roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

"Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous).² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Making rules is risky. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. then. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. A broader view.The province of English grammar is. Surely our noble language. as compared with Latin or Greek. rightly considered. . Few inflections. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Coming back. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. if rightly presented. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. with its enormous vocabulary. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Authority as a basis. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. is worthy of serious study." and "Syntax. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. This will take in the usual divisions. but this is bad English now. its peculiar and abundant idioms. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. assist the classification of kindred expressions. it will at the same time. Mental training. as. so that a small grammar will hold them all. If." What grammar is. An æsthetic benefit. to those who have studied the language historically. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. and thus incite his observation. however. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Literary English. from the question. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. It is also evident." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. The work it will cover. there is still much for the grammarian to do. "Analysis. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). their forms. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules.

from the eighteenth century on. and will are evidently names of a different kind. and may belong to any of those objects. as they stand for ideas. In the more simple state of the Arabs. NOUNS. submission. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. or standard. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Occasionally. The Parts of Speech. Part III. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. PART I. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. but. besides this one.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. or Syntax. Vulgar English. Spoken English. that is. Such words are called nouns. the nation is free. and Inflections. too. not objects. by which is meant the free. then.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. The plainest name is Arabs. three divisions:² Part I. reference will be made to vulgar English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.²GIBBON. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. Part II. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. .²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. which belongs to a people. Analysis of Sentences. The Uses of Words. 1. and the word nation stands for a whole group. the words sons and master name objects. The following pages will cover. The words state. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.

Classes of nouns. Common. . or a mob. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. possessed by all. reducing it to a narrow application. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Abstract. Name for any individual of a class. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. animals. the man here. and appropriate names to the groups. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. belonging to one. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. 5. or the man in front of you. (a) 4. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. ATTRIBUTE. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Proper. 3. Thus. as here used. we may think of them in groups. representing directly to the mind an object. We may say. animals. and things separately. Collective. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Name for a group or collection of objects. 2. place. This does not imply. or a congress. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities.Definition. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. MATERIAL. or idea. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. A noun is a name word. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. men in groups may be called a crowd. but Chicago names one city. They properly belong under common nouns. however. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. or things. (b) Common. a committee. is from a Latin word which means general. Besides considering persons. or a council. whether person. substance. etc. Thus. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. because each group is considered as a unit. For instance. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Individual. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. or thing.

Abstract nouns are names of qualities. gold. etc. soap. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. NOTE. Such are glass. iron. (2) VERBAL NOUNS.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. or actions. cloud. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below.. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). world. rubber. as in calling a city Cincinnati. 7. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. . It may. etc. rock. frost. When we speak of a wise man. (3) Geological bodies: mud." 9. stone. celluloid. we speak of the wisdom of the man. etc. etc. potash. rice. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. The reason is. They remain common class names. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. Words naturally of limited application not proper. wheat. condition. wheat. expressing state. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. or action.²There are some nouns. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. Again. "Painting is a fine art. dew. etc. sugar. earth. platinum. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. tea. The quality is still there as much as before. and so on. or apart from their natural connection. but in the words sun. but it is taken merely as a name. sugar. wine. or that which shows a thing has been proved. such as sun. not things. considered abstractly. there is no such intention. instead of to each individual or separate object. Names of ideas. etc. sand. proof means the act of proving. 6." "a man of understanding. mist. we may say. conditions. . clay. etc. expressing attributes or qualities. and fasten a special name to the object considered. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. frost." "Learning is hard to acquire. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. moon. granite. but which are not called proper names. however. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. snow. paint. earth. rain. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth.

the great Puritan awakening." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. (1) prudence from prudent. They are only the husks of verbs. night. etc. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. winter. Underived abstract nouns. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. thunder. the teachings of the High Spirit. The verb. the moon caused fearful forebodings. he spread his blessings over the land. Exercises. action from act. her longing for their favor. as in the expressions. . service from serve. five abstract. energy. 12.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. a wedding or a festival. ease. II. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. joy. redness from red. by altering its function. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. childhood from child. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. speech from speak. in the beginning of his life. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. NOTE. 1. hopeful²hope. kingship from king. lightning. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. 273). the main bearings of this matter. Caution. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. "a long run" "a bold move. summer. there is time for such reasonings. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. 272. and they cannot express action. To avoid difficulty. shadow. 10. day. They cannot govern a word. but are merely names of actions. mastery from master. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. theft from thieve." "a brisk walk. (2) peerage from peer.. etc. those opinions and feelings. as glad²joy.Attribute abstract nouns. etc. Verbal abstract nouns. the rude drawings of the book. five proper. Such are beauty. Thus. hope. the well-being of her subjects. as their name implies. is used as a noun. height from high. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. stupidity from stupid. etc.

catarrh. geology. pleurisy. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . algebra. Using a dictionary. (b) branches of knowledge. typhus. as physics. as pneumonia.2. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. diphtheria. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. mathematics? 3.

If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. or to go over to it entirely. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. "The cook made the irons hot. from a town in France.²EMERSON. from Damascus.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. 119). a Hutton. for example. levant and morocco (leather). the guillotine. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. currants. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. from Calicut. a Bentham. port (wine). Sodom was famous for wickedness. Others of similar character are calico. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. a Locke. but most of them are in the following groups." referring to flat- . as a davy. from the name of Dr. from Corinth. and lo! a new system. damask. Material nouns may be used as class names. 14. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. from China. but we may say. from Oporto. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. 15. 13. Proper names transferred to common use. etc. Nouns change by use. the word port. it imposes its classification on other men. arras. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. thus. a Fourier. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Guillotin. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. a Lavoisier.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. above. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. who was its inventor. We know a number of objects made of iron. in Portugal. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning.

The words preceded by the article a.²COLLINS. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance.²HAYNE. slates. Next Anger rushed. etc. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.²CARLYLE. coals. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. papers. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. that the power of art is founded on fact. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. oils. be spoken of. Test this in the following sentences:² . tins. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. clays. to prowl or to moan like night birds. that disposition is the thing to be created. not material things. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. abstract in meaning. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. For example.irons. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. his eyes. Class nouns in use. tobaccos. or made plural.²BRYANT.²RUSKIN. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind.In lightnings owned his secret stings. or used as class nouns. but on dispositions which require to be created. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Traffic has lain down to rest. They are not then pure abstract nouns. purity. or the arts and sciences. nor are they common class nouns. When it is said that art differs from science. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. a rubber for erasing marks. etc. (3) By poetical use.²BYRON. the abstract idea is partly lost. mists. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. a steel to whet a knife on. clouds. as stones. which are made plural.²PERCIVAL. and say teas. on fire. that is. and only Vice and Misery. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. are abroad. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. This is a poetic usage. From all around²Earth and her waters. paints. 16. smiled. and so on. though not confined to verse. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. but in case an art or a science. 17. A halfway class of words. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. but differ in strength. These are the same in material. are still names of abstract ideas. candies. or. Personification of abstract ideas. Death.

they cannot be compared. sir!"²MACAULAY . but is still a noun." which contains a pure adjective.²IRVING.The Solitary can despise. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. sir!" and the "What then." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. for example. All these. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. make our own so. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. But it is better to consider them as nouns. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective.Let us. Every why hath a wherefore.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Conjunctions.² GOLDSMITH.²EMERSON.² BURNS. Nouns used as descriptive terms. nouns used to modify. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. By ellipses. they do not express quality. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. Then comes the "Why. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE." "a morning walk. if we must have great actions. sir?" and the "No.²SHAKESPEARE. Adjectives. 18.²SHAKESPEARE. meaning a walk in the morning. etc. however. fear thy blow. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. as descriptive adjectives are. or describe it. "a family quarrel. as each repeated pleasure tired. They are more like the possessive noun. And still.²BURNS. which belongs to another word. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. NOTE. loves. Adverbs. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. a bill as to tax on the banks. or from any expression." "the State Bank Tax bill. the wealthy. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. a bank in New York. were mere terrors of the night. When I was young? Ah. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech." "a New York bank. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. 19. But ah! those pleasures. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.

are used. but as a figure of speech. ." and another of Dr. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. or a faithful domestic. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. in a sentence above. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. and Then. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. 5. Exercise. in speaking of the principal of a school. 3. Stone walls do not a prison make. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. of words rather than of their meaning. 6. When."²B. 20. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. 8. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. When. NOTE. without reference to its function in the sentence. the terms the great. is the word "just. whether it mean the sun or the cold. In the other sentences. however. It is to be remembered. 2. at the beginning. is ambiguous. the wealthy. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. too. Now. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used.Nor iron bars a cage.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. and tell to which class each belongs. 7. etc. are spoken of as if pure nouns.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. why and wherefore. 1. but have an adjectival meaning. Learning. The it. Power laid his rod aside. or a state secret. FRANKLIN. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage.. There are many of these. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. that cobweb of the brain.²These remarks do not apply. of course." or "legal. 4. or a criminal. Caution. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. so.

Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 23. the welcome. And see. and many other languages. But pleasures are like poppies spread. and names of females are usually feminine. It is founded on sex.You seize the flower. German.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. in English grammar. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 11. always masculine. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. its bloom is shed. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 24. 10. 19. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 22. 16. that waits you here.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. In Latin. GENDER. 20. 17. 15. 21. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. the silver moon is gone. Greek. always feminine. 14. . female. 13. The hours glide by. for every dropHinders needle and thread. The fleet. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. There are exceptions even to this general statement. but not so in English. 18. returned to Spain. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. he cried.9. Male beings are. What gender means in English. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. A fool speaks all his mind. 12. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. shattered and disabled. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands.Fair guests. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 21. A little weeping would ease my heart.

For instance: in Latin.. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. clapping his burnished wings. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. and consequently without sex. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. those with which man comes in contact often. 24. 22. according to their use. that pattern of a husband. if there were any signs of life in it. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. All nouns. The great difference is. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. but are spoken of as neuter. the word child is neuter in the sentence. . Thus. inanimate things are spoken of. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Gunpowder . Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.." .When. those distinguishing the sex of the object.. Gender nouns. those which do not distinguish sex. "A little child shall lead them. or which arouse his interest most. however. the name of it is feminine. that is. must be divided into two principal classes. or names of things without life. in other languages gender follows the form. das Messer (knife) is neuter. hortus (garden) is masculine. No "common gender.² IRVING. the name of it is masculine. corpus (body) is neuter. mensa (table) is feminine. Neuter nouns.. according to use. in English.²IRVING.²LAMB. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. in German.² I have seenA curious child . die Gabel (fork) is feminine. came to a stand just by the bridge. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. 23. are named by gender nouns. then. with its gizzard under its wing. or additions to words. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. if of the female sex.²masculine and feminine. Hence: Definition.." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Of animals.. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. the sex being of no consequence. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. and neuter nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words.²gender nouns.

for from they said vram. but spinster has now no connection with it. Hence vixen is for fyxen. ruler. 27. the division of words according to sex. generally to a masculine word. 29. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. cousin. Gender shown by Suffixes. and for the older word fat they said vat. According to the definition. as in wine vat. If such words as parent. servant. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. domestic. II. or the lack of it. (2) By adding a suffix. 28. Native suffixes. . The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. is.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. These remain in vixen and spinster. Male nouns beings. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. One feminine. as he-goat²she-goat.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. 26. (3) By using a different word for each gender. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Very few of class I. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. The inflections for gender belong. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. I. etc. they are neuter words. teacher. For fox they said vox. he-bear²she-bear. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. from the masculine fox. woman. though both words have lost their original meanings. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined.25. relative. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Put in convenient form.. puts a prefix before the masculine man. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Gender shown by Prefixes. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. of course. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word.

and are never used for words recognized as English.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. 30. -ess (French esse. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). señorita. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. as seam-stress. it has none now in the words huckster. Ending of masculine not changed. as. as. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. song-str-ess. executrix. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as czarina.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. trickster. the one most used. Low Latin issa). (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. punster. These are attached to foreign words. but in most cases it has not. gamester. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. donna. Unaltered and little used. Slightly changed and widely used. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.

as was said in the sixteenth century. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Instead of saying doctress. teacher or lady teacher. others have in their origin the same root. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. as. Thus. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. Some of them have an interesting history. we use the masculine termination. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. wagoness. the ending -ess. we use the feminine.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. from the French -esse. editor. frendesse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. We frequently use such words as author. 32. Gender shown by Different Words. as in the fourteenth century. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . teacheresse." III. In some of these pairs.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. from Latin imperatricem. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. as. fosteress. neighboresse. 31. chairman. etc. NOTE. or servauntesse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). neighbor (masculine and feminine). When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. to represent persons of either sex.

material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Madam is the French ma dame. Three letters of ened have fallen away. written loverd. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Mare. the old sign of the masculine. etc. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. widuwa²widuwe. The older forms. had the masculine mearh (horse). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. in Old English mere. gand-ra. Two masculines from feminines. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. though both are ultimately from the same root. Widower. It is not connected historically with our word duck. This gansa was modified into gan-ra.² . but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Besides gander and drake. as in many other words. not immediately connected with witch. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. leaving our word drake. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. for example. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. 16). 33.). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Witch is the Old English wicce. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. 34. finally gander. Danish gaas. Personification. among others) to be from the same root word. from Latin mea domina. Icelandic gás.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. but this has long been obsolete. or lauerd in Middle English. became identical. probably meaning house dweller). The masculine was formed by adding -a. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. lhauerd.

But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. Our language has two numbers. 39.²singular and plural. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. In nouns.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. . There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. in Old English. 37. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. for instance. Effect of personification.No towers along the steep. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. together with the third. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.²KEATS. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.²COLERIDGE. This is not exclusively a poetic use.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. Britannia needs no bulwarks. shoon (shoes). 38. eyen (eyes). Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. Definition."Now. NUMBER. the plural. 35. The first two methods prevailed. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. I. treen (trees). In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. (3) By adding -s (or -es). which last is still used in Lowland Scotch.Her home is on the deep. 36. etc. the engineer speaks so of his engine. The -en inflection. more than one. and not by the form of the noun."²BYRON. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. But other words were inflected afterwards. (2) By changing the root vowel. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. that is. whenever we adopt a new word.²CAMPBELL.

40. etc.² The foot are fourscore thousand.The horse are thousands ten. after all.²Over the mountains winding down. Examples of this inflection are. borough²formerly had the same inflection. retain the same form for plural meaning."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. swine. 42. cross. they add -s): also trout. Other words following the same usage are. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. by.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. turf. lens. Brethren has passed through three stages. as. sail. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. finally brethren. people. dozen. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Akin to this class are some words. quartz. when they mean soldiery. salmon. such as deer.²MACAULAY. and get settled. III. or if preceded by the prepositions in. The words horse and foot. 41. glass.²WHITTIER. but has now no singular. folk. brace. etc. originally neuter.² "God bless me! so then. sheep. wight. into Frederick town. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. ditch. Kine is another double plural. heathen.-En inflection imitated by other words. . II. Lee marched over the mountain wall. Instead of -s. The old plural was brothru. but they now add the ending -s. then brothre or brethre. head.²THOREAU. cannon. after numerals (if not after numerals. as. etc. pair. that have the singular and plural alike.Horse and foot. Such are box. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. and is still found in dialects. Children has passed through the same history.

Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. in its widest extent. DANA. Words in -ies. the Americas.. prize²prizes. house²houses.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. half²halves. shelf²shelves. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s.-Es added in certain cases. 43. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. optics. means: as. that when thy summons comes. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). 15 and 17). Some words are usually singular. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . they lose their identity.² Politics. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves.g. the Washingtons. Special Lists. is both the science and the art of government. It served simply as a means of sight. When such words take a plural ending. and many branches of learning. etc.²BRYANT. Proper nouns are regularly singular. etc. economics. niche²niches. Formerly. chaise²chaises. molasses. mathematics. 44. fancies. however. e. and some -es. daisies. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. volcano² volcanoes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. negro²negroes. race²races. a new syllable is made.²PROF. and the real ending is therefore -s. some adding -s. etc. Examples of these are. knife²knives.g. summons. as. physics. also news.. etc. means and politics. and go over to other classes (Secs. The lilie on hir stalke grene. politics. Means plural. 45. Two words. allies. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. e. quoth then that ladie milde. these words ended in -ie. though they are plural in form. hero²heroes. though this sound combines readily with -s. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. So live. pains (care). fairies.

²GOLDSMITH. With great dexterity these means were now applied. by strongly conveying the passions.²G. CURTIS. Besides this.² MACAULAY. L. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.Words. Now I read all the politics that come out. if I recollect right. riches will accumulate. I say. Sometimes. Politics plural. LAUGHLIN.²GOLDSMITH.²BURKE. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²IRVING. . he pronounced to have been a tongs. By these means. W. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²J. by those means which we have already mentioned. 46. A relic which. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²MOTLEY. however. it is furnished with a forceps. Some words have no corresponding singular.²GOLDSMITH.

letter²letters: (1) the alphabet.). fish²fish (collectively). shot²shot (collective balls). Tell me not. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. These make the last part plural. fishes (individuals or kinds).²POPE. pease (collectively). brethren (of a society or church). two meanings. etc. (2) literature. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. Three words were originally singular. index²indexes (to books).² I lisped in numbers. eaves. 50. In speaking of coins. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. or epistles. or work in a bellows?²PROF. ways.²was it subdued when.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. number²numbers: (1) figures. for the numbers came. trouble. as two sixpences. riches.. part²parts: (1) divisions. In Early Modern English thank is found. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). etc. 48. die²dies (stamps for coins. pence (collectively). in mournful numbers. (2) poetry. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. twopence. of a periodical. sixpence. penny²pennies (separately). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth).The air. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. the other unlike it. carry off chaff. as in the lines.. . dice (for gaming). making a double plural.. One plural. two plurals. DANA. genii (spirits). genius²geniuses (men of genius). or copies.²one corresponding to the singular. pea²peas (separately). (2) abilities. clothes (garments). Numbers also means issues. (2) revenue duties. faculties. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. shots (number of times fired). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. Two classes of compound words. 49. may add -s.²LONGFELLOW. indices (signs in algebra). (2) care.

firman. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. woman servant. then Silas Peckham. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Norman. Brahman. or the name may be pluralized. the Drs. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. such as talisman. Briggs. though the latter is often found. The title may be plural. Two methods in use for names with titles.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. there is some disagreement among English writers.² Then came Mr. Brown. Ottoman. as the Messrs. but add -s. as man singer. the Misses Rich.²DR. 52. woman singer. Allen. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. manservant. HOLMES. 51. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. Mussulman. German. As to plurals of names with titles. . for example. and then the three Miss Spinneys. and Mrs.

The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. These are said to be domesticated.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. The Messrs. 53. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. They are then said to be naturalized. Du Maurier. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. FROM THE LATIN. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. or Anglicized. Others have been adopted. Exercise. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. FROM THE GREEK. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and retain their foreign plurals.²GIBBON.²THE CRITIC. or Englished. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²GOLDSMITH.²DICKENS. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. y y analysis antithesis . Domesticated words.

" "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). 55." the word felon's modifies cell. without reference to their meaning. Words quoted merely as words." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). 54. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. Definition. and expresses a relation akin to possession. also add -s or 's. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. In the sentence. 56. as. Only two case forms. figures. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. as. etc. figures.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. etc." CASE. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. Letters. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). cell has another relation. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. they form their plurals in the regular way. . In the general wearing-away of inflections..² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters.

Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.²one for the nominative and objective. I. . (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. and merit. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. 4.²person. 5. fate. Three properties belong to wisdom. then. excessive grief. Excuses are clothes which. 3. Human experience is the great test of truth." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. 58. Uses of the Nominative. 2. 57." (2) As a predicate noun. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. and the possessive." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. when asked unawares. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. completing a verb. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. must be understood for purposes of analysis.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. the objective. and experience. three things characterize man." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus.²the nominative. 1. learning. they returned to their homes. may be said to have three cases. whether inflected or not. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²nature. the enemy of the living. Nouns.There are now only two case forms of English nouns.

4. they are sands of precious gold.Save. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. measure. 68. 3. a patriarch of the village." Exercise. completing the verb. save. taking the object enemies. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. her first law broken. and meaning calmest. as will be seen in Sec. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. etc. They charged. 9." (4) As the second object. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. the word toward which the preposition points. thy wrath can send. But of all plagues. (in the older stages of the language. wounded lies. Uses of the Objective. how have I frighted thee? II. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. 8. good Heaven. and landlord of the inn. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. 59. reconciles.6. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. sword in hand and visor down. Conscience. and makest a calm. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object." (3) Adverbially." "Cowards die many times before their deaths." "Thou makest the storm a calm. (5) As the object of a preposition. Set a high price on your leisure moments. and tell which use each has:² 1. . and being equivalent to one verb. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. 2. But the flood came howling one day. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. distance. taking the object storm.

²ADDISON. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. tempests that . III. as in these expressions.²SHELLEY. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. The noblest mind the best contentment has. the Great Stone Face. (3) Subjective possessive.² The unwearied sun. the most common of all.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. and forfeits paid.²BYRON. (2) Objective possessive. The possessive case always modifies another word. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.Does his Creator's power display. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. as.e. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.His winter task a pastime made. 9. 61. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. as shown in the sentences. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. 7. Uses of the Possessive. from day to day. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. And whirling plate.²HAWTHORNE. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. Possession in some sense is the most common. 6.And gave the leper to eat and drink. or in writing yesterday's elegy. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 10. 60. It is a poetic expression. 8..5. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. expressed or understood.

as schoolboys sometimes write." Use of the apostrophe. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. PLURAL. As said before (Sec. 1. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. The use of the apostrophe. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. and Obj. and Obj. "George Jones his book. Nom." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. 63. Declension or inflection of nouns. however. How the possessive is formed. To form the possessive plural. child NOTE. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. Nom. there are only two case forms. A false theory. One is the simple form of a word. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe.. Case Inflection. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. A suggestion. 62. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). 56)." "mannes herte [heart]. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. 62. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. the panther which the forest hides). in Chaucer. making the possessive singular. lady Poss.winter is likely to have). Poss. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. "From every schires ende. growth which several days had developed). .e." "at his beddes syde.e. 64." etc.. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i.

To the eye all the forms are now distinct. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. some such word as house. and from a desire to have distinct forms. . Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. 67. containing words in apposition.²RUSKIN. know the amount of my income.Though this opinion was untrue. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.²THACKERAY. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. for goodness' sake. as. Peter's. store. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. Captain Scrapegrace's.² LOWELL. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. etc. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Cervantes' satirical work. in the name of the emperor their master. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. but to the ear all may be alike. my neighbors. as by the countess's command. I remember him in his cradle at St. dwelling.²SWIFT. Possessive and no noun limited. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. the items of my son's.²HOLMES. etc. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. and she walked off from the don's. Kate saw that. 65. 66."²DE QUINCEY. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys." Possessive with compound expressions.²DE QUINCEY. James's. In compound expressions.²CARLYLE. church. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. a word with a phrase. as. stands up for God's truth one man. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. the possessive sign is usually last. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.. instead of the emperor their master's name." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.. being understood with it: for example." "A postscript is added. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.

(2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. as one modifier. we use the phrase of Atterbury.²FROUDE. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.²the introduction which Atterbury made. 1. no. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. For example. the sentence might be understood as just explained. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. making a double possessive. In most cases. especially when used with this or that. 87. (1) When a word is modified by a. etc.. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. and tell whether each is appositional. Blair). each. sometimes they are used together. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. any. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Both of these are now used side by side.The double possessive.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. corresponding to 's. this. E. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . every. the statement clearly means only one thing. or subjective.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. that. (b) Rewrite the sentence. (3) It prevents ambiguity. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me.²E.²CARLYLE. Clearness. Exercises. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. 2. If. HALE. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. 68. a double possessive. Emphasis. ill-lighted except where she stands. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. the. A peculiar form. however. objective. (See also Sec. and at the same time by a possessive noun. in such a sentence as.

There Shakespeare's self. 13. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.² . and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 11. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 70. 14. it seemed. At lovers' perjuries. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 10. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 9. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 4. 15. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. Now the bright morning star. with every garland crowned. 8. therefore. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 6. let him seasonably water the one. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. day's harbinger. Hence. 12. 69. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. in parsing a noun.A weary waste expanding to the skies. Jove laughs.3. Friend. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Nature herself. 7. 5. some idioms²the double possessive. In parsing.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. we state.They say. and destroy the other. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son.Comes dancing from the East. I must not see thee Osman's bride.

An old cloak makes a new jerkin. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. (4) Its office in the sentence. hence it is a gender noun. Neckcloth. gender. Exercise. the connection shows a male is meant. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. if the latter. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. therefore masculine gender. which gender. it is the object of the preposition by. it denotes only one person. proper. determining its case. 2. it has no sex. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. That in the captain's but a choleric word.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. 71. it expresses possession or ownership. masculine. subject of the verb is understood.(1) The class to which it belongs. Thief is a common class noun. 68). 3. is a common class noun. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. etc. 4. it expresses time. it is the name of a male being. . MODEL FOR PARSING. and relations. and limits neckcloth. and therefore nominative case. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. hence it is a common noun. names one thing. and number. therefore singular number. a withered serving man. but is the adverbial objective. Throat is neuter. (3) Whether singular or plural number. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. NOTE. hence it is objective case. object of the verb takes. and to have it found out by accident. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. a fresh tapster. as to case. inflections. like miller's. therefore neuter. In parsing any word. has no governing word. The correct method.²common. therefore possessive case. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. therefore singular number. singular number. hence objective case.

which distinguish person by their form (Sec. but by a question we say. 72. sleep! 6. He giveth his beloved sleep.And hated her for her pride. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun." Again. Classes of pronouns. standing for a name. 7." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. A pronoun is a reference word. Jarley's back being towards him. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. where the Rhone enters the lake. all in one. from a necessity for short. and his daughter. Time makes the worst enemies friends. The need of pronouns. 76). For instance. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. financial minister to Louis XVI. . Definition. 11. and representative words. we evidently cannot state the owner's name.²palace. were natives of Geneva. 10. 73. 9. 8. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. instead of saying. PRONOUNS. and prison. or for a person or thing... definite.5. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Mrs. Necker. Madame de Staël. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. A few miles from this point.. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. castle. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. or for a group of persons or things. Now. blessings light on him that first invented . (2) Interrogative pronouns.

Person in grammar. Singular. (3) Third person. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. mine. ours . 76. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. which relate or refer to a noun. I Poss. 77. they must represent the person talking. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. and the person or thing talked about. or other word or expression. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. 75. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. pronoun. From analogy to pronouns.(3) Relative pronouns. my Plural. primarily adjectives. representing the person speaking. (4) Adjective pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. standing for a person or thing spoken of. (2) Second person. the person or thing spoken to. which have forms for person. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. Three persons of pronouns. as nouns have the same form. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking." Person of nouns. Nom. words. "the distinction of person. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. they are said to have person by agreement. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. that is. representing a person or thing spoken to. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. This gives rise to a new term.. even if it had a special form. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. (5) Indefinite pronouns. we our. which cannot be used as adjectives. 74.

Singular. in the singular. Masc. theirs them Neut. Nom. neuter. Old forms. Nom. or. But the third person has. Old Form Common Form. Poss. thine. The speaker may be either male or female. thou thee ye you you your. it its it Poss. Nom. Obj. and also for the neuter. a separate form for each gender. Poss. yours you Plural. SECOND PERSON. so also with the person or thing spoken to. masculine h . they their.. Obj. you your. neuter hit. hers her Plur. Third person singular has gender. he his him Fem. feminine h o. me us Singular. your. she her. Nom. yours Poss. First and second persons without gender. thy Remarks on These Forms. . In Old English these three were formed from the same root.Obj. of all Three. yours you THIRD PERSON. Obj. 78. namely. by personification. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Obj.

Thou. the forms they. . and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. as. in Old English. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.Thou lovest.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. This is of comparatively recent growth. etc. just as we now say. even when referring to a single object. which is a neuter noun. Two uses of the old singulars. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. however. In spoken English.²BEECHER. It is worth while to consider the possessive its." As shown above. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. it. especially in poetry. for example. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. Second person always plural in ordinary English.. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. etc.²SHELLEY. 80. We use it with a plural verb always. 82. (2) In addressing the Deity. two modern uses of thou. them. their. as possessive of it. The plurals were h . which was often sounded with the h silent.:² (1) In elevated style. to thy care we commit the helpless. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. heom. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. 79.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. that didst comfort thy people of old. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. thy. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. The form its. There are.. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. heora. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). thee. etc.² Oh. and sometimes its. as in prayers. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. 81. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). thou Shepherd of Israel. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. The consequence is.

and sometimes in ordinary speech. us. their. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ²SHAKESPEARE. our. when they occur in the predicate position. The Possessive. for. or. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. 84. 34). besides a nominative use. her. him. and follow the usage of literary English. some say. Old use of mine and thine. And since thou own'st that praise. thou." the literary language would require he after was. Yet careful speakers avoid this. he. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. we. Not a separate class. her. Additional nominatives in spoken English. I spare thee mine. thy. 58). there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. me. theirs. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. sometimes his and its. Nominative forms. they have a nominative form. your. . she. 85. 'tis his. have a peculiar use. however. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. "I am sure it was him. The forms mine. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. ye. to personify objects (Sec. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. its. The forms my. and not make more classes. in such a sentence as. 86. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. I The Nominative. him. In spoken English. them. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. The words I.²LANDOR. 84 are always subjects.Use of the pronouns in personification. and has been slave to thousands. though ye is occasionally used as objective. though those named in Sec. II. them. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. her. note the following:² 'Twas mine. 83.²COWPER. us. That is. Absolute personal pronouns. thine. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. hers. yours. they. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns.²BULWER. his.

for example. are really double possessives.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. sometimes its. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.²THACKERAY. Their uses. This usage is still preserved in poetry.²CARLYLE. (3) To express contempt. thine.²J." said Henry Woodstall. in that old Edinburgh house of his. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. 87. FIELDS. thus. T.²THACKERAY. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE."²SCOTT. but few thy voice. yours. his. ²HOLMES. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. we have. ours.²J.²SWIFT. hers. COOPER. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. and with mine. it tells of good old times. we find. (2) To bring emphasis.²ID. Besides this.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. as in nouns. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. thus. ours.²ID.² CARLYLE. If thine eye offend thee.²BIBLE. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. or satire. Long Allen. Give every man thine ear. theirs. anger.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. This ancient silver bowl of mine. "Hold thy peace. The forms hers. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. theirs. Double and triple possessives. Like the noun possessives. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. commenting upon a letter of mine. yours. pluck it out. . they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. F.

the thing is done. but nominative or objective in use. for whose benefit. Besides this use of the objective. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. III. but the form is the same as the objective. or use in a sentence. The Objective. Both joined in making him a present. and mine in the second has an objective use. In such sentences as.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. The old dative case. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. 89.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. his for his property. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. In pronouns. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. 86: mine stands for my property. Curse me this people. "The good alone are great. In their function. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. as it is called. mine stands for my praise in the second. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. but not in form." "None but the brave deserves the fair. but expresses for whom. But the first two have a nominative use. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. this dative use. 90. in the first sentence. 20. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. They all handled it. as shown in Sec.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. was marked by a separate case. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. .²ID. 88. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. Now the objective.²BIBLE. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray.

you sneeze. or that he has not a great deal more. WEBSTER. and they cry.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. you must condense there. ²EMERSON. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. which follows the verb. or to the idea. It is a pity that he has so much learning. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.²DE QUINCEY. Indefinite use of you and your.²ADDISON. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.²BACON.²IRVING To empty here.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. The word you. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²D. has not made its progress. like Chinese skill. (3) In apposition. as in the sentences.²CARLYLE. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use." (3) As a grammatical subject. why. 91. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.² NEWMAN. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. as. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.Time is behind them and before them. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. logical subject. Society.²BULWER.²EMERSON. was passed by with indulgence. 92. in this century. to stand for the real. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.² . Your mere puny stripling. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. as. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. thus.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.

And when I awoke.²BRYANT. It was late and after midnight. keeps a school. himself.²BURNS. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. have laid them downIn their last sleep.. And millions in those solitudes. For when it dawned. -selves. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. herself. 94.²HOLMES. They are myself. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples." etc.²ANON. themselves. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. since firstThe flight of years began. I set me down and sigh."²IRVING. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. I made up my mind to foot it. farms it. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively." and there is an end of it.²ID. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. who teams it. There was nothing for it but to return.²COLERIDGE.. they dropped their arms. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. Poor Christian was hard put to it. A sturdy lad ." "He bought him a horse. "I found me a good book. Of the two forms in parentheses. who in turn tries all the professions. (ourself).²IRVING. that is. it rained. we use such expressions as. as they are also called. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. used in poetry.²SCOTT. (thyself). however. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. yourself. when they are direct objects. the second is the old form of the second person. This occurs in poetry.²BUNYAN. .²HAWTHORNE.²THOREAU. ourselves. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. and its plural selves. For example.It is finger-cold. peddles it. as.²DE QUINCEY. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² Now I lay me down to sleep. but seldom in prose. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²EMERSON. 93. yourselves. itself.

As girls were once. B.²E. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. as. after the analogy of myself.²MILTON. As if it were thyself that's here. with self. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. as in vulgar English. for example. Origin of these reflexives.²SHAKESPEARE. BROWNING. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. as. and the others were formed by analogy with these. I shrink with pain.² The great globe itself . Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. Threats to all. not the possessive forms. Held dead within them till myself shall die. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.²EMERSON. to us. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. In Middle English the forms meself. ourselves. 96. theself.² TENNYSON. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. especially in the speech of rulers. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.²ID.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. shall dissolve.. for example. The question might arise.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. NOTE.² . Use of the reflexives. etc. thyself. as we ourself have been. 95. were changed into the possessive myself.²WORDSWORTH.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. and build the lofty rhyme.To you yourself. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. to every one.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms..

why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 8. . which. One obsolete. Come and trip it as we go.On the light fantastic toe. 9. some each of masculine. Years ago. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. 5. and what. fight it out. 6. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Three now in use. 97. To know what is best to do. 7. feminine. Infancy conforms to nobody. some of them being double possessives. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Courage. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. FRANKLIN. father. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). but it is the soonest spoiled. where the word is one with that it tells of. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. 2. all conform to it. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. is wisdom. 3. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.²DE QUINCEY. and neuter.² THACKERAY. 4. and how to do it. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR.²B. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 10. let him lowly confess it. And it grew wondrous cold.

These show that what is not inflected for case. Use of which. used formerly to mean which of two.Promised. it refers to either persons or things. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. The use of who. that is. etc. actions. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. that it is always singular and neuter. having three forms. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. that it is not inflected for gender or number.There is an old word. or case. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. but now obsolete. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater.. 100. not to persons. shall we say. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Whose was that gentle voice. the gold. which is not inflected for gender. that. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. 99. whispering sweet.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. number. As shown here. with its possessive and objective. What wouldst thou do. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. but for case alone. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. 98. Use of who and its forms. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Use of what. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. methought. it is selective. referring to things. Which of you. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. as it always asks about somebody. ideas. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. . it is always third person. whether.

127). and also in having a conjunctive use. in Sec. AND PLUR. SING. subject of doth love. Thus we may say. nominative in the second also. pronoun. since it is subject of the verb had. which. For instance. which and what. objective in the last. Further treatment of who. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word.² .101. Function of the relative pronoun. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 99. and what are also relative pronouns. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. who? Poss. which is called the antecedent of the relative. who evidently refers to Bards. It usually precedes the pronoun.Who sung of Border chivalry.² "The last of all the Bards was he. AND PLUR. being the direct object of the verb shall take. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. or other word or expression. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives." Or. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. "The last of all the Bards was he." In the latter sentence. what may be an adverb in some expressions. as. and so to make smoother discourse. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. which and what are sometimes adjectives. SINGULAR Nom. 104. Who. who is used as objective instead of whom. it may be shortened into. which is nominative in the first sentence. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. The antecedent. as. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. 103. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. for which the pronoun stands.²by the use of the words. as they take the place usually of a word already used. 105. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. whose? Obj. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. 102.

in the same sense in which man's nature. both his and who have the antecedent priest.²DR JOHNSON. 5. Generally speaking.Whom universal nature did lament. 107. The men whom men respect. but the look which is not of the earth. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. 4.²LOWELL In this. The nurse came to us. that. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. 106. is a divine creation. 2.² COX.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. a thousand years. 4.. 3. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.²SCOTT. 6.Whose flag has braved. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.²PARTON Which and its forms. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. which. The origin of language is divine.²THACKERAY. Ye mariners of England. 3. 108.²BYRON. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. . will be discussed further on. D. Indefinite relatives. a simple relative is meant.. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.That guard our native seas. WHITNEY. Two kinds. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. are the men and women who bless their species. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. Who and its forms. For her enchanting son. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 2.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. the women whom women approve. When the word relative is used.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. what. They had not their own luster.. with all its capabilities .²W. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²MILTON.

. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. Examples of the relative that:² 1. For what he sought below is passed above. which it certainly is not. 3.5. 109.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²DE QUINCEY. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. 111. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²LAMB 3... Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. bought up all the pigs that could be had. stratagems. 4. W.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²MARGARET FULLER.. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives..²IRVING. Who. The Tree Igdrasil..²BURKE. else this description will seem exaggerated.²GOLDSMITH. The man that hath no music in himself. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. 2. 6. ought to be kept in view. The judge . 107. That.²H. and spoils.. Already done is all that he would do.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . (a) This gradation . and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. 110. What.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. you will not be angry with me for telling you. BEECHER 5. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. no bad type of what often happens in that country. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. Reader.²EMERSON.Is fit for treasons.

a man. they are plural. and others... and 3. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. or ideas. It has been seen (Sec. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. 96). (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 112.²SWIFT. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. (2) It has three case forms. seemed as much excited as myself. Cooper.²LEIGH HUNT.. in the first sentence. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whom. in 4. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Who referring to animals. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. who. flung its arms around my neck. whom. in the second. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. who is first person. not persons.²IRVING. son.²DR. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. Scott. (3) It is nearly always third person. things. p. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. My horse. The little gorilla. whose. In sentence 4. whose wound I had dressed. 113. possessive case of which. Witness the following examples:² And you. The sentences in Sec. Smollett.who. the others are all third person. in 5. 107.²who. referring to animals...²THACKERAY.whose. in the third. . that man. and so on. 5. In 1. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. JOHNSON. and 6.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.²which for the nominative and objective. the relatives are singular. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. whose for the possessive.²LOWELL. 2. Gibbon. The robins. Kingsley. (4) It has two case forms. Which.. Sec. Examples of whose. whose is second person.

(3) It is the same form for first. too. 109. and numerous others. Primarily. 115. Sometimes. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. Men may be ready to fight to the death. This often occurs. In the sentences of Sec. (2) It has only one case form. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. animals.²RUSKIN. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. Burke. and things.²SHAKESPEARE. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. second. no possessive. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. the antecedent follows which. .²THACKERAY. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. This moribund '61.² I swept the horizon. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.² MCMASTER. So in Matthew Arnold. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. secondly (which made her stare). That.114.²SCOTT. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.²DE QUINCEY. which is very notable and curious.²BEECHER. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²first. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. The last two sentences in Sec. and third persons. which is worse. Kingsley. thus. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. and to persecute without pity. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. Which and its antecedents.² And. let us enter the church itself. 116. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns."²RUSKIN. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.

Sec." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. Who plainly stands for those or the people. and is emphatic. that do I. as in sentence 6. 118.²BIBLE What fates impose. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. but what I hate. we can. What a man does. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. it usually follows. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. that he has. Nom. whose Obj. third person. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. consequently is neuter. number. The sentences of Sec. that do I not.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. For example. 117. and person of the relatives who. either of which would be neuter. . the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. What.²EMERSON. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. plural number.² What I would. is always neuter. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. by taking them out. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. who Poss. which. that men must needs abide. 109. for example." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people." That evidently refers to truths. as. plural number. When expressed. what we said?²CARLYLE. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. 119." (3) "These people heard him. The gender. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him.²SHAKESPEARE. third person.

and hence is in the nominative case. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. so is in the objective case. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. 120. standing for the people understood. 3."²EMERSON. it is subject of the verb heard. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. is what we call nature. As shown by the following sentences. 7. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. in the following sentences:² 1. Now. In the same way who. nobler souls with that which they are. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. but of this. 4. Parsing what. it is object of uttered. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. who is sure to be cunninger than they. etc. subject of heard. because it has usually no antecedent. Some prefer another method of treatment. in (1). The word what. neuter. above. the highest result of all education. however. is in the nominative case. in (3). This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. and what is the direct object of the verb call. . 5.. The whole expression is its subject. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. is subject of wrought upon and molded. is subject of the verb can't be cured." Here the subject of is. 6. What can't be cured. that takes the case of the truths in (2). The relative what is handled differently." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. but is singular. "What can't be cured must be endured. 8. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Truths in sentence (2). third person. the simple relative. after all. What must be endured? Answer. Another way. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Exercise.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. First find the antecedents. people is the object of the preposition of. In the sentence. then parse the relatives. In (2). we is the subject. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. which is. I think they are trying to outwit nature.

2. and his friend a fool. by meaning and use. that is. whichsoever. whatsoever. List and examples. Hence some take what as a double relative.²BURKE. Death is there associated. 4. 121. 122.²you cannot have both. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. It is no proof of a man's understanding. So with the other indefinites. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. . INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. 6. whatever is equivalent to all things which.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. or what else soever. They are whoever. whatever. object of do] they do. less common are whoso. Take which you please. whatsoever. to everything that. and parse that in the first clause. that nothing else can stand in their presence. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. being referred to. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. "common souls pay with that [singular. no certain antecedent. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe.²MACAULAY. It is clear that in 1. Only itself can inspire whom it will. or stand on their head. whichever. 123. 3. which. 2.²BURKE. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. and which in the second clause. 7. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. in a new and original way. summer will have its flies. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. not as direct as the simple relatives. whosoever. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. no particular thing. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. The simple relatives who. and in 2. Do what we can. object of with] which [singular. 5. Meaning and use.

²DE QUINCEY. not following the word such. 120. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. In early modern English. 417). This.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore.. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 121. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. but which only wealth could have purchased. has been my heaviest affliction. 126. 124. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. for example. Proof that they have the force of relatives. . but and as. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. There is nothing but is related to us. Instead of the phrases in which. upon which.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. by which. etc. are used. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. for example. 121. But and as. etc. Other substitutes. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. 2.As shown in Sec. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. and that as after such is equivalent to which. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. as was used just as we use that or which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. 125. everything that (or everything which). amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. either one that.² 1. whereupon. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 4.²EMERSON. nothing that does not interest us. thus. whereby. the conjunctions wherein. Former use of as. what means anything that. Two words. but mean any one whom. Sec..²HAWTHORNE. etc.² some particular thing.

²WHITTIER. would be. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. Thus. what is interrogative.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. Another caution. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. and 3 (b). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. "But what had become of them? They knew not. 3. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.²EMERSON. In sentences 1 (a). So in 2 (b). "Who stood behind? We knew. it is an interrogative.²ID. no antecedent is expressed. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak." Likewise with which in 3 (b). though the earthwork hid them. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. In studying such sentences. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). it is an indefinite relative). But compare the following in pairs:² 1. showing that who is plainly interrogative. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. the full expression being. if not. 1 (b). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. a question is disguised in each sentence. But in 1 (b). 2 (b). if expanded. Special caution needed here. it is a simple relative. which would indicate that they are not relatives. if not. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. How to decide. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. which having the antecedent lines. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first." etc. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed.. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. and whether what = that + which (if so. . 2. who having the antecedent gentleman. second. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 127.

Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Thus. 4. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²GOLDSMITH. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²FLETCHER. I visited many other apartments. which has the antecedent hue. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. 2. In the first. 3. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. whose has the antecedent you. ELIOT. In the second. and asks no question.²CARLYLE. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. When Goldsmith died. the question is asked by the verb. and Court Calendars.² THACKERAY. . 129.²FORSTER 6. On the other hand. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. whence is the interrogative word. The insect I am now describing lived three years.128. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²HOLMES. 5. Relative omitted when object. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. Examine the following:² 1. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr.²G. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. In the third. Put in the relatives who. but the life of man in England.² These are the sounds we feed upon. which. Exercise.²SWIFT. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.

and comparatively so in poetry. 130.²CAMPBELL. 3.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. There was such a crowd went. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. who were to be rulers over whom. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. the house was full. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. It is rare in prose. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. .² LOWELL. Examples are.Ne'er looks upon the sun. 5. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. Relative omitted when subject.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.²Id. and what. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Function of adjective pronouns. that. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE. 6. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.7.²SCOTT. The nobles looked at each other. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. 2. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. which was already proceeding. or indefinite relatives:² 1. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Also in literary English we find the same omission. simple relatives. which.

etc. many.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns.²EMERSON.²IRVING.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. not pronouns. such as this. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. "these pranks. necessarily thought of: thus. few. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. or may be the whole of a sentence. must not modify any word. a word. but have lost their adjective use. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. or use. 132.²BRYANT." in the second. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. 'Truth. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. For instance. neither. 133. expressed or understood. For example." that is. In the first use they are adjectives. "another bank. any.131. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. . and stand for a noun." "one man. which we have seen in such expressions as. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. in the first. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. either. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. "each cube. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. and another to get cool under. none. the former. Primarily they are adjectives. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. such as each. etc. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." in the others. or an argument in a paragraph." Classes of adjective pronouns." "Where two men ride on a horse. and on each is written. in order to be an adjective pronoun. "The dead are there. Caution. Adjectives. etc. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. but in this function. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. in letters of gold. as some. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. all. or they may stand for nouns. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. that.

(b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. reap the same. but these were of the best. or sat. when the latter was the King of Spain. 2. 5. because he was not lying in wait for these. Exercises. Simple. They have not shunned the one. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface.All these he saw.²ID. They had fewer books. 134. NOTE.²EMERSON 4. Definition and examples. Even as I have seen. accidentally preserved. Their minds accorded into one strain. A man inspires affection and honor. but what he fain had seen He could not see. for example.²ID. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. they that plow iniquity.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. . Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 3. Some of these are simple pronouns. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.² They stood. Compound. and they have well performed the other. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Such are a few isolated instances. or reclined.²LOWELL. and sow wickedness. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. as seemed good to each. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.

135. as some of the rangers had gone astray.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. or melt for others' woe. as most were. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. None shall rule but the humble. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. ²HAWTHORNE. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. Men take each other's measure when they react.²EMERSON. as. Exercise. paused over a horoscope. Definition and examples.²KINGSLEY. another.²HAWTHORNE. you quickly come to the end of all. Another opposes him with sound argument. with the superstitions of his time. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. . for example. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.Two are compound pronouns. Much might be said on both sides. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. we might the more easily discharge them. They led one another.²each other. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. Some inflected.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.² One reflexive. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. one another. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. such as one other. imbued. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. as it were. The word one has a reflexive form. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²HOLMES. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. The Soldan.

everybody else. nobody.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. They indefinite means people in general. something. etc. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. every one else." It means something. no one.Exercise. in building of chaises. 137. what. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. 136.. every one (or everyone). Exercise. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. anyone else. unlike adjective pronouns. . naught. anybody. and was indefinite in Old English. everything. they are never used as adjectives. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. but. they say. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. any one (or anyone). The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. anything. etc. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. also aught. Jove laughs. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. Somebody. as.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. somebody else. everybody. and somewhat. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Now. I tell you what. as shown in the words everybody's.² At lovers' perjuries. anybody else's. nothing. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. and they. Every one else stood still at his post. Definition and examples.²SHAKESPEARE. some one.

All was now ready for action. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 13. 3. 7. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. The table was good. 14. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. Hutchinson tells us of herself. O thou that rollest above. 10. Whoever deals with M. Others did the same thing. Exercise. 4. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. For this did God send her a great reward.²a feature of natural scenery for which. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. to which. . 6. 18.See also "Syntax" (Sec. and of no other. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 9. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. in his negotiations. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 8. 138. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. I first found myself among the mountains. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 5. 12. 11. 17. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. were suffered to depart. but not to quite so enormous an extent. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). A reminder. from my earliest days. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. indeed. 16. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 2.

25. And will your mother pity me. Whatever he knows and thinks. 30. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. And I had done a hellish thing. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. and seized a pen. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 27.Who knew thee too well.19.Destroyer and preserver. 34. that let him communicate. oh. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 26. I who alone am. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 23. thou rollest now. 32. hear.And it would work 'em woe. eat white bread or brown. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 31. hear! 33. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 29. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. behold now the semblance of my being. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. He sate him down. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . A smile of hers was like an act of grace. They know not I knew thee.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. variety. well-oiled dispositions. 21. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 35. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. who take the world easy.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. in all its height.

brittle or tough." "some cities. etc. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. Who hears me. For example. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. the number is limited by adjectives. ADJECTIVES. becomes mine." etc. which was no bad step towards my liberation. It may have this office alone. size. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 44..36. or gaseous. heavy or light. as. 37. who understands me. or with persons. white or red. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. that is our permanent state. 139. 40. then. We are by nature observers. Substantives. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. and so he read." "a hundred men. if we wish to speak of a friend's house." The office of an adjective. 39. 45. So with any object. 41. Office of Adjectives. and he learns who receives. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. etc. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. so that no other will be mistaken for it. If a chemist discovers a new substance. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit." "yonder hill. position." "that house. We need to add some words to tell its color. 38. He knew not what to do. "one hat. if we are at a distance. Again. or liquid. . As to the kind of words used. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. such as in the expressions "this man. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. and if we are near. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. in pointing out an object. adjectives are used. 42. 43. He teaches who gives.

With exception of the "and then.140. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. such as. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. Infinitives. fair. to forgive." the "and there. Classes of adjectives. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. derived from proper nouns." "ice-cold water. happy. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. (2) Adjectives of quantity. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. deep. "an old English manuscript. 143. however. used to tell how many things are spoken of. If he be thankful for small benefits." . or how much of a thing." "ivory-handled pistols. Examples are. 142." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. pointing out particular things. such as safe.²POPE." "half-dead traveler. divine. and their trash. it shows that he weighs men's minds. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. remotest. 141. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." "this life-giving book." they constitute all his connections. terrible. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. They include relative and interrogative words. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "the Christian pearl of charity. etc. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." "the Roman writer Palladius.²COLERIDGE. to describe it or to limit its application. To err is human." "next-door neighbor. (4) Pronominal adjectives. beautiful. "Heaven-derived power." and the still less significant "and so. To make this clear. Definition. Nouns are not.² BACON. words primarily pronouns. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. rash." "unlooked-for burden.

Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. and another is drunken. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "a charming sight. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. no. 144." "trailing clouds." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. but small thoughts have I of sleep. 145.²COLERIDGE." was is the verb. in studying these last-named words." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. sometimes small." "It came on like the rolling simoom. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and accomplished is an adjective. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished.But ever she looked on Mr. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." "One is hungry." "The shattered squares have opened into line." was accomplished is a verb. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. which are either pure participles used to describe. some." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. Exercises. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. Care is needed. 2.²MACDONALD.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. For instance: in the sentence." Caution. having some of each subclass named in Sec. considerable. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. . Oxenham. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. Examples are. 1. in this." "an aged man. 'Tis midnight. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 143. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. any. much. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives.

but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. 146. the former²the latter. How many. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. but I have gained fourscore." "In came some five and twenty more. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. "one blaze of musketry. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. every village.² Every town had its fair. When some. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound." "I have lost one brother. are used with plural nouns. and with them a few negroes. its wake. they come under the next division of adjectives. (plural these. no." "a dozen volunteers. instead of modifying them. those).²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives.²CARLYLE. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. as." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²THACKERAY. Exercise. Examples." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "Then we wandered for many days. former. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it.²KINGSLEY. The following sentences present some examples:² . also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. that.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." (b) Indefinite numerals." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. The list. Not primarily pronouns. yonder (or yon). latter. any. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. The demonstrative adjectives are this. An arrow was quivering in each body. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.²VAUGHAN. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives.²ID." "He had lived by hunting for some months. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." Single ones of any number of changes. Thus.

The taking of which bark."²B. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. like the other numerals. 149. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. 147. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. When we speak of the seventeenth century. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.²RUSKIN. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. of equal skill. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. Indefinite relative adjectives.² It matters not what rank he has. tell how many things are meant. The silver and laughing Xenil. but in the one case. Oxenham fought desperately. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²BANCROFT.²WORDSWORTH.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. They are of two kinds. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²KINGSLEY.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives.²ID. what revenues or garnitures. WEBSTER. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. I verily believe. These do not. These were thy charms. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. ²CARLYLE. 148. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.²ID. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. skill which was progressive²in the other. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. In which evil strait Mr. just as the corresponding pronouns do. Exercise.²GOLDSMITH. but. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.but all these charms are fled.²BULWER. Modify names of persons or things. Definition. FRANKLIN. As has been said.. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. they are changed to adjectives. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you..²D. . skill which was at pause. for example.

In indirect questions. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. which is selective among what is known.²AGASSIZ. proved not altogether displeasing to him. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. and new tormentedAround me. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. whatsoever. . as it rather seemed. the debt to the rich.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Examples of their use are. which. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. nature will be sure to bear us out in. He was turned before long into all the universe. whichever.. Was there. whichsoever. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. 151. what inquires about things or persons not known. Adjective what in exclamations. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. or whether any. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.And whichsoever way I turn. As in the pronouns. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.²IRVING.²RUSKIN.² EMERSON. you at least give him full authority over your son. A lady once remarked. it is impossible to determine.²ID. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. But when the Trojan war comes. In direct questions. and gaze. whatever. whichsoever way I move. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Whatsoever kind of man he is..²CARLYLE.²LAMB.150. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. New torments I behold.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).

Thus.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. etc. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. Those borrowed from this. of the quality. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. those). 155. and those as the plural of that. alas. When we place two objects side by side. or weight. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. gold is heavier than iron. Exercise. This is the old demonstrative. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. we do so by means of their qualities. The article that was used with neuter nouns. . th s (modern those). a sapphire is bluer than the sky. or amount. etc. color. NUMBER.Adjectives have two inflections. weight. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. In exclamatory expressions. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.152. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. All these have certain qualities. as. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.²but not the same degree. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. the making of it right.²This. and when we compare the objects.. That.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. 153 . But this had also another plural. It is neither relative nor interrogative. we notice some differences between them as to size. History of this²these and that²those. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. or size.² Oh. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. Meaning of comparison. COMPARISON.²number and comparison. 154. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. And yet. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. which was fully inflected in Old English.

The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. easiest. strictly considered. and the superlative. to the simple form. as. sufficient. indefatigable. These are properly the only degrees.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 156. bluer. bluest. expressing the greatest degree of quality. organic. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. indomitable. for example. or amounts in quantity. whether they attend their own affair or not. as. infinite." "the largest soul.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. A main difference betwixt men is. The two forms. giant-like.²SEWARD." Words that cannot be compared. though the simple. blue." "no fewer than a hundred. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. supreme. Substitute for inflection in comparison. immemorial. enormous. These are called degrees of comparison. Definition. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. 157.²THACKERAY. they are not compared. and the superlative by adding -est. "untamed thought. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. 160. redder. . There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. and many others. The comparative is formed by adding -er. with less wit. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. whose favorite pupil he was. expressing a greater degree of quality. "more matter." "the commonest speech. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. red. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. but were not common until a century later. So with the words sole. Freedom is a perpetual. reddest." "It is a nobler valor. easy. 158. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. universal institution. great. easier. but. 159.

mournfulest." said Henry Esmond. was most finished. 163. indisputablest.²ID. and yet familiar. there needed to be a most genuine substance." "the wonderfulest little shoes. etc. These are adjectives irregularly compared." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. and other words are preceded by more and most. These long. though born in no very high degree. The general rule is. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most." "more odd.²ID. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression.² CARLYLE A gentleman.²The Nation. I will. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. strange.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. most small." "distantest relationships." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. who. The following lists include the majority of them:² .² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. witty. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. quiet. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. 162." Carlyle uses beautifulest. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. easy. and patientest fusing. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. Adjectives irregularly compared. as. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. which hung behind in the queerest way. honestest." "sorrowfulest spectacles. falling on his knees.Which rule. admirablest.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. polished." "more austere and holy. harsh forms are usually avoided. finest chiseling. "So help me God. madam. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. peaceablest.

oldest Nighest. bad. The superlative I form was betst. evil was the positive to worse. 1. a double comparative. [In] Inner Inmost. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. Hind 2. 3. furthest 10. List I.²HAMLET. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. next Nearest Latest. 7. 5. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 4. is often used. which has softened to the modern best. hindermost Much or many More Farther. lesser. Worser was once used. as in Shakespeare. older Nigher Nearer Later. lesser Elder. 164. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. as. throw away the worser part of it. [Out] Outer. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. worst. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). A double comparative.² O. though from a different root. further Farthest. 6. which has gone out of use. least. . as in the sentence (14th century).² We have it in a much lesser degree. There was an old comparative bet. last Hindmost. 9. (2) In Old English. uppermost LIST III. Good or well Evil. innermost Outmost.LIST I. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 8. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. uttermost Upmost. latter Hinder LIST II. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 2. utter 3. outermost Utmost.

but in former times much was used in the sense of large. is quite common. and the superlative nearest. much. th came into the others. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional.²ID.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. Between the two sets as they now stand. and refer to time. "Many a little makes a mickle.²HAWTHORNE. a distinction has grown up between the two series. as. moche.²forth. Since later." Its spelling has been micel. eldest. doubling the inflection. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. greatest. strenger. except the form next. great. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. but not in meaning. latest. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. since the m is for -ma. etc. first. for example.. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form.. further. next. came into use. The meanings greater. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. near. as long. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. are shown in such phrases as. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. In imitation of further. but originally the comparison was nigh. etc. The latter. making the modern farther. to which is added -ost. or series. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. meaning the largest part. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.² The more part being of one mind. . are earlier than older. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. The most part kept a stolid indifference. ²LAMB. muchel. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. there is scarcely any distinction. an old superlative ending. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. First became entirely detached from the series.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. strong. to England we sailed. the old forms. List II. farrest. (5) The forms elder. instead of lenger. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. oldest.²KINGSLEY. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. farthest. furthest.

The adjectives in List III. being merely descriptive. but not in their meaning.²EMERSON. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.165. In List II. on the very topmost twig. Highest and midmost. but her after deck was still dry. or have no comparative forms. all may belong to the same noun." "The outer is of the day. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "far-seeing as the sun.²H. by the by. 167. Her. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. (Sec. BEECHER. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. 168. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²KINGSLEY. . W.²SCOTT. and have no comparative force. The comparatives are so in form. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. the upper light of the world. Think what each adjective belongs to. There." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing." "the innermost moral soul. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. but they have no adjective positives. in having no adjective positives.²DE QUINCEY. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.²HAWTHORNE. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective.²DE QUINCEY. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. They have no superlatives." -Most added to other words. are like the comparative forms in List II. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. List III. Decidedly handsome. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Her bows were deep in the water. 166." "their utmost exertion.

²BIBLE. and broken. instead of saying. philosophical. as. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. in prose. deep. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. 4. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. usual modifies incomparable decision. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. and heaven-defying oaths. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank.²HAWTHORNE. round. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. STEPHENS 5. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. But in this sentence. solid. and thine often infirmities." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. This. rich. For thy stomach's sake.²NOAH PORTER.²A. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.For example. The seldom use of it. satisfactory. Other instances are. Exercise. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 6. bright.²TRENCH. deeply black eyes. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. and moral truth. In the following quotations. ²TROLLOPE. 3. It may still be argued. in this sentence. May we not. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. our new government. Richard Hooker. . now our queen. "the one who was then king.²MRS." in which then is an adverb. we may say "the then king. Bradbury and Evans. not decision alone. 2. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. By a convenient brevity. therefore.²HAWTHORNE. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Our sometime sister. 7. STOWE." making then an adjective. the then and still owners. H.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs.² My then favorite. A few improper jests and a volley of good. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²HOLMES.²RUSKIN." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. 169.

10. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. seventy-five drachmas. 4.What to tell in parsing. manly way. compared by prefixing more and most. 2. positive degree. person. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. She made no reply. (3) Its degree of comparison. with awkward but rapid pace. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 8. having a singular. 170. the method of parsing is simple. Exercise. modifies truths. To every several man. 5. if it has number. plural number. and I waited for none. and very few have number. not inflected for number. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. Since adjectives have no gender. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. I ask nothing of you. or case. modifies the word truths. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. then. if it can be compared. cannot be compared. therefore descriptive. (2) Its number. 7. across the plain. frank. To every Roman citizen he gives. This gave the young people entire freedom. . whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. These points out what truths. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. this. therefore demonstrative. 6. Unfamiliar describes truths. In parsing an adjective. and most astounding were those frightful yells. MODEL FOR PARSING. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. 9. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. (4) What word or words it modifies. 3.

not so much for travelers that were few. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 27. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. Two hours elapsed. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 29. Like most gifted men. 20. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. To say what good of fashion we can. he won affections with ease. the same love to France would have been nurtured. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 24. during which time I waited. 18. it rests on reality. those dogs in the yard. Here lay two great roads. . and therefore more interesting to us. as for armies that were too many by half. In music especially. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 12. I know not what course others may take. 23. 31. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. Nearer to our own times. growing in the most unfavorable position. With every third step. is the settlement of our own country. 14.11. 32. 19. and many poles supported the lower ones. it is so noble a fruit. 21. and dogs. 28. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. the tomahawk fell. 26. 33. oxen. 22. Their name was the last word upon his lips. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. are immutably fishes. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. yonder oxen in the pasture. suggests such thoughts as these. 16. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 25. 13.

" "a yelling crowd. sometimes the tother. such as we have been attempting to describe. the latter is still preserved in the expression." "an honor." "a European. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. were formerly that one. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . ðat. the tother. these occurring as the tane. for example.²BREWER." the words the and an belong to nouns. 174.²MACAULAY. 173. that other. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. An or a came from the old numeral n. the tither.34. with an ordinary little garden. Two relics. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. and a before consonant sounds. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. 35. the other.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. 172. in vulgar English. 171. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Many writers use an before h. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant." "an orange. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. even when not silent. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized." An with consonant sounds. In Middle English the became an article. 37. Their origin. that) which was also an article in Old English. Examples: "a house. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. s o. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Our expressions the one. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. meaning one. the tother. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. In the sentence.²SCOTT. An before vowel sounds. or the tane. th o. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. he is no literary man. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. a before consonant sounds. A hard-struggling. ARTICLES. later th . weary-hearted man was he. but the former is used. An historian. . just as adjectives do.

when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Reference to a known object. 175. The is the definite article. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. Kinds. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with.. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. An hereditary tenure of these offices. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. and when the word river is omitted. or group. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me..²COLERIDGE. or any individual of a group or class. on opening a story.²HEROES OF ASGARD. not descriptive. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. An and a are different forms of the same word. as "the Mississippi. 176. and not a state or other geographical division." "the Ohio.²THACKERAY.²G. Articles are either definite or indefinite. 177. When the is prefixed to a proper name. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. BANCROFT. With names of rivers. An article is a limiting word. since it points out a particular individual. An or a is the indefinite article. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.² Don't you remember how. or a group or class of things. as in the sentence. is referred to. Definition.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²IRVING.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. a person is introduced by a. or class. doubtless. thus. The Dakota tribes. 179. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. which cannot be used alone. To call attention to attributes. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. 178. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri." the article indicates clearly that a river.² . the older n. NOTE.²This use is noticed when.

For possessive person pronouns.² The faint. 1.² As she hesitated to pass on. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. With adjectives used as nouns. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. laid it on the miry spot.²KINGSLEY. would speedily extract the required information. but into the region of all the virtues. The. not into a particular virtue. Common. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. If the good is there. Caution. the gallant.²G. NOTE. the Hume. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. etc.²EMERSON. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. 182. for example.²SCOTT. and the redwing. her. 180. .²ID.²ID. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. One thing for its class. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. 2. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. The simple rise as by specific levity. or a match put between the fingers. With plural of abstract nouns. 181. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. BANCROFT. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.The Bacon.²GIBBON. so is the evil. 183. the song sparrow. His messages to the provincial authorities. Schelling. Half abstract. Kant.²MOTLEY. as. the Spinoza. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²EMERSON.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

Hence Definition. or the object. taking the staff which always guided her steps. to go is no predicate. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. By examining a few verbs. for example. can deceive has an object. a verb. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. and shame the most astute. 203. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. b). and a preposition unite as a verb.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. which may be a person. 200: In (1). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. a preposition. or a material thing. the most penetrating. as. c). (can) shame also has an object. we consider a verb as one word. etc. Has takes the object hypocrisy. In the sentence. in (2. endured what? anguish. an article. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. 201.²BULWER . "Put thou money in thy purse." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE.In (a). Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. In each case. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. lone took what? answer. in (3. to say something to or about some person or thing. the most astute. which means to go over. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. and to receive the action expressed. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. Of those expressing action. and. In giving a definition. a). a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. hence is not a verb. but fearing is not a predicate. in this sentence from Bulwer. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. Definition and caution. in (3. 204. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. care. obeyed is a predicate. 202. from the Latin transire. a noun. and not a verb. the word following. In the first. Each influences some object. A verb is a word used as a predicate. The nature of the transitive verb. "Put money in thy purse." Examine the sentences in Sec."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. Now." put is the predicate. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. representing something which it influences or controls. in (b). All these are called transitive verbs. but cannot be predicates. in (c). all do not express it in the same way. b). in (2. or an idea. an adverb. The nature of intransitive verbs. with some word understood.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Condition or Supposition. Unreal²cannot be true. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. . The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. I.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. the first great founder of the Empire. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. or be fulfilled. ²EMERSON. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. but. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. for example.²FRANKLIN. WEBSTER. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. in our case. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. he will see the need of these ethics. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. 215. 222. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. and may or may not be regarded true. as. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.² If.²MACAULAY. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. they were recorded in the Book of Life. the second founder.² Now. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. 2). If this be the glory of Julius. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. popular government must be pronounced impossible. the writer can make the statement following. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.I could lie down like a tired child.²SHELLEY.²LONGFELLOW.²may or may not be true. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. Ideal. 221.²BRYCE.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. Most excellent stranger. Again. as.²D. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. the representative system ultimately fail.

or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. WILLIS. he supposed. would you." etc. society could not hold together. may. is of similar physiognomy. In the following conditional clauses. though.. if he speak to you.. NOTE. Epaminondas. since he [Byron] was dead. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. except. which cannot be true.² It was necessary.² CARLYLE. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. ²LOWELL. that we cannot but regret its absence. that he might be strong to labor. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. and should. II. 2. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.²SWIFT. The subjunctive. is used to express purpose.. I told him.²FRANKLIN. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. 8. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. the clause being introduced by that or lest. she was regarded as a prodigy.²EMERSON. thus. etc. but when the verb precedes the subject. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. Exercise.²N. he had better not have written. Subjunctive of Purpose. and sonorous. and striven energetically to save Ney. P. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. clear. might. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. But in no case could it be justified. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. .²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. especially be. 6. The voice.²MACAULAY. unless. would have sat still with joy and peace.² If these things were true.²FRANKLIN..(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. to drink strong beer. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. if he was the man I take him for. melodious. If he had reason to dislike him.²BAYNE. do you think. 3. as. 7. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 223. if his lot had been mine. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. and what kind of condition:² 1. 4.²CALHOUN. 5.

In Indirect Questions.²D. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. the answer being regarded as doubtful. To tell of what had passed. like the quarry-slave at night. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. 224. like the Latin. VI. Ask the great man if there be none greater. V. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.Thou go not. within its fairy bowers. 225. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.I have been the more particular. WEBSTER.²BRYANT. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²WORDSWORTH. Expressing a Wish. till it meet the sun in his coming. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.²COLERIDGE. The English subjunctive.²DE QUINCEY. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. III. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. In Temporal Clauses. Subjunctive of Result.That vain it were her eyes to close.. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.And we. I've wished that little isle had wings.. none of us could say. Rise up.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. VII.²SOUTHEY. I would it were! ²EMERSON. 226. After a verb of wishing. Let it rise. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. 227.²ID. So live. In a Noun Clause..²CARLYLE.Were wafted off to seas unknown.²MOORE. IV.. .

Complement. . After verbs of commanding.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. 229. etc. in apposition.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. or whatsoever victual it may be. for example. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²SCOTT. often contains a subjunctive. of cash. Some might lament that I were cold. I have no thought what men they be. See that there be no traitors in your camp. that everything be in its place. is. The first merit. Object. That hunger of applause. is the ultimate fact of man's life.²THOREAU. The noun clause. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. tell me all that thou hast seen.²COLERIDGE. in its various uses as subject. Whatever betide. The essence of originality is not that it be new. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. which may be (a) Pronoun.²SHELLEY.²CARLYLE.And look thou tell me true. VIII.Subject.²TENNYSON.²COLERIDGE. we'll turn aside. Come. object. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²DE QUINCEY. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²WORDSWORTH. 228..² Be the matter how it may. (b) Adjective. Concessive Clauses.² DICKENS.And see the Braes of Yarrow.

²J. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. though. 231. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Definition. Oh. . (1) Command. fear none. Usually second person. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. a concession. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. 230. (2) Entreaty.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. At the present day. or requests. Honor all men. (3) Request. In spoken English.²BRYANT. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. ADAMS. to express a wish.The spirit he loves remains. Q. IMPERATIVE MOOD. It must be remembered. point to their immortal works. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. love all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²CHANNING. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. since commands are directed to a person addressed. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. 232. for example.² CARLYLE. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. and condition contrary to fact. entreaties. however.²SHELLEY. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.(c) Adverb. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream.

The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. receive my hand.And God forget the stranger!" ." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. we may use the imperative with we in a command.²SCOTT. 6. request. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.And. Mark thou this difference. Whatever inconvenience ensue.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. lest we rust in ease."Hush! mother. Break we our watch up. 7. Oh. Part we in friendship from your land. child of earth!While each performs his part. 2.One glance at their array! 5." Exercises on the Moods. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled."²DICKENS Tell me. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. 3.²SHAKESPEARE. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. but I + you.. Sometimes with first person in the plural. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. or I + they. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I." whispered Kit. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. "The Devil take the goose.²CAMPBELL. to you implied in it. etc. 8. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.. noble earl. etc. there will her heart and her prayers be. "Come along with me. nothing is to be preferred before justice. Quoth she.

And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. then. or do it at all. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 13. "Oh.Except. 10.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. 20. it would speak. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 21. and opinion displace opinion. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. He is. 26. 23. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. she ought to have it. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. That sheaf of darts.High up in silver spikes! 22. 11. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. let him live where else he like.9. Though he were dumb. He. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. ruined. my dear madam." continued Old Morgan." 25. Think not that I speak for your sakes. but repentant child. 14. as though an instrument. "Mr." cried he. how he may do his work. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.That they might answer him. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast." 16. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. That a man parade his doubt. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Though abyss open under abyss. no literary man. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Marshall. Forget thyself to marble. .Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 18. whether he do it right or wrong. "tell me where I may find my poor.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Well. will it not fall unbound. 19.

" . Tenses in English. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. or future time.27. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. will. whatever she did. also.²the present tense. Tense means time. have. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Siddons. Definition.²nothing could exceed the amiable. "I go away tomorrow. shall. tell him to wait. as the classical languages have." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. which represented present and future time. 234. such as be. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. in the third person singular. five in the imperative. the past. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. as. Old English had only two tenses. "Thou walkest. and future perfect tenses. to direct his steps. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood." past. 28. and future. past. in the conjugations. called auxiliaries. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. 235. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. past. The tenses in detail.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. five in the subjunctive. TENSE. and the future tense. or agree with it. by means of the present. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. such as Latin and Greek.² present. as will be shown later on. Meantime. PERSON AND NUMBER. 233. When the older pronoun thou was in use. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. as. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as." present. or whether it were as one member of a general party. "Thou walkedst. "It is not in man that walketh." "If he comes. past perfect. kind. and the past tense. a form ending in -eth.

etc. chose. tenses. but in English. moods. You are 2. as. is.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. You (thou) be 3. for example. Few forms. I be 2. chosest). 236." and this only in the present tense indicative. This is the third person. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. chooses. wert) 3. are. Singular 1. walketh. walks. choosing. Such verbs as choose have five. I were 2. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. walking. persons. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. Indicative Mood.²choose. mood. walkedst. [He] were [They] were . PRESENT TENSE. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. Definition. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. 237. since it is composed of several different roots. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. CONJUGATION. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. etc. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. walk has walk.²am. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. In classical languages. and numbers. tense. walked. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Singular 1. The verb be has more forms. choosest. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. [He] is [They] are 3. chooseth. Singular 1. PRESENT TENSE. chosen (old. Singular 1. been. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. 238. were. singular number. "He walks.

PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.His infancy was nurtured. is. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. 239.²WORDSWORTH. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. though it is usually a dialect form.Imperative Mood. (2) was. for example.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. Remarks on the verb be. in four ways. etc. etc. condition.²ID. same as the German sind.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²THACKERAY.. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. (3) be. 240. Instead of the plural are. The light that never was on sea and land. were.²BURKE . being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.²SHELLEY.²GOLDSMITH. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. obligation.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. to express intention. to form the passive voice. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²SCOTT. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. -en. thus. (d) With the infinitive. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. (2) As auxiliary verbs. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. which was now become an occasional banquet. as.

[He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. 1. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. I choose 2. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. I chose 2. You chose Plural. I choose 2. Indicative Mood. by placing have. "I had gone" (past perfect). as. We choose You choose PAST TENSE.241. 1. We chose You chose 3. Singular. You chose Plural. etc. 242. as. PRESENT TENSE. (2). Machinery of a verb in the voices. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I shall be." (2) Present perfect. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. tenses. . You choose Plural. I chose 2. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. PRESENT TENSE. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. 1. 240. We chose You chose 3. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. "I have gone" (present perfect). had. Singular. Singular." "He will choose. tenses. past perfect. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 1. future perfect. [He] choose [They] choose 3. In addition to the above inflected forms.

He is choosing. as. He has been choosing. Past. . Past definite. Same as indicative." "They had been running. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. "I am running. He will choose. ACTIVE VOICE. Present perfect. will be given. He chose. He was choosing. he chose (or were to choose). Present definite. Past perfect definite. Present. Past definite. Future perfect definite. Indicative Mood. He chooses. He will he choosing. he have chosen. Present definite. etc. of each tense. He had chosen." 243. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He has chosen." "You are chosen. Past. though. Future. lest. " " " " " " " he be choosing. (2d per.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present perfect. " Be choosing.) Choose. Imperative Mood. "I was chosen. Present perfect definite. Future definite. singular number. he have been choosing. Past perfect definite. Past perfect. Past perfect. He will have chosen. Same as indicative. He will have been choosing. Present perfect definite. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Only the third person. Present. Present definite. He had been choosing. as." (4) The passive forms. Future perfect. Subjunctive Mood. Present. [If.] he choose. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning.

Past. Past perfect definite. He will have been chosen. Present perfect. He was being chosen. as. etc. Imperative Mood.NOTE. he were being chosen. None. 262). Past perfect. (2d per. Future perfect.) Be chosen. Subjunctive Mood. . though. He had been chosen. Present definite. lest. None. None. Past Perfect. Indicative Mood. He will be chosen. Future definite. He was chosen. Exercises should be given. He has been chosen. however. Past." [Note to Teacher. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). He is being chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. None. Present.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. but verbals. Future perfect definite. Present tense. Past perfect definite..] [If. they will be discussed later (Sec. if learned at all. Present perfect definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present. " " " " " " " None. PASSIVE VOICE. Present perfect definite. he had been chosen." "He did strike. he have been chosen. Past definite. Future. None. Also. None. Past definite. "He does strike. Present perfect. in affirmative sentences.] he be chosen. He is chosen. Present definite.

ran. and may or may not change the vowel: as. Kinds. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. beg. lay. bounden] bitten. verbs are strong or weak. bit blown broken chidden. 245. laid. but adds no ending. 244. Some of these also have weak forms. Definition. catch. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . According to form. sleep.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. bid bound. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. which are in parentheses Present Tense. run. as. NOTE. Past Tense. slept. caught. drive. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. begged.[adj. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. drove.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound . sunken] sat slain slidden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

"O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain." "a sunken snag.²as (from Shakespeare). drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. Not a cock crew. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. as. cleaved. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). But drunk is very much used as an adjective. Our cock."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. now told us it was time for repose. "stricken with paralysis.²TENNYSON. nor a dog barked." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²one meaning to adhere or cling. cleft. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings." "the cloven hoof. Sometimes in literary English. as. cloven. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.²B. instead of ate and eaten. but is much used in vulgar English. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. cleaved. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.²COLERIDGE. and the latter. to split. and sometimes occurs in poetry. as (from Holmes). the other. as. .²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. cleft (to split)." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. "his bounden duty. TAYLOR.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. probably to avoid confusion with this. which always crew at eleven.²IRVING. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. 246.² Thou hast clomb aloft. When it means to carry or to endure. borne is also a passive. Historically.²cleave. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. especially in that of an earlier period." "a drunken wretch. for example. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). ²THACKERAY. and. only one set remains certain. The former used to be cleave. cleave.²GOLDSMITH. clave or clove. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. and another (born) for the passive.²MILTON.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.² We had each drank three times at the well.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. The form clomb is not used in prose. How fairy Mab the junkets eat." In this confusion of usage.

9. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. which is seldom used except in poetry. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 2." but not much as a participle. He sate him down.²BYRON. Break. Usually shear is a weak verb. 4. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. gave. Fling. shook. Give. The butler was hanged. We usually say. drove. broke.²SCOTT. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting.²BIBLE. shore is rare. Drive. 5. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. Fall."²KINGSLEY.² If. threw. driven. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Shake. fallen. for example. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. found. Begin. One example out of many is. thrown. for example. found.²WORDSWORTH. Freeze. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. and grasping at his sword. . froze. broken.²TENNYSON. (a) From the table (Sec. Find. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Throw. frozen. as "a shorn lamb. and seized a pen. as. This heard Geraint. 3. even in poetry. began.²DE FOE. maiden. Exercises. 8." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend.The form gotten is little used. flung. fell. 10. 7. 245). flung. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging.² We had all got safe on shore. begun. given. 6.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. shaken.

. according to the infinitive used. of course. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.[To the Teacher. They are as follows:² PRESENT. The same remarks apply to ought. Ability. It is indicative when it expresses permission. for full drill on the forms. as it has two meanings. but came through analogy with should and would. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. 247. His superiority none might question. PAST. Like must.²HAWTHORNE. The l in could did not belong there originally.. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. or. 249. "far off his coming shines." Must is present or past tense.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE..²CHANNING This.²PAINE. Indicative Use: Permission. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. (See also Sec. purpose.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. there is one general principle.. Could may be subjunctive. must have been an ocular deception. etc. ability. Can is used in the indicative only. 250. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. PRESENT. Subjunctive use. as in Sec.²SCOTT. or when it expresses wish. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. "So mote it be. as. 220. as it sometimes does. Must is historically a past-tense form."²WINIER. Have we valuable territories and important posts. from the obsolete verb motan. 251. it is used only in the indicative mood. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe... which survives in the sentence. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. etc.²CHANNING. HAMILTON. PAST. 223.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.

the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.² The time will come full soon." Uses of shall and should. The sea shall crush thee.²MACAULAY. with pronouns of the first person.e.²BULWER. BROCKDEN BROWN. C. shall and should are used. what shall I say?²N. (b) In indirect quotations. or confident prediction. She rejects his suit with scorn. especially in the United States. MOULTON. "I think I will go. my lad. as. yea. to use will and would.²THAXTER.²COOPER.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.. to the neglect of shall and should.² Futurity and questions²first person. She should not walk. I shall be gone. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. not plod along like apeasant.²IRVING.² (a) To express authority. promise. she should ride like a queen.²LONGFELLOW. . as. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²L. as. WEBSTER. They shall have venison to eat. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. Second and third persons. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. for example. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. The following are examples:² Never mind. Shall and Will. and corn to hoe. in the form of command.² With respect to novels. while ought always has to. (b) In questions asking for orders. shall and should are used.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. 252. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. he said.Nay. future action).

²BYRON.²A. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²C. JR. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.²SCOTT.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS..²WORDSWORTH. Disguising a command. and is equivalent to ought. for example. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²ROGERS.²WORDSWORTH. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. First. as.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. second and third persons.²WORDSWORTH. JAMES. with the conviction that he should win in the end. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²H. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²CABLE. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. purpose.that I would do him justice.. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. 253. BROWN. time. LARNED. B. as the sole inventor. for example.² I will go myself now. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. I never was what I should be. . If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. or a promise. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. was to be expected. thus.²SWIFT. And promised. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. etc.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. and will not return until all is finished.²WINTER..

They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. PASSIVE VOICE.²SCOTT. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. as if it were merely expected action. when thou wast born. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. will and would are used to express simple futurity. 254.²War Records.²SCOTT.² Thou wilt take the skiff. would is used to express a wish. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS..²LANDOR.² DICKENS. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. AND THIRD PERSONS. and two of my people. for example. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.² Subject I omitted: often so. action merely expected to occur. Roland. To be sure.. for punishment or intimidation. and mark on the grounds the works. SECOND. as. In this stately chair would he sit. without regard to future time. Mere futurity.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). When I am in town.. will is used to express command.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. The gift of Beauty.. They will go to Sunday schools. so you will. for example. Would thou hadst it not. through storms their brothers are afraid of. BROWN.. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. B. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.. .²IRVING.²BURKE.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. This puts the order more mildly. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. etc.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.²the original meaning of the word will. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. will and would often denote an action as customary. (4) With FIRST. as. Thine was a dangerous gift.²BANCROFT. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.

2. We will be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. and justify the use of shall and will. yet only seem. You will choose. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 6. PASSIVE VOICE. 1. Singular. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. [He] shall be chosen. 5. 3. 3. 1. Singular. 1. 4. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. [They] will be chosen. [He] will be chosen. You shall be chosen. [He] will choose. 252 and 253. 1. ." answered Herbert stubbornly. (a) From Secs. Exercises on Shall and Will. You shall choose. Singular. 2. Thou shalt have a suit. We shall be chosen. You will choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. To express determination. He informed us. You shall choose. Thou art what I would be. Plural. 2. I shall choose. I will choose. I shall be chosen.:² ACTIVE VOICE. We shall choose. (b) Examine the following sentences. "I shall not run. Plural. promise. [They] will choose. You shall be chosen.Singular. 2. You will be chosen. Plural. etc. You will be chosen. 2. 3. I will be chosen. 3. [They] shall be chosen. 3. [He] shall choose. 1. [They] shall choose. 3. We will choose. 2. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. Plural. and that of the newest cut.

bereft. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. 11. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this." the stranger said. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.²Class I. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²CHAUCER. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. But the rest. and have no change of vowel. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. put. This ending has now dropped off. which may be called irregular weak verbs. and I have nothing to say.7. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. "I am a wayfarer. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 10. No. 256. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle." 14. was -de or -te. as. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. bereaved besought . put. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. Lucy stood still. Present Tense. then. bereave besought Past Participle. 13. 12. The beast made a sluggish movement. bereave beseech bereft. or mylk and wastel breed. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. 9. set. need some attention and explanation. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. Of smale houndes hadde she. very anxious. put. 255. Irregular Weak Verbs. Without having attended to this. 257. Past Tense. set. The old ending to verbs of Class II. as if he would have more of the enchantment.²ID. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. WEAK VERBS. my son.

leapt left lost meant paid penned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. they have an indefinite. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. [To] have been chosen.6. [To] have been choosing.. Nothing of the kind having been done. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. In Sec. 8. Perfect. INFINITIVES. . But later. and when passive. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. 268. PASSIVE VOICE. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. 7. 266. 10. Perfect.²the creature warring against the creating power. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. 267. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive.. 9. expressing purpose. Indefinite. ACTIVE VOICE. to express action unconnected with a subject. formed a kind of bedstead. try clemency. Cases when to is omitted. [To] be choosing. to was used before the infinitive generally. Indefinite. Perfect definite. an imperfect. a perfect. I returned to reflection on my situation. as in the Old English. Infinitives. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). like participles. When active. Three saplings. [To] choose. Imperfect. [To] have chosen. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. have no tense. To with the infinitive. an indefinite and a perfect form.. when inflections became fewer. [To] be chosen. and a perfect definite form. will (with should and would). INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE.

(3) After had in the idiomatic use. it is often preceded by the definite article. must. under "Analysis.²it may be governed as a noun. see." etc. also in the imperative. it has several attributes of a noun. "a house to let. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. "She ask my pardon. liberal woman. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. E. as in the expression. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. negative. make. While the gerund expresses action." (4) In exclamations.). bid (command).²COOPER." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms.² She was a kind. or the object of a verb or a preposition. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. please. "He will choose. as. and like a noun in use. and corn to hoe. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). 270. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. poor woman!" cried Charles.² What! doth she.²DE QUINCEY. as. "I do go" etc. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.²E. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal." Examples are..²GOLDSMITH. The gerund is like the participle in form. too.²MACAULAY. do (as. learn [doth learn is one verb." "I shall have chosen. 269. But there was nothing to do.²IRVING. and emphatic forms of the present and past. watch. . The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. hear. HALE. 271. feel. They shall have venison to eat. GERUNDS. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. also let.²TENNYSON.(2) After the verbs may (might). as. sometimes need (as. can (could). "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. as the credulous imagine. 272.²HOWELLS. it may be the subject of a verb. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.

which name an action or state." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (4) Pure adjectives. above. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. and has been put down. 4. (6) Verbal nouns." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." Exercise. but do not assert." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. according to use as well as meaning." also (2. to see the returning hope of the parents. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. 2. Then how pleasing is it. 273. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. which have lost all verbal force." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. which express action. when. on your leaving the spot. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which express action. brilliant." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. (3) Participial adjectives. which express action and also modify. (5) Gerunds. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. making the definite tenses. Sec. may govern and be governed. and wonderful store of learning! . five infinitives. b)." "Certainly dueling is bad. (2) Pure participles. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Words in -ing are of six kinds. and five gerunds. What a vast. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. Exercise. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. II)." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. after examining the nest. but cannot govern.²Find sentences containing five participles.

²transitive or intransitive.5. 275. What is dreaming? 8. (b) as to use. you must. 9. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. giving principal parts. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. like Sir Walter Scott. 7. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 11. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 12. he gave out sentence by sentence. In parsing verbs. 6. dictating from his chair. 15. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. slowly. much corroded. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. VERBS. bearing her national emblem. give reality to your teaching. (3) Mood. 10. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 16. by object lessons.²indicative. Caution. write twenty pages without stopping. (2) Voice. (5) Person and number. 234. The only means of ascending was by my hands.²which of the tenses given in Sec. . He is one of the most charming masters of our language. (4) Tense. He spread his blessings all over the land. or imperative. 14. subjunctive. I. 13. but.²active or passive. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. round which is an iron railing.²strong or weak. Thackeray did not.

" but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. (2) Infinitive. Especially frequent are those made up of should. must. would. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. 235. 273). Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. In 2. and not taken as single verbs. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Take these examples:² 1." Sometimes it does.. can. 278(2). II. intransitive. give points (a) and (b). (b) whether indefinite. might. and ends in -s. The government might have been strong and prosperous. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. perfect. It has been intimated in Sec. III. in the world. Let it rise! let it rise. 3. verbals.276. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. 2. and parting day linger and play on its summit. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. 278. has for its subject Lee. perfect. call might a weak verb. VERB PHRASES. (b) its use (Sec. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. But unless the verb is present. intransitive. (1) Participle. Exercise. we must beware of the rule. etc. imperfect. etc. call should a weak verb. indicative. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. therefore active. If a participial adjective. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. In such sentences as 1. 2. (3) Gerund. Parse the verbs. till it meet the sun in his coming. see Sec. (b) whether active or passive. past tense. and should always be analyzed as phrases. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 4. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. VERBALS. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. You are gathered to your fathers. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (c) to what word it belongs. indicative (as it means could). past tense. followed by a pure infinitive without to. (a) From what verb derived. no sin nor sorrow. usually it does not. could. active. may. definite. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. . has the subject government. 277. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. then parse it as an adjective.

To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 22. leaving me upon the bed. 11. 20. as rolled from wing to wing. 16. 14. 8. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. a new waking up of all that has life. a deafening shout. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. morning is not a new issuing of light. and wondered if she were yet awake. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor.5. from a sort of temporary death. 24. Right graciously he smiled on us. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. When he arose in the morning. 10. In going for water. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 6. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. he thought only of her. or. 19. The soul having been often born. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 12. see that it is in good condition. So. . "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. Whatever ground you sow or plant. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. as the Hindoos say." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 9.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 13. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill.O God. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. a sweet good will. 23. With them.Down all the line. 18. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. He passed across the room to the washstand. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. a new bursting forth of the sun. 21. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. as usual. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 17. 15. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. However that be.Henceforth in me instill.

and limit adjectives or adverbs. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²EMERSON.² The young man reveres men of genius. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. for the hour of rest is at hand. . Adverbs modify. and men of leisure and cultivation. Nor was it altogether nothing. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. And now wend we to yonder fountain." An adjective or an adverb. Better it were. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. When action is expressed. To the almost terror of the persons present. to consent. and so on." "He was absolute. for example. to speak truly. The word adverb means joined to a verb. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend.Feast while we may." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. ADVERBS."²DE QUINCEY. they are more himself than he is. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.²time. 279. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road.²THACKERAY. who live with nature?²ID. place. 26. and live ere life be spent. thou sayest.²CARLYLE. as. Is it only poets.25. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Oh. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. because. 27.²SHELLEY. 29. A verb." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. "William's private life was severely pure. or manner: as.

² LOWELL. there are six classes:² (1) Time. ALDRICH. 169 are felt to be elliptical. as shown in the sentences. while those in Sec. A phrase. ²IRVING.²THOREAU. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. B. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. but really modifying. lately. 280. and that. or a word group used as such. A clause or sentence. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. and half awfully. like the light of heaven. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. It may also modify a sentence. Surely happiness is reflective. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. all wet and glossy. (2) according to their use in the sentence. We are offered six months' credit. but still with a rich bloom to it. thus.²LEIGH HUNT.²T. 281. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. being adverbs naturally and fitly. but some verb understood.He was incidentally news dealer. to-day. . not simply the forms used in predication. before. is a modifying word. which may qualify an action word or a statement. 282. Thus considered. not the noun.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. Definition. NOTE.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. Make music to the lonely ear.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. ever.² FRANKLIN. I draw forth the fruit. has induced some of us to attend it. for example. etc.²These last differ from the words in Sec. as. NOTE. perhaps. 169. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. then. An adverb.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.²TROLLOPE.²BYRON. as now. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. hitherto.

telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. (6) Assertion.. as hence.(2) Place. partly. This long's the text. not. and not infrequently are found in literary English. maybe. possibly. I was. beautifully.² The master. probably. etc.. especially the comparative of these words.yonder. above. and others.. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.thither.near. White. whithersoever.²LECKY. (3) Manner.²HAWTHORNE.²DE QUINCEY. etc. or how far he believes it to be true. telling how much. Thackeray. as hither. while so precedes only the adjective usually. that these adverbs form a very large class. just. greatly.which gained him such universal popularity. . very. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. thus. telling how anything is done.there. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. as well. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. Emerson. slightly. etc. So also in Grote.whence. better. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. two by two.²BURKE.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. (4) Number. the more perfect will be their obedience. (5) Degree. 283). bravely.whither.was for this once of her opinion.²R. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. singly. surely.. slowly.where. as perhaps. enough. Motley. the more friends you will have. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. The more they multiply. at least. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. etc. as little. etc.²BROWNING. the more evidently they love liberty.²IRVING.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.²SHAKESPEARE. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. much. for example. as here.thence. Meekness. twice. etc. [Sidenote The status of such. LOUIS STEVENSON. whencesoever.. too. (see also Sec. telling how many times: once. 283.

De Quincey. Such are most of those given already in Sec. 285.²THACKERAY. Neville. Beau Fielding. for example. Notice meanings. and art but a fool.² "Mighty well." "He spoke positively [manner]. Hard blows and hard money. 284. 282. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H." "The house." "I have seen you before [time].²GOLDSMITH. Kingsley."²SCOTT. "Peace. have the additional function of asking a question. Burke." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.Pretty. Holmes." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. .²FIELDING.²THACKERAY." "That were far better [degree]. Emerson. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. for example.² You are mighty courteous. and its lawn before [place].²"He walked too far [place]. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal." said the king. A pretty large experience. Simple. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Aldrich. Pretty is also used by Prescott. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Dickens. Franklin.²BAYNE. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. besides modifying. Mighty.² KINGSLEY. and other writers. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Defoe. a mighty fine gentleman.²HAWTHORNE. It is only occasionally used in literary English. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. STOWE. Some adverbs. Direct questions. B. Again.²BULWER. 286. Interrogative. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.

(4) Degree. CLAY.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. I hearkened. (4) Degree. WEBSTER. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. for example.²D.²BYRON.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.²BULWER. I do not remember when I was taught to read.²POE. 287. I know not why. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (2) Place. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. .These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.²BYRON (3) Manner. I will not ask where thou liest low. (5) Reason. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. they smiled. When did this humane custom begin?²H. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (2) Place. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.

better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. Superlative. when does not express time and modify. use. Only that we may wiselier see.²EMERSON. well much little far late Comparative. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.eyes. high. but the whole clause. obs. not an adverb. higher. Many adverbs are compared. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Many adjectives have the same ending. . and. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 290. as. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.) rather 289. highest." Exercise. furthest (rathe. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. Tell what each word in ly modifies. just as adjectives do. Then must she keep it safelier. have the same inflection as adjectives.²TENNYSON. further farthest. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. representing four classes. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Its strings boldlier swept. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.. see Sec. when compared.²COLERIDGE. irregularly compared.. when.²BYRON. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Exercise.But in reality. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. The following. soon. Form vs. sooner. soonest. For further discussion. 288. only occasionally having -er and -est.²SHAKESPEARE. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.

Such are most. Again. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.1. even. Not near so black as he was painted. With his proud." Compare these:² 1. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. to be sure.² EMERSON. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. as. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. but with a different meaning.²WORDSWORTH. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 5. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. quick-flashing eye.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. . It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. But he must do his errand right. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 8. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. And all about. 2. He is inexpressibly mean. 292. hardly. 2. Special use of there. or down the leaves laughed through. that in Old and Middle English. evenly.And his mien of kingly state. instead of being used adverbially.²IRVING. near. 3. etc. many words without -ly have the same form. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. hard.²THACKERAY. 291.²CHAUCER. kindly and good-natured in secret. The reason is. more courtly in their manners.²ID. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. if it has the verb be. nearly.²TENNYSON. 6. 4. curiously jolly. mostly. merely introduces a sentence. Frequently the word there. There are eyes. 7.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. whether adverbs or adjectives. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly.

whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 18. 3. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 17. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. give² (1) The class. Thither we went. and always. 16. but continually shifted. 7. the Madonna is in great glory. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 15. 10. 293. (2) Degree of comparison. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 2. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 5. is always politically unwise. 11. (3) What word or word group it modifies. Exercise. In parsing adverbs. but from my fall? 6. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. But a few steps farther on. and sate down on the steps of a house. at the regular wine-shop. if the word is compared. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 12. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. however theoretically enticing. burning in the center of the temple.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. For the impracticable. according to meaning and also use. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 4. . Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. It is the Cross that is first seen. 9.

They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. etc. hence. 22. or sentence groups. therefore. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. nor. . Definition. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives." Sentences. 294. upon which the sun now shone forth. sentences. But now the wind rose again. 295." Paragraphs. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. but the student will readily find them. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. however. Unlike adverbs. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. then. Clauses. 20. word groups. but side by side within the American Union. connecting words. It was pretty bad after that. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority.19. 21. A conjunction is a linking word. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. CONJUNCTIONS. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause.

yet. . COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. not only. While the earth bears a plant.or whether.or.. joining words. also. nor.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.. while.. had its weight. as. (2) ADVERSATIVE. The chief ones are." Nevertheless. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. whether. else. Correlatives. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. expressing a choice. Some of these go in pairs.. whether.but (or but also). the window being open.. neither. The assertion.. either. only. Causal.nor. whether. (3) CAUSAL. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.or. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.. however.. Some go in threes. likewise. the bread was spent. usually between two things. not only.. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. "Howbeit. hence. They are or. therefore.. etc. (4) ALTERNATIVE... 298. Your letter. as and.or.or. answering to each other in the same sentence. either. etc... and. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. of the same rank. neither. still... moreover. and not man corn. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. however. both.. the butter too. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. as well as the room door.. Adversative. or the sea rolls its waves.and. either. but is emperor in his own right. 297. Nor mark'd they less. then. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.nor. as. Alternative. 296. as but..Classes of conjunctions. nor. etc.. neither..but. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. introducing a reason or cause. serves but to show their ignorance. for. as well as. word groups.. (2) Subordinate.

Neither the place in which he found himself. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. before. nor wing of bird.. whence.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. etc. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. since. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. that. etc. He is not only bold and vociferous. although. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. whereas. whenever. (2) TIME: when. ..²COOPER. so. etc. as. especially that after so. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. in case. until. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. whither. so that.. seeing. whereto. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. though. object. nor creeping thing.²BURKE. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²IRVING. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. howsoever. etc. sometimes if.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. whithersoever. so. however. (3) MANNER: how. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. ere. nor green leaf. Where the treasure is. lest. Time. except. nor the exclusive attention that he so.²PAULDING. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. even if.²BIBLE.²J. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. 299. (6) PURPOSE: that. QUINCY. as. ²ALLSTON. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. provided.²DE QUINCEY. whether. in apposition. since. on condition that. nor echo. wherever. so that. as. It is. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. in order that. etc..²WILSON. (7) RESULT: that. provided that. after. unless. now. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. there will the heart be also. while.

²IRVING. Result. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. but not so long but I held it out.That vain it were her eyes to close.²CARLYLE Events proceed. reason.² HAWTHORNE.² WORDSWORTH. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Then Denmark blest our chief. H.²COLERIDGE.²AMES. JACKSON. Purpose. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²BYRON. Manner. Condition.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Substantive.²EMERSON.²BURKE.²EMERSON.That he gave her wounds repose. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Comparison.²AMES. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Concession.²CAMPBELL. As a soldier. Sparing neither whip nor spur. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON.²DEFOE. We wish for a thousand heads. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Cause. a thousand bodies. not as they were expected or intended. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. . A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Now he is dead. Let the world go how it will.So I behold them not. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.² EMERSON.² H. I was again covered with water.²AMES.

While patriotism glowed in his heart. then. hold a subordinate rank. Besides. 13. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad.Let us see whether the greatest. No one had yet caught his character. 300. 15. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. since. As will have been noticed. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. the wisest. while. The moth fly. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 6. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 5. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. as he shot in air. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point.²RUSKIN. Exercises. 10. 7. that. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. They. however. some words²for example. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 3. While a faction is a minority. Crept under the leaf. . 4. 2. And they lived happily forever after. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. etc. 14. 9. 12. After he was gone. her real merit is known at home.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. she faintly pressed her hand. the lady called her servant. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. it will remain harmless. as. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. He was brought up for the church. In what point of view. And then recovering. and hid her there.

In poetry.²IRVING. "We meet.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. 302. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. and be a bud again.²HOOD. in this case. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. In parsing conjunctions. (2) What words. 301. As though. As if. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.²BYRON. In Emerson's sentence. 303. So silently we seemed to speak. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. none of the lashings having given way. as is shown by the use of as though. As for as if.²EMILY BRONTE. 304.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. they connect. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. word groups. and part as though we parted not. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. If analyzed. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. expressing degree if taken separately. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. and the frame will suit the picture. His voice . but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. the expression would be. etc.. SPECIAL REMARKS." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.16." as. GREELEY. as is often equivalent to as if. for example. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. Consequently. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. .So slowly moved about. thus.As though a rose should shut. even as they would weep..Clouded.

etc. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. 12.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. that it might testify of that particular ray. and its clause is independent. and its clause depends on the other. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1." said his wife to Martin Luther. because. 3. 11. so means therefore. 13. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. 2. others belong to several classes. so it be faithfully imparted. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. the Sphinx was slain.²I find them true in Concord. he is also the correlative of nature. in 3. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. or in the snow. and associates as happily. 5. so they paddled on. so that I could not stir abroad. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. 10. "Doctor. are regularly of one particular class. He dismisses without notice his thought. If he could solve the riddle. In classifying them. At sea. he sleeps as warm. they are not known. in 2.. It may be safely trusted. For example. but of the natural.²DEFOE 2. and the like.²is subordinate of condition. or in the forest. so means provided. dines with as good an appetite. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. It continued raining. and very seldom?" 8. All the postulates of elfin annals. He is the compend of time. such as nor. . hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.²that the fairies do not like to be named. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions.Caution. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. Some conjunctions. Exercise. because it is his. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. 7. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. When the gods come among men. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. 9. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. so that expresses result. 6. and.² 1. compare the sentences. as beside his own chimneys. when.²EMERSON 3. 4. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait.

18. For. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 27. 22. you must be.. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. therefore. in this they agree. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. It is clear. It may be so in the majority of cases. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last.²else it is none. 30. save it were sinful like herself. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. however. whose names I omit. 305. 28. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field.14. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. . Goodness must have some edge to it. she might have the family countenance. in many a heart. There was no iron to be seen. when it was presented to them. I rejoice to stand here no longer. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. PREPOSITIONS. 19. 23. Now you have the whip in your hand. enthroned. Still. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 21. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. of good novels only. 20. that both were wayward. And whether consciously or not. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. I speak. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 16. 25. the whole conditions are changed. 26. won't you lay on? 17. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 29. 15. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 24.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²DE QUINCEY. by many a million of acres. She saw the boat headed for her. at play. etc. he stopped. by the blessed memory of the departed. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. the first port made by the ship. at naught. STODDARD. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. By my faith. ²PARTON. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²COOPER. H.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. At that time [the earth] was richer. at war. by the ruins of nations. at peace. at the worst. at least. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at once.²EVERETT. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. (4) Measure of excess. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. by the wrecks of time. at rest. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Like at. expressing the degree of difference. etc. D. Helena.²ALDRICH. Richard was standing by the window. (2) Time. at all.²ID. at most.²R. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.²WARNER. at any rate. at length. .²M. at the best. For. 320. Exercise. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at work. as. 321. Exercise.²B. CONWAY. at first.. by means near or close to. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at one. At St.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at random.² (1) The general meaning of place. By.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last.²SWIFT. (3) Agency or means.

For the rest. etc. for famine. H. in behalf of.²W."²SCOTT By my faith. reason. meaning with regard to. cause. But the Colonel. for all slips of hers. BANCROFT.One of Eve's family. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²LAMB.(2) In favor of. There are gains for all our losses.² RUSKIN.²HOOD. respecting. E. . (6) Like as. as being. considering that etc. poor fellow. L. (9) Motive. "For a fool. Still. (5) Reference. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline.²PARKMAN The people were then against us." answered Master Brackett. (4) Substitution or exchange. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. meaning in the character of. He and they were for immediate attack.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. The twilight being. "thou hast counseled wisely.. For him. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. they are now for us.²IRVING. etc. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. but a few sunsets since. "Nay.²EMERSON.²PARKMAN. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. or in spite of.²H. An Arab woman. for the benefit of. had a forest of poor relations. incitement to action. he repented of his folly. and leaped for joy.²STODDARD. the Colonna motto would fit you best. a person or thing. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. or extent of space. (3) Duration of time.²HOLMES." said the Lady of Lochleven. meaning although.²PARKMAN. ate her child. (7) Concession. etc..²E.²ID. for all his title. GARRISON. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. if your worship can accomplish that. as to.

(3) Time. (1) Origin or source. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²HALE. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. .²Find sentences with three meanings of from. nay.²HUME.²MILTON. more. Exercise. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Of. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²H. or reason. from a desire of seeming valiant. The general idea in from is separation or source. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. if not a desperate man. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. cause. 322. (4) Motive. Exercise. It was from no fault of Nolan's. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. The young cavaliers. The king holds his authority of the people. like from.²BANCROFT. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. (2) Origin.²ID. From. H. A distrustful. 323. Like boys escaped from school.²HUXLEY. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. ceased to be merciful. From harmony.²DRYDEN.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²HIGGINSON. The From Relation.

(d) With words expressing distance.²BOSWELL. (b) After some adjectives. A singular want of all human relation. relieve. You cannot make a boy know. rid.²BANCROFT. The hills were bare of trees. disarm. E. Sandals. cure. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. weeds. especially out of.²ALDRICH. He is away of his own free will. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. etc. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. wide of. .. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. beg. (5) Expressing agency. out of the most unpromising materials. ²PARTON. (6) Partitive. reason. HALE. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. purge. of his own knowledge. (c) After nouns expressing lack.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. acquitted them of.²PARKMAN. clear. free of. bare of. divest. ask. (3) With expressions of material. etc.² HUXLEY.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. there were only twenty-one members present. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Asked no odds of. deprivation. Other Relations expressed by Of. deprive. Back of that tree. etc. More than one altar was richer of his vows. etc. motive. south of. Of the Forty. and grass.²HIGGINSON. The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²clear of. or breastpin of native gold. rob. free. as north of. that Cromwell once ruled England. ²GAVARRE.²ID.²LEW WALLACE.²SCOTT Who formed. demand. White shirt with diamond studs. "I am glad of that. bound with thongs of boar's hide. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²DICKENS II. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²BAYARD TAYLOR. etc."²E. such as ease.

Idiomatic use with verbs. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. (9) Of time. standing.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²LAMB. The fair city of Mexico. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²BANCROFT. being equivalent to an infinitive. Such a book as that of Job. (10) Of reference. with its object. for the possessive. (b) Noun and gerund. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. .²ALDRICH. 309. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Not even woman's love.²SWIFT.²PRESCOTT. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. when the first is descriptive of the second. The nation of Lilliput. of a sudden. (7) Possessive.He washed out some of the dirt. with regard to.²FROUDE. etc. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. Besides the phrases of old. (c) Two nouns.²LOWELL. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²BANCROFT. of is used in the sense of during. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. of late. (8) Appositional. E. equal to about.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. ²IRVING..²W. concerning.²ID. CHANNING. See also Sec.²HALLECK.²BANCROFT. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. and the dignity of a queen.²COOPER. could give shelter from his contumely.

on high. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²DE QUINCEY. on the wing. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. Exercise. On. (3) Reference. 324. on board. etc. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. on the alert. on trial. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. consist. etc. equal to about. repent. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.²Find sentences with six uses of of. (b) With motion. .²PARKMAN. Upon my reputation and credit. ²BANCROFT. On my life.²MRS. concerning.²BRYANT. avail (one's self). The general meaning of on is position or direction. disapprove. allow. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. permit. (2) Time. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. To. Exercise.²ALDRICH.²PARKMAN. complain. approve. without adding to their meaning.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. Upon. SIGOURNEY.²PARKMAN. on view. and others. such as admit. you are eighteen. It also accompanies the verbs tire. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. and not a day more. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon is seldom used to express time. accept. (4) In adjurations.²EMERSON. 325. on a sudden.

.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²often to the loss of vigor.²PARTON. 326.²B. to him.²PARKMAN. In Old English... We cook the dish to our own appetite. (b) Referring to time. With. To the few. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. .²BULWER. had ceased to be. gay Comedy appears. But when.²BENTON To our great delight.Come to the bridal chamber. whose influence is felt to this hour. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. to my taste.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. unmasked. Revolutions.. His brother had died.²LANG. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. interest.²BRYANT. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²GOLDSMITH. He usually gave his draft to an aid. (5) Equivalent to according to. Nor. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. (2) Expressing result. does the mere music. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Exercise. it may be genuine poetry.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in be written over. 268). With expresses the idea of accompaniment. Death!²HALLECK.²HALE.²IRVING. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. mid meant in company with.

Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.²DE QUINCEY. first of all. he gave millions to the sword. He expired with these words. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. motive. in spite of.²HOWELLS. (3) Cause. with all his boldness.²E. (2) Instrumentality. She seemed pleased with the accident. Messala.²COOPER.²CHANNING.²DE QUINCEY. opinion. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²HOWELLS. as with you. but with you. It seemed a supreme moment with him. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²Find sentences with four uses of with. I think. Exercise. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. Either with the swingle-bar. had already reached the defile. or with the haunch of our near leader.The advance. with Heyward at its head. but a pleasure"?²LANG. E. felt it unsafe to trifle further. it is necessary. (5) Opposition. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²LANG. "poetry is not a pursuit. to find the object of the preposition.²HALE. .²COLERIDGE. HALE.²ALDRICH.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. He was wild with delight about Texas. (4) Estimation. 327. reason.²WALLACE (7) Time. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. transmitted from the beginning. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. With all his sensibility. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.

And so on. the phrase answers the question where. but all to no purpose. (4) from the beginning. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. and knocked me down flat on my face. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. Whereupon. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. (2) on which. I remember. I felt my box raised very high in the air.²ID. To our general surprise. 4.²SWIFT 2. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. I called out several times. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. or was. without a country modifies man. he followed us one day into those gardens. In (3). that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. In (1). country. shook it directly over my head. The guns were cleared of their lumber. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. we met the defaulter here. of from. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. like the clapping of wings. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The object of on board is ships. Exercises. I heard a noise just over my head. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. 5. In (2). Be that as it will. hence we say. before the dwarf left the queen. but I received no other hurt. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. 2. because I had given the provocation. which. 3. beginning. I speak these things from a love of justice. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. telling what man. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. of on. the malicious rogue.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. . by which a dozen apples. (3) without a country. I looked towards my windows. of without. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. came tumbling about my ears.

The savage army was in war-paint.6. 15. 27. 16. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. in town. 24. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. grasping at the child. 10. 14. 29. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure.He spurred his courser on. Carteret was far from being a pedant. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. to one dark and gloomy. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. I like to see the passing. 11. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 25. when. 23. His breeches were of black silk. With all his learning. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. For my part. after a restful morning. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 26. The mother sank and fell.Without stop or stay. 8. 7. 22. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 18. in this respect. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. On all subjects known to man. plumed for battle. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 9. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. . 19. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 12. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. he favored the world with his opinions. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 13. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 17. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 20. 21.

²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²BEECHER.30. We wish that labor may look up here. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (1) Relative pronoun. that you might behold this joyous day. and not according to form. (4) As an adverb of degree.²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. He will raise the price.² JOHNSON. A few are discussed below. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²WEBSTER. That night was a memorable one. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (a) Indefinite relative. And now it is like an angel's song.²WEBSTER. 328. That was a dreadful mistake. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²STOCKTON. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. 330. That is what I understand by scientific education. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. .²COLERIDGE. (c) Substantive conjunction. WHAT.That makes the heavens be mute. (2) As an adjective pronoun. 329. THAT. not merely by the amount of the tax.²HUXLEY. (b) Of result.

in Pera.. BUT. partly. he knows what good people are to be found there.. What. (b) Indirect question. At what rate these materials would be distributed. silent still.S. .. but the result of calculation... to see what might be hidden. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. To say what good of fashion we can. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. (8) Conjunction.Which be they what they may.²ID.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (7) Adverb of degree.. nearly equivalent to partly. What with the Maltese goats.²WORDSWORTH. Cox. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. "I'll tell you is impossible to determine. (b) Indirect question... His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.²EMERSON. or not only. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. (9) As an exclamation. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.²THACKERAY. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.Those shadowy recollections.²S.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.²EMERSON. What. after not only. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.these sounds are only to be heard.²WEBSTER. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. 331. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. and silent all!²BYRON.²ID.. If he has [been in America]. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (b) Copulative.. it rests on reality." (4) Relative adjective.

As orphans yearn on to their mothers. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.. at all moments. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.²MRS BROWNING. .²SHELLEY. not.. ²CARLYLE. sometimes same. than. after a negative.²IRVING. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.Then arose not only tears.. stands for that . The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. I shall see but little of it.²EMERSON. (c) Of degree.²FRANKLIN. or who ..²IRVING. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²LAMB. (d) Of reason. meaning only. equivalent to that . To lead but one measure. not. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.He yearned to our patriot bands. towards order.²IRVING.. Doing duty as a guard. (b) Substantive. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. 332. not. like the dog. (2) Relative pronoun. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.. but piercing cries. on all sides. (e) Introducing an appositive word. (5) Adverb.²CARLYLE. (3) Preposition.²HAWTHORNE. (b) Of manner. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven... it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. Who knows but. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. after such. meaning otherwise . AS. (4) Relative pronoun. meaning except.²SCOTT.

²ALDRICH. but this is not considered good usage: for example. ²PARKMAN.²HIGGINSON. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.² HAWTHORNE.² A timid. and was clearly an adjective.²DARWIN. like drops out. Give Ruskin space enough. like summer ocean's.²CASS. . and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. In this second use.²HAWTHORNE.²ALDRICH.²SHAKESPEARE. and as or as if takes its place.²HALLECK. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. like him awhile ago. but its verb is omitted. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. staring like a bewildered man. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. (1) An adjective. this. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.LIKE. Through which they put their heads. This follows a verb or a verbal. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. No Emperor.²MAYHEW.-SCOTT. If the verb is expressed. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. There is no statue like this living man. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. I do with my friends as I do with my books. In each case. and is followed by a dative-objective. nervous child. Stirring it vigorously. That face. indeed. They look. Introduces a clause.²EMERSON. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²LAMB. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. like Martin was. like a cook beating eggs.²LONGFELLOW.²EMERSON. 333. Note the difference between these two uses. NOTE.

²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. etc. 335. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. tut! buzz! etc. that is. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. 336. etc. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed.. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. Value of analysis. Some of these are imitative sounds. subject and predicate. but it still retains its identity as noun. 334. entering into the structure of a sentence. What analysis is. pronoun.: for example." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. . Not all exclamatory words are interjections. it is necessary to become expert in analysis." PART II. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. clauses introduced by conjunctions. that is. Definition. Definition. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM.INTERJECTIONS. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. as." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. in separating them into their component parts. verb.²in determining case. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.

. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Every sentence must contain two parts. according to form. 338. SIMPLE SENTENCES. Examples of these three kinds are. but according to how many statements there are. but the sentence would still be declarative. hence. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. Division according to number of statements. interrogative. 2.Kinds of sentences as to form. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. But now all is to be changed. (2) Interrogative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. This is the most common one. declarative. 339. "The quality of mercy is not strained. Definition: Predicate. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. not according to the form in which a thought is put. 337. which expresses command. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. question. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. or imperative. or command: for example. "Old year. Definition." 340. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. but by no means vulgar. or request. A rare old plant is the ivy green." "What wouldst thou do. "Come to the bridal chamber.²a subject and a predicate. which puts the thought in a question. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. (3) Imperative. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. always friends?" imperative. "Hath he not always treasures. entreaty. you must not die!" interrogative. old man?" "Be thou familiar.

we say all is the subject of the sentence. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. we have some trouble. 5. or an interrogative pronoun. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 4. or ye) is in most cases omitted. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. In analyzing such sentences. and our definition must be the following. thou. Slavery they can have anywhere.²What is the ivy green? Answer. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves.²What is to be changed? Answer.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. to an ignorant man. a rare old plant. Thus. the subject (you. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. or adverb that asks about the subject. all. and the real subject is the latter. The last of all the Bards was he. the subject is frequently after the verb. Consequently.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Listen. But if we try this with the second sentence. 6. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. on the other hand. especially in poetry. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. In the interrogative sentence. 2. 341. as. 8. to suit all cases:² Subject. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. always reduce them to the order of a statement. not of a rare old plant. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. but about the ivy green. "[You] behold her single in the field. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 3. adjective. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences." Exercise. and is to be supplied. 7. .

but chief belongs to the verb. (5) Modifiers. but of call chief. just as if to say. The subject and predicate have been discussed. and means summoned. (3) The object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. but it is a true complement. (2) The predicate. or second object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Of a transitive verb. "Ye honor me. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. and by object we mean the direct object." Complement: 344. direct. "Ye call me chief. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. in addition to the object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. . Indirect object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds.10. 342. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. Direct Object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.²transitive and intransitive. and me here is not the object simply of call. 343." indirect." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). The transitive verb often requires. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. for example. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (4) The complements. (6) Independent elements.

See sentence 19. as." "The good man." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. in the popular judgment. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. An intransitive verb. to the completion of this man of the world. Phrases. A phrase is a group of words." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. I mentioned a case of that nature. especially the forms of be. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. 364. in exercise following Sec. as in drowning." Also an expression used as a noun." 345. 355. above sixty." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. 352." "He was termed Thomas. As to form. as in the sentence. etc." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . 346. or." All these complete intransitive verbs. "A cheery. and of massive weight. he was now getting old. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. "Brow and head were round. introduced by a preposition: for example." (3) INFINITIVE. not containing a verb. ay. feel." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary." (2) PARTICIPIAL. for instance. but used as a single modifier. appear. taste. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. and barring the door. seem. 'Ay." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. sir!' rang out in response. 351.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. become. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." Things used as Subject. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation.. Thom of the Gills. Complement of an intransitive verb. and. more familiarly. 347. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. in the original Opium Confessions.

The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. for which see Sec. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. etc. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. "Therein has been.²the talent of starting the game. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. asserting eyes. or the thundering of organs. 341." "Never. I saw the quick and the dead." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." etc. from their lips." In this sentence." "The dead are there. prowling eyes. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). or their religion from their sect." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. but they will be given in detail here." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. but the real or logical subject is to print. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. Complement: Of an intransitive verb.²the infinitive phrase. and by Saint George!' said the King. ." Things used as Direct Object. but obscures the real subject. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." The for did not belong there originally." "There are asking eyes. was heard one syllable to justify. Disguised infinitive subject. (4) After "there introductory. my deficiency. and ever will be." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. 349." 348. "'By God." Things used as Complement. (2) In interrogative sentences.

I. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." . Modifiers of Subject. or the equivalent of the noun." "Their tempers." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. at the same time. 351. and the words italicized are still complements." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. As complement of a transitive verb.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. (3) Infinitive. Of a transitive verb." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. the object is made the subject by being passive. and. they are adjuncts of the object." Modifiers." (4) Participle.²heads or tails. complements of the predicate. Object. As complement of an intransitive verb.²completing the predicate. and explaining or modifying the subject. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards.350. doubtless. or Complement. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. the shepherd girl." "I hear the echoes throng. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." "She asked her father's permission." In this last sentence. and whenever the complement is a noun. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Like all the complements in this list. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." "Serving others is serving us.

(3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. see further Secs. was now called upon for his defense. and modify the predicate in the same way. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. or . but with other men. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. Since the predicate is always a verb. but noble teachers. unforgiving." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. given at the request of a Dutch lady.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. not with nature. this young idolater. "He died like a God." In such a sentence as. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." "Give them not only noble teachings." (For participial and infinitive phrases.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. Tells how." "Him. Modifiers of the Predicate." Exercise." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. 352. or complement is modified. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. was the scene from King John. I have seasoned for thee." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. but it is really a contracted clause. object." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon.²proud. II. no sociable angel." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. Retained with passive. the verb being omitted. the prisoner at the bar.²In each sentence in Sec. 357-363. tell whether the subject. 351." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." "In the twinkling of an eye." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. austere. and leading him from star to star.

but to be loved. and as many to oppose it. after dinner. no emotion. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. Evil. Why does the horizon hold me fast." "All such knowledge should be given her. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. and other measures of precaution." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. His books have no melody. predicate. 6. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. 7. (b) Pick out the subject. he liked. how far. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. or how long. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. This." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. 2. . 3. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. and the direct object is retained: for example. 3. no relief to the dead prosaic level. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. negative. Fashion does not often caress the great.When the verb is changed from active to passive. the indirect object is retained. 5. in this center? 4. and (direct) object:² 1. 7. according to old philosophers. These answer the question when. a sort of personality to the whole writing. no humor. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. predicate. and. 8. They do not wish to be lovely. 5. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. is good in the making." Exercises." "One way lies hope. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. in regard to particulars. On the voyage to Egypt. but the children of the great. gives wonderful animation." (6) Adverbial objective. with my joy and grief. etc. But anger drives a man to say anything. 2. I took. 6. 4.. (a) Pick out subject. to the animal strength and spirits. To the men of this world.

3. 2. to the right and to the left. etc. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. . Compound Predicate. then. 3. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. Unhorse me. this imperial rider. 5. the attorney. 4. 6. a room seventeen feet by twelve. downwards. at length the warrior lady. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 5. 4. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. at the chief hotel. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. that was thy portion in life. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. upwards. six children sat by a peat fire. this nun so martial. In one feature. for the first time. Not the less I owe thee justice. 3. That night. Yes. expecting the return of their parents. I promised her protection against all ghosts. Their intention was to have a gay. 2. the blooming cornet. Not compound sentences.y 8. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. I gave him an address to my friend. then. must visit again the home of her childhood. and a member of the world. A river formed the boundary. 4. Paint me. in little peaceful Easedale.. 2. happy dinner. To suffer and to do. I felt myself. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. y y y y Compound Subject. viz. after their long confinement to a ship. the present Archbishop of Dublin.²the river Meuse. this dragoon so lovely. burthened with the anxieties of a man.

the simple subject is situation. Bishop. etc." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. Examples of compound subjects are." "The name of the child." And so with complements.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. turned his steps homeward. and. my brave young man!" . The exclamatory expression." Sentences with compound predicates are. together with its modifiers. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. Of this. shouldered the rusty firelock. exposes." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. then the grammatical subject and predicate. "Ah. I'm with you once again. several modifiers. ulcer. in all such sentences as we quote below. in the sentence.353. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. Independent Elements of the Sentence. together with all its modifiers. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. modifiers. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. etc. For example." "Ye crags and peaks. above: thus. etc. hurry. forming a sentence: "Oh. 355. they are not a necessary part. may be the person or thing addressed. two or more subjects of the same predicate. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. Larger view of a sentence. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. however. same as (1). the verb). and its object or complement. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. hurry. that is. 354. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution." "He shook his head. the object.. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. the predicate. and the rest is the logical predicate. the tone of her voice. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. but it is to be noticed that. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative." "Voyages and travels I would also have. the air of the mother. complements. "The company broke up. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject.

" Another caution. 350. the company broke up. 4). 357. six quill-driving gentlemen. 6). and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. 355. object. There are some adverbs. how you're winking!" "Now. undoubtedly. These need close watching. see Sec. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. let him perish. that have an office in the sentence. 356. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. her noticing even this is creditable." (6) Single words: as.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short." (5) Participial phrase: "But." (2) Adverbial. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. besides. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. pronoun." "No. see Sec. now." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. etc. . not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. already noticed. or word used as a noun: for example.. prepositional phrases may be. truly. this story runs thus. or complement (see Sec." "Why. y (2) The adverbial use. etc. 352. instances of which were seen in Sec. "Oh." "Well. moreover. such as however. generally speaking. he closed his literary toils at dinner. modifying the predicate. why. modifying a noun. 4). and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. The words well. such as perhaps. and some conjunctions." "At all events." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. he was a conscientious man.. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. grandma. really. yes! everybody knew them. (1) Adjectival." (3) Independent." "Truth to say. 351. therefore. and so on. (b) As a modifier of subject. In their use. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. he somehow lived along. 3. to the best of my remembrance. then. nevertheless. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES.

my dear. ought. therefore." (c) With the definite forms of go. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . The verbal use. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. "Because I was. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." In this sentence. and they will be presented here in full." (b) With the forms of be.seem. (5)." "There. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. but require somewhat closer attention.would. I. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec.: as in the sentences. or as nearly so as the student will require. See Sec. necessity." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. 358." etc.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.should. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. thus. modifying was speedily run through.can (could). 355. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. "The letter of introduction. etc. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. but having no other office than a verbal one. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. was speedily run through. Wilt thou. This case excepted." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. containing no matters of business. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. being equivalent to a future with obligation.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially.]. he should not have known them at all. etc. and teach her how to be happy and good. and hence is adverbial. y (a) With may (might)." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years.

to please is equivalent to that he may please. object. above. notice the following:² In (1). IV. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). To test this." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. (4) In apposition. "But there was no time to be lost. ." 360. III. The adjectival use." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. already examined.. II. modifying a noun that may be a subject. etc.: for example. complement. etc. The substantive use. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. the Scotch fighting all the battles. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this." "He insisted on his right to forget her. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. hang the idiot. 361 are used adverbially. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "To teach is to learn. to look means that he might look. to hear McOrator after dinner. 361." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. The fact that the infinitives in Sec.²both purpose clauses. Don Guzman." "To say what good of fashion we can. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. 362. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). 351. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "Are you mad. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). The adverbial use. 5)." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. result. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions.

which is of two kinds.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 355. to part means because I part. object. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (5) The subject (Sec. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. In (4). give the complement (Secs. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec." (See also Sec. 364. 351). give² (1) The predicate. 351).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. etc. 268. V. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. not in a book.In (2). equivalent to that you betray. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. as in Sec. The independent use. In analyzing simple sentences. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. etc. etc. .. and to say is equivalent to if we say. If it is an incomplete verb. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 352). Our life is March weather. 3. I will try to keep the balance true. In (3). (7) Independent elements (Sec. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 4. (3). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. to find shows the result of the return. 355). must be in a life. savage and serene in one hour. 349). 2. In (5).. 363. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 347). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 351). to hear means if you should hear.²both expressing condition.

a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. He risked everything. through toys and atoms. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. Old Adam. the carrion crow. You may ramble a whole day together. 23. through evil agents. 13. 17. 19. 21. and only to be saved by invention and courage. and spared nothing. to restore civil and religious order. His opinion is always original. like a witch's oils. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. a graceful dancer. nor troops. 20. To these gifts of nature. The word conscience has become almost confined. I have heard Coleridge talk. 7. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune.The old crow of Cairo. 22. 24. The whole figure and air. 8. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. .Burnt green and blue and white. To be hurried away by every event. 9. 11. 5. and every moment discover something new. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. nor money. Through the years and the centuries. 6. always in a bad plight. We are always in peril. to the moral sphere. and to the purpose. 10. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 14. to keep England out of war. a good shot. nor generals. 16. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. in popular use. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. might be called flabby and irresolute. Her aims were simple and obvious. The water. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. a skilled musician.He sat in the shower. just on the edge of destruction. with eager energy. neither ammunition. good and amiable otherwise.4. 18. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. two stricken hours.²to preserve her throne. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 12. is to have no political system at all. an accomplished scholar. nor himself. 15.

29. 36. Fair name might he have handed down. Few in number. 31. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. secluded. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. and. In the Acadian land. the present capital of New England. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet.Distant. time-honored. in front of all this mighty crowd. 27. in this world. and in my own garden. an elderly man. 41. and the why. the same Condé Olivarez. the prime minister of Spain. to bid you leave the place now and forever. in less heroic and poetic form. Supposing this computation to be correct. The cry. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. and no provisions but wild berries. She had made a two days' march.25. ready to receive her. Of the same grandeur. or perhaps one virtue. 37. 40. had but one foible. 39. I hate him and myself.Effacing many a stain of former crime. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. and the wherefore? . surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 35. 26. haply. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. still. upon my own ground. 34. I dare this. 30. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. the ship was in an uproar. baggage far in the rear. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Must we in all things look for the how. But yield.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Oxford. The villain. to be a reproach to such goodness. This amiable relative. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. 38. proud foe. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 33. Now. 32. Upon this shore stood.

" "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. thus. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. COMPLEX SENTENCES. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country." This must. As shown in Part I. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. 366. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. 333). made merely for convenience and smoothness.² "She is like some tender tree. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. however. as. but. The simple sentence the basis. . (Sec. the expressions of manner introduced by like." To show that these words are really omitted. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. 365." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. though often treated as phrases. as would be the connective instead of like. the pride and beauty of the grove.From her own loved island of sorrow. Words left out after than or as. are really contracted clauses. which is the unit of speech. 367." Sentences with like. if they were expanded.

that .. and modifier.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. complement. 369. suffering.²the other members subordinate to it. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. each clause has its subject. modifiers. Independent clause. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. and the last. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. or dependent on it. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. and the next one. as in this sentence. object. predicate.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. A principal. CLAUSES.²the backbone. main..²the dependent or subordinate clauses. which are so united that one member is the main one. logically depends on suffering. . object. etc. or it may be applied to the others. we are aware. 371. Hence the following definition:² Definition.. that is. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. 368. Definition. then we recognize this as the main statement. murmur. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.. is taken in. how great . complements. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). containing a verb with its subject. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. 370. A clause is a division of a sentence.

" "I was told that the house had not been shut. . for a time. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." (4) Apposition. but logically the sentence is. Kinds.. As to their office in the sentence. clauses are divided into NOUN. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. impertinences²would be grammatical. We ourselves are getting . for example. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. adjectives. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex.. put an end to my fancies. for a hundred years." Just as the object noun. pronoun.." (2) Object of a verb.. 5). verbal." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause.Dependent clause." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. so the object clause is retained. with a noun clause in apposition with it." 374. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. for example.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. attention is called to them here. and it is .. thus. and ADVERB clauses. and the whole clause is not." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. over which the torrent came tumbling. Noun Clauses. impertinences. (b) that are . 372.. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. (a) Ordinary apposition. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. infinitive. night or day. 352. 'I know that he can toil terribly. 373. But since they are complex in form." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. or adverbs. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.' is an electric touch. ADJECTIVE." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. etc. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.

how it changed from shape to shape. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 4. 9. or equivalent of a noun." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. in the sentence. as. I was napping. Other examples of this construction are." Exercise. whether he should choose one or not. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. no man will ever know. Except by what he could see for himself. 7.² "It is on the understanding. The reply of Socrates. 5. Frequently there is no connecting word. 10. Examples of adjective clauses. 2.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. where. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. sometimes by the conjunctions when. that. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. whence. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. But the fact is. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. which. As the office of an adjective is to modify. that he was a scheming impostor. 375. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 6. . whither. that all safe legislation must be based. Such a man is what we call an original man. 8. he could know nothing. 3. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. What history it had. that. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. he would repent it. and not on the sentiment. a relative pronoun being understood. etc. of a nation. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. but. a falsehood incarnate. whereby. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. Adjective Clauses. still remains reasonable. wherein.

" "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 3.e. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 10. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 5. 2. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 6." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. which formed the center of the mansion. or that essence we were looking for. Pick out the adjective clauses. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. he begins to help us more as an effect. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. . 1. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. which Rowena tasted. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. and tell what each one modifies." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 9.. etc. 7. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 4. the champions advanced through the lists. 11. whether subject." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. all is vacancy. object. No man is reason or illumination. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." Exercise. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble.376. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. i. I walked home with Calhoun. 8. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. Adverbial Clauses. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements.

to make up our shortcomings." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. however good she may be as a witness. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. he goes away as if nothing had happened. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. however." (5) DEGREE. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. an adjective. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. the milestones are grave-stones. etc. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." "After leaving the whole party under the table. and what it modifies:² . Joanna is better. whatever." These mean no matter how good." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. shaping our actions.² whoever. etc." "Who cares for that." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. since he was too great to care to be original. and adverbial conjunctions." "He went several times to England." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. but they require careful study.377. no matter what remains." (7) RESULT. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. adverbs. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. tell what kind each is." "The right conclusion is. expressing the degree in which the horizon. so far as we can. the wider is the horizon of their thought. and will be given in detail. with examples. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. etc. Exercise." "When he was come up to Christian. that we should try. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." (9) CONCESSION." "The broader their education is." (3) REASON.: "But still." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion.. a verbal. 378. introduced by indefinite relatives. or an adverb. it takes precedence of everything else. is wider. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand.

when the wind was unruly." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. banging about doors and windows. etc. its object is that Odin was a reality. then treat noun clauses as nouns. on a dark wintry night. so as to picture the parts and their relations. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists." 2. If the children gathered about her. predicate. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. find the principal subject and principal predicate. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and twirling weathercocks. 'Well. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. as they sometimes did. 380. they might perhaps say of their visitors. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. of which clause Odin is the subject. 3. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. howling and whistling. to tell the truth. object. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. and modifiers. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. incoherent exclamations. 379. For example. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. in the sentence. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. we are a little disappointed. with shrill. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. snatching up stones to fling at them. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves.1.

as seen in the "map" (Sec. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (1) Find the principal clause. 364. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 2. 3. 364. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. . Exercises. 380). | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1... Take the place and attitude which belong to you. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. d.

that has clung to her faith in the imagination. the flower should revive for us. Here lay two great roads. 17. Had they been better chemists. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 19. the mixed result.4. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 12. Whether she said the word is uncertain. that pressed her with an objection. 20. 21. whom I choose. who would yield to it least. 13. But now that she has become an establishment. 23. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 15. Next came a wretched Dominican. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. counselor that had none for herself. as for armies that were too many by half. 11. 16. 10. And those will often pity that weakness most. He was what our country people call an old one. could not have been effected. Now. 9. 8. 6. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 22. had we been worse. 5. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 7. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. The night proved unusually dark. that. 24. 18. for yours. This is she. M. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. I like that representation they have of the tree. which. the shepherd girl. The deep eyes. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. not so much for travelers that were few. if applied to the Bible. . namely. or whether any. of a light hazel. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. bishop. dying for them. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 14. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone.

We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. "was ever written down by any but itself. is to speak and write sincerely. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 28." 4. 26. 2. though we may repeat the words never so often. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements.25. 27. These things we are forced to say. would easily reach. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. "No book.² Definition. but above it. questions. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 380. if continuously extended. . then map out as in Sec. the following complex sentences:² 1. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. COMPOUND SENTENCES. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. and temper. or commands. that it was no more than his daily walk. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. if there be one to whom I am not equal. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 383. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 30. How formed.²which will not be disposed of. 5. 6. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 3." said Bentley. speed. and not from his heart. That which we do not believe. 382. and stamped with his right number. we cannot adequately say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. Hence the definition. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 7. (b) First analyze.

The coördinate conjunctions and. in (2). etc. and nor the second and third complex members. Another example is. as in Sec. and it shall be the universal sense. Some of these are now conjunctions. he dilates. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. etc. and which complex:² 1. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. . Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. however. from the second. 385. while (whilst). 297). nor does he know until he has tried. or but. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. now adverbs or prepositions. the planet has a faint. Thus in (1). which are simple statements. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. The division into members will be easier. for. and connects the first and second complex members. as but. others sometimes coördinate. he is twice a man. the semicolon separates the first.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. Study the thought. he soliloquizes. a simple member. Speak your latent conviction. Exercise. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. a complex member. in (3). introduce independent clauses (see Sec. tell which are compound. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent.. nor." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). if there are any. he walks with arms akimbo." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. "Only the star dazzles. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. yet. the waving grass. Connectives. 383 (1)." 384. Of the following illustrative sentences. moon-like ray" (adversative). whereas. and not the form of the connective. 386.

3. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. or. 5. For everything you have missed. and as yet very early in the morning. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. Man does not stand in awe of man. 14. 8. 10. unobtrusive boy. In this manner. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. is particular. 9. Whilst the world is thus dual. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 364. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 3. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. he grew up to be a mild. so is every one of its parts. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 387.2. The gain is apparent. (i) Separate it into its main members. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. that it was Easter Sunday. I can still receive. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. however. quiet. you have gained something else. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. and for everything you gain. for example. Exercise. 4. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 11. 13. passed in that time. 6. 4. yield to them heart and life. nay. the tax is certain. 12. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 2. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. you lose something. to find a pot of buried gold. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. I can yet love. and not by what each is. 7. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 381. and thou shalt be loved. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. All loss. Love. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. . from a happy yet often pensive child. all pain.

and the peace of society is often kept. if you rip up his claims. that let him communicate. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 9. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood." says the smith. . 18. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. and each shows only what lies at its focus. crook and hide. Trust men. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. is as thin and timid as any." 13. 17. 7. because. 15. 8. whilst frankness invites frankness. 14. puts the parties on a convenient footing. modesty. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. feign to confess here. as children. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June." "keep the rake. 19. and they will show themselves great. 11. "as nigh the scythe as you can. why should we intrude? 10. They will shuffle and crow. Stand aside. He teaches who gives. one is afraid. which always make the Actual ridiculous. We see the noble afar off. and they repel us. When you have chosen your part. give those merits room. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and the cart as nigh the rake. 16. Come into port greatly. or men will never know and honor him aright. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and the other dares not. "Strike. abide by it. or we read books." says the haymaker.5. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. 6. and not a thought has enriched either party. let them mount and expand. 21. or we pursue persons. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. "the iron is white. Whatever he knows and thinks. only that they may brag and conquer there. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and they will be true to you. and not an emotion of bravery. or hope. 20. treat them greatly. or sail with God the seas. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. We go to Europe. and makes their business a friendship. and he learns who receives.

By way of introduction. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. but go about your business anywhere. Do not craze yourself with thinking. SYNTAX.²agreement and government. the department of syntax will be a small affair. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. and dodge the account. 23. they lose themselves in the crowd. it never was known to fall into the rear. adjective and noun. it ends in headache. pronoun and antecedent. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. they die young. but its leading characteristic is. 388. Following the Latin method. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. PART III. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Essential point in English syntax. so readily and lavishly they promise. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Ground covered by syntax. We see young men who owe us a new world. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. if they live. So does culture with us. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. but they never acquit the debt. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. 25. 24. or. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. verb and subject. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning.22. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . 390. INTRODUCTORY. 380.

When usage varies as to a given construction. The basis of syntax. the sentence. . 393. 392. good English. This is not logical. and added to it the preposition of. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. and imitate it.² First. also expressing a possessive relation. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. Why study syntax? 391. sometimes verb and subject. both forms will be given in the following pages. as to study inflected forms. For example. or when they exist side by side in good usage. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Savage may be the subject. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. and it would not matter which one stood first. distinct forms would be used.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. take the sentence. There is. "The savage here the settler slew. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. the order being inverted. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts." is ambiguous. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Some rules not rigid. "None remained but he. some of which conform to classical grammar. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. or the same writer will use both indifferently. authorities²that is. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. As an illustration of the last remark. and whose judgment. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. but are not now." In this there is a possessive form." that is. Also in the sentence." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. following the regular order of subject. pronoun and antecedent. In Latin. therefore. then. or settler may be the subject. In some cases. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. and nothing but important points will be considered. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. Second. etc.

When two or more possessives modify the same noun. for example. Woman.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. and Harley's. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. He kept Bolingbroke's. PRONOUNS. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. and Pope's. 408)." Juletta tells. the possessive sign is used with each noun. but imply separate possession or ownership. Use of the possessive. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Separate possession.²MCCULLOCH. and Paul's. 394. 397. 396.²MILTON. Mill's and Mr.² Live your king and country's best support. as.²EMERSON.²MACAULAY. Putting Mr.NOUNS.²THACKERAY. . the shore of Galilee.² He lands us on a grassy stage. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. or indicate joint ownership or possession. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²RUSKIN. Bentham's principles together. Joint possession. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. the antechamber of the High Priest. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.²ROWE. etc. ²ID. sense and nature's easy fool. and Peter's. 395. and Peterborough's.²BYRON. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.

" because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.) "The young Harper. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Some of the violations are universally condemned.²POPE. But he must be a stronger than thee. sanctioned. 398. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. for example.²THACKERAY. This should be "as she. Since most of the personal pronouns. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. whom is the complement after the verb am. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.²WHITCHER. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Bedott Papers.²BYRON. Objective for the nominative.²SOUTHEY. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. who. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. there are two general rules that require attention. together with the relative who. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. No mightier than thyself or me. thus. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. the real thought being forgotten. and should be the nominative form. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²SHAKESPEARE.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS." 400. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. General rules.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Still.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.²TROLLOPE. if not universally. 399. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. . others are generally. as. I.

The camp of Richard of England. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.² For there was little doubt that it was he. the objective form is regularly found."²KINGSLEY. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. are. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. namely. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.²COLERIDGE.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY." There is no special reason for this. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²FIELDING. "Than whom.²LONGFELLOW. is. A safe rule. One exception is to be noted.²RUSKIN." 401.²KINGSLEY. and the other forms of the verb be. BLACK. Patrick the Porter.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. they are yet holier than we.² One I remember especially. "Who's there?"²"Me."²WINTHROP. "If there is any one embarrassed. but such is the fact. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. on the other hand.²PARTON. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON.²SCOTT. for example. . It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. The usage is too common to need further examples. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. both in England and America. it will not be me. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. as. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe."²WM. And it was heThat made the ship to go. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. In spoken English. But still it is not she. unless a special. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.

"Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. verbal. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. it is me. . "Ask the murderer. in the case of words used in apposition with the object." 6. or us). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. or preposition which governs it. It is not me you are in love with. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 404. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. as. 8. (3) By forgetting the construction. you or me. I speak not to" (he should be him. 5. Nominative for the objective. You know whom it is that you thus charge. the object of to). 9. 4. 10. as. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. as. but not he" (he should be him. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 11. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. used after verbs. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. 2. object of saw). Truth is mightier than us all.²MILTON.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. verbals. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 3. and prepositions.Exercise." the word being in apposition with murderer). 403. Whom they were I really cannot specify. or this. as this from Shakespeare. If there ever was a rogue in the world. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. now. Me in exclamations. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 7.

but he. for they say there are none such in the world.²BYRON. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. "Who did you see?" or. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Let you and I look at these. save thou and thine. Exercise. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. 405.²STEELE.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. changed in all save thee. Thy shores are empires. who interrogative. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. and is usually avoided. 406. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.Exception 1. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. None. We regularly say. as. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. as well as the objective. Exception 2. etc.²KINGSLEY.²KINGSLEY. .Shall be left upon the morn. Thou. 2. "Who were they talking to?" etc. all but he. as.²BYRON. I've sworn. I arraign. for example. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. Nature. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²GOLDSMITH.² All were knocked down but us two. partial Nature.²KINGSLEY. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who have we here?²ID.

with Jortin and Thirlby. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. II. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. and they know that as well as me. B. Markland. Bartholomew. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. who. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 11. 5. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. Preceding a gerund. 9. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. or objective? . POSSESSIVE FORMS. 12. 407. 7. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²THACKERAY. As antecedent of a relative. They crowned him long ago. BROWN.²DE QUINCEY. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²MACAULAY.²possessive. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.²C." 4. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.²SCOTT.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 10. 8. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.²RUSKIN. This usage is not frequent. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 6.Ye I salute.3.

408. that the bitterness of death was past. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. etc.²DICKENS. Both types of sentences are found. We heard of Brown. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.² THACKERAY. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. [who was] studying law. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. both are gerunds. The use of the objective is older.² SCOTT.²MACAULAY.²DE QUINCEY.² CARLYLE. Why both are found. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. as he turned away from his wife. and asked why it was not made. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²RUSKIN. The last incident which I recollect. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Here I state them only in brief. object of heard of. . He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.² IRVING. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning.²BREWER." That is. sometimes it has the objective. and the meaning is. Objective.²CARLYLE. and that in the second. Possessive. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. But in common use there is no such distinction. studying is a gerund. In the examples quoted.

²THACKERAY.²DEFOE.²when the antecedent. Everybody had his own life to think of.² BRYANT. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. .²RUSKIN.²HUXLEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²THOREAU. and gender. Examples of these constructions are. in one person. and ought to agree with them in person. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. Watch for the real antecedent. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²C. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²DE QUINCEY. it was his own fault. If any one did not know it.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. Every city threw open its gates. or is a distributive word. The pale realms of shade.²CABLE. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²AUDUBON. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. 410. preceded by a distributive. BROCKDEN BROWN. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²EMERSON III. where there were examinations.²HOLMES. if the antecedent is neuter.²DE QUINCEY. In such a case as the last three sentences.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. taking in each of many persons. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. number. 409.

The sun. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²ID. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²BYRON. for example. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.² Not the feeblest grandame. till they have lost him. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²SCOTT.²DEFOE.²RUSKIN. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Whosoever hath any gold. not a mowing idiot.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²PALEY.²THACKERAY.Avoided: By using both pronouns. This is not considered the best usage. and giving them means of being so. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²BIBLE. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²ID. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. as anybody in their senses would have done. 411. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²PAULDING.²FIELDING. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Struggling for life.²HUXLEY.²EMERSON.²AUSTEN. let them break it off. By using the plural pronoun. If the part deserve any comment. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. . Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²PALGRAVE.

that being considered already clear. As to their conjunctive use. which. 1." A relative. or what was become of her. I.) and a personal pronoun. and that are restrictive or not. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. because. . change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. which." This means. or unrestrictive. A relative. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. etc. but. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. but. when coördinating." It defines beggar.²ID. unless both genders are implied. and he went away. when restrictive. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. Exercise. the definite relatives who. 413. That is in most cases restrictive. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. who went away. Exercise. as. In the following examples. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest.²HAWTHORNE. 2. "I gave it to the beggar. according to the practice of every modern writer. and does not add a new statement. It adds a new statement to what precedes. tell whether who. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. no one could take upon them to say. 412. and that always restrictive. in each instance:² Who. What these terms mean. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES.² SHERIDAN. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.²ADDISON.Where she was gone. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide.²In the above sentences. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals.

So different from the wild.. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. 10. 14." that is invariable as to person and number.²H. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. she agreed to join the party. On hearing their plan. . The rule. but. Hare has printed. as that does not vary for person or number.²THOREAU. 13.3. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 11. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. 7.² IRVING. W. etc. With narrow shoulders. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. in the sentence. 8. which was to go over the Cordilleras. Yet how many are there who up. The general rule is.² MOTLEY. who. and it is called logic. For example.² CARLYLE. We say I. and over England are saying. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. 4. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. long arms and legs. 12. he. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. it makes the verb third person singular. In what sense true. Which. That.²DE QUINCEY. they. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand.²HOLMES. etc. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. that were often vicious. because of its antecedent. you. 414.²ID. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. etc. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. II. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.²ID.²DE QUINCEY. BEECHER 5. 6. A grizzly-looking man appeared. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. 9.² NEWMAN. these or that which. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. which Mr. down.²ADDISON. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. However.

but the former has good authority. Let us be of good cheer. The latter is rather more frequent. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. "one of the finest books that have been published. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. T. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.] Both constructions are frequently found. [plural] that who. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. ARNOLD.²ADDISON.²whether we should say.²SCOTT. in winning a battle. [singular or plural." or. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²LOWELL. Singular. A disputed point. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.. 415. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. and in improving a victory. MORSE.. or which . etc. the true antecedent.²LOWELL. when he derided the shams of society. but speaks of him as that sort. "one of the finest books that has been published... I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal." One of . etc. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²J.²BOWLES. who rarely speak at all.. .²M.²HOWELLS.²MACAULAY.²HOLMES. and write the verb in the plural.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.²LECKY. others regard books as the antecedent. Franklin. He is one of those that deserve very well. French literature of the eighteenth century. but myself.. with one as the principal word.²ADDISON. JR. The fiery youth . The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.

²GOLDSMITH. 416. whence. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. return.And.²BURNS. IV. where. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.A rare Roundabout performance.² . and such like: as.²SWIFT. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. Exercise. The same day I went aboard we set sail.² RUSKIN.²ID. when this dust falls to the urn. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. or where] he died. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. when the relative word is a pronoun. object of a preposition understood.² THACKERAY. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. I could see nothing except the sky. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.In that same state I came. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²VAUGHAN.²CARLYLE. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. 417. and see if the sentence is made clearer. But I by backward steps would move. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. that is. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²IRVING.²In the above sentences.²ADDISON.²EMERSON."²DICKENS. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²DEFOE. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²SCOTT." "India is the place [in which.²EMERSON. III. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.

Anacoluthic use of which. but which is usually carefully avoided. 418. That. I might as well have staid at home. was a discoverer. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest.²R. if I had resolved to go on with. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² MACAULAY. CHURCH. V. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner.²WORDSWORTH.. if same is followed by a complete clause. but we find the relative as his apprentice. looking-glasses. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. which. etc. as of knives. she passed the lamp over her face and person. ²GOLDSMITH. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. . he.²SCOTT.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. or that. but. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. They believe the same of all the works of art. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. boats.He considered. The regular construction. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. Mr.² Which. Which.²FRANKLIN. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. with Turner..²ADDISON. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. and working in the same spirit. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. Caution.² THACKERAY.²SWIFT. W.² BURKE. for example. as is not used.

and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. 4.. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. (1) "Among those who are poor. once a great favorite of M.²which if they once heard." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and who are now thrown upon their compassion." etc." etc. But who. After this came Elizabeth herself. That is. Express both relatives.. now thrown upon their.²RUSKIN. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. and this be placed in the proper clause.²SHAKESPEARE. 2. but none is expressed. 419. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. This was a gentleman.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. 1. and which. or omit the conjunction.²GOLDSMITH. or.² Direction for rewriting.²SCOTT. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.²DE QUINCEY. who are now thrown. le Conte. etc. but. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. (2) "Among the poorer sort. And who. or leave out both connective and relative. he said that all submission was now too late. and who are now.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²THACKERAY. Thornhill had read.²HAWTHORNE. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. As the sentences stand. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. He delivered the letter." etc. . Exercise. which when Mr. etc.. (3) "Among the poorer sort. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. 3. Exercise.She'd come again.

which the Scotch had learned. Dr. one of signal interest. But which. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. . I shall have complete copies. the French. and which has never been described. 10..²HAWTHORNE. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. and which. "What knight so craven. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. like that spoken in the towns. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. 1. 420. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. etc. 6. and repeat this for any further reference. then.²DE QUINCEY.. 11.." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house.²IRVING. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. who.² MOTLEY. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²PEARSON. as a false and astucious mark. Or who. English by name. That . indeed. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. 8. Or which.²SCOTT. either from imitation of their frequent allies. And which. and to whom no door is closed.²SCOTT. and which may even be heard a mile off. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Exercise. I saw upon the left a scene far different. 13. Akin to the above is another fault. 12. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . etc.5. 7.. "A mockery. 9.

in his present condition.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.²HOWELLS. 5. but which is perhaps not so different from it. whom. I recommend some honest manual calling.2. was a bustling wharf.. 3.²W. I give to such men as do not belong to me. He flung into literature. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²EMERSON. was hung in air. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. CHANNING. Which . 9. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.²HALLAM. Such as . 15. 7.²DEFOE. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.²W. and whose examples and principles we inherit. 6. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. and to whom I do not belong.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. E.. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 13. I grudge the dollar. but which.²DE QUINCEY. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. . and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. half a century ago.²SCOTT That which . 4. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. that . 8. at the head of what. The Tree Igdrasil. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 14.²BEECHER. He. in his Mephistopheles.. It rose into a thrilling passion.²HAWTHORNE.. Such as ..²EMERSON. SIMMS.. 11. 10.. That . G.. 12. that. the cent. which. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.²SCOTT. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. what. which. In my native town of Salem. the dime.. such as they have very probably been bred to.²HOLMES. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others..

² Some one must be poor.²HAWTHORNE.² HAWTHORNE. By their original meaning. Assume that no one is in want of either. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. 422. . as. as it were. Distributives either and neither. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. and in want of his gold²or his corn. 421. that not all combined. one another. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. We call ourselves a rich nation.²RUSKIN. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN. for example. England was then divided between kings and Druids. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. whether or not the two are equivalent. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. as.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. Each other. in which case any should be used instead. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. Use of any.²MACAULAY. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. always at war with one another.²DICKENS. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.

² If any.² EMERSON. as. in Shakespeare. as none of the French philosophers were. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BIBLE. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.²BURKE. etc. when any of them are so good as to visit me.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . Examples of its use are. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. in the prose of the present day.²EMERSON. usually plural. afterwards in Goethe. I beseech you. Do you think. during his stay at Yuste. any of his friends had died. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. let him ask of God. speak. even in Bettine. . then in Plutarch. Do you think. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). before that.²BEECHER Whenever. any was often singular. Any usually plural.²SHAKESPEARE. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. and is isolated. that I know of. whilst I still cherish their genius. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.. then in Plotinus. 424. If any of you lack wisdom. The adjective pronoun none is. Caution. which is plural as often as singular.²THACKERAY. In earlier Modern English. None of Nature's powers do better service.. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. at one time in Bacon.²FRANKLIN. if ever man was.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be..² In earnest. as.²SCOTT. for him have I offended.²PROF.²CARLYLE. 423. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²STIRLING. None usually plural.

the plural. or somebody else's? 426. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. saving Naaman the Syrian. and less rarely in poetry.. fixing his eyes on the mace. which is used absolutely.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. etc.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. any one else. that all was lost.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. when it means all persons: for example.²McMASTER. and Ford has nobody's else.² Singular.. are treated as units.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²SCOTT Like the use of any. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible..²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.² PEARSON. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. etc. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. nobody else. 425. When all were gone.²THOREAU.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. etc. for example.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²NAPIER Plural. The compounds somebody else. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. etc. and all was lost on the other.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. as. The light troops thought . The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. Somebody's else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.² None of them was cleansed. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.

²in such as "these sort of books.²AUSTEN. or those sort of people. "Ye see. WILLIS. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.."²MRS. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²SHERIDAN.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. STOWE. unlike anybody else's in the world. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. etc." "those kind of trees. 427. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.²RUSKIN. P. or some other such great man as a bishop. These sort. London. for example.²RUSKIN.²SWEET. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.² FIELDING.²N. all manner of. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. Whitefield or Wesley. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.² Saturday Review.SYDNEY SMITH. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). His hair. .²THACKERAY. Again.² These kind of knaves I know. and may be found not infrequently in literary English..²MULOCH. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. ADJECTIVES." "all manner of men. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. ELIOT.²G.curled once all over it in long tendrils. the adjectives plural." the nouns being singular.²DICKENS.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. etc. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.

Of two such lessons. At the source." A question. "These kind of trees are best. for example. Should we say. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. to express a higher degree of quality. such as. and in this way may take a plural verb. "This kind of rules are the best. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. and the adjective is. Consequently we have a confused expression. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. Use of the comparative degree." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind)." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.² Which is the better able to defend himself. or the nouns to the plural. or one object with a class of objects. "This sort of trees should be planted. made to agree with it. gradually displacing the old. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms.² PRESCOTT. The result. This the modern expression reverses. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. with all manner of amusing books. History of this construction.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. in spoken English. they said. as.The library was open. Burke's sentence. the victor or the vanquished. In Old and Middle English. Later form. . in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. According to the approved usage of Modern English. when the necessary dispositions concur." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. more alarming than a total silence. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. 428. not "all kinds of wild animals." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. which accounts for the construction.²RUSKIN. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects.

²MACAULAY. 5. has sanctioned. Even Dodd himself. 2. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²MACAULAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. etc.²CARLYLE. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 6. if not. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. by almost the breadth of my nail."²ID. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. Henry. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. He is taller. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²SWIFT. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Other after the comparative form.²TROLLOPE. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. Use of the superlative degree. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²THACKERAY. 3. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. I am concerned to see that Mr.² THACKERAY. than any of his court. would not have had the face. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²HUXLEY.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn.²SCOTT. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²WIRT. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. Exercise.A braver ne'er to battle rode. the highest stakes are paid. 429. To the man who plays well. Superlative with two objects. Gary.²LOWELL. 4. .²HAWTHORNE. 430.

²BEN JONSON. ha.. OLIPHANT.²GOLDSMITH. Rip was one of those .²RUSKIN.. who eat white bread or brown. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. I should say that one has the best cause. 431. The eldest.²Bible. After the most straitest sect of our religion. and the other contains the best men.²HAMLET. Mary.²SCOTT. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. whichever can be got easiest.²ADDISON. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. . "Ha. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. In all disputes between States. CÆSAR. Also from the same period.²J. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. more particularly the last of them.²EMERSON. 1611.²DR BLAIR. Come you more nearer. Examples from Shakespeare are.²TEMPEST."²GOLDSMITH. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. The following examples are used purposely. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.²IRVING. and differ only in form."²HAWTHORNE. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party."²BULWER. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Double comparative and superlative. not a bit of high life among them. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. These two properties seem essential to wit.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²MRS.

. Three first. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. 433. not only so in popular speech. Instances of both are given below. jar upon us constantly.² With a singular noun. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²KINGSLEY. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. and Secretary Walsingham also.²LAMB.²GIBBON. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²GIBBON. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. and conceit in the last. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. etc. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. The delay in the first three lines. Examples of this construction are. As to these two expressions.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. ARTICLES. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.²RUSKIN. The merit of the Barb. Definite article. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. but in literary English.²DE QUINCEY.²ADDISON. the Spanish. ²COWPER. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. For Carlyle. The meaning intended is the same. etc. First three.² SMOLLETT.²PRESCOTT. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The first five had specific names. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²RUSKIN.

but is used with one only. were placed at a very tender age. 434. . the greatest poems. and the presents.²MACAULAY. No.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. 433. distinct. 1508. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. with a singular noun. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²CARLYLE. The flowers. or to emphasize the meaning. as in Sec.²PRESCOTT. Meaning same as in Sec. having been arranged. Frequently.²TENNYSON. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.² MACAULAY.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . The not repeated. but inseparable from each other. as. 433. He is master of the two-fold Logos. and flexible language. of the higher and middling orders. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. Origin of the Aryans. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. melodious.²NEWMAN.² RUSKIN. the thought and the word.²ID. Indefinite article. The lofty. I think. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.²TAYLOR... the hour of parting came.²THE NATION. With a plural noun. to distinguish clearly. of the eighteenth century. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. 435. as. One object and several modifiers. however. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. with a plural noun.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. Here the youth of both sexes.

But in the following sentences.²MACAULAY. and inexhausted vein. a murderer.²BEECHER. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. rich. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. and a usurper. One article with several adjectives.436. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun." and "a red and a white geranium. In the sentences of Secs. a round and a square one alternately. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²B. JONSON.²MACAULAY. The indefinite article is used. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. T. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.² BURKE. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. as. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²JOHNSON.²DICKENS.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. 436). one noun is expressed.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²THACKERAY. For rhetorical effect. a collegian. or clearness to each of several nouns. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. Examples of this use are. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. 433 and 436. interest.²DRYDEN. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. as in the first three of Sec. to limit two or more modified nouns. 437. COLERIDGE.An early. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 435. only one of which is expressed. He saw him in his mind's eye. a tyrant. . It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.²S. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. 438. like the definite article. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²BULWER.² MACAULAY. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.

(1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Another writer might. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²GIBBON. ARNOLD. Sec. and the following illustrations prove it.²M. for example.²The Nation. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. was the earliest American land.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. ELIOT. A broad and loose rule. This was spoken of in Part I.VERBS. without academies. as.²COOPER. He sees that it is better to live in peace. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. 439. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. In English.²FROUDE. Singulars connected by or or nor. 440. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. . Singular verb.. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.²CARLYLE This usage.²W. or the great intellectual life of our nation. like some others in this series. Such.²G. as. all that academies can give. has got already. 276. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²AGASSIZ. Collective noun of singular meaning. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. then. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.

²CRITIC. a loss of wealth.² The unbought grace of life. for example. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. ²EMERSON. No.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. a loss of friends.Jesus is not dead.²DE QUINCEY.²GOLDSMITH.²EMERSON . or considered as appositional. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. is gone. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. ADAMS.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. a cruel disappointment. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.² In a word. but considered as meaning about the same thing. that of a large town. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. and other singulars of plural form.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Between ourselves. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²J. and every four hours. a mutilation. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but each one emphatic. seems at the moment unpaid loss. or as making up one general idea. as. as. Q.²WHITTIER. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. A fever.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. for example. nor Paul. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²BURKE. Plural form and singular meaning.² GOLDSMITH. other names. nor John. nor Mahomet. (4) When the subject is plural in form. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. the cheap defense of nations. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²GIBBON.

and greaves. no matter if the second is plural). as. as well as the Drama.² . (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²LONGFELLOW. the ruin. Every fop.²ID.²SCOTT. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. the partisan. Her back. almost every day. sir!"²MACAULAY. Every sound. was punished.²EMERSON. every boor.The author. was listened to for five hours. is a man of wit. does not take the place of the man. There is a moving tone of voice. a cuirass. Subjects after the verb.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. was like to crack. as. sir?" and the "No. thus.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²NEWMAN. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²PRESCOTT.²PRESCOTT. many a.²HAWTHORNE. the fine gentleman. with death.²BUTLER. To receive presents or a bribe. and such like adjectives.²MACAULAY. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. no spent ball. Every week. no. every valet. the dismay. Here is no ruin. sir!" and the "What then. a gorget.² Asia. an impassioned countenance.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. nay. no discontinuity. as well as the newest. as well as Europe. wineBegins to stir itself. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.The rout. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²ID. Plural verb. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. The oldest. was dazzled. each. an agitated gesture. as well as sides. Then comes the "Why.²M ARNOLD.²MACAULAY. the wit.²RUSKIN. 441. The Epic. in a judge. every echo.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.

and its history are alike a mystery to us. Conjunction omitted. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. A shady grove. His clothes.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. as.² One or two of these perhaps survive. making up a plural subject.²B. are sufficient to attract a colony.²FRANKLIN. . One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. were men of insignificant characters. The conjunction may be omitted. b). far away thy children leave the land. The travelers. TAYLOR. Far.These bits of wood were covered on every square.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. of whom there were a number. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²FROUDE. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. but the verb is plural.²ADDISON. as with a subject of plural form.²EMERSON. The Dauphin.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. Philip of Anjou. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²FROUDE.²SCOTT. its date. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. as.²GIBBON.²GOLDSMITH. a green pasture.²SWIFT. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.² GIBBON. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. 440 (5.²CARLYLE But its authorship. shirt.²DE QUINCEY.²THOREAU. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. as in Sec.² A multitude go mad about it. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. the Duke of Berri.²COLERIDGE. a stream of fresh water.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. for example. All our household are at rest.

" "She or you may be sure. the subject being really equivalent to we.). If there is only one person in the subject. 443. You and I are farmers. Second or third and first person in the subject. When the subjects. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²SMOLLETT. ARNOLD. of different persons. but thou.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN.²LOWELL.²M. for example. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. Ah.But notice the construction of this.²BYRON.²THACKERAY. "He or I can go. Not I. WEBSTER. as. "You would not be wiser. but thou. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Pattison or I have said. the verb takes the construction of the first person. You and I are tolerably modest people.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. that is. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. "I have never said so.²WHITTIER. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. Not Altamont.²THACKERAY. his blood dost shed. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. 444.²ROWE. we never talk politics. 442. . Exceptional examples.²DE QUINCEY.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²D.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. This construction is at the best a little awkward. hadst been my lord. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. nor should I. nor has she"). If she or you are resolved to be miserable." or. General usage." etc. Nothing which Mr.

In a word.² TROLLOPE. 12. In this sentence from Defoe. 3. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²G. in my opinion. 446.²ADDISON. Both death and I am found eternal. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 5. 4. 8.445. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 6. BANCROFT. How each of these professions are crowded. nor bush are there. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²perhaps the devil. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Exercise. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. as illustrated above (Secs. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²ADDISON. In the following sentence.²MILTON. Neither of them. as we would hope. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 9. 11. Also in verbals.²EMERSON. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²THACKERAY.That neither of their intellects are vast. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 2. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Nor wood.²ID. 10. which it is proper to mention.²BURKE. nor tree. 7.Her course to intercept. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.²SCOTT. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 440-444):² 1. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²and.²SMOLLETT.²BYRON.

I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Definitions. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. W.²DE QUINCEY 2. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. meaning. 3. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. Indirect discourse means reported speech. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . change them to a better form:² 1.²THACKERAY. as. But I found I wanted a stock of words.. to have seen should be changed to to see.²IRVING. 448.² PALGRAVE 5. 4. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.²KINGSLEY.. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. CHURCH. It should be remarked. I gave one quarter to Ann.²MACAULAY. Two samples of indirect discourse. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. for exact connection. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. however." . if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. if not.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. Direct discourse²that is. Of course. The present rule is recent. 447. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. on my return.²FRANKLIN 6. Exercise.²R.

. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. 2. Summary of the expressions.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect." etc. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. and the indirect question by whether or if. 449.. The substance of his lamentation was. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. "Oh. Direct. under interrogative pronouns." Indirect. or regular interrogatives. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. Her prudence whispered eternally. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main.. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh." etc. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Oh. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. She thought to herself. introductory verb is in the past tense. 1. have. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Sebastian's. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. This includes the auxiliaries be. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Direct.. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. "I cannot oblige you . etc. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. interrogative adverbs. His exact words were. will..

Exercise. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. the first discoverer of the river and country. in the sentences first quoted. he assured me that nothing was more easy. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. 450.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. The trouble is. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²ID. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. the sound of their balls.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. and that he himself had heard. if this were expanded into a verb. . The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. Careless use of the participial phrase.²B. with his crew of the Half-moon. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. PARTICIPLES. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. like distant peals of thunder.²GOLDSMITH. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. my first observation will be found nearly true. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²ADDISON." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. handed down from his ancestor the historian. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Notice this. VERBALS. one summer afternoon. FRANKLIN." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works.

That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1." Exercise." etc. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. It is a solemn. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.. 3. . then.² HERBERT SPENCER. universal assertion. while defended or excused by others..²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. purposely or not. 451. if a strike is to succeed. Standard writers often use it. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. In the following citations.²SCOTT. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. and often. Exercise. This is the more common arrangement.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. the first sentence would be.²RUSKIN. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. either "As I was pleased. .²LAUGHLIN. many things to be carefully considered. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.Correction. avoid it.. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. Adverb between to and the infinitive. 2. leaving the principal statement as it is.. INFINITIVES.²ID. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . There are. my first collection was. For example.

china. 452. I wish the reader to clearly understand. The spirits. 9. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. The rigid rule in such a case would be.²TROLLOPE." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. In works of art. Now. 12. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 6. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. A little sketch of his. are used.²DR. 13. from Irving. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. etc. and earthenware. therefore. but cannot misunderstand the thought.² ADDISON.²SCOTT. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.²The Nation. even. 8.²BURKE. Position of only. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.²ID. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.4. which consists in multitude.² MACAULAY. but they are often removed from the exact position. but it is placed before the infinitive. is to be very cautiously admitted. No. even. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.. ADVERBS. when such adverbs as only. Exercise. 7. if they modify single words. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 1533. etc. 5.. this kind of grandeur. 10. etc.²GOLDSMITH. BLAIR.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.²RUSKIN. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 11.

10. P. 13. 2.²SWIFT.²THACKERAY. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. My master. He shouted in those clear.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²MACAULAY.²EMERSON. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. ²ASCHAM. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 17. whence he was never destined to return.²MRS. The old usage.² THACKERAY.²MOTLEY. Irving could only live very modestly. During the whole course of his administration.²ID. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 12.²CHAUCER. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. No sonne.1. 11.²PALGRAVE. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²RUSKIN. 14. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 5. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²ID.²SYDNEY SMITH. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. might not marry. 453. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. In Old and Middle English. 15. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²ID. 9.²HIGGINSON. 4.²N.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. to avoid a crowd. 16. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 8. were he never so old of yeares. 3. His last journey to Cannes. WILLIS. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. 7. In relating these and the following laws.²COOPER. 6. .²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. GROTE. He could only afford to keep one old horse. for example.

Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise. if two negatives are found together. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. denying each other. nor never shall. There weren't no pies to equal hers. however. one of the negatives is often a prefix. Therefore. STOWE. 5.²DE QUINCEY. This.²BAYNE.²MRS.²GROTE."²MRS. In the latter case. when one of the negatives is a connective. the usual way of regarding the question now is. as.²LOWELL. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. as infrequent.²BURKE. In the execution of this task. Regular law of negative in modern English. and why:² 1. uncommon. is not common. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. However. 7. 2. STOWE.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. 6. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. nor the grandeur of no king. But. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Not only could man not acquire such information. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. I did not act so hastily. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. and is still kept in vulgar English. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. 3.²DEFOE. 4. but ought not to labor after it.² HAMILTON. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. etc. Exceptional use.²HOLMES. neither. ²PAGE. . can so agreeably affect. I never did see him again. under the influence of Latin syntax. The prosperity of no empire. in Ole Virginia. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect."²four negatives.

" both of the above requirements are violated. "well worthy to confer honor.²PRESCOTT... Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. CONJUNCTIONS.. nor is often changed to not²either .. 455. but.... not only .. or. or with advantage. should be scrutinized.. or to reply to it. there we were. as well as of the pronoun. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. "A weapon. not only to the success of their common cause. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. but (also). nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder." said the King. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. neither .. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. the first should also.." may be changed to "This loose .²SCOTT. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. or. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. nor. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. the first ought to be placed before a verb. or to reply to it. either . and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. Correction. And who. if the last precedes a verb... not merely . In the sentence. 454... but to their own safety. especially both . "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. and which."²SCOTT. The sentences given in Secs. Things to be watched. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . not or is the proper correlative of neither. Choice and proper position of correlatives. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. The sentence. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. either." .. and.²LOWELL.. even neither . if the second precedes a phrase.. as the use of the conjunction.8." Besides neither .

and I don't know but what he was right. etc. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Correct the following sentences:² 1. but they will outrage. 2.²FRANKLIN. 3.²THACKERAY. or but that for the words but what:² 1. JEWETT. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²GIBBON. or the negative relative but.²S.²MACAULAY. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. or but that.Exercise. Exercise. ." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²BAIN. substitute that. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. and chop up their own kin. 456. 6. But what. 8. In the following sentences. as. They will. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. 4. 457. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. but grown-up persons. O. but. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. as. but. nor the disgrace of assailing him. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. murder.²GOLDSMITH. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Now. 7.² ADDISON. 5. Try and avoid the pronoun.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.²ID. not merely interest children. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. Some exceptions. too. Try and for try to. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.

PREPOSITIONS. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²ADDISON. no separation or division by twos being implied. 4. 3.²BURKE. 458. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 6. Between and among. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. see Sec. as already seen in Sec. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.²ADDISON.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. . There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.² SWIFT. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.2. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 459. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²TROLLOPE. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.²EMERSON. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 313. Between is used most often with two things only.² BULWER. 5. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 305. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.

different. Mackintosh. List I. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Derogatory to.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope.: Words with particular prepositions. confer. correspond.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Conversant with. and Coleridge. involve. Abhorrent to. 460. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. 461. ²EMERSON.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. etc.²RUSKIN What have I. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Affinity between. LIST I. and Stewart. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Paley. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. . Conform to. Dependent on (upon). Acquit of. Two groups or one and a group. and another to convey a different meaning. Bestow on (upon). Such are absolve. Comply with. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Different from. by custom. and philosophers like Locke. Averse to.²KINGSLEY.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Some of them have. Dissent from. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. as. or one object and a group. Accord with. Such are derogatory. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. as. a soldier of the Cross. Kant. averse. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT.

"The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Change for (a thing). and sometimes creeps into standard books. A taste of (food). as. but it is not good usage. Confer on (upon) (give to). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). A taste for (art. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. 463. .y y y Deprive of." also of persons. Correspond with (write to). as. 462. Differ from (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Correspond to (a thing).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Change with (a person). as. LIST III. List II." List III. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Agree to (a proposal). Reconcile to (note below). Differ with (note below). Confide in (trust in).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Change to (become). in the sense of making friends with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Reconcile with (note below). Independent of. Involve in.). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. LIST II. Confer with (talk with). etc. "The king is reconciled to his minister. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Confide to (intrust to). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained).

²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire." (in behalf of). Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²MACAULAY. It would take me long to die of hunger." (material cause. Illustrations of "die of.²MACAULAY." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. they shall die by this hand. It is a man of quality who dies for her. ²ATHENÆUM.²POPE.²BURNETT. Take thought and die for Cæsar. If I meet with any of 'em.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²G." She would have been ready to die with shame. ELIOT. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. as Cervantes informs us.y y y Die by.²BULWER.²SHAKESPEARE.²SCOTT. expect from. privation. simply from old age. instrument). part with.²FIELDING. Expect of. No one died from want at Longfeld." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Who. died for love of the fair Marcella.²MACAULAY. die from. "Die by. He died at last without disease. "Die from. I am positively dying with hunger. die of. die with. ." etc. She died of hard work. Part from. One of them said he would die for her.²ADDISON. ELIOT." (because of). "Die for." "die from.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. "Die with. People do not die of trifling little colds. and ill treatment. ²THACKERAY.²G.:² "Die of.²BOSWELL. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. "Die for. die for.

²MACAULAY. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²MARRYAT. Illustrations of "expect of. It was a little bad of you. kind of you.²BULWER.²BULWER. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²DICKENS." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. Of Doctor P.²G." She will expect more attention from you. either of or in is used indifferently. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. I have just seen her. and hated to part with them. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. 464. "Part with" is used with both persons and things." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. nothing better was to be expected. just parted from her. ELIOT.²AUSTEN.²SHAW. Kind in you. ELIOT. 465.²WALPOLE." To part from you would be misery. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²POE. Illustrations of "part with. ELIOT. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²SCOTT.²G.²G. I can part with my children for their good.²MACAULAY. With words implying behavior or disposition. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things." "expect from:"² "Expect of. as my friend.²WALLER.²TROLLOPE. . "Part from. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. which he would by no means part from. 466. "Expect from." "part from:"² "Part with. His precious bag. That is more than I expected of you.

the vast abyss. Thou tread'st. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. tedious perhaps. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. . nor blue. it is commonly said that his profits are high. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 4. raging storms. or which we are most imperatively required to do. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief.²BULWER. The noise of vast cataracts. thrown it over Amyas's head. but which the story renders necessary. nor yellow. thunder. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. or artillery.²CARLYLE. with seraphims. 14.He did not think it handsome of you. Hampden.²BEACONSFIELD. or that they are any way dependent on each other.²TENNYSON. 6. This narrative. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 9. and ran up the alley. 5. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 15. In. 8. 3. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. In the friction between an employer and workman.²BULWER. 10. nor green. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. Very natural in Mr. nor of a pale red. 13. 11. 1. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. But this is idle of you. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.²DICKENS. 7.

save Amyas. 30. you or me. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. When the glass or liquor are transparent. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. and almost as good as a pony. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 19. 24. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. . The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. what is a just and unjust act. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. produce approbation. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 28. and most of us do know. 25. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. or how beautiful it is.) 34. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 27. were down with raging fever. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 411. 32. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 16. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. (Sec. That night every man of the boat's crew. You have seen Cassio and she together. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. the acquiescence of the understanding. and other angular figures. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 33. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 31. Squares. 20. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 21. But every man may know. 37. 29. but in the price paid to them.I would wish me only he. 38. Friday. 22. 36. 35. triangles. The effect of proportion and fitness. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 23. 17. 18. Every one of these letters are in my name. 26. Neither of them are remarkable for precision.And were I anything but what I am.

from nominative clauses. of. 91. nouns. 124. 310. nominative. 90.39. A. 89. syntax uses Absolute. numeral. of. demonstrative. adjectives. of. 107. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. from about 1500 to the present time. article. (3) Modern English. 239. as comparison definition demonstrative. 116. Adjectives.000 between them. 124. 260. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. voice. adverbs used complements. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. of. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 20. 102. 47. origin of. 133. 40. . INDEX. as. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 119. 47. of. (2) Middle English. 25. pronouns. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. He had four children. Abstract with Active Address. 92. 98.

predicate. 207. conjunction. 104. to used of. 115. 27. sentence. 187. 42. 116. 194. 48. 323. 103. 242. 207. from to of. 114. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. and 185. objective. 303. Alms. adjectives. 27. 183.from function how in not of of ordinal. 97. antecedent. between of. 184. modify. parse. of. 328. conjunctions. 291. 109. Against. adjectives. of. form as as they to in as uses uses of. of. 287. 190. 325. 101. 116. antecedent. 191. 303. 325. 148. compared. 195. 262. nouns. 194. 275. clauses. plural pronominal. of. of. Agreement. infinitive. with with with subject. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. of. 190. as nouns. quantity. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. nouns. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. quality. 106. 99. 316. adjectives. parse. 302. 239. . of.

definition how indefinite. 296. agreement personal as pronoun. 287. 207. which. same. 331. 208. definition of of of Any. . 49. pronouns. after of. 240. syntax As. of. An. as uses verbs. 127. 271. 79. in in. 101. 67. 264. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition.Among. 295. Auxiliary if. of. 275. of. 148. 67. A. and. 90. parse. which. 51. 231. 225. 120. adjective. of. sentences. which. of and pronoun of. 150. Arrangement Articles. sentences. 309. 294. of. See with definition complex compound simple who. 120. 47. 300. though. 252. See 74. syntax. of of of And Antecedent. possessive. 84. 74. words between. to of. derivation in definite. Agreement. uses As At. sentences. Are. 124. 198. Anacoluthon Analysis. it.

210. Bridegroom. 45. 283. uses of. Among. 49. 194. 330. Children. 279. clauses of. adjective. 39. of pronouns. 224. 110. of. 111. Clause. number of. 62. of. of pronouns. nominative. syntax of. 149. 46. 48. of pronouns. pronoun. 84. Cause. of nouns. forms. of what. 39. 37. adverb. 278. uses Better. of pronouns. of. in Old and Modern English. Brethren. conjunctions Cherub. 278. 63. 46. Case. 262. possessive. See of. But. best. 150. 64. 110. 260. of nouns. 161. comparison conjugation of. double possessive.Bad. 66. 54. uses nominative of. of nouns. Between. 279. Be. 47. with But By. . of nouns. objective. 262. Case. definition could. plurals of. Can. 195.

189. 43. material. 268. 271. nouns. 113. 18. Clomb. 110. 108. 257. and forms of. nouns. 264. infinitive. 315. 307. 53. 43. predicate. of. defective. English. 257. predicate of and from from of. of. 107. of. nouns. 18. clothes. of. 157. . 307. 312. of. 305. 111. verb. 239. in analysis. of. adverbs. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 108. 24. proper. of. Cloths. 258. 244. 23. adjectives. superlative. 248. definition degrees irregular. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. double.definition kinds noun. 158. analysis of. of. sentence. 257. Cleave. plural of. and sentence. 12. 263. subject.

conjunction. 73. of. correlative. 231. 207. verbs. 138.with Concord. analysis. 149. subjunctive. adverbs. 194. 194. 255. conjunctions. Agreement. See in subjunctive. 139. Can. See English. replaced by objective. sentences. 66. 328. 151. definition how subordinate. other other parts of speech. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. pronouns. interrogative pronouns. and clause. of. sentences. See analysis clauses. . to of. 195. 199. 196. same words. conjunctions. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 263. in Old vs. coördinate. pronoun. parse. 194. 195. 289. definition be. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 143. 149. Conjunctions. 269. 193. of of Conjunctions. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 188. sentence. pronoun.

43. 242. of. Articles. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. duck. comparative. 152. 303. 160. of. 90. pronouns. Subordinate clause. 26. Comparative. Case. See 148. 300. 315. indirect. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. See adjectives. of. for. object. 60. discourse. Degrees. article. 80. 102. by. with of. pronouns. from. use of dies. 185. with. 333. of. verb. See See 48. clause. 242. pronouns.Declension. adverbs See adjectives. 288. nouns. possessive. 51. nouns. of personal relative verbs. vs. 91. 99. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. Comparison. 320. passive adjectives. pronouns. 102. 287. 35. tenses. .

12. Either. ending. object. 33. 110. of. older. 280. drunk. 62. 158. 194. other. 90. 32. of. . 42. -En. possessive suffix. another. pronoun. syntax Each Eat Eaves. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. the of sentence. 158. pronoun. 51. 299. 112. feminine plural English. original. 92. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 39. 102. of. error in sentence. 287. literary.Drank. predicate. 92. Each. 90. adjective. pronouns. 38. adjective. of. 234. 287. of subject. 92. in 'Em. Empress. to suffix. suffix. of. spoken. conjunction. 33. 34. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 241. 257. 240. complement. 255. 40. plural. added suffix. one ( t). 300. vulgar. Elements Ellipsis. of. 328.

definition distinguished in English. Further. 30. 152. 102. 30. adjective. . 29. 32. used of. From. 147. 148. of. uses redundant. 334. with infinitive. 308. expect gone. 319. pronoun. as of from compared marking. Future Future tense. Farther. First Fish. etc. have adjective. 212.. First. modes "common goose. 112. plurals. 152. object.. Few. to of. gender. 36. two a further. 48. fishes. 238. 91. 30. two. 211. 43." 31. 287. 235. For. nouns. 126. uses Foreign Former. of. Feminine. 112. perfect. as a noun. 103. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. etc. Gender.Every. 110. from. first. 212. few. See Gander. of. 189. the. 45. other languages. 102. with in sex.

of. 177. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. had hung. personal relative geniuses. 159. definition basis of. Grammar. of. possessive pronouns. forms in Girl. 176. 36. 60. and case verbal with. 61. for before. of. 175. pronoun. rather. 285. 12. it. of. His Husband. noun. participle. Had Hanged. pronouns. I. kinds of. 60. 145. Government. 12. 173. 120. Got. its. adjective. . definition divisions opinions province H. He. 35. person. on. 10. 13. 80. 275. Gerund.of of Genii. 9. 101. an better. 231. first sentence. 144. from participle of. 159. 43. 61. she. distinguished syntax.

indices. summary See passive mood.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. words. of clause. questions. 131. of. your. 248. 176. elements. See you. 110. Direct object. transitive. 67. 178. pronouns. a object. 85. 319. . 93. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. pronoun. in compared syntax. 72. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 257. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. mood. 276. 73. indirect of. 245. 43. 131. Questions. 320. adjectives. adverbs. uses discourse. sentence. of. questions. 188. 323. 283. 105. meaning. 227. adjectives. of. use article. 153. 231. See Articles. with of. 233. verbs. 136. of.

a vs. -Ly. Lay. 190. 63. Logic Logical Lord. Lay. 39. plural. predicate. 67.adverbs. Kind. lord. queen. pronoun. Lady. 36. 12. 91. 61. 303. lesser. these double kind. 245. subject form. of. . It. latest. 189. of. of. 113. in little. 110. See Madam. 281. of. adjective. Lady. Last. Latter. uses Literary Little. was uses me. 276.. 36. 36. Lie. 226. 102. King. Kine. 126. English. lie. Like. syntax the. 227. "It Its." history etc. 170. and See words in. etc. Less.. 113. 110. syntax.

137. of. Master. 102. 287. of. double. Means. 326. 161. Must. 137-144. might. Enlargement. . conjunctions Many. 195.Manner. sentences. 256. Modifier. 135. Many Mapping Mare. nigh. 328. subjunctive. of. of. mistress. 187. 185.. Modifiers. 41. 325. 110. 112. imperative. 36. 144. position adverb. 64. 160. comparison Near. 194. syntax conjunction. See definition 136. 113. construction as of adverb. 112. 265. 189. May. superlatives. 34. 110. etc. indicative. Negative. Mighty Mine. out of. adjective. -Most. syntax nearer. 112. Much. 189. in adverbs comparison a. of. Mood. of. 188. of. Neither. 126. mine. of. 114. 110.

56. nouns. 17 19. words how compound. formed. letters as 24. abstract. foreign. nouns. now plural. proper. parse. in. 301. 92. 46. of. of. 29. 328. of. 41. definition according of. material. analysis. syntax Neuter or two News. of. 45. abstract. 126. and figures. 25. become become formation case collective. syntax in gender nouns. Nor. etc. 30. half abstract. 32. common. . 41. 17. Not Noun Nouns. of. Case. 124. 30. used as. 27. See 194. 46. 300. of. 18. 17. 125. become neuter. 38. definition descriptive. to use. 258. of of of of of a. gender nouns. 20. to of. 246. clause. gender how kinds material. 25. 26. 42. class used singular. kinds 90.pronoun. of. 30. 38-41. 21. 41 43. 19. None. No Nominative. number once other plural. etc.

Numeral Object. 41. 39. 43. passive adverbial. pronouns. 102. of. Preposition. 48. 278. 18. of. conjunction. form. 48. Nouns. 42.of same two with proper. 242. English. 279. 121. plural form. as forms titles. 42. 42 44. singular. common. definite. See verb. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 278. 48. 242. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 92. preposition. become syntax use with with with Nouns. adverbial. 282. 66. 101. meanings. plural. 240. of. or plural. nominative. adjectives. 285. 23. spoken of instead nouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. of. adjectives. pronouns. 281. 41. in nouns. personal. article. 48. of. 41. 124. verbs. etc. 196. plural no two singular construction. of. . of different possessive definite of. 101. with with with Now Number. singular.. meaning. 195. with case. 60. indefinite. indirect. 148. 48. and analysis. in article. 106. dative. 235.

293. Elder. Parsing. adverbs. treatment comparatives. position Order. nouns. part analysis. 199. 279. conjunction. inverted. Our. . 306. Ordinal Other Ought. 115. 325 275. 117. uses numeral pronoun. 161. 56. 91. 101. 213. 103. of of of of of models adjectives. as of.syntax Of. See pronoun. 194. 38. adverb. Omission On. 41. 93 other. Pains. for. another. Ourself. 216. 103. 87. 69. 116. ours. 94. pronoun. 56. One. as other. definite relative uses of. 191. a in adjectives. adjective. of. Oxen. 237. with (the). Older. See the as of. 233. 64. of. conjunctions. 127. of syntax. articles. of upon. of. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Each adjective.

uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 177. included various. 43. 148. 62. 70. 281. 119. antecedent. -ing words. of. 287. 59. 335. phrases.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. verbs. 181. 62. verb idioms it from. relatives. 322. 69. 172. used as voice. possessive and of. 80. pease. of. article 150. pronouns. predicate use of. absolute with of. 317. of. from definition other of. parsed. of. and subject in. 172. 59. not is. 56. 64. pronoun. nominative. part adjective. with. them. 219. verbs. 59. 43. in. of. 100. of. speech. 28. . 61. 56. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 247. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. of. 63. 173. Pence. 27. Person. or of. phrase. agreement of verb nouns. 134. verbals. reflexive. 179. pronouns. 95. 174. pennies. 180.

pronouns. relative. 41. 's. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 278. 303. singular. Comparison. spoken of. in of. of. objects. 206. 241. 50. pronoun. omitted. 53. adjectives. vs. nouns. adverbs of. 54. See 60. 232. of. 60. 281. 67. 303. of nouns. of. syntax of of Politics.objective syntax table triple uses of. 278. 53. 247. 285. nouns. pronoun. complete. or See of of See 185. prepositional. of. 245. 49. 52. 247. Personal subjective. it. 248. Positive Possessive. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. of. 235. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 236. 37. as double. . double. kinds infinitive. appositional. of. of Phrase. participial. singular degree. conjunctions prepositions Plural. Nouns. 63. plural. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 245. 25. 64. Place. 236. noun nouns. simple. English. 106. 195. nouns. 51. 61. of. Personification. of. 188. antecedent of of pronouns. 281.

adjective. after but. 280. . 93. for predicate nominative. plural. and one with else's. interrogative. Prepositions. objective. 205. case. all. objective. same used as adjectives. Pronouns. 58. by with shown certain of. of. 95. by. 105. 147. 186. 89. 129. 59. 207. of. 282. 301. 195. 300. case. 32. as. somebody definition how indefinite. 281. 331. 283. interrogative. meaning. usually to as than. by parts of of. 72. 132. of. 285. 104. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 283. 203. singular usually other. words. 64.Prefixes. 105. neither. with tense certain. adverb. 333. plural. parse. 332. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. none. 187. of. 300. who personal. 206. in exclamations. of. 203. possessive nominative to of. 58. verbs. 303. 219. 284. plural. speech. 279. future. 202. and form form form form of. forms of. 299. parse. as 54. 302. expressed as other of. of. as antecedent of relative. 287. any. 208. exclamatory. another. what. each either. of. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain.

Nouns. 297. 295. of. 85. which. or of. Direct same and different. 142. who. in. of. 80. 289. Questions. Quantity. 69. indirect. 188. and relatives. and which. of. in. of. to of. from and interrogative. of. of. . parse. unrestrictive. See of. 85. personal pronoun. 296.possessive relative. 189. 68. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. use of history formed. questions. 101. use in as. of. 87. 58. 99. agreement anacoluthon and as. pronouns. 293. 291. 74. of. 69. 289. and antecedent. 87. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 74. 195. same antecedent. with with gerund. Rank. 295. 286. Rather. pronominal pronouns indirect. discourse. conjunctions Quality. that. pronoun. of. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. with who. indirect compound. which after same. adverbs in. 84. 293. 74. 263. 279. Quotations. nouns. 105. 83. in.

of. suffix. tenses. effect. 170. pronoun. 26 271. 294. 255. 162. Shear. conjunctions Retained Riches. elliptical. who. simple of. 242. of of of complex Sentences. 74. forms shots. sentence. 263. Sex Shall. kinds Sequence Set. that. 289. clauses of. will. of. ending. Simple in sate. of. 231. 69. plural possessive as. 231. conjunction. of.syntax use Result. See Sentences. 29. 42. 319. object. 252. 159. 'S. would. simple. complex. of sit. Seeing. 259. in of. 196. and should. 51. in form. 40. Same Sat. reflexive analysis of compound. 196. Shot. 195. Self Sentences. which. gender. 43. S. definition . 159.

257. of. 257.Singular Sir. 12. 303. 245. 36. 138. definition 67. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 262. Somebody Sort. etc. sort. 32. 237. -es. 126. 258. 245. 257. See -En. 257. these number. of. -en. of. 144. 144. 303. definition how kinds noun. 169. adverb. English.. English. verbs. 38. distinguish. of. for. 137. Split Spoken -Ster. literary clause. Modern use becoming else's. 258. phonetic in infinitive. 38. vs. 323. of. 260. 33. in Middle English. of. in feminine suffix. Spelling Spinster. . adverb. 270. English. Subject. 240. logical. used mood. as. English. of. to of. disuse in spoken complete. names as a. 233. 258. 186. 33. other Such Such Suffix -s.

object. of languages.. Kind. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. syntax of. 147. 307. of. 120. "the then foreign. that uses That. degree. 33. of. which. meaning made up in Old of. of. of. 152. English. omission whom. subject. of. adverbs. 191. 280. 147. coördinating. article. 306. 222. classical of. 119. 106. Tenses. of. 108. definition in English Tense. 123. not suggesting adjectives. 106. auxiliaries. 289. 189. when relative. in double. 319. 107. me..Suffixes. of. of. 147. 306. 275. 61." introductory. 309. There These kind. . 116. form. 275. in comparison. 186. meaning. this. king. 290. 109. and and of. English. plural as adverb. adjectives. when as of. restrictive. 186. See etc.. 88. as history The. they. Then. 148. 297. two basis not same definition definite. as adverbs. than of. as history syntax Their. 87. objects. 277. in Modern number sequence table Than That. of .

180. of.. -ing 111. words. of. feminine and. 207. 128. uses history of. verbs. from cleft to 174. 33. of. first. 21.These. 114. Thou. of. adverbs those. 322. Time. parse. 308. 173. 172. See On. etc. phrases. preposition. 175. other noun. infinitive. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. Try Two Under. 247. gerund. -Trix. thee. used. Upper. exclamations. uses of. 195. of. 323. in omitted uses T'other. try two. See That. 172. of. 61. 248. how infinitive. of. 217. tother. 175. thy. to. carelessly uses syntax this. uttermost. conjunctions prepositions To. Utter. . in of. 114. 176. 322. 185. suffix. infinitive. certain as the before with of. analysis. 119. 188. 20. first adjective. kinds participle. 181. Upon. 114. 330. 175.

147. voice of. weak. 39. Vixen. regular. What. of incomplete predication. 179. active. definition of. passive. 319. 135. 12. 236. strong. Vocative in Voice. 130. 33. defective. 312-316. 245. 330. sequence of. 150. 149. retained object with passive. 47. 317. 167. 133. active meaning. table of. 133. 167. 157. tense of. table of irregular. of. past tense formed nominative. passive form. 223. in indirect discourse. of. mood of. how to parse. 169. phonetic. remarks on certain. 160. verbs. becoming irregular. 242. 129. 155. 154. change.Verbs. 159. 131. formed by. 169. person and number of. conjugation of. auxiliary. definition of. 154. 148. 320. verbs by. of English. definition of. in person. but uses what. agreement of. 151. syntax of. with subject in number. . 134. analysis. made transitive. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 154. transitive and intransitive. spelling of. 312. 148. intransitive.

With. 72. relative indirect relative. would. questions. 75. 83. 85. 77. 190. 32. worser. uses See Shall. 296. in in indefinite objective. pronoun. 295-299. 36. wizard. animals. Words in Worse. 111. 40. 75. of. Wife. 105. 72. interrogative Which. Will. antecedent adjective. referring syntax Widower. 194. conjunction. Who.what Whereby. 299. 104. a. 73. in. whereto. Y. direct of. questions. 218. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. . Whether. etc. spoken in of. 83. 85. relative. in -ly. Yes ending analysis. questions. 79. plural of in nouns -ing. Woman. questions. 78. English. relative.. 72. 85. pronoun. 105. Witch. 246. 178. 126. 37. of. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 36.

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