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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. Authority as a basis. If. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Making rules is risky. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. This will take in the usual divisions." What grammar is. then. as compared with Latin or Greek. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Surely our noble language. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. however. and thus incite his observation. their forms. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. "Analysis. assist the classification of kindred expressions. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. so that a small grammar will hold them all. its peculiar and abundant idioms. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. is worthy of serious study. with its enormous vocabulary. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). if rightly presented. it will at the same time. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. Few inflections. from the question. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered." and "Syntax. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. . even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Literary English. as. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. and their uses and relations in the sentence. rightly considered. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. The work it will cover. It is also evident.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Mental training.The province of English grammar is. Coming back. there is still much for the grammarian to do. A broader view. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). to those who have studied the language historically. An æsthetic benefit. but this is bad English now.

Analysis of Sentences. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. and Inflections. or Syntax. The following pages will cover. The plainest name is Arabs.²GIBBON. not objects. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. The words state. The Uses of Words. The Parts of Speech. three divisions:² Part I. Such words are called nouns. In the more simple state of the Arabs. by which is meant the free. Part II. then. but. . Occasionally. and will are evidently names of a different kind. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. reference will be made to vulgar English. too. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. submission. from the eighteenth century on. the nation is free. as they stand for ideas.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Vulgar English. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. and may belong to any of those objects. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. NOUNS. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Part III. besides this one. PART I. 1. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. the words sons and master name objects. which belongs to a people. or standard. Spoken English. and the word nation stands for a whole group. that is. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English.

or a congress. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. or thing. Individual. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Abstract. animals. etc. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Name for any individual of a class. representing directly to the mind an object. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. For instance. Common. Proper. whether person. possessed by all. 5. 3. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. however. or a council. animals. A noun is a name word. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom.Definition. Name for a group or collection of objects. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. place. is from a Latin word which means general. belonging to one. substance. We may say. the name of each is an individual or proper name. 2. ATTRIBUTE. or a mob. or the man in front of you. Thus. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. a committee. and things separately. Besides considering persons. MATERIAL. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. . as here used. men in groups may be called a crowd. Collective. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. (b) Common. or things. reducing it to a narrow application. (a) 4. we may think of them in groups. because each group is considered as a unit. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. This does not imply. Classes of nouns. but Chicago names one city. They properly belong under common nouns. the man here. or idea. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Thus. and appropriate names to the groups.

considered abstractly. as in calling a city Cincinnati. potash. The reason is. sugar. soap. dew. we may say. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. moon. The quality is still there as much as before. such as sun. there is no such intention. iron. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. granite. however. etc. wine. "Painting is a fine art. rock. frost. world.. etc. (3) Geological bodies: mud. but it is taken merely as a name. not things. It may. sand. and fasten a special name to the object considered. Words naturally of limited application not proper." 9. rain. or that which shows a thing has been proved. etc. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. Names of ideas. proof means the act of proving. expressing state. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. sugar. etc. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. paint. earth. we speak of the wisdom of the man. expressing attributes or qualities.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. wheat. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. or actions. 6. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. gold." "a man of understanding. stone. Such are glass. platinum. earth. cloud. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. condition. . celluloid. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. mist. rubber. instead of to each individual or separate object. but in the words sun. or apart from their natural connection. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). clay. They remain common class names. and so on. or action. tea. but which are not called proper names. . They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. etc. 7. NOTE. conditions." "Learning is hard to acquire. rice. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. etc. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. frost. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. Again. etc. wheat. When we speak of a wise man. snow.²There are some nouns.

ease. winter. hopeful²hope. in the beginning of his life. Thus.." "a brisk walk. there is time for such reasonings. height from high. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. a wedding or a festival. the moon caused fearful forebodings. 272. etc. summer. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. but are merely names of actions. 273). masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. shadow. redness from red. lightning. Underived abstract nouns. five abstract." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. They cannot govern a word. the well-being of her subjects. Exercises. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. joy. as in the expressions. II. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. energy. (2) peerage from peer.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. thunder. the rude drawings of the book. The verb. hope. etc. Such are beauty. 12. mastery from master. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. is used as a noun. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks.Attribute abstract nouns. etc. To avoid difficulty. those opinions and feelings. her longing for their favor. Verbal abstract nouns. service from serve. as their name implies. NOTE. speech from speak. They are only the husks of verbs. the great Puritan awakening. as glad²joy. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. action from act. Caution. and they cannot express action. theft from thieve. day. etc. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. stupidity from stupid. 10. he spread his blessings over the land. childhood from child. kingship from king. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. night. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. the main bearings of this matter. the teachings of the High Spirit. "a long run" "a bold move. by altering its function. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. five proper. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. (1) prudence from prudent. . 1.

tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . pleurisy. Using a dictionary. typhus. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. mathematics? 3. (b) branches of knowledge.2. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. algebra. as pneumonia. catarrh. geology. diphtheria. as physics.

Others of similar character are calico. but we may say.²EMERSON. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. who was its inventor. as a davy. 14. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. etc. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all." referring to flat- . the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. 15. from Damascus. Material nouns may be used as class names. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. from Oporto. but most of them are in the following groups. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Sodom was famous for wickedness. damask. from Calicut. We know a number of objects made of iron. Proper names transferred to common use. arras. port (wine). thus. 119). "The cook made the irons hot. a Fourier. Nouns change by use. Guillotin.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. from China. from a town in France.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. and lo! a new system. 13. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. a Hutton. above. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. a Bentham. or to go over to it entirely. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. the word port. it imposes its classification on other men. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. for example. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. the guillotine. in Portugal. from Corinth. a Lavoisier. currants. levant and morocco (leather). from the name of Dr. a Locke. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class.

the abstract idea is partly lost. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. clays. as stones. are still names of abstract ideas. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. The words preceded by the article a. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. not material things.²CARLYLE. be spoken of. abstract in meaning. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. that disposition is the thing to be created. but in case an art or a science. smiled.irons. tins. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. papers. clouds. 16. etc. This is a poetic usage. (3) By poetical use. his eyes. paints. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. nor are they common class nouns.²BYRON.In lightnings owned his secret stings. tobaccos.²BRYANT. From all around²Earth and her waters. mists. Traffic has lain down to rest. candies. For example. oils. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. purity. to prowl or to moan like night birds. or used as class nouns.²HAYNE. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. Test this in the following sentences:² . slates. a rubber for erasing marks. but on dispositions which require to be created. A halfway class of words. They are not then pure abstract nouns. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. or the arts and sciences. and only Vice and Misery. though not confined to verse. or.²COLLINS. on fire. and say teas. that is. a steel to whet a knife on. that the power of art is founded on fact. etc. and so on. which are made plural. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²PERCIVAL. or made plural. Personification of abstract ideas.²RUSKIN. Death. coals. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. 17. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Class nouns in use. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. but differ in strength. When it is said that art differs from science. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Next Anger rushed. are abroad. These are the same in material.

All these. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. Adverbs. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. sir!"²MACAULAY . as descriptive adjectives are. but is still a noun. NOTE. nouns used to modify.²SHAKESPEARE. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. make our own so. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective." "the State Bank Tax bill." "a morning walk. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. for example. When I was young? Ah. they do not express quality. Every why hath a wherefore. Adjectives. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.² BURNS. But ah! those pleasures. sir?" and the "No. as each repeated pleasure tired. were mere terrors of the night. By ellipses. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. They are more like the possessive noun." which contains a pure adjective. Then comes the "Why.Let us." "a New York bank. which belongs to another word.²BURNS. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. loves." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. a bank in New York. or from any expression.²SHAKESPEARE. Nouns used as descriptive terms. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. or describe it.²EMERSON. The noun may borrow from any part of speech.The Solitary can despise. And still. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. etc. 18.² GOLDSMITH. if we must have great actions.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. sir!" and the "What then. Conjunctions. they cannot be compared.²IRVING. the wealthy. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. meaning a walk in the morning. fear thy blow. "a family quarrel. 19. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. a bill as to tax on the banks. however. But it is better to consider them as nouns.

6. or a faithful domestic. are spoken of as if pure nouns. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. .Nor iron bars a cage. at the beginning. FRANKLIN. When. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. too.. In the other sentences. and Then. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. There are many of these. of words rather than of their meaning. 1. 3. whether it mean the sun or the cold.²These remarks do not apply. 7. NOTE. or a state secret. 20. why and wherefore. but have an adjectival meaning. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. or a criminal. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. Caution. When. the terms the great. Stone walls do not a prison make. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. and tell to which class each belongs. Now. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. however." and another of Dr. Learning. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words."²B. Exercise. etc. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 4. It is to be remembered. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. the wealthy. is the word "just." or "legal. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. so. without reference to its function in the sentence. but as a figure of speech. Power laid his rod aside.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. are used. 5. in speaking of the principal of a school. in a sentence above. 2.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. is ambiguous. that cobweb of the brain. of course.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. The it. 8.

that waits you here. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea.9. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. the welcome. female. There are exceptions even to this general statement. The fleet. 19. returned to Spain. 11. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. GENDER. And see. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 17.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. But pleasures are like poppies spread. but not so in English. shattered and disabled. always masculine. 18. 13. 22.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 12. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. its bloom is shed. 23. and many other languages. German. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. Greek.Fair guests. 24. 20. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. . In Latin. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. the silver moon is gone. 16. 21. 15. he cried. A little weeping would ease my heart. always feminine. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. for every dropHinders needle and thread. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 21. Male beings are. and names of females are usually feminine. in English grammar. 10. It is founded on sex.You seize the flower. What gender means in English. The hours glide by. 14. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. A fool speaks all his mind.

² I have seenA curious child ... corpus (body) is neuter.. that is. the name of it is masculine. or additions to words." . the name of it is feminine. but are spoken of as neuter. 24. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock.²LAMB. the sex being of no consequence. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. der Tisch (table) is masculine. . in other languages gender follows the form. those which do not distinguish sex. 23. are named by gender nouns. Of animals. Neuter nouns. or which arouse his interest most. inanimate things are spoken of.² IRVING. 22. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. according to use. Gunpowder . Thus. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Gender nouns. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. Hence: Definition. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. "A little child shall lead them. in English. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. must be divided into two principal classes. those with which man comes in contact often. that pattern of a husband.²masculine and feminine. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell.. in German. if of the female sex. He next stooped down to feel the pig. if there were any signs of life in it. with its gizzard under its wing. No "common gender. All nouns. however. came to a stand just by the bridge. das Messer (knife) is neuter. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. according to their use. and neuter nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence.When... hortus (garden) is masculine. The great difference is.²IRVING. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. For instance: in Latin.²gender nouns. clapping his burnished wings. then. or names of things without life." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. those distinguishing the sex of the object. and consequently without sex. mensa (table) is feminine.

the division of words according to sex. they are neuter words. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Gender shown by Suffixes. (2) By adding a suffix. 29. 26. If such words as parent. of course.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Male nouns beings. According to the definition. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. For fox they said vox. Native suffixes. teacher. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. . Woman is a short way of writing wifeman.25. Very few of class I. as in wine vat. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. but spinster has now no connection with it. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. II. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. though both words have lost their original meanings.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. he-bear²she-bear. 28. is. or the lack of it. One feminine. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. and for the older word fat they said vat. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. puts a prefix before the masculine man. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. servant. etc. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. I. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. woman. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Gender shown by Prefixes. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. for from they said vram. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. The inflections for gender belong. ruler. (3) By using a different word for each gender. relative.. 27. These remain in vixen and spinster. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. cousin. generally to a masculine word. Hence vixen is for fyxen. as he-goat²she-goat. Put in convenient form. domestic. from the masculine fox.

Unaltered and little used. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. 30. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. it has none now in the words huckster. but in most cases it has not. -ess (French esse. These are attached to foreign words. Ending of masculine not changed. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). gamester. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Slightly changed and widely used. donna. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. song-str-ess. punster. as seam-stress. trickster. as czarina. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. and are never used for words recognized as English. the one most used. executrix. as. Low Latin issa). señorita.

as in the fourteenth century. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. chairman. or servauntesse. others have in their origin the same root. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Some of them have an interesting history. from the French -esse. as. teacher or lady teacher. to represent persons of either sex. the ending -ess. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. we use the masculine termination. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. we use the feminine. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Gender shown by Different Words. neighbor (masculine and feminine). teacheresse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. neighboresse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. as was said in the sixteenth century.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. fosteress. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. frendesse.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. 31. from Latin imperatricem. wagoness. 32. editor. We frequently use such words as author. etc. as. In some of these pairs. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. Thus. from the Old French maistre²maistresse." III. NOTE. Instead of saying doctress.

This gansa was modified into gan-ra. 34. Madam is the French ma dame. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. The masculine was formed by adding -a. among others) to be from the same root word.). Besides gander and drake. as in many other words.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. but this has long been obsolete. Icelandic gás. not immediately connected with witch. the old sign of the masculine. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. etc. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Danish gaas. 33. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. or lauerd in Middle English. Two masculines from feminines. Witch is the Old English wicce. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). in Old English mere. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. written loverd. Widower. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word.² . had the masculine mearh (horse). 16). Personification. Three letters of ened have fallen away. The older forms. became identical. gand-ra. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. from Latin mea domina. lhauerd. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. though both are ultimately from the same root. for example. Mare. finally gander. probably meaning house dweller). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. widuwa²widuwe. leaving our word drake. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man).

The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he.²singular and plural. I. (2) By changing the root vowel. This is not exclusively a poetic use. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. together with the third.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.²COLERIDGE. But other words were inflected afterwards.²KEATS. and not by the form of the noun. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. NUMBER. etc. in Old English. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. that is. Effect of personification. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. . the engineer speaks so of his engine. In nouns. The first two methods prevailed. Our language has two numbers. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. treen (trees). 35. for instance.No towers along the steep. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. eyen (eyes). 36. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. whenever we adopt a new word. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. 38."²BYRON. the plural. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch.Her home is on the deep. Britannia needs no bulwarks. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. 39. 37. shoon (shoes). And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. more than one. The -en inflection. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. Definition. (3) By adding -s (or -es)."Now.²CAMPBELL.

salmon. as. and get settled.² The foot are fourscore thousand. heathen. 41. but has now no singular. glass. The old plural was brothru. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. .² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. etc.-En inflection imitated by other words. cross. turf.²Over the mountains winding down.²WHITTIER.² "God bless me! so then. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. that have the singular and plural alike. Other words following the same usage are. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. III. 42. pair. after all. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. quartz. wight. Akin to this class are some words. Children has passed through the same history. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. sheep. after numerals (if not after numerals. sail. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. head. swine. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. retain the same form for plural meaning.The horse are thousands ten. Examples of this inflection are. etc. or if preceded by the prepositions in. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Kine is another double plural. as. cannon. dozen. 40. brace. into Frederick town. finally brethren. II. when they mean soldiery. people. Brethren has passed through three stages. originally neuter. Instead of -s. lens. ditch. and is still found in dialects. Such are box. then brothre or brethre.²THOREAU.Horse and foot. they add -s): also trout. by. but they now add the ending -s. folk. The words horse and foot. etc.²MACAULAY. Lee marched over the mountain wall."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. such as deer.

43. shelf²shelves. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. means and politics. and the real ending is therefore -s. summons. prize²prizes. and go over to other classes (Secs. some adding -s.²BRYANT. Means plural. Special Lists.g. politics. When such words take a plural ending. etc.²PROF. niche²niches. a new syllable is made. as. is both the science and the art of government. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. quoth then that ladie milde.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. half²halves. molasses.² Politics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). It served simply as a means of sight. volcano² volcanoes. knife²knives. physics. daisies. Two words. 45. though they are plural in form. race²races. optics. e. The lilie on hir stalke grene. the Washingtons. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. means: as. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. So live. pains (care). Proper nouns are regularly singular. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. they lose their identity. negro²negroes. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Some words are usually singular.-Es added in certain cases. Examples of these are. and some -es. house²houses. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. hero²heroes. fancies.g. allies.. the Americas.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. that when thy summons comes. etc. economics. however. also news. 44. e.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. Formerly. and many branches of learning. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. etc. these words ended in -ie. etc. Words in -ies. 15 and 17). may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² .. though this sound combines readily with -s. mathematics. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. in its widest extent. chaise²chaises. fairies. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. DANA.

²G. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Some words have no corresponding singular.²MOTLEY. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. by those means which we have already mentioned.² MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps. Now I read all the politics that come out.²GOLDSMITH. Besides this. I say. if I recollect right. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. by strongly conveying the passions. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. LAUGHLIN. By these means. however. Sometimes. W. L.Words. 46.²J.²IRVING. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. A relic which. With great dexterity these means were now applied. he pronounced to have been a tongs. riches will accumulate. . Politics plural. CURTIS.²GOLDSMITH.²BURKE.

Numbers also means issues. etc. In speaking of coins. or epistles. carry off chaff.²one corresponding to the singular. 50. clothes (garments). penny²pennies (separately). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). (2) revenue duties. fishes (individuals or kinds). One plural. fish²fish (collectively). brethren (of a society or church). (2) abilities.. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. dice (for gaming). etc. twopence. eaves. ways. pence (collectively). pease (collectively). for the numbers came. genii (spirits).. in mournful numbers. 48. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. number²numbers: (1) figures. part²parts: (1) divisions. (2) poetry. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. die²dies (stamps for coins. . two meanings. In Early Modern English thank is found. index²indexes (to books). Two classes of compound words. pea²peas (separately). indices (signs in algebra). Three words were originally singular. riches. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. shots (number of times fired). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. as two sixpences. or copies. shot²shot (collective balls). These make the last part plural. may add -s.²POPE. making a double plural. (2) literature. two plurals. trouble.²was it subdued when.The air. sixpence.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. genius²geniuses (men of genius).). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. (2) care. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. or work in a bellows?²PROF. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. DANA. of a periodical. 49. the other unlike it.. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. faculties. Tell me not.² I lisped in numbers.²LONGFELLOW. as in the lines.

²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Norman. and Mrs. Two methods in use for names with titles. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. German. As to plurals of names with titles. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. woman singer. the Misses Rich. HOLMES. such as talisman. Brahman. there is some disagreement among English writers.² Then came Mr. or the name may be pluralized. then Silas Peckham. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. The chief member adds -s in the plural. and then the three Miss Spinneys. 51.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. the Drs. but add -s. Mussulman. manservant. though the latter is often found. as man singer. as the Messrs. The title may be plural. 52. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group.²DR. woman servant. Allen. . Brown. Briggs. Ottoman. for example. firman.

Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Exercise. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Du Maurier. or Anglicized. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. 53. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. FROM THE GREEK.²DICKENS. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. and retain their foreign plurals. FROM THE LATIN. Domesticated words.²GIBBON. They are then said to be naturalized.²GOLDSMITH. y y analysis antithesis . These are said to be domesticated. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Others have been adopted. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. The Messrs.²THE CRITIC. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. or Englished.

56. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). without reference to their meaning." CASE. also add -s or 's. Definition. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. figures. etc. etc.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Letters. and expresses a relation akin to possession. ." the word felon's modifies cell. In the general wearing-away of inflections. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. Words quoted merely as words. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. 54. Only two case forms.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. as." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands).. as." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). When the foreign words are fully naturalized. In the sentence. cell has another relation. they form their plurals in the regular way. 55. figures.

must be understood for purposes of analysis. the enemy of the living. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.²the nominative. 58. . excessive grief. three things characterize man. and experience. I." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Three properties belong to wisdom. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. learning.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Nouns.²person." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. may be said to have three cases. 2. they returned to their homes. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead." (2) As a predicate noun. the objective. completing a verb. 1. when asked unawares. 57. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.There are now only two case forms of English nouns.²nature. 5. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 4. then.²one for the nominative and objective. whether inflected or not. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. and merit." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. 3. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. fate. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. Human experience is the great test of truth. and the possessive. Uses of the Nominative. Excuses are clothes which.

" (3) Adverbially. reconciles. taking the object enemies. 3. oh save me from the candid friend! 7.Save. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. and tell which use each has:² 1. 68. they are sands of precious gold. taking the object storm." Exercise. 2. (in the older stages of the language. and makest a calm. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. completing the verb." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. sword in hand and visor down. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. distance. thy wrath can send. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. save. good Heaven. etc. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. But of all plagues.6." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. But the flood came howling one day. . naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 9. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. measure. Conscience." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 8. as will be seen in Sec. Uses of the Objective. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. (5) As the object of a preposition. the word toward which the preposition points. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. her first law broken. 59. and landlord of the inn." (4) As the second object. how have I frighted thee? II. wounded lies. and being equivalent to one verb. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. a patriarch of the village. They charged." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. and meaning calmest. Set a high price on your leisure moments. 4. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due.

He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. as. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. And whirling plate. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. (3) Subjective possessive.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. The possessive case always modifies another word.²ADDISON. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. (2) Objective possessive. the most common of all. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. It is a poetic expression. from day to day. as in these expressions.²HAWTHORNE.²BYRON.5. tempests that . Possession in some sense is the most common. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. Uses of the Possessive. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. expressed or understood. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. and forfeits paid.e. III. 61. 9.And gave the leper to eat and drink.² The unwearied sun. 10.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.. the Great Stone Face.His winter task a pastime made. or in writing yesterday's elegy.²SHELLEY. 6. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. The noblest mind the best contentment has.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. 60. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. 7.Does his Creator's power display. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. 8. as shown in the sentences.

in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. lady Poss.. 56). making the possessive singular. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. "From every schires ende. growth which several days had developed). 62. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i." etc. and Obj. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. The use of the apostrophe. As said before (Sec. Case Inflection. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. however." "at his beddes syde. 63. 62. 1.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. as schoolboys sometimes write. Declension or inflection of nouns. Nom." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. How the possessive is formed. One is the simple form of a word." "mannes herte [heart]. and Obj.e. A false theory. A suggestion. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. PLURAL. "George Jones his book. the panther which the forest hides). . Nom. To form the possessive plural. there are only two case forms." Use of the apostrophe. child NOTE..e.winter is likely to have). Poss. in Chaucer. 64.

the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.²DE QUINCEY. but to the ear all may be alike. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.. being understood with it: for example. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. the items of my son's.²RUSKIN."²DE QUINCEY. etc.²HOLMES.²SWIFT." "A postscript is added. containing words in apposition.Though this opinion was untrue. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. and from a desire to have distinct forms. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. for goodness' sake. as. the possessive sign is usually last. in the name of the emperor their master.. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. church. instead of the emperor their master's name. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. stands up for God's truth one man. Kate saw that. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. dwelling. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. my neighbors." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.²THACKERAY. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. as. know the amount of my income. 67.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. Possessive and no noun limited. some such word as house.²CARLYLE. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive." Possessive with compound expressions. James's. Peter's. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. I remember him in his cradle at St. Captain Scrapegrace's. 65. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. Cervantes' satirical work. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. a word with a phrase. etc. and she walked off from the don's.² LOWELL. 66. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. In compound expressions. as by the countess's command. store. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. . The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.

or subjective. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. E. the. and tell whether each is appositional. in such a sentence as. Both of these are now used side by side.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. especially when used with this or that.²FROUDE. the statement clearly means only one thing. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. Blair). The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. 2. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. no. a double possessive. (b) Rewrite the sentence. this. In most cases. etc. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . objective. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark.²the introduction which Atterbury made. corresponding to 's. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. and at the same time by a possessive noun. Exercises.²CARLYLE. sometimes they are used together. (3) It prevents ambiguity.The double possessive. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.. 68. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. If. HALE. Emphasis. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. (1) When a word is modified by a. any. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. (See also Sec. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. however.²E. making a double possessive. Clearness. the sentence might be understood as just explained. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. as one modifier. 1. we use the phrase of Atterbury.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. 87. each. ill-lighted except where she stands. that. For example. every. A peculiar form.

some idioms²the double possessive. There Shakespeare's self. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 70. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 14. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Hence.They say. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 13. 5. 15. 9. Jove laughs. 69. 11. with every garland crowned. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 12.A weary waste expanding to the skies. In parsing. therefore. 7. day's harbinger. 8. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. and destroy the other. 6. At lovers' perjuries. Now the bright morning star.3. let him seasonably water the one. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. Friend. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 10. it seemed. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip.Comes dancing from the East. in parsing a noun.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen.² . I must not see thee Osman's bride. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. Nature herself. we state. 4.

is a common class noun. NOTE. it expresses possession or ownership. 2. has no governing word. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. hence objective case. a fresh tapster. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. hence it is a gender noun. The correct method. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. and to have it found out by accident. it has no sex. 4. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. it expresses time. but is the adverbial objective. therefore singular number.²common. (4) Its office in the sentence. object of the verb takes. . In parsing any word.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. and relations. 3. then make the grammatical statements as to its class.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. proper. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. Exercise. it denotes only one person. That in the captain's but a choleric word. etc. Throat is neuter. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. hence it is objective case. gender. if the latter. subject of the verb is understood. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. names one thing. therefore masculine gender. which gender. the connection shows a male is meant. therefore singular number. determining its case. and therefore nominative case. and limits neckcloth. hence it is a common noun. inflections. a withered serving man.(1) The class to which it belongs. therefore possessive case. as to case. (3) Whether singular or plural number. and number. 71. Neckcloth. 68). like miller's. it is the name of a male being. Thief is a common class noun. therefore neuter. singular number. it is the object of the preposition by. masculine. MODEL FOR PARSING.

and prison. but by a question we say. stands the famous Castle of Chillon." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. from a necessity for short. 10. 73.And hated her for her pride. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. and representative words.²palace. He giveth his beloved sleep. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. the military gentleman shook his forefinger.. where the Rhone enters the lake. . Time makes the worst enemies friends." Again.. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth.5. instead of saying. or for a person or thing. Jarley's back being towards him. Now. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. PRONOUNS. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Necker. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. sleep! 6. A pronoun is a reference word. castle. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. 9. 7. definite. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. all in one. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. 72. For instance. and his daughter. or for a group of persons or things.. Definition. (2) Interrogative pronouns. A few miles from this point. 76). 11. blessings light on him that first invented . Mrs. were natives of Geneva. Madame de Staël. 8. Classes of pronouns. financial minister to Louis XVI. The need of pronouns. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. standing for a name.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Nom. even if it had a special form. mine. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. I Poss. (3) Third person. (2) Second person. primarily adjectives. (4) Adjective pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. the person or thing spoken to. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. pronoun. representing the person speaking. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. 76." Person of nouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. which cannot be used as adjectives. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. my Plural. 75. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. words. and the person or thing talked about. standing for a person or thing spoken of. ours . whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. Person in grammar. "the distinction of person. 77. which relate or refer to a noun. Singular. This gives rise to a new term. we our. From analogy to pronouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns.. 74. they are said to have person by agreement. which have forms for person. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. as nouns have the same form. they must represent the person talking. or other word or expression. representing a person or thing spoken to. Three persons of pronouns. that is. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things.(3) Relative pronouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use.

in the singular. feminine h o. Poss.. thine. of all Three. Obj. you your. a separate form for each gender. Poss. . Obj. Masc. theirs them Neut. they their. Third person singular has gender. The speaker may be either male or female. Old Form Common Form. yours you THIRD PERSON. and also for the neuter. thy Remarks on These Forms. thou thee ye you you your. yours you Plural. masculine h . or. First and second persons without gender. namely.Obj. But the third person has. 78. yours Poss. by personification. neuter hit. Old forms. Nom. it its it Poss. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Nom. Obj. he his him Fem. she her. Nom. Nom. Singular. your. neuter. hers her Plur. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. so also with the person or thing spoken to. SECOND PERSON. Obj. me us Singular.

heom. for example. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. especially in poetry. just as we now say.:² (1) In elevated style.. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. In spoken English.² Oh. their.²SHELLEY. thou Shepherd of Israel.. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. etc. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. which is a neuter noun. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). that didst comfort thy people of old. heora. There are. (2) In addressing the Deity.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. as in prayers. This is of comparatively recent growth. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. even when referring to a single object. etc.²BEECHER. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time." As shown above.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. The plurals were h .² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. them. which was often sounded with the h silent. but make the plural you do duty for the singular.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. We use it with a plural verb always. 81. 80. thee. the forms they. two modern uses of thou. Thou. and sometimes its. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. it. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. Two uses of the old singulars. . The form its. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 82. as possessive of it. The consequence is. however.Thou lovest. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. thy. etc. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. to thy care we commit the helpless. as. 79. Second person always plural in ordinary English. in Old English.

your. 58). And since thou own'st that praise. though ye is occasionally used as objective. him. and sometimes in ordinary speech. 84. 83. Old use of mine and thine. however. Additional nominatives in spoken English. us. us. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. That is. In spoken English. his. he.²LANDOR. 34). her. when they occur in the predicate position. 'tis his. yours. theirs. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. for. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. him. ²SHAKESPEARE. and has been slave to thousands. I spare thee mine. II. . to personify objects (Sec. besides a nominative use. she. her. 86. have a peculiar use. thou. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. The forms my. and follow the usage of literary English. their. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. they. me. thy. her. we. thine. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. hers. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. 84 are always subjects. in such a sentence as. them. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. The Possessive. sometimes his and its. though those named in Sec. some say. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. note the following:² 'Twas mine. 85. Not a separate class.²COWPER. them. The words I.Use of the pronouns in personification. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. I The Nominative. The forms mine. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. ye. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. they have a nominative form. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. or. our. its." the literary language would require he after was. "I am sure it was him. Absolute personal pronouns. Yet careful speakers avoid this. Nominative forms. and not make more classes.²BULWER.

My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. FIELDS.² CARLYLE. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²THACKERAY. as in nouns. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. anger. . ours. Long Allen. (3) To express contempt. COOPER. (4) To make a noun less limited in application.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. yours. (2) To bring emphasis. Like the noun possessives. theirs. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. thus.²BIBLE. commenting upon a letter of mine. This usage is still preserved in poetry. in that old Edinburgh house of his. yours. ²HOLMES. Besides this. his. for example. thine.²J. ours. or satire.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. pluck it out. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict." said Henry Woodstall. but few thy voice. it tells of good old times. T. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. 87. we have. hers."²SCOTT. The forms hers. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. and with mine. If thine eye offend thee.²ID. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. thus. sometimes its. Their uses. Give every man thine ear. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.²ID. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²J. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. Double and triple possessives. "Hold thy peace. theirs.²THACKERAY. are really double possessives. F.²SWIFT.²CARLYLE. we find.

as shown in Sec. The Objective. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. 89.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. the thing is done. this dative use.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. 90.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. as it is called. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.²BIBLE. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns." "None but the brave deserves the fair. "The good alone are great. Besides this use of the objective." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. Both joined in making him a present. 88. Now the objective. was marked by a separate case. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. In pronouns. Curse me this people. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. 20. The old dative case. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. In such sentences as. . The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²ID. But the first two have a nominative use. for whose benefit. but expresses for whom. III. or use in a sentence.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. mine stands for my praise in the second." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. 86: mine stands for my property. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. in the first sentence. In their function. and mine in the second has an objective use. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. but the form is the same as the objective. but not in form. They all handled it. but nominative or objective in use. his for his property.

²CARLYLE.²IRVING To empty here. as in the sentences. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. 91. It is a pity that he has so much learning. 92." (3) As a grammatical subject. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.Time is behind them and before them. WEBSTER. in this century. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.²EMERSON. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.² NEWMAN. why. as. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.²ADDISON. you sneeze. ²EMERSON.²D. and they cry. as. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. or to the idea. Society. Indefinite use of you and your. was passed by with indulgence. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. which follows the verb. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.²BULWER.²DE QUINCEY. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. or that he has not a great deal more. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² . The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. to stand for the real.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. The word you.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. logical subject. has not made its progress. Your mere puny stripling. (3) In apposition. thus. like Chinese skill.²BACON. you must condense there.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.

when they are direct objects.²SCOTT. itself. as. farms it. herself.. There was nothing for it but to return. keeps a school. who teams it.²THOREAU. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. they dropped their arms. we use such expressions as. peddles it. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively.²HAWTHORNE. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. ourselves.²IRVING. yourself.²BUNYAN.²ANON. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined.²COLERIDGE.²ID. as they are also called.²BURNS. but seldom in prose. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. A sturdy lad ."²IRVING." and there is an end of it. (ourself). This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. It was late and after midnight. that is. and its plural selves. have laid them downIn their last sleep. Poor Christian was hard put to it. (thyself). Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. it rained. And when I awoke. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. I made up my mind to foot it.. 94.²HOLMES. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. however. For when it dawned. Of the two forms in parentheses.It is finger-cold.²BRYANT. since firstThe flight of years began. yourselves. -selves. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. 93. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. They are myself. who in turn tries all the professions.²DE QUINCEY. used in poetry. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. themselves. For example. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. And millions in those solitudes.² Now I lay me down to sleep. himself. This occurs in poetry. I set me down and sigh. ." "He bought him a horse. "I found me a good book.²EMERSON. the second is the old form of the second person." etc. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.

Threats to all. In Middle English the forms meself. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. shall dissolve. as. BROWNING. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural..²WORDSWORTH. to us.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. as in vulgar English. 95. I shrink with pain. were changed into the possessive myself. As if it were thyself that's here. 96.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. for example. to every one. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.² TENNYSON.²SHAKESPEARE.²MILTON. after the analogy of myself. The question might arise. Origin of these reflexives.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. ourselves. thyself.²E. etc. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.²EMERSON. theself.. especially in the speech of rulers. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. Held dead within them till myself shall die. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.² The great globe itself . Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.To you yourself. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.² . as. B. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. not the possessive forms. as we ourself have been. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. Use of the reflexives.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. and build the lofty rhyme. for example. with self. NOTE. and the others were formed by analogy with these.²ID. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.As girls were once.

Exercises on Personal Pronouns. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1.²B. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. let him lowly confess it. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). But if a man do not speak from within the veil. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 9.On the light fantastic toe. some each of masculine. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils.²DE QUINCEY. One obsolete. 5. And it grew wondrous cold. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. Come and trip it as we go. To know what is best to do.² THACKERAY. and neuter. and what. 97. feminine. Courage. 10. . all conform to it. 8. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. some of them being double possessives. 6. 7. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 4. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Infancy conforms to nobody. which.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. FRANKLIN. Years ago. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. and how to do it. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. where the word is one with that it tells of. father. 2. Three now in use. is wisdom. fight it out. but it is the soonest spoiled. 3.

that is. Which of you. These show that what is not inflected for case. having three forms. . old man?²SHAKESPEARE. it refers to either persons or things. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. shall we say. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. methought. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. it is always third person. it is selective. actions. Whose was that gentle voice. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. As shown here.. but now obsolete. that it is always singular and neuter. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. 100. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. The use of who. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Use of which. or case. whether. not to persons. number. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Use of who and its forms. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. referring to things. but for case alone.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. 99. that. etc. used formerly to mean which of two.Promised. Use of what. which is not inflected for gender. ideas. 98.There is an old word. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. with its possessive and objective. the gold. whispering sweet. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. What wouldst thou do. as it always asks about somebody. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE.

subject of doth love. 99. Function of the relative pronoun. AND PLUR. which and what are sometimes adjectives. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. 105. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. 104. It usually precedes the pronoun." In the latter sentence." Or. in Sec. Further treatment of who. as they take the place usually of a word already used. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. objective in the last. which is nominative in the first sentence. which is called the antecedent of the relative. whose? Obj. who? Poss. being the direct object of the verb shall take. which. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. which and what. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. Thus we may say. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. AND PLUR. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. who evidently refers to Bards.² "The last of all the Bards was he.² . as. "The last of all the Bards was he. The antecedent. nominative in the second also. and so to make smoother discourse.Who sung of Border chivalry. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. since it is subject of the verb had. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. 102. These bards sang of Border chivalry. who is used as objective instead of whom. SING. it may be shortened into. 127). 103.101. and what are also relative pronouns. pronoun. for which the pronoun stands. as. SINGULAR Nom. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. what may be an adverb in some expressions. and also in having a conjunctive use. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. Who. For instance. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. or other word or expression.²by the use of the words.

D. that. They had not their own luster. 3. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. will be discussed further on. but the look which is not of the earth. The men whom men respect. 6. 108. Two kinds. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. a simple relative is meant.. .²LOWELL In this. For her enchanting son.Whom universal nature did lament. 3. 2. The nurse came to us. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. The origin of language is divine.Whose flag has braved. Generally speaking. 4. a thousand years. When the word relative is used..²MILTON. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. WHITNEY. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. Ye mariners of England. 2. Who and its forms. are the men and women who bless their species. 4. the women whom women approve. Indefinite relatives. 5. with all its capabilities . The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 106.² COX. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.That guard our native seas.²SCOTT. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 107. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. is a divine creation. what.²BYRON.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. in the same sense in which man's nature. which. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.²DR JOHNSON.²W.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.²PARTON Which and its forms.²THACKERAY.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war..

] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²EMERSON.²MARGARET FULLER. What. 109. 6.²LAMB 3. stratagems. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.. Who. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. Already done is all that he would do. Reader.² SHAKESPEARE 2.. The Tree Igdrasil...5. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. That. and spoils. 111.²GOLDSMITH. W. ought to be kept in view. which it certainly is not. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. bought up all the pigs that could be had. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. 4.²H.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.. 110. no bad type of what often happens in that country. The man that hath no music in himself. 2.²IRVING. 107. you will not be angry with me for telling you.. The judge . Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.Is fit for treasons. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.²BURKE. Examples of the relative that:² 1. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²DE QUINCEY.. (a) This gradation . BEECHER 5. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. For what he sought below is passed above. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . else this description will seem exaggerated. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. 3. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.

in the third. in the first sentence. whom. The little gorilla. whose wound I had dressed. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. the others are all third person.. not persons. Scott. 112.²LEIGH HUNT. referring to animals. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.. a man. Who referring to animals.²IRVING. It has been seen (Sec. whose for the possessive. they are plural. My horse. 96). 113. and 6.. seemed as much excited as myself. JOHNSON. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. flung its arms around my neck. (4) It has two case forms. the relatives are singular. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Examples of whose. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Witness the following examples:² And you. Smollett.²SWIFT. who.who. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. or ideas. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²LOWELL. in 5. 107. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.. in the second. that man. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. (2) It has three case forms. The robins. whom. p. in 4.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. 5. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. . (3) It is nearly always third person. who is first person. Gibbon.. 2. In sentence 4. Which. whose.²which for the nominative and objective. Sec. whose is second person. and so on. son.²THACKERAY. possessive case of which. In 1. things. Cooper. and 3.. and others. The sentences in Sec. Kingsley.²DR.whose.²who.

²SHAKESPEARE. second. This often occurs. (3) It is the same form for first. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. So in Matthew Arnold. and third persons. Primarily."²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. 116. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. the antecedent follows which. which is very notable and curious. That. (2) It has only one case form. no possessive. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. The last two sentences in Sec. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. let us enter the church itself. animals.²RUSKIN. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.114.² MCMASTER. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. Kingsley. and to persecute without pity. Men may be ready to fight to the death. too. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.² I swept the horizon. In the sentences of Sec. thus. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. This moribund '61. which is worse. 109. and things. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. and numerous others.²first. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. 115. Which and its antecedents. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.²BEECHER. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. secondly (which made her stare). Burke. . I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. Sometimes.² And.²SCOTT.

as in sentence 6." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. Nom. for example. what we said?²CARLYLE." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. 109. third person. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. 118. it usually follows. Who plainly stands for those or the people. What. 119. When expressed. For example. as.² What I would. is always neuter." That evidently refers to truths. that do I. which.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. number. plural number. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. Sec." (3) "These people heard him. What a man does. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause.²SHAKESPEARE. 117.²EMERSON. that do I not. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. that he has. third person. The gender. that men must needs abide. and person of the relatives who. either of which would be neuter. whose Obj. plural number. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. and is emphatic. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. we can. .²BIBLE What fates impose. but what I hate. by taking them out. who Poss. The sentences of Sec. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. consequently is neuter.

above. 4. we is the subject. Now. nobler souls with that which they are. in the following sentences:² 1. is subject of the verb can't be cured. people is the object of the preposition of. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. 120. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. 8." Here the subject of is. In the sentence. because it has usually no antecedent. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. In (2). third person. is in the nominative case. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Truths in sentence (2). 5. . in (3). and what is the direct object of the verb call. 7. etc. "What can't be cured must be endured. it is object of uttered. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Another way. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Exercise. so is in the objective case. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. neuter." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 6. after all. but of this. First find the antecedents. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. in (1). Some prefer another method of treatment. As shown by the following sentences. which is. subject of heard. that takes the case of the truths in (2). standing for the people understood. 3. The word what. The whole expression is its subject. then parse the relatives. The relative what is handled differently. the simple relative. the highest result of all education. In the same way who. who is sure to be cunninger than they. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case."²EMERSON. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. however. is what we call nature.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case.. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. I think they are trying to outwit nature. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. it is subject of the verb heard. What can't be cured. but is singular. and hence is in the nominative case. Parsing what. What must be endured? Answer.

and his friend a fool. Do what we can. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Meaning and use. in a new and original way. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 3. List and examples. Death is there associated.²BURKE. that nothing else can stand in their presence. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. whosoever. 5. whatsoever. not as direct as the simple relatives. which. 4. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. They are whoever. summer will have its flies. object of with] which [singular. and which in the second clause. 123. 121. 2. to everything that. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases.²MACAULAY. It is no proof of a man's understanding. So with the other indefinites. 6. . but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. whichsoever. The simple relatives who. 2. being referred to. less common are whoso. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave.²BURKE. whichever. no certain antecedent. 122. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. and parse that in the first clause. whatsoever. and in 2. that is. It is clear that in 1.²you cannot have both. by meaning and use. or stand on their head. Take which you please. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Hence some take what as a double relative. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. 7. whatever. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. or what else soever. object of do] they do. "common souls pay with that [singular. whatever is equivalent to all things which. no particular thing. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1.

126. whereby. not following the word such. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. has been my heaviest affliction. In early modern English. But and as.²DE QUINCEY. what means anything that.² some particular thing. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. either one that. nothing that does not interest us. There is nothing but is related to us. etc. . etc. for example. Proof that they have the force of relatives. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. but mean any one whom. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. 121. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. whereupon. by which. everything that (or everything which). the conjunctions wherein. 125. but which only wealth could have purchased. for example. Former use of as. Other substitutes. as was used just as we use that or which. are used. Instead of the phrases in which. 4. 2.. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have.²EMERSON. 417). show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. but and as. 121.As shown in Sec. Two words. 124. 120. and that as after such is equivalent to which.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Sec. This. upon which.² 1.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which.²HAWTHORNE. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. thus. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.

PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. the full expression being." etc. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. In studying such sentences. showing that who is plainly interrogative. though the earthwork hid them. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. if not. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. So in 2 (b). what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. a question is disguised in each sentence. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. 3. In sentences 1 (a). Thus.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. How to decide. "Who stood behind? We knew. if not. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). no antecedent is expressed. Another caution. But in 1 (b). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 127. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. what is interrogative.. 2. and 3 (b). Special caution needed here. which having the antecedent lines.²EMERSON. 1 (b). who having the antecedent gentleman. it is a simple relative. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. it is an indefinite relative). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. if expanded.²WHITTIER. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. and whether what = that + which (if so. .²ID. 2 (b). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. second. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. it is an interrogative. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. "But what had become of them? They knew not. which would indicate that they are not relatives. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. would be." Likewise with which in 3 (b).

but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. which. Examine the following:² 1. On the other hand. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. ELIOT. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. which has the antecedent hue. Thus.²G. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. and Court Calendars.² THACKERAY. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²CARLYLE.²SWIFT. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 3. Exercise.128.²FORSTER 6. In the first. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Relative omitted when object. but the life of man in England. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. whence is the interrogative word. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Put in the relatives who. the question is asked by the verb. .²HOLMES. and asks no question. whose has the antecedent you. In the third.²FLETCHER. When Goldsmith died. I visited many other apartments. 2.²GOLDSMITH. 129. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 5. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. 4. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. In the second. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.² These are the sounds we feed upon. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.

or indefinite relatives:² 1. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.7. Function of adjective pronouns. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. and what. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. which. Examples are. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 6. The nobles looked at each other.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. . He went on speaking to who would listen to him. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. the house was full. There was such a crowd went. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. and comparatively so in poetry. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. It is rare in prose. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. which was already proceeding.²CAMPBELL. simple relatives. 130. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 3. that.²Id.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.² LOWELL. who were to be rulers over whom. 5. Relative omitted when subject.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Also in literary English we find the same omission.²SHAKESPEARE. 2. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.²SCOTT.

The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words.²IRVING. 133. etc. or an argument in a paragraph. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. In the first use they are adjectives. not pronouns. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. the former. in order to be an adjective pronoun." "Where two men ride on a horse.²EMERSON. must not modify any word. etc. none. etc. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. "each cube.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. but in this function. in the first. "The dead are there." in the others. as some. Primarily they are adjectives." that is. or use. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. any. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. and another to get cool under. all." in the second. For instance.²BRYANT. "another bank. or they may stand for nouns. in the second they retain an adjective meaning.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. necessarily thought of: thus. which we have seen in such expressions as. or may be the whole of a sentence. ." "one man. many. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. that. and on each is written. and stand for a noun. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. 132. such as this. a word. For example. expressed or understood. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. Adjectives. such as each. but have lost their adjective use. 'Truth. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. few. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. neither. in letters of gold. Caution. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "these pranks. either. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use." Classes of adjective pronouns.131.

134. accidentally preserved. . they that plow iniquity. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Even as I have seen. Simple. but what he fain had seen He could not see. They had fewer books.²LOWELL. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. They have not shunned the one. Their minds accorded into one strain. 5. or reclined. but these were of the best. for example.²ID. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.All these he saw. Definition and examples.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²ID. NOTE. Exercises. Compound. as seemed good to each. 2. or sat. when the latter was the King of Spain. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. and sow wickedness.² They stood. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. Such are a few isolated instances. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. because he was not lying in wait for these. A man inspires affection and honor. and they have well performed the other. 3.²EMERSON 4. Some of these are simple pronouns. reap the same.

Definition and examples. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. as most were. we might the more easily discharge them. The Soldan. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. Much might be said on both sides. Another opposes him with sound argument. They led one another.²each other. as it were. Some inflected. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²KINGSLEY. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.²EMERSON.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. Men take each other's measure when they react. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. as. paused over a horoscope. or melt for others' woe. such as one other. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE. 135. another.² One reflexive. you quickly come to the end of all.²HOLMES. ²HAWTHORNE. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. None shall rule but the humble.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. with the superstitions of his time. one another. The word one has a reflexive form. imbued. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. for example. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.Two are compound pronouns. .

²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. and they. They indefinite means people in general.² At lovers' perjuries. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did.²SHAKESPEARE. somebody else.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. as. Exercise. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. everything. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. . but. Jove laughs. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. what. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy." It means something. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. 136. anything. every one (or everyone).Exercise. I tell you what. unlike adjective pronouns. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. 137. etc. etc. they say.. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Definition and examples. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. and was indefinite in Old English. also aught. Now. and somewhat. anybody. everybody else. nobody. nothing. they are never used as adjectives. Somebody. everybody. some one. Every one else stood still at his post. as shown in the words everybody's. anyone else. naught. every one else. in building of chaises. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. anybody else's. no one. something. any one (or anyone).

A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 17. 13. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 9. 12. Hutchinson tells us of herself. O thou that rollest above.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 16. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. . 3. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 10. 14. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 138. 2. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 5. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. to which. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Whoever deals with M. All was now ready for action. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. from my earliest days.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 11. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. indeed. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Exercise. A reminder. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. The table was good. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 8. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. in his negotiations. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. were suffered to depart. I first found myself among the mountains. and of no other. 4. For this did God send her a great reward. Others did the same thing. 7. 18. 6. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got.

eat white bread or brown. 32. that let him communicate.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. And will your mother pity me. thou rollest now. And I had done a hellish thing.Destroyer and preserver.Who knew thee too well. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. They know not I knew thee. well-oiled dispositions. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 34. oh. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. hear. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.And it would work 'em woe. 21. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 26. 27. and seized a pen. 29. 31. variety. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 35. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . I who alone am. 30. behold now the semblance of my being. He sate him down. 25. hear! 33. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. Whatever he knows and thinks. in all its height. who take the world easy. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 23.19. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake.

position. as. etc. if we are at a distance. in pointing out an object. . 38. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. Office of Adjectives. adjectives are used. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. so that no other will be mistaken for it. or liquid. 45. As to the kind of words used. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Again. 41. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. He teaches who gives. 39.." "that house. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. white or red. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. etc.36. brittle or tough. becomes mine." "some cities. 40. ADJECTIVES." etc. that is our permanent state. We are by nature observers." "a hundred men. and so he read. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. "one hat. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. 139. We need to add some words to tell its color. Who hears me. If a chemist discovers a new substance. or with persons. 42. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. size. Substantives. the number is limited by adjectives. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master." "yonder hill." The office of an adjective. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. which was no bad step towards my liberation. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. 37. It may have this office alone. For example. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. and if we are near. heavy or light. 43. or gaseous. So with any object. then. such as in the expressions "this man. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. 44. He knew not what to do. who understands me. and he learns who receives.

Definition. If he be thankful for small benefits. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. To err is human. divine. With exception of the "and then." "unlooked-for burden. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. rash." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "next-door neighbor. Infinitives. it shows that he weighs men's minds. terrible. remotest. beautiful. (3) Demonstrative adjectives.²POPE. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. or how much of a thing. deep." the "and there. used to tell how many things are spoken of. 142. "an old English manuscript. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. such as safe. fair. happy. They include relative and interrogative words." "this life-giving book. "Heaven-derived power." and the still less significant "and so." "ice-cold water. however. such as." "the Christian pearl of charity. and their trash.²COLERIDGE. Examples are. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives.140. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. derived from proper nouns. to forgive. to describe it or to limit its application." "half-dead traveler. etc. To make this clear. Classes of adjectives. 143.² BACON. Nouns are not. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "the Roman writer Palladius." "ivory-handled pistols. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." ." they constitute all his connections. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. (4) Pronominal adjectives. 141. pointing out particular things. words primarily pronouns." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White.

" Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." Caution. 144. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit.But ever she looked on Mr. For instance: in the sentence. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. and another is drunken. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. Oxenham." "One is hungry. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." was is the verb. Care is needed. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. 145. much. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. any." "an aged man. sometimes small.²MACDONALD. 1. in studying these last-named words. Examples are. having some of each subclass named in Sec. 'Tis midnight." was accomplished is a verb.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. 2. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." "The shattered squares have opened into line." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. . ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. and accomplished is an adjective. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. 143.²COLERIDGE. in this. considerable.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. which are either pure participles used to describe." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "trailing clouds. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." "a charming sight. some." "It came on like the rolling simoom. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. no. Exercises. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of.

" (b) Indefinite numerals. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers.²CARLYLE." "a dozen volunteers. How many. Not primarily pronouns. that." Single ones of any number of changes.² Every town had its fair. "one blaze of musketry. The demonstrative adjectives are this. those). but I have gained fourscore. the former²the latter. as. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. Thus. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening." "Then we wandered for many days. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER." "I have lost one brother. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. its wake. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. When some. latter. Examples. 146. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. Exercise. (plural these. An arrow was quivering in each body.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. are used with plural nouns. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²KINGSLEY. yonder (or yon).²THACKERAY. any.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. every village. no." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. The following sentences present some examples:² ." "In came some five and twenty more. instead of modifying them. they come under the next division of adjectives.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other." "He had lived by hunting for some months.²VAUGHAN. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. former. and with them a few negroes. The list.²ID.

²D. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²ID.² It matters not what rank he has.²BULWER.²KINGSLEY."²B. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²GOLDSMITH. FRANKLIN. WEBSTER. they are changed to adjectives. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. skill which was progressive²in the other.but all these charms are fled. The silver and laughing Xenil. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. As has been said. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. Exercise. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. but in the one case.²RUSKIN. but.²WORDSWORTH. 149. The taking of which bark. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. They are of two kinds.. tell how many things are meant. what revenues or garnitures. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. 148. . Indefinite relative adjectives. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²BANCROFT. 147. Definition. These were thy charms. These do not. of equal skill. In which evil strait Mr. for example. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. skill which was at pause.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. like the other numerals.. Modify names of persons or things. I verily believe. ²CARLYLE. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Oxenham fought desperately.²ID. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.

where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whichever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. nature will be sure to bear us out in.² EMERSON. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. A lady once remarked. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.²IRVING. whatsoever. Adjective what in exclamations.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. 151. He was turned before long into all the universe. Whatsoever kind of man he is.²ID.. Was there. In indirect questions. New torments I behold. Examples of their use are. whatever.²RUSKIN. But when the Trojan war comes. proved not altogether displeasing to him.And whichsoever way I turn. . and points to yonder glade?² POPE. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. which is selective among what is known.. whichsoever. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. as it rather seemed.150.²AGASSIZ. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. In direct questions. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. the debt to the rich. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. what inquires about things or persons not known. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. it is impossible to determine. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. and gaze. or whether any.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). which.²LAMB. you at least give him full authority over your son.²CARLYLE. whichsoever way I move. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. and new tormentedAround me. As in the pronouns.

What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. or size. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. alas. COMPARISON.²number and comparison. which was fully inflected in Old English. Those borrowed from this. .Adjectives have two inflections. 155.²This. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. the making of it right. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. color. or amount. And yet. of the quality. Exercise. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE.² Oh. Meaning of comparison. weight. It is neither relative nor interrogative. as. But this had also another plural.152. History of this²these and that²those. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. gold is heavier than iron. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. The article that was used with neuter nouns. or weight. That. th s (modern those). The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. those). INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. etc. etc. All these have certain qualities.. and those as the plural of that. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. This is the old demonstrative. we notice some differences between them as to size. Thus. 154. In exclamatory expressions. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. and when we compare the objects. NUMBER. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.²but not the same degree. When we place two objects side by side. we do so by means of their qualities. 153 . but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE.

strictly considered. redder.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. though the simple. 160. A main difference betwixt men is. easier. bluer. as. and the superlative. but. easiest.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. The two forms. reddest. they are not compared. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. 159." "no fewer than a hundred. with less wit. Definition. So with the words sole. enormous. giant-like. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. infinite. 158. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. These are called degrees of comparison. but were not common until a century later. red." "the commonest speech.²THACKERAY. Freedom is a perpetual. . 156. immemorial. sufficient. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. great. "more matter. and the superlative by adding -est. These are properly the only degrees." "the largest soul. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. and many others. 157. blue. indomitable. expressing a greater degree of quality. Substitute for inflection in comparison. universal institution. "untamed thought. supreme.²SEWARD. organic. bluest. or amounts in quantity. whose favorite pupil he was. indefatigable." "It is a nobler valor. whether they attend their own affair or not. to the simple form. as." Words that cannot be compared. easy. They came into use about the thirteenth century. The comparative is formed by adding -er. for example." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. expressing the greatest degree of quality. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them.

² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. falling on his knees. The general rule is. peaceablest. honestest. "So help me God. there needed to be a most genuine substance. as. The following lists include the majority of them:² . who." said Henry Esmond. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. admirablest. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. witty. was most finished. etc.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words." "distantest relationships. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. mournfulest. most small.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. These are adjectives irregularly compared. indisputablest. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. and yet familiar. 162. strange. finest chiseling." "more odd. and patientest fusing." "more austere and holy. These long.²ID." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." "the wonderfulest little shoes.²ID." "sorrowfulest spectacles. which hung behind in the queerest way. quiet. polished. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. though born in no very high degree. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." Carlyle uses beautifulest. I will.Which rule. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. madam. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. Adjectives irregularly compared. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.²The Nation. and other words are preceded by more and most.² CARLYLE A gentleman. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. easy. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. 163. harsh forms are usually avoided.

as. [Out] Outer.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. lesser. which has softened to the modern best.LIST I. next Nearest Latest. Good or well Evil. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. is often used. . latter Hinder LIST II. uppermost LIST III. Worser was once used. [In] Inner Inmost. lesser Elder. as in the sentence (14th century). further Farthest.² We have it in a much lesser degree. older Nigher Nearer Later. (3) Little is used as positive to less. last Hindmost. utter 3. hindermost Much or many More Farther. innermost Outmost. 6. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. Hind 2. A double comparative. uttermost Upmost. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. though from a different root. 7. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. worst. 8. (2) In Old English.²HAMLET. 5. furthest 10. throw away the worser part of it. a double comparative. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 1. least. 164. 2. These have no adjective positive:² 1. evil was the positive to worse. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. which has gone out of use. bad. List I. as in Shakespeare. 9. oldest Nighest. The superlative I form was betst. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. There was an old comparative bet. 4.² O. 3. outermost Utmost.

the old forms. latest. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. and refer to time. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. meaning the largest part. great. strenger. instead of lenger. as. much. "Many a little makes a mickle.²KINGSLEY. an old superlative ending. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. Since later. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer." Its spelling has been micel. there is scarcely any distinction. ²LAMB.. came into use. a distinction has grown up between the two series. but not in meaning. making the modern farther. th came into the others. are earlier than older. farthest. etc. since the m is for -ma. except the form next. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. are shown in such phrases as.²forth. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. farrest. oldest. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. The latter. The most part kept a stolid indifference. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. is quite common. near. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. or series. moche. List II. further. as long. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. eldest. but originally the comparison was nigh. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. first. Between the two sets as they now stand. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.. to which is added -ost. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.² The more part being of one mind. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. strong. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. and the superlative nearest. etc. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte.²HAWTHORNE. The meanings greater. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. muchel.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. .² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. for example. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. First became entirely detached from the series.²ID. doubling the inflection. next. furthest. (5) The forms elder. In imitation of further. greatest. to England we sailed.

The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. Her bows were deep in the water. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. Decidedly handsome." "the innermost moral soul. but not in their meaning. all may belong to the same noun." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. the upper light of the world. being merely descriptive. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective." "their utmost exertion. List III. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Think what each adjective belongs to. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Her. . Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. W.²DE QUINCEY.²H. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. or have no comparative forms. There." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. 166. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain." "The outer is of the day. and have no comparative force. BEECHER. Highest and midmost. in having no adjective positives. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence.165. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. The comparatives are so in form. or each may modify a different word or group of words.²DE QUINCEY. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. In List II. 168." "far-seeing as the sun. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. (Sec. but they have no adjective positives.²SCOTT. 167.²KINGSLEY. was descried The royal banner floating wide.²HAWTHORNE. but her after deck was still dry. by the by. on the very topmost twig. are like the comparative forms in List II. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove.²EMERSON. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING." -Most added to other words. The adjectives in List III. They have no superlatives.

²NOAH PORTER. in prose. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. STEPHENS 5. Richard Hooker. deep. 7. in this sentence. Other instances are. "the one who was then king." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. now our queen. 3.²TRENCH. we may say "the then king. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation.²HAWTHORNE. our new government. and thine often infirmities. 4.² My then favorite. as.²RUSKIN. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. For thy stomach's sake. usual modifies incomparable decision. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. 169. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. By a convenient brevity. the then and still owners. 6. A few improper jests and a volley of good. Our sometime sister. round. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. In the following quotations. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. STOWE." in which then is an adverb. not decision alone.²A. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. Exercise. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. . look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. This. But in this sentence. satisfactory. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. and broken. solid. deeply black eyes. May we not. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank.²BIBLE.For example. and moral truth. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. The seldom use of it. rich.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. instead of saying." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. Bradbury and Evans. bright. ²TROLLOPE. and heaven-defying oaths. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision.²MRS. therefore. H. philosophical. It may still be argued.²HOLMES. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. 2. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES.²HAWTHORNE." making then an adjective.

Unfamiliar describes truths. 7. 8. if it has number. therefore demonstrative. . I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. modifies truths. MODEL FOR PARSING.What to tell in parsing. Exercise. Since adjectives have no gender. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. and very few have number. (3) Its degree of comparison. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 170. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. person. 6. having a singular. this. She made no reply. 3. (4) What word or words it modifies. and I waited for none. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. These points out what truths. or case. This gave the young people entire freedom. 9. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. positive degree. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. across the plain. To every several man. then. plural number. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. and most astounding were those frightful yells. the method of parsing is simple. therefore descriptive. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. In parsing an adjective. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. (2) Its number. I ask nothing of you. cannot be compared. 4. frank. modifies the word truths. 5. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. manly way. with awkward but rapid pace. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. seventy-five drachmas. 2. To every Roman citizen he gives. compared by prefixing more and most. if it can be compared. 10. not inflected for number.

13. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. and therefore more interesting to us. those dogs in the yard. he won affections with ease. suggests such thoughts as these. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. oxen. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. as for armies that were too many by half. 12. Nearer to our own times. 27. 19. is the settlement of our own country. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. To say what good of fashion we can. Their name was the last word upon his lips. and many poles supported the lower ones. I know not what course others may take. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 24. and dogs. 20. With every third step. 22. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 14. not so much for travelers that were few. Two hours elapsed. In music especially. . you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. growing in the most unfavorable position. 25. 31. yonder oxen in the pasture. it rests on reality. 29. during which time I waited. 26. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. are immutably fishes. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Like most gifted men.11. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 18. 32. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 16. Here lay two great roads. 28. it is so noble a fruit. 33. 23. the tomahawk fell. 21.

171. or the tane. these occurring as the tane. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. meaning one." "an honor. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. 174. 172. . and a before consonant sounds. such as we have been attempting to describe. just as adjectives do.² We ca' her sometimes the tane.²MACAULAY. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. Their origin. the other. ðat. for example. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. in vulgar English. 35. were formerly that one. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds." "a yelling crowd. he is no literary man.34. the tother. 173. sometimes the tother. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. Two relics. the tither. th o. even when not silent. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Examples: "a house. s o. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. Our expressions the one. that) which was also an article in Old English." "a European. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant.²SCOTT. 37. the tother. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. weary-hearted man was he. In the sentence. but the former is used. ARTICLES. In Middle English the became an article. that other.²BREWER. the latter is still preserved in the expression. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. An or a came from the old numeral n." the words the and an belong to nouns. A hard-struggling. Many writers use an before h. An before vowel sounds. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. a before consonant sounds. with an ordinary little garden." "an orange." An with consonant sounds. An historian. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. later th .

179.² Don't you remember how.²THACKERAY. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.." the article indicates clearly that a river. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. 177. Kinds.²G." "the Ohio. a person is introduced by a. BANCROFT.. NOTE. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. An or a is the indefinite article. as "the Mississippi.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. which cannot be used alone. since it points out a particular individual. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. An hereditary tenure of these offices. Reference to a known object. Articles are either definite or indefinite. as in the sentence. The is the definite article. To call attention to attributes.²HEROES OF ASGARD. or class. or group. is referred to. Definition. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. An and a are different forms of the same word.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. thus. When the is prefixed to a proper name. The Dakota tribes. 175. on opening a story. or any individual of a group or class. or a group or class of things.. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. 176.²COLERIDGE. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. doubtless.²IRVING.² . not descriptive. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. the older n. With names of rivers. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. An article is a limiting word. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. 178. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. and not a state or other geographical division. and when the word river is omitted.²This use is noticed when.

marks it as half abstract or a common noun. or a match put between the fingers. laid it on the miry spot. 1. . for example.²MOTLEY. The simple rise as by specific levity. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.²GIBBON. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 180. His messages to the provincial authorities. BANCROFT. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. Schelling. Half abstract. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. Kant. not into a particular virtue. One thing for its class. With adjectives used as nouns. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. For possessive person pronouns.²KINGSLEY. If the good is there.²ID. the gallant.²EMERSON. but into the region of all the virtues. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. the Spinoza. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. the Hume. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. the song sparrow.²G. Common. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. so is the evil. With plural of abstract nouns. and the redwing. NOTE.The Bacon.² The faint. her.²ID. would speedily extract the required information. 182. The. 181. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. Caution. as. 2. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. etc.² As she hesitated to pass on. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. 183.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

taking the staff which always guided her steps. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. which may be a person. 203. in this sentence from Bulwer. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. or an idea. 202. a). 201. in (c). a noun. obeyed is a predicate.In (a). The nature of intransitive verbs. from the Latin transire. and shame the most astute. In giving a definition. the most penetrating. Of those expressing action. in (3. to go is no predicate. In each case. and to receive the action expressed. c). hence is not a verb." put is the predicate. lone took what? answer. Each influences some object. Now. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. can deceive has an object.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. representing something which it influences or controls. "Put thou money in thy purse. By examining a few verbs. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. but cannot be predicates."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. and. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. the most astute. and a preposition unite as a verb. All these are called transitive verbs. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate." Examine the sentences in Sec. 204. All do not express action: some denote state or condition." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. or the object. a verb. which means to go over. care. a preposition. to say something to or about some person or thing. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. "Put money in thy purse. an adverb. but fearing is not a predicate. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. and not a verb. endured what? anguish. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. 200: In (1). we consider a verb as one word. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. in (b). etc. all do not express it in the same way. In the sentence. in (3. for example. Definition and caution. an article. The nature of the transitive verb. (can) shame also has an object.²BULWER . in (2. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. the word following. or a material thing. b). b). In the first. in (2. as. Has takes the object hypocrisy. A verb is a word used as a predicate. with some word understood. Hence Definition.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.² If. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. for example.² Now. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. Condition or Supposition. 222. 215.I could lie down like a tired child. as. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. ²EMERSON. the second founder.²may or may not be true. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. they were recorded in the Book of Life.²BRYCE. I.²FRANKLIN. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. Ideal. 221. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. and may or may not be regarded true. the writer can make the statement following. in our case. the first great founder of the Empire. Unreal²cannot be true. he will see the need of these ethics.²MACAULAY. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. Most excellent stranger.²LONGFELLOW. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. If this be the glory of Julius.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. but. Again. 2). as. or be fulfilled. the representative system ultimately fail.²SHELLEY. .²D. popular government must be pronounced impossible. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. WEBSTER.

since he [Byron] was dead. which cannot be true. do you think. II. would you. he supposed. if his lot had been mine. though. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding.²CALHOUN. especially be. Exercise. The voice. 7. 8. would have sat still with joy and peace.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.²SWIFT. etc. she was regarded as a prodigy..²MACAULAY. But in no case could it be justified. to drink strong beer. is of similar physiognomy.²FRANKLIN. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. might. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 223. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. . if he speak to you. that we cannot but regret its absence. if he was the man I take him for. melodious.. 3. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. 6.² It was necessary.²EMERSON.. society could not hold together. unless.. NOTE. 4. is used to express purpose. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. but when the verb precedes the subject. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. ²LOWELL. the clause being introduced by that or lest. and striven energetically to save Ney. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other." etc.² CARLYLE. and what kind of condition:² 1. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.²N. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. as. clear. and sonorous. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.²BAYNE. he had better not have written. except. that he might be strong to labor. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. Epaminondas. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. The subjunctive. WILLIS. thus.² If these things were true. and should. P. 5. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. 2. If he had reason to dislike him.²FRANKLIN. I told him. Subjunctive of Purpose. In the following conditional clauses. may.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created.

V. After a verb of wishing.²DE QUINCEY. VII. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro..That vain it were her eyes to close.²MOORE. The transmigiation of souls is no fable... Rise up. within its fairy bowers.²COLERIDGE. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. I would it were! ²EMERSON.²D. 225.²SOUTHEY. the answer being regarded as doubtful. In Temporal Clauses. none of us could say.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. WEBSTER. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. The English subjunctive.²ID. 224. Expressing a Wish. Let it rise. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. VI. In Indirect Questions. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. III.²BRYANT. like the quarry-slave at night. Ask the great man if there be none greater.I have been the more particular.²WORDSWORTH.And we. till it meet the sun in his coming. To tell of what had passed. 227. 226. Subjunctive of Result.²CARLYLE. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. I've wished that little isle had wings. . like the Latin.. So live. In a Noun Clause. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. IV.Thou go not. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.Were wafted off to seas unknown.

Come. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. is the ultimate fact of man's life. which may be (a) Pronoun.²COLERIDGE.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.²SCOTT. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²THOREAU. Object.² Be the matter how it may. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²TENNYSON. Complement.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. etc. . Whatever betide. Concessive Clauses.Subject. The essence of originality is not that it be new.. we'll turn aside. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²WORDSWORTH. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²CARLYLE. VIII. That hunger of applause.And look thou tell me true. object. (b) Adjective. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. or whatsoever victual it may be. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²DE QUINCEY.And see the Braes of Yarrow. 229. is. Some might lament that I were cold.²COLERIDGE. After verbs of commanding. The noun clause. that everything be in its place. for example. 228. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. of cash. I have no thought what men they be. The first merit. tell me all that thou hast seen. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. in its various uses as subject.² DICKENS. in apposition.²SHELLEY. often contains a subjunctive.

Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. ADAMS. 231. though. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. (1) Command. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. love all men. or requests. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Honor all men. however.²CHANNING.²BRYANT. (2) Entreaty. we had found [should have found] a poem here. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. and condition contrary to fact. Definition. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used.²J. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.(c) Adverb. point to their immortal works. At the present day. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. since commands are directed to a person addressed.²SHELLEY. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. a concession. (3) Request.² CARLYLE. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. entreaties. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. It must be remembered. 232. for example.The spirit he loves remains. . Q. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Oh. Usually second person. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. fear none. to express a wish. In spoken English. 230.

Quoth she. nothing is to be preferred before justice. noble earl. there will her heart and her prayers be. Oh. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4..Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Part we in friendship from your land. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. 7. lest we rust in ease."²DICKENS Tell me. etc.One glance at their array! 5. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Break we our watch up. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. receive my hand. request. 8.And. child of earth!While each performs his part. 2. Whatever inconvenience ensue. etc. but I + you." Exercises on the Moods.." whispered Kit. "The Devil take the goose. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.And God forget the stranger!" .²SCOTT. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.²CAMPBELL. 6. we may use the imperative with we in a command. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. Mark thou this difference. to you implied in it. or I + they.²SHAKESPEARE. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. 3. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. "Come along with me." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed."Hush! mother. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.

is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. He. 14. no literary man. as though an instrument. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. 10. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 13. in what pomps and prosperities he like. "Oh. it would speak." continued Old Morgan. 21.High up in silver spikes! 22. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 11. and opinion displace opinion. Think not that I speak for your sakes." 16. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. 23. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. let him live where else he like. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 18. or do it at all. "Mr. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot." 25. she ought to have it. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. my dear madam. Though abyss open under abyss. "tell me where I may find my poor. 26. . From the moss violets and jonquils peep. Though he were dumb. He is. 20. That sheaf of darts.That they might answer him. 19. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast.Except. Forget thyself to marble. ruined. but repentant child. That a man parade his doubt. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. then.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Well. whether he do it right or wrong. how he may do his work. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.9.Till you might faint with that delicious pain." cried he. will it not fall unbound. Marshall.

" . TENSE. Old English had only two tenses. the past. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. which represented present and future time. or agree with it. have. such as Latin and Greek.² present. or future time. Definition. "I go away tomorrow. as will be shown later on. Tenses in English. past. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses." "If he comes. as the classical languages have.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. will. as. five in the imperative. "Thou walkedst. and future. in the third person singular. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. and future perfect tenses. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. "It is not in man that walketh. or whether it were as one member of a general party. five in the subjunctive. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. called auxiliaries." past. a form ending in -eth. in the conjugations. also. Siddons. such as be. Meantime. 233. past perfect. "Thou walkest. by means of the present. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. and the past tense. 235. When the older pronoun thou was in use. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. as. past. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. to direct his steps. kind." present." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions.²nothing could exceed the amiable. 234. PERSON AND NUMBER. Tense means time. The tenses in detail. shall.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. and the future tense.27. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as.²the present tense. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. tell him to wait. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. whatever she did. 28.

conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. [He] is [They] are 3. Singular 1. choosest. [He] were [They] were . I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. etc. I be 2. chooses. Singular 1. Such verbs as choose have five. since it is composed of several different roots. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. The verb be has more forms. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. choosing. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. chosest). You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. is. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. 238.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. CONJUGATION.²choose. Definition. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. You (thou) be 3. walked. Singular 1. were. PRESENT TENSE. etc. persons. are. moods. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. I were 2. tense." and this only in the present tense indicative. been. This is the third person. In classical languages. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms.²am. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. wert) 3. chose. 237. PRESENT TENSE. Singular 1. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. but in English. Few forms. singular number. 236. mood. You are 2. and numbers. walks. walkedst. walketh. walk has walk. Indicative Mood. "He walks. walking. chooseth. as. for example. chosen (old. tenses.

²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.. in four ways.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. (3) be. etc. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. (2) was. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. Instead of the plural are. -en. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. (d) With the infinitive. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. is. to express intention. obligation. The light that never was on sea and land. thus. for example. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. as. condition.²WORDSWORTH. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²SHELLEY.²GOLDSMITH.. etc. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. though it is usually a dialect form. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. 240.²ID. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. (b) With the past participle in -ed. to form the passive voice. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.Imperative Mood. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.²SCOTT.²BURKE . same as the German sind. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. 239. Remarks on the verb be.His infancy was nurtured. which was now become an occasional banquet.²THACKERAY. were.

1. 1. You choose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Machinery of a verb in the voices. I chose 2. Singular. I chose 2. (2)." "He will choose. [He] choose [They] choose 3. as. We chose You chose 3. You chose Plural. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. "I shall be. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 242. by placing have. You choose Plural. . Indicative Mood. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. In addition to the above inflected forms. I choose 2. 1. had.241. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. tenses. Singular. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. "I had gone" (past perfect)." (2) Present perfect. You chose Plural. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. I choose 2. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. 240. 1. etc. PRESENT TENSE. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. past perfect. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. as. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). "I have gone" (present perfect). Singular. future perfect. tenses. We chose You chose 3.

" "You are chosen. Future perfect definite. Present perfect definite. He will have chosen. as. Present. He has been choosing. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He will have been choosing. Past definite. He had chosen. Only the third person. will be given. He will he choosing. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past. singular number." (4) The passive forms. he have chosen. Past perfect definite. He is choosing. Present definite. Present definite. " Be choosing. Same as indicative. Future. of each tense. Past. Indicative Mood. Present. though. he have been choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. etc. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He chose. " " " " " " " he be choosing. (2d per. he chose (or were to choose). He chooses. [If. Present perfect.] he choose. Imperative Mood. Subjunctive Mood. "I was chosen. lest. "I am running. Past definite." 243. . by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Future definite. Past perfect." "They had been running. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. Future perfect. as.) Choose. Present.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present definite. Present perfect definite. He had been choosing. Present perfect. Same as indicative. He will choose. He has chosen. He was choosing.

but verbals.] [If. . "He does strike. He is chosen. He had been chosen. Present definite. None. he have been chosen. Indicative Mood. Also. " " " " " " " None. Past perfect definite. None. though. lest. None. None.] he be chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. Past perfect. as. etc. in affirmative sentences. however. Future.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. None. Future perfect definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He was being chosen. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Past perfect definite. Present. if learned at all. He was chosen. Future perfect. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Present perfect. Past definite. PASSIVE VOICE. they will be discussed later (Sec. Present perfect. Imperative Mood. he were being chosen.NOTE. Past.) Be chosen. He will be chosen. Past definite. Present perfect definite. 262). Present definite." "He did strike. Future definite. he had been chosen. Subjunctive Mood. He is being chosen. None. Present tense. Past Perfect. He will have been chosen. He has been chosen. Exercises should be given. Present. Past.." [Note to Teacher. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). (2d per. Present perfect definite.

and may or may not change the vowel: as. slept. drive. bit blown broken chidden. laid. NOTE. 244. ran. lay. bid bound. begged. beg. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. drove. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. as. but adds no ending. run. 245. bounden] bitten. sleep. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. Past Tense. Kinds. According to form. caught. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . Some of these also have weak forms. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. which are in parentheses Present Tense. verbs are strong or weak. catch. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle.[adj. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Definition.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound . sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

borne is also a passive. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. instead of ate and eaten."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. Sometimes in literary English. to split.²IRVING. TAYLOR." "the cloven hoof. The form clomb is not used in prose.²MILTON. which always crew at eleven. The former used to be cleave. 246. cleft. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). Historically. cleaved. as. now told us it was time for repose." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²cleave. the other.²one meaning to adhere or cling.²as (from Shakespeare). "stricken with paralysis. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. probably to avoid confusion with this. . but is much used in vulgar English. nor a dog barked." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²B. especially in that of an earlier period. cloven. Not a cock crew. cleave. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as." "a drunken wretch.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. cleft (to split). "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro." "a sunken snag. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.²COLERIDGE.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms." In this confusion of usage. and. and sometimes occurs in poetry. ²THACKERAY. clave or clove. and the latter. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.² Thou hast clomb aloft. cleaved. and another (born) for the passive. Our cock. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. When it means to carry or to endure. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²GOLDSMITH. "his bounden duty.²TENNYSON. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). only one set remains certain. for example. as. as. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. as (from Holmes).² We had each drank three times at the well. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.

Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. and seized a pen. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. began. flung. Fling. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. 10.The form gotten is little used.²DE FOE. 7. This heard Geraint. One example out of many is. maiden. We usually say. shore is rare. (a) From the table (Sec. as "a shorn lamb.²BYRON.²TENNYSON. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Exercises. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. found.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. threw. 5.² If. 245).²SCOTT. Break. and grasping at his sword. 3." but not much as a participle. 2. 4. 8."²KINGSLEY. Fall. Give. froze. Find. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. .²BIBLE. fallen. Usually shear is a weak verb. shaken. broke." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. even in poetry. Drive. which is seldom used except in poetry. for example. drove. driven. Throw. Freeze. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. as. Begin. for example. frozen. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. given. He sate him down. thrown. The butler was hanged. begun. broken.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.² We had all got safe on shore. 6. fell. gave. flung. shook. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. found. 9. Shake.²WORDSWORTH.

220. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. 223... 251. for full drill on the forms. which survives in the sentence. Can is used in the indicative only. Ability.²CHANNING This. it is used only in the indicative mood. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.²PAINE. but came through analogy with should and would. of course. They are as follows:² PRESENT." Must is present or past tense. 249. as it sometimes does. PAST."²WINIER. 250. as in Sec. according to the infinitive used.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. . must have been an ocular deception. Have we valuable territories and important posts.[To the Teacher. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. ability. PAST. 247.. (See also Sec. there is one general principle. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Indicative Use: Permission.. "So mote it be. purpose. from the obsolete verb motan. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. as it has two meanings. Subjunctive use. It is indicative when it expresses permission. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. or. The same remarks apply to ought.. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. Like must. as. etc. The l in could did not belong there originally. PRESENT. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.²CHANNING. Could may be subjunctive. Must is historically a past-tense form. etc. or when it expresses wish. "far off his coming shines.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. HAMILTON.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. His superiority none might question.

252. The sea shall crush thee. not plod along like apeasant. as. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. he said. BROCKDEN BROWN. The following are examples:² Never mind." Uses of shall and should. and corn to hoe. while ought always has to.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. (b) In indirect quotations. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.e. as. (b) In questions asking for orders. as.² Futurity and questions²first person. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.²LONGFELLOW. to the neglect of shall and should. C.²L. MOULTON. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. shall and should are used. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. what shall I say?²N. I shall be gone.²COOPER.²MACAULAY. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.² (a) To express authority. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. especially in the United States. in the form of command. Second and third persons. .. shall and should are used.Nay. for example. she should ride like a queen.² With respect to novels. to use will and would. my lad. "I think I will go. with pronouns of the first person. She rejects his suit with scorn. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.² The time will come full soon. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. She should not walk.²BULWER. yea. promise.²IRVING. or confident prediction. Shall and Will. WEBSTER.²THAXTER. They shall have venison to eat. future action).

and will not return until all is finished. was to be expected. LARNED. B.that I would do him justice. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. etc. purpose. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.² I will go myself now. BROWN. for example. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. .²CABLE. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. (c) With direct questions of the second person. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.²H.²WORDSWORTH. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²SWIFT. And promised. and is equivalent to ought.²WINTER. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. as the sole inventor. time.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. for example. as.²WORDSWORTH.²BYRON. JR. thus. 253. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.²WORDSWORTH. JAMES. Disguising a command. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²C.²SCOTT. or a promise. second and third persons. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.. First.. I never was what I should be. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²A. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²ROGERS.. with the conviction that he should win in the end.

Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). SECOND..²LANDOR. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. etc. Would thou hadst it not. 254. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.² Subject I omitted: often so. for punishment or intimidation. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. as.. and mark on the grounds the works.²BANCROFT. BROWN. for example. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.²SCOTT. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. To be sure. would is used to express a wish. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²the original meaning of the word will. when thou wast born.. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. as. action merely expected to occur. AND THIRD PERSONS. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.. for example. . through storms their brothers are afraid of. as if it were merely expected action.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. will is used to express command. This puts the order more mildly. Roland. will and would are used to express simple futurity. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. The gift of Beauty. (4) With FIRST. so you will.²BURKE.² DICKENS. Mere futurity.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.. They will go to Sunday schools.²IRVING.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. Thine was a dangerous gift. B. will and would often denote an action as customary. and two of my people. When I am in town. without regard to future time. you'll always have somebody to sit with you..²War Records.²SCOTT. In this stately chair would he sit.² Thou wilt take the skiff. PASSIVE VOICE.

[They] shall choose. I shall choose. Singular. [He] shall be chosen. We shall choose. 2. Thou art what I would be. Plural. I shall be chosen. To express determination. Thou shalt have a suit. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. I will choose. [They] will choose. Singular. You will choose. 2. You will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 1. You shall be chosen. yet only seem. We will be chosen. Singular. 252 and 253. 3. Plural. 2. (b) Examine the following sentences. Exercises on Shall and Will. 2. [He] will be chosen. 3. 6. 4. PASSIVE VOICE. etc. 3. 3. You will choose. and that of the newest cut. [They] will be chosen. (a) From Secs. . 1. Plural. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 2. You will be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. 1. 3. 1. 3. We will choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE. 1. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 5. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. We shall be chosen. 2. [He] will choose. You shall choose. "I shall not run. promise. You shall be chosen. He informed us. Plural. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. You shall choose.Singular. [He] shall choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. and justify the use of shall and will. I will be chosen.

²Class I. (2) Those which end in -d or -t.7. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. The beast made a sluggish movement. bereave beseech bereft. Of smale houndes hadde she. set. Without having attended to this.²CHAUCER. 255. my son. 256. bereft. This ending has now dropped off. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. Lucy stood still. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. then. put. Present Tense. The old ending to verbs of Class II. WEAK VERBS. 11. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. very anxious. and I have nothing to say. 9. as if he would have more of the enchantment. 13. "I am a wayfarer. put. and have no change of vowel. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. Past Tense. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. set.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. 12. was -de or -te. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. No. as. Irregular Weak Verbs. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes.²ID. bereaved besought . leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. or mylk and wastel breed. But the rest. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 257. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. bereave besought Past Participle. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. need some attention and explanation." the stranger said." 14. 10. put. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. which may be called irregular weak verbs. that sche fedde With rosted flessh.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

266. will (with should and would). an imperfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. they have an indefinite. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. to was used before the infinitive generally. Perfect. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Nothing of the kind having been done.6. Perfect.. 10.. formed a kind of bedstead. Cases when to is omitted. Indefinite. 7. to express action unconnected with a subject. To with the infinitive. [To] be chosen. and a perfect definite form. [To] have been choosing. [To] be choosing. [To] choose. When active. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. 267. try clemency. INFINITIVES. [To] have chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). In Sec. 268. and when passive. Three saplings. have no tense. 9. like participles. as in the Old English. I returned to reflection on my situation. Infinitives. a perfect. [To] have been chosen. But later. 8. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Perfect definite. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. expressing purpose. Imperfect.. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. ACTIVE VOICE. an indefinite and a perfect form. when inflections became fewer. . Indefinite.²the creature warring against the creating power.

or the object of a verb or a preposition. as in the expression. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.²HOWELLS.²GOLDSMITH.²it may be governed as a noun. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. "I do go" etc. it is often preceded by the definite article. . While the gerund expresses action. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. the gerund may be called a noun verbal.. They shall have venison to eat. 272. HALE. The gerund is like the participle in form. watch. feel. poor woman!" cried Charles. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent.(2) After the verbs may (might). but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.²E. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. as the credulous imagine.²MACAULAY." (4) In exclamations. and like a noun in use. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. negative." "I shall have chosen." etc. as. must.²IRVING. 269. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. But there was nothing to do. make. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. sometimes need (as.). do (as. 270.²COOPER. liberal woman. also let. please. learn [doth learn is one verb.² She was a kind. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. also in the imperative. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER.² What! doth she. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. as. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. and corn to hoe. it may be the subject of a verb. too. it has several attributes of a noun. "She ask my pardon. 271. can (could).²TENNYSON. as.²DE QUINCEY. GERUNDS. under "Analysis. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. "He will choose. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. E. hear. "a house to let. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). and emphatic forms of the present and past." Examples are. bid (command). see.

II). may govern and be governed. 2. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. 273. after examining the nest." Exercise. Words in -ing are of six kinds." "Certainly dueling is bad." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. according to use as well as meaning. and has been put down. which name an action or state. and five gerunds. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. (5) Gerunds. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (4) Pure adjectives." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which express action. (2) Pure participles. and wonderful store of learning! ." also (2. which express action and also modify. Exercise. but cannot govern. Sec. when. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. b). five infinitives. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy.²Find sentences containing five participles. (3) Participial adjectives. on your leaving the spot. to see the returning hope of the parents. making the definite tenses. but do not assert. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. which express action. What a vast. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. brilliant. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. 4." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. Then how pleasing is it. (6) Verbal nouns. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. which have lost all verbal force." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. above. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek.

(b) as to use.²transitive or intransitive. bearing her national emblem. subjunctive. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 14. 275. like Sir Walter Scott. 7.²indicative. 6. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 11. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. much corroded.²which of the tenses given in Sec. He spread his blessings all over the land. Caution. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking.²strong or weak. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 16. 15. What is dreaming? 8. give reality to your teaching. 9. slowly. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. he gave out sentence by sentence. but. Thackeray did not. dictating from his chair.5. (5) Person and number. 10. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. . round which is an iron railing. (3) Mood. you must. 12. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. I suppose I was dreaming about it. by object lessons. (2) Voice.²active or passive. I. (4) Tense. VERBS. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. write twenty pages without stopping. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. giving principal parts. The only means of ascending was by my hands. or imperative. In parsing verbs. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 234. 13.

must. III. intransitive. perfect. give points (a) and (b). (c) to what word it belongs. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. and not taken as single verbs. and ends in -s. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. If a participial adjective. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive.276. followed by a pure infinitive without to. Take these examples:² 1. we must beware of the rule. could. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. In 2. might. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Exercise. (3) Gerund. verbals. etc. 277. II. call might a weak verb. VERBALS. and should always be analyzed as phrases. perfect. no sin nor sorrow. indicative. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. It has been intimated in Sec. usually it does not. active. For fuller parsing of the infinitive.. Let it rise! let it rise. You are gathered to your fathers. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. (1) Participle. past tense. 2. 4. and parting day linger and play on its summit. VERB PHRASES. 235. can. then parse it as an adjective. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. would. (2) Infinitive. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. Especially frequent are those made up of should. call should a weak verb." Sometimes it does. etc. 3. therefore active." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. But unless the verb is present. . (b) whether indefinite. intransitive. in the world. (a) From what verb derived. past tense. Parse the verbs. The government might have been strong and prosperous. (b) its use (Sec. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. 278. definite. may. has the subject government. 273). 278(2). it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. imperfect. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. In such sentences as 1. (b) whether active or passive. 2. till it meet the sun in his coming. indicative (as it means could). has for its subject Lee. see Sec.

as usual. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. and wondered if she were yet awake.Henceforth in me instill. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. or. When he arose in the morning. a sweet good will.Down all the line. a new waking up of all that has life. 22. from a sort of temporary death. 14. morning is not a new issuing of light. In going for water. leaving me upon the bed. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 18. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 10. a new bursting forth of the sun. a deafening shout. 16. as rolled from wing to wing. 21. 12. However that be.5. 8. . Whatever ground you sow or plant. 23. With them. see that it is in good condition. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 15. he thought only of her. 11. 24. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 17. Right graciously he smiled on us. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. So." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge.O God. as the Hindoos say. 19. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 9. 20. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 13. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. The soul having been often born. He passed across the room to the washstand. 6. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill.

To the almost terror of the persons present. for the hour of rest is at hand." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. A verb. 279. and limit adjectives or adverbs. The word adverb means joined to a verb. or manner: as. as.Feast while we may. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree."²DE QUINCEY. ADVERBS. and live ere life be spent. for example.²CARLYLE.25. to speak truly. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. place. 29.²SHELLEY. . I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. When action is expressed.²THACKERAY. and men of leisure and cultivation. they are more himself than he is. And now wend we to yonder fountain. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Adverbs modify. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. who live with nature?²ID. and so on.²time. 26." "He was absolute. 27. Nor was it altogether nothing. thou sayest. "William's private life was severely pure.² The young man reveres men of genius. Better it were.²EMERSON." Sometimes a noun or pronoun." An adjective or an adverb. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. to consent. Oh. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. because. Is it only poets.

not simply the forms used in predication. A phrase.²These last differ from the words in Sec.²THOREAU. Definition. 281.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. Make music to the lonely ear.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. I draw forth the fruit. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. for example. before.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. ²IRVING. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.² LOWELL. Thus considered. is a modifying word. ALDRICH. ever.²LEIGH HUNT. not the noun. A clause or sentence. which may qualify an action word or a statement.² FRANKLIN. being adverbs naturally and fitly. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. 169. like the light of heaven. there are six classes:² (1) Time. perhaps. 280. etc.He was incidentally news dealer. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. B. and that. It may also modify a sentence. to-day. as now. and half awfully. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. all wet and glossy. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. as. An adverb. has induced some of us to attend it. as shown in the sentences. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. (2) according to their use in the sentence. but some verb understood. but really modifying. thus. Surely happiness is reflective. lately.²BYRON. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.²T.²TROLLOPE. or a word group used as such. . then. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. but still with a rich bloom to it. while those in Sec. NOTE. 169 are felt to be elliptical. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. We are offered six months' credit. hitherto. NOTE. 282.

was for this once of her opinion. as well. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. as little. the more evidently they love liberty. telling how anything is done.. whithersoever.. as here. too. probably.. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.²LECKY. 283. singly. whencesoever. greatly. etc.whither. very. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. etc. [Sidenote The status of such. The more they multiply. just. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. etc. two by two.²BURKE. So also in Grote. LOUIS STEVENSON. better. for example. and not infrequently are found in literary English. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.²SHAKESPEARE.²HAWTHORNE. slowly. slightly.² The master. enough.whence. as perhaps. Motley. especially the comparative of these words. the more perfect will be their obedience.yonder. Thackeray. etc.. partly. I was. White. possibly. maybe. twice. the more friends you will have. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.thither.where. beautifully.²IRVING. bravely.(2) Place.²DE QUINCEY. much.²R.²BROWNING. This long's the text. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.near. Meekness. etc. (3) Manner. telling how much. (see also Sec. or how far he believes it to be true. (5) Degree. Emerson. while so precedes only the adjective usually.which gained him such universal popularity. telling how many times: once. at least. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. (4) Number. surely. . (6) Assertion.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.. as hence. and others. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.thence. as hither. that these adverbs form a very large class. thus. not. above.there. 283). etc.

284. Some adverbs. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. 282. Again. Pretty is also used by Prescott.²"He walked too far [place]. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.²FIELDING. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. besides modifying. Notice meanings. Emerson." said the king. Holmes. 285."²SCOTT. De Quincey. 286." "He spoke positively [manner]. Dickens. and its lawn before [place].²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. . for example.² You are mighty courteous. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.²THACKERAY.²HAWTHORNE. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.² "Mighty well. Simple. a mighty fine gentleman. for example." "That were far better [degree]." "The house. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Franklin. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. STOWE. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Neville. Direct questions. and art but a fool.²BULWER." "I have seen you before [time]." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Defoe. and other writers. Interrogative. Aldrich." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Mighty. Kingsley. Burke. "Peace.² KINGSLEY. Such are most of those given already in Sec. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Hard blows and hard money. A pretty large experience. have the additional function of asking a question. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. B. Beau Fielding.²BAYNE.Pretty. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.

(4) Degree. I hearkened.²BYRON.²D. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. CLAY.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (4) Degree.²POE. (2) Place. 287.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. they smiled. When did this humane custom begin?²H.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. for example. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. I know not why. (5) Reason.²BULWER. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON (3) Manner. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. WEBSTER. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. I will not ask where thou liest low. (2) Place. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. . Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.

then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. soon. when.But in reality. The following. use. 288. just as adjectives do. are often used as adjectives:² Positive.) rather 289.²TENNYSON. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 290.²SHAKESPEARE. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. higher.²BYRON. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Its strings boldlier swept. not an adverb. For further discussion. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.²COLERIDGE. soonest. as. furthest (rathe.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Only that we may wiselier see. see Sec." Exercise. when compared. highest.. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Many adverbs are compared. well much little far late Comparative. Form vs. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. but the whole clause. obs. Superlative. irregularly compared. and. . have the same inflection as adjectives. high. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.. sooner.²EMERSON. further farthest. Then must she keep it safelier. Many adjectives have the same ending. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. when does not express time and modify. Exercise. representing four classes. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.eyes. only occasionally having -er and -est.

curiously jolly." Compare these:² 1. Again.²WORDSWORTH. The reason is. . And all about. 2. hard. merely introduces a sentence. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.²CHAUCER. to be sure. hardly. There are eyes. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. near. if it has the verb be. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. etc.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. 5. Not near so black as he was painted. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 2. nearly. many words without -ly have the same form. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. instead of being used adverbially. 6. whether adverbs or adjectives. With his proud.²THACKERAY.²IRVING. but with a different meaning. kindly and good-natured in secret. 8. that in Old and Middle English. 4. Such are most. or down the leaves laughed through.And his mien of kingly state. He is inexpressibly mean. mostly. more courtly in their manners. Special use of there.² EMERSON. evenly. quick-flashing eye. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 3. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. as. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 291. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 292.²TENNYSON. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.1. 7. But he must do his errand right. Frequently the word there.²ID. even.

at the regular wine-shop. 16. For the impracticable. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 5. (3) What word or word group it modifies. It is the Cross that is first seen. Thither we went. 17. 293. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. if the word is compared. Exercise. 10.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. In parsing adverbs. and always. 4. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 7. . He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. burning in the center of the temple. 9. (2) Degree of comparison. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. But a few steps farther on. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. and sate down on the steps of a house. but continually shifted. 12. is always politically unwise. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 2. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. give² (1) The class. 15. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 11. 3. the Madonna is in great glory. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 18. according to meaning and also use. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. but from my fall? 6. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. however theoretically enticing.

A conjunction is a linking word. CONJUNCTIONS. then." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. It was pretty bad after that." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. however. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. But now the wind rose again. nor. 20. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. word groups. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. 294. hence. therefore. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. connecting words. Unlike adverbs. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. upon which the sun now shone forth. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. or sentence groups. . etc.19. but the student will readily find them. Definition. 21. sentences. Clauses. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. 22. 295. should be omnipotent for evil? 24." Paragraphs." Sentences. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. but side by side within the American Union.

298. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. of the same rank. while.. Alternative... either. yet. whether.. introducing a reason or cause. 296. then.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. both. Correlatives. therefore. whether.. and. whether. serves but to show their ignorance.or whether. as but. nor. neither... joining words... for.. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.but. usually between two things. ..nor.Classes of conjunctions. had its weight." Nevertheless.. also.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. Some go in threes. likewise. While the earth bears a plant. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. neither. however. still.but (or but also). either. (3) CAUSAL. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. Causal..... answering to each other in the same sentence. "Howbeit. else.nor. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. Nor mark'd they less.. the window being open. (4) ALTERNATIVE. the butter too. moreover. either. nor. as. not only. Adversative. (2) ADVERSATIVE. but is emperor in his own right. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. and not man corn..or. They are or. expressing a choice. Some of these go in pairs. 297. etc. as well as. as well as the room door. etc. hence. Your letter. neither. as and. as.or. The chief ones are.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (2) Subordinate. or the sea rolls its waves. only. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. etc. The assertion..or.. however..or. word groups. the bread was spent. not only.and..

especially that after so. (6) PURPOSE: that. on condition that.²J. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. in apposition.²BURKE. unless. nor wing of bird. except. since. etc. even if. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. Time. provided. nor creeping thing. although. seeing. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.²PAULDING. Neither the place in which he found himself. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject.. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. so that. etc.as. whether. whence. It is. as. nor echo. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. while. whither. lest.²WILSON.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. whereas. though. now. whithersoever. Where the treasure is. as. ere. object. so that.. (7) RESULT: that. (2) TIME: when. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. ²ALLSTON.. howsoever. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. etc. . in order that. since. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. nor green leaf. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. etc. so. so.²COOPER. He is not only bold and vociferous. (3) MANNER: how.. provided that. after. sometimes if. however. so. QUINCY.²DE QUINCEY.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.²IRVING. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. whenever. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. as.²BIBLE. that. until. etc. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. in case. whereto. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. wherever. there will the heart be also. before. 299.

²CARLYLE Events proceed. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.That he gave her wounds repose. but not so long but I held it out.² EMERSON. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. JACKSON. I was again covered with water. Manner. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. . Result.²BURKE. We wish for a thousand heads. a thousand bodies. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²DEFOE.²IRVING.²BYRON. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON. Comparison. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Then Denmark blest our chief. H. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.That vain it were her eyes to close. not as they were expected or intended. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²COLERIDGE. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Substantive. Purpose. reason.² HAWTHORNE. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Now he is dead.²EMERSON. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²AMES. Condition. Cause. As a soldier.²AMES.² WORDSWORTH.²CAMPBELL.So I behold them not.²EMERSON.² H.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Let the world go how it will. Concession.²AMES.

And then recovering. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. In what point of view. the wisest. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 9. that. After he was gone. While patriotism glowed in his heart.Let us see whether the greatest. 2. as he shot in air. hold a subordinate rank. 7. He was brought up for the church. some words²for example. 6. No one had yet caught his character. then.²RUSKIN. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 4. she faintly pressed her hand. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. And they lived happily forever after. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. as. 14. since. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 12. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Crept under the leaf. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. Besides. 300. 15. and hid her there. 3. her real merit is known at home. While a faction is a minority. 5. while. 10. 13.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. They. the lady called her servant. however. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. The moth fly. etc. . As will have been noticed. it will remain harmless. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. Exercises.

"sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. GREELEY. etc. As if. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. and part as though we parted not. 302. the expression would be. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.²EMILY BRONTE. they connect. As for as if.16.. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.. Consequently. as is shown by the use of as though.As though a rose should shut. expressing degree if taken separately. If analyzed. SPECIAL REMARKS. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.²HOOD. As though. as is often equivalent to as if. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.²BYRON. 303. "We meet. thus. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.. in this case. . His voice . So silently we seemed to speak.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. In Emerson's sentence. (2) What words. none of the lashings having given way. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong.So slowly moved about. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words." as." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.²IRVING. In poetry. and the frame will suit the picture.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. In parsing conjunctions. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. and be a bud again. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. 301. word groups. even as they would weep.Clouded. 304. for example.

It continued raining.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. or in the snow. 10. and its clause is independent. In classifying them. so they paddled on. are regularly of one particular class. He is the compend of time. such as nor. that it might testify of that particular ray. so that I could not stir abroad.² 1. and. All the postulates of elfin annals. so means therefore. etc. because it is his. 11. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. . If he could solve the riddle. Some conjunctions. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted.²EMERSON 3.Caution. others belong to several classes. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. he is also the correlative of nature.²is subordinate of condition. 6. Exercise. so that expresses result.²that the fairies do not like to be named. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. when. dines with as good an appetite. 2. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. and the like. 9. they are not known. 5.²DEFOE 2. When the gods come among men. 13. "Doctor. 4. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. For example. 7. and its clause depends on the other. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. He dismisses without notice his thought. compare the sentences. 12. he sleeps as warm. but of the natural.²I find them true in Concord. and associates as happily. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. It may be safely trusted. the Sphinx was slain.. so it be faithfully imparted. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. in 3. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. or in the forest. as beside his own chimneys. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. in 2. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. so means provided. 3. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. because. At sea. and very seldom?" 8. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old." said his wife to Martin Luther.

26. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. Goodness must have some edge to it. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties.²else it is none.. therefore. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 27. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. enthroned. you must be. save it were sinful like herself. 22. 29. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. PREPOSITIONS. 28. 21. 18. 25. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 23. There was no iron to be seen. For. in many a heart. 16. 20. 30. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. that both were wayward. whose names I omit. Still. when it was presented to them. 15. Now you have the whip in your hand. in this they agree. 24. I rejoice to stand here no longer. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. And whether consciously or not.14. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. however. I speak. . 19. the whole conditions are changed. It is clear. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. of good novels only. 305. won't you lay on? 17. she might have the family countenance. It may be so in the majority of cases. seeing that it behooves me to hasten.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

as. ²PARTON.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. by the blessed memory of the departed. at once. By. 321. he stopped. Exercise. etc. the first port made by the ship. at peace. TAYLOR The angel came by night. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. H.. at work.²EVERETT.²ALDRICH.²M. at play. at least.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. 320. etc. Exercise. at random. She saw the boat headed for her. CONWAY. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at the best. At St. at all. by means near or close to.²COOPER. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at the worst. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at rest. (2) Time. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²B. At that time [the earth] was richer.²ID. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. .(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. by the wrecks of time. By my faith. at length. Like at.²WARNER. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at most. at first.²R.²DE QUINCEY. at any rate. at naught. STODDARD.²SWIFT. (3) Agency or means. Helena. D. Richard was standing by the window. expressing the degree of difference. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at war. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. by many a million of acres. (4) Measure of excess. by the ruins of nations. at one. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.² (1) The general meaning of place. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. For.

that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. reason.. "For a fool.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. as being. etc.²LAMB. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²HOLMES. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. etc.²E. For him. considering that etc. There are gains for all our losses. BANCROFT.² RUSKIN. He and they were for immediate attack.²H. a person or thing. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. (3) Duration of time. or in spite of. L.²HOOD. for all slips of hers." said the Lady of Lochleven.²EMERSON. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. in behalf of. he repented of his folly. An Arab woman.²ID. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. had a forest of poor relations. (6) Like as. E.²W. they are now for us." answered Master Brackett. H.²STODDARD. for famine. "thou hast counseled wisely. for the benefit of. GARRISON. But the Colonel. respecting. meaning in the character of."²SCOTT By my faith. etc.²PARKMAN.. ate her child.²IRVING. or extent of space. poor fellow. (7) Concession. as to. (4) Substitution or exchange.²PARKMAN. . and leaped for joy. Still. (9) Motive. The twilight being. if your worship can accomplish that. the Colonna motto would fit you best. (5) Reference. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.(2) In favor of. incitement to action.One of Eve's family. meaning with regard to. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. "Nay. meaning although. cause. For the rest.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. for all his title. but a few sunsets since.

ceased to be merciful. H. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²ID. It was from no fault of Nolan's. A distrustful. (2) Origin.²MILTON. .²HUME. from a desire of seeming valiant. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. nay. Exercise. Of. From. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. 322. Exercise. like from. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. Like boys escaped from school.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²DRYDEN. From harmony. (4) Motive. The From Relation. The young cavaliers.²HIGGINSON. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²BANCROFT.²HALE. more. (1) Origin or source. or reason. (3) Time. if not a desperate man.²H.²HUXLEY. The general idea in from is separation or source. cause. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. 323. The original meaning of of was separation or source. The king holds his authority of the people.

ask.²LEW WALLACE. Of the Forty. ²GAVARRE.²ID. Sandals. reason. bare of. etc.²BAYARD TAYLOR. clear. relieve. especially out of. or breastpin of native gold. (b) After some adjectives. demand.²PARKMAN. "I am glad of that. of his own knowledge. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. free of.. beg. Other Relations expressed by Of. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. (3) With expressions of material. ²PARTON. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²DICKENS II.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. free. HALE. cure. disarm. weeds. rid. expressing a part of a number or quantity. motive. etc.²BOSWELL. Back of that tree. The hills were bare of trees.²SCOTT Who formed. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. etc. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. divest. A singular want of all human relation. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place.²ALDRICH.²HIGGINSON. More than one altar was richer of his vows. etc. He is away of his own free will. (5) Expressing agency. White shirt with diamond studs. etc. that Cromwell once ruled England."²E. purge.²BANCROFT. there were only twenty-one members present. as north of. deprive. E.²clear of. (6) Partitive. Asked no odds of. wide of. acquitted them of. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. deprivation. such as ease. (d) With words expressing distance. out of the most unpromising materials.² HUXLEY. and grass. bound with thongs of boar's hide. You cannot make a boy know. south of. . rob.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.

²BANCROFT. (c) Two nouns. The nation of Lilliput. could give shelter from his contumely. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. . which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. etc. and the dignity of a queen. for the possessive. equal to about.. (10) Of reference.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²ALDRICH.²HALLECK. The fair city of Mexico. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²FROUDE. Such a book as that of Job. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²W. Not even woman's love. CHANNING. concerning. standing. Idiomatic use with verbs. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. being equivalent to an infinitive. of late. (b) Noun and gerund. 309. with its object. with regard to. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. (8) Appositional. (7) Possessive.²BANCROFT.²SWIFT.²LOWELL.²BANCROFT. E.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²PRESCOTT.²LAMB. Besides the phrases of old. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. when the first is descriptive of the second. See also Sec. (9) Of time.²ID.He washed out some of the dirt. of is used in the sense of during. ²IRVING.²COOPER. of a sudden. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.

Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. accept. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. on view. Exercise. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. on high. on a sudden.²PARKMAN. (2) Time. disapprove. concerning. on the alert. To.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. avail (one's self).²MRS. allow. On.²PARKMAN. On my life.²ALDRICH. repent. The general meaning of on is position or direction. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. Exercise. Upon is seldom used to express time. ²BANCROFT. (4) In adjurations. 325. 324. without adding to their meaning. complain. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. consist. on board. Upon.²EMERSON.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. etc. and not a day more. approve. . on the wing. (3) Reference. on trial. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. etc. SIGOURNEY. such as admit. permit.²Find sentences with six uses of of. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²BRYANT. (b) With motion.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. equal to about. and others. It also accompanies the verbs tire.²DE QUINCEY. you are eighteen. Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon my reputation and credit. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.²PARKMAN.

gay Comedy appears. to him.²BRYANT.Come to the bridal chamber.. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. 268). Exercise.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. In Old English. We cook the dish to our own appetite. mid meant in company with. Nor. He usually gave his draft to an aid. With. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. to my taste. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Revolutions. His brother had died. (b) Referring to time.²PARKMAN. But when.²IRVING. whose influence is felt to this hour. had ceased to be. does the mere music.²LANG. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.²PARTON.²BULWER. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison..²B. Death!²HALLECK. To the few. 326. interest.to be written over.. it may be genuine poetry.²HALE. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²often to the loss of vigor. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. unmasked. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. (2) Expressing result.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²GOLDSMITH.²BENTON To our great delight. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec..²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. . Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. (5) Equivalent to according to.

²SCOTT. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. E. or with the haunch of our near leader.²HOWELLS. With all his sensibility.²HOWELLS. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. She seemed pleased with the accident. transmitted from the beginning. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. as with you. He expired with these words. felt it unsafe to trifle further. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. to find the object of the preposition.²HALE.²ALDRICH. (2) Instrumentality. with all his boldness. (4) Estimation. Either with the swingle-bar. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. It seemed a supreme moment with him. "poetry is not a pursuit.²COOPER. . it is necessary. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. (3) Cause. in spite of.²DE QUINCEY.²E. 327. but with you. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.The advance. with Heyward at its head.²WALLACE (7) Time. HALE. he gave millions to the sword. Messala. but a pleasure"?²LANG. motive.²LANG. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. I think. He was wild with delight about Texas. (5) Opposition. reason. Exercise. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. opinion. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. first of all.²CHANNING.²COLERIDGE. had already reached the defile.²Find sentences with four uses of with.

I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. (2) on which. he followed us one day into those gardens. and knocked me down flat on my face. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. To our general surprise. 4. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I looked towards my windows. beginning. which. came tumbling about my ears. I heard a noise just over my head. (3) without a country.²ID. hence we say.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. but all to no purpose. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. the malicious rogue. but I received no other hurt. (4) from the beginning. of without. 2. In (3). the phrase answers the question where. Exercises. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. . I speak these things from a love of justice. The object of on board is ships. shook it directly over my head. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I remember. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. we met the defaulter here. I felt my box raised very high in the air. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. or was. because I had given the provocation. In (1). without a country modifies man. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. country. like the clapping of wings. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. of from. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. Be that as it will. before the dwarf left the queen. I called out several times. And so on.²SWIFT 2. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. In (2). telling what man. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. by which a dozen apples. Whereupon. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. 3. 5. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. of on. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The guns were cleared of their lumber.

His breeches were of black silk. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. The savage army was in war-paint. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. With all his learning. when. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 18. 10. 12. he favored the world with his opinions. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Carteret was far from being a pedant. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. in town. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. after a restful morning. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 24. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. in this respect. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 17. 22. 15. On all subjects known to man. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 26. 29. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 11. 25. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 16. For my part. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 7. 21. 19.Without stop or stay. 23. I like to see the passing. grasping at the child. 27. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 8. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 20. . to one dark and gloomy.6. 9.He spurred his courser on. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 14. 13. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The mother sank and fell. plumed for battle.

(b) Of result. That is what I understand by scientific education.That makes the heavens be mute.²WEBSTER. 328. that you might behold this joyous day.²WEBSTER. (c) Substantive conjunction. (3) As a relative pronoun.²HUXLEY. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (1) Relative pronoun. We wish that labor may look up here. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²BEECHER. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. and not according to form. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. . (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. A few are discussed below. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. 330. WHAT. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. not merely by the amount of the tax. (a) Indefinite relative.²COLERIDGE. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. 329. (4) As an adverb of degree. And now it is like an angel's song. THAT. That was a dreadful mistake. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That night was a memorable one.² JOHNSON.²WEBSTER. He will raise the price.²STOCKTON.30.

Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. (b) Indirect question.but.. to see what might be hidden. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. silent still... 331. it rests on reality.Which be they what they may.these sounds are only to be heard. and silent all!²BYRON. he knows what good people are to be found there.²WORDSWORTH. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. . nearly equivalent to partly.²EMERSON.S. (b) Indirect question.. What with the Maltese goats. (7) Adverb of degree. Cox. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. partly.²S. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.Those shadowy recollections. or not only. (9) As an exclamation. after not only.. (8) Conjunction. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. "I'll tell you what. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning." (4) Relative adjective.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.. but the result of calculation. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (b) Copulative.in Pera. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²THACKERAY..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.. To say what good of fashion we can. What. If he has [been in America].²WEBSTER.²ID. BUT.²EMERSON. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative..it is impossible to determine.²ID. What.

or who . as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. after such. not.²HAWTHORNE. (5) Adverb. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.. ²CARLYLE. after a negative. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. (b) Of manner.. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. AS.²SHELLEY.. on all sides.²SCOTT. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²EMERSON. towards order.²IRVING.²CARLYLE. at all moments. but piercing cries.²MRS BROWNING. (c) Of degree. meaning except. not.He yearned to our patriot bands.²IRVING. (b) Substantive. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.. 332.. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. meaning only. To lead but one measure. stands for that . (3) Preposition. sometimes same. I shall see but little of it. than. (4) Relative pronoun. (e) Introducing an appositive word. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. (2) Relative pronoun. like the dog.²IRVING.. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. equivalent to that .. . Who knows but. meaning otherwise . And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²LAMB. (d) Of reason..Then arose not only tears. Doing duty as a guard.²FRANKLIN. not.

and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. indeed.² A timid. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. 333. There is no statue like this living man. like drops out. like a cook beating eggs.²DARWIN. No Emperor. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. In this second use. They look.²SHAKESPEARE.²LAMB. and as or as if takes its place. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²LONGFELLOW.²HIGGINSON.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.² HAWTHORNE. Stirring it vigorously.²ALDRICH. NOTE. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. Give Ruskin space enough.²HALLECK. Introduces a clause. but this is not considered good usage: for example. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²EMERSON. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. If the verb is expressed. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.LIKE.²ALDRICH. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. but its verb is omitted. (1) An adjective. and was clearly an adjective. nervous child. ²PARKMAN. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. like summer ocean's. Through which they put their heads.²EMERSON. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. That face. staring like a bewildered man. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. I do with my friends as I do with my books. In each case. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.-SCOTT. this. . like Martin was. and is followed by a dative-objective. like him awhile ago. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.²HAWTHORNE. Note the difference between these two uses. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²CASS. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²MAYHEW. This follows a verb or a verbal.

but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Some of these are imitative sounds. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun].²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. entering into the structure of a sentence. Not all exclamatory words are interjections." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences." PART II. in separating them into their component parts. Value of analysis. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. What analysis is. pronoun. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. etc." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. that is. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. etc. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. that is.²in determining case. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. subject and predicate. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Definition. tut! buzz! etc. 335. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed.. 334. . ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. Definition.INTERJECTIONS.: for example. but it still retains its identity as noun. clauses introduced by conjunctions. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. 336. as. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. verb.

you must not die!" interrogative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. hence. but according to how many statements there are. 339. question. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. 337. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. Definition: Predicate. but by no means vulgar. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. not according to the form in which a thought is put.Kinds of sentences as to form. This is the most common one. declarative. But now all is to be changed. which expresses command. "Hath he not always treasures. always friends?" imperative. SIMPLE SENTENCES." "What wouldst thou do. 2. A rare old plant is the ivy green. according to form. Definition. which puts the thought in a question. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. but the sentence would still be declarative. or imperative. . 338. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. (2) Interrogative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. (3) Imperative. "Old year. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. old man?" "Be thou familiar. entreaty. or command: for example.²a subject and a predicate. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. "Come to the bridal chamber. Every sentence must contain two parts." 340. interrogative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. or request. Division according to number of statements. Examples of these three kinds are.

²What is to be changed? Answer. all.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. But if we try this with the second sentence." Exercise. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. . 5. In analyzing such sentences. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. to suit all cases:² Subject. "[You] behold her single in the field. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Thus. but about the ivy green. 7. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. adjective. thou. always reduce them to the order of a statement. we have some trouble. Slavery they can have anywhere. or adverb that asks about the subject. The last of all the Bards was he. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Consequently. the subject (you. and the real subject is the latter. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 4. 6. especially in poetry. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. In the interrogative sentence. and is to be supplied. a rare old plant. on the other hand. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. as. to an ignorant man. not of a rare old plant. or an interrogative pronoun. 8. 3. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence.²What is the ivy green? Answer. the subject is frequently after the verb. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 2. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 341. and our definition must be the following.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Listen. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. or ye) is in most cases omitted.

and by object we mean the direct object. but chief belongs to the verb. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. but of call chief. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. (4) The complements. (3) The object. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. 343. (6) Independent elements. and me here is not the object simply of call. and means summoned. (2) The predicate. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. . in addition to the object. (5) Modifiers.10. The subject and predicate have been discussed. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject.²transitive and intransitive. Indirect object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Of a transitive verb. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. but it is a true complement. 342. "Ye call me chief. "Ye honor me. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object." Complement: 344. just as if to say. or second object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. The transitive verb often requires." indirect. for example." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). Direct Object. direct. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed.

An intransitive verb. Thom of the Gills. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. 364. and barring the door." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. I mentioned a case of that nature." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. or. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. as. "Brow and head were round. but used as a single modifier. in the popular judgment. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. feel." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. seem. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. not containing a verb. A phrase is a group of words." (2) PARTICIPIAL." "The good man." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" ." All these complete intransitive verbs.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. above sixty. he was now getting old. "A cheery. in the original Opium Confessions." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter.." "He was termed Thomas. As to form. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. See sentence 19. introduced by a preposition: for example. and. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." 345. and of massive weight. etc. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. taste. more familiarly. 352. 346. for instance. appear." Things used as Subject. sir!' rang out in response. as in drowning. in exercise following Sec. 351. 'Ay. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. ay." (3) INFINITIVE. 347. especially the forms of be. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. Phrases. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. 355. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." Also an expression used as a noun. Complement of an intransitive verb. as in the sentence. to the completion of this man of the world. become.

341. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. my deficiency. (2) In interrogative sentences. etc.²the infinitive phrase." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. and ever will be. (4) After "there introductory. but they will be given in detail here." etc. "Therein has been. prowling eyes. was heard one syllable to justify. from their lips.²the talent of starting the game. for which see Sec.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." Things used as Direct Object. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. or their religion from their sect." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. ." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. but the real or logical subject is to print. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." The for did not belong there originally. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." 348." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. I saw the quick and the dead." "The dead are there. or the thundering of organs. "'By God." Things used as Complement." "Never. but obscures the real subject. and by Saint George!' said the King. Disguised infinitive subject." In this sentence. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). 349." "There are asking eyes. asserting eyes.

are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. Modifiers of Subject. and whenever the complement is a noun. Object. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. or Complement." In this last sentence. (3) Infinitive." ." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." "I hear the echoes throng.²completing the predicate.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. the shepherd girl. doubtless.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." "Their tempers. at the same time. complements of the predicate. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." Modifiers." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly.²heads or tails. the object is made the subject by being passive. or the equivalent of the noun. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. Of a transitive verb. Like all the complements in this list." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous.350." "Serving others is serving us. As complement of an intransitive verb." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. As complement of a transitive verb. I. they are adjuncts of the object." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." (4) Participle. 351." "She asked her father's permission." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. and the words italicized are still complements. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. and explaining or modifying the subject. and.

352." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. no sociable angel. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. not with nature. object. was now called upon for his defense. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. the verb being omitted." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. or ." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. II." "Him. and modify the predicate in the same way. given at the request of a Dutch lady. but with other men. but noble teachers. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. the prisoner at the bar." "In the twinkling of an eye." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. 351. Tells how. and leading him from star to star. 357-363." (For participial and infinitive phrases. or complement is modified." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. see further Secs. but it is really a contracted clause." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. I have seasoned for thee.²In each sentence in Sec. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. was the scene from King John. Since the predicate is always a verb. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. unforgiving. tell whether the subject." In such a sentence as." "Give them not only noble teachings." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. Retained with passive." Exercise." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon.²proud.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. austere. "He died like a God. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. Modifiers of the Predicate. this young idolater.

This. Why does the horizon hold me fast. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. 3. negative. 3." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. Fashion does not often caress the great. and (direct) object:² 1.When the verb is changed from active to passive. no humor. On the voyage to Egypt. But anger drives a man to say anything. Evil. 2. 6. according to old philosophers. etc.. 8. in regard to particulars. 7. or how long. to the animal strength and spirits. . They do not wish to be lovely. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. in this center? 4. and. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. how far. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. a sort of personality to the whole writing. with my joy and grief. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain." "One way lies hope. and the direct object is retained: for example. 2. but to be loved. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious." (6) Adverbial objective. 5. predicate. To the men of this world. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition." "All such knowledge should be given her." Exercises. His books have no melody. (b) Pick out the subject." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. no relief to the dead prosaic level. after dinner. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. the indirect object is retained. is good in the making. predicate. but the children of the great. 6. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. 5. and other measures of precaution." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. he liked. (a) Pick out subject. 7. I took. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. and as many to oppose it. 4. no emotion. gives wonderful animation. These answer the question when.

the attorney. six children sat by a peat fire. 4. then. Not compound sentences. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 2. A river formed the boundary. I felt myself. To suffer and to do. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. this nun so martial. 2. downwards. 3. Not the less I owe thee justice.²the river Meuse. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 3. a room seventeen feet by twelve. for the first time. 2. the present Archbishop of Dublin. etc. 4. 3. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. viz. 5. y y y y Compound Subject. this dragoon so lovely. I gave him an address to my friend. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. In one feature. That night. 6. expecting the return of their parents. to the right and to the left. upwards. happy dinner.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. . Paint me. and a member of the world. at length the warrior lady. the blooming cornet. in little peaceful Easedale. must visit again the home of her childhood. at the chief hotel. Their intention was to have a gay. that was thy portion in life. 5. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 4. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. this imperial rider. then. burthened with the anxieties of a man. Compound Predicate.. after their long confinement to a ship. Unhorse me. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth.y 8. Yes.

" "Voyages and travels I would also have. "The company broke up. Examples of compound subjects are." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. together with all its modifiers. and. Bishop. etc. then the grammatical subject and predicate. same as (1). Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. exposes. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. may be the person or thing addressed. etc. etc." "Ye crags and peaks. "Ah. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. 354. complements. Of this. my brave young man!" . ulcer. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. The exclamatory expression." "The name of the child." "He shook his head. turned his steps homeward." And so with complements. in the sentence. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. Larger view of a sentence. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. several modifiers. forming a sentence: "Oh. but it is to be noticed that. hurry. the tone of her voice. two or more subjects of the same predicate.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. the verb). lurking far down in the depths of human nature. 355. the object." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. together with its modifiers.. Independent Elements of the Sentence. they are not a necessary part." Sentences with compound predicates are. modifiers. above: thus. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. hurry. in all such sentences as we quote below. that is. and its object or complement. the predicate. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. I'm with you once again. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. the air of the mother. and the rest is the logical predicate. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. the simple subject is situation. however. shouldered the rusty firelock. For example.353.

object." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. . truly. the company broke up. to the best of my remembrance. etc. 4). y (2) The adverbial use. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. really. now. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. yes! everybody knew them. 3. and so on." (2) Adverbial. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. therefore." "Truth to say. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. undoubtedly." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife..." (5) Participial phrase: "But. see Sec. such as however." "At all events. In their use. besides. instances of which were seen in Sec." (6) Single words: as." Another caution. The words well. and some conjunctions. or word used as a noun: for example. or complement (see Sec.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. let him perish. etc." "Why. how you're winking!" "Now. he somehow lived along. he was a conscientious man. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. There are some adverbs. generally speaking." "No." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. that have an office in the sentence. he closed his literary toils at dinner. 6). see Sec. already noticed. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. 350. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. modifying a noun. (1) Adjectival. nevertheless. These need close watching. then. 4)." (3) Independent. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. 357. six quill-driving gentlemen. (b) As a modifier of subject. 355. 351. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. modifying the predicate." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion." "Well. pronoun. this story runs thus. grandma. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. 356. why. her noticing even this is creditable. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. moreover. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. prepositional phrases may be. such as perhaps. "Oh. 352.

" (b) With the forms of be." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. Wilt thou. thus. etc. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. containing no matters of business. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. was speedily run through. and hence is adverbial. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.should. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES.]. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. but require somewhat closer attention. "The letter of introduction.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." "There. being equivalent to a future with obligation.: as in the sentences.can (could). Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar." (c) With the definite forms of go." In this sentence. modifying was speedily run through. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. (5). but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. etc." etc. and teach her how to be happy and good. "Because I was." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. my dear. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. y (a) With may (might).would. he should not have known them at all. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. 358. The verbal use. and they will be presented here in full. I. This case excepted. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . 355. therefore." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.seem. ought. See Sec. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. but having no other office than a verbal one. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. necessity. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. or as nearly so as the student will require. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.

"Do they not cause the heart to beat." "To say what good of fashion we can. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions.: for example. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. 362. II. etc. 361 are used adverbially. 5). it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. (4) In apposition. III. and the eyes to fill?" 359. The adverbial use. "But there was no time to be lost.²both purpose clauses." 360." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. hang the idiot. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. ." "He insisted on his right to forget her. above.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). already examined." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. Don Guzman. IV. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. complement. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. notice the following:² In (1)." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again." "To teach is to learn. 351. modifying a noun that may be a subject." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. The adjectival use. etc. The substantive use. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "Are you mad. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). 361. the Scotch fighting all the battles. To test this.. result. to look means that he might look. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. object. to please is equivalent to that he may please. to hear McOrator after dinner.

Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1.²both expressing condition. etc. object. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. must be in a life. In (4). 364. 3. 351). which is of two kinds. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. equivalent to that you betray. 363. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. If it is an incomplete verb. to part means because I part. 351). etc. and to say is equivalent to if we say. etc. (3).) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. 2. In (5).In (2). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 349). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. In (3). I will try to keep the balance true." (See also Sec. 268. (5) The subject (Sec. In analyzing simple sentences. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 4. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. The independent use. Our life is March weather. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 355. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity..² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. to hear means if you should hear. 352)." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 351). not in a book. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 347). (7) Independent elements (Sec. V. savage and serene in one hour.. 355). as in Sec. to find shows the result of the return. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. give² (1) The predicate. give the complement (Secs. .

to restore civil and religious order. is to have no political system at all. 19. The water. nor troops. To be hurried away by every event. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 6. 13. and spared nothing. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 23. 11. Her aims were simple and obvious. with eager energy. Through the years and the centuries. and to the purpose. We are always in peril. 7. 16. 15. 21. 22. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. through evil agents. 18. through toys and atoms. good and amiable otherwise. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. You may ramble a whole day together.Burnt green and blue and white. 9. The word conscience has become almost confined. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. and every moment discover something new. nor money. 17.The old crow of Cairo.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. nor generals. His opinion is always original. like a witch's oils. an accomplished scholar. . 10. 12. 20. 8.He sat in the shower. The whole figure and air. a skilled musician. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. nor himself. might be called flabby and irresolute. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. and only to be saved by invention and courage.²to preserve her throne. just on the edge of destruction. He risked everything. to keep England out of war. the carrion crow. 5. 24.4. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. two stricken hours. a graceful dancer. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. to the moral sphere. a good shot. I have heard Coleridge talk. always in a bad plight. 14. in popular use. neither ammunition. To these gifts of nature. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. Old Adam.

in less heroic and poetic form. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. 26. Few in number. or perhaps one virtue. But yield. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. The villain. In the Acadian land. haply. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. the present capital of New England. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. baggage far in the rear. still. She had made a two days' march. 34. in this world. the prime minister of Spain. This amiable relative. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Upon this shore stood.25. 39. and no provisions but wild berries. 38. Of the same grandeur. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Fair name might he have handed down. 31.Distant. secluded. 30. to be a reproach to such goodness. 37. time-honored. and the why. and the wherefore? .Effacing many a stain of former crime. an elderly man. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 35. ready to receive her. proud foe. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. 41. I dare this. the ship was in an uproar. upon my own ground. 36. Oxford. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 27. Now. and in my own garden. in front of all this mighty crowd. and. 33. it would not have been filial or ladylike. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 32. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. to bid you leave the place now and forever. Supposing this computation to be correct. The cry. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. Must we in all things look for the how. I hate him and myself. the same Condé Olivarez. had but one foible. 40. 29.

as would be the connective instead of like.² "She is like some tender tree. are really contracted clauses. Words left out after than or as. which is the unit of speech. COMPLEX SENTENCES." This must. 366." Sentences with like. made merely for convenience and smoothness." To show that these words are really omitted. . compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. though often treated as phrases. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. if they were expanded." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. but." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. The simple sentence the basis. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. thus. as.From her own loved island of sorrow. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. however. 365. 367. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. 333). the expressions of manner introduced by like. (Sec. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. As shown in Part I. the pride and beauty of the grove.

370. A principal. etc. each clause has its subject." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. complements. is taken in. then we recognize this as the main statement. logically depends on suffering..²the dependent or subordinate clauses. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. modifiers. and the last. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. complement. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). 369. Independent clause. we are aware. 368. predicate. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. object.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.²the backbone. which are so united that one member is the main one. how great . the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. or it may be applied to the others. object.²the other members subordinate to it. that is. containing a verb with its subject.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. as in this sentence. CLAUSES. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. or dependent on it.. suffering. Hence the following definition:² Definition. and modifier. main.. murmur. and the next one. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. that . But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. Definition. A clause is a division of a sentence. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. . 371. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.

etc." 374. (a) Ordinary apposition. for a hundred years. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. But since they are complex in form. 5). "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. . adjectives. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. night or day. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. and it is . Noun Clauses..² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. verbal. for example. thus. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. for a time." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. 373. over which the torrent came tumbling. attention is called to them here. ADJECTIVE. impertinences²would be grammatical." (2) Object of a verb. with a noun clause in apposition with it. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." Just as the object noun. but logically the sentence is. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. 'I know that he can toil terribly... so the object clause is retained. (b) that are . 372. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.." (4) Apposition. pronoun. put an end to my fancies. 352.Dependent clause. impertinences. clauses are divided into NOUN. or adverbs. for example." "I was told that the house had not been shut." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. As to their office in the sentence.. and ADVERB clauses." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. We ourselves are getting ... infinitive. and the whole clause is not.' is an electric touch." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. Kinds." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause.

8. whereby." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. But the fact is. but. whither. 2. and not on the sentiment. 4. that. no man will ever know. wherein. how it changed from shape to shape. whence. that all safe legislation must be based. 10. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. of a nation. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Such a man is what we call an original man. he could know nothing. The reply of Socrates. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. whether he should choose one or not. Examples of adjective clauses. 7. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. or equivalent of a noun. that he was a scheming impostor. . The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. 375. Except by what he could see for himself. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. etc. he would repent it. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. What history it had. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. a falsehood incarnate. as.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. a relative pronoun being understood. sometimes by the conjunctions when. 6. I was napping. Adjective Clauses.² "It is on the understanding. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. still remains reasonable. in the sentence. As the office of an adjective is to modify. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. Other examples of this construction are. where. Frequently there is no connecting word. 9." Exercise. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 3. that. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. which. 5.

I walked home with Calhoun. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. all is vacancy. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 3. etc. 8. Adverbial Clauses. object.. i. or that essence we were looking for. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 6." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. 11. 10. whether subject. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. and tell what each one modifies. 7. 5. which formed the center of the mansion." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. the champions advanced through the lists. 9. No man is reason or illumination. 4. which Rowena tasted." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. ." Exercise. he begins to help us more as an effect. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. Pick out the adjective clauses. which could not be a prison whilst he was there.e. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 2. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 1.376.

that we should try. and adverbial conjunctions. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. Exercise. but they require careful study. since he was too great to care to be original.² whoever. Joanna is better. is wider.. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. adverbs. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." (5) DEGREE. 378. an adjective. tell what kind each is. introduced by indefinite relatives." "Who cares for that. however. shaping our actions. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. and will be given in detail. he goes away as if nothing had happened. with examples. the milestones are grave-stones. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. or an adverb. etc." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. a verbal. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. etc." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." These mean no matter how good. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." (9) CONCESSION. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. whatever." "The broader their education is. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly.377. etc." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "The right conclusion is." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." (3) REASON. to make up our shortcomings. however good she may be as a witness.: "But still." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "He went several times to England. no matter what remains." "When he was come up to Christian. it takes precedence of everything else. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. the wider is the horizon of their thought." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." "After leaving the whole party under the table. so far as we can." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." (7) RESULT. and what it modifies:² . expressing the degree in which the horizon.

'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. when the wind was unruly. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. in the sentence. 3. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. etc. we are a little disappointed. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. 380. predicate. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. they might perhaps say of their visitors. 379. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. incoherent exclamations. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. and modifiers. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . so that the living were frightened out of their beds. on a dark wintry night.1. object. its object is that Odin was a reality. so as to picture the parts and their relations. howling and whistling. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. banging about doors and windows. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. 'Well. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. snatching up stones to fling at them. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. as they sometimes did. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. of which clause Odin is the subject. find the principal subject and principal predicate. then treat noun clauses as nouns. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves." 2. and twirling weathercocks. If the children gathered about her. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. to tell the truth. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. with shrill. For example. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas.

Exercises. (1) Find the principal clause. 2. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. d. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 364.. 380). True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 3. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. . \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and ..

if applied to the Bible. namely. 11. dying for them. or whether any. 6. as for armies that were too many by half. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Now. M. The night proved unusually dark. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 5. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. for yours. of a light hazel. 13. 7. counselor that had none for herself. that. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. which. the mixed result. 15. 22. who would yield to it least. Next came a wretched Dominican. that pressed her with an objection. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. He was what our country people call an old one. This is she. bishop. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 16. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 8. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. had we been worse. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 10. Had they been better chemists. 14. whom I choose. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. But now that she has become an establishment. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 9. 24.4. 12. 19. 23. The deep eyes. Here lay two great roads. 21. I like that representation they have of the tree. could not have been effected. not so much for travelers that were few. the shepherd girl. . 17. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. And those will often pity that weakness most. 18. 20. the flower should revive for us.

. that it was no more than his daily walk. That which we do not believe. COMPOUND SENTENCES. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 3. if continuously extended. 5. 382. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. and stamped with his right number. if there be one to whom I am not equal. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. speed. It makes no difference how many friends I have. "was ever written down by any but itself. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. (b) First analyze. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 30. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. and what content I can find in conversing with each. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. 6. then map out as in Sec." 4. "No book. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. and not from his heart. would easily reach.² Definition. the following complex sentences:² 1. and temper. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. is to speak and write sincerely. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. These things we are forced to say. 383. 28. though we may repeat the words never so often. but above it. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. we cannot adequately say. Hence the definition. questions.25. 7. or commands. 27.²which will not be disposed of." said Bentley. 2. How formed. 380. 26.

from the second. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. a simple member." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. or but. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. the planet has a faint. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. Some of these are now conjunctions. Thus in (1). others sometimes coördinate. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). nor. and not the form of the connective. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. . and it shall be the universal sense. etc. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. Speak your latent conviction. now adverbs or prepositions. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. 386. a complex member. and which complex:² 1. Study the thought. etc. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. in (2). and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. he is twice a man. "Only the star dazzles." 384. The division into members will be easier. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. 385. the waving grass. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. as in Sec.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. nor does he know until he has tried. whereas. however. the semicolon separates the first. Another example is. 383 (1). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. which are simple statements. moon-like ray" (adversative). From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. The coördinate conjunctions and. yet. in (3).. he walks with arms akimbo. Of the following illustrative sentences. he dilates. Connectives. as but. Exercise. and connects the first and second complex members. tell which are compound. and nor the second and third complex members. for. he soliloquizes. if there are any. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. 297)." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. while (whilst). The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives.

and thou shalt be loved. Whilst the world is thus dual. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. and for everything you gain. 2. however. you have gained something else. 4. so is every one of its parts. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. The gain is apparent. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 8. you lose something. 13. 7. Love. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 6. and not by what each is. from a happy yet often pensive child. Exercise. 10. unobtrusive boy. I can still receive. However some may think him wanting in zeal. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. quiet. 381. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. is particular. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 3. All loss. or. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 12. 9. passed in that time. for example. I can yet love. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. For everything you have missed. 5. he grew up to be a mild. 11. that it was Easter Sunday. yield to them heart and life. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 4. . and sun-browned with labor in the fields. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. all pain. (i) Separate it into its main members. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. the tax is certain. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 14. In this manner. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. nay. 387. 3. Man does not stand in awe of man. and as yet very early in the morning. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 364. A man cannot speak but he judges himself.2. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. to find a pot of buried gold.

" says the haymaker. 9. "as nigh the scythe as you can. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. They will shuffle and crow. or sail with God the seas. crook and hide." "keep the rake. and not a thought has enriched either party. feign to confess here. one is afraid. Trust men. or we pursue persons. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 18. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and the other dares not. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. because. 17. whilst frankness invites frankness. and you are without effort impelled to truth. or men will never know and honor him aright. and he learns who receives. 11. as children. if you rip up his claims. 15. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. 20." says the smith. .5. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 16. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 21. Whatever he knows and thinks. and they will be true to you. 14. and each shows only what lies at its focus. give those merits room. or hope. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and the cart as nigh the rake. We see the noble afar off." 13. 7. 6. Stand aside. Come into port greatly. "Strike. He teaches who gives. "the iron is white. only that they may brag and conquer there. and makes their business a friendship. abide by it. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. why should we intrude? 10. let them mount and expand. When you have chosen your part. and not an emotion of bravery. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. or we read books. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. and they repel us. is as thin and timid as any. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. treat them greatly. We go to Europe. modesty. 19. and they will show themselves great. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. 8. that let him communicate. and the peace of society is often kept.

verb and subject. PART III. so readily and lavishly they promise. adjective and noun. Following the Latin method. By way of introduction. Ground covered by syntax. Do not craze yourself with thinking. 388. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. 380. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. 25. and dodge the account. it never was known to fall into the rear. Essential point in English syntax. So does culture with us. SYNTAX. We see young men who owe us a new world.²agreement and government.22. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. INTRODUCTORY. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. 390. but they never acquit the debt. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. 24. 23. it ends in headache. they die young. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. the department of syntax will be a small affair. but go about your business anywhere. if they live. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . or. they lose themselves in the crowd. but its leading characteristic is. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. pronoun and antecedent.

Second. or the same writer will use both indifferently. and it would not matter which one stood first. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. sometimes verb and subject. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. When usage varies as to a given construction. This is not logical. Savage may be the subject. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. both forms will be given in the following pages. then. and whose judgment. and nothing but important points will be considered. The basis of syntax. "None remained but he. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. As an illustration of the last remark. distinct forms would be used. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. 392. Why study syntax? 391. pronoun and antecedent. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. In some cases. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion." is ambiguous. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. or settler may be the subject. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. There is.² First. Also in the sentence. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. etc. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. following the regular order of subject.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. In Latin. . and imitate it. For example. the sentence. also expressing a possessive relation. Some rules not rigid. therefore. take the sentence. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. or when they exist side by side in good usage. "The savage here the settler slew. authorities²that is." that is. the order being inverted. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. some of which conform to classical grammar. 393. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language)." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. but are not now. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. as to study inflected forms. and added to it the preposition of. good English." In this there is a possessive form. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar.

the shore of Galilee.² Live your king and country's best support. 408).²MILTON. 397. Joint possession. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. ²ID. the possessive sign is used with each noun. etc. Mill's and Mr.²MCCULLOCH.²THACKERAY. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. He kept Bolingbroke's. 394. or indicate joint ownership or possession. for example. but imply separate possession or ownership. Use of the possessive. Separate possession. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. and Harley's.²ROWE. as. sense and nature's easy fool. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. and Paul's.²BYRON. 395.²RUSKIN. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.²MACAULAY. Woman. and Peterborough's. and Peter's.² He lands us on a grassy stage. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. 396. ." Juletta tells. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Putting Mr. Bentham's principles together. the antechamber of the High Priest. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. and Pope's. PRONOUNS. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.NOUNS.²EMERSON.

whom is the complement after the verb am.²TROLLOPE.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. sanctioned. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. thus. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Still. 399." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is." 400. I.²BYRON.) "The young Harper. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. who. together with the relative who. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. But he must be a stronger than thee. if not universally. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Since most of the personal pronouns. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Bedott Papers.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²WHITCHER. General rules. Objective for the nominative. Some of the violations are universally condemned. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. others are generally.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.²POPE. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²SHAKESPEARE. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. and should be the nominative form. there are two general rules that require attention. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. as. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²SOUTHEY. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.²THACKERAY. This should be "as she. 398. No mightier than thyself or me. for example. . the real thought being forgotten.

²SCOTT. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. "Than whom."²KINGSLEY. In spoken English. One exception is to be noted. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²THACKERAY.² For there was little doubt that it was he. . "Who's there?"²"Me."²WINTHROP. are. A safe rule. Patrick the Porter. But still it is not she. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.² One I remember especially. The camp of Richard of England. namely. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²COLERIDGE. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. they are yet holier than we. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. the objective form is regularly found." There is no special reason for this. as. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. and the other forms of the verb be. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. on the other hand." 401."²WM. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. "If there is any one embarrassed. both in England and America. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²RUSKIN. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. The usage is too common to need further examples. unless a special. but such is the fact. is.²KINGSLEY.²PARTON. BLACK.²MACAULAY. it will not be me. for example.²FIELDING.²LONGFELLOW.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant.

the object of to). Me in exclamations. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it.²MILTON. 8. as. I speak not to" (he should be him. you or me. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. 10. it is me." the word being in apposition with murderer). . and prepositions. as. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. as this from Shakespeare." 6. verbals. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. 404. as. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. or preposition which governs it. verbal. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 2. or us). You know whom it is that you thus charge.Exercise. 9. It is not me you are in love with. or this. 4. 5. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. object of saw). 3. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. (3) By forgetting the construction. If there ever was a rogue in the world. "Ask the murderer. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. used after verbs. 11. Whom they were I really cannot specify. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. Nominative for the objective. 7. 403. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Truth is mightier than us all. but not he" (he should be him. now.

Thou. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. as.²GOLDSMITH. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. partial Nature.Shall be left upon the morn. 405. None. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.²KINGSLEY. save thou and thine. "Who did you see?" or. as. .²KINGSLEY. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. etc. I arraign. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²BYRON. for they say there are none such in the world. Nature. who interrogative.Exception 1.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Thy shores are empires. Who have we here?²ID. all but he. I've sworn. 406.²BYRON. We regularly say. Exercise. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. and is usually avoided. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. 2. as well as the objective. Let you and I look at these. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²STEELE. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. changed in all save thee. but he. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. for example. Exception 2. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²KINGSLEY. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who.² All were knocked down but us two.

He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. BROWN. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well.²SCOTT. B. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 8. 12." 4. 6.3. As antecedent of a relative. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.²MACAULAY. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²possessive.²RUSKIN. They are coming for a visit to she and I. This usage is not frequent.²C. They crowned him long ago. POSSESSIVE FORMS. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. and they know that as well as me. 9. Preceding a gerund. 11. Markland. 10. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²DE QUINCEY. with Jortin and Thirlby. or objective? .But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. Bartholomew. 7. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. who. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 5.²THACKERAY. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.Ye I salute. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 407. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. II. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.

The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning." That is. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. both are gerunds. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. Objective.²DE QUINCEY. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. sometimes it has the objective. Both types of sentences are found. The use of the objective is older." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.² THACKERAY. The last incident which I recollect. studying is a gerund. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. that the bitterness of death was past. and that in the second. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.²BREWER. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Possessive. etc. We heard of Brown.² CARLYLE.408. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and the meaning is.²MACAULAY. But in common use there is no such distinction. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. .²DICKENS.² SCOTT. object of heard of.²RUSKIN. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. and asked why it was not made. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. Why both are found. as he turned away from his wife.² IRVING. Here I state them only in brief.²CARLYLE. In the examples quoted. [who was] studying law. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.

and ought to agree with them in person. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²EMERSON III. Watch for the real antecedent. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. BROCKDEN BROWN.²THACKERAY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.² BRYANT. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. in one person. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²when the antecedent.²RUSKIN. if the antecedent is neuter. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²DE QUINCEY. Every city threw open its gates. 410.²HUXLEY. where there were examinations.²C.²CABLE. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. or is a distributive word.²DE QUINCEY. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. and gender. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. In such a case as the last three sentences. number. Everybody had his own life to think of. Examples of these constructions are.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²AUDUBON. it was his own fault.²THOREAU. the pronoun will be neuter singular. 409. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²DEFOE. taking in each of many persons. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²HOLMES. . PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. If any one did not know it. The pale realms of shade. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. preceded by a distributive.

Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²THACKERAY. Struggling for life. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²AUSTEN. till they have lost him. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Every one must judge of their own feelings. not a mowing idiot. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²PALGRAVE.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²BIBLE. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²SCOTT. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. .²HUXLEY. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²ID.²BYRON. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²ID. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. as anybody in their senses would have done.² Not the feeblest grandame.²FIELDING. and giving them means of being so. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²PALEY. let them break it off. By using the plural pronoun. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Whosoever hath any gold. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²RUSKIN.²EMERSON. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²PAULDING. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. If the part deserve any comment. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. This is not considered the best usage. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. 411. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²DEFOE. The sun. for example.

²In the above sentences. . A relative. when coördinating. What these terms mean.²ADDISON. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. who went away. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. unless both genders are implied. that being considered already clear. and does not add a new statement." This means. according to the practice of every modern writer. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. which. or what was become of her. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. In the following examples. 412. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. but. because. I. As to their conjunctive use. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. which. "I gave it to the beggar.Where she was gone. no one could take upon them to say. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. when restrictive.² SHERIDAN. It adds a new statement to what precedes." It defines beggar. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. 413. Exercise. as. or unrestrictive. etc. and that may be coördinating or restrictive.²ID. but. 2. 1. and that are restrictive or not. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. in each instance:² Who. The clause is restricted to the antecedent.²HAWTHORNE. the definite relatives who. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one].) and a personal pronoun. and that always restrictive. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. and he went away. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. That is in most cases restrictive." A relative. tell whether who. Exercise.

13. he. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. 11.²ID.² NEWMAN. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.3. 7.² IRVING. That. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. So different from the wild. Yet how many are there who up. it makes the verb third person singular.² CARLYLE. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. With narrow shoulders. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. Hare has printed.²DE QUINCEY. down.²THOREAU. . RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. 12. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. which was to go over the Cordilleras. 9. as that does not vary for person or number. these or that which. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. In what sense true. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. they. 8. who.²HOLMES." that is invariable as to person and number. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. and over England are saying. W. and it is called logic. 10. We say I. in the sentence. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. etc. etc. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.²H. that were often vicious. For example. she agreed to join the party. which Mr. because of its antecedent. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. However. 4.²ID. A grizzly-looking man appeared. you. etc. 14. but. 414. On hearing their plan. The general rule is. long arms and legs. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind..² MOTLEY. The rule. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. Which. 6. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. BEECHER 5.²DE QUINCEY. II.²ADDISON.

. Let us be of good cheer.. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. "one of the finest books that have been published.²ADDISON. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. who rarely speak at all. MORSE. or which . . struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. He is one of those that deserve very well. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²BOWLES. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. and write the verb in the plural. when he derided the shams of society. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. in winning a battle.²whether we should say. A disputed point.²HOWELLS. and in improving a victory.²LOWELL. ARNOLD. the true antecedent.²ADDISON. The latter is rather more frequent.. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. with one as the principal word.] Both constructions are frequently found.. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. French literature of the eighteenth century. Franklin. [plural] that who..²M.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. "one of the finest books that has been published. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. etc.²LECKY.²J. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²SCOTT. Singular.²HOLMES. but speaks of him as that sort. JR. The fiery youth .²MACAULAY. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions..²LOWELL." or. others regard books as the antecedent. but myself." One of . [singular or plural. 415.. T. etc. but the former has good authority.

Exercise.²CARLYLE. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²IRVING. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.² THACKERAY. I could see nothing except the sky. 417.² RUSKIN."²DICKENS. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. III." "India is the place [in which.²SWIFT.²VAUGHAN. and see if the sentence is made clearer. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.And. where. object of a preposition understood.²EMERSON.² . This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. and such like: as. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. when the relative word is a pronoun.²GOLDSMITH. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. that is. return. IV. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.In that same state I came. But I by backward steps would move. whence. 416. or where] he died.²In the above sentences.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²ADDISON. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. when this dust falls to the urn.²BURNS. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²ID. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. The same day I went aboard we set sail. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²DEFOE.A rare Roundabout performance. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.

he. Mr. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. Caution. They believe the same of all the works of art. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.² BURKE. boats. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner.² MACAULAY.² THACKERAY.²WORDSWORTH. as of knives. 418. but which is usually carefully avoided. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. Which.²FRANKLIN.²SCOTT. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²ADDISON. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. I might as well have staid at home. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. The regular construction. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. if I had resolved to go on with.He considered. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²SWIFT. she passed the lamp over her face and person. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. W.. but. and working in the same spirit. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.² Which. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. for example.²R. which. as is not used.me as his apprentice. looking-glasses. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. but we find the relative who. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. That. Anacoluthic use of which. CHURCH. V. was a discoverer. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. or that. with Turner.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. if same is followed by a complete clause. . ²GOLDSMITH. etc.

²GOLDSMITH. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. or omit the conjunction. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. 2.. And who. After this came Elizabeth herself.²SCOTT.²which if they once heard.²HAWTHORNE. (3) "Among the poorer sort..²SHAKESPEARE. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. etc. le Conte. That is. which when Mr. but. (1) "Among those who are poor. He delivered the letter. As the sentences stand. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. he said that all submission was now too late. With an albatross perched on his shoulder." etc. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. who are now thrown.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²THACKERAY. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. This was a gentleman. Express both relatives." etc. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. 1. 419. or.She'd come again. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. . now thrown upon their. Exercise.²RUSKIN. and which. but none is expressed. and who are now. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun." etc. etc.² Direction for rewriting.²DE QUINCEY. Exercise. Thornhill had read. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. 3. or leave out both connective and relative. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. once a great favorite of M. 4. (2) "Among the poorer sort. But who. and this be placed in the proper clause..

.²SCOTT. and which may even be heard a mile off.5. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 11. Exercise. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 10. Akin to the above is another fault. English by name. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. etc. 420. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. 7. "A mockery.²IRVING. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian.²SCOTT. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . then. 6. I saw upon the left a scene far different. "What knight so craven. Dr.. Or who. one of signal interest. .²PEARSON. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. the French. and repeat this for any further reference. who. That . And which. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. I shall have complete copies. 12. 1. 9. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity.. which the Scotch had learned. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and which. and to whom no door is closed.²HAWTHORNE.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. But which. and which has never been described. etc.² MOTLEY. 13. as a false and astucious mark. 8. either from imitation of their frequent allies. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. indeed. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Or which. like that spoken in the towns.

at the head of what.²SCOTT. CHANNING. He flung into literature. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. in his present condition.²DEFOE. E.2. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill..² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 7. 9. which. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. Such as . 10. was hung in air. 12.. what. 3.. such as they have very probably been bred to.²BEECHER.. 6. half a century ago.²EMERSON. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 15. but which. whom. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.²HAWTHORNE. the cent. I give to such men as do not belong to me. which.. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. 13. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. and to whom I do not belong. That . the dime. I grudge the dollar. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. The Tree Igdrasil. 4. It rose into a thrilling passion. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. that. and whose examples and principles we inherit.²DE QUINCEY.²W. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. in his Mephistopheles. 8. G. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. In my native town of Salem.. Such as . such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²EMERSON.. was a bustling wharf. but which is perhaps not so different from it. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. I recommend some honest manual calling. SIMMS. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. that .²W.²SCOTT That which .. 11.²HOWELLS. 14.. .²HOLMES. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. He. 5.²HALLAM.. Which .

The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. 421. as. Use of any. 422. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. as it were. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²HAWTHORNE. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²EMERSON. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. for example. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Assume that no one is in want of either. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.² Some one must be poor.²RUSKIN. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. . always at war with one another.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.²MACAULAY. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. one another. and in want of his gold²or his corn. whether or not the two are equivalent.²DICKENS. Each other. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²RUSKIN. as. in which case any should be used instead. By their original meaning.²GOLDSMITH. Distributives either and neither.²ID.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.² HAWTHORNE. England was then divided between kings and Druids. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. that not all combined. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. We call ourselves a rich nation.

which is plural as often as singular. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.²STIRLING. None of Nature's powers do better service. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. then in Plutarch. If any of you lack wisdom. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.²SHAKESPEARE. let him ask of God. before that. . when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. for him have I offended. None usually plural. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. that I know of. whilst I still cherish their genius. The adjective pronoun none is. even in Bettine. as none of the French philosophers were. etc. Any usually plural. 423.²SCOTT. and is isolated. in the prose of the present day.²BIBLE. then in Plotinus. 424.²EMERSON.² EMERSON.. as. if ever man was.²CARLYLE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²PROF. Do you think. usually plural. any of his friends had died. speak. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. In earlier Modern English.²BURKE. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.Once I took such delight in Montaigne ... I beseech you.²FRANKLIN.²THACKERAY. during his stay at Yuste. as. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. Caution.² If any. Do you think. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. at one time in Bacon. Examples of its use are. in Shakespeare.² In earnest. afterwards in Goethe. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. any was often singular. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²BEECHER Whenever.

But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.²THOREAU. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. when it means all persons: for example.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. that all was lost. etc. saving Naaman the Syrian. The light troops thought . which is used absolutely. When all were gone.² None of them was cleansed. 425.. the plural.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. and Ford has nobody's else.²NAPIER Plural. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. and all was lost on the other. The compounds somebody else. nobody else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. are treated as units.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. for example.. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. etc. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. fixing his eyes on the mace.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. any one else. Somebody's else.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. or somebody else's? 426. etc. etc. and less rarely in poetry.. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²SCOTT Like the use of any. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.² Singular.² PEARSON.²McMASTER.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. as.

You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.²DICKENS. His hair. WILLIS. .²MULOCH. "Ye see. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case."²MRS.. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.²in such as "these sort of books. London. P.²SHERIDAN. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.. 427. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. These sort. STOWE.² These kind of knaves I know.²RUSKIN. for example. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.²THACKERAY. ELIOT.²AUSTEN. etc. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. unlike anybody else's in the world. ADJECTIVES. etc.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Whitefield or Wesley. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes." the nouns being singular.²N. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes." "those kind of trees. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.SYDNEY SMITH.² FIELDING.²SWEET." "all manner of men. or some other such great man as a bishop. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. or those sort of people. all manner of. the adjectives plural. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. Again.²G.² Saturday Review.²RUSKIN. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.

²RUSKIN. the victor or the vanquished. "A sort of uncertain sounds are." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). for example. "This sort of trees should be planted. in spoken English. Burke's sentence. "This kind of rules are the best. to express a higher degree of quality. or one object with a class of objects. History of this construction. Of two such lessons." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. which accounts for the construction. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. or the nouns to the plural. In Old and Middle English. Later form. gradually displacing the old. This the modern expression reverses. such as. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY." A question. "These kind of trees are best. .The library was open.²a strong man with nothing but his fists.² PRESCOTT. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. with all manner of amusing books." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Consequently we have a confused expression." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. they said. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. The result. and in this way may take a plural verb. At the source. more alarming than a total silence. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. Should we say. According to the approved usage of Modern English. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Use of the comparative degree. when the necessary dispositions concur. 428. as. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. and the adjective is. not "all kinds of wild animals. made to agree with it.² Which is the better able to defend himself.

The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Superlative with two objects.A braver ne'er to battle rode.²WIRT. than any of his court. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. by almost the breadth of my nail. would not have had the face. To the man who plays well. if not.²THACKERAY. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. I am concerned to see that Mr.² THACKERAY.²HUXLEY.²HAWTHORNE.²LOWELL. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. 2. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²SCOTT. Exercise. the highest stakes are paid. 3. Henry. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. 429. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. 6. 5. 4. Use of the superlative degree.²MACAULAY. 430. . Even Dodd himself. has sanctioned.²CARLYLE."²ID. Other after the comparative form.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. He is taller. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²MACAULAY. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²TROLLOPE.²SWIFT. etc. Gary. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.

whichever can be got easiest. Examples from Shakespeare are. Also from the same period. more particularly the last of them. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. OLIPHANT. 431. Double comparative and superlative.²MRS. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. . In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. I should say that one has the best cause. CÆSAR. and differ only in form. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. Mary."²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT."²HAWTHORNE.²GOLDSMITH. and the other contains the best men. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. who eat white bread or brown. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. The following examples are used purposely. not a bit of high life among them. Rip was one of those . ha. 1611. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. These two properties seem essential to wit. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. The eldest.²RUSKIN.²BEN JONSON.²IRVING. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²ADDISON.²EMERSON.²J. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. In all disputes between States.²HAMLET.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. "Ha.²Bible.²TEMPEST.. Come you more nearer.²DR BLAIR. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. After the most straitest sect of our religion. the weaker is often so in a minor degree."²BULWER.

In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.² SMOLLETT. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²GIBBON. As to these two expressions. etc. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. The delay in the first three lines.²PRESCOTT. etc. The merit of the Barb. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.²DE QUINCEY. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. These are the three first needs of civilized life. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.²KINGSLEY. but in literary English.²ADDISON. not only so in popular speech. Instances of both are given below. ²COWPER. and Secretary Walsingham also. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. the Spanish.²RUSKIN. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²RUSKIN. First three. The meaning intended is the same. . Three first. 433. jar upon us constantly. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The first five had specific names.²GIBBON. Examples of this construction are.²LAMB. Definite article.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. and conceit in the last.² With a singular noun. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. ARTICLES. For Carlyle.

The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. with a singular noun. 434.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.²ID... as in Sec. 433. or to emphasize the meaning. I think.²PRESCOTT. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. With a plural noun.²TAYLOR.²NEWMAN. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. melodious.²TENNYSON. the greatest poems.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. but inseparable from each other. to distinguish clearly. and flexible language. and the presents. Indefinite article.² RUSKIN. however. but is used with one only. having been arranged.²THE NATION. Frequently.²CARLYLE. as.²THACKERAY. 433. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. Meaning same as in Sec.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. The flowers. 435. the thought and the word. The not repeated. 1508. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. with a plural noun. One object and several modifiers. No. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. the hour of parting came. The lofty. . At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. He is master of the two-fold Logos.²SCOTT. as. of the higher and middling orders. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.² MACAULAY. Here the youth of both sexes. distinct.²MACAULAY. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. of the eighteenth century. Origin of the Aryans. were placed at a very tender age.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.

a round and a square one alternately.²JOHNSON.² MACAULAY. only one of which is expressed. But in the following sentences. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²BEECHER.²BULWER. 437. one noun is expressed. JONSON. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. 433 and 436.²MACAULAY. interest.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²B. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 438. 435. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. COLERIDGE. He saw him in his mind's eye. In the sentences of Secs. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. and a usurper. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.436. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. like the definite article.An early. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²DICKENS. Examples of this use are. or clearness to each of several nouns. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.² BURKE. . as. a collegian. One article with several adjectives. as in the first three of Sec. 436). rich. a murderer.²S. The indefinite article is used. For rhetorical effect.²THACKERAY.²DRYDEN." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns." and "a red and a white geranium. T. to limit two or more modified nouns. and inexhausted vein. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. The indefinite article (compare Sec. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²MACAULAY. a tyrant.

or the great intellectual life of our nation. Such. Another writer might. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. was the earliest American land.VERBS.²AGASSIZ. 439. Collective noun of singular meaning. and the following illustrations prove it. without academies. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. ELIOT. A broad and loose rule. all that academies can give. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. In English. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. He sees that it is better to live in peace.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. This was spoken of in Part I. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. Singular verb. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. 276. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. as. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. as. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above..²CARLYLE This usage.²W. has got already. Sec. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. like some others in this series. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. . (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²GIBBON. then. ARNOLD. 440.²COOPER.²The Nation.²FROUDE. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.²M. Singulars connected by or or nor.²G. for example.

but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. Plural form and singular meaning. A fever. nor Paul.²WHITTIER. nor John.² The unbought grace of life.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²GIBBON.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²CRITIC. No. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. for example. nor Mahomet. ²EMERSON. a mutilation. a loss of friends. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. is gone.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. Q. other names.²GOLDSMITH. ADAMS. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. or as making up one general idea.²BURKE. (4) When the subject is plural in form. or considered as appositional. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.² GOLDSMITH. seems at the moment unpaid loss. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.² Politics is the only field now open for me. a cruel disappointment. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. the cheap defense of nations. and other singulars of plural form.²J. and every four hours. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²DE QUINCEY.² In a word. but each one emphatic. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. a loss of wealth. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. Between ourselves. for example.²EMERSON .Jesus is not dead. that of a large town.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. as. as. but considered as meaning about the same thing.

This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. the ruin. a cuirass. no matter if the second is plural). Then comes the "Why. sir!"²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. does not take the place of the man. Every fop. no spent ball.The author.²LONGFELLOW. as. the partisan.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²HAWTHORNE. the wit. was like to crack. with death. an agitated gesture. was listened to for five hours. no discontinuity. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.² There is a right and a wrong in them. is a man of wit.²SCOTT. For wide is heard the thundering fray. the fine gentleman.²ID. almost every day. Every week. thus. every boor. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²M ARNOLD. Here is no ruin. To receive presents or a bribe. wineBegins to stir itself. Every sound.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. every echo.²MACAULAY.² Asia. an impassioned countenance. as. many a.²NEWMAN. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.²ID.The rout. The Epic. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. was punished. Her back.²PRESCOTT. in a judge.²PRESCOTT. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. each. the dismay. nay. a gorget. was dazzled. every valet.²BUTLER. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. The oldest. There is a moving tone of voice.² . as well as sides. and such like adjectives. sir?" and the "No. and greaves. sir!" and the "What then.²EMERSON. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. as well as the Drama.²RUSKIN. 441. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. as well as Europe. as well as the newest. Plural verb. no. Subjects after the verb.

as in Sec. as. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. for example. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. the Duke of Berri. a green pasture. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. b). The Dauphin.² GIBBON.²CARLYLE But its authorship. The travelers.²FROUDE. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. His clothes. a stream of fresh water. All our household are at rest. were men of insignificant characters. its date.²THOREAU.²DE QUINCEY.² One or two of these perhaps survive.These bits of wood were covered on every square. 440 (5.²COLERIDGE. Far. .²SCOTT. Philip of Anjou.²GIBBON. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²EMERSON.²GOLDSMITH. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. making up a plural subject.²SWIFT. far away thy children leave the land.²B. are sufficient to attract a colony. shirt. The conjunction may be omitted.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. and its history are alike a mystery to us.² A multitude go mad about it.²FROUDE.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²FRANKLIN. Conjunction omitted. TAYLOR. as. of whom there were a number. as with a subject of plural form. but the verb is plural. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. A shady grove.²ADDISON.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.

It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. 444." or. we never talk politics. ARNOLD. You and I are tolerably modest people.²GOLDSMITH. Exceptional examples.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²M. Ah. This construction is at the best a little awkward." "She or you may be sure.²DE QUINCEY. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²SMOLLETT." etc. Not I. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. If there is only one person in the subject. Nothing which Mr.²THACKERAY. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. nor should I.²RUSKIN. When the subjects. the verb takes the construction of the first person. the subject being really equivalent to we. hadst been my lord.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. General usage. that is. 443. of different persons. WEBSTER. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. but thou.But notice the construction of this. "You would not be wiser. but thou. for example.).²BYRON. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. as.²WHITTIER. "I have never said so. Second or third and first person in the subject. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. "He or I can go. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.²ROWE. Not Altamont.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. Pattison or I have said. You and I are farmers. 442. . his blood dost shed. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²RUSKIN.²D.²THACKERAY. nor has she").²LOWELL.

nor bush are there. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²EMERSON.²and. 2. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. Neither of them. BANCROFT. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. in my opinion. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.Her course to intercept." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²SMOLLETT. Exercise.²perhaps the devil. as we would hope. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). 3.²ID. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 6. Nor wood. How each of these professions are crowded. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.² TROLLOPE. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.That neither of their intellects are vast. 446.²BURKE. 11. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. In this sentence from Defoe. as illustrated above (Secs. nor tree. which it is proper to mention. 12. Both death and I am found eternal.²ADDISON. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Also in verbals. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. In the following sentence. 8. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²BYRON. 440-444):² 1. In a word. 4. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²THACKERAY.²G.²SCOTT.²MILTON. 7. 9. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 5. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.445. 10. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²ADDISON. Neither of their counselors were to be present.

. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. however. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. Direct discourse²that is. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. I gave one quarter to Ann.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. to have divided with her whatever might remain. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. The present rule is recent. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. as. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²FRANKLIN 6. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. for exact connection.²DE QUINCEY 2. to have seen should be changed to to see." . Definitions. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them.²THACKERAY. Of course. on my return.. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. It should be remarked. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²KINGSLEY. meaning. if not. change them to a better form:² 1.² PALGRAVE 5. 3.²R. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²MACAULAY. CHURCH. 4. Indirect discourse means reported speech. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. Exercise. But I found I wanted a stock of words. W. Two samples of indirect discourse. 447. 448.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.²IRVING.

2. under interrogative pronouns. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Direct. interrogative adverbs. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. Sebastian's. or regular interrogatives. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. will. and the indirect question by whether or if. Direct. Oh.." Indirect. Her prudence whispered eternally. His exact words were. introductory verb is in the past tense. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Summary of the expressions. 449. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. etc. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. She thought to herself. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. "I cannot oblige you . This includes the auxiliaries be. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. have." etc. The substance of his lamentation was.. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh.. . 1. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. "Oh." etc.

²ID. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. 450. he assured me that nothing was more easy. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. in the sentences first quoted.²ADDISON. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. FRANKLIN. the first discoverer of the river and country.Exercise. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. VERBALS. one summer afternoon. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. if this were expanded into a verb." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster.²GOLDSMITH. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. Careless use of the participial phrase.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. like distant peals of thunder. and that he himself had heard. with his crew of the Half-moon. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²B. handed down from his ancestor the historian. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. . that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Notice this. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. PARTICIPLES." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. The trouble is. my first observation will be found nearly true. the sound of their balls.

²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase...²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. if a strike is to succeed. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.. Exercise.. Adverb between to and the infinitive. my first collection was. leaving the principal statement as it is. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. 3. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. It is a solemn. purposely or not. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . This is the more common arrangement. and often." Exercise. For example.² HERBERT SPENCER. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. avoid it. Standard writers often use it.. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. the first sentence would be.Correction.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.²LAUGHLIN. 451. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. while defended or excused by others. INFINITIVES.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.²SCOTT. either "As I was pleased. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. ." etc.²ID. There are. then. . There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. 2. universal assertion. In the following citations. many things to be carefully considered.²RUSKIN. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.

Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. china. 13. therefore.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. In works of art. A little sketch of his.²ID. Exercise. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. etc. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. but cannot misunderstand the thought. 12. even. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. BLAIR. 10. etc. but they are often removed from the exact position.²RUSKIN. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. even. are used. 11. 1533. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . this kind of grandeur.²The Nation.²SCOTT.²BURKE. 452. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. 5. Position of only. ADVERBS. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.²TROLLOPE. from Irving. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²DR. etc. The rigid rule in such a case would be.²GOLDSMITH. 9. and earthenware...² MACAULAY. 7. 8. The spirits. No. is to be very cautiously admitted. when such adverbs as only. which consists in multitude. Now. but it is placed before the infinitive. if they modify single words.4. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. 6.² ADDISON. I wish the reader to clearly understand.

for example. 10. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. P. 7. 14.²SWIFT. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 12. 6. 4. 5. His last journey to Cannes. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.1. whence he was never destined to return.²N. 11. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. He shouted in those clear. GROTE.²MOTLEY.²SYDNEY SMITH. 453. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 3. might not marry. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. were he never so old of yeares.²ID.²COOPER. 17.²CHAUCER. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²EMERSON. The old usage. 9. 15.²ID. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 2. 13.² THACKERAY.²PALGRAVE.²HIGGINSON. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²MRS. Irving could only live very modestly. WILLIS. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. ²ASCHAM.²ID. In relating these and the following laws.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. During the whole course of his administration. 8.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²THACKERAY. 16. My master. No sonne.²MACAULAY. He could only afford to keep one old horse. In Old and Middle English. to avoid a crowd. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²RUSKIN. .

etc. In the latter case. in Ole Virginia.² HAMILTON. 7. There weren't no pies to equal hers. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. one of the negatives is often a prefix.²BURKE. The prosperity of no empire. But.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. however. Regular law of negative in modern English. . There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. but ought not to labor after it. neither. as. Exercise. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.²HAWTHORNE. the usual way of regarding the question now is. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. if two negatives are found together. can so agreeably affect. However. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. Not only could man not acquire such information. 3. nor never shall.²HOLMES.²DEFOE. nor the grandeur of no king. This. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Exceptional use. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. ²PAGE. under the influence of Latin syntax. Therefore.²DE QUINCEY. and why:² 1.²LOWELL. when one of the negatives is a connective. STOWE. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. as infrequent. uncommon. I did not act so hastily. and is still kept in vulgar English. I never did see him again.²MRS. denying each other. 4.²BAYNE. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. is not common.²GROTE. In the execution of this task. STOWE.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. 2. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. 5. 6."²four negatives."²MRS. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.

the first should also. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. if the last precedes a verb. there we were. In the sentence.." said the King... Correction. 455. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. or to reply to it.. The sentences given in Secs. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. "A weapon.²PRESCOTT. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. Choice and proper position of correlatives.²LOWELL.. and. the first ought to be placed before a verb.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it... not only . 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. The sentence." Besides neither .." both of the above requirements are violated... should be scrutinized. even neither ." may be changed to "This loose . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. not merely . not only to the success of their common cause.. nor.8. neither .." .. or.. "well worthy to confer honor. And who. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. especially both . Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. nor is often changed to not²either . or to reply to it. Things to be watched. either . or with advantage. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .."²SCOTT. but (also). but to their own safety. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. as the use of the conjunction. CONJUNCTIONS. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. 454.. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.²SCOTT. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. and which. if the second precedes a phrase. or.. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. but. as well as of the pronoun.. either..

Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 3. too. as. . Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. and chop up their own kin. 456.²BAIN. but. Try and avoid the pronoun. but grown-up persons. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²GIBBON. JEWETT. 7. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²THACKERAY. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²MACAULAY. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. or but that for the words but what:² 1. They will.² ADDISON. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. 4. as. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²ID.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. etc. not merely interest children. Correct the following sentences:² 1.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. In the following sentences. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 8. and I don't know but what he was right. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. murder.²S.²RUSKIN. substitute that. but they will outrage.Exercise. 457. Now. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. or but that.²FRANKLIN. or the negative relative but. O. Some exceptions. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 5.²THACKERAY. 2. 6. Try and for try to. But what. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. but.

² SWIFT. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Between is used most often with two things only. 3. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 458. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. PREPOSITIONS.²EMERSON. . They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.²EMERSON.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. 459. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. as already seen in Sec.² BULWER. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²ADDISON.²TROLLOPE. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 313. no separation or division by twos being implied. 305. 6.2. 5. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. Between and among. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.²BURKE. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 4. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. see Sec. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.

Conform to. Conversant with. as. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Comply with. confer. Paley.: Words with particular prepositions. Dissent from. by custom. Two groups or one and a group. Abhorrent to. Affinity between. Bestow on (upon). Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. 460. Different from. Derogatory to. Averse to. . LIST I.²KINGSLEY. Accord with. and Coleridge. correspond.²RUSKIN What have I. Such are derogatory. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. and philosophers like Locke. 461. Some of them have. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. as. Such are absolve. and another to convey a different meaning.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Acquit of. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. etc. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Dependent on (upon).²between philosophers like Spinoza. Kant. and Stewart.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. different. or one object and a group. involve. Mackintosh. List I. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. averse. a soldier of the Cross. ²EMERSON.

Confer with (talk with). Correspond to (a thing). Change for (a thing). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. "The king is reconciled to his minister. as. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning." List III. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Independent of. A taste for (art. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). 462. A taste of (food). LIST III.). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Confide to (intrust to)." also of persons. Change to (become). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Confide in (trust in). but it is not good usage. 463.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Agree to (a proposal). and sometimes creeps into standard books. as. LIST II. in the sense of making friends with. Involve in. Reconcile with (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained).y y y Deprive of. Differ with (note below). Change with (a person). etc. as meaning to be in keeping with. as. Correspond with (write to). ." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Confer on (upon) (give to). Reconcile to (note below). List II. Differ from (note below). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons.

Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. instrument).²SCOTT.²BURNETT. died for love of the fair Marcella. One of them said he would die for her.²G. ²THACKERAY. It is a man of quality who dies for her." "die from.²BULWER. People do not die of trifling little colds. ²ATHENÆUM.²GOLDSMITH. privation. No one died from want at Longfeld. Expect of. part with.²MACAULAY. as Cervantes informs us. It would take me long to die of hunger. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²FIELDING." etc. ELIOT.²SHAKESPEARE. and ill treatment. She died of hard work. "Die for. ELIOT. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. expect from.²GOLDSMITH. I am positively dying with hunger. die from.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.y y y Die by. die of. simply from old age." The author died of a fit of apoplexy." She would have been ready to die with shame. they shall die by this hand.²MACAULAY. He died at last without disease.²G.²POPE.:² "Die of. Part from. die with." (in behalf of).²BOSWELL.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL." (material cause." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²MACAULAY.²ADDISON. "Die from. . Take thought and die for Cæsar. Who. If I meet with any of 'em. die for. Illustrations of "die of." (because of). "Die by. "Die with. "Die for.

²BULWER." To part from you would be misery." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²G.²G." "expect from:"² "Expect of. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. Kind in you.²MACAULAY. . There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. 466. either of or in is used indifferently. Illustrations of "expect of.²AUSTEN.²SCOTT. His precious bag. 465. and hated to part with them." She will expect more attention from you. ELIOT. as my friend." "part from:"² "Part with." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²POE. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²WALPOLE. I part with all that grew so near my heart. ELIOT.²MACAULAY. "Expect from. just parted from her. "Part from. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. I have just seen her. 464.²BULWER. ELIOT.²MARRYAT. kind of you.²WALLER.²TROLLOPE. Of Doctor P. Illustrations of "part with. which he would by no means part from. I can part with my children for their good. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. nothing better was to be expected.²DICKENS.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²G. That is more than I expected of you. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. It was a little bad of you. I have long expected something remarkable from you. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. With words implying behavior or disposition.²SHAW.

That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 3. nor of a pale red.²DICKENS.²CARLYLE. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 7. nor green. Very natural in Mr. raging storms. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2.²BEACONSFIELD. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. It will be anything but shrewd in you. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. thunder. This narrative. thrown it over Amyas's head. or that they are any way dependent on each other. or artillery. Thou tread'st. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 10.He did not think it handsome of you. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 15. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. with seraphims.²BULWER. tedious perhaps. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.²TENNYSON. 5. nor blue. 8. nor yellow. 1. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing.²BULWER. and ran up the alley. 13. Hampden. 11. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 14. 4. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. The noise of vast cataracts. the vast abyss. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. In the friction between an employer and workman. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. But this is idle of you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 9. but which the story renders necessary. . 6. In.

37. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 33. Squares. but in the price paid to them. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 30. Friday. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 35. and most of us do know. 25. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 23. 32. 28. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. save Amyas. 21. 20. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough.) 34. The effect of proportion and fitness. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 22. 26. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. triangles. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 29. 27. 411. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. and other angular figures. 19. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. whom he thinks would be better than a dog.I would wish me only he. you or me. That night every man of the boat's crew. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 16. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. But every man may know. the acquiescence of the understanding. You have seen Cassio and she together. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 18. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. or how beautiful it is. 38. 36.And were I anything but what I am. . We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. Every one of these letters are in my name. and almost as good as a pony. produce approbation. what is a just and unjust act. 24. 17. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. (Sec. were down with raging fever. 31.

107. adjectives. (2) Middle English. demonstrative. 20. of. nouns. nominative. Adjectives. article. 124. 47. 92. A. 91. Abstract with Active Address. of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 124. 98. 310. 102. 260.000 between them. voice. from about 1500 to the present time. of. 133. adverbs used complements. 90. numeral. 25. 239. INDEX. of. . from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. (3) Modern English. 116. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. syntax uses Absolute. as. from nominative clauses. 40. He had four children. of. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. as comparison definition demonstrative. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. pronouns. origin of.39. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 89. 47. 119.

classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 116. clauses. 262. 207. 103. 242. 275. 194. modify. 195. form as as they to in as uses uses of. quality. plural pronominal. of. 184. predicate. 302. 316. and 185. compared. objective. antecedent. of. adjectives. Against. to used of. 325. 239. between of. of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 104. 190. 323. 148. conjunction. 325. with with with subject. 106. nouns. 303. 97. 187. of. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. parse. Alms. 194. adjectives. of. 190. 99. 42. 48. 109. conjunctions. 115. 183. 328. 116. nouns. 207. quantity. adjectives. . of. 27.from function how in not of of ordinal. 114. as nouns. 287. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. from to of. 303. parse. infinitive. of. 27. antecedent. Agreement. 291. 101. sentence. 191.

agreement personal as pronoun. in in. 120. 90. same. after of. of of of And Antecedent. sentences. 231. of. sentences. 300. definition how indefinite. sentences. 295. 67. of and pronoun of. syntax As. 294. 296. An. 148.Among. 208. 264. possessive. Arrangement Articles. definition of of of Any. adjective. 124. 240. Are. parse. of. which. and. Anacoluthon Analysis. though. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. pronouns. 150. 84. 331. of. words between. Agreement. derivation in definite. 252. 225. as uses verbs. 287. it. 127. 198. uses As At. 74. of. 47. 67. A. See 74. Auxiliary if. 309. 49. 51. of. 271. which. to of. 207. syntax. See with definition complex compound simple who. 120. 79. . 101. which. 275.

objective. 63. Bridegroom. of. Children. number of. of pronouns. 46. 283. 39. 64. with But By. of pronouns. comparison conjugation of. of nouns. 49. adjective. 37. definition could. conjunctions Cherub. of. 111. of what. Clause. Among. 161. 210. 149. 330. clauses of. uses of.Bad. 150. forms. Be. uses nominative of. of pronouns. 279. uses Better. 45. 84. possessive. of pronouns. 54. 195. best. 47. double possessive. syntax of. in Old and Modern English. Cause. 262. 110. 224. But. 278. See of. 278. 110. Can. 62. 279. Brethren. 194. of nouns. pronoun. Case. . nominative. Between. of. Case. 260. of nouns. 66. adverb. plurals of. 48. of nouns. 39. 46. 262.

18. plural of. of. 53. 264. definition degrees irregular. Cleave. in analysis. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 107. 113. Clomb. 158. 43. English. of. nouns. 305. 263. double. of. predicate of and from from of. analysis of. 18. superlative.definition kinds noun. 12. of. sentence. verb. . 257. and sentence. 239. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 248. subject. 258. 312. proper. infinitive. 108. 257. adjectives. 111. of. predicate. Cloths. 307. 315. nouns. 307. 257. of. and forms of. 24. 189. 268. 244. 23. 271. adverbs. defective. 43. of. nouns. 108. of. clothes. material. of. 110. 157.

231. replaced by objective. of. pronoun. 269. subjunctive. Can. of of Conjunctions. 328. analysis. to of. Conjunctions. 195. 143. sentences. in Old vs. adverbs. 194. definition be. Agreement. pronouns. and clause. pronoun. See analysis clauses. other other parts of speech. 139. sentence. parse. Dative Declarative Declension of case. conjunction. 195. 66. 194. 255. verbs. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. definition how subordinate. 289. 149. conjunctions. 73. sentences. . conjunctions. correlative. interrogative pronouns. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. See English. 263. of. See in subjunctive. 199. 138. same words. 194. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. coördinate. 196. 188. 193. 207. 149.with Concord. 151.

51. of. duck. pronouns. passive adjectives. of. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. clause. article. nouns. 91. 102. of personal relative verbs. See 148. possessive. indirect. 303. 90. with of. 288. 102. for. Subordinate clause. pronouns. by. 333. object. 35.Declension. 160. Comparison. 320. nouns. 43. pronouns. 300. of. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. use of dies. Comparative. adverbs See adjectives. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 60. 242. 80. Degrees. of. discourse. 315. pronouns. 99. 185. 152. . from. Articles. 242. with. comparative. 26. See adjectives. tenses. 287. See See 48. verb. Case. vs.

102. 328. adjective. in 'Em. other. 255. 32. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 287. . 38. older. drunk. 51. of. 90. 112. complement. Elements Ellipsis. of. adjective. plural. 240. pronoun. of. 110. 33. the of sentence. 280. 34. possessive suffix. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 62. -En. conjunction. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. error in sentence. 257. of. Empress. 42. 241. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. added suffix. 39. 90. original. spoken.Drank. object. 92. 158. 92. 12. pronouns. of. one ( t). 158. feminine plural English. Either. 299. to suffix. another. pronoun. Each. 300. literary. of subject. 33. suffix. 234. of. 287. 92. 40. 194. predicate. vulgar. ending.

334. adjective. have adjective. 29. used of. 189. modes "common goose. perfect. 238. Future Future tense. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 32. 319. gender. 103. of. First Fish. See Gander. fishes. 110. Further. 30. 212. of. Gender.. other languages. uses Foreign Former. 48. definition distinguished in English. object. For. 152. 126. two. 212. . From.. with infinitive. Farther. uses redundant. 152. etc. Few. 36. first. from. 30. nouns.Every. as a noun. two a further. Feminine. 211. 43. 102. expect gone. plurals." 31. as of from compared marking. 45. 287. with in sex. 102. 112. 148. few. of. pronoun. 235. 308. etc. 112. First. the. 91. 147. 30. to of.

of. kinds of. 61. it. 10. 176. He. an better. possessive pronouns. had hung. distinguished syntax. noun. definition divisions opinions province H. Had Hanged. of. Gerund. 159. participle. on. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. forms in Girl. Government. 144. of. personal relative geniuses. its. pronoun. first sentence. 12. 275. I. of. 60. 9. 61. 285. 173. 231. Grammar. 101. 12. 36. for before. His Husband. 175. rather. person. Got. 35. 13. 60. .of of Genii. from participle of. 43. pronouns. she. 145. 159. 80. and case verbal with. definition basis of. 120. adjective. 177.

with of. of clause. 248. 153. 43. meaning. 257. questions. 105. of. words. summary See passive mood. in compared syntax. of. 283. adjectives. verbs. 73. of. transitive. Questions. 72. 131. of. 178.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. indices. 67. indirect of. 136. 188. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 319. 110. pronoun. 176. 320. your. 227. adverbs. 131. adjectives. sentence. elements. use article. uses discourse. mood. 85. See you. 231. 245. 93. a object. See Articles. 276. pronouns. . Direct object. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. questions. 323. 233.

of. syntax.. King. . these double kind. 12.adverbs. Like. 61. lie. latest. plural. It. Kind. 170. subject form. 189. 227. "It Its. -Ly. 303. a vs. uses Literary Little. pronoun. lesser. 226. 39. 36. etc. 281. 36. 126. 113. 276. 110. queen. See Madam. 245. Kine. and See words in. predicate. 91. Lady. was uses me. Lay. Last. English. 110. Less. 63. lord. syntax the. of. of. adjective. 102. Lady. Latter. in little. 190. 36. 113. Lie." history etc. 67. Logic Logical Lord. Lay.. of.

syntax conjunction. Neither. Mighty Mine. of. 137. 110. syntax nearer. Much. May. 114. 161. sentences. 102. 194. of. 113. 325. of. 189. Enlargement. Negative. might. superlatives. 34. position adverb. Master. etc. out of. 112.Manner. Many Mapping Mare. 185. 328. Means. -Most. . 188. conjunctions Many. 112. 187. 256. Must. imperative.. 112. in adverbs comparison a. See definition 136. comparison Near. indicative. double. 160. 326. subjunctive. 135. of. 41. 110. Modifier. Mood. 189. 287. of. 265. of. mistress. 64. 36. of. 137-144. Modifiers. construction as of adverb. nigh. 195. 144. 110. mine. of. adjective. 126.

92. Not Noun Nouns. analysis. Nor. abstract. of. of. in. of. abstract. parse. 41. 38-41. of. syntax in gender nouns. 25. and figures. 246. 25. 30. proper. gender nouns. 17 19. 46. 30. 17. See 194. 126. formed. . now plural. 30. 300. 18. 41. etc. 26. nouns. foreign. of.pronoun. definition descriptive. 32. 17. 29. of of of of of a. 301. number once other plural. syntax Neuter or two News. become become formation case collective. nouns. No Nominative. 46. to of. 124. of. None. 258. 42. become neuter. 328. half abstract. words how compound. letters as 24. 27. 38. common. 20. gender how kinds material. 21. 56. 125. 45. of. etc. Case. 41 43. kinds 90. to use. class used singular. clause. definition according of. material. used as. 19.

plural no two singular construction. See in in in Numeral distributive. 196. conjunction. 18. 124. 23. with case. article. plural form. 41. etc. verbs. . 48. 42. pronouns. of. 242. adverbial. in nouns. singular. of. 101. Numeral Object. 240. 48. 279. 101. indirect. indefinite. form. 66.. Nouns. 92. 102. Preposition. of different possessive definite of. 42. 43. or plural. of. 41. meaning. English. with with with Now Number. 278.of same two with proper. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. adjectives. 195. and analysis. 281. plural. 242. 39. See verb. 41. adjectives. common. 285. pronouns. singular. dative. of. meanings. as forms titles. 48. 278. 282. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. preposition. 121. 106. 42 44. nominative. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 48. definite. of. of. in article. passive adverbial. 148. 60. 48. spoken of instead nouns. 235. personal.

One. 56. a in adjectives. Elder. of syntax. part analysis. another. uses numeral pronoun. 103. definite relative uses of. of upon. 127. nouns. adverbs. Parsing. 293. 279. treatment comparatives. inverted. 64. Ordinal Other Ought. 91. Older. 56. 116. 233. pronoun. 115. 325 275. of. See the as of. 93 other. articles. Omission On. adjective. 161. Pains. 306. for. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 117. . 199. ours. 194. with (the). 41. as other. conjunctions. Each adjective. Oxen. Ourself. of. as of. 94. 69. See pronoun. of of of of of models adjectives. 213. conjunction. 87. position Order. 38. 216.syntax Of. Our. 191. adverb. 237. of. 101. 103.

43. 119. 174. predicate use of. 59. . 173. 100. 56. parsed. agreement of verb nouns. of. 69. phrase. 172. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. part adjective. 179.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. of. 335. absolute with of. 287. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. pronouns. 177. from definition other of. them. 148. antecedent. 63. 61. 56. in. included various. of. 43. verb idioms it from. possessive and of. Pence. reflexive. of. phrases. of. article 150. 181. 80. pronoun. 59. relatives. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. used as voice. 62. of. not is. verbs. 64. nominative. with. 172. pennies. 62. speech. 247. 281. 70. Person. 180. pease. 317. 59. or of. 27. of. and subject in. 134. 28. verbs. -ing words. 322. verbals. 219. 95. pronouns.

of Phrase. nouns. noun nouns. vs. appositional. 188. 247. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. complete. Comparison. 195. 52. adverbs of. 54. 303. objects. of. 236. 285. 245. 236. antecedent of of pronouns. 50. of. Positive Possessive. in of. 278. omitted. of. English. 303. or See of of See 185. 247. 245. 278. kinds infinitive. plural. nouns. 235. pronouns. 206. 49. . singular degree. 25. 281. relative. of. spoken of. prepositional. syntax of of Politics. nouns. 248. simple. 232. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. of. See 60. as double. 63. 64. singular. 67. Place. 's. pronoun. participial. Nouns. Personal subjective. 106. conjunctions prepositions Plural. it. 281. of. 41.objective syntax table triple uses of. Personification. 60. 61. 53. 53. pronoun. of. of nouns. adjectives. 241. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 51. 37. of. double.

singular usually other. of. speech. meaning. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 302. 32. 333. after but. expressed as other of. 132. 206. 280. by. forms of. 303. 147. of. 95. 208. 279. in exclamations. adverb. 282. parse. 202. of. 89. objective. words. 93. neither. 285. objective.Prefixes. what. 300. of. Pronouns. 187. 105. plural. as antecedent of relative. 281. parse. all. Prepositions. case. and one with else's. 105. 283. interrogative. 59. with tense certain. possessive nominative to of. of. interrogative. 284. of. 129. 203. 205. 195. 299. 207. as. by parts of of. of. 64. none. 104. exclamatory. same used as adjectives. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. any. 203. 72. 58. 287. plural. 331. who personal. another. adjective. verbs. and form form form form of. 300. for predicate nominative. 332. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. as 54. usually to as than. somebody definition how indefinite. by with shown certain of. 301. 58. . each either. plural. 186. case. 283. future. 219.

289. of. Direct same and different. 188. Questions. of. Rather. which. who. of. of. 58. pronouns. adverbs in. 74. 295. 84. 85. 296. Nouns. unrestrictive. nouns. 74. agreement anacoluthon and as. use of history formed. conjunctions Quality. . how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 291. 85. 74. of. of. 80. from and interrogative. 69. use in as. 286. in. of. in. of. 83. with with gerund. 69. 101. of. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115.possessive relative. 279. which after same. Quantity. Quotations. or of. indirect compound. 293. in. See of. that. 195. and which. 297. pronoun. 105. 142. personal pronoun. questions. discourse. pronominal pronouns indirect. 68. 295. indirect. Rank. and relatives. to of. 87. 293. 263. 99. 87. parse. with who. 189. same antecedent. 289. and antecedent.

259. 74. sentence. tenses. who. reflexive analysis of compound. of. 294. 159. Shot. 29. that. Shear. Sex Shall. kinds Sequence Set. Self Sentences. 289. pronoun. 242. clauses of. plural possessive as. of sit. would. 51. Same Sat. 196. which. conjunction. S. 319. 42. complex. and should. in form. forms shots. elliptical. 40. 69. of. 255. simple of. effect. 162. simple. 'S. in of. 159. Seeing. will. 263. conjunctions Retained Riches. 170. suffix. See Sentences. 43. 196. of. object. 231. gender. 26 271. definition . Simple in sate.syntax use Result. 195. of. ending. 231. 252. of of of complex Sentences.

270. 38. English. as. 262. See -En. for. 257. 303. 303.. 138. Spelling Spinster. logical. adverb. etc. Somebody Sort. 137. other Such Such Suffix -s. 237. 233.Singular Sir. 245. these number. verbs. 258. 186. 144. 323. 144. -en. definition how kinds noun. definition 67. 260. Subject. of. literary clause. 36. 257. English. of. 240. 33. -es. 32. in feminine suffix. Split Spoken -Ster. sort. vs. 169. adverb. 12. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 126. of. Modern use becoming else's. in Middle English. English. of. to of. of. 258. 258. used mood. 33. 38. 257. of. of. 257. . phonetic in infinitive. names as a. distinguish. English. 245. disuse in spoken complete.

subject. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. auxiliaries. 186. they. article. 319. as adverbs. 191. 148. 307. English. 120. of.. 289. definition in English Tense. 277. English. in double. objects. of. of. See etc. 107. adjectives. form. 33. when relative. plural as adverb. classical of. Tenses. . that uses That. 106. when as of. adverbs. 280. 275. object. 306. meaning made up in Old of. coördinating. in comparison. as history The. restrictive. me. 116. 309. than of. 189. 152.. not suggesting adjectives. of.. of. this. of languages. 306. syntax of. which. of. of. meaning. Then. 147. 297. king. 275. omission whom. 222. as history syntax Their. 106. 123. Kind. of . There These kind. 290. 88. 109.Suffixes. 61. of. degree. in Modern number sequence table Than That." introductory. 119. 186. two basis not same definition definite. and and of. 147. "the then foreign. 87. 147. 108.

of. of. first adjective. Upon. Thou. verbs. uses history of. 128. 175. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 61. exclamations. 217. in of. 176. 322. 173. of. 323.. Try Two Under. of. 247. of. Upper. 20. gerund. 172. 195. 119. preposition. . suffix. -Trix. 114. Time. kinds participle. See That. analysis. try two. 322. 308. used. Utter. 180. 114. thy. of. how infinitive. first. 181. infinitive. parse. 185. 175. of. in omitted uses T'other. etc. 248. certain as the before with of. feminine and. thee. conjunctions prepositions To. from cleft to 174. uses of. other noun. See On. infinitive. 330. 172. 114. 33. -ing 111. 175. words. 188. 21. tother. phrases. uttermost.These. carelessly uses syntax this. 207. adverbs those. to.

154. 157. strong. 236. 150. of English. phonetic. 179. What. 154. Vocative in Voice. 167. 317. of. 133. table of irregular. 149. 245. auxiliary. 242. Vixen.Verbs. 312-316. 330. mood of. transitive and intransitive. but uses what. change. 135. formed by. in indirect discourse. 134. 133. 160. table of. active meaning. agreement of. tense of. with subject in number. passive form. 131. 319. 312. 151. syntax of. regular. past tense formed nominative. definition of. 47. active. made transitive. 155. 130. 159. of. 39. verbs. in person. 223. retained object with passive. 147. weak. person and number of. 167. verbs by. 12. passive. of incomplete predication. definition of. sequence of. voice of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. . spelling of. intransitive. defective. 148. analysis. conjugation of. 154. 169. 320. 169. 129. 148. remarks on certain. 33. becoming irregular. definition of. how to parse.

what Whereby. a. Wife. Witch. pronoun. interrogative Which. worser. relative. in in indefinite objective. Yes ending analysis. 126. 111. questions. 178. 105. 32. English. 194. 36. uses See Shall. of. 73. 37. 77. 104. direct of. Woman. 105. 75. referring syntax Widower. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. . 299. 218. 83. antecedent adjective. 85. Whether. 246. questions. Will. would. With. 36. whereto. conjunction. 85. 40. 296. spoken in of. 295-299. 79. 78. 85. 75. 190. animals. plural of in nouns -ing.. in. of. relative. questions. 72. 83. pronoun. wizard. Who. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. Words in Worse. Y. questions. relative indirect relative. 72. in -ly. etc. 72.

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