roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

if rightly presented. Literary English. rightly considered. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. A broader view. . it will at the same time. as. assist the classification of kindred expressions. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. as compared with Latin or Greek. Making rules is risky. from the question. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Few inflections. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. but this is bad English now. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. and thus incite his observation. Surely our noble language. is worthy of serious study. we have tabulated the inflections of the language." and "Syntax. its peculiar and abundant idioms. so that a small grammar will hold them all. It is also evident. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. The work it will cover. to those who have studied the language historically. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). "Analysis. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). This will take in the usual divisions. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. there is still much for the grammarian to do. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. however." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. Authority as a basis. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. Mental training. their forms. with its enormous vocabulary. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. and their uses and relations in the sentence. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. then. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training.The province of English grammar is. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning." What grammar is. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. Coming back. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. If.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. An æsthetic benefit.

This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. three divisions:² Part I. and the word nation stands for a whole group. The Uses of Words. from the eighteenth century on. by which is meant the free. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. reference will be made to vulgar English. Part III. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Part II. The following pages will cover. then. which belongs to a people. but. 1.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. that is. or standard. submission. as they stand for ideas. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. The Parts of Speech. Such words are called nouns. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. the words sons and master name objects.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. and will are evidently names of a different kind. too. and may belong to any of those objects. besides this one. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. NOUNS. Vulgar English.²GIBBON. The plainest name is Arabs. Spoken English. and Inflections. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. not objects. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Occasionally. the nation is free. The words state. PART I. . Analysis of Sentences. or Syntax.

Classes of nouns. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. however. Common. and appropriate names to the groups. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. etc. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. the man here. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. whether person. This does not imply. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. Abstract. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. or a mob. or things. Proper. 3. They properly belong under common nouns. (b) Common. or a congress. .Definition. or the man in front of you. A noun is a name word. belonging to one. animals. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or a council. because each group is considered as a unit. ATTRIBUTE. or idea. but Chicago names one city. reducing it to a narrow application. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Individual. (a) 4. or thing. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. as here used. MATERIAL. For instance. we may think of them in groups. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. representing directly to the mind an object. 2. and things separately. We may say. men in groups may be called a crowd. a committee. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Name for a group or collection of objects. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. Besides considering persons. is from a Latin word which means general. Name for any individual of a class. 5. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Collective. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Thus. Thus. animals. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. the name of each is an individual or proper name. possessed by all. place. substance.

(2) VERBAL NOUNS. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). world. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. soap. 7. sugar. etc. instead of to each individual or separate object. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. we may say. considered abstractly. NOTE. Names of ideas. wine. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. earth. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. They remain common class names. or apart from their natural connection." "Learning is hard to acquire. proof means the act of proving. tea. Again. etc." 9. 6. earth. stone. iron. such as sun. but which are not called proper names. potash. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. celluloid. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. frost.Names for things thought of in mass. The quality is still there as much as before. however. rice. frost. or action. paint. etc. Words naturally of limited application not proper. "Painting is a fine art. moon. etc. but in the words sun. wheat. sugar. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. we speak of the wisdom of the man. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. The reason is. etc. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. expressing state. not things. It may." "a man of understanding. condition. but it is taken merely as a name. conditions. sand. Such are glass. and fasten a special name to the object considered. expressing attributes or qualities. etc. cloud. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. (3) Geological bodies: mud. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. etc. gold. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. mist. or actions. wheat.²There are some nouns. rain. etc. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. platinum. rubber. . . snow. or that which shows a thing has been proved. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. and so on. as in calling a city Cincinnati. granite. clay. When we speak of a wise man. dew.. rock. there is no such intention.

in the beginning of his life. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. the moon caused fearful forebodings. etc. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. mastery from master. Thus. the main bearings of this matter. The verb. a wedding or a festival. height from high. 10. "a long run" "a bold move. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. shadow. kingship from king. Verbal abstract nouns. redness from red. those opinions and feelings. five proper. by altering its function. the teachings of the High Spirit. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. thunder. To avoid difficulty. They are only the husks of verbs. (1) prudence from prudent. her longing for their favor. the rude drawings of the book. action from act. Underived abstract nouns. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. hope. They cannot govern a word. the great Puritan awakening. childhood from child. etc. ease. as their name implies. as in the expressions. II. five abstract. lightning. NOTE. joy. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech.Attribute abstract nouns. stupidity from stupid. winter." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. Caution.. Exercises. speech from speak. night. there is time for such reasonings. 272. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. Such are beauty. summer." "a brisk walk. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. etc. as glad²joy. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. and they cannot express action. theft from thieve. service from serve. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. hopeful²hope. . The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. etc. the well-being of her subjects. 1. 12. 273). (2) peerage from peer. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. is used as a noun. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. energy. but are merely names of actions.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. day. he spread his blessings over the land.

typhus. Using a dictionary. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. geology. algebra. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. mathematics? 3. catarrh. as pneumonia. pleurisy. diphtheria. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . (b) branches of knowledge. as physics.2.

levant and morocco (leather). Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. in Portugal. a Hutton. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Material nouns may be used as class names. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. thus. We know a number of objects made of iron. from a town in France. Nouns change by use. for example. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Others of similar character are calico. a Fourier. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. arras. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. from Damascus. etc. from China. Sodom was famous for wickedness.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength.²EMERSON. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. a Lavoisier. port (wine). A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. above. from Calicut. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. from Corinth. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. it imposes its classification on other men. or to go over to it entirely. and lo! a new system. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. who was its inventor. as a davy. currants. the guillotine. 119)." referring to flat- . 15. "The cook made the irons hot. a Bentham. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. but we may say. but most of them are in the following groups. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. the word port. 14. a Locke. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. Guillotin. damask. from the name of Dr. 13. from Oporto. Proper names transferred to common use.

From all around²Earth and her waters.irons. mists.²COLLINS. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. but on dispositions which require to be created. and only Vice and Misery. to prowl or to moan like night birds. A halfway class of words. a rubber for erasing marks.²BYRON. and say teas. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. the abstract idea is partly lost. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. are abroad. Traffic has lain down to rest. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. (3) By poetical use. but differ in strength. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. as stones.²HAYNE. candies. clouds. which are made plural. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Death. papers. tins. or made plural. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. Class nouns in use. that disposition is the thing to be created. When it is said that art differs from science. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. tobaccos. or the arts and sciences. nor are they common class nouns. on fire.In lightnings owned his secret stings. be spoken of. They are not then pure abstract nouns. Personification of abstract ideas. Next Anger rushed. These are the same in material.²CARLYLE.²RUSKIN. slates. etc. though not confined to verse. This is a poetic usage. not material things. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. The words preceded by the article a. abstract in meaning. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. oils. or.²BRYANT. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. his eyes. paints. etc. and so on. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. coals.²PERCIVAL. a steel to whet a knife on. clays. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. For example. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. but in case an art or a science. or used as class nouns. Test this in the following sentences:² . that is. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. that the power of art is founded on fact. 17. smiled. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. are still names of abstract ideas. 16. purity.

were mere terrors of the night. fear thy blow. By ellipses. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective.²SHAKESPEARE. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. NOTE. sir!"²MACAULAY . loves. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. But ah! those pleasures. but is still a noun. All these. nouns used to modify. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. Nouns used as descriptive terms. "a family quarrel. And still. a bank in New York.²BURNS. or describe it.² GOLDSMITH. they cannot be compared. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.²IRVING." "a morning walk. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. or from any expression. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. as each repeated pleasure tired. But it is better to consider them as nouns. which belongs to another word. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. however. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Conjunctions. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech.² BURNS. for example.²EMERSON." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. as descriptive adjectives are. They are more like the possessive noun.²SHAKESPEARE." "a New York bank. 19.Let us." which contains a pure adjective. make our own so. Adjectives. the wealthy." "the State Bank Tax bill. 18.The Solitary can despise. Every why hath a wherefore. Then comes the "Why. When I was young? Ah.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. if we must have great actions. sir!" and the "What then. meaning a walk in the morning. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. sir?" and the "No. etc. Adverbs. they do not express quality. a bill as to tax on the banks.

are spoken of as if pure nouns. however. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. or a state secret. of words rather than of their meaning. There are many of these.²These remarks do not apply. Now. 1.. The it. the terms the great. in a sentence above. but as a figure of speech. is ambiguous. When. FRANKLIN."²B. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. too. the wealthy. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. 8.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. 3. It is to be remembered. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. so. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. .(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods." or "legal. 7. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 20. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. and Then." and another of Dr. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. of course. without reference to its function in the sentence. or a criminal. why and wherefore. 6.Nor iron bars a cage. at the beginning." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. 5. and tell to which class each belongs. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. but have an adjectival meaning. in speaking of the principal of a school. Learning. are used. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Caution. In the other sentences. etc. 2. NOTE. Power laid his rod aside. Stone walls do not a prison make. When. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 4. or a faithful domestic. that cobweb of the brain. Exercise. is the word "just.

17. 21. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. always feminine.9. Greek. returned to Spain. he cried. always masculine. It is founded on sex. 18. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. for every dropHinders needle and thread. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. The hours glide by. that waits you here. 11. 15. 19. GENDER. But pleasures are like poppies spread. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. The fleet. 21. 23. in English grammar. but not so in English. 16. 24. 22.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. and names of females are usually feminine. female. 12. 13. the welcome. What gender means in English. Male beings are. 20. 14. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. And see. In Latin. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.You seize the flower. There are exceptions even to this general statement. shattered and disabled. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. and many other languages. the silver moon is gone. A fool speaks all his mind.Fair guests. A little weeping would ease my heart. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 10. . Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. German. its bloom is shed. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter.

with its gizzard under its wing. the sex being of no consequence. 23. and neuter nouns. however. der Tisch (table) is masculine. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. 22. if of the female sex. inanimate things are spoken of. Some words either gender or neuter nouns.²masculine and feminine. or additions to words. hortus (garden) is masculine. if there were any signs of life in it. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. in English. Gender nouns. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. He next stooped down to feel the pig. then. in other languages gender follows the form. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex..When.. All nouns. the name of it is masculine. Gunpowder . that pattern of a husband. . those which do not distinguish sex. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects." ..² I have seenA curious child . or names of things without life. Hence: Definition. Thus. came to a stand just by the bridge.²LAMB." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth.²IRVING. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. mensa (table) is feminine. according to their use. must be divided into two principal classes. or which arouse his interest most. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. that is. Neuter nouns. Of animals. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. das Messer (knife) is neuter. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders.²gender nouns. according to use..² IRVING. 24. For instance: in Latin. and consequently without sex. "A little child shall lead them. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. corpus (body) is neuter. the word child is neuter in the sentence. those distinguishing the sex of the object.. are named by gender nouns. No "common gender. the name of it is feminine. but are spoken of as neuter. The great difference is. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. clapping his burnished wings. in German. those with which man comes in contact often.

28. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. the division of words according to sex. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. . for from they said vram. or the lack of it. etc. is. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Male nouns beings. of course. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. Very few of class I. generally to a masculine word. from the masculine fox. he-bear²she-bear. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. 26. Gender shown by Prefixes. puts a prefix before the masculine man. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. domestic. If such words as parent. teacher.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. The inflections for gender belong. Native suffixes. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. These remain in vixen and spinster. though both words have lost their original meanings. woman. and for the older word fat they said vat. According to the definition. Hence vixen is for fyxen.. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. relative. do not show the sex to which the persons belong.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Gender shown by Suffixes. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. I. as in wine vat. II. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. (2) By adding a suffix. ruler. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. but spinster has now no connection with it. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. 29. cousin. For fox they said vox. servant. they are neuter words.25. 27. One feminine. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. as he-goat²she-goat. Put in convenient form.

as. Low Latin issa). Ending of masculine not changed. -ess (French esse. but in most cases it has not. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. These are attached to foreign words. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. punster. the one most used. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. and are never used for words recognized as English. as czarina. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. trickster.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as. donna.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. as seam-stress. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . 30. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. executrix. Slightly changed and widely used. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. gamester. song-str-ess. señorita. Unaltered and little used.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. it has none now in the words huckster. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added.

In some of these pairs. we use the masculine termination. NOTE.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. Instead of saying doctress. neighboresse. neighbor (masculine and feminine). editor. Gender shown by Different Words. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. etc. from Latin imperatricem. as was said in the sixteenth century. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. we use the feminine. Some of them have an interesting history. to represent persons of either sex." III. the ending -ess. from the French -esse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as in the fourteenth century. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Thus. teacheresse. We frequently use such words as author. 31. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. wagoness. others have in their origin the same root.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). 32. as.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. teacher or lady teacher. fosteress. as. frendesse. chairman. or servauntesse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present.

but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). probably meaning house dweller). widuwa²widuwe. Widower. not immediately connected with witch. Mare. or lauerd in Middle English. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). 34. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Besides gander and drake. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Danish gaas. Madam is the French ma dame. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). finally gander.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. gand-ra. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. as in many other words. The masculine was formed by adding -a. became identical.² . Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. but this has long been obsolete. Icelandic gás. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. though both are ultimately from the same root. Two masculines from feminines. for example. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. leaving our word drake. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. The older forms. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. It is not connected historically with our word duck. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. from Latin mea domina. 16).). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). written loverd. Personification. had the masculine mearh (horse). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. etc. the old sign of the masculine. 33. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). lhauerd. among others) to be from the same root word. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Witch is the Old English wicce. in Old English mere.

36. The -en inflection. 39. Our language has two numbers. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. in Old English. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine.²CAMPBELL. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun."²BYRON. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. for instance. treen (trees). But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. 38. etc. Effect of personification. eyen (eyes).Her home is on the deep. (3) By adding -s (or -es). . number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.²singular and plural. the plural. 35. more than one. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en.No towers along the steep. In nouns. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. NUMBER. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. The first two methods prevailed. that is.²KEATS.²COLERIDGE. This is not exclusively a poetic use. we make its plural by adding -s or -es.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. shoon (shoes). (2) By changing the root vowel. 37. But other words were inflected afterwards. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. the engineer speaks so of his engine. I. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English."Now. and not by the form of the noun. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. together with the third. Britannia needs no bulwarks. whenever we adopt a new word.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. Definition.

head. Examples of this inflection are. ditch. The words horse and foot. glass. wight.The horse are thousands ten. retain the same form for plural meaning. . pair. etc. Kine is another double plural. people. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. quartz. sheep. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. Brethren has passed through three stages. 40. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. that have the singular and plural alike. sail. brace. or if preceded by the prepositions in.²MACAULAY. but has now no singular.Horse and foot. after numerals (if not after numerals. Other words following the same usage are. originally neuter. and is still found in dialects. Akin to this class are some words.-En inflection imitated by other words. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. III. 42. after all.²WHITTIER. as. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. cross. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. Lee marched over the mountain wall. folk. II."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.² The foot are fourscore thousand. finally brethren.² "God bless me! so then. borough²formerly had the same inflection. such as deer. Such are box. but they now add the ending -s. etc.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. turf. as. Children has passed through the same history. and get settled. when they mean soldiery. by. then brothre or brethre. swine. they add -s): also trout. Instead of -s. cannon. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es.²THOREAU. into Frederick town. heathen. lens. etc. The old plural was brothru.²Over the mountains winding down. dozen. salmon. 41.

volcano² volcanoes. etc. negro²negroes. allies. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. as. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . a new syllable is made. e. the Americas. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. though this sound combines readily with -s. and many branches of learning. daisies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. quoth then that ladie milde. physics. Proper nouns are regularly singular. 43.. optics. and go over to other classes (Secs. So live. It served simply as a means of sight. fancies. Some words are usually singular. house²houses. hero²heroes. though they are plural in form. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. means and politics. etc. means: as. molasses. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. 45. shelf²shelves. etc. 15 and 17). 44. Special Lists.Of maladie the which he hadde endured.²BRYANT.g. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. etc. in its widest extent. politics. half²halves. prize²prizes. fairies. race²races. DANA. these words ended in -ie.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. Examples of these are. summons. they lose their identity. When such words take a plural ending. and some -es. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class.² Politics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i).g. mathematics.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe..²PROF. Means plural. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. chaise²chaises. niche²niches. economics. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular.-Es added in certain cases. Two words. is both the science and the art of government. and the real ending is therefore -s. also news. The lilie on hir stalke grene. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. however. the Washingtons. e. that when thy summons comes. Words in -ies. some adding -s. pains (care). knife²knives. Formerly.

Besides this. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²MOTLEY. if I recollect right. By these means. CURTIS. by those means which we have already mentioned. L. Sometimes. . a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. LAUGHLIN. however. W. Now I read all the politics that come out. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. I say. Politics plural. riches will accumulate. Some words have no corresponding singular.² MACAULAY. by strongly conveying the passions. it is furnished with a forceps.²GOLDSMITH. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²J. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²BURKE.Words. A relic which. 46.²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²G.²GOLDSMITH.

(2) abilities. fishes (individuals or kinds). shots (number of times fired). 49. One plural. (2) care. trouble.²POPE. pence (collectively). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. two meanings. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. or copies. 50.. as two sixpences. Numbers also means issues. genius²geniuses (men of genius). number²numbers: (1) figures. penny²pennies (separately). genii (spirits). part²parts: (1) divisions. Three words were originally singular. dice (for gaming). sixpence. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. for the numbers came. in mournful numbers. the other unlike it. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). (2) revenue duties. In speaking of coins. die²dies (stamps for coins. 48. making a double plural. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection.The air. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. of a periodical. fish²fish (collectively).²LONGFELLOW. twopence. Two classes of compound words.. clothes (garments). brethren (of a society or church).). DANA. pease (collectively). ways. (2) poetry.²one corresponding to the singular. may add -s. .the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. carry off chaff. or epistles. or work in a bellows?²PROF. as in the lines. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. shot²shot (collective balls). indices (signs in algebra)..² I lisped in numbers. index²indexes (to books). etc. pea²peas (separately). riches. etc. (2) literature. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. faculties. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). eaves. two plurals. Tell me not.²was it subdued when. In Early Modern English thank is found. These make the last part plural.

y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. woman servant. as the Messrs. such as talisman. the Drs. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. the Misses Rich.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one.² Then came Mr. then Silas Peckham. for example. Norman. Ottoman. The title may be plural. Mussulman. HOLMES. or the name may be pluralized. 52. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. and Mrs. Briggs. Brahman. Brown. woman singer. though the latter is often found. As to plurals of names with titles. The chief member adds -s in the plural. firman. but add -s. as man singer. Two methods in use for names with titles. 51. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. Allen. . there is some disagreement among English writers. manservant. and then the three Miss Spinneys.²DR. German.

The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.²THE CRITIC. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²GOLDSMITH. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. y y analysis antithesis . The Messrs. FROM THE LATIN. Domesticated words. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. or Englished. These are said to be domesticated.²GIBBON. They are then said to be naturalized. or Anglicized. Exercise. and retain their foreign plurals.²DICKENS.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. 53. FROM THE GREEK. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Others have been adopted. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Du Maurier. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.

cell has another relation. . Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence." the word felon's modifies cell.. Letters. etc." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). and expresses a relation akin to possession. they form their plurals in the regular way. etc. figures. 54." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). figures." CASE.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. 55. Words quoted merely as words. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). as. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. In the sentence. without reference to their meaning. Definition. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. as. also add -s or 's.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. In the general wearing-away of inflections. 56. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. Only two case forms.

(2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. must be understood for purposes of analysis. 58. and tell which use of the nominative each one has." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. and merit. three things characterize man. Nouns. I." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. the enemy of the living.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 57. Three properties belong to wisdom. whether inflected or not.²one for the nominative and objective. learning. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. fate. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. 4.²nature. Human experience is the great test of truth. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. completing a verb. and the possessive. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. they returned to their homes. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. when asked unawares. the objective. may be said to have three cases. 1. Excuses are clothes which." (2) As a predicate noun. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. and experience.²the nominative. 3. . 2. 5.²person. Uses of the Nominative. excessive grief. then. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.

Tender men sometimes have strong wills. (in the older stages of the language." "Thou makest the storm a calm. sword in hand and visor down. good Heaven. thy wrath can send. 59. and being equivalent to one verb. how have I frighted thee? II. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. 68. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. measure. Uses of the Objective. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. But the flood came howling one day.Save." (4) As the second object. (5) As the object of a preposition." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. taking the object enemies." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. and tell which use each has:² 1. 3. 9. and landlord of the inn. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. . wounded lies. They charged. as will be seen in Sec. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." (3) Adverbially. and meaning calmest. they are sands of precious gold. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 8. and makest a calm. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. But of all plagues. etc. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. the word toward which the preposition points. Set a high price on your leisure moments. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. save. Conscience. 4. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. distance." Exercise. completing the verb. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. her first law broken.6. a patriarch of the village. reconciles. 2. taking the object storm.

² The unwearied sun. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. or in writing yesterday's elegy. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. the most common of all. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. The possessive case always modifies another word. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. And whirling plate. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. as in these expressions. 6. expressed or understood. III. 7. the Great Stone Face. 61. It is a poetic expression. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.²SHELLEY.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. as.5. Uses of the Possessive. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. The noblest mind the best contentment has. Possession in some sense is the most common.²BYRON. (2) Objective possessive. 60.²HAWTHORNE. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.His winter task a pastime made. (3) Subjective possessive.Does his Creator's power display. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.e.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. 10.. as shown in the sentences. 8.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. 9. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. from day to day. and forfeits paid.And gave the leper to eat and drink.²ADDISON. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. tempests that .

"His beard was of several days' growth" (i. however. in Chaucer.. 63. 62. "From every schires ende. Declension or inflection of nouns. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. and Obj. and Obj. as schoolboys sometimes write. child NOTE. 64. making the possessive singular. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. The use of the apostrophe.e. As said before (Sec." "mannes herte [heart]." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s." Use of the apostrophe. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Case Inflection.winter is likely to have). 56). Nom. PLURAL. How the possessive is formed.e. growth which several days had developed). A suggestion. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. there are only two case forms. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es.. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. Poss. To form the possessive plural. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. the panther which the forest hides)." etc. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. Nom. . "George Jones his book. 62. One is the simple form of a word. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. lady Poss. 1. A false theory." "at his beddes syde.

and she walked off from the don's..²SWIFT. etc. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. for goodness' sake. In compound expressions. etc. 66. store. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. Cervantes' satirical work. .² LOWELL. as by the countess's command. James's. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. my neighbors." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.. 65. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. instead of the emperor their master's name. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. being understood with it: for example.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Captain Scrapegrace's. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.²THACKERAY. church. as. Peter's. some such word as house. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. the possessive sign is usually last." Possessive with compound expressions. I remember him in his cradle at St. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. in the name of the emperor their master. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. but to the ear all may be alike."²DE QUINCEY. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. 67.²DE QUINCEY. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. stands up for God's truth one man. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. dwelling. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. the items of my son's.Though this opinion was untrue.²CARLYLE. containing words in apposition. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²RUSKIN. a word with a phrase. and from a desire to have distinct forms. know the amount of my income. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. Possessive and no noun limited. Kate saw that.²HOLMES. the poor miner Hans Luther's son." "A postscript is added. as.

Both of these are now used side by side. in such a sentence as. the sentence might be understood as just explained. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. sometimes they are used together. 1. a double possessive. (1) When a word is modified by a. E. however. (See also Sec. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. 68. or subjective. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . this. corresponding to 's. especially when used with this or that. we use the phrase of Atterbury. Blair). "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. A peculiar form. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. (3) It prevents ambiguity.The double possessive. ill-lighted except where she stands. and tell whether each is appositional.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. objective. the.. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. and at the same time by a possessive noun.²E. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. Clearness. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. making a double possessive. HALE.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. as one modifier. any. and I used to like whatever they bade me like.²FROUDE. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. 87. If. (b) Rewrite the sentence. each. the statement clearly means only one thing. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. every. Emphasis. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Exercises. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. In most cases. etc. For example. that.²CARLYLE. no. 2.

Nature herself. therefore. let him seasonably water the one. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Now the bright morning star. and destroy the other.3. 69. Friend. 12. we state.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. day's harbinger. 15. At lovers' perjuries. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.They say. 10. in parsing a noun. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. it seemed. Jove laughs. 7.² . would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 9. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Hence. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 4. some idioms²the double possessive.Comes dancing from the East. In parsing. 70. 13. 11.A weary waste expanding to the skies. with every garland crowned. 8. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 5. 6. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. There Shakespeare's self. 14.

a withered serving man. 71. That in the captain's but a choleric word. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. object of the verb takes. Neckcloth. has no governing word. Thief is a common class noun. which gender. (3) Whether singular or plural number.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. In parsing any word. it has no sex. 2. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. it is the object of the preposition by. Throat is neuter. therefore masculine gender. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. and limits neckcloth. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. 4. therefore singular number. subject of the verb is understood. MODEL FOR PARSING. hence objective case. gender. names one thing. determining its case. masculine. singular number. therefore neuter. The correct method. like miller's. NOTE. it denotes only one person. and relations. is a common class noun. (4) Its office in the sentence. a fresh tapster. . the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. and therefore nominative case. but is the adverbial objective. proper. as to case. therefore singular number. it is the name of a male being. the connection shows a male is meant. inflections. Exercise. and to have it found out by accident. and number.(1) The class to which it belongs.²common. hence it is a gender noun. 68). it expresses possession or ownership. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. hence it is a common noun. therefore possessive case.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. etc. it expresses time. if the latter. 3. hence it is objective case.

. 72. He giveth his beloved sleep. or for a person or thing.. Classes of pronouns. blessings light on him that first invented . but by a question we say. from a necessity for short. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. all in one. or for a group of persons or things. 73. 76). where the Rhone enters the lake. PRONOUNS. instead of saying. 7.²palace. (2) Interrogative pronouns. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Madame de Staël." Again. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. castle. were natives of Geneva. Necker. 9. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 11. and prison. and representative words. The need of pronouns. 8. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Mrs. Jarley's back being towards him." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Now. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. sleep! 6. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. For instance. Definition. definite. financial minister to Louis XVI. A pronoun is a reference word. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. and his daughter. A few miles from this point. Time makes the worst enemies friends.And hated her for her pride.. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. standing for a name. 10..5.

Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. Singular. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Person in grammar. that is. even if it had a special form. we our. representing the person speaking. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. they must represent the person talking. the person or thing spoken to. (3) Third person. 74. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. 75. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. (4) Adjective pronouns. mine. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. This gives rise to a new term. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. primarily adjectives. I Poss. Three persons of pronouns. "the distinction of person.(3) Relative pronouns. which relate or refer to a noun. which cannot be used as adjectives. (2) Second person. representing a person or thing spoken to. they are said to have person by agreement. ours . standing for a person or thing spoken of. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. Nom. as nouns have the same form. From analogy to pronouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. and the person or thing talked about." Person of nouns. my Plural. which have forms for person. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. words. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. (5) Indefinite pronouns. 77. pronoun.. 76. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. or other word or expression.

. Masc. neuter. Nom. and also for the neuter. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Third person singular has gender. Obj. so also with the person or thing spoken to. masculine h . namely. . thine. feminine h o. of all Three. hers her Plur. Poss. by personification. your. he his him Fem. in the singular. they their. thy Remarks on These Forms. a separate form for each gender. yours you Plural. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Nom. Nom. SECOND PERSON. yours you THIRD PERSON. you your. or. she her. Old Form Common Form. it its it Poss. Obj. thou thee ye you you your. Poss. Old forms. But the third person has. yours Poss. theirs them Neut. me us Singular. First and second persons without gender.Obj. neuter hit. Obj. Nom. Obj. 78. Singular. The speaker may be either male or female.

though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. 79.² Oh.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. their. etc. thou Shepherd of Israel.²BEECHER. . that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. and sometimes its. heora..²SHELLEY. 82. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. in Old English. especially in poetry.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. two modern uses of thou. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). We use it with a plural verb always. Two uses of the old singulars. as in prayers. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. This is of comparatively recent growth. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The plurals were h . We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. Thou. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. but make the plural you do duty for the singular.. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. 80. it. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. them. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. etc. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time.:² (1) In elevated style. as possessive of it. for example. etc. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). There are. thee. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. to thy care we commit the helpless. that didst comfort thy people of old. (2) In addressing the Deity. however. thy." As shown above. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. which is a neuter noun. just as we now say. The form its. 81. Second person always plural in ordinary English. as. which was often sounded with the h silent. even when referring to a single object. the forms they. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. The consequence is. heom.Thou lovest. In spoken English.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar.

Thine are the city and the people of Granada. he. 34). .²BULWER. That is. thou. she. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. them. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. her. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. his. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. and has been slave to thousands. 'tis his. to personify objects (Sec. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. him. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. however. us. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English.Use of the pronouns in personification. or. they. her. Not a separate class. we. when they occur in the predicate position. The Possessive. him. they have a nominative form. Additional nominatives in spoken English. Yet careful speakers avoid this. 83. The words I." the literary language would require he after was. some say. 85. yours. sometimes his and its. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. Old use of mine and thine. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. The forms my. and not make more classes. I spare thee mine. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. I The Nominative. in such a sentence as. II. theirs. And since thou own'st that praise. her. their. Absolute personal pronouns. though those named in Sec. have a peculiar use. The forms mine. your. note the following:² 'Twas mine. thy. though ye is occasionally used as objective. 84 are always subjects. and follow the usage of literary English. Nominative forms. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. 58). "I am sure it was him. 84.²LANDOR. its. hers. ²SHAKESPEARE. me. thine. us. 86. besides a nominative use. and sometimes in ordinary speech. our. ye. them. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. In spoken English. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²COWPER. for.

commenting upon a letter of mine. This usage is still preserved in poetry.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. theirs. Long Allen." said Henry Woodstall. yours.²CARLYLE. ours. sometimes its.²THACKERAY. ²HOLMES.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. or satire. thus. Besides this. T. for example. Like the noun possessives.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. it tells of good old times. his. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. 87. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.²J. COOPER. "Hold thy peace. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²THACKERAY. F. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. FIELDS. (2) To bring emphasis. theirs. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. anger. This ancient silver bowl of mine. yours. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. Their uses. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. and with mine. ours. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. as in nouns. thine. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. Give every man thine ear. pluck it out. Double and triple possessives. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.² CARLYLE.²BIBLE. hers. (3) To express contempt. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²J. we find. The forms hers.²ID.²SWIFT. . If thine eye offend thee. we have. thus. are really double possessives."²SCOTT. in that old Edinburgh house of his. but few thy voice.²ID.

Both joined in making him a present. as it is called. in the first sentence. the thing is done. as shown in Sec. In pronouns.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. or use in a sentence.²BIBLE. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In such sentences as. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. "The good alone are great. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. Besides this use of the objective. for whose benefit." "None but the brave deserves the fair. but the form is the same as the objective. 90.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. . mine stands for my praise in the second. 86: mine stands for my property. 20. The old dative case. but not in form. They all handled it.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. III.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. this dative use.²ID. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. But the first two have a nominative use. 88. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. and mine in the second has an objective use. In their function. Now the objective." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. but nominative or objective in use. 89. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. his for his property. The Objective. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. was marked by a separate case. Curse me this people. but expresses for whom.

²IRVING To empty here. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. WEBSTER.²BULWER. why.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.² . or to the idea. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. which follows the verb.²EMERSON. 91. as.²ADDISON. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. you must condense there. in this century. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. as. to stand for the real. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.²DE QUINCEY. was passed by with indulgence. (3) In apposition. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. or that he has not a great deal more. Your mere puny stripling. ²EMERSON. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. It is a pity that he has so much learning. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. has not made its progress. like Chinese skill.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. Society.²D.² NEWMAN. Indefinite use of you and your. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. 92.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. you sneeze. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. thus. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. and they cry.Time is behind them and before them. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. You have oaten cakes baked some months before." (3) As a grammatical subject.²CARLYLE. The word you. as in the sentences. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. logical subject.²BACON.

as. however. when they are direct objects. And when I awoke. For when it dawned. -selves.²ANON. farms it. (ourself).²EMERSON.It is finger-cold. A sturdy lad . keeps a school. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. (thyself). who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. used in poetry. I set me down and sigh. as they are also called.²COLERIDGE. himself.²ID. It was late and after midnight.²BURNS. "I found me a good book." and there is an end of it. Of the two forms in parentheses.²THOREAU. have laid them downIn their last sleep. that is. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. or COMPOUND PERSONAL." etc." "He bought him a horse.²DE QUINCEY. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.²HOLMES. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. They are myself.²HAWTHORNE. it rained. they dropped their arms.²IRVING. and its plural selves. I made up my mind to foot it. themselves.²BUNYAN. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. but seldom in prose. herself. yourselves. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. we use such expressions as.² Now I lay me down to sleep. And millions in those solitudes. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self."²IRVING. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. who in turn tries all the professions. itself. peddles it. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. the second is the old form of the second person.. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. since firstThe flight of years began. There was nothing for it but to return.²SCOTT. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. who teams it. 94. For example. ourselves. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. 93. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. Poor Christian was hard put to it.²BRYANT. yourself. .. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. This occurs in poetry.

Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.² TENNYSON. shall dissolve. not the possessive forms. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. Origin of these reflexives. Threats to all.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. ourselves. especially in the speech of rulers. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. as we ourself have been. and the others were formed by analogy with these. with self. and build the lofty rhyme. The question might arise. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.²E. As if it were thyself that's here. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.To you yourself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. as in vulgar English. as. 96.As girls were once.²WORDSWORTH. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. B. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition..²ID. theself. for example. were changed into the possessive myself.²MILTON. NOTE. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. as. In Middle English the forms meself. 95. to us.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.²SHAKESPEARE.. Use of the reflexives.² The great globe itself .² Only itself can inspire whom it will.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.² . Held dead within them till myself shall die. after the analogy of myself.²EMERSON.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. etc. for example. thyself. BROWNING. I shrink with pain. to every one.

feminine. let him lowly confess it. 7. 8. but it is the soonest spoiled. 3. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. To know what is best to do.²B. father. Come and trip it as we go. some of them being double possessives. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. some each of masculine. 2. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. all conform to it. But if a man do not speak from within the veil.On the light fantastic toe. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active.² THACKERAY. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 4. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 97. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. And it grew wondrous cold. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Three now in use. which.²DE QUINCEY. 9.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. where the word is one with that it tells of. 6. and neuter. One obsolete. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Courage. fight it out. and how to do it. . Biscuit is about the best thing I know. is wisdom. Infancy conforms to nobody. 5. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. 10. FRANKLIN. Years ago. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. and what.

Whose was that gentle voice. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Use of what. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. used formerly to mean which of two. number.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. ideas. actions.There is an old word. but for case alone. it is always third person..Promised. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. etc. which is not inflected for gender. 98. As shown here. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Which of you. not to persons. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. but now obsolete. whispering sweet. The use of who. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. it refers to either persons or things. or case. 100. as it always asks about somebody. that is. that it is not inflected for gender or number. These show that what is not inflected for case. . long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Use of which. whether. 99. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. it is selective. methought. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. with its possessive and objective. shall we say. referring to things. What wouldst thou do. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Use of who and its forms. the gold. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. that. that it is always singular and neuter. having three forms.

as they take the place usually of a word already used. who? Poss. The antecedent. and so to make smoother discourse.²by the use of the words.101. nominative in the second also. "The last of all the Bards was he. 103. whose? Obj. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which. It usually precedes the pronoun. as. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. Thus we may say." Or. These bards sang of Border chivalry. who is used as objective instead of whom. 102. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. pronoun." In the latter sentence. subject of doth love. Further treatment of who. which is nominative in the first sentence. and also in having a conjunctive use. Function of the relative pronoun. objective in the last. who evidently refers to Bards. AND PLUR.² "The last of all the Bards was he. They will be spoken of again in the proper places.² . SINGULAR Nom. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. which is called the antecedent of the relative. SING. Who. or other word or expression. For instance. 127). but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. and what are also relative pronouns. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. what may be an adverb in some expressions. since it is subject of the verb had. it may be shortened into. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. which and what are sometimes adjectives. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. which and what. 104. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. being the direct object of the verb shall take. AND PLUR. as. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. 99. in Sec. for which the pronoun stands. 105. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also.Who sung of Border chivalry.

That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 3. what.Whose flag has braved. 3.²SCOTT.That guard our native seas.²MILTON. 4. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. a simple relative is meant.²PARTON Which and its forms. 106. 2. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. For her enchanting son. with all its capabilities .² COX. Generally speaking. Indefinite relatives. 4. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.. They had not their own luster.. . and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. the women whom women approve.²BYRON.²THACKERAY.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 107. in the same sense in which man's nature. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. The nurse came to us. 6. 2. but the look which is not of the earth. Who and its forms. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. Ye mariners of England.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. D.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. When the word relative is used. will be discussed further on.²LOWELL In this. are the men and women who bless their species.Whom universal nature did lament. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. The origin of language is divine. which. both his and who have the antecedent priest. The men whom men respect. WHITNEY.. 5.²W.²DR JOHNSON. a thousand years. that. Two kinds. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. is a divine creation. 108. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.

²LAMB 3. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²H. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. stratagems.Is fit for treasons..² SHAKESPEARE 2..²IRVING. BEECHER 5. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. 107.²GOLDSMITH.²EMERSON. The man that hath no music in himself. 109. 3. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. else this description will seem exaggerated. and spoils. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. 110. 4.5.. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.. which it certainly is not. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. What.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. W.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. you will not be angry with me for telling you. The Tree Igdrasil. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. Already done is all that he would do. 6. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. Reader. (a) This gradation . That. 111. Who. Examples of the relative that:² 1.. The judge .²MARGARET FULLER.²BURKE. 2.²DE QUINCEY. no bad type of what often happens in that country. For what he sought below is passed above. ought to be kept in view. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.

Kingsley. Sec.. in the second. whose wound I had dressed. referring to animals. and 6. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. and others.who. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. 96). who class With those who think the candles come too soon.. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Which.²LEIGH HUNT. whose is second person. flung its arms around my neck. and 3. the others are all third person. Smollett. 112. whose. (4) It has two case forms.²THACKERAY. that man.²DR. . Witness the following examples:² And you. The little gorilla.. who is first person. Scott. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. Cooper. p. they are plural.. or ideas. 2. not persons. (3) It is nearly always third person. It has been seen (Sec. who. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].²which for the nominative and objective. seemed as much excited as myself.. My horse.²LOWELL. whom. In sentence 4. in 5. 107. In 1. Gibbon. things. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. whose for the possessive. The robins. and so on. 113. the relatives are singular. in the first sentence. 5.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. The sentences in Sec. possessive case of which.²IRVING. in 4. son.²SWIFT. a man. Examples of whose. Who referring to animals.. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.whose. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. JOHNSON. in the third.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. whom.²who. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. (2) It has three case forms. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature.

and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. no possessive. Sometimes.² And.²RUSKIN. This moribund '61. 109. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example.²first. which is worse."²RUSKIN. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²SCOTT. (3) It is the same form for first.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. (2) It has only one case form. That. and third persons. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. Burke. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. and numerous others. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. let us enter the church itself. too. second. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and to persecute without pity. thus. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. In the sentences of Sec. Primarily.²BEECHER. 116. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.²DE QUINCEY. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. Which and its antecedents.²SHAKESPEARE. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. . 115. which is very notable and curious. the antecedent follows which. animals. Kingsley.² MCMASTER. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. So in Matthew Arnold. The last two sentences in Sec. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. and things. secondly (which made her stare).²THACKERAY. Men may be ready to fight to the death.² I swept the horizon. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. This often occurs.114.

which. What. The gender. that men must needs abide." That evidently refers to truths. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. plural number. and person of the relatives who. that he has. . but what I hate. plural number. For example. When expressed. third person. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. The sentences of Sec. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. Who plainly stands for those or the people. What a man does. we can. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. Nom. who Poss. third person." (3) "These people heard him. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. 117.²SHAKESPEARE. as in sentence 6.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. whose Obj. what we said?²CARLYLE. 109.²BIBLE What fates impose. and is emphatic. Sec. it usually follows." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. 119. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. that do I not.²EMERSON. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. either of which would be neuter. 118. consequently is neuter. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. for example.² What I would. by taking them out. as. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. number." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. that do I. is always neuter.

Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. nobler souls with that which they are. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. and what is the direct object of the verb call. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. who is sure to be cunninger than they. and hence is in the nominative case. . 6. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. The word what. subject of heard. Parsing what. I think they are trying to outwit nature. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. the simple relative. The relative what is handled differently.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. in (3). In (2). is subject of wrought upon and molded. is subject of the verb can't be cured. in (1). the highest result of all education. In the same way who. "What can't be cured must be endured. is in the nominative case." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 7. it is object of uttered. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. First find the antecedents. In the sentence.. 5. 8. people is the object of the preposition of."²EMERSON. Another way. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. neuter. Some prefer another method of treatment. it is subject of the verb heard. As shown by the following sentences. standing for the people understood. 120. What must be endured? Answer. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. The whole expression is its subject. however. Now. because it has usually no antecedent. third person. we is the subject. Exercise. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change." Here the subject of is. etc. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. above. 4. after all. is what we call nature. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. but is singular. but of this. then parse the relatives. Truths in sentence (2). 3. so is in the objective case. which is. What can't be cured. in the following sentences:² 1.

whichsoever. whosoever. and parse that in the first clause. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 4. 7. 3. Hence some take what as a double relative. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. Do what we can." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. Take which you please. summer will have its flies. They are whoever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. 121. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. So with the other indefinites. not as direct as the simple relatives. no particular thing. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. that is. whatever is equivalent to all things which. whatsoever. 5. Meaning and use. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. and in 2. and his friend a fool. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. in a new and original way. It is no proof of a man's understanding. whichever. object of with] which [singular. 2.²BURKE. or stand on their head. 122. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative.²BURKE. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. object of do] they do. by meaning and use. that nothing else can stand in their presence. List and examples. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. whatever. . to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. The simple relatives who. to everything that. which. whatsoever. less common are whoso. 123. or what else soever. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. being referred to. no certain antecedent. It is clear that in 1. 6. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 2. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. and which in the second clause.²MACAULAY. "common souls pay with that [singular. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Death is there associated. What simple relative and what indefinite relative.²you cannot have both.

The examples in sentences 5 and 6. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. There is nothing but is related to us.. either one that. are used.²HAWTHORNE. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. thus. whereupon. In early modern English. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. 120.²DE QUINCEY.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. but which only wealth could have purchased. upon which. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. by which. the conjunctions wherein. But and as.² 1. 417). 125. nothing that does not interest us.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. whereby. for example. This. not following the word such. 124.²EMERSON. Other substitutes. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. 2. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.As shown in Sec. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. etc. Proof that they have the force of relatives. but mean any one whom. everything that (or everything which). as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Two words. has been my heaviest affliction.² some particular thing. 121. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Former use of as. as was used just as we use that or which. 4. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. 121. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. etc. but and as.. what means anything that. etc. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. 126. Sec. and that as after such is equivalent to which. for example. Instead of the phrases in which. .

no antecedent is expressed. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. would be.. Special caution needed here. 2 (b). "Who stood behind? We knew. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first." Likewise with which in 3 (b). a question is disguised in each sentence.²WHITTIER. In studying such sentences. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. though the earthwork hid them. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. which having the antecedent lines. showing that who is plainly interrogative.²ID. But in 1 (b). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. which would indicate that they are not relatives. if expanded.²EMERSON. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. 2. if not. and 3 (b). It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. it is an indefinite relative). it is a simple relative. and whether what = that + which (if so. In sentences 1 (a). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 1 (b). (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. Another caution. the full expression being. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized." etc. How to decide. Thus. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). "But what had become of them? They knew not. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. second. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. . So in 2 (b). it is an interrogative. what is interrogative. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. 3. who having the antecedent gentleman. 127. if not.

which.²FORSTER 6. . but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew.²G. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. I visited many other apartments. whose has the antecedent you. In the first. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences.²FLETCHER. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. Put in the relatives who. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. the question is asked by the verb. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. Exercise. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. whence is the interrogative word. and asks no question.² These are the sounds we feed upon. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. 5.²HOLMES.128. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. 4. In the third.² THACKERAY. On the other hand. ELIOT. Examine the following:² 1. In the second. 3. which has the antecedent hue. 129. but the life of man in England. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr.²GOLDSMITH. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²SWIFT. Thus. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Relative omitted when object. When Goldsmith died. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. 2.²CARLYLE. and Court Calendars.

We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. Function of adjective pronouns. . It is rare in prose.²CAMPBELL. 2. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Relative omitted when subject. 5. Also in literary English we find the same omission. the house was full. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4.²SHAKESPEARE. simple relatives. 130. which. 6. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Examples are. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.²SCOTT. or indefinite relatives:² 1.7. who were to be rulers over whom. which was already proceeding. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 3. The nobles looked at each other. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. and what.Ne'er looks upon the sun.²Id. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.² LOWELL. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. and comparatively so in poetry.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. There was such a crowd went. that. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.

but in this function. as some. and another to get cool under. expressed or understood. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. many. but have lost their adjective use. neither. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." Classes of adjective pronouns. 133. in letters of gold.²IRVING.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. etc. 'Truth. Caution. must not modify any word. any. etc.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. either. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. "these pranks. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. all. such as each. that. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. none. . such as this. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS.131. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. or may be the whole of a sentence. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. a word.²EMERSON. and on each is written. For instance. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. necessarily thought of: thus. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. For example. which we have seen in such expressions as. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. In the first use they are adjectives. "another bank.²BRYANT. few. etc." in the others. "each cube." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. and stand for a noun. in order to be an adjective pronoun." "Where two men ride on a horse. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. or an argument in a paragraph. in the first. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns." in the second. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. or they may stand for nouns. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing." that is. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 132. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. not pronouns. "The dead are there. Adjectives. the former. Primarily they are adjectives. or use." "one man. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words.

3. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Compound.²ID. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. and sow wickedness. .²ID. Even as I have seen. Simple.² They stood. when the latter was the King of Spain. NOTE. Exercises.All these he saw. they that plow iniquity.²LOWELL. Definition and examples. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Some of these are simple pronouns.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. and they have well performed the other. because he was not lying in wait for these. for example.²EMERSON 4. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. but these were of the best. or sat. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Their minds accorded into one strain. or reclined. Such are a few isolated instances. They have not shunned the one. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. 5. A man inspires affection and honor. They had fewer books. 2. accidentally preserved. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 134. as seemed good to each. reap the same. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties.

one another. as some of the rangers had gone astray. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. ²HAWTHORNE. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.Two are compound pronouns. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. Men take each other's measure when they react. as it were. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. Much might be said on both sides. Some inflected. Another opposes him with sound argument.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. paused over a horoscope. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. The Soldan. 135. .²EMERSON. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. imbued. Exercise. as. They led one another. we might the more easily discharge them. for example.² One reflexive. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²KINGSLEY.²HAWTHORNE. such as one other. with the superstitions of his time. or melt for others' woe.²HOLMES. None shall rule but the humble. The word one has a reflexive form. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. Definition and examples. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. as most were.²each other. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. you quickly come to the end of all. another.

every one (or everyone). . 137. anybody. some one. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy." It means something.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. 136. nobody. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. and somewhat. and was indefinite in Old English. as shown in the words everybody's. unlike adjective pronouns. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. everybody. any one (or anyone).. naught.² At lovers' perjuries. everybody else. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. somebody else. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. every one else. as.Exercise. etc. Jove laughs. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Now. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. no one. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Every one else stood still at his post. anything. they say. also aught. something. and they. I tell you what. nothing. Definition and examples. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. anyone else. Exercise. They indefinite means people in general. what. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. anybody else's. in building of chaises. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. they are never used as adjectives. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. everything. but. Somebody.

See also "Syntax" (Sec. All was now ready for action. 12. The table was good. and of no other. Others did the same thing. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 10. 5. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Hutchinson tells us of herself.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 138. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. to which. were suffered to depart. 16. 9. 13. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 8. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 17. indeed. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. in his negotiations. A reminder. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. For this did God send her a great reward. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. . Exercise. I first found myself among the mountains. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 18. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 4. 7. from my earliest days. 14. 6. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. Whoever deals with M. 3. 11. 2. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. O thou that rollest above. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost.

27. 31. and seized a pen. eat white bread or brown.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. hear! 33. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. in all its height. 23. Whatever he knows and thinks. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 32. 21. And I had done a hellish thing.Who knew thee too well. 26. Who and what was Milton? That is to say.Destroyer and preserver. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. thou rollest now. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. variety. 35. oh. I who alone am. hear.19. 29. And will your mother pity me. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. They know not I knew thee. 25. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. 30. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . behold now the semblance of my being. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. who take the world easy. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. that let him communicate. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. He sate him down.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 34. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere.And it would work 'em woe. well-oiled dispositions.

" "that house. So with any object. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. which was no bad step towards my liberation." etc. then. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. or with persons. He teaches who gives. 43. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. that is our permanent state. 40. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. so that no other will be mistaken for it. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 39. and if we are near. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. We need to add some words to tell its color. position. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. as. and so he read. the number is limited by adjectives. "one hat. Office of Adjectives.." "yonder hill. Again. . is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. brittle or tough. or liquid. 139. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Who hears me. in pointing out an object. heavy or light. ADJECTIVES." "some cities. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid.36. We are by nature observers. white or red. and he learns who receives. Substantives. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. if we are at a distance." The office of an adjective. size. 44. such as in the expressions "this man. It may have this office alone. adjectives are used. etc. or gaseous. As to the kind of words used. who understands me. becomes mine. For example. 42. etc. If a chemist discovers a new substance. 45. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. 37. 41. He knew not what to do. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit." "a hundred men. 38.

divine." "unlooked-for burden.² BACON. and their trash. rash. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. remotest. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. etc." "half-dead traveler. Nouns are not. happy. to forgive. Definition." "the Roman writer Palladius. "an old English manuscript. to describe it or to limit its application." "the Christian pearl of charity. such as.²COLERIDGE. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. Classes of adjectives. To make this clear. or how much of a thing.140. deep. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. To err is human." "ice-cold water. 141. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." "next-door neighbor. used to tell how many things are spoken of. such as safe." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck.²POPE. With exception of the "and then. They include relative and interrogative words. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. Examples are. 142. beautiful." the "and there. words primarily pronouns. (4) Pronominal adjectives. fair. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them." and the still less significant "and so. If he be thankful for small benefits. Infinitives. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White." they constitute all his connections. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. however." "ivory-handled pistols. terrible. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." . it shows that he weighs men's minds. derived from proper nouns. 143. pointing out particular things." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. "Heaven-derived power." "this life-giving book.

in studying these last-named words. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. in this.²MACDONALD.²COLERIDGE. Examples are. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. 144. and accomplished is an adjective. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. 145. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. For instance: in the sentence. but small thoughts have I of sleep.But ever she looked on Mr." "The shattered squares have opened into line. much. and another is drunken. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. having some of each subclass named in Sec. They have these three subdivisions:² How much." "One is hungry. Care is needed. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. 1." "It came on like the rolling simoom. 2." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. any. 'Tis midnight." was is the verb." "a charming sight. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. some. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." Caution. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. . or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Exercises.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. considerable." "an aged man. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." was accomplished is a verb." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "trailing clouds. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. which are either pure participles used to describe. 143. Oxenham. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. sometimes small. no.

²ID. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. they come under the next division of adjectives. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. Not primarily pronouns. the former²the latter. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. The following sentences present some examples:² . those). The demonstrative adjectives are this. (plural these.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. former. any. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. as. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "I have lost one brother. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." "In came some five and twenty more. 146. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. are used with plural nouns. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. "one blaze of musketry.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking.²VAUGHAN. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. When some. yonder (or yon).²THACKERAY. An arrow was quivering in each body. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. no. its wake." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. every village. and with them a few negroes. that.²KINGSLEY. latter. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. but I have gained fourscore." Single ones of any number of changes. How many.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.² Every town had its fair. Exercise. The list. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other." "a dozen volunteers." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. instead of modifying them. Examples. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." (b) Indefinite numerals." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "Then we wandered for many days.²CARLYLE. Thus." "He had lived by hunting for some months.

when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents."²B. what revenues or garnitures.²WORDSWORTH.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²RUSKIN. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. . WEBSTER. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. I verily believe.²ID.² It matters not what rank he has. Oxenham fought desperately. Exercise.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²ID. Indefinite relative adjectives. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. The silver and laughing Xenil.²KINGSLEY. for example. These were thy charms. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. they are changed to adjectives.²BANCROFT. skill which was progressive²in the other. but. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. of equal skill. FRANKLIN..but all these charms are fled. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. but in the one case. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.. They are of two kinds. 147. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. These do not. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²BULWER. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. 149. Modify names of persons or things. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. As has been said. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. When we speak of the seventeenth century. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. ²CARLYLE. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. The taking of which bark. Definition. tell how many things are meant. In which evil strait Mr. like the other numerals.²GOLDSMITH. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²D. 148. skill which was at pause.

whichsoever way I move. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. as it rather seemed. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. .²LAMB.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. whichever. Whatsoever kind of man he is.. which. Was there. which is selective among what is known. whichsoever. the debt to the rich.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.150. nature will be sure to bear us out in. and gaze. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. 151. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.And whichsoever way I turn. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. whatever. it is impossible to determine. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.²ID. or whether any. whatsoever. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²AGASSIZ.. and new tormentedAround me. Examples of their use are. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. But when the Trojan war comes. In indirect questions. A lady once remarked. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. In direct questions. Adjective what in exclamations.²RUSKIN. As in the pronouns. you at least give him full authority over your son. proved not altogether displeasing to him. New torments I behold.² EMERSON. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. He was turned before long into all the universe. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.²CARLYLE.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. what inquires about things or persons not known.²IRVING.

In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.²This. Thus. which was fully inflected in Old English.²but not the same degree. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. weight. as. alas.² Oh. NUMBER. COMPARISON. That. The article that was used with neuter nouns. Exercise. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.Adjectives have two inflections. etc. History of this²these and that²those. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. those). a sapphire is bluer than the sky. Those borrowed from this. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. In exclamatory expressions. 155. th s (modern those). All these have certain qualities.²number and comparison. or weight. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE.152. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. 154. . gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. of the quality. and when we compare the objects. etc. It is neither relative nor interrogative. or amount. This is the old demonstrative. And yet. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. or size. the making of it right. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. But this had also another plural.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. Meaning of comparison. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. When we place two objects side by side. and those as the plural of that. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. we do so by means of their qualities. we notice some differences between them as to size. gold is heavier than iron. color. 153 ..²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness.

infinite. bluest." Words that cannot be compared.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. but were not common until a century later. These are called degrees of comparison. The comparative is formed by adding -er. but. easiest. supreme. and many others. Substitute for inflection in comparison. Freedom is a perpetual. for example. The two forms. These are properly the only degrees. immemorial. universal institution. they are not compared. 157. sufficient.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE." "It is a nobler valor. A main difference betwixt men is. redder. "more matter. expressing a greater degree of quality. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. to the simple form.²THACKERAY. 160. bluer. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative.²SEWARD. red. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. So with the words sole. strictly considered. They came into use about the thirteenth century." "the largest soul. indomitable. and the superlative. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. Definition. organic. whose favorite pupil he was. as. with less wit. indefatigable. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. or amounts in quantity. "untamed thought. reddest. whether they attend their own affair or not." "no fewer than a hundred. ." "the commonest speech. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. enormous. 159. easy. giant-like. though the simple. 158. expressing the greatest degree of quality." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. great. and the superlative by adding -est. 156. blue. easier. as.

² -er and -est or more and most? 161. there needed to be a most genuine substance." "the wonderfulest little shoes.²ID. Adjectives irregularly compared.²The Nation. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. finest chiseling. peaceablest.²ID. mournfulest. madam. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative." From Ruskin: "The sharpest." "sorrowfulest spectacles. indisputablest. etc." "distantest relationships." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. though born in no very high degree. as. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. The general rule is. admirablest. strange. and patientest fusing.Which rule." Carlyle uses beautifulest. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. honestest." "more odd. falling on his knees.² CARLYLE A gentleman. was most finished. easy. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given." "more austere and holy. witty. 162. harsh forms are usually avoided. These long.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. polished. who. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. most small. These are adjectives irregularly compared. and yet familiar. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. and other words are preceded by more and most. quiet. The following lists include the majority of them:² . I will.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. "So help me God." said Henry Esmond. 163. which hung behind in the queerest way.

throw away the worser part of it. These have no adjective positive:² 1. The superlative I form was betst. 9. [In] Inner Inmost. furthest 10. a double comparative. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. lesser. Hind 2. worst. (3) Little is used as positive to less. last Hindmost. (2) In Old English. lesser Elder. List I. 164.LIST I. which has softened to the modern best. as in the sentence (14th century). uttermost Upmost. Worser was once used. is often used. 3. least. latter Hinder LIST II. older Nigher Nearer Later. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 7.²HAMLET. 5. . evil was the positive to worse.² O. which has gone out of use. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. Good or well Evil. outermost Utmost. There was an old comparative bet. uppermost LIST III. 8. as in Shakespeare. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). A double comparative. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 4. hindermost Much or many More Farther. oldest Nighest. further Farthest. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 2.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. 6. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. but takes the place of a positive to better and best.² We have it in a much lesser degree. innermost Outmost. as. next Nearest Latest. though from a different root. bad. 1. utter 3. [Out] Outer.

are earlier than older. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. great. since the m is for -ma. first. ²LAMB. strong. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. etc. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. a distinction has grown up between the two series. (5) The forms elder. th came into the others. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. The most part kept a stolid indifference. farrest. instead of lenger. near. The meanings greater. latest. making the modern farther. and refer to time. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. moche. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. as. muchel.²ID. farthest. except the form next. for example. Since later.. or series. and the superlative nearest. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. Between the two sets as they now stand. eldest. are shown in such phrases as.² The more part being of one mind. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. much. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. . List II." Its spelling has been micel.²HAWTHORNE. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. to which is added -ost. (10) Hinder is comparative in form.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. the old forms. to England we sailed. furthest. strenger. First became entirely detached from the series. came into use. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. The latter. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. "Many a little makes a mickle. greatest. but not in meaning. oldest. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. but originally the comparison was nigh. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. etc. further. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. meaning the largest part.. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. an old superlative ending.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. In imitation of further.²forth. doubling the inflection. as long. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. there is scarcely any distinction. next. is quite common.²KINGSLEY.

. or have no comparative forms. by the by. in having no adjective positives. They have no superlatives. the upper light of the world. 167. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²DE QUINCEY. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. List III. BEECHER. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Highest and midmost. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." -Most added to other words. The comparatives are so in form." "the innermost moral soul. Her bows were deep in the water. but not in their meaning. all may belong to the same noun.²KINGSLEY. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. Decidedly handsome." "far-seeing as the sun. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.²EMERSON. or each may modify a different word or group of words. Think what each adjective belongs to. being merely descriptive.²DE QUINCEY. (Sec.165. In List II. and have no comparative force. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "The outer is of the day. W." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man." "their utmost exertion. but they have no adjective positives. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. 168.²HAWTHORNE.²H. Her.²SCOTT. The adjectives in List III. but her after deck was still dry. There. 166. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. are like the comparative forms in List II." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. on the very topmost twig.

² My then favorite. This. The seldom use of it. now our queen. Whenever that look appeared in her wild.²HAWTHORNE. rich. solid. STOWE. therefore. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. For thy stomach's sake. as. we may say "the then king. 2. deep." making then an adjective. and moral truth. and heaven-defying oaths. satisfactory. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. in this sentence. bright. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. usual modifies incomparable decision.²A. instead of saying. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. deeply black eyes. H. 7. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.²RUSKIN. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. not decision alone. In the following quotations. But in this sentence. 3. "the one who was then king. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. Richard Hooker.²BIBLE. Other instances are. the then and still owners. 4. Bradbury and Evans. our new government. May we not.²HAWTHORNE. 6. and thine often infirmities. By a convenient brevity. STEPHENS 5. philosophical. and broken. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision." in which then is an adverb. ." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. round.²NOAH PORTER. in prose.²TRENCH. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. A few improper jests and a volley of good. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. Exercise.²MRS. 169. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES.²HOLMES. ²TROLLOPE. Our sometime sister.For example. It may still be argued.

MODEL FOR PARSING. (2) Its number. (4) What word or words it modifies. In parsing an adjective. this. She made no reply. Exercise. To every Roman citizen he gives. Since adjectives have no gender. modifies the word truths. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. if it has number. or case. manly way. not inflected for number. Unfamiliar describes truths. 3. positive degree. and I waited for none. seventy-five drachmas. cannot be compared. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. with awkward but rapid pace. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. (3) Its degree of comparison. 10. 7. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. 170. and very few have number. I ask nothing of you.What to tell in parsing. and most astounding were those frightful yells. . and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. if it can be compared. These points out what truths. person. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. 6. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. then. 2. across the plain. 4. compared by prefixing more and most. therefore demonstrative. having a singular. therefore descriptive. 5. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. frank. the method of parsing is simple. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. This gave the young people entire freedom. 9. modifies truths. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. 8. To every several man. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. plural number.

. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. it rests on reality. 33. growing in the most unfavorable position. 16. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. and dogs. 23. 27. and many poles supported the lower ones. 18. 28. 25. is the settlement of our own country. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 31. 19. Nearer to our own times. 20.11. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. To say what good of fashion we can. 26. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Like most gifted men. he won affections with ease. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. yonder oxen in the pasture. 29. suggests such thoughts as these. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 13. 12. it is so noble a fruit. With every third step. not so much for travelers that were few. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. oxen. 21. 24. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 32. during which time I waited. In music especially. as for armies that were too many by half. I know not what course others may take. Here lay two great roads. 22. are immutably fishes. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. the tomahawk fell. Two hours elapsed. and therefore more interesting to us. 14. Their name was the last word upon his lips. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. those dogs in the yard. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable.

a before consonant sounds. Two relics. An or a came from the old numeral n. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general." "an honor. with an ordinary little garden. but the former is used. the latter is still preserved in the expression. these occurring as the tane. 174. 172. or the tane. A hard-struggling. Their origin.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. ðat. Our expressions the one. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. 173. An before vowel sounds. Many writers use an before h. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. such as we have been attempting to describe. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . just as adjectives do. sometimes the tother. ARTICLES." An with consonant sounds. 35. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. An historian. meaning one. Examples: "a house. were formerly that one. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." "an orange. the tother.²BREWER. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. in vulgar English. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. he is no literary man. later th . In Middle English the became an article. 171. th o. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. the tother.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. the other. that other. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. and a before consonant sounds. for example." "a European. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. that) which was also an article in Old English. s o. even when not silent. weary-hearted man was he. ." the words the and an belong to nouns. 37.34. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives." "a yelling crowd. the tither. In the sentence. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road.

thus. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. Reference to a known object." "the Ohio. or a group or class of things. as "the Mississippi. With names of rivers. When the is prefixed to a proper name. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. An and a are different forms of the same word.²G. not descriptive. 178.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. doubtless. 177. 176. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.²IRVING. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. The Dakota tribes. The is the definite article. a person is introduced by a.²This use is noticed when. which cannot be used alone. Articles are either definite or indefinite.²COLERIDGE. 179. An or a is the indefinite article. and not a state or other geographical division.. Definition. To call attention to attributes. the older n. An hereditary tenure of these offices.² Don't you remember how. is referred to. and when the word river is omitted. or group. An article is a limiting word. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.² .. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. as in the sentence..²HEROES OF ASGARD. since it points out a particular individual. or any individual of a group or class. 175. BANCROFT. Kinds. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri." the article indicates clearly that a river. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. or class. NOTE.²THACKERAY. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. on opening a story.

²EMERSON.²GIBBON.²MOTLEY. the Spinoza. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. 2. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. One thing for its class. His messages to the provincial authorities. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²KINGSLEY.² As she hesitated to pass on. 183. Kant. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. and the redwing. The simple rise as by specific levity. The. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. would speedily extract the required information.²ID. laid it on the miry spot. as. Common. so is the evil. but into the region of all the virtues. or a match put between the fingers. 180. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. 182.²SCOTT. Caution. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. not into a particular virtue. the song sparrow. the Hume.²ID. 181. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. BANCROFT. Half abstract.The Bacon.² The faint. 1. For possessive person pronouns. for example.²EMERSON.²G. With adjectives used as nouns. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. With plural of abstract nouns. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. NOTE. . her. Schelling. If the good is there. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. etc. the gallant.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

etc. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. endured what? anguish. in this sentence from Bulwer. The nature of intransitive verbs.²BULWER . in (b). and a preposition unite as a verb. 204.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. and not a verb."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. but cannot be predicates. "Put thou money in thy purse. The nature of the transitive verb. and. the most astute. obeyed is a predicate. Each influences some object. A verb is a word used as a predicate. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. hence is not a verb. Has takes the object hypocrisy. the most penetrating. and shame the most astute. c). "Put money in thy purse. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. 202. In giving a definition." Examine the sentences in Sec. the word following. lone took what? answer. care. All these are called transitive verbs. (can) shame also has an object. which means to go over. in (2. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb.In (a). to go is no predicate. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. 203. and to receive the action expressed. in (2. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. as. or a material thing. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. in (3." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. an adverb. By examining a few verbs. but fearing is not a predicate. from the Latin transire. Of those expressing action. taking the staff which always guided her steps. or an idea. In each case. b). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. In the first. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. to say something to or about some person or thing. for example. 200: In (1). an article. b)." put is the predicate. a preposition. a verb. in (c). with some word understood. can deceive has an object. 201. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. or the object. Definition and caution. In the sentence. all do not express it in the same way. Hence Definition. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. representing something which it influences or controls. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. a). we consider a verb as one word. in (3. which may be a person. Now. a noun.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

If this be the glory of Julius.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. 222. but. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Most excellent stranger. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. as. Again. they were recorded in the Book of Life. or be fulfilled. popular government must be pronounced impossible. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. Unreal²cannot be true. Ideal. for example. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.²may or may not be true. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. .²BRYCE. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. the writer can make the statement following. ²EMERSON. the first great founder of the Empire.² If. 215. WEBSTER. the second founder.² Now. in our case.²LONGFELLOW. as.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.²SHELLEY. 2). and may or may not be regarded true.²MACAULAY. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.²D. I. 221. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.I could lie down like a tired child. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. he will see the need of these ethics. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²FRANKLIN. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. the representative system ultimately fail. Condition or Supposition.

which cannot be true..." etc. 223. society could not hold together. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. thus. he had better not have written. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. Subjunctive of Purpose. II. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. 4.²SWIFT. ²LOWELL.²BAYNE. If he had reason to dislike him. is used to express purpose. but when the verb precedes the subject. and what kind of condition:² 1. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. except. P. 6. . though. may. and sonorous. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. unless.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. melodious. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. In the following conditional clauses. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. do you think. 8.² It was necessary. and should. since he [Byron] was dead. But in no case could it be justified. to drink strong beer. as. is of similar physiognomy.² CARLYLE. I told him.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. 7. 5.. clear. 3. especially be. the clause being introduced by that or lest.²CALHOUN.²N. might. would you. The voice. NOTE. and striven energetically to save Ney.²FRANKLIN. if his lot had been mine. he supposed.. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. that he might be strong to labor. would have sat still with joy and peace.² If these things were true. that we cannot but regret its absence. Epaminondas.²EMERSON. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.²MACAULAY. The subjunctive. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. she was regarded as a prodigy. WILLIS. 2. etc. Exercise.²FRANKLIN. if he speak to you. if he was the man I take him for.

And we. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. Let it rise.That vain it were her eyes to close. 224. The English subjunctive.²SOUTHEY.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.Thou go not. VII. Subjunctive of Result. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.. like the Latin.I have been the more particular. like the quarry-slave at night. III. In Temporal Clauses. till it meet the sun in his coming. I would it were! ²EMERSON. In Indirect Questions. VI. within its fairy bowers.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. To tell of what had passed. In a Noun Clause. I've wished that little isle had wings. the answer being regarded as doubtful. So live. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²DE QUINCEY. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.²MOORE. V. IV. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. After a verb of wishing.²BRYANT. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. Rise up. Ask the great man if there be none greater. 227..Were wafted off to seas unknown.. Expressing a Wish. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²ID.²CARLYLE. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. WEBSTER.²WORDSWORTH. 226. ..²D. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. 225. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. none of us could say.

² Be the matter how it may.²SHELLEY.²WORDSWORTH. (b) Adjective. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. often contains a subjunctive. of cash.²CARLYLE.And look thou tell me true. we'll turn aside. that everything be in its place. The essence of originality is not that it be new. 229. Come. etc.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. That hunger of applause. 228.²COLERIDGE. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Concessive Clauses.²COLERIDGE. object. . After verbs of commanding. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Complement. Object. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Whatever betide. VIII.²TENNYSON.²DE QUINCEY. is. in apposition. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.And see the Braes of Yarrow..Subject. Some might lament that I were cold. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. tell me all that thou hast seen. I have no thought what men they be. The first merit. in its various uses as subject.²SCOTT. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. The noun clause. for example. or whatsoever victual it may be. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²THOREAU. is the ultimate fact of man's life.² DICKENS. which may be (a) Pronoun. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.

It must be remembered. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. or requests. In spoken English. At the present day. Q. 232. (1) Command. however. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.The spirit he loves remains. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. for example. and condition contrary to fact. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. though. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.²CHANNING. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Definition.² CARLYLE. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream.²J. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. love all men. Usually second person.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. IMPERATIVE MOOD. we had found [should have found] a poem here. to express a wish. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. a concession. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. entreaties. 230. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected.(c) Adverb. (3) Request. ADAMS. (2) Entreaty. Honor all men.²SHELLEY.²BRYANT. 231. Oh. . point to their immortal works. since commands are directed to a person addressed. fear none.

Oh."Hush! mother.. lest we rust in ease. but I + you. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Part we in friendship from your land.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Sometimes with first person in the plural.²SCOTT. or I + they. to you implied in it.And. etc. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.One glance at their array! 5. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. 7. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. request. there will her heart and her prayers be. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Quoth she." Exercises on the Moods. etc. receive my hand. Break we our watch up."²DICKENS Tell me.²CAMPBELL. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. "The Devil take the goose. noble earl. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. nothing is to be preferred before justice. 8. 2. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.²SHAKESPEARE.." whispered Kit." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Mark thou this difference. 6. child of earth!While each performs his part. 3. "Come along with me.And God forget the stranger!" .

"tell me where I may find my poor. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. "Oh. as though an instrument. ruined. 19. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.9.High up in silver spikes! 22. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Forget thyself to marble." 16. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 11. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. "Mr. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. That sheaf of darts. she ought to have it. my dear madam.Except. whether he do it right or wrong. 13. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Though he were dumb. Well. but repentant child. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. no literary man. 21. and opinion displace opinion.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. let him live where else he like.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. . "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. 10. or do it at all. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. it would speak. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. That a man parade his doubt. He. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. 14. Though abyss open under abyss. He is." cried he. Marshall. 26.That they might answer him. Think not that I speak for your sakes.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 18." continued Old Morgan. then. how he may do his work. will it not fall unbound." 25. 20. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 23.

tell him to wait.²the present tense. or whether it were as one member of a general party. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. or future time. will. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. showing more exactly the time of the action or being." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions." present. TENSE. and the future tense. as. Meantime.27. Definition.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. a form ending in -eth. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. which represented present and future time. such as Latin and Greek. in the third person singular. Old English had only two tenses. as will be shown later on. 28. in the conjugations. or agree with it. have. as the classical languages have. The tenses in detail. shall. "I go away tomorrow. "Thou walkest. Tenses in English.²nothing could exceed the amiable. and the past tense. Tense means time. called auxiliaries. as. Siddons. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages.² present. five in the imperative. "Thou walkedst. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. past. "It is not in man that walketh. past. kind. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no." "If he comes. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. to direct his steps. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as." past. and future perfect tenses. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. past perfect. also. 235. PERSON AND NUMBER. 233. such as be. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. 234. and future." . five in the subjunctive. whatever she did. the past. When the older pronoun thou was in use. by means of the present.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages.

walkedst. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. CONJUGATION. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. chosest). chooses. and numbers. Singular 1. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Singular 1. persons. moods. "He walks. tenses. Such verbs as choose have five.²am.²choose. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. 236. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. walking. Few forms. etc. is. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. walked. Singular 1. PRESENT TENSE. etc. for example. were. Definition. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. [He] were [They] were . Indicative Mood. tense. choosest. been. chosen (old. The verb be has more forms. as. You (thou) be 3. choosing. but in English. chose. chooseth. walks.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. walketh. are. I were 2. [He] was Subjunctive Mood." and this only in the present tense indicative. In classical languages. I be 2. wert) 3. 238. mood. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. This is the third person. You are 2. walk has walk. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. 237. [He] is [They] are 3. PRESENT TENSE. since it is composed of several different roots. singular number. Singular 1.

etc. is.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. 239. (2) As auxiliary verbs. as. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. (b) With the past participle in -ed. (d) With the infinitive. to form the passive voice.²ID.²BURKE . -en. for example. were. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. thus. condition. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. which was now become an occasional banquet. Instead of the plural are. (3) be.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. to express intention. (2) was.²SHELLEY. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.His infancy was nurtured. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. 240.²WORDSWORTH. same as the German sind. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. The light that never was on sea and land. though it is usually a dialect form. Remarks on the verb be..Imperative Mood. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. etc. obligation. in four ways.

past perfect. [He] choose [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. by placing have." (2) Present perfect. "I shall be. 1. (2). INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 1. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. Singular. etc. We chose You chose 3. You chose Plural. Singular. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. PRESENT TENSE. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. tenses. tenses. 242. You chose Plural. We chose You chose 3. I choose 2. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I had gone" (past perfect). Singular. as. You choose Plural. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. as.241. had. Machinery of a verb in the voices. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). Indicative Mood. Singular. 240. I chose 2." "He will choose. 1. You choose Plural. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. future perfect. I chose 2. "I have gone" (present perfect). 1. In addition to the above inflected forms. I choose 2. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. .

"I am running. he chose (or were to choose). Present. Past definite. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Only the third person. He chose. He will he choosing. Same as indicative. Past. Present. He had chosen. etc. Future perfect. " Be choosing. . He will have chosen. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present perfect definite. (2d per. Past perfect definite. Present definite. Future. He is choosing. Future definite. He has been choosing. He will have been choosing. Imperative Mood. he have been choosing. will be given. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Present definite. Present perfect.(3) The definite form of each tense. "I was chosen. He had been choosing. [If. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present definite." "They had been running. Present. singular number. of each tense. as. Past perfect. Past perfect.) Choose. Indicative Mood. Past perfect definite. Future perfect definite. he have chosen.] he choose. Past definite. He was choosing." (4) The passive forms. Subjunctive Mood. Past." "You are chosen. though. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He has chosen. ACTIVE VOICE. lest. Same as indicative. Present perfect definite." 243. He chooses. Present perfect. as. He will choose.

He was being chosen. Past definite. Future perfect.²This table is not to be learned now. though. Present. Past perfect definite. Present tense. He had been chosen. if learned at all. Future definite.. " " " " " " " None. "He does strike. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. None. He is chosen. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. He has been chosen. 262). Past perfect. Present definite. as. Past definite. Also. He was chosen. however. Future perfect definite. None. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present. they will be discussed later (Sec. Past. Present perfect. He is being chosen. Present perfect. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperative Mood. None. Past perfect definite. Indicative Mood." [Note to Teacher. he were being chosen. Present perfect definite.NOTE. Present perfect definite.] he be chosen. lest. Past Perfect.] [If." "He did strike. Subjunctive Mood. but verbals. Present definite. Past. None. he have been chosen. Exercises should be given. etc. he had been chosen. . Future. He will be chosen. (2d per.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. in affirmative sentences. None. He will have been chosen. None.) Be chosen.

abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. laid. lay. but adds no ending. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. drive. catch. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. drove. and may or may not change the vowel: as. ran. Definition. begged. slept. beg.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form.[adj. run. bounden] bitten. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. According to form. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. verbs are strong or weak. 244. sleep. 245. Some of these also have weak forms. NOTE. caught. Kinds. Past Tense. as. which are in parentheses Present Tense. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bit blown broken chidden. bid bound.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sunken] sat slain slidden.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. cleaved.²cleave. "stricken with paralysis.²one meaning to adhere or cling. but is much used in vulgar English. as.² We had each drank three times at the well. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. Our cock. as. cleft.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t)." "a drunken wretch. Sometimes in literary English.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. only one set remains certain. . "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. and. The form clomb is not used in prose. as. nor a dog barked. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. cleave. borne is also a passive. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). cleft (to split). Historically. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. cleaved. clave or clove.²MILTON." "a sunken snag. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. as (from Holmes).²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. and another (born) for the passive.²B.² Thou hast clomb aloft. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. When it means to carry or to endure. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. now told us it was time for repose.²GOLDSMITH. for example. especially in that of an earlier period." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. The former used to be cleave." Stricken is used mostly of diseases." "the cloven hoof. to split. Not a cock crew.²IRVING." In this confusion of usage. instead of ate and eaten. 246."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. "his bounden duty. which always crew at eleven. ²THACKERAY. TAYLOR. cloven. and sometimes occurs in poetry.²as (from Shakespeare).²COLERIDGE. the other. and the latter. probably to avoid confusion with this. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.²TENNYSON.

²BYRON. shook. Exercises. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Drive. 4. Usually shear is a weak verb. even in poetry. 9.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. shore is rare. Give. fallen. flung. as. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. 10. 7." but not much as a participle. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. He sate him down. 5. (a) From the table (Sec. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. fell. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Freeze. froze. 3. Break.²WORDSWORTH. The butler was hanged. for example. and seized a pen.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. which is seldom used except in poetry. broken. given. flung." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. driven. thrown. found. Fall.² We had all got safe on shore. begun. for example."²KINGSLEY. drove.²TENNYSON. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective.²BIBLE. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. frozen. Fling. maiden. shaken. 245). began. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Find. broke. .The form gotten is little used. Throw. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. threw. Shake. 6. 8. gave. We usually say. One example out of many is. 2. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. and grasping at his sword.²DE FOE.²SCOTT. Begin. as "a shorn lamb. found. This heard Geraint.² If.

247. "So mote it be. it is used only in the indicative mood. (See also Sec. purpose. but came through analogy with should and would. They are as follows:² PRESENT. Indicative Use: Permission. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. etc. 223. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. as it has two meanings. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Have we valuable territories and important posts. or when it expresses wish. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. His superiority none might question."²WINIER. according to the infinitive used.²PAINE. from the obsolete verb motan. 220. HAMILTON. as in Sec.²CHANNING This. The same remarks apply to ought. It is indicative when it expresses permission. PRESENT.²CHANNING.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.²HAWTHORNE. . Can is used in the indicative only. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. Ability. 251.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. of course. 249..²SCOTT.. there is one general principle.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. which survives in the sentence. 250.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. etc. PAST. ability. Must is historically a past-tense form. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive.. as it sometimes does. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.. Could may be subjunctive. must have been an ocular deception. PAST. as.. The l in could did not belong there originally." Must is present or past tense. or. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. Like must.[To the Teacher. for full drill on the forms. "far off his coming shines. Subjunctive use.

he said. while ought always has to. as. 252.²MACAULAY. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. future action).e.. as. shall and should are used.²THAXTER. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. (b) In questions asking for orders. to the neglect of shall and should.²COOPER.² With respect to novels. WEBSTER. or confident prediction. she should ride like a queen. promise.²IRVING. not plod along like apeasant. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. in the form of command.² Futurity and questions²first person. The following are examples:² Never mind. She rejects his suit with scorn. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. shall and should are used. for example. I shall be gone. She should not walk.²L. "I think I will go.Nay. to use will and would. and corn to hoe. Shall and Will. C. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. MOULTON. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. The sea shall crush thee. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. They shall have venison to eat." Uses of shall and should. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON.² The time will come full soon. my lad. BROCKDEN BROWN. with pronouns of the first person. as.²BULWER.² (a) To express authority.²LONGFELLOW. especially in the United States. yea. Second and third persons. (b) In indirect quotations. . what shall I say?²N.

JR. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. for example. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²SWIFT. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. was to be expected.²BYRON.. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. for example. 253.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. And promised. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. Disguising a command. B. .²WORDSWORTH.² I will go myself now. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²WINTER. I never was what I should be.²WORDSWORTH.²A. with the conviction that he should win in the end.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. etc. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. First. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²CABLE. LARNED. thus. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. purpose. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²SCOTT. and is equivalent to ought.. BROWN.. as. and will not return until all is finished.²H. time.²WORDSWORTH.that I would do him justice. (c) With direct questions of the second person. or a promise. second and third persons. as the sole inventor. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²ROGERS.²C.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. JAMES.

shaking his right knee with a constant motion.²IRVING.²BANCROFT. PASSIVE VOICE... Mere futurity. and mark on the grounds the works. The gift of Beauty. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² Thou wilt take the skiff. for example.. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. AND THIRD PERSONS. (4) With FIRST. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. In this stately chair would he sit. for punishment or intimidation.²BURKE. as. This puts the order more mildly. Thine was a dangerous gift. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. To be sure.² Subject I omitted: often so.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. will is used to express command. for example. They will go to Sunday schools. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. so you will.. through storms their brothers are afraid of. Would thou hadst it not. would is used to express a wish. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). and fetch off certain plate and belongings..² All this will sound wild and chimerical. when thou wast born.²SCOTT. BROWN. When I am in town.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. as if it were merely expected action. without regard to future time. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. Roland. as.²War Records. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. will and would often denote an action as customary. B. 254. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.²LANDOR.² DICKENS.²SCOTT. . action merely expected to occur.²the original meaning of the word will.. and two of my people. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. SECOND. etc. will and would are used to express simple futurity.

"I shall not run. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. You will choose. [They] shall be chosen. 1. 2. [He] shall choose. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. PASSIVE VOICE. Thou art what I would be.:² ACTIVE VOICE. [He] shall be chosen. [He] will choose. 1. 3. 3. We shall choose. [He] will be chosen. etc. 5. You will be chosen. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 252 and 253. 1. He informed us. [They] will be chosen. Plural. promise. You shall be chosen. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 4. I will be chosen. You will choose. (b) Examine the following sentences. 2. . and that of the newest cut. yet only seem. Thou shalt have a suit." answered Herbert stubbornly. You shall be chosen. 3. I will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. 3. You will be chosen. 2. 3. [They] will choose. Singular. 1. [They] shall choose. (a) From Secs. 6. We shall be chosen. Singular. To express determination. We will be chosen. I shall choose. I shall be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. Plural. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Plural. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. You shall choose. 2. You shall choose. Plural. 3. We will choose. Singular. 1.Singular. 2. 2.

then. "I am a wayfarer. as. or mylk and wastel breed. bereave besought Past Participle.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Without having attended to this. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 13. But the rest. This ending has now dropped off. Irregular Weak Verbs.²ID. set. as if he would have more of the enchantment. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. bereaved besought . put. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Of smale houndes hadde she. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. WEAK VERBS. No. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.²CHAUCER. Present Tense. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. which may be called irregular weak verbs. put.²Class I. and have no change of vowel. very anxious. bereft." 14. need some attention and explanation. 12. Lucy stood still. bereave beseech bereft. 256. put. my son. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 11. 10.7.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. Past Tense. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. set. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle." the stranger said. and I have nothing to say. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 9. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 255. was -de or -te. 257. The beast made a sluggish movement.

pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. spelt spilt staid. hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

. Perfect. formed a kind of bedstead. [To] have chosen. to express action unconnected with a subject. Nothing of the kind having been done. Cases when to is omitted. Indefinite. [To] choose. But later. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. have no tense. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive.. [To] have been chosen. an imperfect. [To] be choosing.. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Perfect definite. ACTIVE VOICE. Perfect. when inflections became fewer. When active. PASSIVE VOICE. like participles. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. an indefinite and a perfect form. as in the Old English. To with the infinitive. [To] be chosen. 268. [To] have been choosing. a perfect. to was used before the infinitive generally. . and a perfect definite form. 267. Imperfect. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. 10. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. 9. Indefinite. Three saplings. they have an indefinite. will (with should and would). This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. 7. and when passive. expressing purpose.6. In Sec. Infinitives. try clemency. 8.²the creature warring against the creating power. 266. INFINITIVES. I returned to reflection on my situation.

as.² What! doth she. make. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. "I do go" etc. While the gerund expresses action. But there was nothing to do. or the object of a verb or a preposition. feel." "I shall have chosen. and corn to hoe.²E. "He will choose. GERUNDS.²GOLDSMITH." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. it may be the subject of a verb. The gerund is like the participle in form. can (could). The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. do (as. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. They shall have venison to eat.). it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. "She ask my pardon. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. also in the imperative.²HOWELLS. as. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. as the credulous imagine. . poor woman!" cried Charles. too. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. as in the expression. 269." Examples are. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. also let.²it may be governed as a noun. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. see. liberal woman. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. bid (command). Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. 272. learn [doth learn is one verb. please. sometimes need (as. it has several attributes of a noun.²COOPER. E.²TENNYSON..²DE QUINCEY. it is often preceded by the definite article. the gerund may be called a noun verbal." (4) In exclamations.² She was a kind. must. 271. negative. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. watch. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). 270. and like a noun in use. hear. as.(2) After the verbs may (might). and emphatic forms of the present and past. HALE. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.²MACAULAY. under "Analysis." etc.²IRVING. "a house to let.

but cannot govern. brilliant. which express action. Then how pleasing is it. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. 2. and has been put down." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. (2) Pure participles." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. (3) Participial adjectives. 273. (4) Pure adjectives. but do not assert. 4. (6) Verbal nouns. making the definite tenses. which express action and also modify. which express action. when." "Certainly dueling is bad. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. (5) Gerunds. after examining the nest. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. which name an action or state. II). and five gerunds. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. What a vast. Words in -ing are of six kinds. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. may govern and be governed. five infinitives. according to use as well as meaning. which have lost all verbal force.²Find sentences containing five participles. and wonderful store of learning! . in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." Exercise. Exercise. above. b). Sec." also (2." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use." "He could not help holding out his hand in return.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. on your leaving the spot. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. to see the returning hope of the parents.

he gave out sentence by sentence. Thackeray did not. In parsing verbs. 10. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. slowly. giving principal parts. I. (4) Tense. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. The only means of ascending was by my hands. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 234. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. 7. . Caution. (3) Mood. 275.²indicative. He spread his blessings all over the land. subjunctive. bearing her national emblem. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 15. give reality to your teaching. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. (2) Voice. 11. write twenty pages without stopping. (b) as to use. 16. VERBS. much corroded. 6. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. you must. round which is an iron railing. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. like Sir Walter Scott. dictating from his chair. or imperative. What is dreaming? 8. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 14.²active or passive. (5) Person and number. by object lessons.²transitive or intransitive. 9. 12. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is.²strong or weak. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 13. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. but.5.

Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. would. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. usually it does not. intransitive. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. past tense. and not taken as single verbs. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. . 273). past tense. perfect. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. therefore active. But unless the verb is present. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. Parse the verbs. Exercise. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. call should a weak verb. (b) whether active or passive. may. indicative (as it means could). and ends in -s. till it meet the sun in his coming. could. VERB PHRASES. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. 278. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. verbals. 2. Especially frequent are those made up of should. Take these examples:² 1. in the world. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. give points (a) and (b). VERBALS. It has been intimated in Sec. If a participial adjective. active. indicative. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. call might a weak verb. (a) From what verb derived. (b) its use (Sec. (3) Gerund. (1) Participle.. You are gathered to your fathers. 278(2). followed by a pure infinitive without to. (c) to what word it belongs. The government might have been strong and prosperous. and parting day linger and play on its summit. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. II. must.276. see Sec." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. intransitive. might. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. definite. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Let it rise! let it rise. In such sentences as 1. etc. and should always be analyzed as phrases. has for its subject Lee. no sin nor sorrow. we must beware of the rule. 3. can. then parse it as an adjective." Sometimes it does. 2. (b) whether indefinite. In 2. 235. (2) Infinitive. imperfect. 4. perfect. III. 277. etc. has the subject government.

Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 23. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance.5. 8. a deafening shout. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. or. 17. He passed across the room to the washstand. a sweet good will. a new bursting forth of the sun. 9. The soul having been often born. 14. from a sort of temporary death. see that it is in good condition. 15. 13. 19. When he arose in the morning. leaving me upon the bed. However that be.Down all the line. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 11. In going for water. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 24. a new waking up of all that has life. as rolled from wing to wing.Henceforth in me instill. 16. . 22. he thought only of her. So. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 18. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. morning is not a new issuing of light. and wondered if she were yet awake.O God. as the Hindoos say. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. Whatever ground you sow or plant. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. With them. 21. 20. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 10. 12. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. as usual." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 6. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. Right graciously he smiled on us. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring.

Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. because. Better it were. Is it only poets. The word adverb means joined to a verb. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 279.²SHELLEY. When action is expressed. To the almost terror of the persons present." An adjective or an adverb. ."²DE QUINCEY. Nor was it altogether nothing. "William's private life was severely pure. to speak truly. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. to consent. 29." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²CARLYLE. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. thou sayest. place. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. for the hour of rest is at hand. they are more himself than he is. and so on. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. or manner: as. Adverbs modify. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].² The young man reveres men of genius.25. 26.²time." "He was absolute. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. as. and men of leisure and cultivation. who live with nature?²ID." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly.²EMERSON. ADVERBS. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. and limit adjectives or adverbs. and live ere life be spent. for example. A verb.²THACKERAY. And now wend we to yonder fountain. Oh. 27.Feast while we may. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.

An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.²LEIGH HUNT. A clause or sentence. which may qualify an action word or a statement. as. but still with a rich bloom to it.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. ²IRVING. 169. as now. perhaps. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. Definition. 280. before. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. to-day. being adverbs naturally and fitly.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. for example. 281. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. We are offered six months' credit. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. but some verb understood. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.²These last differ from the words in Sec. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. 282.²BYRON. is a modifying word. Thus considered. etc.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. NOTE. It may also modify a sentence. Make music to the lonely ear. but really modifying. there are six classes:² (1) Time. as shown in the sentences.² LOWELL. I draw forth the fruit. An adverb. (2) according to their use in the sentence. while those in Sec. B. 169 are felt to be elliptical. and half awfully.²TROLLOPE.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. hitherto. lately. Surely happiness is reflective.He was incidentally news dealer. and that. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. thus. or a word group used as such. not simply the forms used in predication. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb.² FRANKLIN. has induced some of us to attend it. not the noun. .²THOREAU. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. ever. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. NOTE.²T. A phrase. all wet and glossy. like the light of heaven. ALDRICH. then.

singly.² The master. bravely.²IRVING. twice. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.²BURKE. whithersoever. not.there. (3) Manner. 283). just. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.. maybe. So also in Grote. possibly. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.whither. etc.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. Motley. etc. LOUIS STEVENSON. as hither. at least. two by two. etc.²HAWTHORNE. etc. as here. the more perfect will be their obedience. telling how much. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. better. slowly. beautifully. for example. that these adverbs form a very large class..²DE QUINCEY. the more friends you will have. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. and others. etc.where. too. greatly. as well. I was. . (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. slightly. [Sidenote The status of such. Emerson.²BROWNING. telling how many times: once. very. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. especially the comparative of these words. as perhaps.(2) Place. (4) Number. the more evidently they love liberty.whence. partly.thither.²R.yonder. etc.was for this once of her opinion. surely. while so precedes only the adjective usually. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.. The more they multiply. (6) Assertion. thus. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. probably. 283.²SHAKESPEARE.near. and not infrequently are found in literary English. or how far he believes it to be true. enough.²LECKY. as hence. above. (5) Degree. telling how anything is done. Meekness.thence. White. whencesoever.. much. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.. Thackeray.which gained him such universal popularity. as little. This long's the text. (see also Sec.

the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Emerson. Direct questions. . and other writers." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister." "That were far better [degree]. B. Defoe. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise.² "Mighty well. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. for example. Beau Fielding.² KINGSLEY. 286. Some adverbs. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. a mighty fine gentleman. 285." "I have seen you before [time]. Such are most of those given already in Sec." "The house. Simple. 284.²BAYNE. Dickens. and art but a fool. besides modifying." said the king.²HAWTHORNE. Aldrich. Again.²FIELDING. Holmes. Mighty. have the additional function of asking a question. Neville." "He spoke positively [manner].²GOLDSMITH.² You are mighty courteous. A pretty large experience. and its lawn before [place]. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. "Peace. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Burke. Notice meanings. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²THACKERAY. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.²BULWER. STOWE. De Quincey. Kingsley." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. for example.²"He walked too far [place]."²SCOTT. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Interrogative. Pretty is also used by Prescott.Pretty.²THACKERAY. Franklin. 282. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Hard blows and hard money. It is only occasionally used in literary English.

WEBSTER. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²POE. they smiled. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. I will not ask where thou liest low.²BYRON. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. I do not remember when I was taught to read. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (4) Degree.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. (5) Reason. I hearkened. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. I know not why.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. 287. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.²D. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. When did this humane custom begin?²H. (4) Degree. CLAY. for example. (2) Place. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.²BULWER.²BYRON (3) Manner. (2) Place. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. .

Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. soon. Then must she keep it safelier. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. when does not express time and modify. higher. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. just as adjectives do. Its strings boldlier swept.eyes. . Form vs. further farthest. For further discussion. Tell what each word in ly modifies. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Superlative. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.. Only that we may wiselier see. highest. irregularly compared. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. but the whole clause. only occasionally having -er and -est. and.²TENNYSON. The following.. Many adjectives have the same ending. furthest (rathe. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. when.²SHAKESPEARE. as. 288. Exercise.²EMERSON. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. soonest. obs.But in reality.) rather 289. use. have the same inflection as adjectives. well much little far late Comparative. high." Exercise. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. see Sec. when compared. not an adverb. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. Many adverbs are compared. 290. sooner.²COLERIDGE. representing four classes.²BYRON.

There are eyes.And his mien of kingly state. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.²IRVING. 2.²WORDSWORTH. more courtly in their manners. that in Old and Middle English. And all about.² EMERSON. 8. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. hardly. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²CHAUCER. 4. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. quick-flashing eye. curiously jolly. if it has the verb be. but with a different meaning. instead of being used adverbially. Special use of there. or down the leaves laughed through. Not near so black as he was painted. The reason is. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. .²ID.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. etc. He is inexpressibly mean. whether adverbs or adjectives. merely introduces a sentence. mostly. With his proud. hard. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. as. kindly and good-natured in secret. 2. Again. even. 3. near. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. But he must do his errand right. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. nearly. many words without -ly have the same form. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. 6. Such are most. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. to be sure. 5. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. Frequently the word there. 7.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. 291." Compare these:² 1.1.²TENNYSON. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. 292. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. evenly.²THACKERAY.

7. and always. 11. give² (1) The class. 17. and sate down on the steps of a house. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. according to meaning and also use. Exercise. In parsing adverbs. burning in the center of the temple. Thither we went. But a few steps farther on. is always politically unwise. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 9. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 4. 10. but continually shifted. 293. 12. 15. 2. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. if the word is compared. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. The higher we rise in the scale of being. however theoretically enticing. It is the Cross that is first seen. 18. 16. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. at the regular wine-shop. 5. 3. the Madonna is in great glory. (2) Degree of comparison.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. but from my fall? 6. (3) What word or word group it modifies. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. . Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. For the impracticable.

(3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority.19. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. Clauses. 22. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. hence. A conjunction is a linking word. Unlike adverbs. It was pretty bad after that. 20. . upon which the sun now shone forth. then." Paragraphs. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. 21. Definition. connecting words. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. but side by side within the American Union. however. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. But now the wind rose again. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. etc. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. 295. therefore. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. 294. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. word groups. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. sentences. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. or sentence groups." Sentences. nor. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. but the student will readily find them. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. CONJUNCTIONS.

word groups. both... for. as but.. (2) ADVERSATIVE.nor. (3) CAUSAL. therefore. the bread was spent. Correlatives. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.. as well as. either. as. . Nor mark'd they less. had its weight. then. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. not only. introducing a reason or cause. (4) ALTERNATIVE. 296. still.or whether. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.but. etc.. whether..or. while. nor. and. only. however. nor. either.. Alternative. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. expressing a choice. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. yet. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. While the earth bears a plant. either. 298.. The assertion. moreover.. They are or...or. whether.. serves but to show their ignorance..and.nor.or. Causal... likewise. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.. Some go in threes. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. as well as the room door.Classes of conjunctions. neither. as. etc. answering to each other in the same sentence.. "Howbeit. Adversative. however. Your letter.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. but is emperor in his own right. the window being open. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. the butter too. usually between two things. 297. else. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. and not man corn. The chief ones are. as and. also.. neither. of the same rank." Nevertheless.but (or but also). Some of these go in pairs. hence... (2) Subordinate. neither. not only. whether.or... joining words... or the sea rolls its waves. etc.

since. so. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste.²BURKE. since. unless. QUINCY. after. in case. in apposition. whereto. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. etc. whenever. except. Neither the place in which he found himself. whereas.²WILSON. provided. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²J.²COOPER. nor green leaf. (7) RESULT: that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. on condition that. (2) TIME: when. (3) MANNER: how. so. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. especially that after so. wherever. . SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. 299. although. before. even if. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. until. (6) PURPOSE: that. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. nor echo. ere. so that. etc. nor wing of bird.. etc.. howsoever. whence. however. whithersoever. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. lest. provided that. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. so. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds.²BIBLE. seeing. whither. now. object. as. He is not only bold and vociferous. ²ALLSTON. that..²PAULDING. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. in order that. It is. etc. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. etc. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.²IRVING. though. while.²DE QUINCEY.. whether. so as. Time. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. sometimes if. Where the treasure is. there will the heart be also. nor creeping thing. as.

but not so long but I held it out. reason. I was again covered with water. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Then Denmark blest our chief. . As a soldier. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.² H.²COLERIDGE. Substantive. a thousand bodies. Manner.²AMES. JACKSON.²IRVING. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²AMES. Result.²BURKE. Cause. Concession. Comparison.²EMERSON.² EMERSON. We wish for a thousand heads. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Now he is dead. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.² HAWTHORNE. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Purpose. not as they were expected or intended. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²CAMPBELL.²CARLYLE Events proceed. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. H.²DEFOE. Condition.That he gave her wounds repose.²EMERSON. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²AMES.That vain it were her eyes to close. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.² WORDSWORTH.So I behold them not. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²BYRON. Let the world go how it will. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²EMERSON.

2. . then. 14.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions.²RUSKIN. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. He was brought up for the church. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. etc. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 6. however. she faintly pressed her hand. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. Besides. The moth fly. Exercises. And then recovering.Let us see whether the greatest. After he was gone. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. as he shot in air. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 12. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. 9. 5. her real merit is known at home. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 300. Crept under the leaf. And they lived happily forever after. the wisest. 3. while. it will remain harmless. They. 7. 4. some words²for example. the lady called her servant. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. In what point of view. hold a subordinate rank. While patriotism glowed in his heart. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 15. as. As will have been noticed. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. While a faction is a minority. and hid her there. 10. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. since. that. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. No one had yet caught his character. 13.

In poetry. SPECIAL REMARKS. (2) What words." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. Consequently. in this case.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. 301. 303. As for as if. none of the lashings having given way.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. 302. His voice . etc.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. and part as though we parted not. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. thus. even as they would weep. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong.16. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.Clouded. they connect. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.²BYRON. If analyzed.So slowly moved about. and the frame will suit the picture. "We meet. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. and be a bud again. In parsing conjunctions. the expression would be. expressing degree if taken separately. As if. for example.²HOOD. GREELEY. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. as is shown by the use of as though. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. As though. . word groups.²EMILY BRONTE. 304.²IRVING.As though a rose should shut.. So silently we seemed to speak.. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. In Emerson's sentence." as. as is often equivalent to as if.

or in the forest. he sleeps as warm. 10. are regularly of one particular class. and associates as happily. 6. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. dines with as good an appetite. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. and the like. 11. In classifying them. and its clause depends on the other. 12. compare the sentences. as beside his own chimneys. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. because. It continued raining. 9.Caution. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. Exercise. so that expresses result. and. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result." said his wife to Martin Luther. etc. he is also the correlative of nature. and very seldom?" 8. It may be safely trusted. such as nor. others belong to several classes. in 2. 3.²is subordinate of condition.²I find them true in Concord. so means provided. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. When the gods come among men. At sea.² 1. 7. so it be faithfully imparted. the Sphinx was slain. in 3. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. All the postulates of elfin annals. but of the natural. . when. 13. If he could solve the riddle. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. For example. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 2. He dismisses without notice his thought. because it is his. they are not known.. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. "Doctor. so means therefore. Some conjunctions. 4.²DEFOE 2. He is the compend of time. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.²that the fairies do not like to be named. that it might testify of that particular ray. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. or in the snow. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. 5. so that I could not stir abroad. so they paddled on.²EMERSON 3.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. and its clause is independent. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions.

29. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 30. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand.14.²else it is none. Goodness must have some edge to it. I speak. 15. that both were wayward. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. save it were sinful like herself. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object.. 28. It may be so in the majority of cases. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 305. And whether consciously or not. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. of good novels only. 18. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 21. Still. There was no iron to be seen. For. PREPOSITIONS. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 16. 23. in many a heart. 26. she might have the family countenance. in this they agree. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. enthroned. whose names I omit. however. 27. won't you lay on? 17. when it was presented to them. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. you must be. therefore. 20. 22. It is clear. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. the whole conditions are changed. Now you have the whip in your hand. 19. . 24. 25.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²EVERETT. expressing the degree of difference. at most. by the wrecks of time. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. . Helena.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. By my faith. by the ruins of nations. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. by many a million of acres. (4) Measure of excess.²COOPER. ²PARTON. For.²ALDRICH. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at the worst. TAYLOR The angel came by night. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²DE QUINCEY. at any rate. at rest.² (1) The general meaning of place. etc. at random. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. (3) Agency or means. D. by means near or close to. Exercise.²R. by the blessed memory of the departed. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. At that time [the earth] was richer. 321. 320. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. Richard was standing by the window.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. At St. at peace. By. Like at. etc. H. at work. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. CONWAY. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at once. at naught. (2) Time. as. Exercise.²M.²WARNER.²B. She saw the boat headed for her.²SWIFT. at least. at length. at play. the first port made by the ship.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at war.²ID. he stopped. at one. at first. at the best. at all.. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. STODDARD.

(7) Concession. "Nay. if your worship can accomplish that. The twilight being. as to. for all his title." answered Master Brackett.One of Eve's family. and leaped for joy. meaning in the character of. (4) Substitution or exchange. GARRISON. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity." said the Lady of Lochleven. (5) Reference. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²PARKMAN. or in spite of. Still. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. But the Colonel. (6) Like as.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. etc. E. incitement to action. For the rest.²EMERSON. "For a fool. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. There are gains for all our losses. ate her child. poor fellow.²H. they are now for us. for all slips of hers.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²HOLMES. but a few sunsets since. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. a person or thing.²ID.. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. meaning with regard to. (3) Duration of time. (9) Motive. in behalf of.²HOOD. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. . cause. For him. had a forest of poor relations. meaning although.²PARKMAN.²E. or extent of space. respecting. etc. An Arab woman."²SCOTT By my faith. he repented of his folly. the Colonna motto would fit you best. for the benefit of.²W.²IRVING.(2) In favor of.. etc. H. BANCROFT. as being. for famine. L.²STODDARD.²LAMB. considering that etc. reason. "thou hast counseled wisely. He and they were for immediate attack. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.² RUSKIN.

(3) Time.²HIGGINSON. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. (1) Origin or source.²MILTON. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The original meaning of of was separation or source. H. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²HUXLEY. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. ceased to be merciful. 322. 323.²BANCROFT. nay. From harmony. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²H. Of. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. The From Relation.²HALE. if not a desperate man.²DRYDEN. from a desire of seeming valiant. The young cavaliers. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²HUME. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. more.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Like boys escaped from school. or reason. (2) Origin. Exercise. The general idea in from is separation or source. cause. From. (4) Motive. Exercise. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. The king holds his authority of the people.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²ID. like from. A distrustful. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. .

the finest army that Europe had yet seen. A singular want of all human relation. (5) Expressing agency.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. etc. ²GAVARRE. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²HIGGINSON. reason. etc. such as ease. clear. acquitted them of. there were only twenty-one members present. relieve. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²DICKENS II. cure. (b) After some adjectives. etc. The hills were bare of trees. of his own knowledge. Other Relations expressed by Of. wide of. HALE. south of. expressing a part of a number or quantity. (6) Partitive."²E. beg. etc.. Back of that tree. ²PARTON. More than one altar was richer of his vows. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. purge. weeds. "I am glad of that.²clear of. Sandals. especially out of. motive. he had raised a little Gothic chapel.²BOSWELL. free. You cannot make a boy know. deprive.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. and grass. divest. (d) With words expressing distance.²PARKMAN. that Cromwell once ruled England. rid. . rob. bound with thongs of boar's hide. out of the most unpromising materials.² HUXLEY. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. He is away of his own free will. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. or breastpin of native gold. Asked no odds of. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. E. bare of. Of the Forty.²BAYARD TAYLOR. demand.²LEW WALLACE. free of.²ALDRICH.²BANCROFT. White shirt with diamond studs.²ID. (3) With expressions of material. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. disarm. ask.²SCOTT Who formed. etc. as north of. deprivation.

Besides the phrases of old.²W. See also Sec. Such a book as that of Job. CHANNING. (9) Of time. could give shelter from his contumely. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. Not even woman's love. ²IRVING.He washed out some of the dirt. Idiomatic use with verbs.²LOWELL.²BANCROFT.²SWIFT.²COOPER. concerning. .. for the possessive. equal to about. (8) Appositional.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. (b) Noun and gerund. of late. with regard to. of a sudden.²ID. standing. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²ALDRICH. when the first is descriptive of the second.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. and the dignity of a queen.²LAMB. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. (10) Of reference. The fair city of Mexico.²HALLECK. 309. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. being equivalent to an infinitive.²BANCROFT. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. (c) Two nouns. (7) Possessive.²BANCROFT. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. E. etc. of is used in the sense of during. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²PRESCOTT. with its object. The nation of Lilliput.²FROUDE. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.

on the wing. 324. Upon my reputation and credit. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. avail (one's self). On my life. on high. disapprove. without adding to their meaning. . Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon is seldom used to express time. such as admit. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. on a sudden. Upon.²PARKMAN. and not a day more.²PARKMAN. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²EMERSON. It also accompanies the verbs tire. etc.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. SIGOURNEY. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. on view. On. on board.²DE QUINCEY. repent. (3) Reference. concerning. consist.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. ²BANCROFT. equal to about. allow. 325.²ALDRICH. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²MRS. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²Find sentences with six uses of of. (b) With motion. on the alert. permit. Exercise. and others. Exercise.²PARKMAN.²BRYANT. you are eighteen. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. accept. The general meaning of on is position or direction.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. (2) Time. (4) In adjurations. To. approve. complain. etc. on trial. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.

With.²HALE. unmasked.. it may be genuine poetry. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.Come to the bridal chamber. Exercise. had ceased to be.²PARKMAN. .²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.² be written over. Death!²HALLECK. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. (2) Expressing result. But when.²often to the loss of vigor.²LANG. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. mid meant in company with. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. gay Comedy appears. In Old English. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification..²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²PARTON. whose influence is felt to this hour. 326. to my taste. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.²BRYANT.²BENTON To our great delight. He usually gave his draft to an aid. does the mere music.. 268).. Nor. Revolutions.²IRVING.²BULWER.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. We cook the dish to our own appetite. (5) Equivalent to according to. interest. His brother had died.²B. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. (b) Referring to time. To the few. to him.

he gave millions to the sword. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²CHANNING. (3) Cause. I think. or with the haunch of our near leader. Exercise. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. (2) Instrumentality.²E. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²WALLACE (7) Time. Messala. (4) Estimation. opinion.²LANG. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. It seemed a supreme moment with him. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. with all his boldness. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. with Heyward at its head. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²DE QUINCEY. transmitted from the beginning. but with you.²HOWELLS.²DE QUINCEY. in spite of.²SCOTT. had already reached the defile.²EMERSON. 327. felt it unsafe to trifle further. reason. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²Find sentences with four uses of with. He was wild with delight about Texas. (5) Opposition. Either with the swingle-bar.²HALE.²COOPER. "poetry is not a pursuit. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. . as with you. He expired with these words.The advance. motive. HALE. E. it is necessary. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. With all his sensibility. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²ALDRICH.²HOWELLS.²COLERIDGE. to find the object of the preposition. She seemed pleased with the accident. first of all. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.

And so on. like the clapping of wings. the phrase answers the question where. To our general surprise. I looked towards my windows. which. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. shook it directly over my head. In (2). They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. I called out several times. before the dwarf left the queen. of without. country. but all to no purpose. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. or was. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. 3. In (3). of on. In (1). which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. (4) from the beginning. he followed us one day into those gardens. I heard a noise just over my head. of from. (2) on which. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. The guns were cleared of their lumber. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I speak these things from a love of justice. I remember. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. without a country modifies man. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. telling what man. The object of on board is ships. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. I felt my box raised very high in the air. and knocked me down flat on my face. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. but I received no other hurt. Whereupon. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. (3) without a country. 4. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. came tumbling about my ears. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. by which a dozen apples. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. beginning.²SWIFT 2. . Exercises. the malicious rogue. we met the defaulter here. Be that as it will. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. 5.²ID. 2. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. because I had given the provocation. hence we say.

in this respect. 8.Without stop or stay. . His breeches were of black silk. With all his learning. plumed for battle. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. to one dark and gloomy. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 14. 17. 23. 19. grasping at the child. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 7. 18. I like to see the passing. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. when. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. in town. The savage army was in war-paint. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. after a restful morning. 10.He spurred his courser on. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 20. 26. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 9. 13. 22. he favored the world with his opinions. 21. 29. 15. 11. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 25. 16. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The mother sank and fell. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 12. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. For my part. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 27. 24. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. On all subjects known to man.6.

²BEECHER.²HUXLEY. And now it is like an angel's song. 330. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That was a dreadful mistake. that you might behold this joyous day.²STOCKTON.²COLERIDGE. and not according to form. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.²WEBSTER. . (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. (a) Indefinite relative. A few are discussed below. THAT. (3) As a relative pronoun. not merely by the amount of the tax. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (4) As an adverb of degree.² JOHNSON. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.²WEBSTER. That is what I understand by scientific education.30.That makes the heavens be mute. (1) Relative pronoun. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 328.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²WEBSTER. (b) Of result. WHAT. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. We wish that labor may look up here. He will raise the price. That night was a memorable one. and be proud in the midst of its toil. 329. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (c) Substantive conjunction. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.

.it is impossible to determine. (6) Exclamatory adjective. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. silent still..²WORDSWORTH. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way..²EMERSON.. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (9) As an exclamation...but. it rests on reality. What. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.²ID.. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (8) Conjunction. What. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (7) Adverb of degree." (4) Relative adjective.S. but the result of calculation.²S. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. nearly equivalent to partly.Which be they what they may. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The Pera. and silent all!²BYRON.²THACKERAY.Those shadowy recollections. At what rate these materials would be distributed.. (b) Indirect question. he knows what good people are to be found there.these sounds are only to be heard.²ID...²WEBSTER. or not only. To say what good of fashion we can. partly.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (b) Indirect question. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.. Cox. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. (b) Copulative. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. . "I'll tell you what..²EMERSON. after not only. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. What with the Maltese goats. If he has [been in America]. BUT. to see what might be hidden. 331.

He yearned to our patriot bands... And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. not.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.²SHELLEY. stands for that . (4) Relative pronoun.Then arose not only tears.²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.²MRS BROWNING. (b) Substantive. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. after a negative.²LAMB. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. at all moments. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. 332. after such.. Doing duty as a guard. equivalent to that . towards order. (c) Of degree.²IRVING. . AS. not. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²IRVING..²FRANKLIN. not.²CARLYLE. (3) Preposition. meaning except. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. like the dog. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. I shall see but little of it.. than. (2) Relative pronoun. To lead but one measure. on all sides. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (e) Introducing an appositive word. sometimes same. meaning otherwise . The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.. or who . (5) Adverb. meaning only..²SCOTT.²EMERSON. but piercing cries. (d) Of reason. (b) Of manner. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. ²CARLYLE. Who knows but.

and as or as if takes its place. In this second use. staring like a bewildered man. like him awhile ago. indeed.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²ALDRICH. Note the difference between these two uses.²DARWIN. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. Introduces a clause.²HALLECK. Give Ruskin space enough.² HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. ²PARKMAN. Stirring it vigorously.²LONGFELLOW. In each case. No Emperor. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. There is no statue like this living man. and is followed by a dative-objective. NOTE. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. They look. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²EMERSON.²ALDRICH. like a cook beating eggs.-SCOTT. like summer ocean's. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²HIGGINSON. but its verb is omitted. Through which they put their heads. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. . like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. If the verb is expressed.LIKE. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²MAYHEW. nervous child. (1) An adjective. I do with my friends as I do with my books. This follows a verb or a verbal. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. That face. 333. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²LAMB. like Martin was. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²HAWTHORNE.²CASS.²SHAKESPEARE.² A timid. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. this. like drops out. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. and was clearly an adjective. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.

"Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. that is.²in determining case. verb. in separating them into their component parts. etc. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. Definition. entering into the structure of a sentence. 336. 335. What analysis is. 334. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. as." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. that is.. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. tut! buzz! etc. subject and predicate. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin.INTERJECTIONS. Some of these are imitative sounds. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation." PART II. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. but it still retains its identity as noun. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. etc.: for example. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Value of analysis. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. Definition." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. . but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. pronoun.

Definition. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. question. but by no means vulgar. Division according to number of statements.Kinds of sentences as to form. "Come to the bridal chamber. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation." 340. always friends?" imperative. This is the most common one. you must not die!" interrogative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. or imperative.²a subject and a predicate. which expresses command. which puts the thought in a question. 338. (2) Interrogative. but the sentence would still be declarative. Definition: Predicate. or command: for example." "What wouldst thou do. according to form. Examples of these three kinds are. not according to the form in which a thought is put. entreaty. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. old man?" "Be thou familiar. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. But now all is to be changed. 337. "The quality of mercy is not strained. (3) Imperative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. SIMPLE SENTENCES. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "Old year. Every sentence must contain two parts. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. A rare old plant is the ivy green. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. 339. declarative. "Hath he not always treasures. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. hence. but according to how many statements there are. interrogative. 2. . or request.

²What is the ivy green? Answer. 6. we have some trouble. thou. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. a rare old plant. to suit all cases:² Subject. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. and is to be supplied. Thus. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Slavery they can have anywhere. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Listen. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. or ye) is in most cases omitted. all. 8. and the real subject is the latter. always reduce them to the order of a statement. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. adjective.²What is to be changed? Answer. 341. as. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. to an ignorant man. but about the ivy green. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. the subject is frequently after the verb. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. In analyzing such sentences. on the other hand. especially in poetry. or an interrogative pronoun. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. not of a rare old plant. and our definition must be the following. The last of all the Bards was he. 4. . But if we try this with the second sentence. In the interrogative sentence. 5. 3. 7.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. Consequently. the subject (you. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 2. "[You] behold her single in the field. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order." Exercise. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. or adverb that asks about the subject.

and means summoned. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. 342. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. for example. (6) Independent elements. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. and by object we mean the direct object. direct.10. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. (4) The complements." indirect. 343. (5) Modifiers. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. just as if to say. in addition to the object. Direct Object.²transitive and intransitive. (2) The predicate. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. The subject and predicate have been discussed. Of a transitive verb. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. . but of call chief. and me here is not the object simply of call. (3) The object. The transitive verb often requires. "Ye honor me. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. "Ye call me chief. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. but it is a true complement. or second object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. but chief belongs to the verb." Complement: 344." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). Indirect object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar.

sir!' rang out in response. 352. not containing a verb." "He was termed Thomas." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. or. for instance. ay. in the original Opium Confessions." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. I mentioned a case of that nature.." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." (3) INFINITIVE. 'Ay. seem.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as." (2) PARTICIPIAL. become. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 346." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. As to form. above sixty. "Brow and head were round. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. especially the forms of be. he was now getting old. Phrases. An intransitive verb. more familiarly. introduced by a preposition: for example. 355. etc." Also an expression used as a noun. as in drowning. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. Complement of an intransitive verb. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. and of massive weight. taste. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. but used as a single modifier. feel. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." Things used as Subject. and barring the door. See sentence 19. in the popular judgment. A phrase is a group of words." "The good man. 351. 347. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." 345. 364. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. as. as in the sentence. to the completion of this man of the world. appear. in exercise following Sec. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. "A cheery. and." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. Thom of the Gills." All these complete intransitive verbs.

Disguised infinitive subject." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. was heard one syllable to justify. asserting eyes. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. and by Saint George!' said the King." In this sentence." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." "The dead are there. I saw the quick and the dead." etc. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." "Never. "Therein has been. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. (2) In interrogative sentences." Things used as Direct Object. from their lips. 341. (4) After "there introductory. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." Things used as Complement. and ever will be. etc.²the talent of starting the game." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. 349. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." 348." "There are asking eyes. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. but obscures the real subject. or their religion from their sect. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects.²the infinitive phrase." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. my deficiency. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. but the real or logical subject is to print. for which see Sec. but they will be given in detail here. ." The for did not belong there originally. or the thundering of organs. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. "'By God. prowling eyes. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust).

" "Serving others is serving us. Like all the complements in this list. and explaining or modifying the subject. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. the object is made the subject by being passive." Modifiers." "She asked her father's permission. Of a transitive verb. or Complement." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." . Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." In this last sentence." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. I. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. Modifiers of Subject." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. As complement of an intransitive verb.350.²completing the predicate.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. doubtless." "I hear the echoes throng. they are adjuncts of the object." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." "Their tempers. (3) Infinitive." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. the shepherd girl. complements of the predicate.²heads or tails. and. Object. or the equivalent of the noun. As complement of a transitive verb. at the same time." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. and the words italicized are still complements. 351." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." (4) Participle. and whenever the complement is a noun.

" (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. no sociable angel.²In each sentence in Sec. Retained with passive. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. given at the request of a Dutch lady. the prisoner at the bar. the verb being omitted. but it is really a contracted clause. Tells how. see further Secs." "Him." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. and modify the predicate in the same way." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. unforgiving. and leading him from star to star." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." (For participial and infinitive phrases." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. but noble teachers." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." "Give them not only noble teachings." "In the twinkling of an eye. "He died like a God. not with nature.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. was now called upon for his defense. austere. or . tell whether the subject. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 351. or complement is modified. was the scene from King John. this young idolater." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. I have seasoned for thee." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. 357-363. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." Exercise.²proud. Since the predicate is always a verb. object. 352. Modifiers of the Predicate. but with other men." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. II. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." In such a sentence as.

is good in the making. but to be loved. no humor. and. according to old philosophers." "One way lies hope.When the verb is changed from active to passive." Exercises. 8. His books have no melody. Why does the horizon hold me fast. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. etc. with my joy and grief. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 3. 2. 4.. 6. This. . These answer the question when. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. and the direct object is retained: for example. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. after dinner. the indirect object is retained." subject of passive verb and direct object retained." "All such knowledge should be given her. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. but the children of the great. to the animal strength and spirits. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. he liked. They do not wish to be lovely. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. 2. predicate. in this center? 4. 5. But anger drives a man to say anything. I took. 6. gives wonderful animation. predicate. On the voyage to Egypt. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 7. negative." (6) Adverbial objective. and as many to oppose it." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. in regard to particulars. no emotion. (a) Pick out subject. 3. 5. Evil. how far. and other measures of precaution. Fashion does not often caress the great. (b) Pick out the subject. no relief to the dead prosaic level. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. a sort of personality to the whole writing. and (direct) object:² 1. 7. or how long. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. To the men of this world.

y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. to the right and to the left. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 2. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. In one feature. Not the less I owe thee justice. 6. for the first time. this dragoon so lovely. 3. six children sat by a peat fire. 5. I felt myself. Compound Predicate. 5.. after their long confinement to a ship. expecting the return of their parents. Unhorse me. I gave him an address to my friend. at the chief hotel. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. this imperial rider. happy dinner. and a member of the world. etc. 3. y y y y Compound Subject. Paint me. at length the warrior lady. then. 4. must visit again the home of her childhood. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 4. Their intention was to have a gay. A river formed the boundary.²the river Meuse. in little peaceful Easedale. That night. downwards. this nun so martial.y 8. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. that was thy portion in life. 4. To suffer and to do. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 3. viz. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 2. 2. Not compound sentences. the blooming cornet. I promised her protection against all ghosts. then. upwards. Yes. the attorney. . in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. the present Archbishop of Dublin. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. a room seventeen feet by twelve.The cry of battle rises along their changing line.

the predicate. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. the object. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. I'm with you once again. may be the person or thing addressed. but it is to be noticed that. etc." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. The exclamatory expression.353. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. "Ah. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements." "The name of the child. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. Examples of compound subjects are." "Voyages and travels I would also have. 355. hurry." "He shook his head. in all such sentences as we quote below. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. however. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences." And so with complements. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. Larger view of a sentence. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. complements.. exposes. 354. the air of the mother. the verb). Independent Elements of the Sentence." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. same as (1). modifiers. etc. my brave young man!" . The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. together with its modifiers. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. hurry. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. above: thus. and its object or complement. several modifiers. shouldered the rusty firelock. Of this." "Ye crags and peaks. Bishop. then the grammatical subject and predicate. forming a sentence: "Oh. "The company broke up. in the sentence." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. and returned to the more important concerns of the election.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. turned his steps homeward. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety." Sentences with compound predicates are. together with all its modifiers. they are not a necessary part. and the rest is the logical predicate. For example. ulcer. the simple subject is situation. and. the tone of her voice. that is. etc.

6). already noticed. These need close watching. . limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. the company broke up. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES.." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. such as however. that have an office in the sentence. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. he somehow lived along. pronoun. (1) Adjectival. There are some adverbs. six quill-driving gentlemen. yes! everybody knew them. and so on. now." "Well." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon." "Why. 3. y (2) The adverbial use." Another caution. modifying a noun. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. truly. or complement (see Sec. 352." (2) Adverbial. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. (b) As a modifier of subject. 350. 4). why. 356." (5) Participial phrase: "But.. 357. prepositional phrases may be. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. grandma. really. besides. see Sec. let him perish. moreover. he was a conscientious man. 355. modifying the predicate." "Truth to say. her noticing even this is creditable. undoubtedly. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. The words well. etc. therefore. or word used as a noun: for example." (6) Single words: as." "No. 351. and some conjunctions. he closed his literary toils at dinner. instances of which were seen in Sec. this story runs thus. see Sec. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. then. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. In their use. how you're winking!" "Now. to the best of my remembrance. etc. such as perhaps." "At all events. 4). and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. nevertheless. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. object." (3) Independent. "Oh. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. generally speaking." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife.

Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. etc. therefore.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.should. "The letter of introduction. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." "There.: as in the sentences. my dear." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. See Sec.can (could)." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. was speedily run through.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.seem." (b) With the forms of be." etc. 358. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. necessity. etc. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. This case excepted. but require somewhat closer attention. ought. y (a) With may (might)." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. I. and teach her how to be happy and good." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. he should not have known them at all. being equivalent to a future with obligation. or as nearly so as the student will require. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. but having no other office than a verbal one." (c) With the definite forms of go.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. modifying was speedily run through. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. "Because I was. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble." In this sentence. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. and they will be presented here in full. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. and hence is adverbial. containing no matters of business. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. (5).]. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. thus. The verbal use. Wilt thou. 355.would.

²both purpose clauses. The substantive use. notice the following:² In (1). etc. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." 360. and the eyes to fill?" 359. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. 351. ." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. The adverbial use. hang the idiot. To test this. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. object. to hear McOrator after dinner. 362. "But there was no time to be lost. etc. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. modifying a noun that may be a subject. already examined. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. complement." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. above.. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. the Scotch fighting all the battles. (4) In apposition. II." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. 361 are used adverbially.: for example. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "To say what good of fashion we can. III." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). "Do they not cause the heart to beat. Don Guzman." "Are you mad." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." "To teach is to learn. 5). to look means that he might look. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. The adjectival use. result." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "He insisted on his right to forget her. to please is equivalent to that he may please. 361. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. IV.

. (7) Independent elements (Sec. which is of two kinds. V. 3. The independent use. etc. as in Sec." (See also Sec. 351). In (3).²both expressing condition. 352). (3). and to say is equivalent to if we say. 364. 355. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. savage and serene in one hour. not in a book. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 355).In (2). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. (2) The object of the verb (Sec.. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. etc. If it is an incomplete verb. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 347). 349). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. give the complement (Secs. (5) The subject (Sec.. to part means because I part. and to betray and to bring express the reason. In (5). object. 268. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. to find shows the result of the return. 4. 351). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 351).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. must be in a life. etc." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 363. I will try to keep the balance true.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. equivalent to that you betray. to hear means if you should hear. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. Our life is March weather. give² (1) The predicate. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. In (4). In analyzing simple sentences. 2.

It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 11. the carrion crow. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. two stricken hours. a good shot. to the moral sphere. 13. You may ramble a whole day together. To be hurried away by every event.²to preserve her throne. with eager energy. The water. in popular use. to keep England out of war. 21. 6. 22. 9. 18.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. through toys and atoms.Burnt green and blue and white. 17.4. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 8. 24. a graceful dancer. like a witch's oils. His opinion is always original. and every moment discover something new. The whole figure and air. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 23. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. is to have no political system at all. 15. . Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 5. 10. always in a bad plight. Through the years and the centuries. might be called flabby and irresolute. 14. I have heard Coleridge talk. good and amiable otherwise. 20. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. Her aims were simple and obvious. The word conscience has become almost confined. nor generals. We are always in peril. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. nor money. Old Adam. an accomplished scholar.He sat in the shower. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. He risked everything. 16. and to the purpose. to restore civil and religious order.The old crow of Cairo. nor troops. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. through evil agents. neither ammunition. and spared nothing. 19. To these gifts of nature. 7. 12. nor himself. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. a skilled musician. just on the edge of destruction. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual.

baggage far in the rear. Few in number. or perhaps one virtue. She had made a two days' march. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. and. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. and the why. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. it would not have been filial or ladylike. proud foe. time-honored. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. had but one foible. in this world. But yield. 31. 36. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. and in my own garden. 41. to be a reproach to such goodness. 27. In the Acadian land.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Must we in all things look for the how. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. the present capital of New England. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. secluded. Fair name might he have handed down. The cry. in less heroic and poetic form. the prime minister of Spain. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 35. the ship was in an uproar. Of the same grandeur. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Upon this shore stood.Distant. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground.25. Supposing this computation to be correct. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 32. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. the same Condé Olivarez. 38. and no provisions but wild berries. 33. an elderly man. Now. I dare this. 40. and the wherefore? . 30. in front of all this mighty crowd. haply. to bid you leave the place now and forever. upon my own ground. Oxford. This amiable relative. I hate him and myself. 39. The villain. 37. 26.Effacing many a stain of former crime. ready to receive her. still. 29. 34.

though often treated as phrases. are really contracted clauses. 366." Sentences with like. if they were expanded. but. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. thus. Words left out after than or as. (Sec. as." This must. As shown in Part I." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. as would be the connective instead of like.CONTRACTED SENTENCES.From her own loved island of sorrow. made merely for convenience and smoothness. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. 365. The simple sentence the basis. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. however. COMPLEX SENTENCES." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. the pride and beauty of the grove." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. which is the unit of speech. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]." To show that these words are really omitted.² "She is like some tender tree. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. 333). to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. 367. the expressions of manner introduced by like. .

This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. and the last. is taken in. how great . Definition. modifiers. and modifier. etc. CLAUSES. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. complement. murmur. A principal. . which are so united that one member is the main one. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. then we recognize this as the main statement. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. that . or it may be applied to the others. predicate. object. 369. we are aware. logically depends on suffering.. and the next one. 368. 370. suffering. that is.²the backbone. object.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. complements. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint.. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. 371. as in this sentence.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. Hence the following definition:² Definition. A clause is a division of a sentence. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.. each clause has its subject.. or dependent on it.²the other members subordinate to it. Independent clause. main. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. containing a verb with its subject.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.

. for example. and it is . . that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. clauses are divided into NOUN. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. for a hundred years. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. and the whole clause is not. 352. put an end to my fancies. impertinences. Noun Clauses." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. over which the torrent came tumbling.. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. (a) Ordinary apposition. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories." (4) Apposition. 373. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." (2) Object of a verb." 374. Kinds." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. for a time.." Just as the object noun.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. adjectives. 5).. As to their office in the sentence. (b) that are ..' is an electric touch. so the object clause is retained. ADJECTIVE. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. We ourselves are getting ." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. is retained after a passive verb (Sec." "I was told that the house had not been shut. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. or adverbs." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. 'I know that he can toil terribly.. but logically the sentence is. infinitive.Dependent clause. night or day. pronoun. But since they are complex in form. for example. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. etc. attention is called to them here. and ADVERB clauses.. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. with a noun clause in apposition with it. 372." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. thus. impertinences²would be grammatical. verbal." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs.

7. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. or equivalent of a noun." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. as. Frequently there is no connecting word. whereby. Such a man is what we call an original man. how it changed from shape to shape. of a nation. that. that all safe legislation must be based. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. and not on the sentiment. I was napping. which. sometimes by the conjunctions when. etc. he would repent it.² "It is on the understanding." Exercise. whether he should choose one or not. 4. that. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. 6. he could know nothing. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. whence. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Adjective Clauses. that he was a scheming impostor. wherein. in the sentence. a relative pronoun being understood. But the fact is. 375. 2. What history it had. 8. Except by what he could see for himself. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. As the office of an adjective is to modify. 9. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. . where. 3. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. but. Examples of adjective clauses. 10. The reply of Socrates. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Other examples of this construction are. no man will ever know. a falsehood incarnate. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. still remains reasonable. 5. whither.

. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. 11. 5." Exercise. all is vacancy. the champions advanced through the lists. Pick out the adjective clauses. 3. 9." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 2.. whether subject. i. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 4. 1." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Adverbial Clauses. which Rowena tasted. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 10. 6. 8. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. No man is reason or illumination. or that essence we were looking for. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 7. which formed the center of the mansion.376.e." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. and tell what each one modifies. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. etc. he begins to help us more as an effect." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. object. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. I walked home with Calhoun. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements.

with examples. no matter what remains." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. etc. an adjective. the milestones are grave-stones. adverbs. Shakespeare is our city of refuge.." (5) DEGREE." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. Exercise. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. however good she may be as a witness." "When he was come up to Christian.² whoever. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. etc. Joanna is better." These mean no matter how good." (3) REASON. but they require careful study." "The broader their education is. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "After leaving the whole party under the table. a verbal." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. is wider. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. tell what kind each is. shaping our actions. etc. so far as we can. and adverbial conjunctions." "Who cares for that. however.377. he goes away as if nothing had happened. 378. the wider is the horizon of their thought." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." (7) RESULT. it takes precedence of everything else. since he was too great to care to be original. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance.: "But still." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. whatever. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." "The right conclusion is. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. and what it modifies:² . there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. expressing the degree in which the horizon. that we should try." (9) CONCESSION. to make up our shortcomings. and will be given in detail." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. introduced by indefinite relatives. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." "He went several times to England. or an adverb.

As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. predicate. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. of which clause Odin is the subject. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. then treat noun clauses as nouns. If the children gathered about her. For example. on a dark wintry night. howling and whistling. in the sentence. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. banging about doors and windows. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. etc.1. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. they might perhaps say of their visitors. 379.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. incoherent exclamations. when the wind was unruly. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. its object is that Odin was a reality. snatching up stones to fling at them. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. object. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. 'Well. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. to tell the truth. so as to picture the parts and their relations. with shrill. as they sometimes did." 2. and modifiers. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. and twirling weathercocks. we are a little disappointed. 3. find the principal subject and principal predicate. 380. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ .

. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. . 3. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 380). Take the place and attitude which belong to you.. 2. 364. Exercises. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. d. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . as seen in the "map" (Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (1) Find the principal clause. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.

18. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. of a light hazel. 12. whom I choose. 15. 20. M. 23. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 10. 8. This is she. Whether she said the word is uncertain. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. the shepherd girl. 6. for yours. 9. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. if applied to the Bible. Next came a wretched Dominican. And those will often pity that weakness most. could not have been effected. namely. that. 5. Had they been better chemists. which. 19. Here lay two great roads. counselor that had none for herself. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. the flower should revive for us. who would yield to it least. dying for them.4. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 7. He was what our country people call an old one. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. or whether any. 21. But now that she has become an establishment. 16. Now. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. The deep eyes. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 22. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. The night proved unusually dark. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. I like that representation they have of the tree. . The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 24. 14. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. that pressed her with an objection. had we been worse. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 11. as for armies that were too many by half. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. bishop. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 17. the mixed result. 13. not so much for travelers that were few.

(b) First analyze. 30. would easily reach. COMPOUND SENTENCES. and not from his heart. 6. "No book. 383. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 28." said Bentley. but above it. 7. we cannot adequately say. is to speak and write sincerely. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. That which we do not believe. 2. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. questions. or commands. Hence the definition. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 382. then map out as in Sec. the following complex sentences:² 1. 26. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. speed.²which will not be disposed of. "was ever written down by any but itself. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. that it was no more than his daily walk. 380. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses.25. 5. if continuously extended. and stamped with his right number. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences." 4. 27. though we may repeat the words never so often. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. These things we are forced to say. 3.² Definition. if there be one to whom I am not equal. It makes no difference how many friends I have. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. and temper. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. . How formed. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. and what content I can find in conversing with each.

The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. moon-like ray" (adversative). Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. as but. however. now adverbs or prepositions.. etc." 384. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. 386. which are simple statements. if there are any. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. for. and which complex:² 1. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. and nor the second and third complex members. "Only the star dazzles. and not the form of the connective. in (3). ." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. others sometimes coördinate. as in Sec. a simple member.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. and connects the first and second complex members. nor does he know until he has tried. The coördinate conjunctions and. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. Study the thought. he is twice a man. Connectives. he walks with arms akimbo. the planet has a faint. he soliloquizes. Speak your latent conviction. Another example is. whereas. tell which are compound. 383 (1). and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). Thus in (1). and it shall be the universal sense. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. or but. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. in (2). 297). etc. 385. from the second. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. a complex member. while (whilst). nor. yet. The division into members will be easier. the semicolon separates the first. Exercise. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. the waving grass. he dilates. Of the following illustrative sentences. Some of these are now conjunctions.

I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 6. 10. 12. 14. In this manner. and for everything you gain. 4. The gain is apparent. unobtrusive boy. and not by what each is. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. 11. nay. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. Whilst the world is thus dual. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. yield to them heart and life. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. for example. from a happy yet often pensive child. so is every one of its parts. or. I can still receive. and as yet very early in the morning. Love. the tax is certain. 2. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 3. you have gained something else. Exercise. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 381. For everything you have missed. . he grew up to be a mild. however. is particular. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 8. 9. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. quiet. Man does not stand in awe of man. All loss. passed in that time. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. (i) Separate it into its main members. 387. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. and thou shalt be loved. 364. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 5. that it was Easter Sunday. you lose something. 3. all pain. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 4.2. I can yet love. 13. However some may think him wanting in zeal. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 7. to find a pot of buried gold. and sun-browned with labor in the fields.

if you rip up his claims. whilst frankness invites frankness. modesty. and he learns who receives. 19. is as thin and timid as any. Come into port greatly." "keep the rake. or men will never know and honor him aright. or we read books." 13. We see the noble afar off. 7. 14. and they repel us. Stand aside. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. Trust men. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. because. 15." says the smith. and they will show themselves great. crook and hide. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 18. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. and makes their business a friendship. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and not a thought has enriched either party. Whatever he knows and thinks. and not an emotion of bravery. or sail with God the seas. 20. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 9. and the other dares not. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and the peace of society is often kept. When you have chosen your part. He teaches who gives. and they will be true to you. and each shows only what lies at its focus. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 16. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. as children. 8.5. 6. abide by it. one is afraid. "the iron is white. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and the cart as nigh the rake. feign to confess here. treat them greatly. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. only that they may brag and conquer there. . puts the parties on a convenient footing. why should we intrude? 10. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. We go to Europe. that let him communicate. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. "Strike. or hope. 21." says the haymaker. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. They will shuffle and crow. give those merits room. or we pursue persons. "as nigh the scythe as you can. 17. let them mount and expand. 11.

Ground covered by syntax. adjective and noun. So does culture with us. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. By way of introduction. Following the Latin method. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. PART III. or. but its leading characteristic is. INTRODUCTORY. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. but go about your business anywhere. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. 25. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. We see young men who owe us a new world. verb and subject. 390. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. so readily and lavishly they promise. 388. it never was known to fall into the rear. 380. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. 23. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us.²agreement and government. but they never acquit the debt. they die young. SYNTAX. the department of syntax will be a small affair. pronoun and antecedent. it ends in headache. and dodge the account. Do not craze yourself with thinking. if they live. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. they lose themselves in the crowd. Essential point in English syntax.22. 24. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their .

and imitate it. 393. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. . both forms will be given in the following pages. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. For example. following the regular order of subject. therefore. There is. yet the expression is sustained by good authority." In this there is a possessive form. or the same writer will use both indifferently. As an illustration of the last remark. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. and whose judgment. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. etc. and it would not matter which one stood first. Also in the sentence. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. "The savage here the settler slew. good English. In Latin. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. 392. In some cases. and added to it the preposition of. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. pronoun and antecedent. as to study inflected forms. distinct forms would be used. but are not now." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. Second. Some rules not rigid. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once.² First. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. take the sentence. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and nothing but important points will be considered. the order being inverted. "None remained but he. When usage varies as to a given construction." is ambiguous. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. then. or settler may be the subject. Why study syntax? 391. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. also expressing a possessive relation." that is. some of which conform to classical grammar. authorities²that is. Savage may be the subject. The basis of syntax. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. This is not logical. sometimes verb and subject. the sentence.

He kept Bolingbroke's. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. and Pope's.²MCCULLOCH. ²ID. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. the antechamber of the High Priest. sense and nature's easy fool.²EMERSON. and Harley's. the shore of Galilee. and Peter's. . Adam and Eve's morning hymn. etc.²ROWE. and Peterborough's. Mill's and Mr.²RUSKIN. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. PRONOUNS." Juletta tells. as. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.NOUNS. 394. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. 397. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. 395. Putting Mr. Separate possession.² Live your king and country's best support. for example. Use of the possessive. and Paul's. but imply separate possession or ownership.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Woman. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Joint possession.²MILTON.²BYRON. 396. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. the possessive sign is used with each noun. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. 408). Bentham's principles together.

for example.²WHITCHER. 398.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. the last expression has the support of many good writers. there are two general rules that require attention.²SHAKESPEARE. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. Since most of the personal pronouns. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. This should be "as she. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. Still. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.²POPE. I. sanctioned. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. Objective for the nominative. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). whom is the complement after the verb am.²SOUTHEY.) "The young Harper.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. thus.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.²BYRON. General rules. But he must be a stronger than thee. who. others are generally. Some of the violations are universally condemned. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. as. and should be the nominative form. Bedott Papers. if not universally. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me." 400. together with the relative who. No mightier than thyself or me.²THACKERAY. the real thought being forgotten.²TROLLOPE. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. 399. . NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.

²KINGSLEY. "Who's there?"²"Me. One exception is to be noted. it will not be me." 401. are. but such is the fact.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.² One I remember especially. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. "If there is any one embarrassed. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. as. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. Patrick the Porter. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. is."²KINGSLEY.²FIELDING. The camp of Richard of England. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. A safe rule. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was." There is no special reason for this.²LONGFELLOW.²THACKERAY. they are yet holier than we."²WM. BLACK. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. on the other hand. In spoken English. But still it is not she. unless a special."²WINTHROP. And it was heThat made the ship to go. both in England and America.²SCOTT. The usage is too common to need further examples. the objective form is regularly found.²PARTON.²MACAULAY. . And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. "Than whom. for example. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²RUSKIN.² For there was little doubt that it was he. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. and the other forms of the verb be.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. namely.²COLERIDGE.

"Ask the murderer. I speak not to" (he should be him. the object of to). in the case of words used in apposition with the object. but not he" (he should be him. You know whom it is that you thus charge. as. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. verbals. 9. 10. 4. or us). 11.²MILTON. It is not me you are in love with. 403. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. Nominative for the objective. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. 8. Whom they were I really cannot specify. Truth is mightier than us all. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. 2. object of saw). If there ever was a rogue in the world. Me in exclamations. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. as this from Shakespeare. used after verbs. 404. 7. now. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. (3) By forgetting the construction. 5. or preposition which governs it. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb." the word being in apposition with murderer). as. 3. verbal. you or me. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. it is me.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned.Exercise. or this. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. as. and prepositions." 6. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. .

²GOLDSMITH.²BYRON. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²STEELE. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. etc. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. We regularly say. save thou and thine.² All were knocked down but us two. "Who did you see?" or. and is usually avoided. Thou. but he. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. 2.Exception 1. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. I've sworn.²KINGSLEY. Let you and I look at these. all but he. . "Who were they talking to?" etc. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. 406. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. 405. partial Nature. None.²BYRON. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.²KINGSLEY. I arraign. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. who interrogative. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. changed in all save thee. Exception 2.²KINGSLEY. for they say there are none such in the world. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Exercise. Thy shores are empires. as. for example. as well as the objective. Nature. as. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Who have we here?²ID.Shall be left upon the morn.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.

with Jortin and Thirlby. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²C. 6. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach.²DE QUINCEY. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²possessive. 9. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear." 4. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. POSSESSIVE FORMS. and they know that as well as me.Ye I salute.²RUSKIN. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 11.3. II. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. They are coming for a visit to she and I. As antecedent of a relative. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. They crowned him long ago. or objective? . Preceding a gerund. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. 407.²THACKERAY. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. 10. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Markland. This usage is not frequent.²MACAULAY. 5. 8. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. 7. B. who. Bartholomew.²SCOTT. BROWN. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 12. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.

²DICKENS.² IRVING. Both types of sentences are found.² CARLYLE. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. The last incident which I recollect. But in common use there is no such distinction. The use of the objective is older." That is.² THACKERAY. Possessive. studying is a gerund. object of heard of.² SCOTT.²BREWER. In the examples quoted. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind.²DE QUINCEY. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. We heard of Brown. sometimes it has the objective. and that in the second. and asked why it was not made. Objective.408. . as he turned away from his wife. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. both are gerunds. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. Why both are found. Here I state them only in brief. that the bitterness of death was past. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. etc. [who was] studying law. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.²RUSKIN. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.²CARLYLE. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. and the meaning is.²MACAULAY. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning.

² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. BROCKDEN BROWN. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. .²THOREAU. number.²THACKERAY. Every city threw open its gates. it was his own fault. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. where there were examinations. In such a case as the last three sentences. and ought to agree with them in person. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²HUXLEY. 409.²when the antecedent. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. preceded by a distributive. 410.²DEFOE.²AUDUBON.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.² BRYANT.²EMERSON III. and gender. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²RUSKIN. if the antecedent is neuter. Examples of these constructions are. Watch for the real antecedent. Everybody had his own life to think of. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. taking in each of many persons. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. or is a distributive word. in one person.²CABLE. the pronoun will be neuter singular.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²HOLMES. If any one did not know it. The pale realms of shade.²C.

Struggling for life.²PALGRAVE.²RUSKIN. let them break it off. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.² Not the feeblest grandame. By using the plural pronoun. as anybody in their senses would have done. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²FIELDING. for example.²PAULDING. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²AUSTEN. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²BIBLE. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²PALEY. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²SCOTT. not a mowing idiot.²DEFOE. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. This is not considered the best usage. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. . and giving them means of being so. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²BYRON. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²ID.²ID. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Whosoever hath any gold. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. If the part deserve any comment.²EMERSON.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²HUXLEY. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²THACKERAY. The sun. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. till they have lost him. 411. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.

. 2. unless both genders are implied." This means. and that are restrictive or not.²HAWTHORNE." It defines beggar. 412. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. In the following examples. Exercise. I. Exercise. according to the practice of every modern writer. It adds a new statement to what precedes. 1. or unrestrictive. the definite relatives who. but.Where she was gone. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. etc. What these terms mean. in each instance:² Who. when restrictive. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. and that always restrictive. who went away. and does not add a new statement. that being considered already clear. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. which. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. and he went away. "I gave it to the beggar. because. no one could take upon them to say.²In the above sentences. as. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. As to their conjunctive use. when coördinating.² SHERIDAN.) and a personal pronoun. or what was become of her. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. but.²ID. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. That is in most cases restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. A relative. tell whether who. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES." A relative.²ADDISON. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. 413. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. which. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.

that were often vicious.3. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand.² NEWMAN.² CARLYLE. With narrow shoulders..²ADDISON. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. Which. who. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. 8.²HOLMES. Yet how many are there who up. etc. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. down. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. W." that is invariable as to person and number. BEECHER 5. . and over England are saying. because of its antecedent. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. she agreed to join the party.² MOTLEY.²DE QUINCEY.²ID. II. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. However. In what sense true. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. but. 4.²THOREAU. For example. long arms and legs. these or that which. 7. So different from the wild. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. That. We say I. 9. Hare has printed. 11. in the sentence. 14. which Mr. etc. The rule. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 13. 12. and it is called logic. which was to go over the Cordilleras. they. The general rule is. 414. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. etc.² IRVING. 6. he. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. On hearing their plan. it makes the verb third person singular. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public.²H. you. A grizzly-looking man appeared.²ID.²DE QUINCEY. as that does not vary for person or number. 10.

.²HOWELLS.²MACAULAY.. or which . A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²HOLMES.. He is one of those that deserve very well. but the former has good authority. Let us be of good cheer. "one of the finest books that has been published. . He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. MORSE. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²M. A disputed point. others regard books as the antecedent. in winning a battle. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. JR. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. 415. when he derided the shams of society.²LOWELL.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. etc.²ADDISON.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. The latter is rather more frequent. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. with one as the principal word. but speaks of him as that sort.²J. ARNOLD... Franklin. [plural] that who. and write the verb in the plural. Singular.. but myself.. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²whether we should say. French literature of the eighteenth century." or." One of . I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. and in improving a victory. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. who rarely speak at all. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²LOWELL. etc. the true antecedent.²BOWLES. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. T. [singular or plural. "one of the finest books that have been published. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. The fiery youth .²LECKY.] Both constructions are frequently found. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.

² THACKERAY. when the relative word is a pronoun.²DEFOE. III. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. that is. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. or where] he died. and such like: as. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. when this dust falls to the urn.And.²In the above sentences. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. and see if the sentence is made clearer. return. Exercise.²IRVING.²VAUGHAN.A rare Roundabout performance. object of a preposition understood. But I by backward steps would move. whence.²BURNS. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts."²DICKENS.²SWIFT.² RUSKIN.² . Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²EMERSON. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²SCOTT. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going." "India is the place [in which. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.In that same state I came. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²GOLDSMITH.²EMERSON.²ADDISON. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. IV. 417.²CARLYLE. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. 416. where. I could see nothing except the sky. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. The same day I went aboard we set sail. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²ID. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.

but we find the relative who. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.² THACKERAY. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. for example. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. That.²SCOTT. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. .²R. 418. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. W. or that. was a discoverer. Anacoluthic use of which. he.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.²SWIFT. They believe the same of all the works of art.. Caution. Which. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²WORDSWORTH. V. if same is followed by a complete clause. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. she passed the lamp over her face and person. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. if I had resolved to go on with. and working in the same spirit.He considered. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. Mr. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. I might as well have staid at home.² BURKE. as is not used. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. boats. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. The regular construction. CHURCH.²FRANKLIN.² MACAULAY. as of knives.. looking-glasses.² Which. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. as his apprentice.²ADDISON. but which is usually carefully avoided. which. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. ²GOLDSMITH. etc. with Turner.

he said that all submission was now too late. 1. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. etc. le Conte. He delivered the letter. 3. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. . once a great favorite of M. and this be placed in the proper clause. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.²HAWTHORNE.²which if they once heard. and which. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. Exercise. Express both relatives. (2) "Among the poorer sort. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.² Direction for rewriting.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch." etc. or.." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.. etc.²SCOTT. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort.²GOLDSMITH. That is. And who.²THACKERAY. After this came Elizabeth herself. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. Exercise.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²RUSKIN. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. 2. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. or leave out both connective and relative. but none is expressed." etc. As the sentences stand. This was a gentleman. which when Mr. (3) "Among the poorer sort.She'd come again. now thrown upon their.²SHAKESPEARE. (1) "Among those who are poor. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. Thornhill had read. who are now thrown. or omit the conjunction. 4. but.. and who are now. But who. and who are now thrown upon their compassion." etc.²DE QUINCEY. 419. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.

which the Scotch had learned.²DE QUINCEY. then. 6. one of signal interest. And which. 420.² MOTLEY.. either from imitation of their frequent allies. like that spoken in the towns. 13. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. But which. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. etc. Akin to the above is another fault. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. who. and repeat this for any further reference. . or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Or who. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. I shall have complete copies. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. 8." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. 10.²DE QUINCEY.²PEARSON. I saw upon the left a scene far different. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . "A mockery.5. and which. Dr. 9.²HAWTHORNE. English by name. etc. 1. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. and which has never been described..²IRVING. indeed. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.. Or which. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 11.. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. Exercise. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. and to whom no door is closed. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.²SCOTT. 7. and which may even be heard a mile off. the French. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. "What knight so craven. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²SCOTT. as a false and astucious mark. That . 12.

12.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house..²HOWELLS.2.. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.²EMERSON.²HALLAM. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. In my native town of Salem. and to whom I do not belong. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. but which. 14. G. that.. E. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.. I grudge the dollar. I give to such men as do not belong to me. Which . 15.²SCOTT That which . The Tree Igdrasil. half a century ago. and whose examples and principles we inherit. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. I recommend some honest manual calling.. 8.²HAWTHORNE. 10. the cent. was a bustling wharf. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. was hung in air. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. which. He flung into literature.. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 9. That . SIMMS.. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. 3. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.. which. 4.²SCOTT. the dime. what.. 7. It rose into a thrilling passion. Such as . but which is perhaps not so different from it. in his present condition. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. 11.²W. 5.²EMERSON. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.²DEFOE. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.. CHANNING.²DE QUINCEY..²W.²HOLMES. in his Mephistopheles. .²BEECHER. such as they have very probably been bred to. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. at the head of what. Such as . He. whom. 13. that . Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 6.

into the high pavilion of their thoughts. and in want of his gold²or his corn. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. in which case any should be used instead. for example.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. Assume that no one is in want of either. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. as. one another. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²ID.²RUSKIN. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. that not all combined. 422. Distributives either and neither. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. By their original meaning. always at war with one another. as it were.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. as.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.² HAWTHORNE. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. . We call ourselves a rich nation.²GOLDSMITH. Use of any. Each other.² Some one must be poor. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.²MACAULAY. 421. whether or not the two are equivalent. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²DICKENS.²RUSKIN. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.

DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. If any of you lack wisdom.. Caution. afterwards in Goethe. Examples of its use are.. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. which is plural as often as singular.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. etc. and is isolated. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. at one time in Bacon.²PROF.²BIBLE.²SHAKESPEARE.²STIRLING.²CARLYLE.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . .²FRANKLIN.²SCOTT. before that. The adjective pronoun none is. Any usually plural. None usually plural.. Do you think.²THACKERAY. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²EMERSON.²BURKE. as. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.²BEECHER Whenever. Do you think. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.² EMERSON. even in Bettine. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). let him ask of God. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. during his stay at Yuste. in the prose of the present day. None of Nature's powers do better service. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.² In earnest. any of his friends had died. for him have I offended. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. that I know of. whilst I still cherish their genius. usually plural. 423. any was often singular. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. I beseech you. 424. as none of the French philosophers were. in Shakespeare. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. then in Plutarch. In earlier Modern English. speak. then in Plotinus. if ever man was. as.² If any.

² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. when it means all persons: for example. etc. as. Somebody's else.² None of them was cleansed..² Singular.²McMASTER. are treated as units.²THOREAU.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. When all were gone. the plural.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. 425.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. which is used absolutely.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. etc. and Ford has nobody's else..²SCOTT Like the use of any. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. nobody else.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. saving Naaman the Syrian. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. etc. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. etc. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. or somebody else's? 426. for example. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. The light troops thought .. that all was lost.² PEARSON. The compounds somebody else. any one else. and less rarely in poetry. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. fixing his eyes on the mace.²NAPIER Plural. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. and all was lost on the other.

²MULOCH. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. These sort." "those kind of trees. or some other such great man as a bishop. 427. etc. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. unlike anybody else's in the world. . I hoped we had done with those sort of things. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.²RUSKIN.. for example. His hair. ADJECTIVES.SYDNEY SMITH.²N.²AUSTEN. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).curled once all over it in long tendrils. P. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS." "all manner of men. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got."²MRS. and may be found not infrequently in literary English..A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²DICKENS. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.² FIELDING.²RUSKIN. all manner of. Again. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. STOWE.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.² These kind of knaves I know. or those sort of people.² Saturday Review. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²SWEET. etc. London. ELIOT." the nouns being singular.²in such as "these sort of books. Whitefield or Wesley. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²THACKERAY.²SHERIDAN. "Ye see. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. WILLIS.²G. the adjectives plural.

which accounts for the construction." A question. made to agree with it. and in this way may take a plural verb. or one object with a class of objects. Consequently we have a confused expression. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Should we say. they said." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. Later form." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. In Old and Middle English. Of two such lessons. 428.²RUSKIN. or the nouns to the plural. for example. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. with all manner of amusing books. The result. "This sort of trees should be planted.² Which is the better able to defend himself. This the modern expression reverses. more alarming than a total silence. in spoken English. the victor or the vanquished. such as. . "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. Burke's sentence. when the necessary dispositions concur. "These kind of trees are best. "This kind of rules are the best. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. and the adjective is. gradually displacing the old. to express a higher degree of quality. Use of the comparative degree. not "all kinds of wild animals. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. According to the approved usage of Modern English. as. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON.²a strong man with nothing but his fists.² PRESCOTT.The library was open. At the source. History of this construction." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.

He is taller. Use of the superlative degree. I am concerned to see that Mr.A braver ne'er to battle rode. than any of his court.²THACKERAY.²HUXLEY. 429. by almost the breadth of my nail.²SWIFT."²ID. Henry. the highest stakes are paid. 5. etc. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. Superlative with two objects. Gary. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Other after the comparative form. Even Dodd himself.²LOWELL. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. has sanctioned. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. 3.²WIRT.²MACAULAY. 430. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²SCOTT. To the man who plays well. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn.²MACAULAY. 6. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²CARLYLE. if not. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. . In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. Exercise. 4. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²TROLLOPE.² THACKERAY.²HAWTHORNE. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. 2. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. would not have had the face.

²EMERSON."²GOLDSMITH. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²SCOTT.²IRVING."²BULWER. Mary.. "Ha. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. I should say that one has the best cause.²HAMLET.²MRS. whichever can be got easiest. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Rip was one of those .Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. and differ only in form.²J. The eldest. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. . Nor that I am more better than Prospero. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. not a bit of high life among them. Come you more nearer. ha. 431.²DR BLAIR.²GOLDSMITH. OLIPHANT. Examples from Shakespeare are. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. more particularly the last of them.²Bible.²TEMPEST. who eat white bread or brown. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²RUSKIN. Double comparative and superlative.. Also from the same period. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. These two properties seem essential to wit. CÆSAR.²BEN JONSON. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. After the most straitest sect of our religion. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²ADDISON. The following examples are used purposely."²HAWTHORNE. 1611. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. and the other contains the best men. In all disputes between States. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.

have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. ARTICLES. The delay in the first three lines.²RUSKIN. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. As to these two expressions. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²DE QUINCEY. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. Examples of this construction are. The meaning intended is the same. These are the three first needs of civilized life. Three first.²KINGSLEY. but in literary English. and conceit in the last. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. etc.² With a singular noun.²RUSKIN. etc.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. jar upon us constantly. . He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Definite article.² SMOLLETT. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. and Secretary Walsingham also.²GIBBON. not only so in popular speech. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²LAMB. First three. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²ADDISON.²GIBBON.²PRESCOTT. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. The merit of the Barb. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. 433. The first five had specific names. the Spanish. Instances of both are given below. ²COWPER. For Carlyle.

The not repeated.² RUSKIN. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. Here the youth of both sexes. I think. 434. distinct. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. Meaning same as in Sec. 1508. as.²NEWMAN. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . were placed at a very tender age. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. or to emphasize the meaning. however. but is used with one only. with a singular noun. having been arranged. melodious.²SCOTT. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. of the eighteenth century. The flowers.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. and the presents..²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.²TENNYSON. 433. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.²PRESCOTT. Frequently. Origin of the Aryans. but inseparable from each other. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. with a plural noun. With a plural noun. as.²CARLYLE.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²ID. the greatest poems. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. One object and several modifiers. 435. No. of the higher and middling orders. Indefinite article. the thought and the word.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. to distinguish clearly. . 433. as in Sec. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.²THE NATION.²TAYLOR..²MACAULAY. The lofty. and flexible language.² MACAULAY. the hour of parting came.²THACKERAY. He is master of the two-fold Logos.

COLERIDGE.²S. .²DICKENS.²B. a murderer. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. 436). To every room there was an open and a secret passage. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. The indefinite article (compare Sec. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²MACAULAY.²DRYDEN.²BULWER. The indefinite article is used. Examples of this use are. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. He saw him in his mind's eye. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. to limit two or more modified nouns.²MACAULAY. and inexhausted vein.An early. One article with several adjectives. 435. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.² BURKE. as in the first three of Sec. a round and a square one alternately. 438. one noun is expressed. T." and "a red and a white geranium.436." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. But in the following sentences. interest. a tyrant.²JOHNSON. In the sentences of Secs.²THACKERAY. or clearness to each of several nouns. For rhetorical effect. as.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. only one of which is expressed.²BEECHER. rich. JONSON. and a usurper.² MACAULAY. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. like the definite article. a collegian. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. 437. 433 and 436.

was the earliest American land. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Collective noun of singular meaning.VERBS. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.. or the great intellectual life of our nation. Singular verb. ARNOLD.²GIBBON. In English. without academies. This was spoken of in Part I. Singulars connected by or or nor.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Another writer might. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. 276. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. . 440. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²The Nation. like some others in this series. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.²G. then.²CARLYLE This usage. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. He sees that it is better to live in peace.²FROUDE. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²AGASSIZ. 439. all that academies can give.²COOPER. as. Sec. ELIOT.²M. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²W. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. as. and the following illustrations prove it. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Such. has got already. A broad and loose rule. for example. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.

² The unbought grace of life. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. and every four hours. nor Paul. but considered as meaning about the same thing. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. a loss of friends. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²DE QUINCEY. for example. a cruel disappointment.²J. is gone. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²BURKE.²GIBBON. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. and other singulars of plural form.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. for example. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. as.² In a word. ADAMS. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. but each one emphatic. Q. nor John.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. nor Mahomet. A fever.²CRITIC. that of a large town.² GOLDSMITH. Plural form and singular meaning. ²EMERSON. the cheap defense of nations. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. a mutilation. or considered as appositional.²EMERSON . a loss of wealth. No. Between ourselves. (4) When the subject is plural in form. other names. or as making up one general idea. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.Jesus is not dead.²WHITTIER.²GOLDSMITH. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. as.

is divided into tragedy and Comedy. the dismay. Subjects after the verb. For wide is heard the thundering fray. no matter if the second is plural). an impassioned countenance. the ruin.²EMERSON.The rout. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. nay. was punished. The Epic. every echo. Plural verb.²BUTLER. was listened to for five hours.²M ARNOLD.²PRESCOTT.²SCOTT. Then comes the "Why.²ID. many a. sir?" and the "No. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.² Asia. an agitated gesture. was dazzled. as well as sides. To receive presents or a bribe.²PRESCOTT. There is a moving tone of voice. is a man of wit. no spent ball.The author. sir!" and the "What then. each. wineBegins to stir itself. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.² There is a right and a wrong in them. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. a cuirass. Here is no ruin.²MACAULAY. and greaves.²NEWMAN. as well as the Drama. 441. almost every day. Every fop. as well as the newest.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. sir!"²MACAULAY. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. in a judge.²LONGFELLOW. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.² . as well as Europe. thus. with death. the fine gentleman. no discontinuity. Every week. as. and such like adjectives. as. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. Every sound. no. a gorget.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. does not take the place of the man.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. Her back.²HAWTHORNE. The oldest. was like to crack. the wit.²MACAULAY.²ID. the partisan. every boor.²RUSKIN. every valet.

²CARLYLE But its authorship. far away thy children leave the land.²EMERSON.²GOLDSMITH.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. its date. as. and its history are alike a mystery to us. b). the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²FROUDE. TAYLOR.²B. A shady grove. A party of workmen were removing the horses. The travelers.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. shirt.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. The conjunction may be omitted.²FROUDE. .²ADDISON. making up a plural subject.²GIBBON. 440 (5. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. for example. His clothes.² One or two of these perhaps survive. were men of insignificant characters.²SWIFT.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. as with a subject of plural form. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. of whom there were a number. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. as in Sec. a stream of fresh water. but the verb is plural. are sufficient to attract a colony. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. Conjunction omitted.²SCOTT. as. Philip of Anjou.²COLERIDGE.These bits of wood were covered on every square. the Duke of Berri.²FRANKLIN. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. All our household are at rest. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.² GIBBON. a green pasture. The Dauphin.²THOREAU.² A multitude go mad about it.²DE QUINCEY. Far. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.

But notice the construction of this. the subject being really equivalent to we. but thou. nor has she"). When the subjects.²SMOLLETT. that is. his blood dost shed. General usage. Nothing which Mr. You and I are farmers. 442.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Exceptional examples. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. Second or third and first person in the subject. Not Altamont. If there is only one person in the subject. "He or I can go. ARNOLD. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²M.²THACKERAY.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. Not I. hadst been my lord. we never talk politics. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²RUSKIN. "I have never said so. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²ROWE. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²LOWELL.). 444. WEBSTER. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Pattison or I have said.²WHITTIER. nor should I. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. as. You and I are tolerably modest people. "You would not be wiser.²RUSKIN. for example. Ah. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²BYRON." etc.²D. but thou. of different persons. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. 443. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²GOLDSMITH." or. .²THACKERAY.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness." "She or you may be sure.²DE QUINCEY. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.

each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. as illustrated above (Secs.²BURKE. 6. In this sentence from Defoe. Also in verbals. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. In a word. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²EMERSON.²and. Neither of them. 5.²SCOTT. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. in my opinion.²ADDISON. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²perhaps the devil. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 9.²G. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 12. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²SMOLLETT.²ADDISON. BANCROFT. which it is proper to mention. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.Her course to intercept. 8. 440-444):² 1. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²MILTON. Nor wood. 4. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 3.² TROLLOPE. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 10. nor tree.²ID. The following illustrate exceptional usage. Exercise. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. nor bush are there.That neither of their intellects are vast.445.²THACKERAY. 7. as we would hope. 11. 2. How each of these professions are crowded. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²BYRON. In the following sentence. 446. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Both death and I am found eternal.

Indirect discourse means reported speech. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. 3. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. as. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 448.²FRANKLIN 6. Direct discourse²that is. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. meaning. for exact connection.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.. It should be remarked. if not. Definitions.² PALGRAVE 5.. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. on my return.²IRVING. I gave one quarter to Ann.²MACAULAY. to have seen should be changed to to see. Two samples of indirect discourse. Exercise. W. The present rule is recent. Of course. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²R.²THACKERAY. however. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece." . to have divided with her whatever might remain.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. 4. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. 447. But I found I wanted a stock of words. CHURCH.²DE QUINCEY 2. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. change them to a better form:² 1.²KINGSLEY.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .

(4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. 1.. under interrogative pronouns. . "I cannot oblige you . the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. "Oh. The substance of his lamentation was. Her prudence whispered eternally. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. This includes the auxiliaries be. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect.. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse." Indirect.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. have. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. or regular interrogatives. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. introductory verb is in the past tense. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. and the indirect question by whether or if. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. will. Sebastian's. etc.. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Summary of the expressions. His exact words were. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. interrogative adverbs. She thought to herself. 449." etc. 2. Oh.. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. Direct. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead." etc. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Direct.

²B.²ADDISON. and that he himself had heard.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. The trouble is. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. VERBALS. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. . Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²GOLDSMITH. one summer afternoon. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. the first discoverer of the river and country. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. Notice this. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. PARTICIPLES. if this were expanded into a verb.Exercise.²ID.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. in the sentences first quoted." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. 450. the sound of their balls. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. FRANKLIN. Careless use of the participial phrase. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. my first observation will be found nearly true. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. like distant peals of thunder. with his crew of the Half-moon.

There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.²LAUGHLIN. Standard writers often use it.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.Correction. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. INFINITIVES. For example.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject.²ID. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. . while defended or excused by others. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. 3. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.²SCOTT. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. Adverb between to and the infinitive." etc. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.. Exercise. purposely or not. 451. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. then. either "As I was pleased. the first sentence would be. There are. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. ... universal assertion. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. if a strike is to succeed. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.." Exercise.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. In the following citations..² HERBERT SPENCER. 2. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. This is the more common arrangement. and often. It is a solemn. avoid it.²RUSKIN. many things to be carefully considered. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. leaving the principal statement as it is. my first collection was.

"The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 11. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. but they are often removed from the exact position. Position of only.²The Nation." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.²ID. ADVERBS. In works of art. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success.. and earthenware.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.²DR. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 10. 8. 452. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned.² ADDISON. are used. The spirits. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.²BURKE. if they modify single words. even. The rigid rule in such a case would be. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. 6. this kind of grandeur. 1533. but it is placed before the infinitive. is to be very cautiously admitted. A little sketch of his. Now.² MACAULAY. even. 7. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.²GOLDSMITH. 13. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. Exercise. but cannot misunderstand the thought. etc. 5. china.²TROLLOPE. etc. when such adverbs as only.4. from Irving. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. BLAIR. 12. therefore.²SCOTT. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. I wish the reader to clearly understand. etc. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. which consists in multitude. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel..²RUSKIN. No. 9.

10.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. WILLIS. P.²ID.² THACKERAY. 2. 16. were he never so old of yeares.²PALGRAVE.²MACAULAY. 14. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 17. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. In Old and Middle English. 11.²N. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²SWIFT. . The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. ²ASCHAM. No sonne. 9.²MOTLEY.²CHAUCER. 6. His last journey to Cannes. In relating these and the following laws. 12. 3. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. whence he was never destined to return. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. GROTE. During the whole course of his administration.1.²SYDNEY SMITH.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²THACKERAY. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²ID. 453. Irving could only live very modestly.²ID. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. He shouted in those clear. 4. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. to avoid a crowd. for example.²EMERSON. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²RUSKIN.²MRS.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 15. 5.²COOPER.²HIGGINSON. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. My master. 7. 13. The old usage. 8. might not marry.

Not only could man not acquire such information. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. when one of the negatives is a connective.²BURKE. 5. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. uncommon. under the influence of Latin syntax. In the execution of this task.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. ²PAGE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. etc. But. 6. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. but ought not to labor after it. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. as. There weren't no pies to equal hers. STOWE. Therefore. in Ole Virginia. The prosperity of no empire. STOWE. However. Regular law of negative in modern English. I never did see him again. I did not act so hastily.²HAWTHORNE. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. 7. 2. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. nor never shall. In the latter case. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. denying each other.²GROTE. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. and is still kept in vulgar English. This. Exercise."²four negatives."²MRS. neither.²MRS. and why:² 1.²DE QUINCEY. as infrequent.² HAMILTON. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. . 4. one of the negatives is often a prefix. the usual way of regarding the question now is. can so agreeably affect.²HOLMES.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.²BAYNE. nor the grandeur of no king. 3. however.²LOWELL. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. is not common.²DEFOE. Exceptional use. if two negatives are found together. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.

And who..²LOWELL... or. but (also)." Besides neither . Correction.. either. if the last precedes a verb."²SCOTT.8. if the second precedes a phrase. either . CONJUNCTIONS. should be scrutinized. The sentences given in Secs. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. In the sentence. Things to be watched. the first should also. or to reply to it. or to reply to it. as the use of the conjunction. even neither . "well worthy to confer honor.." both of the above requirements are violated. or with advantage." may be changed to "This loose .. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it... especially both ..²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it.. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. and. not only . not merely . nor is often changed to not²either . a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. nor. neither . as well as of the pronoun.. there we were. and which.. but. The sentence.. not only to the success of their common cause. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. or.²SCOTT. "A weapon. Choice and proper position of correlatives. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here." . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. 454.. 455. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs." said the King.²PRESCOTT. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. not or is the proper correlative of neither. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. the first ought to be placed before a verb.. but to their own safety.

but they will outrage. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. or but that. 457. etc.²ID. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. In the following sentences. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²GOLDSMITH.Exercise. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. or the negative relative but. too. 4. 456. and I don't know but what he was right. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. and chop up their own kin. but." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. 7. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²MACAULAY. JEWETT. Now. but grown-up persons. Some exceptions.²THACKERAY. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Exercise.²THACKERAY. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.²RUSKIN. nor the disgrace of assailing him. They will.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. or but that for the words but what:² 1. murder. but.²GIBBON. as. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. 6. not merely interest children. 8. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Try and for try to. 5. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. O. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.²BAIN. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. Correct the following sentences:² 1. But what.²S. as. Try and avoid the pronoun. 2. 3. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²FRANKLIN. . substitute that.² ADDISON.

several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.² SWIFT. PREPOSITIONS.²ADDISON. 459. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 458. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. . Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. see Sec. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.²EMERSON.² BULWER.2.²SCOTT. 6. as already seen in Sec. no separation or division by twos being implied. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Between is used most often with two things only. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Between and among. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 305. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²BURKE. 3. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. 5. 4. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. 313.²ADDISON. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²EMERSON.²TROLLOPE.

Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Mackintosh.: Words with particular prepositions.²between philosophers like Spinoza. a soldier of the Cross. Affinity between. confer. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. and Coleridge. as.²RUSKIN What have I. or one object and a group. Dissent from. Kant. 460. Such are derogatory. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. and Stewart. LIST I. etc. correspond. as. involve. Conform to. ²EMERSON. Conversant with. . Some of them have. Averse to. Bestow on (upon). averse. Comply with. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Two groups or one and a group. and another to convey a different meaning. Dependent on (upon). between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Different from. different. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Paley. List I. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions.²KINGSLEY.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Derogatory to. Accord with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Acquit of. and philosophers like Locke. Abhorrent to.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. by custom. 461. Such are absolve.

"Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Correspond with (write to). as. Independent of. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Confer on (upon) (give to). as. Correspond to (a thing). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained)." also of persons. A taste for (art. Reconcile to (note below). List II. Confide in (trust in). Reconcile with (note below). "The king is reconciled to his minister. Involve in. . as." List III. 463. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.). "The exile became reconciled to his fate.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Change with (a person)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. etc. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Agree to (a proposal).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. LIST III.y y y Deprive of. but it is not good usage. as meaning to be in keeping with. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Confide to (intrust to). Differ with (note below). A taste of (food). LIST II. 462. Change to (become). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Confer with (talk with). Change for (a thing). Differ from (note below). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). in the sense of making friends with.

" (because of).²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. One of them said he would die for her. Illustrations of "die of.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. People do not die of trifling little colds." (in behalf of).²BULWER. Take thought and die for Cæsar.:² "Die of. No one died from want at Longfeld." She would have been ready to die with shame. ²THACKERAY. as Cervantes informs us." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. die with.²MACAULAY. die for.²G. die of. "Die with. Expect of. If I meet with any of 'em. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. Who.²ADDISON. instrument). He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²MACAULAY. die from. "Die by. ELIOT. died for love of the fair Marcella. She died of hard work.²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT.²POPE. privation. expect from.²BOSWELL. . ELIOT. It is a man of quality who dies for her. He died at last without disease.y y y Die by. "Die for. Part from.²MACAULAY." (material cause. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²G." "die from. simply from old age.²FIELDING. part with." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. and ill treatment." etc.²BURNETT.²SHAKESPEARE. they shall die by this hand. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. I am positively dying with hunger. "Die for.²GOLDSMITH. "Die from. It would take me long to die of hunger. ²ATHENÆUM.

" "expect from:"² "Expect of.²G.²MACAULAY.²MARRYAT.²G. I can part with my children for their good. kind of you. Illustrations of "part with. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. His precious bag. "Part from." "part from:"² "Part with.²POE." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. Kind in you. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. which he would by no means part from." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²BULWER. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. I have just seen her." To part from you would be misery. as my friend. 466.²AUSTEN. I part with all that grew so near my heart. It was a little bad of you.²WALPOLE.²SHAW. 465.²G." She will expect more attention from you. nothing better was to be expected. With words implying behavior or disposition. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²DICKENS. ELIOT. Of Doctor P. That is more than I expected of you.²MACAULAY. I have long expected something remarkable from you.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. ELIOT. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. and hated to part with them.²SCOTT. just parted from her. ELIOT.²WALLER.²TROLLOPE. Illustrations of "expect of. "Expect from.²BULWER. either of or in is used indifferently. 464. .

To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. it is commonly said that his profits are high. Very natural in Mr. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking.²BULWER.He did not think it handsome of you. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 5. or which we are most imperatively required to do. but which the story renders necessary. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 1.²BEACONSFIELD. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. or artillery. . thrown it over Amyas's head. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. In the friction between an employer and workman. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 3.²BULWER. But this is idle of you. 14. nor yellow. Hampden. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 11. thunder. the vast abyss. 4. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. tedious perhaps. raging storms.²DICKENS. 6. In.²CARLYLE. nor green. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. and ran up the alley. Thou tread'st. nor blue. 15.²TENNYSON. 8. nor of a pale red. The noise of vast cataracts. with seraphims. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 9. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 7. 13. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. This narrative. 10.

There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 30. 411. Squares. 37. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 36. 22. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach.And were I anything but what I am. You have seen Cassio and she together. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 16. produce approbation. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. (Sec. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 31. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. but in the price paid to them. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. the acquiescence of the understanding. Every one of these letters are in my name. save Amyas. The effect of proportion and fitness.) 34. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 27. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 28. 21. 19. . These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 35. 25. Friday. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 33. 18. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. triangles. you or me. were down with raging fever. or how beautiful it is. 23. and most of us do know. and almost as good as a pony. 24. 29. That night every man of the boat's crew.I would wish me only he. 26. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. But every man may know. When the glass or liquor are transparent. what is a just and unjust act. 32. 38. 17. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. and other angular figures. 20. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired.

origin of. demonstrative. of. nominative. (2) Middle English. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. numeral. . nouns. 47.000 between them. of.39. 20. 124. 124. as comparison definition demonstrative. 25. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 98. 102. 47. of. syntax uses Absolute. article. voice. 260. 40. INDEX. adverbs used complements. He had four children. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. (3) Modern English. 91. pronouns. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. as. A. Abstract with Active Address. adjectives. 116. 90. 119. 239. 89. 133. of. 310. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. Adjectives. 107. from nominative clauses. of. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. from about 1500 to the present time. 92.

. 303. Alms. adjectives. 187. 184. of. 207. nouns. 106. parse. as nouns. adjectives. antecedent. 239. 114. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 99. 48. from to of. 116. and 185. 191. 103. Against. modify. of. 104. 323. to used of. predicate. 101. conjunctions. 328. 242. 190. objective. 194. with with with subject. nouns. parse. 194.from function how in not of of ordinal. adjectives. 316. of. antecedent. Agreement. 42. 148. 275. of. 287. quantity. 303. 195. compared. 207. 325. infinitive. 291. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 325. 97. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. sentence. of. 27. 302. clauses. 109. 183. quality. 190. 116. 262. plural pronominal. 27. of. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. between of. conjunction. 115. of. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun.

pronouns. 150. to of. 127. 208. 51. See 74. An. of. 47. 84. 79. in in. 275. of of of And Antecedent. Arrangement Articles. of. 309. See with definition complex compound simple who. 331. words between. Anacoluthon Analysis. 264. 120. 207. A. 101. 271. 287. of.Among. adjective. 296. 198. of. 231. 90. agreement personal as pronoun. sentences. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. and. sentences. definition of of of Any. 120. Auxiliary if. 252. 67. uses As At. of. after of. 294. Agreement. 295. possessive. which. 74. 225. 67. 148. as uses verbs. it. definition how indefinite. which. sentences. parse. which. Are. of and pronoun of. syntax. 300. . 240. 49. same. derivation in definite. 124. syntax As. though.

of pronouns. Cause. Among. 161. Be. 149. Case. of. 47. Children. 279. Can. 54. Clause. 278. 195. syntax of. with But By. 110. of pronouns. . 63. 49. 262. 84. Case. 194. 283. 39. forms. of nouns. 66. 279. 150. best. 330. 46. uses of. Between. possessive. of nouns. of pronouns. 111. adverb. 48. number of. 39. But. objective. conjunctions Cherub.Bad. double possessive. of pronouns. of. 45. 37. Bridegroom. 224. clauses of. definition could. 110. of nouns. See of. of. 262. 62. plurals of. uses Better. Brethren. 46. comparison conjugation of. 260. 64. of nouns. nominative. 210. adjective. of what. in Old and Modern English. uses nominative of. 278. pronoun.

of. 307. 307. sentence. nouns. Cloths. . of. 110. double. proper. 43. of. 158. 18. nouns. 244. 257. 23. 264. 24. Clomb. 239. analysis of. 312. predicate of and from from of. 18. 248. 108. clothes. of. 257. verb. and forms of. of. of. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. Cleave. English. material. 43. 315. 271. subject. in analysis. predicate. superlative.definition kinds noun. 268. 107. 111. defective. infinitive. 258. 12. 53. of. 157. 108. 113. 257. of. adverbs. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. and sentence. 305. adjectives. plural of. nouns. 189. 263. definition degrees irregular.

of. 269. other other parts of speech. 138. 194. 231. 66. correlative. conjunctions. 143. Conjunctions. . 188. in Old vs. sentence. pronoun. verbs. 73. 196. 207. 149. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 195. coördinate. See English. sentences. 193. 139. pronoun. Agreement. of of Conjunctions. conjunction. sentences. adverbs.with Concord. subjunctive. 151. See in subjunctive. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. analysis. definition how subordinate. 255. See analysis clauses. 194. 199. definition be. 263. 194. 195. 328. conjunctions. parse. interrogative pronouns. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 289. pronouns. 149. Dative Declarative Declension of case. replaced by objective. same words. Can. of. and clause. to of.

333. adverbs See adjectives. 242. comparative. 99. by. article. See See 48. discourse. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 26. tenses. use of dies. Articles. nouns. 90. . of personal relative verbs. clause. 91. from. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. Case. 320. 185. pronouns. 242. with. object. vs. 102. verb. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. Comparative. See adjectives. 51. of. 60. of. pronouns. indirect. Degrees. of. with of. duck. passive adjectives. 152.Declension. Subordinate clause. nouns. 160. See 148. 102. 43. pronouns. 303. Comparison. pronouns. 35. 80. 315. 288. for. 300. possessive. 287. of.

original. 62. . ending. predicate. 287. suffix. vulgar. -En. 40. of subject. to suffix. 34. 112. literary. feminine plural English. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 234. 102. pronouns. the of sentence. 328. 51. 90. 255. one ( t). original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 257. added suffix. error in sentence. of. 280.Drank. another. 158. 33. possessive suffix. plural. syntax Each Eat Eaves. of. 38. Empress. of. of. 92. 12. 110. other. Elements Ellipsis. Each. Either. spoken. of. 42. complement. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. of. in 'Em. adjective. pronoun. object. 194. 299. 90. 92. 300. pronoun. older. 32. conjunction. 287. drunk. 39. 92. 33. 240. 241. 158. adjective.

nouns. object. etc. 147. uses redundant. of. 148. 29. 48.Every. For. 45. perfect. 235. 112. modes "common goose. 238. of. pronoun. two. have adjective. Future Future tense. Gender. 36. with infinitive. other languages. two a further. as of from compared marking. 102. 30. 110. . 308. 30. See Gander. First Fish. the. Further. 152.. 211. From. used of. 334. 112. 32. fishes. Farther. first. 91. First. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. with in sex. 43. to of. 103. Few. Feminine. adjective. few. from. uses Foreign Former. as a noun.. expect gone. 30. gender." 31. 126. 189. 212. etc. 212. 319. 102. 287. 152. of. plurals. definition distinguished in English.

80. I. 61. pronoun. He. adjective. of. 275. 120. 35. 145. of. . 173. rather. of. 60. 12. and case verbal with. it. 159. 176. Had Hanged. she. kinds of. from participle of. an better. pronouns. Gerund. 231. 60. 9. noun.of of Genii. 285. definition basis of. 13. 43. its. possessive pronouns. Government. had hung. 61. on. participle. distinguished syntax. for before. 101. 159. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. forms in Girl. person. of. 175. 12. 10. personal relative geniuses. definition divisions opinions province H. Got. first sentence. His Husband. 177. Grammar. 144. 36.

136. Direct object. elements. a object. mood. of. 276. 72. See Articles. your. words. 110. 248. See you. 67. pronouns. 131. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 283. Questions. indices. adjectives. transitive. 176. adjectives. .Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. uses discourse. 231. 178. 233. of. 320. 85. 257. verbs. 245. use article. sentence. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. in compared syntax. 188. 319. 131. of. 93. pronoun. questions. questions. 43. 105. of. with of. summary See passive mood. 73. adverbs. meaning. indirect of. 153. 227. 323. of clause.

281. Lady. was uses me. subject form. "It Its. queen. See Madam. 39." history etc. 67. 276. lesser. of. lord. 245. . of. 61. 36. 303. uses Literary Little. Less. of. a vs. 36. 189. 113. syntax the. 190. pronoun. predicate. 110. Lay.adverbs. latest. Kind. 126. of. adjective. English.. Lady. Kine. Last. King. syntax. Latter. 102. 63. 227. Like. 226. Logic Logical Lord. It.. 36. 110. 12. plural. these double kind. lie. Lay. and See words in. 91. in little. -Ly. Lie. 113. etc. 170.

May. 137. subjunctive. 135. sentences. 256.Manner. of. 126. syntax nearer. 187. of. 144. position adverb. etc. Modifiers. construction as of adverb. 326. mine. 325. Negative. 112. of. 189. Must. -Most. 64. Means. superlatives. 328. 189. imperative. 137-144. mistress. double. of. See definition 136. 195. 110. Enlargement. 265. Modifier. of. 110. 161. comparison Near. conjunctions Many. out of. might. Mood. Neither. 114. 110. syntax conjunction. 112. Many Mapping Mare. in adverbs comparison a. Much. . nigh. 185. Master.. indicative. 112. of. of. 34. 287. 113. adjective. 102. Mighty Mine. of. 160. 41. 36. 194. 188.

to of. No Nominative. 41. 18. nouns. of. 30. class used singular. of. syntax Neuter or two News. 30. Not Noun Nouns. 19. letters as 24. 25. 328. syntax in gender nouns. 29. 124. kinds 90. 32. of. formed. become neuter. material. 46. gender nouns. Nor. 246. proper. 17 19. 26. now plural. foreign. number once other plural. 41 43. Case. abstract. become become formation case collective. 27. See 194. words how compound. 38. 45. 300. common. etc. 17. 301. half abstract. analysis. of. of of of of of a. of. None. nouns. to use. 38-41. 42. . 17. 125. 21. 20. 56. 92. gender how kinds material. 46. definition according of. of. 258. abstract. of. 41. used as. etc. in. and figures. clause. 30. 25. parse. 126. definition descriptive.pronoun.

240. Numeral Object. 242. 48. pronouns. and analysis. 102. 92.. with case. adjectives. 18. 285. dative. or plural. 42. in article. 48. meanings. of. common. 41. 23. indefinite. 124. adjectives.of same two with proper. 42. singular. spoken of instead nouns. verbs. 48. 121. English. 106. plural no two singular construction. 41. 242. 66. 196. 195. etc. 43. become syntax use with with with Nouns. with with with Now Number. of. See verb. 235. 148. indirect. Nouns. of different possessive definite of. definite. of. passive adverbial. 282. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. pronouns. article. preposition. plural. 101. 101. 281. conjunction. Preposition. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. of. plural form. personal. 278. form. nominative. . meaning. 48. of. 60. of. 41. 48. as forms titles. adverbial. See in in in Numeral distributive. 39. 42 44. singular. in nouns. 279. 278.

38. 116. adverbs. Elder. 94. ours. 56. 101. 213. of. conjunctions.syntax Of. 64. 161. adverb. of syntax. articles. 194. nouns. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 69. pronoun. of of of of of models adjectives. treatment comparatives. Ordinal Other Ought. inverted. 127. another. 103. 91. Oxen. part analysis. Older. 41. 56. adjective. Omission On. uses numeral pronoun. as of. a in adjectives. 191. 115. Pains. conjunction. One. 199. definite relative uses of. . position Order. 233. See pronoun. of. Ourself. Parsing. 237. 117. 293. 325 275. 103. See the as of. 93 other. for. Our. of. Each adjective. 216. 279. as other. of upon. 306. 87. with (the).

verbs. . 148. 56. nominative. pronouns. with. 64. 61. of. verbs. 179. included various. 69. from definition other of. 287. of. 56. 95. predicate use of. 322. 100. pease. of. Pence. 62. 247. speech. of. phrases. 43. pronoun. not is. 80. 174. antecedent. 219. of. or of. 63. article 150. 281. 181. 27. pronouns. part adjective. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 172. 119. them. agreement of verb nouns. 59. pennies.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 28. Person. possessive and of. phrase. 317. 59. of. 172. and subject in. 70. 62. of. used as voice. reflexive. verb idioms it from. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 134. in. absolute with of. relatives. -ing words. 173. 180. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 177. parsed. 59. 335. 43. verbals.

of. 245. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 50. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 195. 281. adjectives. 188. 41. Positive Possessive. of Phrase. it. of. prepositional. of. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 67. 303. 64. plural. participial. 25. singular. 236. Nouns. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. objects. spoken of. 106. pronouns. Personal subjective. 206. 54. Comparison. or See of of See 185. vs. 281.objective syntax table triple uses of. 63. omitted. English. 37. 278. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 53. 49. adverbs of. nouns. relative. See 60. of nouns. antecedent of of pronouns. pronoun. 51. 247. of. complete. as double. Personification. nouns. 245. 61. 303. simple. . double. 278. 's. appositional. 236. nouns. 53. 60. in of. syntax of of Politics. of. 241. pronoun. 247. of. 235. noun nouns. kinds infinitive. 52. of. 285. Place. 248. singular degree. of. 232.

parse. 132. 281. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. of. 332. exclamatory. none. objective. 333. possessive nominative to of. by with shown certain of. and one with else's. 287. 202. 59. meaning. 302. 32. same used as adjectives. 331. objective. by parts of of. plural. as antecedent of relative. of. singular usually other. 187. 58. 89. 303. somebody definition how indefinite. in exclamations. 301. each either. of. 147. expressed as other of. 195. usually to as than. 299. 282. . 203. 284. 205. by. of. 300. who personal. plural. 105. and form form form form of. 285.Prefixes. neither. as. 93. what. 208. 207. adjective. 72. with tense certain. of. 186. 279. 64. for predicate nominative. Prepositions. future. 206. 203. any. all. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 283. interrogative. speech. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. plural. 283. of. parse. verbs. Pronouns. case. another. case. 58. interrogative. 105. words. after but. 129. 95. 104. as 54. of. forms of. 300. adverb. 280. 219.

conjunctions Quality. Rather. 74. use in as. 69. 83. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 289. 74. 87. 188. to of. from and interrogative. agreement anacoluthon and as. 195. Direct same and different. nouns. 84. 286. of. 101. Quantity. of. in. 69. 142. 293. unrestrictive. Questions. 85. who. of. 74. and which. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. of. same antecedent. of. and relatives. 291. 295. in. Nouns. Rank. . parse. 189. 295. with with gerund. 297. of. 58.possessive relative. 68. 279. personal pronoun. in. questions. 99. 289. adverbs in. 85. pronouns. 263. 87. with who. which. discourse. of. pronoun. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. use of history formed. 296. indirect. Quotations. that. 105. See of. or of. which after same. of. and antecedent. of. 293. 80. indirect compound. pronominal pronouns indirect.

syntax use Result. 'S. 40. elliptical. Simple in sate. 196. 162. See Sentences. simple of. in of. forms shots. which. of. conjunctions Retained Riches. 196. 170. gender. who. sentence. clauses of. complex. definition . and should. 294. 242. kinds Sequence Set. 69. of of of complex Sentences. 51. 259. Seeing. in form. 43. simple. effect. 159. Shot. suffix. of. tenses. 231. S. that. 319. 263. 42. plural possessive as. Sex Shall. conjunction. 231. 289. ending. Self Sentences. 74. of. Same Sat. pronoun. 159. 255. of sit. will. 26 271. 252. Shear. of. would. 29. object. 195. reflexive analysis of compound.

English. 303. 233. 303. English. logical. in Middle English. definition how kinds noun. of. 270. 245. . 38. 36. of. 33. phonetic in infinitive. 257. of. of. Spelling Spinster. these number. of. 245. 138.. -es. 38. 258. 237. names as a.Singular Sir. English. See -En. distinguish. used mood. verbs. Split Spoken -Ster. vs. in feminine suffix. 12. definition 67. 240. 258. to of. etc. 33. literary clause. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. of. Subject. 257. English. 144. 258. adverb. 137. of. 323. adverb. 262. 169. for. 260. sort. 32. Modern use becoming else's. 257. as. 257. 186. 144. disuse in spoken complete. -en. other Such Such Suffix -s. 126. Somebody Sort.

coördinating. 106. of. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax." introductory. of. 61.. 109. auxiliaries.Suffixes. subject. 147. 88. adjectives. that uses That. and and of. king. There These kind. "the then foreign. this. restrictive. form. 306. 297.. 147. in double.. of. 290. 33. 191. in comparison. when as of. 116. of. English. of . 147. 307. 277. not suggesting adjectives. 306. degree. classical of. 280. when relative. 189. 148. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 222. 275. article. omission whom. they. 309. 123. of languages. Tenses. 106. . than of. Kind. Then. of. adverbs. syntax of. as history The. definition in English Tense. me. of. English. meaning. 186. meaning made up in Old of. as adverbs. See etc. 186. which. plural as adverb. 319. 87. 108. two basis not same definition definite. as history syntax Their. of. 152. 119. objects. of. 275. object. 289. 120. 107.

used. 308. 181. 188. exclamations. of. 33. verbs. 173. 180. 217. preposition. . parse. -Trix. 330.These. 20. certain as the before with of. feminine and. first. gerund. 175. of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. etc. uttermost. Try Two Under. 61. 114.. phrases. of. 176. tother. to. 195. 175. uses of. infinitive. in of. 114. words. conjunctions prepositions To. in omitted uses T'other. kinds participle. Upon. Time. 119. 248. uses history of. of. carelessly uses syntax this. of. 322. 185. 172. of. 175. 322. 207. from cleft to 174. 172. of. 128. suffix. first adjective. Thou. Utter. -ing 111. how infinitive. Upper. thee. 21. thy. other noun. analysis. 114. infinitive. try two. See That. See On. 247. adverbs those. 323.

179. in person. 148. 129. 134. of English. but uses what. definition of. 312-316. 149. 154. person and number of. 320. passive. spelling of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. sequence of. verbs.Verbs. passive form. 330. 47. 169. 319. 169. active meaning. 154. voice of. 33. 160. how to parse. 157. 167. 133. What. 148. 312. strong. active. phonetic. becoming irregular. . syntax of. past tense formed nominative. 151. 317. table of irregular. of. auxiliary. 131. formed by. 236. agreement of. made transitive. 147. retained object with passive. intransitive. defective. weak. 133. conjugation of. analysis. mood of. 12. 155. in indirect discourse. 242. definition of. regular. verbs by. Vocative in Voice. definition of. remarks on certain. table of. 135. of incomplete predication. 223. 245. tense of. 154. 159. 130. Vixen. of. 39. 167. transitive and intransitive. with subject in number. 150. change.

pronoun. 73. English. direct of. 111. . Will. questions. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. Woman. 72. antecedent adjective. animals. 218. questions. 85. 85. 40. 105.what Whereby. 126. Whether. 83. 299. Wife. 79. 75. 194. referring syntax Widower. in. 178. Words in Worse. would. 295-299. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. in in indefinite objective. plural of in nouns -ing. 104. in -ly. relative indirect relative. Witch. worser. 77. 36. uses See Shall. 83. 37. conjunction. 32. With. questions. 72. etc. 75. 246. questions. interrogative Which. 296. Yes ending analysis. relative. 105. 72. relative. wizard. spoken in of. 78. 190. whereto. Who. a. 36.. 85. of. pronoun. of. Y.

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