roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

but this is bad English now. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. it will at the same time. If. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). assist the classification of kindred expressions." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. It is also evident. its peculiar and abundant idioms. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Mental training. Coming back. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. to those who have studied the language historically. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. then. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. Authority as a basis. The work it will cover. so that a small grammar will hold them all. as compared with Latin or Greek. Surely our noble language. Making rules is risky. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). if rightly presented. "Analysis. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. there is still much for the grammarian to do." What grammar is. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. An æsthetic benefit. Literary English. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. however. from the question. is worthy of serious study. rightly considered.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). we have tabulated the inflections of the language. as. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. . their forms." and "Syntax. Few inflections. This will take in the usual divisions.The province of English grammar is. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. A broader view. and thus incite his observation. with its enormous vocabulary. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning.

besides this one. and will are evidently names of a different kind. too.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. or standard. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. and the word nation stands for a whole group. The following pages will cover. In the more simple state of the Arabs. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. NOUNS. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. the nation is free. Part III. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. The Parts of Speech. The plainest name is Arabs. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. by which is meant the free. that is. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. and may belong to any of those objects. Such words are called nouns. the words sons and master name objects. not objects. or Syntax. from the eighteenth century on. reference will be made to vulgar English. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. PART I. as they stand for ideas. Analysis of Sentences. then. . but. Part II. 1. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. three divisions:² Part I. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Occasionally. Spoken English.²GIBBON. and Inflections. which belongs to a people. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. submission. The Uses of Words. The words state. Vulgar English.

Proper. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. MATERIAL. For instance. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. This does not imply. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. (b) Common. possessed by all. They properly belong under common nouns. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. or thing. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. We may say. Name for a group or collection of objects. (a) 4. men in groups may be called a crowd. 3. representing directly to the mind an object. because each group is considered as a unit. 2. 5. belonging to one. and appropriate names to the groups. the name of each is an individual or proper name. we may think of them in groups. reducing it to a narrow application. or a mob. place. animals. ATTRIBUTE. or idea. a committee. Besides considering persons. Thus. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Name for any individual of a class. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Thus. Common.Definition. or things. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. A noun is a name word. Collective. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. etc. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. as here used. Individual. however. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. animals. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. . or a council. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. is from a Latin word which means general. the man here. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. Classes of nouns. and things separately. or a congress. substance. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or the man in front of you. whether person. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Abstract. but Chicago names one city.

etc. etc. there is no such intention. earth." "a man of understanding. gold. stone. paint." "Learning is hard to acquire. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance." 9. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. wheat. frost. tea. rain. but in the words sun. potash. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. "Painting is a fine art. etc. iron. world. . Such are glass. earth. expressing attributes or qualities. snow. condition. we speak of the wisdom of the man. sugar.Names for things thought of in mass. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. not things. The quality is still there as much as before. mist. NOTE. etc. frost. dew. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. as in calling a city Cincinnati. considered abstractly. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. but it is taken merely as a name. platinum. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. It may. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. but which are not called proper names. or that which shows a thing has been proved. sugar. and fasten a special name to the object considered. wine. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. celluloid. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. granite. cloud. soap. or apart from their natural connection. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. expressing state. rice. moon. conditions. we may say. etc. etc. etc. etc. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. (3) Geological bodies: mud.²There are some nouns. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). we recognize in him an attribute or quality. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person.. Again. such as sun. 7. They remain common class names. 6. and so on. wheat. or action. sand. Words naturally of limited application not proper. rubber. . clay. instead of to each individual or separate object. When we speak of a wise man. proof means the act of proving. however. Names of ideas. or actions. rock. The reason is.

stupidity from stupid. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. the main bearings of this matter. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. II. lightning. action from act. theft from thieve." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. by altering its function. a wedding or a festival. as in the expressions.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. (2) peerage from peer. the well-being of her subjects. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. Caution. hopeful²hope. NOTE. etc. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. The verb. Exercises. the rude drawings of the book. They cannot govern a word. 12. 10. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. They are only the husks of verbs. day. joy. . he spread his blessings over the land. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech." "a brisk walk. but are merely names of actions. kingship from king. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. night. those opinions and feelings. the moon caused fearful forebodings. (1) prudence from prudent. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. Verbal abstract nouns. her longing for their favor. as glad²joy. shadow. five abstract.Attribute abstract nouns. is used as a noun. Such are beauty.. childhood from child. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. there is time for such reasonings. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. winter. as their name implies. and they cannot express action. 272. ease. service from serve. Underived abstract nouns. 1. redness from red. the great Puritan awakening. Thus. etc. speech from speak. the teachings of the High Spirit. height from high. in the beginning of his life. hope. To avoid difficulty. five proper. energy. "a long run" "a bold move. etc. thunder. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. 273). mastery from master. summer. etc.

as physics.2. pleurisy. (b) branches of knowledge. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. algebra. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. typhus. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as pneumonia. mathematics? 3. catarrh. Using a dictionary. diphtheria. geology.

Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Material nouns may be used as class names. from the name of Dr. for example. from China. it imposes its classification on other men. and lo! a new system. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. the guillotine. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. currants. above. a Locke. as a davy. thus. Guillotin. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. from Calicut.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. 13. from a town in France. 119). a Hutton. who was its inventor. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. a Bentham. Others of similar character are calico. port (wine). in Portugal. a Fourier. but we may say. arras. or to go over to it entirely. 15. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. from Oporto. from Damascus. etc. damask. Proper names transferred to common use. the word port. but most of them are in the following groups.²EMERSON. Nouns change by use. a Lavoisier. "The cook made the irons hot. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. from Corinth. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. We know a number of objects made of iron. levant and morocco (leather). we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance." referring to flat- . 14.

Class nouns in use. etc. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. a rubber for erasing marks. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. and say teas. The words preceded by the article a.²HAYNE. purity. etc. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. papers. slates. on fire. paints. but differ in strength.In lightnings owned his secret stings. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks.²RUSKIN. A halfway class of words. From all around²Earth and her waters. be spoken of. oils. though not confined to verse. 17. or used as class nouns.²CARLYLE. They are not then pure abstract nouns. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. These are the same in material. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. that the power of art is founded on fact. This is a poetic usage. as stones. the abstract idea is partly lost. are abroad. of certain words necessarily singular in idea.²BRYANT. but in case an art or a science. but on dispositions which require to be created. smiled.²BYRON. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. that is. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. a steel to whet a knife on. coals. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance.²COLLINS. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. 16. Death. which are made plural. clays. nor are they common class nouns. his eyes. clouds. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. are still names of abstract ideas. For example. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. and so on.irons. or the arts and sciences. abstract in meaning. tins. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. Test this in the following sentences:² . Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. When it is said that art differs from science. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science.²PERCIVAL. Personification of abstract ideas. or made plural. tobaccos. Traffic has lain down to rest. to prowl or to moan like night birds. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. and only Vice and Misery. mists. or. candies. Next Anger rushed. not material things. that disposition is the thing to be created. (3) By poetical use.

they do not express quality. When I was young? Ah. But it is better to consider them as nouns.²IRVING. as each repeated pleasure tired. but is still a noun. Conjunctions." "the State Bank Tax bill. nouns used to modify. which belongs to another word. All these.Let us. loves." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. make our own so. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. And still.²EMERSON. "a family quarrel. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. if we must have great actions. Adverbs. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. Then comes the "Why. were mere terrors of the night. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. They are more like the possessive noun. Adjectives. sir!"²MACAULAY . or from any expression. and joysWhich I too keenly taste.²SHAKESPEARE. 18.² GOLDSMITH. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. But ah! those pleasures. as descriptive adjectives are. or describe it. however. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. sir?" and the "No. fear thy blow.² BURNS. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. a bill as to tax on the banks. for example. 19. Every why hath a wherefore. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns.²SHAKESPEARE. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. NOTE.The Solitary can despise. By ellipses. The noun may borrow from any part of speech.²BURNS. the wealthy. sir!" and the "What then. etc. they cannot be compared. a bank in New York. Nouns used as descriptive terms." "a New York bank. meaning a walk in the morning. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question." "a morning walk." which contains a pure adjective. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.

Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. and tell to which class each belongs. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. or a criminal. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. FRANKLIN. at the beginning. are used. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. of words rather than of their meaning. When.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. 8. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. In the other sentences. Stone walls do not a prison make. etc. Now. too. NOTE. to such words as become pure nouns by use." and another of Dr. are spoken of as if pure nouns. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. however. There are many of these. of course. 1.Nor iron bars a cage."²B. why and wherefore. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. The it. whether it mean the sun or the cold. . When. is the word "just. 4.²These remarks do not apply. so. and Then.. is ambiguous. without reference to its function in the sentence. 5. in a sentence above. 7. or a faithful domestic. Power laid his rod aside. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Caution.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. the terms the great. that cobweb of the brain. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. 20. or a state secret. Learning.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. 3. but as a figure of speech. It is to be remembered. Exercise. the wealthy. but have an adjectival meaning. in speaking of the principal of a school. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. 2. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 6." or "legal.

24. 14. The fleet. female. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 17. that waits you here. The hours glide by.9. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 10. in English grammar. GENDER. German. always feminine. its bloom is shed. 15. 21. 18. . What gender means in English. 11. 16. And see. shattered and disabled. 21. and names of females are usually feminine. 19. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. A little weeping would ease my heart. always masculine. for every dropHinders needle and thread. but not so in English.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 23. A fool speaks all his mind. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day.You seize the flower.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. It is founded on sex. the silver moon is gone. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. returned to Spain. Greek. 22. and many other languages. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.Fair guests. Male beings are. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 20. 13. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 12. There are exceptions even to this general statement. the welcome. In Latin. he cried.

must be divided into two principal classes. but are spoken of as neuter. according to their use. are named by gender nouns. the sex being of no consequence. The great difference is. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. or which arouse his interest most. according to use. the word child is neuter in the sentence. mensa (table) is feminine.. 22. das Messer (knife) is neuter.. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. All nouns. that is. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell.When. or additions to words." . inanimate things are spoken of. came to a stand just by the bridge. in other languages gender follows the form. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. and consequently without sex. . No "common gender. "A little child shall lead them.² I have seenA curious child . these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. Gunpowder .²IRVING. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. in English. clapping his burnished wings. Of animals. hortus (garden) is masculine.²LAMB. those which do not distinguish sex. if of the female sex. For instance: in Latin... Neuter nouns. corpus (body) is neuter. Hence: Definition. the name of it is masculine. in German.²gender nouns. with its gizzard under its wing. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. then. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. those with which man comes in contact often.. those distinguishing the sex of the object.²masculine and feminine. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. that pattern of a husband. or names of things without life. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. die Gabel (fork) is feminine." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. however. the name of it is feminine. Gender nouns.. and neuter nouns. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. 24. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Thus. 23. He next stooped down to feel the pig. if there were any signs of life in it. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex.² IRVING.

cousin. . he-bear²she-bear. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster.25. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Gender shown by Prefixes. or the lack of it. Male nouns beings. 28. If such words as parent.. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. for from they said vram. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. For fox they said vox. 27. as in wine vat. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. as he-goat²she-goat. ruler. is. and for the older word fat they said vat. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. I. puts a prefix before the masculine man. teacher. the division of words according to sex. Native suffixes.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. According to the definition. generally to a masculine word. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. 29. (2) By adding a suffix. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Put in convenient form. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. though both words have lost their original meanings. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. II. Very few of class I. woman. One feminine. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. The inflections for gender belong. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. These remain in vixen and spinster. etc. Gender shown by Suffixes. domestic. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. Hence vixen is for fyxen.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. 26. from the masculine fox. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. but spinster has now no connection with it. they are neuter words. only to masculine and feminine nouns. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. relative. servant. of course.

Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. executrix. -ess (French esse. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. donna. punster. Low Latin issa). (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. and are never used for words recognized as English. trickster. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. as. song-str-ess. it has none now in the words huckster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. Slightly changed and widely used. Ending of masculine not changed. as czarina. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as. but in most cases it has not. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. These are attached to foreign words. 30. as seam-stress. Unaltered and little used. señorita. gamester. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. the one most used.

Thus.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. we use the masculine termination. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. etc. In some of these pairs. Gender shown by Different Words. neighboresse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. or servauntesse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . chairman. 32. frendesse. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. 31." III. wagoness. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). to represent persons of either sex. teacheresse. as. as was said in the sixteenth century. from Latin imperatricem. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. editor. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. as. teacher or lady teacher. we use the feminine. NOTE.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. neighbor (masculine and feminine). Some of them have an interesting history. fosteress. as in the fourteenth century. others have in their origin the same root. We frequently use such words as author. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. from the French -esse. the ending -ess. Instead of saying doctress.

but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). as in many other words. Icelandic gás. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). written loverd. the old sign of the masculine. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). became identical. or lauerd in Middle English.² . etc. 34. had the masculine mearh (horse). Besides gander and drake. 16). but this has long been obsolete. among others) to be from the same root word. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. It is not connected historically with our word duck. 33. Danish gaas. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Personification. The older forms. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf.). gand-ra. Two masculines from feminines. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). from Latin mea domina. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Three letters of ened have fallen away. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Widower. probably meaning house dweller). leaving our word drake. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. widuwa²widuwe. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Madam is the French ma dame. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Mare. lhauerd. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Witch is the Old English wicce. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. not immediately connected with witch. though both are ultimately from the same root. finally gander. in Old English mere. for example. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy.

(2) By changing the root vowel. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. the plural.Her home is on the deep. NUMBER. together with the third.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of.No towers along the steep. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. whenever we adopt a new word. This is not exclusively a poetic use. that is. Our language has two numbers. etc. But other words were inflected afterwards. the engineer speaks so of his engine. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. 37. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. Effect of personification.²KEATS. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. (3) By adding -s (or -es). The -en inflection. shoon (shoes). There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. In nouns. for instance. Definition.²CAMPBELL. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. and not by the form of the noun. The first two methods prevailed.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. more than one. we make its plural by adding -s or -es."²BYRON. . But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. 36. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. in Old English. I. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. eyen (eyes). Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 39. treen (trees). 38.²singular and plural. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English."Now. 35. Britannia needs no bulwarks.²COLERIDGE.

that have the singular and plural alike. Akin to this class are some words. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. pair. cross.²WHITTIER. lens. retain the same form for plural meaning. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. originally neuter. and get settled. Lee marched over the mountain wall. finally brethren.²MACAULAY. and is still found in dialects. heathen. as. cannon. 40. wight. they add -s): also trout. after all. turf. 41. as. but has now no singular. . swine.-En inflection imitated by other words."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.Horse and foot. III.² "God bless me! so then. ditch. Such are box. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. The words horse and foot. Instead of -s.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. sail.The horse are thousands ten. folk. such as deer. Brethren has passed through three stages. quartz. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. dozen. borough²formerly had the same inflection. brace. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. after numerals (if not after numerals.²THOREAU.²Over the mountains winding down. Children has passed through the same history. Other words following the same usage are. or if preceded by the prepositions in. etc. then brothre or brethre. The old plural was brothru. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es.² The foot are fourscore thousand. but they now add the ending -s. 42. by. etc. Examples of this inflection are. when they mean soldiery. glass. Kine is another double plural. people. sheep. etc. II. into Frederick town. head. salmon.

summons. and some -es. that when thy summons comes. quoth then that ladie milde. It served simply as a means of sight. The lilie on hir stalke grene.² Politics. Proper nouns are regularly singular. Some words are usually singular. Means plural.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. the Americas. 44. So live. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. molasses. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . the Washingtons. race²races. etc. volcano² volcanoes. etc. DANA. physics. mathematics. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. pains (care).²BRYANT. daisies. negro²negroes. means: as.. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. fairies.²PROF. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). a new syllable is made. Examples of these are. Special Lists. though they are plural in form. shelf²shelves. half²halves. 45. and go over to other classes (Secs. When such words take a plural ending. chaise²chaises. Two words. in its widest extent.. e. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. etc.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. is both the science and the art of government.g. some adding -s. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. knife²knives. allies. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. they lose their identity. house²houses. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. however. politics. though this sound combines readily with -s. means and politics. Formerly. niche²niches. also news. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular.g. and the real ending is therefore -s. as. economics. etc. hero²heroes. e. and many branches of learning. 43. 15 and 17). prize²prizes. these words ended in -ie.-Es added in certain cases. Words in -ies. optics. fancies.

By these means. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.Words. Sometimes. W. Some words have no corresponding singular. riches will accumulate.²G. Besides this.²MOTLEY. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²IRVING. by those means which we have already mentioned. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²GOLDSMITH. 46.²GOLDSMITH.²J. it is furnished with a forceps. Now I read all the politics that come out.²BURKE. if I recollect right. by strongly conveying the passions. L. With great dexterity these means were now applied.² MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. CURTIS. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. however. I say. LAUGHLIN. Politics plural. A relic which. .

y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). shots (number of times fired). of a periodical. eaves. clothes (garments). 50. as in the lines.. Numbers also means issues. two plurals. These make the last part plural. or work in a bellows?²PROF. (2) care. die²dies (stamps for coins. making a double plural.² I lisped in numbers. the other unlike it. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). or epistles. number²numbers: (1) figures. riches. (2) literature.²was it subdued when. index²indexes (to books). fishes (individuals or kinds). faculties. genii (spirits). etc.²one corresponding to the singular.²LONGFELLOW. ways. as two sixpences. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. two meanings. (2) poetry. fish²fish (collectively). 49. for the numbers came. (2) revenue duties. shot²shot (collective balls). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. brethren (of a society or church). DANA. Three words were originally singular. Tell me not. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. carry off chaff. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. One plural. etc. dice (for gaming). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. may add -s.. genius²geniuses (men of genius). part²parts: (1) divisions. pea²peas (separately). . penny²pennies (separately). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. trouble.). In Early Modern English thank is found. (2) abilities.The air. indices (signs in algebra). in mournful numbers. 48. or copies. twopence. pence (collectively). sixpence. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.²POPE. In speaking of coins.. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. pease (collectively). Two classes of compound words.

The title may be plural. manservant. though the latter is often found. the Drs. Norman.²DR. Ottoman. 52. for example. or the name may be pluralized. then Silas Peckham. but add -s.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.² Then came Mr. such as talisman. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. Briggs. Brown. and then the three Miss Spinneys. and Mrs. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. 51. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. German. as the Messrs. the Misses Rich. firman. there is some disagreement among English writers. As to plurals of names with titles. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. as man singer. woman singer. . The chief member adds -s in the plural. Mussulman. Brahman. Two methods in use for names with titles. Allen. woman servant. HOLMES.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one.

Du Maurier. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.²GOLDSMITH. FROM THE LATIN. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. y y analysis antithesis . Domesticated words. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. They are then said to be naturalized. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. or Englished. 53. The Messrs. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. FROM THE GREEK.²GIBBON. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and retain their foreign plurals. These are said to be domesticated. Others have been adopted. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Exercise. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²DICKENS.²THE CRITIC. or Anglicized.

55. Definition. cell has another relation. also add -s or 's. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. In the sentence. as. and expresses a relation akin to possession. Words quoted merely as words. Letters." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). form their plurals by adding -s or 's. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. they form their plurals in the regular way.. figures. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). 54. In the general wearing-away of inflections. Only two case forms. as. etc." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)." the word felon's modifies cell. figures. without reference to their meaning.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. ." CASE. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. 56. etc.

adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Excuses are clothes which." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. . and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree.²one for the nominative and objective. completing a verb. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 1.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Nouns. 3. they returned to their homes.²person. three things characterize man.²the nominative. I. 58.²nature. 57. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. fate. when asked unawares. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. 5. Uses of the Nominative." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. learning. then. Three properties belong to wisdom. the objective. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. whether inflected or not. and experience. excessive grief. and merit." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. may be said to have three cases. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 2.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. the enemy of the living. 4. and the possessive. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead." (2) As a predicate noun. Human experience is the great test of truth.

and landlord of the inn. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. Set a high price on your leisure moments. reconciles. But of all plagues." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. measure." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 8. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. 2. they are sands of precious gold. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. 3." (4) As the second object. and being equivalent to one verb. Conscience. her first law broken. how have I frighted thee? II. taking the object storm. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. But the flood came howling one day. distance. and meaning calmest. thy wrath can send. wounded lies. They charged." Exercise. (in the older stages of the language. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. save." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. a patriarch of the village. as will be seen in Sec. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 59. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. good Heaven. . Uses of the Objective. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect." (3) Adverbially. completing the verb. (5) As the object of a preposition. 4.Save. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. taking the object enemies. sword in hand and visor down. and tell which use each has:² 1. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. the word toward which the preposition points. 9. 68. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. etc. and makest a calm. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." "Cowards die many times before their deaths.6. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends.

61. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. as. tempests that . or in writing yesterday's elegy. 60. expressed or understood. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.e.²ADDISON. as in these expressions. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.Does his Creator's power display. 9.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. The possessive case always modifies another word.And gave the leper to eat and drink. (2) Objective possessive. Possession in some sense is the most common.² The unwearied sun. It is a poetic expression. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. from day to day. and forfeits paid. 6. Uses of the Possessive..²BYRON. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. 7. And whirling plate. The noblest mind the best contentment has. 8. 10.²SHELLEY. as shown in the sentences. the Great Stone Face. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. (3) Subjective possessive. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.²HAWTHORNE. the most common of all. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.His winter task a pastime made. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. III. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.5.

was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. and Obj. The use of the apostrophe. As said before (Sec. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. 56). expressing the relations of nominative and objective. in Chaucer. . "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.. child NOTE. 64. 1. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general." etc. 62.e. and Obj. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. Declension or inflection of nouns. the panther which the forest hides). as schoolboys sometimes write. Poss. A suggestion. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Nom. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). PLURAL. To form the possessive plural. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s." Use of the apostrophe. How the possessive is formed. there are only two case forms.winter is likely to have).²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. A false theory. making the possessive singular. lady Poss." "mannes herte [heart]. 63. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. One is the simple form of a word." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. "From every schires ende. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. however. 62." "at his beddes syde. Case Inflection. growth which several days had developed). "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. Nom.. "George Jones his book.e.

Though this opinion was untrue. instead of the emperor their master's name. Possessive and no noun limited. as. . some such word as house. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. containing words in apposition. tailor's bill²THACKERAY."²DE QUINCEY. in the name of the emperor their master.²HOLMES.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. the possessive sign is usually last.²THACKERAY. church. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.² LOWELL.. dwelling. 67. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Cervantes' satirical work. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. for goodness' sake. and she walked off from the don's. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²RUSKIN. stands up for God's truth one man. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. I remember him in his cradle at St. my neighbors. as by the countess's command. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. 66.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase." Possessive with compound expressions. Kate saw that. In compound expressions. and from a desire to have distinct forms. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. being understood with it: for example. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. Captain Scrapegrace's. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign." "A postscript is added.²SWIFT." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. know the amount of my income. etc. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. James's. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. as. Peter's. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. 65. a word with a phrase. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. but to the ear all may be alike. store. etc. the items of my son's.

I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Emphasis. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. HALE. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. objective.²FROUDE. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. sometimes they are used together. In most cases. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. ill-lighted except where she stands. as one modifier.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. 2.²E.²CARLYLE. each.. making a double possessive. For example. Clearness. this.²the introduction which Atterbury made. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. E. 1. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. and tell whether each is appositional. every. in such a sentence as. the sentence might be understood as just explained. no. a double possessive. (3) It prevents ambiguity. (1) When a word is modified by a. that. any. 87. and at the same time by a possessive noun. however. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. Exercises. corresponding to 's. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. the statement clearly means only one thing. A peculiar form. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. 68.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. especially when used with this or that. or subjective.The double possessive. etc. (See also Sec. Blair). the. Both of these are now used side by side. If. (b) Rewrite the sentence. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . we use the phrase of Atterbury.

A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 7. 11. it seemed.They say. 15. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. in parsing a noun. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 10. At lovers' perjuries. 5. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. In parsing. 13. There Shakespeare's self.² . day's harbinger. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. let him seasonably water the one. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 70. Now the bright morning star. 8.Comes dancing from the East. 4. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 9. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. some idioms²the double possessive. Nature herself. 6. with every garland crowned. we state. Hence. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.3. 12.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. Jove laughs. Friend. I must not see thee Osman's bride. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 69. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. therefore. and destroy the other. 14. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience.

it has no sex. The correct method. 3. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. 2. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class.²common. it expresses possession or ownership. hence objective case. therefore neuter. subject of the verb is understood. is a common class noun. the connection shows a male is meant. singular number. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. and therefore nominative case. it denotes only one person. as to case. it is the object of the preposition by. therefore singular number. if the latter.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. has no governing word. In parsing any word. determining its case. object of the verb takes. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. 4. and number. etc. NOTE.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. therefore masculine gender. 71. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. but is the adverbial objective. MODEL FOR PARSING. (4) Its office in the sentence. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. Thief is a common class noun. Exercise. hence it is a common noun.(1) The class to which it belongs. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. it expresses time. names one thing. a withered serving man. therefore singular number. hence it is a gender noun. Throat is neuter. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. . which gender. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. therefore possessive case. Neckcloth. inflections. That in the captain's but a choleric word. masculine. and relations. gender. (3) Whether singular or plural number. 68). a fresh tapster. and to have it found out by accident. like miller's. and limits neckcloth. hence it is objective case. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. it is the name of a male being. proper. An old cloak makes a new jerkin.

And hated her for her pride. The need of pronouns. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession." Again. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. blessings light on him that first invented . A pronoun is a reference word. 8. we evidently cannot state the owner's name.5. 9. and prison.. and representative words. definite. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. all in one. where the Rhone enters the lake.²palace. were natives of Geneva. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. from a necessity for short. 76). "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. instead of saying. Necker. 7. financial minister to Louis XVI. castle. 10. (2) Interrogative pronouns. and his daughter. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious.. 11. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. 73. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Time makes the worst enemies friends. or for a person or thing. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Classes of pronouns. 72. sleep! 6. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Jarley's back being towards him. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. Now. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. PRONOUNS. Madame de Staël. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. Mrs. or for a group of persons or things. A few miles from this point. He giveth his beloved sleep. . standing for a name. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. For instance. Definition. but by a question we say.

standing for a person or thing spoken of. 74. ours . Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. which cannot be used as adjectives. the person or thing spoken to. (5) Indefinite pronouns. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. they must represent the person talking. 77.. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. they are said to have person by agreement. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which have forms for person. Singular. mine. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. I Poss.(3) Relative pronouns. and the person or thing talked about. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Three persons of pronouns. representing a person or thing spoken to. This gives rise to a new term. my Plural. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. From analogy to pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns." Person of nouns. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. (4) Adjective pronouns. which relate or refer to a noun. 75. (3) Third person. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. even if it had a special form. Nom. or other word or expression. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. (2) Second person. representing the person speaking. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. 76. we our. that is. primarily adjectives. words. Person in grammar. pronoun. "the distinction of person. as nouns have the same form. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns.

a separate form for each gender. Singular. she her. you your. Masc. Third person singular has gender. . so also with the person or thing spoken to. it its it Poss. But the third person has. Obj. they their.Obj. neuter. in the singular. Obj. hers her Plur. Nom. feminine h o. Nom. by personification. Obj. thy Remarks on These Forms. SECOND PERSON. yours Poss. Old Form Common Form. he his him Fem. yours you THIRD PERSON. thine. Obj. Nom. In Old English these three were formed from the same root.. namely. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Poss. and also for the neuter. Nom. neuter hit. The speaker may be either male or female. your. masculine h . Old forms. or. theirs them Neut. 78. First and second persons without gender. of all Three. yours you Plural. thou thee ye you you your. me us Singular. Poss.

Second person always plural in ordinary English. 82. Two uses of the old singulars. 80. etc.²SHELLEY. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 81..Thou lovest. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). them. which is a neuter noun. for example. even when referring to a single object.. their. as possessive of it. as. it.:² (1) In elevated style. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.² Oh.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. The plurals were h . etc. 79. and sometimes its. the forms they.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. which was often sounded with the h silent. thee. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. however. thy. etc. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. just as we now say. to thy care we commit the helpless. thou Shepherd of Israel. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. There are. heora. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. In spoken English. Thou.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. especially in poetry. The form its. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. in Old English. (2) In addressing the Deity." As shown above.²BEECHER. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. heom. as in prayers. two modern uses of thou. The consequence is. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. . that didst comfort thy people of old. We use it with a plural verb always. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). This is of comparatively recent growth. perhaps being from the English demonstrative.

Old use of mine and thine. theirs. 84 are always subjects. and not make more classes. 86. them. we. or. 58). and has been slave to thousands." the literary language would require he after was. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. to personify objects (Sec. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. they. their. Absolute personal pronouns. . though ye is occasionally used as objective. them. and follow the usage of literary English. thine. note the following:² 'Twas mine. his. for. I spare thee mine. thou. 'tis his. her. The Possessive. they have a nominative form. in such a sentence as. however. The words I. 85. besides a nominative use. 83. The forms my. The forms mine. he. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. her. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. us. 84. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²COWPER. sometimes his and its. hers. ye. have a peculiar use. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. its. him. Not a separate class. me. That is. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. In spoken English. II. our. though those named in Sec. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. 34). but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. I The Nominative. us. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English.²BULWER. when they occur in the predicate position. she.Use of the pronouns in personification. him. her. some say. thy. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. And since thou own'st that praise. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. Additional nominatives in spoken English. and sometimes in ordinary speech. "I am sure it was him. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. yours.²LANDOR. your. ²SHAKESPEARE. Nominative forms. Yet careful speakers avoid this.

FIELDS. and with mine. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. If thine eye offend thee. (3) To express contempt. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. This usage is still preserved in poetry. ours. commenting upon a letter of mine.²CARLYLE. thine. Double and triple possessives. his. ²HOLMES. theirs. (2) To bring emphasis. we find. anger. 87.²THACKERAY. ours. as in nouns.²ID. yours. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.² CARLYLE. for example. COOPER. "Hold thy peace. or satire. . Give every man thine ear. hers. in that old Edinburgh house of his. pluck it out.²BIBLE. it tells of good old times. F. Like the noun possessives. yours. thus. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. This ancient silver bowl of mine. Besides this.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.²ID.²THACKERAY. we have.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. are really double possessives. Their uses. but few thy voice. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. Long Allen. theirs. T. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.²SWIFT. sometimes its. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins."²SCOTT. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. thus. The forms hers.²J. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens." said Henry Woodstall. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.²J.

90. as it is called. but expresses for whom." "None but the brave deserves the fair. 20. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. The Objective. 88. was marked by a separate case. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. this dative use. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. mine stands for my praise in the second.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. for whose benefit. 89. But the first two have a nominative use. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. but nominative or objective in use. but the form is the same as the objective. but not in form. as shown in Sec. In Old English there was one case which survives in use." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. In pronouns. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In their function. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. in the first sentence. "The good alone are great. Curse me this people. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. Now the objective. The old dative case. 86: mine stands for my property. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. They all handled it. and mine in the second has an objective use." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²BIBLE.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. . Besides this use of the objective. In such sentences as. his for his property. the thing is done.²ID. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. III. Both joined in making him a present. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. or use in a sentence.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition.

like Chinese skill. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. or that he has not a great deal more. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. as. Society. WEBSTER. as in the sentences. It is a pity that he has so much learning. which follows the verb. Your mere puny stripling. as. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.² NEWMAN. you sneeze.²IRVING To empty here. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. or to the idea.²EMERSON. to stand for the real. The word you. Indefinite use of you and your.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²D.²ADDISON. 92." (3) As a grammatical subject. logical subject.²CARLYLE. 91. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.²BACON.Time is behind them and before them. ²EMERSON. (3) In apposition. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. and they cry.²BULWER. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. why. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. you must condense there. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. in this century. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.² .²DE QUINCEY. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. has not made its progress. thus. was passed by with indulgence.

. they dropped their arms. itself.. himself.²HAWTHORNE. herself. A sturdy lad . and its plural selves. have laid them downIn their last sleep. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. ourselves. that is.²THOREAU. For when it dawned. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²BURNS. who teams it. yourselves.² Now I lay me down to sleep. themselves. keeps a school.²ID. They are myself.²BUNYAN. (ourself)."²IRVING. I set me down and sigh." "He bought him a horse. 93.²SCOTT.²HOLMES. since firstThe flight of years began. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia.²BRYANT. however. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. the second is the old form of the second person. This occurs in poetry.It is finger-cold. Poor Christian was hard put to it. it rained. "I found me a good book. peddles it. as. It was late and after midnight. farms it. used in poetry. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. who in turn tries all the professions. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.²EMERSON. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. 94. when they are direct objects. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²COLERIDGE. as they are also called." and there is an end of it. And millions in those solitudes.²ANON. Of the two forms in parentheses. And when I awoke. -selves. For example. I made up my mind to foot it. but seldom in prose.. There was nothing for it but to return." etc. we use such expressions as. yourself.²DE QUINCEY. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. (thyself). REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²IRVING.

after the analogy of myself. In Middle English the forms meself. ourselves. as in vulgar English.²EMERSON. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.² The great globe itself .²E. 95.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.As girls were once.²MILTON. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. theself. and the others were formed by analogy with these. and build the lofty rhyme. B.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. Threats to all. BROWNING. as we ourself have been. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. not the possessive forms. The question might arise.² TENNYSON. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. to us.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. for example. etc. Origin of these reflexives. I shrink with pain. shall dissolve. 96. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Use of the reflexives.. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.To you yourself. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. for example. NOTE. Held dead within them till myself shall die. As if it were thyself that's here. with self. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. as. were changed into the possessive myself. to every one. especially in the speech of rulers. thyself.² . as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. as. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.²SHAKESPEARE.²WORDSWORTH.²ID.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.

let him lowly confess it. 6. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 9. And it grew wondrous cold. is wisdom. One obsolete. 7. 4. Courage.On the light fantastic toe. . Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. 5.² THACKERAY. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.²DE QUINCEY. and neuter. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. Three now in use. feminine.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. and how to do it. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. 2. all conform to it. Infancy conforms to nobody. some each of masculine. Come and trip it as we go. and what. To know what is best to do. some of them being double possessives. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. 8. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. FRANKLIN. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. 10. father. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. where the word is one with that it tells of. Years ago.²B. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. fight it out. 3. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. which. but it is the soonest spoiled. 97. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive.

There is an old word. as it always asks about somebody. having three forms. 98. As shown here. with its possessive and objective. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. that it is not inflected for gender or number. that. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. but now obsolete. Use of which. 99. or case. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. used formerly to mean which of two. ideas.Promised. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. whether. but for case alone. 100. . What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. What wouldst thou do.. shall we say. that is. etc. Which of you. that it is always singular and neuter. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. whispering sweet. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. number. The use of who. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. Use of what. Whose was that gentle voice. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. the gold. referring to things. it refers to either persons or things. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. which is not inflected for gender. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. These show that what is not inflected for case. it is always third person. methought. actions. not to persons. Use of who and its forms. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. it is selective.

who? Poss. which and what are sometimes adjectives. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. and also in having a conjunctive use. objective in the last. for which the pronoun stands. 127). The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which is called the antecedent of the relative. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. They will be spoken of again in the proper places." Or. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. and so to make smoother discourse. nominative in the second also.101. it may be shortened into. who evidently refers to Bards. SING. Who. which is nominative in the first sentence. "The last of all the Bards was he. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. 102. These bards sang of Border chivalry.Who sung of Border chivalry.² "The last of all the Bards was he. 105. or other word or expression. It usually precedes the pronoun. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. what may be an adverb in some expressions. being the direct object of the verb shall take. pronoun. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. as.² . 104.²by the use of the words. SINGULAR Nom. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. as. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The antecedent. 99. in Sec. Thus we may say." In the latter sentence. since it is subject of the verb had. AND PLUR. Further treatment of who. which. 103. and what are also relative pronouns. Function of the relative pronoun. whose? Obj. subject of doth love. which and what. For instance. who is used as objective instead of whom. AND PLUR.

²MILTON. 108. 4. 3. WHITNEY. Indefinite relatives. a thousand years.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. that. 2. Generally speaking.²SCOTT. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.That guard our native seas. The origin of language is divine. a simple relative is meant. what. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²DR JOHNSON. but the look which is not of the earth. For her enchanting son. When the word relative is used. with all its capabilities .. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment..²W. . D.Whose flag has braved. Ye mariners of England.² COX. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 106. which. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.²LOWELL In this. The men whom men respect. 4. 2. the women whom women approve. will be discussed further on. 5. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. in the same sense in which man's nature.²THACKERAY. 6. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. both his and who have the antecedent priest. The nurse came to us. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. Who and its forms. are the men and women who bless their species. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. They had not their own luster. Two kinds.²BYRON..²PARTON Which and its forms. is a divine creation.Whom universal nature did lament. 3. 107.

Examples of the relative that:² 1. 3. That.. The Tree Igdrasil. ought to be kept in view. no bad type of what often happens in that country.. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. else this description will seem exaggerated... stratagems.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. W. bought up all the pigs that could be had. and spoils. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. The judge . The man that hath no music in himself.²DE QUINCEY. 4. 110.²LAMB 3. Who. (a) This gradation . 111. which it certainly is not. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. 107. 109.²MARGARET FULLER. BEECHER 5.5. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.² SHAKESPEARE 2. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Already done is all that he would do. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 6..²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.Is fit for treasons.²BURKE. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. For what he sought below is passed above.. Reader. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. What. you will not be angry with me for telling you.²EMERSON. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling..²IRVING. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²GOLDSMITH. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. 2.²H.

under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. whose for the possessive. The sentences in Sec. the relatives are singular. flung its arms around my neck. who. . Which. In 1. in 4. who is first person. in the third. referring to animals. Sec. seemed as much excited as myself.²who.²LOWELL. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. (4) It has two case forms. who class With those who think the candles come too soon.whose. and 6. JOHNSON. p. 107.²DR. It has been seen (Sec. a man. Gibbon. Kingsley.²which for the nominative and objective. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. whom. whom.²SWIFT. that man. Witness the following examples:² And you. (2) It has three case forms. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.. whose wound I had dressed. Examples of whose. whose. in 5. possessive case of which. 5.. whose is second person. or ideas. in the second. Smollett. and others. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. My horse. 113. 96). (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.. they are plural. Cooper. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. things. (3) It is nearly always third person.²THACKERAY. The little gorilla.. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. in the first sentence. In sentence 4. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. the others are all third person.²LEIGH HUNT. Scott. and 3.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.. son. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.. not persons.who. and so on.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Who referring to animals. The robins. 2.²IRVING. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. 112.

Kingsley. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. .114.²first. Which and its antecedents. 116. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. second. which is very notable and curious. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Primarily. The last two sentences in Sec. So in Matthew Arnold. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. secondly (which made her stare).² I swept the horizon. which is worse. (3) It is the same form for first.²BEECHER. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. too. no possessive. Sometimes. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.² And.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. let us enter the church itself. and numerous others. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. In the sentences of Sec. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. thus. That. Men may be ready to fight to the death. and third persons. 115.² MCMASTER. and things.²RUSKIN. the antecedent follows which. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. 109. Burke. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent."²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. This often occurs. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. (2) It has only one case form. animals. and to persecute without pity.²SCOTT. This moribund '61.²SHAKESPEARE.²DE QUINCEY.

whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. as." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. Sec. The gender. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. When expressed. For example. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths.²SHAKESPEARE." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. plural number. whose Obj.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. is always neuter. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 118. third person. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. number.²EMERSON. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. which. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. Who plainly stands for those or the people. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. either of which would be neuter. plural number. as in sentence 6. we can. who Poss. that men must needs abide. What a man does.² What I would.²BIBLE What fates impose. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. consequently is neuter. and is emphatic." That evidently refers to truths. by taking them out. that do I. 109. that he has. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. it usually follows." (3) "These people heard him. and person of the relatives who. that do I not. 119. but what I hate. . What. 117. for example. Nom. what we said?²CARLYLE. third person. The sentences of Sec. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. but this is not sanctioned as good usage.

is what we call nature. etc. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Now. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. standing for the people understood." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 6. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. the simple relative. Some prefer another method of treatment. but is singular. and what is the direct object of the verb call. The word what."²EMERSON. it is subject of the verb heard. Another way. 3. In the same way who. above. because it has usually no antecedent. the highest result of all education. third person. In the sentence. however. which is. 120. in the following sentences:² 1. 7. nobler souls with that which they are. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 5. Exercise. The whole expression is its subject. 8. Truths in sentence (2).." Here the subject of is. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. in (1). after all. . people is the object of the preposition of. 4. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. is subject of the verb can't be cured. it is object of uttered. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. we is the subject. The relative what is handled differently. First find the antecedents. In (2). then parse the relatives. and hence is in the nominative case. in (3). "What can't be cured must be endured. What must be endured? Answer. subject of heard. As shown by the following sentences. I think they are trying to outwit nature. that takes the case of the truths in (2). but of this. neuter. What can't be cured.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. is subject of wrought upon and molded. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. is in the nominative case. Parsing what. who is sure to be cunninger than they. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. so is in the objective case.

Death is there associated. 2.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. or stand on their head. 2. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. object of do] they do. summer will have its flies. and in 2. no particular thing.²BURKE. whosoever. 6. whatsoever. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. 7. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. that is. which. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. in a new and original way. not as direct as the simple relatives. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Hence some take what as a double relative." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. Do what we can. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. List and examples. and his friend a fool. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. So with the other indefinites. The simple relatives who. whatever. object of with] which [singular. 3. being referred to. It is clear that in 1. less common are whoso. They are whoever. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. no certain antecedent. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge.²you cannot have both. 5. Take which you please. that nothing else can stand in their presence. It is no proof of a man's understanding. and which in the second clause. or what else soever. and parse that in the first clause.²BURKE. .²MACAULAY. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. to everything that. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. 4. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. Only itself can inspire whom it will. 121. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. "common souls pay with that [singular. whichever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. 123. by meaning and use. Meaning and use. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. whatsoever. 122. whichsoever.

124. for example. and that as after such is equivalent to which. etc. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.. But and as. 121. 2.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore.As shown in Sec. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.² 1. . In early modern English. thus. nothing that does not interest us. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. not following the word such. Two words. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. There is nothing but is related to us..²EMERSON. what means anything that. 125.²HAWTHORNE. for example.² some particular thing. etc. 4. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. upon which. Sec. either one that. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. 121. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. are used. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. as was used just as we use that or which. but mean any one whom. etc. 120. but which only wealth could have purchased. Former use of as. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. Instead of the phrases in which.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. whereupon.²DE QUINCEY. the conjunctions wherein. by which. 417). has been my heaviest affliction. but and as. Other substitutes. 126. This. whereby. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Proof that they have the force of relatives. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. everything that (or everything which).

a question is disguised in each sentence. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. 1 (b). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (b) But what had become of them they knew not.²WHITTIER. and whether what = that + which (if so.. and 3 (b). (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. How to decide. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. which would indicate that they are not relatives. it is a simple relative. if not. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. no antecedent is expressed. Thus. which having the antecedent lines. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. 127. . Special caution needed here. if expanded. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. what is interrogative." etc.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. the full expression being. showing that who is plainly interrogative. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. 2." Likewise with which in 3 (b). would be. In sentences 1 (a). second. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. So in 2 (b).²ID. though the earthwork hid them. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. "But what had become of them? They knew not. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. if not. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. But in 1 (b).²EMERSON. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. who having the antecedent gentleman. 3. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. In studying such sentences. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. 2 (b). what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. Another caution. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. it is an interrogative. "Who stood behind? We knew. it is an indefinite relative).

²GOLDSMITH. and Court Calendars. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Thus. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. and asks no question. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. whence is the interrogative word. Examine the following:² 1. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²HOLMES. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. . And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 5.²G. In the second. 3. 4. On the other hand.² THACKERAY. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. 129. In the third.²FORSTER 6. In the first. 2.²FLETCHER. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. whose has the antecedent you. which has the antecedent hue. I visited many other apartments. The insect I am now describing lived three years. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²SWIFT. Relative omitted when object. Exercise. but the life of man in England. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence.128. which. When Goldsmith died. ELIOT.²CARLYLE. Put in the relatives who. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists.² These are the sounds we feed upon. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. the question is asked by the verb.

He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.²Id. 130. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. There was such a crowd went. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. 5.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.²SHAKESPEARE. and what. simple relatives. who were to be rulers over whom.² LOWELL. Function of adjective pronouns. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. which.7. Also in literary English we find the same omission. 2.Ne'er looks upon the sun. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. and comparatively so in poetry. 6. that. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. It is rare in prose. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. . or indefinite relatives:² 1.²SCOTT. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Relative omitted when subject. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.²CAMPBELL. Examples are. The nobles looked at each other. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. which was already proceeding. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. the house was full. 3.

" "one man. etc. in order to be an adjective pronoun. but in this function." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon.131. a word. in letters of gold. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. "these pranks. or use." in the others. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. few. neither. must not modify any word. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. or may be the whole of a sentence. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use.²BRYANT. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. such as this. all. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. any. In the first use they are adjectives. which we have seen in such expressions as." Classes of adjective pronouns. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. Caution. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. Primarily they are adjectives. or they may stand for nouns. not pronouns. or an argument in a paragraph. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. many. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. "each cube. the former. either. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. and on each is written. none.²IRVING.²EMERSON." that is.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. 'Truth. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched." "Where two men ride on a horse.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. 133. and stand for a noun. in the first. etc. but have lost their adjective use. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. "The dead are there. "another bank. etc. expressed or understood. 132. that. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. For instance. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns." in the second. necessarily thought of: thus. Adjectives. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. For example. . one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. and another to get cool under. such as each. as some.

and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. and sow wickedness. NOTE. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. as seemed good to each. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. . or reclined. because he was not lying in wait for these. and they have well performed the other. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. They had fewer books. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. accidentally preserved. Definition and examples. 5. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. they that plow iniquity. 2. or sat. Some of these are simple pronouns. Exercises.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²LOWELL. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Simple. for example.² They stood.²ID.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²ID. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. 3. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. but these were of the best. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Compound. Even as I have seen. Such are a few isolated instances. reap the same. A man inspires affection and honor. Their minds accorded into one strain.²EMERSON 4. when the latter was the King of Spain.All these he saw. 134. They have not shunned the one.

They led one another.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. with the superstitions of his time. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. Definition and examples. one another. for example. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. as. or melt for others' woe.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. Some inflected.Two are compound pronouns. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. as some of the rangers had gone astray. ²HAWTHORNE. as it were. as most were. Exercise. we might the more easily discharge them. imbued. such as one other. The word one has a reflexive form. . paused over a horoscope.²HAWTHORNE. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. Much might be said on both sides. another.²HOLMES. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. you quickly come to the end of all.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²EMERSON. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. 135. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.² One reflexive. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.²KINGSLEY. None shall rule but the humble. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. The Soldan. Men take each other's measure when they react.²each other. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. Another opposes him with sound argument. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.

Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. in building of chaises. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Now. . anybody.²SHAKESPEARE.² At lovers' perjuries. what. 136. Definition and examples. Every one else stood still at his post. etc. every one (or everyone). That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Exercise. anybody else's. as shown in the words everybody's. no one. naught. I tell you what. and somewhat. everything. they say.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.Exercise. everybody. and was indefinite in Old English. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. as. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. any one (or anyone). somebody else.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Jove laughs. and they. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. unlike adjective pronouns. every one else. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. some one. nothing.. they are never used as adjectives. etc. everybody else. but. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. nobody. They indefinite means people in general. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. 137. Somebody." It means something. also aught. anything. something. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. anyone else.

14. Whoever deals with M. in his negotiations. A reminder. O thou that rollest above. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 10.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 138. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. were suffered to depart. 12. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 8. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 2. from my earliest days. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 16. 4. 17. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 9. I first found myself among the mountains. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. and of no other. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 11. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. All was now ready for action. 13. 7. 5. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 3.²a feature of natural scenery for which. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. For this did God send her a great reward. Exercise. to which. Others did the same thing. indeed. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. . Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. The table was good. but not to quite so enormous an extent. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 18. 6.

35. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 29. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere.Destroyer and preserver. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. And I had done a hellish thing. 27. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. Whatever he knows and thinks. hear! 33. oh. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. in all its height. who take the world easy.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. variety. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 34.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 31. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. He sate him down. They know not I knew thee. 25. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. thou rollest now.Who knew thee too well. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. eat white bread or brown. 26. hear. 23. behold now the semblance of my being. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. 32.And it would work 'em woe. that let him communicate. and seized a pen. well-oiled dispositions. 30. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. I who alone am. 21.19. And will your mother pity me.

Again. becomes mine. as. Office of Adjectives. We are by nature observers. 41. . 139. or liquid. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. in pointing out an object. brittle or tough. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. etc. size. that is our permanent state. ADJECTIVES.36. which was no bad step towards my liberation. 45. It may have this office alone. and he learns who receives. He knew not what to do." etc. So with any object." "a hundred men. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. the number is limited by adjectives. if we are at a distance. and if we are near. so that no other will be mistaken for it. 40. He teaches who gives. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. white or red. or gaseous. such as in the expressions "this man. 39. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. We need to add some words to tell its color." "yonder hill." "some cities. 38. For example. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. etc. Substantives. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. then. who understands me. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. 42. 37. position. heavy or light. As to the kind of words used.. Who hears me." The office of an adjective. or with persons. 43. If a chemist discovers a new substance." "that house. "one hat. and so he read. 44. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. adjectives are used. Instead of using nouns indefinitely.

140. Infinitives. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 142. Definition." "the Roman writer Palladius." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. and their trash. beautiful." the "and there. to forgive. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "the Christian pearl of charity. happy. Examples are. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. such as safe. such as. "an old English manuscript. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. however. 143." "unlooked-for burden. To make this clear. With exception of the "and then.²POPE. derived from proper nouns." and the still less significant "and so." "ice-cold water. used to tell how many things are spoken of. "Heaven-derived power. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. If he be thankful for small benefits. fair. to describe it or to limit its application." "this life-giving book. Classes of adjectives. Nouns are not." . Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. pointing out particular things. it shows that he weighs men's minds. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. (4) Pronominal adjectives. terrible. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." "next-door neighbor. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. They include relative and interrogative words. deep. divine. (2) Adjectives of quantity." they constitute all his connections." "ivory-handled pistols. To err is human. remotest. etc. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. rash. 141." "half-dead traveler.²COLERIDGE. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. or how much of a thing.² BACON. words primarily pronouns.

" was is the verb." "an aged man." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. For instance: in the sentence. any. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Examples are." "One is hungry. in studying these last-named words. They have these three subdivisions:² How much." "a charming sight.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "trailing clouds. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. 145. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "It came on like the rolling simoom. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. 1. in this." "The shattered squares have opened into line. . 144. and accomplished is an adjective.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. Exercises. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. but small thoughts have I of sleep. having some of each subclass named in Sec. some. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. and another is drunken. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. sometimes small.But ever she looked on Mr. which are either pure participles used to describe. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. 'Tis midnight.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Care is needed.²MACDONALD. 143. considerable. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. Oxenham." Caution.²COLERIDGE." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. 2. no. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. much." was accomplished is a verb.

which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. any. are used with plural nouns. An arrow was quivering in each body. Not primarily pronouns. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. the former²the latter.²ID.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. those). How many. (plural these. and with them a few negroes." "Then we wandered for many days. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "In came some five and twenty more. they come under the next division of adjectives. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. instead of modifying them.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. as. Thus.²KINGSLEY. yonder (or yon). The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. latter.²THACKERAY. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. The following sentences present some examples:² . that. its wake." (b) Indefinite numerals. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.² Every town had its fair. The demonstrative adjectives are this. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Exercise. Examples. "one blaze of musketry. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. every village. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.²VAUGHAN." "He had lived by hunting for some months." "I have lost one brother." "a dozen volunteers. no. but I have gained fourscore. When some." Single ones of any number of changes. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. former. 146. The list. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers.²CARLYLE.

careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. 147. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. they are changed to adjectives. In which evil strait Mr.²RUSKIN. As has been said. skill which was progressive²in the other. 148. Exercise.²BANCROFT.²WORDSWORTH. skill which was at pause. but. These do not.²KINGSLEY. Modify names of persons or things. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. of equal skill. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives.but all these charms are fled.²GOLDSMITH. . Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you."²B. tell how many things are meant. They are of two kinds.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²ID. 149.² It matters not what rank he has. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. The taking of which bark. Indefinite relative adjectives. The silver and laughing Xenil. I verily believe. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²ID. but in the one case. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. These were thy charms.²BULWER.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. ²CARLYLE. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. WEBSTER.²D. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. for example. what revenues or garnitures. like the other numerals. Oxenham fought desperately. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. FRANKLIN. Definition. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.

Whatsoever kind of man he is. In indirect questions. nature will be sure to bear us out in. it is impossible to determine. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. whatever. Was there. what inquires about things or persons not known. whichsoever.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. and gaze.150. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whichever. proved not altogether displeasing to him. and new tormentedAround me. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. whichsoever way I move. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. A lady once remarked. which is selective among what is known. you at least give him full authority over your son. as it rather seemed. 151.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). . At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.²AGASSIZ. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.. New torments I behold.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. As in the pronouns. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.²CARLYLE.²RUSKIN. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.² EMERSON. which. But when the Trojan war comes. In direct questions. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. He was turned before long into all the universe. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. whatsoever. the debt to the rich. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.²ID..²IRVING. Examples of their use are.²LAMB. Adjective what in exclamations.And whichsoever way I turn. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. or whether any.

Meaning of comparison. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. COMPARISON.² Oh. etc. which changed its spelling to the modern form these.152.²but not the same degree. 153 . Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. weight. In exclamatory expressions. But this had also another plural. and when we compare the objects. etc. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.²This.. The article that was used with neuter nouns. 154. Exercise. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. 155. which was fully inflected in Old English. those). we notice some differences between them as to size. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. . a sapphire is bluer than the sky. or weight. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. It is neither relative nor interrogative. Those borrowed from this. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. That. or size. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. All these have certain qualities. th s (modern those). what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. color.Adjectives have two inflections. of the quality. NUMBER. gold is heavier than iron. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. alas. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.²number and comparison. Thus. we do so by means of their qualities. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. or amount. When we place two objects side by side. And yet. History of this²these and that²those. This is the old demonstrative. the making of it right. and those as the plural of that. as.

157. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. expressing the greatest degree of quality. but." "It is a nobler valor.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. redder. Substitute for inflection in comparison." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. reddest. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. for example. as. indomitable. So with the words sole. These are called degrees of comparison. 158. "more matter. as. . 156. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. organic. infinite. Freedom is a perpetual. "untamed thought. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 159. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. or amounts in quantity." Words that cannot be compared. blue. whether they attend their own affair or not. A main difference betwixt men is. with less wit. universal institution. and many others. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. easier. giant-like. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. supreme. bluest. they are not compared." "the commonest speech.²SEWARD." "no fewer than a hundred. immemorial. indefatigable. whose favorite pupil he was. red. The two forms. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. great. 160.²THACKERAY. Definition. enormous. easiest." "the largest soul. bluer. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. These are properly the only degrees. and the superlative. but were not common until a century later. and the superlative by adding -est. easy. though the simple. to the simple form. sufficient.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. expressing a greater degree of quality. strictly considered. The comparative is formed by adding -er.

The general rule is. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.Which rule. Adjectives irregularly compared. there needed to be a most genuine substance. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. 163. falling on his knees. though born in no very high degree. and patientest fusing. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression.²ID. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. admirablest. witty. etc. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain." "distantest relationships. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. The following lists include the majority of them:² . but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. madam." "more odd." "the wonderfulest little shoes. honestest. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. was most finished. indisputablest. peaceablest. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. finest chiseling. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. harsh forms are usually avoided." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. 162.²ID." Carlyle uses beautifulest. and yet familiar. These long. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. which hung behind in the queerest way. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.² CARLYLE A gentleman." "more austere and holy. most small. polished. "So help me God.²The Nation.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.² -er and -est or more and most? 161." said Henry Esmond. strange. as. easy. who." "sorrowfulest spectacles. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. I will. mournfulest. and other words are preceded by more and most. quiet. These are adjectives irregularly compared.

last Hindmost. older Nigher Nearer Later. 2. A double comparative. though from a different root. Good or well Evil.²HAMLET. 6. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). There was an old comparative bet. least. oldest Nighest. Worser was once used. as. next Nearest Latest. 4. 3. as in Shakespeare. uttermost Upmost. evil was the positive to worse. as in the sentence (14th century). a double comparative. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. worst. 1. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. is often used. uppermost LIST III.LIST I. hindermost Much or many More Farther. which has gone out of use.² We have it in a much lesser degree. furthest 10. 8.² O. 7. lesser. Hind 2. The superlative I form was betst. (3) Little is used as positive to less. which has softened to the modern best. throw away the worser part of it. latter Hinder LIST II.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. lesser Elder. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 5. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. (2) In Old English. bad. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. . utter 3. further Farthest. innermost Outmost. [Out] Outer. These have no adjective positive:² 1. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. List I. outermost Utmost. 9. 164. [In] Inner Inmost.

List II. farrest. but originally the comparison was nigh. doubling the inflection. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. making the modern farther. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. Between the two sets as they now stand.² The more part being of one mind. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. except the form next. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. muchel. etc. came into use. is quite common. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. an old superlative ending. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. . great. "Many a little makes a mickle. first. strenger. as. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. much. ²LAMB. as long. a distinction has grown up between the two series. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. instead of lenger. First became entirely detached from the series. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. strong. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. the old forms. latest. next. eldest. The most part kept a stolid indifference. Since later. The meanings greater. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. greatest. since the m is for -ma..²forth. meaning the largest part. are shown in such phrases as. there is scarcely any distinction. oldest. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English.²ID. The form hindmost is really a double superlative.²KINGSLEY.. th came into the others. the parallel form mickle being rarely used.²HAWTHORNE. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. and the superlative nearest. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. The latter. are earlier than older. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. In imitation of further. and refer to time. further." Its spelling has been micel. moche. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. (5) The forms elder. for example. furthest. to England we sailed. to which is added -ost. near. or series. but not in meaning. farthest. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. etc. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. (10) Hinder is comparative in form.

There.²DE QUINCEY. being merely descriptive. Her bows were deep in the water. (Sec.²KINGSLEY. on the very topmost twig. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. In List II." "The outer is of the day. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. The comparatives are so in form." "their utmost exertion. are like the comparative forms in List II." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. List III. Her." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. the upper light of the world. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective.²EMERSON. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "the innermost moral soul. or have no comparative forms." -Most added to other words. in having no adjective positives. Decidedly handsome. all may belong to the same noun.²H. They have no superlatives. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²HAWTHORNE. Think what each adjective belongs to. but her after deck was still dry. BEECHER. but they have no adjective positives. 168. The adjectives in List III.²DE QUINCEY. or each may modify a different word or group of words. W. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. 166. by the by. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. but not in their meaning. Highest and midmost. . Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. 167.165. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. and have no comparative force.²SCOTT." "far-seeing as the sun. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.

For thy stomach's sake. "the one who was then king." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. our new government.²A. now our queen. Bradbury and Evans. deeply black eyes. Whenever that look appeared in her wild.²HAWTHORNE. as. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. The seldom use of it. H. solid. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES.²TRENCH. 7. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. STEPHENS 5. deep. satisfactory. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical.²HAWTHORNE. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES." making then an adjective.For example. in prose. and broken. It may still be argued. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.²HOLMES. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. Our sometime sister. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. May we not. This. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. 2. bright. 3." in which then is an adverb." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. ²TROLLOPE. .² My then favorite. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. In the following quotations. Exercise. rich. By a convenient brevity. philosophical. round. in this sentence. and heaven-defying oaths. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. not decision alone. 4.²BIBLE.²MRS. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. the then and still owners. instead of saying. Richard Hooker. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. we may say "the then king. 169. STOWE. A few improper jests and a volley of good.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. therefore. usual modifies incomparable decision. 6. But in this sentence. Other instances are.²NOAH PORTER. and thine often infirmities.²RUSKIN. and moral truth.

but that you proceed to your end by a direct. manly way. Since adjectives have no gender. 7. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. I ask nothing of you. Unfamiliar describes truths. frank. the method of parsing is simple. person. across the plain. 8. if it has number. 170. . MODEL FOR PARSING. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. and most astounding were those frightful yells. if it can be compared. (3) Its degree of comparison. In parsing an adjective. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. positive degree. with awkward but rapid pace. These points out what truths. This gave the young people entire freedom. 9. plural number.What to tell in parsing. 2. Exercise. To every several man. (2) Its number. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. She made no reply. 5. To every Roman citizen he gives. 4. 3. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. 6. this. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. modifies the word truths. therefore descriptive. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. not inflected for number. then. seventy-five drachmas. 10. cannot be compared. modifies truths. or case. therefore demonstrative. compared by prefixing more and most. (4) What word or words it modifies. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. and I waited for none. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. and very few have number. having a singular.

I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 12. 22. Two hours elapsed. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. the same love to France would have been nurtured. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 33.11. 16. it is so noble a fruit. is the settlement of our own country. 29. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 18. 26. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. In music especially. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 25. 14. With every third step. Nearer to our own times. 27. and dogs. 32. during which time I waited. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 20. 13. 24. are immutably fishes. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. the tomahawk fell. suggests such thoughts as these. growing in the most unfavorable position. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. Like most gifted men. and therefore more interesting to us. 31. 19. oxen. as for armies that were too many by half. not so much for travelers that were few. and many poles supported the lower ones. . and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 28. I know not what course others may take. he won affections with ease. it rests on reality. To say what good of fashion we can. 23. yonder oxen in the pasture. 21. those dogs in the yard. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Here lay two great roads. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple.

. but the former is used. 172. th o. 35. s o.²MACAULAY. that other. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. even when not silent. for example. were formerly that one. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. An before vowel sounds. Many writers use an before h. sometimes the tother. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. or the tane. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. 174. the tither. that) which was also an article in Old English. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. a before consonant sounds.34. 37." "a yelling crowd. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. A hard-struggling. such as we have been attempting to describe. later th . They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. when the word is not accented on the first syllable." "a European. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized." the words the and an belong to nouns. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. the other. the tother. just as adjectives do. the latter is still preserved in the expression. ARTICLES. An or a came from the old numeral n. Our expressions the one.²SCOTT. An historian.²BREWER. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. in vulgar English. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. In Middle English the became an article. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . and a before consonant sounds.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Examples: "a house. weary-hearted man was he. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. he is no literary man. 173. In the sentence." An with consonant sounds. the tother. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." "an honor. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. 171. Two relics. ðat. Their origin. these occurring as the tane." "an orange. meaning one. with an ordinary little garden.

" the article indicates clearly that a river." "the Ohio.²This use is noticed when. the older n. Kinds. which cannot be used alone. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 176. 179. or group. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.²COLERIDGE.²IRVING. To call attention to attributes. When the is prefixed to a proper name. 175. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. An and a are different forms of the same word.. thus. Reference to a known object.²G. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Definition. The is the definite article. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. The Dakota tribes. An hereditary tenure of these offices. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. or a group or class of things. or any individual of a group or class. 178. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. An or a is the indefinite article. since it points out a particular individual.²THACKERAY. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri.. as "the Mississippi. Articles are either definite or indefinite. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. BANCROFT. or class. and not a state or other geographical division. and when the word river is omitted. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.²HEROES OF ASGARD.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. NOTE. as in the sentence. not descriptive. 177. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.² Don't you remember how. is referred to.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business.² . a person is introduced by a. doubtless. With names of rivers. on opening a story. An article is a limiting word.

The Bacon. 183. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.²ID. Caution.² As she hesitated to pass on. Common. His messages to the provincial authorities. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. not into a particular virtue. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. The.²EMERSON. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. laid it on the miry spot.² The faint. Kant. the Hume. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. NOTE. but into the region of all the virtues.²SCOTT. 1.²GIBBON. as. 181. 2. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²G. the Spinoza.²KINGSLEY. With adjectives used as nouns. the gallant. If the good is there. and the redwing. Half abstract. One thing for its class. For possessive person pronouns. BANCROFT. The simple rise as by specific levity. Schelling.²MOTLEY. for example. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. or a match put between the fingers. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²EMERSON. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. 182. so is the evil. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. etc.²ID. . 180. With plural of abstract nouns. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. her. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. would speedily extract the required information. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. the song sparrow.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

and not a verb.In (a). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. in (3. 202. all do not express it in the same way. In giving a definition. or the object.²BULWER . (can) shame also has an object. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. with some word understood. obeyed is a predicate. hence is not a verb. In each case. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. for example. to say something to or about some person or thing. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. Of those expressing action. from the Latin transire. a noun. but fearing is not a predicate. to go is no predicate. the most penetrating. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. but cannot be predicates. etc. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. we consider a verb as one word. in (3. and shame the most astute. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. in (2. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. the most astute." put is the predicate. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. representing something which it influences or controls. and. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. in (c). Each influences some object. or an idea. 200: In (1). taking the staff which always guided her steps. a). the word following. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. in (b). which may be a person." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. c). b). 201." Examine the sentences in Sec. endured what? anguish. in (2. Definition and caution. Has takes the object hypocrisy. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and a preposition unite as a verb. can deceive has an object. or a material thing. Now. By examining a few verbs. "Put thou money in thy purse. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. "Put money in thy purse. which means to go over. a verb. a preposition. and to receive the action expressed. In the first. an article. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. 204. lone took what? answer. The nature of the transitive verb. b). might have been anticipated is also one predicate. The nature of intransitive verbs. Hence Definition. care. in this sentence from Bulwer.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. A verb is a word used as a predicate. as. All these are called transitive verbs. In the sentence. 203."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. an adverb.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

popular government must be pronounced impossible. . or be fulfilled.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. but. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.²D. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. as. in our case. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. Unreal²cannot be true. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. Ideal. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. the representative system ultimately fail. the second founder.I could lie down like a tired child. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.²may or may not be true. as. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.²LONGFELLOW. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. 2). WEBSTER. Most excellent stranger. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. 221. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. 222. 215.²SHELLEY. Again. for example.²MACAULAY. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. and may or may not be regarded true. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. I. ²EMERSON. the first great founder of the Empire. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.² Now. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. they were recorded in the Book of Life.²BRYCE. Condition or Supposition. If this be the glory of Julius. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. he will see the need of these ethics.²FRANKLIN.² If.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. the writer can make the statement following. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.

the clause being introduced by that or lest. 2.²CALHOUN.² If these things were true. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. would have sat still with joy and peace.²SWIFT. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. that he might be strong to labor. WILLIS. ²LOWELL. In the following conditional clauses. I told him. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. though. clear. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors... and what kind of condition:² 1. might. The voice.²EMERSON. 5. 7.. he supposed. as. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.²MACAULAY. is used to express purpose. Subjunctive of Purpose.² It was necessary. But in no case could it be justified. that we cannot but regret its absence." etc. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. II.²BAYNE. . Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. do you think. The subjunctive. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. melodious. if he speak to you. and striven energetically to save Ney. Epaminondas. would you. but when the verb precedes the subject. P. except. 8. he had better not have written. thus.²FRANKLIN.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. if he was the man I take him for. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. and should. 6.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. especially be. If he had reason to dislike him. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. 3. she was regarded as a prodigy.² CARLYLE.. society could not hold together. to drink strong beer. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. is of similar physiognomy. 4. if his lot had been mine. NOTE. etc. since he [Byron] was dead. which cannot be true. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire.²FRANKLIN. unless. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. 223. may. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled.²N. and sonorous. Exercise. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.

²ID.. In Temporal Clauses.²DE QUINCEY. the answer being regarded as doubtful. After a verb of wishing.²CARLYLE.. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.Thou go not. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.That vain it were her eyes to close. . Rise up. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²MOORE. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.²SOUTHEY. The English subjunctive.And we. till it meet the sun in his coming. 226. I would it were! ²EMERSON. 224. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. III. like the Latin.²BRYANT.Were wafted off to seas unknown.²D. Subjunctive of Result. I've wished that little isle had wings.²COLERIDGE. So live. IV. To tell of what had passed.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. VII. In a Noun Clause. like the quarry-slave at night.I have been the more particular. none of us could say. 227. Ask the great man if there be none greater.. Expressing a Wish. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. within its fairy bowers. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²WORDSWORTH. V. Let it rise. WEBSTER. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. 225. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.. In Indirect Questions. VI.

in its various uses as subject. tell me all that thou hast seen. or whatsoever victual it may be.²DE QUINCEY.²TENNYSON. 228. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. often contains a subjunctive. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²COLERIDGE. Whatever betide. 229. Some might lament that I were cold. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. (b) Adjective. for example. etc. that everything be in its place.. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.² Be the matter how it may.And see the Braes of Yarrow.Subject. Complement. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. I have no thought what men they be. The first merit. we'll turn aside. is the ultimate fact of man's life.² DICKENS. The essence of originality is not that it be new.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.²WORDSWORTH. Object. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. That hunger of applause.²SHELLEY. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. is.²SCOTT. VIII.²COLERIDGE. Come.And look thou tell me true. object. After verbs of commanding. . To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. Concessive Clauses.²CARLYLE. of cash. The noun clause. which may be (a) Pronoun. in apposition.²THOREAU.

²CHANNING. entreaties. 231. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.(c) Adverb. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.²J. since commands are directed to a person addressed. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. ADAMS.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. In spoken English. Oh. we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.² CARLYLE. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. 232. 230. Q. It must be remembered. however. (3) Request. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. and condition contrary to fact. . (2) Entreaty. fear none. Usually second person. or requests. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. love all men.²BRYANT. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. IMPERATIVE MOOD. point to their immortal works. though. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. to express a wish. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. At the present day. (1) Command.The spirit he loves remains. Definition.²SHELLEY. for example. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Honor all men. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. a concession.

" Exercises on the Moods.And God forget the stranger!" . lest we rust in ease."Hush! mother.And. 7.²SHAKESPEARE. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. request.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. 6. "Come along with me. nothing is to be preferred before justice. child of earth!While each performs his part. etc. "The Devil take the goose.²SCOTT. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Part we in friendship from your land. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. but I + you. there will her heart and her prayers be. 3.One glance at their array! 5. Oh. Quoth she. Mark thou this difference."²DICKENS Tell me." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 2. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. noble earl. 8. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.²CAMPBELL. Sometimes with first person in the plural.." whispered Kit. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. receive my hand. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. to you implied in it. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. etc. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Break we our watch up. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Whatever inconvenience ensue. or I + they.

will it not fall unbound. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12.That they might answer him. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. it would speak.Except. let him live where else he like. 14. Marshall. 23. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote." continued Old Morgan. ruined. no literary man. then. 10. as though an instrument. He. she ought to have it. 26.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 13. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. "tell me where I may find my poor. and opinion displace opinion. in what pomps and prosperities he like. whether he do it right or wrong. Though abyss open under abyss. .9. 11. but repentant child." cried he. Forget thyself to marble. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. 20. "Mr. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. 18. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. "Oh. Think not that I speak for your sakes. Though he were dumb. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. 19. God send Rome one such other sight! 24." 16.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17." 25. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause.High up in silver spikes! 22. or do it at all. Well. He is. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. That a man parade his doubt. 21. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. how he may do his work. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. That sheaf of darts. my dear madam.

five in the imperative.27. as. kind. whatever she did." "If he comes. 235. Siddons. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. and the past tense. or whether it were as one member of a general party. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. as." past. "Thou walkedst." present. and future perfect tenses. tell him to wait. Definition. as the classical languages have. When the older pronoun thou was in use. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and future. "It is not in man that walketh.²nothing could exceed the amiable. past. which represented present and future time. shall. Meantime. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. will. also. Old English had only two tenses. by means of the present. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. Tense means time. or agree with it. the past. The tenses in detail. a form ending in -eth. five in the subjunctive. 233. in the third person singular. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Tenses in English. 234. in the conjugations." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. past perfect.² present. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. as will be shown later on. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. TENSE. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. and the future tense.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. "Thou walkest. called auxiliaries. such as be. "I go away tomorrow. PERSON AND NUMBER. 28.²the present tense." . past. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. have. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. or future time. to direct his steps. such as Latin and Greek.

tenses. moods. walks. is. mood. and numbers. chosen (old. etc. singular number. In classical languages. Singular 1. Indicative Mood. etc. since it is composed of several different roots. walked. walking. chose. as. for example. PRESENT TENSE. "He walks. The verb be has more forms. [He] is [They] are 3. Singular 1. walketh. but in English.²am. 236. choosing. chooseth. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. I be 2. [He] were [They] were . Singular 1. are. persons. Singular 1. Definition. 238. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. Few forms. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. chosest). chooses. CONJUGATION. were. walk has walk. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. choosest. tense. You are 2. I were 2. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. been. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax.²choose. You (thou) be 3. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE." and this only in the present tense indicative. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. PRESENT TENSE. Such verbs as choose have five. This is the third person.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. wert) 3. walkedst. 237. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb.

It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. is. (b) With the past participle in -ed. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. The light that never was on sea and land. though it is usually a dialect form. to express intention. Instead of the plural are. Remarks on the verb be. as. etc. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.His infancy was nurtured.²THACKERAY. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. 240. were. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (2) was.²BURKE . (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. etc. in four ways. condition. same as the German sind.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. 239. (2) As auxiliary verbs. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.. which was now become an occasional banquet. (3) be. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²SHELLEY. to form the passive voice.²ID.Imperative Mood. -en.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. (d) With the infinitive.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. thus.²WORDSWORTH. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. for example. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.²GOLDSMITH. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²SCOTT. obligation.

future perfect. as. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. I choose 2. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. You choose Plural. I chose 2. Singular. 240. You chose Plural. "I shall be.241. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE. Machinery of a verb in the voices. past perfect. 1. "I have gone" (present perfect). "I shall have gone" (future perfect). You chose Plural. Singular. 1. We chose You chose 3. had. PRESENT TENSE. . We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. as. (2). We chose You chose 3. tenses. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. by placing have. 242. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Singular." (2) Present perfect. I choose 2. tenses. [He] choose [They] choose 3. Indicative Mood. You choose Plural. In addition to the above inflected forms. "I had gone" (past perfect). 1." "He will choose. etc. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. I chose 2. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. Singular. 1.

He has chosen. etc. Past perfect. Past perfect. He chooses.(3) The definite form of each tense. Imperative Mood.) Choose. He is choosing. " " " " " " " he be choosing. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He will choose. ACTIVE VOICE. he chose (or were to choose). by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. as. . Present perfect. though." 243. He had chosen. He was choosing. (2d per. "I am running. Past definite. Future definite." "You are chosen." (4) The passive forms. singular number. [If. He will have been choosing. Past definite. Present definite. Present perfect definite. Past perfect definite. Future perfect definite. Past. He had been choosing." "They had been running. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He chose. " Be choosing. He will have chosen. Present perfect definite. Same as indicative. Present. Present definite. He will he choosing. he have been choosing. Present. Only the third person. he have chosen. Future perfect. Past perfect definite. as. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present definite. Indicative Mood. "I was chosen.] he choose. Future. He has been choosing. of each tense. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect. Past. Same as indicative. Present. lest. will be given.

if learned at all.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present tense. however.NOTE. Indicative Mood. "He does strike. He is being chosen. He has been chosen. Future perfect. (2d per. Past perfect definite. Also. he have been chosen. Present perfect. Present perfect definite.) Be chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. . None. Past. Future definite. Subjunctive Mood. he were being chosen. Present definite. Past perfect. Future. He had been chosen. " " " " " " " None. Present. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. he were chosen (or were to be chosen).] [If. but verbals. they will be discussed later (Sec. Present perfect definite. 262). etc. He was being chosen. Future perfect definite. Past perfect definite. in affirmative sentences.] he be chosen." "He did strike. He is chosen. Past definite. None. None. None. Imperative Mood. though. Present definite. None. He was chosen. Past. He will be chosen.. Past definite. PASSIVE VOICE. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Present. as. Exercises should be given. He will have been chosen. lest. None. Past Perfect.²This table is not to be learned now." [Note to Teacher. Present perfect. he had been chosen.

VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. but adds no ending. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. lay. bounden] bitten. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. run. slept. 245. Past Tense. Kinds. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. According to form. Definition. drove. begged. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. laid.[adj. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. verbs are strong or weak. bit blown broken chidden. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . 244. beg. sleep. drive. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. as. ran. and may or may not change the vowel: as. bid bound. catch. caught. which are in parentheses Present Tense. Some of these also have weak forms. NOTE.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten.

sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. trod worn woven won wound .

borne is also a passive. The form clomb is not used in prose. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English." "the cloven hoof. for example.²one meaning to adhere or cling. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. cleave. TAYLOR. especially in that of an earlier period. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. Historically.²GOLDSMITH. "his bounden duty. the other.² Thou hast clomb aloft. cleft (to split).²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.²MILTON. nor a dog barked. 246. ²THACKERAY."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. "stricken with paralysis.²B. Not a cock crew.²as (from Shakespeare). as." "a drunken wretch. now told us it was time for repose. . Sometimes in literary English. and. as. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). But drunk is very much used as an adjective.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. but is much used in vulgar English. clave or clove." "a sunken snag. as.²COLERIDGE. and the latter. which always crew at eleven. only one set remains certain.²IRVING. Crew is seldom found in present-day English." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. cleaved.²cleave. The former used to be cleave. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. When it means to carry or to endure. and another (born) for the passive." In this confusion of usage. probably to avoid confusion with this." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²TENNYSON. instead of ate and eaten. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). and sometimes occurs in poetry. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. Our cock. to split. cleaved.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.² We had each drank three times at the well. cleft. as (from Holmes). cloven.

Begin. and seized a pen. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Find. Shake. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Exercises.²TENNYSON. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. for example. Fling. found.²WORDSWORTH. flung. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. 2.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. flung. broke. which is seldom used except in poetry. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Usually shear is a weak verb. He sate him down. fallen. 5. Fall. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. found.²BIBLE. froze. for example.²SCOTT. Give." but not much as a participle. maiden. 6.² We had all got safe on shore."²KINGSLEY. 10. thrown. 7. drove. fell. (a) From the table (Sec.² If. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. given. as "a shorn lamb. The butler was hanged.²DE FOE. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. We usually say. Throw. 4. Drive. shaken. shook. frozen. threw. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Freeze. and grasping at his sword. gave.The form gotten is little used. even in poetry. 245). 9." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. 8. . begun. broken. as. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Break. began.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. driven. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. This heard Geraint. One example out of many is. shore is rare.²BYRON. 3.

²PAINE.. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. PAST. it is used only in the indicative mood. (See also Sec. "So mote it be. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. The l in could did not belong there originally. 250. purpose. It is indicative when it expresses permission. 251. Could may be subjunctive. as it sometimes does.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.[To the Teacher. Subjunctive use. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. etc. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. Like must. or.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. Must is historically a past-tense form.. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe.²CHANNING. as. ability. 247. 249. but came through analogy with should and would. . If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. Can is used in the indicative only. Have we valuable territories and important posts. His superiority none might question. 220. The same remarks apply to ought. which survives in the sentence. according to the infinitive used.. must have been an ocular deception. PAST. etc. for full drill on the forms. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. there is one general principle.²SCOTT.. as it has two meanings. They are as follows:² PRESENT.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. HAMILTON. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. "far off his coming shines. from the obsolete verb motan. Indicative Use: Permission. or when it expresses wish. as in Sec." Must is present or past tense.²HAWTHORNE. Ability. 223.. PRESENT. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise.²CHANNING This."²WINIER.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. of course. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged.

to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. to the neglect of shall and should.²THAXTER. I shall be gone. yea. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.²COOPER. my lad. to use will and would." Uses of shall and should. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. C. he said.² With respect to novels. as. Shall and Will. WEBSTER.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. and corn to hoe. she should ride like a queen. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. with pronouns of the first person. .²IRVING. "I think I will go. not plod along like apeasant.² (a) To express authority. or confident prediction. She rejects his suit with scorn. especially in the United States. for example. Second and third persons. The sea shall crush thee.²LONGFELLOW. MOULTON. as.e. shall and should are used. She should not walk. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. 252. future action). the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.Nay. BROCKDEN BROWN.² The time will come full soon. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. in the form of command.²L. what shall I say?²N.. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. (b) In indirect quotations. They shall have venison to eat. shall and should are used. The following are examples:² Never mind.²BULWER. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. while ought always has to.² Futurity and questions²first person.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. (b) In questions asking for orders. as.²MACAULAY. promise.

Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.that I would do him justice.. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. and is equivalent to ought. as the sole inventor. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. with the conviction that he should win in the end. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. BROWN. for example.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. and will not return until all is finished.²WORDSWORTH.²ROGERS. Disguising a command. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²WINTER. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. for example. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²WORDSWORTH.² I will go myself now.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. or a promise.. JAMES. purpose. First.²SCOTT. B. And promised. etc.²SWIFT. JR.²C. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²CABLE. LARNED. thus. was to be expected. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²BYRON.. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. as. 253.²A. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²H. second and third persons. time. . (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²WORDSWORTH. I never was what I should be.

. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. would is used to express a wish.. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. The gift of Beauty. for example. and two of my people.²SCOTT. B.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²the original meaning of the word will. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. (4) With FIRST. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.²LANDOR. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. will and would often denote an action as customary.² Thou wilt take the skiff. when thou wast born. through storms their brothers are afraid of.. BROWN. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). PASSIVE VOICE. for punishment or intimidation. They will go to Sunday schools.. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.² Subject I omitted: often so. without regard to future time.²BURKE. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. Mere futurity.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.. so you will. SECOND. To be sure.²War Records. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.²IRVING.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. . When I am in town. for example. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. This puts the order more mildly. and mark on the grounds the works. AND THIRD PERSONS.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. will and would are used to express simple futurity. Thine was a dangerous gift. as if it were merely expected action. In this stately chair would he sit. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. will is used to express command. Roland. etc.² DICKENS. as.²BANCROFT. as. 254. Would thou hadst it not.²SCOTT. action merely expected to occur..

2. yet only seem. [He] shall choose. We will be chosen. I shall choose. Plural.Singular. etc. He informed us." answered Herbert stubbornly. 3. 2. You shall be chosen.:² ACTIVE VOICE. We will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. 3. [He] shall be chosen. 4. 1. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. Thou art what I would be. Plural. [They] shall choose. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Singular. You will choose. You will be chosen. 1. You shall be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Singular. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. [He] will choose. I will be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. 3. (b) Examine the following sentences. 2. [He] will be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Plural. 2. 3. 6. Plural. PASSIVE VOICE. You will be chosen. 1. [They] will choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. You shall choose. Exercises on Shall and Will. (a) From Secs. You shall choose. Singular. . 252 and 253. 2. 2. 1. [They] will be chosen. You will choose. I shall be chosen. We shall choose. 5. and that of the newest cut. 3. 3. I will choose. promise. To express determination. 1. "I shall not run. We shall be chosen.

whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. "I am a wayfarer. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. put. my son. as. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. 255.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. bereave besought Past Participle. and have no change of vowel. set." the stranger said. Of smale houndes hadde she. need some attention and explanation. bereave beseech bereft. No. 11. 13. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes.²ID. very anxious. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Present Tense. bereft. But the rest. 9. Lucy stood still. 256. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 257. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. The old ending to verbs of Class II. This ending has now dropped off. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. then. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. The beast made a sluggish movement." 14. Past Tense. bereaved besought . with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. set. 12. or mylk and wastel breed.²CHAUCER.²Class I.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. Without having attended to this. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. Irregular Weak Verbs. and I have nothing to say. put. put.7. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 10. as if he would have more of the enchantment. was -de or -te. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. WEAK VERBS.

leant leaped. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leapt left lost meant paid penned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

But later. Indefinite. Perfect. 10. 8. 266. ACTIVE VOICE. formed a kind of bedstead. To with the infinitive. [To] choose. to was used before the infinitive generally. Perfect definite. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. will (with should and would). Infinitives. an imperfect. Nothing of the kind having been done. when inflections became fewer. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. like participles. expressing purpose. Indefinite. . and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. [To] have been chosen.. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. When active. 268.. PASSIVE VOICE.6. Perfect.²the creature warring against the creating power. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. [To] be chosen. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). as in the Old English. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Imperfect. In Sec. [To] be choosing. a perfect. 7. to express action unconnected with a subject. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. [To] have been choosing. Three saplings. and when passive. an indefinite and a perfect form.. I returned to reflection on my situation. 267. [To] have chosen. 9. they have an indefinite. have no tense. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. INFINITIVES. and a perfect definite form. Cases when to is omitted. try clemency.

.²DE QUINCEY. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. also let. see. They shall have venison to eat. feel." etc. it is often preceded by the definite article. HALE. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. it may be the subject of a verb. and emphatic forms of the present and past. please.²TENNYSON.).²HOWELLS. as in the expression. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. also in the imperative. sometimes need (as. make. "I do go" etc. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT.(2) After the verbs may (might)." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. under "Analysis. learn [doth learn is one verb. liberal woman. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. 272. "a house to let. do (as. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William.²it may be governed as a noun. as. 270. GERUNDS.² She was a kind. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. or the object of a verb or a preposition. The gerund is like the participle in form. too.² What! doth she. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. as." "I shall have chosen.²COOPER. But there was nothing to do. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. poor woman!" cried Charles. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. watch. can (could). Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. as the credulous imagine. E. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. "She ask my pardon. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. 269. bid (command). must. While the gerund expresses action. negative.²MACAULAY. and like a noun in use.²E. "He will choose. hear. as.²IRVING. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun." Examples are." (4) In exclamations. 271. and corn to hoe. it has several attributes of a noun.²GOLDSMITH. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win.

4.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. II). and five gerunds. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. Exercise. which express action. (4) Pure adjectives. according to use as well as meaning. b). which express action and also modify. What a vast." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. may govern and be governed." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. after examining the nest. which have lost all verbal force. 273. (5) Gerunds. Then how pleasing is it. which name an action or state. and wonderful store of learning! . Words in -ing are of six kinds." also (2. Sec. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. above. and has been put down. when. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. 2. but cannot govern. making the definite tenses. five infinitives. (6) Verbal nouns. (2) Pure participles." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." Exercise.²Find sentences containing five participles. but do not assert. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. which express action. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. brilliant. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." "Certainly dueling is bad. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. to see the returning hope of the parents. on your leaving the spot. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. (3) Participial adjectives. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability.

11. 14.²transitive or intransitive. or imperative. (4) Tense. like Sir Walter Scott. 12. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. (5) Person and number. (3) Mood. write twenty pages without stopping. I suppose I was dreaming about it. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 7. 10. slowly. bearing her national emblem. give reality to your teaching. by object lessons. 9. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. He spread his blessings all over the land.²which of the tenses given in Sec. . 16. but. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 15. 275. giving principal parts. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. much corroded. 234. 13. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. round which is an iron railing. In parsing verbs. dictating from his chair. I.²active or passive. Caution. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. Thackeray did not.²indicative. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. VERBS. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. you must.5. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. (b) as to use. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. (2) Voice. 6. subjunctive. What is dreaming? 8.²strong or weak. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. he gave out sentence by sentence.

has the subject government. II. and should always be analyzed as phrases. we must beware of the rule. 273). and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. then parse it as an adjective. . has for its subject Lee. give points (a) and (b). (b) its use (Sec. (b) whether active or passive. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. etc. 4. (c) to what word it belongs. in the world. Let it rise! let it rise. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. Take these examples:² 1. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. 2. can. see Sec. verbals. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. 278(2). it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. intransitive. and parting day linger and play on its summit." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. (a) From what verb derived. (b) whether indefinite. 2. past tense. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. past tense. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. call should a weak verb. indicative (as it means could)." Sometimes it does. VERBALS. (2) Infinitive. You are gathered to your fathers. 277. indicative. 235. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. In 2. active. If a participial adjective. may. call might a weak verb. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. It has been intimated in Sec. 278. perfect. intransitive. Parse the verbs. and ends in -s. In such sentences as 1. till it meet the sun in his coming. But unless the verb is present. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. might. 3. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. could. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. (3) Gerund. and not taken as single verbs. VERB PHRASES. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. must.276. Exercise. usually it does not. Especially frequent are those made up of should. no sin nor sorrow. The government might have been strong and prosperous. perfect. therefore active. imperfect. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. (1) Participle. definite. would. III. followed by a pure infinitive without to. etc..

see that it is in good condition. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. and wondered if she were yet awake. 14. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. he thought only of her. Such a boy could not whistle or dance.O God. He passed across the room to the washstand. from a sort of temporary death." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. a sweet good will. With them. . The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 16. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. So.5.Down all the line. 9. The soul having been often born. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 19. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. 17. 12. morning is not a new issuing of light. 24. 11. 20. as the Hindoos say. 10. 15. or. as usual. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. When he arose in the morning. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 6.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. as rolled from wing to wing. Right graciously he smiled on us. In going for water. 23. However that be. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. Whatever ground you sow or plant. leaving me upon the bed. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. a new bursting forth of the sun. 21. a new waking up of all that has life. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 8.Henceforth in me instill. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 18. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. a deafening shout. 13. 22.

for the hour of rest is at hand.25. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. When action is expressed. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Is it only poets. To the almost terror of the persons present. thou sayest. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. for example. A verb. and so on." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. they are more himself than he is. who live with nature?²ID. ADVERBS. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. and live ere life be spent. And now wend we to yonder fountain. The word adverb means joined to a verb."²DE QUINCEY.²SHELLEY. Adverbs modify. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. .Feast while we may.² The young man reveres men of genius." An adjective or an adverb. as. to consent. to speak truly." "He was absolute. 26. or manner: as. place. 279. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. and men of leisure and cultivation. because.²CARLYLE. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].²THACKERAY. 29.²EMERSON. 27. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.²time. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. "William's private life was severely pure." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Better it were. Oh. Nor was it altogether nothing. and limit adjectives or adverbs. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.

there are six classes:² (1) Time. to-day. Make music to the lonely ear. all wet and glossy. Thus considered. hitherto. NOTE.²TROLLOPE. but some verb understood.²BYRON. is a modifying word. Surely happiness is reflective. like the light of heaven. ²IRVING. but still with a rich bloom to it.² LOWELL. before. but really modifying. A clause or sentence. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. as. (2) according to their use in the sentence. and half awfully. as now. ever. as shown in the sentences. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. We are offered six months' credit. then. NOTE.²LEIGH HUNT.²These last differ from the words in Sec.² FRANKLIN. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. It may also modify a sentence. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. ALDRICH. I draw forth the fruit. while those in Sec. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. B. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.²T. not simply the forms used in predication.He was incidentally news dealer. 281. 169 are felt to be elliptical. perhaps. . Definition. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. 282. 280. has induced some of us to attend it. thus.²THOREAU. lately. not the noun. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. A phrase. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. being adverbs naturally and fitly. or a word group used as such. 169. etc.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. which may qualify an action word or a statement. for example. and that. An adverb.

etc. This long's the text. etc. thus. probably. bravely. 283). maybe. (5) Degree. White. I was. slowly.thither.where. much. above. two by two. telling how anything is done. the more perfect will be their obedience. or how far he believes it to be true.whence. better.near..²DE QUINCEY.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. for example. just. while so precedes only the adjective usually. whencesoever. etc. singly. slightly.was for this once of her opinion. and others. surely.²SHAKESPEARE. possibly.. [Sidenote The status of such. as hence.²LECKY. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. The more they multiply. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.(2) Place. telling how much. . as hither. as here.² The master. Thackeray. So also in Grote..whither. whithersoever.which gained him such universal popularity.²R.²BROWNING. the more evidently they love liberty. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. (3) Manner. Motley. 283. telling how many times: once.. at least. Meekness. LOUIS STEVENSON. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.yonder. and not infrequently are found in literary English. too.²BURKE. beautifully. enough. partly. very. twice..²IRVING. that these adverbs form a very large class.²HAWTHORNE.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. as perhaps. especially the comparative of these words. etc.thence. greatly. Emerson.there. not. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. the more friends you will have. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. (4) Number. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. as well. etc. (see also Sec. etc. as little. (6) Assertion. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.

²THACKERAY. Burke. and art but a fool. Pretty is also used by Prescott. It is only occasionally used in literary English.²FIELDING.²THACKERAY. Kingsley. Again. Some adverbs. 282. De Quincey." "He spoke positively [manner]. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. STOWE." said the king. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.² "Mighty well. a mighty fine gentleman. Emerson. Notice meanings. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Neville.²"He walked too far [place]. for example. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.² You are mighty courteous." "That is positively untrue [assertion].²HAWTHORNE. Such are most of those given already in Sec. A pretty large experience."²SCOTT.²BULWER. Beau Fielding. 284. "Peace. Direct questions.²GOLDSMITH. Simple. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. B. and other writers." "I have seen you before [time]." "The house.Pretty. 286." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Dickens. Hard blows and hard money. Mighty." "That were far better [degree].² KINGSLEY. Holmes. and its lawn before [place]. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Franklin. for example. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. have the additional function of asking a question. Defoe. besides modifying. .²BAYNE. Aldrich. Interrogative. 285. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.

²BYRON. they smiled. (4) Degree. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (5) Reason.²POE. When did this humane custom begin?²H. for example. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. . Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BULWER. (2) Place.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I do not remember when I was taught to read.²BYRON (3) Manner. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (2) Place. CLAY. WEBSTER. (4) Degree.²D. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. I know not why.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. I will not ask where thou liest low. I hearkened. 287. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.

highest.But in reality. obs. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions." Exercise.²BYRON.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. have the same inflection as adjectives.. just as adjectives do. use. furthest (rathe. when compared. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. Then must she keep it safelier.²TENNYSON. Only that we may wiselier see. only occasionally having -er and -est. Superlative. when. but the whole clause. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Many adverbs are compared. 288. Many adjectives have the same ending. Form vs. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.) rather 289. well much little far late Comparative.²SHAKESPEARE. irregularly compared. The following.. soonest. representing four classes. and. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. as.eyes. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. see Sec. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.²EMERSON. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. further farthest. high. when does not express time and modify. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. sooner. 290. soon. not an adverb. For further discussion. higher. Exercise. Tell what each word in ly modifies. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Its strings boldlier swept. .²COLERIDGE.

It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.²THACKERAY. Frequently the word there. or down the leaves laughed through. nearly. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. quick-flashing eye. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 8. even. curiously jolly. more courtly in their manners. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²CHAUCER. 2.²ID.²IRVING.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. but with a different meaning. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. . The reason is. 292. that in Old and Middle English. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. 6. Special use of there. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. hardly. as. Again. to be sure. instead of being used adverbially. 5. merely introduces a sentence. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.²WORDSWORTH. But he must do his errand right. 3. He is inexpressibly mean. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. near. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. Such are most. whether adverbs or adjectives. kindly and good-natured in secret. if it has the verb be. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. And all about.And his mien of kingly state. With his proud. mostly." Compare these:² 1. 2. etc. There are eyes.1. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. evenly. many words without -ly have the same form. 4. 7. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. hard. 291.²TENNYSON.² EMERSON. Not near so black as he was painted.

For the impracticable. 18. Exercise. and always. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. give² (1) The class. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. . The higher we rise in the scale of being. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. but continually shifted.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 9. 15. and sate down on the steps of a house. 293. according to meaning and also use. It is the Cross that is first seen. 10. if the word is compared. 3. but from my fall? 6. 17. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. In parsing adverbs. 5. burning in the center of the temple. however theoretically enticing. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. the Madonna is in great glory. (2) Degree of comparison. 2. 4. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 12. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. is always politically unwise. 16. 11. (3) What word or word group it modifies. But a few steps farther on. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Thither we went. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. at the regular wine-shop. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 7.

Clauses. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. sentences." Paragraphs. but side by side within the American Union. CONJUNCTIONS. therefore. 294." Sentences. and found room to wonder how it could have got there." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. word groups. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. It was pretty bad after that. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. 295. nor. 21. but the student will readily find them. 20. 22. however. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. . Unlike adverbs. But now the wind rose again. then. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. connecting words. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. upon which the sun now shone forth. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. or sentence groups. Definition. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. A conjunction is a linking word. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. hence. etc.19." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here.

. for. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. had its weight. likewise. the butter too. and not man corn. etc..nor. as well as the room door. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate..or. however.. expressing a choice.. however. Correlatives.. not only. the window being open. either. as but. nor. as well as. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.or.. therefore. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. hence. introducing a reason or cause. ... of the same rank. whether. (3) CAUSAL.but (or but also).. or the sea rolls its waves. Nor mark'd they less.nor.. The assertion.... either. Causal. nor.. else. while. not only. joining words.. (2) ADVERSATIVE. then. moreover. Some of these go in pairs.. as and. whether. word groups. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. etc.. either.Classes of conjunctions. only.and.. whether.. as." Nevertheless.or whether. yet. (4) ALTERNATIVE. Alternative. both. The chief ones are. neither. They are or.. answering to each other in the same sentence. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. Adversative. and. "Howbeit. 296. neither. still. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. but is emperor in his own right. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. (2) Subordinate. neither. While the earth bears a plant.but. etc. 298.. serves but to show their ignorance.or.. usually between two things. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Some go in threes. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause..or.. also. 297. the bread was spent. as. Your letter.

until. before. nor green leaf. whithersoever. 299.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. especially that after so. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. while. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. (7) RESULT: that. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. so. so. etc. whereto. even if. . (2) TIME: when.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. that. wherever.²DE QUINCEY. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. whither. provided. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. provided that.²PAULDING. It is. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. however. seeing. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. so that. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: nor wing of bird. nor echo. etc. sometimes if.. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. Neither the place in which he found himself. whereas. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²J. on condition that. since. as. as. whenever. though. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.. so that.²BURKE. whence. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. etc. He is not only bold and vociferous. now.²IRVING. etc. unless. in apposition.²COOPER. QUINCY. since. nor creeping thing.. ere. etc. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. whether. ²ALLSTON. although.²WILSON. except.²BIBLE. in case. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. Time. (6) PURPOSE: that.. howsoever. Where the treasure is. object. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. after. lest. there will the heart be also. (3) MANNER: how. as. so. in order that.

²IRVING.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Now he is dead.That he gave her wounds repose. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Purpose.² H. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²BYRON. Manner. Comparison.²AMES.² HAWTHORNE. Cause. Result. Condition. Concession. . seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. So many thoughts moved to and fro. a thousand bodies.² EMERSON.²CAMPBELL. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. H. not as they were expected or intended.²EMERSON. We wish for a thousand heads. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. I was again covered with water.²DEFOE. JACKSON.²AMES. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²BURKE.That vain it were her eyes to close. Sparing neither whip nor spur.So I behold them not. As a soldier. reason. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.² WORDSWORTH. Substantive.²AMES.²COLERIDGE. but not so long but I held it out. Then Denmark blest our chief. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²EMERSON.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²EMERSON. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Let the world go how it will.

Exercises. In what point of view. He was brought up for the church. While a faction is a minority. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. her real merit is known at home. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. After he was gone. 15. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. Crept under the leaf. 3. she faintly pressed her hand. then. The moth fly. As will have been noticed. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. Besides. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 2. the wisest. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 14. as he shot in air.Let us see whether the greatest. They.²RUSKIN. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. since. While patriotism glowed in his heart. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. some words²for example. 13. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. . 12. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. however. and hid her there. 300. 5. hold a subordinate rank. 10. the lady called her servant. as. And then recovering. while. it will remain harmless. 9. No one had yet caught his character. 6. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. that. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. And they lived happily forever after. 7. 4. etc.

²HOOD. 302. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. . And their orbs grew strangely dreary. expressing degree if taken separately. etc. and part as though we parted not. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. As though.Clouded. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.²BYRON. "We meet. as is often equivalent to as if. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.²EMILY BRONTE. 303.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. and be a bud again.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. for example. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. In poetry. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. 301. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. If analyzed.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.So slowly moved about.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. none of the lashings having given way. word groups. even as they would weep.. GREELEY. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.As though a rose should shut.. as is shown by the use of as though. SPECIAL REMARKS. His voice . they connect. the expression would be." as. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. thus. In parsing conjunctions. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. As for as if.. As if.16. and the frame will suit the picture. in this case. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. So silently we seemed to speak. 304. (2) What words.²IRVING. Consequently. In Emerson's sentence.

13. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. At sea. For example. in 3. If he could solve the riddle. 3. He dismisses without notice his thought. and the like. etc.²DEFOE 2. so means provided. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. so they paddled on.Caution. Some conjunctions. such as nor. and associates as happily.² 1. When the gods come among men.²that the fairies do not like to be named. 9. so that expresses result. 10. "Doctor. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. Exercise." said his wife to Martin Luther.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. and its clause is independent. 4. 12. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. 11. in 2.. but of the natural. 5. are regularly of one particular class.²I find them true in Concord. so means therefore. In classifying them. or in the snow. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. compare the sentences.²EMERSON 3. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. It may be safely trusted. and very seldom?" 8. because it is his. so that I could not stir abroad. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. because. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. the Sphinx was slain. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. as beside his own chimneys. when. 6. . and its clause depends on the other. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. He is the compend of time. or in the forest. so it be faithfully imparted. All the postulates of elfin annals.²is subordinate of condition. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. and. they are not known. he sleeps as warm. others belong to several classes. 2. he is also the correlative of nature. It continued raining. dines with as good an appetite. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. that it might testify of that particular ray. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. 7.

Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. save it were sinful like herself. . but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. in many a heart. PREPOSITIONS. Still. Goodness must have some edge to it. 25. 30. 15. It may be so in the majority of cases. in this they agree. 19. won't you lay on? 17. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. For. 29. she might have the family countenance.14. the whole conditions are changed. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. And whether consciously or not. 28. whose names I omit. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. that both were wayward. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more.²else it is none. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. Now you have the whip in your hand. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. It is clear. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. however. I never rested until I had a copy of the book.. 16. therefore. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. There was no iron to be seen. 26. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 27. 23. enthroned. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 20. of good novels only. 24. 18. when it was presented to them. I speak. 305. 22. 21. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. you must be.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

Exercise. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. (3) Agency or means. Like at. at war.²EVERETT. . He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail.²SWIFT. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. by the ruins of nations..²B. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. STODDARD. at the worst. D. Helena. by the blessed memory of the departed. at any rate. the first port made by the ship. TAYLOR The angel came by night.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. etc.²DE QUINCEY. at rest. etc. at peace. at most. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. (4) Measure of excess. Exercise. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. She saw the boat headed for her. by means near or close to.²ALDRICH. by the wrecks of time. At that time [the earth] was richer.²M. at once. 320. at all. at one. Richard was standing by the window.²R. at play. by many a million of acres. 321. at work. By my faith.²WARNER.²ID. ²PARTON.²COOPER. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at naught. By. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. For. at length. at least. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. H. (2) Time. at random. At St. at first. expressing the degree of difference. he stopped. as. at the best. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.² (1) The general meaning of place. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. CONWAY.²Find sentences with three different uses of at.

ate her child. reason. or in spite of." answered Master Brackett. "For a fool. But the Colonel. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. a person or thing. etc. (6) Like as. and leaped for joy. the Colonna motto would fit you best. as being.²E. E.²STODDARD.²PARKMAN.. had a forest of poor relations.²ID.²HOLMES."²SCOTT By my faith. etc. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. (5) Reference.²IRVING. but a few sunsets since. (4) Substitution or exchange. (3) Duration of time. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. in behalf of. For the rest. "thou hast counseled wisely. respecting. . (9) Motive. he repented of his folly. for the benefit of. He and they were for immediate attack. etc. or extent of space. poor fellow. For him. cause. for all slips of hers. for famine. meaning with regard to.²PARKMAN. meaning in the character of. L. (7) Concession. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. considering that etc. for all his title. The twilight being.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²H. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. they are now for us. as to. GARRISON.²EMERSON. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. There are gains for all our losses. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.² RUSKIN. An Arab woman.²LAMB. H. if your worship can accomplish that..One of Eve's family.²HOOD. incitement to action. "Nay. meaning although. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity." said the Lady of Lochleven. BANCROFT.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.²W.(2) In favor of. Still.

. 322. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. (1) Origin or source. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The From Relation. if not a desperate man.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Like boys escaped from school. (3) Time.²HUXLEY. From harmony. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. Exercise. The general idea in from is separation or source.²HALE. or reason. ceased to be merciful.²MILTON. From. Exercise. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²BANCROFT. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. from a desire of seeming valiant. nay.²HUME. The king holds his authority of the people.²H.²DRYDEN. more.²HIGGINSON. 323. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. H. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The young cavaliers. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. (4) Motive. like from. Of. cause. The original meaning of of was separation or source. (2) Origin. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²ID. A distrustful.

White shirt with diamond studs. disarm.²BAYARD TAYLOR.²PARKMAN. deprive. etc. He is away of his own free will. that Cromwell once ruled England. as north of.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.² HUXLEY. Of the Forty. reason. (5) Expressing agency.²LEW WALLACE. bare of. deprivation.²clear of. More than one altar was richer of his vows. etc. purge. bound with thongs of boar's hide. expressing a part of a number or quantity. especially out of. acquitted them of. relieve. HALE. wide of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. (b) After some adjectives. Back of that tree."²E. clear. Sandals. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. "I am glad of that. ²GAVARRE.. (d) With words expressing distance. rid. of his own knowledge. or breastpin of native gold. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²ALDRICH.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. . demand. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. etc. The hills were bare of trees. Asked no odds of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. ²PARTON.²DICKENS II. etc. there were only twenty-one members present. weeds. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. south of. You cannot make a boy know. such as ease.²SCOTT Who formed. rob. E.²HIGGINSON. motive. ask. A singular want of all human relation. (6) Partitive.²BANCROFT. divest. (3) With expressions of material. (c) After nouns expressing lack. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Other Relations expressed by Of.²BOSWELL. free. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. and grass. cure.²ID. free of. etc. out of the most unpromising materials. beg.

and the dignity of a queen. concerning.²BANCROFT. when the first is descriptive of the second. standing.²SWIFT. (7) Possessive. Idiomatic use with verbs. equal to about. (10) Of reference.. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²W. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. Such a book as that of Job.²HALLECK. for the possessive.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. etc. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. See also Sec. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. The nation of Lilliput. being equivalent to an infinitive.²BANCROFT. CHANNING. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. The fair city of Mexico. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. with its object. ²IRVING. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. could give shelter from his contumely. (8) Appositional.²COOPER. of is used in the sense of during. . I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²FROUDE. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. (9) Of time. Besides the phrases of old. (b) Noun and gerund.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²LOWELL.²ALDRICH. with regard to. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²BANCROFT. Not even woman's love.²ID. 309.²PRESCOTT. E. (c) Two nouns. of a sudden. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.He washed out some of the dirt.²LAMB. of late.

The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. concerning. consist.²ALDRICH. on trial. permit. (2) Time.²PARKMAN. you are eighteen. (b) With motion. On my life. on the wing. disapprove. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²DE QUINCEY. Upon my reputation and credit. Upon. allow. SIGOURNEY. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. .²PARKMAN. It also accompanies the verbs tire. equal to about.²Find sentences with six uses of of. on a sudden. etc. repent.²EMERSON. on high. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²BRYANT. such as admit. On.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. without adding to their meaning. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. Exercise. 325. Cannon were heard close on the left. and not a day more. (4) In adjurations. on the alert. To. 324.²MRS. approve. accept. avail (one's self). on view. etc. Exercise. and others. (3) Reference. on board. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. ²BANCROFT.²PARKMAN. Upon is seldom used to express time. The general meaning of on is position or direction. complain.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire.

With.²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING. In Old English. Exercise. whose influence is felt to this hour. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. gay Comedy appears. to him. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. to my taste. He usually gave his draft to an aid. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. mid meant in company with. 268). Nor.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. To the few.. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²LANG. 326. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. But when. (b) Referring to time. With expresses the idea of accompaniment... had ceased to be. (5) Equivalent to according to.²BRYANT. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. it may be genuine poetry. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²BULWER. does the mere music.. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. .²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²B.²often to the loss of vigor. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.Come to the bridal chamber. His brother had be written over. Death!²HALLECK.²PARTON.²BENTON To our great delight. Revolutions.²PARKMAN.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. (2) Expressing result.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. interest. unmasked.²HALE.

She seemed pleased with the accident.²HOWELLS. felt it unsafe to trifle further. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. Messala.²DE QUINCEY. transmitted from the beginning. It seemed a supreme moment with him.²COOPER. "poetry is not a pursuit. as with you. (3) Cause.²Find sentences with four uses of with. I think. He was wild with delight about Texas. 327. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. E. opinion. reason. (4) Estimation. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. but with you.²ALDRICH. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²HOWELLS. in spite of.²SCOTT. (2) Instrumentality. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. motive.²DE QUINCEY. first of all.²CHANNING. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. or with the haunch of our near leader.²E. . HALE. he gave millions to the sword. Either with the swingle-bar. He expired with these words. with all his boldness. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. but a pleasure"?²LANG. it is necessary. with Heyward at its head. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. Exercise. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²HALE.²WALLACE (7) Time. had already reached the defile. to find the object of the preposition.²LANG.The advance. With all his sensibility.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. (5) Opposition.

3. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. telling what man. he followed us one day into those gardens. country. or was. 4. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. we met the defaulter here.²SWIFT 2. 2. before the dwarf left the queen. I speak these things from a love of justice. I heard a noise just over my head. In (1). shook it directly over my head. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. I called out several times. Whereupon. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. (4) from the beginning. To our general surprise. I looked towards my windows. but all to no purpose. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. but I received no other hurt. I remember. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. the malicious rogue. Be that as it will. In (2). like the clapping of wings. The guns were cleared of their lumber. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. of without. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. 5. because I had given the provocation. In (3). of from. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. without a country modifies man. I felt my box raised very high in the air. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. (3) without a country. (2) on which. . beginning. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. the phrase answers the question where. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. by which a dozen apples. and knocked me down flat on my face. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. which. And so on.²ID. hence we say. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. The object of on board is ships. of on. Exercises. came tumbling about my ears. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1.

The savage army was in war-paint. 16. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. he favored the world with his opinions. 25. 18. 24.6. 9. His breeches were of black silk. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 14. in town. .He spurred his courser on. 19. 10. 12. I like to see the passing. 26. 23. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 7. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 29. to one dark and gloomy. For my part. plumed for battle. 21. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 17. On all subjects known to man. in this respect. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 13. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 20. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 8. when. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 27.Without stop or stay. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. The mother sank and fell. 11. 22. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. With all his learning. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. He locked his door from mere force of habit. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. grasping at the child. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 15. after a restful morning.

THAT.That makes the heavens be mute. That was a dreadful mistake. 330. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²WEBSTER. 328. (4) As an adverb of degree.² JOHNSON. . that you might behold this joyous day.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. A few are discussed below. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. And now it is like an angel's song. He will raise the price. (a) Indefinite relative.²WEBSTER.²HUXLEY.²STOCKTON. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. and not according to form.²WEBSTER. 329. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That is what I understand by scientific education. We wish that labor may look up here. (b) Of result. (3) As a relative pronoun. WHAT. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (1) Relative pronoun.²BEECHER.²COLERIDGE. (c) Substantive conjunction. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.30. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. not merely by the amount of the tax. That night was a memorable one.

these sounds are only to be heard. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. to see what might be hidden.S.but. (7) Adverb of degree.²ID..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. At what rate these materials would be distributed. To say what good of fashion we can.. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. but the result of calculation.. BUT. (b) Indirect question. he knows what good people are to be found there. Cox. 331. (b) Indirect question. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?² Pera. after not only.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.²ID. What.²EMERSON.² is impossible to determine. "I'll tell you what.Which be they what they may. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.²THACKERAY. nearly equivalent to partly. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage...²WEBSTER. If he has [been in America].. What." (4) Relative adjective.²WORDSWORTH. . What with the Maltese goats. (6) Exclamatory adjective..²EMERSON. (8) Conjunction. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. and silent all!²BYRON. silent still.. (9) As an exclamation. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. it rests on reality.Those shadowy recollections. (b) Copulative. or not only. partly. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying..

on all sides. towards order. AS.. (d) Of reason... not. ²CARLYLE. meaning only. not. like the dog.²SCOTT. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. after such.²IRVING. equivalent to that . but piercing cries. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.²MRS BROWNING. (b) Of manner.²HAWTHORNE..²FRANKLIN. meaning except. To lead but one measure. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.²SHELLEY.²IRVING. stands for that . Who knows but.²CARLYLE. meaning otherwise . (3) Preposition. Doing duty as a guard. (4) Relative pronoun. . (b) Substantive. sometimes same.He yearned to our patriot bands. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. I shall see but little of it. after a negative.Then arose not only tears. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²IRVING. (c) Of degree.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. than. 332. (5) Adverb.... The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.²LAMB. (e) Introducing an appositive word. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. not. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. or who . at all moments.²EMERSON. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. (2) Relative pronoun.

²EMERSON. 333.²ALDRICH. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. Through which they put their heads. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. and was clearly an adjective. I do with my friends as I do with my books. In this second use. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. That face. .²DARWIN. (1) An adjective.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. and as or as if takes its place.²HAWTHORNE.-SCOTT. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. In each case. ²PARKMAN.² A timid.LIKE.²ALDRICH. This follows a verb or a verbal.² HAWTHORNE. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²LONGFELLOW. like a cook beating eggs. No Emperor.²EMERSON. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²CASS. and is followed by a dative-objective.²HALLECK.²HIGGINSON. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²LAMB. Note the difference between these two uses.²SHAKESPEARE. but this is not considered good usage: for example. Introduces a clause.²MAYHEW. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. like him awhile ago. There is no statue like this living man. but its verb is omitted. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. nervous child. If the verb is expressed. Stirring it vigorously. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like summer ocean's. staring like a bewildered man. this. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like Martin was. NOTE. Give Ruskin space enough. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. indeed. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. They look. like drops out. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.

Value of analysis. 336. entering into the structure of a sentence." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. . Some of these are imitative sounds. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. in separating them into their component parts. tut! buzz! etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. verb.²in determining case. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.: for example. clauses introduced by conjunctions. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin.. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. that is. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. 334. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. but it still retains its identity as noun. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. etc. Definition." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. subject and predicate." PART II. What analysis is. 335. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. as. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. pronoun.INTERJECTIONS. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. that is. etc. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Definition.

Definition: Predicate. "Come to the bridal chamber. or command: for example. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS.Kinds of sentences as to form. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "Old year. 339. Examples of these three kinds are. which expresses command. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. according to form. 338. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. not according to the form in which a thought is put. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement." 340. "The quality of mercy is not strained. SIMPLE SENTENCES. always friends?" imperative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. 337. but the sentence would still be declarative. Definition. entreaty. But now all is to be changed. 2. but according to how many statements there are. declarative. or request. "Hath he not always treasures. interrogative. but by no means vulgar. (2) Interrogative. . The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject.²a subject and a predicate. you must not die!" interrogative. Every sentence must contain two parts." "What wouldst thou do. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. This is the most common one. question. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Division according to number of statements. A rare old plant is the ivy green. or imperative. hence. which puts the thought in a question. (3) Imperative. old man?" "Be thou familiar. In order to get a correct definition of the subject.

Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. not of a rare old plant. Listen. But if we try this with the second sentence. The last of all the Bards was he. the subject (you. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Thus. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. thou. 2. as. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. all. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. but about the ivy green. 5. or an interrogative pronoun. and is to be supplied. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. adjective. 341.²What is the ivy green? Answer. always reduce them to the order of a statement. In analyzing such sentences. to an ignorant man. and our definition must be the following. 3. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. a rare old plant." Exercise. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. . But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. on the other hand. especially in poetry. or adverb that asks about the subject. and the real subject is the latter.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 6. to suit all cases:² Subject. 4. Slavery they can have anywhere. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Consequently. the subject is frequently after the verb. In the interrogative sentence. we have some trouble. or ye) is in most cases omitted.²What is to be changed? Answer. 8. 7. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. "[You] behold her single in the field.

but of call chief. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. direct. just as if to say. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. or second object. "Ye call me chief. and means summoned." indirect. Of a transitive verb. The subject and predicate have been discussed. 343. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. 342. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (5) Modifiers. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. Direct Object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. (2) The predicate.²transitive and intransitive. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (3) The object." Complement: 344.10. and by object we mean the direct object. Indirect object. The transitive verb often requires. but it is a true complement. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. (6) Independent elements. . in addition to the object. (4) The complements. but chief belongs to the verb. and me here is not the object simply of call." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). "Ye honor me. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. for example." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb.

355. Complement of an intransitive verb. more familiarly. 346. as in drowning. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. and. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. ay. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. An intransitive verb. "A cheery. become. not containing a verb. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." (3) INFINITIVE. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." "The good man. See sentence 19. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. he was now getting old." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. I mentioned a case of that nature. introduced by a preposition: for example. 'Ay." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. 352. 351." (2) PARTICIPIAL. A phrase is a group of words. Phrases. Thom of the Gills.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. feel. as." 345. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. or." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" ." All these complete intransitive verbs. 364." "He was termed Thomas. above sixty. in the popular judgment. seem. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." Things used as Subject. as in the sentence. 347. As to form. to the completion of this man of the world. sir!' rang out in response." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. but used as a single modifier. and of massive weight. etc. taste. in the original Opium Confessions. especially the forms of be. and barring the door." Also an expression used as a noun. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. in exercise following Sec. appear.." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. for instance. "Brow and head were round. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it.

my deficiency. asserting eyes." In this sentence. "'By God. from their lips. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." "The dead are there." Things used as Complement. etc. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). for which see Sec." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." 348.²the talent of starting the game." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. and by Saint George!' said the King." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. Disguised infinitive subject." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects.²the infinitive phrase. but the real or logical subject is to print. (2) In interrogative sentences. (4) After "there introductory.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. I saw the quick and the dead. 349. 341." The for did not belong there originally. "Therein has been. but they will be given in detail here." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. prowling eyes. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." etc. . or their religion from their sect. or the thundering of organs." Things used as Direct Object. but obscures the real subject. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. and ever will be. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." "There are asking eyes. was heard one syllable to justify. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." "Never. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject.

and explaining or modifying the subject. at the same time." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. I. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. they are adjuncts of the object." ." "Serving others is serving us. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." (4) Participle. Object.350. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. or the equivalent of the noun. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. and." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. 351." In this last sentence. As complement of a transitive verb. Like all the complements in this list. (3) Infinitive. Of a transitive verb. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. and the words italicized are still complements." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. and whenever the complement is a noun." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale.²completing the predicate. complements of the predicate." "Their tempers." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.²heads or tails." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. Modifiers of Subject.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. As complement of an intransitive verb." "She asked her father's permission. the object is made the subject by being passive. doubtless." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. or Complement." "I hear the echoes throng. the shepherd girl." Modifiers.

" "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. not with nature." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. object. Since the predicate is always a verb. Modifiers of the Predicate.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. the prisoner at the bar. "He died like a God. was the scene from King John." Exercise." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. or .) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. I have seasoned for thee. 351. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. but it is really a contracted clause." "Him. tell whether the subject." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. II. the verb being omitted. or complement is modified. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. 357-363." In such a sentence as. 352.²proud." (For participial and infinitive phrases. this young idolater. given at the request of a Dutch lady. and modify the predicate in the same way. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. was now called upon for his defense. but with other men.²In each sentence in Sec. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. and leading him from star to star. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. no sociable angel." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. austere." "Give them not only noble teachings. unforgiving." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. see further Secs. Retained with passive." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. Tells how." "In the twinkling of an eye. but noble teachers.

4. 6. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. he liked. and. These answer the question when. a sort of personality to the whole writing." Exercises. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. no humor. Fashion does not often caress the great. predicate.When the verb is changed from active to passive. 7." "One way lies hope. . 2. to the animal strength and spirits. 6. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. after dinner. On the voyage to Egypt. but to be loved. This. 8. and (direct) object:² 1. in regard to particulars. but the children of the great. Why does the horizon hold me fast. and other measures of precaution. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. His books have no melody. gives wonderful animation. negative. the indirect object is retained. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. They do not wish to be lovely. and the direct object is retained: for example. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. To the men of this world. 3. (b) Pick out the subject. in this center? 4. predicate. Evil. 2. is good in the making. or how long. 5. 5. (a) Pick out subject. no emotion. no relief to the dead prosaic level. I took. 7. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. how far. 3." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light." (6) Adverbial objective. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why." subject of passive verb and direct object retained." "All such knowledge should be given her. etc. and as many to oppose it.. according to old philosophers. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. with my joy and grief. But anger drives a man to say anything.

2. at the chief hotel. I felt myself. at length the warrior lady. Compound Predicate. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Not the less I owe thee justice. after their long confinement to a ship. 5.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. downwards.y 8.. six children sat by a peat fire. 3. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 2. y y y y Compound Subject. and a member of the world. I gave him an address to my friend. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. must visit again the home of her childhood. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. Yes. to the right and to the left. That night. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 4. 4. upwards. expecting the return of their parents. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. then. viz.²the river Meuse. 3. for the first time. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. . then. in little peaceful Easedale. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. the attorney. happy dinner. that was thy portion in life. A river formed the boundary. Paint me. 5. 2. Not compound sentences. Their intention was to have a gay. 6. I promised her protection against all ghosts. this nun so martial. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. etc. To suffer and to do. In one feature. the blooming cornet. a room seventeen feet by twelve. this imperial rider. this dragoon so lovely. 3. Unhorse me. 4. burthened with the anxieties of a man.

Independent Elements of the Sentence. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. my brave young man!" . forming a sentence: "Oh. "The company broke up. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. ulcer. however. then the grammatical subject and predicate. they are not a necessary part. 355.353. etc. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. in all such sentences as we quote below. 354. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. etc. two or more subjects of the same predicate. For example. complements.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. that is." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. shouldered the rusty firelock. the tone of her voice." "Ye crags and peaks. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. together with all its modifiers. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. "Ah." "The name of the child. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. modifiers. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. Larger view of a sentence. Examples of compound subjects are. and the rest is the logical predicate. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. The exclamatory expression. several modifiers. hurry. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. the predicate.. may be the person or thing addressed." "Voyages and travels I would also have. but it is to be noticed that. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. and. Bishop. turned his steps homeward. the air of the mother. and its object or complement. exposes. above: thus. the simple subject is situation." And so with complements. I'm with you once again. Of this." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. same as (1). hurry. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject." "He shook his head. the verb)." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. etc. in the sentence. the object." Sentences with compound predicates are. together with its modifiers.

object. 350. prepositional phrases may be. already noticed." "No. now. this story runs thus. 4). then. generally speaking. modifying a noun." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. such as however. 4). moreover. really. modifying the predicate. yes! everybody knew them.." (3) Independent. pronoun. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. he closed his literary toils at dinner. to the best of my remembrance. besides." "Why. truly. and so on. 352. (1) Adjectival. 356. y (2) The adverbial use. (b) As a modifier of subject. six quill-driving gentlemen. why. he was a conscientious man. nevertheless." (2) Adverbial.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. instances of which were seen in Sec. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. In their use. he somehow lived along. or word used as a noun: for example. let him perish. 6). grandma. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. or complement (see Sec." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. that have an office in the sentence. see Sec." "Well. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. etc. etc. There are some adverbs. her noticing even this is creditable. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. 355. undoubtedly. such as perhaps. 351. and some conjunctions." "Truth to say. The words well. how you're winking!" "Now." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 357. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. the company broke up. . and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "At all events. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. see Sec." (6) Single words: as. These need close watching." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. "Oh. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 3. therefore." Another caution. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example." (5) Participial phrase: "But..

This case excepted. Wilt thou. 355.should. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec." etc." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.can (could). and hence is adverbial. but having no other office than a verbal one. being equivalent to a future with obligation. y (a) With may (might).There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. he should not have known them at all.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. etc. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. etc. but require somewhat closer attention. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. thus. was speedily run through. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." "There. and teach her how to be happy and good. and they will be presented here in full. modifying was speedily run through. (5). I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. "Because I was." (b) With the forms of be.would. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.seem. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. my dear. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. containing no matters of business. The verbal use. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. "The letter of introduction.: as in the sentences. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. See Sec. I. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public.]." In this sentence. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . or as nearly so as the student will require. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. therefore. necessity. 358. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." (c) With the definite forms of go. ought." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15.

hang the idiot. modifying a noun that may be a subject. "But there was no time to be lost. II. to look means that he might look. above. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "To say what good of fashion we can. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." (5) Condition: "You would fancy.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). . 5).. etc." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. and the eyes to fill?" 359. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. already examined. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. The adverbial use. Don Guzman. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. The substantive use. IV. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. 362. to hear McOrator after dinner." "He insisted on his right to forget her. To test this." (3) As complement: See examples under (1).: for example. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." "Are you mad. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." 360. notice the following:² In (1). object. 351. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. the Scotch fighting all the battles." "To teach is to learn. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. to please is equivalent to that he may please. complement. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. result. 361 are used adverbially. The adjectival use. (4) In apposition. etc. was to have the foe's life at their mercy." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this.²both purpose clauses. 361. III. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence.

) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS.²both expressing condition. In (4). 351). (3). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. If it is an incomplete verb. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 349). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec." (See also Sec. object. 351).. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 268. which is of two kinds." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. must be in a life. and to betray and to bring express the reason.In (2). In (3). 355. In analyzing simple sentences. 364. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. as in Sec. 347). In (5). etc. equivalent to that you betray. . to part means because I part. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 351).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 2. V. to find shows the result of the return.. savage and serene in one hour. not in a book. The independent use. to hear means if you should hear. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. Our life is March weather. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. 3. I will try to keep the balance true. (5) The subject (Sec. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 4. 363. give the complement (Secs. give² (1) The predicate. 355). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 352). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. etc. (7) Independent elements (Sec. etc.

23. Old Adam. 16. I have heard Coleridge talk. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. to restore civil and religious order. 21. an accomplished scholar. 7. You may ramble a whole day together.4.Burnt green and blue and white. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. The whole figure and air. good and amiable otherwise. is to have no political system at all. 20.The old crow of Cairo. 10. nor troops. nor himself. 15. like a witch's oils. a graceful dancer. a good shot. in popular use. and spared nothing. just on the edge of destruction. 8. 12. 24. . and only to be saved by invention and courage. 9. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 11. nor money. The word conscience has become almost confined. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. Through the years and the centuries.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. always in a bad plight. 17. To these gifts of nature. and every moment discover something new. to keep England out of war. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 14.He sat in the shower. We are always in peril. Her aims were simple and obvious. His opinion is always original. to the moral sphere.²to preserve her throne. He risked everything. and to the purpose. 6. 18. To be hurried away by every event. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 19. through toys and atoms. the carrion crow. with eager energy. might be called flabby and irresolute. through evil agents. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. two stricken hours. 13. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. The water. 22. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. nor generals. 5. neither ammunition. a skilled musician.

exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Few in number. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. But yield. 34. 37. She had made a two days' march. haply. still. Must we in all things look for the how. 30. Oxford. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. the present capital of New England. upon my own ground. an elderly man. The cry.Effacing many a stain of former crime. and the wherefore? . time-honored. ready to receive her. in front of all this mighty crowd.Distant. to bid you leave the place now and forever. 40. In the Acadian land. and. 32. it would not have been filial or ladylike. and the why. 38. baggage far in the rear. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 26. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. Of the same grandeur. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Now. secluded. the ship was in an uproar. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. had but one foible. in less heroic and poetic form. and no provisions but wild berries. and in my own garden. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 29. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 33. I dare this. Upon this shore stood. 41. to be a reproach to such goodness.25. 31. the prime minister of Spain. Supposing this computation to be correct. 39. proud foe. This amiable relative. 36. 27. The villain. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. the same Condé Olivarez. Fair name might he have handed down. in this world. I hate him and myself.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 35. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. or perhaps one virtue.

which is the unit of speech.From her own loved island of sorrow. the pride and beauty of the grove." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep." Sentences with like. Words left out after than or as. made merely for convenience and smoothness. COMPLEX SENTENCES. (Sec." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. 333). Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. the expressions of manner introduced by like. As shown in Part I. 365. thus. as would be the connective instead of like. however. as. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. 367. though often treated as phrases." To show that these words are really omitted. are really contracted clauses. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity.CONTRACTED SENTENCES." This must. ." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. 366. but. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. if they were expanded. The simple sentence the basis.² "She is like some tender tree. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].

complement.²the backbone. each clause has its subject. we are aware. complements. Independent clause. Hence the following definition:² Definition. murmur. that . suffering. predicate. modifiers. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. containing a verb with its subject. and modifier. and the last. Definition. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. .Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence.. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. A clause is a division of a sentence. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. or it may be applied to the others. main. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. etc. and the next one. as in this sentence.. 368.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.²the other members subordinate to it. logically depends on suffering. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). is taken in.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. that is. or dependent on it. object. how great .. 369. then we recognize this as the main statement.. 371. 370. object. which are so united that one member is the main one. A principal. CLAUSES. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.

As to their office in the sentence. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex.. 5). that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. for example. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. impertinences²would be grammatical. over which the torrent came tumbling. with a noun clause in apposition with it. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. 'I know that he can toil terribly." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. put an end to my fancies. for a time. etc.. infinitive. adjectives.. for a hundred years. 372." 374." Just as the object noun. and it is . and should not be called an adjunct of the subject.' is an electric touch." (4) Apposition. so the object clause is retained." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. We ourselves are getting .. (a) Ordinary apposition." "I was told that the house had not been shut. and ADVERB clauses.Dependent clause." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. . and the whole clause is not. but logically the sentence is." (2) Object of a verb. night or day. (b) that are . pronoun.. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. But since they are complex in form.. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. clauses are divided into NOUN. 352. thus." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. 373. Noun Clauses. ADJECTIVE. attention is called to them here. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. impertinences. or adverbs.. Kinds. for example." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. verbal. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.

as. wherein. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. But the fact is. whether he should choose one or not." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. sometimes by the conjunctions when. but. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. What history it had. Such a man is what we call an original man. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 10. 5. which. The reply of Socrates. 7. 9. where. a falsehood incarnate. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 375." Exercise. that. that he was a scheming impostor. how it changed from shape to shape. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. of a nation. that all safe legislation must be based. As the office of an adjective is to modify. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Except by what he could see for himself. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. no man will ever know. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. I was napping. that. Adjective Clauses. whence. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. etc. or equivalent of a noun.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. 2. whither.² "It is on the understanding. he would repent it. 6. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. in the sentence. Other examples of this construction are. . 4. Frequently there is no connecting word. a relative pronoun being understood. he could know nothing. 8. whereby. Examples of adjective clauses. and not on the sentiment. still remains reasonable. 3.

10. No man is reason or illumination.. 3. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. which formed the center of the mansion. or that essence we were looking for." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. Adverbial Clauses. 6. 11." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds.e. 8. 2. he begins to help us more as an effect. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. I walked home with Calhoun." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. i. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 1. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 5." Exercise. whether subject.376." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. and tell what each one modifies. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. etc. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. all is vacancy. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. the champions advanced through the lists. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 7. Pick out the adjective clauses." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. 4. which Rowena tasted. . who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. object. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 9.

and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. however good she may be as a witness." (9) CONCESSION. tell what kind each is." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. etc." (5) DEGREE. 378." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." "The broader their education is. adverbs. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. so far as we can." "When he was come up to Christian. Shakespeare is our city of refuge.² whoever. expressing the degree in which the horizon." "Who cares for that." (7) RESULT.: "But still. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. to make up our shortcomings. etc. whatever." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. the milestones are grave-stones. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. but they require careful study." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." These mean no matter how good. a verbal. Exercise. etc. since he was too great to care to be original. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. introduced by indefinite relatives." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church.377. however.. is wider. Joanna is better. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. an adjective. and adverbial conjunctions. he goes away as if nothing had happened. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. and will be given in detail." "The right conclusion is. and what it modifies:² . that we should try." "He went several times to England. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. with examples. the wider is the horizon of their thought. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. it takes precedence of everything else." (3) REASON. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. shaping our actions. or an adverb." "After leaving the whole party under the table. no matter what remains.

incoherent exclamations." 2. If the children gathered about her. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. on a dark wintry night. object. they might perhaps say of their visitors. so as to picture the parts and their relations. of which clause Odin is the subject. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 3. then treat noun clauses as nouns.1. predicate. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. snatching up stones to fling at them. to tell the truth. banging about doors and windows." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. 379. as they sometimes did. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. and modifiers. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. For example. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. etc. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. and twirling weathercocks. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. in the sentence. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. with shrill. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. when the wind was unruly. 380. 'Well. howling and whistling. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. its object is that Odin was a reality. find the principal subject and principal predicate. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. we are a little disappointed.

That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. d. 3. (1) Find the principal clause. as seen in the "map" (Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. 364.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. . (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 364. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 2. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 380). Exercises. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .. Take the place and attitude which belong to you.

The deep eyes. 9. counselor that had none for herself. that. for yours. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. could not have been effected. namely. 11. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. I like that representation they have of the tree. 24. which. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. or whether any. not so much for travelers that were few. whom I choose. dying for them. 6. if applied to the Bible. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. Next came a wretched Dominican. Now. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. as for armies that were too many by half. the flower should revive for us. He was what our country people call an old one. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 13. had we been worse. 5. 22. the shepherd girl. 7. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. bishop. But now that she has become an establishment. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 17. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 12. 18. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. the mixed result. This is she. . The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 21. 16. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 10.4. 15. 20. 8. Had they been better chemists. 19. The night proved unusually dark. 23. Here lay two great roads. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. Whether she said the word is uncertain. And those will often pity that weakness most. 14. M. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. that pressed her with an objection. of a light hazel. who would yield to it least.

There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. These things we are forced to say. if there be one to whom I am not equal. and not from his heart. would easily reach. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. or commands. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. Hence the definition. though we may repeat the words never so often. questions.25. (b) First analyze. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. 2. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 6. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 28. That which we do not believe. 383. 30. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 27. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. then map out as in Sec. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 7." said Bentley. 26. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. the following complex sentences:² 1. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. speed. 382. 5.² Definition. is to speak and write sincerely. and stamped with his right number. and temper. 3. but above it. How formed. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face." 4. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 380. "was ever written down by any but itself. "No book. if continuously extended. . we cannot adequately say.²which will not be disposed of. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. that it was no more than his daily walk. COMPOUND SENTENCES.

as but. nor. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. . a simple member. Study the thought. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. the semicolon separates the first. tell which are compound. and not the form of the connective. he soliloquizes. "Only the star dazzles. yet. Speak your latent conviction. Connectives. which are simple statements. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. he walks with arms akimbo. Some of these are now conjunctions. as in Sec. The coördinate conjunctions and. from the second. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. the planet has a faint.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. and which complex:² 1. in (3). The division into members will be easier. he is twice a man. and nor the second and third complex members. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. or but. etc. 297). 383 (1). if there are any. for. Of the following illustrative sentences. Another example is. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. in (2). a complex member. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. the waving grass. Thus in (1). etc. while (whilst). whereas." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. and connects the first and second complex members. others sometimes coördinate. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached." 384. now adverbs or prepositions.. the semicolons cut apart the independent members." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). and it shall be the universal sense. he dilates. nor does he know until he has tried. 386. moon-like ray" (adversative). 385. however. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. Exercise.

If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. Exercise. from a happy yet often pensive child. for example. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. 14. 9. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 7. 381. all pain. to find a pot of buried gold. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. you lose something. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. 6. so is every one of its parts. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 3. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. he grew up to be a mild. 364. yield to them heart and life. nay. the tax is certain. 387. that it was Easter Sunday. A man cannot speak but he judges himself.2. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 4. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 10. is particular. however. (i) Separate it into its main members. 4. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. Man does not stand in awe of man. 13. 8. In this manner. and not by what each is. you have gained something else. I can still receive. For everything you have missed. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. . and thou shalt be loved. 3. The gain is apparent. passed in that time. 2. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. quiet. Whilst the world is thus dual. 12. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. and as yet very early in the morning. I can yet love. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 11. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 5. All loss. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. unobtrusive boy. Love. or. and for everything you gain. and sun-browned with labor in the fields.

in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and he learns who receives. and makes their business a friendship. one is afraid. 20. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. "the iron is white. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. They will shuffle and crow. why should we intrude? 10. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 19. that let him communicate. . On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. We see the noble afar off. Stand aside. puts the parties on a convenient footing. give those merits room. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and they will be true to you. or men will never know and honor him aright. or we read books. Come into port greatly. 15. "as nigh the scythe as you can. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and the peace of society is often kept. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. Whatever he knows and thinks. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 16. let them mount and expand. and not a thought has enriched either party. as children." says the smith. 9. only that they may brag and conquer there. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. treat them greatly. 11. abide by it. 17. 18. and the cart as nigh the rake. "Strike. if you rip up his claims. 21. modesty. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. feign to confess here. is as thin and timid as any." says the haymaker. because. or we pursue persons. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. 6." 13. and the other dares not. and they will show themselves great. When you have chosen your part. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 7. 8. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads." "keep the rake. or sail with God the seas. crook and hide. whilst frankness invites frankness. and you are without effort impelled to truth. We go to Europe. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. and they repel us. and not an emotion of bravery. or hope. 14. He teaches who gives. Trust men.5.

that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . but go about your business anywhere. they die young. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English.²agreement and government. 24. Ground covered by syntax. adjective and noun. and dodge the account. 390. We see young men who owe us a new world. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. but its leading characteristic is. 25.22. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. so readily and lavishly they promise. verb and subject. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. pronoun and antecedent. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Essential point in English syntax. the department of syntax will be a small affair. if they live. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. By way of introduction. Following the Latin method. SYNTAX. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. it never was known to fall into the rear. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. 380. or. So does culture with us. INTRODUCTORY. PART III. they lose themselves in the crowd. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. 23. 388. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. but they never acquit the debt. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. it ends in headache.

and whose judgment. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used." that is. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. distinct forms would be used. 392. therefore. pronoun and antecedent. Why study syntax? 391.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. the order being inverted. sometimes verb and subject. The basis of syntax. and added to it the preposition of. but are not now. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. authorities²that is. This is not logical. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. also expressing a possessive relation. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. take the sentence. or the same writer will use both indifferently. and nothing but important points will be considered. and it would not matter which one stood first. both forms will be given in the following pages. When usage varies as to a given construction. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. For example. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). the sentence. Some rules not rigid. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. following the regular order of subject. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and imitate it. Also in the sentence.² First." In this there is a possessive form. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. 393. some of which conform to classical grammar." is ambiguous. or settler may be the subject. Savage may be the subject. In Latin. "None remained but he. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. As an illustration of the last remark. "The savage here the settler slew. good English. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. as to study inflected forms. then. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. etc. or when they exist side by side in good usage. . Second. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. There is. In some cases.

etc. 397. PRONOUNS. 396. Joint possession. and Peter's. and Harley's.²MACAULAY. for example. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. 394. Bentham's principles together.² Live your king and country's best support. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.²MCCULLOCH. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.²EMERSON. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. ²ID. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²THACKERAY.²ROWE. Woman.² He lands us on a grassy stage." Juletta tells. as.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. but imply separate possession or ownership. Putting Mr. 408).²RUSKIN. the shore of Galilee. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Use of the possessive. the possessive sign is used with each noun. and Pope's.NOUNS. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. . An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Mill's and Mr. and Paul's. Separate possession. sense and nature's easy fool. He kept Bolingbroke's. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.²MILTON. the antechamber of the High Priest. 395.²BYRON. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. and Peterborough's.

NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. there are two general rules that require attention. as. General rules. I. .² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. 398. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. the real thought being forgotten. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. But he must be a stronger than thee.²WHITCHER." 400.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. sanctioned. thus. the last expression has the support of many good writers. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. This should be "as she.²BYRON.²TROLLOPE. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. No mightier than thyself or me. if not universally. Objective for the nominative.²POPE. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). Since most of the personal pronouns. whom is the complement after the verb am. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.²THACKERAY.) "The young Harper. 399. for example.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Some of the violations are universally condemned. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.²SOUTHEY.²SHAKESPEARE. Bedott Papers. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. others are generally. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. who. together with the relative who. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. Still. and should be the nominative form.

²MACAULAY. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²RUSKIN.²LONGFELLOW.²KINGSLEY."²WINTHROP. The camp of Richard of England. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. And it was heThat made the ship to go. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. One exception is to be noted. is.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. "Who's there?"²"Me. The usage is too common to need further examples. the objective form is regularly found. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe."²WM.² One I remember especially. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON."²KINGSLEY. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. namely. unless a special. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²THACKERAY. Patrick the Porter. are. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.²PARTON. as. for example.²SCOTT. "Than whom. In spoken English. both in England and America. they are yet holier than we. But still it is not she." 401. BLACK.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. "If there is any one embarrassed." There is no special reason for this. but such is the fact. A safe rule. on the other hand. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.² For there was little doubt that it was he. . She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. and the other forms of the verb be. it will not be me.²FIELDING. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²COLERIDGE.

You know whom it is that you thus charge. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 10. 11. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. verbal. Me in exclamations. . but not he" (he should be him. "Ask the murderer. 403. Whom they were I really cannot specify. It is not me you are in love with. 2. as.Exercise. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. or us)." 6. 8. in the case of words used in apposition with the object.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. as. 5. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. the object of to). If there ever was a rogue in the world. you or me. 9. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. it is me. 4. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author.²MILTON. now. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. (3) By forgetting the construction. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. I speak not to" (he should be him. 7. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. used after verbs. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Truth is mightier than us all. or this. or preposition which governs it. object of saw). verbals." the word being in apposition with murderer). giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. as this from Shakespeare. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. and prepositions. 3. 404. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. as. Nominative for the objective.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me).

changed in all save thee. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. 406. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.Exception 1. for example. Who have we here?²ID. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. as. as. as well as the objective. I've sworn. Nature. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. Exercise. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. who interrogative. and is usually avoided.² All were knocked down but us two. "Who did you see?" or. I arraign. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Thy shores are empires. 405.²KINGSLEY. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.Shall be left upon the morn. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. etc.²BYRON. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²STEELE. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. for they say there are none such in the world. None. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Exception 2. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²BYRON. . giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Let you and I look at these.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²KINGSLEY. Thou.²KINGSLEY.²GOLDSMITH. save thou and thine.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. We regularly say. partial Nature.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. 2. all but he. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. but he. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.

as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me." 4. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. with Jortin and Thirlby. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. 7. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. BROWN. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. They are coming for a visit to she and I. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²DE QUINCEY.²possessive.²SCOTT. 8. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. and they know that as well as me. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.²THACKERAY. They crowned him long ago.²RUSKIN. As antecedent of a relative.²MACAULAY.Ye I salute. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. Bartholomew.3. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 9. B. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 10. or objective? . 6. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Markland. 12. 5. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. who. II.²C. 11. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. This usage is not frequent. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 407. Preceding a gerund.

that the bitterness of death was past. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.² IRVING. Both types of sentences are found. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.² CARLYLE. studying is a gerund. . it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. Objective. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. But in common use there is no such distinction. as he turned away from his wife. Here I state them only in brief.²BREWER. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.² SCOTT. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. and asked why it was not made. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. [who was] studying law. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. Why both are found. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.² THACKERAY. and the meaning is. In the examples quoted. Possessive. We heard of Brown.²RUSKIN.408.²DICKENS.²DE QUINCEY. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. The use of the objective is older. The last incident which I recollect." or "We heard of Brown's studying law." That is. etc. both are gerunds. object of heard of. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.²MACAULAY. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. sometimes it has the objective. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.²CARLYLE. and that in the second.

² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. In such a case as the last three sentences.²THOREAU. it was his own fault. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²RUSKIN. taking in each of many persons. and gender. 410.²AUDUBON.²C.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. Everybody had his own life to think of. if the antecedent is neuter.²DE QUINCEY. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. in one person. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. or is a distributive word.²HOLMES. 409. If any one did not know it. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. Every city threw open its gates. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. and ought to agree with them in person. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. preceded by a distributive. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²when the antecedent.² BRYANT. number. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. the pronoun will be neuter singular. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²THACKERAY. where there were examinations. The pale realms of shade.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²CABLE.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²HUXLEY. Examples of these constructions are.²DEFOE. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. . BROCKDEN BROWN.²DE QUINCEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²EMERSON III. Watch for the real antecedent.

and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²ID. as anybody in their senses would have done. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²HUXLEY. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²SCOTT. By using the plural pronoun.²FIELDING. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²BYRON. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. This is not considered the best usage. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²ID. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. The sun.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²AUSTEN. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. for example. let them break it off. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Every one must judge of their own feelings. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.² Not the feeblest grandame.²DEFOE.²BIBLE. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²THACKERAY. Struggling for life. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. not a mowing idiot. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Whosoever hath any gold. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²PALEY. 411. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. . Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²RUSKIN.²EMERSON.²PAULDING. If the part deserve any comment. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²PALGRAVE. and giving them means of being so. till they have lost him.

Where she was gone. when restrictive. or unrestrictive. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. tell whether who. Exercise. 2. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. and that are restrictive or not. What these terms mean.) and a personal pronoun. when coördinating.²HAWTHORNE. 413." A relative." It defines beggar. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. as. the definite relatives who. Exercise. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. who went away." This means. I. 1. It adds a new statement to what precedes. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. The clause is restricted to the antecedent.² SHERIDAN. A relative. 412.²ADDISON. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. but. in each instance:² Who. because. but. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. As to their conjunctive use. which. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive.²In the above sentences. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. which. . or what was become of her. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and that always restrictive. no one could take upon them to say. unless both genders are implied. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. that being considered already clear. That is in most cases restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. and does not add a new statement. In the following examples. and he went away. "I gave it to the beggar. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one].²ID. according to the practice of every modern writer. etc.

because of its antecedent. The rule. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.²THOREAU. 7. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. which was to go over the Cordilleras. 10. Hare has printed. On hearing their plan. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 4.²DE QUINCEY. 414. she agreed to join the party.. long arms and legs. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. That. 9. So different from the wild. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. that were often vicious. and it is called logic. BEECHER 5. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.²H. Yet how many are there who up. II. which Mr. 6.²ID. 12. they. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. as that does not vary for person or number. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. these or that which. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. For example. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. However. . it makes the verb third person singular. but. Which. With narrow shoulders. he.²ADDISON. In what sense true.² MOTLEY. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. 11.3.² IRVING." that is invariable as to person and number. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.²ID. who.²HOLMES. you. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. in the sentence. The general rule is. We say I. A grizzly-looking man appeared. and over England are saying.² CARLYLE. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. W. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. etc. 14.²DE QUINCEY. etc. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 13. etc. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.² NEWMAN. 8. down.

.²M. JR. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. [plural] that who. Singular. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²HOLMES.. and write the verb in the plural. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²BOWLES. ARNOLD.²ADDISON. etc. but the former has good authority. The fiery youth .²HOWELLS.²J. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²MACAULAY. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. T. He is one of those that deserve very well. the true antecedent. but myself.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. 415. with one as the principal word. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. etc..²whether we should say." or. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. but speaks of him as that sort.. who rarely speak at all. "one of the finest books that has been published.] Both constructions are frequently found. when he derided the shams of society.²LOWELL.. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²LOWELL.²SCOTT. French literature of the eighteenth century. The latter is rather more frequent. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. and in improving a victory. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. MORSE. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. others regard books as the antecedent. . [singular or plural. or which . Let us be of good cheer.. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor." One of . in winning a battle.²LECKY. Franklin..²ADDISON. "one of the finest books that have been published. A disputed point.

²SWIFT. object of a preposition understood. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²DEFOE.²EMERSON. when this dust falls to the urn. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. and such like: as. But I by backward steps would move.²BURNS. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. IV. 416. or where] he died. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²In the above sentences.² THACKERAY. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. return.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. whence. where. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. III.²ID." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. when the relative word is a pronoun. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²EMERSON.And. 417.In that same state I came.²ADDISON. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²SCOTT. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²VAUGHAN.²CARLYLE.²GOLDSMITH. that is.² RUSKIN.² . and see if the sentence is made clearer. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race."²DICKENS.A rare Roundabout performance. I could see nothing except the sky." "India is the place [in which.²IRVING. Exercise. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.

Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² THACKERAY. W. or that.. but which is usually carefully avoided. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. The regular construction. which. They believe the same of all the works of art. Mr. I might as well have staid at home. with Turner. but we find the relative who. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner.² Which. she passed the lamp over her face and person. as is not used.²R. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. as of knives. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. etc. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. V.. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. if same is followed by a complete clause. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. boats. he. . That. Caution. for example. ²GOLDSMITH. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.He considered. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. but. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²SWIFT.² as his apprentice. Anacoluthic use of which. if I had resolved to go on with.² MACAULAY.²FRANKLIN. looking-glasses. 418. was a discoverer.²WORDSWORTH. and working in the same spirit.² BURKE. Which.²SCOTT. CHURCH.

and in whom I myself was not a little interested. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. (3) "Among the poorer sort. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. As the sentences stand. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. He delivered the letter. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.² Direction for rewriting.²DE QUINCEY. but. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.. Exercise. Exercise.. le Conte. Express both relatives.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.²SCOTT. who are now thrown. 2." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.²HAWTHORNE." etc. now thrown upon their. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. and which.. once a great favorite of M. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. 4." etc." etc. and who are now. or omit the conjunction. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. which when Mr. Thornhill had read.²GOLDSMITH. and this be placed in the proper clause. (1) "Among those who are poor. 1. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. And who. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. 419. etc. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. That is.²RUSKIN.She'd come again. or leave out both connective and relative. .²THACKERAY. But who. etc. he said that all submission was now too late. or. After this came Elizabeth herself. but none is expressed.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²which if they once heard. This was a gentleman. 3.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. (2) "Among the poorer sort.²SHAKESPEARE. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort.

5. one of signal interest. 11.²SCOTT. etc. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.² MOTLEY.²DE QUINCEY. 12.. I saw upon the left a scene far different. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. the French. etc. and which may even be heard a mile off." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.²IRVING. as a false and astucious mark. 420. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.²PEARSON. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. either from imitation of their frequent allies. Akin to the above is another fault.. "What knight so craven. 1. . And which. Dr. 8.. 10. which the Scotch had learned. "A mockery.²DE QUINCEY. 6. Or who. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. I shall have complete copies. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. like that spoken in the towns. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Or which. But which. English by name. who. That . indeed. 7. then. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. and which. Exercise. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. and to whom no door is closed. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and which has never been described.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. 9. and repeat this for any further reference. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 13.

6.²SCOTT.. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. It rose into a thrilling passion. .²HOLMES.. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.²W. was a bustling wharf.²HOWELLS... what. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 13. In my native town of Salem. whom. but which is perhaps not so different from it. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.2.²BEECHER.²DEFOE. He. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. 9. E. 8. 5. 12. 7.²HALLAM. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. at the head of what. The Tree Igdrasil.. 3. That . and to whom I do not belong. 15.. in his present condition. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. was hung in air. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. 14. I give to such men as do not belong to me. I recommend some honest manual calling. 10.²DE QUINCEY. 11.. Such as . the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. that. G.²EMERSON. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. which. half a century ago. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. which.²W. and whose examples and principles we inherit. the cent... but which. I grudge the dollar. SIMMS. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. such as they have very probably been bred to. Such as . and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. the dime. in his Mephistopheles. He flung into literature. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²EMERSON. 4. that .² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. Which .²HAWTHORNE.²SCOTT That which .. CHANNING..

Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.² HAWTHORNE.²MACAULAY. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. one another. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. and in want of his gold²or his corn. . Each other. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. 421. 422.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. England was then divided between kings and Druids. Assume that no one is in want of either. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. that not all combined.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. as. We call ourselves a rich nation. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. By their original meaning. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. as it were.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Distributives either and neither. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²HAWTHORNE. whether or not the two are equivalent.²RUSKIN.² Some one must be poor.²EMERSON. Use of any.²RUSKIN. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. as. always at war with one another. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. for example.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²DICKENS. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. in which case any should be used instead.

let him ask of God.²BEECHER Whenever. for him have I offended. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. that I know of. during his stay at Yuste. before that. Examples of its use are. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. usually plural.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. None usually plural.²BURKE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. and is isolated. as none of the French philosophers were. any was often singular.²STIRLING. etc. in Shakespeare.²CARLYLE. Any usually plural.²BIBLE. If any of you lack wisdom. in the prose of the present day.²SHAKESPEARE. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants..² EMERSON. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.² In earnest. In earlier Modern English. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. then in Plotinus. speak. . as. any of his friends had died.. Do you think.²THACKERAY. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. 423. afterwards in Goethe.²FRANKLIN.²PROF. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. at one time in Bacon. The adjective pronoun none is. Caution. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. when any of them are so good as to visit me. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). Do you think. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²SCOTT. as..Once I took such delight in Montaigne . whilst I still cherish their genius.² If any. then in Plutarch. which is plural as often as singular. None of Nature's powers do better service. 424.²EMERSON. I beseech you. even in Bettine. if ever man was.

Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. or somebody else's? 426.² Singular. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. are treated as units. etc. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. When all were gone.²THOREAU. and Ford has nobody's else. for example. as. nobody else.² PEARSON.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. saving Naaman the Syrian. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. any one else.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. etc. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August..²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. Somebody's else. 425. which is used absolutely. the plural. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.²McMASTER.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. etc. and all was lost on the other. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. when it means all persons: for example.²NAPIER Plural. etc.²SCOTT Like the use of any. that all was lost. The light troops thought . and hence is more likely to confuse the student. and less rarely in poetry.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. The compounds somebody else. fixing his eyes on the mace.² None of them was cleansed.

Again. etc. the adjectives plural.²in such as "these sort of books.²SWEET. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. WILLIS. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. His hair.²N. ELIOT." "all manner of men. unlike anybody else's in the world." "those kind of trees. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. or some other such great man as a bishop. or those sort of people.² Saturday Review.²AUSTEN. all manner of. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. . Whitefield or Wesley. P. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. for example.² These kind of knaves I know. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. ADJECTIVES.²G. London. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.² FIELDING.²MULOCH. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.SYDNEY SMITH."²MRS.²THACKERAY. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²SHERIDAN.²RUSKIN. STOWE. "Ye see.. 427. These sort. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²DICKENS.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.curled once all over it in long tendrils. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²RUSKIN." the nouns being singular. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. etc.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.

in spoken English. which accounts for the construction. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. Use of the comparative degree. Later form. with all manner of amusing books." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. 428. such as. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. or one object with a class of objects. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. and the adjective is. "This sort of trees should be planted. In Old and Middle English. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. as. or the nouns to the plural." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). . This the modern expression reverses.² Which is the better able to defend himself. Consequently we have a confused expression. "These kind of trees are best. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. Should we say.The library was open. to express a higher degree of quality.² PRESCOTT. and in this way may take a plural verb. they said. when the necessary dispositions concur. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. more alarming than a total silence. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. not "all kinds of wild animals. for example. Burke's sentence.²RUSKIN. Of two such lessons." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. History of this construction. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. According to the approved usage of Modern English. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. At the source. made to agree with it." A question. the victor or the vanquished. gradually displacing the old. "This kind of rules are the best. The result.

430. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. 429. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. . This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. if not. the highest stakes are paid. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. Use of the superlative degree.²TROLLOPE. by almost the breadth of my nail. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. To the man who plays well. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.A braver ne'er to battle rode. than any of his court.²MACAULAY. He is taller.² THACKERAY. 6. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. has sanctioned. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. would not have had the face. Other after the comparative form. Superlative with two objects. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. 4.²LOWELL. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²HAWTHORNE. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Exercise.²CARLYLE. Even Dodd himself.²SCOTT. etc.²MACAULAY. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²HUXLEY. Gary. 2.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Henry. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²THACKERAY. 3. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. I am concerned to see that Mr.²WIRT.²SWIFT. 5."²ID.

"Ha. Double comparative and superlative.²RUSKIN.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. I should say that one has the best cause. ha.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. The eldest. CÆSAR. The following examples are used purposely. 1611. more particularly the last of them. Also from the same period. Come you more nearer."²BULWER.²MRS. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English..²SCOTT. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²IRVING..²EMERSON. Rip was one of those .²J. In all disputes between States. who eat white bread or brown. not a bit of high life among them. OLIPHANT. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome."²HAWTHORNE. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.²TEMPEST. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²Bible. Examples from Shakespeare are.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. whichever can be got easiest. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²HAMLET. . and the other contains the best men.²ADDISON. Mary.²DR BLAIR.²BEN JONSON. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. These two properties seem essential to wit. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong."²GOLDSMITH. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. 431. and differ only in form.²GOLDSMITH. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. After the most straitest sect of our religion.

²RUSKIN.²GIBBON. not only so in popular speech. First three. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. and Secretary Walsingham also. Definite article. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The delay in the first three lines. Instances of both are given below.²PRESCOTT. For Carlyle.²LAMB.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432.²RUSKIN. ²COWPER. Examples of this construction are. etc. The first five had specific names. 433. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. . Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. the Spanish.²ADDISON. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. etc. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²KINGSLEY. Three first. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.² With a singular noun. The merit of the Barb. ARTICLES. As to these two expressions. and conceit in the last. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. jar upon us constantly.²DE QUINCEY. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. The meaning intended is the same.² SMOLLETT.²GIBBON. but in literary English. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.

however. melodious. The lofty. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .²MACAULAY. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. with a plural noun.²CARLYLE. 433. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. 434.²SCOTT. of the eighteenth century. as in Sec.²THE NATION. as. Origin of the Aryans. 435. as..² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. No.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. the greatest poems. The flowers.² RUSKIN. to distinguish clearly. .²PRESCOTT. having been arranged. Indefinite article. He is master of the two-fold Logos. the thought and the word. distinct. or to emphasize the meaning. and flexible language. The not repeated. I think. the hour of parting came.²NEWMAN. with a singular noun.² MACAULAY. One object and several modifiers.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. Meaning same as in Sec.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. were placed at a very tender age. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. 1508. Frequently. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²THACKERAY. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.²TENNYSON. 433. and the presents.²ID. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. Here the youth of both sexes. of the higher and middling orders. With a plural noun. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. but inseparable from each other.²TAYLOR.. but is used with one only.

The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. only one of which is expressed.²BEECHER.An early.²DRYDEN. and inexhausted vein.²BULWER. 438. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. JONSON. In the sentences of Secs. 435.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. or clearness to each of several nouns. a collegian. 437.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.²S.² BURKE.²MACAULAY. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.²B. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other." and "a red and a white geranium." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. 433 and 436. as. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.² MACAULAY. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. But in the following sentences. a murderer.²JOHNSON. to limit two or more modified nouns. The indefinite article (compare Sec. COLERIDGE.²MACAULAY. . He saw him in his mind's eye. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. like the definite article. rich.436. a tyrant. interest. and a usurper. For rhetorical effect. as in the first three of Sec. T. Examples of this use are. The indefinite article is used.²DICKENS. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. a round and a square one alternately. One article with several adjectives.²THACKERAY. 436). It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. one noun is expressed.

² It is by no means sure that either our literature. or the great intellectual life of our nation. all that academies can give. as. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.²COOPER. 276. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²G. Singular verb. Singulars connected by or or nor. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. like some others in this series. without academies. . Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Sec.²AGASSIZ. Another writer might. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.²FROUDE.²CARLYLE This usage. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. then. and the following illustrations prove it.VERBS. as. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. 440. Such. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.. 439. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. A broad and loose rule.²The Nation.²M.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. In English. ELIOT. for example. Collective noun of singular meaning. This was spoken of in Part I.²W. was the earliest American land. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²GIBBON. ARNOLD. has got already. He sees that it is better to live in peace.

but each one emphatic. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²J.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. or as making up one general idea. or considered as appositional.²WHITTIER. Plural form and singular meaning. A fever. a loss of friends. and other singulars of plural form. (4) When the subject is plural in form.² Politics is the only field now open for me. for example. a loss of wealth. seems at the moment unpaid loss.² The unbought grace of life.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. nor Mahomet.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²GIBBON. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. Q.² In a word. and every four hours. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. Between ourselves. as. ADAMS. No. the cheap defense of nations.Jesus is not dead. other names. nor John. but considered as meaning about the same thing. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.² GOLDSMITH. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. that of a large town.²DE QUINCEY. a cruel disappointment.²GOLDSMITH.²CRITIC.²BURKE. as. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²EMERSON . nor Paul.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. is gone. a mutilation. for example. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. ²EMERSON.

was listened to for five hours. Every week.²MACAULAY. the wit.²EMERSON. no matter if the second is plural). Every sound. thus.The rout. almost every day. was like to crack. is a man of wit. a cuirass.² Asia. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. nay. wineBegins to stir itself. Every fop.²BUTLER.²SCOTT. Her back.²NEWMAN. the ruin. the fine gentleman. each. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. For wide is heard the thundering fray. The oldest. as. as well as sides. every valet. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. the dismay. 441. sir?" and the "No. an impassioned countenance. Plural verb. no spent ball.²MACAULAY. The Epic. was punished.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. many a. There is a moving tone of voice. sir!" and the "What then. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.The author. as. as well as the newest.²PRESCOTT.²RUSKIN. as well as Europe. sir!"²MACAULAY. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. Subjects after the verb. as well as the Drama. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. an agitated gesture. no discontinuity.²ID.²M ARNOLD.²PRESCOTT. in a judge. Here is no ruin. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. the partisan. does not take the place of the man. was dazzled. Then comes the "Why. and greaves.²LONGFELLOW. every boor. a gorget.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. no.²ID. and such like adjectives. To receive presents or a bribe. every echo. with death.²HAWTHORNE.² .

²GIBBON. shirt. a green pasture.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.These bits of wood were covered on every square. as with a subject of plural form. its date. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²EMERSON. far away thy children leave the land.²FROUDE.²ADDISON. but the verb is plural. as. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. as. TAYLOR. A shady grove. The conjunction may be omitted. of whom there were a number.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. His clothes. Far. All our household are at rest. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. for example. . 440 (5. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.² GIBBON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. and its history are alike a mystery to us. The travelers. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. a stream of fresh water.²COLERIDGE. b). One or two of the ladies were going to leave. making up a plural subject. The Dauphin. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²GOLDSMITH.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²SCOTT.²FROUDE. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. are sufficient to attract a colony.² A multitude go mad about it. the Duke of Berri.²THOREAU.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. were men of insignificant characters. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²B. Philip of Anjou.²DE QUINCEY.²FRANKLIN.²SWIFT. Conjunction omitted.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. as in Sec.

² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. 444. "I have never said so.²LOWELL. for example. of different persons. WEBSTER. ARNOLD.But notice the construction of this. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²ROWE. . You and I are farmers.). Ah. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. but thou." "She or you may be sure. nor has she").²M. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. 443. This construction is at the best a little awkward. Pattison or I have said.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²BYRON. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. When the subjects. nor should I. his blood dost shed. "You would not be wiser. hadst been my lord. the verb takes the construction of the first person.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. the subject being really equivalent to we. You and I are tolerably modest people. Nothing which Mr.²WHITTIER. that is. we never talk politics. Exceptional examples. If there is only one person in the subject. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²THACKERAY. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²GOLDSMITH. Second or third and first person in the subject. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. General usage. Not I. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. as. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²DE QUINCEY.²SMOLLETT.²RUSKIN. 442. Not Altamont." etc.²D. "He or I can go." or. but thou.

²G. Neither of them. How each of these professions are crowded. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²SMOLLETT.That neither of their intellects are vast. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 9. which it is proper to mention. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 440-444):² 1.445. The following illustrate exceptional usage. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . as we would hope.²ADDISON. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 6.²and.²BYRON. nor bush are there.²SCOTT. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). as illustrated above (Secs. Nor wood.Her course to intercept. 5. 3. BANCROFT. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. Also in verbals.²THACKERAY. Neither of their counselors were to be present." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. 11. In this sentence from Defoe. 4. in my opinion. nor tree. In the following sentence.²perhaps the devil.² TROLLOPE. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Exercise. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Both death and I am found eternal. 10. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²MILTON. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²ADDISON. 446.²EMERSON. In a word. 12. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²BURKE. 7. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 8.²ID. 2.

448.. Indirect discourse means reported speech. change them to a better form:² 1. Of course.²KINGSLEY.² PALGRAVE 5.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. I gave one quarter to Ann. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Exercise. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. W.²R. 3. 4.²DE QUINCEY 2. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. on my return. Two samples of indirect discourse. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . Definitions. for exact connection. Direct discourse²that is. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them.²IRVING. meaning. But I found I wanted a stock of words. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. to have seen should be changed to to see. CHURCH. The present rule is recent. 447..²FRANKLIN 6. if not.²THACKERAY. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. however. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. It should be remarked. as. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece." .²MACAULAY.

"I cannot oblige you . or regular interrogatives. 2. Her prudence whispered eternally. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Oh. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. will." etc. She thought to herself. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead." etc. introductory verb is in the past tense. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. interrogative adverbs. His exact words were. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Direct. . and the subjunctive mood of verbs. under interrogative pronouns... (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. This includes the auxiliaries be. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that." Indirect. Summary of the expressions. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. and the indirect question by whether or if. 449. Direct.. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. 1.. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. have. etc. "Oh. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Sebastian's. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. The substance of his lamentation was.

one summer afternoon. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. the first discoverer of the river and country.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example.²ID. PARTICIPLES. and that he himself had heard. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. like distant peals of thunder. he assured me that nothing was more easy. . FRANKLIN. if this were expanded into a verb. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. my first observation will be found nearly true. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. The trouble is. 450. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²B. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill.²ADDISON. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. in the sentences first quoted. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. with his crew of the Half-moon.Exercise. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. VERBALS.²GOLDSMITH. handed down from his ancestor the historian. Careless use of the participial phrase. Notice this. the sound of their balls.

It is a solemn. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. my first collection was. INFINITIVES.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. There are. many things to be carefully considered. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. . either "As I was pleased. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. and often. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress.. the first sentence would be. purposely or not. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. 451. Standard writers often use it. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.²LAUGHLIN. while defended or excused by others. then. if a strike is to succeed.. 2..' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. leaving the principal statement as it is. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. .² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. universal assertion. For example.²RUSKIN.. This is the more common arrangement.Correction. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.²SCOTT. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. In the following citations. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. Adverb between to and the infinitive.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. Exercise.." etc.² HERBERT SPENCER." Exercise. 3.²ID. avoid it.

The spirits. from Irving. 6." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success..² ADDISON. 13.² MACAULAY.²RUSKIN. 8. if they modify single words. In works of art. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. Exercise. but they are often removed from the exact position. are used. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. but it is placed before the infinitive. but cannot misunderstand the thought. china. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. is to be very cautiously admitted. 12.4. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. etc. this kind of grandeur.²The Nation. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. 11. which consists in multitude. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. The rigid rule in such a case would be.²DR. etc. 7.²SCOTT.²BURKE. A little sketch of his. I wish the reader to clearly understand.²TROLLOPE. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. ADVERBS.²ID. even. Position of only. 452. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. when such adverbs as only. 10.²GOLDSMITH. and earthenware. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. even. 5. Now. BLAIR. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. 9. etc. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 1533. No. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. therefore.

²ID. 2. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²HIGGINSON. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²SYDNEY SMITH. My master. 13. In Old and Middle English. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. His last journey to Cannes. In relating these and the following laws.²PALGRAVE.²COOPER.²ID. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²ID. 10. 453. 8. might not marry. Irving could only live very modestly.²MOTLEY. for example. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 12. 4. WILLIS. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. He shouted in those clear. No sonne.²THACKERAY. were he never so old of yeares. 14. 6. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. The old usage. 9. GROTE.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²N. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. During the whole course of his administration. whence he was never destined to return. 5.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 15. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²RUSKIN. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 3. to avoid a crowd. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²EMERSON. 16. 17. 7. 11.²SWIFT.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²CHAUCER. . P. ²ASCHAM. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.1.²MRS.²MACAULAY.² THACKERAY.

uncommon. The prosperity of no empire. I never did see him again. and why:² 1.²LOWELL. 6. one of the negatives is often a prefix. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. as. if two negatives are found together. In the latter case. nor the grandeur of no king. STOWE. in Ole Virginia. 3. Exceptional use. when one of the negatives is a connective.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.²DE QUINCEY. Regular law of negative in modern English.² HAMILTON. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house."²MRS. There weren't no pies to equal hers. nor never shall. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. denying each other. under the influence of Latin syntax.²MRS. Therefore. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. . can so agreeably affect. and is still kept in vulgar English.²GROTE. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²BURKE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. 7. the usual way of regarding the question now is. But. Not only could man not acquire such information. but ought not to labor after it. I did not act so hastily.²BAYNE. however. However.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. neither. Exercise. ²PAGE. STOWE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. This. etc."²four negatives. 5.²DEFOE.²HOLMES. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. 2. as infrequent. 4. In the execution of this task. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. is not common.²HAWTHORNE.

nor is often changed to not²either ..²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. as the use of the conjunction. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. Things to be watched." both of the above requirements are violated. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. there we were. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. or.8. or with advantage. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. but to their own safety. or to reply to it... A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. 455. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. And who.... The sentence.... The sentences given in Secs.²SCOTT.... if the last precedes a verb. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. and which. the first ought to be placed before a verb. as well as of the pronoun. not or is the proper correlative of neither. should be scrutinized. either. either . nor. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. or. the first should also.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. especially both .²PRESCOTT. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ...." ." said the King. even neither .. not only to the success of their common cause. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here." Besides neither . neither . or to reply to it. but. but (also)." may be changed to "This loose ..²LOWELL. Choice and proper position of correlatives. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. "A weapon. not merely . and. "well worthy to confer honor.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. In the sentence. CONJUNCTIONS. Correction. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. if the second precedes a phrase. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. not only ."²SCOTT. 454.

Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. etc. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²MACAULAY. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²FRANKLIN. Try and avoid the pronoun. but they will outrage. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²GIBBON. Exercise. JEWETT. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 5. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. Correct the following sentences:² 1. or but that for the words but what:² 1. murder. They will. Try and for try to. O. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. 457.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. as. and I don't know but what he was right.Exercise. But what. 7. but.²BAIN. . substitute that. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²RUSKIN. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. In the following sentences.²THACKERAY. but. Some exceptions. 456.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²ID. and chop up their own kin. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. 4. 3. nor the disgrace of assailing him. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. or the negative relative but. 2. 8. not merely interest children. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²GOLDSMITH. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. but grown-up persons.²THACKERAY. as. or but that. 6. Now. too.²S.² ADDISON.

Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. see Sec.² BULWER. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 5.²ADDISON. as already seen in Sec. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²TROLLOPE.2. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. 4.²SCOTT. . Between is used most often with two things only. PREPOSITIONS. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²EMERSON. Between and among. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. no separation or division by twos being implied. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²ADDISON. 305.² SWIFT. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 458.²BURKE. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 313. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 6. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²EMERSON. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. 3. 459. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.

Derogatory to. Conversant with. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Mackintosh. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. LIST I. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.²KINGSLEY. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Affinity between. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Dissent from. etc. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Such are absolve. Averse to. Paley. confer. and Stewart.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Conform to. a soldier of the Cross. Two groups or one and a group. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.: Words with particular prepositions. 461. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Dependent on (upon). averse. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. and another to convey a different meaning. List I. correspond.²RUSKIN What have I. Acquit of. involve. different. . by custom. as. Different from. or one object and a group. Abhorrent to.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. as. and philosophers like Locke. Accord with. and Coleridge. 460. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Some of them have. Comply with. Kant. Bestow on (upon).²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Such are derogatory. ²EMERSON.

"The king is reconciled to his minister. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. in the sense of making friends with. Confide in (trust in). Correspond with (write to). Confide to (intrust to). Agree to (a proposal). Change for (a thing). Differ with (note below). 462. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person)." List III. A taste for (art. as. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. 463. as. LIST II. List II.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. . Confer on (upon) (give to). Change with (a person). Confer with (talk with). Change to (become). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons." also of persons. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Reconcile with (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with.).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Reconcile to (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). and sometimes creeps into standard books.y y y Deprive of. but it is not good usage. A taste of (food). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Independent of. Involve in. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Correspond to (a thing). as. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Differ from (note below). LIST III. etc.

²SCOTT.²POPE. One of them said he would die for her.²G. simply from old age. . Illustrations of "die of. Take thought and die for Cæsar. die of.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL." (because of). and ill treatment." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. It is a man of quality who dies for her." (in behalf of). died for love of the fair Marcella. She died of hard work." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. part with.²MACAULAY. die with.²G. ²ATHENÆUM. "Die for. No one died from want at Longfeld.²BULWER. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²GOLDSMITH. ELIOT." (material cause.²BURNETT. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. I am positively dying with hunger. they shall die by this hand. instrument). If I meet with any of 'em." "die from.²ADDISON.²MACAULAY. "Die by. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²BOSWELL. privation. He died at last without disease. expect from. "Die from. ELIOT. die from. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²GOLDSMITH.:² "Die of." etc.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. Expect of. as Cervantes informs us. People do not die of trifling little colds. Who. It would take me long to die of hunger.y y y Die by.²SHAKESPEARE. "Die for.²FIELDING. "Die with.²MACAULAY." She would have been ready to die with shame. die for. Part from. ²THACKERAY.

as shown in the following quotations:² Of. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²AUSTEN. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general." "part from:"² "Part with. just parted from her. . I have just seen her." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. "Part from. ELIOT. 465.²SHAW. With words implying behavior or disposition. 464. Kind in you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²MARRYAT." She will expect more attention from you. Burke parted from him with deep emotion." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²G.²WALPOLE. His precious bag. nothing better was to be expected.²TROLLOPE. and hated to part with them. "Expect from. which he would by no means part from. I can part with my children for their good.²BULWER. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²G. 466. I part with all that grew so near my heart." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²POE.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. Illustrations of "part with. Of Doctor P." To part from you would be misery. kind of you.²G. Illustrations of "expect of. ELIOT.²WALLER. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. as my friend. It was a little bad of you.²BULWER. either of or in is used indifferently. That is more than I expected of you.²DICKENS. ELIOT.²MACAULAY.

4. tedious perhaps. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 15. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.²CARLYLE. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 9. thunder. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. or that they are any way dependent on each other. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 1. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 10. nor of a pale red. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. But this is idle of you. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. but which the story renders necessary. nor yellow. 3.²TENNYSON. 11. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. and ran up the alley. The noise of vast cataracts. This narrative. Very natural in Mr. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 5. nor blue. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. with seraphims. . Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 8. or artillery. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. In. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 6. thrown it over Amyas's head.²BULWER.²BEACONSFIELD. 7. raging storms. 13. nor green. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 14.²DICKENS.He did not think it handsome of you. Hampden. the vast abyss. Thou tread'st. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. In the friction between an employer and workman. or which we are most imperatively required to do.²BULWER. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers.

25. save Amyas. 28. Friday. you or me. produce approbation. That night every man of the boat's crew. and other angular figures. the acquiescence of the understanding. and almost as good as a pony. 411. were down with raging fever. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. triangles. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is.) 34. 38. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 23. Every one of these letters are in my name. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. But every man may know. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. Squares. or how beautiful it is. 17. 24. 22. 18. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn.And were I anything but what I am. 19. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. and most of us do know. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 31. 36. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 27.I would wish me only he. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. The effect of proportion and fitness. 16. 32. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 29. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. (Sec. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. but in the price paid to them. 21. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 26. what is a just and unjust act. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 35. 20. 37. 30. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. . whom he thinks would be better than a dog. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. You have seen Cassio and she together. 33.

133. 25. 91. . Between each was an interval where lay a musket. (2) Middle English. from nominative clauses. nouns. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. He had four children. origin of. of. Adjectives. 47. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 124. 90. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. of. pronouns. 98. of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 89. as comparison definition demonstrative. 260. 107. 20. A. 92. syntax uses Absolute. of. 310. demonstrative. from about 1500 to the present time. 239. Abstract with Active Address. as.000 between them. of. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. voice. (3) Modern English. 102. 40. article. 124. INDEX. 116. 119. adverbs used complements. numeral. nominative. 47. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. adjectives.39.

275. objective. antecedent. nouns. modify. 190. 328. 291. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 115. Agreement. 323. 106. of. 207. 99. 116. 104. nouns. 183. 103. 195. 325. . quantity. adjectives.from function how in not of of ordinal. 303. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 97. parse. of. 148. between of. as nouns. adjectives. 27. of. 239. of. clauses. and 185. of. conjunctions. 303. 187. 116. parse. 194. 262. 48. 316. sentence. Against. with with with subject. Alms. of. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. from to of. conjunction. 194. 184. infinitive. of. 302. 114. adjectives. 190. 109. 242. 42. predicate. form as as they to in as uses uses of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 287. 191. 325. quality. compared. plural pronominal. to used of. 27. antecedent. 207. 101.

271. of. 231. which. parse. adjective. 275. 90. 150. 207. 67. Are. of. 79. 101. 294. of of of And Antecedent. See with definition complex compound simple who. 331. An. 240. and. 309. Agreement. See 74. 296. 252. 287. though. A. syntax As. in in. syntax. 124. sentences. of. 84. of and pronoun of. sentences. uses As At. 74. definition how indefinite. 264. 225. 208. words between. 120. 127. 198. 51.Among. 300. pronouns. possessive. 49. . definition of of of Any. Arrangement Articles. after of. 67. of. agreement personal as pronoun. which. it. 120. Auxiliary if. Anacoluthon Analysis. to of. of. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 295. 47. derivation in definite. same. sentences. as uses verbs. which. 148.

66. Can. nominative. of nouns. Brethren. 48. uses of. comparison conjugation of. Children. 279. Bridegroom. of pronouns. 46. 279. of nouns. of pronouns. 195. conjunctions Cherub. possessive. of nouns. 278. 161. But. syntax of. of. number of. 45. 149. objective. 39. of nouns. in Old and Modern English.Bad. 64. adverb. adjective. 37. plurals of. 283. 194. Case. 110. Between. 224. Among. Be. 46. 63. 330. 47. See of. of pronouns. 39. with But By. uses Better. Cause. 210. Clause. 54. 260. of. double possessive. 150. 278. of what. 62. 262. forms. 84. 110. of. 111. Case. clauses of. 262. best. of pronouns. definition could. pronoun. 49. uses nominative of. .

of. superlative. nouns. analysis of. 107. of. clothes. proper. Cloths. 23. adverbs. of. 111. 108. . Cleave. 307. 244. 158. 257. adjectives. 43. infinitive. 263. 12. 315. sentence. 18. 24. 257. subject. 189. 113.definition kinds noun. nouns. and sentence. in analysis. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. of. double. defective. predicate. of. 53. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 239. 271. definition degrees irregular. 258. 268. nouns. 264. and forms of. English. material. 312. 307. plural of. 257. 157. of. Clomb. 18. predicate of and from from of. of. of. 110. 43. of. 108. 248. verb. 305.

207. 149. in Old vs. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. See English. Agreement. 73. 194. other other parts of speech. of of Conjunctions. 194. . 289. See in subjunctive. of. of. 269. definition how subordinate. pronoun. replaced by objective. See analysis clauses. conjunctions. Can. 151. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 194. 143. conjunctions. parse. verbs. pronoun. 149. interrogative pronouns. sentences. adverbs. analysis. 328. 255.with Concord. 139. 196. conjunction. 195. to of. same words. definition be. 199. sentences. sentence. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. coördinate. 66. 195. 263. 231. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 138. 193. subjunctive. pronouns. and clause. correlative. 188. Conjunctions.

pronouns. article. indirect. use of dies. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 90. for. 91. of. 242. Comparison. Degrees. See See 48. by. passive adjectives. from. 102. 102. 80. 320. 300. pronouns. 242. 26. pronouns. 287.Declension. possessive. Comparative. 303. See 148. duck. 315. of personal relative verbs. tenses. pronouns. 60. adverbs See adjectives. comparative. nouns. 35. object. See adjectives. . of. of. 288. 51. discourse. Articles. 160. clause. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. nouns. 43. verb. with. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 99. of. 333. Subordinate clause. Case. 185. vs. 152. with of.

added suffix. possessive suffix. 32. 255. 287. 38. 234. literary. 12. another. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. other. of. 90. 194. adjective. pronoun. 33. error in sentence. pronouns. 328. feminine plural English. one ( t). of. 241. object. 158. 102. complement. -En. in 'Em. 42. vulgar. 299. original. Elements Ellipsis. 92. drunk. adjective. 90. 287. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 39. 240. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. spoken. plural. to suffix. ending. 92. suffix. Each. predicate. 158. 280. 33. Either. older. the of sentence. of. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 257. of. pronoun. 51. conjunction. 92. 112.Drank. . 62. 110. 300. Empress. of. of subject. 40. 34. of.

used of. perfect. See Gander. 91. object. 152. 189. have adjective. pronoun. 102. Feminine. 212. etc. 112. 152. as a noun. as of from compared marking. few. etc." 31. adjective. 235. from. 45. 36. two. expect gone. other languages. From. definition distinguished in English. 319. 103. . the. 238. 30. 30. First Fish. uses Foreign Former. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. Gender. with in sex. Future Future tense. 148. Farther. two a further. 43. 212. of. 287.. fishes. nouns.Every. 110. First. modes "common goose. 112. uses redundant. to of. with infinitive. 30. 32. of. Few. 48. For. plurals. 102. Further. 308. 147. first.. 334. 29. 126. of. 211. gender.

61. 176. Had Hanged. I. it. . 120. on. 10. 285. noun. 144. 159. participle. distinguished syntax. Gerund. His Husband. she. 175. 12. from participle of. 275. pronouns. Grammar. had hung. possessive pronouns. first sentence. 12. 177. of. Got. an better. and case verbal with. person. 101. of. He. its. for before. 60. 43. 36. kinds of. definition divisions opinions province H. of. Government. 80.of of Genii. 60. pronoun. 159. forms in Girl. of. 173. 61. definition basis of. 13. 145. 231. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 35. personal relative geniuses. 9. rather. adjective.

of. questions. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 276.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 323. of. 153. 320. adverbs. 73. indirect of. Direct object. . 93. 227. 245. 231. 178. 257. 131. of. 136. adjectives. adjectives. 85. mood. of clause. with of. in compared syntax. Questions. your. use article. 131. 72. 105. summary See passive mood. indices. See Articles. 233. 43. verbs. See you. a object. pronouns. elements. transitive. 248. words. uses discourse. 110. 188. meaning. 176. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 283. 319. 67. sentence. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. questions. pronoun. of.

Kind. and See words in. 36. of. lord. 36. Less. Lady. See Madam. 276. 126. 170. -Ly. plural. . lesser. Logic Logical Lord. of. 189. predicate. syntax the. Lady. 102. 67. latest." history etc. 190.adverbs. 110. 226. Lay. 245. It. Like. 281. King. 91. of. 39. 113. pronoun. these double kind. 36. Latter. Last. 63. 113. adjective. English. etc. lie.. 12. Kine. subject form. 227. was uses me. a vs. 110. 61. syntax.. Lay. queen. 303. Lie. in little. "It Its. of. uses Literary Little.

syntax nearer. nigh. Mood. 110. 326. 189. might. of. superlatives. 137. etc. 161. out of. in adverbs comparison a. Negative. 114. 137-144. 265. 188. Enlargement. 110. syntax conjunction. double. 36. 126. -Most. 112. indicative. 135. 34. 113. 41. comparison Near. Mighty Mine. May. mistress. 102. Much. 256. 194. See definition 136. of. 110. of. position adverb.. 325. conjunctions Many. sentences. mine. adjective. of. Must. Means. Neither. Modifiers. of. of. Modifier. 287. 195. Many Mapping Mare. 328. . 144.Manner. of. 64. 160. Master. imperative. 187. subjunctive. 189. 112. 185. construction as of adverb. of. 112.

20. 56. None. of. definition according of. 29. common. 328. Case. 17. of. syntax Neuter or two News. 30. to use. 124. 27. become neuter. 41. No Nominative. 19.pronoun. 21. 32. material. 92. words how compound. Nor. 25. gender how kinds material. of. 300. class used singular. 246. 126. now plural. used as. number once other plural. Not Noun Nouns. 41 43. 17 19. to of. analysis. 46. 38. of. 125. 46. etc. 258. definition descriptive. 41. half abstract. 38-41. etc. formed. 17. abstract. in. nouns. 25. foreign. gender nouns. clause. 301. of. . letters as 24. 30. 45. 30. and figures. 26. of. kinds 90. syntax in gender nouns. of of of of of a. become become formation case collective. nouns. 18. of. See 194. proper. parse. 42. abstract.

48. adjectives. of. 48. 60. 48. of. spoken of instead nouns. Numeral Object. indefinite. 42. 41. 195. See verb. with case. 48. verbs. 235. definite. 240. common. 43. 282. 278. 39. 41.. Preposition. plural. 101. of. See in in in Numeral distributive. plural no two singular construction. plural form. dative. pronouns. 242. English. in article. 42 44. 281. article. of different possessive definite of. 242. 66. Nouns. etc. nominative. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 102. of. 101. meanings.of same two with proper. singular. 42. meaning. 121. adjectives. 279. of. 18. become syntax use with with with Nouns. with with with Now Number. or plural. 278. preposition. form. 92. . personal. as forms titles. of. 23. 285. pronouns. 106. 196. adverbial. passive adverbial. and analysis. singular. 148. indirect. in nouns. conjunction. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 41. 124. 48.

conjunction. 56. Our. treatment comparatives. 116. articles. 325 275. 117. another. 64. 199. See the as of. adverb. 94. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 93 other. of syntax. Parsing. of. 115. of of of of of models adjectives. as of. Ordinal Other Ought. 127. Omission On. uses numeral pronoun. Pains. 194. ours. pronoun. 87. definite relative uses of. 213. of upon.syntax Of. 101. for. 161. 216. position Order. 191. Elder. 41. a in adjectives. with (the). Oxen. as other. 293. One. Older. of. of. Ourself. . 306. 38. 237. Each adjective. adverbs. part analysis. inverted. 69. 233. 103. 279. 103. nouns. adjective. 56. conjunctions. 91. See pronoun.

100. 173. 172. 63. speech. 56. nominative. 335. pronouns. verb idioms it from. 59. article 150. from definition other of. possessive and of. verbals. . 119. 179. 56. Pence. 95. antecedent. 62. 64. 247. part adjective. agreement of verb nouns. 134. with. 28. or of. 174. included various. 43. of. of. of. 70. and subject in. used as voice. absolute with of. verbs. reflexive. 61.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. phrase. them. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 281. 59. pennies. 80. pronoun. in. 148. 59. of. Person. 322. 287. 27. relatives. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. phrases. of. not is. 69. 181. 62. of. pronouns. -ing words. 180. 317. predicate use of. parsed. 219. verbs. of. 43. 177. 172. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. pease.

50.objective syntax table triple uses of. simple. omitted. 106. conjunctions prepositions Plural. nouns. 281. 53. syntax of of Politics. 49. 63. kinds infinitive. adverbs of. singular. of. of. of. 206. Positive Possessive. Nouns. 278. 64. of. 245. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. Comparison. noun nouns. 248. vs. 236. nouns. 241. of Phrase. of. plural. pronoun. or See of of See 185. antecedent of of pronouns. See 60. 37. 235. 54. objects. spoken of. pronoun. 278. as double. 195. . 41. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. English. of. 232. 52. complete. 51. nouns. participial. double. Personification. 25. 303. of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 285. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. in of. 247. 60. 245. prepositional. singular degree. 247. 236. pronouns. relative. adjectives. Personal subjective. 281. 303. 67. appositional. Place. of. of nouns. it. 188. 61. 53. 's.

in exclamations. all. 147. as antecedent of relative. 283. 300. parse. after but. 285. another. plural. 132. 284. 282. 72. 206. interrogative. 281. 58. 59. as. adverb. 95. with tense certain. none. what. expressed as other of. 202. 302. Prepositions. 203. 105. meaning. 279. 280. possessive nominative to of.Prefixes. parse. each either. objective. verbs. 333. 89. 32. 129. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. as 54. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 195. 203. case. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. any. 58. adjective. interrogative. 207. 287. 299. speech. 105. by parts of of. exclamatory. 283. 331. 332. 187. of. case. who personal. 93. 301. forms of. 300. words. 219. of. 303. of. 64. 205. usually to as than. by. by with shown certain of. 186. neither. same used as adjectives. Pronouns. of. of. . future. of. singular usually other. objective. of. plural. and form form form form of. somebody definition how indefinite. 104. 208. plural. and one with else's. for predicate nominative.

105. 74. 101. 80. use of history formed. of. use in as. pronouns. of. See of. to of. pronominal pronouns indirect. indirect. Questions. same antecedent. 84. Quotations. and which. 295. and relatives. 279. with who. 293. 83. in. of. Nouns. which after same. 291. 85. in. indirect compound. 99. questions. 87. 68. 297. of. nouns. 87. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. and antecedent. 74. 69. in. 286. 293. of. 69. 142. of. 189. discourse. with with gerund. agreement anacoluthon and as. 74. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. that. which. of. adverbs in. 289. pronoun. 289. Rather. . who. 85. Direct same and different. Quantity. unrestrictive. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. Rank. or of. 58. 263. personal pronoun. 295.possessive relative. from and interrogative. parse. conjunctions Quality. of. 188. 296. 195. of.

gender. simple. S. 242. Seeing. effect. 159. and should. simple of. of. 170. conjunction. definition . Sex Shall. elliptical. 255. 43. 195. 196. 159. conjunctions Retained Riches. forms shots. will. Shear. Shot. object. kinds Sequence Set. 196. complex. plural possessive as. pronoun. in form.syntax use Result. Same Sat. who. 231. Self Sentences. 'S. tenses. 252. 259. See Sentences. 263. 294. 42. Simple in sate. 51. 74. 289. that. of sit. would. of. 40. 29. in of. 319. 26 271. sentence. suffix. which. 69. reflexive analysis of compound. of. ending. clauses of. 162. of. 231. of of of complex Sentences.

144. 144. 233. 38. literary clause. definition 67. 240. in Middle English. Spelling Spinster. as. to of. 38. of. Somebody Sort. of. Subject. 303. 260. 270. 33. used mood. of. 126. of. Modern use becoming else's. etc. English. 262. 258. 36. names as a. distinguish. of. 245. other Such Such Suffix -s. phonetic in infinitive.Singular Sir. adverb. 257. -en. for. logical. 169. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. English. 245. of. vs. 258. -es. See -En. verbs. adverb. definition how kinds noun. 257.. 323. English. 237. in feminine suffix. of. 12. 138. 303. . disuse in spoken complete. these number. 258. 32. 137. 186. English. 257. 33. 257. Split Spoken -Ster. sort.

116. 289. "the then foreign. form. in comparison. 147. as adverbs. 120. 319. of. of. 277. this. 275. in Modern number sequence table Than That. English. 186. Then. 106. than of. 108. Tenses. in double. 109. king. as history syntax Their. degree. 309. 222. of languages. of. 306. adjectives. 33. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax.Suffixes. There These kind. 280. of. 186. 152. 61. of. of. they. 191. meaning made up in Old of. definition in English Tense.. adverbs. 123. .. See etc. 297. English. classical of. 306. restrictive. when relative. object. 88. me. plural as adverb. that uses That. 119. meaning. omission whom. auxiliaries. of. 147. when as of. Kind. article. of . 189. 147. 275. 87. syntax of. two basis not same definition definite." introductory. 290. and and of. subject. 148. which. 106. objects. coördinating. 107.. of. not suggesting adjectives. as history The. 307.

of. Try Two Under. first. other noun. 322. 175. infinitive. Upon. parse. verbs. Time. 247. 114. 322. of. 114. of. Upper. 176. feminine and. 248. 173. Thou. gerund. 21. 180. thee. uttermost. from cleft to 174. first adjective. analysis. . exclamations. 217. tother. 308. -ing 111. Utter. thy. 175. of. to. 181. 185.. 195. 172. how infinitive. 175. kinds participle. carelessly uses syntax this. 33. conjunctions prepositions To. 323. infinitive. adverbs those. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. in of. 61. used. 188. -Trix. of. of. 20. 119. 207. words. try two. certain as the before with of. See On. etc. 330. 172. uses of. 114. uses history of. preposition. 128. phrases.These. in omitted uses T'other. suffix. See That. of.

Vocative in Voice. 330. in indirect discourse. how to parse. of. 169. conjugation of. voice of. 320. spelling of. 319. 12. but uses what. with subject in number. 151. strong. 223. 133. 155. 129. remarks on certain. intransitive. analysis. 154. 131. change. 148. 47. table of irregular. made transitive. phonetic. formed by. 169. of English.Verbs. definition of. table of. transitive and intransitive. passive. Vixen. 149. 157. tense of. 133. 147. 242. 134. retained object with passive. 148. 135. 317. active meaning. in person. 312. 150. . definition of. past tense formed nominative. 236. 160. 154. 39. 245. passive form. 154. syntax of. sequence of. 312-316. 33. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. What. regular. definition of. of incomplete predication. agreement of. person and number of. auxiliary. verbs by. 167. defective. 179. weak. active. becoming irregular. verbs. of. 167. 159. 130. mood of.

pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. whereto. 77. 299. questions. Yes ending analysis. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. questions. 32. 218. 246. questions. direct of. 85. 104. wizard. would. 75. conjunction. Wife. English. 72. 37. 126. 79. 194. Witch. relative indirect relative. etc. . 111. a. pronoun. relative. Will. Whether. Who. 36. worser. interrogative Which. 85. 105. animals. 83. 75. pronoun. 83. 85. 178. plural of in nouns -ing. 78. Y. 36. in -ly. in. 73. of. spoken in of. 40. uses See Shall. With. Woman. referring syntax Widower. in in indefinite objective. 296. 105. 72.what Whereby. Words in Worse. questions. 190. 72. of. relative.. 295-299. antecedent adjective.

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