roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

" What grammar is. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. but this is bad English now. rightly considered. Coming back. however. An æsthetic benefit. their forms. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. Making rules is risky. Few inflections. This will take in the usual divisions. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Mental training. The work it will cover. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). it will at the same time. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. . as compared with Latin or Greek. Authority as a basis. If. Literary English. assist the classification of kindred expressions. and thus incite his observation. It is also evident. then. to those who have studied the language historically. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. from the question.The province of English grammar is. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. is worthy of serious study." and "Syntax. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. "Analysis. there is still much for the grammarian to do. and their uses and relations in the sentence. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. with its enormous vocabulary. so that a small grammar will hold them all. Surely our noble language. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. its peculiar and abundant idioms. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. if rightly presented. as. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. A broader view.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words.

from the eighteenth century on. but. three divisions:² Part I. Such words are called nouns. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. that is.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Part II. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. as they stand for ideas. Spoken English. NOUNS. . the nation is free. too. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. The following pages will cover. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. PART I.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Analysis of Sentences. not objects. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Occasionally. by which is meant the free. then. and may belong to any of those objects. or Syntax.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. The Uses of Words. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. besides this one. Vulgar English. The Parts of Speech. and will are evidently names of a different kind. or standard. 1. the words sons and master name objects. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. which belongs to a people. In the more simple state of the Arabs. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Part III. The words state. The plainest name is Arabs. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. and Inflections. submission. reference will be made to vulgar English. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.²GIBBON. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English.

substance. animals. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. and things separately. representing directly to the mind an object. or thing. however. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. possessed by all. men in groups may be called a crowd. a committee. and appropriate names to the groups. because each group is considered as a unit. Abstract. but Chicago names one city. We may say. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. whether person. reducing it to a narrow application. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. This does not imply. ATTRIBUTE. place. Individual. MATERIAL. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or a congress. Thus. For instance. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. the man here. Name for any individual of a class. Name for a group or collection of objects. They properly belong under common nouns. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. we may think of them in groups. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. as here used.Definition. or a council. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. 5. or the man in front of you. or idea. Common. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. . A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. 2. belonging to one. or a mob. Thus. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Classes of nouns. (a) 4. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. A noun is a name word. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. animals. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. is from a Latin word which means general. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Collective. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. etc. Proper. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. 3. the name of each is an individual or proper name. (b) Common. or things. Besides considering persons.

clay. It may. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. etc. expressing attributes or qualities. platinum. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. etc. rain. stone. When we speak of a wise man. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. etc. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. 7. earth. soap. considered abstractly. (3) Geological bodies: mud. such as sun. "Painting is a fine art.²There are some nouns. rice. but in the words sun. sand. . . proof means the act of proving. there is no such intention. instead of to each individual or separate object. not things. moon. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. and so on. etc. sugar. etc. we may say. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. or actions. paint. earth. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. but it is taken merely as a name. Such are glass. gold. iron. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. sugar. as in calling a city Cincinnati. Again. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. or that which shows a thing has been proved." 9." "a man of understanding. but which are not called proper names. They remain common class names. conditions. condition. granite. 6. etc. or action. rubber. celluloid. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. we speak of the wisdom of the man. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. The quality is still there as much as before. wheat. cloud.Names for things thought of in mass. dew. Names of ideas. frost. etc." "Learning is hard to acquire. or apart from their natural connection. mist. wheat. and fasten a special name to the object considered. NOTE. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. Words naturally of limited application not proper. expressing state. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). potash. The reason is. tea. rock. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. however. etc. frost. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. wine. snow. world. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects..

etc. Such are beauty. action from act. NOTE. is used as a noun. II. (1) prudence from prudent. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. hope." "a brisk walk. Underived abstract nouns. hopeful²hope. thunder.Attribute abstract nouns. summer. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. the moon caused fearful forebodings. the rude drawings of the book. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. To avoid difficulty. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. five abstract. five proper. 273). ease. The verb. he spread his blessings over the land. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. They are only the husks of verbs. joy. service from serve. redness from red. a wedding or a festival. as glad²joy. 272. those opinions and feelings. kingship from king.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. etc. stupidity from stupid. Thus. Caution. there is time for such reasonings. winter.. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. They cannot govern a word. the teachings of the High Spirit. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. Verbal abstract nouns. height from high. childhood from child. as in the expressions. shadow. but are merely names of actions. (2) peerage from peer. the great Puritan awakening. etc. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. lightning. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. 12. day. etc." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. night. as their name implies. theft from thieve. "a long run" "a bold move. mastery from master. and they cannot express action. in the beginning of his life. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. speech from speak. 1. the main bearings of this matter. the well-being of her subjects. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. Exercises. energy. by altering its function. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. 10. . her longing for their favor.

2. geology. typhus. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. (b) branches of knowledge. Using a dictionary. mathematics? 3. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as pneumonia. catarrh. algebra. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. diphtheria. as physics. pleurisy.

nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Others of similar character are calico.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. port (wine). "The cook made the irons hot. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Proper names transferred to common use. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. but we may say. and lo! a new system. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. the word port. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is.²EMERSON. who was its inventor. a Hutton. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. etc. from Calicut. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. for example. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. in Portugal. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. 13.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. a Fourier. from the name of Dr. 119). the guillotine. 14. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. thus. or to go over to it entirely. a Lavoisier. from China. Material nouns may be used as class names. Sodom was famous for wickedness." referring to flat- . but most of them are in the following groups. arras. damask. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. a Locke. from Corinth. Guillotin. levant and morocco (leather). above. it imposes its classification on other men. from Oporto. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. from a town in France. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. from Damascus. Nouns change by use. currants. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. 15. a Bentham. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. We know a number of objects made of iron. as a davy.

Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. purity. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. smiled.²RUSKIN.²COLLINS. though not confined to verse. are abroad. clays. They are not then pure abstract nouns. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. tobaccos. as stones. and only Vice and Misery. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. that the power of art is founded on fact. abstract in meaning. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. For example. Traffic has lain down to rest. Personification of abstract ideas. or made plural. (3) By poetical use. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. a steel to whet a knife on. candies.²HAYNE. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. are still names of abstract ideas. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. The words preceded by the article a.irons. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. Death.²PERCIVAL. that is.²BRYANT. papers. and so on. clouds. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. Class nouns in use. slates. not material things. Next Anger rushed. 16.²BYRON. nor are they common class nouns. that disposition is the thing to be created. on fire. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. to prowl or to moan like night birds. or. his eyes. but in case an art or a science. be spoken of. coals. When it is said that art differs from science. or used as class nouns. 17. This is a poetic usage. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. paints. oils. a rubber for erasing marks. the abstract idea is partly lost. A halfway class of words.In lightnings owned his secret stings.²CARLYLE. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. Test this in the following sentences:² . tins. etc. etc. but on dispositions which require to be created. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. which are made plural. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. mists. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. These are the same in material. and say teas. but differ in strength. From all around²Earth and her waters. or the arts and sciences. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural.

fear thy blow.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. make our own so. Every why hath a wherefore. 18. however. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. a bank in New York. a bill as to tax on the banks. All these. But it is better to consider them as nouns.²SHAKESPEARE. or from any expression. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE." "a New York bank." "the State Bank Tax bill. etc. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. meaning a walk in the morning. Adjectives. NOTE. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. or describe it. Adverbs. When I was young? Ah. loves. if we must have great actions. But ah! those pleasures.²IRVING. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. 19. "a family quarrel. Then comes the "Why. sir?" and the "No. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. they do not express quality.² GOLDSMITH.²SHAKESPEARE. sir!" and the "What then. Nouns used as descriptive terms. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns." "a morning walk." which contains a pure adjective. They are more like the possessive noun.²EMERSON.² BURNS. for example. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. And still. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. but is still a noun. they cannot be compared. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. which belongs to another word.²BURNS. nouns used to modify. were mere terrors of the night.The Solitary can despise. Conjunctions. By ellipses. sir!"²MACAULAY . and to the consequent flexibility of English speech.Let us. as descriptive adjectives are. the wealthy. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. as each repeated pleasure tired.

1. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. are used. of course." or "legal. or a state secret.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. at the beginning. too. the wealthy. is ambiguous. In the other sentences. When. in speaking of the principal of a school. 4."²B. . but have an adjectival meaning. Exercise. or a faithful domestic. why and wherefore. There are many of these. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. FRANKLIN. the terms the great. Hope springs eternal in the human breast." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. and tell to which class each belongs. without reference to its function in the sentence. Now. etc.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Stone walls do not a prison make. It is to be remembered. or a criminal. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. but as a figure of speech. Power laid his rod aside. in a sentence above. Caution.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. whether it mean the sun or the cold. is the word "just. 20. 8. NOTE. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. 5. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Learning. are spoken of as if pure nouns. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. 7. so. that cobweb of the brain. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. and Then. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force." and another of Dr. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. When.Nor iron bars a cage.. 3. of words rather than of their meaning.²These remarks do not apply. to such words as become pure nouns by use. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. however. The it. 2. 6.

Male beings are. and names of females are usually feminine. but not so in English. One To-day is worth two To-morrows.Fair guests. 10. 15. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. 12. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. German. always feminine. its bloom is shed. A little weeping would ease my heart. 14.9. 21. he cried. 19. 21. shattered and disabled. 24. GENDER. Greek. The fleet. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 23. . Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. in English grammar. 11. the silver moon is gone. A fool speaks all his mind. always masculine. 17. female. 18.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. In Latin.You seize the flower. returned to Spain. 13. 20. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. There are exceptions even to this general statement. the welcome. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. The hours glide by.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. for every dropHinders needle and thread. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. and many other languages. It is founded on sex. And see. 22. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. that waits you here. 16. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. What gender means in English.

however. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. if of the female sex. or names of things without life.. or additions to words. the sex being of no consequence. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. if there were any signs of life in it. For instance: in Latin. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. All nouns. Of animals. mensa (table) is feminine. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.When. the name of it is feminine. then.² I have seenA curious child .. in German. the name of it is masculine. in English. Thus.²IRVING. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Gunpowder . the word child is neuter in the sentence.² IRVING. "A little child shall lead them. 24. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Neuter nouns. in other languages gender follows the form. das Messer (knife) is neuter.. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. Gender nouns. inanimate things are spoken of. according to their use. must be divided into two principal classes. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Some words either gender or neuter nouns.." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. came to a stand just by the bridge. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. The great difference is. and consequently without sex. those distinguishing the sex of the object. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. corpus (body) is neuter.. . that is.. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. are named by gender nouns." . He next stooped down to feel the pig. according to use.²masculine and feminine.²LAMB. with its gizzard under its wing. or which arouse his interest most. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. 23. 22. Hence: Definition. those which do not distinguish sex. but are spoken of as neuter. that pattern of a husband. No "common gender. those with which man comes in contact often. clapping his burnished wings. hortus (garden) is masculine. and neuter nouns.²gender nouns.

woman. for from they said vram. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. . The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. but spinster has now no connection with it. (2) By adding a suffix. though both words have lost their original meanings. domestic. he-bear²she-bear. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. of course. Gender shown by Suffixes. from the masculine fox. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. 29. The inflections for gender belong.25. 27. Hence vixen is for fyxen. the division of words according to sex. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Put in convenient form. One feminine. (3) By using a different word for each gender. teacher. Gender shown by Prefixes. servant. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. generally to a masculine word. and for the older word fat they said vat. relative.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. is. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. ruler. Very few of class I. According to the definition.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. etc. as he-goat²she-goat. Native suffixes. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. For fox they said vox. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. as in wine vat. Male nouns beings.. 28. These remain in vixen and spinster. If such words as parent. they are neuter words. or the lack of it. I. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. II. puts a prefix before the masculine man. cousin. 26.

Slightly changed and widely used. señorita. Low Latin issa). executrix. the one most used.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. 30. Ending of masculine not changed. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. it has none now in the words huckster. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). punster. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as seam-stress. song-str-ess. and are never used for words recognized as English. as. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as czarina. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . trickster. but in most cases it has not. donna. Unaltered and little used. as. These are attached to foreign words. -ess (French esse. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. gamester. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word.

We frequently use such words as author. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Gender shown by Different Words. as in the fourteenth century. as was said in the sixteenth century. or servauntesse. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as. chairman. from the French -esse. teacher or lady teacher. Instead of saying doctress. editor. neighbor (masculine and feminine). wagoness. others have in their origin the same root. etc. fosteress. neighboresse. frendesse. we use the feminine. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. as. teacheresse.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. we use the masculine termination. Some of them have an interesting history. the ending -ess. to represent persons of either sex." III. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. NOTE. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. 32.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). In some of these pairs. Thus. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. from Latin imperatricem. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. 31.

Danish gaas. leaving our word drake. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. widuwa²widuwe. Two masculines from feminines. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Widower. lhauerd. It is not connected historically with our word duck. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). King and queen are said by some (Skeat. 16). Icelandic gás. or lauerd in Middle English. 33. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). etc. written loverd. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. 34. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. gand-ra.). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Three letters of ened have fallen away. in Old English mere. the old sign of the masculine. The masculine was formed by adding -a. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). not immediately connected with witch. as in many other words.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. but this has long been obsolete. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. became identical. The older forms. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. for example. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). though both are ultimately from the same root. had the masculine mearh (horse). from Latin mea domina. Mare. probably meaning house dweller). and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning).² . Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Besides gander and drake. Personification. finally gander. Witch is the Old English wicce. among others) to be from the same root word. Madam is the French ma dame.

But other words were inflected afterwards. . etc. The -en inflection. the plural. whenever we adopt a new word. (3) By adding -s (or -es). This inflection remains only in the word oxen. together with the third. and not by the form of the noun. for instance. Effect of personification. treen (trees). In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. the engineer speaks so of his engine. This is not exclusively a poetic use. 35. more than one. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en.²CAMPBELL. Our language has two numbers. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. 37. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way.²singular and plural. 38.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. NUMBER. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. (2) By changing the root vowel. The first two methods prevailed. shoon (shoes). I."Now. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. 36.No towers along the steep. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of.Her home is on the deep. In nouns. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. 39. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch.²KEATS.²COLERIDGE. in Old English."²BYRON. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. Britannia needs no bulwarks. Definition. that is. eyen (eyes).

as. The words horse and foot. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. cannon.² "God bless me! so then. quartz. The old plural was brothru. after all.²MACAULAY. Akin to this class are some words. turf. Instead of -s. brace. people. ditch. 40."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. originally neuter. dozen. cross. sail. such as deer. finally brethren. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. salmon. glass. but has now no singular. then brothre or brethre. II. Lee marched over the mountain wall.² The foot are fourscore thousand. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. lens.The horse are thousands ten. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. sheep. etc. but they now add the ending -s. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. that have the singular and plural alike. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. or if preceded by the prepositions in. by. 42. heathen. Examples of this inflection are. . Children has passed through the same history. Kine is another double plural.²THOREAU. pair. and is still found in dialects. head.²Over the mountains winding down.²WHITTIER. folk. and get settled. retain the same form for plural meaning. wight. into Frederick town.Horse and foot. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. Other words following the same usage are. borough²formerly had the same inflection. 41. they add -s): also trout. etc. III. Brethren has passed through three stages.-En inflection imitated by other words. etc. when they mean soldiery. swine. after numerals (if not after numerals. as. Such are box.

means: as. these words ended in -ie. pains (care). 44. e. Formerly. Proper nouns are regularly singular. economics. etc. DANA. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. Special Lists. etc.. e. politics. a new syllable is made.² Politics.²CENTURY DICTIONARY.-Es added in certain cases. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. molasses. Means plural. So live. that when thy summons comes. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. 45. Some words are usually singular. fairies. allies. though this sound combines readily with -s. 43. prize²prizes. The lilie on hir stalke grene. means and politics. Examples of these are. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. fancies. and many branches of learning. It served simply as a means of sight. as. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. however.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. 15 and 17). negro²negroes. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . and the real ending is therefore -s. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. shelf²shelves.. and some -es. summons. etc. knife²knives. half²halves. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. chaise²chaises. physics. mathematics. the Washingtons. the Americas. optics. some adding -s. When such words take a plural ending. hero²heroes. Two words.g. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. is both the science and the art of government. niche²niches. etc. they lose their identity.²BRYANT.g. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). house²houses. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. also news. and go over to other classes (Secs. in its widest extent. Words in -ies.²PROF. race²races. quoth then that ladie milde. daisies. though they are plural in form. volcano² volcanoes. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves.

The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. A relic which. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²J. With great dexterity these means were now applied. by strongly conveying the passions.²GOLDSMITH.² MACAULAY. L.²G.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps. by those means which we have already mentioned. if I recollect right. Sometimes. Politics plural. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.Words. . By these means. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. LAUGHLIN. CURTIS. Now I read all the politics that come out.²BURKE. 46. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²IRVING. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. I say. Some words have no corresponding singular.²GOLDSMITH. W. riches will accumulate. however. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Besides this.²MOTLEY.

as two sixpences. or work in a bellows?²PROF.²was it subdued when. in mournful numbers.² I lisped in numbers. (2) revenue duties. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. shots (number of times fired). genii (spirits).. DANA. These make the last part plural. In speaking of coins. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). eaves. fish²fish (collectively). (2) abilities. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47.. faculties. as in the lines. Numbers also means issues. of a periodical. genius²geniuses (men of genius). pea²peas (separately). the other unlike it. Two classes of compound words. number²numbers: (1) figures. pence (collectively).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. making a double plural. pease (collectively). penny²pennies (separately). (2) poetry. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. for the numbers came. etc. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering.²POPE. One plural. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.²LONGFELLOW.The air. ways. Tell me not.. 50. trouble. carry off chaff. 49. . (2) care. In Early Modern English thank is found. indices (signs in algebra). part²parts: (1) divisions. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. or copies. Three words were originally singular. die²dies (stamps for coins. or epistles. index²indexes (to books). twopence. etc. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.²one corresponding to the singular. two meanings. brethren (of a society or church). (2) literature. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. sixpence. fishes (individuals or kinds). shot²shot (collective balls). two plurals. 48. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). dice (for gaming). clothes (garments). riches. may add -s.

firman. HOLMES. As to plurals of names with titles.² Then came Mr. as man singer.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Brahman. Norman. the Drs. Two methods in use for names with titles. there is some disagreement among English writers. then Silas Peckham. such as talisman. 52. Allen. 51. and then the three Miss Spinneys.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. German. woman singer. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. . The chief member adds -s in the plural. Brown. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. and Mrs.²DR. manservant. the Misses Rich. Mussulman. but add -s. as the Messrs. or the name may be pluralized. Briggs. though the latter is often found. woman servant. for example. The title may be plural. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. Ottoman.

²GOLDSMITH. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. or Englished.²DICKENS. Exercise. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. FROM THE LATIN. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. They are then said to be naturalized.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. and retain their foreign plurals. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Others have been adopted. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Du Maurier. or Anglicized. Domesticated words. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. FROM THE GREEK. The Messrs. These are said to be domesticated. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²THE CRITIC. 53. y y analysis antithesis . The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²GIBBON. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.

Letters.. In the sentence. without reference to their meaning. etc. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. 54. figures. as. etc." CASE. and expresses a relation akin to possession. .y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. Words quoted merely as words. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. also add -s or 's. Only two case forms. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. cell has another relation. Definition. In the general wearing-away of inflections. 55. 56." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s)." the word felon's modifies cell. helping to express the idea of place with the word in.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. they form their plurals in the regular way. as. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). figures." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands).

completing a verb. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 5. 57." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. 4. whether inflected or not. and the possessive. . But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 3." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. the objective. Excuses are clothes which. I.²nature. and tell which use of the nominative each one has." (2) As a predicate noun. the enemy of the living. Nouns. may be said to have three cases.²the nominative. they returned to their homes.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. learning. when asked unawares. 2. excessive grief.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. then. Three properties belong to wisdom.²one for the nominative and objective. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Human experience is the great test of truth. and experience. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. three things characterize man. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. fate. Uses of the Nominative. 58. and merit. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree.²person. 1. must be understood for purposes of analysis.

taking the object enemies. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. Conscience. . naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. But the flood came howling one day. and makest a calm.6. and being equivalent to one verb. and tell which use each has:² 1. 59." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 3. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Uses of the Objective. 8. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. the word toward which the preposition points." (4) As the second object. as will be seen in Sec. 68. They charged. how have I frighted thee? II. reconciles. they are sands of precious gold. completing the verb. But of all plagues. (5) As the object of a preposition. distance. wounded lies. taking the object storm. good Heaven. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. her first law broken. 2." (3) Adverbially. (in the older stages of the language. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. 4. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. a patriarch of the village. 9." Exercise. etc. Set a high price on your leisure moments. and meaning calmest. thy wrath can send.Save. save. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. measure. oh save me from the candid friend! 7." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. and landlord of the inn. sword in hand and visor down." "Thou makest the storm a calm.

an elegy to commemorate yesterday. as. tempests that .² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.And gave the leper to eat and drink.e. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.² The unwearied sun. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. from day to day. 7. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. or in writing yesterday's elegy. 8. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. as in these expressions. the Great Stone Face. the most common of all.²SHELLEY. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.²HAWTHORNE. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. The noblest mind the best contentment has. 10.²ADDISON. 6. and forfeits paid. expressed or understood. It is a poetic expression. Possession in some sense is the most common. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.5. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. (2) Objective possessive. 9. Uses of the Possessive. The possessive case always modifies another word.Does his Creator's power display.. 61. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. (3) Subjective possessive. And whirling plate. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 60.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. III.²BYRON. as shown in the sentences. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.His winter task a pastime made.

PLURAL. as schoolboys sometimes write. Case Inflection. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). Nom.. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. in Chaucer. Declension or inflection of nouns.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. The use of the apostrophe. there are only two case forms. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. One is the simple form of a word." "at his beddes syde.winter is likely to have). 64. A false theory. and Obj." "mannes herte [heart]. lady Poss." Use of the apostrophe. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. 63. 1.. A suggestion. expressing the relations of nominative and objective." etc. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Nom. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. 62. and Obj. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. How the possessive is formed. making the possessive singular. Poss. As said before (Sec. however. To form the possessive plural.e. child NOTE. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. . 56). "His beard was of several days' growth" (i.e. "From every schires ende. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. 62. the panther which the forest hides). "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. "George Jones his book. growth which several days had developed).

as by the countess's command." Possessive with compound expressions.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.²RUSKIN. my neighbors. tailor's bill²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. 67."²DE QUINCEY. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase.Though this opinion was untrue. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St." "A postscript is added. Possessive and no noun limited. and from a desire to have distinct forms. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. for goodness' sake. Cervantes' satirical work. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.² LOWELL." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. as. 66. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. instead of the emperor their master's name. James's. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience.²HOLMES.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Captain Scrapegrace's. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. 65. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. . church. I remember him in his cradle at St.²THACKERAY. Kate saw that. In compound expressions. dwelling. being understood with it: for example.. the possessive sign is usually last. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. stands up for God's truth one man. and she walked off from the don's. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.. a word with a phrase. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. know the amount of my income. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. as. store. the items of my son's. in the name of the emperor their master. Peter's. etc. but to the ear all may be alike. some such word as house. containing words in apposition. etc. though instances are found with both appositional words marked.

and tell whether each is appositional.²CARLYLE.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. Both of these are now used side by side. the statement clearly means only one thing. etc. or subjective. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. we use the phrase of Atterbury. E. every. that. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. sometimes they are used together. (1) When a word is modified by a. and at the same time by a possessive noun.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. any. A peculiar form. HALE. For example. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Blair). If. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. In most cases. this. (b) Rewrite the sentence. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. making a double possessive. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. Clearness. each. (See also Sec. 87. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. Exercises. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. as one modifier. a double possessive. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. Emphasis. ill-lighted except where she stands.²E. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . 1. in such a sentence as.. however. the. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English.²FROUDE. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. corresponding to 's. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. objective. 2. 68. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. (3) It prevents ambiguity. the sentence might be understood as just explained. especially when used with this or that.The double possessive. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. no.

Now the bright morning star. Friend. 13. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. and destroy the other. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. There Shakespeare's self. let him seasonably water the one. 14. 69. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. I must not see thee Osman's bride. in parsing a noun. 12.3. In parsing. 9. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. we state. some idioms²the double possessive.A weary waste expanding to the skies. Nature herself. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. it seemed. with every garland crowned. 15. 70. 5. 11. day's harbinger. 6. Jove laughs. Hence. 4. therefore. 8.Comes dancing from the East. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.They say. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 10. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. At lovers' perjuries. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.² . A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 7.

2. it has no sex. like miller's. Thief is a common class noun. therefore neuter. and therefore nominative case. Throat is neuter. it is the name of a male being. NOTE. 4. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. gender. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth.²common. determining its case. hence objective case. hence it is a gender noun. the connection shows a male is meant. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. it denotes only one person. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. it is the object of the preposition by. therefore singular number. has no governing word. which gender. subject of the verb is understood. That in the captain's but a choleric word. but is the adverbial objective. therefore possessive case. . and limits neckcloth. masculine. object of the verb takes. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. it expresses time. Exercise. and relations. 3. hence it is objective case. MODEL FOR PARSING. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. a withered serving man. 71. therefore singular number. inflections. 68). The correct method. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. and number. (4) Its office in the sentence. (3) Whether singular or plural number. as to case. singular number. hence it is a common noun. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. therefore masculine gender.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. if the latter. In parsing any word. names one thing. etc. is a common class noun. it expresses possession or ownership.(1) The class to which it belongs.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. proper. Neckcloth. a fresh tapster. and to have it found out by accident.

if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Jarley's back being towards him. For instance. Necker. 7. castle. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Mrs. or for a group of persons or things. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Time makes the worst enemies friends. 76). the military gentleman shook his forefinger. and his daughter. Definition." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. . from a necessity for short. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. which distinguish person by their form (Sec.. and representative words.²palace. but by a question we say. 73." Again. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. He giveth his beloved sleep. all in one. 9. or for a person or thing. A pronoun is a reference word. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. 11. sleep! 6. Now. Classes of pronouns. PRONOUNS.And hated her for her pride. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns.. where the Rhone enters the lake..5. 72. instead of saying. Madame de Staël. 10. The need of pronouns. 8. financial minister to Louis XVI. blessings light on him that first invented . definite. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. were natives of Geneva. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. (2) Interrogative pronouns. standing for a name. A few miles from this point. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. and prison.

which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. (4) Adjective pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. the person or thing spoken to. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. (2) Second person. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ours . whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. they are said to have person by agreement. as nouns have the same form. they must represent the person talking. and the person or thing talked about. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. even if it had a special form. Person in grammar. Singular. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. This gives rise to a new term. 74. (3) Third person.. From analogy to pronouns. I Poss. Three persons of pronouns. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. standing for a person or thing spoken of. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. 75. 76. or other word or expression. which relate or refer to a noun. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. my Plural. primarily adjectives. representing the person speaking. which have forms for person. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Nom. that is. (5) Indefinite pronouns. we our. mine. representing a person or thing spoken to. 77. "the distinction of person. words." Person of nouns.(3) Relative pronouns. which cannot be used as adjectives. pronoun.

yours you Plural. Nom. Nom. Obj. your. theirs them Neut. you your. Obj. or. a separate form for each gender. she her. 78. SECOND PERSON. Nom. Third person singular has gender. thou thee ye you you your. and also for the neuter. yours you THIRD PERSON. Masc. First and second persons without gender. of all Three. by personification.. Obj. The speaker may be either male or female. yours Poss. thine. Nom. namely.Obj. masculine h . feminine h o. Poss. they their. he his him Fem. Singular. . Old forms. in the singular. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Obj. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Old Form Common Form. neuter hit. But the third person has. so also with the person or thing spoken to. it its it Poss. neuter. me us Singular. hers her Plur. thy Remarks on These Forms. Poss.

are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech.. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 80. it. 81. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. In spoken English. two modern uses of thou. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). heora. etc.²SHELLEY. thou Shepherd of Israel. . even when referring to a single object. heom. them. as in prayers. The form its. however.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. The plurals were h . We use it with a plural verb always.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. as. etc. the forms they. as possessive of it. just as we now say. 82. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. Second person always plural in ordinary English. and sometimes its. This is of comparatively recent growth. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. for example. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.² Oh. their. in Old English. especially in poetry. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.Thou lovest. 79. which was often sounded with the h silent.. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. which is a neuter noun. (2) In addressing the Deity.:² (1) In elevated style. to thy care we commit the helpless. etc. Thou.²BEECHER. thee." As shown above.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. The consequence is. Two uses of the old singulars. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. that didst comfort thy people of old. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. There are. thy.

or. for. I spare thee mine. 'tis his. they have a nominative form. we. 58). and sometimes in ordinary speech. their. some say. 86. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. I The Nominative.²COWPER. us. Yet careful speakers avoid this. our. Additional nominatives in spoken English. ²SHAKESPEARE. . her. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. when they occur in the predicate position. The Possessive. us. besides a nominative use. note the following:² 'Twas mine. his. hers. have a peculiar use. 84. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. they. II. Thine are the city and the people of Granada.Use of the pronouns in personification. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. however. 34). Nominative forms. 84 are always subjects. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. she. yours. And since thou own'st that praise. me. theirs. them. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. The forms my.²LANDOR. though those named in Sec. him. 83. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. In spoken English. to personify objects (Sec. them. 85. he. Old use of mine and thine. Not a separate class. its." the literary language would require he after was. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. ye. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. her. and has been slave to thousands.²BULWER. Absolute personal pronouns. thou. though ye is occasionally used as objective. The words I. her. The forms mine. your. and follow the usage of literary English. "I am sure it was him. thine. in such a sentence as. him. sometimes his and its. and not make more classes. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. thy. That is.

yours. ours. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. (3) To express contempt. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. as in nouns. we find. anger.²ID.²J. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. or satire. but few thy voice. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too." said Henry Woodstall.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. thine. FIELDS. hers. theirs.²CARLYLE. Their uses. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.²THACKERAY. "Hold thy peace. The forms hers. If thine eye offend thee. Double and triple possessives. we have. sometimes its. Like the noun possessives.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. his. and with mine. Give every man thine ear. commenting upon a letter of mine.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. pluck it out. Long Allen. it tells of good old times. thus.²ID.²SWIFT.²BIBLE. ²HOLMES. yours. This usage is still preserved in poetry."²SCOTT. (2) To bring emphasis. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. theirs. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. F. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.² CARLYLE.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. COOPER. T. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²THACKERAY.²J. This ancient silver bowl of mine. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. thus. are really double possessives. 87. ours. Besides this. for example. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. . it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. (4) To make a noun less limited in application.

89. Besides this use of the objective. In pronouns. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. III. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.²BIBLE.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. . as shown in Sec. but not in form. or use in a sentence. mine stands for my praise in the second.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. in the first sentence. They all handled it. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. for whose benefit. In such sentences as. But the first two have a nominative use. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. but nominative or objective in use. Now the objective. 20. Curse me this people. The old dative case." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. his for his property. 88. but expresses for whom. Both joined in making him a present. was marked by a separate case. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. 86: mine stands for my property. and mine in the second has an objective use. this dative use. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. the thing is done.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. as it is called. The Objective. In their function. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. but the form is the same as the objective. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. 90." "None but the brave deserves the fair. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar.²ID.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. "The good alone are great. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec.

92. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.Time is behind them and before them. to stand for the real. It is a pity that he has so much learning. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²ADDISON." (3) As a grammatical subject. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.² . him that so often and so gladly I talked with. has not made its progress. which follows the verb. as.²BACON. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²EMERSON.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. was passed by with indulgence. thus. as.²DE QUINCEY. ²EMERSON.²BULWER. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. in this century. Your mere puny stripling. and they cry. Indefinite use of you and your.²CARLYLE. why. logical subject. Society. (3) In apposition.² NEWMAN. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. 91. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²IRVING To empty here. or that he has not a great deal more. like Chinese skill.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. The word you. you must condense there. you sneeze.²D. WEBSTER. as in the sentences. or to the idea.

yourselves. themselves. And when I awoke. they dropped their arms. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. 94.. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. we use such expressions as. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. Poor Christian was hard put to it. who in turn tries all the professions.²DE QUINCEY." "He bought him a horse. when they are direct objects. and its plural selves. himself. . 93. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. but seldom in prose." etc. however. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. "I found me a good book.. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia.²BURNS." and there is an end of it. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²HAWTHORNE. (thyself). For example. yourself.²SCOTT. And millions in those solitudes. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. as they are also called.² Now I lay me down to sleep. This occurs in poetry. it rained. I set me down and sigh. For when it dawned. since firstThe flight of years began. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. (ourself). as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. have laid them downIn their last sleep. used in poetry. -selves. A sturdy lad .²EMERSON. Of the two forms in parentheses.²BRYANT.It is finger-cold. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. There was nothing for it but to return. the second is the old form of the second person.²BUNYAN. who teams it.²IRVING. itself. that is.²HOLMES. ourselves.²ID. farms it.²THOREAU. peddles it. keeps a school. as.²ANON.²COLERIDGE. I made up my mind to foot it. herself. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. They are myself. It was late and after midnight."²IRVING. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.

as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. not the possessive forms. Threats to all. thyself. for example. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. to us.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.² The great globe itself .? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. as. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. theself. In Middle English the forms meself. with self. etc. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. as in vulgar English.²WORDSWORTH. especially in the speech of rulers.²MILTON..² Only itself can inspire whom it will. shall dissolve. The question might arise. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.²SHAKESPEARE. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.²EMERSON.² TENNYSON. ourselves.²ID. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.² . We fill ourselves with ancient learning.²E. Origin of these reflexives. and build the lofty rhyme. were changed into the possessive myself.To you yourself. as we ourself have been. B. NOTE.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. after the analogy of myself. for example. 96. to every one. 95. As if it were thyself that's here. and the others were formed by analogy with these. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. as.As girls were once. I shrink with pain. Held dead within them till myself shall die. BROWNING. Use of the reflexives. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.

Years ago. and what. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. let him lowly confess it.On the light fantastic toe. And it grew wondrous cold. FRANKLIN. Come and trip it as we go. but it is the soonest spoiled. 8. 2. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. 3. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. where the word is one with that it tells of. and neuter. 7. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 4. fight it out. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR.²B. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Infancy conforms to nobody. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. . (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. feminine. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. father. which. is wisdom. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 5. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). some of them being double possessives. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. 97. Three now in use. Courage.² THACKERAY. some each of masculine. 9. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. all conform to it. and how to do it.²DE QUINCEY. To know what is best to do. One obsolete. 6. 10.

Use of what. actions. the gold.. 98. methought. not to persons. that is. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. having three forms. referring to things.There is an old word. but now obsolete. that it is always singular and neuter. number. What wouldst thou do. These show that what is not inflected for case. Whose was that gentle voice. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Use of which. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. 100. it refers to either persons or things. it is selective. shall we say. The use of who. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. but for case alone. that. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. . Which of you. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. as it always asks about somebody. whether. which is not inflected for gender. whispering sweet. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. ideas. etc. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. Use of who and its forms. used formerly to mean which of two. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. with its possessive and objective. 99. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. or case. As shown here. it is always third person.Promised.

which and what. SING. It usually precedes the pronoun. who evidently refers to Bards. which and what are sometimes adjectives. AND PLUR. as. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. 105. AND PLUR. and also in having a conjunctive use. which is called the antecedent of the relative. They will be spoken of again in the proper places." Or.²by the use of the words.101. and what are also relative pronouns. For instance. 104. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun.² "The last of all the Bards was he." In the latter sentence. for which the pronoun stands. These bards sang of Border chivalry. "The last of all the Bards was he. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. and so to make smoother discourse. which is nominative in the first sentence. 103. since it is subject of the verb had. SINGULAR Nom.Who sung of Border chivalry. which. objective in the last. Who. nominative in the second also. 102. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. or other word or expression. it may be shortened into. Function of the relative pronoun. who is used as objective instead of whom. whose? Obj. subject of doth love. The antecedent. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. 127). The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. in Sec. as. being the direct object of the verb shall take. pronoun. what may be an adverb in some expressions.² . who? Poss. 99. Thus we may say. Further treatment of who.

and the indefinite use of simple relatives. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. are the men and women who bless their species. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. with all its capabilities . They had not their own luster. 3. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.. Indefinite relatives.Whom universal nature did lament. 106. 5. which..The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²W.²SCOTT.²BYRON. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. a simple relative is meant. D. The origin of language is divine. 4. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.²THACKERAY. 108.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. what.. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. but the look which is not of the earth.²PARTON Which and its forms. the women whom women approve. a thousand years. When the word relative is used.²LOWELL In this. Generally speaking. in the same sense in which man's nature.Whose flag has braved. 6.²MILTON. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.That guard our native seas. will be discussed further on. 4. For her enchanting son. 2.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. Who and its forms. Ye mariners of England. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.² COX. WHITNEY. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. both his and who have the antecedent priest. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. is a divine creation. 107. The nurse came to us. 2. 3. The men whom men respect. Two kinds. that. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. .²DR JOHNSON.

and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. 110. else this description will seem exaggerated. bought up all the pigs that could be had..²H. 4. 107. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. The Tree Igdrasil.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 3. 111.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.²IRVING. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²GOLDSMITH. The judge .5. which it certainly is not. you will not be angry with me for telling you. Examples of the relative that:² 1.²DE QUINCEY. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. 2.. stratagems. Reader. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Who.. For what he sought below is passed above. That. and spoils. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.Is fit for treasons.²BURKE. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. 6. 109.²EMERSON. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. (a) This gradation .²MARGARET FULLER. BEECHER 5. W.²LAMB 3.. no bad type of what often happens in that country. What. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. The man that hath no music in himself. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.. ought to be kept in view.² SHAKESPEARE 2. Already done is all that he would do.

²THACKERAY. and 6. not persons. JOHNSON.. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals..(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²LEIGH HUNT. 112. whose for the possessive. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. Cooper. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. whose. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. It has been seen (Sec. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.whose. and so on. possessive case of which.. a man. who is first person. The robins. seemed as much excited as myself. the relatives are singular. in the third. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. whose wound I had dressed. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. that man. . The little gorilla.. 5. the others are all third person. in the second. Witness the following examples:² And you. or ideas. whom. In 1. in 4. Kingsley. in 5.²LOWELL. they are plural. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. 2.²which for the nominative and objective. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. things. whose is second person. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. My horse. and others. Sec. who.who.²SWIFT. (3) It is nearly always third person.²IRVING. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. The sentences in Sec. (2) It has three case forms. (4) It has two case forms. referring to animals.²who. 107. Gibbon. in the first sentence. In sentence 4.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. Examples of whose.²DR. 96).. Who referring to animals. whom. Which. 113. son. and 3. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. Smollett.. flung its arms around my neck. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Scott. p.

and third persons. animals. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Which and its antecedents. thus. no possessive. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Primarily. (2) It has only one case form. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. second.² And. So in Matthew Arnold. 109. (3) It is the same form for first. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. and numerous others.²RUSKIN. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. In the sentences of Sec. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example.²SCOTT. Men may be ready to fight to the death. Kingsley. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. This often occurs. and to persecute without pity. 115. which is very notable and curious. the antecedent follows which. Burke.²first. This moribund '61. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Sometimes.²SHAKESPEARE. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. and things. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. secondly (which made her stare). on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. which is worse. 116."²RUSKIN. let us enter the church itself.²THACKERAY. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. The last two sentences in Sec.² MCMASTER.²BEECHER.²DE QUINCEY.² I swept the horizon. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.114. too. That. .

plural number. . and is emphatic. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. Who plainly stands for those or the people. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. number. it usually follows. 118.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. 119. that men must needs abide. as in sentence 6. what we said?²CARLYLE." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. When expressed. consequently is neuter." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. plural number. which.²BIBLE What fates impose. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. that do I not. third person. The gender.² What I would. The sentences of Sec. Sec. What a man does. 117. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. Nom. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²SHAKESPEARE. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true.²EMERSON. whose Obj. who Poss." (3) "These people heard him. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. but what I hate. we can. is always neuter. third person. For example. and person of the relatives who. What." That evidently refers to truths. by taking them out. for example. that he has. 109. that do I. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. as. either of which would be neuter.

What must be endured? Answer. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. neuter. Another way. The relative what is handled differently. so is in the objective case. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. which is. but of this. Now. The whole expression is its subject. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. standing for the people understood. above. we is the subject. that takes the case of the truths in (2). third person. then parse the relatives. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. the highest result of all education. The word what. the simple relative. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 6. after all. First find the antecedents. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. etc. . 8. What can't be cured. In the same way who. because it has usually no antecedent." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something."²EMERSON. nobler souls with that which they are. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. 7. is in the nominative case. Exercise. 120. 3. 4. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Some prefer another method of treatment.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Truths in sentence (2). however. In the sentence. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. it is object of uttered. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. is what we call nature. 5. but is singular. I think they are trying to outwit nature. Parsing what. in (1). and hence is in the nominative case.. is subject of the verb can't be cured. it is subject of the verb heard. people is the object of the preposition of." Here the subject of is. "What can't be cured must be endured. in the following sentences:² 1. and what is the direct object of the verb call. As shown by the following sentences. subject of heard. in (3). Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. In (2).

Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. 123. They are whoever. Hence some take what as a double relative.²you cannot have both. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. 2. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whatsoever. whatsoever. and in 2. or what else soever. which. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Only itself can inspire whom it will. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. . 121. It is clear that in 1." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. being referred to. Do what we can. whatever is equivalent to all things which. by meaning and use. Death is there associated. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror.²BURKE. 122. The simple relatives who. object of do] they do. and which in the second clause. whichsoever. whichever. and his friend a fool. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. whosoever. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose.²BURKE. 7. 6. "common souls pay with that [singular. less common are whoso. or stand on their head. So with the other indefinites. Take which you please. that is. List and examples. object of with] which [singular. 5. not as direct as the simple relatives. It is no proof of a man's understanding. 3. 2. no particular thing. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. summer will have its flies.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. Meaning and use. that nothing else can stand in their presence. whatever. in a new and original way.²MACAULAY. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. no certain antecedent. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. 4. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. to everything that. and parse that in the first clause.

either one that. but mean any one whom. 126. etc. Former use of as. Proof that they have the force of relatives.. whereupon.² 1.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. 125. for example. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. everything that (or everything which).²EMERSON. This. Instead of the phrases in which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. nothing that does not interest us. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. are used. as was used just as we use that or which. but and as. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence.² some particular thing. 2. and that as after such is equivalent to which.As shown in Sec. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. In early modern English. whereby. . 121. for example. what means anything that. thus. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. upon which. But and as. 4. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. but which only wealth could have purchased.²DE QUINCEY. Sec. 121. etc. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. by which. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. etc. 124. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. 120. the conjunctions wherein. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.²HAWTHORNE. There is nothing but is related to us. Two words. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.. has been my heaviest affliction. not following the word such. 417). Other substitutes.

In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. 1 (b). which would indicate that they are not relatives." Likewise with which in 3 (b). no antecedent is expressed. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun.²WHITTIER. In sentences 1 (a). But compare the following in pairs:² 1. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. Another caution. "Who stood behind? We knew. who having the antecedent gentleman. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. it is an indefinite relative). it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). "But what had become of them? They knew not. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. a question is disguised in each sentence. 127. it is a simple relative. if expanded. would be. How to decide. 3. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. and 3 (b). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. Special caution needed here. In studying such sentences. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by.²EMERSON.. it is an interrogative. which having the antecedent lines. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. if not. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. But in 1 (b). second. 2. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power.²ID. the full expression being. and whether what = that + which (if so. showing that who is plainly interrogative. though the earthwork hid them. if not. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. 2 (b)." etc. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. So in 2 (b). . what is interrogative.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. Thus. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen.

He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. I visited many other apartments. and Court Calendars. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3.²HOLMES. In the first.²FORSTER 6. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. whence is the interrogative word. . They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 5. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²SWIFT.128.²GOLDSMITH. In the third. In the second. When Goldsmith died. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. On the other hand.² These are the sounds we feed upon. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. which. and asks no question. Put in the relatives who. which has the antecedent hue. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. 2. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. 4.² THACKERAY. The insect I am now describing lived three years. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.²CARLYLE. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. whose has the antecedent you. Relative omitted when object. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists.²FLETCHER. Examine the following:² 1. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. the question is asked by the verb. Thus. ELIOT. 3.²G. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. 129. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. but the life of man in England. Exercise.

The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.²Id. that. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 5. which. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. There was such a crowd went. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²SCOTT. 3.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. Function of adjective pronouns. Also in literary English we find the same omission.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. and what.7. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.²CAMPBELL.Ne'er looks upon the sun. the house was full. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Relative omitted when subject. It is rare in prose. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. . 130. Examples are. The nobles looked at each other. 6. who were to be rulers over whom. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. and comparatively so in poetry.² LOWELL. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. which was already proceeding. simple relatives. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.²SHAKESPEARE. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. or indefinite relatives:² 1. 2. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.

none. Adjectives. few. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. but have lost their adjective use. For example. Primarily they are adjectives. necessarily thought of: thus. as some. "another bank.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. 132. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. in letters of gold. expressed or understood.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. 133. such as each. In the first use they are adjectives. but in this function. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. etc. such as this. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. and on each is written. either. "The dead are there. and another to get cool under. which we have seen in such expressions as. the former.²BRYANT. etc." that is. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. all.²IRVING. or use. must not modify any word. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. any. in the first. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence." "Where two men ride on a horse." "one man." in the second. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. that." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. in order to be an adjective pronoun. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. 'Truth. or they may stand for nouns. etc." Classes of adjective pronouns. "each cube. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. many. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. a word. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words." in the others. Caution. or may be the whole of a sentence. not pronouns. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. . they are properly classed as adjective pronouns.131. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence.²EMERSON. "these pranks. For instance.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. and stand for a noun. neither. or an argument in a paragraph. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns.

NOTE. accidentally preserved.²LOWELL.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. but these were of the best. Some of these are simple pronouns. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. 2.All these he saw. They have not shunned the one. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. and sow wickedness. 3. Compound. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. they that plow iniquity. for example. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. They had fewer books.²ID. Definition and examples. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Exercises. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Simple. A man inspires affection and honor. 5.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. . Their minds accorded into one strain. Even as I have seen. 134.² They stood. reap the same.²ID. Such are a few isolated instances. and they have well performed the other. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. when the latter was the King of Spain. as seemed good to each.²EMERSON 4. or reclined. because he was not lying in wait for these. or sat. but what he fain had seen He could not see.

Another opposes him with sound argument. one another. as it were. They led one another. Definition and examples. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. If hand of mine another's task has lightened.²HAWTHORNE. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.² One reflexive. imbued. ²HAWTHORNE. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. as most were. paused over a horoscope.²EMERSON. Some inflected.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. as. for example. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²HOLMES. Exercise. The word one has a reflexive form.Two are compound pronouns. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. with the superstitions of his time. The Soldan. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. we might the more easily discharge them. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Men take each other's measure when they react. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. or melt for others' woe. such as one other. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. 135. . It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. None shall rule but the humble. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. another. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²KINGSLEY.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. Much might be said on both sides.²each other. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. you quickly come to the end of all.

Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. anything. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Every one else stood still at his post. some one. in building of chaises. Somebody. etc. naught. everybody.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. every one (or everyone). every one else. 136. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. but. and was indefinite in Old English. somebody else. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. . They indefinite means people in general. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. Exercise. what. they are never used as adjectives. no one." It means something.² At lovers' perjuries. unlike adjective pronouns. everything. anybody else's. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. any one (or anyone). something. anyone else. I tell you what. anybody.²SHAKESPEARE. as shown in the words everybody's. and somewhat. they say. nobody. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. and they..²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.Exercise. Now. as. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. etc. 137. Jove laughs. also aught. nothing. everybody else. Definition and examples.

7. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. were suffered to depart. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. For this did God send her a great reward. 6. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 5. to which. in his negotiations. 2. 9. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 16.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Others did the same thing. 18. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. I first found myself among the mountains. and of no other. The table was good. 3. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. All was now ready for action. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 8. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. . 11. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. but not to quite so enormous an extent. indeed. A reminder.²a feature of natural scenery for which. O thou that rollest above. from my earliest days. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 4. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 10. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 138. Whoever deals with M. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 14. Exercise. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 13. 17. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 12. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Hutchinson tells us of herself. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June.

eat white bread or brown. hear. They know not I knew thee. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 29. Whatever he knows and thinks. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. hear! 33. thou rollest now. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 32.19. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 30. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. variety. I who alone am. that let him communicate. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 25. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 35. who take the world easy. He sate him down.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. oh. And will your mother pity me.Destroyer and preserver. behold now the semblance of my being. And I had done a hellish thing. 23. in all its height. 26. 27. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.And it would work 'em woe.Who knew thee too well. 21. 34. and seized a pen. well-oiled dispositions. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 31. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday.

as. 43. the number is limited by adjectives. 139. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. heavy or light. If a chemist discovers a new substance." "that house. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 42. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. becomes mine. which was no bad step towards my liberation. We need to add some words to tell its color. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. who understands me. 37. if we are at a distance. 45. 41." The office of an adjective. Who hears me. 40. Again. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. He teaches who gives. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. in pointing out an object. position. and so he read. As to the kind of words used. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. It may have this office alone. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present." etc. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. Substantives. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. ADJECTIVES. or with persons. white or red. 38. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. For example. adjectives are used.. 44. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. We are by nature observers. size. Office of Adjectives. so that no other will be mistaken for it. . and if we are near.36. 39. brittle or tough. or gaseous. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. or liquid. such as in the expressions "this man. that is our permanent state." "some cities." "yonder hill. So with any object. then. etc. "one hat. and he learns who receives. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. etc." "a hundred men. He knew not what to do.

pointing out particular things. and their trash. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. divine." . used to tell how many things are spoken of. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." "the Christian pearl of charity. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. to describe it or to limit its application." "this life-giving book. "an old English manuscript. Infinitives. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. With exception of the "and then." and the still less significant "and so. 142. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. to forgive. such as.²COLERIDGE. or how much of a thing. remotest. derived from proper nouns. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "next-door neighbor. Nouns are not." they constitute all his connections. 141." "ivory-handled pistols. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "half-dead traveler. such as safe. rash. 143." "the Roman writer Palladius." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "ice-cold water.140. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. To err is human. Definition. it shows that he weighs men's minds. If he be thankful for small benefits." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. terrible. To make this clear. Classes of adjectives. happy.²POPE. fair. beautiful. however. words primarily pronouns. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." the "and there." "unlooked-for burden. (4) Pronominal adjectives. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. They include relative and interrogative words. "Heaven-derived power. Examples are." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. etc.² BACON. deep.

For instance: in the sentence. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. in this. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. in studying these last-named words. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.²COLERIDGE.²MACDONALD. 1. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. no. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "One is hungry." "a charming sight. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. some. and accomplished is an adjective. and another is drunken. Exercises. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. having some of each subclass named in Sec. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. 'Tis midnight. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. . considerable. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "The shattered squares have opened into line. 143. Oxenham. 145. any. 144." Caution.But ever she looked on Mr. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "trailing clouds. which are either pure participles used to describe." was is the verb. much." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. sometimes small." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "It came on like the rolling simoom." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. Examples are.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. 2. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Care is needed." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." was accomplished is a verb." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "an aged man. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.

for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "Then we wandered for many days. Examples.² Every town had its fair. but I have gained fourscore. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER.²CARLYLE. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. (plural these." "I have lost one brother. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. The list. every village. Not primarily pronouns. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.²ID. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. no. as." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. that. are used with plural nouns. former." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening." "In came some five and twenty more. they come under the next division of adjectives. Exercise. 146. its wake." Single ones of any number of changes.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. When some.²KINGSLEY. the former²the latter.²VAUGHAN. The following sentences present some examples:² . but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. "one blaze of musketry. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. instead of modifying them. latter." "a dozen volunteers. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. An arrow was quivering in each body. any." (b) Indefinite numerals. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Thus. How many.²THACKERAY." "He had lived by hunting for some months. those). Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. The demonstrative adjectives are this. yonder (or yon).²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. and with them a few negroes.

like the other numerals.²GOLDSMITH. Modify names of persons or things. As has been said. They are of two kinds. tell how many things are meant.. skill which was at pause.² It matters not what rank he has. . Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. 149. just as the corresponding pronouns do. WEBSTER.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. ²CARLYLE. but. The taking of which bark. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. of equal skill. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. 148. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. These were thy charms. but in the one case.²BANCROFT. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. I verily believe. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²BULWER. what revenues or garnitures.²ID. skill which was progressive²in the other.²D.²ID.²RUSKIN. When we speak of the seventeenth century. FRANKLIN. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. 147.but all these charms are fled. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. they are changed to adjectives. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. for example. These do not. Indefinite relative adjectives. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. The silver and laughing Xenil.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Oxenham fought desperately.²KINGSLEY. Exercise.. Definition. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²WORDSWORTH. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. In which evil strait Mr."²B.

which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²IRVING.. But when the Trojan war comes. proved not altogether displeasing to him. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. or whether any. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. Whatsoever kind of man he is. Adjective what in exclamations. which. it is impossible to determine. In indirect questions.²CARLYLE. . and new tormentedAround me. you at least give him full authority over your son. the debt to the rich. 151. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.. In direct questions. whatsoever.²ID.And whichsoever way I turn.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. Examples of their use are.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). and points to yonder glade?² POPE. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. He was turned before long into all the universe. whichsoever. and gaze. as it rather seemed. New torments I behold. whichsoever way I move. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whatever. whichever.² EMERSON. nature will be sure to bear us out in.150. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²AGASSIZ. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. As in the pronouns. A lady once remarked. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.²LAMB. which is selective among what is known.²RUSKIN. Was there. what inquires about things or persons not known. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.

and when we compare the objects. But this had also another plural. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. And yet.² Oh. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. th s (modern those). which changed its spelling to the modern form these. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. alas. the making of it right. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. weight. History of this²these and that²those. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. etc.²but not the same degree. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU.152. Meaning of comparison. In exclamatory expressions. It is neither relative nor interrogative. etc. All these have certain qualities. When we place two objects side by side. which was fully inflected in Old English.. 155. or amount. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. of the quality. That.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness.²This. we do so by means of their qualities. Thus. as. 154. 153 .Adjectives have two inflections. The article that was used with neuter nouns. or size. Exercise. those). a sapphire is bluer than the sky. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. .²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives.²number and comparison. NUMBER. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. and those as the plural of that. COMPARISON. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. Those borrowed from this. gold is heavier than iron. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. color. This is the old demonstrative. or weight. we notice some differences between them as to size.

The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. Freedom is a perpetual. or amounts in quantity. reddest. easier. supreme. enormous." "the largest soul. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. 159. A main difference betwixt men is." "the commonest speech. 158. bluer. These are properly the only degrees. The two forms. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. Substitute for inflection in comparison. whether they attend their own affair or not. whose favorite pupil he was.²THACKERAY. The comparative is formed by adding -er. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. great. with less wit. but were not common until a century later. organic." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. indefatigable. as. they are not compared. 157. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. redder.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. "more matter. expressing a greater degree of quality. 156. though the simple. "untamed thought." "no fewer than a hundred. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. but. as. red. and many others.²SEWARD. bluest. indomitable. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. . expressing the greatest degree of quality. immemorial. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. giant-like. for example." "It is a nobler valor. blue. easiest. and the superlative. to the simple form. sufficient. universal institution. So with the words sole." Words that cannot be compared. Definition. These are called degrees of comparison. easy. strictly considered. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. 160. They came into use about the thirteenth century. and the superlative by adding -est. infinite.

quiet." "the wonderfulest little shoes. madam.² CARLYLE A gentleman. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives." Carlyle uses beautifulest. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. polished. and other words are preceded by more and most. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. admirablest. and patientest fusing. etc.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain.Which rule. 162. strange." said Henry Esmond.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. The general rule is. The following lists include the majority of them:² . These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. 163. was most finished. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. Adjectives irregularly compared. easy. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. honestest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. and yet familiar. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. as. there needed to be a most genuine substance. most small. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. who." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. mournfulest. though born in no very high degree." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. harsh forms are usually avoided." "sorrowfulest spectacles. I will. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. falling on his knees. These long. which hung behind in the queerest way." "more austere and holy. peaceablest.²The Nation. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. finest chiseling." "more odd." "distantest relationships. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. "So help me God. witty.²ID.²ID. indisputablest. These are adjectives irregularly compared.

"Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. throw away the worser part of it. 164. last Hindmost. These have no adjective positive:² 1. uttermost Upmost. as in Shakespeare. a double comparative. 3.LIST I.² We have it in a much lesser degree. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. older Nigher Nearer Later. latter Hinder LIST II. .²MATTHEW ARNOLD. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. though from a different root. hindermost Much or many More Farther. (2) In Old English.² O. Good or well Evil. Hind 2. Worser was once used. as. next Nearest Latest. oldest Nighest. List I. 2. 9. uppermost LIST III. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. [Out] Outer. lesser. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. which has gone out of use. 5. 8. is often used. utter 3. bad. least. which has softened to the modern best. There was an old comparative bet. 7. A double comparative. 1. lesser Elder. worst. furthest 10. innermost Outmost. evil was the positive to worse. further Farthest. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. outermost Utmost. 6. The superlative I form was betst. [In] Inner Inmost. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 4. as in the sentence (14th century).²HAMLET.

etc. farthest. Since later. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. but originally the comparison was nigh. but not in meaning. further. The meanings greater. . is quite common. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. eldest. Between the two sets as they now stand. The most part kept a stolid indifference. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. the old forms. The latter. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. oldest. next. or series. strenger. as long.²KINGSLEY.²forth. and the superlative nearest. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. are shown in such phrases as. List II. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. (5) The forms elder. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. there is scarcely any distinction. strong. doubling the inflection. meaning the largest part. greatest. for example. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. latest. In imitation of further. a distinction has grown up between the two series. near. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. furthest. First became entirely detached from the series. except the form next. first. came into use. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. to England we sailed.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti.² The more part being of one mind. etc.. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. instead of lenger. muchel. and refer to time. to which is added -ost. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. ²LAMB.²ID. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. moche. farrest. as.²HAWTHORNE. an old superlative ending. making the modern farther. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. are earlier than older. great. much. "Many a little makes a mickle. since the m is for -ma." Its spelling has been micel. th came into the others.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. but in former times much was used in the sense of large.. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.

²DE QUINCEY.165. all may belong to the same noun. Her.²SCOTT. but her after deck was still dry. BEECHER. They have no superlatives. by the by. being merely descriptive. the upper light of the world. W." "The outer is of the day. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. The adjectives in List III. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Think what each adjective belongs to. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. The comparatives are so in form. in having no adjective positives. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. 168. List III." "the innermost moral soul. Highest and midmost. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. and have no comparative force. but not in their meaning. but they have no adjective positives. There. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²DE QUINCEY. 166. .²EMERSON. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²H." "their utmost exertion. Her bows were deep in the water. Decidedly handsome. or each may modify a different word or group of words.²HAWTHORNE. (Sec. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. or have no comparative forms. are like the comparative forms in List II." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²KINGSLEY. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. on the very topmost twig." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. In List II. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives." -Most added to other words." "far-seeing as the sun. 167.

"The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. bright. STEPHENS 5. 2. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. deep.²BIBLE.²A. and moral truth. . ²TROLLOPE. in this sentence. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. therefore. usual modifies incomparable decision.²HAWTHORNE. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. and broken. May we not. Bradbury and Evans. round. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. and heaven-defying oaths.²MRS. our new government.²NOAH PORTER." making then an adjective. not decision alone. philosophical.²TRENCH. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. 169. as. satisfactory. we may say "the then king. In the following quotations. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. in prose. 4. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.² My then favorite. A few improper jests and a volley of good. rich. 3. By a convenient brevity. Exercise.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. 7. "the one who was then king.²RUSKIN. deeply black eyes. But in this sentence.²HOLMES. STOWE. 6.²HAWTHORNE. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. solid. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. and thine often infirmities. The seldom use of it." in which then is an adverb. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. Our sometime sister.For example. This. Richard Hooker. instead of saying. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. Other instances are." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. H. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. For thy stomach's sake. It may still be argued. the then and still owners. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. now our queen.

on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. plural number. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. frank. modifies the word truths. (2) Its number. not inflected for number. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. with awkward but rapid pace. if it has number. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. then. this. I ask nothing of you. manly way. positive degree. These points out what truths. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. across the plain. MODEL FOR PARSING. person. and I waited for none. having a singular. Since adjectives have no gender. the method of parsing is simple. (3) Its degree of comparison. 6. 10. 7. modifies truths. 3. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. Exercise. 4. seventy-five drachmas. This gave the young people entire freedom. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. 8. In parsing an adjective. therefore descriptive. or case. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. She made no reply.What to tell in parsing. and very few have number. 5. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. and most astounding were those frightful yells. To every Roman citizen he gives. therefore demonstrative. if it can be compared. 9. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. cannot be compared. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. 170. . (4) What word or words it modifies. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. 2. compared by prefixing more and most. To every several man. Unfamiliar describes truths.

29. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 27. Nearer to our own times. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. oxen. 13. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 16. 18. and dogs. are immutably fishes. yonder oxen in the pasture. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 28. 22. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 25. Like most gifted men. 33. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 14. I know not what course others may take. the same love to France would have been nurtured. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. With every third step. Two hours elapsed. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. the tomahawk fell. 31. as for armies that were too many by half. 32. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. it is so noble a fruit. 24. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. suggests such thoughts as these. it rests on reality. growing in the most unfavorable position. Here lay two great roads. is the settlement of our own country. not so much for travelers that were few. 20. To say what good of fashion we can. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 21. 12. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. In music especially.11. 19. and therefore more interesting to us. during which time I waited. 26. those dogs in the yard. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. he won affections with ease. 23. . The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. and many poles supported the lower ones.

²BREWER. meaning one. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. 35. 173. the tother. s o. the tother. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. or the tane. An historian. Their origin. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. later th . in vulgar English. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. 37. Our expressions the one. that) which was also an article in Old English." the words the and an belong to nouns.²MACAULAY. weary-hearted man was he. sometimes the tother. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. In the sentence. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. ARTICLES. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. An before vowel sounds. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. the tither. 172. these occurring as the tane. 174. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. just as adjectives do." "an orange. Two relics. ðat. with an ordinary little garden. he is no literary man. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment.34. for example. . Many writers use an before h. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. that other. a before consonant sounds. such as we have been attempting to describe. the other. the latter is still preserved in the expression. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general.²SCOTT. An or a came from the old numeral n.² We ca' her sometimes the tane." "an honor." "a European." An with consonant sounds. A hard-struggling. even when not silent. 171. In Middle English the became an article. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. but the former is used. th o. and a before consonant sounds. Examples: "a house." "a yelling crowd. were formerly that one. and that remained a demonstrative adjective.

and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. The Dakota tribes. To call attention to attributes. 175.² . because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. NOTE. not descriptive.. as in the sentence. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Kinds.²G.. 176.. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. is referred to. doubtless. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. Reference to a known object.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. 179. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. Articles are either definite or indefinite. or group. or any individual of a group or class. 178. and not a state or other geographical division. BANCROFT. With names of rivers.²HEROES OF ASGARD. When the is prefixed to a proper name. An and a are different forms of the same word. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY." "the Ohio. as "the Mississippi.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. the older n.²COLERIDGE. An or a is the indefinite article. and when the word river is omitted. which cannot be used alone. An article is a limiting word.²THACKERAY. or class. since it points out a particular individual.²IRVING. on opening a story.²This use is noticed when. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri.² Don't you remember how. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. thus. or a group or class of things. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. The is the definite article. An hereditary tenure of these offices. Definition. a person is introduced by a. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north." the article indicates clearly that a river. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. 177.

is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²GIBBON. Schelling. Caution. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.The Bacon. laid it on the miry spot. 180. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²ID. 183. and the redwing. Common. 2. If the good is there. . the Spinoza. would speedily extract the required information.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. One thing for its class.²ID. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. etc. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 182. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.² The faint. His messages to the provincial authorities. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. With adjectives used as nouns. BANCROFT.²G. or a match put between the fingers. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²KINGSLEY. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. 1. The simple rise as by specific levity.²MOTLEY. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. the Hume. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²EMERSON. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. for example.²EMERSON. so is the evil.² As she hesitated to pass on. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. not into a particular virtue. For possessive person pronouns. The. as. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. NOTE. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. the gallant. Half abstract. 181. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. With plural of abstract nouns. her. but into the region of all the virtues. Kant. the song sparrow.²SCOTT.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

²BULWER . The nature of the transitive verb. 202. as. 203. in (2. in (2. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike." put is the predicate. we consider a verb as one word. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. hence is not a verb. endured what? anguish." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. a preposition. and shame the most astute.In (a). a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. in (3. Hence Definition. lone took what? answer. can deceive has an object. which may be a person. c). 204. with some word understood. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. b). Each influences some object. obeyed is a predicate. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. an adverb. Of those expressing action. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. but fearing is not a predicate. for example. and not a verb. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. all do not express it in the same way. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. In the first. and a preposition unite as a verb. By examining a few verbs. The nature of intransitive verbs. in (c). All these are called transitive verbs. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. the most astute. In giving a definition. which means to go over. from the Latin transire. etc. 200: In (1). in (b). is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. in this sentence from Bulwer. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. "Put thou money in thy purse.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. b)." Examine the sentences in Sec. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. "Put money in thy purse. a). or a material thing. the word following. an article. or an idea. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. a noun. care. Definition and caution. to say something to or about some person or thing. but cannot be predicates."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. to go is no predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. and to receive the action expressed. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. and. In each case. 201. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. or the object. a verb. the most penetrating. In the sentence. A verb is a word used as a predicate. taking the staff which always guided her steps. (can) shame also has an object. representing something which it influences or controls. Now. in (3.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

. If this be the glory of Julius.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. Unreal²cannot be true. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. I. 215. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.² Now. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.²D. Again. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.² If.²SHELLEY. as. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. but. WEBSTER. they were recorded in the Book of Life. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. popular government must be pronounced impossible. for example. Most excellent stranger. or be fulfilled. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.²MACAULAY.²FRANKLIN. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. the representative system ultimately fail. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. ²EMERSON. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.²may or may not be true. in our case. as. Ideal. the first great founder of the Empire. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. he will see the need of these ethics. Condition or Supposition.²LONGFELLOW.I could lie down like a tired child. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. the writer can make the statement following. and may or may not be regarded true. 221. 2).²BRYCE. 222. the second founder. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.

6." etc. thus. Epaminondas. the clause being introduced by that or lest. unless. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. is of similar physiognomy.²MACAULAY. though. 7.. 8. if he was the man I take him for. .²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. which cannot be true. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. he supposed. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE.²CALHOUN. The subjunctive. The voice. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. 223. since he [Byron] was dead. society could not hold together. ²LOWELL.²BAYNE. would have sat still with joy and peace. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. especially be. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. I told him. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. and should. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire.. if he speak to you. WILLIS.² It was necessary. 5.² If these things were true. and sonorous.²FRANKLIN. may. as. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. II. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. 4. and what kind of condition:² 1.² CARLYLE. NOTE. that he might be strong to labor. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. is used to express purpose. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. if his lot had been mine. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. would you. but when the verb precedes the subject.. P. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. melodious. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding.²EMERSON.²N. Exercise. do you think. except. to drink strong beer. etc. 3. Subjunctive of Purpose. and striven energetically to save Ney. clear. If he had reason to dislike him. she was regarded as a prodigy.. that we cannot but regret its absence. might. But in no case could it be justified.²FRANKLIN.²SWIFT. In the following conditional clauses. 2. he had better not have written.

Let it rise. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. VII.And we. 224.²COLERIDGE. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. WEBSTER..²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. till it meet the sun in his coming.²CARLYLE. Subjunctive of Result.²WORDSWORTH.²BRYANT. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. VI. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²DE QUINCEY. V. In Indirect Questions. So live. 225. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.That vain it were her eyes to close.²ID. To tell of what had passed. IV. 226. 227. . The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²SOUTHEY. within its fairy bowers. like the Latin..²D. Ask the great man if there be none greater. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. I would it were! ²EMERSON. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.I have been the more particular. I've wished that little isle had wings.. the answer being regarded as doubtful.. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. none of us could say. like the quarry-slave at night.Were wafted off to seas unknown. In Temporal Clauses. In a Noun Clause. III. Rise up. The English subjunctive. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. After a verb of wishing. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. Expressing a Wish.²MOORE.Thou go not.

²COLERIDGE. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. The essence of originality is not that it be new.²THOREAU. etc. The first merit. 229. object.²TENNYSON. Some might lament that I were cold. of cash.²CARLYLE. Whatever betide.²SHELLEY. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.² Be the matter how it may. for example. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. 228. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.² DICKENS. I have no thought what men they be.²DE QUINCEY. in apposition. Object. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. See that there be no traitors in your camp. in its various uses as subject.Subject. we'll turn aside. Come. After verbs of commanding.²COLERIDGE. is the ultimate fact of man's life. VIII.²WORDSWORTH. Concessive Clauses. The noun clause. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.And look thou tell me true. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. often contains a subjunctive.And see the Braes of Yarrow.²SCOTT. That hunger of applause. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. is.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. . Complement. that everything be in its place. tell me all that thou hast seen. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.. which may be (a) Pronoun. (b) Adjective. or whatsoever victual it may be.

230. At the present day. we had found [should have found] a poem here. (3) Request. 231. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. fear none. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. IMPERATIVE MOOD.(c) Adverb. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used.²CHANNING. ADAMS. though. (2) Entreaty. point to their immortal works.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were.The spirit he loves remains. however. It must be remembered. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.² CARLYLE. Honor all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. Definition. or requests. and condition contrary to fact. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. Oh. a concession.²SHELLEY. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. 232. (1) Command. to express a wish. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Q. In spoken English. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. entreaties. .²J. Usually second person. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.²BRYANT. love all men. since commands are directed to a person addressed. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. for example.

child of earth!While each performs his part. 7. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. nothing is to be preferred before justice.²SCOTT." whispered Kit. "Come along with me. lest we rust in ease. there will her heart and her prayers be. "The Devil take the goose. receive my hand. but I + you. noble earl. we may use the imperative with we in a command. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID."Hush! mother. Whatever inconvenience ensue.²CAMPBELL. 6. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Oh. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. request. etc. to you implied in it. 2.. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. or I + they."²DICKENS Tell me. Break we our watch up. Part we in friendship from your land." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.And God forget the stranger!" . But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Sometimes with first person in the plural." Exercises on the Moods. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Meet is it changes should controlOur being.²SHAKESPEARE.And.. Quoth she. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. 3. Mark thou this difference. 8.One glance at their array! 5. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. etc.

From the moss violets and jonquils peep. "Oh. Though abyss open under abyss.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. Though he were dumb. Forget thyself to marble. 10. 18. 13. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 11. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. 26. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. will it not fall unbound. . 21. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. as though an instrument.That they might answer him. whether he do it right or wrong. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. she ought to have it. 23. it would speak.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. That a man parade his doubt. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.Except. Well. "tell me where I may find my poor. He is." continued Old Morgan. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. That sheaf of darts. no literary man. Marshall." 16. "Mr.High up in silver spikes! 22. ruined. let him live where else he like.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. He.9. then. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. 14. and opinion displace opinion. how he may do his work.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. my dear madam. but repentant child." cried he. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. in what pomps and prosperities he like." 25. or do it at all. 19. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 20.

Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses." . PERSON AND NUMBER." present. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. or whether it were as one member of a general party. 233. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. 235. past perfect. a form ending in -eth. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. such as be. or agree with it.² present. TENSE. have.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Siddons. Definition. 28. When the older pronoun thou was in use." past. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. five in the subjunctive.27.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. and future perfect tenses. shall. as. "Thou walkedst. will. "I go away tomorrow. or future time. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. and future. five in the imperative. Old English had only two tenses. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. "It is not in man that walketh. by means of the present. in the third person singular. in the conjugations.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. called auxiliaries. kind. which represented present and future time. and the future tense. tell him to wait. whatever she did. and the past tense. "Thou walkest. such as Latin and Greek. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as." "If he comes. past. the past.²the present tense. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. as. Meantime. as will be shown later on. The tenses in detail. also. Tense means time. to direct his steps. 234. as the classical languages have." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. past. Tenses in English. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.

237.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. as. chooses. walking. [He] were [They] were . PRESENT TENSE. wert) 3. Indicative Mood. singular number. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. In classical languages. walks. mood. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. but in English. been. were. The verb be has more forms. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. are. tense. Few forms. chosest). INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. 236. [He] is [They] are 3. This is the third person. and numbers. is. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. etc. Such verbs as choose have five. PRESENT TENSE.²choose. Singular 1. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. Singular 1. walketh. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walked. You (thou) be 3. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. choosing.²am. Singular 1. moods. tenses. 238. Singular 1. persons. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. chosen (old. walk has walk. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. choosest. etc. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. since it is composed of several different roots. for example. chose. You are 2. CONJUGATION. walkedst." and this only in the present tense indicative. chooseth. Definition. I were 2. I be 2. "He walks.

etc. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. in four ways.²ID. were. to express intention. to form the passive voice. though it is usually a dialect form.²BURKE . is. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. The light that never was on sea and land. 240. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (b) With the past participle in -ed. same as the German sind. -en. (2) was. as..²SHELLEY. Instead of the plural are.²GOLDSMITH. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²SCOTT. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. (d) With the infinitive.. 239.²WORDSWORTH.His infancy was nurtured.²THACKERAY. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. etc. thus. (3) be. condition. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.Imperative Mood.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. Remarks on the verb be. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. which was now become an occasional banquet. for example. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. obligation.

"I shall be. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. I choose 2. Machinery of a verb in the voices. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Indicative Mood. "I had gone" (past perfect). You choose Plural. [He] choose [They] choose 3. 1. Singular. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. by placing have. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. had. I chose 2. You chose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. as. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. You chose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. 1. "I have gone" (present perfect). there are many periphrastic or compound forms.241. Some of these have been indicated in Sec." "He will choose. 242. (2). I choose 2. Singular. I chose 2. In addition to the above inflected forms. tenses. 240. future perfect. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. PRESENT TENSE. We chose You chose 3. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles." (2) Present perfect. etc. You choose Plural. PRESENT TENSE. as. past perfect. . [He] chooses [They] choose 3. Singular. tenses. 1. 1. We chose You chose 3. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. Singular.

(2d per. as. of each tense. Future perfect.) Choose. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Same as indicative. Past definite. Past. " Be choosing. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He will he choosing. lest. Future perfect definite. Past perfect. Past definite. though. Imperative Mood." 243. Only the third person. [If. He had chosen. Present perfect. Present definite. He will choose. Past perfect definite. Present perfect definite. He will have chosen. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Past. "I am running. Subjunctive Mood. He was choosing. He has chosen. ACTIVE VOICE. Present. he were choosing (or were to be choosing)." "They had been running. He has been choosing. Indicative Mood. Same as indicative. Present definite. Present perfect. Past perfect definite. He will have been choosing. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. He chooses. Present perfect definite.(3) The definite form of each tense. he have chosen. . Future definite. as. Present. Present. he chose (or were to choose). He had been choosing. He is choosing. Past perfect. will be given. Present definite. Future. "I was chosen." "You are chosen. singular number. etc.] he choose. he have been choosing. He chose." (4) The passive forms.

He was being chosen. Future perfect. Future. but verbals. "He does strike. None. lest. None. He had been chosen. Future definite. he were being chosen. Present perfect. " " " " " " " None. etc. 262). Past. (2d per. He has been chosen. None. Present perfect. PASSIVE VOICE. Past Perfect. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Present tense. None. Present definite. Imperative Mood. as. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms.] he be chosen.NOTE.. however. they will be discussed later (Sec.²This table is not to be learned now. None. . Present. Present definite. Exercises should be given. Past. if learned at all.] [If. Present perfect definite. Indicative Mood. Present perfect definite. He was chosen. None. Present." [Note to Teacher. Past definite. he have been chosen. Also. Past perfect definite. he were chosen (or were to be chosen)." "He did strike. He will be chosen. in affirmative sentences. Past perfect. he had been chosen. He is being chosen. He will have been chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Future perfect definite.) Be chosen. He is chosen. though. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Past perfect definite. Subjunctive Mood. Past definite.

Past Tense. which are in parentheses Present Tense. but adds no ending. and may or may not change the vowel: as. drive. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. bit blown broken chidden. laid. sleep. beg. slept. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. 245. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. run. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. 244. caught. ran. bounden] bitten. drove. NOTE. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. According to form.[adj. verbs are strong or weak. Some of these also have weak forms. Kinds. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . catch. lay. bid bound. as. Definition. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. begged.

drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sunken] sat slain slidden. trod worn woven won wound .sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

nor a dog barked. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. cleft (to split). but is much used in vulgar English. ²THACKERAY. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. as. . cleave. as." "a sunken snag. to split. Our cock. only one set remains certain. and another (born) for the passive. borne is also a passive.² Thou hast clomb aloft." In this confusion of usage.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. especially in that of an earlier period. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²COLERIDGE. cleft. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). Sometimes in literary English." "a drunken wretch.²MILTON. The form clomb is not used in prose. and.²TENNYSON."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. probably to avoid confusion with this.² We had each drank three times at the well. the other. and the latter. TAYLOR.²IRVING. When it means to carry or to endure. cloven. Historically.²cleave. and sometimes occurs in poetry. which always crew at eleven. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²GOLDSMITH." "the cloven hoof. cleaved. 246. instead of ate and eaten. clave or clove.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. Not a cock crew. The former used to be cleave.²as (from Shakespeare)." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. cleaved. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. for example. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. "his bounden duty. as (from Holmes).²one meaning to adhere or cling. now told us it was time for repose. "stricken with paralysis.²B. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). as.

as "a shorn lamb.²BIBLE. Shake. This heard Geraint." but not much as a participle. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang.The form gotten is little used. 245). found.²SCOTT. Freeze. 4. Give. frozen. threw. 2. gave. begun. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 5. Fall. fell. began. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. 3. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. We usually say. given. driven. as. shook.²TENNYSON. and grasping at his sword. even in poetry. Usually shear is a weak verb.² If. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Begin. 6. thrown. shore is rare. 8. flung.²WORDSWORTH. Exercises.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. which is seldom used except in poetry. Break.²DE FOE. for example. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed."²KINGSLEY. He sate him down. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. froze. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. for example. . Throw. broken. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs.² We had all got safe on shore. Find. Fling. The butler was hanged. maiden.²BYRON. found. One example out of many is. 9. drove." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. 10. fallen. broke. flung. and seized a pen. shaken. Drive. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. (a) From the table (Sec. 7.

247. 220. as it sometimes does. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action..) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. 223. Indicative Use: Permission. Can is used in the indicative only.. 251. purpose.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. or. or when it expresses wish. Must is historically a past-tense form.[To the Teacher. The same remarks apply to ought. as. PAST. They are as follows:² PRESENT. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. The l in could did not belong there originally." Must is present or past tense. His superiority none might question. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. it is used only in the indicative mood.²PAINE.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. Like must. according to the infinitive used. Subjunctive use. Ability.²SCOTT. of course. Have we valuable territories and important posts.²HAWTHORNE."²WINIER.²CHANNING This. (See also Sec... May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. "So mote it be. etc. "far off his coming shines. for full drill on the forms. which survives in the sentence. there is one general principle.²CHANNING. as in Sec. PAST. Could may be subjunctive.. It is indicative when it expresses permission. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. etc. but came through analogy with should and would.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. HAMILTON. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. PRESENT. from the obsolete verb motan. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. 250. as it has two meanings. ability. 249. must have been an ocular deception. .

my lad. for example.² Futurity and questions²first person. The following are examples:² Never mind.Nay. as.²LONGFELLOW.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.²BULWER. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.² The time will come full soon.²MACAULAY. They shall have venison to eat. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. as. and corn to hoe. while ought always has to.²IRVING. as. she should ride like a queen. to the neglect of shall and should. She should not walk. yea.² With respect to novels. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. shall and should are used. I shall be gone. future action). in the form of command. especially in the United States. BROCKDEN BROWN." Uses of shall and should.e. C. promise.²COOPER..² (a) To express authority. to use will and would. Shall and Will. or confident prediction. (b) In questions asking for orders.²L. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. "I think I will go. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.²THAXTER. Second and third persons. MOULTON. he said. WEBSTER. what shall I say?²N. The sea shall crush thee. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. shall and should are used. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. (b) In indirect quotations. . 252. She rejects his suit with scorn. with pronouns of the first person. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. not plod along like apeasant.

² I will go myself now. JR. second and third persons. BROWN. time. B. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²A.²ROGERS. was to be expected. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²WORDSWORTH. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. Disguising a command. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.that I would do him justice. First. or a promise.²WORDSWORTH.. with the conviction that he should win in the end. and will not return until all is finished. 253. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²BYRON. for example.²SCOTT. as the sole inventor.²SWIFT. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. as. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. LARNED. JAMES.²WORDSWORTH.²C. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. etc. purpose.²H. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.. and is equivalent to ought. And promised.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. for example. . I never was what I should be. (c) With direct questions of the second person.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. thus.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms..²WINTER.²CABLE.

without regard to future time.²IRVING. This puts the order more mildly. when thou wast born.² DICKENS.² Thou wilt take the skiff.²LANDOR. as.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. SECOND. PASSIVE VOICE.. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. B. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.²BANCROFT.. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. will is used to express command. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. for example. and mark on the grounds the works. Roland. will and would are used to express simple futurity.. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. action merely expected to occur. as if it were merely expected action.²BURKE.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. Thine was a dangerous gift. would is used to express a wish. so you will.² Subject I omitted: often so. To be sure.. will and would often denote an action as customary. In this stately chair would he sit. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. They will go to Sunday schools. for example.²the original meaning of the word will. 254. etc. The gift of Beauty. and two of my people..²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. Mere futurity. AND THIRD PERSONS. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). and fetch off certain plate and belongings. (4) With FIRST.²SCOTT. as. .²SCOTT. BROWN.. When I am in town.²War Records.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. through storms their brothers are afraid of. for punishment or intimidation. Would thou hadst it not. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.

write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. [He] shall be chosen. yet only seem. [He] will be chosen. Plural. [He] will choose. 2. . 3. 2. Singular. 252 and 253. [He] shall choose. 1. [They] will choose. 3. 1. 1. [They] shall be chosen. 1. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. promise. We will choose. You will choose. 4. He informed us. and justify the use of shall and will. You will be chosen. You shall be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. 6. You shall be chosen. and that of the newest cut. 1.:² ACTIVE VOICE. To express determination. Exercises on Shall and Will. 2. 3. You shall choose. etc. You shall choose. Thou art what I would be. Plural. "I shall not run. (a) From Secs. [They] will be chosen. Plural. You will be chosen. 5. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you." answered Herbert stubbornly. 3. Plural. 3. We shall choose. 2. 2. PASSIVE VOICE.Singular. You will choose. Singular. I shall be chosen. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. I will be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences. Singular. 3. [They] shall choose. I will choose. We will be chosen. I shall choose. 2. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. We shall be chosen.

Lucy stood still.²Class I. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. Past Tense. put. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. But the rest. as if he would have more of the enchantment. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. WEAK VERBS. need some attention and explanation.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.²ID. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 256. The beast made a sluggish movement. 9. put. bereave beseech bereft. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. 13. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. set. Present Tense. Of smale houndes hadde she. as. 12.7. bereave besought Past Participle. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics." the stranger said. No. Without having attended to this." 14. put. 10.²CHAUCER. Irregular Weak Verbs. and have no change of vowel. set. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 11. bereaved besought . 255. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. "I am a wayfarer. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. was -de or -te. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. then. 257. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. bereft. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. my son. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. and I have nothing to say. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. or mylk and wastel breed. very anxious. This ending has now dropped off.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned. spelt spilt staid. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

try clemency. Infinitives. Three saplings. an indefinite and a perfect form. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. When active. 268. like participles..6. 7. INFINITIVES. To with the infinitive. [To] have been choosing. 10. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). [To] be chosen. 9. . when inflections became fewer. and when passive. Perfect definite. Nothing of the kind having been done. Indefinite. as in the Old English. [To] have chosen. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. [To] be choosing. [To] have been chosen. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. 267.²the creature warring against the creating power. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. 266. PASSIVE VOICE. Indefinite. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Imperfect.. But later. to was used before the infinitive generally. have no tense. 8. expressing purpose. Perfect. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. Cases when to is omitted. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. to express action unconnected with a subject. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. will (with should and would). Perfect. I returned to reflection on my situation.. they have an indefinite. ACTIVE VOICE. and a perfect definite form. a perfect. [To] choose. In Sec. an imperfect. formed a kind of bedstead.

the gerund may be called a noun verbal. and corn to hoe.²TENNYSON. can (could). Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.). as. "She ask my pardon. . also let. too. 269. as." "I shall have chosen. and like a noun in use. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. "a house to let." (4) In exclamations. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. it is often preceded by the definite article. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.. They shall have venison to eat.²E. E. 272." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. please. it has several attributes of a noun." etc. poor woman!" cried Charles. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). do (as. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. feel.²it may be governed as a noun. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. 271. HALE.² She was a kind. also in the imperative. sometimes need (as. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT.²MACAULAY. negative.²GOLDSMITH. GERUNDS. must. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent.²IRVING. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. it may be the subject of a verb. bid (command). as the credulous imagine. "He will choose. and emphatic forms of the present and past. "I do go" etc.² What! doth she. see. under "Analysis. make. or the object of a verb or a preposition. as in the expression. liberal woman.²COOPER." Examples are. While the gerund expresses action.²DE QUINCEY. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. watch.(2) After the verbs may (might). But there was nothing to do. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. The gerund is like the participle in form. 270. hear. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²HOWELLS. learn [doth learn is one verb. as.

they find the nurslings untouched! 3. (3) Participial adjectives. and has been put down. when. which express action and also modify. may govern and be governed. (4) Pure adjectives. which express action. above." "Certainly dueling is bad. making the definite tenses. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. II). but cannot govern. (2) Pure participles. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. which have lost all verbal force. on your leaving the spot. but do not assert. b). Words in -ing are of six kinds.²Find sentences containing five participles. Sec. What a vast. after examining the nest. 4. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Then how pleasing is it." Exercise." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (5) Gerunds." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. which name an action or state. five infinitives. 273." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. to see the returning hope of the parents." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. which express action. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." also (2. 2. brilliant.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. Exercise. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. and five gerunds. according to use as well as meaning." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. and wonderful store of learning! . (6) Verbal nouns.

The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 9. or imperative. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. (5) Person and number. I. (b) as to use. by object lessons. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 7. bearing her national emblem. He spread his blessings all over the land.²transitive or intransitive. In parsing verbs. (3) Mood. subjunctive. I suppose I was dreaming about it. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 15. 12. (2) Voice. slowly.²strong or weak. What is dreaming? 8. (4) Tense. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 10. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 16. you must. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. much corroded. give reality to your teaching.²which of the tenses given in Sec. . 234. 11. dictating from his chair. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. like Sir Walter Scott. but. 13. 6.²active or passive. round which is an iron railing.²indicative. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. write twenty pages without stopping.5. Thackeray did not. The only means of ascending was by my hands. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 275. VERBS. giving principal parts. Caution. he gave out sentence by sentence. 14.

The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. 2. can. 3. III. no sin nor sorrow. . (1) Participle. verbals. indicative (as it means could). perfect. perfect. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. Exercise. in the world. and parting day linger and play on its summit. we must beware of the rule. Take these examples:² 1. then parse it as an adjective. and not taken as single verbs. could.276. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. You are gathered to your fathers. 277. (b) whether active or passive. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. 278. indicative. see Sec. 2. intransitive. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. 278(2). intransitive. followed by a pure infinitive without to. II. (b) whether indefinite. past tense. may. etc. call might a weak verb. would. past tense. might. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. etc." Sometimes it does. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. and should always be analyzed as phrases. It has been intimated in Sec. VERB PHRASES. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 273). definite. In such sentences as 1. must. 4. Especially frequent are those made up of should. has the subject government. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. (3) Gerund. If a participial adjective. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. (c) to what word it belongs. But unless the verb is present. usually it does not. (b) its use (Sec. therefore active. Let it rise! let it rise. In 2. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. imperfect. 235. and ends in -s. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. give points (a) and (b). Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. active. Parse the verbs. (2) Infinitive.. (a) From what verb derived." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. till it meet the sun in his coming. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. call should a weak verb. VERBALS. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. has for its subject Lee.

14. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 10. 18. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. as usual. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. a new waking up of all that has life. a deafening shout. as rolled from wing to wing. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 11. 19. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 8. 24. 13. 23. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. he thought only of her. from a sort of temporary death. and wondered if she were yet awake. When he arose in the morning. 6. see that it is in good condition. 20. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 22. 21. 15. a sweet good will. as the Hindoos say. So. 16. However that be.Down all the line. a new bursting forth of the sun. With them. The soul having been often born. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. morning is not a new issuing of light. Right graciously he smiled on us. 9. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. or.5. . Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 12." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. leaving me upon the bed. In going for water. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation.O God. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births.Henceforth in me instill. 17. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. He passed across the room to the washstand. Whatever ground you sow or plant.

Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. they are more himself than he is. place. And now wend we to yonder fountain. ADVERBS. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. or manner: as. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].²THACKERAY. to speak truly. The word adverb means joined to a verb. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. Adverbs modify. . Nor was it altogether nothing. to consent. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.²SHELLEY. Better it were. To the almost terror of the persons present. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. When action is expressed. and men of leisure and cultivation.²time. "William's private life was severely pure.Feast while we may. thou sayest. as.² The young man reveres men of genius.²EMERSON. 27."²DE QUINCEY. 279. and live ere life be spent." "He was absolute. because. and so on. who live with nature?²ID.²CARLYLE. 29." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.25." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Is it only poets. A verb. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. for example. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 26. for the hour of rest is at hand. Oh. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28." An adjective or an adverb. and limit adjectives or adverbs.

as shown in the sentences. for example.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. being adverbs naturally and fitly. 280. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. to-day. while those in Sec. then. 281. 169 are felt to be elliptical. I draw forth the fruit. Definition.²TROLLOPE.² LOWELL. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. has induced some of us to attend it. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. A clause or sentence.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.²LEIGH HUNT. ²IRVING.²T. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. but some verb understood. all wet and glossy. It may also modify a sentence. as now.² FRANKLIN.²BYRON. A phrase. We are offered six months' credit. thus.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. 169. ALDRICH. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. and half awfully. ever. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. not simply the forms used in predication.He was incidentally news dealer. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. lately. An adverb. NOTE.²THOREAU. not the noun. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.²These last differ from the words in Sec. . hitherto. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. is a modifying word. NOTE. or a word group used as such. (2) according to their use in the sentence. but still with a rich bloom to it. perhaps. and that. Thus considered. etc. Make music to the lonely ear. Surely happiness is reflective. there are six classes:² (1) Time. like the light of heaven. but really modifying. B. which may qualify an action word or a statement. as. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. before. 282.

or how far he believes it to be true. (5) Degree. very. etc. that these adverbs form a very large class.(2) Place. (6) Assertion..²BROWNING.whence. Meekness. probably.²DE QUINCEY. at least. 283. singly. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. as perhaps. (4) Number. So also in Grote. telling how anything is done. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.near. beautifully. thus.was for this once of her opinion.²R.whither. enough.yonder. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. The more they multiply. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. . as hence. 283).² The master. as well. and not infrequently are found in literary English. not.²HAWTHORNE. [Sidenote The status of such. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.which gained him such universal popularity. much. whithersoever. as hither. bravely. telling how much. etc. slightly. telling how many times: once. Motley. etc.. LOUIS STEVENSON. the more perfect will be their obedience.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. especially the comparative of these words. possibly. Thackeray. as little. partly. White. for example. surely.²LECKY. This long's the text. I was. too.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.there. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. (see also Sec..where. whencesoever.thence. maybe. slowly. greatly. as here. two by two. the more friends you will have. the more evidently they love liberty. Emerson. etc. better. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.. etc..²IRVING. above. and others. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. (3) Manner.²BURKE. just. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.thither. while so precedes only the adjective usually. etc. twice.²SHAKESPEARE.

and other writers. 286.²THACKERAY." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.² KINGSLEY. Interrogative. Beau Fielding." "I have seen you before [time].² "Mighty well. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Pretty is also used by Prescott.² You are mighty courteous. and art but a fool. 285. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Defoe. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Direct questions.Pretty. Kingsley. besides modifying. have the additional function of asking a question." "That is positively untrue [assertion].²"He walked too far [place].²GOLDSMITH. Simple. B." said the king. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. a mighty fine gentleman. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Some adverbs. STOWE. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Again.²FIELDING." "He spoke positively [manner]. Aldrich. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.²THACKERAY. Dickens. Franklin. "Peace. for example." "The house. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. and its lawn before [place].²BAYNE. .²BULWER. Hard blows and hard money. Burke. 282. A pretty large experience. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Mighty. 284."²SCOTT. for example. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now." "That were far better [degree]. Neville. Emerson.²HAWTHORNE. De Quincey. Notice meanings. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Holmes. It is only occasionally used in literary English.

² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.²BYRON (3) Manner. When did this humane custom begin?²H. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. . (2) Place. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.²POE. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²BYRON.²D.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I will not ask where thou liest low. I hearkened. for example. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. I know not why. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²BULWER. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (4) Degree. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. WEBSTER. CLAY. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. (4) Degree. 287. they smiled. (5) Reason. (2) Place.

²COLERIDGE.eyes. Only that we may wiselier see. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. highest. 290. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Then must she keep it safelier. as. not an adverb. just as adjectives do. further farthest. well much little far late Comparative. Form vs. 288. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.) rather 289. For further discussion.²EMERSON. when does not express time and modify. higher. when. and when has simply the use of a conjunction." Exercise. irregularly compared. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. sooner. high. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. obs. representing four classes.But in reality. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. have the same inflection as adjectives. Exercise. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Its strings boldlier swept.. when compared.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. . The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Many adverbs are compared. see Sec.²BYRON. but the whole clause. Tell what each word in ly modifies. The following. Superlative. soonest.. use. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. and. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. only occasionally having -er and -est.²TENNYSON. Many adjectives have the same ending. soon. furthest (rathe.²SHAKESPEARE. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.

3. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. even. 2. 4.²CHAUCER. many words without -ly have the same form.²TENNYSON. 5. evenly. hardly. instead of being used adverbially.And his mien of kingly state. curiously jolly. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 6. Frequently the word there. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. 292. But he must do his errand right. . kindly and good-natured in secret." Compare these:² 1. etc. nearly. mostly. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. He is inexpressibly mean. With his proud. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. Not near so black as he was painted. Again. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. to be sure. Special use of there. that in Old and Middle English. 8. merely introduces a sentence.² EMERSON. Such are most.1.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²IRVING. near. The reason is. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. whether adverbs or adjectives. quick-flashing eye. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.²ID. but with a different meaning. more courtly in their manners. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. 291. 7.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. hard.²WORDSWORTH. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. as. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. There are eyes. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.²THACKERAY. 2. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. And all about. if it has the verb be. or down the leaves laughed through.

(2) Degree of comparison. 12. 16. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. and sate down on the steps of a house. The higher we rise in the scale of being. It is the Cross that is first seen. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 10. 11. 293. Exercise. For the impracticable. is always politically unwise. 9. 5. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. But a few steps farther on. 3. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. if the word is compared. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. at the regular wine-shop. burning in the center of the temple. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. the Madonna is in great glory. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 4. and always. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 7. Thither we went. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. but continually shifted. 18. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. . however theoretically enticing. In parsing adverbs. 17. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. give² (1) The class. 2. according to meaning and also use. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. but from my fall? 6. (3) What word or word group it modifies. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 15. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14.

294.19. 21. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. upon which the sun now shone forth. . 20. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. nor." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. A conjunction is a linking word. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting." Paragraphs. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. but the student will readily find them. sentences. 22. therefore. however. or sentence groups. then. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Definition. 295. but side by side within the American Union. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. CONJUNCTIONS. etc. It was pretty bad after that." Sentences. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. word groups. Clauses. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. But now the wind rose again. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. connecting words. Unlike adverbs. hence. and found room to wonder how it could have got there.

For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. etc. not only.. They are or. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. else. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. Some of these go in pairs. Correlatives. then.. either. . neither. (3) CAUSAL. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. had its weight... either. and not man corn. the butter too.. (2) ADVERSATIVE.. while. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. While the earth bears a plant.nor..Classes of conjunctions. Your letter. 298. Some go in threes. still. as. nor..nor. whether.but (or but also). as and.or. usually between two things. also. answering to each other in the same sentence. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. however. likewise." Nevertheless.. moreover. as well as the room door. (2) Subordinate. Nor mark'd they less. but is emperor in his own right. Causal. as well as.. either. 296. the window being open.. as but. yet.. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. of the same rank.. The chief ones are. however. Alternative. therefore. whether.or. as. serves but to show their ignorance.. expressing a choice. or the sea rolls its waves. introducing a reason or cause. neither. only. whether.and.or.. word groups. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. joining words. nor. hence.. etc... (4) ALTERNATIVE. not only. "Howbeit.. the bread was spent.. neither.or. 297. both.. for. etc. Adversative..but. and. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. The assertion..or whether.

(5) COMPARISON: than and as. whither. ²ALLSTON. especially that after so. ere. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. however. object. etc. whether. as. Neither the place in which he found himself. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.²COOPER. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. nor wing of bird. there will the heart be also. provided that. provided. Where the treasure is. nor creeping thing. Time. as.. after. nor green leaf. sometimes if. wherever. etc. now. (6) PURPOSE: that. since. even if. lest. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. that. until. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. although. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject.²WILSON. so. as. on condition that.²IRVING. except. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.²PAULDING. It is. seeing. etc.²BIBLE. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. (2) TIME: when. whereto. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. before.. so. (3) MANNER: how. . whence. whereas.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. so that.²BURKE. QUINCY.. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. (7) RESULT: that. nor echo. so that. He is not only bold and vociferous. whenever. since. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. etc. howsoever. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. in apposition.. 299. in order that. so.²J. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. while. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. etc. whithersoever. though. in case.²DE QUINCEY.

All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²BURKE. Manner. Concession.²CARLYLE Events proceed. not as they were expected or intended.²EMERSON. reason.²AMES. Substantive. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Now he is dead. Let the world go how it will.²IRVING. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²BYRON.² HAWTHORNE. So many thoughts moved to and fro. . his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Cause. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Condition. Comparison.² EMERSON. As a soldier. a thousand bodies. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Purpose.That vain it were her eyes to close. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Result. but not so long but I held it out.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE.²DEFOE. We wish for a thousand heads. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²EMERSON.² H.²AMES.That he gave her wounds repose. JACKSON. Sparing neither whip nor spur. I was again covered with water.So I behold them not. H.²CAMPBELL.² WORDSWORTH.²AMES. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Then Denmark blest our chief.

13. Crept under the leaf. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. the lady called her servant. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. as. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Besides. since. then.Let us see whether the greatest. Exercises. . 6. however. 2. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. While a faction is a minority. As will have been noticed. The moth fly. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. and hid her there. the wisest. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. 10. 7. 5. while.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. They. 3. 15. some words²for example. hold a subordinate rank. 12. 4. And they lived happily forever after. In what point of view. He was brought up for the church. as he shot in air. After he was gone. And then recovering. 9. 300. it will remain harmless. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 14. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. No one had yet caught his character. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. While patriotism glowed in his heart. her real merit is known at home. she faintly pressed her hand.²RUSKIN. etc. that. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice.

And their orbs grew strangely dreary.Clouded.So slowly moved about. SPECIAL REMARKS.²IRVING. (2) What words. Consequently. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. etc." as.As though a rose should shut. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. and be a bud again.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. for example. So silently we seemed to speak. and the frame will suit the picture." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. the expression would be.. If analyzed.²HOOD. In poetry. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. 302. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. expressing degree if taken separately.. As for as if. As though. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. GREELEY. even as they would weep. "We meet. as is often equivalent to as if.16. 303. In parsing conjunctions.. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. thus. in this case. In Emerson's sentence. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. 301. .² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. His voice . 304.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. word groups. as is shown by the use of as though. and part as though we parted not. they connect. As if. none of the lashings having given way.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²EMILY BRONTE. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.²BYRON.

others belong to several classes. 12. In classifying them. and its clause depends on the other. or in the forest. as beside his own chimneys. compare the sentences.²is subordinate of condition. At sea. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason.Caution. because. It may be safely trusted.²that the fairies do not like to be named. so means therefore. such as nor.²DEFOE 2. 11. and very seldom?" 8. etc. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. are regularly of one particular class. when. so that expresses result. so they paddled on. 3. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. because it is his. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. 5. 7. Exercise. the Sphinx was slain. 10. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. he sleeps as warm. he is also the correlative of nature. 6. or in the snow. but of the natural. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. It continued raining.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. in 2. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. they are not known. and its clause is independent.. "Doctor.²I find them true in Concord. in 3.² 1. . dines with as good an appetite. so it be faithfully imparted. and. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old." said his wife to Martin Luther. so that I could not stir abroad. 4. Some conjunctions.²EMERSON 3. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. so means provided. 13. and associates as happily. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. He is the compend of time. 2. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. that it might testify of that particular ray. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. For example. All the postulates of elfin annals. If he could solve the riddle. He dismisses without notice his thought. When the gods come among men. 9. and the like.

Now you have the whip in your hand. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 20.14. in many a heart. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 15. in this they agree. therefore. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. PREPOSITIONS. It may be so in the majority of cases. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. save it were sinful like herself. whose names I omit. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 27. 22. For. 25. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 18.. 305. that both were wayward. Still. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 21. she might have the family countenance. 24. 28. There was no iron to be seen.²else it is none. of good novels only. 26. enthroned. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 29. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. It is clear. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 19. won't you lay on? 17. I speak. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. you must be. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. however. 30. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. I rejoice to stand here no longer. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 23. And whether consciously or not. 16. when it was presented to them. the whole conditions are changed. Goodness must have some edge to it. .

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. She saw the boat headed for her. at length. as. Exercise. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. STODDARD. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.²WARNER. he stopped. by the wrecks of time.²SWIFT. at the best. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. by the blessed memory of the departed. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. At that time [the earth] was richer.² (1) The general meaning of place. at play. by the ruins of nations. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. For.²DE QUINCEY.²M. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. . TAYLOR The angel came by night. Helena. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. 321. at most. By. at one. at all.²ALDRICH. at rest. ²PARTON.²Find sentences with three different uses of at.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. Exercise. expressing the degree of difference. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at once. Like at. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. etc. CONWAY. at naught. at random. at least. H. (4) Measure of excess.. At St. the first port made by the ship. at first. at work. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²EVERETT. at any rate. etc.²ID. D. by means near or close to. 320.²R.²COOPER. Richard was standing by the window. at the worst.²B. (2) Time.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at war. (3) Agency or means. by many a million of acres. By my faith. at peace.

²E.²HOLMES. For him. meaning although. "For a fool. for famine. considering that etc. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. or in spite of.. as being. incitement to action. He and they were for immediate attack. There are gains for all our losses. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. they are now for us. BANCROFT. . An Arab woman. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. for the benefit of. GARRISON.²H.." said the Lady of Lochleven. etc. H. "thou hast counseled wisely.One of Eve's family. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²HOOD. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous." answered Master Brackett. ate her child. (7) Concession. meaning with regard to.²W. (6) Like as. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline.²PARKMAN.²EMERSON."²SCOTT By my faith. reason. (9) Motive. E. cause. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. For the rest. etc. etc. the Colonna motto would fit you best.² RUSKIN. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. meaning in the character of. but a few sunsets since.²IRVING. as to. (5) Reference. L.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. (3) Duration of time. or extent of space. "Nay. poor fellow. and leaped for joy.²PARKMAN. had a forest of poor relations. a person or thing.(2) In favor of.²LAMB. Still. But the Colonel. if your worship can accomplish that. (4) Substitution or exchange.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. The twilight being. respecting. he repented of his folly.²ID. in behalf of.²STODDARD. for all slips of hers. for all his title.

and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The king holds his authority of the people. .²ID. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. Exercise. if not a desperate man. A distrustful. ceased to be merciful. H. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. like from. (2) Origin. (4) Motive. The general idea in from is separation or source. From. Of. The young cavaliers. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²H. from a desire of seeming valiant. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. or reason. Exercise.²DRYDEN. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. From harmony. 322. Like boys escaped from school. The From Relation.²BANCROFT. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. cause. (1) Origin or source.²HIGGINSON.²HUXLEY.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²HALE. (3) Time.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²MILTON. 323. The original meaning of of was separation or source. nay. more. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²HUME.

White shirt with diamond studs. deprive.²DICKENS II. free.²BANCROFT.. A singular want of all human relation. You cannot make a boy know.²ID. (3) With expressions of material. weeds. and grass. beg. motive. free of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²PARKMAN. out of the most unpromising materials.²BOSWELL. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. (d) With words expressing distance. reason. of his own knowledge. etc. etc. etc. cure.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. deprivation. The hills were bare of trees.²ALDRICH. (b) After some adjectives. bound with thongs of boar's hide. etc. as north of. divest. E. the finest army that Europe had yet seen.²SCOTT Who formed. Of the Forty.² HUXLEY. ask. He is away of his own free will. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²BAYARD TAYLOR."²E. (6) Partitive. Asked no odds of. etc. (5) Expressing agency. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. demand.²LEW WALLACE. south of. ²PARTON. clear. bare of. HALE. disarm. acquitted them of. (c) After nouns expressing lack. More than one altar was richer of his vows. that Cromwell once ruled England. such as ease. or breastpin of native gold. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. expressing a part of a number or quantity. relieve. especially out of. wide of.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. "I am glad of that. he had raised a little Gothic chapel.²clear of. Other Relations expressed by Of. purge. there were only twenty-one members present. . Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. Back of that tree. rob. rid. ²GAVARRE.²HIGGINSON. Sandals.

Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. equal to about. of is used in the sense of during. (8) Appositional. The fair city of Mexico. (10) Of reference. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. concerning. when the first is descriptive of the second.²ID. 309. with its object. of a sudden. (b) Noun and gerund.²BANCROFT. and the dignity of a queen. for the possessive. etc. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. standing. Such a book as that of Job. ²IRVING. E. Not even woman's love. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. of late.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. .²FROUDE. CHANNING.. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. being equivalent to an infinitive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. (c) Two nouns.He washed out some of the dirt. Besides the phrases of old. See also Sec. with regard to. (9) Of time.²LAMB.²SWIFT.²BANCROFT.²COOPER.²PRESCOTT. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. (7) Possessive.²ALDRICH. Idiomatic use with verbs.²BANCROFT.²LOWELL. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²HALLECK. The nation of Lilliput.²W. could give shelter from his contumely.

Exercise.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. consist. on the alert. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. accept. Upon. concerning.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. 325.²PARKMAN. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. disapprove. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. without adding to their meaning. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. such as admit. To.²DE QUINCEY. avail (one's self). Cannon were heard close on the left.²BRYANT. on board. allow. on view.²EMERSON. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²Find sentences with six uses of of. etc. on a sudden. approve. The general meaning of on is position or direction. SIGOURNEY. . on high. Exercise.²PARKMAN. Upon is seldom used to express time. equal to about. On my life. It also accompanies the verbs tire.²ALDRICH. you are eighteen. and not a day more. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. on trial.²MRS. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. and others. (4) In adjurations. On. permit. ²BANCROFT. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. (2) Time.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. 324. repent. complain. on the wing. Upon my reputation and credit.²PARKMAN. (3) Reference. (b) With motion. etc.

Ben Lomond was unshrouded. Exercise.²B.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Nor.. (2) Expressing result.Come to the bridal chamber.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Death!²HALLECK. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²IRVING. interest. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. unmasked. .'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²PARTON. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. But when. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²GOLDSMITH. In Old be written over. 268).²BRYANT. mid meant in company with.²PARKMAN. Revolutions.. 326. (b) Referring to time. To the few. whose influence is felt to this hour. to my taste.. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. it may be genuine poetry. does the mere music.²often to the loss of vigor. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. to him. With. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²BULWER. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. gay Comedy appears. (5) Equivalent to according to. He usually gave his draft to an aid. His brother had died.²LANG. had ceased to be.²HALE.²BENTON To our great delight. We cook the dish to our own appetite.

²ALDRICH. (2) Instrumentality.²CHANNING. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. felt it unsafe to trifle further. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. had already reached the defile. in spite of.²LANG. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. opinion. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²SCOTT.²HOWELLS. She seemed pleased with the accident. With all his sensibility. He expired with these words.²WALLACE (7) Time. but a pleasure"?²LANG. (4) Estimation. as with you. reason. it is necessary.²DE QUINCEY. 327. I think. motive. HALE. Messala. He was wild with delight about Texas. but with you. he gave millions to the sword.²DE QUINCEY. Either with the swingle-bar. with all his boldness. or with the haunch of our near leader.²HOWELLS.The advance. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²E.²HALE. transmitted from the beginning. Exercise. It seemed a supreme moment with him.²COLERIDGE. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. (3) Cause.²EMERSON. (5) Opposition. .²Find sentences with four uses of with. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. "poetry is not a pursuit. with Heyward at its head.²COOPER. to find the object of the preposition. E. first of all. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.

In (2). 5. In (3). They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. 3. I heard a noise just over my head.²SWIFT 2. Be that as it will. without a country modifies man. .²ID. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. Whereupon. I remember. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. but all to no purpose. (4) from the beginning. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. In (1). and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. hence we say. The object of on board is ships. I felt my box raised very high in the air. And so on. the malicious rogue. of on. I speak these things from a love of justice. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. beginning. I looked towards my windows. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. of without. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. shook it directly over my head. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. we met the defaulter here. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. The guns were cleared of their lumber. the phrase answers the question where. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. of from. by which a dozen apples. (3) without a country. which. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. because I had given the provocation. I called out several times. but I received no other hurt. (2) on which. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. like the clapping of wings. 4. Exercises. 2. To our general surprise. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. and knocked me down flat on my face. came tumbling about my ears. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. country. before the dwarf left the queen. or was. he followed us one day into those gardens. telling what man.

They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 11. 21. 10. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 8. With all his learning. 9. after a restful morning. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. For my part. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 13. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. plumed for battle. to one dark and gloomy. 24. . 23.Without stop or stay. I like to see the passing. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. The mother sank and fell. On all subjects known to man. in town.6. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 29. 17. 7. 19. when. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. He locked his door from mere force of habit. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 20. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 22.He spurred his courser on. 18. His breeches were of black silk. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The savage army was in war-paint. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 26. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 14. in this respect. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 16. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. he favored the world with his opinions. 25. 15. 12. grasping at the child. 27.

(a) Indefinite relative.²WEBSTER. and not according to form. .30. not merely by the amount of the tax. A few are discussed below. (c) Substantive conjunction. (4) As an adverb of degree.²WEBSTER.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. That was a dreadful mistake. That night was a memorable one. that you might behold this joyous day.² JOHNSON.²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. We wish that labor may look up here. 330. 328. THAT. and be proud in the midst of its toil.That makes the heavens be mute. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. And now it is like an angel's song. That is what I understand by scientific education.²STOCKTON.²HUXLEY. WHAT. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. 329. He will raise the price. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²BEECHER. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²COLERIDGE. (1) Relative pronoun. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (b) Of result.

²S. nearly equivalent to partly.Are yet the fountain light of all our day.. it rests on reality.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.²ID.. who go tinkling by to their is impossible to determine.²ID. (7) Adverb of degree. (9) As an exclamation.these sounds are only to be heard.. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. . 331. (8) Conjunction. (b) Indirect question.Those shadowy recollections. What.. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.²THACKERAY. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²WORDSWORTH. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. but the result of calculation.." (4) Relative adjective. "I'll tell you what.. Cox. silent still. (b) Indirect question.² Pera. What with the Maltese goats. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. or not only. BUT. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.²WEBSTER. partly. after not only. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.but.²EMERSON.. What. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. and silent all!²BYRON.. To say what good of fashion we can.. If he has [been in America]. he knows what good people are to be found there.. (b) Copulative. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. to see what might be hidden.S.Which be they what they may.

²SHELLEY. I shall see but little of it. than. (3) Preposition. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²IRVING. but piercing cries.. (c) Of degree. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. (b) Of manner.. Who knows but. on all sides. . (d) Of reason.²IRVING. Doing duty as a guard. (2) Relative pronoun..²IRVING. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²CARLYLE. like the dog. at all moments. (b) Substantive. (e) Introducing an appositive word. not..Then arose not only tears. not. after such. after a negative. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. towards order.²HAWTHORNE. or who . To lead but one measure. stands for that . Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (4) Relative pronoun. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village...²SCOTT. 332. ²CARLYLE.²MRS BROWNING.²FRANKLIN. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. meaning otherwise .²LAMB. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. not. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. equivalent to that . sometimes same. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. AS. meaning only.He yearned to our patriot bands.. (5) Adverb.²EMERSON. meaning except.

like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. (1) An adjective. and was clearly an adjective. .²CASS. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. I do with my friends as I do with my books. and is followed by a dative-objective. In this second use. like Martin was. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. but this is not considered good usage: for example. There is no statue like this living man. ²PARKMAN.²EMERSON.² A timid.²ALDRICH.²ALDRICH. like a cook beating eggs. Introduces a clause.²HAWTHORNE.² HAWTHORNE. They look.²MAYHEW. Note the difference between these two uses. like him awhile ago.²DARWIN. this. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²LAMB. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²EMERSON. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²HALLECK. Stirring it vigorously. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²HIGGINSON. staring like a bewildered man. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²LONGFELLOW. Through which they put their heads. and as or as if takes its place.LIKE. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.-SCOTT.²SHAKESPEARE. If the verb is expressed. That face. NOTE. nervous child. No Emperor. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. but its verb is omitted. This follows a verb or a verbal.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. Give Ruskin space enough. indeed. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. like summer ocean's. 333. like drops out. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. In each case.

"Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. 334. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.. Definition. in separating them into their component parts. but it still retains its identity as noun. etc. . it is necessary to become expert in analysis. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. entering into the structure of a sentence. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. What analysis is. 336. Value of analysis. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. subject and predicate. tut! buzz! etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. as. verb.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. that is. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.: for example." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion.²in determining case.INTERJECTIONS. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Definition. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. etc. pronoun. Some of these are imitative sounds. 335." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. that is." PART II. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.

A rare old plant is the ivy green. entreaty. or imperative. Examples of these three kinds are. old man?" "Be thou familiar. 338. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. according to form. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Every sentence must contain two parts. or request. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. "Come to the bridal chamber.Kinds of sentences as to form." 340. (3) Imperative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. (2) Interrogative. declarative. But now all is to be changed. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. "Hath he not always treasures. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. . but according to how many statements there are. "Old year. question. Division according to number of statements. "The quality of mercy is not strained. interrogative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. hence." "What wouldst thou do. always friends?" imperative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. 339. but by no means vulgar. which expresses command.²a subject and a predicate. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. Definition: Predicate. you must not die!" interrogative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. not according to the form in which a thought is put. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. or command: for example. 2. which puts the thought in a question. 337. This is the most common one. but the sentence would still be declarative. Definition.

²What is the ivy green? Answer. 4. as. to an ignorant man. The last of all the Bards was he. the subject is frequently after the verb. especially in poetry.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. In the interrogative sentence. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. 8. Consequently." Exercise. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. we have some trouble. always reduce them to the order of a statement. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. we say all is the subject of the sentence. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. all. and our definition must be the following. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something.²What is to be changed? Answer. 2. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Thus. In analyzing such sentences. a rare old plant. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. thou. the subject (you. 5. and the real subject is the latter. or an interrogative pronoun. Listen. But if we try this with the second sentence. or ye) is in most cases omitted. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Slavery they can have anywhere. on the other hand. . adjective. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 7. 3. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. but about the ivy green. 341. or adverb that asks about the subject. "[You] behold her single in the field. to suit all cases:² Subject. 6.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. not of a rare old plant. and is to be supplied. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves.

but it is a true complement. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (4) The complements. (2) The predicate. Direct Object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). 343. for example." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. in addition to the object.²transitive and intransitive. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (6) Independent elements. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. and by object we mean the direct object. . or second object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. Of a transitive verb. "Ye call me chief.10. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning." indirect. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. and me here is not the object simply of call. just as if to say. (3) The object. direct. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. 342." Complement: 344. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. Indirect object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (5) Modifiers. but chief belongs to the verb. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. The transitive verb often requires. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. but of call chief. and means summoned. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. "Ye honor me.

" Also an expression used as a noun. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. Thom of the Gills. more familiarly." 345." "He was termed Thomas. 'Ay. in the original Opium Confessions." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. and. 351. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. Complement of an intransitive verb. seem. Phrases. 364. for instance. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. taste." Things used as Subject. in exercise following Sec. feel.. as. in the popular judgment. 352. and barring the door." "The good man. especially the forms of be. See sentence 19. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. as in the sentence. sir!' rang out in response. to the completion of this man of the world. or." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . not containing a verb. 355. "Brow and head were round. become. As to form. 347. appear. but used as a single modifier." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. ay. A phrase is a group of words. "A cheery. An intransitive verb. he was now getting old. and of massive weight. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. above sixty. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. as in drowning." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." (3) INFINITIVE.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive." All these complete intransitive verbs. I mentioned a case of that nature. etc. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. introduced by a preposition: for example. 346. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." (2) PARTICIPIAL. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as.

Complement: Of an intransitive verb." etc." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. or their religion from their sect." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust).²the infinitive phrase. "'By God." In this sentence. . It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. 341.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. and by Saint George!' said the King. "Therein has been. for which see Sec. prowling eyes. or the thundering of organs. 349. and ever will be. (4) After "there introductory." The for did not belong there originally. but the real or logical subject is to print." "The dead are there. but they will be given in detail here. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." Things used as Direct Object. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. my deficiency. (2) In interrogative sentences. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. was heard one syllable to justify." Things used as Complement." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. asserting eyes." "Never. etc. I saw the quick and the dead." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral.²the talent of starting the game. Disguised infinitive subject." "There are asking eyes." 348. but obscures the real subject. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. from their lips.

" (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." "I hear the echoes throng. 351. and the words italicized are still complements. Like all the complements in this list. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. I." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. the object is made the subject by being passive.²completing the predicate. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways.²heads or tails. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. they are adjuncts of the object." . complements of the predicate. Modifiers of Subject. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. or Complement." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." (4) Participle. and. the shepherd girl." Modifiers." In this last sentence. As complement of an intransitive verb." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. (3) Infinitive. As complement of a transitive verb." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. and whenever the complement is a noun. Object." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.350. Of a transitive verb." "She asked her father's permission. doubtless. and explaining or modifying the subject. or the equivalent of the noun." "Serving others is serving us." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." "Their tempers. at the same time. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office.

" (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. but with other men. was the scene from King John. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "Give them not only noble teachings.²proud. or . or complement is modified." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. this young idolater. Modifiers of the Predicate." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. not with nature.²In each sentence in Sec. was now called upon for his defense. but it is really a contracted clause. object." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. "He died like a God." Exercise. given at the request of a Dutch lady." (For participial and infinitive phrases. but noble teachers." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. the prisoner at the bar." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. II. and modify the predicate in the same way. 357-363.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. tell whether the subject. 351. and leading him from star to star. unforgiving. 352." "In the twinkling of an eye. Since the predicate is always a verb. Retained with passive. the verb being omitted." "Him." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. Tells how." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. I have seasoned for thee." In such a sentence as. see further Secs. austere. no sociable angel." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet.

he liked. 2. is good in the making." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. and as many to oppose it. To the men of this world. On the voyage to Egypt. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. But anger drives a man to say anything.When the verb is changed from active to passive. and (direct) object:² 1. in this center? 4. 2. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. Why does the horizon hold me fast. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour.. etc. and. They do not wish to be lovely. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. 7. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. These answer the question when. how far. 3." "All such knowledge should be given her. gives wonderful animation. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. the indirect object is retained. 6." (6) Adverbial objective. to the animal strength and spirits. 4. 6. but to be loved. negative. 8. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. Fashion does not often caress the great. predicate." "One way lies hope. but the children of the great. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. (a) Pick out subject." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. 5. This. His books have no melody. a sort of personality to the whole writing." Exercises. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. with my joy and grief. Evil. no humor. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. I took. in regard to particulars. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 5. 3. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. or how long. predicate. 7. after dinner." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. no emotion. (b) Pick out the subject. and other measures of precaution. and the direct object is retained: for example. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. according to old philosophers. no relief to the dead prosaic level. .

. Their intention was to have a gay. in little peaceful Easedale. To suffer and to do. 6. I gave him an address to my friend. expecting the return of their parents. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. Unhorse me.y 8. upwards. this nun so martial. after their long confinement to a ship. this imperial rider. A river formed the boundary. 4. then. viz. the blooming cornet. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. must visit again the home of her childhood. then. 4.. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 3. to the right and to the left. happy dinner. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. Yes. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light.²the river Meuse. I felt myself.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. Compound Predicate. six children sat by a peat fire. 4. etc. a room seventeen feet by twelve. the present Archbishop of Dublin. burthened with the anxieties of a man. at the chief hotel. Paint me. 5. y y y y Compound Subject. In one feature. this dragoon so lovely. 2. and a member of the world. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. at length the warrior lady. 2. That night. for the first time. 5. downwards. the attorney. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 2. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. that was thy portion in life. Not compound sentences. 3. 3. Not the less I owe thee justice.

several modifiers. they are not a necessary part. etc. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. however. etc. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. Of this.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. in all such sentences as we quote below. ulcer. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. and its object or complement." "He shook his head. same as (1). "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. then the grammatical subject and predicate." "The name of the child." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. forming a sentence: "Oh. two or more subjects of the same predicate." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. I'm with you once again. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. in the sentence. that is. above: thus. complements. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. the air of the mother. Examples of compound subjects are." And so with complements.353." "Ye crags and peaks. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. etc." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. may be the person or thing addressed. Bishop. hurry. "Ah. the object. my brave young man!" . together with all its modifiers. 354. and the rest is the logical predicate. exposes. Larger view of a sentence. turned his steps homeward. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms." Sentences with compound predicates are. but it is to be noticed that. modifiers. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. the verb). The exclamatory expression.. the simple subject is situation. the predicate. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. the tone of her voice. together with its modifiers. hurry. and. shouldered the rusty firelock. For example. "The company broke up." "Voyages and travels I would also have. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. 355. Independent Elements of the Sentence.

and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. undoubtedly. 4)." "At all events. moreover. already noticed. nevertheless. 357. object. or word used as a noun: for example. modifying the predicate. "Oh." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. In their use. that have an office in the sentence. etc. six quill-driving gentlemen. 355. really." (2) Adverbial. generally speaking. see Sec. her noticing even this is creditable. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. The words well. . and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. pronoun. There are some adverbs. 350. yes! everybody knew them. 4).(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short.. such as however. 356. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. he somehow lived along. he closed his literary toils at dinner. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." (5) Participial phrase: "But. besides." "Truth to say. or complement (see Sec. truly." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. and some conjunctions. 6). this story runs thus. (1) Adjectival." (6) Single words: as. prepositional phrases may be. see Sec. how you're winking!" "Now. grandma. modifying a noun. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared." "Well. then. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. let him perish." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon." Another caution. These need close watching. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." (3) Independent. 351. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion.. such as perhaps. therefore. now. the company broke up. 352. he was a conscientious man. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. and so on. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "No. to the best of my remembrance. (b) As a modifier of subject." "Why. y (2) The adverbial use. instances of which were seen in Sec. why. etc. 3. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb.

but having no other office than a verbal one. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. Wilt thou." "There.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. modifying was speedily run through. This case excepted." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. The verbal use. See Sec.should. containing no matters of business. necessity." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. and they will be presented here in full. being equivalent to a future with obligation." etc.]. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes.can (could). INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." In this sentence. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every ." (c) With the definite forms of go. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. (5). and hence is adverbial. "Because I was.would. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. was speedily run through. 355. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. but require somewhat closer attention. y (a) With may (might). etc. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. or as nearly so as the student will require. ought. my dear. thus. 358. therefore. I.: as in the sentences. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. and teach her how to be happy and good. etc. he should not have known them at all. "The letter of introduction." (b) With the forms of be. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.seem.

"Do they not cause the heart to beat. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. etc. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. and the eyes to fill?" 359. is evident from the meaning of the sentences.: for example. explanatory of a noun preceding: as.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." "To teach is to learn. 361 are used adverbially. 5). result." "He insisted on his right to forget her. The adverbial use." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). to please is equivalent to that he may please. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. 351. The adjectival use.²both purpose clauses. The substantive use." "Are you mad. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. Don Guzman. etc. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. (4) In apposition." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. "But there was no time to be lost. To test this." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. II. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. III. IV. already examined. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. 362." 360. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. notice the following:² In (1). "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." "To say what good of fashion we can. complement." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. object." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. to hear McOrator after dinner. to look means that he might look. modifying a noun that may be a subject. . the Scotch fighting all the battles." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them.. above. hang the idiot. 361. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions.

(2) The object of the verb (Sec. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 351). 363. which is of two kinds. 2. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. give the complement (Secs. 4. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. (5) The subject (Sec.. Our life is March weather. 352). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. etc. not in a book. (3). to find shows the result of the return. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 349). 347). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. as in Sec. (7) Independent elements (Sec." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 3. 351). etc. 355.²both expressing condition. In (5). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions." (See also Sec.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 355). In analyzing simple sentences. In (3). . The independent use. 351). equivalent to that you betray. If it is an incomplete verb. and to say is equivalent to if we say. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. to part means because I part.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 268. to hear means if you should hear. must be in a life. In (4). object. give² (1) The predicate.In (2). Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. etc. savage and serene in one hour. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. I will try to keep the balance true.. V. 364.

nor money. the carrion crow. The whole figure and air. and only to be saved by invention and courage. Through the years and the centuries.The old crow of Cairo. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 9. nor himself. good and amiable otherwise. The word conscience has become almost confined. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 15. 5. always in a bad plight. and spared nothing. neither ammunition. 19. 11. 7. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. through evil agents. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 21. like a witch's oils. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 13. 17. 10. 23. to keep England out of war. just on the edge of destruction. 6. 14. a graceful dancer. to restore civil and religious order. through toys and atoms. We are always in peril. nor generals. 12. Old Adam. in popular use. a skilled musician. . to the moral sphere. is to have no political system at all. with eager energy. Her aims were simple and obvious. To be hurried away by every event. 18. nor troops.²to preserve her throne.4. 22. 24. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings.Burnt green and blue and white. The water. two stricken hours. I have heard Coleridge talk. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 8.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. might be called flabby and irresolute. and to the purpose.He sat in the shower. His opinion is always original. a good shot. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 20. and every moment discover something new. To these gifts of nature. 16. You may ramble a whole day together. He risked everything. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. an accomplished scholar.

or perhaps one virtue. 33. 35. Supposing this computation to be correct. I hate him and myself. the ship was in an uproar. This amiable relative. Must we in all things look for the how. Oxford. 27. 37. upon my own ground. it would not have been filial or ladylike. baggage far in the rear. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. and no provisions but wild berries. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. Fair name might he have handed down. 34.Effacing many a stain of former crime. an elderly man. 39.25. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. had but one foible. 38. in less heroic and poetic form. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. I dare this. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 41. to be a reproach to such goodness. time-honored. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. proud foe. Few in number. 29. 26. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. in this world. ready to receive her. But yield. the same Condé Olivarez. 32. haply. and. and in my own garden. Upon this shore stood. 31. and the wherefore? . secluded. to bid you leave the place now and forever. in front of all this mighty crowd. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. The cry.Distant. still. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 40. Now. She had made a two days' march. the prime minister of Spain. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Of the same grandeur. In the Acadian land. 30. the present capital of New England. 36. and the why. The villain.

As shown in Part I. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. as would be the connective instead of like." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly.From her own loved island of sorrow. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 367. 366. however. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. The simple sentence the basis." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom." This must. made merely for convenience and smoothness." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. the pride and beauty of the grove. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." To show that these words are really omitted. though often treated as phrases. but. COMPLEX SENTENCES. as. if they were expanded. (Sec. 333). Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence.CONTRACTED SENTENCES." Sentences with like. which is the unit of speech. Words left out after than or as." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 365. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences.² "She is like some tender tree. . thus. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. are really contracted clauses.

..²the backbone.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. each clause has its subject. complement. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. or it may be applied to the others. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. A principal. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. as in this sentence. A clause is a division of a sentence. 368. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. or dependent on it. that . logically depends on suffering. murmur. that is. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. object. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. and modifier.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. 370. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. containing a verb with its subject.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. and the last. etc. which are so united that one member is the main one. Definition. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind.. main. Independent clause.. predicate. complements. modifiers. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. how great .. and the next one. Hence the following definition:² Definition. 369. 371. suffering. object. we are aware.²the other members subordinate to it. is taken in. CLAUSES.

but logically the sentence is.. clauses are divided into NOUN." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. and the whole clause is not. for example. for a hundred years. and it is . impertinences.' is an electric touch.. ADJECTIVE. for a time.." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. 'I know that he can toil terribly. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. 352. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some... for example. over which the torrent came tumbling. attention is called to them here. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns." (4) Apposition. put an end to my fancies. etc. or adverbs. (b) that are ." (2) Object of a verb." 374. thus." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. and ADVERB clauses. adjectives. (a) Ordinary apposition. pronoun. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. so the object clause is retained. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. impertinences²would be grammatical. 5). verbal. infinitive..² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. As to their office in the sentence. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. 372. with a noun clause in apposition with it. We ourselves are getting . that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. 373. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." "I was told that the house had not been shut." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. . Noun Clauses. But since they are complex in form. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject." Just as the object noun..Dependent clause. night or day. Kinds.

that. and not on the sentiment. Frequently there is no connecting word. in the sentence. wherein. But the fact is. that. that he was a scheming impostor. a falsehood incarnate. 375. etc. 3. but." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. whence. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 5. 8." Exercise. 2. Other examples of this construction are. as. still remains reasonable. no man will ever know. whereby. 4. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. sometimes by the conjunctions when. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Except by what he could see for himself. What history it had. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Adjective Clauses. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 9. where. or equivalent of a noun. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Such a man is what we call an original man. whether he should choose one or not. 10. that all safe legislation must be based. The reply of Socrates. 7. . the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. he would repent it. of a nation. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun.² "It is on the understanding. Examples of adjective clauses. a relative pronoun being understood. 6. As the office of an adjective is to modify. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. whither. which. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. he could know nothing.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. how it changed from shape to shape. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. I was napping. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity.

whether subject." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. Adverbial Clauses. 5. he begins to help us more as an effect. and tell what each one modifies. 2. which formed the center of the mansion. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place.. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. the champions advanced through the lists. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. 4. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. etc. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. Pick out the adjective clauses. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. object." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle.e. 9. or that essence we were looking for. 6. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 1. i. all is vacancy. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 3. 8. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. which Rowena tasted. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." Exercise. 11. . who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. I walked home with Calhoun. 7. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. No man is reason or illumination. 10." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.376.

that we should try. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. is wider." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. tell what kind each is. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. introduced by indefinite relatives. and what it modifies:² . etc. 378.." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. shaping our actions. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. it takes precedence of everything else. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." "When he was come up to Christian. no matter what remains." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. and adverbial conjunctions. an adjective. adverbs. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. to make up our shortcomings." "The right conclusion is. whatever. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. but they require careful study." (7) RESULT." (5) DEGREE. etc." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." "After leaving the whole party under the table. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. however good she may be as a witness." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. expressing the degree in which the horizon. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. etc." "The broader their education is. Exercise. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." (3) REASON." These mean no matter how good. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. with examples. since he was too great to care to be original." (9) CONCESSION. however. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal.377. the wider is the horizon of their thought. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. Joanna is better. and will be given in detail." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. the milestones are grave-stones." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future.: "But still. or an adverb. he goes away as if nothing had happened. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. a verbal. so far as we can." "Who cares for that. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience.² whoever." "He went several times to England.

in the sentence. they might perhaps say of their visitors. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. its object is that Odin was a reality. predicate. For example." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. as they sometimes did. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas." 2. and twirling weathercocks. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. incoherent exclamations. howling and whistling. we are a little disappointed. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. etc. If the children gathered about her. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. 'Well. on a dark wintry night. 379. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. so as to picture the parts and their relations. to tell the truth. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . banging about doors and windows. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. then treat noun clauses as nouns. of which clause Odin is the subject. with shrill. 3. 380. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it.1. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. snatching up stones to fling at them.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. and modifiers. find the principal subject and principal predicate. object. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. when the wind was unruly.

2. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. as seen in the "map" (Sec. Exercises. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.. (1) Find the principal clause.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 3. . That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 364. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. d. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .. 364. 380).

19. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. Now. whom I choose. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 16. I like that representation they have of the tree. 8. which. This is she. Here lay two great roads. the mixed result. 10. namely. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. could not have been effected. But now that she has become an establishment. 18. as for armies that were too many by half. if applied to the Bible. 24. 15. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. M. counselor that had none for herself. 5. 6. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 20. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. had we been worse. 22. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 14. 12. dying for them. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 7. The night proved unusually dark. 23. 13. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. the flower should revive for us. 9. or whether any. He was what our country people call an old one. And those will often pity that weakness most. . 17. the shepherd girl. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. for yours. of a light hazel. Next came a wretched Dominican.4. 11. that pressed her with an objection. Had they been better chemists. The deep eyes. bishop. who would yield to it least. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. that. not so much for travelers that were few. 21. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve.

"No book. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength.² Definition. the following complex sentences:² 1. 382. would easily reach. 383." 4. and temper. is to speak and write sincerely. How formed. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. that it was no more than his daily walk. though we may repeat the words never so often. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 30. we cannot adequately say.²which will not be disposed of. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 5. (b) First analyze. and stamped with his right number. COMPOUND SENTENCES. It makes no difference how many friends I have. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. if continuously extended. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. if there be one to whom I am not equal. These things we are forced to say. 2. but above it. . Hence the definition. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 28. 3. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 26. That which we do not believe." said Bentley. 6. 27.25. or commands. questions. speed. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. then map out as in Sec. 7. "was ever written down by any but itself. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 380. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. and not from his heart.

385. now adverbs or prepositions. while (whilst). the planet has a faint. etc. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. nor. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). in (2). The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. others sometimes coördinate. or but. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. The division into members will be easier. in (3)." 384. if there are any. the semicolon separates the first. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. he soliloquizes.. whereas. 386. 383 (1). a complex member. Of the following illustrative sentences. "Only the star dazzles." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. . Speak your latent conviction. and it shall be the universal sense." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. which are simple statements. a simple member. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. Thus in (1). for. as in Sec. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. 297). for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. Exercise. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. nor does he know until he has tried. Some of these are now conjunctions. from the second. he walks with arms akimbo. however. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Connectives. Another example is. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. and not the form of the connective. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. etc. Study the thought.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. he dilates. and which complex:² 1. and nor the second and third complex members. tell which are compound. The coördinate conjunctions and. as but. moon-like ray" (adversative). he is twice a man. the waving grass. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and connects the first and second complex members. yet.

(3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. Exercise. (i) Separate it into its main members. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. . to find a pot of buried gold. Whilst the world is thus dual. 381. quiet.2. from a happy yet often pensive child. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 8. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 13. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. you lose something. 387. For everything you have missed. 14. 9. yield to them heart and life. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. All loss. I can yet love. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 6. you have gained something else. 7. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. the tax is certain. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. The gain is apparent. and for everything you gain. unobtrusive boy. and as yet very early in the morning. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 5. 3. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. however. so is every one of its parts. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. 2. In this manner. and not by what each is. 12. Love. 4. 3. 10. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. and thou shalt be loved. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 4. is particular. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. or. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 364. passed in that time. I can still receive. nay. he grew up to be a mild. all pain. Man does not stand in awe of man. 11. that it was Easter Sunday. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. for example.

and the peace of society is often kept. "the iron is white. and they will show themselves great. and makes their business a friendship. or we read books. feign to confess here. abide by it. crook and hide. and you are without effort impelled to truth. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. Stand aside." says the haymaker. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. Trust men. 17. We see the noble afar off. whilst frankness invites frankness. as children. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. or sail with God the seas. which always make the Actual ridiculous. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats.5. They will shuffle and crow. that let him communicate. 7. We go to Europe. and the other dares not. and they will be true to you. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. puts the parties on a convenient footing. because." says the smith. modesty. or men will never know and honor him aright. or hope. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. 16. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. treat them greatly. When you have chosen your part. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. "as nigh the scythe as you can. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. . Times of heroism are generally times of terror. "Strike. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 20. 15. only that they may brag and conquer there. and he learns who receives. and each shows only what lies at its focus. one is afraid. and not a thought has enriched either party. Whatever he knows and thinks. Come into port greatly. and they repel us. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. let them mount and expand. 21. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 14." 13. He teaches who gives. 6. 9. 8. give those merits room. and not an emotion of bravery. or we pursue persons. 19. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June." "keep the rake. why should we intrude? 10. if you rip up his claims. is as thin and timid as any. 11. and the cart as nigh the rake. 18.

it ends in headache. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. it never was known to fall into the rear. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms.22. and dodge the account. or. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . so readily and lavishly they promise. 23. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. pronoun and antecedent. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. but its leading characteristic is. We see young men who owe us a new world. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Ground covered by syntax. but go about your business anywhere. 390. 380. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. By way of introduction. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent.²agreement and government. but they never acquit the debt. SYNTAX. they die young. Following the Latin method. 24. Do not craze yourself with thinking. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. if they live. they lose themselves in the crowd. So does culture with us. Essential point in English syntax. verb and subject. PART III. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 25. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. 388. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. adjective and noun. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. INTRODUCTORY.

Why study syntax? 391. as to study inflected forms. pronoun and antecedent. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. and nothing but important points will be considered. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. both forms will be given in the following pages. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's." In this there is a possessive form. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. also expressing a possessive relation. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. Savage may be the subject. As an illustration of the last remark. Second. In Latin. some of which conform to classical grammar. 393. therefore. For example. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree." is ambiguous. 392. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. In some cases.² First." that is. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. Also in the sentence. . or when they exist side by side in good usage. authorities²that is. or the same writer will use both indifferently. the sentence. "None remained but he. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. and added to it the preposition of. and whose judgment. There is. sometimes verb and subject. good English. distinct forms would be used. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Some rules not rigid." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. "The savage here the settler slew. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. but are not now. When usage varies as to a given construction. The basis of syntax. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. take the sentence. This is not logical. etc. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. and it would not matter which one stood first. following the regular order of subject. then. or settler may be the subject. the order being inverted. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. and imitate it.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly.

When two or more possessives modify the same noun. sense and nature's easy fool. but imply separate possession or ownership. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. and Paul's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. PRONOUNS. He kept Bolingbroke's. Joint possession. ²ID. Separate possession. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Use of the possessive. 394." Juletta tells. as. for example. Putting Mr. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Bentham's principles together.NOUNS. or indicate joint ownership or possession. and Pope's. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²EMERSON. and Peter's. 395. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. and Harley's. the antechamber of the High Priest.² He lands us on a grassy stage.²MILTON. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²BYRON.²ROWE. 396. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²RUSKIN. the shore of Galilee. Mill's and Mr. and Peterborough's. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. 408).²MACAULAY. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. 397. etc.² Live your king and country's best support.²MCCULLOCH. Woman.²THACKERAY. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. the possessive sign is used with each noun. .

Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Since most of the personal pronouns. This should be "as she. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.²SOUTHEY. the real thought being forgotten.²THACKERAY. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. 399. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. General rules. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). thus. Objective for the nominative. No mightier than thyself or me. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. for example.²POPE. if not universally. .² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. 398.²SHAKESPEARE. whom is the complement after the verb am.²WHITCHER. Bedott Papers. together with the relative who. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.²TROLLOPE. there are two general rules that require attention. who." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is." 400.²BYRON. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.) "The young Harper. Some of the violations are universally condemned. sanctioned. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. and should be the nominative form. as. But he must be a stronger than thee. Still. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. I. the last expression has the support of many good writers. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. others are generally.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.

is. I have no other saint than thou to pray to."²KINGSLEY. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. In spoken English. the objective form is regularly found. for example.²SCOTT.²COLERIDGE. "If there is any one embarrassed. "Than whom. A safe rule." 401. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²PARTON. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. unless a special. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. The usage is too common to need further examples.²THACKERAY. One exception is to be noted. on the other hand. "Who's there?"²"Me. but such is the fact.²RUSKIN.² One I remember especially.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. are. Patrick the Porter. . they are yet holier than we.² For there was little doubt that it was he.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²MACAULAY. But still it is not she. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent." There is no special reason for this."²WM. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. The camp of Richard of England. BLACK. namely.²KINGSLEY. as. and the other forms of the verb be. it will not be me. both in England and America. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was."²WINTHROP. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²LONGFELLOW. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²FIELDING. And it was heThat made the ship to go. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON.

The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. object of saw). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 7. 9. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. verbal.Exercise. 11. or preposition which governs it. as this from Shakespeare.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID." 6. as. It is not me you are in love with. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. Me in exclamations. as. now. Truth is mightier than us all. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. used after verbs. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. but not he" (he should be him. 403. 404. and prepositions. verbals. (3) By forgetting the construction. I speak not to" (he should be him. . 2. If there ever was a rogue in the world." the word being in apposition with murderer). "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 5. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. the object of to). giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 4. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Whom they were I really cannot specify.²MILTON. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. or this. it is me. 8.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 10. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. "Ask the murderer. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. as. 3. or us). he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. Nominative for the objective. you or me. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it.

He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. as. Exercise. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Who have we here?²ID. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. but he. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²GOLDSMITH. as. I arraign. for they say there are none such in the world.²KINGSLEY. Exception 2. Nature.²KINGSLEY.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.Shall be left upon the morn.²BYRON. for example. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. I've sworn. who interrogative. "Who did you see?" or. 406. changed in all save thee.²KINGSLEY.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.Exception 1.²STEELE. save thou and thine. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Thy shores are empires.² All were knocked down but us two. and is usually avoided. after the preposition but (sometimes save). None. "Who were they talking to?" etc. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. etc. all but he. Thou. as well as the objective.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²BYRON. partial Nature. 405. We regularly say. . It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Let you and I look at these. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. 2.

8. 12. They are coming for a visit to she and I. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. They crowned him long ago. 10." 4.²THACKERAY. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St.²possessive. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.3. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. II. 5. Markland. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. BROWN. or objective? . 11. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.Ye I salute. with Jortin and Thirlby. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²C. B. and they know that as well as me. 6. As antecedent of a relative. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 7. This usage is not frequent. 407. Preceding a gerund. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. who.²SCOTT. Bartholomew.²DE QUINCEY. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 9.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.

²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. and asked why it was not made. and the meaning is." That is. In the examples quoted. The use of the objective is older. as he turned away from his wife.²CARLYLE. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind.² IRVING. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. studying is a gerund. and that in the second. object of heard of.² THACKERAY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. both are gerunds. sometimes it has the objective. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. etc.² SCOTT. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. Why both are found. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. But in common use there is no such distinction. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. The last incident which I recollect.²DICKENS.408. Both types of sentences are found. Objective.²MACAULAY. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.² CARLYLE. Possessive. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. . should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. [who was] studying law.²BREWER. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. Here I state them only in brief. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. that the bitterness of death was past. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. We heard of Brown.

The pale realms of shade. In such a case as the last three sentences. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²HOLMES.²RUSKIN.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. Every city threw open its gates. Watch for the real antecedent. number. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. If any one did not know it. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²THOREAU.²HUXLEY.²CABLE. in one person. taking in each of many persons.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²DE QUINCEY. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²EMERSON III. 410.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. and gender. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY.² BRYANT.²AUDUBON. . or is a distributive word. where there were examinations. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. if the antecedent is neuter. Examples of these constructions are. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²C. and ought to agree with them in person. it was his own fault.²DEFOE. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. Everybody had his own life to think of. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. BROCKDEN BROWN.²when the antecedent. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. the pronoun will be neuter singular. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. preceded by a distributive. 409.

Every one must judge of their own feelings. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²DEFOE.² Not the feeblest grandame. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. The sun. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. 411.²SCOTT. Whosoever hath any gold. not a mowing idiot. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. for example.²PALGRAVE.²ID. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. If the part deserve any comment. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. .²HUXLEY.²RUSKIN.²FIELDING. as anybody in their senses would have done. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. This is not considered the best usage. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²BYRON. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. till they have lost him. let them break it off. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²ID. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²EMERSON.²AUSTEN.²PALEY.²THACKERAY. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. and giving them means of being so.²BIBLE.Avoided: By using both pronouns. By using the plural pronoun. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Struggling for life. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²PAULDING.

412. What these terms mean. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating.²ID. As to their conjunctive use. that being considered already clear. or unrestrictive. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. Exercise. or what was become of her. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. when coördinating. That is in most cases restrictive. and that always restrictive. and that may be coördinating or restrictive." A relative. and he went away. no one could take upon them to say. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. ." This means. when restrictive. In the following examples. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. It adds a new statement to what precedes. I. 413. 2. which. and does not add a new statement. "I gave it to the beggar. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. in each instance:² Who.²ADDISON. etc. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.Where she was gone. as. A relative. because.² SHERIDAN. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive." It defines beggar. and that are restrictive or not. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. according to the practice of every modern writer. the definite relatives who. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. but.²HAWTHORNE. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. who went away. 1.) and a personal pronoun. but. unless both genders are implied. Exercise. which. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.²In the above sentences. tell whether who.

as that does not vary for person or number. because of its antecedent. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 4. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. which was to go over the Cordilleras.3. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. W. 11. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. BEECHER 5. . 12. that were often vicious. The rule. With narrow shoulders. 14. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.² NEWMAN.² CARLYLE. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.²ID. A grizzly-looking man appeared." that is invariable as to person and number. in the sentence. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.² IRVING. In what sense true. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.²H. So different from the wild. II. they. Hare has printed. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. Yet how many are there who up. 13. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. long arms and legs. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.² MOTLEY. 414. We say I. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. and over England are saying. down. Which. he. etc. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.²HOLMES. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. she agreed to join the party. these or that which. 8. 6. etc. For example.²DE QUINCEY. 10.. etc. and it is called logic. On hearing their plan. you.²ID.²THOREAU. That. it makes the verb third person singular. 7. However.²DE QUINCEY. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. who. The general rule is. but. 9. which Mr.²ADDISON.

²M. [plural] that who. JR. "one of the finest books that has been published.²LECKY. T. with one as the principal word... He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. "one of the finest books that have been published.²ADDISON. but the former has good authority. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²LOWELL. etc. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. and write the verb in the plural.. [singular or plural. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.²HOLMES. the true antecedent. French literature of the eighteenth century.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.. The fiery youth . Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. ARNOLD.²SCOTT.. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. Franklin. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. Singular. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. He is one of those that deserve very well. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed." One of . who rarely speak at all.²LOWELL..²J." or. Let us be of good cheer. when he derided the shams of society. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. but speaks of him as that sort. others regard books as the antecedent. or which . A disputed point. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²BOWLES. 415.] Both constructions are frequently found. . It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. etc. in winning a battle. and in improving a victory.²HOWELLS. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. but myself.²whether we should say. The latter is rather more frequent.²MACAULAY. MORSE..²ADDISON.

THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²EMERSON. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. 417. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. and see if the sentence is made clearer. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed."²DICKENS. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. return. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²VAUGHAN. object of a preposition understood.²In the above sentences. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²SCOTT. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. when the relative word is a pronoun.²ID. or where] he died. The same day I went aboard we set sail.And.A rare Roundabout performance. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.² . Exercise. But I by backward steps would move. III. I could see nothing except the sky.²SWIFT. whence. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²ADDISON.²CARLYLE.²DEFOE. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. IV.In that same state I came. and such like: as. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.² RUSKIN. that is. when this dust falls to the urn. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. where. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²EMERSON.²BURNS.² THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²IRVING.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. 416." "India is the place [in which.

.² THACKERAY. ²GOLDSMITH. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from as his apprentice. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. CHURCH. but we find the relative who. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²FRANKLIN. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. but. and working in the same spirit. but which is usually carefully avoided. as is not used. etc. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.. or that. with Turner. she passed the lamp over her face and person. which.²SWIFT. if I had resolved to go on with.²WORDSWORTH. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.² MACAULAY. he. Which. Caution.² BURKE. was a discoverer.²SCOTT. 418. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. V. if same is followed by a complete clause. as of knives.²R. The regular construction. looking-glasses. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²ADDISON. boats. W.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. for example.He considered.² Which. Mr. They believe the same of all the works of art. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. I might as well have staid at home. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. Anacoluthic use of which. That.

he said that all submission was now too late. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and who are now. or.²THACKERAY. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. etc. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. etc.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. and this be placed in the proper clause. now thrown upon their. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. once a great favorite of M. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. And who. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.. This was a gentleman. but none is expressed. Express both relatives.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them." etc." etc. After this came Elizabeth herself." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. But who.²which if they once heard. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.²GOLDSMITH.She'd come again." etc. (2) "Among the poorer sort. Thornhill had read.²SHAKESPEARE. He delivered the letter..² Direction for rewriting. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. but. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. 2. . and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.²RUSKIN. or omit the conjunction.²SCOTT. (3) "Among the poorer sort.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. and which. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.²HAWTHORNE. 3. (1) "Among those who are poor. As the sentences stand. which when Mr. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. 1. who are now thrown.²DE QUINCEY. 4. le Conte. 419. That is. Exercise. Exercise. or leave out both connective and relative.

"What knight so craven. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 9. I saw upon the left a scene far different. I shall have complete copies. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. Dr. . The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin.² MOTLEY. 11.5. 8. etc. who. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. and which has never been described. which the Scotch had learned..²PEARSON.²DE QUINCEY. And which. and to whom no door is closed.²SCOTT. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. like that spoken in the towns. etc. Akin to the above is another fault. 10. 12.. Or who. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. and which may even be heard a mile off. the French.²SCOTT. as a false and astucious mark.²IRVING. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. 1." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. But which. English by name. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. That . then. "A mockery. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. one of signal interest. 420. and repeat this for any further reference. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence..²DE QUINCEY.. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. either from imitation of their frequent allies. 13. 6. 7. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. and which. Or which. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. indeed.

13. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. at the head of what.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. I recommend some honest manual calling. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. that . which. in his present condition. 12. He. E. In my native town of Salem. . He flung into literature. The Tree Igdrasil. that. what. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.. 11. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. Which . 5. the cent. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. G. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.²W. I grudge the dollar. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.²HOLMES. 14. 10.. whom.. 4. Such as . but which is perhaps not so different from it..²EMERSON. half a century ago. in his Mephistopheles. I give to such men as do not belong to me. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.... now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. Such as . was a bustling wharf.. and whose examples and principles we inherit.²W. and to whom I do not belong. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²DE QUINCEY. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.2.²BEECHER. It rose into a thrilling passion. which.²SCOTT That which . even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. That . 15. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. SIMMS. 6.²EMERSON. CHANNING.. but which. such as they have very probably been bred to. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. 3. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.²HAWTHORNE.²DEFOE.²SCOTT. 9.. 8.²HOWELLS. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 7. the dime. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity...²HALLAM. was hung in air.

into the high pavilion of their thoughts. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. England was then divided between kings and Druids. one another.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²DICKENS. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. 422. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. as. always at war with one another.²RUSKIN. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Use of any. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. By their original meaning. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. as it were. and in want of his gold²or his corn. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²ID.²EMERSON. 421. We call ourselves a rich nation. Assume that no one is in want of either. Distributives either and neither.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. Each other. .²GOLDSMITH. in which case any should be used instead. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. whether or not the two are equivalent.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.² HAWTHORNE.²HAWTHORNE. as.² Some one must be poor. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. that not all combined. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. for example.

during his stay at Yuste. If any of you lack wisdom. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.. even in Bettine. None usually plural. Any usually plural.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. Do you think. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. when any of them are so good as to visit me. as. then in Plotinus. any was often singular. then in Plutarch. before that.. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. in the prose of the present day. usually plural. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. 423. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. let him ask of God. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). as. in Shakespeare.²FRANKLIN. at one time in Bacon. Examples of its use are.²THACKERAY. that I know of.. The adjective pronoun none is. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. which is plural as often as singular. whilst I still cherish their genius.²BEECHER Whenever. 424. as none of the French philosophers were.²EMERSON. etc. Do you think. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.²BIBLE.²BURKE.²STIRLING. for him have I offended. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. Caution. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . None of Nature's powers do better service.²PROF. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. any of his friends had died. speak. I beseech you. afterwards in Goethe. if ever man was.² If any. In earlier Modern English.² EMERSON. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.²SCOTT. and is isolated.²SHAKESPEARE.²CARLYLE. .² In earnest.

But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. as. and all was lost on the other. 425.²McMASTER. the plural. saving Naaman the Syrian. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. when it means all persons: for example.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. etc. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. that all was lost. and less rarely in poetry.²SCOTT Like the use of any.. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. etc. etc. fixing his eyes on the mace. are treated as units. When all were gone.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.. nobody else. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. for example. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.² PEARSON. The light troops thought .²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. and Ford has nobody's else.² None of them was cleansed. etc.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell..²NAPIER Plural. any one else.²THOREAU. The compounds somebody else.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. Somebody's else.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. or somebody else's? 426. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.² Singular.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. which is used absolutely.

" "those kind of trees. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.² FIELDING. London. These sort.curled once all over it in long tendrils.SYDNEY SMITH.²SHERIDAN.²G. unlike anybody else's in the world. P.. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. the adjectives plural. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.²in such as "these sort of books." the nouns being singular."²MRS.² Saturday Review.²SWEET. or some other such great man as a bishop. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. all manner of. "Ye see.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. . I hoped we had done with those sort of things. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots." "all manner of men.²THACKERAY. or those sort of people. for example. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. ADJECTIVES.²N. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. His hair. WILLIS. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. STOWE.²DICKENS.²AUSTEN.²RUSKIN.²MULOCH. etc.²RUSKIN. 427. Whitefield or Wesley. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. Again.² These kind of knaves I know. etc. ELIOT..

why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. Later form. In Old and Middle English.² Which is the better able to defend himself. they said. This the modern expression reverses." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). and the adjective is.²RUSKIN. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The result. Of two such lessons. in spoken English. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. or the nouns to the plural. to express a higher degree of quality.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. gradually displacing the old. Burke's sentence. Use of the comparative degree. the victor or the vanquished. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. 428. "This sort of trees should be planted." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. not "all kinds of wild animals. Consequently we have a confused expression. Should we say. At the source.² PRESCOTT. made to agree with it.The library was open. which accounts for the construction. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. with all manner of amusing books. and in this way may take a plural verb. when the necessary dispositions concur. History of this construction. for example. such as. "This kind of rules are the best. as. or one object with a class of objects." A question. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. more alarming than a total silence. . "These kind of trees are best. According to the approved usage of Modern English.

perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. than any of his court. 2. by almost the breadth of my nail. Use of the superlative degree. the highest stakes are paid.²CARLYLE. would not have had the face. 6. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²HUXLEY. He is taller.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Superlative with two objects. Gary. if not.²TROLLOPE.²MACAULAY. etc. 5. To the man who plays well. Henry. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 4. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. I am concerned to see that Mr. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. Other after the comparative form. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²MACAULAY. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. has sanctioned. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²LOWELL.²HAWTHORNE."²ID.²SWIFT. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²SCOTT. Even Dodd himself. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 430. .²THACKERAY.² THACKERAY. Exercise. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 3. 429.²WIRT.

²ADDISON. and the other contains the best men. OLIPHANT.²J. Examples from Shakespeare are. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party."²BULWER.²RUSKIN. Also from the same period. In all disputes between States. CÆSAR.²DR BLAIR.²Bible. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. The eldest. not a bit of high life among them. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²IRVING. I should say that one has the best cause. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. 1611. Rip was one of those . After the most straitest sect of our religion. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²HAMLET."²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT.²GOLDSMITH. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. and differ only in form. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him..² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. The following examples are used purposely. Come you more nearer. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. .. whichever can be got easiest.²TEMPEST.²EMERSON. who eat white bread or brown."²HAWTHORNE.²MRS. "Ha. These two properties seem essential to wit.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. ha. more particularly the last of them. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. 431.²BEN JONSON. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. Double comparative and superlative. Mary.

Instances of both are given below. Examples of this construction are. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. For Carlyle. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. and conceit in the last. ARTICLES. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.² SMOLLETT. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. but in literary English. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. Definite article.²LAMB. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²ADDISON. the Spanish.²RUSKIN. Three first. First three. jar upon us constantly. etc.²GIBBON.² With a singular noun. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The delay in the first three lines. not only so in popular speech. and Secretary Walsingham also.²DE QUINCEY. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. The merit of the Barb.²RUSKIN. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. ²COWPER.²GIBBON. 433. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²PRESCOTT. . The first five had specific names. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The meaning intended is the same. etc. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²KINGSLEY. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. As to these two expressions.

The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. however.. I think. with a plural noun. The flowers. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. No.²SCOTT.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. having been arranged. but is used with one only. Frequently.²NEWMAN. With a plural noun. the thought and the word. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. The lofty. to distinguish clearly. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. 433. melodious.² MACAULAY. or to emphasize the meaning. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. He is master of the two-fold Logos.²TAYLOR. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. One object and several modifiers. 435. and flexible language. and the presents. distinct. with a singular noun.. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²TENNYSON. Indefinite article. Origin of the Aryans. . of the eighteenth century. Here the youth of both sexes. Meaning same as in Sec. the hour of parting came. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. as. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .²MACAULAY.²ID.² RUSKIN. as. The not repeated. 434. 433. as in Sec. 1508. but inseparable from each other.²THE NATION.²PRESCOTT. of the higher and middling orders. the greatest poems. were placed at a very tender age.

JONSON. rich. 435. In the sentences of Secs. For rhetorical effect. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²BEECHER. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. Examples of this use are.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 436). only one of which is expressed. and inexhausted vein. as.An early. a collegian.²MACAULAY.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. a murderer.²S. . Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. He saw him in his mind's eye. But in the following sentences.² MACAULAY. as in the first three of Sec.²DICKENS. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 438. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.²BULWER. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. to limit two or more modified nouns.²B.436. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. one noun is expressed. like the definite article." and "a red and a white geranium.²MACAULAY. The indefinite article is used. The indefinite article (compare Sec. COLERIDGE. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.² BURKE. 437. One article with several adjectives.²DRYDEN. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. T. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²THACKERAY. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. or clearness to each of several nouns.²JOHNSON. a round and a square one alternately. 433 and 436. interest. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. and a usurper. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. a tyrant.

. ARNOLD.²FROUDE.²COOPER. Singular verb.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. Such. was the earliest American land. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. all that academies can give. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. like some others in this series. and the following illustrations prove it. . Another writer might.²GIBBON. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. ELIOT. Singulars connected by or or nor. In English.²W. then. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. as. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. 276. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. He sees that it is better to live in peace. 439.²M.²The Nation. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. 440. for example. A broad and loose rule.²G. without academies. Collective noun of singular meaning. or the great intellectual life of our nation. This was spoken of in Part I.²AGASSIZ. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.VERBS. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. Sec.²CARLYLE This usage. has got already. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. as. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.

as. for example.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²DE QUINCEY. other names. A fever.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. but considered as meaning about the same thing.²GIBBON.²WHITTIER.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.Jesus is not dead. but each one emphatic.²BURKE.² In a word.²CRITIC. is gone. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. No. a loss of friends. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. nor Mahomet. that of a large town. or as making up one general idea. the cheap defense of nations. and other singulars of plural form. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. and every four hours.² The unbought grace of life. as. a mutilation.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. nor Paul. ADAMS. (4) When the subject is plural in form. Q. Plural form and singular meaning.²EMERSON . for example. a cruel disappointment. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²J. a loss of wealth.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. seems at the moment unpaid loss. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. or considered as appositional.² GOLDSMITH. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. Between ourselves.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. ²EMERSON. nor John.²GOLDSMITH. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.

with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. sir!" and the "What then.²M ARNOLD. There is a moving tone of voice. no matter if the second is plural). every boor. the dismay. with death.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. a gorget. thus. every valet. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²MACAULAY. Every sound. To receive presents or a bribe. as well as the Drama.² Asia. and greaves. an impassioned countenance. almost every day. as well as Europe.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. every echo. as well as the newest. in a judge. Her back.²RUSKIN. Every fop. 441.²BUTLER. the partisan. Plural verb.²NEWMAN. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. an agitated gesture. Every week. Here is no ruin.The rout.²ID. Then comes the "Why. no spent ball. does not take the place of the man. The oldest. was like to crack. as.The author. nay.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²LONGFELLOW. many a. the fine gentleman. sir?" and the "No. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. Subjects after the verb. as. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.² . the ruin. The Epic.² There is a right and a wrong in them. wineBegins to stir itself.²ID. each. a cuirass. is a man of wit.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. no discontinuity. and such like adjectives. For wide is heard the thundering fray. was dazzled. as well as sides. sir!"²MACAULAY. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. was listened to for five hours.²EMERSON. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²SCOTT. was punished.²HAWTHORNE.²PRESCOTT. no. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. the wit.

Far.²SWIFT. .² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²ADDISON. a stream of fresh water.²COLERIDGE. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. All our household are at rest. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. as.²FROUDE. far away thy children leave the land.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. A shady grove. but the verb is plural. its date.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. of whom there were a number. The conjunction may be omitted. as in Sec.²THOREAU. The travelers. A party of workmen were removing the horses. making up a plural subject. b).²EMERSON. 440 (5. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. the Duke of Berri. Philip of Anjou. a green pasture.²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. for example. are sufficient to attract a colony. as with a subject of plural form. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. and its history are alike a mystery to us. Conjunction omitted. were men of insignificant characters. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²B.² A multitude go mad about it. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.² GIBBON.²FRANKLIN.²SCOTT. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²FROUDE. as. The Dauphin.²GIBBON. His clothes. TAYLOR. shirt.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²CARLYLE But its authorship.

but thou. nor has she"). "He or I can go. "I have never said so. hadst been my lord.²LOWELL.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. the verb takes the construction of the first person. ARNOLD. 444." "She or you may be sure. his blood dost shed. WEBSTER. You and I are farmers. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. General usage.²SMOLLETT. If there is only one person in the subject." etc. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. 442. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²ROWE. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. Second or third and first person in the subject. Ah." or.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. This construction is at the best a little awkward.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²RUSKIN. but thou. Nothing which Mr. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. Not I. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. for example. we never talk politics. You and I are tolerably modest people.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. . Exceptional examples. "You would not be wiser.But notice the construction of this.²D. 443. of different persons.²BYRON. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. the subject being really equivalent to we.²WHITTIER.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²GOLDSMITH.²M. that is. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. as. Not Altamont.). When the subjects. nor should I. Pattison or I have said.

the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. Neither of their counselors were to be present. In this sentence from Defoe. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 3. which it is proper to mention. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. In the following sentence. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 2. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.445. BANCROFT. as we would hope. 10. Neither of them.Her course to intercept. 440-444):² 1.² TROLLOPE. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Also in verbals.²G.²MILTON. 8. 12.²and. nor bush are there. Nor wood. 4. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²perhaps the devil.²BURKE. 11.²ADDISON. in my opinion.²BYRON.²EMERSON. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. In a word. Both death and I am found eternal. nor tree.²SMOLLETT. 5. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 9. 6.²ID. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²ADDISON.That neither of their intellects are vast. as illustrated above (Secs. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). The following illustrate exceptional usage.²SCOTT. Exercise. 7. 446. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. How each of these professions are crowded. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²THACKERAY. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.

if not. Direct discourse²that is. CHURCH. Of course.²IRVING. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Definitions. 4.. change them to a better form:² 1.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. meaning. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. to have divided with her whatever might remain. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. to have seen should be changed to to see. It should be remarked. 3. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²MACAULAY.²FRANKLIN 6. however. on my return. for exact connection. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Indirect discourse means reported speech.² PALGRAVE 5. W." .²THACKERAY. Exercise. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. The present rule is recent.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. I gave one quarter to Ann.²DE QUINCEY 2. INDIRECT DISCOURSE.²R.. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. But I found I wanted a stock of words. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. 448. 447. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. as. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²KINGSLEY. Two samples of indirect discourse.

. 1. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. interrogative adverbs... (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. etc. "I cannot oblige you . From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. "Oh. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. His exact words were. 2. The substance of his lamentation was. Direct. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I." Indirect. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. Sebastian's. Oh.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh... introductory verb is in the past tense. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. She thought to herself. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. will. Summary of the expressions. have. or regular interrogatives. This includes the auxiliaries be. and the indirect question by whether or if. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words." etc. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Direct. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. 449. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Her prudence whispered eternally." etc. under interrogative pronouns.

the sound of their balls. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.Exercise. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. like distant peals of thunder. and that he himself had heard. PARTICIPLES.²ADDISON. . he assured me that nothing was more easy. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. 450.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. in the sentences first quoted. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. the first discoverer of the river and country. my first observation will be found nearly true. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.²B.²GOLDSMITH. handed down from his ancestor the historian. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. if this were expanded into a verb. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. Careless use of the participial phrase.²ID. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. FRANKLIN.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Notice this. with his crew of the Half-moon. The trouble is. VERBALS. one summer afternoon.

. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.Correction. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. .. Adverb between to and the infinitive. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. It is a solemn. and often.. INFINITIVES. In the following citations. 3. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. This is the more common arrangement. the first sentence would be. There are.²ID. For example. either "As I was pleased.²LAUGHLIN. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. Exercise. many things to be carefully considered. 451.²RUSKIN.² HERBERT SPENCER." etc.. 2. then. universal assertion.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. if a strike is to succeed. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. while defended or excused by others." Exercise.²SCOTT. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. purposely or not. Standard writers often use it. leaving the principal statement as it is. my first collection was.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. avoid it.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. . see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.

Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. The rigid rule in such a case would be. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Exercise. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. etc.²SCOTT. 9. etc. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.²The Nation. 11. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 12. In works of art. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. therefore. 6. 7. 452.²BURKE. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .²GOLDSMITH. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. which consists in multitude.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.²ID. 1533. Position of only. china. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. 13. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. when such adverbs as only. is to be very cautiously admitted." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. even. and earthenware. 5. even. I wish the reader to clearly understand. A little sketch of his. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. this kind of grandeur. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.4. but cannot misunderstand the thought. 10. if they modify single words. BLAIR.² ADDISON. etc.² MACAULAY. but it is placed before the infinitive..²DR. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. The spirits. from Irving. are used.²TROLLOPE. but they are often removed from the exact position.. Now.²RUSKIN. No. ADVERBS. 8.

9. In relating these and the following laws. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²ID. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 6. 3. for example. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. Irving could only live very modestly.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²RUSKIN. His last journey to Cannes.²SYDNEY SMITH.1. My master. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. ²ASCHAM. 5.²MRS. GROTE. whence he was never destined to return. might not marry.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. to avoid a crowd.²CHAUCER.²SWIFT. WILLIS. The old usage. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. were he never so old of yeares.²HIGGINSON. 2. . 11.²ID.²ID. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 12. 15. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. P. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 17. 14.²PALGRAVE. 10. During the whole course of his administration.²MOTLEY. 8.²COOPER. 13. No sonne. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. In Old and Middle English. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²N. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. He shouted in those clear. He could only afford to keep one old horse.² THACKERAY. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 453.²MACAULAY. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²THACKERAY. 16. 7. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 4.²EMERSON.

I never did see him again. nor never shall. however. but ought not to labor after it. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. . if two negatives are found together. STOWE. Not only could man not acquire such information. and is still kept in vulgar English. uncommon.²HAWTHORNE. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.²BAYNE. In the execution of this task. 4. There weren't no pies to equal hers. 6. who hadn't been to school for nothing. 3. nor the grandeur of no king. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative."²four negatives. Therefore. in Ole Virginia. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. Exceptional use. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. I did not act so hastily. 5."²MRS. neither. The prosperity of no empire. 7. and why:² 1. This. denying each other. can so agreeably affect.²MRS. Exercise.² HAMILTON.²BURKE. when one of the negatives is a connective. etc.²LOWELL. one of the negatives is often a prefix. under the influence of Latin syntax. But. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. as.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. the usual way of regarding the question now is. STOWE. ²PAGE.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. is not common.²GROTE. as infrequent.²HOLMES. Regular law of negative in modern English. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. However. 2. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.²DEFOE.²DE QUINCEY. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. In the latter case. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.

not or is the proper correlative of neither. or with advantage. and.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. "A weapon. but to their own safety.. as well as of the pronoun. there we were. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. "well worthy to confer honor. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. Things to be watched.8.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. or to reply to it. but. The sentence. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. even neither ... if the last precedes a verb. CONJUNCTIONS." said the King. or. and which. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. 454. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. Choice and proper position of correlatives.... but (also). either . if the second precedes a phrase." .. or... not only .. The sentences given in Secs. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. And who. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs." may be changed to "This loose ." both of the above requirements are violated. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.²SCOTT. or to reply to it." Besides neither .²LOWELL. either. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it."²SCOTT. In the sentence.. nor is often changed to not²either . This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. neither .. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . as the use of the conjunction. Correction.²PRESCOTT. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. not only to the success of their common cause. should be scrutinized. not merely .. the first ought to be placed before a verb. nor. especially both . 455. the first should also.

Instead of the subordinate conjunction that.²MACAULAY. or the negative relative but. They will." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. substitute that. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 457. as. but. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. O. Now.²GIBBON. 7. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 456.²THACKERAY. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Some exceptions. etc. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²FRANKLIN. .²ID. but. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. 6. but they will outrage.²BAIN. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²S. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²THACKERAY. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. 5. murder. Try and avoid the pronoun. 2. as. 8. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Try and for try to. But what.²RUSKIN. or but that. JEWETT. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. nor the disgrace of assailing him. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. but grown-up persons. 3. Exercise.²GOLDSMITH. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. In the following sentences. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. and chop up their own kin. not merely interest children.² ADDISON. too. 4.Exercise. and I don't know but what he was right. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.

Between and among. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 458. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.² BULWER. 4. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²ADDISON. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 305. . as already seen in Sec. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. see Sec. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²BURKE. 3. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Between is used most often with two things only.²ADDISON. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. PREPOSITIONS. no separation or division by twos being implied. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.²TROLLOPE. 6. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 5. 313. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.2.²EMERSON.² SWIFT. 459.

etc. Derogatory to. and another to convey a different meaning. 461. List I. Dependent on (upon). to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.²between philosophers like Spinoza. 460. correspond. Comply with. Such are absolve. Some of them have. involve. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Affinity between. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. LIST I. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Acquit of. and Coleridge. as. Abhorrent to. Such are derogatory. Bestow on (upon). .: Words with particular prepositions. Averse to. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. a soldier of the Cross. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Different from. Conform to. Conversant with.²KINGSLEY. Paley. Mackintosh. Accord with. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. by custom.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. different.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. as. Kant. ²EMERSON. or one object and a group. averse. Dissent from. confer. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.²RUSKIN What have I. Two groups or one and a group. and philosophers like Locke. and Stewart.

462. etc." also of persons. Differ from (note below). in the sense of making friends with." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Confide in (trust in). A taste for (art. LIST II. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Confide to (intrust to). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Differ with (note below). as. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Agree to (a proposal). Reconcile with (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with. A taste of (food). Change to (become). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "The king is reconciled to his minister. 463. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. LIST III. Correspond with (write to). Independent of. Involve in.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Confer with (talk with). Reconcile to (note below). Confer on (upon) (give to). as. .y y y Deprive of. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. List II. as. Change for (a thing). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions." List III. Change with (a person). Correspond to (a thing).). but it is not good usage.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. and sometimes creeps into standard books.

" "die from. Part from. .²GOLDSMITH. die from.²G.²SCOTT. Take thought and die for Cæsar. expect from." (in behalf of). "Die by. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²MACAULAY. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²MACAULAY. and ill treatment." (material cause.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.²BURNETT." etc. She died of hard work. He died at last without disease." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²BOSWELL. died for love of the fair Marcella. Expect of. part with.²G.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. I am positively dying with hunger. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. instrument).²GOLDSMITH.²FIELDING. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. No one died from want at Longfeld.²BULWER. simply from old age. die of. ²THACKERAY. ELIOT. die with. People do not die of trifling little colds. they shall die by this hand. as Cervantes informs us.:² "Die of.²SHAKESPEARE. "Die for." (because of).²POPE. die for. Illustrations of "die of. Who.²MACAULAY." She would have been ready to die with shame. "Die for. One of them said he would die for her.y y y Die by.²ADDISON. It would take me long to die of hunger. privation. "Die from. ELIOT. "Die with. ²ATHENÆUM." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. If I meet with any of 'em.

" She will expect more attention from you. ELIOT.²TROLLOPE. 466.²AUSTEN. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²BULWER. That is more than I expected of you. ELIOT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. as my friend.²MARRYAT.²WALPOLE. Illustrations of "part with. which he would by no means part from.²MACAULAY. "Expect from. His precious bag." "expect from:"² "Expect of. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. kind of you. I can part with my children for their good. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²POE. With words implying behavior or disposition.²BULWER.²SHAW. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²G. . ELIOT.²G.²WALLER. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²DICKENS.²SCOTT.²G. either of or in is used indifferently. "Part from. nothing better was to be expected." "part from:"² "Part with." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. just parted from her. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. and hated to part with them." To part from you would be misery. 464. Kind in you. It was a little bad of you." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. Illustrations of "expect of.²MACAULAY. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. 465. I have just seen her. Of Doctor P.

or which we are most imperatively required to do. 11. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. it is commonly said that his profits are high. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. nor green. 6. Hampden. nor of a pale red. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. It will be anything but shrewd in you. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. or that they are any way dependent on each other. and ran up the alley. the vast abyss. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. The noise of vast cataracts. 8. In. 4. 3. nor yellow. 15. or artillery. This narrative. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. Very natural in Mr. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 1.He did not think it handsome of you. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. tedious perhaps. 7. but which the story renders necessary. thrown it over Amyas's head.²BULWER. 13. thunder. . Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. In the friction between an employer and workman. nor blue. 14. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 9. But this is idle of you.²BULWER. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2.²DICKENS. 10.²CARLYLE. raging storms.²BEACONSFIELD. Thou tread'st.²TENNYSON. 5. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. with seraphims.

28. were down with raging fever. 24. save Amyas. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. triangles. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 21. produce approbation. 17. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 23. 16. 25. 27. Friday. and other angular figures. (Sec. 18. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. Squares. You have seen Cassio and she together. 32. When the glass or liquor are transparent. you or me. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. . 20.) 34. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. The effect of proportion and fitness. 35. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 33. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 31. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 30. 38. 37. 36.I would wish me only he. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. and almost as good as a pony. 29. But every man may know. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 411. Every one of these letters are in my name. or how beautiful it is. 22. but in the price paid to them. what is a just and unjust act. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. and most of us do know. 19. the acquiescence of the understanding. That night every man of the boat's crew. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it.And were I anything but what I am. 26. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom.

20. adverbs used complements.39. 260. of. voice. 25. 40. pronouns. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. numeral. 90. 92. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. of. adjectives. Abstract with Active Address. He had four children.000 between them. 47. (3) Modern English. 91. of. nominative. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 102. Adjectives. of. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. origin of. nouns. syntax uses Absolute. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. . 98. INDEX. 124. 116. demonstrative. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 310. as. 124. 89. 47. 107. article. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. from nominative clauses. 133. 119. A. as comparison definition demonstrative. from about 1500 to the present time. 239. (2) Middle English. of.

parse. 287. adjectives. 109. 195. antecedent. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 191. 116. 116. parse. 323. conjunctions. 302. of. clauses. 114. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. of. of. with with with subject. objective. 325. 148. 242. 275. compared. between of. 316. of. conjunction. adjectives. sentence. 104. Against. infinitive. . 106. of. Alms. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. from to of. 262. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 239. quality. to used of. nouns. 303.from function how in not of of ordinal. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 184. antecedent. 190. Agreement. 291. 101. adjectives. plural pronominal. 190. 27. 328. 207. nouns. as nouns. 97. 194. 207. 42. 194. and 185. 103. 27. quantity. 183. of. 187. 48. of. modify. 115. 325. predicate. 303. 99.

agreement personal as pronoun. 74. parse. 309. Arrangement Articles. sentences. derivation in definite. See 74. in in. 51. sentences. An. 275. 101. 47. 148. 231. Agreement. of. 124. as uses verbs. 84. words between. 287. pronouns. 264. 225. uses As At. 207. 331. possessive. 90. after of. 240. definition of of of Any. of and pronoun of. 49. definition how indefinite. 295. adjective. Anacoluthon Analysis. which. which. 294. 67. of. . and. which. though. See with definition complex compound simple who.Among. sentences. of of of And Antecedent. 252. of. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 79. Auxiliary if. 67. 150. syntax As. 296. of. 208. syntax. Are. 300. 120. A. 127. to of. 198. it. of. same. 271. 120.

195. of nouns. objective. of. conjunctions Cherub. 47. definition could. Among. 37. 39. 111. 54. 46. double possessive. syntax of. uses Better. of pronouns. 161. 64. of. of pronouns. 63. of nouns. 194. of nouns. But. . of pronouns. of. Can. with But By. 149. of pronouns. 110. 48. 110. 210.Bad. 260. uses of. 283. clauses of. 46. Case. Cause. adjective. Brethren. of nouns. pronoun. 66. 330. in Old and Modern English. of what. 224. 62. 49. best. adverb. 278. 279. 278. 45. plurals of. 262. comparison conjugation of. Children. See of. Between. Case. 262. Be. forms. Clause. uses nominative of. Bridegroom. number of. 279. possessive. 150. nominative. 84. 39.

nouns. 43. 108. and forms of. 24. 257. 107. definition degrees irregular. 43. 23. infinitive. 113. nouns. of. 264. 315. predicate of and from from of. 108. 12. 158. of. clothes. adverbs. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. Cloths. of. 257. 307. Cleave. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 189. 53. subject. Clomb. 271. 157. of. of. 257. superlative. 305. of. 110. plural of. 111. 239. of. analysis of. double. adjectives. defective. verb. 248. 258. material. 244. of.definition kinds noun. 18. and sentence. sentence. 268. nouns. 312. . in analysis. predicate. of. 18. proper. English. 307. 263.

263. pronoun. Can. of. 194. 139. same words. 231. See English. 151. 143. 199. 194. See analysis clauses. 188. parse. sentences. 195. . other other parts of speech. 194. pronouns. verbs. sentences. 269.with Concord. correlative. 195. definition be. 73. 196. and clause. See in subjunctive. 328. conjunction. Conjunctions. subjunctive. 289. 207. in Old vs. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 66. 193. adverbs. pronoun. 255. coördinate. analysis. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. Dative Declarative Declension of case. conjunctions. of of Conjunctions. 149. 138. definition how subordinate. 149. to of. Agreement. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. of. conjunctions. sentence. interrogative pronouns. replaced by objective.

of. use of dies. Articles. 315. . vs. pronouns. by. 288. of. with. tenses. 303. See See 48. 333. 152. 300. article. Case. 242. Comparative. indirect. from. of. discourse. 35. See adjectives. 43. possessive. nouns. pronouns. 60. 160. 99. 102. adverbs See adjectives. Comparison. See 148. 102. Subordinate clause.Declension. nouns. 91. of personal relative verbs. 320. duck. 185. 26. with of. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. pronouns. 242. passive adjectives. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 80. object. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 287. Degrees. verb. for. 90. comparative. 51. pronouns. of. clause.

vulgar. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. another. drunk. 32. 92. 92. of. 51. 110. adjective. 38. 158. 241. of. 102. of. 92. 90. 90. 280. complement. added suffix. of subject. to suffix. 112. 12. 299. of. original. 300. error in sentence. predicate. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. Empress. 33. 34. feminine plural English. Each. ending. pronoun. 328. conjunction. 234. plural. syntax Each Eat Eaves. spoken. 40. Elements Ellipsis. 240. object. 42. the of sentence. 255. literary. older. 62. 287. adjective. 257. of.Drank. possessive suffix. of. 287. -En. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 158. 194. other. suffix. . one ( t). Either. pronouns. in 'Em. 33. 39. pronoun.

object.. 30. 152. 48. 308. expect gone. 32.. modes "common goose. 45. perfect. 91. from. adjective. etc. pronoun. fishes. 112. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 238. gender. Few." 31. with infinitive. uses redundant. 148. etc. Gender. 112. 152. 189. 212. 43. of. . 103. few. For. First Fish. 211. with in sex. uses Foreign Former. 29. plurals. nouns. First. 334.Every. 30. 319. other languages. 30. two a further. Further. of. first. Future Future tense. as a noun. 36. definition distinguished in English. 212. Feminine. See Gander. have adjective. 147. 110. Farther. used of. two. 287. 102. From. to of. the. 235. 126. of. as of from compared marking. 102.

36. He. Had Hanged. . of. she. definition basis of. 177. 12. 60. 10. possessive pronouns. definition divisions opinions province H. 101. 144. 231. of. it. of. kinds of. forms in Girl. an better. distinguished syntax. 173. adjective. pronouns. 175. 285. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. had hung. its. first sentence. personal relative geniuses. from participle of. of. 12. 145. 43. pronoun. noun. 275. 159. Gerund. on. Grammar. 9. 13. 61. Government. 176. participle. person. 120. 159. rather. 61. 80. and case verbal with. I. His Husband. 35.of of Genii. 60. for before. Got.

93. elements. 257. adjectives. 105. 319. 176. 110. of. summary See passive mood. pronoun. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. adjectives. See Articles. use article. of clause. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. See you. of. sentence. Direct object. questions. 85. mood. 283. questions. a object. Questions. meaning. uses discourse. 233. of. indirect of. words. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. verbs. 131. indices. 227. 43. with of. 153. transitive. in compared syntax. of. 72. adverbs. 231. 178. 248. . pronouns.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 188. 245. 323. 276. your. 67. 131. 136. 73. 320.

-Ly. 281. 245. 303. 12. 126. 91. 189. of.. these double kind. Lady. predicate. pronoun. lie. in little. 226. 102.. See Madam. Kine. It. Last. 227. uses Literary Little." history etc. 110. 36. plural. lord. 63. . Kind. 190. 110. King. subject form. 61. of. Lady. Latter. of. latest. Less. etc. syntax. and See words in. Lay. 36. 276. "It Its. was uses me. 113. 36. 170. queen. Logic Logical Lord. adjective. of. Lie. 39. 113. 67.adverbs. syntax the. Like. Lay. a vs. English. lesser.

construction as of adverb. 110. Master. 112. Must. of. 36. Mighty Mine. 34. 161. 110. 137-144. superlatives. 195. Much. of. 112. 325. of. 326. 64. 110. See definition 136. mine. -Most.. Means. Enlargement. 189. nigh. 256. 328. . 112. Neither. position adverb. syntax nearer. might. 187. 287. indicative. conjunctions Many. adjective. of. 126. of. of. 185. 113. syntax conjunction. 114. May. mistress. 160. of. in adverbs comparison a. 188. of. subjunctive. imperative. 194. 144. 137. comparison Near. 135. Many Mapping Mare. out of. Modifiers. 102. 41. Mood.Manner. Modifier. 189. Negative. etc. 265. sentences. double.

common. 29. words how compound. to use. 25. . of of of of of a. 20. 17. 17. 41. 18. 328. 56. 30. proper. 300. formed. 30. number once other plural. of. 30. See 194. of. definition descriptive. gender how kinds material. 126. clause. 258. etc. 301. now plural. in. 27. abstract. 32. and figures. analysis. material. nouns. Case. 25. None.pronoun. of. of. 45. definition according of. of. 26. parse. 41 43. of. 41. 21. half abstract. No Nominative. of. 92. foreign. gender nouns. Not Noun Nouns. become neuter. to of. 17 19. letters as 24. become become formation case collective. 246. 46. used as. nouns. syntax in gender nouns. 19. 46. kinds 90. abstract. 125. Nor. 38. class used singular. 124. 38-41. syntax Neuter or two News. 42. etc.

Numeral Object. 48. 48. meanings. Preposition. Nouns. etc. 281. 282. 121. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. adjectives. See verb. with case. or plural. pronouns. 195. 101. 278. with with with Now Number. 148. 41. singular. 235. plural form. in nouns. 242.of same two with proper. 48. passive adverbial. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 196. personal. 42. form. 242. preposition. 41. become syntax use with with with Nouns. English. of. of. of. of. nominative. singular. 106. pronouns. 240. 124. 48. plural no two singular construction. 102. 42 44. verbs. and analysis. 42. 39. . meaning. common. 279.. indirect. 66. plural. of. 18. definite. in article. 285. 48. article. indefinite. See in in in Numeral distributive. of. as forms titles. spoken of instead nouns. conjunction. 43. 92. adjectives. adverbial. 278. 101. 41. 60. dative. 23. of different possessive definite of.

See pronoun. 117. with (the). 293. 115. conjunctions. part analysis. One. 127. of upon. . 101. 213. pronoun. Ordinal Other Ought. articles. 93 other. 306. 56. adjective. 103. adverbs. 41. 116.syntax Of. Ourself. inverted. Our. uses numeral pronoun. 325 275. conjunction. 199. Each adjective. ours. 56. position Order. 194. definite relative uses of. of. nouns. Elder. 191. Pains. adverb. Oxen. 161. 216. as of. 237. another. Omission On. Parsing. 64. of syntax. a in adjectives. 91. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 94. Older. of. of of of of of models adjectives. See the as of. 233. 103. 69. treatment comparatives. for. of. as other. 279. 87. 38.

verbs. agreement of verb nouns. 172. and subject in. verb idioms it from. of. not is. 181. predicate use of. or of. 59. 95. 100. of. 179. of. 43. pease. part adjective. 177. 219. 173. speech. pennies. 80. pronouns. . with. used as voice. phrases. 287. of.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 335. 69. 59. 247. of. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 62. included various. reflexive. -ing words. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 62. parsed. 56. 61. 64. Person. absolute with of. article 150. Pence. possessive and of. of. verbals. 317. phrase. pronoun. 172. 148. 180. 59. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 322. them. 134. 70. 27. verbs. 174. 28. 63. antecedent. 119. from definition other of. relatives. 43. in. 56. pronouns. of. nominative. 281.

Nouns. Personification. 232. 303. spoken of. objects. 281. 51. 285. of nouns. 's. adjectives. Personal subjective. See 60. 25. appositional. . 236. of. 63. 236. relative. nouns. 60. 303. 195. complete. noun nouns. of. pronoun. of. 54. 241. 53. kinds infinitive. vs. Positive Possessive. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. simple. of. 206. 52. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of.objective syntax table triple uses of. antecedent of of pronouns. syntax of of Politics. of. 67. singular. Comparison. 247. plural. 50. singular degree. 188. 245. 281. of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. pronoun. 41. pronouns. or See of of See 185. 278. 53. 106. nouns. 49. of. of. 61. 248. nouns. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 64. as double. adverbs of. English. double. 235. 37. 245. participial. Place. in of. conjunctions prepositions Plural. of Phrase. omitted. 247. prepositional. it. 278.

283. 219. words. 203. 284. 32. verbs. 205. for predicate nominative. 331. 129. 95. exclamatory. 281. of. who personal. 301. 89. any. meaning. plural. 195. speech. parse. forms of. by. interrogative. 147. neither. of.Prefixes. somebody definition how indefinite. 132. 187. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 299. expressed as other of. by with shown certain of. 93. 280. as 54. what. 208. . each either. 72. 283. none. 186. with tense certain. in exclamations. after but. 300. 203. objective. of. objective. same used as adjectives. 105. Prepositions. case. 285. by parts of of. as antecedent of relative. of. plural. of. plural. 282. interrogative. 58. 104. usually to as than. as. 105. 58. all. 302. singular usually other. 279. of. and one with else's. adverb. Pronouns. 333. case. 206. 207. 64. another. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. of. possessive nominative to of. future. 287. adjective. parse. 202. 303. and form form form form of. 332. 59. 300.

80. . personal pronoun. 105. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 296. 289. in. Quotations. that. of. 74. Questions. nouns. pronouns. with who. 84. of. 293. 279. which. 263. unrestrictive. 142. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. from and interrogative. in. Rank. of. same antecedent. adverbs in. 293. 85. in. Nouns. indirect. 87. to of. of. use in as. Direct same and different. 297. 68. or of. with with gerund. pronominal pronouns indirect. 87. discourse. 295. 58. questions. 83. 85.possessive relative. indirect compound. 188. of. Rather. of. 74. and antecedent. use of history formed. 69. See of. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. who. 101. and relatives. conjunctions Quality. 99. parse. 195. of. agreement anacoluthon and as. 286. 291. 295. which after same. of. pronoun. and which. 289. 189. Quantity. 74. of. 69.

231. suffix. that. 159. reflexive analysis of compound. in of. 259. conjunction. of of of complex Sentences. pronoun. will. plural possessive as. simple. See Sentences. 43. of. 162. 196. definition . 289. simple of. effect. 40. complex. 196. gender. Sex Shall. which. Same Sat. 'S. who. 242. tenses. 159. Shot. of. 252. clauses of. 319. ending. 170. 263. Shear. 29. 294. of. Self Sentences. 255. kinds Sequence Set. 42. and should. 69. 74. conjunctions Retained Riches. would. Seeing. elliptical. forms shots. S. 231. 26 271. 195. sentence.syntax use Result. 51. of sit. of. object. Simple in sate. in form.

of. Split Spoken -Ster. 262. . of. as. 260. 245. etc. 257. Modern use becoming else's. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 38. of. 169. adverb. 270. used mood. 12. sort. 323. in Middle English. 144. Somebody Sort. 186. English. adverb. 233. definition how kinds noun. 144. 36. of. of. 33.Singular Sir. English. 303. 257. of. -es. Subject. 237. of. literary clause. 33. 303. for. 245. 257. 258. English. vs. 126. -en. 257. in feminine suffix. 138. phonetic in infinitive. 32. disuse in spoken complete. See -En. 258. definition 67. 258. 38. other Such Such Suffix -s. English. to of. verbs. these number. distinguish. names as a.. 240. logical. 137. Spelling Spinster.

of. 119. 222. that uses That. of. plural as adverb.. English. which. as adverbs. form. 306. 306. 87. as history syntax Their. object. 123. 147. article. 120. . 275. they. of. English. omission whom. classical of. as history The. adjectives. Tenses. 189. this. 191. 307. of. meaning made up in Old of. and and of." introductory. than of. in comparison. meaning. 116. 33. adverbs. 289. See etc. of. 106.. not suggesting adjectives. two basis not same definition definite. of . of. 275. 277. of. objects. 290. when as of. degree. of languages. in Modern number sequence table Than That. definition in English Tense. "the then foreign. 186. 297. 106. of. 108. coördinating. Kind. Then. restrictive. 186. 147. 280. me.Suffixes. king. subject. 147. 319. 152. 61.. when relative. 309. 107. syntax of. 88. 148. 109. auxiliaries. There These kind. in double. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax.

217. 188. 247. 114. of. analysis. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. thy. 195. 330. 114. of. 308. suffix. -Trix. of. Upper. 172. of. carelessly uses syntax this. 114. 21. preposition. 181. 175. 176. in of. etc. kinds participle. 175. of. 61. exclamations. verbs. used. uses history of. See That. tother. words. Thou. 322. 185.These. 119. phrases. thee. 173. infinitive. of. first. uses of. how infinitive. Utter. 248. certain as the before with of. feminine and. from cleft to 174. gerund. first adjective. 20. 175. See On. -ing 111. try two. infinitive. . 323. of. 128. other noun. 322. 207. to. 172.. adverbs those. 180. Try Two Under. Upon. parse. Time. in omitted uses T'other. conjunctions prepositions To. uttermost. 33.

179. of English. analysis. but uses what. 149. 167. 154. remarks on certain. in person. 312-316. 312. conjugation of. 154. retained object with passive. What. 148. definition of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 134. defective. of. of incomplete predication. 330. passive form. 169. spelling of. 169. Vocative in Voice. agreement of. past tense formed nominative. tense of. 317. 131. active. 320. transitive and intransitive. made transitive. 12. with subject in number. verbs. 160. of. 154. strong. regular. formed by. Vixen. mood of. definition of. phonetic. . table of irregular. table of. 135. change. 159. 223. 236. syntax of. auxiliary.Verbs. passive. 147. 150. 47. 133. 133. 151. intransitive. verbs by. 242. voice of. 39. 129. 245. 157. active meaning. in indirect discourse. person and number of. 319. 130. 167. how to parse. 155. weak. definition of. 148. 33. sequence of. becoming irregular.

would. 75. direct of. relative. 85. 83. 72. in. 79. questions. Yes ending analysis. relative indirect relative. Witch. 85.what Whereby. of. 40. questions. 126. animals. 72. 36. Woman. plural of in nouns -ing. in in indefinite objective. etc. questions. conjunction. 32.. English. 246. 190. 105. 104. in -ly. 73. 299. pronoun. 78. uses See Shall. 295-299. 105. relative. Wife. 296. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. pronoun. 36. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. worser. 75. With. interrogative Which. Who. 72. antecedent adjective. 194. of. 77. Words in Worse. wizard. Y. 37. spoken in of. . Whether. a. 85. 83. whereto. Will. 218. 178. 111. questions. referring syntax Widower.

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