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. they are neuter words. ruler. II. 26. as he-goat²she-goat. puts a prefix before the masculine man.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. as in wine vat. from the masculine fox. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. domestic. and for the older word fat they said vat. (3) By using a different word for each gender.. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Gender shown by Prefixes. servant. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. cousin. 28. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things.

señorita. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. -ess (French esse. These are attached to foreign words. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Unaltered and little used. the one most used. Low Latin issa). 30. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. executrix. but in most cases it has not.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. and are never used for words recognized as English. as. as. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. donna. trickster. as seam-stress.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. song-str-ess. Slightly changed and widely used. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. punster. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Ending of masculine not changed. it has none now in the words huckster. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. gamester. as czarina.

fosteress. we use the feminine. the ending -ess. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. as was said in the sixteenth century. Some of them have an interesting history. we use the masculine termination. etc. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. as. as in the fourteenth century.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. from the French -esse. In some of these pairs. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. NOTE. neighbor (masculine and feminine). teacher or lady teacher. others have in their origin the same root. Gender shown by Different Words. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. We frequently use such words as author. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. to represent persons of either sex. wagoness.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. frendesse. teacheresse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. 31. Ending -ess less used now than formerly." III. from Latin imperatricem. chairman. as. neighboresse. editor. 32. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. Thus. or servauntesse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Instead of saying doctress.

Husband and wife are not connected in origin. for example. but this has long been obsolete. Besides gander and drake. Widower. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Witch is the Old English wicce. or lauerd in Middle English. gand-ra. lhauerd. 16). but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. 33. became identical. written loverd.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. among others) to be from the same root word. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Icelandic gás. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century.² . in Old English mere. The older forms. Personification. finally gander. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). not immediately connected with witch.). widuwa²widuwe. Two masculines from feminines. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). had the masculine mearh (horse). It is not connected historically with our word duck. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. as in many other words. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Madam is the French ma dame. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). leaving our word drake. Danish gaas. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). etc. Three letters of ened have fallen away. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. from Latin mea domina. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). though both are ultimately from the same root. probably meaning house dweller). 34. the old sign of the masculine. Mare. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word.

²KEATS. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. (2) By changing the root vowel. and not by the form of the noun. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. 35. . number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. 39. (3) By adding -s (or -es). Definition. etc. the engineer speaks so of his engine. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. This inflection remains only in the word oxen.²COLERIDGE. I.No towers along the steep. the plural. 37. This is not exclusively a poetic use. together with the third. But other words were inflected afterwards. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. Britannia needs no bulwarks.²CAMPBELL. The first two methods prevailed. In nouns."²BYRON.Clustered around by all her starry Fays.Her home is on the deep. Our language has two numbers.²singular and plural. eyen (eyes). in Old English. 36. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. 38. treen (trees). The -en inflection. that is. NUMBER. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. whenever we adopt a new word."Now. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. for instance. Effect of personification. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. shoon (shoes). more than one. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.

lens. The old plural was brothru. but has now no singular. dozen. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. turf. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. . as. II. etc. Children has passed through the same history. cannon. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. and get settled. 42. Other words following the same usage are. people. pair. Lee marched over the mountain wall. such as deer. when they mean soldiery. 41. 40. head. originally neuter. by. glass.² The foot are fourscore thousand. III. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. sheep.²MACAULAY. The words horse and foot."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. finally brethren. as. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. retain the same form for plural meaning. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. into Frederick town. quartz. Instead of -s. Kine is another double plural. after numerals (if not after numerals.²WHITTIER. ditch.-En inflection imitated by other words. brace. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Akin to this class are some words. cross.²Over the mountains winding down. etc. Examples of this inflection are.²THOREAU. then brothre or brethre. salmon. wight. after all. but they now add the ending -s. folk.The horse are thousands ten. they add -s): also trout.² "God bless me! so then.Horse and foot. sail. and is still found in dialects. heathen. Such are box. that have the singular and plural alike. swine. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. Brethren has passed through three stages. etc. or if preceded by the prepositions in.

and some -es. however. 43. It served simply as a means of sight. Examples of these are. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. Some words are usually singular.g.²CENTURY DICTIONARY.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. etc. also news.. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . allies. chaise²chaises. optics. e. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. DANA. molasses. the Washingtons. is both the science and the art of government. and the real ending is therefore -s. hero²heroes. 44. shelf²shelves. pains (care). etc. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). niche²niches.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. economics. The lilie on hir stalke grene. though they are plural in form. etc. in its widest extent.²BRYANT. quoth then that ladie milde. politics. Means plural. daisies.²PROF. they lose their identity. summons. knife²knives. 45. e. Words in -ies. means and politics. fairies. some adding -s. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. that when thy summons comes. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. physics. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. Proper nouns are regularly singular. though this sound combines readily with -s. these words ended in -ie.. Formerly. When such words take a plural ending.g. negro²negroes.² Politics. etc. So live. mathematics. the Americas. race²races. Two words. and go over to other classes (Secs. Special Lists. and many branches of learning.-Es added in certain cases. half²halves. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. prize²prizes. volcano² volcanoes. as. 15 and 17). means: as. house²houses. a new syllable is made. fancies.

Besides this. if I recollect right. W. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²IRVING. CURTIS.²MOTLEY. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²GOLDSMITH.² MACAULAY.²BURKE. by those means which we have already mentioned. Now I read all the politics that come out. LAUGHLIN. by strongly conveying the passions. By these means. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. however. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. I say. L. Sometimes.²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH.Words. Politics plural.²G. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. riches will accumulate. it is furnished with a forceps. he pronounced to have been a tongs. A relic which. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. .²J. Some words have no corresponding singular. 46.

of a periodical. Three words were originally singular. the other unlike it. In speaking of coins. 49. faculties. number²numbers: (1) figures. (2) care. One plural. (2) literature.²POPE. indices (signs in algebra).The air. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. (2) abilities. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.²one corresponding to the singular. twopence. (2) poetry. fish²fish (collectively). sixpence. These make the last part plural. shots (number of times fired). trouble. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. In Early Modern English thank is found. as two sixpences. die²dies (stamps for coins. 48. two meanings. genius²geniuses (men of genius). genii (spirits). two plurals. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. carry off chaff. eaves. (2) revenue duties.² I lisped in numbers. pence (collectively). Two classes of compound words. fishes (individuals or kinds). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. DANA. pease (collectively). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. as in the lines.). or copies. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. ways. penny²pennies (separately). or work in a bellows?²PROF. shot²shot (collective balls). etc. pea²peas (separately). etc. brethren (of a society or church).. . part²parts: (1) divisions. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. or epistles. Tell me not. clothes (garments). riches. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). dice (for gaming).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill.²was it subdued when. making a double plural.²LONGFELLOW. index²indexes (to books). 50. for the numbers came. in mournful numbers.. Numbers also means issues. may add -s..

As to plurals of names with titles. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. German. 52. firman. Mussulman. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. the Drs. Brahman. Ottoman. HOLMES. Allen. as man singer. The chief member adds -s in the plural. then Silas Peckham. Brown. The title may be plural. there is some disagreement among English writers. woman singer.²DR. .y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. such as talisman. but add -s. and Mrs. and then the three Miss Spinneys. for example. woman servant. the Misses Rich. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. though the latter is often found. as the Messrs. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.² Then came Mr. Two methods in use for names with titles. manservant. Briggs. or the name may be pluralized. Norman. 51.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.

Domesticated words. These are said to be domesticated. FROM THE GREEK.²THE CRITIC. or Anglicized. The Messrs. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Others have been adopted.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Exercise. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Du Maurier. or Englished. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²DICKENS.²GOLDSMITH. They are then said to be naturalized. FROM THE LATIN. 53. and retain their foreign plurals. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. y y analysis antithesis .²GIBBON.

as. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Only two case forms. figures. In the sentence. 55. In the general wearing-away of inflections. without reference to their meaning. and expresses a relation akin to possession.. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. they form their plurals in the regular way. Words quoted merely as words. as. cell has another relation. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced." the word felon's modifies cell. etc. Letters. also add -s or 's.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. etc. Definition." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). helping to express the idea of place with the word in. . "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s).y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)." CASE. 56. 54.

when asked unawares. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. 1. 3. 58. .²one for the nominative and objective. 2. may be said to have three cases. completing a verb. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 4. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. three things characterize man. and the possessive. the enemy of the living. 57. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. I." (2) As a predicate noun. fate." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.²person. and experience. Uses of the Nominative.²nature. and merit.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. the objective. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. then." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Excuses are clothes which. Human experience is the great test of truth. Three properties belong to wisdom. excessive grief. must be understood for purposes of analysis.²the nominative. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. whether inflected or not. 5. they returned to their homes. Nouns. learning.

and meaning calmest. and landlord of the inn. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. as will be seen in Sec. 8. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. Conscience." "Thou makest the storm a calm. how have I frighted thee? II. wounded lies. and tell which use each has:² 1.Save. taking the object enemies. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. distance." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. thy wrath can send. taking the object storm. 2. (in the older stages of the language. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Uses of the Objective. But the flood came howling one day. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. oh save me from the candid friend! 7." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. they are sands of precious gold. (5) As the object of a preposition. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. reconciles.6. good Heaven. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. etc. 4. completing the verb. 59. save. measure. But of all plagues. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 9. sword in hand and visor down." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. . and makest a calm. and being equivalent to one verb." (4) As the second object. a patriarch of the village. Set a high price on your leisure moments. They charged." Exercise. 3. 68. her first law broken. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. the word toward which the preposition points." (3) Adverbially.

Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. III. 60.His winter task a pastime made.5. tempests that . Uses of the Possessive. the most common of all. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.And gave the leper to eat and drink. 7.² The unwearied sun. Possession in some sense is the most common. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. as. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.²SHELLEY. as shown in the sentences.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. the Great Stone Face. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. or in writing yesterday's elegy. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.²BYRON. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. expressed or understood. The noblest mind the best contentment has. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. 6. It is a poetic expression..²ADDISON. (3) Subjective possessive.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. (2) Objective possessive. The possessive case always modifies another word. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.²HAWTHORNE.e.Does his Creator's power display. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. 10. And whirling plate. 9. 61. from day to day. as in these expressions. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. and forfeits paid. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 8.

. however. . Poss. 62. How the possessive is formed. As said before (Sec. 63. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. A suggestion. Nom. One is the simple form of a word. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. lady Poss. The use of the apostrophe." etc. Declension or inflection of nouns. growth which several days had developed). Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. 62. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. making the possessive singular. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR." "at his beddes syde. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2." "mannes herte [heart]. 56). as schoolboys sometimes write. "From every schires ende. 1. To form the possessive plural. there are only two case forms. Case Inflection.e.." Use of the apostrophe. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. 64.e. "George Jones his book.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. the panther which the forest hides). "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. A false theory. and Obj." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. in Chaucer. PLURAL. and Obj. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). Nom. child NOTE. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form.winter is likely to have).

" "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. my neighbors. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that." Possessive with compound expressions. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. James's. stands up for God's truth one man. 67. a word with a phrase. In compound expressions. church.²SWIFT. instead of the emperor their master's name. but to the ear all may be alike.²HOLMES. etc. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience."²DE QUINCEY. containing words in apposition. know the amount of my income. the items of my son's. . some such word as house. Captain Scrapegrace's. Cervantes' satirical work. dwelling.²THACKERAY. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Peter's.²DE QUINCEY.. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. Kate saw that. as. in the name of the emperor their master. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. 65.²RUSKIN.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. and she walked off from the don's. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. 66." "A postscript is added.Though this opinion was untrue. etc. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. as by the countess's command.. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. for goodness' sake. I remember him in his cradle at St. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. and from a desire to have distinct forms. the possessive sign is usually last.²CARLYLE. Possessive and no noun limited. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. being understood with it: for example. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.² LOWELL. as. store. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.

or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.The double possessive. ill-lighted except where she stands. Both of these are now used side by side.²E. In most cases. Emphasis. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. (3) It prevents ambiguity. sometimes they are used together. this. that.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. Exercises. A peculiar form. the statement clearly means only one thing. For example. especially when used with this or that. or subjective. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. 68. however. objective. a double possessive. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²the introduction which Atterbury made. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. each. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. (1) When a word is modified by a. making a double possessive. every.²CARLYLE. and at the same time by a possessive noun. as one modifier. Blair). (b) Rewrite the sentence.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. 2. 87. E. the. any. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. (See also Sec. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. we use the phrase of Atterbury. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . and tell whether each is appositional. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. Clearness. in such a sentence as. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. If. the sentence might be understood as just explained.²FROUDE. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. HALE. 1. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. corresponding to 's. no. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. etc.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us.

'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. Nature herself. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. therefore. At lovers' perjuries. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies.A weary waste expanding to the skies. day's harbinger. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 7. 9. some idioms²the double possessive. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 15. Jove laughs. and destroy the other. 11. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it.3. Hence. 12. Friend. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 69. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. in parsing a noun. 8. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience.² . 5.They say. with every garland crowned. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 6. 10. 14.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 70. In parsing. 4. Now the bright morning star.Comes dancing from the East. I must not see thee Osman's bride. There Shakespeare's self. we state. it seemed. 13. let him seasonably water the one.

object of the verb takes. 3. the connection shows a male is meant. and limits neckcloth. it expresses time. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. a withered serving man. therefore singular number. That in the captain's but a choleric word. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. . Throat is neuter. Thief is a common class noun.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. like miller's. Neckcloth. The correct method. a fresh tapster. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. 2. singular number. 68). and therefore nominative case. it is the object of the preposition by. therefore neuter. therefore possessive case. etc. therefore singular number. is a common class noun. masculine. Exercise. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. names one thing. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. hence it is a common noun. if the latter. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. In parsing any word. and to have it found out by accident. 4. as to case. and number. inflections. hence objective case. therefore masculine gender. 71.(1) The class to which it belongs. it has no sex. hence it is a gender noun. it is the name of a male being. hence it is objective case. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. MODEL FOR PARSING. which gender. proper.²common. and relations. (3) Whether singular or plural number. it expresses possession or ownership. it denotes only one person. determining its case. but is the adverbial objective. NOTE. (4) Its office in the sentence. has no governing word. gender. subject of the verb is understood.

or for a person or thing.. 7. and his daughter. He giveth his beloved sleep. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. blessings light on him that first invented .²palace.." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Necker." Again. . standing for a name. Mrs. (2) Interrogative pronouns. 72. financial minister to Louis XVI.And hated her for her pride. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. 76). but by a question we say. all in one. A few miles from this point. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. 73. from a necessity for short. or for a group of persons or things. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. 8. definite. 10. Now. Classes of pronouns. sleep! 6. castle. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. were natives of Geneva. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. PRONOUNS. Jarley's back being towards him. Definition. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. The need of pronouns. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. and representative words. instead of saying.. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. Madame de Staël. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. A pronoun is a reference word. and prison. the military gentleman shook his forefinger.5. where the Rhone enters the lake. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. 9. Time makes the worst enemies friends. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. For instance. 11.

Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Three persons of pronouns. which cannot be used as adjectives. words. that is. Singular. the person or thing spoken to.(3) Relative pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (2) Second person. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. This gives rise to a new term. (5) Indefinite pronouns. ours . 75. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking.. representing a person or thing spoken to. and the person or thing talked about. we our. my Plural. (4) Adjective pronouns. representing the person speaking. I Poss. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. Person in grammar. pronoun. 76. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. which relate or refer to a noun. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. which have forms for person. 74. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. 77. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. (3) Third person. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of." Person of nouns. Nom. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. "the distinction of person. they must represent the person talking. they are said to have person by agreement. primarily adjectives. mine. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. From analogy to pronouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. even if it had a special form. as nouns have the same form. or other word or expression.

you your. thou thee ye you you your. in the singular. Poss.Obj. Old forms. masculine h . yours you Plural. . they their. namely. Obj. thine. theirs them Neut. Nom. Masc. or. yours Poss. First and second persons without gender. by personification. neuter. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. feminine h o. hers her Plur. Old Form Common Form. he his him Fem. Nom. Third person singular has gender. of all Three. thy Remarks on These Forms. yours you THIRD PERSON. Obj. Obj. Poss. SECOND PERSON.. she her. your. Obj. it its it Poss. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Singular. me us Singular. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. neuter hit. a separate form for each gender. Nom. The speaker may be either male or female. Nom. and also for the neuter. 78. But the third person has.

There are.²SHELLEY. them. Second person always plural in ordinary English.²BEECHER. even when referring to a single object. the forms they. especially in poetry. The form its. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. in Old English. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The plurals were h . as. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. In spoken English. which was often sounded with the h silent. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). 82. Thou. (2) In addressing the Deity. etc. etc.² Oh. etc. for example. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. thou Shepherd of Israel..:² (1) In elevated style. and sometimes its. it. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. 79. just as we now say. to thy care we commit the helpless. heora. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). heom. which is a neuter noun. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children.. thee. two modern uses of thou. . this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. that didst comfort thy people of old.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. 80. however.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee." As shown above. 81. Two uses of the old singulars. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. The consequence is. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. their.Thou lovest. We use it with a plural verb always.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. as in prayers. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. thy. This is of comparatively recent growth. as possessive of it.

his. 'tis his. her. Yet careful speakers avoid this. me. 58). 83. thy. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. 84. Old use of mine and thine. or. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. yours. ²SHAKESPEARE. in such a sentence as. Nominative forms.²COWPER. and follow the usage of literary English. . to personify objects (Sec. we. its. sometimes his and its. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. though those named in Sec.²LANDOR. she. 85. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. The forms my. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. The forms mine. our. when they occur in the predicate position." the literary language would require he after was. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. they have a nominative form. and sometimes in ordinary speech. Absolute personal pronouns. him. them. ye. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. And since thou own'st that praise. though ye is occasionally used as objective. however.Use of the pronouns in personification. I The Nominative. they. thine. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. That is. 34). note the following:² 'Twas mine. 86.²BULWER. hers. Not a separate class. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. besides a nominative use. and not make more classes. "I am sure it was him. II. The Possessive. their. The words I. us. he. for. some say. them. us. I spare thee mine. him. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. her. In spoken English. Additional nominatives in spoken English. theirs. your. thou. have a peculiar use. and has been slave to thousands. 84 are always subjects. her.

(4) To make a noun less limited in application. his. T. If thine eye offend thee. "Hold thy peace. we find.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. or satire. it tells of good old times. thus. theirs. but few thy voice. for example. thus. ²HOLMES.²ID.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. 87.²CARLYLE. FIELDS. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.²THACKERAY. Their uses. This ancient silver bowl of mine. F.² CARLYLE.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. in that old Edinburgh house of his. yours. pluck it out. (3) To express contempt." said Henry Woodstall. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. and with mine. are really double possessives. ours. anger. Besides this. theirs. yours. .² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.²SWIFT. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee.²ID. (2) To bring emphasis. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. COOPER. thine. sometimes its. Give every man thine ear. Long Allen. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. hers. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. as in nouns."²SCOTT. The forms hers. commenting upon a letter of mine. Like the noun possessives.²J. ours.²BIBLE. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.²THACKERAY.²J. Double and triple possessives. we have. This usage is still preserved in poetry. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.

and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. Besides this use of the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form.²ID. But the first two have a nominative use. was marked by a separate case.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. as shown in Sec. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it." "None but the brave deserves the fair.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. In their function.²BIBLE. the thing is done. 90. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. or use in a sentence." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. The Objective. mine stands for my praise in the second. ." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. his for his property. in the first sentence. 89. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. In such sentences as. but the form is the same as the objective. Both joined in making him a present. 20. "The good alone are great. for whose benefit. but expresses for whom. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. this dative use. In pronouns. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. The old dative case. III. They all handled it. 86: mine stands for my property. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. but nominative or objective in use. 88. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. Now the objective. but not in form. Curse me this people. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. and mine in the second has an objective use. as it is called.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns.

"any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.² . and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. which follows the verb. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it." (3) As a grammatical subject. The word you. as in the sentences. Indefinite use of you and your.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. Your mere puny stripling. or that he has not a great deal more. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²DE QUINCEY. in this century. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. Society.²BULWER. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. and they cry. ²EMERSON.²BACON. why.Time is behind them and before them. logical subject. as. was passed by with indulgence. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. as.²ADDISON. It is a pity that he has so much learning.²IRVING To empty here. like Chinese skill. 92.² NEWMAN. to stand for the real. WEBSTER. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. you must condense there. 91.²CARLYLE.²EMERSON. thus.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.²D. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. (3) In apposition. has not made its progress. you sneeze. or to the idea.

²EMERSON. keeps a school. when they are direct objects. Of the two forms in parentheses.²SCOTT. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. used in poetry. peddles it. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. And millions in those solitudes. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²HOLMES.²ANON..²BURNS. herself. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. And when I awoke.²HAWTHORNE. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. They are myself.²THOREAU.² Now I lay me down to sleep. yourselves. (ourself)." "He bought him a horse." etc. but seldom in prose. I made up my mind to foot it. For when it dawned."²IRVING. A sturdy lad . There was nothing for it but to return. it rained. ourselves. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²DE QUINCEY. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. I set me down and sigh. the second is the old form of the second person. Poor Christian was hard put to it. For example. himself. themselves. have laid them downIn their last sleep. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.. 94. (thyself).²ID. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. . (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. It was late and after midnight. we use such expressions as. they dropped their arms. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. as they are also called. -selves.²BUNYAN. This occurs in poetry. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²BRYANT. as.²IRVING. who teams it. however." and there is an end of it. "I found me a good book. who in turn tries all the professions.²COLERIDGE. farms it. itself. yourself. since firstThe flight of years began.It is finger-cold. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. and its plural selves. that is. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. 93.

and build the lofty rhyme. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. were changed into the possessive myself. especially in the speech of rulers. and the others were formed by analogy with these. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. etc. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. theself. Held dead within them till myself shall die. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. 95.²EMERSON. As if it were thyself that's here. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.²SHAKESPEARE. Threats to all. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.²E. thyself. as. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun..² The great globe itself . for example.²MILTON. B. shall dissolve.. to every one. NOTE. I shrink with pain.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. not the possessive forms. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. with self. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. BROWNING.² TENNYSON. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. In Middle English the forms meself.To you yourself.² . to us. 96.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. Origin of these reflexives. ourselves. as. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. The question might arise. as in vulgar English.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. after the analogy of myself.²ID.As girls were once.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.²WORDSWORTH. Use of the reflexives. as we ourself have been.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. for example.

why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. some each of masculine. To know what is best to do. Infancy conforms to nobody. 10. where the word is one with that it tells of. 6. but it is the soonest spoiled. which. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 97. 9. One obsolete. Come and trip it as we go. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. fight it out. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. and neuter. feminine. FRANKLIN. Three now in use. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Years ago. is wisdom. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 3. 4. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. some of them being double possessives. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. .²B.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. and how to do it. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.On the light fantastic toe. all conform to it. let him lowly confess it. And it grew wondrous cold. Courage. 5.² THACKERAY. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. and what. father. 7. 2. 8.²DE QUINCEY.

What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. that it is always singular and neuter. The use of who. it is selective. whether. Use of which. Use of who and its forms. used formerly to mean which of two. Whose was that gentle voice. which is not inflected for gender. methought. etc. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. ideas. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. it is always third person. Use of what. As shown here. actions. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. These show that what is not inflected for case. referring to things. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. whispering sweet. number. the gold. 99.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. having three forms. 98. 100. as it always asks about somebody. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. that is. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. with its possessive and objective. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. but for case alone. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. or case. it refers to either persons or things. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. not to persons. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. but now obsolete.There is an old word. Which of you. What wouldst thou do.. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. that. shall we say. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. .Promised.

which is nominative in the first sentence. objective in the last." Or. which is called the antecedent of the relative. 104. For instance. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. in Sec. These bards sang of Border chivalry. as they take the place usually of a word already used. 102. The antecedent. "The last of all the Bards was he. 127). whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English." In the latter sentence. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Who. as. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives.101. whose? Obj. pronoun. or other word or expression.Who sung of Border chivalry. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. SING. being the direct object of the verb shall take. Function of the relative pronoun. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. what may be an adverb in some expressions. Further treatment of who. SINGULAR Nom.²by the use of the words. Thus we may say. for which the pronoun stands.² . 105. AND PLUR. AND PLUR. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. who? Poss. it may be shortened into. 99. who evidently refers to Bards.² "The last of all the Bards was he. and what are also relative pronouns. which and what. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which. who is used as objective instead of whom. subject of doth love. 103. and so to make smoother discourse. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. since it is subject of the verb had. as. which and what are sometimes adjectives. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. and also in having a conjunctive use. nominative in the second also. It usually precedes the pronoun.

107. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 5. 6. a thousand years. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. The origin of language is divine. 4. which. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.²THACKERAY. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. Who and its forms. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.²W. The nurse came to us.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. both his and who have the antecedent priest. They had not their own luster. 3.²BYRON. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.Whose flag has braved. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. Generally speaking.²PARTON Which and its forms. 2.²LOWELL In this.. that. 2.That guard our native seas. The men whom men respect. D. a simple relative is meant. in the same sense in which man's nature. 4.. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. are the men and women who bless their species. 108. 106. Ye mariners of England.²MILTON. Indefinite relatives. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. Two kinds.²DR JOHNSON. but the look which is not of the earth.²SCOTT.. with all its capabilities . WHITNEY. is a divine creation.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. When the word relative is used. will be discussed further on.² COX. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. For her enchanting son. what.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. . the women whom women approve.Whom universal nature did lament. 3. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.

Is fit for treasons.²EMERSON. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²GOLDSMITH. The man that hath no music in himself. stratagems..²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²H.²DE QUINCEY. The Tree Igdrasil. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²IRVING. BEECHER 5. Who. ought to be kept in view. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. 3. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.5. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.. no bad type of what often happens in that country. 110... and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. 6. 4.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. 111. Reader. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. you will not be angry with me for telling you. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.. (a) This gradation . the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. What. 107. which it certainly is not. bought up all the pigs that could be had. else this description will seem exaggerated. Already done is all that he would do..²MARGARET FULLER. W. and spoils. That. For what he sought below is passed above. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. Examples of the relative that:² 1. The judge . 2. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.²BURKE. 109.²LAMB 3.

whose wound I had dressed. Scott. in 5. Sec. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. 107. 113. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. they are plural. Examples of whose.. (2) It has three case forms. whom. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. and so on. (3) It is nearly always third person. whose for the possessive. It has been seen (Sec. Smollett.whose. Which.²LOWELL. (4) It has two case forms.²which for the nominative and objective. flung its arms around my neck. in the first sentence.. whose. JOHNSON.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²SWIFT. and 6. The robins. whom.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. Who referring to animals.²THACKERAY. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.²DR. not persons. Gibbon.who. referring to animals.. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. Cooper. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. in the second. My horse. possessive case of which. son. The sentences in Sec. a man. that man. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. and 3. 96). the others are all third person. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.. the relatives are singular.. or ideas. 112. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. in the third.²LEIGH HUNT. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. who is first person. The little gorilla. Kingsley. p. in 4. In 1. 2. seemed as much excited as myself.²who. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. who. and others. whose is second person. In sentence 4. Witness the following examples:² And you. things.²IRVING. .. 5.

² And. and things."²RUSKIN. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. Sometimes. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. which is very notable and curious. 116. and to persecute without pity.²RUSKIN.²SHAKESPEARE. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.²THACKERAY. and numerous others. . Men may be ready to fight to the death. (2) It has only one case form.² MCMASTER. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.114. Burke. too. That. Which and its antecedents. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.²first. Primarily. and third persons. the antecedent follows which. no possessive.²DE QUINCEY. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.² I swept the horizon. second. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. This often occurs. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. The last two sentences in Sec. 115. animals. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Kingsley. which is worse. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.²SCOTT. (3) It is the same form for first. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. So in Matthew Arnold. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. 109. In the sentences of Sec. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. secondly (which made her stare). Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. This moribund '61. thus.²BEECHER. let us enter the church itself. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.

118. third person. it usually follows. that do I. whose Obj. which.²BIBLE What fates impose. for example. The gender. number." That evidently refers to truths. that men must needs abide. 119. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. 109. that he has. For example. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. that do I not." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. plural number. Nom. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as. consequently is neuter. What. but what I hate. When expressed. The sentences of Sec. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. as in sentence 6." (3) "These people heard him. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths.² What I would. What a man does. who Poss. either of which would be neuter. and is emphatic. third person. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. and person of the relatives who.²SHAKESPEARE. is always neuter. 117. Sec. what we said?²CARLYLE.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. . but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Who plainly stands for those or the people. by taking them out. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL.²EMERSON. we can. plural number." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.

Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. Another way. standing for the people understood.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. 6. the highest result of all education. In the sentence. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. nobler souls with that which they are. Truths in sentence (2). I think they are trying to outwit nature. in (3). As shown by the following sentences. it is object of uttered. the simple relative. What must be endured? Answer. third person. but of this. in (1). 120. Exercise. In (2). In the same way who.." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. The whole expression is its subject. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Parsing what. subject of heard. and hence is in the nominative case. is subject of the verb can't be cured. neuter. people is the object of the preposition of. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. . whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Now. is in the nominative case. 3. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. "What can't be cured must be endured. What can't be cured. and what is the direct object of the verb call. however. is what we call nature. in the following sentences:² 1. which is. so is in the objective case. we is the subject. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 5. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. The relative what is handled differently. that takes the case of the truths in (2). The word what. it is subject of the verb heard. because it has usually no antecedent. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. then parse the relatives." Here the subject of is. after all."²EMERSON. Some prefer another method of treatment. 8. etc. 4. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. above. First find the antecedents. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 7. but is singular.

7. 122. that is. 2.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. The simple relatives who. 2. whatsoever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. object of do] they do. Death is there associated. and which in the second clause. whichever. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives.²MACAULAY. They are whoever. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1.²you cannot have both. whosoever. whatever. or stand on their head. less common are whoso. that nothing else can stand in their presence. So with the other indefinites. whatsoever. summer will have its flies. no certain antecedent. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. It is clear that in 1. by meaning and use. Meaning and use. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. List and examples. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. Take which you please. being referred to. Do what we can.²BURKE. Hence some take what as a double relative. It is no proof of a man's understanding. no particular thing. not as direct as the simple relatives. in a new and original way.²BURKE. "common souls pay with that [singular. 3. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and his friend a fool. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 123. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. object of with] which [singular. which. 5. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. or what else soever. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. Only itself can inspire whom it will. to everything that. . to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. 121. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. and in 2. whichsoever. and parse that in the first clause. 4. 6.

125. but mean any one whom. Sec. In early modern English.As shown in Sec. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.. . etc.² some particular thing. There is nothing but is related to us. for example. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. the conjunctions wherein.²HAWTHORNE. 121. 2. etc. 124. 121. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Instead of the phrases in which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.² 1. by which.²EMERSON. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. thus. This. and that as after such is equivalent to which. but which only wealth could have purchased. whereupon.²DE QUINCEY. as was used just as we use that or which. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. Other substitutes. whereby.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. 417). either one that. 4. everything that (or everything which). for example. upon which. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. has been my heaviest affliction. 126. 120. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Two words. But and as. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. Former use of as. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. etc. what means anything that. not following the word such. but and as. nothing that does not interest us. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. Proof that they have the force of relatives. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. are used.

PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS.²EMERSON." etc. 3. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. it is an indefinite relative). Another caution. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. 2. though the earthwork hid them. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. which having the antecedent lines. But in 1 (b). Special caution needed here. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun).²ID. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. no antecedent is expressed. what is interrogative. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. 127." Likewise with which in 3 (b). 2 (b). 1 (b). But compare the following in pairs:² 1. would be. . if expanded. Thus. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. "But what had become of them? They knew not. it is a simple relative. if not. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. "Who stood behind? We knew.²WHITTIER. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. if not. and whether what = that + which (if so. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. a question is disguised in each sentence. and 3 (b). the full expression being.. second. So in 2 (b). what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. showing that who is plainly interrogative. who having the antecedent gentleman. which would indicate that they are not relatives. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. it is an interrogative. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. In studying such sentences. In sentences 1 (a). there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. How to decide. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which.

the question is asked by the verb. 4. . and Court Calendars.²HOLMES. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. I visited many other apartments.²FLETCHER. Put in the relatives who. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Examine the following:² 1.²SWIFT. When Goldsmith died. whence is the interrogative word. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. On the other hand. Exercise. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr.² THACKERAY. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists.²FORSTER 6. 5.²CARLYLE. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. whose has the antecedent you. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. 2. 3.128. In the second. and asks no question. which has the antecedent hue. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. which. but the life of man in England. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.² These are the sounds we feed upon.²G. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. ELIOT. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. In the third. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Relative omitted when object. The insect I am now describing lived three years. Thus. 129.²GOLDSMITH. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. In the first.

(a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. Function of adjective pronouns. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. 6. and what.Ne'er looks upon the sun. It is rare in prose. 5. 3. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. There was such a crowd went. who were to be rulers over whom. and comparatively so in poetry. The nobles looked at each other.² The silent truth that it was she was superior.²SCOTT. which. or indefinite relatives:² 1. 130. Examples are. which was already proceeding.7.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.²CAMPBELL. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. 2. . 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.² LOWELL. Relative omitted when subject. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Also in literary English we find the same omission. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. that. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. simple relatives.²SHAKESPEARE.²Id. the house was full.

necessarily thought of: thus. not pronouns. and stand for a noun. but in this function. "another bank. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. etc. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. 'Truth. such as each. 133. but have lost their adjective use. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns.²IRVING. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. and on each is written. expressed or understood." "one man. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. 132.²EMERSON. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. none. must not modify any word." that is. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. "each cube. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. In the first use they are adjectives.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. or may be the whole of a sentence. that. Caution. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. or they may stand for nouns. . neither.131. in order to be an adjective pronoun. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS." "Where two men ride on a horse." Classes of adjective pronouns. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. as some. "these pranks. in letters of gold." in the others. etc. in the second they retain an adjective meaning.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. For example. many." in the second. "The dead are there. such as this. any. few. or use. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Adjectives. and another to get cool under. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. either.²BRYANT. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. or an argument in a paragraph. a word. which we have seen in such expressions as. the former. all. in the first. Primarily they are adjectives." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. For instance. etc.

and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. NOTE. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. and sow wickedness. or sat.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. A man inspires affection and honor.All these he saw. and they have well performed the other. as seemed good to each. They had fewer books. reap the same. Definition and examples. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Their minds accorded into one strain. 134. Compound. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Simple. Such are a few isolated instances. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. when the latter was the King of Spain. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. Some of these are simple pronouns.²LOWELL. because he was not lying in wait for these. Even as I have seen. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties.²ID. 3. but what he fain had seen He could not see. accidentally preserved. for example. 5. . Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 2. but these were of the best. they that plow iniquity. or reclined. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.² They stood. They have not shunned the one. Exercises.²ID.²EMERSON 4. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.

'Tis of no importance how large his house.²KINGSLEY. another. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. ²HAWTHORNE. for example. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. such as one other. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²EMERSON.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. with the superstitions of his time. or melt for others' woe. one another. imbued. as some of the rangers had gone astray.² One reflexive. 135. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. The Soldan.Two are compound pronouns. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. we might the more easily discharge them. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. you quickly come to the end of all. Men take each other's measure when they react. The word one has a reflexive form. as. They led one another. Definition and examples. Much might be said on both sides. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. . None shall rule but the humble. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns.²HOLMES. If hand of mine another's task has lightened.²each other. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. Another opposes him with sound argument. paused over a horoscope. Some inflected. as it were. as most were.

unlike adjective pronouns. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. 136. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. nothing. everything. They indefinite means people in general. everybody else. they are never used as adjectives. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. 137. etc. Exercise. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. anybody. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. Now. also aught. anyone else. no one. everybody. anybody else's. Jove laughs. every one (or everyone). Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. in building of chaises. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Definition and examples. and somewhat. nobody. but. as. . Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. every one else. something.. any one (or anyone). and was indefinite in Old English. as shown in the words everybody's. Every one else stood still at his post. and they. naught.²SHAKESPEARE.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. anything. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. some one.² At lovers' perjuries. etc." It means something. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. what. Somebody. somebody else. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.Exercise. I tell you what. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. they say. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.

4. 18. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. Whoever deals with M. The table was good. 17. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Hutchinson tells us of herself. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 9. 12. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours.See also "Syntax" (Sec. indeed. from my earliest days. 14. A reminder. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. .²a feature of natural scenery for which. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 16. 10. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. but not to quite so enormous an extent. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. in his negotiations. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 8. I first found myself among the mountains. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 3. and of no other. 7. O thou that rollest above. 138. 5. For this did God send her a great reward. to which. All was now ready for action. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. Others did the same thing. 11. 2. 6. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). Exercise. 13. were suffered to depart. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1.

What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. He sate him down. And I had done a hellish thing. 27. who take the world easy. 21. 32. and seized a pen. 25. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 23. eat white bread or brown. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20.19. They know not I knew thee. Whatever he knows and thinks. well-oiled dispositions. hear. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. And will your mother pity me. oh. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. 34. that let him communicate.Who knew thee too well. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble.And it would work 'em woe. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. in all its height. hear! 33. 26. who slept last night like a corpse? 22.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. thou rollest now. I who alone am. 30.Destroyer and preserver. 35. 31.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. behold now the semblance of my being. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 29. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. variety. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. A smile of hers was like an act of grace.

43. It may have this office alone. Substantives. etc. Again. 139. So with any object. then. or liquid. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. and so he read. 39." "a hundred men. If a chemist discovers a new substance. and he learns who receives. 37. We are by nature observers. or with persons. who understands me. as. and if we are near. As to the kind of words used. 45. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 40." The office of an adjective. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. adjectives are used. heavy or light. such as in the expressions "this man. 44. that is our permanent state. white or red. size. Who hears me. He knew not what to do.36. becomes mine. . 38. 41. in pointing out an object. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. He teaches who gives. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. if we are at a distance. "one hat. Office of Adjectives. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. the number is limited by adjectives. 42." "that house. We need to add some words to tell its color. so that no other will be mistaken for it. ADJECTIVES. etc. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning." etc.. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. brittle or tough. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. which was no bad step towards my liberation. For example. or gaseous. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. position." "some cities." "yonder hill.

divine. such as." . 141.²COLERIDGE. fair. etc." "half-dead traveler. To err is human. and their trash. words primarily pronouns. 142." "the Roman writer Palladius." they constitute all his connections. such as safe." "this life-giving book. beautiful. to forgive. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. 143. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." and the still less significant "and so. or how much of a thing. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. rash. Nouns are not." "next-door neighbor. "Heaven-derived power." "the Christian pearl of charity. derived from proper nouns. (2) Adjectives of quantity. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. Classes of adjectives. They include relative and interrogative words. happy." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "ivory-handled pistols.140.² BACON." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. With exception of the "and then. Definition. If he be thankful for small benefits. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." the "and there. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." "ice-cold water. (4) Pronominal adjectives. however. to describe it or to limit its application. "an old English manuscript. Infinitives.²POPE. it shows that he weighs men's minds. terrible." "unlooked-for burden. To make this clear. Examples are." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. used to tell how many things are spoken of. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. pointing out particular things. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. remotest. deep.

joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many.But ever she looked on Mr." "It came on like the rolling simoom. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. 145. any." "One is hungry. For instance: in the sentence. 2.²MACDONALD." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." was accomplished is a verb." "a charming sight. no." Caution. and accomplished is an adjective.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "trailing clouds. Care is needed. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. sometimes small. 'Tis midnight. Exercises. some.²COLERIDGE." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. 1." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. having some of each subclass named in Sec." "an aged man. much. in studying these last-named words. considerable." was is the verb. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. 143. in this. Examples are. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Oxenham.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. 144. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. ." "The shattered squares have opened into line. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. and another is drunken. which are either pure participles used to describe. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.

for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "He had lived by hunting for some months. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. but I have gained fourscore.²ID. that.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. latter. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Exercise.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.²CARLYLE. every village.²VAUGHAN. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts.² Every town had its fair. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "I have lost one brother. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. those). The list. they come under the next division of adjectives. no. yonder (or yon). are used with plural nouns." "In came some five and twenty more.²THACKERAY. and with them a few negroes." Single ones of any number of changes. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. An arrow was quivering in each body. When some. Not primarily pronouns. 146. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. How many." (b) Indefinite numerals. instead of modifying them. the former²the latter.²KINGSLEY. its wake. former." "Then we wandered for many days. (plural these." "a dozen volunteers. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Thus. any. Examples. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. The following sentences present some examples:² . "one blaze of musketry. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. The demonstrative adjectives are this. as." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers.

The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. 147.²RUSKIN. When we speak of the seventeenth century. They are of two kinds.²BANCROFT.. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. FRANKLIN. The taking of which bark. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²GOLDSMITH. Indefinite relative adjectives.² It matters not what rank he has. WEBSTER. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Oxenham fought desperately. I verily believe. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. what revenues or garnitures.²D.."²B. but in the one case.²WORDSWORTH. These do not. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. tell how many things are meant. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. 149.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. These were thy charms. The silver and laughing Xenil. skill which was progressive²in the other. they are changed to adjectives. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. .²ID. As has been said. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.but all these charms are fled. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. of equal skill. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. like the other numerals. Modify names of persons or things.²BULWER. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. Exercise. In which evil strait Mr. Definition. just as the corresponding pronouns do. skill which was at pause. ²CARLYLE. but. 148. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.²ID.²KINGSLEY. for example. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.

Adjective what in exclamations. or whether any.. 151. He was turned before long into all the universe. whatsoever.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).²AGASSIZ. whatever. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. But when the Trojan war comes. Examples of their use are. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.²CARLYLE. In indirect questions. As in the pronouns. the debt to the rich. you at least give him full authority over your son. A lady once remarked.² EMERSON. nature will be sure to bear us out in.²ID. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.150.And whichsoever way I turn.²IRVING. . which. whichsoever way I move.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.²RUSKIN. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.. New torments I behold. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. it is impossible to determine. as it rather seemed. which is selective among what is known. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whichever. and gaze. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. whichsoever. proved not altogether displeasing to him. Was there.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. and new tormentedAround me. In direct questions. what inquires about things or persons not known. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Whatsoever kind of man he is.²LAMB. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.

Adjectives have two inflections. gold is heavier than iron. Those borrowed from this. weight.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. of the quality. we do so by means of their qualities.²but not the same degree. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. When we place two objects side by side. Exercise. All these have certain qualities. alas. This is the old demonstrative. History of this²these and that²those. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. But this had also another plural.² Oh. th s (modern those). that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. Meaning of comparison. COMPARISON. or size. and when we compare the objects. In exclamatory expressions. That. and those as the plural of that. 154. etc. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.²This. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. or weight. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. Thus. 155. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs.²number and comparison.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. the making of it right. or amount. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. we notice some differences between them as to size. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. which was fully inflected in Old English. And yet. NUMBER. as. color. . and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. those). It is neither relative nor interrogative. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.152. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. etc. 153 . what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.. The article that was used with neuter nouns.

It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. they are not compared. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison.²THACKERAY. giant-like. "more matter. The comparative is formed by adding -er. great. strictly considered. indomitable. supreme.²SEWARD." Words that cannot be compared. 159. as. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected." "the commonest speech. blue. or amounts in quantity. So with the words sole. but were not common until a century later. easiest. as. Substitute for inflection in comparison. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. red. but. with less wit. bluer. 157. These are properly the only degrees. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. to the simple form. immemorial. Freedom is a perpetual. bluest. and the superlative by adding -est. Definition." "the largest soul. and the superlative. and many others." "no fewer than a hundred. whether they attend their own affair or not. 158. enormous.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. universal institution. easier. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. "untamed thought. redder.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. easy. infinite. whose favorite pupil he was. 160.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. 156. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. indefatigable. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. organic. expressing a greater degree of quality. reddest. These are called degrees of comparison." "It is a nobler valor. They came into use about the thirteenth century. expressing the greatest degree of quality. . for example. A main difference betwixt men is. sufficient. though the simple. The two forms.

and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. harsh forms are usually avoided. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative.²The Nation. most small. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. admirablest. which hung behind in the queerest way. and patientest fusing. though born in no very high degree. indisputablest.Which rule. These long. peaceablest.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. Adjectives irregularly compared. The general rule is." Carlyle uses beautifulest. falling on his knees. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. and other words are preceded by more and most. polished. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." "sorrowfulest spectacles. 163." "more austere and holy. These are adjectives irregularly compared. The following lists include the majority of them:² ." "more odd." "the wonderfulest little shoes. witty." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. quiet. 162. strange. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. mournfulest.² CARLYLE A gentleman. there needed to be a most genuine substance. madam.²ID. etc. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." "distantest relationships." said Henry Esmond. was most finished. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables." From Ruskin: "The sharpest.²ID. I will. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. "So help me God.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. honestest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. easy. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. finest chiseling. and yet familiar. who. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. as.

7. further Farthest. Hind 2. worst. hindermost Much or many More Farther. . but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. 9. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. last Hindmost. as in the sentence (14th century). (3) Little is used as positive to less. uppermost LIST III. next Nearest Latest. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. furthest 10. The superlative I form was betst. as. lesser Elder. 6. 5. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). (2) In Old English. latter Hinder LIST II. least. [Out] Outer. 3. a double comparative. which has gone out of use. 1. throw away the worser part of it.LIST I. There was an old comparative bet. List I. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 2. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. oldest Nighest. These have no adjective positive:² 1.² O. which has softened to the modern best. though from a different root.²HAMLET. bad. is often used. [In] Inner Inmost. older Nigher Nearer Later. Worser was once used. 164.² We have it in a much lesser degree.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. 8. as in Shakespeare. A double comparative. utter 3. outermost Utmost. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 4. uttermost Upmost. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. innermost Outmost. evil was the positive to worse. Good or well Evil. lesser.

which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective... greatest. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. etc. strenger. a distinction has grown up between the two series. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. etc. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. (5) The forms elder. farthest.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative.²ID. Since later.²KINGSLEY.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. First became entirely detached from the series. for example. are shown in such phrases as. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. or series. th came into the others. since the m is for -ma. are earlier than older. to which is added -ost. ²LAMB. came into use. In imitation of further. as long. doubling the inflection. Between the two sets as they now stand. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. much. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. farrest. muchel. further. . The meanings greater." Its spelling has been micel.²HAWTHORNE. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. eldest. making the modern farther. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. strong. except the form next. as.²forth. meaning the largest part. furthest. near. first. The most part kept a stolid indifference. to England we sailed. great. oldest. but not in meaning. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. and the superlative nearest. there is scarcely any distinction. The latter. moche. next. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. an old superlative ending. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. and refer to time. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. List II. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. instead of lenger. but originally the comparison was nigh. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative.² The more part being of one mind. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. the old forms. "Many a little makes a mickle. is quite common. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. latest.

(Sec. but not in their meaning. but they have no adjective positives. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. . There. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove.²DE QUINCEY. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. They have no superlatives." "far-seeing as the sun. 167. or each may modify a different word or group of words.²H. Decidedly handsome." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. the upper light of the world. are like the comparative forms in List II. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection." -Most added to other words.²EMERSON. In List II. Think what each adjective belongs to. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. The adjectives in List III. BEECHER. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man." "The outer is of the day." "their utmost exertion. 168. The comparatives are so in form. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. being merely descriptive. List III. Her bows were deep in the water.165. in having no adjective positives. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. but her after deck was still dry.²HAWTHORNE. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. all may belong to the same noun. or have no comparative forms. Her. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²SCOTT. on the very topmost twig. 166. and have no comparative force. W. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Highest and midmost. by the by.²DE QUINCEY.²KINGSLEY." "the innermost moral soul.

and broken. 7. Exercise. we may say "the then king. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. instead of saying. STOWE. In the following quotations.²HAWTHORNE." in which then is an adverb. as. therefore.²BIBLE. But in this sentence. This. "the one who was then king. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²HOLMES. ²TROLLOPE. in prose. now our queen.²A. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. A few improper jests and a volley of good. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. . it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. Other instances are. Richard Hooker. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. 3. deep. and heaven-defying oaths. 6. and moral truth. By a convenient brevity. solid." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. philosophical. For thy stomach's sake. deeply black eyes. Bradbury and Evans. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank.²MRS. our new government. in this sentence." making then an adjective. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. bright. 2.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. H." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²HAWTHORNE. usual modifies incomparable decision. The seldom use of it. It may still be argued.For example. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. STEPHENS 5. Our sometime sister. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. 169. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. the then and still owners. May we not.²RUSKIN. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision.²TRENCH. round.²NOAH PORTER. not decision alone. satisfactory. 4.² My then favorite. rich. and thine often infirmities.

I ask nothing of you. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. and most astounding were those frightful yells. then. Exercise. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. if it has number. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. therefore descriptive. the method of parsing is simple. therefore demonstrative. Unfamiliar describes truths. 2. 10. if it can be compared. She made no reply. 9. Since adjectives have no gender. manly way. (3) Its degree of comparison. 3. or case. In parsing an adjective. seventy-five drachmas. 5. modifies truths. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. (4) What word or words it modifies. 6. 170. this. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. 7. and very few have number. . person. 4. To every several man. To every Roman citizen he gives. plural number. cannot be compared. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 8. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. (2) Its number. modifies the word truths. having a singular. This gave the young people entire freedom. with awkward but rapid pace. not inflected for number. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. positive degree. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. across the plain. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. These points out what truths. and I waited for none.What to tell in parsing. MODEL FOR PARSING. frank. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. compared by prefixing more and most.

20. during which time I waited. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 21. 33. the tomahawk fell. 32. Two hours elapsed. 24. 18. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. the same love to France would have been nurtured. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. and therefore more interesting to us. are immutably fishes. it rests on reality. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 12. Like most gifted men. 23. 26. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. To say what good of fashion we can. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Here lay two great roads. oxen. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. those dogs in the yard. Their name was the last word upon his lips. yonder oxen in the pasture. I know not what course others may take. 25. 22. growing in the most unfavorable position. he won affections with ease. as for armies that were too many by half. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 28. 13. With every third step. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Nearer to our own times. 29.11. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. and many poles supported the lower ones. 27. 19. not so much for travelers that were few. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. and dogs. 31. 14. is the settlement of our own country. 16. it is so noble a fruit. . Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. In music especially. suggests such thoughts as these.

" "an honor. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel.34. such as we have been attempting to describe. even when not silent. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." "a European. and a before consonant sounds. An or a came from the old numeral n. a before consonant sounds. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. with an ordinary little garden. 173. Their origin. A hard-struggling. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Many writers use an before h. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. . Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. An historian. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Two relics. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. or the tane. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. but the former is used. 172.²MACAULAY. An before vowel sounds." "a yelling crowd. th o. 35." the words the and an belong to nouns. 37. just as adjectives do. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the other. Our expressions the one. the tother. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. 171. meaning one. the tother." An with consonant sounds. that) which was also an article in Old English. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.²BREWER. ARTICLES. Examples: "a house. weary-hearted man was he.²SCOTT.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. he is no literary man." "an orange. s o. In Middle English the became an article. 174. ðat. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. these occurring as the tane. the tither. the latter is still preserved in the expression. In the sentence. for example. were formerly that one. in vulgar English. sometimes the tother. later th . that other.

When the is prefixed to a proper name. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. The Dakota tribes. 177. or group. The is the definite article. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. as in the sentence... An and a are different forms of the same word. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. Definition. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. NOTE.. Articles are either definite or indefinite. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.²HEROES OF ASGARD. An hereditary tenure of these offices. and when the word river is omitted." the article indicates clearly that a river.² Don't you remember how. 179. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business." "the Ohio.²This use is noticed when. and not a state or other geographical division. or any individual of a group or class. as "the Mississippi.²THACKERAY.² . Reference to a known object. not descriptive. the older n. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. is referred to. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. Kinds. which cannot be used alone. An article is a limiting word. 175. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. To call attention to attributes. a person is introduced by a. since it points out a particular individual.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. 178. BANCROFT. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. thus.²G. doubtless. 176. or a group or class of things. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. or class. An or a is the indefinite article. on opening a story.²IRVING. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. With names of rivers. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.²COLERIDGE.

The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. or a match put between the fingers. Caution. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. but into the region of all the virtues. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. One thing for its class. etc.²ID. the Hume.²SCOTT. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 182. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. The simple rise as by specific levity. laid it on the miry spot. would speedily extract the required information. If the good is there. For possessive person pronouns. 2.²EMERSON. With plural of abstract nouns. and the redwing. 1.²ID. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. the song sparrow. Schelling. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.²G. the Spinoza. 183. not into a particular virtue. 180. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. Half abstract.²KINGSLEY.²EMERSON. The. the gallant. BANCROFT.The Bacon.²MOTLEY. Kant.²GIBBON. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. as. for example. Common. . NOTE. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. so is the evil. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.² The faint. His messages to the provincial authorities. her. 181. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. With adjectives used as nouns.² As she hesitated to pass on. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

lone took what? answer. Definition and caution. In each case. in (3. All these are called transitive verbs. from the Latin transire. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. with some word understood. b). to go is no predicate. Of those expressing action. but cannot be predicates. Each influences some object. all do not express it in the same way. A verb is a word used as a predicate. The nature of intransitive verbs. but fearing is not a predicate. hence is not a verb. in (c). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. representing something which it influences or controls. and. in this sentence from Bulwer. 201. for example. In giving a definition. a verb. Has takes the object hypocrisy. in (b). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. as."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. The nature of the transitive verb. endured what? anguish. and to receive the action expressed. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. obeyed is a predicate.In (a). or an idea. 203. c).²BULWER . may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. Now. 204. in (2.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. "Put money in thy purse. and not a verb. an adverb. or a material thing. an article. which may be a person. might have been anticipated is also one predicate." Examine the sentences in Sec. taking the staff which always guided her steps. By examining a few verbs. Hence Definition. can deceive has an object. In the first. and a preposition unite as a verb. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. 202. etc. (can) shame also has an object. In the sentence. or the object." put is the predicate. the word following. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. the most astute. in (2. we consider a verb as one word. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. and shame the most astute. a preposition. b). a noun. care. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. to say something to or about some person or thing. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. 200: In (1). "Put thou money in thy purse. a). which means to go over. in (3. the most penetrating.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

² Now. popular government must be pronounced impossible. Most excellent stranger. Condition or Supposition. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. ²EMERSON. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. for example.I could lie down like a tired child.²may or may not be true. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. they were recorded in the Book of Life. 221. in our case. the second founder. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. or be fulfilled. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.²FRANKLIN. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.²SHELLEY. 215. I.² If. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. WEBSTER.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.²BRYCE. as. 222. Unreal²cannot be true.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. Ideal. as. the first great founder of the Empire. and may or may not be regarded true. If this be the glory of Julius. 2).²MACAULAY. . he will see the need of these ethics.²LONGFELLOW. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.²D. Again. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. the writer can make the statement following. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. the representative system ultimately fail. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. but. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.

he supposed. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. 3. that we cannot but regret its absence. The voice.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. would have sat still with joy and peace. I told him. NOTE.²BAYNE. The subjunctive.² It was necessary. Epaminondas. since he [Byron] was dead. ²LOWELL. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire.. P. which cannot be true.." etc. especially be. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. he had better not have written. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. Exercise. WILLIS. though. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. and striven energetically to save Ney. might. clear.² If these things were true.² CARLYLE. if his lot had been mine. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. to drink strong beer. In the following conditional clauses. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. would you. 5.²MACAULAY. and what kind of condition:² 1. But in no case could it be justified. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 2. unless. the clause being introduced by that or lest. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. II. 7. may.. as. is of similar physiognomy. is used to express purpose. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. 8. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. she was regarded as a prodigy. Subjunctive of Purpose.²CALHOUN.²EMERSON. .²N. 6. do you think. if he was the man I take him for. 4. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created.²FRANKLIN. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. 223. if he speak to you. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.²SWIFT. thus.²FRANKLIN. but when the verb precedes the subject. and should. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. If he had reason to dislike him. etc. and sonorous. melodious. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.. except. society could not hold together. that he might be strong to labor.

²SOUTHEY.²DE QUINCEY.Thou go not.. In Indirect Questions. The English subjunctive. In a Noun Clause. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. none of us could say. So live. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. within its fairy bowers.. To tell of what had passed. V. I would it were! ²EMERSON. III. till it meet the sun in his coming.²CARLYLE. 226. 224.²MOORE.And we. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²D.I have been the more particular. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.That vain it were her eyes to close.Were wafted off to seas unknown. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. like the quarry-slave at night. VI.. IV. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. 225. Ask the great man if there be none greater. I've wished that little isle had wings. Rise up. Let it rise. In Temporal Clauses. After a verb of wishing. 227. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. VII. Expressing a Wish.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. . lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²COLERIDGE. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.²ID. WEBSTER. Subjunctive of Result. like the Latin.²BRYANT.²WORDSWORTH. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.

And see the Braes of Yarrow. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. That hunger of applause.²SHELLEY. See that there be no traitors in your camp. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. in apposition. Concessive Clauses. we'll turn aside. or whatsoever victual it may be.²WORDSWORTH. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. etc.²THOREAU. I have no thought what men they be. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. The essence of originality is not that it be new.²DE QUINCEY. in its various uses as subject.²TENNYSON. for example. of cash.²CARLYLE.. which may be (a) Pronoun. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. often contains a subjunctive. Some might lament that I were cold.² DICKENS. is. VIII. After verbs of commanding. Object. Complement.²COLERIDGE. that everything be in its place. .²SCOTT. Whatever betide. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. 229.² Be the matter how it may. (b) Adjective. object. The noun clause. is the ultimate fact of man's life. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.And look thou tell me true.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. tell me all that thou hast seen.²COLERIDGE. 228.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Come. The first merit. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.Subject. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.

the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. 231. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. IMPERATIVE MOOD. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Definition. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Oh. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. or requests. At the present day. we had found [should have found] a poem here.(c) Adverb. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Honor all men.²SHELLEY. to express a wish. (2) Entreaty. 230.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. for example. Q. (1) Command. 232.The spirit he loves remains. and condition contrary to fact. It must be remembered. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. point to their immortal works. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. love all men.²CHANNING. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. . entreaties. though.²BRYANT. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. ADAMS. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Usually second person. a concession. fear none.²J. In spoken English.² CARLYLE. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. however. (3) Request.

but I + you. 7. there will her heart and her prayers be. 8. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.²SHAKESPEARE.And. we may use the imperative with we in a command. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. or I + they. "The Devil take the goose.. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.²CAMPBELL.And God forget the stranger!" . The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. noble earl. Break we our watch up. etc. Quoth she. etc. 2." whispered Kit. 6. Part we in friendship from your land. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry."Hush! mother. Whatever inconvenience ensue."²DICKENS Tell me. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. lest we rust in ease. Oh. request. 3. "Come along with me. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.²SCOTT. Mark thou this difference. to you implied in it.. child of earth!While each performs his part. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled." Exercises on the Moods.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. Sometimes with first person in the plural. nothing is to be preferred before justice. receive my hand.One glance at their array! 5.

"Mr. how he may do his work. He. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. Forget thyself to marble. 14. 19. my dear madam. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. Well. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.9. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. then. Though he were dumb. 26. no literary man. 23. whether he do it right or wrong.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 21. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt." 16. let him live where else he like. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. "tell me where I may find my poor. or do it at all.That they might answer him. it would speak. 18. in what pomps and prosperities he like.High up in silver spikes! 22. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. but repentant child. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. will it not fall unbound. Marshall. That a man parade his doubt." continued Old Morgan. "Oh. as though an instrument." cried he. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. and opinion displace opinion. 13. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 11.Except. ruined. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 20. That sheaf of darts. she ought to have it. 10. Though abyss open under abyss. . He is." 25.

and unassuming deportment of Mrs. as will be shown later on. a form ending in -eth. and future. by means of the present.²nothing could exceed the amiable. 235. "It is not in man that walketh. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. or agree with it. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. PERSON AND NUMBER. as. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. which represented present and future time." past. such as be. in the third person singular. five in the subjunctive.² present. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. whatever she did. kind. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. have. Tenses in English. Old English had only two tenses." "If he comes. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. Tense means time. or whether it were as one member of a general party.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. shall. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. in the conjugations. tell him to wait. five in the imperative. When the older pronoun thou was in use. past perfect.27. "Thou walkest. will." present. the past. as. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. Definition. such as Latin and Greek." .²the present tense. and future perfect tenses. 233. also. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. and the future tense.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. The tenses in detail. as the classical languages have. 28. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. and the past tense. "Thou walkedst. "I go away tomorrow. past. 234. to direct his steps. TENSE. Siddons. called auxiliaries. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. or future time. Meantime. past.

sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Definition. singular number. Singular 1. choosing. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. 236. chooses. The verb be has more forms. [He] were [They] were . walks. for example. mood. Few forms. You are 2. Such verbs as choose have five. PRESENT TENSE. I were 2. as. chooseth. Singular 1. chosen (old. tenses. been. choosest. I be 2. etc. and numbers. persons. PRESENT TENSE. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. moods. are. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms." and this only in the present tense indicative. since it is composed of several different roots. walkedst. walk has walk. [He] is [They] are 3. You (thou) be 3. tense. 237.²am. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. In classical languages. but in English. 238. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. wert) 3. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. Singular 1. walketh. Singular 1. walking. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. were. etc. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. "He walks. is. CONJUGATION.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number.²choose. chose. walked. Indicative Mood. chosest). INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. This is the third person.

to express intention.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. is. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²THACKERAY. condition. The light that never was on sea and land.²ID. in four ways.²SHELLEY.²GOLDSMITH. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.His infancy was nurtured. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. (3) be. etc.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. same as the German sind. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (2) was. Remarks on the verb be. thus.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (d) With the infinitive. for example. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. -en. etc. obligation. as. (b) With the past participle in -ed. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. 239. 240. were.Imperative Mood. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. to form the passive voice.²WORDSWORTH. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. which was now become an occasional banquet.²SCOTT. though it is usually a dialect form.. Instead of the plural are. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²BURKE .² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses..

" "He will choose. Singular. had. You choose Plural. etc.241. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. We chose You chose 3. Machinery of a verb in the voices. 242. "I have gone" (present perfect). future perfect. PRESENT TENSE. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 1. I choose 2. tenses. PRESENT TENSE. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. as. I choose 2. I chose 2. past perfect. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Singular. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. "I had gone" (past perfect). You chose Plural. 1. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 1. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. [He] choose [They] choose 3. ." (2) Present perfect. (2). We chose You chose 3. as. 240. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. tenses. You choose Plural. I chose 2. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). Singular. "I shall be. In addition to the above inflected forms. Singular. by placing have. Indicative Mood. You chose Plural. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. 1.

(2d per. Present. Present perfect definite. "I was chosen.) Choose.] he choose. Past perfect definite. Past. Imperative Mood. he have been choosing. Past definite. lest. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. " Be choosing. He chose. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Present perfect. Subjunctive Mood. He was choosing. Past perfect. Present definite. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. . He will have been choosing. "I am running. ACTIVE VOICE. He has been choosing. He had been choosing. He will he choosing. Only the third person. Present. as. Past definite. Present. Present definite. etc. of each tense. Future. Past. He will have chosen. Indicative Mood. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. singular number. He is choosing." 243. He had chosen. Present perfect. Future definite. He will choose. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Same as indicative." "They had been running. Future perfect definite. Present definite. Future perfect.(3) The definite form of each tense. he have chosen. will be given. He chooses. he chose (or were to choose). as. Past perfect definite. Present perfect definite. He has chosen. Past perfect. [If." "You are chosen. though." (4) The passive forms. Same as indicative.

Past perfect. however. He was being chosen. Also. Present. Present tense. Past definite. He will have been chosen. he were being chosen. Past. Past. None. Present perfect. "He does strike. 262). Exercises should be given. he were chosen (or were to be chosen)." "He did strike. Future perfect definite. in affirmative sentences. He was chosen. He is being chosen.NOTE.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present perfect. Past perfect definite. Present definite. . it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Imperative Mood. None. Future definite. None. He is chosen.. He has been chosen. Indicative Mood. though. None. he have been chosen. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Present definite. He had been chosen. Past definite. Past Perfect. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present perfect definite.] [If. but verbals.²This table is not to be learned now. Past perfect definite. lest. Present perfect definite. Subjunctive Mood. None. as. PASSIVE VOICE. (2d per.) Be chosen. Future perfect.] he be chosen. if learned at all. He will be chosen. None. Future." [Note to Teacher. " " " " " " " None. etc. Present. he had been chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec.

[adj. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. verbs are strong or weak. and may or may not change the vowel: as. but adds no ending. drove. Kinds. lay. caught. sleep. Past Tense. as. begged. Some of these also have weak forms. Definition. ran. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. According to form. bid bound. bit blown broken chidden. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bounden] bitten. drive. catch. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. slept. 245. beg. NOTE. 244. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. run. laid. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. which are in parentheses Present Tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM.

drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

246. ²THACKERAY. for example.²COLERIDGE. as (from Holmes)." In this confusion of usage." "a sunken snag.²as (from Shakespeare). How fairy Mab the junkets eat. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. cloven. When it means to carry or to endure. "stricken with paralysis. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. only one set remains certain.² We had each drank three times at the well."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. "his bounden duty.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. as. as." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. . The form clomb is not used in prose." "the cloven hoof. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. probably to avoid confusion with this. Sometimes in literary English. and. to split. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. the other. especially in that of an earlier period.²TENNYSON. instead of ate and eaten. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. The former used to be cleave.²MILTON.²GOLDSMITH.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. which always crew at eleven. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain.²cleave.²IRVING.²B. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. cleaved. Historically. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t)." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. cleft. clave or clove. cleaved. and another (born) for the passive.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. borne is also a passive. Our cock. as. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). and the latter. cleft (to split).²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. now told us it was time for repose. TAYLOR.²one meaning to adhere or cling. but is much used in vulgar English. nor a dog barked. cleave." "a drunken wretch. and sometimes occurs in poetry.² Thou hast clomb aloft. Not a cock crew.

flung. 2. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Give. broke. Usually shear is a weak verb. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. and grasping at his sword. 6. Exercises. Fling. found. 8. fallen. broken. 3. 5. maiden. Fall. as. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. One example out of many is. 10. found.² If. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. shook. thrown. driven. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Drive. Find. which is seldom used except in poetry. This heard Geraint. 9. Shake. given. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. gave. threw. even in poetry."²KINGSLEY. shaken. 245). Throw. as "a shorn lamb. froze. drove. flung.²WORDSWORTH. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. We usually say. 4. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. frozen.² We had all got safe on shore." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. (a) From the table (Sec. begun.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. Freeze." but not much as a participle. fell.²SCOTT. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. 7.The form gotten is little used. shore is rare.²DE FOE. Begin.²TENNYSON. The butler was hanged.²BYRON. and seized a pen. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. He sate him down. for example. . began. Break.²BIBLE. for example.

PRESENT."²WINIER. purpose. 251.²PAINE.²SCOTT. 247. for full drill on the forms.²HAWTHORNE. from the obsolete verb motan. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. Subjunctive use. It is indicative when it expresses permission. Ability. according to the infinitive used.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.. as it sometimes does. as in Sec. 250. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.. must have been an ocular deception.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. etc." Must is present or past tense. or when it expresses wish. Must is historically a past-tense form. (See also Sec. or. They are as follows:² PRESENT. Could may be subjunctive. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. but came through analogy with should and would. of course. 223. PAST. "far off his coming shines.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. as. HAMILTON. . May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. which survives in the sentence. The l in could did not belong there originally. as it has two meanings. Like must. 220. PAST. Have we valuable territories and important posts. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. 249. Indicative Use: Permission. ability. there is one general principle. it is used only in the indicative mood. His superiority none might question.. The same remarks apply to ought. Can is used in the indicative only.[To the Teacher. "So mote it be.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.²CHANNING This. etc. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged.. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed..²CHANNING. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.

The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.²MACAULAY. She rejects his suit with scorn. as. and corn to hoe. "I think I will go.² (a) To express authority.² Futurity and questions²first person. She should not walk. to the neglect of shall and should. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. she should ride like a queen. as. WEBSTER. Second and third persons.²LONGFELLOW. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.²IRVING.²COOPER. . yea.e. The following are examples:² Never mind. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. especially in the United States. (b) In questions asking for orders. I shall be gone. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. while ought always has to. with pronouns of the first person. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. They shall have venison to eat. my lad.²BULWER. what shall I say?²N.² The time will come full soon. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. (b) In indirect quotations. Shall and Will. for example.Nay.²THAXTER. future action)." Uses of shall and should. or confident prediction. in the form of command. 252. BROCKDEN BROWN. shall and should are used. to use will and would. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.²L. C. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. The sea shall crush thee. as. not plod along like apeasant.. promise. MOULTON. he said.² With respect to novels.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. shall and should are used.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.

when the answer expected would express simple futurity. Disguising a command.²H. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. etc. 253.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. as. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. LARNED. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.. was to be expected.²ROGERS.²WORDSWORTH. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. JR. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. . B. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²WINTER. thus. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. and will not return until all is finished.²SWIFT. (c) With direct questions of the second person. time. or a promise.that I would do him justice. purpose.²WORDSWORTH. with the conviction that he should win in the end. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. BROWN.² I will go myself now.. And promised. for example.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.²C.²A.²CABLE. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena..²BYRON. JAMES.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. for example. I never was what I should be. First. second and third persons. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. and is equivalent to ought. as the sole inventor.²WORDSWORTH.

PASSIVE VOICE. When I am in town. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day... will and would often denote an action as customary. Would thou hadst it not. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion..² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²War Records.²LANDOR. without regard to future time. as. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. . AND THIRD PERSONS. Roland. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. will and would are used to express simple futurity. for punishment or intimidation. They will go to Sunday schools. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. when thou wast born.. etc. would is used to express a wish. In this stately chair would he sit. SECOND.²BURKE. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. through storms their brothers are afraid of. Thine was a dangerous gift. will is used to express command.² Subject I omitted: often so.. 254. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.²BANCROFT. (4) With FIRST. for example. action merely expected to occur.²SCOTT. The gift of Beauty.²SCOTT.²the original meaning of the word will. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. for example. To be sure. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.²IRVING.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.. as. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). and mark on the grounds the works. B. Mere futurity. This puts the order more mildly.² Thou wilt take the skiff.² DICKENS. and two of my people. so you will. BROWN. as if it were merely expected action.

[They] shall be chosen. You shall choose. 2. 2. [He] will choose. 2. 4. I shall choose. 1. Singular. Plural. (b) Examine the following sentences. To express determination. 5. 2. You shall be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. You will be chosen. Plural. You will be chosen.:² ACTIVE VOICE. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. (a) From Secs. 1. We will be chosen. You will choose. Exercises on Shall and Will. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. [They] will choose. Singular. [He] shall be chosen. 3. 1. Singular. 3. 3. "I shall not run. He informed us. 2. 2. 6. and justify the use of shall and will.Singular." answered Herbert stubbornly. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Plural. I shall be chosen. 3. 252 and 253. We will choose. 3. Thou art what I would be. [He] will be chosen. You will choose. We shall choose. I will choose. and that of the newest cut. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. I will be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. [He] shall choose. We shall be chosen. . 1. promise. You shall choose. You shall be chosen. yet only seem. etc. [They] shall choose. [They] will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 3. Plural. 1.

10. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. or mylk and wastel breed. that sche fedde With rosted flessh.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs." 14. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. "I am a wayfarer.7. bereave beseech bereft.²Class I. then. 13. set. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. as if he would have more of the enchantment. 256. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. Without having attended to this. The old ending to verbs of Class II. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. and I have nothing to say. Present Tense. Lucy stood still. 12. Irregular Weak Verbs. This ending has now dropped off. 257. The beast made a sluggish movement.²ID. No. and have no change of vowel. put. as. 11. 9. put. But the rest. need some attention and explanation." the stranger said. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. bereft. bereaved besought . stirred her slightly with his muzzle. Past Tense. my son. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Of smale houndes hadde she. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. 255. was -de or -te. WEAK VERBS. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. put. set. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²CHAUCER. bereave besought Past Participle. very anxious. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle.

spelt spilt staid. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

. 268. But later. as in the Old English. [To] be chosen. [To] have been chosen. Perfect. to express action unconnected with a subject.6. and when passive.²the creature warring against the creating power. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. when inflections became fewer. Nothing of the kind having been done. an indefinite and a perfect form. [To] have been choosing. When active. PASSIVE VOICE. will (with should and would). 8. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends.. 266. . Indefinite. like participles. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. In Sec. to was used before the infinitive generally. 10. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. 7. [To] choose. an imperfect. I returned to reflection on my situation. and a perfect definite form. Indefinite. ACTIVE VOICE. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. a perfect. [To] have chosen.. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. have no tense. Perfect definite. Cases when to is omitted. Perfect. 267. To with the infinitive. INFINITIVES. formed a kind of bedstead. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. [To] be choosing. they have an indefinite. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. Infinitives. Three saplings. 9. Imperfect. try clemency. expressing purpose.

or the object of a verb or a preposition. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). as. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. as in the expression. feel. too." (4) In exclamations.²GOLDSMITH. 272. 269. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. and corn to hoe.²COOPER. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.). (3) After had in the idiomatic use. hear. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. They shall have venison to eat. While the gerund expresses action. sometimes need (as.²MACAULAY. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. watch. "I do go" etc. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. "a house to let. "He will choose. as." Examples are. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. GERUNDS. it may be the subject of a verb. see." etc. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative.²DE QUINCEY. as the credulous imagine. poor woman!" cried Charles. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. do (as. and like a noun in use. under "Analysis. negative. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. bid (command).²it may be governed as a noun." "I shall have chosen.²HOWELLS. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. and emphatic forms of the present and past. 270. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.²E. learn [doth learn is one verb. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. make. it has several attributes of a noun. must.² She was a kind.. it is often preceded by the definite article.(2) After the verbs may (might). as. But there was nothing to do. 271. also let. can (could). HALE. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. . The gerund is like the participle in form. please.²TENNYSON.² What! doth she. also in the imperative. "She ask my pardon. liberal woman. E.²IRVING. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.

II). (2) Pure participles. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (6) Verbal nouns.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." "Certainly dueling is bad. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. which name an action or state. Sec. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. to see the returning hope of the parents. which express action and also modify. on your leaving the spot. above. and five gerunds." Exercise. and has been put down." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. b)." also (2. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. after examining the nest. 4. Exercise. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. (5) Gerunds. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. but cannot govern. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. may govern and be governed. 2. according to use as well as meaning. Words in -ing are of six kinds." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. and wonderful store of learning! . What a vast." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. 273. (3) Participial adjectives.²Find sentences containing five participles. when. brilliant. Then how pleasing is it. which express action. but do not assert. which express action. (4) Pure adjectives. which have lost all verbal force. making the definite tenses. five infinitives. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths.

The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. like Sir Walter Scott. give reality to your teaching. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. much corroded. . for the form of the verb may not show the person and number.²strong or weak. He spread his blessings all over the land. subjunctive. write twenty pages without stopping. 9. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. bearing her national emblem.²transitive or intransitive. Caution. I. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb.²indicative. 14. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 13. he gave out sentence by sentence. 12. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 6. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature.5. What is dreaming? 8. (3) Mood. (5) Person and number. or imperative. 11. Thackeray did not. (4) Tense. giving principal parts. 275. you must. but. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 15. In parsing verbs. The only means of ascending was by my hands. by object lessons. dictating from his chair. 234. round which is an iron railing. (b) as to use. 10.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 7. (2) Voice. slowly. VERBS.²active or passive. 16.

and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. and should always be analyzed as phrases. VERBALS. has the subject government. would. intransitive. . perfect. see Sec. active. Especially frequent are those made up of should. intransitive. 273). Exercise." Sometimes it does. (3) Gerund. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. You are gathered to your fathers. (b) its use (Sec. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. call should a weak verb. etc. indicative. let the earliest light of the morning gild it." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. we must beware of the rule. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. (b) whether indefinite. VERB PHRASES. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. etc. verbals. till it meet the sun in his coming. The government might have been strong and prosperous. 3. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. past tense. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. But unless the verb is present. indicative (as it means could). 2. could. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. no sin nor sorrow. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. must. perfect. usually it does not. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. (a) From what verb derived. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. past tense. has for its subject Lee. In such sentences as 1. and parting day linger and play on its summit. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. III. (b) whether active or passive.. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. then parse it as an adjective. call might a weak verb. Parse the verbs. give points (a) and (b). Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. Take these examples:² 1. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. 235. Let it rise! let it rise. therefore active.276. 277. II. and ends in -s. and not taken as single verbs. 2. might. (2) Infinitive. 278(2). definite. 4. may. (1) Participle. 278. can. (c) to what word it belongs. in the world. In 2. followed by a pure infinitive without to. It has been intimated in Sec. imperfect. If a participial adjective.

With them." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. from a sort of temporary death. 20. 9. 24. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. morning is not a new issuing of light. 11.Down all the line.5. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 13. 14. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. as the Hindoos say. 10. Right graciously he smiled on us. 22. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. he thought only of her. 6. However that be. Whatever ground you sow or plant. a new bursting forth of the sun. .²a getting-out of their bodies to think. leaving me upon the bed. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 21. 17. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 19. When he arose in the morning. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 12. So. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. a new waking up of all that has life.O God. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. He passed across the room to the washstand. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 18. 16. In going for water. The soul having been often born. or. a sweet good will. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. and wondered if she were yet awake. as usual. see that it is in good condition. as rolled from wing to wing. a deafening shout. 8. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 23. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 15. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence.Henceforth in me instill.

as. and men of leisure and cultivation.25. because." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. "William's private life was severely pure.² The young man reveres men of genius. 279. 29. Adverbs modify. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.²EMERSON. or manner: as. place. ADVERBS. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Is it only poets. for the hour of rest is at hand. who live with nature?²ID." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].Feast while we may. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. 26. they are more himself than he is. thou sayest. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. for example. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. 27." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. to consent.²THACKERAY. To the almost terror of the persons present. A verb. Nor was it altogether nothing. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. and live ere life be spent. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way.²CARLYLE." An adjective or an adverb.²SHELLEY." "He was absolute. ."²DE QUINCEY. to speak truly. And now wend we to yonder fountain. The word adverb means joined to a verb. When action is expressed. Oh. Better it were. and limit adjectives or adverbs. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.²time. and so on.

hitherto. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. 282. while those in Sec. as. and that. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. I draw forth the fruit. An adverb. for example. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. as shown in the sentences. NOTE. lately. . 169. not simply the forms used in predication. as now. We are offered six months' credit. ALDRICH. being adverbs naturally and fitly. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. but really modifying. Thus considered.² FRANKLIN.²BYRON. 281. not the noun. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. NOTE. ever. which may qualify an action word or a statement.²T.² LOWELL. all wet and glossy. B.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. A phrase. before.²LEIGH HUNT.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.²TROLLOPE. but some verb understood. 280. Surely happiness is reflective. thus. or a word group used as such. A clause or sentence. has induced some of us to attend it. to-day.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. there are six classes:² (1) Time. 169 are felt to be elliptical. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. and half awfully. Definition.²THOREAU. etc. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.²These last differ from the words in Sec. It may also modify a sentence. (2) according to their use in the sentence. is a modifying word. perhaps. then.He was incidentally news dealer. but still with a rich bloom to it. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. like the light of heaven. ²IRVING.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. Make music to the lonely ear. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.

while so precedes only the adjective usually. the more friends you will have.²DE QUINCEY. .² The master. not. as well. much. etc. Thackeray. (3) Manner. surely. better. (see also Sec. too. (b) PLACE TO WHICH..which gained him such universal popularity. etc.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. for example. just.²R.²LECKY. singly. Meekness. whencesoever. LOUIS STEVENSON. very.(2) Place. (6) Assertion. 283). the more perfect will be their obedience. slowly. So also in Grote. 283. bravely.. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.whither. partly.. as little.where. and not infrequently are found in literary English. whithersoever. enough. The more they multiply. that these adverbs form a very large class. etc. etc. Emerson. at least. the more evidently they love liberty.yonder. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. (4) Number.²HAWTHORNE. and others. [Sidenote The status of such. as hither. above. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.there.. probably. etc. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.²IRVING. etc. as perhaps.thence. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. (5) Degree. or how far he believes it to be true. I was.thither.²BROWNING. especially the comparative of these words. thus. telling how many times: once.was for this once of her opinion. possibly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. greatly. telling how anything is done. twice.near.²SHAKESPEARE.. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. as here.²BURKE. beautifully. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. as hence. This long's the text. slightly.whence. two by two. maybe. telling how much.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. Motley. White.

²BAYNE.² KINGSLEY. I perceived his sisters mighty busy." "I have seen you before [time]. Aldrich."²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. Direct questions. Some adverbs. for example. It is only occasionally used in literary English. De Quincey." said the king. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.²THACKERAY. Kingsley. Interrogative. Dickens. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for." "That were far better [degree]. and other writers. Simple. 286. B.²THACKERAY. Defoe. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. A pretty large experience. Notice meanings. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. and art but a fool.²GOLDSMITH. Beau Fielding. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. for example. 284.²FIELDING. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. . Pretty is also used by Prescott.²BULWER. Mighty." "The house. Hard blows and hard money. Neville. Burke. Again.²"He walked too far [place].Pretty. besides modifying." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Emerson.² You are mighty courteous. 285. Such are most of those given already in Sec. and its lawn before [place].² "Mighty well. "Peace. a mighty fine gentleman." "He spoke positively [manner]. have the additional function of asking a question. 282. Holmes. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Franklin. STOWE.

Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. I know not why.²BYRON. (4) Degree. (2) Place. for example. they smiled. (5) Reason.²BULWER.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. WEBSTER.²POE.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. I hearkened. .These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²D. I do not remember when I was taught to read. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. 287. (2) Place.²BYRON (3) Manner. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. I will not ask where thou liest low. When did this humane custom begin?²H. CLAY. (4) Degree. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.

highest.) rather 289. Its strings boldlier swept. when compared. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. 290. Exercise. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. representing four classes. Superlative. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. 288. only occasionally having -er and -est. have the same inflection as adjectives. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. irregularly compared. use. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. when does not express time and modify. Many adjectives have the same ending. and. .²COLERIDGE. just as adjectives do.. The following. furthest (rathe. Then must she keep it safelier. but the whole clause. Many adverbs are compared. sooner.²TENNYSON. higher.²SHAKESPEARE. high.²EMERSON. soonest. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. For further discussion.. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. as. Only that we may wiselier see.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. see Sec. Form vs. further farthest. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Tell what each word in ly modifies. obs.But in reality. not an adverb." Exercise. when. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. well much little far late Comparative. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. soon.²BYRON.eyes.

evenly. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.²TENNYSON.²ID. Not near so black as he was painted. Again. that in Old and Middle English. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries.²WORDSWORTH. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. 292. hard. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 7. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. . And all about. The reason is. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. more courtly in their manners. Special use of there.² EMERSON.²IRVING. whether adverbs or adjectives. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. hardly. 3.²CHAUCER. Frequently the word there. merely introduces a sentence. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. nearly." Compare these:² 1. mostly. He is inexpressibly mean.1.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 8. With his proud. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. 6. curiously jolly. instead of being used adverbially. But he must do his errand right. as. 2. but with a different meaning. 2. Such are most. There are eyes.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. many words without -ly have the same form. 4. 5. quick-flashing eye.²THACKERAY. to be sure. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.And his mien of kingly state. kindly and good-natured in secret. etc. 291. even. if it has the verb be. near. or down the leaves laughed through.

18. But a few steps farther on. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and always. give² (1) The class. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 11. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. It is the Cross that is first seen. (2) Degree of comparison. but from my fall? 6. . 2. and sate down on the steps of a house. 3. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. at the regular wine-shop. burning in the center of the temple. For the impracticable. 10. 17. 9. 7. 293. if the word is compared. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. In parsing adverbs. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. Thither we went. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. however theoretically enticing. 15. 4. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 5. (3) What word or word group it modifies. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 16.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Exercise. according to meaning and also use. the Madonna is in great glory. 12. is always politically unwise. but continually shifted.

A conjunction is a linking word. CONJUNCTIONS. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. however. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority." Paragraphs. But now the wind rose again. but the student will readily find them." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. 21. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. therefore. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. then. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. . etc. Unlike adverbs. 294. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. Definition. upon which the sun now shone forth. 295. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. sentences. nor.19. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. or sentence groups." Sentences. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. Clauses. but side by side within the American Union. connecting words. It was pretty bad after that. 22. word groups. 20. hence.

Some go in threes. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. the window being open. whether. likewise... neither. hence..Classes of conjunctions. as and. Adversative. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. Nor mark'd they less.. (3) CAUSAL. either. neither. nor.or. 297. 298. etc.. as but. moreover.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. Causal. etc. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. Correlatives. serves but to show their ignorance.. yet. as. joining words. the bread was spent.. not only.. therefore. also. either.. Alternative. neither. whether.. Your letter.. introducing a reason or cause. "Howbeit. etc.. as well as the room door. then. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. word groups. however..or whether..nor.nor. (2) Subordinate. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. . else. as. The chief ones are. as well as. nor. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. They are or. only.or. the butter too.. expressing a choice. for. however.. or the sea rolls its waves. (2) ADVERSATIVE. had its weight.and.or. Some of these go in pairs. answering to each other in the same sentence. of the same rank. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. but is emperor in his own right. either. both.or. 296. not only.. while. whether. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (4) ALTERNATIVE. usually between two things. The assertion... and not man corn." Nevertheless.but (or but also).. still.. and.but.. While the earth bears a plant. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.

are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. so. there will the heart be also. whence.. so. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. etc.²BIBLE. that. 299. etc.. before. while. (6) PURPOSE: that. (3) MANNER: how. whenever. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. It is. Where the treasure is. so.. nor wing of bird. now. even if. nor green leaf. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. He is not only bold and vociferous. whither. QUINCY. etc. whithersoever. ²ALLSTON. so that.²COOPER. provided. in order that. though. howsoever. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. in case. (2) TIME: when. after.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body.²PAULDING. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. Neither the place in which he found himself.²DE QUINCEY. etc. nor echo. as. wherever. since. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. (7) RESULT: that. so that. however.. lest. nor creeping thing.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. except. especially that after so. sometimes if. object. seeing.²BURKE. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. until. unless. ere. Time. etc. whereas. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. in apposition. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that.²WILSON. whether. .²J. although. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.²IRVING. whereto. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. on condition that. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. as. since. provided that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.

It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Condition. Then Denmark blest our chief. JACKSON. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Cause.²DEFOE. Concession. Comparison. H.²IRVING. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Let the world go how it will. As a soldier.²CARLYLE Events proceed. We wish for a thousand heads.²EMERSON. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. So many thoughts moved to and fro.² WORDSWORTH.²AMES. Sparing neither whip nor spur.That vain it were her eyes to close. a thousand bodies. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.So I behold them not.²EMERSON.²BURKE. Result. Substantive. but not so long but I held it out.That he gave her wounds repose.² HAWTHORNE.² H.²EMERSON. not as they were expected or intended.²BYRON. I was again covered with water.²AMES. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²COLERIDGE. Purpose.²AMES. Now he is dead. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. reason.²CAMPBELL.² EMERSON. Manner. . A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.

²RUSKIN. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 12. He was brought up for the church. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 3. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. and hid her there. since. as. They. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 7. 4. 15. Exercises. As will have been noticed. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. . then. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. while. 14. that. And then recovering. In what point of view. No one had yet caught his character. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 5. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. however. While a faction is a minority. While patriotism glowed in his heart. some words²for example. Besides. she faintly pressed her hand. as he shot in air. And they lived happily forever after. it will remain harmless. the wisest. 6. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. her real merit is known at home.Let us see whether the greatest. 10. Crept under the leaf. etc. After he was gone. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 9. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 300. The moth fly. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. the lady called her servant. hold a subordinate rank. 13.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 2.

(2) What words. GREELEY.. As if.²BYRON. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.²HOOD. 303. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. the expression would be. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. and part as though we parted not. thus. 304. even as they would weep. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. "We meet. As for as if. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. for example. If analyzed. and the frame will suit the picture. So silently we seemed to speak. and be a bud again. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. In parsing conjunctions. etc. In Emerson's sentence. none of the lashings having given way.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. As though.So slowly moved about. 301.Clouded. SPECIAL REMARKS. . As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. expressing degree if taken separately. His voice .16.²EMILY BRONTE. Consequently. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. In poetry. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17." as. word groups.²IRVING. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. they connect.As though a rose should shut.. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. 302. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.. as is shown by the use of as though. in this case. as is often equivalent to as if.

as beside his own chimneys. dines with as good an appetite. in 3. 9.²that the fairies do not like to be named. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.²DEFOE 2. When the gods come among men. If he could solve the riddle. 2. so they paddled on. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. 4. so that expresses result. or in the snow. He is the compend of time." said his wife to Martin Luther. 13. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. the Sphinx was slain. For example.. 3. 5. and its clause depends on the other. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. It may be safely trusted. It continued raining. and. etc. Some conjunctions. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. so means therefore.² 1. 11. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. or in the forest. At sea. "Doctor. because. but of the natural. Exercise. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. so it be faithfully imparted. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. others belong to several classes. . Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. so that I could not stir abroad. 10. in 2. when. 7. and very seldom?" 8. and associates as happily. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. All the postulates of elfin annals. are regularly of one particular class. that it might testify of that particular ray. he sleeps as warm. such as nor. He dismisses without notice his thought.²I find them true in Concord. so they be each honest and natural in their hour.²EMERSON 3. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and the like. 12. because it is his. and its clause is independent. they are not known.Caution.²is subordinate of condition.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. 6. he is also the correlative of nature. so means provided. In classifying them. compare the sentences.

save it were sinful like herself. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. won't you lay on? 17. I rejoice to stand here no longer. however. For. 22. It may be so in the majority of cases. 30. 25. of good novels only. when it was presented to them. in many a heart. 15. PREPOSITIONS. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. the whole conditions are changed. 26. you must be. 29. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 305. . 20. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him.14. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. whose names I omit. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 18.. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. that both were wayward. It is clear. 21. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. Now you have the whip in your hand. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. enthroned. 24. And whether consciously or not. There was no iron to be seen. I speak. she might have the family countenance. 19. 27. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 16. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 28. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 23. Still. Goodness must have some edge to it. in this they agree.²else it is none. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. therefore.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²SWIFT. at length. at all. at first. by the ruins of nations. D.² (1) The general meaning of place.²ALDRICH. as.²EVERETT. by means near or close to. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. at naught. at peace. By. at work. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at the best. at rest. by the wrecks of time. at war. ²PARTON. etc. by many a million of acres. (4) Measure of excess. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. Like at.²WARNER. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at any rate. At St. Helena.. At that time [the earth] was richer. By my faith. .²Find sentences with three different uses of at. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. by the blessed memory of the departed. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Exercise. etc. the first port made by the ship. For. at random. at most. H. TAYLOR The angel came by night.²M. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at one. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. Exercise. She saw the boat headed for her. 320. STODDARD.²COOPER. he stopped. Richard was standing by the window. expressing the degree of difference.²B. at the worst. (3) Agency or means.²ID. 321. CONWAY.²R. at least. at once. at play.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.²DE QUINCEY. (2) Time.

considering that etc. poor fellow. There are gains for all our losses.One of Eve's family.²HOLMES.²PARKMAN.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. for all slips of hers. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. The twilight being. "thou hast counseled wisely. had a forest of poor relations. they are now for us. etc. "For a fool. respecting.²IRVING. the Colonna motto would fit you best. etc.²LAMB. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.. and leaped for joy.²W. but a few sunsets since. etc. An Arab woman. He and they were for immediate attack. "Nay." answered Master Brackett. for famine. (5) Reference. For him.(2) In favor of.²STODDARD. in behalf of. (7) Concession. a person or thing.²H. or in spite of.² RUSKIN. meaning with regard to. Still. For the rest. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. if your worship can accomplish that. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON."²SCOTT By my faith. as being. (6) Like as. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. meaning in the character of. (3) Duration of time. . incitement to action. (4) Substitution or exchange. reason.²EMERSON. as to.²E. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. meaning although. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. L. GARRISON. cause.²PARKMAN. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. E. H. But the Colonel.²HOOD." said the Lady of Lochleven. ate her child. for the benefit of. he repented of his folly.²ID. for all his title.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. (9) Motive. or extent of space.. BANCROFT.

did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Exercise. or reason. (1) Origin or source. 323. H. more. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. (4) Motive. Of. The From Relation.²H. It was from no fault of Nolan's. 322.²HUME. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. (3) Time. Exercise. . ceased to be merciful. A distrustful. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²DRYDEN.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. Like boys escaped from school. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. From. like from. The general idea in from is separation or source.²MILTON.²HALE. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. The king holds his authority of the people.²HUXLEY.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. From harmony. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. nay. from a desire of seeming valiant. The young cavaliers. The original meaning of of was separation or source. if not a desperate man. cause. (2) Origin.²HIGGINSON.²ID.²BANCROFT. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.

. rob. You cannot make a boy know. etc.²ALDRICH.²BOSWELL. ask. expressing a part of a number or quantity. disarm. motive. beg. as north of. etc. out of the most unpromising materials. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. White shirt with diamond studs. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. and grass. demand. (d) With words expressing distance. deprive.²BAYARD TAYLOR. Asked no odds of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. free. "Good for him!" cried Nolan."²E. Back of that tree. bound with thongs of boar's hide. The hills were bare of trees. etc. He is away of his own free will. rid. wide of. such as ease. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. (b) After some adjectives.²PARKMAN. "I am glad of that. free of.²SCOTT Who formed. acquitted them of.²clear of. divest. that Cromwell once ruled England. especially out of. (5) Expressing agency. south of.²ID. there were only twenty-one members present.²BANCROFT. clear.²DICKENS II. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. Other Relations expressed by Of. deprivation. ²GAVARRE. bare of. Sandals. (c) After nouns expressing lack. relieve. purge. cure. (3) With expressions of material. of his own knowledge. Of the Forty. (6) Partitive. weeds. More than one altar was richer of his vows. A singular want of all human relation.²LEW WALLACE. etc. or breastpin of native gold. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. E. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. etc.² HUXLEY. reason. HALE. ²PARTON. .² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.²HIGGINSON.

equal to about.²BANCROFT. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. concerning. when the first is descriptive of the second. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. Such a book as that of Job. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. (b) Noun and gerund. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. (10) Of reference. of a sudden. and the dignity of a queen. being equivalent to an infinitive. Not even woman's love. See also Sec. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. ²IRVING. for the possessive. E. (7) Possessive. CHANNING. Besides the phrases of old.²HALLECK. etc.²SWIFT.²BANCROFT.²FROUDE. standing. with its object. with regard to. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. The fair city of Mexico..²LAMB. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. (9) Of time. (c) Two nouns. of late. (8) Appositional.²W. 309. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. . could give shelter from his contumely. Idiomatic use with verbs.²COOPER. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²LOWELL.²ID.²ALDRICH.²BANCROFT.He washed out some of the dirt. The nation of Lilliput. of is used in the sense of during.²PRESCOTT.

SIGOURNEY. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. without adding to their meaning. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²MRS. (3) Reference. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. and others. The general meaning of on is position or direction. 324. etc. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²PARKMAN. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. disapprove. on board. permit. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. allow. (b) With motion. on view.²BRYANT. repent. Upon. Upon is seldom used to express time. on a sudden. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. etc. To. such as admit.²EMERSON. Cannon were heard close on the left.²ALDRICH. It also accompanies the verbs tire. Exercise. (4) In adjurations. ²BANCROFT.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. . On. On my life. Exercise. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²DE QUINCEY. concerning.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. avail (one's self). consist.²Find sentences with six uses of of.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. (2) Time. equal to about. on high. and not a day more. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. on trial. complain. accept. approve.²PARKMAN. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. 325.²PARKMAN. Upon my reputation and credit. on the wing. on the alert. you are eighteen.

The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. interest. does the mere music. (5) Equivalent to according to.²PARTON. His brother had died.. Exercise.²BENTON To our great delight.²PARKMAN..²Find sentences containing three uses of to.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. In Old English. mid meant in company with.²LANG. (2) Expressing result. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. Revolutions.²HALE.² be written over. unmasked. (b) Referring to time. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. 326. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²BRYANT. to my taste. whose influence is felt to this hour. Death!²HALLECK. Nor. He usually gave his draft to an aid.²IRVING. to him.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. had ceased to be.. But when.Come to the bridal chamber. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.. To the few. With.²often to the loss of vigor. .²BULWER. gay Comedy appears. 268). Full of schemes and speculations to the last. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. it may be genuine poetry.²B.

After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. Either with the swingle-bar.²E. transmitted from the beginning. with Heyward at its head. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. With all his sensibility.²HALE. . as with you.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²ALDRICH.²CHANNING. in spite of. it is necessary. opinion. motive.²HOWELLS. He expired with these words.²WALLACE (7) Time.²DE QUINCEY. to find the object of the preposition. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. felt it unsafe to trifle further. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²EMERSON. She seemed pleased with the accident.²COOPER. (4) Estimation. "poetry is not a pursuit. He was wild with delight about Texas. HALE. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. (5) Opposition. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. 327. (3) Cause. I think.²COLERIDGE. E. but with you.²HOWELLS.²LANG. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. first of all. It seemed a supreme moment with him.The advance. (2) Instrumentality. Messala.²DE QUINCEY. or with the haunch of our near leader. Exercise. but a pleasure"?²LANG. had already reached the defile. he gave millions to the sword. with all his boldness. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. reason. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²SCOTT. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.

And so on. without a country modifies man.²ID. 4. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. shook it directly over my head. To our general surprise. he followed us one day into those gardens. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. Exercises. but I received no other hurt. (2) on which. In (2). of on. 3. country. (4) from the beginning. we met the defaulter here. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. like the clapping of wings. but all to no purpose. before the dwarf left the queen. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. came tumbling about my ears. or was. by which a dozen apples. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. and knocked me down flat on my face.The phrases are (1) on board the ships.²SWIFT 2. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. beginning. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. (3) without a country. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. because I had given the provocation. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. I speak these things from a love of justice. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. telling what man. of without. the phrase answers the question where. The guns were cleared of their lumber. I called out several times. I heard a noise just over my head. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. 5. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. hence we say. of from. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. I remember. I looked towards my windows. the malicious rogue. In (3). Be that as it will. Whereupon. I felt my box raised very high in the air. In (1). The object of on board is ships. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. . There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. which. 2.

in this respect. 11. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 27.6.Without stop or stay. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. in town. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. to one dark and gloomy. 14. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 7. His breeches were of black silk. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 13. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 12. 25. 20. For my part. . though unbroken by the peal of church bells. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. he favored the world with his opinions. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 23. grasping at the child. 22. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 10. The savage army was in war-paint. 9. 21. 15. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. I like to see the passing. 24. 18. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. The mother sank and fell. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 29. 16. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent.He spurred his courser on. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 17. On all subjects known to man. when. plumed for battle. 26. after a restful morning. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 19. 8. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. With all his learning. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service.

That is what I understand by scientific education. That night was a memorable one. that you might behold this joyous day.²WEBSTER. And now it is like an angel's song. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. That was a dreadful mistake. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 330. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. 329.²HUXLEY. 328. We wish that labor may look up here. A few are discussed below. . (1) Relative pronoun.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. THAT.30. (a) Indefinite relative. (4) As an adverb of degree. He will raise the price. (2) As an adjective pronoun. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²WEBSTER.²STOCKTON. WHAT.²COLERIDGE. (c) Substantive conjunction. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.² JOHNSON.²WEBSTER. and not according to form. not merely by the amount of the tax.²BEECHER.That makes the heavens be mute. (3) As a relative pronoun. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. (b) Of result.

² Pera. silent still. BUT...Those shadowy recollections. (b) Copulative. or not only. partly. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (7) Adverb of degree. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union..²EMERSON. To say what good of fashion we can. Cox.. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question..²ID.these sounds are only to be heard. and silent all!²BYRON. he knows what good people are to be found there.S." (4) Relative is impossible to determine.. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. What..Which be they what they may. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. "I'll tell you what.but. it rests on reality.. (b) Indirect question. If he has [been in America].²THACKERAY. after not only..²S. What.²WEBSTER. (8) Conjunction.²EMERSON. (9) As an exclamation. .. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. nearly equivalent to partly.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (b) Indirect question. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. 331. to see what might be hidden. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. What with the Maltese goats. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²ID. but the result of calculation.

.²LAMB. AS. not. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²HAWTHORNE. (d) Of reason. Who knows but.²CARLYLE. meaning except.Then arose not only tears. or who .²IRVING. (3) Preposition. (2) Relative pronoun. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.He yearned to our patriot bands. . after such. not. stands for that .. but piercing cries. like the dog. To lead but one measure. (b) Of manner. meaning only. not. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. on all sides. than. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. Doing duty as a guard. ²CARLYLE. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. (b) Substantive. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. after a negative. (5) Adverb.²EMERSON. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²SHELLEY.²SCOTT. (c) Of degree.²IRVING. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. at all moments. sometimes same. (4) Relative pronoun. (e) Introducing an appositive word.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven..²FRANKLIN. I shall see but little of it.²MRS BROWNING. meaning otherwise . 332.²IRVING.. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. equivalent to that . towards order.. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU..

indeed.²DARWIN.²CASS. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. and was clearly an adjective. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. and is followed by a dative-objective. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²ALDRICH.²HIGGINSON.²ALDRICH. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. Note the difference between these two uses.²EMERSON. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. Introduces a clause. No Emperor. like him awhile ago. like summer ocean's. nervous child. like drops out. but this is not considered good usage: for example. like Martin was. 333. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²MAYHEW.² A timid. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. Stirring it vigorously. In each case. this. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. I do with my friends as I do with my books. They look. In this second use.² HAWTHORNE. staring like a bewildered man. but its verb is omitted. NOTE.-SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. This follows a verb or a verbal.²LAMB. Give Ruskin space enough. . (1) An adjective.LIKE.²LONGFELLOW. Through which they put their heads. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. and as or as if takes its place.²HALLECK.²SHAKESPEARE. like a cook beating eggs. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²EMERSON. There is no statue like this living man. ²PARKMAN. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. That face. If the verb is expressed. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.

"Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. that is. verb.INTERJECTIONS.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. 335. subject and predicate.. etc. Some of these are imitative sounds. in separating them into their component parts. clauses introduced by conjunctions. as. . and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. that is. 334. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. tut! buzz! etc.: for example." PART II. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. pronoun. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. entering into the structure of a sentence. Value of analysis. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. but it still retains its identity as noun. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. etc. Definition. 336.²in determining case. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. What analysis is." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Definition. Not all exclamatory words are interjections." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].

337. Definition. "Come to the bridal chamber. interrogative. (2) Interrogative. not according to the form in which a thought is put. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. "Hath he not always treasures. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. which expresses command.Kinds of sentences as to form. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. (3) Imperative. but by no means vulgar. 2. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. which puts the thought in a question. entreaty. Examples of these three kinds are. SIMPLE SENTENCES. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. A rare old plant is the ivy green. Definition: Predicate. Division according to number of statements. Every sentence must contain two parts. . But now all is to be changed. according to form. but according to how many statements there are." "What wouldst thou do. always friends?" imperative. or request. 338." 340. "The quality of mercy is not strained. declarative. "Old year. question. or command: for example.²a subject and a predicate. or imperative. old man?" "Be thou familiar. but the sentence would still be declarative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. you must not die!" interrogative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. This is the most common one. 339. hence.

Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. to suit all cases:² Subject. 3. . In analyzing such sentences. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. we say all is the subject of the sentence. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. especially in poetry. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. and is to be supplied.²What is to be changed? Answer. the subject is frequently after the verb. on the other hand. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. But if we try this with the second sentence. not of a rare old plant. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. 6. "[You] behold her single in the field. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. thou. 7. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Listen. always reduce them to the order of a statement." Exercise.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. we have some trouble. Consequently. 2. Thus. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. The last of all the Bards was he. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves.²What is the ivy green? Answer. adjective. 8. and the real subject is the latter. all. or an interrogative pronoun. the subject (you.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. as. to an ignorant man. Slavery they can have anywhere. In the interrogative sentence. 4. a rare old plant. or adverb that asks about the subject. 341. 5. or ye) is in most cases omitted. and our definition must be the following. but about the ivy green.

Direct Object. but it is a true complement. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Of a transitive verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. and means summoned. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. and by object we mean the direct object. direct. but chief belongs to the verb. The transitive verb often requires. but of call chief. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb." indirect. 343. (5) Modifiers. (2) The predicate. 342. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. The subject and predicate have been discussed. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. for example. . or second object. just as if to say. and me here is not the object simply of call.10. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions.²transitive and intransitive. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (6) Independent elements. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. "Ye call me chief. "Ye honor me. (3) The object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object." Complement: 344. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Indirect object. in addition to the object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (4) The complements. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning.

etc. and barring the door. 355. sir!' rang out in response." "The good man. "Brow and head were round. to the completion of this man of the world. 364." Also an expression used as a noun. or." (3) INFINITIVE. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. but used as a single modifier. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. become. I mentioned a case of that nature. not containing a verb. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. introduced by a preposition: for example." (2) PARTICIPIAL. in the original Opium Confessions. feel. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. for instance. 352. "A cheery. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. Thom of the Gills. taste. as in drowning.." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . appear. Phrases. An intransitive verb.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. in the popular judgment. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." 345. seem. he was now getting old. more familiarly. 347. and of massive weight. Complement of an intransitive verb." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. especially the forms of be. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. 'Ay." Things used as Subject. As to form. ay. See sentence 19. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. in exercise following Sec. as in the sentence." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. as. 346. 351." All these complete intransitive verbs." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. and." "He was termed Thomas. A phrase is a group of words. above sixty.

" 348. Disguised infinitive subject. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." etc." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. "Therein has been." "The dead are there. 349. or the thundering of organs. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. and ever will be." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. etc. asserting eyes." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. (4) After "there introductory." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. my deficiency. "'By God." The for did not belong there originally. or their religion from their sect.²the infinitive phrase. but the real or logical subject is to print. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. but obscures the real subject. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. for which see Sec. and by Saint George!' said the King. but they will be given in detail here." Things used as Direct Object." In this sentence." "Never." Things used as Complement. . (2) In interrogative sentences." "There are asking eyes." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. was heard one syllable to justify. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. from their lips.²the talent of starting the game. prowling eyes.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. 341. I saw the quick and the dead. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud.

" (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. Object." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. the shepherd girl." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. 351. at the same time. complements of the predicate. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. and explaining or modifying the subject.350. and." "Serving others is serving us. and the words italicized are still complements. doubtless. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." "Their tempers. As complement of a transitive verb.²heads or tails." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. or the equivalent of the noun." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." In this last sentence. they are adjuncts of the object." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. Modifiers of Subject. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. Of a transitive verb. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." "I hear the echoes throng." "She asked her father's permission. the object is made the subject by being passive.²completing the predicate." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. As complement of an intransitive verb." . Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." (4) Participle. and whenever the complement is a noun.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. Like all the complements in this list." Modifiers. (3) Infinitive. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. I. or Complement.

was the scene from King John. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. Tells how." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. tell whether the subject." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. given at the request of a Dutch lady. unforgiving." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. Retained with passive." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. "He died like a God. the prisoner at the bar. or complement is modified. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. Since the predicate is always a verb." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." In such a sentence as. but it is really a contracted clause. 352. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." Exercise. 351. I have seasoned for thee. or .²proud." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. austere. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." (For participial and infinitive phrases." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "Him. not with nature.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." "Give them not only noble teachings. Modifiers of the Predicate. 357-363. see further Secs. II. the verb being omitted. object. but noble teachers.²In each sentence in Sec. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. this young idolater. and leading him from star to star. but with other men. no sociable angel. and modify the predicate in the same way. was now called upon for his defense.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." "In the twinkling of an eye.

and. I took. and the direct object is retained: for example. and other measures of precaution. These answer the question when. 3. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. gives wonderful animation. Fashion does not often caress the great." "All such knowledge should be given her. with my joy and grief. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light.. (a) Pick out subject. predicate. To the men of this world. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. 4. and (direct) object:² 1. They do not wish to be lovely. but the children of the great. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. This." Exercises. a sort of personality to the whole writing. . 6. the indirect object is retained. in this center? 4. On the voyage to Egypt. to the animal strength and spirits. or how long. (b) Pick out the subject. is good in the making. His books have no melody. 5. he liked. no emotion. Why does the horizon hold me fast. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. how far. 6." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. Evil. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. 7. 2. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus." (6) Adverbial objective. no relief to the dead prosaic level. and as many to oppose it. according to old philosophers. 7. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. etc. 5. But anger drives a man to say anything. 3. negative. A merciless oppressor hast thou been." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. no humor. but to be loved. in regard to particulars. predicate. 8." "One way lies hope. 2.When the verb is changed from active to passive. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. after dinner.

then. 3. viz. this dragoon so lovely. this nun so martial. upwards. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. a room seventeen feet by twelve. six children sat by a peat fire. Unhorse me. 2. in little peaceful Easedale. 5. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 3.y 8.. the present Archbishop of Dublin. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1.²the river Meuse. I promised her protection against all ghosts. then. . 4. Yes. 4. after their long confinement to a ship. To suffer and to do. 2. In one feature. downwards. I gave him an address to my friend. at the chief hotel. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. Not the less I owe thee justice. burthened with the anxieties of a man. the attorney. Their intention was to have a gay. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. to the right and to the left. for the first time. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. happy dinner. 2. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 6. this imperial rider. 5. etc. the blooming cornet. 4.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. at length the warrior lady. A river formed the boundary. y y y y Compound Subject. that was thy portion in life. must visit again the home of her childhood. and a member of the world. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 3. Compound Predicate. expecting the return of their parents. I felt myself. That night. Not compound sentences. Paint me.

"The company broke up. 354. in all such sentences as we quote below." "He shook his head. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. exposes. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. several modifiers. and its object or complement." "Voyages and travels I would also have. the air of the mother. etc." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. etc. together with its modifiers. ulcer. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences.. the object. forming a sentence: "Oh. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. I'm with you once again. they are not a necessary part. The exclamatory expression. shouldered the rusty firelock. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. the simple subject is situation. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. hurry. "Ah. two or more subjects of the same predicate. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. 355. that is. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. may be the person or thing addressed.353. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. the verb)." "The name of the child. Larger view of a sentence. above: thus. Bishop. same as (1). however. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. and. the tone of her voice. and the rest is the logical predicate. etc. turned his steps homeward. complements. together with all its modifiers. For example. modifiers. in the sentence. hurry. Of this. then the grammatical subject and predicate." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. but it is to be noticed that. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject." "Ye crags and peaks. the predicate." And so with complements. my brave young man!" . Independent Elements of the Sentence. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." Sentences with compound predicates are. Examples of compound subjects are.

to the best of my remembrance. etc." "Well. he closed his literary toils at dinner. the company broke up. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 4). the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. instances of which were seen in Sec." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. generally speaking. already noticed.." (6) Single words: as. or word used as a noun: for example. . her noticing even this is creditable. modifying the predicate. etc. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. modifying a noun. 357. y (2) The adverbial use. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. let him perish. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. object. The words well. see Sec. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. 350." (5) Participial phrase: "But." "No. "Oh. how you're winking!" "Now. or complement (see Sec." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. six quill-driving gentlemen. truly. why.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. pronoun. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." "Why. 352. he was a conscientious man. and some conjunctions." (3) Independent. There are some adverbs. 355. yes! everybody knew them. These need close watching. grandma. such as perhaps. nevertheless. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. see Sec. and so on. 3. 4). this story runs thus. 6). It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. now. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. undoubtedly. then. such as however. prepositional phrases may be. besides. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. that have an office in the sentence. 356." "At all events." (2) Adverbial. therefore." Another caution." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife.. 351. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. really. In their use." "Truth to say. (1) Adjectival. moreover. (b) As a modifier of subject. he somehow lived along.

and hence is adverbial. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. 355." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. modifying was speedily run through. "Because I was." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb." etc. etc. therefore. or as nearly so as the student will require. was speedily run through. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. being equivalent to a future with obligation. The verbal use.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. containing no matters of business." In this sentence.seem. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. 358. See Sec.should. necessity. but require somewhat closer attention. but having no other office than a verbal one. y (a) With may (might). "The letter of introduction.]. Wilt thou. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.: as in the sentences. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. ought. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business." "There. This case excepted. (5)." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. I. etc. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." (c) With the definite forms of go. he should not have known them at all.can (could). thus. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . my dear.would. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. and they will be presented here in full. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." (b) With the forms of be. and teach her how to be happy and good." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.

The adverbial use. IV. (4) In apposition." "To say what good of fashion we can. modifying a noun that may be a subject. to please is equivalent to that he may please." "Are you mad. to hear McOrator after dinner. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. 361 are used adverbially. above." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. 5)." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "He insisted on his right to forget her. complement.²both purpose clauses. The adjectival use. II. III. and the eyes to fill?" 359. notice the following:² In (1). "Do they not cause the heart to beat. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. 362.. 351. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. . it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." 360." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. The substantive use. to look means that he might look." "To teach is to learn." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). Don Guzman. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. the Scotch fighting all the battles. 361. "But there was no time to be lost. To test this. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. already examined. object. hang the idiot. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. result." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. etc.: for example. etc.

If it is an incomplete verb." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop." (See also Sec. not in a book. and to say is equivalent to if we say. to part means because I part. 349). savage and serene in one hour. 352). In analyzing simple sentences. etc. 351).In (2). (3).²both expressing condition. 3. In (4). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 4. . to hear means if you should hear. must be in a life. 2. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 363. etc. to find shows the result of the return.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. object. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 351). (7) Independent elements (Sec. and to betray and to bring express the reason. In (5).. equivalent to that you betray. (5) The subject (Sec. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. etc. I will try to keep the balance true. as in Sec. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 355. 351). 364.. 355). and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. give the complement (Secs. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. The independent use. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 347). give² (1) The predicate. which is of two kinds.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. 268. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. V. Our life is March weather. In (3). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1.

To be hurried away by every event. might be called flabby and irresolute.The old crow of Cairo. always in a bad plight. is to have no political system at all. 10. through toys and atoms. and spared nothing. nor troops. a skilled musician. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 21. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 9. 11. The water. You may ramble a whole day together. 20. good and amiable otherwise. like a witch's oils. His opinion is always original.4. The word conscience has become almost confined. through evil agents. We are always in peril. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. a good shot. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 17. 23.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 8. two stricken hours. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. just on the edge of destruction. The whole figure and air. 18. nor himself. the carrion crow. 6. 15. nor money.²to preserve her throne. to restore civil and religious order. 19.Burnt green and blue and white. 12. . 22. To these gifts of nature. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 5. 16. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. in popular use. and only to be saved by invention and courage. an accomplished scholar. and every moment discover something new. with eager energy. Old Adam. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. a graceful dancer. neither ammunition. I have heard Coleridge talk. to keep England out of war. 14. 7. Her aims were simple and obvious. 24. nor generals. Through the years and the centuries. and to the purpose.He sat in the shower. 13. He risked everything. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. to the moral sphere.

upon my own ground. the same Condé Olivarez. 40. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 26.Effacing many a stain of former crime. 27. had but one foible. 36. Oxford. and the why. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. Fair name might he have handed down. 37.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. She had made a two days' march. The cry. 38. 30. This amiable relative. Supposing this computation to be correct. I hate him and myself. to be a reproach to such goodness. proud foe. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 31. 32. Now. 33. haply. baggage far in the rear. and no provisions but wild berries. or perhaps one virtue. Upon this shore stood. and the wherefore? . the prime minister of Spain. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. to bid you leave the place now and forever. In the Acadian land. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 35. The villain. Few in number. secluded. an elderly man. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. and in my own garden. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. and. 39.25. Must we in all things look for the how. time-honored. in front of all this mighty crowd. But yield. 41. 29. in this world. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. ready to receive her. in less heroic and poetic form. the present capital of New England. the ship was in an uproar. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Of the same grandeur. still. 34. I dare this.Distant.

COMPLEX SENTENCES. . be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. as. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. which is the unit of speech. though often treated as phrases." Sentences with like. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]." To show that these words are really omitted." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. As shown in Part I. 366. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. 367.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. are really contracted clauses. 365. if they were expanded.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. Words left out after than or as. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. however." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. (Sec. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. the expressions of manner introduced by like. but.² "She is like some tender tree. The simple sentence the basis. the pride and beauty of the grove." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom.From her own loved island of sorrow. 333). as would be the connective instead of like. thus. made merely for convenience and smoothness." This must.

how great . A clause is a division of a sentence. is taken in. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause)." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. and the next one. CLAUSES. Definition.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. and modifier. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. . logically depends on suffering. etc.²the backbone. that .. modifiers. or dependent on it. 368. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. each clause has its subject. we are aware. containing a verb with its subject. then we recognize this as the main statement. object. 369. 370.. A principal.. complement. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. murmur. suffering. main. and the last. that is. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject.. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. predicate. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence.²the other members subordinate to it. as in this sentence. Independent clause. object. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. or it may be applied to the others. which are so united that one member is the main one. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. complements. 371. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. Hence the following definition:² Definition.

but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. adjectives. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. (a) Ordinary apposition." (2) Object of a verb. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. impertinences. 5). or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.' is an electric touch." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. for example. verbal. for a hundred years. put an end to my fancies. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. Kinds." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. attention is called to them here. 372." Just as the object noun. 'I know that he can toil terribly. with a noun clause in apposition with it. As to their office in the sentence. Noun Clauses. and the whole clause is not.Dependent clause. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. night or day." 374. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. 373. over which the torrent came tumbling. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. for example. and it is .. ADJECTIVE. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. (b) that are . 352. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. so the object clause is retained. clauses are divided into NOUN." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. infinitive.. etc. impertinences²would be grammatical." (4) Apposition.. thus. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. ." "I was told that the house had not been shut. and ADVERB clauses. but logically the sentence is.. for a time." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause... or adverbs. But since they are complex in form. pronoun." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. We ourselves are getting .

to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. Other examples of this construction are. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. whether he should choose one or not. Frequently there is no connecting word. What history it had. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. still remains reasonable. whence.² "It is on the understanding. 3. he could know nothing. Such a man is what we call an original man. that. but. no man will ever know. . or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. Adjective Clauses. which. sometimes by the conjunctions when. etc. 7. a falsehood incarnate. As the office of an adjective is to modify. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 375. he would repent it.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. how it changed from shape to shape. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. as. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. whereby. whither. a relative pronoun being understood. 2. 4. 5. 8. wherein. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 6. in the sentence. Examples of adjective clauses. and not on the sentiment. The reply of Socrates. where. that all safe legislation must be based. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. or equivalent of a noun. of a nation. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 9. 10. Except by what he could see for himself." Exercise. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. I was napping. that. But the fact is. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. that he was a scheming impostor.

containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. or that essence we were looking for. 2. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. whether subject. the champions advanced through the lists. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. 4. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. which formed the center of the mansion. 8." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. No man is reason or illumination. Adverbial Clauses.376. I walked home with Calhoun. 5. 1.. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 10. 7. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." Exercise." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 6. 3. object.e." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. etc. and tell what each one modifies. 9." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. which Rowena tasted. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. he begins to help us more as an effect. . Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. all is vacancy. 11. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. i. Pick out the adjective clauses.

it takes precedence of everything else." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. but they require careful study. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." (5) DEGREE. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. however good she may be as a witness. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. adverbs." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. or an adverb. the milestones are grave-stones. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. that we should try. whatever." (9) CONCESSION. introduced by indefinite relatives. 378. and will be given in detail." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. Exercise." (7) RESULT.: "But still." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. etc. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "The right conclusion is. and adverbial conjunctions. is wider. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. however. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "The broader their education is." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. the wider is the horizon of their thought. he goes away as if nothing had happened. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. an adjective. etc. and what it modifies:² ." (3) REASON. no matter what remains." "When he was come up to Christian. so far as we can." "After leaving the whole party under the table. etc." "Who cares for that. with examples. tell what kind each is.377. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go.² whoever. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. a verbal. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." These mean no matter how good. Joanna is better. shaping our actions. since he was too great to care to be original. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. to make up our shortcomings. expressing the degree in which the horizon.." "He went several times to England.

The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. they might perhaps say of their visitors. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. object. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. with shrill. etc. banging about doors and windows. and modifiers.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. then treat noun clauses as nouns. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists.1. predicate. incoherent exclamations. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. howling and whistling. its object is that Odin was a reality. when the wind was unruly. If the children gathered about her. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. in the sentence. so as to picture the parts and their relations. of which clause Odin is the subject. to tell the truth. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. For example. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . as they sometimes did. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it." 2." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. on a dark wintry night. 379. 'Well. 380. snatching up stones to fling at them. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. 3. and twirling weathercocks. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. find the principal subject and principal predicate. we are a little disappointed.

This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 2. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. d. 364. 364. Take the place and attitude which belong to you.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 3. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. as seen in the "map" (Sec. Exercises. . (1) Find the principal clause. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and ... 380).

were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 19. 8. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 7. Had they been better chemists. could not have been effected. the mixed result. But now that she has become an establishment. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. The night proved unusually dark. 24. or whether any. the shepherd girl. dying for them. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 20. This is she. whom I choose. And those will often pity that weakness most. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. Now. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. . of a light hazel. M. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. that pressed her with an objection. who would yield to it least. namely. as for armies that were too many by half. 14. 22. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. bishop. which. 9. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. for yours. if applied to the Bible. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. that.4. Next came a wretched Dominican. had we been worse. 11. 6. 10. 23. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. The deep eyes. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 12. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. not so much for travelers that were few. 13. 17. 18. the flower should revive for us. 21. 15. He was what our country people call an old one. 16. counselor that had none for herself. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. I like that representation they have of the tree. 5. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. Here lay two great roads.

3. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. . if continuously extended. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. but above it. 7." said Bentley. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 26. and temper. 5. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. we cannot adequately say. if there be one to whom I am not equal. Hence the definition. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. It makes no difference how many friends I have. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. (b) First analyze. That which we do not believe. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 6. the following complex sentences:² 1.² Definition.25. COMPOUND SENTENCES. "No book. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. These things we are forced to say. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 383. 27. 380. though we may repeat the words never so often. speed. and not from his heart. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 382." 4. How formed. that it was no more than his daily walk. 2. 30. would easily reach. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. and what content I can find in conversing with each. "was ever written down by any but itself. or commands. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. then map out as in Sec. and stamped with his right number. is to speak and write sincerely. questions.²which will not be disposed of. 28. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation.

the semicolon separates the first." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. as but. the waving grass. tell which are compound. The coördinate conjunctions and. "Only the star dazzles." 384. Thus in (1). The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. Some of these are now conjunctions. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. now adverbs or prepositions. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Connectives. while (whilst). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. nor does he know until he has tried. however. as in Sec.. and which complex:² 1. etc. he walks with arms akimbo. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. Exercise. and connects the first and second complex members. a simple member. others sometimes coördinate. in (3). he dilates. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. 385. Another example is. Speak your latent conviction. The division into members will be easier. 386. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. etc. 383 (1). and nor the second and third complex members. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). yet. Study the thought. moon-like ray" (adversative). or but. nor. and not the form of the connective. which are simple statements. . 297). the planet has a faint. he is twice a man. he soliloquizes." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. in (2). from the second. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. and it shall be the universal sense. a complex member. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. whereas. for. Of the following illustrative sentences. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. if there are any.

12. and for everything you gain. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. Whilst the world is thus dual. Exercise. 5. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. and not by what each is. for example. The gain is apparent. all pain. 6. so is every one of its parts. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. however. unobtrusive boy. 4. For everything you have missed. to find a pot of buried gold.2. or. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 14. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 2. 9. (i) Separate it into its main members. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. and thou shalt be loved. 381. he grew up to be a mild. Man does not stand in awe of man. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 8. nay. 3. 387. you have gained something else. 364. passed in that time. quiet. In this manner. and as yet very early in the morning. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 3. you lose something. the tax is certain. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. from a happy yet often pensive child. I can still receive. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. . I can yet love. 11. yield to them heart and life. However some may think him wanting in zeal. is particular. 7. 13. 4. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 10. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. All loss. that it was Easter Sunday. Love. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has.

"the iron is white. as children. modesty. 9. or men will never know and honor him aright. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and the cart as nigh the rake. 19. Trust men. 15. or we read books. 14. and not an emotion of bravery. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. give those merits room. and he learns who receives. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. is as thin and timid as any. and the other dares not. if you rip up his claims. 11. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. 6. that let him communicate. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. abide by it. and you are without effort impelled to truth." 13. or sail with God the seas. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. . 8. and they repel us. 21. 16. Whatever he knows and thinks. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. or we pursue persons. one is afraid. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. and they will be true to you. When you have chosen your part. because. and they will show themselves great. We go to Europe. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. 20. and the peace of society is often kept. and makes their business a friendship. only that they may brag and conquer there. feign to confess here. or hope. 7. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. let them mount and expand. puts the parties on a convenient footing." says the smith. He teaches who gives. We see the noble afar off.5. crook and hide. treat them greatly. why should we intrude? 10. but the day never shines in which this element may not work." says the haymaker. and not a thought has enriched either party. 17. 18. Stand aside. They will shuffle and crow. Come into port greatly. whilst frankness invites frankness. "Strike. which always make the Actual ridiculous. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and each shows only what lies at its focus." "keep the rake.

if they live. but they never acquit the debt. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms.22. and dodge the account. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. INTRODUCTORY.²agreement and government. but its leading characteristic is. the department of syntax will be a small affair. Essential point in English syntax. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. PART III. 25. So does culture with us. Ground covered by syntax. By way of introduction. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. SYNTAX. they die young. 24. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. it never was known to fall into the rear. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. it ends in headache. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 388. verb and subject. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. adjective and noun. 380. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. they lose themselves in the crowd. pronoun and antecedent. Following the Latin method. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. or. 390. We see young men who owe us a new world. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. so readily and lavishly they promise. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . but go about your business anywhere. 23.

Some rules not rigid. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. As an illustration of the last remark. pronoun and antecedent. or when they exist side by side in good usage. Also in the sentence. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. . take the sentence. There is. The basis of syntax. and imitate it. yet the expression is sustained by good authority." that is." In this there is a possessive form. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. 392. When usage varies as to a given construction. and it would not matter which one stood first. the sentence. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion." is ambiguous. some of which conform to classical grammar. "None remained but he. or settler may be the subject. and whose judgment. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. or the same writer will use both indifferently. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Why study syntax? 391. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. and added to it the preposition of. then. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. This is not logical. and nothing but important points will be considered. 393. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. as to study inflected forms. the order being inverted. In Latin.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. both forms will be given in the following pages. "The savage here the settler slew.² First. authorities²that is. For example. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. etc. sometimes verb and subject. but are not now. following the regular order of subject. therefore. Savage may be the subject. Second. good English. distinct forms would be used. also expressing a possessive relation. In some cases. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar.

PRONOUNS. and Pope's. 397. Joint possession. as. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. 408). 396. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. the shore of Galilee.² He lands us on a grassy stage. 394. 395. Putting Mr. Mill's and Mr. but imply separate possession or ownership.²BYRON. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. the antechamber of the High Priest. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.²ROWE. sense and nature's easy fool. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. for example." Juletta tells. Woman. etc. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. and Peterborough's.²MCCULLOCH. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.²RUSKIN. Bentham's principles together. and Peter's. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.² Live your king and country's best support. ²ID. and Harley's. Separate possession. the possessive sign is used with each noun.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY.²MILTON. Use of the possessive. .NOUNS. He kept Bolingbroke's.²EMERSON. and Paul's.

) "The young Harper. sanctioned. But he must be a stronger than thee. Objective for the nominative. there are two general rules that require attention.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. for example. I.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Since most of the personal pronouns. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. the real thought being forgotten.²SHAKESPEARE. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. This should be "as she. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. if not universally. Bedott Papers. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. No mightier than thyself or me. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. together with the relative who. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. Some of the violations are universally condemned. General rules. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). who. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²TROLLOPE. whom is the complement after the verb am. Still." 400.²BYRON. 399.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. 398. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. as.²WHITCHER.²POPE. and should be the nominative form.²SOUTHEY. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. others are generally. thus. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.²THACKERAY. .

The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²MACAULAY.²PARTON.² One I remember especially. A safe rule. and the other forms of the verb be. The camp of Richard of England. but such is the fact. "Who's there?"²"Me. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who."²WINTHROP. namely.²RUSKIN. In spoken English. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. unless a special. for example. the objective form is regularly found. One exception is to be noted. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. Patrick the Porter. But still it is not she. And it was heThat made the ship to go. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. The usage is too common to need further examples. BLACK. on the other hand. "If there is any one embarrassed.² For there was little doubt that it was he. both in England and America.²LONGFELLOW. as. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her." 401. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. they are yet holier than we.²KINGSLEY. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. are.²FIELDING. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable." There is no special reason for this. . "Than whom.²COLERIDGE."²KINGSLEY.²THACKERAY. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²SCOTT. is."²WM. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. it will not be me. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.

(3) By forgetting the construction. 7. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 403. 3. the object of to). 4. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. Truth is mightier than us all. 5. or this.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. as. If there ever was a rogue in the world. Me in exclamations. it is me. . you or me. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. used after verbs. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Whom they were I really cannot specify. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. as this from Shakespeare. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. as. or preposition which governs it. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. object of saw). and prepositions. 11. verbals. I speak not to" (he should be him. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who.Exercise. 10. 2. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. verbal. now. It is not me you are in love with. but not he" (he should be him. Nominative for the objective.²MILTON. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. or us). 404. as. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns." 6. 9.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. 8. "Ask the murderer." the word being in apposition with murderer).

Shall be left upon the morn. None. Thou. 405. Who have we here?²ID.²BYRON. 406. partial Nature. We regularly say. Thy shores are empires. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. Exception 2. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. changed in all save thee. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. I've sworn. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Let you and I look at these. Nature. all but he.²KINGSLEY. as. save thou and thine. etc. as.²GOLDSMITH. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Exercise.²STEELE. "Who did you see?" or.² All were knocked down but us two. I arraign. . Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form.²BYRON. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. but he. 2. for they say there are none such in the world.²KINGSLEY.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.²KINGSLEY. "Who were they talking to?" etc. as well as the objective. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. for example. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. and is usually avoided.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.Exception 1. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. who interrogative. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.

To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea.3. who. B. Markland. 6." 4. They crowned him long ago. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.²SCOTT. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 12. Preceding a gerund. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. BROWN.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. 10.²C. or objective? . As antecedent of a relative. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. 407. 9. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 7. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. 11. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. with Jortin and Thirlby.²possessive. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. 8. Bartholomew. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY.Ye I salute. II. They are coming for a visit to she and I. POSSESSIVE FORMS. This usage is not frequent. and they know that as well as me. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 5.²MACAULAY. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.²RUSKIN.

²BREWER. as he turned away from his wife. Both types of sentences are found. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. Possessive. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. The use of the objective is older. and asked why it was not made.²MACAULAY. Objective. object of heard of. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. In the examples quoted. [who was] studying law.²DICKENS. and the meaning is. that the bitterness of death was past. and that in the second. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. Here I state them only in brief. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. etc. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.²DE QUINCEY.408. both are gerunds. But in common use there is no such distinction." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. . Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.²RUSKIN.² THACKERAY. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. The last incident which I recollect.² CARLYLE." That is.² SCOTT. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. We heard of Brown.² IRVING. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. sometimes it has the objective. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. Why both are found. studying is a gerund.²CARLYLE.

²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. preceded by a distributive. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Everybody had his own life to think of. in one person. .²DEFOE.²DE QUINCEY. BROCKDEN BROWN. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. Watch for the real antecedent. number.²EMERSON III. 410.²THACKERAY. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²AUDUBON. In such a case as the last three sentences. and gender.² BRYANT.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. where there were examinations. taking in each of many persons. If any one did not know it. Examples of these constructions are. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. it was his own fault. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. and ought to agree with them in person.²HOLMES.²THOREAU.²when the antecedent.²C. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. if the antecedent is neuter. The pale realms of shade. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²DE QUINCEY. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²HUXLEY. or is a distributive word. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. Every city threw open its gates. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²RUSKIN.²CABLE. 409. the pronoun will be neuter singular.

²PALEY.²BIBLE. By using the plural pronoun. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²SCOTT. till they have lost him. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²HUXLEY. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²AUSTEN.²DEFOE. If the part deserve any comment. and giving them means of being so. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²EMERSON. . Struggling for life. 411. let them break it off.Avoided: By using both pronouns. The sun. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.² Not the feeblest grandame. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²PALGRAVE. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. This is not considered the best usage. as anybody in their senses would have done. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Whosoever hath any gold.²ID. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²ID. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. for example. not a mowing idiot.²THACKERAY. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²PAULDING. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²BYRON.²RUSKIN. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. Every one must judge of their own feelings. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²FIELDING. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.

I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. 2. Exercise. or unrestrictive. As to their conjunctive use. 412. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. . but. What these terms mean. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES.) and a personal pronoun. who went away." A relative. when coördinating. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side.² SHERIDAN. no one could take upon them to say. 1. etc. which. and that are restrictive or not. as. That is in most cases restrictive. 413. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. when restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. It adds a new statement to what precedes. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.Where she was gone. because. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.²ADDISON. unless both genders are implied. which. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. that being considered already clear. but. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. and he went away. tell whether who. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. in each instance:² Who.²ID.²In the above sentences. or what was become of her. the definite relatives who. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate." It defines beggar. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word." This means.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise. "I gave it to the beggar. according to the practice of every modern writer. In the following examples. A relative. and that always restrictive. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. and does not add a new statement. I.

Which.² NEWMAN. as that does not vary for person or number. which was to go over the Cordilleras. 8.²HOLMES. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. he. So different from the wild. 11. it makes the verb third person singular. these or that which.²ID. they." that is invariable as to person and number. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. A grizzly-looking man appeared. etc. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. which Mr. 10. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. but.² IRVING. The general rule is.3.²ADDISON. because of its antecedent.² MOTLEY. etc. II. In what sense true. We say I. 12. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. Hare has printed. who. long arms and legs. 9. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. . Yet how many are there who up. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. W. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. For example. 14.²H. and it is called logic.²ID.²THOREAU. or it might have gone hard with the tutor.. The rule. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 4. down. 7.²DE QUINCEY. 414. and over England are saying. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. that were often vicious. in the sentence. On hearing their plan. she agreed to join the party. However. you.²DE QUINCEY. etc. With narrow shoulders. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. That. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.² CARLYLE. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. BEECHER 5. 13. 6.

and write the verb in the plural. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. but speaks of him as that sort.²MACAULAY..²SCOTT. etc. or which ..²HOLMES. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. who rarely speak at all.²whether we should say. [plural] that who. and in improving a victory. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.. but the former has good authority. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. He is one of those that deserve very well.. French literature of the eighteenth century. but myself. MORSE.²LOWELL.²ADDISON.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. Franklin." or..²M. The latter is rather more frequent. when he derided the shams of society. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. The fiery youth .] Both constructions are frequently found. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. Singular. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. in winning a battle.²ADDISON. JR. 415. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. ARNOLD.²LECKY." One of . "one of the finest books that have been published.²J. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²LOWELL. [singular or plural. etc. Let us be of good cheer.. others regard books as the antecedent. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. . T. A disputed point.²HOWELLS. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. with one as the principal word. the true antecedent. "one of the finest books that has been published.²BOWLES.

or is equivalent to the conjunction when. whence.²CARLYLE.²ID. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. The same day I went aboard we set sail.² RUSKIN. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²IRVING. But I by backward steps would move. where. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²SWIFT. I could see nothing except the sky. 417. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. IV. that is. 416. III. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.And.²BURNS.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²VAUGHAN."²DICKENS.² . Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. Exercise. or where] he died. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. object of a preposition understood. return. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²GOLDSMITH." "India is the place [in which. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. when the relative word is a pronoun. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.A rare Roundabout performance.²SCOTT. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²EMERSON. and such like: as. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²In the above sentences. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.² THACKERAY.²DEFOE. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. when this dust falls to the urn.In that same state I came.²ADDISON.²EMERSON.

With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. Mr. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. she passed the lamp over her face and person. etc. V.² Which. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. . The regular construction. as of knives.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. Caution. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Which. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. They believe the same of all the works of art. but which is usually carefully avoided. and working in the same spirit.²ADDISON. That. with Turner. but we find the relative who. boats..²WORDSWORTH. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. W.² BURKE. Anacoluthic use of which.²FRANKLIN. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. if same is followed by a complete clause. CHURCH. for example.²R. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.² MACAULAY.²SCOTT. as is not used. if I had resolved to go on with. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² THACKERAY. looking-glasses. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. but. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.He considered. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.. which. 418.²SWIFT. he. was a discoverer. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. I might as well have staid at home. ²GOLDSMITH. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the as his apprentice. or that. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.

" etc. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. and which. This was a gentleman. And who. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. who are now thrown.She'd come again. Exercise. (2) "Among the poorer sort.²DE QUINCEY. which when Mr. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.²SHAKESPEARE.²SCOTT. 1. (1) "Among those who are poor. etc.²GOLDSMITH. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. That is. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. etc. 2.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. but none is expressed. and this be placed in the proper clause. and who are now. Exercise. As the sentences stand. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. 4. But who.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN. Express both relatives. or omit the conjunction. Thornhill had read. 419..²THACKERAY. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. he said that all submission was now too late.. le Conte. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.. but." etc.²which if they once heard. 3." etc.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. He delivered the letter. . and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. once a great favorite of M.² Direction for rewriting. now thrown upon their. or. or leave out both connective and relative. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. After this came Elizabeth herself.

like that spoken in the towns. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. . then. Akin to the above is another fault. "A mockery. Or which. the French. as a false and astucious mark. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 8. and to whom no door is closed. Exercise. 1. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. 420. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.. which the Scotch had learned." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. 7. and which may even be heard a mile off. indeed. 10. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. and which. etc. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin.5. either from imitation of their frequent allies. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. That . 6. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. etc. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. who. 11. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²SCOTT.²IRVING. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.²DE QUINCEY.. 9. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . one of signal interest.²PEARSON. and repeat this for any further reference. Or who.² MOTLEY. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. I saw upon the left a scene far different.²SCOTT. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. English by name. Dr. And which.. and which has never been described.²HAWTHORNE. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. "What knight so craven. 12. 13.. But which.²DE QUINCEY. I shall have complete copies.

13. that . in his present condition. 10. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. was a bustling wharf. 3.. half a century ago.. what... and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. SIMMS. 8. . I give to such men as do not belong to me. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. 6.. but which is perhaps not so different from it. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. That .²W. the dime.²SCOTT That which . 12. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. such as they have very probably been bred to. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. G.²SCOTT. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. 11.²HAWTHORNE.. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.. was hung in air..²DE QUINCEY. The Tree Igdrasil.. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. In my native town of Salem. 9.²W. I grudge the dollar. and whose examples and principles we inherit.²EMERSON. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. which. It rose into a thrilling passion. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.²HOWELLS. in his Mephistopheles. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. at the head of what. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. I recommend some honest manual calling. E.2.²HOLMES. Which . He flung into literature. 5. but which. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.²DEFOE. which. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. the cent.. 7.²EMERSON. whom.. and to whom I do not belong. that. Such as . that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.²HALLAM.²BEECHER. He. 4. 15.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. Such as . and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. 14.. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. CHANNING.

either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. 422. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.²DICKENS. for example. as it were.²GOLDSMITH. Distributives either and neither. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. always at war with one another. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Assume that no one is in want of either. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. By their original meaning. as. and in want of his gold²or his corn. Use of any. in which case any should be used instead.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.²EMERSON. England was then divided between kings and Druids.² HAWTHORNE. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. one another. as. that not all combined.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²MACAULAY. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²ID. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. .² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²RUSKIN. 421.²RUSKIN. whether or not the two are equivalent. We call ourselves a rich nation. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.² Some one must be poor. Each other.²HAWTHORNE.

let him ask of God.²FRANKLIN.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.²SCOTT. as. Do you think. when any of them are so good as to visit me. as none of the French philosophers were. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.. In earlier Modern English.. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.²STIRLING. speak. usually plural.²THACKERAY.²SHAKESPEARE. If any of you lack wisdom.²BURKE. any was often singular. then in Plutarch. 423. if ever man was. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. even in Bettine. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.² If any. . 424.²BEECHER Whenever. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. and is isolated. then in Plotinus. as.² In earnest. etc. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Do you think.²CARLYLE.² EMERSON. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. any of his friends had died.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. in the prose of the present day. that I know of. I beseech you. at one time in Bacon.²PROF. The adjective pronoun none is.. None usually plural. Examples of its use are. for him have I offended.²EMERSON. Any usually plural.²BIBLE. which is plural as often as singular. during his stay at Yuste. in Shakespeare. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. None of Nature's powers do better service. Caution. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. before that. afterwards in Goethe. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. whilst I still cherish their genius. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).

etc..²SCOTT Like the use of any.² PEARSON.²THOREAU.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled..²McMASTER. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. that all was lost. for example.. The compounds somebody else. the plural. Somebody's else. as. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. any one else. saving Naaman the Syrian. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. which is used absolutely. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. nobody else. etc.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. and Ford has nobody's else. or somebody else's? 426.² None of them was cleansed. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. fixing his eyes on the mace.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. The light troops thought .²NAPIER Plural.² Singular. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. when it means all persons: for example. are treated as units. etc. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and all was lost on the other.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. etc. When all were gone. and less rarely in poetry. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. 425.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.

These expressions are all but universal in spoken English."²MRS. London.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²AUSTEN." the nouns being singular. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.. WILLIS. etc. Again. or those sort of people. . etc.²in such as "these sort of books.²DICKENS. ELIOT.²RUSKIN.²MULOCH. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's." "those kind of trees. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.² These kind of knaves I know. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. "Ye see.. all manner of. for example.² FIELDING. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²G. STOWE. ADJECTIVES. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. These sort.²SWEET.²SHERIDAN. Whitefield or Wesley. unlike anybody else's in the world. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. 427. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. the adjectives plural. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²N.SYDNEY SMITH. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.² Saturday Review. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.²RUSKIN. P. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²THACKERAY. or some other such great man as a bishop. His hair." "all manner of men.

why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. made to agree with it. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. in spoken English. Burke's sentence.² PRESCOTT. 428. as. ." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. more alarming than a total silence. Later form.² Which is the better able to defend himself. "These kind of trees are best. for example. which accounts for the construction. This the modern expression reverses. "This kind of rules are the best. According to the approved usage of Modern English. with all manner of amusing books. not "all kinds of wild animals. Use of the comparative degree. Should we say. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. such as." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. The result. when the necessary dispositions concur. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following." A question. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. the victor or the vanquished. and the adjective is. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. to express a higher degree of quality. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. they said.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. "This sort of trees should be planted." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). or the nouns to the plural. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. gradually displacing the old. and in this way may take a plural verb.²RUSKIN. Of two such lessons." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. or one object with a class of objects. At the source. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. History of this construction.The library was open. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. In Old and Middle English. Consequently we have a confused expression.

²HAWTHORNE. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²SCOTT. by almost the breadth of my nail. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.A braver ne'er to battle rode.²THACKERAY. 5. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²MACAULAY.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. if not. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. 6. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator."²ID. He is taller. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. . Exercise. Even Dodd himself. 4.²TROLLOPE. 430. I am concerned to see that Mr. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. Other after the comparative form.² THACKERAY. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. Use of the superlative degree. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. the highest stakes are paid.²HUXLEY. Superlative with two objects. than any of his court.²WIRT. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. 2. would not have had the face. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²LOWELL. To the man who plays well.²SWIFT.²CARLYLE.²MACAULAY. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Gary. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. 3. has sanctioned. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Henry. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 429. etc.

though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. and differ only in form.²GOLDSMITH.. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. The following examples are used purposely. Double comparative and superlative.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. and the other contains the best men. In all disputes between States.²BEN JONSON. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party."²GOLDSMITH.²EMERSON. ha. CÆSAR. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.."²HAWTHORNE. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. 1611. "Ha.²DR BLAIR. more particularly the last of them. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. not a bit of high life among them. 431.²HAMLET. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²MRS. who eat white bread or brown. . whichever can be got easiest.²TEMPEST. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Also from the same period. OLIPHANT.²J. These two properties seem essential to wit. Rip was one of those . Mary.²SCOTT.²ADDISON.²RUSKIN.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense.²IRVING.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. Come you more nearer. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. After the most straitest sect of our religion. The eldest. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. Examples from Shakespeare are. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. I should say that one has the best cause. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²Bible."²BULWER.

²GIBBON. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The merit of the Barb.²RUSKIN. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. Examples of this construction are. The delay in the first three lines. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. etc. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²ADDISON. the Spanish. ²COWPER. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The meaning intended is the same. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.² SMOLLETT. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. but in literary English. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. These are the three first needs of civilized life. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. . jar upon us constantly. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. ARTICLES. and Secretary Walsingham also.²GIBBON. First three. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.²PRESCOTT. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. 433. The first five had specific names. As to these two expressions.²KINGSLEY.² With a singular noun. etc.²RUSKIN. not only so in popular speech. and conceit in the last. Three first. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²DE QUINCEY. Definite article.²LAMB. For Carlyle. Instances of both are given below.

The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.. Origin of the Aryans. Meaning same as in Sec.² MACAULAY. The not repeated. The flowers. but is used with one only.²TAYLOR. 1508. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . With a plural noun. He is master of the two-fold Logos. as. . I think. The lofty. Here the youth of both sexes. 433. with a plural noun. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. but inseparable from each other. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. No.²CARLYLE.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. of the higher and middling orders. melodious. the greatest poems. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. to distinguish clearly.²THACKERAY. and flexible language.²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. the hour of parting came.²ID.²NEWMAN.²TENNYSON. distinct. the thought and the word.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.. 434.²THE NATION. 435. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. having been arranged. with a singular noun.² RUSKIN. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. as in Sec. as. One object and several modifiers. 433. however. or to emphasize the meaning. were placed at a very tender age. Frequently. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²MACAULAY. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. of the eighteenth century. Indefinite article. and the presents.

436. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. One article with several adjectives. and inexhausted vein. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. as in the first three of Sec. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. He saw him in his mind's eye. as.²THACKERAY. and a usurper.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²JOHNSON." and "a red and a white geranium. rich. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²S. like the definite article. a round and a square one alternately. 433 and 436. JONSON. 435.²BULWER. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. But in the following sentences.²B.²MACAULAY. .²BEECHER. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. only one of which is expressed. For rhetorical effect. 438. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. a murderer. The indefinite article (compare Sec.² MACAULAY. 436). As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. a collegian.²DICKENS.² BURKE. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. The indefinite article is used. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. one noun is expressed. Examples of this use are.²DRYDEN. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. or clearness to each of several nouns. interest. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²MACAULAY. COLERIDGE. 437. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. In the sentences of Secs.An early. to limit two or more modified nouns. T. a tyrant.

He sees that it is better to live in peace. This was spoken of in Part I.²COOPER. .²FROUDE. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²M. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. Such. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Singulars connected by or or nor. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. as. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. In English.²W. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²AGASSIZ.. 276. A broad and loose rule. has got already. Singular verb. 439. all that academies can give. or the great intellectual life of our nation. without academies. for example. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. ELIOT. 440. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. like some others in this series. as. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. and the following illustrations prove it.VERBS. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.²CARLYLE This usage. Sec.²G. ARNOLD.²GIBBON. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. then. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²The Nation. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Another writer might.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. was the earliest American land. Collective noun of singular meaning.

² The unbought grace of life. for example.²DE QUINCEY. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. that of a large town. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. a loss of wealth.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. nor Paul. Between ourselves. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. (4) When the subject is plural in form.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. ²EMERSON. or as making up one general idea. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²J.² In a word. Plural form and singular meaning.²BURKE. Q. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. No. the cheap defense of nations. nor Mahomet. a loss of friends. a mutilation.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. nor John. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. as. A fever. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. a cruel disappointment.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. and other singulars of plural form.²GIBBON. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. ADAMS. and every four hours. but each one emphatic.²GOLDSMITH.²WHITTIER.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²CRITIC. other names.²EMERSON .Jesus is not dead.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. for example.² GOLDSMITH. or considered as appositional. is gone. but considered as meaning about the same thing. as.

The author.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. each. an agitated gesture. no. nay. Then comes the "Why. almost every day.²LONGFELLOW. as well as sides. every echo. 441. For wide is heard the thundering fray. The Epic.²HAWTHORNE. every boor. was like to crack. is a man of wit. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.² Asia. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. as well as Europe.²NEWMAN.²SCOTT. an impassioned countenance.²EMERSON. Here is no ruin. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. the ruin. sir!" and the "What then. does not take the place of the man. There is a moving tone of voice. wineBegins to stir itself. the dismay. every valet. and such like adjectives. as. Plural verb. no discontinuity.² There is a right and a wrong in them. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. the partisan.²PRESCOTT. many a. was punished. as well as the Drama. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. To receive presents or a bribe. Every sound.²PRESCOTT. Every week. was dazzled. the wit. Subjects after the verb. was listened to for five hours.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. no matter if the second is plural). Every fop. as. with death.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY.²M ARNOLD. in a judge.²ID. sir?" and the "No. a gorget. Her back. and greaves.²ID. a cuirass. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.² . no spent ball.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. sir!"²MACAULAY. thus. the fine gentleman. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.The rout.²BUTLER. as well as the newest. The oldest.

All our household are at rest.²FROUDE.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. Conjunction omitted. .²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. shirt.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. were men of insignificant characters. the Duke of Berri.²COLERIDGE.² GIBBON. Philip of Anjou. far away thy children leave the land. making up a plural subject. as in Sec.²THOREAU. but the verb is plural.²FRANKLIN.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²FROUDE. as.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. its date.These bits of wood were covered on every square. of whom there were a number. The travelers. a stream of fresh water.²B. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. are sufficient to attract a colony. for example. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. His clothes. The Dauphin. a green pasture.²ADDISON. as with a subject of plural form.²GIBBON. b). and its history are alike a mystery to us. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. Far. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. TAYLOR.² A multitude go mad about it.²SCOTT. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. A party of workmen were removing the horses.² One or two of these perhaps survive. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. A shady grove.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²DE QUINCEY. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. as.²GOLDSMITH. The conjunction may be omitted.²SWIFT.²EMERSON. 440 (5.

²BYRON.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. General usage. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Not Altamont.²LOWELL. Not I. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²RUSKIN.²ROWE.²WHITTIER. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Exceptional examples. nor should I. ARNOLD.²THACKERAY. . Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. the subject being really equivalent to we.²DE QUINCEY. "I have never said so.²GOLDSMITH. When the subjects." "She or you may be sure. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. "He or I can go. You and I are tolerably modest people. hadst been my lord. but thou. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²SMOLLETT. we never talk politics. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. This construction is at the best a little awkward. the verb takes the construction of the first person. that is.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as." or. as.But notice the construction of this.²M. his blood dost shed. but thou. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. If there is only one person in the subject. of different persons. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. 443. Second or third and first person in the subject. 444. nor has she")." etc. WEBSTER. You and I are farmers. Ah. Nothing which Mr.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. 442.²D. for example.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. Pattison or I have said. "You would not be wiser.²THACKERAY.).²RUSKIN.

²EMERSON. In the following sentence. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 11. in my opinion. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 3. How each of these professions are crowded. 10. Also in verbals. nor bush are there. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²G. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²MILTON. Both death and I am found eternal. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²ID. nor tree. 440-444):² 1. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.Her course to intercept. 2." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²SMOLLETT. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 7. In a word. 9. Neither of them. as illustrated above (Secs. which it is proper to mention. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²BYRON. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 6. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).² TROLLOPE.445.²SCOTT. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.²ADDISON. Exercise. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 446. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²THACKERAY.²and. as we would hope. 12.²ADDISON. 8. In this sentence from Defoe. 5. Nor wood.That neither of their intellects are vast. BANCROFT.²BURKE.²perhaps the devil. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 4. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.

that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. to have divided with her whatever might remain.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.²IRVING. if not.²FRANKLIN 6. 3. for exact connection. I gave one quarter to Ann. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. meaning.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. as. But I found I wanted a stock of words.²THACKERAY.² PALGRAVE 5. 448.. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Exercise. however. Indirect discourse means reported speech.. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²KINGSLEY. Definitions. 4. 447.²MACAULAY. It should be remarked. W. change them to a better form:² 1. CHURCH. on my return. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. to have seen should be changed to to see. The present rule is recent. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. Two samples of indirect discourse." .²DE QUINCEY 2.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²R. Direct discourse²that is. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. Of course. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.

1." etc. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that.. or regular interrogatives." etc. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Direct." Indirect. and the indirect question by whether or if.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. 2. Direct. under interrogative pronouns. 449.. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person.. Sebastian's. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Her prudence whispered eternally. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. The substance of his lamentation was. will. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. His exact words were. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. introductory verb is in the past tense. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Summary of the expressions. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. have. She thought to herself.. interrogative adverbs. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. "Oh. "I cannot oblige you . (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. etc. Oh. . Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. This includes the auxiliaries be.

. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. with his crew of the Half-moon. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. FRANKLIN." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. the sound of their balls. in the sentences first quoted.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected.²ID. one summer afternoon.²GOLDSMITH. VERBALS. 450. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²ADDISON. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.Exercise. The trouble is. Careless use of the participial phrase. PARTICIPLES. being the course which his confessor had enjoined." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. my first observation will be found nearly true. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill.²B. if this were expanded into a verb. like distant peals of thunder. handed down from his ancestor the historian. and that he himself had heard. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. the first discoverer of the river and country. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. Notice this. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.

universal assertion.²ID. while defended or excused by others. INFINITIVES. purposely or not. leaving the principal statement as it is. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.² HERBERT SPENCER.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.. It is a solemn. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. many things to be carefully considered. In the following citations.²LAUGHLIN. the first sentence would be. 3. There are. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers..Correction. . or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. if a strike is to succeed. my first collection was. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. either "As I was pleased. avoid it. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. This is the more common arrangement. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. 2. . see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. 451. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.. Exercise. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.²RUSKIN..²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. Adverb between to and the infinitive.²SCOTT. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects." Exercise." etc. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. For example. and often. then.. Standard writers often use it.

The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. 452. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. and earthenware.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. etc." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.4.²TROLLOPE. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.. Position of only. In works of art. 11. if they modify single words. therefore. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. even. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. from Irving. Exercise. 5. 8. 6. 9.² MACAULAY. 1533.²SCOTT. but cannot misunderstand the thought. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. Now. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . No.²GOLDSMITH. A little sketch of his. BLAIR.²DR. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. are used. is to be very cautiously admitted. but they are often removed from the exact position. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. but it is placed before the infinitive. ADVERBS. this kind of grandeur. when such adverbs as only. which consists in multitude. etc. 13. 7.²RUSKIN.²ID.² ADDISON. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. 12. china. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 10. I wish the reader to clearly understand. The spirits.²The Nation. etc. The rigid rule in such a case would be..²BURKE. even. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.

11. 5. for example. 2. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²THACKERAY. 10. 4. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. During the whole course of his administration. were he never so old of yeares. ²ASCHAM.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 9. GROTE.²SYDNEY SMITH. 14. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 15. might not marry. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²ID. 13.²CHAUCER. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²EMERSON.²N. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. Irving could only live very modestly. His last journey to Cannes.²ID. . Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.1. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 7. 3. 17. In Old and Middle English. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²SWIFT.²COOPER.²RUSKIN. to avoid a crowd. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. WILLIS.²MRS. P. 12. 16. The old usage.²PALGRAVE. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.² THACKERAY. He shouted in those clear. 6.²MACAULAY.²ID. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 453. 8. No sonne.²HIGGINSON. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. He could only afford to keep one old horse. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²MOTLEY. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. whence he was never destined to return. In relating these and the following laws. My master.

denying each other. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. in Ole Virginia. I did not act so hastily. one of the negatives is often a prefix.²BURKE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house.²LOWELL.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. neither. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²DEFOE.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. and why:² 1. 7. etc.²DE QUINCEY. This. However. 6. if two negatives are found together. Not only could man not acquire such information.²HOLMES. 2. STOWE. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. and is still kept in vulgar English. Exceptional use. nor the grandeur of no king. however. Regular law of negative in modern English.²GROTE. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. The prosperity of no empire.² HAMILTON. under the influence of Latin syntax. when one of the negatives is a connective. 4. can so agreeably affect. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. 3. In the latter case."²MRS. But. but ought not to labor after it. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. as infrequent. nor never shall. Exercise. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. . There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²MRS. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. is not common. I never did see him again. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. as. In the execution of this task.²BAYNE."²four negatives. the usual way of regarding the question now is. STOWE. uncommon.²HAWTHORNE. There weren't no pies to equal hers. 5. ²PAGE. Therefore.

and. Things to be watched. 455. And who. nor is often changed to not²either .. or to reply to it. either . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. The sentences given in Secs. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.²SCOTT. not merely . The sentence. as the use of the conjunction. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it."²SCOTT. Choice and proper position of correlatives. the first ought to be placed before a verb. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. but to their own safety. but (also). or to reply to it. there we were. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.. as well as of the pronoun. but. 454. should be scrutinized.... not or is the proper correlative of neither. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals." both of the above requirements are violated... The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ." may be changed to "This loose ..²PRESCOTT.. not only .8. or with advantage. even neither .. the first should also. Correction. if the last precedes a verb. "A weapon. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives." said the King." . and which.... neither .. nor. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. In the sentence. or.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. especially both . CONJUNCTIONS.. if the second precedes a phrase. either.²LOWELL. or. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. not only to the success of their common cause.. "well worthy to confer honor." Besides neither .

but. as. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that.²THACKERAY. too. O. 3. Try and avoid the pronoun.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. JEWETT.Exercise. and I don't know but what he was right. 5.²THACKERAY. Correct the following sentences:² 1. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. 456. as.²GIBBON. etc.²S. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Now." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. 7.²FRANKLIN. or but that for the words but what:² 1. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to.²GOLDSMITH. nor the disgrace of assailing him. or but that. 2. but. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. Some exceptions. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.²ID.²MACAULAY. and chop up their own kin. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. not merely interest children.² ADDISON. 8. 4.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. Exercise. or the negative relative but. but grown-up persons. In the following sentences. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. They will. substitute that. but they will outrage. .²RUSKIN. 457. murder. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. But what. 6. Try and for try to. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²BAIN.

458. 459. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²BURKE. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²ADDISON. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.² BULWER. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.²ADDISON. 5. 305. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. see Sec. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. 313. 6.²EMERSON. as already seen in Sec.²EMERSON.2. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.² SWIFT. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Between and among.²SCOTT. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. PREPOSITIONS. . Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²TROLLOPE. Between is used most often with two things only. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 3. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. no separation or division by twos being implied. 4.

correspond. Bestow on (upon). Derogatory to. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Comply with. 460. Mackintosh. ²EMERSON. a soldier of the Cross. and another to convey a different meaning. involve. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. averse.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. etc.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. . Such are absolve. different. LIST I. or one object and a group. Dissent from.²KINGSLEY.²RUSKIN What have I. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. and Coleridge. Such are derogatory. 461. Dependent on (upon). And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Different from. List I. Acquit of. and Stewart.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Conform to. Conversant with. Two groups or one and a group. Abhorrent to. as. Affinity between. Paley. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. as. by custom. confer. Kant.: Words with particular prepositions. Averse to. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Accord with. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. and philosophers like Locke.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Some of them have.

Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Differ from (note below). Independent of. Involve in. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Reconcile to (note below). List II. Confer with (talk with). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. etc. Reconcile with (note below). Differ with (note below). Confer on (upon) (give to). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Confide in (trust in). in the sense of making friends with. Confide to (intrust to).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. as. "The king is reconciled to his minister." List III." also of persons. as meaning to be in keeping with. A taste of (food). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. LIST II.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. but it is not good usage.). 463. as. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). A taste for (art. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Change for (a thing). as. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to.y y y Deprive of. Change to (become)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. 462. Agree to (a proposal). Correspond with (write to). Correspond to (a thing). LIST III. . Change with (a person). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.

²GOLDSMITH. Illustrations of "die of." (in behalf of). One of them said he would die for her. die from. She died of hard work." (material cause. ELIOT. It would take me long to die of hunger. "Die with. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²BURNETT.²GOLDSMITH. and ill treatment." "die from. Expect of. People do not die of trifling little colds. die for.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.²MACAULAY. privation." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. "Die for.²BOSWELL. If I meet with any of 'em.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day." (because of). die with. I am positively dying with hunger.:² "Die of. . ELIOT.²SCOTT. "Die by. as Cervantes informs us. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²G. Part from." etc. instrument). ²THACKERAY.y y y Die by." She would have been ready to die with shame. expect from. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. Who. they shall die by this hand." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. ²ATHENÆUM. "Die from. part with. Take thought and die for Cæsar. die of.²BULWER.²MACAULAY.²FIELDING. It is a man of quality who dies for her. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. died for love of the fair Marcella.²ADDISON. No one died from want at Longfeld.²G. "Die for.²POPE. simply from old age. He died at last without disease.²MACAULAY.²SHAKESPEARE.

²POE. I can part with my children for their good. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. I part with all that grew so near my heart. With words implying behavior or disposition." To part from you would be misery. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²BULWER. "Expect from. ELIOT. just parted from her.²G. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. Illustrations of "expect of. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. which he would by no means part from. I have long expected something remarkable from you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²WALPOLE. 466." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. 465. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. That is more than I expected of you.²MACAULAY.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. Of Doctor P.²TROLLOPE.²DICKENS. I have just seen her.²BULWER. kind of you. 464. ELIOT." She will expect more attention from you.²AUSTEN." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²SHAW. ELIOT. It was a little bad of you.²G.²G.²WALLER. "Part with" is used with both persons and things." "part from:"² "Part with.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. as my friend. Kind in you. Illustrations of "part with. and hated to part with them. "Part from. . nothing better was to be expected. His precious bag. either of or in is used indifferently.²MARRYAT.

raging storms. .²BULWER.²DICKENS. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 8. The noise of vast cataracts. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. 10.²BULWER. 13. 3. 7. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. the vast abyss.²CARLYLE. and ran up the alley. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 14. tedious perhaps. 1. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. with seraphims. or that they are any way dependent on each other. This narrative. But this is idle of you. It will be anything but shrewd in you. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. nor yellow. nor of a pale red. or artillery. In. Very natural in Mr. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me.²TENNYSON. 4. 6. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. nor blue. thunder. nor green.²BEACONSFIELD. but which the story renders necessary. Hampden. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. In the friction between an employer and workman. it is commonly said that his profits are high. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 9. or which we are most imperatively required to do. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. Thou tread'st. 15. 11.He did not think it handsome of you. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 5. thrown it over Amyas's head.

24. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 37. but in the price paid to them. save Amyas. You have seen Cassio and she together. were down with raging fever.And were I anything but what I am. 31.) 34. That night every man of the boat's crew. 411. Friday. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 16. you or me. and most of us do know. triangles. 28. . We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 20. 17. The effect of proportion and fitness. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 22. 29. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 36. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. Squares. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 18. 27. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 35. the acquiescence of the understanding. and other angular figures. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 30. or how beautiful it is. produce approbation. (Sec. Every one of these letters are in my name. 26. 23. what is a just and unjust act. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 25. 38. 19. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. and almost as good as a pony. 32. But every man may know. 33. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 21.I would wish me only he. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy.

. A. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. of. 91. nominative. 102. 89. 133. He had four children. 40. 124. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. numeral. voice. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. from about 1500 to the present time. 90. INDEX. pronouns. 239. 20.39. 98. 124. as. 260. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. of. (3) Modern English.000 between them. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 47. from nominative clauses. 119. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. of. origin of. 310. Abstract with Active Address. article. nouns. demonstrative. 92. 25. 107. (2) Middle English. syntax uses Absolute. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. adverbs used complements. of. Adjectives. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 47. 116. adjectives.

form as as they to in as uses uses of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. antecedent. 116. 207.from function how in not of of ordinal. 27. quantity. 116. and 185. 104. 97. 316. 323. 325. parse. 207. compared. adjectives. sentence. antecedent. clauses. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. infinitive. 114. 275. modify. 262. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. conjunction. 109. quality. 303. 325. 48. conjunctions. 106. 187. 103. from to of. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 148. predicate. of. 239. 287. nouns. of. 183. 194. 190. of. 303. 291. of. 99. with with with subject. Against. parse. of. objective. adjectives. 191. 194. 328. as nouns. 190. Agreement. to used of. 115. of. nouns. 302. . between of. 101. Alms. adjectives. 242. 42. 195. 27. plural pronominal. 184. of.

120. Arrangement Articles. of. syntax As. 309. agreement personal as pronoun. it. 84. 51. 101. which. 150. 271. definition of of of Any. See 74. same. of. sentences. 198. 49. 231. 47. 79. Auxiliary if. 225. to of. 90. See with definition complex compound simple who. 124. of. derivation in definite. An. of of of And Antecedent. uses As At. 287. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition.Among. Anacoluthon Analysis. 120. parse. though. syntax. sentences. 294. . Agreement. 207. definition how indefinite. 300. of. 148. A. possessive. of and pronoun of. 295. 67. words between. 252. Are. as uses verbs. 67. 74. sentences. of. and. which. 275. 240. after of. 331. 127. pronouns. adjective. 264. 296. 208. in in. which.

84. 66. 149. uses nominative of. definition could. of pronouns. forms. in Old and Modern English. 150. 37. syntax of. objective. 195. 111. Can. of. Between. uses of. conjunctions Cherub. Bridegroom. . nominative. of nouns. possessive. 49. double possessive. of. 161. Clause. 278. best. clauses of. 194. Case. Children. of what. 279. adverb. See of. of. 39. 110. 224. Cause. 45. 283. of pronouns. uses Better. adjective. number of. 39. of nouns. 64. pronoun. 262. 63. 110.Bad. of pronouns. Case. 260. of pronouns. comparison conjugation of. 48. of nouns. 330. 278. Be. Among. 262. 210. 62. with But By. 279. But. 46. 46. 54. plurals of. 47. Brethren. of nouns.

18. 315. subject. of. superlative. 108. Cleave. analysis of. predicate of and from from of.definition kinds noun. 23. 53. defective. 12. of. nouns. English. 24. 257. of. nouns. double. 43. 189. adverbs. 257. . verb. 113. 258. material. 158. of. predicate. 305. 312. 107. in analysis. 157. 263. Cloths. and sentence. 110. 111. nouns. of. 257. infinitive. adjectives. 271. proper. of. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. of. plural of. Clomb. sentence. of. clothes. 264. 248. 43. 307. and forms of. 108. 239. 307. of. 244. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. definition degrees irregular. 18. 268.

328. 73. See English. Agreement. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. Dative Declarative Declension of case. other other parts of speech. See in subjunctive. same words. 207. to of. Conjunctions. and clause. 138. conjunctions. 151. 194. sentences. 195. 289. parse. sentences. definition be. correlative. definition how subordinate. 231. 149. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. pronoun. 195. interrogative pronouns. 196. subjunctive. pronouns. 188. Can. replaced by objective. of of Conjunctions.with Concord. pronoun. 199. of. See analysis clauses. 193. analysis. . 66. conjunction. 194. of. coördinate. conjunctions. verbs. 255. 149. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 269. adverbs. 139. 143. in Old vs. sentence. 194. 263.

60. article. adverbs See adjectives. 26. possessive. Comparison. vs. 51. indirect. of. 43. verb. 80. See 148. 152. object.Declension. with of. 287. pronouns. See adjectives. passive adjectives. 242. 102. 242. 102. from. of. by. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 91. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. tenses. 315. nouns. Degrees. 320. 99. 160. . Subordinate clause. 303. pronouns. comparative. discourse. pronouns. for. 333. nouns. Articles. 300. of. 90. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. use of dies. Case. See See 48. clause. duck. pronouns. 185. of personal relative verbs. 288. with. 35. Comparative. of.

. older. pronoun. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. Empress. 34. 158. 33. in 'Em. 62. of. drunk. one ( t). of. pronoun. object. complement. syntax Each Eat Eaves. added suffix. 241. adjective. 300. Elements Ellipsis. of. feminine plural English. literary. 240. suffix. 112. 90. 287. original. of. 158. pronouns. 51. Each. predicate. possessive suffix. plural. other. the of sentence. 32. 299. ending. 255. 194. 234. 102. error in sentence. 257.Drank. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. -En. 328. adjective. 280. 287. 42. spoken. 90. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. another. 92. to suffix. 40. 33. 12. of subject. conjunction. of. of. vulgar. 38. 110. Either. 39. 92. 92.

148. 126. 334. 36. perfect. few. 212. two. of. fishes. of. 45.Every. used of. Few.. 48. From. adjective. from. expect gone. 189. 43. 152. plurals. uses Foreign Former. gender. See Gander. other languages. modes "common goose. 103. uses redundant. as a noun. Farther. 32. Feminine. two a further. 30. 147. 212. For. 152. 29. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 238. . 319." 31.. 287. First Fish. the. object. 110. 102. nouns. etc. have adjective. First. 30. 91. 112. pronoun. 30. etc. 102. 112. Further. to of. Gender. first. as of from compared marking. Future Future tense. 211. with in sex. 235. 308. with infinitive. definition distinguished in English. of.

forms in Girl. Gerund. 101. first sentence. personal relative geniuses. 285. Got. 120. of. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. of. 35. of. definition basis of. 13. participle. 60. 159. rather. distinguished syntax. and case verbal with. He. Government. 80. 231. she. pronoun. from participle of. had hung. 43. on.of of Genii. 173. pronouns. His Husband. an better. 12. it. 159. 177. 9. 60. possessive pronouns. 36. 275. . 61. for before. I. adjective. Had Hanged. kinds of. 176. 61. 145. person. definition divisions opinions province H. 144. 12. of. 10. noun. Grammar. its. 175.

233. 276. pronoun. 319. 131. questions. See you. words. 85. pronouns. a object. 176. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. sentence. uses discourse. of. 110. 72. in compared syntax. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. of clause.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. questions. 73. adjectives. Direct object. 248. elements. See Articles. 257. indices. indirect of. 93. adjectives. transitive. 105. 131. 136. of. 188. meaning. verbs. . not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. of. 67. mood. 43. summary See passive mood. 231. your. 153. 320. 227. with of. adverbs. 245. 178. 323. use article. of. Questions. 283.

English. adjective. 276. 102. 303. of. Last. and See words in. King. 36. syntax the. 36. 227. 189. Less. Logic Logical Lord. 170. 67. 281. 12. 126. plural. 113. 110. was uses me. a vs. lesser. of. Kind. these double kind. 190. . predicate. 63. Kine. Latter. 110. 245. Lady. queen. Lie. 36. of. 39.. Lady. latest. pronoun.. 91.adverbs. 113." history etc. See Madam. lord. Like. -Ly. subject form. 61. Lay. It. etc. "It Its. syntax. 226. in little. uses Literary Little. lie. Lay. of.

189. Mighty Mine. . indicative. of. Modifiers. -Most. construction as of adverb. nigh. syntax conjunction. 110. Mood. 36. 112. 188. Neither. 195. Must. mistress. of. 102. 189. Means. 185. sentences. 114. 113. 64. comparison Near. 112. Much. of. 135. of. of. Modifier. 160. out of. Enlargement. conjunctions Many. 126. mine. 256. Negative.Manner. etc. of. might. 110. 265. 137-144. adjective. 187. See definition 136. 137. 326. subjunctive. 112. imperative. 194.. position adverb. of. Master. 144. of. double. 41. 34. 110. syntax nearer. superlatives. Many Mapping Mare. 161. in adverbs comparison a. 328. May. 287. 325.

30. etc. of of of of of a. 56. nouns. abstract. 124. 125. 29. formed. gender how kinds material. in. etc. now plural. 46. 38. clause. to use. definition according of. of. class used singular. 18. 38-41. 17 19. 41. 300. analysis.pronoun. 126. foreign. 328. kinds 90. 25. None. See 194. 41. letters as 24. 41 43. to of. common. 32. become neuter. proper. 301. become become formation case collective. . 42. 21. used as. 258. syntax Neuter or two News. of. of. definition descriptive. abstract. syntax in gender nouns. 27. 17. number once other plural. of. 19. 25. half abstract. of. 30. material. 45. 246. 30. words how compound. of. Nor. 20. parse. 26. nouns. Case. of. No Nominative. gender nouns. 92. 46. and figures. 17. Not Noun Nouns.

nominative. common. article.. 60. pronouns. or plural. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. of. 48. 101. of. Nouns. dative. 102. 148. 101. singular. Preposition. English. 242. 282. 195. 23. 48. form. plural form. verbs. 196. of. adjectives. indirect. and analysis. 278. 278. of. as forms titles. 240. Numeral Object. 124. 279. with with with Now Number. 242. of. adjectives. 43. 66. meaning. adverbial. . 41. 42. conjunction. plural. passive adverbial. preposition. See verb. of. etc. pronouns. in article. 281. 42. indefinite. plural no two singular construction. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. of different possessive definite of. singular.of same two with proper. spoken of instead nouns. in nouns. 106. 41. meanings. See in in in Numeral distributive. 48. with case. 121. 41. definite. 48. 285. personal. 18. 48. 42 44. 235. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 39. 92.

216. conjunction. of upon. for. Ourself. 103. 56. 213. position Order. conjunctions. 325 275. definite relative uses of. another. as other. Older. nouns. 93 other. 306. as of. See the as of. of. adverb. adjective. Omission On. 191. Each adjective. One. 199. 194. articles. Pains. 116. 87. of. 103. ours. treatment comparatives. adverbs. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Elder. part analysis. 91. 237. inverted. 127. 117. 69. uses numeral pronoun. of syntax. of of of of of models adjectives. Oxen. 64. 233.syntax Of. 293. of. 115. 161. See pronoun. with (the). Our. Ordinal Other Ought. 101. 94. 38. 41. 56. pronoun. a in adjectives. Parsing. . 279.

antecedent. -ing words. 56. 179. 28. verbs. pronouns. 247. 119. 181. of. 59. speech. pronouns. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 172. possessive and of. 80. of. 69. nominative. 335. 317.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. with. and subject in. of. phrases. 70. 63. of. phrase. 62. 61. 56. Person. 174. 95. predicate use of. verbs. used as voice. 100. 172. 64. reflexive. pronoun. parsed. of. them. 177. verbals. agreement of verb nouns. 43. 62. from definition other of. 322. 59. pennies. . not is. 134. 148. of. included various. in. 43. 27. article 150. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 180. pease. part adjective. 59. of. verb idioms it from. or of. 219. absolute with of. 173. Pence. 281. relatives. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 287.

objective syntax table triple uses of. of nouns. pronoun. 241. 236. prepositional. or See of of See 185. 236. 52. relative. of. participial. 303. of. 49. adjectives. it. 67. 232. See 60. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. complete. Place. 281. noun nouns. 61. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. antecedent of of pronouns. 60. 247. of. as double. 278. . 245. omitted. 63. of Phrase. Personal subjective. vs. 285. kinds infinitive. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. nouns. singular degree. 278. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. conjunctions prepositions Plural. Nouns. pronouns. appositional. nouns. objects. spoken of. 248. pronoun. 281. 37. of. 303. of. 106. 235. of. 195. 245. 54. 188. simple. 64. 206. Comparison. 50. 's. plural. Personification. 53. in of. Positive Possessive. double. 53. syntax of of Politics. nouns. 41. adverbs of. English. 51. 25. of. singular. 247. of.

331. of. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 58. case. each either. singular usually other. as antecedent of relative. 93. parse. expressed as other of. 279. 285. usually to as than. 64. in exclamations. as 54. 287. of. 72. speech. 208. somebody definition how indefinite. 207. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 332. of. 186. 89. 203.Prefixes. 105. 187. future. exclamatory. 301. 147. plural. adjective. plural. 333. 303. 283. 206. 280. another. as. interrogative. parse. by parts of of. forms of. objective. by with shown certain of. none. interrogative. 281. 132. and form form form form of. 104. 32. and one with else's. 300. 219. 59. 203. for predicate nominative. 202. possessive nominative to of. Prepositions. adverb. 205. of. 283. meaning. of. 282. objective. of. with tense certain. 105. 284. words. Pronouns. of. by. plural. 195. after but. case. neither. 299. who personal. 302. any. 300. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. what. 129. 58. . verbs. same used as adjectives. 95. all.

in. 289. indirect. 69. Questions. parse. 69. and antecedent. or of. 263. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. agreement anacoluthon and as. unrestrictive. Quotations. use of history formed. in. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 295. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 85. Nouns. pronominal pronouns indirect. 293. from and interrogative. 58. 188. who. 289. indirect compound. of. 101. 279. of. use in as. Quantity. adverbs in. pronouns. 87. 105. 80. 85. to of. . Rather. See of. 74. 296. 195. 295. 74. questions. and relatives. same antecedent. 286. nouns. conjunctions Quality. pronoun. with with gerund. of. which after same. 83. 297. which. Direct same and different. of. 68. and which. Rank. of. with who. in. of. of. 84. 293.possessive relative. 142. 87. of. of. 99. 189. discourse. that. 291. personal pronoun. 74.

Self Sentences. 252.syntax use Result. sentence. effect. 255. 263. of. 26 271. 29. complex. 170. 231. 294. 159. 74. Shear. of. 195. 242. clauses of. See Sentences. 319. 162. definition . 69. will. 40. of. 51. reflexive analysis of compound. conjunction. would. elliptical. that. 43. of. simple. 231. kinds Sequence Set. 196. conjunctions Retained Riches. tenses. S. in of. 42. Simple in sate. 289. object. gender. pronoun. Shot. forms shots. plural possessive as. in form. of of of complex Sentences. suffix. and should. who. 159. 'S. 196. which. Sex Shall. simple of. ending. Seeing. 259. Same Sat. of sit.

138. English. 38. 257. 12. 33. in feminine suffix. phonetic in infinitive. in Middle English. disuse in spoken complete. adverb. of. 245. 258. 36. vs. to of. 262. . 144. 169. 233. 270. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. of. for. 237. of. 258. other Such Such Suffix -s. Spelling Spinster. these number. distinguish. 257. -es. -en. as. 303. 126. definition 67. 240. literary clause. 33. 257. English. Modern use becoming else's. of. adverb. 186. Subject. verbs. of. 38. Somebody Sort. 32. 258. used mood. See -En. names as a. of. logical. 260. etc.Singular Sir. 144. English. 323. 257. English. definition how kinds noun. 245. Split Spoken -Ster. 303. 137.. sort. of.

two basis not same definition definite. Tenses. 87. See etc. 107. 119. There These kind. of. 120. of. 189. king. me. of. of. Kind. form. 186. degree. subject. as adverbs. as history syntax Their. "the then foreign. 309. of. in comparison. 222. 148. 88. Then. than of. 191. objects. of languages. classical of. when as of. definition in English Tense. of . plural as adverb. 147.. 106. English. 106. 186. meaning. 277. as history The. 109. article. 319. 275. syntax of.. which. in double. 108. auxiliaries. 289.. not suggesting adjectives. 33. . 280. 116. 306. 275. 61. of. they. of. 297. 290. restrictive. coördinating. adjectives. 147. when relative. and and of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. this. adverbs. English. 306.Suffixes. object. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 307." introductory. that uses That. omission whom. 147. meaning made up in Old of. of. 123. 152.

try two. etc. conjunctions prepositions To. Try Two Under. 185. 217. 247. thee. 20. analysis. 175. uses of. infinitive.These. 330. 21. of. 114. 61. 322. -ing 111. Thou. 175. Upper. to. of. 114. verbs. of. 173. 175. 248. 176. of. 128. thy. words. 207. 323. kinds participle. how infinitive. 181. Upon. 188. in omitted uses T'other. See On. 33. uttermost. 322. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. . from cleft to 174. exclamations. phrases. used. -Trix. carelessly uses syntax this. tother. other noun. in of. 195. Time. of. suffix. feminine and. 172. first adjective. See That. of. preposition. infinitive. 172. adverbs those. Utter. gerund. parse. uses history of. first. 119. 180. 114.. 308. of. certain as the before with of.

strong. 157. 167. 169. 33. 330. agreement of. 167. weak. 149. auxiliary. Vixen. verbs. 39. 312-316. 155. 133. past tense formed nominative. Vocative in Voice. 131. 130. passive. 150. definition of. regular. verbs by. 320. becoming irregular. intransitive. table of irregular. 317. 245. 134. 129. 151. 147. with subject in number. of. 154. retained object with passive. remarks on certain. conjugation of. transitive and intransitive. 169. tense of. voice of. person and number of. how to parse. 159. 223. definition of. of English. active meaning. What. 148. defective. formed by. 154. 319. active. analysis. passive form. 12. 148. 133. made transitive. 179. of incomplete predication. sequence of. of. mood of. table of. 242. but uses what. 47. 160. change. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. in person. syntax of. 236. 135. spelling of. definition of. . phonetic. 312. 154. in indirect discourse.Verbs.

whereto. 72. 194. 78. direct of. 40. 36. 36. 246. 104. 37. in -ly. 295-299. 85. worser. in in indefinite objective. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. relative indirect relative. 105. Woman. 105. questions. 126. of.what Whereby. 72. 296. Wife. Yes ending analysis. of. conjunction. 72. in. questions. plural of in nouns -ing. animals.. . 85. questions. 77. relative. spoken in of. 75. 111. 190. 83. 75. 299. would. Witch. relative. 79. etc. English. pronoun. Y. Who. antecedent adjective. 83. pronoun. questions. 178. Words in Worse. Whether. referring syntax Widower. a. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 73. Will. 85. With. uses See Shall. 218. 32. interrogative Which. wizard.

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