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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische
Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.
PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex
AND Verbs And
WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.
OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER
Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.
English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.
(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.
Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.
During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.
is worthy of serious study. it will at the same time. as.
Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. An æsthetic benefit. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. then.
A broader view. and thus incite his observation. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. rightly considered. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. its peculiar and abundant idioms." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. with its enormous vocabulary. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. If. "Analysis.
The work it will cover. from the question." and "Syntax.
Making rules is risky.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places.
Mental training. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste.
Surely our noble language.
It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.
Authority as a basis. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning.
Few inflections. if rightly presented. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). we have tabulated the inflections of the language.
Literary English. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. to those who have studied the language historically. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous)."
What grammar is. assist the classification of kindred expressions. their forms. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. but this is bad English now. there is still much for the grammarian to do.
A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. and their uses and relations in the sentence.
This will take in the usual divisions. however. so that a small grammar will hold them all. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections).The province of English grammar is.
. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition.
It is also evident. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. as compared with Latin or Greek.
Occasionally. Analysis of Sentences. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. and may belong to any of those objects. that is.
THE PARTS OF SPEECH. from the eighteenth century on.²GIBBON.
Spoken English. or standard. then. The Parts of Speech. and Inflections. three divisions:² Part I. besides this one. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself.
. The plainest name is Arabs. and will are evidently names of a different kind. Part III. by which is meant the free.
NOUNS. The Uses of Words. too.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times.
By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. the nation is free. submission. and the word nation stands for a whole group. reference will be made to vulgar English. The words state. In the more simple state of the Arabs. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. but. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. or Syntax. Such words are called nouns. Part II. the words sons and master name objects. but now undoubtedly bad grammar.
Vulgar English. not objects.
Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. which belongs to a people.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. The following pages will cover. as they stand for ideas.
A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. reducing it to a narrow application. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. as here used.Definition. Individual. and things separately. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Common. men in groups may be called a crowd. etc. whether person. or things. but Chicago names one city.
Abstract. (b) Common.
4. This does not imply. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application.
Name for a group or collection of objects. They properly belong under common nouns. We may say.
2. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. A noun is a name word. belonging to one. Collective. representing directly to the mind an object. animals.
3. we may think of them in groups. or thing. and appropriate names to the groups.
. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. because each group is considered as a unit. Proper. MATERIAL. however. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. the name of each is an individual or proper name. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. a committee. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. or idea. substance. the man here. or a council. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. ATTRIBUTE. animals. Thus. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited.
Classes of nouns.
5. or the man in front of you. possessed by all. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. For instance.
Name for any individual of a class. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. or a mob. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. or a congress. Thus. place.
Besides considering persons. is from a Latin word which means general.
(3) (b) VERBAL
Names for special objects.
world. tea. expressing attributes or qualities. or that which shows a thing has been proved. etc. or apart from their natural connection. When we speak of a wise man. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. Again.
Names of ideas. etc. wine. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. instead of to each individual or separate object. we may say. "Painting is a fine art. moon. wheat. etc. The quality is still there as much as before. etc. dew. frost.
The reason is. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. etc. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. stone. clay. frost. potash. but it is taken merely as a name. expressing state. sand. and fasten a special name to the object considered. rubber. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. however. It may. and so on.
6. not things. iron. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. rock. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS." "a man of understanding. sugar. celluloid. snow. proof means the act of proving. etc. Such are glass. cloud. etc. soap.²There are some nouns. or action.
Words naturally of limited application not proper. we speak of the wisdom of the man.Names for things thought of in mass. but which are not called proper names. rain. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. 7. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. wheat." 9. They remain common class names.. there is no such intention. rice. gold. NOTE. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. or actions. such as sun. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. earth. mist. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. earth. condition. considered abstractly. but in the words sun." "Learning is hard to acquire. platinum. (3) Geological bodies: mud. conditions. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person.
. as in calling a city Cincinnati. etc. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). paint. sugar. granite.
five abstract. 273). etc. the rude drawings of the book. the teachings of the High Spirit. height from high. "a long run" "a bold move. (1) prudence from prudent. as their name implies. thunder." "a brisk walk." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. redness from red. energy. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. childhood from child. speech from speak. he spread his blessings over the land. They are only the husks of verbs. day. stupidity from stupid. ease.
Verbal abstract nouns.
Caution. 1. the moon caused fearful forebodings. shadow. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns.
12. Such are beauty. service from serve. They cannot govern a word. joy. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. those opinions and feelings. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. (2) peerage from peer. five proper. as in the expressions. a wedding or a festival. To avoid difficulty.
10. the well-being of her subjects. Exercises. kingship from king.
. in the beginning of his life..
II. the great Puritan awakening. etc.Attribute abstract nouns.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. theft from thieve. as glad²joy. her longing for their favor. etc.
Underived abstract nouns. there is time for such reasonings. night. and they cannot express action. action from act. etc. summer. Thus. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. winter. hopeful²hope. but are merely names of actions. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. by altering its function. 272.
(3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. The verb. mastery from master. the main bearings of this matter. NOTE. hope. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. lightning. is used as a noun.
typhus. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:²
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice
. pleurisy. catarrh. geology. as physics. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:²
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian
4. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. diphtheria.2. mathematics? 3. algebra. Using a dictionary. as pneumonia. (b) branches of knowledge.
The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is.²EMERSON. Material nouns may be used as class names. it imposes its classification on other men. from Oporto. who was its inventor. currants. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. from the name of Dr." referring to flat-
. but we may say. We know a number of objects made of iron. Guillotin. a Bentham. and lo! a new system. for example.
15. a Hutton.
Nouns change by use.
Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Others of similar character are calico. but most of them are in the following groups. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. from Calicut. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities.
13. or to go over to it entirely. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. levant and morocco (leather). from Damascus. Sodom was famous for wickedness. "The cook made the irons hot. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE.y y y y y
service trail feeling choice simplicity
SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. damask. from China. above.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. 119). as a davy. a Lavoisier. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. from a town in France. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. in Portugal.
Proper names transferred to common use. arras. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. the guillotine. a Fourier. from Corinth.
14. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. etc. port (wine). and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. the word port. a Locke. thus. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin.
(4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. coals. but differ in strength. When it is said that art differs from science. or used as class nouns. be spoken of.²COLLINS.
17. (3) By poetical use. the abstract idea is partly lost. a rubber for erasing marks. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. and say teas. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. are abroad. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Test this in the following sentences:²
. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. or. etc. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. They are not then pure abstract nouns. oils.²BRYANT. tins.
16. or the arts and sciences. Traffic has lain down to rest. Death. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science.²BYRON. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. but in case an art or a science. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated.²PERCIVAL.In lightnings owned his secret stings. slates. For example. tobaccos. Class nouns in use. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. smiled.
Personification of abstract ideas. though not confined to verse. nor are they common class nouns. clays. etc. as stones. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. papers. mists. which are made plural.
A halfway class of words. candies. a steel to whet a knife on. and so on. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. that the power of art is founded on fact. that is. and only Vice and Misery. The words preceded by the article a. on fire. These are the same in material. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.irons. clouds.²RUSKIN. but on dispositions which require to be created. This is a poetic usage. Next Anger rushed. to prowl or to moan like night birds. or made plural. that disposition is the thing to be created. are still names of abstract ideas. his eyes. From all around²Earth and her waters. paints.²CARLYLE. not material things. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks.²HAYNE. abstract in meaning. purity. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this.
loves. meaning a walk in the morning. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. which belongs to another word. All these. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.²BURNS. When I was young? Ah. etc. NOTE.
The noun may borrow from any part of speech. But it is better to consider them as nouns. they cannot be compared. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. sir!"²MACAULAY
. or from any expression.
18. as descriptive adjectives are. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow." "the State Bank Tax bill. They are more like the possessive noun." "a morning walk. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective.²If the descriptive word be a material noun.²EMERSON. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. And still.
19. fear thy blow. Conjunctions.²IRVING. sir!" and the "What then. a bill as to tax on the banks. they do not express quality. as each repeated pleasure tired. if we must have great actions. the wealthy. for example." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. or describe it. but is still a noun.The Solitary can despise." which contains a pure adjective. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. "a family quarrel.²SHAKESPEARE.
By ellipses.² BURNS. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. nouns used to modify. a bank in New York. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. But ah! those pleasures. Then comes the "Why.
(1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Adverbs. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question.² GOLDSMITH." "a New York bank. Nouns used as descriptive terms. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. however. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. sir?" and the "No. Every why hath a wherefore. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.²SHAKESPEARE. were mere terrors of the night.Let us. make our own so.
without reference to its function in the sentence. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.. but have an adjectival meaning. etc. or a state secret. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. There are many of these. too." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. FRANKLIN. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. Exercise. or a faithful domestic. It is to be remembered. or a criminal. whether it mean the sun or the cold.²These remarks do not apply. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. is the word "just. are spoken of as if pure nouns. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Power laid his rod aside. 6. at the beginning. are used. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. of words rather than of their meaning. The it. however. of course.
Caution.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. In the other sentences.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. in speaking of the principal of a school. 3. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Learning. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects.
20. 1. in a sentence above. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. and Then. When. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Stone walls do not a prison make.Nor iron bars a cage. but as a figure of speech. that cobweb of the brain. so. 4. 2." or "legal." and another of Dr. When. 7. NOTE. Now. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another."²B. why and wherefore. is ambiguous. the terms the great. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. and tell to which class each belongs. the wealthy. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. 8.
. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 5.And Ceremony doff'd her pride.
German. the silver moon is gone. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving.
What gender means in English. The hours glide by. its bloom is shed. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. the welcome. Male beings are. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 23. 13. for every dropHinders needle and thread. that waits you here. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 12. he cried. A fool speaks all his mind. 20. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. in English grammar. And see. 15. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. The fleet. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. and names of females are usually feminine.You seize the flower.
INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. A little weeping would ease my heart.
. always feminine. always masculine. 10. 18. GENDER. returned to Spain.9.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 22. It is founded on sex. 24. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. and many other languages. but not so in English. In Latin. Greek. 14. 11. shattered and disabled. 16. 21.Fair guests. female. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 19. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day.
All nouns.. or which arouse his interest most. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. those distinguishing the sex of the object. if there were any signs of life in it.. He next stooped down to feel the pig.²LAMB. hortus (garden) is masculine. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. in other languages gender follows the form. those which do not distinguish sex. those with which man comes in contact often. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. corpus (body) is neuter.
Some words either gender or neuter nouns. Thus. however. that is. and consequently without sex. das Messer (knife) is neuter.. The great difference is. 23. or additions to words. clapping his burnished wings.²masculine and feminine. that pattern of a husband. Gunpowder . or names of things without life. der Tisch (table) is masculine. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID.²IRVING. are named by gender nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders.² IRVING. according to use. if of the female sex. with its gizzard under its wing. Of animals. . Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Neuter nouns. must be divided into two principal classes. inanimate things are spoken of."
. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. came to a stand just by the bridge. For instance: in Latin. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. the sex being of no consequence. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth...² I have seenA curious child . in English. then. in German. Hence:
Definition. but are spoken of as neuter. the word child is neuter in the sentence.
24. mensa (table) is feminine. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock.²gender nouns. the name of it is feminine.
No "common gender.
22. and neuter nouns. "A little child shall lead them.
Gender nouns..When. according to their use. the name of it is masculine. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.
generally to a masculine word. etc.
Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman.
29. cousin. only to masculine and feminine nouns. The inflections for gender belong. woman. Gender shown by Prefixes. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. from the masculine fox. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections.. ruler. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. 26. they are neuter words. is.25. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. One feminine. Hence vixen is for fyxen. relative. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. for from they said vram. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word.
Native suffixes.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. 27. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. Male nouns beings. These remain in vixen and spinster. puts a prefix before the masculine man.
The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Put in convenient form. Gender shown by Suffixes. but have now lost their original force as feminines. According to the definition. but spinster has now no connection with it. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. and for the older word fat they said vat. of course. as in wine vat. domestic. the division of words according to sex. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. For fox they said vox.
I. (3) By using a different word for each gender. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. servant. as he-goat²she-goat.
. or the lack of it.
Very few of class I. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. though both words have lost their original meanings. (2) By adding a suffix. teacher. he-bear²she-bear. If such words as parent.
and are never used for words recognized as English.
The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. as. These are attached to foreign words. as seam-stress. executrix. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.
30. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine.
(1) Those belonging to borrowed words. donna. Unaltered and little used. as czarina. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. the one most used.
The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.²
y y y y
abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress
Vowel dropped before adding -ess. it has none now in the words huckster. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. gamester. punster.²
y y y y y y y y
baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess
Masculine ending dropped.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:²
Foreign suffixes. trickster. but in most cases it has not.
Ending of masculine not changed.
(2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. song-str-ess. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). señorita.
Slightly changed and widely used. as in²
y y y y y y
actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress
. -ess (French esse. Low Latin issa).
We frequently use such words as author. as. Some of them have an interesting history. Thus. In some of these pairs. we use the masculine termination. NOTE.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. from Latin imperatricem. neighboresse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. teacheresse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. and will be noted below:²
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt
. we use the feminine. from the Old French maistre²maistresse.
32. fosteress. as in the fourteenth century. 31. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. the ending -ess. or servauntesse. others have in their origin the same root. as.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century)."
Ending -ess less used now than formerly. chairman.
Instead of saying doctress. teacher or lady teacher. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Gender shown by Different Words. editor. neighbor (masculine and feminine). Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. to represent persons of either sex. wagoness. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. etc. frendesse. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. from the French -esse. as was said in the sixteenth century.
Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. as in many other words. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Danish gaas. though both are ultimately from the same root.
33. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Widower. Madam is the French ma dame. probably meaning house dweller).y y
Girl originally meant a child of either sex. for example. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Icelandic gás. The older forms. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. 16). or lauerd in Middle English. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. had the masculine mearh (horse). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used.
Personification. lhauerd. leaving our word drake. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. The masculine was formed by adding -a. written loverd. in Old English mere. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf.
34. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Witch is the Old English wicce. became identical. but this has long been obsolete. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). among others) to be from the same root word. not immediately connected with witch. the old sign of the masculine. Three letters of ened have fallen away. etc.). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). widuwa²widuwe. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. finally gander. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy.
Two masculines from feminines. Besides gander and drake. gand-ra. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Mare. from Latin mea domina.²
. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). It is not connected historically with our word duck. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior).
Clustered around by all her starry Fays. shoon (shoes).No towers along the steep.Her home is on the deep. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one."Now. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.
The -en inflection. and not by the form of the noun. etc. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.
Effect of personification. 37. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en.
38. Our language has two numbers.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. in Old English. treen (trees). for instance. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.
Definition. we make its plural by adding -s or -es.
. This is not exclusively a poetic use. the engineer speaks so of his engine. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. (2) By changing the root vowel.
NUMBER. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine.²KEATS.²COLERIDGE. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne."²BYRON.
In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. But other words were inflected afterwards. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. In nouns. whenever we adopt a new word. eyen (eyes).²CAMPBELL. The first two methods prevailed. 39. Britannia needs no bulwarks. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 36. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. (3) By adding -s (or -es). together with the third. that is. more than one.²singular and plural. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. the plural. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way.
The words horse and foot. brace. The old plural was brothru. Lee marched over the mountain wall. glass. when they mean soldiery."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. ditch. after numerals (if not after numerals. quartz.²MACAULAY.
II.-En inflection imitated by other words.
Brethren has passed through three stages.
III. Instead of -s.² "God bless me! so then. swine. people. heathen. Plurals formed by Vowel Change.
. Akin to this class are some words. Examples of this inflection are. head. salmon. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es.The horse are thousands ten.²
y y y y y y
man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth
Some other words²as book. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. pair. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. etc. 41. by. and get settled. Children has passed through the same history. originally neuter.
42. etc.Horse and foot. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. cross. retain the same form for plural meaning. Kine is another double plural. dozen. such as deer. sheep. as. that have the singular and plural alike. lens. sail. Other words following the same usage are. cannon. they add -s): also trout. as. finally brethren.²WHITTIER. turf.²THOREAU. wight.
40.²Over the mountains winding down.² The foot are fourscore thousand. Such are box. but has now no singular. or if preceded by the prepositions in. and is still found in dialects. but they now add the ending -s. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. then brothre or brethre. into Frederick town. borough²formerly had the same inflection. folk. after all. etc.
e. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:²
. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. 15 and 17). knife²knives. fairies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. some adding -s. e. niche²niches. DANA. molasses. means: as. summons. and some -es. that when thy summons comes.
If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. and many branches of learning. mathematics. and go over to other classes (Secs. as. Some words are usually singular. economics. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. the Washingtons. though they are plural in form. the Americas..
43. optics. negro²negroes. shelf²shelves. pains (care).
Words in -ies. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. hero²heroes. Proper nouns are regularly singular. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):²
Their old form. Examples of these are.² Politics. When such words take a plural ending.²PROF. physics. house²houses. they lose their identity. etc.-Es added in certain cases. half²halves.g.
Means plural. 45. quoth then that ladie milde. means and politics. daisies. fancies. prize²prizes. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. 44.
Formerly. So live.²BRYANT.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class.
Special Lists. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. also news. allies. and the real ending is therefore -s. is both the science and the art of government. politics. It served simply as a means of sight..g. though this sound combines readily with -s. etc.
The lilie on hir stalke grene. etc. a new syllable is made. race²races. in its widest extent. chaise²chaises. these words ended in -ie. etc. however.
Two words. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). volcano² volcanoes.
. it is furnished with a forceps.²J. Now I read all the politics that come out. he pronounced to have been a tongs.
Sometimes. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. by those means which we have already mentioned.²MOTLEY. I say. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²IRVING. W. By these means.²G.²GOLDSMITH. however. 46.
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs
Occasionally singular words. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. CURTIS. With great dexterity these means were now applied. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Some words have no corresponding singular. LAUGHLIN.
Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. if I recollect right.² MACAULAY. riches will accumulate. Besides this.²BURKE. L.Words. A relic which. by strongly conveying the passions.
Two classes of compound words.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. pea²peas (separately). may add -s. indices (signs in algebra). two meanings.
. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. or work in a bellows?²PROF. of a periodical. These make the last part plural. the other unlike it. (2) poetry. Three words were originally singular. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection.
y y y y y y y y y
brother²brothers (by blood). genius²geniuses (men of genius). as two sixpences. (2) abilities.. (2) literature. index²indexes (to books). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. (2) care. number²numbers: (1) figures. pence (collectively).
pain²pains: (1) suffering. shot²shot (collective balls). (2) revenue duties. Tell me not. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. in mournful numbers.²LONGFELLOW. faculties. riches.
One plural. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. dice (for gaming). making a double plural. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). or epistles. genii (spirits). clothes (garments).²POPE. eaves. DANA. carry off chaff. penny²pennies (separately). twopence.
In speaking of coins. for the numbers came. pease (collectively). die²dies (stamps for coins. part²parts: (1) divisions.
I lisped in numbers. as in the lines.
y y y
custom²customs: (1) habits.
50.). etc. Numbers also means issues. In Early Modern English thank is found.
two plurals. sixpence. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. ways. etc.²was it subdued when.. shots (number of times fired). fish²fish (collectively)..²one corresponding to the singular. or copies. fishes (individuals or kinds). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet.The air. brethren (of a society or church).
² Then came Mr. Ottoman. firman. but add -s.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.
. woman servant. 51. As to plurals of names with titles.²DR.
Two methods in use for names with titles. then Silas Peckham. Mussulman. as the Messrs.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse
(2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Allen. HOLMES. though the latter is often found. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Briggs. The chief member adds -s in the plural. as man singer. or the name may be pluralized. and Mrs. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. such as talisman. The title may be plural. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. Brown. the Drs.
y y y y y y y y y
aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on
NOTE. Norman. the Misses Rich.
52. there is some disagreement among English writers. Brahman. woman singer. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. German. manservant. for example.
53. Exercise. FROM THE LATIN.²THE CRITIC. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.²GOLDSMITH. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.
The domesticated words may retain the original plural. and retain their foreign plurals. These are said to be domesticated. They are then said to be naturalized. or Englished. FROM THE GREEK. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. or Anglicized. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex
II. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²GIBBON. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.
. Du Maurier. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.²DICKENS. Others have been adopted. The Messrs.
54. In the sentence. also add -s or 's.
Definition. cell has another relation.
When the foreign words are fully naturalized. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced.²
y y y y y y y y y y y y
bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes
Usage varies in plurals of letters.
Only two case forms. 56. Words quoted merely as words. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.
55." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s).. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. as. they form their plurals in the regular way. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. without reference to their meaning. as. In the general wearing-away of inflections." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). and expresses a relation akin to possession.y y y y y y y y
automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis
Anglicized words. figures. Letters. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). etc. etc." the word felon's modifies cell."
Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. completing a verb. 57. fate. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Nouns. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead.
. and the possessive. may be said to have three cases. 2. Three properties belong to wisdom." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. then.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. the enemy of the living.²one for the nominative and objective. whether inflected or not. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Excuses are clothes which. when asked unawares. three things characterize man. 1. 3." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. the objective. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Uses of the Nominative. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Human experience is the great test of truth. and merit.²the nominative.²person. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. excessive grief.²nature. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. 5.
But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. they returned to their homes. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree.
58.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. and experience. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word." (2) As a predicate noun.
I. 4. learning.
save. her first law broken." (3) Adverbially. and makest a calm. distance. Set a high price on your leisure moments. sword in hand and visor down. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. etc." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. and landlord of the inn. taking the object storm. 4. Uses of the Objective. (5) As the object of a preposition. and being equivalent to one verb. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. the word toward which the preposition points. 3. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends.
." (4) As the second object. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences.6. and meaning calmest. and tell which use each has:² 1. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. as will be seen in Sec. Conscience. taking the object enemies. reconciles. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 68. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. good Heaven.Save. thy wrath can send.
59. a patriarch of the village. wounded lies." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends." Exercise. 8." "Thou makest the storm a calm. They charged. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. But the flood came howling one day. 9. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 2. completing the verb." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. they are sands of precious gold. (in the older stages of the language. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. measure. But of all plagues. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. how have I frighted thee?
If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.²SHELLEY. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. from day to day. It is a poetic expression. The noblest mind the best contentment has.Does his Creator's power display. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. as shown in the sentences. (2) Objective possessive. And whirling plate. the most common of all.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.²ADDISON. 7. 8.²HAWTHORNE. the Great Stone Face.
60. as. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 6. as in these expressions. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. Uses of the Possessive. 61.His winter task a pastime made. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.. 9. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. tempests that
. 10. or in writing yesterday's elegy.e. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. and forfeits paid. The possessive case always modifies another word.² The unwearied sun. (3) Subjective possessive. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.
III. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.²BYRON. Possession in some sense is the most common.And gave the leper to eat and drink. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. expressed or understood.5. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.
One is the simple form of a word.
64. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. PLURAL."
Use of the apostrophe." etc. 1. as schoolboys sometimes write. Poss. however.
. "George Jones his book. "From every schires ende. and Obj. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s." "mannes herte [heart].
By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. growth which several days had developed). there are only two case forms.
Case Inflection. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his.
A false theory. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR.
62. Nom. The use of the apostrophe.
Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe..
Declension or inflection of nouns. making the possessive singular. As said before (Sec. and Obj. 56).e. lady Poss.e.
How the possessive is formed. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. 62.
Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.
ladies ladies' children children's
2. in Chaucer.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec." "at his beddes syde.winter is likely to have)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. the panther which the forest hides). child
NOTE.. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). To form the possessive plural.
66.. James's. being understood with it: for example. know the amount of my income. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. but to the ear all may be alike.²CARLYLE. instead of the emperor their master's name. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. and she walked off from the don's."²DE QUINCEY. I remember him in his cradle at St. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. the possessive sign is usually last. a word with a phrase."
Possessive with compound expressions. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. for goodness' sake. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. In other cases the s is seldom omitted." "A postscript is added. Cervantes' satirical work. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.² LOWELL. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. dwelling. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. In compound expressions. containing words in apposition. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. as. my neighbors. in the name of the emperor their master. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase.Though this opinion was untrue. etc.²HOLMES.
67. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.
Possessive and no noun limited. church. and from a desire to have distinct forms. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. the items of my son's. Peter's." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.²THACKERAY.. some such word as house.²SWIFT. stands up for God's truth one man. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves.²RUSKIN. etc. as.
65. Kate saw that.²DE QUINCEY.
Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.
. as by the countess's command. Captain Scrapegrace's. store.
has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. the sentence might be understood as just explained. however. no. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. or subjective. (See also Sec. Both of these are now used side by side. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.²FROUDE. 87.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us.²E. 1. we use the phrase of Atterbury.
68. corresponding to 's.
Emphasis. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. HALE. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's..) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. every. (b) Rewrite the sentence. For this there are several reasons:²
Its advantages: Euphony. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. Exercises. as one modifier. objective. the statement clearly means only one thing. and tell whether each is appositional. etc. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. In most cases. that.
(1) When a word is modified by a. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. If. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.
(2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. 2. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. especially when used with this or that. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe?
. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.²CARLYLE. each.
(3) It prevents ambiguity.The double possessive. making a double possessive. the. any. ill-lighted except where she stands. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. A peculiar form. For example. E. in such a sentence as. this. a double possessive. Blair). and at the same time by a possessive noun. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.
Clearness. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es.²the introduction which Atterbury made. sometimes they are used together.
12. let him seasonably water the one. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. some idioms²the double possessive. 13. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.²
. 8. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. and destroy the other. 11. 5. it seemed. 70. therefore. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise!
HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. with every garland crowned.Comes dancing from the East. 7. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 6. In parsing. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son.A weary waste expanding to the skies. Jove laughs. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. At lovers' perjuries. Friend. 15. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 9. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 10.3. 14. Nature herself. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 4. we state. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. day's harbinger.
69. in parsing a noun. There Shakespeare's self. Now the bright morning star. Hence.They say.
Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. but is the adverbial objective. a fresh tapster. as to case.²common. subject of the verb is understood. therefore masculine gender. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. etc. proper. like miller's. hence it is a common noun. which gender. (3) Whether singular or plural number. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. masculine. it denotes only one person. In parsing any word. and therefore nominative case.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. NOTE. it is the name of a male being. it has no sex. hence it is objective case. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. object of the verb takes. hence objective case. the connection shows a male is meant.
"What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. Neckcloth. therefore neuter. Throat is neuter. Exercise. a withered serving man. gender. and to have it found out by accident. it expresses possession or ownership. therefore singular number. (4) Its office in the sentence. and relations. therefore singular number. it is the object of the preposition by. Thief is a common class noun. names one thing. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.(1) The class to which it belongs. therefore possessive case.
MODEL FOR PARSING.
The correct method. singular number. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. 4. and number. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1.
71. is a common class noun. That in the captain's but a choleric word. and limits neckcloth. 2. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. 3. it expresses time. 68). inflections. if the latter. determining its case. has no governing word. hence it is a gender noun.
Classes of pronouns. 9. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. 76). connected with the shore by a drawbridge. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. from a necessity for short. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns.
.²palace." Again. 10. 8. Time makes the worst enemies friends. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. blessings light on him that first invented .
The need of pronouns. Necker. A few miles from this point. Madame de Staël.. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. and his daughter.
Definition.. standing for a name.. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. all in one. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. financial minister to Louis XVI. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. were natives of Geneva. (2) Interrogative pronouns. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. Now.
A pronoun is a reference word. Jarley's back being towards him. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome.
PRONOUNS. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. sleep! 6. definite. where the Rhone enters the lake.And hated her for her pride. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. 7. but by a question we say. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus.5. He giveth his beloved sleep. and representative words. castle.
73. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. or for a person or thing. 11. For instance. or for a group of persons or things. instead of saying. and prison.
but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. which cannot be used as adjectives.
77. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. mine.
FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. or other word or expression. my Plural. standing for a person or thing spoken of."
Person of nouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. primarily adjectives.
Person in grammar. (3) Third person. This gives rise to a new term. representing the person speaking. as nouns have the same form. Nom.
75. that is.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS. I Poss.. and the person or thing talked about. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person.(3) Relative pronouns. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns.
Three persons of pronouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use.
74. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. From analogy to pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. "the distinction of person. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive.
76. they must represent the person talking. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. even if it had a special form. Singular. pronoun. the person or thing spoken to. representing a person or thing spoken to. which have forms for person. we our. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns. (2) Second person. (4) Adjective pronouns. ours
. words. which relate or refer to a noun. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. they are said to have person by agreement.
But the third person has. you your. masculine h . or. he his him Fem.
First and second persons without gender. of all Three. feminine h o.
78. yours Poss. Poss. Old Form Common Form.
SECOND PERSON. neuter. Obj.. Nom. hers her Plur. they their. Obj. Obj. neuter hit. thy
Remarks on These Forms. yours you Plural. theirs them Neut.
In Old English these three were formed from the same root. by personification. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. thou thee ye you you your. a separate form for each gender. Poss. in the singular.
us Singular. she her.Obj. thine. so also with the person or thing spoken to.
Third person singular has gender. namely. The speaker may be either male or female. your. Nom. Obj. yours you THIRD PERSON. and also for the neuter. it its it Poss. Masc. Singular.
The plurals were h . thou Shepherd of Israel. them. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). two modern uses of thou. The consequence is. etc. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.
80. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. however. even when referring to a single object. their.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. as. etc." As shown above. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. Thou.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. and sometimes its.
The form its. This is of comparatively recent growth. it. We use it with a plural verb always.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. thee.
Second person always plural in ordinary English. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. heora.²BEECHER.Thou lovest. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. heom. for example. (2) In addressing the Deity. In spoken English.. There are. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. which is a neuter noun. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. to thy care we commit the helpless.
81. the forms they. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE
A relic of the olden time. as in prayers.² Oh. etc..:² (1) In elevated style. that didst comfort thy people of old. just as we now say. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. as possessive of it. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.
Two uses of the old singulars.
.²SHELLEY.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. especially in poetry. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. which was often sounded with the h silent. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.
82. in Old English. thy. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.
Old use of mine and thine. me. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. them. "I am sure it was him.
II. and has been slave to thousands. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. That is.²LANDOR. I The Nominative. 58). her.
Additional nominatives in spoken English. and sometimes in ordinary speech. us. some say. and not make more classes. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Yet careful speakers avoid this. he.
CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. though those named in Sec. they.
85. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. I spare thee mine. theirs. 84 are always subjects. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. though ye is occasionally used as objective." the literary language would require he after was. thine. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns.²COWPER. however. in such a sentence as.
Not a separate class. The Possessive. to personify objects (Sec. us. hers. her. them. The forms my. our. yours. And since thou own'st that praise. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns.
The forms mine. besides a nominative use. for. In spoken English. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. thou. sometimes his and its. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. have a peculiar use. she. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. ²SHAKESPEARE. The words I. ye.Use of the pronouns in personification. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. its. 34). or.
Absolute personal pronouns. his. when they occur in the predicate position. they have a nominative form. and follow the usage of literary English.
83. your. him. thy.
. 'tis his. their. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. note the following:² 'Twas mine.
²THACKERAY. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict."²SCOTT. Give every man thine ear. This usage is still preserved in poetry.²J.²CARLYLE.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. sometimes its.
Double and triple possessives. (3) To express contempt. ours.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.
Their uses. we find. If thine eye offend thee.
87. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. theirs.²ID. for example. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. hers. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. COOPER." said Henry Woodstall. thus. thus. but few thy voice. his. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²BIBLE. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. F. commenting upon a letter of mine. Long Allen. yours. and with mine. we have. as in nouns.²J. are really double possessives. This ancient silver bowl of mine. The forms hers.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. ²HOLMES. anger.
Like the noun possessives. theirs. in that old Edinburgh house of his. "Hold thy peace. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. yours. ours. thine.²SWIFT. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.²ID. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²THACKERAY. pluck it out.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.
. or satire. Besides this. it tells of good old times. (2) To bring emphasis. T.² CARLYLE. FIELDS.
" "None but the brave deserves the fair. in the first sentence. 86: mine stands for my property. but the form is the same as the objective. Both joined in making him a present. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In their function. In such sentences as." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb.
. but not in form.²SCOTT
Other uses of the objective. Curse me this people. the thing is done. and mine in the second has an objective use.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. was marked by a separate case.
III. They all handled it. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns.
The old dative case.²ID. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. But the first two have a nominative use. his for his property." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. and preceded the nouns?
About the case of absolute pronouns. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. but expresses for whom. or use in a sentence. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. "The good alone are great.²BIBLE. for whose benefit. this dative use. The Objective. Besides this use of the objective. mine stands for my praise in the second. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition.
90. as shown in Sec. as it is called.
88. In pronouns. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.
Now the objective. 20. but nominative or objective in use.
In Modern English the same use is frequently seen.
by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles." (3) As a grammatical subject. has not made its progress. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²BULWER.²BACON. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. as.²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY.
92. thus. like Chinese skill. WEBSTER. logical subject. you sneeze. or to the idea. as. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. why. as in the sentences.²LONGFELLOW
Uses of it. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.
Indefinite use of you and your.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. which follows the verb. Your mere puny stripling. was passed by with indulgence. The word you.
SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. or that he has not a great deal more. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. Society. ²EMERSON.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²IRVING To empty here. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. to stand for the real. It is a pity that he has so much learning. in this century.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. and they cry. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.Time is behind them and before them. (3) In apposition.²CARLYLE.² NEWMAN.²D. you must condense there. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.
91. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²
.²EMERSON. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.
yourselves.²BUNYAN.²IRVING. And when I awoke. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. herself.²COLERIDGE." etc.²ANON. And millions in those solitudes.It is finger-cold. yourself. as. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. the second is the old form of the second person. keeps a school. have laid them downIn their last sleep. themselves." "He bought him a horse. peddles it. For example. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. -selves. who teams it.²ID. This occurs in poetry. himself. There was nothing for it but to return.
REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. however. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.² Now I lay me down to sleep... For when it dawned. but seldom in prose.²DE QUINCEY. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. "I found me a good book.
Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. and its plural selves. that is. who in turn tries all the professions.
. farms it. I set me down and sigh. It was late and after midnight. as they are also called. (ourself).
94. Poor Christian was hard put to it. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. when they are direct objects.²SCOTT.²HOLMES.²THOREAU. we use such expressions as.²BURNS. they dropped their arms.
93. Of the two forms in parentheses. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. I made up my mind to foot it. itself. it rained."²IRVING. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. (thyself). are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. A sturdy lad .²HAWTHORNE. ourselves. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively." and there is an end of it.
Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.²EMERSON. used in poetry.²BRYANT. since firstThe flight of years began. They are myself. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.
? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.² The great globe itself .
96. not the possessive forms. and the others were formed by analogy with these. for example. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.²E. In Middle English the forms meself. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. theself. NOTE. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.²WORDSWORTH. as we ourself have been.
95. As if it were thyself that's here. ourselves. B. I shrink with pain. for example. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and build the lofty rhyme. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. as. The question might arise.²MILTON.
Use of the reflexives.²
. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. with self. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.²EMERSON. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. as in vulgar English. to every one.As girls were once. after the analogy of myself. BROWNING. to us.² TENNYSON. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.
Origin of these reflexives.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. were changed into the possessive myself. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. Threats to all. as.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.²ID. thyself. Held dead within them till myself shall die. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.²SHAKESPEARE. shall dissolve.To you yourself. especially in the speech of rulers. etc..
5.²DE QUINCEY. Years ago. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. FRANKLIN. some of them being double possessives. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. which. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active.
One obsolete.On the light fantastic toe. 10. 3. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. is wisdom. Infancy conforms to nobody. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. 8.
97.² THACKERAY. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. let him lowly confess it. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 6. and what. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. father. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. all conform to it. where the word is one with that it tells of. 7. fight it out. some each of masculine. 4. 2. To know what is best to do. but it is the soonest spoiled. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom).
Three now in use. and how to do it. Courage. and neuter. Come and trip it as we go. feminine.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. 9. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. And it grew wondrous cold.²B.
The use of who.
100. used formerly to mean which of two. methought.
DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. What wouldst thou do. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. ideas. referring to things. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. it is selective. it refers to either persons or things. it is always third person. that. shall we say. the gold.. actions. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. with its possessive and objective. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. These show that what is not inflected for case. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. as it always asks about somebody.
Use of which. or case. that it is not inflected for gender or number. As shown here. which is not inflected for gender.
Use of who and its forms. Which of you. that it is always singular and neuter.
98. Whose was that gentle voice. but for case alone. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. whether. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. etc.There is an old word. not to persons. having three forms.
Use of what. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. whispering sweet. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. number. but now obsolete.
.Promised. that is. old man?²SHAKESPEARE.
what may be an adverb in some expressions. and what are also relative pronouns.
The antecedent.Who sung of Border chivalry.
102. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. AND PLUR.101. subject of doth love. or other word or expression. objective in the last. It usually precedes the pronoun. which and what are sometimes adjectives. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. it may be shortened into. which.²by the use of the words. since it is subject of the verb had. as they take the place usually of a word already used. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns." Or. SINGULAR Nom. who is used as objective instead of whom.
104. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. which is called the antecedent of the relative. Who. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. who evidently refers to Bards. 99. AND PLUR. for which the pronoun stands.
Function of the relative pronoun. and also in having a conjunctive use. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. For instance. SING. and so to make smoother discourse. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. which is nominative in the first sentence. who? Poss. 127). nominative in the second also.
103. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what?
In spoken English. being the direct object of the verb shall take. "The last of all the Bards was he.² "The last of all the Bards was he. as. which and what." In the latter sentence. in Sec.
105. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING.²
. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?"
To tell the case of interrogatives. pronoun.
Further treatment of who. as. whose? Obj. Thus we may say. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. These bards sang of Border chivalry.
106. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. with all its capabilities . who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.. the women whom women approve. The men whom men respect.²W.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. is a divine creation. a simple relative is meant. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words..²PARTON
Which and its forms. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. The origin of language is divine.
108.Whom universal nature did lament.That guard our native seas.²MILTON.
Who and its forms. They had not their own luster. a thousand years. Ye mariners of England.²DR JOHNSON. For her enchanting son. 4.
107. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Indefinite relatives. in the same sense in which man's nature.² COX. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²LOWELL In this. When the word relative is used.Whose flag has braved. 5. both his and who have the antecedent priest. will be discussed further on. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. WHITNEY. which.
Two kinds. but the look which is not of the earth. what. 6. 2. are the men and women who bless their species.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 2.²BYRON. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.
.. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.²SCOTT. The nurse came to us. 3. 4. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. that. 3. Generally speaking.²THACKERAY. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. D.
you will not be angry with me for telling you.. The man that hath no music in himself.Is fit for treasons. The judge .
Who..²MARGARET FULLER. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. (a) This gradation .
What. 3.²GOLDSMITH. Reader.]
REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
109.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. and spoils.²DE QUINCEY. 4..5. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. Examples of the relative that:² 1. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. BEECHER 5. 2.² SHAKESPEARE 2. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. ought to be kept in view. Already done is all that he would do. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.²EMERSON. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:²
. 6. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. W. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. stratagems. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. 107.
That... For what he sought below is passed above.
111. The Tree Igdrasil. which it certainly is not.²H. bought up all the pigs that could be had. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.²LAMB 3. else this description will seem exaggerated.²BURKE..²IRVING. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. no bad type of what often happens in that country.
(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. The sentences in Sec. who is first person. seemed as much excited as myself. The little gorilla.²DR..²LEIGH HUNT. and 3.²SWIFT. 96). Scott.
Who referring to animals. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. whom. in the third. 5. possessive case of which. whose for the possessive. referring to animals. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. son. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.who.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. they are plural. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. or ideas. p.. Cooper. Smollett. and others. My horse. Kingsley. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. whose is second person. 2.
112. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].²who. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.
113. in the first sentence.²THACKERAY. things. whom.
Which. a man. whose.. In sentence 4. In 1. the relatives are singular. Sec. (4) It has two case forms.. The robins. Witness the following examples:² And you. (2) It has three case forms. and 6.. flung its arms around my neck. 107. in 5. the others are all third person.²LOWELL. and so on. that man.whose.²IRVING.²which for the nominative and objective. It has been seen (Sec. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. not persons. in the second. who. Gibbon. whose wound I had dressed.
Examples of whose. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. JOHNSON. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. in 4.. (3) It is nearly always third person.
² I swept the horizon. This moribund '61. which is very notable and curious. no possessive.² MCMASTER. This often occurs. let us enter the church itself. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. 109. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction."²RUSKIN. Burke. the antecedent follows which.
Which and its antecedents.114.
. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. secondly (which made her stare). The last two sentences in Sec. (3) It is the same form for first. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.²SHAKESPEARE. Primarily. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²first. second.
That.²BEECHER. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and third persons.² And.²DE QUINCEY.
116. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Men may be ready to fight to the death. and things. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. too. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. (2) It has only one case form. So in Matthew Arnold.
115. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. which is worse. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Kingsley.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Sometimes. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns.²SCOTT. and numerous others.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. In the sentences of Sec. and to persecute without pity. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. thus. animals. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.
119." (3) "These people heard him. by taking them out.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. that do I. that he has. who Poss. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true.²BIBLE What fates impose. as. 109.
DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. number. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things.²SHAKESPEARE. The gender." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. third person. but this is not sanctioned as good usage." That evidently refers to truths. it usually follows. what we said?²CARLYLE. The sentences of Sec. consequently is neuter. and person of the relatives who.²EMERSON. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. is always neuter. For example. but what I hate. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. plural number.
118. Who plainly stands for those or the people. that men must needs abide.² What I would. When expressed." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. we can. whose Obj. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what
HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES.
What. either of which would be neuter. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. Sec. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. which. that do I not. as in sentence 6. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. plural number.
117. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. for example. third person. What a man does. and is emphatic.
. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.
is what we call nature.
. etc. after all. which is.
Another way. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 8. 5. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. neuter. the highest result of all education.. The relative what is handled differently. In the same way who.
Some prefer another method of treatment. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. it is object of uttered. so is in the objective case. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Exercise. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. but is singular.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. in the following sentences:² 1. and hence is in the nominative case." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. people is the object of the preposition of. Now. but of this. and what is the direct object of the verb call. I think they are trying to outwit nature. Truths in sentence (2). it is subject of the verb heard. standing for the people understood. As shown by the following sentences. 7. is in the nominative case. is subject of wrought upon and molded. The whole expression is its subject. In (2).
120. What can't be cured. First find the antecedents. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. "What can't be cured must be endured. however."²EMERSON.
Parsing what. the simple relative. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. above. then parse the relatives. 3. What must be endured? Answer. In the sentence. we is the subject. nobler souls with that which they are. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. The word what. subject of heard. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. in (3). 6. in (1). third person. because it has usually no antecedent." Here the subject of is. 4. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona.
whichsoever. whatsoever. being referred to. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. less common are whoso. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. 2. 5. So with the other indefinites. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Do what we can. or what else soever. They are whoever. or stand on their head. which. whatever.
Meaning and use. no particular thing. and in 2. Death is there associated. object of with] which [singular.
. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. whosoever. It is clear that in 1.
What simple relative and what indefinite relative.²BURKE.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil.
121. to everything that. in a new and original way. whatsoever. Only itself can inspire whom it will.²MACAULAY. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. whichever. It is no proof of a man's understanding. Hence some take what as a double relative.²you cannot have both. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and his friend a fool. 2. and parse that in the first clause. 7."
INDEFINITE RELATIVES. "common souls pay with that [singular. object of do] they do. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 4. and which in the second clause. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge.
List and examples. summer will have its flies. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. Take which you please. 3.²BURKE. 6. The simple relatives who. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. by meaning and use. no certain antecedent. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives.
123. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. that is. that nothing else can stand in their presence. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. not as direct as the simple relatives. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe.
The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. are used. 121. upon which.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Sec. Instead of the phrases in which. either one that.² some particular thing. This. but and as..² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. nothing that does not interest us. 2. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.
126. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. whereupon.
Proof that they have the force of relatives. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.
But and as. and that as after such is equivalent to which. for example. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. In early modern English.
Former use of as. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.²HAWTHORNE. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which.²DE QUINCEY. the conjunctions wherein. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. etc. by which.²EMERSON. 121. etc.² 1. what means anything that. whereby..As shown in Sec. not following the word such.
Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.
125. 417). for example. but mean any one whom. thus. as was used just as we use that or which.
OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. 120. 4.
. but which only wealth could have purchased. has been my heaviest affliction. Two words. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. etc. There is nothing but is related to us.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. everything that (or everything which).
what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. if not. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure.
Special caution needed here. In sentences 1 (a). would be.²ID. it is an indefinite relative). 2. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. 3. which would indicate that they are not relatives. But in 1 (b). a question is disguised in each sentence. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. 2 (b). the full expression being.²EMERSON. which having the antecedent lines.
In studying such sentences. second. it is an interrogative. and 3 (b).
. Thus. what is interrogative. it is a simple relative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. who having the antecedent gentleman. if expanded. and whether what = that + which (if so. 1 (b). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. "Who stood behind? We knew. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. So in 2 (b).²WHITTIER.
How to decide.
127. if not.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed." Likewise with which in 3 (b).
PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. though the earthwork hid them. showing that who is plainly interrogative. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. no antecedent is expressed." etc. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun).
Relative omitted when object. and Court Calendars. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Exercise. In the first. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. Thus. In the third. and asks no question.
OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.128. 3. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. In the second.² THACKERAY. 5.
129. Examine the following:² 1. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. which.²G. 2. the question is asked by the verb. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence.²CARLYLE. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. When Goldsmith died. whose has the antecedent you.²FORSTER 6.²HOLMES. Put in the relatives who. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew.² These are the sounds we feed upon. but the life of man in England. which has the antecedent hue.²GOLDSMITH. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. 4. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. On the other hand. ELIOT.²FLETCHER.²SWIFT.
. I visited many other apartments. whence is the interrogative word. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. The insect I am now describing lived three years.
Also in literary English we find the same omission. who were to be rulers over whom. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. 6. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.
Function of adjective pronouns. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. 3. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²SHAKESPEARE.
ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. which was already proceeding. and comparatively so in poetry. simple relatives. 5. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.Ne'er looks upon the sun. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. or indefinite relatives:² 1.7. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. the house was full. which.
. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. It is rare in prose. 2.² The silent truth that it was she was superior.² LOWELL. Examples are. that.²SCOTT. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4.
Relative omitted when subject.
There was such a crowd went.²CAMPBELL. and what.
130.²Id. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. The nobles looked at each other. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.
133.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. in the first." in the others.²BRYANT.
Classes of adjective pronouns." that is. or use. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. and on each is written. In the first use they are adjectives. or an argument in a paragraph." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. It must come under the requirement of pronouns.
132. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. necessarily thought of: thus.131. but have lost their adjective use." "Where two men ride on a horse. which we have seen in such expressions as. For example.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand.
Definition and examples. etc. either.
Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. neither. that. as some. not pronouns.²IRVING.²EMERSON.
Caution. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns." in the second. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. such as this. such as each. and another to get cool under. "these pranks. must not modify any word. few. "each cube. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. expressed or understood. "another bank. etc. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. but in this function. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. none. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. or they may stand for nouns." "one man. any. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. Primarily they are adjectives. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. "The dead are there. or may be the whole of a sentence. all.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. For instance. and stand for a noun. many. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. a word. in letters of gold. etc. the former. Adjectives. in order to be an adjective pronoun. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. 'Truth.
and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. NOTE. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. accidentally preserved.²ID. or sat. for example.
134. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.
. 3. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. 5.
Simple. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.All these he saw.²ID. because he was not lying in wait for these. they that plow iniquity.
Definition and examples. Even as I have seen. Exercises. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose.²LOWELL. or reclined. 2. when the latter was the King of Spain. and sow wickedness.²AGASSIZ
DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.² They stood.
Compound. but these were of the best. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. but what he fain had seen He could not see. A man inspires affection and honor. They had fewer books. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. They have not shunned the one. as seemed good to each. Their minds accorded into one strain. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. and they have well performed the other. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. reap the same.²EMERSON 4.
Some of these are simple pronouns. Such are a few isolated instances.
Much might be said on both sides. we might the more easily discharge them. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. None shall rule but the humble. as it were. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many.²EMERSON.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. ²HAWTHORNE. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. or melt for others' woe.
The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. another.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. If hand of mine another's task has lightened.
NUMERAL PRONOUNS. such as one other. imbued. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.
It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. Men take each other's measure when they react. The Soldan.²KINGSLEY.²HOLMES. The word one has a reflexive form. you quickly come to the end of all. as.Two are compound pronouns.
135. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. with the superstitions of his time. paused over a horoscope. Another opposes him with sound argument. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. as some of the rangers had gone astray. for example. They led one another. one another.²HAWTHORNE. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns.
. Exercise.²each other. as most were.²
One reflexive. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.
Definition and examples.
he hoped to fit everybody's fancy.
. everybody else.² At lovers' perjuries. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America.²SHAKESPEARE. in building of chaises. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Exercise. anything. but. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. I tell you what.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. nothing. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. anyone else. what. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. Every one else stood still at his post. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. everything. as shown in the words everybody's. They indefinite means people in general. they are never used as adjectives. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:²
List.Exercise. every one (or everyone). Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. nobody. every one else. any one (or anyone). 137. and they.
Definition and examples. somebody else. no one. also aught. anybody else's. they say. and somewhat. some one.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Now.. something. and was indefinite in Old English.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. unlike adjective pronouns.
Somebody. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences." It means something. etc. etc. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Jove laughs. anybody. naught. as.
136. everybody. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.
3. 8.See also "Syntax" (Sec. but not to quite so enormous an extent. in his negotiations. 16. 6. to which. 5. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 9. 10. Hutchinson tells us of herself.²a feature of natural scenery for which. All was now ready for action. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. The table was good. 2. For this did God send her a great reward. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 17. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Exercise. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to.
A reminder. 18. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. and of no other. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got.
138. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 13. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. I first found myself among the mountains. Others did the same thing. 7. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. O thou that rollest above. from my earliest days. were suffered to depart. 4. Whoever deals with M. indeed. 14.
HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 11. 12.
whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. thou rollest now. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 32. hear. that let him communicate.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 31. They know not I knew thee. And I had done a hellish thing. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. He sate him down. And will your mother pity me. 35. Whatever he knows and thinks.And it would work 'em woe. who slept last night like a corpse? 22.Who knew thee too well. variety. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. and seized a pen. 25. 26. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. well-oiled dispositions. 29. 34. eat white bread or brown. in all its height. 27.19. oh. I who alone am. 23. behold now the semblance of my being. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. hear! 33. 21.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. What can we see or acquire but what we are?
. who take the world easy. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 30. These hopes are mine as much as theirs.Destroyer and preserver.
37. heavy or light. Who hears me. brittle or tough. We need to add some words to tell its color. the number is limited by adjectives. 44." "that house. 45. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Again. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. or liquid. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. For example. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit.
ADJECTIVES. which was no bad step towards my liberation. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. We are by nature observers. If a chemist discovers a new substance." etc. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. or gaseous. "one hat. 38. such as in the expressions "this man. and so he read. So with any object.. position. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." "yonder hill.36. 42. as. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. who understands me. in pointing out an object. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. if we are at a distance. so that no other will be mistaken for it. 41. It may have this office alone. that is our permanent state.
. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. size.
139." The office of an adjective. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. 40." "some cities. and if we are near. white or red. and he learns who receives.
Office of Adjectives. He teaches who gives. or with persons. adjectives are used. As to the kind of words used. etc. 43. 39. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. He knew not what to do. etc. then." "a hundred men. becomes mine. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say.
²COLERIDGE." "ivory-handled pistols.
DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. Nouns are not.
To err is human. Examples are." "next-door neighbor.
142." "the Roman writer Palladius. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. "an old English manuscript." "this life-giving book." the "and there. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. notice the following sentences:²
Pronoun. rash. used to tell how many things are spoken of.
141. such as. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them.
If he be thankful for small benefits." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. derived from proper nouns.
Definition. or how much of a thing." "ice-cold water." they constitute all his connections. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. terrible. pointing out particular things. to forgive." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES.
143. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. remotest. (4) Pronominal adjectives. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. divine.²POPE. (2) Adjectives of quantity. They include relative and interrogative words. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. however.140. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." "unlooked-for burden." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. fair. happy." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. deep." and the still less significant "and so. to describe it or to limit its application. "Heaven-derived power." "half-dead traveler. it shows that he weighs men's minds. beautiful. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. words primarily pronouns."
Classes of adjectives. and their trash. such as safe. To make this clear.² BACON." "the Christian pearl of charity. etc. With exception of the "and then.
(1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. Care is needed." was accomplished is a verb.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." "The shattered squares have opened into line. 1. Oxenham. considerable. having some of each subclass named in Sec. 'Tis midnight. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. much." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. some.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. and accomplished is an adjective. in studying these last-named words.
ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. and another is drunken.
." "a charming sight." "an aged man.
144. Exercises. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. 2. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. Examples are. any. For instance: in the sentence. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. but small thoughts have I of sleep. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished.²COLERIDGE. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady.
145. sometimes small." "One is hungry. 143." "trailing clouds.But ever she looked on Mr. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. which are either pure participles used to describe. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." was is the verb. no." "It came on like the rolling simoom.²MACDONALD. They have these three subdivisions:²
How much. in this.
are used with plural nouns. those). An arrow was quivering in each body."
Single ones of any number of changes. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. Thus. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. (plural these.
The list. former.²KINGSLEY. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.
(2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. and with them a few negroes.²ID. latter. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. Exercise. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.
Examples." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²THACKERAY. they come under the next division of adjectives." "In came some five and twenty more. that. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound.
Not primarily pronouns." (b) Indefinite numerals. instead of modifying them. as." "Then we wandered for many days. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.
(3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other.²CARLYLE.² Every town had its fair.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. but I have gained fourscore. no.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "a dozen volunteers. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. When some.²VAUGHAN.
146. yonder (or yon). any.
The following sentences present some examples:²
The demonstrative adjectives are this. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. its wake.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "I have lost one brother. the former²the latter." "He had lived by hunting for some months.
How many. every village. "one blaze of musketry.
I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. FRANKLIN. but.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²BANCROFT. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. WEBSTER. These were thy charms.
Indefinite relative adjectives. When we speak of the seventeenth century. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. The taking of which bark. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.
147. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. for example.
148. what revenues or garnitures.²ID. These do not. As has been said. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. In which evil strait Mr. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. just as the corresponding pronouns do."²B. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. Oxenham fought desperately. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²KINGSLEY.² It matters not what rank he has..²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²WORDSWORTH. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²RUSKIN.²D.
Modify names of persons or things.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives.. like the other numerals. skill which was progressive²in the other. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²BULWER. The silver and laughing Xenil.
. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. ²CARLYLE. skill which was at pause.
PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²ID. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. Exercise. they are changed to adjectives. I verily believe. of equal skill. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.
149.²GOLDSMITH. but in the one case. tell how many things are meant. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.but all these charms are fled.
Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. They are of two kinds.
Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. nature will be sure to bear us out in. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²ID..
In direct questions.²AGASSIZ. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.150.²RUSKIN. or whether any. which. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. as it rather seemed.
. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.²CARLYLE.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).² EMERSON. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. But when the Trojan war comes. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whichsoever way I move. He was turned before long into all the universe.²IRVING. proved not altogether displeasing to him. you at least give him full authority over your son. Examples of their use are. A lady once remarked.
In indirect questions. 151. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. and new tormentedAround me.²LAMB. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. As in the pronouns. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.
Adjective what in exclamations. whichever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. it is impossible to determine.And whichsoever way I turn. which is selective among what is known. Whatsoever kind of man he is. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. whatever. New torments I behold. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. whatsoever. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. the debt to the rich.
Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. whichsoever. Was there. what inquires about things or persons not known.
Thus.² Oh. In exclamatory expressions. or weight. That.
155. we do so by means of their qualities. etc. we notice some differences between them as to size. the making of it right. Exercise.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. And yet. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. and when we compare the objects.
But this had also another plural.
History of this²these and that²those.Adjectives have two inflections. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.152. alas. weight. those). In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. or amount. of the quality. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. which was fully inflected in Old English.
COMPARISON.²number and comparison. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. as.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. and those as the plural of that. etc. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU.
154. th s (modern those).
Meaning of comparison.
Those borrowed from this. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. gold is heavier than iron. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. This is the old demonstrative.²but not the same degree. NUMBER. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness.
153 . color.
INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. It is neither relative nor interrogative. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE.. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. The article that was used with neuter nouns. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.
.²This. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. or size.
When we place two objects side by side. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. All these have certain qualities.
whose favorite pupil he was. redder." "It is a nobler valor." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. whether they attend their own affair or not.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. for example.
158. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. sufficient. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. supreme. with less wit.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. 159. "more matter.²SEWARD. The comparative is formed by adding -er.
. enormous." "the largest soul. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. indomitable. indefatigable. and the superlative by adding -est. These are properly the only degrees. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. red. or amounts in quantity. A main difference betwixt men is. to the simple form." "the commonest speech.
157. easy.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms.
The two forms. and the superlative. immemorial. bluer. universal institution. strictly considered. as. as.²THACKERAY." "no fewer than a hundred. great.
160. expressing a greater degree of quality. infinite. easier."
Words that cannot be compared. but. blue.
Substitute for inflection in comparison. bluest. expressing the greatest degree of quality. but were not common until a century later. and many others.
156. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. They came into use about the thirteenth century. These are called degrees of comparison. easiest. "untamed thought. Freedom is a perpetual. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. they are not compared. reddest. though the simple. So with the words sole. organic. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them.
Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. most small. admirablest. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. quiet. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. indisputablest. falling on his knees. as. etc. 162. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. and other words are preceded by more and most. These long. strange. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." "distantest relationships.
Adjectives irregularly compared. peaceablest. though born in no very high degree. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." "sorrowfulest spectacles. honestest. madam. mournfulest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est." "the wonderfulest little shoes. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." Carlyle uses beautifulest.Which rule. and yet familiar." "more odd." From Ruskin: "The sharpest.²ID.²ID. who. These are adjectives irregularly compared.²The Nation. which hung behind in the queerest way. I will. was most finished. The following lists include the majority of them:²
. "So help me God. there needed to be a most genuine substance. The general rule is. witty. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. finest chiseling.² -er and -est or more and most?
161. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative.
163. harsh forms are usually avoided.² CARLYLE A gentleman." "more austere and holy. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression." said Henry Esmond. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. easy. polished. and patientest fusing.
but takes the place of a positive to better and best. Good or well Evil. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. A double comparative. utter 3. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). uttermost Upmost. innermost Outmost. worst. lesser. 2. (3) Little is used as positive to less. older Nigher Nearer Later. 3. which has softened to the modern best. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. latter Hinder LIST II. furthest
10. Worser was once used. 7. last Hindmost. [In] Inner Inmost. 5. 1. 9. outermost Utmost. uppermost LIST III. bad. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 4.²HAMLET. is often used. There was an old comparative bet. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. further Farthest. though from a different root. lesser Elder. 6.LIST I. The superlative I form was betst. as in the sentence (14th century).
List I. hindermost
Much or many More
Farther. [Up] Upper
Remarks on Irregular Adjectives.²MATTHEW ARNOLD.² We have it in a much lesser degree. next Nearest Latest.
. [Out] Outer. Hind
2. as in Shakespeare.
164. which has gone out of use. These have no adjective positive:² 1.² O. 8. as. throw away the worser part of it. (2) In Old English. evil was the positive to worse. least. a double comparative. oldest Nighest.
but not in meaning.
.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. meaning the largest part. Between the two sets as they now stand. first. as long. doubling the inflection. near. are earlier than older. an old superlative ending. as. greatest. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. (5) The forms elder. Since later.²KINGSLEY. to which is added -ost. First became entirely detached from the series. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. The latter. strong.
List II. In imitation of further. farthest. are shown in such phrases as. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. a distinction has grown up between the two series. latest. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. th came into the others. making the modern farther.²ID. moche. oldest. farrest. but in former times much was used in the sense of large.²HAWTHORNE. there is scarcely any distinction. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. and refer to time. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. or series. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. strenger. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. is quite common. except the form next. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. etc.² The more part being of one mind. the old forms. came into use. for example. instead of lenger. muchel. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. great. further. furthest. "Many a little makes a mickle.. next." Its spelling has been micel. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. but originally the comparison was nigh. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. The most part kept a stolid indifference. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. ²LAMB. etc. eldest. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. The meanings greater. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. to England we sailed.²forth. much. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. and the superlative nearest. since the m is for -ma..
They have no superlatives. but they have no adjective positives. Highest and midmost. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. There.
. are like the comparative forms in List II.
CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.²SCOTT.²EMERSON. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink." "The outer is of the day.
List III. The adjectives in List III. by the by. The comparatives are so in form. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.165. In List II. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove." "the innermost moral soul.²DE QUINCEY." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. in having no adjective positives. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective."
-Most added to other words. was descried The royal banner floating wide. on the very topmost twig. W. the upper light of the world. all may belong to the same noun. being merely descriptive.²H. but not in their meaning. Her bows were deep in the water. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²HAWTHORNE. and have no comparative force. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace.²DE QUINCEY.
168. (Sec. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²KINGSLEY." "far-seeing as the sun.
Think what each adjective belongs to. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. or have no comparative forms. but her after deck was still dry. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. BEECHER.
167. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN." "their utmost exertion. Her. or each may modify a different word or group of words. Decidedly handsome.
in prose. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. STEPHENS 5.
HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES.²HOLMES. For thy stomach's sake.²NOAH PORTER. Bradbury and Evans. But in this sentence. usual modifies incomparable decision.²HAWTHORNE. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. satisfactory. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. and moral truth. A few improper jests and a volley of good. Richard Hooker. in this sentence. ²TROLLOPE. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. 2. the then and still owners. and heaven-defying oaths. Other instances are. bright. 6." making then an adjective. deep. 4. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. "the one who was then king. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 3.²TRENCH.²MRS. not decision alone. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. round.²A. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.For example.²RUSKIN. The seldom use of it. May we not.
169. we may say "the then king. and broken." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. This. solid. In the following quotations. 7. as. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. It may still be argued.
ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. STOWE. By a convenient brevity. philosophical.² My then favorite. deeply black eyes. Our sometime sister. Exercise." in which then is an adverb.²HAWTHORNE. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. H.²BIBLE. now our queen. and thine often infirmities. our new government.
.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. rich. therefore. instead of saying. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.
(3) Its degree of comparison. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. modifies truths. frank. seventy-five drachmas. To every Roman citizen he gives. compared by prefixing more and most. This gave the young people entire freedom. Unfamiliar describes truths. across the plain. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. and very few have number. cannot be compared. (4) What word or words it modifies. then. 4. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. therefore descriptive. having a singular. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. and most astounding were those frightful yells. and I waited for none. the method of parsing is simple. this. with awkward but rapid pace. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice.
MODEL FOR PARSING.
. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked.
170. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. 5. or case. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. person. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs.What to tell in parsing. 7. I ask nothing of you. if it has number. modifies the word truths. if it can be compared.
These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. plural number. positive degree. 6. 3. To every several man. 8. In parsing an adjective. Exercise. (2) Its number. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. These points out what truths. manly way. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. therefore demonstrative. 9. 10. She made no reply. not inflected for number. 2. Since adjectives have no gender.
What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 28. are immutably fishes. he won affections with ease. Two hours elapsed.
. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. Like most gifted men. as for armies that were too many by half. 32. those dogs in the yard. is the settlement of our own country. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Here lay two great roads. 31. 14. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. Their name was the last word upon his lips. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. it is so noble a fruit. 24. I know not what course others may take. 27. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. With every third step. and dogs. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 26. yonder oxen in the pasture. and therefore more interesting to us. 22. 19. growing in the most unfavorable position. and many poles supported the lower ones. 20. 21. 33. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 13. 23.11. Nearer to our own times. 18. during which time I waited. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 16. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. not so much for travelers that were few. 12. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 29. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. the tomahawk fell. 25. In music especially. oxen. To say what good of fashion we can. suggests such thoughts as these. it rests on reality. Most fruits depend entirely on our care.
or the tane." "a European. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. the latter is still preserved in the expression. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. such as we have been attempting to describe.
An before vowel sounds." "an honor. A hard-struggling. that) which was also an article in Old English. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. these occurring as the tane. later th . but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. and that remained a demonstrative adjective."
An with consonant sounds. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. for example. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. In Middle English the became an article.
Their origin. ðat. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel.
172.²MACAULAY. An historian. the tither. Examples: "a house. with an ordinary little garden. he is no literary man.²SCOTT. In the sentence. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized." the words the and an belong to nouns. 35.
174. meaning one. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. An or a came from the old numeral n. 37. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives.
. the tother. a before consonant sounds. were formerly that one.
Two relics.34. the other. in vulgar English. s o. just as adjectives do.
173. Many writers use an before h. that other. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. sometimes the tother.
ARTICLES." "a yelling crowd." "an orange. weary-hearted man was he. even when not silent.
Our expressions the one. when the word is not accented on the first syllable.
171. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. the tother. but the former is used. and a before consonant sounds.²BREWER. th o.
He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business.²THACKERAY. since it points out a particular individual. thus. or group. a person is introduced by a. or class.
178. doubtless.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. An hereditary tenure of these offices. The Dakota tribes. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.² Don't you remember how.
To call attention to attributes. not descriptive. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. and not a state or other geographical division.
179. which cannot be used alone.²COLERIDGE. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. on opening a story." the article indicates clearly that a river.²IRVING. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. or any individual of a group or class. An and a are different forms of the same word. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.
Definition. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY." "the Ohio.
176. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. When the is prefixed to a proper name.
.²HEROES OF ASGARD. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. as in the sentence.
Reference to a known object. or a group or class of things.. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.. NOTE.²This use is noticed when. Articles are either definite or indefinite. and when the word river is omitted. as "the Mississippi.
USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. is referred to. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.
With names of rivers. An or a is the indefinite article. BANCROFT. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.²G. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.
177.. The is the definite article. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. An article is a limiting word. the older n.
In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. so is the evil. not into a particular virtue.
One thing for its class.²SCOTT. 2.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. BANCROFT.
Half abstract. and the redwing.²MOTLEY. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.
183.²ID. The. Kant. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.²ID. her.The Bacon. the song sparrow. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. the Spinoza. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun.
. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. Schelling.
He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. the gallant. would speedily extract the required information. If the good is there.²G. but into the region of all the virtues.
With plural of abstract nouns. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. 1.
181. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. etc. laid it on the miry spot.
180.²KINGSLEY.² The faint.
Caution. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU.
Common.²EMERSON. or a match put between the fingers.
His messages to the provincial authorities.
For possessive person pronouns. for example. the Hume.
With adjectives used as nouns.
182. as.²EMERSON.²GIBBON. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.
NOTE.² As she hesitated to pass on. The simple rise as by specific levity. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons.
The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.
184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.
185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.
186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.
USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.
188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.
189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.
190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.
The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.
NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.
191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.
192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.
In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.
193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.
Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.
194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.
195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.
196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.
Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.
197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.
HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.
9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.
VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.
199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.
200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."
In each case. in this sentence from Bulwer. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. in (b).²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. and a preposition unite as a verb. taking the staff which always guided her steps. an article. to say something to or about some person or thing. and shame the most astute. might have been anticipated is also one predicate.
201. but cannot be predicates. "Put money in thy purse. or the object. and. c). All these are called transitive verbs. the most astute. Hence
Definition. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. the word following. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS.²BULWER
. representing something which it influences or controls. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. for example. which may be a person. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. In giving a definition. hence is not a verb." put is the predicate. to go is no predicate. or an idea.In (a).
Definition and caution. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. and to receive the action expressed. endured what? anguish.
204. lone took what? answer. care. Of those expressing action.
The nature of the transitive verb. A verb is a word used as a predicate. 200: In (1)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. a noun. with some word understood. Now. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. we consider a verb as one word.
The nature of intransitive verbs. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. (can) shame also has an object. from the Latin transire. in (3. b)." Examine the sentences in Sec. a verb. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. in (c). which means to go over. and not a verb. an adverb. In the first. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. In the sentence. etc. in (2. a). is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. b). in (3. but fearing is not a predicate. can deceive has an object. all do not express it in the same way. Each influences some object.
202. as. in (2. Has takes the object hypocrisy. obeyed is a predicate. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate."
VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. the most penetrating. a preposition. By examining a few verbs. "Put thou money in thy purse.
203. or a material thing. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike.
In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.
206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.
5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.
VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.
208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.
211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.
So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.
213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.
The three ways.
214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.
Deals with facts.
215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.
(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.
(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.
Meaning of the word.
217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.
If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.
Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.
II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.
rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. the second founder. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. they were recorded in the Book of Life. I.
221. but. 215.²LONGFELLOW. 2).²SHELLEY.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].² If.²FRANKLIN. the writer can make the statement following.I could lie down like a tired child. Condition or Supposition. the representative system ultimately fail.
222. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. Again. as.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.²D. the first great founder of the Empire.
Ideal. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. WEBSTER. as. If this be the glory of Julius.²BRYCE.
(2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. ²EMERSON. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.
STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. Most excellent stranger. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:²
Real or true. he will see the need of these ethics. in our case. for example. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.
Unreal²cannot be true. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.²may or may not be true. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.
(1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. or be fulfilled.² Now. and may or may not be regarded true.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. popular government must be pronounced impossible.
. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.²MACAULAY.
he had better not have written.. 4. though.²CALHOUN. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. society could not hold together. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.²FRANKLIN.²FRANKLIN. P. 7.
.²SWIFT. ²LOWELL. if his lot had been mine. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. is of similar physiognomy.²N. may.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. I told him. Subjunctive of Purpose.. do you think. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.²EMERSON. etc. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. he supposed. might. 6. melodious. if he speak to you. and should. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. as. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. The voice. NOTE.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. the clause being introduced by that or lest.²MACAULAY. but when the verb precedes the subject. especially be. if he was the man I take him for. If he had reason to dislike him. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. 5. Exercise. and what kind of condition:² 1. that he might be strong to labor. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. unless. 3. The subjunctive. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE.²BAYNE. and sonorous.² It was necessary. since he [Byron] was dead. is used to express purpose.² If these things were true. and striven energetically to save Ney. In the following conditional clauses. which cannot be true. thus. WILLIS. would you. to drink strong beer. 8." etc. Epaminondas. But in no case could it be justified. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. clear. 2. except..
II.² CARLYLE. she was regarded as a prodigy.. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. that we cannot but regret its absence.
223. would have sat still with joy and peace.
225. the answer being regarded as doubtful. The English subjunctive. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²WORDSWORTH.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.²COLERIDGE. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.
224. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.
VII. till it meet the sun in his coming. Rise up.²BRYANT.²SOUTHEY.Thou go not. In Indirect Questions.. In Temporal Clauses. After a verb of wishing.
IV. within its fairy bowers. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²MOORE. Expressing a Wish.
226. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. I've wished that little isle had wings.
227. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.I have been the more particular.That vain it were her eyes to close.Were wafted off to seas unknown.. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. So live. none of us could say.And we.²D.. like the quarry-slave at night. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. In a Noun Clause. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.
III. Subjunctive of Result. like the Latin.²ID.
.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE.. To tell of what had passed.
V. Ask the great man if there be none greater.
VI. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Let it rise. I would it were! ²EMERSON.
That hunger of applause.²CARLYLE.
VIII. Some might lament that I were cold. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. in apposition. I have no thought what men they be.And look thou tell me true.And see the Braes of Yarrow.
229. (b) Adjective. is.² DICKENS.²CARLYLE
Apposition or logical subject. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²THOREAU. Concessive Clauses. often contains a subjunctive. for example.²COLERIDGE. Whatever betide.
The first merit.
This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. The noun clause. in its various uses as subject. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. The essence of originality is not that it be new.
After verbs of commanding.² Be the matter how it may.²TENNYSON.
Complement. which may be (a) Pronoun.²COLERIDGE. tell me all that thou hast seen.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. See that there be no traitors in your camp. object. we'll turn aside. Come..Subject. etc. of cash. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.²WORDSWORTH. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²DE QUINCEY.
To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.
As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. is the ultimate fact of man's life. that everything be in its place. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²SHELLEY. or whatsoever victual it may be.²SCOTT.
(c) Adverb. though.²CHANNING. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.
231. Honor all men. however. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. for example.The spirit he loves remains.
Definition. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. (2) Entreaty. In spoken English. (3) Request. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. love all men.²BRYANT.² CARLYLE.
Usually second person. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. point to their immortal works.
230. At the present day. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. to express a wish. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. It must be remembered. Q. a concession. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. since commands are directed to a person addressed.²SHELLEY.²J. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. Oh. fear none. (1) Command. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. entreaties. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are.
232. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. or requests.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. and condition contrary to fact.
Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts.
²CAMPBELL. child of earth!While each performs his part.And God forget the stranger!"
."Hush! mother. lest we rust in ease. Quoth she." Exercises on the Moods. there will her heart and her prayers be. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. nothing is to be preferred before justice.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.One glance at their array! 5. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Part we in friendship from your land. Whatever inconvenience ensue. we may use the imperative with we in a command. but I + you. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. to you implied in it. Break we our watch up. etc. 2. 6. request. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.And." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 8. or I + they. Oh. "The Devil take the goose. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.
Sometimes with first person in the plural." whispered Kit.²SHAKESPEARE. 7. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Mark thou this difference."²DICKENS Tell me. noble earl. receive my hand. "Come along with me. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.
But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.²SCOTT. etc.. 3.
" 25.Except. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. let him live where else he like. Though he were dumb. or do it at all. 23. but repentant child. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. "Mr.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. That sheaf of darts. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar." 16." continued Old Morgan.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. she ought to have it. "tell me where I may find my poor. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Forget thyself to marble. no literary man. and opinion displace opinion.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. in what pomps and prosperities he like. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.
. 20. it would speak.High up in silver spikes! 22. He. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. ruined. will it not fall unbound.9. "Oh.That they might answer him.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. That a man parade his doubt. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. as though an instrument. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. He is. Though abyss open under abyss. 13. 26. whether he do it right or wrong. Well. Marshall. then. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 18. 10. 19. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 14. 21. how he may do his work." cried he. 11. my dear madam.
past. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. or future time. to direct his steps.² present. or agree with it.
The tenses in detail. five in the imperative.
Old English had only two tenses. kind. Meantime. "I go away tomorrow.
PERSON AND NUMBER. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it.
TENSE. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. as will be shown later on.
234. as. five in the subjunctive. "Thou walkest. or whether it were as one member of a general party. "Thou walkedst. also. the past. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. such as be.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. will. as the classical languages have. When the older pronoun thou was in use. called auxiliaries." present.27. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. and future perfect tenses. and the past tense. and the future tense. a form ending in -eth. past. such as Latin and Greek. "It is not in man that walketh. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect.²the present tense. Tense means time.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages."
." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. by means of the present. in the third person singular. past perfect. 28. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.
233. tell him to wait.²nothing could exceed the amiable. and future. shall. as. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no." past. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs.
Definition. whatever she did. in the conjugations. which represented present and future time. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. have. Siddons.
235." "If he comes.
Tenses in English. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as.
Definition. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice.
PRESENT TENSE. I was Plural We were You were [They were]
2. I be 2. Singular 1. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. wert) 3.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. etc. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. You (thou) be 3. mood. Singular 1. [He] were [They] were
. for example. walked. etc. been. as. Singular 1. and numbers. choosing. chosen (old. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were
[They] be 3. The verb be has more forms.
236. [He] was
Subjunctive Mood. tenses. since it is composed of several different roots. walketh. tense. I were 2. singular number. You are 2. In classical languages. walk has walk. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. Such verbs as choose have five. chosest). are. but in English.
Few forms." and this only in the present tense indicative. walkedst. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. choosest.²am. chooseth. were. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. This is the third person.
PRESENT TENSE. 238. chooses. is. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. walks. walking. chose. [He] is [They] are 3. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. Singular 1. moods. sometimes adding the old forms walkest.²choose.
Indicative Mood. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. "He walks. persons.
. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²WORDSWORTH. -en. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. Instead of the plural are. is. (2) was. same as the German sind. to express intention.²GOLDSMITH.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. etc.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. to form the passive voice.. (2) As auxiliary verbs. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.
239.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.²THACKERAY. for example.²SHELLEY. as.
Remarks on the verb be. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER
Uses of be. (d) With the infinitive. (b) With the past participle in -ed. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.
PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.
240. condition. which was now become an occasional banquet. in four ways. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²ID. (3) be.Imperative Mood. were. though it is usually a dialect form.²SCOTT. thus. obligation.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.His infancy was nurtured. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. The light that never was on sea and land. etc.
241. We chose You chose
3. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I chose 2.
FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec.
PRESENT TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose
Imperative Mood. (2). [He] chose [They] chose
Subjunctive Mood. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). tenses. "I had gone" (past perfect). You choose Plural. You chose Plural. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 1. 240. "I have gone" (present perfect). had. 1. I choose 2. future perfect. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. 1. as. as. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense.
242. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. past perfect. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. I chose 2.
PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. "I shall be. [He] choose [They] choose 3. tenses. I choose 2. Singular. 1." "He will choose.
PRESENT TENSE. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You choose Plural.
Machinery of a verb in the voices. by placing have. We chose You chose
3. etc. Singular. You chose Plural. In addition to the above inflected forms." (2) Present perfect. Singular.
he have chosen. (2d per. will be given. lest. he have been choosing. Future perfect. He will have chosen. Present definite. as. He will he choosing. He chooses.
Future perfect definite. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Same as indicative. Present perfect. he chose (or were to choose)." "They had been running. He had chosen. Imperative Mood. Past. Subjunctive Mood. " Be choosing. He will choose. Only the third person.
. of each tense. He has been choosing." "You are chosen.
ACTIVE VOICE. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past perfect definite. Same as indicative. Past. He is choosing. He had been choosing.) Choose. Present. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. "I am running. etc. Present perfect definite." (4) The passive forms." 243. though. He was choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense.
Indicative Mood. Present perfect. Future. Present. Future definite. Present. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs.
Present perfect definite. He will have been choosing. [If. " " " " " " " he be choosing. as.] he choose. Present definite. Past perfect. singular number. He chose. Past definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present definite. "I was chosen. Past definite. He has chosen.
. Imperative Mood. he were being chosen.
Indicative Mood. Exercises should be given. None.] he be chosen. None. Past definite. He is being chosen. None. though. Past.) Be chosen. He was being chosen.
PASSIVE VOICE. he have been chosen. Present definite. Past definite. He has been chosen. Present tense. they will be discussed later (Sec. Present perfect definite. None. etc. in affirmative sentences. None. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. however. (2d per. He will have been chosen. Past perfect definite. Present definite." [Note to Teacher. Future definite. Future. " " " " " " " None.
Present perfect definite.
Future perfect definite. Also. Past. 262).²This table is not to be learned now. Future perfect. Present. Subjunctive Mood. He had been chosen. Present perfect. as." "He did strike.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs.. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). if learned at all. "He does strike. but verbals. None. Past perfect. He was chosen. Present. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He is chosen. he had been chosen. Present perfect. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. He will be chosen. Past Perfect. Past perfect definite.] [If. lest.
sleep. slept. drive. verbs are strong or weak. 245.[adj. laid.
Kinds. bid bound. Past Tense. and may or may not change the vowel: as. drove. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. run. begged. bounden] bitten. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. bit blown broken chidden. caught. According to form. Some of these also have weak forms. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn
clove. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. catch.
A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. but adds no ending.
244. as. lay.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. ran. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. NOTE.
Definition. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft)
. beg. which are in parentheses Present Tense.
drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing
drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung
drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung
sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound
. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound
sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind
sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden.
Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as." "a drunken wretch. TAYLOR. nor a dog barked. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). for example. which always crew at eleven. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. the other.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. probably to avoid confusion with this. as (from Holmes).²as (from Shakespeare). especially in that of an earlier period. as. to split. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. "his bounden duty. and." In this confusion of usage." "the cloven hoof.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.²MILTON. cloven. instead of ate and eaten. Our cock. The former used to be cleave. as. When it means to carry or to endure.²GOLDSMITH.wring write
Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. borne is also a passive. ²THACKERAY. cleft (to split). The form clomb is not used in prose. cleft. "stricken with paralysis. Not a cock crew. cleaved. cleaved.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. only one set remains certain.
246.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²COLERIDGE. and another (born) for the passive.² We had each drank three times at the well." "a sunken snag. Historically.²cleave. clave or clove. and sometimes occurs in poetry.²B. and the latter.²IRVING. but is much used in vulgar English." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²TENNYSON.²one meaning to adhere or cling. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. as. cleave. now told us it was time for repose. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. Sometimes in literary English. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.
. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain.
10. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. 5. 245). began.²WORDSWORTH. Fall.²BYRON. Give. Break.²BIBLE. shook. He sate him down. 6.²TENNYSON. as. 3. drove. flung. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:²
y y y y y y y y y y
1. broken. fell."²KINGSLEY." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. for example. shore is rare. threw. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. One example out of many is.² We had all got safe on shore. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. fallen. and seized a pen.The form gotten is little used.²DE FOE. found. Find. Drive. Throw. gave.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. even in poetry. found. This heard Geraint. Begin. as "a shorn lamb. 8. shaken. Shake. begun. Exercises. broke. Freeze. The butler was hanged. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. given. maiden.
.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. We usually say. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. frozen. and grasping at his sword. froze.²SCOTT." but not much as a participle. 2. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. which is seldom used except in poetry.
(b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. for example. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs.² If. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 7. 9. Usually shear is a weak verb. 4. thrown. driven. flung. Fling. (a) From the table (Sec.
as it sometimes does. HAMILTON. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would
248. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. Like must. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.²PAINE.
247. The l in could did not belong there originally." Must is present or past tense.. "far off his coming shines. It is indicative when it expresses permission.. 250. etc. there is one general principle. His superiority none might question. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. "So mote it be.
Indicative Use: Permission. etc.
Subjunctive use. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe.
If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. but came through analogy with should and would. must have been an ocular deception. Must is historically a past-tense form.
In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. it is used only in the indicative mood. as it has two meanings. or when it expresses wish.)
And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. Could may be subjunctive. as in Sec.. Have we valuable territories and important posts.
(See also Sec. according to the infinitive used. PAST.
. 249.²CHANNING. Ability."²WINIER. PAST.. which survives in the sentence. or.[To the Teacher.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A.]
DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. from the obsolete verb motan. They are as follows:² PRESENT.²CHANNING This. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise..²HAWTHORNE. ability. 223. PRESENT.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. 251. The same remarks apply to ought. as. for full drill on the forms.²SCOTT. of course. Can is used in the indicative only. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. purpose. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. 220.
Uses of shall and should. my lad. shall and should are used. she should ride like a queen. while ought always has to. in the form of command. They shall have venison to eat. to the neglect of shall and should.Nay.. promise. yea.
Shall and Will. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. as. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. or confident prediction. C.²LONGFELLOW. BROCKDEN BROWN.
(a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. She should not walk.
The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. (b) In questions asking for orders. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. MOULTON. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.² The time will come full soon. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. I shall be gone. what shall I say?²N. The sea shall crush thee.²BULWER.²
Futurity and questions²first person.²COOPER. shall and should are used.
252. as. The following are examples:² Never mind. not plod along like apeasant.
Second and third persons. (b) In indirect quotations. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i.e. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. to use will and would. he said. future action). especially in the United States.²L. as. and corn to hoe.²IRVING.² With respect to novels. She rejects his suit with scorn.
(2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. with pronouns of the first person. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.
.² (a) To express authority. "I think I will go. WEBSTER. for example.
. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. Will and would are used as follows:²
Authority as to future action²first person. BROWN.²SWIFT.²A. thus.² I will go myself now. And promised. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. etc.²H. (c) With direct questions of the second person.
Disguising a command.
(3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. as.. with the conviction that he should win in the end. JR. second and third persons. JAMES. 253.²ROGERS. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. and is equivalent to ought. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. B. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²SCOTT.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. as the sole inventor.
(1) With the FIRST PERSON. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²WORDSWORTH. or a promise.that I would do him justice.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.
First. was to be expected. for example.²WORDSWORTH.²C.²CABLE. purpose. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. I never was what I should be.²WORDSWORTH. time. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²BYRON. and will not return until all is finished.
. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.²WINTER. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. for example.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. LARNED..
²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. for punishment or intimidation. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.²
Subject I omitted: often so. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. as. BROWN.. as. When I am in town.²BURKE. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. and mark on the grounds the works.
(3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. and two of my people. for example.
Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.. will and would are used to express simple futurity.
Mere futurity. This puts the order more mildly.² Thou wilt take the skiff.
Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). B.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. through storms their brothers are afraid of.. Thine was a dangerous gift. PASSIVE VOICE.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. will and would often denote an action as customary. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. etc. would is used to express a wish. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.
. for example. In this stately chair would he sit. as if it were merely expected action.. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. They will go to Sunday schools.²War Records.²SCOTT. Roland. The gift of Beauty.. To be sure. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. when thou wast born.²SCOTT. Would thou hadst it not. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. AND THIRD PERSONS.²LANDOR.²the original meaning of the word will. SECOND. will is used to express command.
254. (4) With FIRST.²BANCROFT.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. without regard to future time. action merely expected to occur.²IRVING. so you will.² DICKENS.
We shall choose. Plural. [He] will be chosen. and justify the use of shall and will. 6. To express determination. "I shall not run. You will choose. You will be chosen. You shall choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 2. 3. [He] shall choose. 2. You shall choose.Singular. PASSIVE VOICE. [He] shall be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. We will be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. [They] shall choose. promise. Plural. Thou art what I would be. You shall be chosen. 252 and 253.
3. 4. I shall be chosen. Singular. I shall choose. 3. [They] will be chosen. etc. 1.
Exercises on Shall and Will.
3. [They] shall be chosen. 3. You will choose. Plural. [He] will choose. 3. You will be chosen.
. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. We will choose. I will choose. 2.
(a) From Secs. 5. He informed us. Singular." answered Herbert stubbornly. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you.:² ACTIVE VOICE.
Singular. We shall be chosen. 1. 2. 1. [They] will choose. 1. 2. Plural. You shall be chosen. yet only seem. (b) Examine the following sentences. 1. I will be chosen. and that of the newest cut. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2.
Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle.²ID. 11." the stranger said. 9. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. No.²CHAUCER. which may be called irregular weak verbs." 14. 256. very anxious. The beast made a sluggish movement. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. need some attention and explanation. or mylk and wastel breed. put. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Past Tense. bereaved besought
. 13. then. "I am a wayfarer. 255. Irregular Weak Verbs.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. was -de or -te. bereft. The old ending to verbs of Class II.²
The two classes of irregular weak verbs. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. WEAK VERBS. and have no change of vowel. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. Present Tense. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. as if he would have more of the enchantment. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please.²Class I.7. But the rest. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. This ending has now dropped off. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. set. set. 10. as. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.
(1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. Without having attended to this. put. Of smale houndes hadde she. put. and I have nothing to say. Lucy stood still. my son. bereave beseech bereft. bereave besought Past Participle. 257. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. 12. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set.
leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught
burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. leant leaped. stayed swept taught
made (once maked) made
. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach
burned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.
tell think weep work
told thought wept worked, wrought
told thought wept worked, wrought
258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut
slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet
slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted
slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted
spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]
Tendency to phonetic spelling.
250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.
Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.
260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid
The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.
261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²
Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set
Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.
12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.
262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.
263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.
1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.
2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.
3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.
264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.
Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.
Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.
a perfect. 7. [To] have been chosen. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. and when passive. to express action unconnected with a subject. try clemency. an indefinite and a perfect form.
268.. Infinitives. Perfect. Indefinite. 8. have no tense.. and a perfect definite form. In Sec. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. when inflections became fewer. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. When active.
INFINITIVES. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). will (with should and would). I returned to reflection on my situation. Nothing of the kind having been done. 267. Imperfect. PASSIVE VOICE. 10.
Cases when to is omitted. they have an indefinite. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. [To] be choosing. 9. like participles. to was used before the infinitive generally. as in the Old English. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Indefinite.
Perfect definite. [To] have chosen. [To] have been choosing. Three saplings.²the creature warring against the creating power. an imperfect. [To] be chosen. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Perfect.
266. expressing purpose. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted.6.. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. ACTIVE VOICE. [To] choose. formed a kind of bedstead.
To with the infinitive.
do (as. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. bid (command).(2) After the verbs may (might).²E. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. watch.²it may be governed as a noun. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. While the gerund expresses action. poor woman!" cried Charles.² What! doth she. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. feel. 271. The gerund is like the participle in form. also let.
. But there was nothing to do. it may be the subject of a verb.²DE QUINCEY. 269. as. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. "He will choose.²COOPER.
272. learn [doth learn is one verb. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER.²HOWELLS. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb." (4) In exclamations.²GOLDSMITH. as. and corn to hoe. 270.²MACAULAY. HALE." etc. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.
GERUNDS. as in the expression. can (could)." Examples are. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. too. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. "She ask my pardon. hear.). "a house to let. "I do go" etc. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. make. negative. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. as the credulous imagine." "I shall have chosen. sometimes need (as. it is often preceded by the definite article. see. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. must. E. please. or the object of a verb or a preposition.² She was a kind.²IRVING." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. They shall have venison to eat. liberal woman. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. and like a noun in use. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. under "Analysis. also in the imperative. as. and emphatic forms of the present and past. it has several attributes of a noun.²TENNYSON.
making the definite tenses. but cannot govern. above.²Find sentences containing five participles." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. Then how pleasing is it. 4. (5) Gerunds. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. What a vast. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. (2) Pure participles. on your leaving the spot. and five gerunds." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. II). Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. five infinitives. b). The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. brilliant. according to use as well as meaning." "Certainly dueling is bad. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths.
SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING
274." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which have lost all verbal force. which name an action or state. which express action and also modify. to see the returning hope of the parents. and wonderful store of learning!
. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. which express action. which express action. after examining the nest. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. and has been put down." also (2. (6) Verbal nouns. 2. Sec." Exercise. but do not assert.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun.
273. Exercise. (4) Pure adjectives. Words in -ing are of six kinds. when." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. (3) Participial adjectives. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. may govern and be governed.
15. 14. slowly. 234. he gave out sentence by sentence. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing.
I.²which of the tenses given in Sec. or imperative. 12.
. 9. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining.²indicative. bearing her national emblem. give reality to your teaching. 13.5. dictating from his chair. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 7. 11. I suppose I was dreaming about it. but. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. by object lessons. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating.²active or passive. In parsing verbs. subjunctive. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. VERBS.²strong or weak.
Caution. (5) Person and number. Thackeray did not. (4) Tense. like Sir Walter Scott. round which is an iron railing. He spread his blessings all over the land. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. you must. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. much corroded.²transitive or intransitive. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. write twenty pages without stopping. 6. (3) Mood. 10. What is dreaming? 8. (2) Voice.
275. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. (b) as to use. 16. The only means of ascending was by my hands. giving principal parts.
HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS.
Parse the verbs. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. In 2. If a participial adjective.276. no sin nor sorrow. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. perfect. may. For fuller parsing of the infinitive." Sometimes it does. (1) Participle. Exercise. call might a weak verb. VERB PHRASES.
. therefore active.
II. (b) its use (Sec. call should a weak verb. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. Take these examples:² 1. we must beware of the rule. past tense. verbals. definite. (c) to what word it belongs. (2) Infinitive. 278(2). 4. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Let it rise! let it rise. and parting day linger and play on its summit. could. would. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. followed by a pure infinitive without to. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived.
278. 273). The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. (b) whether indefinite. indicative. has the subject government. and ends in -s. in the world. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. (a) From what verb derived. give points (a) and (b). then parse it as an adjective. till it meet the sun in his coming. 2. intransitive. In such sentences as 1. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (3) Gerund. and not taken as single verbs.
III. active. But unless the verb is present. It has been intimated in Sec. etc. and should always be analyzed as phrases. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. etc. past tense.
277. perfect. might. 2. indicative (as it means could). imperfect. intransitive. can. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. usually it does not. You are gathered to your fathers.. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. must. 3. has for its subject Lee. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. 235. Especially frequent are those made up of should. VERBALS. (b) whether active or passive. see Sec. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock.
24. or. a deafening shout. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. as the Hindoos say. Whatever ground you sow or plant. a new bursting forth of the sun. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. morning is not a new issuing of light. In going for water. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 9. 18. a new waking up of all that has life. 15.5. 17.O God. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 19. 22. 23. 11. as usual. and wondered if she were yet awake. 13. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. leaving me upon the bed. 6. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers.Down all the line. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 8." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 16. as rolled from wing to wing. He passed across the room to the washstand. he thought only of her. 20. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. from a sort of temporary death. 10. Right graciously he smiled on us. a sweet good will. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 12.Henceforth in me instill. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. When he arose in the morning. With them. 21. However that be. see that it is in good condition. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 14. The soul having been often born. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births.
. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. So. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.
A verb. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. and so on. for example. Nor was it altogether nothing. And now wend we to yonder fountain. because. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²THACKERAY.
ADVERBS. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road.25. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. place.
Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. and limit adjectives or adverbs. and live ere life be spent. "William's private life was severely pure.
But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.Feast while we may. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. thou sayest. To the almost terror of the persons present.
. and men of leisure and cultivation. they are more himself than he is.²EMERSON.
279. 27. Better it were.²time.² The young man reveres men of genius. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. to speak truly." "He was absolute. as.
Adverbs modify. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. for the hour of rest is at hand. Oh. Is it only poets. to consent."
An adjective or an adverb. or manner: as.²SHELLEY.
When action is expressed. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. who live with nature?²ID. 26." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly."
Sometimes a noun or pronoun. The word adverb means joined to a verb. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way.²CARLYLE."²DE QUINCEY. 29.
lately. there are six classes:² (1) Time. NOTE.
It may also modify a sentence. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. 169. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.²BYRON.²T. 281. and half awfully.
ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.He was incidentally news dealer.
. but some verb understood. hitherto. perhaps. B.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time.
282. ever. and that. Thus considered. as now. not simply the forms used in predication. as shown in the sentences.²These last differ from the words in Sec.
Definition. but still with a rich bloom to it. as.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. thus. to-day. like the light of heaven. I draw forth the fruit. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.
An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.
A phrase. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. Surely happiness is reflective. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.² FRANKLIN. all wet and glossy. before.²TROLLOPE. (2) according to their use in the sentence. NOTE. not the noun. ²IRVING.
280. ALDRICH. has induced some of us to attend it. but really modifying.² LOWELL.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.²LEIGH HUNT. Make music to the lonely ear. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. then. being adverbs naturally and fitly. We are offered six months' credit. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. which may qualify an action word or a statement. for example. etc. 169 are felt to be elliptical. or a word group used as such. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed.
A clause or sentence.²THOREAU. An adverb. is a modifying word. while those in Sec.
above. White. etc. (see also Sec.²SHAKESPEARE. telling how anything is done. etc. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. the more friends you will have. LOUIS STEVENSON. as perhaps. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. two by two.²HAWTHORNE. So also in Grote.²BURKE.. much. beautifully. (5) Degree.²LECKY. Thackeray.thither. slowly. [Sidenote The status of such. that these adverbs form a very large class. etc.whither. etc. as little. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. the more perfect will be their obedience. I was. Motley.²R. Emerson.
283. very. not. the more evidently they love liberty. and not infrequently are found in literary English.²IRVING. as hence. especially the comparative of these words. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. greatly. thus. just.
.thence. (4) Number. while so precedes only the adjective usually. 283). This long's the text. singly. bravely. slightly.²DE QUINCEY. too. telling how much.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.(2) Place. as hither. better. as well. These may be adverbs either of
y y y
(a) PLACE WHERE. partly. etc.. The more they multiply. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.² The master. or how far he believes it to be true.whence. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. at least..² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. whencesoever. telling how many times: once.yonder.where.which gained him such universal popularity. for example. and others.near. enough. probably.
Special remarks on adverbs of degree. twice. surely..was for this once of her opinion. possibly. maybe. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. whithersoever. (6) Assertion.²BROWNING. etc.
(3) Manner.there. Meekness. as here.
and art but a fool. Holmes. Neville.²"He walked too far [place]." "He spoke positively [manner].
Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. De Quincey."²SCOTT. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.²HAWTHORNE.² "Mighty well. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.
The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. for example. "Peace. Defoe. besides modifying. A pretty large experience.
284." "That were far better [degree].Pretty. and its lawn before [place].²FIELDING. Kingsley.² KINGSLEY. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise.
285." "The house."
ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Burke. STOWE.
Interrogative. Such are most of those given already in Sec.²THACKERAY. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs." said the king." "I have seen you before [time].²GOLDSMITH." "That is positively untrue [assertion].²BULWER. Franklin. Some adverbs.²THACKERAY. Again. Beau Fielding. It is only occasionally used in literary English. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. and other writers. a mighty fine gentleman. Pretty is also used by Prescott.
Mighty. Aldrich. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. 282.
Notice meanings.²BAYNE. Emerson. have the additional function of asking a question.² You are mighty courteous. Hard blows and hard money.
Direct questions. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. for example. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Dickens. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.
These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²POE.
. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. When did this humane custom begin?²H. (2) Place.²D. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE
Indirect questions. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (4) Degree. I will not ask where thou liest low. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. 287. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. I know not why.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. (5) Reason. they smiled. WEBSTER.
Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. I do not remember when I was taught to read. CLAY. I hearkened. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (4) Degree.²BYRON. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.²BULWER.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BYRON (3) Manner. (2) Place. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. for example.
Exercise. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Tell what each word in ly modifies. only occasionally having -er and -est. higher. Many adjectives have the same ending.. as. Superlative. are often used as adjectives:² Positive.
Form vs. The following. high. last
ill or badly worse
nigh or near nearer later
farther. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.
288. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. For further discussion.) rather 289.
. when does not express time and modify. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.
290. when compared. have the same inflection as adjectives. not an adverb. just as adjectives do. and. but the whole clause.²COLERIDGE. soonest. highest. sooner. when. Its strings boldlier swept. Then must she keep it safelier. furthest
(rathe. well much little far late Comparative.²SHAKESPEARE. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Only that we may wiselier see.²EMERSON. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. obs.²BYRON. Many adverbs are compared. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. see Sec." Exercise.
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. further farthest..²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. irregularly compared. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.²TENNYSON.eyes. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. representing four classes. use. soon.But in reality. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.
. 3. etc. The reason is. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.²CHAUCER. 2. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. Again. hard. curiously jolly. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. But he must do his errand right.And his mien of kingly state. if it has the verb be.
Special use of there. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. even. 5. or down the leaves laughed through. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 6.²WORDSWORTH. merely introduces a sentence.
292. more courtly in their manners. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. to be sure. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. With his proud. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.1. hardly. kindly and good-natured in secret.²THACKERAY. There are eyes.² EMERSON. 8. 291. 7.²ID. mostly. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. instead of being used adverbially. as.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. 4. 2. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Not near so black as he was painted. nearly. And all about." Compare these:² 1. many words without -ly have the same form. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. Such are most. Frequently the word there. but with a different meaning. that in Old and Middle English.²IRVING. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. He is inexpressibly mean. whether adverbs or adjectives. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. near. evenly.²TENNYSON.
At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. For the impracticable. In parsing adverbs. 4. at the regular wine-shop. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. but continually shifted. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. but from my fall? 6. the Madonna is in great glory. It is the Cross that is first seen.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 15. 11. 10. 18. The higher we rise in the scale of being. But a few steps farther on. 12. 17. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. (2) Degree of comparison. burning in the center of the temple. and sate down on the steps of a house. Thither we went. if the word is compared. 16. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. and always.
. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 7. however theoretically enticing.
293. is always politically unwise. 3. according to meaning and also use. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 9. Exercise. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 2. 5. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. give² (1) The class.
22. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause.
(2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but.
294." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!"
Word groups: Phrases. sentences. she would undoubtedly have succumbed.
. 20. or sentence groups."
295. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. but side by side within the American Union."
Sentences. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives.
(1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. and found room to wonder how it could have got there.
(4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here.19. therefore. 21. then. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. upon which the sun now shone forth. It was pretty bad after that. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Clauses. however. Examples of the use of conjunctions:²
They connect words.
(3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. word groups. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. connecting words. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. A conjunction is a linking word. but the student will readily find them. Unlike adverbs.
Definition. etc. nor. But now the wind rose again.
.nor.. either.or. as well as. for.. joining words. serves but to show their ignorance..
Causal. etc.but (or but also).or. usually between two things. Nor mark'd they less.or. as. as but. else. yet. nor. They are or. etc. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:²
Copulative. answering to each other in the same sentence.
Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. likewise. and. nor.. only. as and. or the sea rolls its waves. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. however. still. "Howbeit. introducing a reason or cause. whether. whether.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. whether.
297. but is emperor in his own right. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. also. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. The chief ones are. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. and not man corn.and. the butter too.Classes of conjunctions. (2) ADVERSATIVE..
While the earth bears a plant. therefore. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.. both. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. had its weight.
Your letter. hence.
COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. as..
296. then. moreover. (4) ALTERNATIVE. either. (2) Subordinate. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. etc. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. not only..
Adversative.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.or whether. while.. the window being open.. not only.
. as well as the room door. of the same rank. neither.. word groups. either. Some of these go in pairs. the bread was spent.. however." Nevertheless.... Some go in threes.or. expressing a choice.. neither.
The assertion.nor...but. (3) CAUSAL..
disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. in apposition. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. so that. etc. nor wing of bird. until. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. after. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. whither.²IRVING.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. etc.. provided. It is. so. there will the heart be also.²WILSON. nor creeping thing. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds.. whence. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. as.
Time. whereas. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. etc.²BURKE.
. so.²BIBLE.as.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. even if. since..²J. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. provided that. unless.²PAULDING. whereto. although. (3) MANNER: how. on condition that. especially that after so. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:²
Place. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. nor green leaf. as. object. that.²DE QUINCEY. whithersoever. as. wherever. now. seeing. etc. (2) TIME: when. howsoever. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. lest. whether. before.
I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. except. so that. Neither the place in which he found himself.
299. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. etc.
Where the treasure is. whenever. in order that. ²ALLSTON. in case. He is not only bold and vociferous. ere. however. sometimes if. nor echo. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. (7) RESULT: that. while.. (6) PURPOSE: that. since. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. QUINCY. though.²COOPER. so.
We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²AMES.That he gave her wounds repose. JACKSON.
Cause.²EMERSON.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.That vain it were her eyes to close.²IRVING.²EMERSON. but not so long but I held it out.²COLERIDGE.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²AMES.
A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²DEFOE.²BYRON.²CAMPBELL.
. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.
What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.
It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. H.² H. not as they were expected or intended.
As a soldier.
I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.
Let the world go how it will.²AMES. Then Denmark blest our chief.
Purpose. reason.² WORDSWORTH.
Concession.² HAWTHORNE. Sparing neither whip nor spur. a thousand bodies. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Now he is dead.
Comparison. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.
So many thoughts moved to and fro.²BURKE. I was again covered with water.
We wish for a thousand heads.
Substantive. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.So I behold them not.²EMERSON.² EMERSON.
there is little prospect of justice in permitting war.²RUSKIN. 14. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. as. and hid her there. 9.Let us see whether the greatest. 13. she faintly pressed her hand. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. however.
. 15. While patriotism glowed in his heart. In what point of view. 12. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. her real merit is known at home. The moth fly. as he shot in air. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 4. hold a subordinate rank. He was brought up for the church. the wisest. the lady called her servant. 6. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. since. 2. Besides. 3. 7. some words²for example. while. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. No one had yet caught his character. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. While a faction is a minority. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. And then recovering. that. As will have been noticed. 300. then. 5.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. Crept under the leaf. And they lived happily forever after. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. etc. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 10. They. After he was gone. it will remain harmless. Exercises.
As though. expressing degree if taken separately.
SPECIAL REMARKS. In poetry. If analyzed. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.. Consequently..As though a rose should shut.²IRVING.So slowly moved about.
As for as if. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. GREELEY. and be a bud again. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. for example. word groups.Clouded.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. even as they would weep." as.
302. "We meet. as is shown by the use of as though. they connect. and part as though we parted not. none of the lashings having given way.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.²EMILY BRONTE. In parsing conjunctions. thus. the expression would be.16.
303. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. 304. etc. as is often equivalent to as if.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.²BYRON. in this case.²HOOD. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.
301. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.
As if. The raft and the money had been thrown near her." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. So silently we seemed to speak. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.. In Emerson's sentence. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. and the frame will suit the picture. His voice . (2) What words. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.
as beside his own chimneys. 13. "Doctor. 2. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. 11. When the gods come among men. and.
In classifying them. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word.²that the fairies do not like to be named. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and associates as happily. others belong to several classes. and its clause is independent.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. compare the sentences. If he could solve the riddle.²EMERSON 3. because it is his. and very seldom?" 8. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. or in the snow.Caution. when. Some conjunctions. or in the forest. dines with as good an appetite. so means provided. so it be faithfully imparted. so that expresses result. He dismisses without notice his thought. but of the natural. he is also the correlative of nature. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. so they paddled on. the Sphinx was slain. and the like.² 1. in 2. It may be safely trusted. It continued raining. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. 10. are regularly of one particular class.²I find them true in Concord. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. 6. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions.
. that it might testify of that particular ray. For example. 3." said his wife to Martin Luther. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. 12. At sea. All the postulates of elfin annals. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. and its clause depends on the other. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. such as nor. in 3. He is the compend of time. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. so that I could not stir abroad. 7. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. because. they are not known.²is subordinate of condition. so means therefore. 4. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old..²DEFOE 2. he sleeps as warm. 5. 9. Exercise. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. etc. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower.
. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more.
305. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. however. 27. And whether consciously or not. 30. There was no iron to be seen. that both were wayward. whose names I omit.
PREPOSITIONS. 18. Now you have the whip in your hand. I never rested until I had a copy of the book.. won't you lay on? 17.²else it is none. 26. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. enthroned. save it were sinful like herself. Goodness must have some edge to it. in many a heart. I rejoice to stand here no longer. the whole conditions are changed. For. 23. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. It is clear. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. she might have the family countenance. therefore. 29. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 19. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 21. This occurs in such cases as the following:²
Preposition not before its object. when it was presented to them. 16. of good novels only. 20. I speak. 22. you must be. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 24. Still.14. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 25. 28. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 15. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. in this they agree. It may be so in the majority of cases.
(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.
308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²
(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.
309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.
USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.
(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.
311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.
CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.
312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.
PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).
PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.
EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.
STODDARD.²EVERETT. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Like at. as. D. at first. at peace. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at the worst. at war. by many a million of acres. at naught. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at random. CONWAY.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last.
.² (1) The general meaning of place. by means near or close to. etc.²R. the first port made by the ship. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.. at play. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at rest.
320. at all.²M. (2) Time. She saw the boat headed for her. he stopped. at one.²COOPER. by the ruins of nations. TAYLOR The angel came by night.²ALDRICH. By my faith. at length. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. etc. at the best. ²PARTON. At that time [the earth] was richer. Helena. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. Exercise. (3) Agency or means.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.
321.²B. at most.
For.²DE QUINCEY. and phrases signifying state or condition of being.²ID. H. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at work. at once. at least.
By. (4) Measure of excess. Exercise. Richard was standing by the window. at any rate. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. by the wrecks of time. by the blessed memory of the departed.²SWIFT. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. At St.²WARNER. expressing the degree of difference. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.
But the Colonel.²ID.²E. (5) Reference. had a forest of poor relations. or extent of space. considering that etc. (3) Duration of time. incitement to action. GARRISON. BANCROFT. for all slips of hers.²W.One of Eve's family."²SCOTT By my faith.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. and leaped for joy. poor fellow. E. for all his title. as being. An Arab woman.² RUSKIN. Still. etc. but a few sunsets since.(2) In favor of. The twilight being. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. ate her child. if your worship can accomplish that.²H. reason.²EMERSON.²IRVING. "For a fool. L. in behalf of. meaning with regard to. H. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. they are now for us.²HOLMES.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. "thou hast counseled wisely. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²PARKMAN. respecting. for the benefit of. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous..
. (6) Like as. (8) Meaning notwithstanding.²LAMB. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. for famine. he repented of his folly. etc. as to. a person or thing." answered Master Brackett. "Nay. He and they were for immediate attack.²STODDARD. For the rest.." said the Lady of Lochleven. meaning although. (9) Motive. There are gains for all our losses. (7) Concession. the Colonna motto would fit you best. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. meaning in the character of. or in spite of.²PARKMAN. cause. etc. For him. (4) Substitution or exchange. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²HOOD. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.
From harmony. more. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.
. (4) Motive.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²BANCROFT. H. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. (2) Origin. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²HALE. It was from no fault of Nolan's. or reason. Like boys escaped from school.²H. A distrustful. ceased to be merciful. if not a desperate man. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The From Relation. nay.
323.²MILTON. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. cause.
From. from a desire of seeming valiant. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. (3) Time. The general idea in from is separation or source.
(1) Origin or source. The king holds his authority of the people. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. Exercise.²HIGGINSON.²DRYDEN.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. Exercise. The various uses are shown in the following examples:²
I.²ID. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.
Of. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²HUXLEY. The young cavaliers. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. like from.²HUME.
²GAVARRE. Sandals. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. "I am glad of that.²ID. free. HALE.²LEW WALLACE. He is away of his own free will. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Of the Forty.²BAYARD TAYLOR. Back of that tree. or breastpin of native gold.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause."²E. (c) After nouns expressing lack. south of.²BOSWELL. demand. (6) Partitive. ask.²ALDRICH. etc. bound with thongs of boar's hide. and grass. The hills were bare of trees. such as ease. rob. etc. wide of.. etc. More than one altar was richer of his vows. clear.²SCOTT Who formed. Other Relations expressed by Of. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. relieve. deprivation. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. out of the most unpromising materials. there were only twenty-one members present.² HUXLEY. reason.²BANCROFT. E. motive. divest. beg. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²clear of. White shirt with diamond studs. You cannot make a boy know.
. bare of. A singular want of all human relation. etc. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. acquitted them of. (d) With words expressing distance. weeds. (3) With expressions of material.²HIGGINSON. (b) After some adjectives. cure. as north of. (5) Expressing agency. etc. purge. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. rid. especially out of. deprive. that Cromwell once ruled England. disarm. free of.²PARKMAN.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. of his own knowledge. Asked no odds of.²DICKENS II. ²PARTON.
The nation of Lilliput. Besides the phrases of old. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.. CHANNING. with regard to.²COOPER. (c) Two nouns. ²IRVING. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. could give shelter from his contumely. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. being equivalent to an infinitive.²BANCROFT. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²SWIFT.He washed out some of the dirt.²LAMB. 309. (10) Of reference. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²PRESCOTT. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Such a book as that of Job. of late.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.
See also Sec. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²LOWELL. when the first is descriptive of the second. of a sudden. etc. (8) Appositional.
Idiomatic use with verbs.²BANCROFT.²ALDRICH. (b) Noun and gerund. standing.
(7) Possessive.²ID. concerning. of is used in the sense of during. E. and the dignity of a queen. (9) Of time.²HALLECK. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.
.²FROUDE. The fair city of Mexico. Not even woman's love.²BANCROFT. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²W. with its object. equal to about. for the possessive.
and others. SIGOURNEY. etc. and not a day more. (4) In adjurations.²Find sentences with six uses of of. permit.
. On my life. on the wing. disapprove. allow. on high. (b) With motion. consist. ²BANCROFT.
325.²PARKMAN. (3) Reference. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²PARKMAN.²PARKMAN. equal to about.²MRS. on the alert. avail (one's self). It also accompanies the verbs tire. you are eighteen. on a sudden. Upon. on board. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. approve. repent. Exercise. on trial.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. Upon my reputation and credit.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. without adding to their meaning.
324. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²EMERSON.
To. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²DE QUINCEY.
On. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire.²ALDRICH. concerning. accept. The general meaning of on is position or direction. Cannon were heard close on the left. Exercise. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. such as admit. Upon is seldom used to express time. etc. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²BRYANT. complain. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (2) Time. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. on view.
Come to the bridal chamber. interest. gay Comedy appears. to him.²HALE.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²IRVING. He usually gave his draft to an aid. mid meant in company with. whose influence is felt to this hour. to my taste..
..²BENTON To our great delight. (5) Equivalent to according to.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²often to the loss of vigor..²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. does the mere music. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. In Old English. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Death!²HALLECK. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.
326.²GOLDSMITH. 268).²Find sentences containing three uses of to. Revolutions. His brother had died. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.to be written over. it may be genuine poetry.²BULWER. Exercise.²PARTON. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. (b) Referring to time.²PARKMAN.²BRYANT. We cook the dish to our own appetite. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²B.
With. (2) Expressing result. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. To the few.. had ceased to be. Nor. unmasked.²LANG. But when.
He expired with these words. Either with the swingle-bar. HALE. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. Messala. She seemed pleased with the accident. with Heyward at its head.²COLERIDGE. felt it unsafe to trifle further. but with you. motive. (4) Estimation.²DE QUINCEY. reason. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. but a pleasure"?²LANG. first of all. or with the haunch of our near leader. Exercise. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²CHANNING. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.The advance.²DE QUINCEY.
327. in spite of.
. with all his boldness.²HALE. it is necessary.²WALLACE (7) Time.²Find sentences with four uses of with. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. to find the object of the preposition.²EMERSON. transmitted from the beginning.²LANG.²COOPER. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²ALDRICH. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. E. He was wild with delight about Texas. as with you. he gave millions to the sword. "poetry is not a pursuit.
HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. (3) Cause. With all his sensibility. had already reached the defile.²HOWELLS. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. opinion. It seemed a supreme moment with him. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. I think. (2) Instrumentality.²HOWELLS. (5) Opposition.²E.²SCOTT.
but all to no purpose. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. which. country. telling what man. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. I called out several times. shook it directly over my head. In (2). The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. I heard a noise just over my head. 2. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. of on.²SWIFT 2. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I remember. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. of from. 3. I looked towards my windows. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. Whereupon. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in.
. of without. (3) without a country. came tumbling about my ears. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. beginning. 4. or was. To our general surprise. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. The guns were cleared of their lumber. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. because I had given the provocation. In (3). In (1). and knocked me down flat on my face. the malicious rogue. The object of on board is ships. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. (2) on which. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. before the dwarf left the queen. And so on. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. 5. I speak these things from a love of justice. like the clapping of wings. Exercises. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock.²ID. we met the defaulter here. the phrase answers the question where. by which a dozen apples. Be that as it will. hence we say. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. he followed us one day into those gardens. I felt my box raised very high in the air. but I received no other hurt. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. without a country modifies man. (4) from the beginning.
He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years.He spurred his courser on. On all subjects known to man. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 26. 7. in town. 18. 9. With all his learning. when. 22. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 8. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 19. 17. 25. grasping at the child. after a restful morning. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 21. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 15. 23. 16. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 11. 29. in this respect. to one dark and gloomy. His breeches were of black silk. 20. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. The savage army was in war-paint. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. He locked his door from mere force of habit. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 10. plumed for battle. For my part. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 12. The mother sank and fell. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing.Without stop or stay. 24.
. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. he favored the world with his opinions. I like to see the passing. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 13.6. 27. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 14. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance.
not merely by the amount of the tax.That makes the heavens be mute.
WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.
330.² JOHNSON. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (a) Indefinite relative.²WEBSTER. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. We wish that labor may look up here.
WHAT. and not according to form. THAT. (4) As an adverb of degree.²HUXLEY. (2) As an adjective pronoun.
.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. That night was a memorable one. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (c) Substantive conjunction. And now it is like an angel's song. (1) Relative pronoun. He will raise the price. That was a dreadful mistake. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.30. (b) Of result. 329.²COLERIDGE.²BEECHER. A few are discussed below. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²WEBSTER. that you might behold this joyous day.²STOCKTON. and be proud in the midst of its toil. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. That is what I understand by scientific education. (3) As a relative pronoun. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.²WEBSTER.
Which be they what they may. nearly equivalent to partly.²WEBSTER.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. silent still.. At what rate these materials would be distributed.²THACKERAY. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.it is impossible to determine. Cox. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.Those shadowy recollections. or not only. What. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.²ID. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.S. (6) Exclamatory adjective.
. after not only. What..
BUT. (b) Indirect question... partly.²EMERSON.²ID. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.. What with the Maltese goats.²EMERSON. (b) Indirect question. (9) As an exclamation. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.but. If he has [been in America]. (8) Conjunction. (7) Adverb of degree. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.
331.. it rests on reality.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. and silent all!²BYRON.²WORDSWORTH.these sounds are only to be heard.²S. (b) Copulative.." (4) Relative adjective. he knows what good people are to be found there.. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. but the result of calculation. to see what might be hidden.. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.in Pera... To say what good of fashion we can. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. "I'll tell you what. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.
not. (c) Of degree. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.²HAWTHORNE. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²SHELLEY.He yearned to our patriot bands.²LAMB. (3) Preposition. sometimes same. (b) Of manner. after such.²MRS BROWNING. equivalent to that . meaning otherwise . or who .²FRANKLIN.²IRVING. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. Doing duty as a guard.. meaning except. not. at all moments. (2) Relative pronoun. Who knows but. (d) Of reason. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. ²CARLYLE. To lead but one measure..
.²IRVING. I shall see but little of it. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. than. (e) Introducing an appositive word.. stands for that . after a negative. but piercing cries.²SCOTT.. (4) Relative pronoun.
332.. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. not. towards order. on all sides.²EMERSON.Then arose not only tears. (5) Adverb.²IRVING. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. meaning only.. like the dog.
AS..²CARLYLE. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. (b) Substantive.
(1) An adjective. and is followed by a dative-objective.²LAMB. Give Ruskin space enough. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. They look. like drops out. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. like summer ocean's. but this is not considered good usage: for example.LIKE. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²MAYHEW. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. This follows a verb or a verbal.² A timid. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²ALDRICH.²HALLECK.² HAWTHORNE.²LONGFELLOW.
Introduces a clause.²EMERSON.
. In this second use. this. I do with my friends as I do with my books. nervous child.²HIGGINSON.²DARWIN. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like a cook beating eggs. Through which they put their heads. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. indeed.
333. and was clearly an adjective. like Martin was. staring like a bewildered man. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. but its verb is omitted.²CASS.
(2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. Note the difference between these two uses.²HAWTHORNE. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²ALDRICH. and as or as if takes its place. That face.²EMERSON.-SCOTT. Stirring it vigorously. No Emperor. ²PARKMAN.²SHAKESPEARE. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. like him awhile ago. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.
Modifier of a noun or pronoun. In each case. NOTE. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. There is no statue like this living man. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. If the verb is expressed.
Some of these are imitative sounds. clauses introduced by conjunctions. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun].
336.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax.
334. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. pronoun..
Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. as. tut! buzz! etc."
PART II." "Up! for shame! [adverb]." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech.²in determining case. that is. subject and predicate.
. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed.
Value of analysis. entering into the structure of a sentence. etc. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin.INTERJECTIONS.
Definition. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. but it still retains its identity as noun. in separating them into their component parts. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. verb.
Definition. etc. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. that is.
Not all exclamatory words are interjections.
A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.
335.: for example.
What analysis is.
SIMPLE SENTENCES. entreaty. (3) Imperative.Kinds of sentences as to form. old man?" "Be thou familiar. Examples of these three kinds are.²a subject and a predicate. "Come to the bridal chamber. or command: for example. but by no means vulgar. (2) Interrogative." 340. but the sentence would still be declarative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. according to form. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. 2.
Definition. question." "What wouldst thou do. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. always friends?" imperative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. "Hath he not always treasures.
Division according to number of statements. which puts the thought in a question. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Every sentence must contain two parts. "Old year.
The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. This is the most common one. but according to how many statements there are.
338. interrogative. or request. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. But now all is to be changed. not according to the form in which a thought is put. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS.
339. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. declarative. or imperative.
337. A rare old plant is the ivy green.
Definition: Predicate. you must not die!" interrogative. which expresses command. hence.
What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. but about the ivy green. and the real subject is the latter.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 5. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. the subject (you.
The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. Slavery they can have anywhere. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something." Exercise. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. to an ignorant man. "[You] behold her single in the field. 6. as. and our definition must be the following. 2. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. not of a rare old plant. or an interrogative pronoun. or ye) is in most cases omitted. 7. and is to be supplied. to suit all cases:²
341. all. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. on the other hand. Consequently. In the interrogative sentence. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. Listen.²What is to be changed? Answer.²What is the ivy green? Answer. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. we have some trouble. adjective. 4.
The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. But if we try this with the second sentence. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. a rare old plant. In analyzing such sentences. thou. or adverb that asks about the subject.
. especially in poetry. The last of all the Bards was he. the subject is frequently after the verb. always reduce them to the order of a statement. 8. 3.
a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races!
ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. The subject and predicate have been discussed.10. "Ye call me chief." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). "I give thee this to wear at the collar. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. just as if to say. (6) Independent elements. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. Direct Object.
(1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. The object may be of two kinds:²
Definitions. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. and means summoned." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb.
. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. but it is a true complement. and by object we mean the direct object.
(2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed.²transitive and intransitive. "Ye honor me. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (5) Modifiers. in addition to the object.
Of a transitive verb. (3) The object. and me here is not the object simply of call. 343. (2) The predicate. direct." indirect. or second object. for example. but of call chief."
344. but chief belongs to the verb.
Indirect object. (4) The complements.
The transitive verb often requires. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.
in the popular judgment." "The good man. become." Also an expression used as a noun. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. phrases are of three kinds:²
Three kinds. 355. seem. 352. not containing a verb.
Complement of an intransitive verb." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. "Brow and head were round. taste. or. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?"
. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote.
Phrases. See sentence 19. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. ay. he was now getting old. in the original Opium Confessions. appear. I mentioned a case of that nature. 'Ay. as in drowning. feel. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court.
346. and of massive weight. 364. A phrase is a group of words. for instance." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. especially the forms of be." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. Thom of the Gills. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. more familiarly. etc.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 351..
An intransitive verb." (3) INFINITIVE." All these complete intransitive verbs. "A cheery."
Things used as Subject." "He was termed Thomas. but used as a single modifier." 345. as in the sentence. As to form. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." (2) PARTICIPIAL. to the completion of this man of the world. and barring the door. in exercise following Sec. as. sir!' rang out in response. introduced by a preposition: for example. and.
347. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk.
(1) PREPOSITIONAL. above sixty.
" etc." In this sentence." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. asserting eyes. from their lips. or their religion from their sect. but they will be given in detail here. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. 341. etc. (4) After "there introductory.
349." 348. but the real or logical subject is to print.
Complement: Of an intransitive verb. was heard one syllable to justify.²the talent of starting the game." "Never. my deficiency.
There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. (2) In interrogative sentences. prowling eyes.
." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. and by Saint George!' said the King.
Disguised infinitive subject. "Therein has been. and ever will be. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as."
Things used as Direct Object. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb.²the infinitive phrase. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. but obscures the real subject." "The dead are there." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). I saw the quick and the dead." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. or the thundering of organs." The for did not belong there originally." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. "'By God." "There are asking eyes." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile."
Things used as Complement. for which see Sec.
" (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways.
351. or Complement." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. or the equivalent of the noun. doubtless." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. Object. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." "I hear the echoes throng." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous."
Modifiers. Like all the complements in this list. they are adjuncts of the object. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. (3) Infinitive." "Serving others is serving us. and explaining or modifying the subject." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly.²completing the predicate. complements of the predicate. and the words italicized are still complements." "She asked her father's permission. Modifiers of Subject. and. As complement of an intransitive verb.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office.²heads or tails. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.350." "Their tempers. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. I. at the same time. and whenever the complement is a noun."
. the object is made the subject by being passive." In this last sentence. the shepherd girl.
Of a transitive verb.
As complement of a transitive verb." (4) Participle." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she.
357-363. I have seasoned for thee. but noble teachers." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him.
(3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. 351.
352." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. the prisoner at the bar.
Tells how.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet.²In each sentence in Sec. Modifiers of the Predicate. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down.
Retained with passive. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. not with nature." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." Exercise." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. tell whether the subject. and leading him from star to star. was now called upon for his defense. see further Secs. was the scene from King John. object. austere. Since the predicate is always a verb." "In the twinkling of an eye." In such a sentence as. but it is really a contracted clause.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. and modify the predicate in the same way." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. or complement is modified. given at the request of a Dutch lady." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. but with other men. or
. no sociable angel.²proud. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. unforgiving." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." "Give them not only noble teachings. this young idolater. the verb being omitted." (For participial and infinitive phrases." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. "He died like a God." "Him.
in regard to particulars. 3. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour.
Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. and as many to oppose it." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. and (direct) object:² 1. To the men of this world. the indirect object is retained. I took. according to old philosophers. 4." "One way lies hope. but the children of the great." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. 8. 5. but to be loved. negative. no emotion. 6.. (b) Pick out the subject. no relief to the dead prosaic level. They do not wish to be lovely. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain." (6) Adverbial objective. 5. Why does the horizon hold me fast. is good in the making. (a) Pick out subject. the man of ideas appears out of his reason."
subject of passive verb and direct object retained. no humor. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. after dinner. This. he liked. 7. gives wonderful animation." "All such knowledge should be given her. His books have no melody. in this center? 4. to the animal strength and spirits. 2. predicate. 2. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. On the voyage to Egypt. with my joy and grief. and complement:
y y y y y y y
1. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation." Exercises. and other measures of precaution. or how long. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. These answer the question when.When the verb is changed from active to passive. how far. 3. But anger drives a man to say anything. predicate. 6. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. and. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. a sort of personality to the whole writing. Fashion does not often caress the great. Evil. 7. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious.
. and the direct object is retained: for example. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. etc.
. etc. the blooming cornet. after their long confinement to a ship. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. upwards. in little peaceful Easedale. happy dinner.
(e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:²
1. To suffer and to do. 5. that was thy portion in life. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 2. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. I gave him an address to my friend. six children sat by a peat fire. this dragoon so lovely. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately.y
8. then. this imperial rider. 3. 3. I promised her protection against all ghosts. for the first time. 2. In one feature.
Compound Subject. and a member of the world. That night. 2. Their intention was to have a gay. the present Archbishop of Dublin. downwards. must visit again the home of her childhood. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth.
(c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:²
y y y y y y
1. at length the warrior lady. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. this nun so martial.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. 4. Paint me. expecting the return of their parents. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 5. a room seventeen feet by twelve.²the river Meuse. Unhorse me. viz. the attorney. 3.. Compound Predicate. I felt myself.
Not compound sentences. Not the less I owe thee justice. 6.
(d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:²
y y y
1. to the right and to the left. at the chief hotel. 4. A river formed the boundary. 4. then.
²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind.
Independent Elements of the Sentence. may be the person or thing addressed." Sentences with compound predicates are. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. hurry. together with its modifiers. shouldered the rusty firelock. "Ah. lurking far down in the depths of human nature.
It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. hurry. same as (1). and. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. For example. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?"
Caution. turned his steps homeward. forming a sentence: "Oh. exposes. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms.. the tone of her voice. in the sentence. "The company broke up. but it is to be noticed that. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements." "He shook his head." "Voyages and travels I would also have. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. Examples of compound subjects are. Of this. then the grammatical subject and predicate. etc.
The exclamatory expression. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. the verb).
Larger view of a sentence." And so with complements." "The name of the child.
Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. the air of the mother. and its object or complement. complements. however. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. my brave young man!"
. together with all its modifiers. I'm with you once again. etc. in all such sentences as we quote below. modifiers. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences.353. and the rest is the logical predicate." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. Bishop. etc." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. they are not a necessary part. the predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. several modifiers." "Ye crags and peaks.
354. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. the simple subject is situation. above: thus. the object. ulcer. two or more subjects of the same predicate. that is.
355. and returned to the more important concerns of the election.
(1) Adjectival. her noticing even this is creditable. instances of which were seen in Sec. six quill-driving gentlemen.
(2) The adverbial use. 3." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. therefore. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. modifying a noun." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 355. 350. etc. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. or word used as a noun: for example. such as perhaps. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 351. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. object. grandma. truly. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. modifying the predicate." (2) Adverbial. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." (6) Single words: as." "Well.
These need close watching. why." (3) Independent."
Another caution. 4). nevertheless. prepositional phrases may be." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. this story runs thus. 6). now.. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. that have an office in the sentence.
PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. then. moreover." "Why. 352. etc.
. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary." (5) Participial phrase: "But.." "No. he was a conscientious man. generally speaking. he somehow lived along. The words well. besides. 356. let him perish.
357. or complement (see Sec. already noticed. as follows:²
(a) As a complement of a transitive verb. see Sec. "Oh. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. to the best of my remembrance.
There are some adverbs. yes! everybody knew them. such as however. how you're winking!" "Now. really. 4). and some conjunctions. the company broke up. pronoun. he closed his literary toils at dinner. and so on." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. see Sec. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. (b) As a modifier of subject." "At all events.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." "Truth to say. In their use. undoubtedly.
" (c) With the definite forms of go. my dear.can (could). containing no matters of business. etc." In this sentence." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule.
INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. modifying was speedily run through. he should not have known them at all.: as in the sentences. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." (b) With the forms of be.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. being equivalent to a future with obligation." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.seem. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.]. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. Wilt thou. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.
358. (5). This case excepted. or as nearly so as the student will require. and hence is adverbial. See Sec. and teach her how to be happy and good. I. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every
.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. 355. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. therefore. thus. "Because I was." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar." "There.would.should. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. and they will be presented here in full.
(a) With may (might). but require somewhat closer attention. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. was speedily run through."
(2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. "The letter of introduction. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. The verbal use. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. necessity. ought. but having no other office than a verbal one. etc." etc.
but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). IV. The fact that the infinitives in Sec.: for example. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. modifying a noun that may be a subject." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. Don Guzman." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. 362." "To say what good of fashion we can." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. hang the idiot. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. 351. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." "He insisted on his right to forget her. 5).
." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). "Do they not cause the heart to beat. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. was to have the foe's life at their mercy." "Are you mad. above. (4) In apposition. to hear McOrator after dinner. III." "To teach is to learn. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). to look means that he might look. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. To test this. the Scotch fighting all the battles. result. notice the following:² In (1). to please is equivalent to that he may please. 361 are used adverbially. The adjectival use." 360." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. complement. and the eyes to fill?" 359. 361. already examined. The substantive use." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories.. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. etc. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. etc. The adverbial use. object. II. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives.²both purpose clauses. "But there was no time to be lost.
Our life is March weather. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. If it is an incomplete verb.In (2). In analyzing simple sentences. not in a book. 355. In (3). etc. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (5) The subject (Sec.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. to part means because I part. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. which is of two kinds. In (4)." (See also Sec. 2. 351). (7) Independent elements (Sec. In (5). 4. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. V. to find shows the result of the return. 351). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. to hear means if you should hear. etc. 352). and to betray and to bring express the reason. 363. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 351). equivalent to that you betray.
. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec.. 349).)
OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. object. The independent use.
364. must be in a life. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 3. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. give the complement (Secs. and to say is equivalent to if we say. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. etc. I will try to keep the balance true. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 347). savage and serene in one hour. as in Sec. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. (3).²both expressing condition. 268.." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. give² (1) The predicate. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 355).
and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 20. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. nor troops. 12. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. neither ammunition. is to have no political system at all. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 13. 6. I have heard Coleridge talk. 19. Old Adam. a graceful dancer. 8. through evil agents. 16. The water. Her aims were simple and obvious. the carrion crow. His opinion is always original. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. nor himself. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. nor generals.Burnt green and blue and white. always in a bad plight. to restore civil and religious order.
. 15. To these gifts of nature. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 14. To be hurried away by every event. with eager energy. 24.4. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. Through the years and the centuries.²to preserve her throne. just on the edge of destruction. two stricken hours. in popular use. a skilled musician. 18. He risked everything. through toys and atoms. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. and every moment discover something new.²a getting-out of their bodies to think.The old crow of Cairo.He sat in the shower. 7. and to the purpose. 10. an accomplished scholar. 11. like a witch's oils. good and amiable otherwise. to the moral sphere. might be called flabby and irresolute. a good shot. The word conscience has become almost confined. 9. We are always in peril. 17. 23. nor money. 22. You may ramble a whole day together. 5. and spared nothing. 21. to keep England out of war. The whole figure and air.
Must we in all things look for the how. the present capital of New England. The villain. This amiable relative. Upon this shore stood. 31. I dare this.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. and. 30. still. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 40. in this world. I hate him and myself.25. ready to receive her. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. or perhaps one virtue. 32. baggage far in the rear. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. in front of all this mighty crowd. 36. 27. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. the ship was in an uproar. secluded. and the wherefore?
. and in my own garden. an elderly man.Effacing many a stain of former crime. proud foe. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. She had made a two days' march. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. Supposing this computation to be correct. But yield. had but one foible. time-honored. 37. Of the same grandeur. Oxford. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. Now. the prime minister of Spain. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. to be a reproach to such goodness. the same Condé Olivarez. 35. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches.Distant. to bid you leave the place now and forever. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 33. it would not have been filial or ladylike. in less heroic and poetic form. In the Acadian land. 34. and the why. haply. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 38. 26. upon my own ground. Fair name might he have handed down. The cry. 41. and no provisions but wild berries. 29. Few in number. 39.
Sentences with like." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence.
365. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. the pride and beauty of the grove.
. 333). be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity.
The simple sentence the basis." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences.
COMPLEX SENTENCES.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. which is the unit of speech. (Sec.From her own loved island of sorrow. but.² "She is like some tender tree. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. the expressions of manner introduced by like." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. as. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing." To show that these words are really omitted. if they were expanded. as would be the connective instead of like. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. however. thus.
366." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly.
Words left out after than or as. are really contracted clauses. As shown in Part I. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].
367." This must. though often treated as phrases. made merely for convenience and smoothness.
the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.
370.²the backbone. how great . which are so united that one member is the main one. A clause is a division of a sentence. Hence the following definition:²
Definition. or dependent on it. object.. is taken in.
368.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. or it may be applied to the others. as in this sentence. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. we are aware. suffering.
This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. complement.
. 369. predicate. object. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. modifiers." The relation of the parts is as follows:²
we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. and the next one.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. that . A principal. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).
371. that is. containing a verb with its subject..²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.²the other members subordinate to it. murmur. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. then we recognize this as the main statement. etc. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. complements.. main. each clause has its subject.. and the last. logically depends on suffering. and modifier.
verbal." Just as the object noun.. impertinences²would be grammatical. but logically the sentence is. 5). "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. pronoun.
372. 352. night or day. attention is called to them here. Noun Clauses.. As to their office in the sentence. and it is . infinitive. put an end to my fancies...² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. so the object clause is retained. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. for a time. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." (4) Apposition. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. or adverbs.. for a hundred years. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. impertinences." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. ADJECTIVE. But since they are complex in form.
Kinds.Dependent clause. clauses are divided into NOUN. over which the torrent came tumbling." 374. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." "I was told that the house had not been shut. (b) that are . for example.
." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.' is an electric touch. etc.." (2) Object of a verb. for example. 373. and ADVERB clauses. 'I know that he can toil terribly." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. adjectives. We ourselves are getting . with a noun clause in apposition with it. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. thus. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. (a) Ordinary apposition.
A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. and the whole clause is not.
10. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. As the office of an adjective is to modify. 7. still remains reasonable. of a nation. in the sentence. sometimes by the conjunctions when. a falsehood incarnate.² "It is on the understanding. which. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. wherein. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 5. 8. 3. a relative pronoun being understood. but. Except by what he could see for himself. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. whence. he would repent it. I was napping. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. Frequently there is no connecting word. 6.
. no man will ever know. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. whereby. 4.
Examples of adjective clauses." Exercise. and not on the sentiment. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. whither. or equivalent of a noun. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. how it changed from shape to shape. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. that. Such a man is what we call an original man.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis.
375. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. where. that he was a scheming impostor. 9. he could know nothing. etc. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. whether he should choose one or not. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. But the fact is. that. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. that all safe legislation must be based. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 2. Other examples of this construction are. What history it had. as. The reply of Socrates.
There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 9. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. I walked home with Calhoun.. 3. No man is reason or illumination. and tell what each one modifies." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. or that essence we were looking for. the champions advanced through the lists.376. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. Pick out the adjective clauses. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. he begins to help us more as an effect. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. 10. 2." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 8. 5.e. 4. which formed the center of the mansion. object." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse.
. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 1. 7. etc. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. 6. 11. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. whether subject. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. i. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. all is vacancy. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. Adverbial Clauses. which Rowena tasted." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight." Exercise.
" (9) CONCESSION. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. and will be given in detail." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. however." "The broader their education is. to make up our shortcomings." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. since he was too great to care to be original. that we should try. whatever." (5) DEGREE. shaping our actions." "When he was come up to Christian. etc. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." "He went several times to England. he goes away as if nothing had happened." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. adverbs. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." (7) RESULT. and adverbial conjunctions. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. the wider is the horizon of their thought. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. so far as we can. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." (3) REASON. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. or an adverb." "The right conclusion is." These mean no matter how good." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. and what it modifies:²
. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. an adjective. Joanna is better. no matter what remains. etc. Exercise. expressing the degree in which the horizon. with examples. is wider. 378. it takes precedence of everything else. introduced by indefinite relatives..377. however good she may be as a witness." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints.² whoever. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. tell what kind each is. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. a verbal. but they require careful study. etc. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." "Who cares for that. the milestones are grave-stones. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention.: "But still." "After leaving the whole party under the table.
To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. its object is that Odin was a reality. 'Well. so as to picture the parts and their relations. in the sentence. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. of which clause Odin is the subject. then treat noun clauses as nouns. 380. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. etc. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. they might perhaps say of their visitors. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and modifiers.'" This may be represented as follows:²
I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES." 2. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. object. with shrill. For example. on a dark wintry night. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. incoherent exclamations. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. as they sometimes did." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________
. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 3. to tell the truth. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. predicate. we are a little disappointed. when the wind was unruly. snatching up stones to fling at them. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. howling and whistling.
ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. find the principal subject and principal predicate. If the children gathered about her. and twirling weathercocks. banging about doors and windows. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air.1.
379. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists.
Exercises.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | |
| | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________|
j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. \
| _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 2.. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 3. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. | r| | \ \ \
381. 364. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. d. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. as seen in the "map" (Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (1) Find the principal clause.
. 380). Take the place and attitude which belong to you.
19. the mixed result. which. 9. M. 23. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 5. But now that she has become an establishment. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial.4. Here lay two great roads. The deep eyes. 15. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. dying for them. for yours. the flower should revive for us. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 12. He was what our country people call an old one. Now. namely. that pressed her with an objection. Next came a wretched Dominican. 21. counselor that had none for herself. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 13. 11. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. the shepherd girl. who would yield to it least. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. that. The night proved unusually dark. bishop. not so much for travelers that were few. 24. Had they been better chemists. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 7. as for armies that were too many by half. or whether any. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 6. could not have been effected. whom I choose. 10. of a light hazel. had we been worse. 22. 17. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 16. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. if applied to the Bible. This is she. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 8. I like that representation they have of the tree. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. And those will often pity that weakness most. 20. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration.
. 18. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 14.
We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 27. then map out as in Sec. is to speak and write sincerely. though we may repeat the words never so often. would easily reach. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 26. 7. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square.
COMPOUND SENTENCES. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face.
Definition. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. we cannot adequately say. speed. 6. It makes no difference how many friends I have. or commands. That which we do not believe. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened.
. These things we are forced to say. 28.25. 5.
382." 4. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. and not from his heart. and stamped with his right number. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. (b) First analyze. 3. if continuously extended. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. and temper. and what content I can find in conversing with each. if there be one to whom I am not equal. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses.
383. that it was no more than his daily walk. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. "No book. questions. the following complex sentences:² 1.²which will not be disposed of. but above it." said Bentley. "was ever written down by any but itself. 2. Hence the definition. 380. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 30.
and none but he knows what that is which he can do.
385. nor does he know until he has tried. Examples of compound sentences:²
Examples. and it shall be the universal sense. in (3). in (2). he dilates." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. "Only the star dazzles. etc. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Of the following illustrative sentences.
Connectives." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. tell which are compound. a complex member. etc. Thus in (1).
(1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. and which complex:² 1. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). Exercise. he walks with arms akimbo. whereas. Another example is. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives.
Study the thought. the waving grass. he is twice a man. from the second.. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. while (whilst). the semicolon separates the first.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. however. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. for. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. which are simple statements. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. Some of these are now conjunctions. moon-like ray" (adversative). now adverbs or prepositions. a simple member." 384. Speak your latent conviction. The coördinate conjunctions and. nor. yet. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. and nor the second and third complex members. and not the form of the connective. sometimes subordinate conjunctions.
. he soliloquizes. 297).
386. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. the planet has a faint. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. others sometimes coördinate. 383 (1). But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. as in Sec. or but. The division into members will be easier. as but. and connects the first and second complex members. if there are any.
Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 4. 12. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. he grew up to be a mild. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. Love. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 6. However some may think him wanting in zeal. you lose something. 10. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. from a happy yet often pensive child. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. and thou shalt be loved. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 5. 9. Whilst the world is thus dual. 2. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. passed in that time. All loss. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. 381. 8. and for everything you gain. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 3.
387. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. is particular.
. all pain. you have gained something else. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. yield to them heart and life. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. the tax is certain. yet when the devout motions of the soul come.
OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. or. 364. 13. I can yet love. 11. Man does not stand in awe of man. 4.2. The gain is apparent. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. unobtrusive boy. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 3. however. In this manner. quiet. and not by what each is. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. and as yet very early in the morning. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. so is every one of its parts. For everything you have missed. 7. nay. I can still receive. to find a pot of buried gold. for example. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 14. (i) Separate it into its main members. Exercise. that it was Easter Sunday.
why should we intrude? 10. and makes their business a friendship. and each shows only what lies at its focus. "as nigh the scythe as you can. or we read books.5. feign to confess here. 18. crook and hide. give those merits room. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. 21. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. 16. that let him communicate. "Strike. and the peace of society is often kept. and not a thought has enriched either party. and he learns who receives. and you are without effort impelled to truth. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 14. or hope." says the smith. 11. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. 6. let them mount and expand. because. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. or we pursue persons. whilst frankness invites frankness. as children. 19. 20. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and not an emotion of bravery. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and the other dares not. treat them greatly. abide by it. and they will show themselves great. is as thin and timid as any. Whatever he knows and thinks. or sail with God the seas. if you rip up his claims. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. Come into port greatly. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. They will shuffle and crow. only that they may brag and conquer there. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 15. and the cart as nigh the rake. He teaches who gives." 13. "the iron is white. and they repel us. 8." says the haymaker. and they will be true to you. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. modesty. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. Stand aside. Trust men. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. one is afraid. 9. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. or men will never know and honor him aright." "keep the rake. 17. We see the noble afar off. We go to Europe. 7.
. When you have chosen your part. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue.
Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us.22. they lose themselves in the crowd. We see young men who owe us a new world. pronoun and antecedent. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence.
English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent.
380. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their
. but go about your business anywhere.
Essential point in English syntax. it ends in headache.
PART III. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Do not craze yourself with thinking.
Ground covered by syntax. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions.²agreement and government. 24. but they never acquit the debt. and dodge the account. or.
SYNTAX. they die young. if they live.
388. Following the Latin method. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. 23. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. it never was known to fall into the rear.
By way of introduction. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. so readily and lavishly they promise. adjective and noun. but its leading characteristic is. 25. the department of syntax will be a small affair. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. So does culture with us. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. verb and subject. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. 390. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement.
"The savage here the settler slew. good English. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. This is not logical. When usage varies as to a given construction. In some cases. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. then. and it would not matter which one stood first. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and nothing but important points will be considered. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. the order being inverted. distinct forms would be used. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. and whose judgment. but are not now. and added to it the preposition of. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. As an illustration of the last remark." In this there is a possessive form. therefore. some of which conform to classical grammar." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and imitate it. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used." that is.
Some rules not rigid. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. the sentence.
. There is." is ambiguous. In Latin. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. sometimes verb and subject. etc. Also in the sentence. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. also expressing a possessive relation.
The basis of syntax. or the same writer will use both indifferently. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). take the sentence. or when they exist side by side in good usage. For example. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. both forms will be given in the following pages. Second. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. pronoun and antecedent. "None remained but he. as to study inflected forms.
393. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. authorities²that is. following the regular order of subject. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. or settler may be the subject.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly.
Why study syntax?
392.² First. Savage may be the subject.
The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Joint possession. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.
396. ²ID.²BYRON. and Peterborough's.²MILTON.
Use of the possessive. 397. and Paul's.²EMERSON. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.
PRONOUNS. He kept Bolingbroke's. Putting Mr. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. for example. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.
.²ROWE. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.
Separate possession.² He lands us on a grassy stage. the shore of Galilee.NOUNS. etc.
394. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. but imply separate possession or ownership. and Pope's. the antechamber of the High Priest.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY. and Harley's. 408). Mill's and Mr. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²RUSKIN. sense and nature's easy fool. Bentham's principles together. as.² Live your king and country's best support.
395. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Woman. Swift did not keep Stella's letters." Juletta tells. and Peter's. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²MCCULLOCH.
² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.
398. as. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.
399. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. and should be the nominative form. whom is the complement after the verb am.²SHAKESPEARE. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.²THACKERAY. Still. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. who. Bedott Papers. But he must be a stronger than thee.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English." 400. the last expression has the support of many good writers. This should be "as she.
General rules. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.
Objective for the nominative." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Since most of the personal pronouns. thus. sanctioned. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. if not universally. there are two general rules that require attention. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Some of the violations are universally condemned. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.²BYRON. together with the relative who.
(1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.
. No mightier than thyself or me.²TROLLOPE. for example. others are generally. the real thought being forgotten.²SOUTHEY. I. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.²POPE.²WHITCHER.) "The young Harper.
"Who's there?"²"Me. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. are. as. The usage is too common to need further examples. But still it is not she. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²MACAULAY. One exception is to be noted.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who."²KINGSLEY."²WM. BLACK. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant." There is no special reason for this.²SCOTT.
"Than whom. Patrick the Porter."
401.²COLERIDGE. is. and the other forms of the verb be. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.
It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²PARTON. "If there is any one embarrassed. In spoken English. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. it will not be me. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. for example. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. the objective form is regularly found. on the other hand.²FIELDING.²KINGSLEY.
. both in England and America."²WINTHROP.
"It was he" or "It was him"?
A safe rule.²LONGFELLOW. they are yet holier than we. unless a special. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.² One I remember especially. namely.² For there was little doubt that it was he. And it was heThat made the ship to go. but such is the fact. The camp of Richard of England.
"I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 4. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. (3) By forgetting the construction. object of saw). 5. If there ever was a rogue in the world. it is me.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. or preposition which governs it. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. verbal. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn.
. the object of to). you or me.
Nominative for the objective. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. but not he" (he should be him. or us). "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. and prepositions. "Ask the murderer.
Me in exclamations. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 11.
403.²MILTON. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 3. 9. You know whom it is that you thus charge." 6. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. I speak not to" (he should be him. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. Truth is mightier than us all. as this from Shakespeare.Exercise. 2. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. verbals. Whom they were I really cannot specify. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. used after verbs. or this.
404. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. as. as. 7. 8. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. 10." the word being in apposition with murderer). It is not me you are in love with. now. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. as. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger.
Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.²KINGSLEY.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. who interrogative.
405. We regularly say. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. etc. all but he. I've sworn. and is usually avoided. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. after the preposition but (sometimes save). as. Thou. but he.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.Exception 1.²STEELE.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. for example. I arraign. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. "Who were they talking to?" etc.
406.²KINGSLEY. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. 2. Exercise. as well as the objective.Shall be left upon the morn. Let you and I look at these. Thy shores are empires. None. Nature. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. "Who did you see?" or. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. for they say there are none such in the world. changed in all save thee. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.² All were knocked down but us two. save thou and thine.²GOLDSMITH.²BYRON. Who have we here?²ID. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. as.
Exception 2. partial Nature.²BYRON. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.
8. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 9. Markland. and they know that as well as me.3. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. B. 12. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 11. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. Bartholomew.²MACAULAY. 10. They crowned him long ago. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. BROWN. They are coming for a visit to she and I. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.
As antecedent of a relative.²THACKERAY. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. who." 4. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 5. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. 7. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.²DE QUINCEY. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.
407. 6. POSSESSIVE FORMS.Ye I salute. This usage is not frequent.²possessive.²C.²SCOTT.²RUSKIN. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. or objective?
Preceding a gerund. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. with Jortin and Thirlby.
² CARLYLE. studying is a gerund. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. and the meaning is. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. Both types of sentences are found. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.
Why both are found." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.
There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.408.
Possessive." That is. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²MACAULAY. Here I state them only in brief. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. and asked why it was not made.²DICKENS. etc. object of heard of.²BREWER. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. We heard of Brown. [who was] studying law.²DE QUINCEY. The use of the objective is older.
. In the examples quoted.² IRVING. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.
Objective. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and that in the second. that the bitterness of death was past. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.
The last incident which I recollect. as he turned away from his wife. both are gerunds.²RUSKIN.² THACKERAY. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.
But in common use there is no such distinction. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.² SCOTT.²CARLYLE. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. sometimes it has the objective.
Examples of these constructions are.
.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. and gender.²CABLE.²DE QUINCEY. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²THOREAU.²DEFOE.²C. 409. it was his own fault. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²DE QUINCEY. if the antecedent is neuter.²HUXLEY. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. taking in each of many persons. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.² BRYANT. the pronoun will be neuter singular. 410. number. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. BROCKDEN BROWN.²THACKERAY. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.
Watch for the real antecedent.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²HOLMES. In such a case as the last three sentences.²AUDUBON. Every city threw open its gates.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. The pale realms of shade. where there were examinations. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.
There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. and ought to agree with them in person. in one person. If any one did not know it.²EMERSON III. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. Everybody had his own life to think of.²RUSKIN. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²when the antecedent. or is a distributive word. preceded by a distributive.
Struggling for life. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Whosoever hath any gold. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²THACKERAY.²ID.²PALEY. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. not a mowing idiot. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. and giving them means of being so.²FIELDING.² Not the feeblest grandame. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.
.²EMERSON.²ID.²PAULDING. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²AUSTEN. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.
Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²SCOTT. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. for example. as anybody in their senses would have done. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. This is not considered the best usage.²HUXLEY. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. till they have lost him. The sun. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²RUSKIN. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. 411. By using the plural pronoun. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. let them break it off. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Every one must judge of their own feelings. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²BYRON. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²DEFOE. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²PALGRAVE. If the part deserve any comment.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²BIBLE.
It adds a new statement to what precedes.
412. when restrictive. In the following examples. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. which." It defines beggar. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health.²In the above sentences. Exercise. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. That is in most cases restrictive. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. or what was become of her. as. Exercise. the usage must be stated as follows:²
A loose rule the only one to be formulated.²ADDISON.Where she was gone. The clause is restricted to the antecedent.² SHERIDAN. when coördinating. who went away.²HAWTHORNE. is equivalent to a conjunction (and.
1." A relative. no one could take upon them to say. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. I. in each instance:²
Who. and that are restrictive or not. A relative.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS. unless both genders are implied. and does not add a new statement. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. tell whether who. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. 2. or unrestrictive. and that always restrictive. but. 413.
Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. but. which. the definite relatives who. "I gave it to the beggar. As to their conjunctive use. etc.²ID.
What these terms mean. that being considered already clear. because.) and a personal pronoun. and he went away. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. according to the practice of every modern writer." This means. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.
W. which was to go over the Cordilleras.
The rule. and it is called logic.²H. that were often vicious. 10. 12. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. 8. these or that which. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.
II. in the sentence.
In what sense true. but. etc. However.² NEWMAN.² MOTLEY. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.² CARLYLE. 4. Yet how many are there who up.
Which." that is invariable as to person and number. Hare has printed. long arms and legs. 7. The general rule is. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. etc. 14. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. and over England are saying. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.² IRVING. as that does not vary for person or number.
414. A grizzly-looking man appeared. she agreed to join the party. 13. So different from the wild.
That.²ID.²ID. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. BEECHER 5. he.²HOLMES.²DE QUINCEY. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. because of its antecedent.
11. it makes the verb third person singular. 9. With narrow shoulders. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. you. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.
This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. For example. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.3. which Mr. We say I. etc.²DE QUINCEY. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. down.. On hearing their plan. they.²ADDISON.
French literature of the eighteenth century. and write the verb in the plural.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company."
One of . O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. "one of the finest books that have been published.²ADDISON. [plural] that who. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. in winning a battle.
He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²SCOTT. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. the true antecedent. who rarely speak at all. MORSE. etc.²J. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. "one of the finest books that has been published. but the former has good authority.²MACAULAY.²LOWELL. or which .
415.²M. with one as the principal word. JR. but speaks of him as that sort. etc.]
Both constructions are frequently found. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.
The fiery youth . The latter is rather more frequent.²LOWELL.. He is one of those that deserve very well. when he derided the shams of society.
A disputed point." or. ARNOLD. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed..²HOLMES. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.. others regard books as the antecedent.. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.²LECKY. [singular or plural.²HOWELLS..²ADDISON. and in improving a victory. Franklin.. but myself. T. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.
Singular. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²BOWLES.
. Let us be of good cheer. The following quotations show both sides:²
Plural.²whether we should say..
²EMERSON. and see if the sentence is made clearer. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. or where] he died.And. But I by backward steps would move. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. that is.
416.²BURNS. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²IRVING. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²CARLYLE.A rare Roundabout performance. where. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²DEFOE." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. when the relative word is a pronoun.
III. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²SWIFT. The same day I went aboard we set sail. return.²ID. object of a preposition understood. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²ADDISON.² RUSKIN."²DICKENS.²In the above sentences.²SCOTT. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²EMERSON. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²VAUGHAN.In that same state I came. whence." "India is the place [in which. I could see nothing except the sky.²
.² THACKERAY. Exercise.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. and such like: as.
IV.²GOLDSMITH. when this dust falls to the urn.
² BURKE. looking-glasses.²SWIFT. for example. I might as well have staid at home..
That. Caution.. as is not used. but we find the relative who.
This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. boats.
. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:²
Who. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. if I had resolved to go on with.²ADDISON. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.
The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. W. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. as of knives.
Which. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.He considered. or that.
For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. but which is usually carefully avoided. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. she passed the lamp over her face and person.
I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. but.²FRANKLIN.² Which.²WORDSWORTH.
Anacoluthic use of which. was a discoverer.
The regular construction. he. if same is followed by a complete clause. and working in the same spirit. CHURCH. etc. ²GOLDSMITH.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. Mr. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.
V. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. They believe the same of all the works of art.² MACAULAY. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. with Turner.
418.²R.²SCOTT.² THACKERAY.me as his apprentice. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.
which when Mr. 3. now thrown upon their.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. etc. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. Thornhill had read. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. le Conte. 2. That is. etc." etc.²SHAKESPEARE. but.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²RUSKIN.
. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. who are now thrown.
419. Exercise.²which if they once heard. As the sentences stand.²GOLDSMITH.
And who. and who are now thrown upon their compassion..²
Direction for rewriting. Exercise.
But who. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. This was a gentleman. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. or. (1) "Among those who are poor. He delivered the letter.
1.She'd come again. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. 4. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and which.
Express both relatives." etc.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²HAWTHORNE. but none is expressed. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.²SCOTT." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. or omit the conjunction. or leave out both connective and relative. After this came Elizabeth herself.²THACKERAY. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:²
And who." etc. and who are now. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²DE QUINCEY. once a great favorite of M. he said that all submission was now too late. (2) "Among the poorer sort.. and this be placed in the proper clause. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors.
9. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. I saw upon the left a scene far different. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house... Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.
But which. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. either from imitation of their frequent allies.²DE QUINCEY. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.
420. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.²PEARSON. 6. Exercise. and which may even be heard a mile off. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.
1. English by name.5. I shall have complete copies. 10.
7. "A mockery.²DE QUINCEY. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. which the Scotch had learned. the French.
And which.²SCOTT. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:²
That .. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. one of signal interest. etc. as a false and astucious mark. then. and repeat this for any further reference. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.² MOTLEY.²IRVING.
11.. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. like that spoken in the towns. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. and which has never been described. and which. Akin to the above is another fault. and to whom no door is closed." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. indeed. 12. "What knight so craven.²HAWTHORNE. Dr. etc. who.²SCOTT. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.
Such as .
12.²W. whom. 6. what. 7. and whose examples and principles we inherit. I give to such men as do not belong to me. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. was a bustling wharf. E. which.. I grudge the dollar.²HOWELLS.. that . but which is perhaps not so different from it.²W. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. and to whom I do not belong. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 5.²HOLMES. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.2. the dime.²EMERSON..
Which . but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.
11. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²EMERSON.. half a century ago. at the head of what.²DEFOE. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. which. G.²SCOTT
That which . In my native town of Salem. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. The Tree Igdrasil. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.²HALLAM.
That . that.... 13. SIMMS.
Such as . 9. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry..²SCOTT. It rose into a thrilling passion. in his present condition. such as they have very probably been bred to. 3. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.
15. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. CHANNING. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. He. in his Mephistopheles.²DE QUINCEY. but which.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.
. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me..
14. I recommend some honest manual calling. 8.
4. the cent. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. He flung into literature.²HAWTHORNE.²BEECHER. was hung in air.
The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.
Each other. By their original meaning.²RUSKIN.² HAWTHORNE. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. as.²HAWTHORNE.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. always at war with one another. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.
Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²DICKENS.
422.²RUSKIN. whether or not the two are equivalent. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.² Some one must be poor. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. England was then divided between kings and Druids. We call ourselves a rich nation.
. Assume that no one is in want of either. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. that not all combined.
Use of any. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. and in want of his gold²or his corn. one another. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. as.
Distributives either and neither. as it were.²ID.²EMERSON. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. in which case any should be used instead. for example. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
Do you think. any of his friends had died.²BIBLE.²CARLYLE.²SHAKESPEARE. and is isolated.²BURKE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. even in Bettine. when any of them are so good as to visit me. afterwards in Goethe. etc. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²BEECHER Whenever.²PROF.² In earnest. as none of the French philosophers were. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.
424.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .
423. if ever man was. Examples of its use are. in the prose of the present day.
Caution. Do you think. let him ask of God..
.²EMERSON. during his stay at Yuste. then in Plotinus. which is plural as often as singular. that I know of.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.² EMERSON. any was often singular. The adjective pronoun none is. I beseech you.²THACKERAY. as. In earlier Modern English. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. at one time in Bacon... I mean that any of them are dead? None are. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.
None usually plural. usually plural. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. None of Nature's powers do better service.²SCOTT.²STIRLING. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). for him have I offended. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. as. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. in Shakespeare.
The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. whilst I still cherish their genius. speak. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.
Any usually plural.²FRANKLIN. before that. If any of you lack wisdom. then in Plutarch. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.² If any.
as. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. when it means all persons: for example. are treated as units.
Somebody's else.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. fixing his eyes on the mace.²THOREAU. etc. etc.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others..²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.
425. which is used absolutely. and all was lost on the other.²SCOTT Like the use of any. and less rarely in poetry..
The light troops thought . though none [no sky] was visible overhead. any one else.² None of them was cleansed.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. or somebody else's?
426. etc. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:²
. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible..²NAPIER
But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. saving Naaman the Syrian. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. etc.²McMASTER. When all were gone. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. nobody else.² PEARSON. that all was lost. The compounds somebody else. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. and Ford has nobody's else.²PRESCOTT
All singular and plural. the plural. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. for example.²
Singular. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.
London.²SHERIDAN. for example.²in such as "these sort of books.. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. ELIOT. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²G. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. STOWE. P. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's." "all manner of men. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²THACKERAY. etc.
AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. the adjectives plural."²MRS.
These sort.²DICKENS. Again. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.² Saturday Review.²SWEET. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic." the nouns being singular.²MULOCH. or some other such great man as a bishop.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Whitefield or Wesley.SYDNEY SMITH. "Ye see.
ADJECTIVES. etc.²AUSTEN.² FIELDING.²N." "those kind of trees.²RUSKIN. unlike anybody else's in the world. His hair. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. or those sort of people.
.² These kind of knaves I know. WILLIS. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²RUSKIN. all manner of.
Later form. or one object with a class of objects.² PRESCOTT. in spoken English.
The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.²RUSKIN. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON.
History of this construction. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind).
The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. "This sort of trees should be planted. when the necessary dispositions concur." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. such as. According to the approved usage of Modern English. and in this way may take a plural verb. Should we say. Burke's sentence. for example. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. and the adjective is. as.
In Old and Middle English." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.The library was open."
A question. or the nouns to the plural. This the modern expression reverses. not "all kinds of wild animals. to express a higher degree of quality. gradually displacing the old.
But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Of two such lessons.² Which is the better able to defend himself. made to agree with it.
Consequently we have a confused expression. they said.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. with all manner of amusing books. which accounts for the construction. "A sort of uncertain sounds are."
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. "This kind of rules are the best. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. the victor or the vanquished. "These kind of trees are best. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular.
At the source.
Use of the comparative degree.
. more alarming than a total silence.
A braver ne'er to battle rode.²MACAULAY.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.
430. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Gary. I am concerned to see that Mr.²HUXLEY. etc. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.
Compare the first three sentences in Sec. 2."²ID.²TROLLOPE.
Use of the superlative degree. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²HAWTHORNE. if not.² THACKERAY. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²LOWELL. 5.²SCOTT.²THACKERAY. would not have had the face. 6. the highest stakes are paid. Exercise. Henry. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Even Dodd himself. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²CARLYLE.²SWIFT. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 4. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. than any of his court. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. He is taller. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.
. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. by almost the breadth of my nail.²WIRT.
Superlative with two objects. To the man who plays well. has sanctioned. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²MACAULAY.
Other after the comparative form. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. 3.
These two properties seem essential to wit. Also from the same period. Nor that I am more better than Prospero."²HAWTHORNE. ha. I should say that one has the best cause. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. After the most straitest sect of our religion. The eldest. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²DR BLAIR. The following examples are used purposely. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. CÆSAR. "Ha. more particularly the last of them. "Let us see which will laugh loudest."²BULWER.²BEN JONSON. who eat white bread or brown. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.
.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.
431. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²MRS.²TEMPEST.. 1611. Rip was one of those .²ADDISON. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²Bible.²IRVING. not a bit of high life among them.²SCOTT. Come you more nearer. and differ only in form. In all disputes between States.²J.²RUSKIN.²EMERSON. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. OLIPHANT.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²GOLDSMITH. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. whichever can be got easiest.²HAMLET.
Double comparative and superlative. Examples from Shakespeare are.. Mary. and the other contains the best men. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English."²GOLDSMITH.
In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. etc.²GIBBON.
The merit of the Barb. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. Instances of both are given below.
ARTICLES. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²ADDISON.
Definite article.²RUSKIN. the Spanish. The delay in the first three lines.
First three.²GIBBON. ²COWPER. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²PRESCOTT. but in literary English. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. etc.²
With a singular noun.²KINGSLEY. Examples of this construction are. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.
433. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. As to these two expressions.
For Carlyle.² SMOLLETT.
These are the three first needs of civilized life. not only so in popular speech. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. The meaning intended is the same.²DE QUINCEY. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The first five had specific names. and conceit in the last.²RUSKIN.
Three first. jar upon us constantly. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²LAMB. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. and Secretary Walsingham also.
distinct. 434. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. the hour of parting came.²PRESCOTT.²MACAULAY.
With a plural noun. as. 1508.
Meaning same as in Sec.. The lofty.²TENNYSON.
. however. as in Sec. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone..
Indefinite article. Origin of the Aryans. and flexible language. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. the greatest poems. of the higher and middling orders. the thought and the word. but is used with one only.² RUSKIN. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.
There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.
Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.²CARLYLE. with a singular noun. of the eighteenth century.²THACKERAY. 433. The flowers.²SCOTT.² MACAULAY. as. having been arranged.²ID. I think.
435. He is master of the two-fold Logos. were placed at a very tender age. Frequently. with a plural noun. One object and several modifiers. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.²THE NATION. Here the youth of both sexes. and the presents.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. but inseparable from each other. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. or to emphasize the meaning. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.
The not repeated.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²TAYLOR. No.²NEWMAN. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. 433. melodious.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. to distinguish clearly.
It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. as. like the definite article.²BEECHER. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. or clearness to each of several nouns. Examples of this use are.² BURKE.
For rhetorical effect. a murderer. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. 436)." and "a red and a white geranium. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. But in the following sentences.²BULWER. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.²B.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. The indefinite article is used.²MACAULAY. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. interest. and a usurper. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. a tyrant. only one of which is expressed.²DRYDEN.
438. as in the first three of Sec.
One article with several adjectives. T. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. a collegian.
. The indefinite article (compare Sec. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²S. and inexhausted vein. In the sentences of Secs.²DICKENS.
437. COLERIDGE.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. rich.436.² MACAULAY. a round and a square one alternately.²JOHNSON. He saw him in his mind's eye. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.An early. to limit two or more modified nouns. JONSON. 435. one noun is expressed.²THACKERAY." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. 433 and 436. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²MACAULAY. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.
Collective noun of singular meaning.. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.²The Nation.
A broad and loose rule. ELIOT. or the great intellectual life of our nation. like some others in this series.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²GIBBON.
Singular verb. as. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.²M.²AGASSIZ.²COOPER. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. without academies. and the following illustrations prove it. The singular form of the verb is used²
Subject of singular form. In English. then.
CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Sec.
439. 276. ARNOLD. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. has got already. This was spoken of in Part I.
(2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. Another writer might. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.
(1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning.
Singulars connected by or or nor.²CARLYLE This usage. was the earliest American land.
(3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. for example.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.²G.²FROUDE. He sees that it is better to live in peace. all that academies can give. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.VERBS.
but each one emphatic.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. or considered as appositional. ADAMS. nor Mahomet. but considered as meaning about the same thing. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. for example. and every four hours.² GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY. nor John.²BURKE. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²GOLDSMITH. and other singulars of plural form. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. a mutilation.²J. A fever.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. is gone. that of a large town.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²CRITIC.
(5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. as.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. seems at the moment unpaid loss. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²WHITTIER. a loss of friends. other names.
Plural form and singular meaning. or as making up one general idea. a loss of wealth.
Several singular subjects to one singular verb. the cheap defense of nations. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²EMERSON
. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. as. nor Paul.
(4) When the subject is plural in form. a cruel disappointment.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.Jesus is not dead.² In a word. ²EMERSON. for example. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²GIBBON. No. Between ourselves. Q.² The unbought grace of life.
every valet. each. For wide is heard the thundering fray. as well as the Drama. sir!"²MACAULAY.
Plural verb. Here is no ruin.²MACAULAY.²LONGFELLOW. no. sir!" and the "What then. wineBegins to stir itself.²EMERSON. Every sound.²M ARNOLD. a cuirass. was like to crack. the partisan.
This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²SCOTT. every boor.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. the dismay. The Epic. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. does not take the place of the man.
441. The oldest. There is a moving tone of voice. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²PRESCOTT. is a man of wit.²MACAULAY. Every week. with death. many a. To receive presents or a bribe. nay. no spent ball. and such like adjectives. Then comes the "Why.²RUSKIN. was dazzled. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. as well as sides.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. an impassioned countenance. as. a gorget. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. almost every day.
Subjects after the verb. was listened to for five hours.²BUTLER.²NEWMAN.²HAWTHORNE. the ruin. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. Every fop. as well as the newest. in a judge. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.The author. every echo. as well as Europe. was punished.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. the fine gentleman. Her back. thus. an agitated gesture. no matter if the second is plural).² Asia. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. and greaves. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. sir?" and the "No.²PRESCOTT.²ID. as. no discontinuity.²ID.²
. the wit.The rout.
A shady grove.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. for example. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. All our household are at rest.
The conjunction may be omitted. and its history are alike a mystery to us. as in Sec. the Duke of Berri. The travelers.²SCOTT. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²THOREAU.²EMERSON. The Dauphin. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.² GIBBON. but the verb is plural. Philip of Anjou. as with a subject of plural form. far away thy children leave the land. of whom there were a number.²FROUDE.These bits of wood were covered on every square. shirt.
Conjunction omitted. are sufficient to attract a colony. as.²SWIFT.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²B.²FROUDE.²COLERIDGE. TAYLOR.²GOLDSMITH. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.² One or two of these perhaps survive. a green pasture. 440 (5.²ADDISON.
. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²FRANKLIN. Far. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.² A multitude go mad about it.²GIBBON. a stream of fresh water.²CARLYLE But its authorship. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. as.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. b). The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. His clothes.²DE QUINCEY. its date. making up a plural subject.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. were men of insignificant characters.
Pattison or I have said.²D. of different persons. for example.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE
With adversative or disjunctive connectives. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²WHITTIER. "He or I can go.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.
. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.
AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. This construction is at the best a little awkward. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. his blood dost shed." or.²RUSKIN. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. we never talk politics. "I have never said so.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. You and I are farmers.).
Exceptional examples.²BYRON.²M.²RUSKIN. hadst been my lord. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²ROWE.
General usage. "You would not be wiser. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Not I.²THACKERAY. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.²GOLDSMITH. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. but thou. You and I are tolerably modest people. WEBSTER. If there is only one person in the subject.
443. but thou. nor should I.
Second or third and first person in the subject." etc. as.
444. ARNOLD.²DE QUINCEY. When the subjects. nor has she"). brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²THACKERAY. Ah.²SMOLLETT. the verb takes the construction of the first person. Nothing which Mr.
442.²LOWELL." "She or you may be sure. the subject being really equivalent to we. Not Altamont.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.But notice the construction of this. that is.
the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:²
. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²BYRON.
In the following sentence. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. which it is proper to mention. 9. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²perhaps the devil. Nor wood. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 2. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. In this sentence from Defoe. 12.²EMERSON.
Also in verbals.
Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 440-444):² 1. 8.²and. Neither of their counselors were to be present. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Neither of them. as illustrated above (Secs. nor bush are there. 4.² TROLLOPE.²SMOLLETT. 5.²ID.²G. 6.²ADDISON. 10. 7. Exercise. How each of these professions are crowded. as we would hope. nor tree. in my opinion." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²SCOTT. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²MILTON.²THACKERAY. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.That neither of their intellects are vast. 11. In a word. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.Her course to intercept.²ADDISON. 3. The following illustrate exceptional usage.
446. Both death and I am found eternal. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.²BURKE.445. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. BANCROFT. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.
I can't sketch "The Five Drapers..²MACAULAY. It should be remarked. however. CHURCH. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.
INDIRECT DISCOURSE. for exact connection. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.²THACKERAY. Of course.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. W.. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. Direct discourse²that is. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.² PALGRAVE 5.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Indirect discourse means reported speech. But I found I wanted a stock of words." .²KINGSLEY. if not. to have seen should be changed to to see. on my return. 3. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.
448. 4. change them to a better form:² 1.
Two samples of indirect discourse.
447. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Exercise.²R. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²IRVING. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:²
. meaning. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.
Definitions.²DE QUINCEY 2. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. The present rule is recent. as.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them.²FRANKLIN 6. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. I gave one quarter to Ann.
. interrogative adverbs. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect.
His exact words were.
She thought to herself. Oh. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. introductory verb is in the past tense. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Sebastian's.
Direct.. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat.
. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation!
Direct. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. will.. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. "I cannot oblige you . From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. This includes the auxiliaries be."
Indirect. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:²
Indirect. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. have. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. etc. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. "Oh.
Her prudence whispered eternally." etc..
Summary of the expressions.
The substance of his lamentation was. under interrogative pronouns. or regular interrogatives." etc. 449. and the indirect question by whether or if.
Exercise. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.
Notice this. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. he assured me that nothing was more easy.
Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:²
A correct example.²ADDISON. FRANKLIN. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.
." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works.
The trouble is. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. the sound of their balls. in the sentences first quoted.²ID. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.
450. one summer afternoon. and that he himself had heard. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²B.
VERBALS.²GOLDSMITH. the first discoverer of the river and country. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. with his crew of the Half-moon. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. my first observation will be found nearly true. like distant peals of thunder. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land.
Careless use of the participial phrase.
PARTICIPLES. if this were expanded into a verb.
Standard writers often use it. universal assertion...
451. while defended or excused by others. leaving the principal statement as it is. For example. and often.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.²SCOTT. 3.. either "As I was pleased. 2.
Adverb between to and the infinitive. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .²RUSKIN. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.
He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.. many things to be carefully considered.²LAUGHLIN. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. avoid it. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible." etc. It is a solemn. There are.. my first collection was. then.
.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.
Consequently one of two courses must be taken. Exercise. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. . purposely or not. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. the first sentence would be. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.² HERBERT SPENCER. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:²
The more common usage.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.²ID. if a strike is to succeed.Correction.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. This is the more common arrangement. In the following citations.
6. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.²ID. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up..
452. this kind of grandeur. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.²BURKE. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. 13. when such adverbs as only. even.²The Nation.4. 7.. and earthenware. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 10. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. I wish the reader to clearly understand. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen.²TROLLOPE.²SCOTT. A little sketch of his. are used. if they modify single words. 12.²GOLDSMITH.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. etc. but cannot misunderstand the thought. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.
Position of only. therefore. but they are often removed from the exact position. even. which consists in multitude. from Irving. 5. The spirits. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. china. etc. but it is placed before the infinitive. BLAIR. The rigid rule in such a case would be.² ADDISON. is to be very cautiously admitted. etc.²RUSKIN.²DR. 1533. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned.² MACAULAY. In works of art. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. 8. 9. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. Now. 11. Exercise.
ADVERBS. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. and see if it is placed in the proper position:²
During the whole course of his administration. 17. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.
453.²EMERSON. for example. 12. whence he was never destined to return.
The old usage. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. to avoid a crowd. 10. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²ID. He shouted in those clear. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²N.²COOPER.
USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²ID. My master.²MOTLEY.²SYDNEY SMITH.²THACKERAY. 2.
.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²HIGGINSON. 11. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²MRS. Irving could only live very modestly. In Old and Middle English. 3. His last journey to Cannes.²ID.²RUSKIN. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 8. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 13. 16.²SWIFT. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 6.²CHAUCER.1. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. WILLIS.² THACKERAY.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. GROTE. P. ²ASCHAM. 7. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 14. might not marry. In relating these and the following laws. were he never so old of yeares. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 4.²PALGRAVE. 15.²MACAULAY. 9.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 5. No sonne.
There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. if two negatives are found together.²DEFOE. 6. Exercise. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.
Regular law of negative in modern English. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. In the execution of this task. under the influence of Latin syntax. one of the negatives is often a prefix.² HAMILTON."²four negatives. etc. when one of the negatives is a connective. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. I never did see him again. uncommon. STOWE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. neither.²BAYNE. the usual way of regarding the question now is.²HAWTHORNE.²HOLMES. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. Not only could man not acquire such information. 7. nor the grandeur of no king. The prosperity of no empire. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. is not common.²LOWELL.²DE QUINCEY. as infrequent. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. ²PAGE.²BURKE. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. but ought not to labor after it. There weren't no pies to equal hers.
Exceptional use. In the latter case.²MRS. This. can so agreeably affect. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.²GROTE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. and why:² 1. 4. denying each other. 2. 5. Therefore. in Ole Virginia. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. and is still kept in vulgar English."²MRS. However. nor never shall.
But. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.
.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. I did not act so hastily. 3. STOWE.
455. there we were. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.²LOWELL. the first should also... not merely .. "well worthy to confer honor..²SCOTT. or. as the use of the conjunction.
Choice and proper position of correlatives. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. as well as of the pronoun. but (also)... or.. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. nor is often changed to not²either . as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. nor. the first ought to be placed before a verb." both of the above requirements are violated.. or with advantage. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. not only .
454. The sentences given in Secs." may be changed to "This loose ..
Correction. if the second precedes a phrase.. should be scrutinized. neither . either..
Things to be watched. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals."
. or to reply to it. especially both . and which.8. not only to the success of their common cause. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.. even neither .. but. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.
And who.. if the last precedes a verb. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.."²SCOTT. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.²PRESCOTT. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. or to reply to it." Besides neither . but to their own safety. and.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it.. not or is the proper correlative of neither... A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. The sentence." said the King.
In these examples it will be noticed that nor.. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. either .
In the sentence. "A weapon. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.
7. but. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. They will.
. Now. Some exceptions.²GIBBON.
456. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²S.²THACKERAY. murder. 3.
But what.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 2.²BAIN. or but that. JEWETT. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. substitute that. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 5. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. as.²THACKERAY. but grown-up persons.² ADDISON. O. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. and chop up their own kin.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. 8.²RUSKIN. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²ID. not merely interest children. nor the disgrace of assailing him. and I don't know but what he was right. etc. as.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. too. but.Exercise. In the following sentences. 4." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.
457. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. Try and avoid the pronoun.
Try and for try to. or the negative relative but. Correct the following sentences:² 1. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. 6. Exercise.²FRANKLIN. but they will outrage.
Between is used most often with two things only. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²ADDISON. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 6. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:²
PREPOSITIONS.²EMERSON.² SWIFT. 4.
Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. no separation or division by twos being implied.²EMERSON. Examples of the looser use of between:²
A number of things. as already seen in Sec. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 313. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²TROLLOPE. 3.²BURKE.
The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²ADDISON. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.²SCOTT. see Sec. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.
Between and among. 5.2. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 305.
458.² BULWER. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.
Acquit of. Dependent on (upon). and Coleridge.
461. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. and Stewart. Conform to. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. ²EMERSON. etc. as. involve. Paley. Dissent from. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Some of them have. confer. correspond.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Such are derogatory.²RUSKIN What have I. and philosophers like Locke. Mackintosh.
List I. Conversant with. Derogatory to. or one object and a group. Bestow on (upon). Different from.
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
Absolve from. and another to convey a different meaning. 460. different.
LIST I.²KINGSLEY.: Words with particular prepositions.
. Comply with.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Abhorrent to.
Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. by custom.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Averse to. Kant. averse. Accord with. Affinity between. a soldier of the Cross. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Such are absolve.
Two groups or one and a group. as. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.
"The king is reconciled to his minister. Differ from (note below). Reconcile with (note below).
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
Agree with (a person). Change with (a person). Confer with (talk with). Reconcile to (note below). A taste for (art. Correspond to (a thing).
"Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. but it is not good usage." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Confide to (intrust to).
.y y y
Deprive of. etc.
LIST II. as. as. Confer on (upon) (give to). Change for (a thing).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Involve in. Differ with (note below). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Disappointed in (a thing obtained).
462. in the sense of making friends with. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct.). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. A taste of (food)." also of persons. as meaning to be in keeping with. Agree to (a proposal). Independent of. Change to (become).
463. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. and sometimes creeps into standard books. as. Correspond with (write to). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained).
"Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England."
List III. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Confide in (trust in).
LIST III.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning.
It would take me long to die of hunger.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH.²FIELDING. No one died from want at Longfeld.²MACAULAY. part with. they shall die by this hand.²SHAKESPEARE.
Take thought and die for Cæsar. died for love of the fair Marcella. I am positively dying with hunger.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. She died of hard work.²BULWER. and ill treatment.²G.
"Die by. die for.²BURNETT. People do not die of trifling little colds.
"Die for. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.
Who.²SCOTT. as Cervantes informs us.
"Die from." "die from.:²
"Die of. die of. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. ELIOT. die from.²POPE. ²ATHENÆUM.
If I meet with any of 'em. privation."
The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Expect of. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. He died at last without disease."
She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²BOSWELL.
Illustrations of "die of.²G. simply from old age." (material cause. Part from." (because of).
"Die with. ELIOT.²GOLDSMITH."
She would have been ready to die with shame.y y y
Die by.²ADDISON. instrument). One of them said he would die for her." etc.
"Die for. expect from. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. ²THACKERAY.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.
. die with." (in behalf of). It is a man of quality who dies for her.
His precious bag."
To part from you would be misery. I have just seen her."
She will expect more attention from you.
. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. either of or in is used indifferently.²DICKENS.
It was a little bad of you.²POE."
What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. as my friend.²WALLER.²G.²SHAW. just parted from her.²BULWER.
466. which he would by no means part from. and hated to part with them. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. That is more than I expected of you. ELIOT. as shown in the following quotations:²
Of. I have long expected something remarkable from you. I part with all that grew so near my heart.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²MACAULAY." "part from:"²
"Part with. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. kind of you.²G.
"Expect from. nothing better was to be expected.²SCOTT.
"Part from. Of Doctor P. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²MARRYAT. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²G. I can part with my children for their good. Illustrations of "part with. ELIOT." "expect from:"²
"Expect of.²TROLLOPE. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things."
He was fond of everybody that he was used to. Illustrations of "expect of. With words implying behavior or disposition. 464.²MACAULAY.²WALPOLE.²AUSTEN.²BULWER. 465. ELIOT.
Kind in you.
Very natural in Mr. 10. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 8.He did not think it handsome of you. nor blue. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. Thou tread'st. tedious perhaps. 13. 5. In the friction between an employer and workman. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. thunder. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²BULWER. The noise of vast cataracts. 14. 1. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. or that they are any way dependent on each other.²DICKENS. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. with seraphims. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 3. and ran up the alley.
In. nor green. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. This narrative.²BULWER. raging storms. nor yellow. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. but which the story renders necessary. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. it is commonly said that his profits are high.
.²BEACONSFIELD. 7. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. nor of a pale red. 15. Hampden.²TENNYSON. the vast abyss. 6. or which we are most imperatively required to do. or artillery. 4. 9. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. But this is idle of you. 11. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. thrown it over Amyas's head. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction.
or how beautiful it is. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. you or me. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 28. triangles. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 19. 37. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. the acquiescence of the understanding. 35. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 29. 32. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. (Sec. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 27. what is a just and unjust act. produce approbation. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. but in the price paid to them. 25. 31. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. save Amyas. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Friday. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 16.I would wish me only he. Squares.
. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 33. 24. and other angular figures. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. and almost as good as a pony. 18. Every one of these letters are in my name. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. You have seen Cassio and she together. 411. were down with raging fever. 23. 22. 26. 17. 30. When the glass or liquor are transparent. But every man may know.) 34. and most of us do know. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. That night every man of the boat's crew. 20. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 21. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. The effect of proportion and fitness. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 36.And were I anything but what I am. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 38.
(2) Middle English. from about 1500 to the present time. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200.39. pronouns. 119. nominative. of. adjectives. 124. nouns. He had four children. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive.
INDEX. of. 310. 102. voice. syntax uses Absolute. 25. of. origin of. 107.
used complements.000 between them. demonstrative. (3) Modern English.
. 47. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 89. A. Adjectives. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 92. as comparison definition demonstrative. 124. 260. 40. 116. 91. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century.
as. 20. of. 90. FOOTNOTES:
 More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. article. numeral. Abstract with Active Address. 98.
THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. from nominative clauses. 239. 47. of. 133.
used of. 195. 148.
nouns. conjunction. 42. 287. 291. clauses. 316. predicate. 116. quality. adjectives. of. infinitive. 183. 207. quantity.
conjunctions. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. adjectives. 323. parse. with with with subject. Against.
between of. of. 207. 115.
275. objective. from to of. 303. 302. 103. sentence.
48.from function how in not of of ordinal. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 97.
242. 106. of. 99. of.
194. 194. 239. and 185. 190. 27. Alms. of. 325. 325. form as as they
of. antecedent. compared. 101.
Agreement. modify. 303. 116. antecedent. adjectives.
27. 190. plural pronominal. nouns.
. 104. 109. Alternative
kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax
nouns. 187. 184. 262.
114. of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 191. of. parse.
which. 271. 90. sentences. definition how indefinite. of. 84. agreement personal as pronoun. 120. sentences. definition of of of Any. it. 51. in in.
331. 101. 120. A. of and pronoun of. adjective. syntax As. of. to of. 287. 252. as uses verbs.
207. 275. 309. Auxiliary if.
possessive. 198. 67. 74. 208. Are. of. Anacoluthon Analysis. 67. after of. which. derivation in definite. See 74. uses As At. 264. 240. of. 47.
parse. 124. 49.
.Among. 296. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. pronouns. and. Agreement. 79. 127. See with definition complex compound simple who. sentences. syntax. of of of And Antecedent. 231. of. 294. 148. An. 300. which. 150. words
between. Arrangement Articles. 225.
Can. 262. best. 39. 49. 64.
110. number of. syntax of.
comparison conjugation of. uses Better. 279. of. of pronouns. of nouns. 47. 46. Brethren. 278. 62. Case. of pronouns. 194. 48. 66. 195. adjective. of. definition
could. Clause. pronoun.
161. adverb. of nouns. with But By. clauses of.
. of nouns. of nouns. of pronouns. of. conjunctions Cherub. plurals of. 46.
260. Bridegroom. Children. 45. But. 150. 279. of pronouns. Among.
of. 63. 283. See
of. nominative. of what. double possessive. 330. Cause. objective. 278. 262.
Case. possessive. 149. 111.
84. 37. in Old and Modern English. 39.
224. 54. Between.
258. of. 158. 18. of. of. 315. 189. adverbs. 257. 24. in analysis. infinitive. of. 113. 244. nouns. 18. 312. of. and forms
of. material. subject. predicate. 248. predicate of and from from of. 157. 23. 305. superlative. Cleave. 263.
clothes. 239. defective. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 111. adjectives. 43. 307.
. 108. 268. plural of. 271. English. 264. nouns. verb. and sentence. sentence.
43. definition degrees irregular.definition kinds noun. 12.
257. 108. of. nouns. Cloths. 107. of. proper. double. Clomb. 257. of. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 53. 110. analysis of. of. 307.
replaced by objective. 188. 289. pronouns. 231. 194. correlative. in Old vs. 149. See analysis clauses. verbs.
subjunctive. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 195. sentences.
73. 194. of. 139. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation.
. pronoun. 195. See in subjunctive. same words. See English. of. pronoun. other other parts of speech. 207. interrogative pronouns. 328. 269. 151. Agreement. 149. 263. Conjunctions.
sentence. of of Conjunctions. analysis. adverbs. sentences. to of. 138. 193.
143. 199. definition be. 194. parse. 196. conjunctions.
66. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. Can. coördinate. definition how subordinate.with Concord. Dative Declarative Declension of case. and clause. 255.
60. 80. pronouns. 320.Declension.
of. duck. 303.
242. Comparison. 315. vs.
with. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 242. article.
Articles. passive adjectives. 160. by. 90. 99. pronouns. 102. 152. use of dies.
of personal relative verbs. 35. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake.
indirect. of. comparative. 91. 287. with of. tenses. Degrees. pronouns. 288. possessive. 102. of. 300. Case.
. of. object. 43. adverbs See adjectives. for. discourse. See adjectives. clause.
See 148. from. See See
48. 185. Comparative.
39. 92. 112.
drunk. 328. 33. Empress.
. another. predicate. 257. 12. older. added suffix. 51. conjunction. other. 194. 241. feminine plural English. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 299. of. one ( t). 62. pronoun. in 'Em. 158. 90. 32. adjective. complement.Drank. 33. Elements Ellipsis.
158. the of sentence. adjective. original of feminine a of source complex origin as
102. suffix. literary. error in sentence. original. 110. vulgar. 92. object. 240. of subject. of.
plural. ending. of. 34. 40. 92. 255. pronouns. 38. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. of. 287. 280. of. 234. Either.
possessive suffix. 90. 287.
to suffix. pronoun. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 300. -En.
30. 308. two. few. with in sex. with infinitive. 212. 112. 152. gender. 334.. First. Farther. of. From. 91. 45. 126. etc. nouns.
fishes. For. 211. 48. etc. of. pronoun. 112. Few. 212. expect gone. Further. 29. Gender. of. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. definition distinguished in English. 287. uses Foreign Former. 238. plurals. 110.. to of. other languages. 189. Future Future tense." 31. 152. uses redundant. 102. modes "common
goose. Feminine. 147. 36. 30. as of from compared marking. used of.
102. first. the. 235. First Fish. two a further. 148. 43. adjective. perfect.
. as a noun. 32. 30. 319.Every.
personal relative geniuses.of of Genii.
it. 285. Gerund. on. 10. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite
120. 61. forms in Girl. pronouns. His Husband. 175. 12. of. 159.
an better. 101. participle. Grammar. of. she. Government.
of. 144. definition divisions opinions province H.
275. 9. Had Hanged. 43.
60. its. possessive
noun. 173. 35.
kinds of. of. rather. 12. had hung. He. Got.
60. 36. 159. adjective. from participle of. 145. 80. 176. first sentence. for
before. distinguished syntax. 231.
227. 283. meaning. 231. 233.
105. adjectives. pronoun. 319.
of. indices. in compared syntax. 73. indirect of. use
article. of. 67. 188. 131. a object.
adjectives. 110. 85. your. 176. 323. elements. 276. 131.
. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. with of. adverbs. sentence. 93. summary
See passive mood. of. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 248.
questions. Direct object. questions. verbs. 72. 245. 320.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 153. uses discourse. words. See you. of clause. pronouns. transitive. 178. 43. 136. mood. 257. of. Questions.
12. 126. 190. queen. in little. lesser.
Kind. syntax the. -Ly. was uses me.
lord. 36. Kine. 91. 36. 245. a vs. 226. Lay. 110.
Madam. 61. 63. Like. Less. 113. uses Literary Little. 110. adjective. of. 170." history etc. pronoun.adverbs. of. of. 276. Logic Logical Lord. 39. Lady. English. predicate. Lie.
189. Last. 113. 227. of.. 36. 102. plural. 303.
lie. King. syntax. "It Its. 67.. Lay. Latter. and See words in. It. subject form. etc. 281. latest.
adverbs comparison a. conjunctions Many.
nigh. 102. mine.
Near. 41. of. 137. 64. 326. 161. of. 195. syntax
110. 144. -Most. Many Mapping Mare. imperative. 126. 189.Manner.
185. Much. construction as of adverb. syntax conjunction.
mistress. 160. 194.
. 112. adjective. Master. might. of.
256. Modifier. See definition 136. Enlargement. of. Must. etc. 325. 287. 328. position adverb.
113. 189. May. 110. of. 135. superlatives. indicative. Modifiers.
sentences. 187. of.
of. double. Mood. 114. Means.
34. Neither. of. Negative. Mighty Mine. 112. 137-144. 36..
25. 246. 19. 41. 300. parse. 38. syntax in gender nouns. 56. abstract. letters as
24. 17 19. None. 18. of. of. 21. definition descriptive. 20. now plural.
clause. abstract. 124. to of. 30. 30. of of of of of a. gender how kinds material. kinds
90. 258. 46. common. of. 41. words how compound. and figures. gender nouns. etc. 42. 125. 46. Nor. 17. 328. 25. 29. nouns. become become formation case collective. 126. become neuter. 301. of.pronoun.
194. in. to use. nouns.
class used singular. 26. etc. of. used as. syntax Neuter or two News. 45. 30. 41 43. Case. of. material. 32.
92. formed. analysis. 38-41. 17.
. proper. No Nominative. definition according of.
abstract. number once other plural. Not Noun Nouns. foreign. of. 27.
conjunction. nominative. with with with Now Number. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 195. English. as forms titles.
41. adjectives. etc. 101. verbs. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of
proper. 235. of. 285. meanings.of same two with proper. of.
of. dative. and analysis.
pronouns. with case. in article. 42. 41. 242. 124. 48. of. pronouns. personal. 42 44. preposition.
. article. become syntax use with with with Nouns. indirect. 39. Numeral Object. plural. 106. 23. 48. 92. of. spoken of instead nouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. 48. 196. adjectives. 41.
278. 66. 281. 240. Preposition. See verb. adverbial.
nouns. meaning. 121.. 242. indefinite. Nouns. common. 60. 278. 148. of. 279. plural form. 43. 101. 102. plural no two singular construction. passive adverbial. of. 282. form. singular. or plural. 48. 42. 18.
pronoun. for. adverbs. 101. 41. 87. Ordinal Other Ought. part analysis.
another. with (the). 233. 93 other. of. Omission On. 325 275. articles. Ourself. 237.
conjunction. 103. 94. a in adjectives. 306. 116. 56. conjunctions. Our.syntax Of.
64. nouns. 216. 91. 191. as of. as other. adverb. Parsing. of upon. Oxen.
. 103. of. 213.
117. Elder. Older. position Order. inverted. 115. See the as of. 56. indefinite possessive One One as Only. uses numeral pronoun. definite relative uses
of. 161. 293. of. treatment comparatives. See pronoun. 38. adjective.
279. 69. One. of syntax. 194. of of of of of models adjectives.
Each adjective. 199. 127.
179. 177. pease. nominative. 174. 56. of. 172. verbs. 62. phrases. verbals. Person. part adjective. 335. 59. in. Pence. 59. relatives. pronouns. -ing words. pennies. 69. 95. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. verb idioms it from. 119. of. 80. or of. and subject in. of. 100. parsed. of. 59. of. speech. 70. 247. included various.
219. 134. 287. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 64. 56. phrase. 63. with. used as voice. 61.
pronoun. of. 172. 181. 322. possessive and of. 43. 180. predicate
use of. 27.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. agreement of verb nouns. of. uses definition double 'em history of
prepositions. 173. absolute with of. article 150. from definition other of. 43. 317. reflexive. verbs. 148. 28. them. 281. not is. 62. antecedent.
nouns. 281. 247.
of nouns. 206.
spoken of. 278.
41. objects. 303. Comparison. 64. of. of. 248. Nouns. 54. complete.
English. 285. of. 235. 245. noun
nouns. as double. or See of of See
185. omitted. 106. prepositional. 236. pronouns. 195. 241. 50.
nominative possessive of of other definition
in of. participial. 232. Place. 51. 245. singular degree. definition logical modifiers
abstract nouns. of Phrase. pronoun.
Personification. 53. of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 37. 25. antecedent of of pronouns. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. simple. 60. syntax of of Politics. appositional. 303.
188. vs. nouns. See 60.
. 's.objective syntax table triple uses
of. Personal subjective. nouns. 236. of. 52. singular. adjectives. 53. relative. 67. kinds infinitive. double. of. 247. 49. conjunctions prepositions Plural. pronoun. 278. it. Positive Possessive.
72. another. 302. 187. 58. 219. for predicate nominative. 205. adverb. 206. after but. plural.
32. 95. of. 281. 333. 299. each either. same used as adjectives. 93. as
54. adjective. 332. 64.
by. of. 105. 208.
and form form form form of.
and one with else's. in exclamations. somebody definition how indefinite. interrogative. 58. verbs. speech. plural. 203. 132. 186. 300. of. 280. 104. as antecedent of relative. 147. parse. 300. as. words.Prefixes. 202. objective. all.
expressed as other of. what. 331.
. any. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 279. case. 287. future. by with
shown certain of. 129.
singular usually other.
possessive nominative to of. forms of. exclamatory. case. 105. 283. none. usually to as than. interrogative. by parts of of. Prepositions. 285. 303. who personal. 283. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive
gender certain. meaning. of. with tense
certain. 284. of. 207. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. of. 282. of. parse. 301. neither. 89. Pronouns. 59. 203.
286. 263. in.
antecedent. 189. 74. 101. Questions. 68. indirect compound. of.
and interrogative. with
gerund. pronoun. use
as. Rather. Quantity.
questions. personal pronoun. Direct same and different. 296. agreement anacoluthon and as. with who. or of. and which.
pronouns. use of
. 289. 295. unrestrictive. in. 87. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. indirect. that. 293. 297. of. discourse. 74.
of. 87. 99. 188. Nouns. Rank.
69. to of. 58. 85. 80. of. parse. who. and relatives. of. 85. 69.
of. See of. 83. 291. 142. in. conjunctions Quality. 195. which. same antecedent. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of
115. 84. 293. 295. 105. which after same. Quotations.possessive relative. of. of. 289. of. pronominal pronouns indirect. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive
form of. 279.
nouns. adverbs in.
74. 294. who. 159. Shear. object. clauses
of. Simple in
sate. suffix. 231. will. 255. 242. of sit. 195. 42. tenses. Self Sentences. of. 51. reflexive analysis of compound.
S.syntax use Result. 196. and should. 162. plural possessive as.
289. ending. 43. pronoun. 159. simple. elliptical. of.
form. Sex Shall. complex. 'S. 319. 40. gender. conjunctions Retained Riches.
. that. 26 271. of. See Sentences. 263. simple of. of of of complex Sentences. would. 252. 29. Same Sat.
effect. 196. 170. conjunction. which. Shot. of. forms shots. Seeing. 259. kinds Sequence Set. 69.
in of. sentence. 231.
of. 257. disuse in spoken
complete. names as a. in Middle English. -es. of. English. for. other Such Such Suffix -s. 262. 303. 270. of. as. Modern use becoming else's. 137. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 258. logical. these
number. 258.. 138. 33. English. Spelling Spinster.
245. in feminine suffix. 36. 38. sort. 245. 303. definition
67. 240. verbs. 257. of. English. 12.
literary clause. 126. adverb. English. Somebody Sort. 237. 258. definition how kinds noun.Singular Sir.
323. 33. 257. 260.
of. used mood. See -En.
distinguish. 169. 233. etc. adverb.
to of. 144.
Subject. Split Spoken -Ster. -en. of. 257. 144. of. 32. 186.
this. 88. adverbs. definition in English Tense. coördinating. of. they. "the then
foreign. meaning made up in Old of.. 191. as history syntax Their. 108. 290. 148. meaning. king. that uses That. in Modern number sequence table Than That. when as of. which. Then. when relative. 306. of. 87.. English. 116. as adverbs.
me. 280. of. as history The. in comparison. 106.Suffixes. 186. 306. of. 189. 120. classical of. 275. 107. in double. 152. omission
whom. Kind. 109. form. 119.
objects. of. auxiliaries. English. 297. restrictive." introductory. syntax of. plural as adverb. 61. 186. than of. two basis not same definition definite. 147. of
. 319. 309. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. Tenses. object. 147. 307. See etc. of. and and of. of. of languages. 106.. adjectives. 275. There These kind. degree. 222. 277. . of. article. subject. 147.
33. not suggesting adjectives. 123. 289.
111. 323.. 195. of. from cleft to 174. infinitive. 176. tother. 181. 173. Utter. Time. 119. etc.
21. of. conjunctions prepositions To. phrases. adverbs
. suffix. 114. parse. in omitted uses T'other. 175.
uttermost. uses of. uses
history of. exclamations.
330. 172. first. 114. kinds participle. 322.
verbs. 207. carelessly uses syntax
this. Try Two Under. 172. try two. 61. of. 188. Upper. 247. Thou. 322. thy.
That. -Trix. 180. 33. other noun. gerund.
20. certain as the
before with of. 175. 248. in of. of. Upon. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. thee. 185.
analysis. 217. first adjective.
words. of. how infinitive. 308. 128. preposition.
feminine and. used.These.
verbs by. 245. 33. active. 169. past tense formed nominative. 130. phonetic. agreement of. in indirect discourse. person and number of. becoming irregular. change. syntax of. mood of. table of. formed by. definition of. 236. Vixen. of incomplete predication. sequence of. strong. 154. 148. retained object with passive. regular. 149. in person. definition of. analysis. active meaning. 47. 154. 150. 167. weak. 134. but uses what. 223. tense of. auxiliary. of. 148. 312. 129. of English. 169. 330. with subject in number. 159. of.
. defective. 39. 319. 154. 242. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. What. passive form. remarks on certain. 133. 160. voice of. how to parse. 155. verbs. 320. made transitive. definition of. conjugation of. 131. passive. 167. transitive and intransitive. 147. Vocative in Voice.
312-316. 157. intransitive. spelling of. 179.Verbs. 12. 317. 135. 133. table of irregular. 151.
questions. 85. Words in Worse. worser. direct of. conjunction. Woman.
126. 111. Who. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 85. spoken in of. 78.
. 104. Will. pronoun. interrogative Which.
would. Wife. relative indirect relative.
79. 190. uses
Shall. English. 36.
of. in in indefinite objective. Whether. questions. 75. 83.
of. 194. 75. 72. 73.
a. referring syntax Widower. relative. 72. 296. 83. 32. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 246.
40. relative. 37. questions. questions. 295-299.
105. antecedent adjective. 72. 36. 77. Witch. animals. whereto.what Whereby.
Y. pronoun.. 299.
in -ly. etc. 105. plural of in nouns
-ing. With. 85. wizard. Yes
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