roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

so that a small grammar will hold them all. rightly considered. as compared with Latin or Greek. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. Literary English. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. as. An æsthetic benefit. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. This will take in the usual divisions. . And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). "Analysis. The work it will cover. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. however. then. their forms. Mental training. assist the classification of kindred expressions.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. but this is bad English now. Making rules is risky. from the question. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now." What grammar is. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. it will at the same time. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. If. Surely our noble language. with its enormous vocabulary. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). there is still much for the grammarian to do. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. is worthy of serious study." and "Syntax. Coming back. its peculiar and abundant idioms.The province of English grammar is. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. A broader view. if rightly presented. Authority as a basis. and thus incite his observation. Few inflections. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. to those who have studied the language historically. It is also evident. and their uses and relations in the sentence. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases.

but now undoubtedly bad grammar. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. The words state. from the eighteenth century on. reference will be made to vulgar English. The plainest name is Arabs. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. The Uses of Words. as they stand for ideas. or standard. or Syntax. Part II. . by which is meant the free. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Occasionally. The following pages will cover. Spoken English. that is. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. the words sons and master name objects. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Such words are called nouns. the nation is free. not objects. submission. too. then. and Inflections.²GIBBON. and the word nation stands for a whole group.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. The Parts of Speech. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. besides this one. Part III. and will are evidently names of a different kind. which belongs to a people. and may belong to any of those objects. 1. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. NOUNS. PART I. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Analysis of Sentences. but. Vulgar English. three divisions:² Part I. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself.

2. belonging to one. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. . or things. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. but Chicago names one city. Proper. however. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. ATTRIBUTE. because each group is considered as a unit. the man here. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. 5. Thus. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. For instance. They properly belong under common nouns. (b) Common. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Besides considering persons. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. animals. (a) 4. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Classes of nouns. and appropriate names to the groups. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. Collective. A noun is a name word. or idea. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. is from a Latin word which means general. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. representing directly to the mind an object. Individual. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. we may think of them in groups. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. Common. 3. and things separately. or thing. or a council. as here used. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. whether person. etc. or a mob. a committee. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or a congress. Name for any individual of a class. or the man in front of you. Name for a group or collection of objects. reducing it to a narrow application. We may say. place. the name of each is an individual or proper name.Definition. possessed by all. Thus. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. This does not imply. MATERIAL. Abstract. substance. men in groups may be called a crowd. animals.

expressing attributes or qualities. frost. They remain common class names. wheat. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. but in the words sun. It may. expressing state. The quality is still there as much as before. gold. 7. celluloid. etc. "Painting is a fine art. (3) Geological bodies: mud. stone. condition. and fasten a special name to the object considered. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. proof means the act of proving. Names of ideas. etc. clay. etc." "Learning is hard to acquire.. world. dew. sand. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. wheat. however. etc. earth. not things. rice. moon. there is no such intention. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. etc. rain. mist. or actions." 9. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). rubber. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. earth. considered abstractly. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS.Names for things thought of in mass. iron. instead of to each individual or separate object. granite. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. or apart from their natural connection. or action. rock. sugar.²There are some nouns. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. etc. such as sun. but it is taken merely as a name. frost. tea. Again. ." "a man of understanding. we speak of the wisdom of the man. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. platinum. sugar. but which are not called proper names. wine. When we speak of a wise man. cloud. . If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. NOTE. Such are glass. Words naturally of limited application not proper. 6. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. and so on. we may say. snow. etc. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. paint. or that which shows a thing has been proved. potash. conditions. as in calling a city Cincinnati. The reason is. soap. etc.

Thus. as their name implies. by altering its function. and they cannot express action. Verbal abstract nouns. thunder. but are merely names of actions. 12. five proper. her longing for their favor. II. Underived abstract nouns. the well-being of her subjects. 272. lightning. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. (1) prudence from prudent. To avoid difficulty. as glad²joy. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. five abstract." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. etc. day. mastery from master. speech from speak. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. is used as a noun. etc. Caution. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. hopeful²hope. summer. redness from red. the rude drawings of the book. 1. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. They are only the husks of verbs. . height from high. Such are beauty." "a brisk walk. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. service from serve. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. the moon caused fearful forebodings. ease. the main bearings of this matter. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. the great Puritan awakening. shadow. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. night. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. winter.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. there is time for such reasonings. energy. hope. They cannot govern a word. Exercises. action from act. (2) peerage from peer.Attribute abstract nouns. "a long run" "a bold move. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. 273). he spread his blessings over the land. theft from thieve. a wedding or a festival. the teachings of the High Spirit. The verb. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. 10. kingship from king. joy. those opinions and feelings. etc. NOTE.. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. childhood from child. in the beginning of his life. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. etc. stupidity from stupid. as in the expressions.

2. as physics. mathematics? 3. diphtheria. catarrh. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. as pneumonia. geology. (b) branches of knowledge. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. pleurisy. algebra. typhus. Using a dictionary. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice .

a Fourier. for example. Sodom was famous for wickedness. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. from the name of Dr.²EMERSON. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. from China.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. thus. the word port. as a davy. in Portugal. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. but most of them are in the following groups. who was its inventor. 14. from Corinth." referring to flat- . above. Guillotin. Proper names transferred to common use. from Damascus. from Oporto. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. from a town in France. damask. levant and morocco (leather). port (wine). We know a number of objects made of iron. and lo! a new system. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. 15. from Calicut. or to go over to it entirely. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. "The cook made the irons hot. arras. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. it imposes its classification on other men. etc. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. the guillotine. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Material nouns may be used as class names. but we may say. Nouns change by use. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. 119). a Hutton. Others of similar character are calico. a Bentham. a Locke. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. a Lavoisier. 13. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. currants. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength.

From all around²Earth and her waters. not material things. Class nouns in use. paints.In lightnings owned his secret stings.²RUSKIN. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. mists. or the arts and sciences. Death. coals. to prowl or to moan like night birds. a steel to whet a knife on. and so on. Test this in the following sentences:² . which are made plural. 16. be spoken of.²BYRON. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. clouds. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. are abroad.²PERCIVAL.²HAYNE. smiled. Personification of abstract ideas. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. This is a poetic usage. They are not then pure abstract nouns. clays. candies. the abstract idea is partly lost. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²CARLYLE. etc. and only Vice and Misery. When it is said that art differs from science. purity. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. his eyes. 17. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. Traffic has lain down to rest. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. as stones. or. The words preceded by the article a. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. that is. (3) By poetical use. etc. or used as class nouns. nor are they common class nouns.²BRYANT. tins. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. For example. A halfway class of words. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. on fire.²COLLINS. tobaccos. though not confined to verse. oils. that the power of art is founded on fact. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. but differ in strength. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. a rubber for erasing marks. that disposition is the thing to be created. Next Anger rushed. slates. abstract in meaning. are still names of abstract ideas. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. or made plural. but on dispositions which require to be created.irons. but in case an art or a science. These are the same in material. and say teas. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. papers.

By ellipses. a bank in New York. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. Adverbs. for example.²IRVING. 18." "the State Bank Tax bill. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Then comes the "Why.²BURNS.² GOLDSMITH. but is still a noun." "a New York bank. sir?" and the "No. Every why hath a wherefore. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. etc. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. a bill as to tax on the banks. NOTE.²EMERSON. 19. nouns used to modify. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.²SHAKESPEARE. sir!"²MACAULAY . and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. the wealthy. When I was young? Ah." "a morning walk. But ah! those pleasures. Nouns used as descriptive terms. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.The Solitary can despise." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. if we must have great actions. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Conjunctions. or describe it.Let us. as each repeated pleasure tired. they cannot be compared.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.²SHAKESPEARE. meaning a walk in the morning." which contains a pure adjective. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. "a family quarrel.² BURNS. which belongs to another word. All these. as descriptive adjectives are. But it is better to consider them as nouns. they do not express quality. make our own so. They are more like the possessive noun. sir!" and the "What then. And still. fear thy blow. loves. however. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. Adjectives. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. or from any expression. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. were mere terrors of the night. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question.

in speaking of the principal of a school. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. but as a figure of speech.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. 5. When. When." or "legal. the terms the great.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. There are many of these. whether it mean the sun or the cold. is ambiguous. or a faithful domestic. Exercise. The it. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences.²These remarks do not apply. too. . 20. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. etc. and Then. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. 7. in a sentence above. or a criminal. are spoken of as if pure nouns.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Learning. is the word "just. and tell to which class each belongs. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 4. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. so. however. of course."²B. without reference to its function in the sentence. 2..Nor iron bars a cage." and another of Dr. that cobweb of the brain. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. It is to be remembered. why and wherefore. 6. the wealthy. at the beginning. In the other sentences. FRANKLIN. to such words as become pure nouns by use. but have an adjectival meaning. NOTE. 1. Power laid his rod aside. 8. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Now. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. 3. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. or a state secret. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. of words rather than of their meaning. Stone walls do not a prison make. are used. Caution.

21. for every dropHinders needle and thread. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Greek. in English grammar. GENDER. There are exceptions even to this general statement. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 11.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 14. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. In Latin. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Male beings are. 17. The fleet.You seize the flower. he cried. 24. the silver moon is gone. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. And see. returned to Spain. female. 21. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 15.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. German. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 10.Fair guests. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 12.9. always feminine. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. its bloom is shed. and names of females are usually feminine. 18. 16. 23. 22. A fool speaks all his mind. 20. 13. 19. The hours glide by. It is founded on sex. What gender means in English. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. and many other languages. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. A little weeping would ease my heart. but not so in English. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. the welcome. that waits you here. shattered and disabled. always masculine. .

" but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Thus. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. hortus (garden) is masculine. der Tisch (table) is masculine. The great difference is. "A little child shall lead them. and consequently without sex. the sex being of no consequence. if there were any signs of life in it. came to a stand just by the bridge.²masculine and feminine. 23. clapping his burnished wings. the word child is neuter in the sentence. according to their use. For instance: in Latin. those with which man comes in contact often. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. corpus (body) is neuter. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. with its gizzard under its wing.² IRVING..²gender nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig.² I have seenA curious child . however. the name of it is feminine. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Of animals. in German. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. das Messer (knife) is neuter. mensa (table) is feminine.²LAMB. 24. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. or names of things without life.. in other languages gender follows the form. in English.²IRVING. No "common gender. and neuter nouns.When. All nouns. if of the female sex... Gender nouns." . inanimate things are spoken of. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. or additions to words. . are named by gender nouns. Hence: Definition. or which arouse his interest most. according to use. those distinguishing the sex of the object. must be divided into two principal classes. Neuter nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. those which do not distinguish sex. then.. 22. that pattern of a husband. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. the name of it is masculine. Gunpowder . as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. that is. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.. but are spoken of as neuter.

[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. they are neuter words. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. generally to a masculine word. If such words as parent. teacher. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. he-bear²she-bear. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. puts a prefix before the masculine man.25. Gender shown by Suffixes. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. (3) By using a different word for each gender. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. The inflections for gender belong. relative. 27. is. I. for from they said vram. Very few of class I. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. servant. though both words have lost their original meanings. 28. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. II. Male nouns beings. of course.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. but spinster has now no connection with it. . Hence vixen is for fyxen. from the masculine fox. Native suffixes. One feminine. ruler. domestic. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. the division of words according to sex. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. cousin. as in wine vat. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. 29. or the lack of it. 26. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. Gender shown by Prefixes. etc. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. For fox they said vox.. woman. Put in convenient form. (2) By adding a suffix. and for the older word fat they said vat. According to the definition. only to masculine and feminine nouns. as he-goat²she-goat. These remain in vixen and spinster.

The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. -ess (French esse. as seam-stress. as. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. Ending of masculine not changed. trickster. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Low Latin issa). These are attached to foreign words.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. 30. donna. Slightly changed and widely used.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. executrix. as czarina. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . señorita. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. it has none now in the words huckster. as. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. gamester. Unaltered and little used. and are never used for words recognized as English. song-str-ess. the one most used. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. but in most cases it has not. punster.

from the French -esse. Gender shown by Different Words. as in the fourteenth century. frendesse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present." III. We frequently use such words as author. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). teacheresse. as.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. neighboresse. teacher or lady teacher. from Latin imperatricem. others have in their origin the same root. Instead of saying doctress. chairman. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. the ending -ess. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as was said in the sixteenth century. we use the feminine. we use the masculine termination. neighbor (masculine and feminine). Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. as. Thus. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. NOTE. In some of these pairs. 32. Some of them have an interesting history. to represent persons of either sex. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . fosteress. etc. 31. or servauntesse. wagoness. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. editor. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede.

Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. among others) to be from the same root word. finally gander. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). The older forms. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Madam is the French ma dame. leaving our word drake. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. as in many other words. Widower. from Latin mea domina. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Witch is the Old English wicce. Personification. Danish gaas. not immediately connected with witch. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. lhauerd. written loverd. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. 34. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. the old sign of the masculine. widuwa²widuwe. in Old English mere. etc.² . It is not connected historically with our word duck. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. or lauerd in Middle English. but this has long been obsolete. had the masculine mearh (horse). Two masculines from feminines. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). probably meaning house dweller). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. for example. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). 16). Mare. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. 33.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. The masculine was formed by adding -a. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. gand-ra. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. became identical. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. though both are ultimately from the same root. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper).). Three letters of ened have fallen away. Icelandic gás. Besides gander and drake.

in Old English. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. whenever we adopt a new word. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. 37.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.No towers along the steep. 36. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. Definition. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. . number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. Our language has two numbers. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne."Now. In nouns. But other words were inflected afterwards.Her home is on the deep. more than one. for instance. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. together with the third. and not by the form of the noun. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.²COLERIDGE. Britannia needs no bulwarks. that is. etc. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en."²BYRON. 39.²CAMPBELL. treen (trees). eyen (eyes). This is not exclusively a poetic use. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.Clustered around by all her starry Fays.²singular and plural. the engineer speaks so of his engine. NUMBER. 35. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. The -en inflection. (2) By changing the root vowel. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. (3) By adding -s (or -es). I. the plural. Effect of personification. shoon (shoes). though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. The first two methods prevailed. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. 38. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.²KEATS.

Examples of this inflection are.²THOREAU. II. Lee marched over the mountain wall. salmon.Horse and foot. then brothre or brethre. etc. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. cross. such as deer. Instead of -s. sail. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. heathen. Brethren has passed through three stages. sheep. folk. 40. Akin to this class are some words. originally neuter. but they now add the ending -s. lens. dozen.-En inflection imitated by other words. Kine is another double plural.² "God bless me! so then.² The foot are fourscore thousand. etc. The old plural was brothru. swine. wight. after numerals (if not after numerals. quartz. and is still found in dialects."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. head. Such are box. into Frederick town. turf. 42. pair. brace. as.The horse are thousands ten. III. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. but has now no singular. borough²formerly had the same inflection.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. they add -s): also trout. as. etc. retain the same form for plural meaning. ditch.²WHITTIER. 41. finally brethren. by. and get settled. glass. when they mean soldiery. Other words following the same usage are. Children has passed through the same history. that have the singular and plural alike. after all. . The words horse and foot.²MACAULAY. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. cannon.²Over the mountains winding down. people. The weakening of inflections led to this addition.

Examples of these are. the Washingtons. half²halves. optics. Two words. though they are plural in form. It served simply as a means of sight. and many branches of learning. that when thy summons comes. mathematics. and go over to other classes (Secs. chaise²chaises. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . these words ended in -ie. fairies. Means plural. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. pains (care). Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. though this sound combines readily with -s. etc. however. house²houses. politics. Proper nouns are regularly singular. they lose their identity. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class.. also news. Some words are usually singular. means and politics. etc. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i).g. is both the science and the art of government. e. quoth then that ladie milde. niche²niches.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. prize²prizes. e. 43. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. race²races. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. means: as. Formerly. knife²knives. DANA.Of maladie the which he hadde endured.²BRYANT. 45. the Americas.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. a new syllable is made. allies.² Politics.g. daisies. molasses. physics. Words in -ies. etc. summons. volcano² volcanoes. negro²negroes. and some -es. some adding -s. fancies. as. 15 and 17). Special Lists. So live. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. shelf²shelves. etc. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. When such words take a plural ending. The lilie on hir stalke grene.-Es added in certain cases.. 44. hero²heroes. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. in its widest extent.²PROF. and the real ending is therefore -s. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. economics.

46.²IRVING. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²GOLDSMITH. Besides this. A relic which. by those means which we have already mentioned. riches will accumulate.² MACAULAY. With great dexterity these means were now applied.Words. Some words have no corresponding singular. Now I read all the politics that come out.²G. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Politics plural. if I recollect right. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²GOLDSMITH. I say. By these means. it is furnished with a forceps. Sometimes. .²GOLDSMITH.²J.²MOTLEY. L. LAUGHLIN. by strongly conveying the passions. however. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. he pronounced to have been a tongs. W. CURTIS.²BURKE.

sixpence. in mournful numbers. die²dies (stamps for coins. as in the lines. . brethren (of a society or church).. penny²pennies (separately). the other unlike it. fishes (individuals or kinds). number²numbers: (1) figures. of a periodical. pence (collectively). (2) care.² I lisped in numbers. One plural. (2) literature. genius²geniuses (men of genius). twopence. fish²fish (collectively). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. DANA. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. riches. Three words were originally singular. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.²was it subdued when.). (2) revenue duties.²LONGFELLOW. or epistles. pease (collectively). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. as two sixpences. shot²shot (collective balls). In Early Modern English thank is found. two plurals. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. for the numbers came.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. (2) poetry. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. trouble. etc. index²indexes (to books). 50. clothes (garments). 49. carry off chaff. Two classes of compound words. genii (spirits). Tell me not. ways. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. In speaking of coins. shots (number of times fired). cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). part²parts: (1) divisions. making a double plural...The air. dice (for gaming). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). (2) abilities. 48. two meanings. may add -s. pea²peas (separately). Numbers also means issues.²one corresponding to the singular. faculties. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. or copies. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. etc.²POPE. These make the last part plural. indices (signs in algebra). or work in a bellows?²PROF. eaves.

Allen. Norman. there is some disagreement among English writers. or the name may be pluralized. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. Brown. though the latter is often found. Two methods in use for names with titles. and Mrs. HOLMES. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. as the Messrs. woman singer. the Misses Rich. Brahman. and then the three Miss Spinneys. 52. The chief member adds -s in the plural. such as talisman. firman. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. 51.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.²DR. . As to plurals of names with titles. The title may be plural. Briggs. Ottoman. Mussulman. then Silas Peckham. woman servant. the Drs. manservant. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. as man singer. but add -s. German.² Then came Mr. for example.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one.

Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.²GIBBON. FROM THE GREEK. Others have been adopted. They are then said to be naturalized. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. and retain their foreign plurals.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. y y analysis antithesis . y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. 53. These are said to be domesticated. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Domesticated words. Exercise. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.²GOLDSMITH. or Englished. FROM THE LATIN. Du Maurier. or Anglicized. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²THE CRITIC. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.²DICKENS. The Messrs.

" CASE. In the sentence.. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. 54. etc. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. as. Letters. figures." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). also add -s or 's. and expresses a relation akin to possession. figures. cell has another relation." the word felon's modifies cell. without reference to their meaning. Definition. In the general wearing-away of inflections. etc. they form their plurals in the regular way. . "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s).² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Only two case forms. Words quoted merely as words. 55. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. as. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). When the foreign words are fully naturalized. 56.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words.

Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. 2. must be understood for purposes of analysis. 58. whether inflected or not. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.²nature.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. 4. completing a verb. and merit. and the possessive. they returned to their homes. Uses of the Nominative. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Excuses are clothes which.²the nominative. Three properties belong to wisdom. the objective. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead." (2) As a predicate noun." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. fate. Human experience is the great test of truth." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. .²one for the nominative and objective. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. then. learning. when asked unawares. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 5. 3. the enemy of the living. I. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. and experience.²person.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 1. three things characterize man. Nouns. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. may be said to have three cases. 57. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. excessive grief.

This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. and meaning calmest." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and being equivalent to one verb." (3) Adverbially. a patriarch of the village. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. 59. taking the object enemies. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and landlord of the inn. . her first law broken." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. wounded lies. save.6. the word toward which the preposition points. thy wrath can send. 8. how have I frighted thee? II. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. (5) As the object of a preposition. oh save me from the candid friend! 7." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 68." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. distance. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. taking the object storm. reconciles. as will be seen in Sec. Set a high price on your leisure moments. 9. they are sands of precious gold. Uses of the Objective. 4. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. sword in hand and visor down. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. and tell which use each has:² 1. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect.Save. completing the verb. Conscience. But the flood came howling one day. But of all plagues." Exercise. 2. defining the action of a verb by denoting time." (4) As the second object. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. good Heaven. (in the older stages of the language. etc. measure. 3. They charged. and makest a calm.

(3) Subjective possessive. and forfeits paid.²ADDISON. the Great Stone Face. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.Does his Creator's power display. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. as shown in the sentences. 10. or in writing yesterday's elegy. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 60. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. from day to day.5. 9. tempests that .His winter task a pastime made. 7. expressed or understood.e. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.² The unwearied sun.²BYRON. as in these expressions. Uses of the Possessive. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. (2) Objective possessive. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.²SHELLEY. 8. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. as. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. Possession in some sense is the most common. The possessive case always modifies another word. The noblest mind the best contentment has. And whirling plate.. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. It is a poetic expression.²HAWTHORNE. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. 6.And gave the leper to eat and drink. the most common of all. III. 61. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.

²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec.. as schoolboys sometimes write. Nom." etc. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. Nom. 64. in Chaucer. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. Poss." Use of the apostrophe. 62. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. PLURAL. and Obj. 56)." "mannes herte [heart]." "at his beddes syde. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. lady Poss. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. the panther which the forest hides). only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. child NOTE. How the possessive is formed. growth which several days had developed). 62. A suggestion. One is the simple form of a word. "From every schires ende. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es.. however. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general.e. The use of the apostrophe. As said before (Sec. making the possessive singular. and Obj. Declension or inflection of nouns. Case Inflection. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. To form the possessive plural. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). 1. . was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. 63." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war].e.winter is likely to have). ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. "George Jones his book. A false theory. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. there are only two case forms. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR.

stands up for God's truth one man. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. in the name of the emperor their master. the possessive sign is usually last. In other cases the s is seldom omitted.²RUSKIN. but to the ear all may be alike. some such word as house. my neighbors.²THACKERAY. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. 66. dwelling. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century." Possessive with compound expressions. the items of my son's. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.. 65. Possessive and no noun limited. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. etc. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. and she walked off from the don's.²DE QUINCEY. as by the countess's command. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. store. Captain Scrapegrace's. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. James's. as. Peter's. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. Cervantes' satirical work.Though this opinion was untrue.²HOLMES. and from a desire to have distinct forms. etc. church. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. In compound expressions. as. for goodness' sake. I remember him in his cradle at St.²SWIFT. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter."²DE QUINCEY." "A postscript is added. containing words in apposition. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. being understood with it: for example. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. instead of the emperor their master's name. Kate saw that. 67. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. know the amount of my income.²CARLYLE.. .² LOWELL. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. a word with a phrase.

turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. each. ill-lighted except where she stands. 68. no.The double possessive. however. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. making a double possessive. that. Blair). a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. sometimes they are used together.²E.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. and at the same time by a possessive noun. any. E. (1) When a word is modified by a. every. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. especially when used with this or that. 87. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. and tell whether each is appositional. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. 1. Exercises. (3) It prevents ambiguity. the sentence might be understood as just explained. HALE. this. In most cases.. we use the phrase of Atterbury. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. in such a sentence as. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²FROUDE.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. Emphasis. a double possessive. the. as one modifier. 2. the statement clearly means only one thing. For example. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.²CARLYLE. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. Both of these are now used side by side. Clearness. (See also Sec. corresponding to 's. etc. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. objective.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. or subjective. A peculiar form. If. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. (b) Rewrite the sentence.

A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 4.They say. with every garland crowned. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. let him seasonably water the one. we state. it seemed. Friend.3. 69. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 5. At lovers' perjuries. in parsing a noun. Nature herself. 13. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 7. Jove laughs. day's harbinger.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 8. There Shakespeare's self. In parsing. Now the bright morning star. Hence. 9.² . 70. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.Comes dancing from the East. 6. and destroy the other. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 15. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. therefore. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules.A weary waste expanding to the skies. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. some idioms²the double possessive. 10. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 14. 11. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 12. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. I must not see thee Osman's bride.

²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. and relations. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. MODEL FOR PARSING. In parsing any word. determining its case. but is the adverbial objective. inflections. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. subject of the verb is understood. 71. gender. (3) Whether singular or plural number.(1) The class to which it belongs. An old cloak makes a new jerkin.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. if the latter. as to case. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. Exercise. has no governing word. a fresh tapster. etc. hence objective case. it expresses possession or ownership. the connection shows a male is meant. therefore masculine gender. singular number. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class.²common. hence it is objective case. which gender. proper. hence it is a gender noun. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. 3. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. Neckcloth. 2. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. therefore neuter. it expresses time. object of the verb takes. like miller's. therefore possessive case. NOTE. The correct method. therefore singular number. therefore singular number. a withered serving man. is a common class noun. it denotes only one person. hence it is a common noun. and to have it found out by accident. and number. 68). That in the captain's but a choleric word. and limits neckcloth. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. it is the object of the preposition by. masculine. 4. . Throat is neuter. names one thing. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. it has no sex. it is the name of a male being. and therefore nominative case. Thief is a common class noun. (4) Its office in the sentence.

where the Rhone enters the lake. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. The need of pronouns. Now." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. definite.²palace.. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. Madame de Staël. but by a question we say. 9. 8. He giveth his beloved sleep. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. and his daughter. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. all in one. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. 11. Mrs. Time makes the worst enemies friends. standing for a name." Again. A pronoun is a reference word. 76). and prison. Classes of pronouns. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. or for a person or thing. financial minister to Louis XVI. For instance. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Jarley's back being towards him. castle. Definition. instead of saying. were natives of Geneva. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession.And hated her for her pride. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious.5. 7. . sleep! 6. 72. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Necker. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs.. blessings light on him that first invented . connected with the shore by a drawbridge.. from a necessity for short. PRONOUNS. or for a group of persons or things. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. 73. 10. A few miles from this point. and representative words.

Nom. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. pronoun. (4) Adjective pronouns. ours . which cannot be used as adjectives. standing for a person or thing spoken of. which relate or refer to a noun. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive.(3) Relative pronouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. the person or thing spoken to. Singular. 76. words. 74. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. primarily adjectives. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Three persons of pronouns. "the distinction of person. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. they must represent the person talking. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. (2) Second person. (5) Indefinite pronouns. This gives rise to a new term. representing a person or thing spoken to. 75. 77. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. my Plural. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. and the person or thing talked about. they are said to have person by agreement. I Poss. which have forms for person. mine. or other word or expression. as nouns have the same form. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. From analogy to pronouns. (3) Third person. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names." Person of nouns. representing the person speaking. Person in grammar. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. we our. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. even if it had a special form.. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. that is.

. yours you THIRD PERSON. yours Poss. 78. Obj. Nom. First and second persons without gender. namely. Obj. a separate form for each gender. Old Form Common Form. Masc. Third person singular has gender. your. by personification. Singular. Nom. Obj.. they their.Obj. Nom. yours you Plural. you your. Poss. neuter. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. theirs them Neut. But the third person has. he his him Fem. The speaker may be either male or female. it its it Poss. she her. hers her Plur. thine. in the singular. Poss. Obj. thy Remarks on These Forms. Nom. and also for the neuter. of all Three. Old forms. neuter hit. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. or. feminine h o. so also with the person or thing spoken to. me us Singular. SECOND PERSON. masculine h . thou thee ye you you your.

it. We use it with a plural verb always." As shown above. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. Second person always plural in ordinary English. 82. especially in poetry. 81. The plurals were h .²BEECHER. heom. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. thou Shepherd of Israel. heora. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). thy.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. to thy care we commit the helpless. two modern uses of thou.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. (2) In addressing the Deity. In spoken English. The form its. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. which is a neuter noun. Two uses of the old singulars. The consequence is.²SHELLEY.. the forms they. however. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). perhaps being from the English demonstrative. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose.² Oh. This is of comparatively recent growth. even when referring to a single object. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. There are. that didst comfort thy people of old. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. as in prayers. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. 79.:² (1) In elevated style. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.Thou lovest.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. 80. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. which was often sounded with the h silent. as. in Old English. for example. their.. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. . etc. as possessive of it. and sometimes its. them. just as we now say. etc. thee. etc. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. Thou.

they have a nominative form. me. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. Nominative forms. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. when they occur in the predicate position. note the following:² 'Twas mine. And since thou own'st that praise. thou. theirs. and has been slave to thousands. his. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me.Use of the pronouns in personification. or." the literary language would require he after was. they. . she. I The Nominative. your. us. however. 34). 58). The forms my. have a peculiar use. her. 'tis his. thine. In spoken English.²BULWER. That is. for. us. Additional nominatives in spoken English. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. some say. and not make more classes. The Possessive. 84 are always subjects. its. we. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. I spare thee mine. though those named in Sec. 83. sometimes his and its. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. her. thy. him. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. though ye is occasionally used as objective. II. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. ²SHAKESPEARE. besides a nominative use. 85.²COWPER.²LANDOR. 84. ye. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. 86. them. yours. in such a sentence as. and follow the usage of literary English. hers. and sometimes in ordinary speech. Old use of mine and thine. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. "I am sure it was him. their. him. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. to personify objects (Sec. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. her. he. Yet careful speakers avoid this. Not a separate class. our. The forms mine. The words I. them. Absolute personal pronouns.

(2) To bring emphasis. F. we find. sometimes its. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²ID. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. ours. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. This ancient silver bowl of mine. thine. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. This usage is still preserved in poetry.²J.²THACKERAY. COOPER. (4) To make a noun less limited in application.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. Give every man thine ear. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. as in nouns. Their uses. Double and triple possessives.²THACKERAY. ²HOLMES.² CARLYLE.²CARLYLE. hers.²ID.²BIBLE. it tells of good old times. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. thus. his. anger. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. pluck it out. Besides this. Like the noun possessives. for example. theirs.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. and with mine. Long Allen. If thine eye offend thee. yours.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. thus. yours. theirs. "Hold thy peace.²SWIFT.²J. The forms hers. T. FIELDS. 87. ."²SCOTT. ours. are really double possessives. (3) To express contempt. we have. but few thy voice. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee." said Henry Woodstall. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. commenting upon a letter of mine. or satire. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.

They all handled it. mine stands for my praise in the second. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective." "None but the brave deserves the fair.²ID." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. Both joined in making him a present. his for his property. this dative use. Besides this use of the objective. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. was marked by a separate case. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. In such sentences as. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. but nominative or objective in use. In their function.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. as it is called. as shown in Sec. . The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. 90. for whose benefit. The old dative case. III. Now the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. but the form is the same as the objective. In pronouns. or use in a sentence. But the first two have a nominative use. 86: mine stands for my property. "The good alone are great. but not in form. in the first sentence. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. 89.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. Curse me this people. The Objective. but expresses for whom. 20. and mine in the second has an objective use. the thing is done. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²BIBLE. 88. In Old English there was one case which survives in use.

It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. WEBSTER. to stand for the real. It is a pity that he has so much learning.²DE QUINCEY. as in the sentences.²CARLYLE. and they cry. The word you. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. logical subject.²ADDISON.²BULWER. 92. has not made its progress.²EMERSON. in this century. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. why. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.²D. thus. as.Time is behind them and before them. Indefinite use of you and your. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. was passed by with indulgence. Your mere puny stripling.²IRVING To empty here. or to the idea. as. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. like Chinese skill. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²BACON. you must condense there. 91. which follows the verb. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. Society. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (3) In apposition." (3) As a grammatical subject.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. you sneeze.² . ²EMERSON.² NEWMAN.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. or that he has not a great deal more.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.

they dropped their arms. Of the two forms in parentheses.²ID. (thyself). The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. herself.. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. A sturdy lad . For when it dawned. yourself.²IRVING."²IRVING.²BURNS. we use such expressions as. it rained. They are myself. Poor Christian was hard put to it. who in turn tries all the professions.²BUNYAN. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. have laid them downIn their last sleep. farms it. There was nothing for it but to return. (ourself). An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. I set me down and sigh. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.²HAWTHORNE. used in poetry.²COLERIDGE. For example. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This occurs in poetry." and there is an end of it.²THOREAU. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. It was late and after midnight." "He bought him a horse. itself.²SCOTT. and its plural selves. -selves. themselves. 93.² Now I lay me down to sleep. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. yourselves. but seldom in prose. keeps a school. since firstThe flight of years began. as they are also called. as. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. And millions in those solitudes.²ANON. or COMPOUND PERSONAL.²BRYANT. 94. when they are direct objects. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.It is finger-cold. peddles it. I made up my mind to foot it. And when I awoke.²HOLMES.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON. ourselves. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns." etc. . and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. the second is the old form of the second person. however.. that is. "I found me a good book. who teams it. himself.

shall dissolve. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.²MILTON.²E..²ID. for example.² The great globe itself . with self. especially in the speech of rulers. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. theself. I shrink with pain. as we ourself have been.²SHAKESPEARE. to us. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.²WORDSWORTH. As if it were thyself that's here. as in vulgar English. Threats to all. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and the others were formed by analogy with these. 96. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. thyself. BROWNING. to every one. 95. In Middle English the forms meself.To you yourself. as. Held dead within them till myself shall die. were changed into the possessive myself.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.²EMERSON. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.As girls were once. B. Origin of these reflexives.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. and build the lofty rhyme. etc. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.. NOTE. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. not the possessive forms. The question might arise.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. Use of the reflexives.² TENNYSON. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.² . for example. after the analogy of myself. ourselves. as. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.

One obsolete.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 4. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Come and trip it as we go. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. some of them being double possessives. and neuter. and how to do it. To know what is best to do. is wisdom. And it grew wondrous cold. let him lowly confess it. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Courage. all conform to it. 6. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. and what. which. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 5.²B. fight it out. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 97. Years ago. 9. FRANKLIN. 2. feminine. 8. 7. 3. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. 10. some each of masculine. . If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. father. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. but it is the soonest spoiled. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. where the word is one with that it tells of. Three now in use. Infancy conforms to nobody.On the light fantastic toe.² THACKERAY. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom).²DE QUINCEY.

Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer.. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY.Promised. or case. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. used formerly to mean which of two. Use of what. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. 100. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. which is not inflected for gender. that. Use of who and its forms.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. Whose was that gentle voice. but for case alone. ideas. not to persons. it is selective.There is an old word. actions. the gold. that it is always singular and neuter. . with its possessive and objective. whispering sweet. 99. Use of which. referring to things. methought. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. as it always asks about somebody. As shown here. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Which of you. 98. having three forms. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. it refers to either persons or things. The use of who. What wouldst thou do. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. whether. These show that what is not inflected for case. shall we say. etc. that is. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. number. but now obsolete. it is always third person. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES.

who? Poss. Who. 127). which and what. For instance. SINGULAR Nom. since it is subject of the verb had. 102. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. being the direct object of the verb shall take. These bards sang of Border chivalry. for which the pronoun stands. 103. which is nominative in the first sentence. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. AND PLUR. Further treatment of who. Function of the relative pronoun. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. objective in the last. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. who evidently refers to Bards. or other word or expression. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. 105. which and what are sometimes adjectives. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.² "The last of all the Bards was he. and also in having a conjunctive use. pronoun. AND PLUR. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. SING. and so to make smoother discourse. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives." In the latter sentence. subject of doth love. whose? Obj. in Sec. Thus we may say." Or. and what are also relative pronouns. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. nominative in the second also. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. It usually precedes the pronoun. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. what may be an adverb in some expressions. "The last of all the Bards was he. which is called the antecedent of the relative.Who sung of Border chivalry. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences.² . which. as.101.²by the use of the words. it may be shortened into. as. who is used as objective instead of whom. 104. The antecedent. as they take the place usually of a word already used. 99.

6. are the men and women who bless their species. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 2. 108.. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. D. When the word relative is used.²DR JOHNSON.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.²SCOTT. what.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 5. but the look which is not of the earth.²MILTON. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Two kinds. is a divine creation.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Who and its forms. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.. The nurse came to us. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. 106.. 2. The men whom men respect. 3.² COX. with all its capabilities . in the same sense in which man's nature. . The origin of language is divine. Generally speaking. that. They had not their own luster.²PARTON Which and its forms. WHITNEY. 4. the women whom women approve.²BYRON. which.That guard our native seas. 107.²LOWELL In this. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. For her enchanting son. 4. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. will be discussed further on.Whose flag has braved. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. Indefinite relatives.Whom universal nature did lament. Ye mariners of England. a simple relative is meant. 3.²W. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²THACKERAY. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. a thousand years.

²H.Is fit for treasons.²IRVING. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.²MARGARET FULLER.²EMERSON..²LAMB 3. 109. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. ought to be kept in view. The man that hath no music in himself. 111. 3. W. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.² SHAKESPEARE 2. What. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. For what he sought below is passed above. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. Examples of the relative that:² 1. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.. no bad type of what often happens in that country. 4.²GOLDSMITH. stratagems. 6..²BURKE. Already done is all that he would do.5.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.²DE QUINCEY. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. Reader. The Tree Igdrasil. you will not be angry with me for telling you. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. and spoils. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. Who. (a) This gradation . BEECHER 5. 2. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.. 107. else this description will seem exaggerated. 110. The judge . the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . That.. bought up all the pigs that could be had. which it certainly is not. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.

in the first sentence.who. Sec. and 6.²who. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. (4) It has two case forms. Smollett. Who referring to animals. It has been seen (Sec. In sentence 4. . whose.²which for the nominative and objective. Gibbon. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. flung its arms around my neck. who. that man. Which. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. whose wound I had dressed. (3) It is nearly always third person. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. whom. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. My horse. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines... 5. in 5. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Cooper. son. p. they are plural.. in 4.²LEIGH HUNT. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 96). the relatives are singular. in the third. 113. the others are all third person. Witness the following examples:² And you. Scott. possessive case of which.. and 3. 107. Kingsley. (2) It has three case forms. The little gorilla..²IRVING. The robins.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. In 1. 2. Examples of whose. JOHNSON. whom. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. seemed as much excited as myself. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.²DR. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.²LOWELL. whose is second person. or ideas. The sentences in Sec. not persons. and so on.whose. a man. and others. 112.. who is first person. whose for the possessive.²THACKERAY. things. referring to animals. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.²SWIFT. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. in the second.

and third persons. 116.²SCOTT. let us enter the church itself. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.² MCMASTER. 115. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. This often occurs. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. the antecedent follows which. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. So in Matthew Arnold. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. That. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and things. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.² I swept the horizon. no possessive.²DE QUINCEY. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²first. This moribund '61. Sometimes. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. Kingsley. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.²SHAKESPEARE. (2) It has only one case form. too. (3) It is the same form for first. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. Men may be ready to fight to the death.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Primarily. and numerous others.114. and to persecute without pity. animals.² And. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. . thus."²RUSKIN. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. Which and its antecedents. 109. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.²BEECHER. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. secondly (which made her stare). which is worse. which is very notable and curious. second. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.²RUSKIN. Burke. The last two sentences in Sec.²THACKERAY. In the sentences of Sec.

but what I hate. whose Obj. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. it usually follows. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. we can. The gender. that do I not. as in sentence 6. who Poss. is always neuter." That evidently refers to truths. and person of the relatives who." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. that he has. 117. as. that do I. number. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths.²SHAKESPEARE. consequently is neuter. either of which would be neuter. The sentences of Sec. Who plainly stands for those or the people. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. by taking them out. and is emphatic." (3) "These people heard him. Nom." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. What. plural number. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. plural number. what we said?²CARLYLE. 118. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. 119. Sec. for example. 109. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. What a man does.²BIBLE What fates impose. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. which.²EMERSON. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. For example.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose.² What I would. third person. that men must needs abide. third person. . 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. When expressed.

Some prefer another method of treatment. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. third person. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. in the following sentences:² 1. and hence is in the nominative case. after all. etc. is what we call nature. is in the nominative case. "What can't be cured must be endured. 6.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. however. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. In the same way who. Parsing what. Another way. In (2). in (1). which is. because it has usually no antecedent. Exercise. nobler souls with that which they are." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. so is in the objective case. above. people is the object of the preposition of. the highest result of all education. the simple relative. but is singular. it is object of uttered. then parse the relatives. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. we is the subject. 3. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives.. that takes the case of the truths in (2). subject of heard. What can't be cured. . I think they are trying to outwit nature. but of this." Here the subject of is. Truths in sentence (2). is subject of wrought upon and molded. standing for the people understood. 7. As shown by the following sentences. neuter. What must be endured? Answer. in (3). In the sentence. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 120. The relative what is handled differently. and what is the direct object of the verb call. Now. is subject of the verb can't be cured. The word what. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. 5. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. 8. First find the antecedents. The whole expression is its subject. it is subject of the verb heard."²EMERSON. 4.

²MACAULAY. Take which you please. It is no proof of a man's understanding. 123. whosoever. or stand on their head. So with the other indefinites. 122. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. to everything that. not as direct as the simple relatives. no particular thing. 121. It is clear that in 1. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whichever. 6. Only itself can inspire whom it will. 3. whatsoever. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. "common souls pay with that [singular. less common are whoso. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. by meaning and use. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. Hence some take what as a double relative.²you cannot have both. and his friend a fool.²BURKE." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. Do what we can. The simple relatives who. object of do] they do. object of with] which [singular. that nothing else can stand in their presence. that is. List and examples. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. which. in a new and original way. They are whoever. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. Death is there associated. 4. and in 2. Meaning and use.²BURKE. summer will have its flies. 2. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. whatsoever. 5. whatever. and which in the second clause. or what else soever. whichsoever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. . The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. being referred to. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 2. 7. no certain antecedent. and parse that in the first clause.

. but and as. what means anything that. thus. etc. Other substitutes. has been my heaviest affliction.²HAWTHORNE. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. This. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. etc. whereby. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. 4.As shown in Sec. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. the conjunctions wherein. but mean any one whom. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.² some particular thing. Sec. whereupon. In early modern English.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. 2. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. for example.²DE QUINCEY. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. upon which. 124. 125. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. Former use of as. as was used just as we use that or which. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. but which only wealth could have purchased.. There is nothing but is related to us.²EMERSON. But and as. nothing that does not interest us. everything that (or everything which). as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. by which. are used. . Proof that they have the force of relatives. etc. Two words. Instead of the phrases in which. 120. 417). and that as after such is equivalent to which. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. 126.² 1. 121. not following the word such. 121. for example. either one that.

what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. if expanded. In sentences 1 (a). if not. though the earthwork hid them. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. 3. no antecedent is expressed. Another caution. if not. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. who having the antecedent gentleman. a question is disguised in each sentence. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. and 3 (b). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. So in 2 (b). (b) Well we knew who stood behind." etc. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). 127. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. "Who stood behind? We knew. Special caution needed here. which would indicate that they are not relatives. In studying such sentences. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. second. . 2 (b). the full expression being.²ID.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. it is a simple relative. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. it is an indefinite relative). (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. which having the antecedent lines. and whether what = that + which (if so. How to decide. showing that who is plainly interrogative. would be. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three.. But in 1 (b). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. 2.²EMERSON. 1 (b).²WHITTIER. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. "But what had become of them? They knew not. what is interrogative." Likewise with which in 3 (b). But compare the following in pairs:² 1. Thus. it is an interrogative.

whose has the antecedent you. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. In the second. whence is the interrogative word.²G. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Thus. Examine the following:² 1. which.²GOLDSMITH. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. ELIOT. 5.²HOLMES. On the other hand.²SWIFT. 129. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. 4. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. which has the antecedent hue.²FORSTER 6. 3. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. In the first. and asks no question. .²FLETCHER. and Court Calendars. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²CARLYLE. Put in the relatives who. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. Exercise.² THACKERAY.128. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. 2. When Goldsmith died.² These are the sounds we feed upon. the question is asked by the verb. Relative omitted when object. The insect I am now describing lived three years. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. but the life of man in England. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. I visited many other apartments. In the third.

ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. or indefinite relatives:² 1. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. which was already proceeding. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. 3. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. that. There was such a crowd went. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. which.²CAMPBELL. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. Also in literary English we find the same omission. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.Ne'er looks upon the sun. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. and what. Function of adjective pronouns. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. the house was full. It is rare in prose.²SHAKESPEARE. 6. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. 130. The nobles looked at each other. Relative omitted when subject. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. 5.²SCOTT. .² LOWELL.²Id. Examples are. simple relatives.7.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. 2. and comparatively so in poetry. who were to be rulers over whom. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.

which we have seen in such expressions as. Caution. such as each. and stand for a noun." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. or an argument in a paragraph. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns." "Where two men ride on a horse. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. "The dead are there.²BRYANT. "each cube. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. or use. either." Classes of adjective pronouns. or may be the whole of a sentence. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. expressed or understood. necessarily thought of: thus. For example. "these pranks. 'Truth. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence.²IRVING.²EMERSON. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. few. all. the former. Adjectives. For instance.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. in the first. "another bank. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. as some." in the second." "one man. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns." in the others.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. . 132. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. neither. but have lost their adjective use. any. none. many." that is. must not modify any word. that. or they may stand for nouns. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. etc. etc. in letters of gold. such as this. not pronouns. Primarily they are adjectives. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. etc. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. In the first use they are adjectives. and another to get cool under. but in this function. 133. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. a word.131. and on each is written. in order to be an adjective pronoun. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.

. A man inspires affection and honor. Even as I have seen. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²LOWELL. They have not shunned the one. 2. accidentally preserved. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. They had fewer books. for example. as seemed good to each. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.²ID.²ID. Exercises. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. when the latter was the King of Spain. they that plow iniquity. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. but what he fain had seen He could not see. because he was not lying in wait for these. and sow wickedness. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Such are a few isolated instances. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Some of these are simple pronouns. or reclined. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. reap the same. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²EMERSON 4. Compound. 5.² They stood.All these he saw. NOTE. Their minds accorded into one strain. and they have well performed the other. 134.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. Simple. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. 3. but these were of the best. Definition and examples.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. or sat.

There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. Men take each other's measure when they react. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. for example. They led one another. as it were. . More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.²EMERSON. you quickly come to the end of all. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. None shall rule but the humble. or melt for others' woe. ²HAWTHORNE. Another opposes him with sound argument.²HAWTHORNE. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. imbued. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. Much might be said on both sides. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. 135. as most were. one another. another. Some inflected. Exercise. paused over a horoscope.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. we might the more easily discharge them. with the superstitions of his time. as.²HOLMES. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The Soldan. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. Definition and examples.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²each other. such as one other.²KINGSLEY.² One reflexive. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. as some of the rangers had gone astray.Two are compound pronouns. The word one has a reflexive form. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.

Somebody. but. nothing. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. as. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. every one (or everyone). Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. every one else. etc.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Every one else stood still at his post. and they. Exercise. some one. somebody else. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. also aught. anybody else's. they are never used as adjectives. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. what. nobody.. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. anything. in building of chaises. everything. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things.Exercise. unlike adjective pronouns. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. and somewhat." It means something. everybody else. I tell you what. They indefinite means people in general.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. anyone else. Now. they say. . These other souls draw me as nothing else can. no one. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. everybody. Jove laughs. 136. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. and was indefinite in Old English. naught. something. any one (or anyone). 137. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. as shown in the words everybody's. anybody. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. etc.² At lovers' perjuries.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Definition and examples.²SHAKESPEARE.

6. and of no other. A reminder. 18. 2. 16. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. to which. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 13.²a feature of natural scenery for which. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Hutchinson tells us of herself. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 3. 4. 12. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 14. All was now ready for action. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Whoever deals with M. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 11. For this did God send her a great reward. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 9. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 8. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 138. indeed. . A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). round as the shield of my fathers! 15. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. Exercise. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. in his negotiations. Others did the same thing. were suffered to depart. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. The table was good. 7. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. O thou that rollest above. I first found myself among the mountains. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 5. 17. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. from my earliest days. 10.

A smile of hers was like an act of grace. variety. 26. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 34. Whatever he knows and thinks. And will your mother pity me. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.19. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 25. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. who take the world easy. that let him communicate. hear! 33. and tracedWords which I could not guess of.Who knew thee too well.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. hear. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 27. in all its height. 30. 29. 32. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 21. thou rollest now. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. oh. And I had done a hellish thing. 31. He sate him down. 35. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere.Destroyer and preserver. and seized a pen. I who alone am. well-oiled dispositions. 23. eat white bread or brown.And it would work 'em woe. They know not I knew thee. behold now the semblance of my being. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing.

43. . and so he read.36. 41. As to the kind of words used. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. etc. It may have this office alone. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. brittle or tough. ADJECTIVES. such as in the expressions "this man. or gaseous. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. So with any object." The office of an adjective. 42. We need to add some words to tell its color. that is our permanent state." "some cities. so that no other will be mistaken for it. Office of Adjectives. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. and if we are near. Who hears me. white or red." "that house. the number is limited by adjectives. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid." "yonder hill. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. and he learns who receives. position. 44. who understands me. in pointing out an object. heavy or light. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun." etc. Substantives. or liquid.. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 37. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. if we are at a distance. which was no bad step towards my liberation. Again. 139. He teaches who gives. 40. 45. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. etc. For example. as. He knew not what to do. If a chemist discovers a new substance. then. We are by nature observers. 38. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object." "a hundred men. "one hat. adjectives are used. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. size. or with persons. becomes mine. 39.

Nouns are not. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. it shows that he weighs men's minds." "ice-cold water. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. however. divine. 142." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. etc. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." "half-dead traveler. to forgive. derived from proper nouns. terrible. Infinitives. pointing out particular things. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." "unlooked-for burden. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." "the Roman writer Palladius. remotest.² BACON.²POPE." "ivory-handled pistols. rash." "this life-giving book. Definition. 141. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." they constitute all his connections. such as." "the Christian pearl of charity.140. fair. Classes of adjectives. used to tell how many things are spoken of. to describe it or to limit its application. To make this clear. beautiful. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. To err is human. (4) Pronominal adjectives. 143. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. deep." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES.²COLERIDGE." the "and there. "Heaven-derived power. With exception of the "and then. (2) Adjectives of quantity. "an old English manuscript. such as safe. Examples are. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. and their trash." "next-door neighbor. They include relative and interrogative words." and the still less significant "and so. or how much of a thing." . happy. If he be thankful for small benefits. words primarily pronouns.

" "trailing clouds. which are either pure participles used to describe. Examples are.²MACDONALD." Caution." "an aged man." "It came on like the rolling simoom. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "a charming sight. Care is needed. 145. in studying these last-named words." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. sometimes small. in this. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. 2. Oxenham. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. 143. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. and another is drunken.²COLERIDGE. For instance: in the sentence. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." "One is hungry." was accomplished is a verb." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. They have these three subdivisions:² How much." "The shattered squares have opened into line. no. much. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." was is the verb. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. any. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. considerable." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. but small thoughts have I of sleep. 'Tis midnight. some. ." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. Exercises. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. having some of each subclass named in Sec. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. 144. 1. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." "The clearness and quickness are amazing.But ever she looked on Mr. and accomplished is an adjective.

but I have gained fourscore. its wake. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. no. Thus. every village. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²CARLYLE. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.² Every town had its fair. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence." "I have lost one brother. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. they come under the next division of adjectives. Exercise. yonder (or yon). Not primarily pronouns. any. 146. The list." "Then we wandered for many days. and with them a few negroes. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." (b) Indefinite numerals.²ID." "a dozen volunteers." "In came some five and twenty more. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." "He had lived by hunting for some months.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking.²THACKERAY." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. When some. that. (plural these. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.²KINGSLEY." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. The following sentences present some examples:² . but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. How many. former. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. latter. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. as. Examples. those).²VAUGHAN. An arrow was quivering in each body. the former²the latter. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." Single ones of any number of changes. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. "one blaze of musketry. are used with plural nouns. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. instead of modifying them. The demonstrative adjectives are this. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives.

About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. skill which was at pause. like the other numerals. Modify names of persons or things. 149. .²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. Oxenham fought desperately.²BANCROFT. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. of equal skill. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²D.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. they are changed to adjectives.²WORDSWORTH. 148. tell how many things are meant. but. These do not.. Definition.²RUSKIN.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. FRANKLIN. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. WEBSTER. skill which was progressive²in the other.²KINGSLEY. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. They are of two kinds. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Exercise.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. As has been said.²ID. The taking of which bark.but all these charms are fled. ²CARLYLE. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. In which evil strait Mr. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²ID. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²GOLDSMITH. for example. Indefinite relative adjectives. just as the corresponding pronouns do. These were thy charms. but in the one case. what revenues or garnitures. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. The silver and laughing Xenil. I verily believe.."²B.² It matters not what rank he has. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. 147.²BULWER. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.

which is selective among what is known. and gaze.150. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.²IRVING. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.²LAMB.And whichsoever way I turn.² EMERSON. nature will be sure to bear us out in. He was turned before long into all the universe. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. you at least give him full authority over your son. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.²ID. In direct questions. the debt to the rich. or whether any.²AGASSIZ. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). Adjective what in exclamations.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whatever. 151. it is impossible to determine.²CARLYLE. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. In indirect questions. whichsoever. what inquires about things or persons not known. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.²RUSKIN. Whatsoever kind of man he is. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. which. and new tormentedAround me. .. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. as it rather seemed. As in the pronouns. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whichever. A lady once remarked. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. whichsoever way I move. New torments I behold. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. proved not altogether displeasing to him. whatsoever. But when the Trojan war comes. Was there. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. Examples of their use are.. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.

The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. we do so by means of their qualities. Those borrowed from this. of the quality. etc.²number and comparison.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. and those as the plural of that. weight. the making of it right. In exclamatory expressions.. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs.² Oh. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. That.²This. alas. 155.152. All these have certain qualities. which was fully inflected in Old English. and when we compare the objects. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. 154. Thus. or weight. But this had also another plural. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. we notice some differences between them as to size. Exercise. those). what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. th s (modern those). This is the old demonstrative. or amount. And yet. Meaning of comparison. The article that was used with neuter nouns. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this.²but not the same degree. a sapphire is bluer than the sky.Adjectives have two inflections. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. as. or size. NUMBER. color. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. It is neither relative nor interrogative.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. COMPARISON. . 153 . The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. When we place two objects side by side. etc. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. gold is heavier than iron. History of this²these and that²those.

" "the commonest speech. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. and the superlative. organic. 157. The two forms. 160. they are not compared. A main difference betwixt men is." "It is a nobler valor. but were not common until a century later." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. whether they attend their own affair or not." Words that cannot be compared. and the superlative by adding -est. bluest. or amounts in quantity. supreme. 159. These are called degrees of comparison. easy. red." "the largest soul. 158. and many others. but. sufficient. . expressing the greatest degree of quality. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. "untamed thought. Definition. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. giant-like. They came into use about the thirteenth century.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality.²THACKERAY. as. So with the words sole. easier.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. These are properly the only degrees. indomitable.²SEWARD. with less wit. bluer. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. to the simple form. universal institution. Freedom is a perpetual. infinite. "more matter. expressing a greater degree of quality. whose favorite pupil he was. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. easiest. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. The comparative is formed by adding -er." "no fewer than a hundred. Substitute for inflection in comparison. great. for example.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. reddest. blue. though the simple. enormous. strictly considered. redder. immemorial. indefatigable. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. as. 156. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality.

" "distantest relationships. though born in no very high degree. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. 162." "sorrowfulest spectacles. there needed to be a most genuine substance.²ID.² CARLYLE A gentleman. Adjectives irregularly compared. and patientest fusing." said Henry Esmond." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. peaceablest.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. most small.²The Nation. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. admirablest. "So help me God. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. I will. strange. and other words are preceded by more and most." "more odd. harsh forms are usually avoided. madam. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. The general rule is. who. as.Which rule. The following lists include the majority of them:² . Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. and yet familiar. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. etc. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. quiet. was most finished." "more austere and holy. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. honestest. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. which hung behind in the queerest way. polished. These are adjectives irregularly compared. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck." Carlyle uses beautifulest. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. falling on his knees. These long. indisputablest. 163." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables." "the wonderfulest little shoes. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. finest chiseling. easy. witty. mournfulest.²ID.

uppermost LIST III.² We have it in a much lesser degree. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. hindermost Much or many More Farther. [Out] Outer. bad. last Hindmost. A double comparative. worst. 7. The superlative I form was betst. as in Shakespeare. next Nearest Latest. least. Worser was once used. lesser Elder. is often used. 5. These have no adjective positive:² 1. evil was the positive to worse.LIST I. 2. furthest 10. 4. innermost Outmost. . 6. uttermost Upmost. [In] Inner Inmost.² O.²HAMLET. a double comparative.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). as. 8. (2) In Old English. Hind 2. There was an old comparative bet. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 3. List I. which has softened to the modern best. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. (3) Little is used as positive to less. outermost Utmost. oldest Nighest. further Farthest. utter 3. which has gone out of use. latter Hinder LIST II. 164. 1. 9. older Nigher Nearer Later. though from a different root. Good or well Evil. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. as in the sentence (14th century). lesser. throw away the worser part of it.

as. greatest.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. further. List II. an old superlative ending. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative.²forth. eldest. etc. since the m is for -ma. or series. Since later. In imitation of further. a distinction has grown up between the two series. to which is added -ost. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. came into use. Between the two sets as they now stand. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.² The more part being of one mind. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. making the modern farther." Its spelling has been micel. are earlier than older. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. First became entirely detached from the series. farrest. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. and refer to time. but originally the comparison was nigh. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. strong. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. doubling the inflection. for example. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. near.²ID. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (5) The forms elder. the old forms. is quite common. latest. instead of lenger.²HAWTHORNE. but not in meaning. farthest. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. there is scarcely any distinction. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. are shown in such phrases as. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. "Many a little makes a mickle.²KINGSLEY.. except the form next.. strenger. etc. . latter and last are used in speaking of succession. The latter. The meanings greater. next. muchel. The most part kept a stolid indifference. much. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. oldest. great. and the superlative nearest. to England we sailed. moche. ²LAMB. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. first. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. meaning the largest part. as long. furthest. th came into the others.

Decidedly handsome. BEECHER." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. 166." "The outer is of the day. 168. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. was descried The royal banner floating wide. in having no adjective positives. by the by. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. There." "far-seeing as the sun.165. Highest and midmost. W." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. They have no superlatives. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. The adjectives in List III. 167. In List II.²DE QUINCEY. The comparatives are so in form. or each may modify a different word or group of words. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Her bows were deep in the water. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. List III. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence.²H. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Think what each adjective belongs to. and have no comparative force.²SCOTT. on the very topmost twig. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. or have no comparative forms. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. but her after deck was still dry. are like the comparative forms in List II. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²HAWTHORNE. Her.²EMERSON. but they have no adjective positives. all may belong to the same noun." -Most added to other words.²KINGSLEY." "their utmost exertion. being merely descriptive." "the innermost moral soul. but not in their meaning. (Sec. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. the upper light of the world.²DE QUINCEY. .

rich. 7. now our queen." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. Other instances are. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²TRENCH.²RUSKIN. philosophical. But in this sentence. deep. Richard Hooker." in which then is an adverb. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. the then and still owners. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. For thy stomach's sake. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²HAWTHORNE. H." making then an adjective. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Bradbury and Evans.²HOLMES. and heaven-defying oaths. and broken. our new government. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES.²HAWTHORNE. STOWE. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. 2. "the one who was then king. solid. In the following quotations. 6. satisfactory.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. as. usual modifies incomparable decision. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. By a convenient brevity. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. bright. therefore. ²TROLLOPE. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. and moral truth.²NOAH PORTER.²BIBLE. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. in this sentence. instead of saying. .²MRS. The seldom use of it. 169. A few improper jests and a volley of good. deeply black eyes.²A. 4.² My then favorite. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. Exercise. round. It may still be argued. STEPHENS 5. not decision alone. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. May we not. and thine often infirmities.For example. Our sometime sister. in prose. we may say "the then king. This. 3.

3. Since adjectives have no gender. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday.What to tell in parsing. Unfamiliar describes truths. therefore demonstrative. cannot be compared. if it has number. MODEL FOR PARSING. person. and very few have number. These points out what truths. manly way. frank. This gave the young people entire freedom. not inflected for number. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. plural number. the method of parsing is simple. (2) Its number. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. modifies the word truths. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. . then. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. modifies truths. In parsing an adjective. positive degree. across the plain. this. She made no reply. seventy-five drachmas. 2. compared by prefixing more and most. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 170. having a singular. or case. (4) What word or words it modifies. 10. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. 8. therefore descriptive. and most astounding were those frightful yells. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. with awkward but rapid pace. if it can be compared. 9. I ask nothing of you. (3) Its degree of comparison. Exercise. To every Roman citizen he gives. 4. 7. 6. and I waited for none. 5. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. To every several man. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice.

is the settlement of our own country. 26. he won affections with ease. 22. not so much for travelers that were few. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 13. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. suggests such thoughts as these. To say what good of fashion we can. I know not what course others may take. 21. Here lay two great roads. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. are immutably fishes. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Nearer to our own times. 33. as for armies that were too many by half. 31. . and dogs. 28. it rests on reality. and therefore more interesting to us. during which time I waited. In music especially. growing in the most unfavorable position. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 23. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 20. 29. 14. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 32. 24. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. the tomahawk fell. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. oxen. Like most gifted men. 16. 25. it is so noble a fruit. Their name was the last word upon his lips. the same love to France would have been nurtured. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. yonder oxen in the pasture. and many poles supported the lower ones. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. those dogs in the yard. 19. With every third step. 12. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. Two hours elapsed. 27.11. 18. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country.

An historian. ARTICLES.²BREWER. In the sentence. the tither. were formerly that one. such as we have been attempting to describe.²SCOTT. 171. An or a came from the old numeral n. the tother. or the tane. An before vowel sounds. just as adjectives do. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. the other. for example. even when not silent. he is no literary man." "an honor." An with consonant sounds. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. that other. later th . with an ordinary little garden. 37. these occurring as the tane. weary-hearted man was he. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. Examples: "a house. ðat." "a yelling crowd. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. s o. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives." "a European. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Two relics. Their origin. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. in vulgar English.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. Our expressions the one. 35. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. 172. sometimes the tother. 173.34. and a before consonant sounds.²MACAULAY. 174. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. the latter is still preserved in the expression. but the former is used." the words the and an belong to nouns. meaning one. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. that) which was also an article in Old English. In Middle English the became an article. a before consonant sounds. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Many writers use an before h. th o." "an orange. the tother. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. A hard-struggling. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. .

176. and when the word river is omitted. An or a is the indefinite article. Reference to a known object.²G. or group. Kinds.²This use is noticed when. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. To call attention to attributes. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri.²IRVING. 177. which cannot be used alone..²THACKERAY..² Don't you remember how." the article indicates clearly that a river. as "the Mississippi. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. as in the sentence. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. since it points out a particular individual. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. Articles are either definite or indefinite. or class. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. or a group or class of things. is referred to. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. When the is prefixed to a proper name. a person is introduced by a.. An hereditary tenure of these offices.²COLERIDGE. An article is a limiting word. doubtless. the older n. on opening a story. thus. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.² .²HEROES OF ASGARD. The is the definite article. and not a state or other geographical division. Definition." "the Ohio. 178. NOTE. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. 175. not descriptive. With names of rivers. An and a are different forms of the same word. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. The Dakota tribes. 179. or any individual of a group or class. BANCROFT.

Kant. For possessive person pronouns. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.²G. laid it on the miry spot.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. 2. the Spinoza. His messages to the provincial authorities.²EMERSON. One thing for its class. With adjectives used as nouns. and the redwing. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. would speedily extract the required information. 180. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 183. but into the region of all the virtues. the Hume. 181. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.² The faint.²KINGSLEY.²EMERSON.² As she hesitated to pass on. not into a particular virtue. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.²GIBBON. Caution. 1. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. The simple rise as by specific levity. Half abstract. the song sparrow. The. the gallant.The Bacon. Schelling. 182. BANCROFT. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. as. If the good is there. so is the evil. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²MOTLEY. etc. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. NOTE. for example. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. her.²ID.²SCOTT. Common. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. or a match put between the fingers. .²ID. With plural of abstract nouns.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

in (2." Examine the sentences in Sec. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. in (3. Each influences some object. The nature of the transitive verb. 200: In (1). which may be a person. In the first. 203. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. and to receive the action expressed. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. in (c). b). are united with verbs as one verb phrase. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. lone took what? answer. a). in (b). and a preposition unite as a verb. etc. with some word understood. in (2. representing something which it influences or controls. an adverb. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. in (3. Hence Definition. Now. 204.²BULWER . to go is no predicate. The nature of intransitive verbs. Of those expressing action. A verb is a word used as a predicate. hence is not a verb. In giving a definition. Has takes the object hypocrisy. and not a verb. a noun." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. to say something to or about some person or thing. "Put money in thy purse. which means to go over. taking the staff which always guided her steps. from the Latin transire. care. (can) shame also has an object. endured what? anguish. Definition and caution. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. In each case. or an idea. a preposition. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. b). or a material thing. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. 201.In (a). and. In the sentence. all do not express it in the same way. but fearing is not a predicate. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. All these are called transitive verbs. and shame the most astute. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. a verb. the most astute. in this sentence from Bulwer. we consider a verb as one word. but cannot be predicates. the word following. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. as. the most penetrating. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. an article. or the object. 202."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it." put is the predicate. for example. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. can deceive has an object. By examining a few verbs. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. "Put thou money in thy purse. c). obeyed is a predicate.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

215.I could lie down like a tired child. Ideal. he will see the need of these ethics. the first great founder of the Empire. the second founder.²MACAULAY. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec.² If.²FRANKLIN. as. Most excellent stranger.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.²SHELLEY.²LONGFELLOW. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. Again. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. If this be the glory of Julius. but. Unreal²cannot be true. 2). is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. ²EMERSON. popular government must be pronounced impossible.²D. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. as. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. and may or may not be regarded true. in our case. 221. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.²may or may not be true. or be fulfilled. the representative system ultimately fail. the writer can make the statement following. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. they were recorded in the Book of Life. .²BRYCE.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.² Now. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. 222. Condition or Supposition. I. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. WEBSTER. for example.

But in no case could it be justified. 7.²N. Subjunctive of Purpose. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.² It was necessary. If he had reason to dislike him. he had better not have written. she was regarded as a prodigy. NOTE. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.² CARLYLE. Epaminondas. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. 6. would have sat still with joy and peace.²CALHOUN. may. do you think.²FRANKLIN. might. the clause being introduced by that or lest. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.. which cannot be true. to drink strong beer. if his lot had been mine.. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.²MACAULAY.² If these things were true. etc. though.. I told him.²FRANKLIN. is of similar physiognomy. 5.²EMERSON. he supposed. especially be. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. that we cannot but regret its absence. 8. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. WILLIS. that he might be strong to labor. is used to express purpose. if he was the man I take him for. since he [Byron] was dead.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. and should. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. unless. and sonorous. II. and striven energetically to save Ney." etc. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. 3. ²LOWELL. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. except.. . clear. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. but when the verb precedes the subject. as. 2.²BAYNE. melodious. The voice. would you. if he speak to you. P. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. In the following conditional clauses. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. society could not hold together. 4. The subjunctive. 223. thus. Exercise.²SWIFT. and what kind of condition:² 1.

Were wafted off to seas unknown. .²DE QUINCEY.. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. 226. In Temporal Clauses. Ask the great man if there be none greater. 227. So live. VI. In Indirect Questions. The English subjunctive. I would it were! ²EMERSON. 224. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside..Thou go not. the answer being regarded as doubtful.I have been the more particular. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. within its fairy bowers.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.That vain it were her eyes to close. I've wished that little isle had wings. IV. 225. Expressing a Wish. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. III. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.²MOORE.²D.²ID. like the Latin.²CARLYLE. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.And we. To tell of what had passed. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.. WEBSTER. After a verb of wishing.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. V.²BRYANT. Let it rise. Subjunctive of Result. none of us could say. VII. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. till it meet the sun in his coming. Rise up. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. In a Noun Clause.²COLERIDGE. like the quarry-slave at night. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.²SOUTHEY..²WORDSWORTH.

object.² DICKENS. . tell me all that thou hast seen.. we'll turn aside.²WORDSWORTH.²CARLYLE. Whatever betide. After verbs of commanding.Subject. is. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²COLERIDGE.And see the Braes of Yarrow. Come. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. The first merit.²THOREAU.²SCOTT. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. See that there be no traitors in your camp. 229. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. Concessive Clauses. I have no thought what men they be. which may be (a) Pronoun.²TENNYSON. The noun clause. of cash. (b) Adjective. 228. in apposition. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. VIII. Object. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²DE QUINCEY.²SHELLEY.And look thou tell me true. The essence of originality is not that it be new. that everything be in its place.² Be the matter how it may.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. or whatsoever victual it may be. Some might lament that I were cold. for example. often contains a subjunctive. That hunger of applause. is the ultimate fact of man's life. etc. in its various uses as subject.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.²COLERIDGE. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Complement.

that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. It must be remembered. entreaties. (3) Request. . 231.(c) Adverb. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.²SHELLEY. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. Honor all men. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. 232. though.² CARLYLE. Oh. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. In spoken English. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. (2) Entreaty. fear none.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. point to their immortal works. a concession. or requests. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. however. 230. Q. to express a wish. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. love all men. At the present day. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. IMPERATIVE MOOD. and condition contrary to fact. ADAMS.²J. Usually second person. for example. Definition.The spirit he loves remains. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²BRYANT. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. we had found [should have found] a poem here.²CHANNING. (1) Command.

"Hush! mother.One glance at their array! 5. but I + you. Whatever inconvenience ensue. "The Devil take the goose. there will her heart and her prayers be. 7. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. 3.. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. 6. Mark thou this difference. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. request. child of earth!While each performs his part. 8. lest we rust in ease. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. etc.And God forget the stranger!" . Sometimes with first person in the plural.²CAMPBELL. "Come along with me. receive my hand." Exercises on the Moods." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. or I + they.. Quoth she. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. noble earl. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Part we in friendship from your land.²SCOTT. Oh. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.And. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. 2.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart." whispered Kit. Break we our watch up.²SHAKESPEARE. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4."²DICKENS Tell me. to you implied in it. we may use the imperative with we in a command. etc. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. nothing is to be preferred before justice.

. 11. let him live where else he like. then.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast.That they might answer him. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. Well.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. That sheaf of darts.Except. "Mr. "tell me where I may find my poor. He. 21. but repentant child." 25. Think not that I speak for your sakes. "Oh. 19. as though an instrument. Though he were dumb." continued Old Morgan. whether he do it right or wrong. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 26. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.High up in silver spikes! 22. 14.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. no literary man. Forget thyself to marble. 18. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 23. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. how he may do his work. He is. she ought to have it." cried he. 10. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Marshall. ruined.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. 13. my dear madam. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has." 16. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. in what pomps and prosperities he like. and opinion displace opinion. or do it at all. 20. it would speak. Though abyss open under abyss. That a man parade his doubt.9. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. will it not fall unbound.

there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. Old English had only two tenses. "Thou walkest. have. as will be shown later on. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no.² present. and future perfect tenses." present. past. past perfect. 234. tell him to wait. or agree with it.²the present tense. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. as. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. kind. five in the subjunctive. to direct his steps. such as Latin and Greek. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. in the third person singular. or future time. "It is not in man that walketh.27." "If he comes. Meantime." . such as be. 233. and future. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages.²nothing could exceed the amiable. and unassuming deportment of Mrs.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. PERSON AND NUMBER. called auxiliaries. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. Siddons. or whether it were as one member of a general party. Tenses in English." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. the past. 28. 235. Tense means time." past. by means of the present. The tenses in detail. will. as. also. shall. and the past tense. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. "I go away tomorrow. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. which represented present and future time. When the older pronoun thou was in use. whatever she did. Definition. "Thou walkedst. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. as the classical languages have. past. TENSE. five in the imperative. in the conjugations. a form ending in -eth. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. and the future tense.

been. etc. Singular 1. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. Singular 1. moods. singular number. Singular 1. CONJUGATION. 238. chooseth. The verb be has more forms.²am. You are 2. chosest). tense. is. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. "He walks. walk has walk. tenses. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. persons. [He] were [They] were . PRESENT TENSE. chose. Such verbs as choose have five. Singular 1. choosing. walked.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. as. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. choosest. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. I were 2. walks. In classical languages. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. walkedst. Indicative Mood. You (thou) be 3. and numbers." and this only in the present tense indicative.²choose. were. PRESENT TENSE. wert) 3. 237. walketh. This is the third person. walking. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Definition. chosen (old. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. 236. Few forms. chooses. since it is composed of several different roots. etc. are. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. but in English. for example. [He] is [They] are 3. I be 2. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. mood.

Remarks on the verb be. same as the German sind. to express intention. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. were. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. condition. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. for example. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. -en. as. which was now become an occasional banquet.. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. 239. etc. though it is usually a dialect form. obligation.²SHELLEY. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. The light that never was on sea and land.²ID. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. thus.²BURKE . (2) As auxiliary verbs. 240. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. is. (d) With the infinitive.His infancy was nurtured. (3) be.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. (2) was. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.²WORDSWORTH. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.Imperative Mood. Instead of the plural are..²SCOTT.²GOLDSMITH. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. to form the passive voice.²THACKERAY. etc. (b) With the past participle in -ed. in four ways.

I choose 2. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 240. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood." (2) Present perfect. [He] choose [They] choose 3. future perfect. Singular. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. In addition to the above inflected forms. "I have gone" (present perfect). had. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). as. Singular.241. Indicative Mood. etc. I choose 2. 1. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. 1. tenses. PRESENT TENSE. (2). The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Singular. 1. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. We chose You chose 3. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. tenses. Singular. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. I chose 2. past perfect. 1. I chose 2." "He will choose. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. . We chose You chose 3. You chose Plural. "I had gone" (past perfect). made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. You choose Plural. by placing have. as. You chose Plural. Machinery of a verb in the voices. 242. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. You choose Plural. "I shall be.

Future perfect. [If. Same as indicative. Past. Present. He was choosing. Present. of each tense. . Future perfect definite. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present. He will he choosing. Past. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He had been choosing. Indicative Mood. He has chosen.) Choose. Past definite. He chose. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He has been choosing.] he choose. " Be choosing." "You are chosen. Subjunctive Mood. "I am running." (4) The passive forms.(3) The definite form of each tense. He will have been choosing. he have been choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. as. He will choose. Past perfect definite. Future. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. as. Present perfect definite. Past perfect. Present perfect definite. Present definite. He will have chosen. Imperative Mood. he chose (or were to choose). Only the third person. will be given. "I was chosen. he have chosen. Present perfect. He chooses. etc. Present definite. He is choosing. He had chosen." "They had been running. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present perfect. lest. Past definite. though. Same as indicative. singular number." 243. Present definite. Future definite. (2d per.

None. He will have been chosen. Subjunctive Mood. He had been chosen. Future perfect. Present perfect. Present perfect. Past definite. ." "He did strike.) Be chosen. Future. He was being chosen. Present perfect definite. "He does strike.. Indicative Mood. None. Past. Future perfect definite.²This table is not to be learned now. (2d per. he have been chosen. Past.] [If.] he be chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. He is being chosen. he were being chosen. Exercises should be given. " " " " " " " None. Future definite. Present. 262). Present definite. but verbals. He has been chosen. Imperative Mood. if learned at all. Past perfect definite. Also. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. None. He was chosen." [Note to Teacher. None. Past perfect definite. lest. None. Present. Past perfect. however. Past definite. PASSIVE VOICE. Present definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. He is chosen. etc. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). he had been chosen.NOTE. He will be chosen. Present perfect definite. though. Past Perfect. in affirmative sentences. Present tense.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. as. they will be discussed later (Sec. None.

Definition.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. drive. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . slept. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. caught. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. catch. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS.[adj. According to form. NOTE. as. bounden] bitten. Some of these also have weak forms. Kinds. sleep. laid. bid bound. lay. Past Tense. beg. begged. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. bit blown broken chidden. 244. ran. 245. drove. run. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. and may or may not change the vowel: as. which are in parentheses Present Tense. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. verbs are strong or weak. but adds no ending.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten.

stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound . sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang.

Sometimes in literary English. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.² Thou hast clomb aloft. and another (born) for the passive. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. only one set remains certain." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²one meaning to adhere or cling.²as (from Shakespeare). borne is also a passive. but is much used in vulgar English. and the latter. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.²MILTON. probably to avoid confusion with this. Historically.²COLERIDGE." In this confusion of usage. clave or clove.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Our cock. The former used to be cleave.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.²TENNYSON. and. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). . and sometimes occurs in poetry. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. as. as.² We had each drank three times at the well. ²THACKERAY. TAYLOR. especially in that of an earlier period." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. instead of ate and eaten. cloven.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.²B." "a sunken snag. "his bounden duty. which always crew at eleven. as (from Holmes).²IRVING. as. now told us it was time for repose.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. cleaved. Not a cock crew. to split. the other. cleave." "a drunken wretch. for example. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. When it means to carry or to endure. cleft. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. cleft (to split). 246. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. cleaved. The form clomb is not used in prose."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²GOLDSMITH. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²cleave. nor a dog barked." "the cloven hoof. "stricken with paralysis.

3. even in poetry. found. 9. froze. Usually shear is a weak verb. shook. Exercises. Break.²SCOTT. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. One example out of many is. 7. and seized a pen. Fling. threw. 10. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Begin. We usually say. shore is rare. gave. maiden. 8. 4. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. for example. He sate him down. which is seldom used except in poetry. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. shaken. broken.²DE FOE. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. 245)." but not much as a participle.²BYRON. This heard Geraint. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. for example. given.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. (a) From the table (Sec. and grasping at his sword. Shake. drove. Freeze. Throw."²KINGSLEY. Find.²WORDSWORTH. 2. broke. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. flung. Fall. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. driven.²TENNYSON. flung.The form gotten is little used.² If. Drive. 6.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.²BIBLE. began. as." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. The butler was hanged. thrown. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. found. . Give. frozen. fallen.² We had all got safe on shore. 5. begun. as "a shorn lamb. fell. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.

²SCOTT. must have been an ocular deception.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. The same remarks apply to ought. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. purpose." Must is present or past tense. but came through analogy with should and would. Could may be subjunctive. there is one general principle. 251. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. The l in could did not belong there originally. as it has two meanings. "So mote it be. as it sometimes does. or when it expresses wish. etc. (See also Sec. PRESENT.²CHANNING This. which survives in the sentence. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248.. from the obsolete verb motan.[To the Teacher.. of course.²PAINE. Like must.. according to the infinitive used. They are as follows:² PRESENT. or. it is used only in the indicative mood. Must is historically a past-tense form.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. as in Sec. PAST. 247. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. "far off his coming shines.. Have we valuable territories and important posts. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. 223. Subjunctive use. as.²HAWTHORNE. ability. etc. . Ability. It is indicative when it expresses permission.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. 250. 249. Indicative Use: Permission."²WINIER. Can is used in the indicative only. 220. PAST.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.²CHANNING. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. for full drill on the forms. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. HAMILTON.. His superiority none might question. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.

. Second and third persons. "I think I will go. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.² (a) To express authority. shall and should are used. The sea shall crush thee. she should ride like a queen.²MACAULAY. what shall I say?²N.²COOPER. to use will and would. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.²LONGFELLOW. for example. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.² With respect to novels. She rejects his suit with scorn.Nay. She should not walk. while ought always has to.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. in the form of command. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. with pronouns of the first person. as. promise. MOULTON.²IRVING. or confident prediction.²BULWER. WEBSTER.² The time will come full soon. and corn to hoe. as. my lad. 252. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. (b) In indirect quotations. . They shall have venison to eat.² Futurity and questions²first person. to the neglect of shall and should. yea. especially in the United States. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. I shall be gone. (b) In questions asking for orders. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. he said. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. BROCKDEN BROWN. The following are examples:² Never mind.e. C. future action)." Uses of shall and should. as.²THAXTER. shall and should are used. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. not plod along like apeasant. Shall and Will.²L.

²BYRON.²WORDSWORTH. as. 253.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. purpose. I never was what I should be. was to be expected.²H. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.²CABLE...that I would do him justice. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. . BROWN. or a promise. JAMES.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. second and third persons. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. and is equivalent to ought. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. And promised.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. as the sole inventor. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²ROGERS. LARNED. First. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. thus. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. for example.²SCOTT. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. and will not return until all is finished. JR.²WINTER. etc.² I will go myself now. for example. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²SWIFT. Disguising a command.²A. B. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²C. with the conviction that he should win in the end.²WORDSWORTH. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²WORDSWORTH. time.

. for example. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. The gift of Beauty. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. AND THIRD PERSONS. (4) With FIRST. for example.²IRVING. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. Would thou hadst it not.²SCOTT.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. and mark on the grounds the works. as. B.²BANCROFT. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. When I am in town. This puts the order more mildly. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. To be sure.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. SECOND. will is used to express command. for punishment or intimidation. through storms their brothers are afraid of.² Subject I omitted: often so. as. In this stately chair would he sit. would is used to express a wish. They will go to Sunday schools. action merely expected to occur. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. Roland. as if it were merely expected action. and two of my people. will and would are used to express simple futurity... so you will. 254. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.²War Records. Mere futurity. ..²BURKE.²LANDOR. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). will and would often denote an action as customary. PASSIVE VOICE.² Thou wilt take the skiff.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. etc. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. when thou wast born.² DICKENS.. without regard to future time.²SCOTT. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. BROWN. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.. Thine was a dangerous gift.²the original meaning of the word will.

3. Exercises on Shall and Will. [He] shall choose. 2. 3. [They] shall choose. [He] will be chosen. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. Plural. 3. yet only seem. We shall choose. You shall be chosen. 2. etc. 2. "I shall not run. Plural." answered Herbert stubbornly. 1. 1. promise. You will choose. To express determination. [They] shall be chosen. You will be chosen. Plural. 2. You shall be chosen. 3. You will choose. 3. (a) From Secs.:² ACTIVE VOICE. I shall be chosen. [They] will choose. 2. You will be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Thou shalt have a suit. We will choose. 1. You shall choose. 2. 1. and that of the newest cut. I shall choose. Thou art what I would be. Plural. You shall choose. Singular. 3.Singular. 4. 6. [They] will be chosen. I will choose. 1. Singular. [He] will choose. He informed us. (b) Examine the following sentences. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. We will be chosen. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. Singular. and justify the use of shall and will. [He] shall be chosen. 252 and 253. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. I will be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. 5. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. We shall be chosen. .

The beast made a sluggish movement. 10. put. But the rest. 13.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle." 14. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. very anxious. and have no change of vowel. "I am a wayfarer. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 255. 9. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 257. which may be called irregular weak verbs. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.²ID. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. 11. need some attention and explanation. as if he would have more of the enchantment. bereaved besought . bereave beseech bereft.²Class I. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while.7.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. 12. put. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. The old ending to verbs of Class II. Lucy stood still. my son. as. bereave besought Past Participle. set. WEAK VERBS. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. set.²CHAUCER." the stranger said. and I have nothing to say. or mylk and wastel breed. bereft. put. Past Tense. Irregular Weak Verbs. This ending has now dropped off. Of smale houndes hadde she. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 256. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. was -de or -te. No. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. then. Present Tense. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. Without having attended to this.

burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Nothing of the kind having been done. To with the infinitive. [To] be chosen. Cases when to is omitted. [To] have been choosing. to express action unconnected with a subject. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. 268. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. 267. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. have no tense. 266. and a perfect definite form. [To] choose. In Sec. as in the Old English. When active. ACTIVE VOICE. Perfect. to was used before the infinitive generally. Indefinite. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. a perfect. Infinitives. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [To] have chosen. formed a kind of bedstead. Indefinite. [To] be choosing. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). an imperfect. an indefinite and a perfect form. PASSIVE VOICE. when inflections became fewer. Perfect. they have an indefinite. Imperfect. Three saplings. 7. Perfect definite. But later.. expressing purpose.6. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. INFINITIVES.²the creature warring against the creating power. 9. and when passive. like participles. will (with should and would). 10. .. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. I returned to reflection on my situation. [To] have been chosen. try clemency.. 8.

bid (command). "I do go" etc. feel. and corn to hoe.²COOPER. also let. "a house to let." Examples are. hear." "I shall have chosen. it may be the subject of a verb. as.). But there was nothing to do. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. make. . Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. "She ask my pardon.² What! doth she.²E. learn [doth learn is one verb. it is often preceded by the definite article. "He will choose. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.²DE QUINCEY. The gerund is like the participle in form. 271.²GOLDSMITH. must. as. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. please. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²it may be governed as a noun. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT.² She was a kind. it has several attributes of a noun. or the object of a verb or a preposition. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. watch.(2) After the verbs may (might). (3) After had in the idiomatic use.²HOWELLS. E. sometimes need (as. also in the imperative. too. can (could). While the gerund expresses action. as.²TENNYSON. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. do (as. liberal woman. 272. GERUNDS. as in the expression. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent.²IRVING." (4) In exclamations. 270. 269. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. They shall have venison to eat.. as the credulous imagine. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. and like a noun in use.²MACAULAY. under "Analysis." etc. see. negative. and emphatic forms of the present and past. poor woman!" cried Charles. HALE.

(2) Pure participles. after examining the nest. five infinitives. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. brilliant. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. Then how pleasing is it. when." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. b)." Exercise. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. may govern and be governed. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. 2. (6) Verbal nouns. Exercise. 273. which have lost all verbal force. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. which express action. What a vast." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. and wonderful store of learning! . (5) Gerunds. and has been put down. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. according to use as well as meaning. which name an action or state. Sec. Words in -ing are of six kinds. which express action and also modify.²Find sentences containing five participles." "Certainly dueling is bad. on your leaving the spot." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. making the definite tenses." also (2. which express action." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. above. II).Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (4) Pure adjectives. 4. to see the returning hope of the parents. but cannot govern. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. (3) Participial adjectives. but do not assert. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. and five gerunds.

We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. round which is an iron railing. In parsing verbs. write twenty pages without stopping. (3) Mood.²strong or weak. 6. 10. (2) Voice. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. He spread his blessings all over the land. 13. Caution. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. (4) Tense. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. 16. dictating from his chair. give reality to your teaching. 9. or imperative. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. much corroded. 12. I suppose I was dreaming about it.²which of the tenses given in Sec. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. . (b) as to use. giving principal parts. The only means of ascending was by my hands. by object lessons. bearing her national emblem.²active or passive. slowly. What is dreaming? 8.5. (5) Person and number. 234. Thackeray did not. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking.²indicative. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. he gave out sentence by sentence. like Sir Walter Scott. you must. 14. 15.²transitive or intransitive. but. 11. I. 7. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 275. VERBS. subjunctive.

" but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. and should always be analyzed as phrases. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. we must beware of the rule. Parse the verbs. would. may. and not taken as single verbs. 278. could. . (1) Participle. II. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. followed by a pure infinitive without to. and ends in -s. (2) Infinitive. etc. In such sentences as 1. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. and parting day linger and play on its summit. 278(2). and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. no sin nor sorrow. 3. 277. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. intransitive. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. It has been intimated in Sec. in the world. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. definite. past tense. till it meet the sun in his coming. indicative (as it means could). call might a weak verb. Take these examples:² 1. then parse it as an adjective. has for its subject Lee. (3) Gerund. You are gathered to your fathers. has the subject government. might. usually it does not. etc. intransitive. imperfect." Sometimes it does.276. If a participial adjective. call should a weak verb. In 2. indicative. But unless the verb is present. 4. therefore active. verbals. 2. 273).. The government might have been strong and prosperous. (a) From what verb derived. past tense. perfect. III. Especially frequent are those made up of should. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (b) its use (Sec. can. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. 235. VERB PHRASES. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. must. (c) to what word it belongs. Let it rise! let it rise. give points (a) and (b). and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. VERBALS. (b) whether indefinite. 2. active. Exercise. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. (b) whether active or passive. perfect. see Sec.

24. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 9. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. So. . 10. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. see that it is in good condition. as rolled from wing to wing. 15. 21. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 12. With them. he thought only of her. 14. 18.O God. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. a sweet good will. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. Whatever ground you sow or plant. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. In going for water. 22. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. as the Hindoos say. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 8. 17. 20. However that be.Henceforth in me instill. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. He passed across the room to the washstand. as usual. 19. 6.Down all the line. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 13. and wondered if she were yet awake. Right graciously he smiled on us. The soul having been often born. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. When he arose in the morning. 16. from a sort of temporary death. morning is not a new issuing of light. or.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. a deafening shout. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts.5. 23. leaving me upon the bed. a new waking up of all that has life. 11. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. a new bursting forth of the sun.

for the hour of rest is at hand.Feast while we may. And now wend we to yonder fountain. 26. thou sayest. ADVERBS. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²time. for example. Is it only poets. To the almost terror of the persons present. Oh. who live with nature?²ID."²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. The word adverb means joined to a verb.²EMERSON. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. and live ere life be spent." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. to speak truly. A verb. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. because." "He was absolute. 279. . an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]." An adjective or an adverb. as. they are more himself than he is. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. or manner: as. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.² The young man reveres men of genius.²CARLYLE. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. Adverbs modify.²SHELLEY. and so on." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place].25. and men of leisure and cultivation. "William's private life was severely pure. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. When action is expressed. to consent. and limit adjectives or adverbs. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. place. 27. Nor was it altogether nothing. Better it were. 29.

but some verb understood. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. 281. not the noun. NOTE. to-day. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. 280. A clause or sentence. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.² FRANKLIN. like the light of heaven. and that. We are offered six months' credit.²BYRON. ALDRICH.² LOWELL. there are six classes:² (1) Time. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. has induced some of us to attend it.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. as now. then. while those in Sec. thus. before. . as.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. It may also modify a sentence. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. 169 are felt to be elliptical. (2) according to their use in the sentence. ²IRVING.He was incidentally news dealer. being adverbs naturally and fitly. but really modifying. as shown in the sentences. I draw forth the fruit. not simply the forms used in predication. NOTE.²These last differ from the words in Sec. all wet and glossy.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. Definition.²THOREAU. etc. Make music to the lonely ear. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.²LEIGH HUNT. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. A phrase.²T. hitherto.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. Thus considered. or a word group used as such. perhaps. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. and half awfully. ever. 282. but still with a rich bloom to it. 169. An adverb. lately. is a modifying word. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. for example.²TROLLOPE. which may qualify an action word or a statement. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. B. Surely happiness is reflective.

etc. while so precedes only the adjective usually. too. as well.. telling how many times: once. as hence.(2) Place..near. greatly. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. the more friends you will have. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. partly. I was. twice. . LOUIS STEVENSON.was for this once of her opinion. as here. for example. (see also Sec. whencesoever.²R.. telling how anything is done. singly. The more they multiply.thither. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. (4) Number. maybe. 283).²BROWNING. the more evidently they love liberty. better. very. two by two. and others. telling how much. So also in Grote.. thus. probably. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. 283. bravely.there.which gained him such universal popularity. etc. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. White.whither. the more perfect will be their obedience.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. above.² The master. This long's the text. etc.²IRVING. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. as perhaps. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. [Sidenote The status of such. slightly. or how far he believes it to be true. that these adverbs form a very large class. (5) Degree. beautifully. (3) Manner.whence. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. whithersoever.. (6) Assertion. slowly.²LECKY. and not infrequently are found in literary English. just. Thackeray. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.²DE QUINCEY. as little. Motley. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. at least. enough. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. etc.yonder. especially the comparative of these words.where. etc.²HAWTHORNE.²BURKE. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. much. as hither. Meekness. possibly.thence. surely. Emerson. not.

² "Mighty well.²BAYNE.²"He walked too far [place]. a mighty fine gentleman. A pretty large experience. Simple. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Mighty." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Notice meanings. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Hard blows and hard money. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." "I have seen you before [time]. . Burke. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. for example." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE." "That were far better [degree].²GOLDSMITH.² You are mighty courteous. Kingsley. Direct questions. have the additional function of asking a question. Aldrich. Defoe. 284. Holmes." "He spoke positively [manner]. It is only occasionally used in literary English." "The house. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples."²SCOTT. for example. and its lawn before [place]. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Emerson.²FIELDING. Dickens.²THACKERAY. "Peace. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. De Quincey. Interrogative. 285. besides modifying.²HAWTHORNE. 282. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Beau Fielding. and other writers.² KINGSLEY. Again. Some adverbs.²THACKERAY.Pretty. Franklin. Pretty is also used by Prescott. and art but a fool. B. Neville. 286.²BULWER. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister." said the king. STOWE.

for example.²BULWER. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²BYRON. WEBSTER. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²POE.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. they smiled. I do not remember when I was taught to read. When did this humane custom begin?²H. . (4) Degree. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. I will not ask where thou liest low.²BYRON (3) Manner. I know not why. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. CLAY. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²D.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. I hearkened. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (2) Place. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. 287. (4) Degree. (5) Reason. (2) Place.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.

and.But in reality. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. soon. The following. furthest (rathe.eyes. when compared. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Many adverbs are compared. Only that we may wiselier see.. just as adjectives do. Form vs. not an adverb.²SHAKESPEARE.²TENNYSON. well much little far late Comparative. 290. representing four classes.²EMERSON. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. obs. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. but the whole clause. Tell what each word in ly modifies. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. see Sec. further farthest. high. irregularly compared. Many adjectives have the same ending. Then must she keep it safelier. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.²BYRON. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. For further discussion. use. higher.²COLERIDGE. only occasionally having -er and -est. Its strings boldlier swept. when." Exercise.) rather 289. when does not express time and modify. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. have the same inflection as adjectives. . highest. 288. Superlative. are often used as adjectives:² Positive..²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. soonest. Exercise. as. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. sooner.

It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. nearly. 6.And his mien of kingly state. With his proud. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²CHAUCER. 4. Such are most. Again.²IRVING. near.²TENNYSON. 3. 2. if it has the verb be. mostly. 7. And all about. instead of being used adverbially. but with a different meaning. 291. There are eyes.² EMERSON. etc.²THACKERAY. hardly. He is inexpressibly mean. to be sure. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.²WORDSWORTH. whether adverbs or adjectives. Special use of there. 292.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 5. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. But he must do his errand right.²ID. The reason is. that in Old and Middle English. hard. quick-flashing eye. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. kindly and good-natured in secret. 2.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. more courtly in their manners." Compare these:² 1. 8. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. as. or down the leaves laughed through. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. Not near so black as he was painted. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. even. evenly.1. . many words without -ly have the same form. curiously jolly. Frequently the word there. merely introduces a sentence. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.

but from my fall? 6. but continually shifted. (3) What word or word group it modifies. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. give² (1) The class. 4. at the regular wine-shop. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. The higher we rise in the scale of being. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 9. Thither we went. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. according to meaning and also use. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. is always politically unwise. . He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 18. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 15. if the word is compared. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. In parsing adverbs. 293. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. It is the Cross that is first seen. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. and always. 10. 12. 3. the Madonna is in great glory. and sate down on the steps of a house. (2) Degree of comparison. For the impracticable.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 7. 11. burning in the center of the temple. 5. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. Exercise. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. But a few steps farther on. 16. 2. however theoretically enticing. 17.

and found room to wonder how it could have got there. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. then. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. or sentence groups. 294. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. sentences. Unlike adverbs. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. however. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. but side by side within the American Union. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. CONJUNCTIONS. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. 21. Clauses. . (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. But now the wind rose again. hence. but the student will readily find them." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States." Sentences. word groups.19. connecting words. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. 295. upon which the sun now shone forth. etc." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. 20. nor. therefore. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames." Paragraphs. Definition. 22. A conjunction is a linking word. It was pretty bad after that. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God.

I have nothing to do with the governor and council. and not man corn. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. Your letter.or. had its weight.. the window being open. yet. etc. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. as.nor... however... For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. Some of these go in pairs. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. either. introducing a reason or cause.. not only. either. of the same rank. (3) CAUSAL. whether..nor. however. for. nor.. the bread was spent..or. either. only. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. as well as. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. While the earth bears a plant. (4) ALTERNATIVE. and. . the butter too.or. but is emperor in his own right. then. as. Causal.. also. expressing a choice.. Some go in threes. 296. whether.or whether.. They are or. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. The assertion. therefore. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. moreover.... whether.or.. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. as but. (2) ADVERSATIVE. 298.Classes of conjunctions. not only.and. etc. as and.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. "Howbeit. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. or the sea rolls its waves. else. answering to each other in the same sentence. both. as well as the room door. 297.. hence.but. nor. Adversative... word groups. (2) Subordinate. neither. The chief ones are. Correlatives... usually between two things. serves but to show their ignorance. Alternative. joining words. Nor mark'd they less. neither. while.but (or but also)... COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. likewise.." Nevertheless. still. etc. neither.

(6) PURPOSE: that. (2) TIME: when. so that. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. etc. provided. It is. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. as.²DE QUINCEY.²WILSON. Neither the place in which he found himself. whereto. object. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. though. before. sometimes if. etc. . nor creeping thing. 299. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. howsoever. now. however.. whence. on condition that. nor echo. until. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject.²IRVING. whether. after. so that. whenever. seeing. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. etc. so.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. (7) RESULT: that. provided that. as. unless. Time. so.²COOPER. so. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.²PAULDING. Where the treasure is. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. while. ere. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. in case.²BIBLE. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican.²BURKE. wherever. lest. etc. in apposition.. whereas.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. whither. (3) MANNER: how. there will the heart be whithersoever. etc. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. although... since. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. He is not only bold and vociferous. nor green leaf. ²ALLSTON. except.²J. even if. QUINCY. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. as. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. in order that. nor wing of bird. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. since. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. especially that after so. that.

H.²BURKE. Purpose. reason.That he gave her wounds repose. Comparison.² HAWTHORNE.²AMES. Condition. So many thoughts moved to and fro.That vain it were her eyes to close. Now he is dead. Then Denmark blest our chief.² WORDSWORTH. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²EMERSON.²EMERSON. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Substantive. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Concession. Manner. Cause. As a soldier.²IRVING. Result.²AMES.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. not as they were expected or intended. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. but not so long but I held it out. . We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²AMES.So I behold them not. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.²COLERIDGE. We wish for a thousand heads.²EMERSON. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²CAMPBELL. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. a thousand bodies.²DEFOE. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²BYRON.² H. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Let the world go how it will. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.² EMERSON. JACKSON. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. I was again covered with water. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.

And then recovering. While patriotism glowed in his heart. some words²for example. her real merit is known at home. 10. 4. Besides. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. As will have been noticed. 6. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 14. hold a subordinate rank. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. They. the lady called her servant. He was brought up for the church. Exercises. In what point of view. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. 7.Let us see whether the greatest. 15. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. No one had yet caught his character. while. 9. the wisest. she faintly pressed her hand. . Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 2. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. And they lived happily forever after. After he was gone. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 13. etc. as. that. then. and hid her there. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 5. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. since. The moth fly. however. 12. Crept under the leaf. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. it will remain harmless. 3. While a faction is a minority.²RUSKIN. as he shot in air. 300.

As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out... As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. and part as though we parted not. Consequently.²EMILY BRONTE. expressing degree if taken separately. . 302. even as they would weep. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. none of the lashings having given way. in this case. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.So slowly moved about. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. as is often equivalent to as if.²HOOD. As though. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. In parsing conjunctions. and be a bud again. etc. So silently we seemed to speak. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. 304. In poetry. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. for example. "We meet.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. GREELEY.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. If analyzed. 303.Clouded. as is shown by the use of as though. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. thus.²IRVING. and the frame will suit the picture." as. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.. As if.²BYRON. the expression would be. 301. SPECIAL REMARKS. In Emerson's sentence. As for as if.16. His voice . (2) What words. word groups. they connect.As though a rose should shut.

9. "Doctor.²is subordinate of condition. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. because. and associates as happily.²EMERSON 3. For example. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye.²that the fairies do not like to be named. Exercise. All the postulates of elfin annals. 11. and the like. 12. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. When the gods come among men. and its clause is independent. or in the snow. . 10. so means provided. 2. dines with as good an appetite. If he could solve the riddle. or in the forest. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.²I find them true in Concord. and its clause depends on the other. and." said his wife to Martin Luther. 4. so that expresses result. when. compare the sentences.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. etc. he is also the correlative of nature. such as nor. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. It continued raining. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. so that I could not stir abroad. others belong to several classes. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. In classifying them. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. he sleeps as warm. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. in 2.. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. in 3.² 1. so they paddled on. they are not known. Some conjunctions. 13. but of the natural. 5. He is the compend of time.Caution. the Sphinx was slain. so they be each honest and natural in their hour.²DEFOE 2. 6. He dismisses without notice his thought. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. At sea. as beside his own chimneys. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. and very seldom?" 8. It may be safely trusted. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. that it might testify of that particular ray. 3. because it is his. so means therefore. 7. so it be faithfully imparted. are regularly of one particular class.

I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 16. . seeing that it behooves me to hasten.14. 23. 22. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 18. she might have the family countenance. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. It is clear. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 28. however. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. in many a heart. And whether consciously or not. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him.. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 24. save it were sinful like herself. therefore. that both were wayward. I speak. in this they agree. you must be. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 305. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 26. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. There was no iron to be seen. 30. when it was presented to them. Goodness must have some edge to it. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 29. PREPOSITIONS. 19. won't you lay on? 17. 27. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. whose names I omit. 20. Still. 25. of good novels only. Now you have the whip in your hand. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. I rejoice to stand here no longer. It may be so in the majority of cases. 15. the whole conditions are changed.²else it is none. For. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 21. enthroned.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

D. at least. at one. (3) Agency or means. Richard was standing by the window. by means near or close to. at once. at any rate. at naught. She saw the boat headed for her. . at all. the first port made by the ship. he stopped.²ID. at the best. Like at. etc. at peace.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at first. at rest.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at war. as. Exercise. STODDARD.²SWIFT. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. ²PARTON.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. by the wrecks of time.²ALDRICH. at most.²DE QUINCEY. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at random.. Helena.²COOPER. By my faith. By. For. by the ruins of nations. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at play. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation.²M. expressing the degree of difference. by many a million of acres.²B.² (1) The general meaning of place. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. TAYLOR The angel came by night. (4) Measure of excess. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²EVERETT. At St. H. etc.²R. At that time [the earth] was richer. CONWAY. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. by the blessed memory of the departed. Exercise. at the worst.²WARNER. at length. (2) Time. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. 321. 320. at work.

²PARKMAN. ate her child. etc. Still.²EMERSON. An Arab woman.²PARKMAN." answered Master Brackett. for the benefit of.One of Eve's family.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. if your worship can accomplish that. (3) Duration of time. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.²STODDARD. . (9) Motive. and leaped for joy.²E. or extent of space. meaning although. "thou hast counseled wisely. he repented of his folly. reason. for all his title. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. considering that etc. poor fellow. etc. But the Colonel. The twilight being. but a few sunsets since."²SCOTT By my faith. had a forest of poor relations. BANCROFT. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. meaning in the character of. (4) Substitution or exchange.. incitement to action.²HOLMES. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.²W." said the Lady of Lochleven.(2) In favor of. GARRISON. cause.²HOOD.² RUSKIN. For him. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. or in spite of.. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. For the rest. they are now for us. E. as being. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. a person or thing. (5) Reference. respecting. the Colonna motto would fit you best. as to. L. H.²IRVING.²LAMB.²H. "Nay.²ID. "For a fool. for famine. for all slips of hers. in behalf of. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. He and they were for immediate attack. (7) Concession. etc. There are gains for all our losses. (6) Like as. meaning with regard to.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.

The original meaning of of was separation or source. (3) Time. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²HUXLEY. ceased to be merciful. Exercise. if not a desperate man. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. Exercise. From. A distrustful.²HIGGINSON. (2) Origin.²HUME. The general idea in from is separation or source. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. The young cavaliers. Like boys escaped from school. from a desire of seeming valiant.²H. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. 322.²BANCROFT. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. (1) Origin or source. 323. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²HALE.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. . more. (4) Motive.²DRYDEN. like from.²MILTON. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The From Relation. The king holds his authority of the people.²ID. H.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. nay. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. cause. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. Of. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. From harmony. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. or reason.

"Good for him!" cried Nolan.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. Sandals. . the finest army that Europe had yet seen. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. motive. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. beg. such as ease.²BOSWELL. (c) After nouns expressing lack. Other Relations expressed by Of. etc.²PARKMAN. relieve. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. "I am glad of that. cure.²ALDRICH. (3) With expressions of material. etc. White shirt with diamond studs. bound with thongs of boar's hide. deprive. He is away of his own free will. etc. as north of. there were only twenty-one members present. disarm. (b) After some adjectives.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. ²GAVARRE.. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. and grass. that Cromwell once ruled England. Back of that tree. More than one altar was richer of his vows.²BANCROFT. out of the most unpromising materials. south of. Asked no odds of. (5) Expressing agency. reason. free. You cannot make a boy know.²BAYARD TAYLOR.²clear of.²DICKENS II. A singular want of all human relation. ²PARTON. expressing a part of a number or quantity. rid. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. of his own knowledge. rob.²ID. acquitted them of. etc. The hills were bare of trees.²HIGGINSON. demand. divest. (d) With words expressing distance. (6) Partitive. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. wide of.² HUXLEY. ask. free of. purge. bare of. Of the Forty. or breastpin of native gold. HALE. clear. E."²E.²SCOTT Who formed. etc. especially out of. weeds. deprivation.²LEW WALLACE.

²BANCROFT.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. . being equivalent to an infinitive.²BANCROFT. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. (7) Possessive. ²IRVING. (10) Of reference.²ID. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. of late. Such a book as that of Job. etc. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. 309. The nation of Lilliput. (9) Of time. See also Sec. of is used in the sense of during. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. when the first is descriptive of the second. with its object.²SWIFT. Idiomatic use with verbs. (b) Noun and gerund. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. The fair city of Mexico. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. Not even woman's love.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²PRESCOTT. CHANNING. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²LAMB.²W. (8) Appositional.²BANCROFT. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. and the dignity of a queen. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. (c) Two nouns. equal to about. could give shelter from his contumely.²FROUDE.²ALDRICH. for the possessive. concerning.He washed out some of the dirt. standing. of a sudden. with regard to.²COOPER. Besides the phrases of old.²HALLECK. E.²LOWELL.

and not a day more. permit. equal to about.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. Cannon were heard close on the left. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. (2) Time. on board. It also accompanies the verbs tire. Exercise. avail (one's self). etc. On. 324. you are eighteen. (b) With motion.²PARKMAN. Upon is seldom used to express time.²PARKMAN. complain. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. on high. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. .²EMERSON. on view. Upon my reputation and credit. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. and others. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. without adding to their meaning.²MRS. On my life. consist.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. concerning.²ALDRICH. ²BANCROFT.²PARKMAN. repent. allow. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. Exercise. accept. such as admit. approve.²BRYANT.²DE QUINCEY. To. 325.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.²Find sentences with six uses of of. on trial. on a sudden. on the wing. disapprove. Upon. etc. (3) Reference. SIGOURNEY. (4) In adjurations. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. on the alert. The general meaning of on is position or direction.

268).²BULWER.. He usually gave his draft to an aid. had ceased to be. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²B. does the mere music.²BRYANT.²often to the loss of vigor. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. (5) Equivalent to according to. whose influence is felt to this hour.²GOLDSMITH. Death!²HALLECK. .of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²BENTON To our great delight. unmasked. With.. to him. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Nor.. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. To the few. Exercise.. His brother had died. 326.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.Come to the bridal chamber. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. But when. to my taste. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. be written over. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. In Old English.²HALE.²PARTON. Revolutions.²PARKMAN. mid meant in company with. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²IRVING. it may be genuine poetry. (2) Expressing result. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. gay Comedy appears.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²LANG. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. (b) Referring to time.

The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²HALE. first of all. he gave millions to the sword.The advance. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. to find the object of the preposition. opinion. With all his sensibility. or with the haunch of our near leader. 327. in spite of. (4) Estimation.²E. She seemed pleased with the accident. I think.²HOWELLS. He expired with these words. as with you. it is necessary.²ALDRICH.²CHANNING. transmitted from the beginning. but a pleasure"?²LANG. with Heyward at its head.²DE QUINCEY. motive. He was wild with delight about Texas. . "poetry is not a pursuit.²SCOTT. felt it unsafe to trifle further. HALE. (2) Instrumentality. with all his boldness. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. reason.²HOWELLS. E. It seemed a supreme moment with him. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²DE QUINCEY. Either with the swingle-bar. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²LANG. Exercise. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²COOPER. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²Find sentences with four uses of with. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. but with you. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. Messala. (5) Opposition.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON. had already reached the defile. (3) Cause.²WALLACE (7) Time. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.

shook it directly over my head. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. In (1). and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. (3) without a country. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them.²SWIFT 2. or was. beginning. which. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. I remember. Be that as it will. 5. (4) from the beginning. To our general surprise. Whereupon. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. the phrase answers the question where. (2) on which. hence we say.²ID. In (2). on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. we met the defaulter here. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. of without. but I received no other hurt. and knocked me down flat on my face. Exercises. And so on. he followed us one day into those gardens. country. without a country modifies man. the malicious rogue. by which a dozen apples. telling what man. before the dwarf left the queen. The guns were cleared of their lumber. of on. 3. I called out several times. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. The object of on board is ships. . with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. In (3). like the clapping of wings. 4. I speak these things from a love of justice. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I looked towards my windows. because I had given the provocation. I felt my box raised very high in the air. but all to no purpose. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. 2. came tumbling about my ears. of from.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. I heard a noise just over my head.

For my part. 16. in this respect. 15. . to one dark and gloomy. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. in town. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. he favored the world with his opinions. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 24. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 27. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. grasping at the child. 8. With all his learning. 29. On all subjects known to man. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The savage army was in war-paint.Without stop or stay. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 17.6. 9. 12. His breeches were of black silk. 7. I like to see the passing. 23. 25. 14. 26.He spurred his courser on. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 22. 10. The mother sank and fell. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 18. 21. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 19. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 13. Carteret was far from being a pedant. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 20. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. plumed for battle. 11. after a restful morning. when. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage.

And now it is like an angel's song.30. (1) Relative pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. That night was a memorable one. A few are discussed below. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. 329.²COLERIDGE. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That was a dreadful mistake.²STOCKTON.² JOHNSON. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That is what I understand by scientific education. (b) Of result. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (a) Indefinite relative.That makes the heavens be mute. and not according to form. He will raise the price. not merely by the amount of the tax. (4) As an adverb of degree. We wish that labor may look up here. THAT. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²BEECHER. WHAT. .²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. that you might behold this joyous day. (c) Substantive conjunction. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. (3) As a relative pronoun. 330.²WEBSTER. 328. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²HUXLEY.

Cox..Which be they what they may.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. "I'll tell you what. (7) Adverb of degree. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. to see what might be hidden.. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (b) Indirect question. What.. but the result of calculation. is impossible to determine.²EMERSON. he knows what good people are to be found there. (8) Conjunction. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.²WEBSTER. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. What with the Maltese goats.. who go tinkling by to their Pera. nearly equivalent to partly.²EMERSON.²ID. (9) As an exclamation. If he has [been in America]. it rests on reality.. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.²THACKERAY.S.²WORDSWORTH.. 331. after not only.but. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. partly. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT." (4) Relative adjective. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. To say what good of fashion we can.these sounds are only to be heard. BUT.Those shadowy recollections. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.. ..²ID. or not only.²S.. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. and silent all!²BYRON... (b) Copulative. silent still.. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (b) Indirect question.

towards order. . after a negative. after such. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. but piercing cries.. (3) Preposition. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.. at all moments. meaning otherwise .²CARLYLE. AS. on all sides. (4) Relative pronoun. than. not.²IRVING.²EMERSON.. (c) Of degree. To lead but one measure. I shall see but little of it. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.Then arose not only tears.²FRANKLIN. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. Who knows but.He yearned to our patriot bands. (2) Relative pronoun... The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. Doing duty as a guard. (e) Introducing an appositive word. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.. sometimes same.²SCOTT. meaning only. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. ²CARLYLE. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. not. (d) Of reason. like the dog. equivalent to that . (b) Substantive. stands for that ..²IRVING.²SHELLEY.²LAMB. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.. meaning except.²MRS BROWNING. (5) Adverb.²IRVING. (b) Of manner. or who . not. 332. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²HAWTHORNE.

and is followed by a dative-objective. (1) An adjective.²ALDRICH.²SHAKESPEARE.²HALLECK. this. In this second use. NOTE. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²HIGGINSON. They look.² HAWTHORNE. There is no statue like this living man. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. like summer ocean's. but its verb is omitted. like him awhile ago. like drops out.²LAMB. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. In each case. nervous child. but this is not considered good usage: for example. Through which they put their heads.²HAWTHORNE. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.-SCOTT.²EMERSON. If the verb is expressed.²MAYHEW. Note the difference between these two uses. and as or as if takes its place. indeed. . staring like a bewildered man. Give Ruskin space enough. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. This follows a verb or a verbal. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.LIKE.²LONGFELLOW. like Martin was. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. Introduces a clause. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²EMERSON.² A timid. 333. That face.²CASS. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.²DARWIN. ²PARKMAN. No Emperor. and was clearly an adjective.²ALDRICH. Stirring it vigorously. like a cook beating eggs. I do with my friends as I do with my books.

. that is.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. in separating them into their component parts. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. Definition. clauses introduced by conjunctions. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. but it still retains its identity as noun. . Value of analysis. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]." PART II. 336. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion.: for example." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. verb. What analysis is. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. as. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. tut! buzz! etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Some of these are imitative sounds.²in determining case. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. pronoun. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Definition. that is." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. etc. etc. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. entering into the structure of a sentence.INTERJECTIONS. 334. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. 335. subject and predicate.

Kinds of sentences as to form. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. old man?" "Be thou familiar. 337. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. Definition: Predicate. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. (2) Interrogative. "Come to the bridal chamber. . 339. "The quality of mercy is not strained. but by no means vulgar. "Old year." "What wouldst thou do. A rare old plant is the ivy green. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Division according to number of statements. but the sentence would still be declarative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. or command: for example. Every sentence must contain two parts. "Hath he not always treasures. question. entreaty. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. or imperative.²a subject and a predicate. Examples of these three kinds are. not according to the form in which a thought is put." 340. which expresses command. hence. but according to how many statements there are. 338. always friends?" imperative. or request. Definition. you must not die!" interrogative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. which puts the thought in a question. interrogative. But now all is to be changed. 2. declarative. according to form. (3) Imperative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. This is the most common one. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. SIMPLE SENTENCES.

a rare old plant. 7. 3. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. but about the ivy green." Exercise. 8. and is to be supplied. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. we say all is the subject of the sentence. or ye) is in most cases omitted. "[You] behold her single in the field. always reduce them to the order of a statement. to suit all cases:² Subject. Thus. and the real subject is the latter.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 4. or adverb that asks about the subject. thou. The last of all the Bards was he. or an interrogative pronoun. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. especially in poetry. Consequently. Slavery they can have anywhere. Listen. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this.²What is the ivy green? Answer. . The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 341. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. we have some trouble. 2. as. In analyzing such sentences. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. But if we try this with the second sentence. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1.²What is to be changed? Answer. to an ignorant man. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. not of a rare old plant. on the other hand. 5. all. and our definition must be the following. In the interrogative sentence. the subject (you. adjective. the subject is frequently after the verb. 6.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.

a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. just as if to say. . Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. but it is a true complement. "Ye call me chief. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed." indirect. "Ye honor me. Of a transitive verb. Direct Object. 342.10. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. (4) The complements. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. but of call chief. in addition to the object.²transitive and intransitive. (6) Independent elements. and me here is not the object simply of call. The transitive verb often requires. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. direct. for example. 343. or second object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (5) Modifiers. but chief belongs to the verb." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. (2) The predicate. and means summoned. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. (3) The object. Indirect object." Complement: 344. and by object we mean the direct object.

in the popular judgment. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. or.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." 345. become. etc. As to form." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . seem." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. as." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. taste." "He was termed Thomas. especially the forms of be. and. not containing a verb." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. 355. Phrases. "Brow and head were round. and barring the door. 347. as in the sentence. ay. to the completion of this man of the world. and of massive weight. sir!' rang out in response." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. 352. but used as a single modifier. A phrase is a group of words. See sentence 19. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 351. Thom of the Gills. 364." Things used as Subject." All these complete intransitive verbs. above sixty. 346. appear. Complement of an intransitive verb. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. "A cheery. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. An intransitive verb. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. for instance. in exercise following Sec." "The good man. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as.. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." (3) INFINITIVE. I mentioned a case of that nature. 'Ay. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. more familiarly. as in drowning. he was now getting old." (2) PARTICIPIAL." Also an expression used as a noun. feel. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. introduced by a preposition: for example. in the original Opium Confessions.

asserting eyes. prowling eyes." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. but obscures the real subject." In this sentence. for which see Sec. and by Saint George!' said the King." The for did not belong there originally." "There are asking eyes. .²the infinitive phrase. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. my deficiency. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. "'By God.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." Things used as Complement." 348. Disguised infinitive subject." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." etc. etc. (2) In interrogative sentences. but the real or logical subject is to print." "The dead are there. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. or their religion from their sect. 349. "Therein has been. was heard one syllable to justify. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. I saw the quick and the dead. but they will be given in detail here." "Never. or the thundering of organs. 341. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. (4) After "there introductory." Things used as Direct Object. from their lips. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. and ever will be.²the talent of starting the game." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies.

As complement of a transitive verb. the object is made the subject by being passive." "Their tempers. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. As complement of an intransitive verb." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. or the equivalent of the noun. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. complements of the predicate. or Complement. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (4) Participle." "I hear the echoes throng. and. doubtless. and the words italicized are still complements." .² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. I." Modifiers. and explaining or modifying the subject. Modifiers of Subject. they are adjuncts of the object. Object. 351." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and whenever the complement is a noun. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. at the same time. Like all the complements in this list." "Serving others is serving us.²completing the predicate." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she.²heads or tails." "She asked her father's permission.350. Of a transitive verb. the shepherd girl." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." In this last sentence. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. (3) Infinitive." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.

or complement is modified. 352. unforgiving. but with other men." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. II. Tells how." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. was now called upon for his defense. the verb being omitted. see further Secs. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. object. not with nature." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. no sociable angel. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on.²In each sentence in Sec. 351. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. Retained with passive. or . and modify the predicate in the same way. this young idolater." (For participial and infinitive phrases." "Give them not only noble teachings." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. given at the request of a Dutch lady. 357-363." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. the prisoner at the bar. "He died like a God. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. tell whether the subject. austere.²proud." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. I have seasoned for thee. Since the predicate is always a verb.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. but it is really a contracted clause." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. Modifiers of the Predicate.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." Exercise." "Him. was the scene from King John." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." "In the twinkling of an eye. but noble teachers." In such a sentence as." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. and leading him from star to star.

7. in regard to particulars. how far. These answer the question when. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. with my joy and grief. 5. 4. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. 6. no humor. but to be loved. 2." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. in this center? 4. Fashion does not often caress the great. Evil. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 3. I took. 8. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. and. negative. is good in the making. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 6. to the animal strength and spirits. To the men of this world. Why does the horizon hold me fast.. (a) Pick out subject. predicate. and the direct object is retained: for example.When the verb is changed from active to passive. This. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation." "One way lies hope. His books have no melody. he liked. On the voyage to Egypt. . 3. etc. predicate." Exercises. or how long. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. A merciless oppressor hast thou been." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. but the children of the great." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. and as many to oppose it. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. They do not wish to be lovely. no relief to the dead prosaic level. (b) Pick out the subject. and (direct) object:² 1. a sort of personality to the whole writing. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. and other measures of precaution. according to old philosophers. no emotion." (6) Adverbial objective." "All such knowledge should be given her. 5. 2. But anger drives a man to say anything. the indirect object is retained. gives wonderful animation. after dinner. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. 7.

the blooming cornet. at the chief hotel. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. in little peaceful Easedale. Compound Predicate. after their long confinement to a ship.²the river Meuse. Not the less I owe thee justice. 4. then. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Unhorse me. to the right and to the left. the attorney. A river formed the boundary. To suffer and to do. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. the present Archbishop of Dublin.. I promised her protection against all ghosts. Their intention was to have a gay. that was thy portion in life. 2. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. In one feature. I gave him an address to my friend. 2. expecting the return of their parents. I felt myself. this dragoon so lovely. y y y y Compound Subject. 6. 5. 3. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. for the first time. happy dinner. this imperial rider. viz. then. Not compound sentences. and a member of the world. a room seventeen feet by twelve. . etc. 3. burthened with the anxieties of a man.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. this nun so martial. downwards. six children sat by a peat fire. upwards. 3. Yes. Paint me. 2. must visit again the home of her childhood. That night. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately.y 8. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. at length the warrior lady. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 4. 5. 4.

the predicate. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. etc. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. The exclamatory expression. etc. the simple subject is situation. hurry." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated." "He shook his head. Larger view of a sentence. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. hurry. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. 355. the air of the mother. 354. same as (1)." And so with complements. Bishop. forming a sentence: "Oh. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. above: thus. in all such sentences as we quote below. then the grammatical subject and predicate. and its object or complement. together with its modifiers. "The company broke up. ulcer. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. exposes. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. turned his steps homeward. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. Independent Elements of the Sentence. modifiers. shouldered the rusty firelock. complements." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are." "The name of the child. several modifiers. that is. and the rest is the logical predicate. together with all its modifiers. my brave young man!" ." "Voyages and travels I would also have. the tone of her voice. they are not a necessary part.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. may be the person or thing addressed. I'm with you once again. but it is to be noticed that. however. in the sentence. and. Examples of compound subjects are. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements.. Of this. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence.353." Sentences with compound predicates are. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. the verb). "Ah. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. For example. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. etc. the object." "Ye crags and peaks.

see Sec. etc. such as however. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. truly. undoubtedly." "No. see Sec. already noticed." "At all events. that have an office in the sentence. modifying the predicate. (1) Adjectival. There are some adverbs. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. he was a conscientious man. 351." (6) Single words: as. (b) As a modifier of subject. or complement (see Sec. and so on. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. six quill-driving gentlemen. he closed his literary toils at dinner." "Why. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. generally speaking. modifying a noun. grandma. 356." Another caution. this story runs thus. 3.. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. therefore." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat." (5) Participial phrase: "But. then. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. object." "Well. and some conjunctions." "Truth to say. the company broke up. instances of which were seen in Sec. etc. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short.. let him perish. 350. her noticing even this is creditable. why. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. pronoun." (2) Adverbial. prepositional phrases may be. or word used as a noun: for example. 355. . moreover. 4). really. now. 6). such as perhaps. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. how you're winking!" "Now. 357. he somehow lived along. yes! everybody knew them. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. nevertheless. 352." (3) Independent. besides. 4)." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. In their use. y (2) The adverbial use. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. "Oh. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. These need close watching. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. The words well. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. to the best of my remembrance.

equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. (5).]. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. etc. ought. See Sec. 355. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. containing no matters of business. and they will be presented here in full. thus. 358. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. etc." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. therefore. but having no other office than a verbal one. "The letter of introduction. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. The verbal use. Wilt thou." etc. but require somewhat closer attention. necessity. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. y (a) With may (might). modifying was speedily run through." In this sentence.would. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. my dear. and teach her how to be happy and good. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. I. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar." (c) With the definite forms of go. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. "Because I was. being equivalent to a future with obligation.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec.seem. and hence is adverbial. This case excepted. he should not have known them at all. or as nearly so as the student will require." (b) With the forms of be. was speedily run through.can (could).should. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." "There. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb.: as in the sentences." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.

is evident from the meaning of the sentences. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "He insisted on his right to forget her." "To teach is to learn. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose.. II. 361 are used adverbially." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. already examined. to hear McOrator after dinner. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. above. etc. result. (4) In apposition. The adjectival use. 362. "But there was no time to be lost. 361. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. To test this. IV.: for example. hang the idiot." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. The adverbial use." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. ." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. and the eyes to fill?" 359. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). Don Guzman. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. notice the following:² In (1). to look means that he might look. object. III. to please is equivalent to that he may please." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them.²both purpose clauses. modifying a noun that may be a subject. The fact that the infinitives in Sec.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). complement. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. 351." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. the Scotch fighting all the battles." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "To say what good of fashion we can. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. etc." 360. 5)." "Are you mad. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. The substantive use.

Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences.. and to say is equivalent to if we say. etc. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 347). The independent use. (5) The subject (Sec. and to betray and to bring express the reason. Our life is March weather. 363. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. (7) Independent elements (Sec.²both expressing condition. etc. 3. In (3). 351). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 268. must be in a life. 355)." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. I will try to keep the balance true. to hear means if you should hear. give the complement (Secs. which is of two kinds. (3). 2.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. V. 351). savage and serene in one hour.. 351). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. give² (1) The predicate.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. object. as in Sec. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. In analyzing simple sentences. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. In (4). to find shows the result of the return.In (2). and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. 355. 349). ." (See also Sec. etc. 352). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. to part means because I part. In (5). 364. 4. not in a book. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. If it is an incomplete verb. equivalent to that you betray. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions.

good and amiable otherwise. to the moral sphere. Old Adam. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. and only to be saved by invention and courage. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance.The old crow of Cairo. I have heard Coleridge talk. to keep England out of war. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 14. a good shot. 6. You may ramble a whole day together. 13. To be hurried away by every event. Through the years and the centuries. 21. and spared nothing.4. nor money. 17. nor generals. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. We are always in peril. The word conscience has become almost confined. might be called flabby and irresolute. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. like a witch's oils. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. The water. two stricken hours. 18. a skilled musician. and to the purpose. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. and every moment discover something new. Her aims were simple and obvious. He risked everything. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. through toys and atoms. nor troops. an accomplished scholar. 11. just on the edge of destruction. 23. to restore civil and religious order. The whole figure and air.²to preserve her throne. 8.He sat in the shower. the carrion crow. 24. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 12. 15. with eager energy. 5. 19. . 22. a graceful dancer. is to have no political system at all. in popular use. through evil agents. 20. 7. 9. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. His opinion is always original. To these gifts of nature. 16. 10. neither ammunition.Burnt green and blue and white. nor himself. always in a bad plight.

and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. time-honored. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. The cry. 30. and in my own garden. the prime minister of Spain. 34. 38. an elderly man. secluded. 37. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. The villain. I dare this. I hate him and myself. still. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Of the same grandeur. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. Upon this shore stood. and the why. ready to receive her. upon my own ground. 29. or perhaps one virtue.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. 41. Supposing this computation to be correct. and. it would not have been filial or ladylike. But yield. 27. Oxford.Distant. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. 32. 33. in this world. In the Acadian land. baggage far in the rear. had but one foible. the present capital of New England. in front of all this mighty crowd. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground.25. and the wherefore? . the ship was in an uproar. 35. Few in number. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. Now. haply. Must we in all things look for the how. 26. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. to be a reproach to such goodness. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. She had made a two days' march. in less heroic and poetic form. and no provisions but wild berries. proud foe. 31. to bid you leave the place now and forever. 36. This amiable relative. 39. 40.Effacing many a stain of former crime. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. the same Condé Olivarez. Fair name might he have handed down.

are really contracted clauses. COMPLEX SENTENCES. As shown in Part I.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. though often treated as phrases. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. which is the unit of speech. 367. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. however. Words left out after than or as." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. 365. 333). 366." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." Sentences with like. the pride and beauty of the grove. The simple sentence the basis. but. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country.From her own loved island of sorrow." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. ." This must. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. if they were expanded. thus.² "She is like some tender tree. as. as would be the connective instead of like." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly." To show that these words are really omitted. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. (Sec. made merely for convenience and smoothness.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep.

Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.²the backbone. murmur. that is.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.. A clause is a division of a sentence. complement. then we recognize this as the main statement. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. 370.²the other members subordinate to it. modifiers. or dependent on it. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. suffering. complements. which are so united that one member is the main one. we are aware. object. or it may be applied to the others. CLAUSES." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. each clause has its subject. predicate. 368. .. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. main. 371. A principal. and the next one. as in this sentence.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. etc. Independent clause. how great . The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. is taken in. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. containing a verb with its subject. object. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). and modifier. 369. logically depends on suffering. Hence the following definition:² Definition. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. that . and the last.. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. Definition.

"The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. verbal. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. But since they are complex in form.' is an electric touch." 374.. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. for a hundred years. with a noun clause in apposition with it." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. attention is called to them here. . clauses are divided into NOUN. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. Kinds.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.. 372. 5). 352. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. As to their office in the sentence. put an end to my fancies. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. for a time. infinitive." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. 373. impertinences." (2) Object of a verb. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. and ADVERB clauses. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. We ourselves are getting . (b) that are . (a) Ordinary apposition." (4) Apposition." Just as the object noun. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. adjectives." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. pronoun.. or adverbs. but logically the sentence is. 'I know that he can toil terribly. ADJECTIVE. and it is .. for example." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. thus." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs.Dependent clause." "I was told that the house had not been shut. for example. Noun Clauses. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. impertinences²would be grammatical. and the whole clause is not. over which the torrent came tumbling. night or day. etc... so the object clause is retained.

how it changed from shape to shape. 375. I was napping. in the sentence. But the fact is. 5. 6. a falsehood incarnate. he would repent it. etc. The reply of Socrates. whereby. 3. that. What history it had. 8." Exercise. Adjective Clauses. he could know nothing. whence. of a nation." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. wherein. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. whether he should choose one or not. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Other examples of this construction are. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 4. still remains reasonable. a relative pronoun being understood. but. no man will ever know.² "It is on the understanding. 7. Frequently there is no connecting word. 10. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. which. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. Except by what he could see for himself. Examples of adjective clauses. 9. . as. sometimes by the conjunctions when. Such a man is what we call an original man. that all safe legislation must be based. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. and not on the sentiment. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. where. whither. As the office of an adjective is to modify. that. that he was a scheming impostor. 2. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. or equivalent of a noun. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun.

" "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. ." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. Pick out the adjective clauses. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left.e. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. which Rowena tasted. 8. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 5. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. i. 9. 2. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause.. object. the champions advanced through the lists.376. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 7. which formed the center of the mansion. 1. all is vacancy. 6. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. Adverbial Clauses. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. he begins to help us more as an effect." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 11. and tell what each one modifies. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." Exercise. 10. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. No man is reason or illumination. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. etc. 3. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. whether subject." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. or that essence we were looking for. I walked home with Calhoun. 4.

a verbal." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. introduced by indefinite relatives. an adjective. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. and what it modifies:² ." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. shaping our actions. he goes away as if nothing had happened. and adverbial conjunctions." (5) DEGREE." "When he was come up to Christian. is wider." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. Joanna is better. it takes precedence of everything else. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. etc. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. however good she may be as a witness. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. and will be given in detail. however. Exercise. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." (7) RESULT." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. adverbs." "The right conclusion is. no matter what remains. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. that we should try.377. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. but they require careful study." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. the wider is the horizon of their thought." "Who cares for that. expressing the degree in which the horizon." "The broader their education is. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. since he was too great to care to be original. whatever. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." "After leaving the whole party under the table." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. tell what kind each is. so far as we can." (9) CONCESSION. to make up our shortcomings. 378. etc. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb.. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." "He went several times to England. the milestones are grave-stones.: "But still. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences.² whoever." (3) REASON. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. with examples. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. etc. or an adverb." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." These mean no matter how good.

etc. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. they might perhaps say of their visitors. howling and whistling. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. of which clause Odin is the subject. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. and modifiers. and twirling weathercocks. then treat noun clauses as nouns. predicate. find the principal subject and principal predicate. in the sentence. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. For example. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. 380. incoherent exclamations." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves." 2. 3. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. on a dark wintry night. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. 379. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. snatching up stones to fling at them.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. If the children gathered about her. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. its object is that Odin was a reality. 'Well.1. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. as they sometimes did. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. we are a little disappointed. to tell the truth. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. when the wind was unruly. so as to picture the parts and their relations. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . with shrill. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. banging about doors and windows. object. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter.

| r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 2.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 380). that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . as seen in the "map" (Sec. Exercises. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. . (1) Find the principal clause.. 364. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. Take the place and attitude which belong to you.. d. 3. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.

Next came a wretched Dominican. I like that representation they have of the tree. dying for them. This is she. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 14. Now. namely. He was what our country people call an old one. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. which. 22. bishop. the mixed result. 19. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. whom I choose. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. Whether she said the word is uncertain. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 21. 13. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. But now that she has become an establishment. And those will often pity that weakness most. counselor that had none for herself. The deep eyes. not so much for travelers that were few. 9. had we been worse.4. or whether any. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 10. of a light hazel. that pressed her with an objection. as for armies that were too many by half. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. if applied to the Bible. 7. The night proved unusually dark. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 11. 5. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 15. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. for yours. 8. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. . that. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 17. 20. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 12. 23. the shepherd girl. Had they been better chemists. Here lay two great roads. 6. 18. M. the flower should revive for us. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. who would yield to it least. 16. could not have been effected. 24.

² Definition. though we may repeat the words never so often. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. COMPOUND SENTENCES. then map out as in Sec. 5. is to speak and write sincerely. Hence the definition." 4. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 6. we cannot adequately say. speed. if there be one to whom I am not equal. How formed. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. if continuously extended. These things we are forced to say. (b) First analyze. 383. 380. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. that it was no more than his daily walk. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. questions. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. "was ever written down by any but itself.²which will not be disposed of. 382. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. the following complex sentences:² 1. and temper. and not from his heart. It makes no difference how many friends I have. "No book. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength." said Bentley. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. .25. 3. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. but above it. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 27. 28. would easily reach. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 26. 30. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. and stamped with his right number. 7. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 2. or commands. and what content I can find in conversing with each. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. That which we do not believe.

the semicolon separates the first. if there are any. yet.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. 386. 383 (1). and which complex:² 1. others sometimes coördinate. Connectives. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. moon-like ray" (adversative). 385. and it shall be the universal sense. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. as in Sec. Another example is. nor. he walks with arms akimbo. he dilates." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. in (3). The division into members will be easier. Study the thought. 297). etc. which are simple statements. Exercise. etc. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. he soliloquizes. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. a simple member." 384. the planet has a faint. for. the waving grass. as but. he is twice a man. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and connects the first and second complex members. Speak your latent conviction. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Of the following illustrative sentences. however. "Only the star dazzles. Thus in (1). Some of these are now conjunctions. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. The coördinate conjunctions and. and not the form of the connective. from the second. a complex member. now adverbs or prepositions. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. and nor the second and third complex members. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). in (2). sometimes subordinate conjunctions. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. tell which are compound." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. nor does he know until he has tried. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. . or but. while (whilst). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. whereas.. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights.

however. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 10. Whilst the world is thus dual. for example. so is every one of its parts. 364. unobtrusive boy. 3. In this manner. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. . all pain. 6. to find a pot of buried gold. 11. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 4. 14. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 381. you have gained something else. you lose something.2. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. and as yet very early in the morning. Man does not stand in awe of man. from a happy yet often pensive child. I can still receive. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 12. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 4. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. and thou shalt be loved. (i) Separate it into its main members. 13. Love. is particular. All loss. For everything you have missed. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. However some may think him wanting in zeal. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 387. Exercise. the tax is certain. 2. 9. 3. 8. or. 7. and for everything you gain. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. nay. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. he grew up to be a mild. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. passed in that time. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. yield to them heart and life. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. that it was Easter Sunday. I can yet love. 5. quiet. The gain is apparent. and not by what each is.

7. Trust men." 13. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. modesty. 20. because. "as nigh the scythe as you can. crook and hide. "Strike. Whatever he knows and thinks. 17. and they repel us. treat them greatly. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. They will shuffle and crow. if you rip up his claims. and they will show themselves great. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. Stand aside. one is afraid. or we pursue persons. and you are without effort impelled to truth.5. why should we intrude? 10. or hope. let them mount and expand. 15. 9. He teaches who gives. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. or we read books. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and the cart as nigh the rake. We go to Europe. and they will be true to you. 6. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 11. and not a thought has enriched either party. only that they may brag and conquer there. feign to confess here. whilst frankness invites frankness. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. When you have chosen your part. and each shows only what lies at its focus. give those merits room. 8. and the peace of society is often kept. and the other dares not. We see the noble afar off. and makes their business a friendship. 16. or sail with God the seas. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. and not an emotion of bravery. that let him communicate. or men will never know and honor him aright. "the iron is white. as children. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 18. and he learns who receives. abide by it. 14." says the haymaker. Come into port greatly. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 21. 19. is as thin and timid as any. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. ." "keep the rake. puts the parties on a convenient footing." says the smith. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax.

the department of syntax will be a small affair. We see young men who owe us a new world. Ground covered by syntax. INTRODUCTORY. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. adjective and noun. but its leading characteristic is. they lose themselves in the crowd. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. verb and subject. or. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . PART III. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. pronoun and antecedent. So does culture with us. 390. 380. Do not craze yourself with thinking. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. 23. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. but go about your business anywhere. if they live. it ends in headache.22.²agreement and government. 388. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. SYNTAX. they die young. 25. but they never acquit the debt. By way of introduction. 24. Essential point in English syntax. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. and dodge the account. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Following the Latin method. it never was known to fall into the rear. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. so readily and lavishly they promise.

writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. take the sentence. In Latin. As an illustration of the last remark. 392. following the regular order of subject. and added to it the preposition of. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. both forms will be given in the following pages. The basis of syntax. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once.² First. the sentence. also expressing a possessive relation. or when they exist side by side in good usage. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Savage may be the subject.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). therefore. 393. and whose judgment. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used." that is. good English. When usage varies as to a given construction. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. In some cases. the order being inverted. as to study inflected forms. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. and imitate it. Some rules not rigid. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. and it would not matter which one stood first. There is. but are not now. etc. This is not logical. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. Also in the sentence." In this there is a possessive form. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. ." is ambiguous. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. authorities²that is. then. For example. and nothing but important points will be considered. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. or settler may be the subject. Second. distinct forms would be used. "None remained but he. pronoun and antecedent. or the same writer will use both indifferently. sometimes verb and subject. "The savage here the settler slew. Why study syntax? 391. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. some of which conform to classical grammar. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan.

Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. or indicate joint ownership or possession. and Paul's. the possessive sign is used with each noun.²MILTON. and Peterborough's.NOUNS. the antechamber of the High Priest. He kept Bolingbroke's. but imply separate possession or ownership.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Use of the possessive. and Peter's. Putting Mr. Mill's and Mr. 394. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.² Live your king and country's best support. 408). Woman. 395." Juletta tells. sense and nature's easy fool. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.²THACKERAY. 396.²ROWE. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. ²ID. etc. PRONOUNS.²RUSKIN. as. Bentham's principles together.²BYRON. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. . 397. Joint possession. the shore of Galilee. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²MCCULLOCH. for example. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Separate possession.²MACAULAY. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. and Harley's.²EMERSON. and Pope's.

whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. the last expression has the support of many good writers. sanctioned. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.²THACKERAY. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. No mightier than thyself or me.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Since most of the personal pronouns. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.²TROLLOPE.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. whom is the complement after the verb am. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. others are generally.²POPE. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. I. Bedott Papers. 399. there are two general rules that require attention. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.) "The young Harper. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.²SOUTHEY. and should be the nominative form. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. as. thus.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.²SHAKESPEARE. the real thought being forgotten." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. together with the relative who." 400. This should be "as she. Objective for the nominative. if not universally. for example.²BYRON. 398. But he must be a stronger than thee. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. . who.²WHITCHER. Some of the violations are universally condemned. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. General rules. Still.

"Who's there?"²"Me. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON." 401. is. A safe rule. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. are." There is no special reason for this.²SCOTT. One exception is to be noted."²WINTHROP. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.² For there was little doubt that it was he. And it was heThat made the ship to go. the objective form is regularly found. .²KINGSLEY. namely."²KINGSLEY. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. "Than whom. But still it is not she.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²FIELDING.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. they are yet holier than we. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. Patrick the Porter. The usage is too common to need further examples.² One I remember especially. In spoken English.²THACKERAY. for example. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²COLERIDGE. on the other hand. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. it will not be me. both in England and America. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²PARTON. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²LONGFELLOW. "If there is any one embarrassed. The camp of Richard of England."²WM. but such is the fact. BLACK. as. and the other forms of the verb be. unless a special.

The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. as. now. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 9. as. 4. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. 404. or this. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. as." 6." the word being in apposition with murderer). 2. Me in exclamations. "Ask the murderer. the object of to). giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns.Exercise. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 3. and prepositions.²MILTON. (3) By forgetting the construction.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. or preposition which governs it. 7. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. but not he" (he should be him. verbal. . Nominative for the objective. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 403. or us). "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. used after verbs. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. you or me. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. I speak not to" (he should be him. as this from Shakespeare.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. it is me. 8. verbals. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 5. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). object of saw). It is not me you are in love with. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 11. Whom they were I really cannot specify. You know whom it is that you thus charge. 10. Truth is mightier than us all. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there.

²KINGSLEY. but he. as. who interrogative. as.²GOLDSMITH. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. partial Nature. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. Exception 2. We regularly say. 406. Thou. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. for they say there are none such in the world. and is usually avoided. Let you and I look at these. etc.²BYRON. after the preposition but (sometimes save). "Who were they talking to?" etc. Nature. 405. 2.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²KINGSLEY. Thy shores are empires. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. save thou and thine. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²KINGSLEY. I arraign.²STEELE. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. changed in all save thee.²BYRON. for example. as well as the objective. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.² All were knocked down but us two. None. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT.Shall be left upon the morn. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. Exercise. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Who have we here?²ID. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form.Exception 1. all but he. I've sworn.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. . "Who did you see?" or.

5. 6.²C. As antecedent of a relative. 7.²DE QUINCEY. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. They crowned him long ago. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. BROWN. Preceding a gerund. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 407. 8.3. 9. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives." 4.Ye I salute. who. Bartholomew. This usage is not frequent. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 12. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. with Jortin and Thirlby. B. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. II.²possessive. 10.²RUSKIN. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. and they know that as well as me.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 11. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. Markland. or objective? .²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²SCOTT.

²MACAULAY. The last incident which I recollect.408. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. But in common use there is no such distinction. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. . sometimes it has the objective. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. Both types of sentences are found. studying is a gerund.² IRVING. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. and that in the second.² THACKERAY.²CARLYLE.²DE QUINCEY. The use of the objective is older.²BREWER. as he turned away from his wife. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.²DICKENS. and the meaning is. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. In the examples quoted. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. [who was] studying law. that the bitterness of death was past.² SCOTT." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. etc. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. Possessive. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. object of heard of. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. both are gerunds. Objective. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea." That is. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. We heard of Brown.²RUSKIN. Why both are found. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. Here I state them only in brief. and asked why it was not made.² CARLYLE.

Everybody had his own life to think of.²C.²HUXLEY. The pale realms of shade.²THOREAU.²DE QUINCEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. or is a distributive word.²HOLMES. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. 410. Watch for the real antecedent. preceded by a distributive. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. 409.²RUSKIN. and gender.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. Examples of these constructions are. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. in one person. number. Every city threw open its gates.²CABLE.²THACKERAY. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²DEFOE. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. if the antecedent is neuter. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. and ought to agree with them in person.² BRYANT. the pronoun will be neuter singular. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. it was his own fault.²when the antecedent. If any one did not know it. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²AUDUBON. BROCKDEN BROWN. where there were examinations.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. .²EMERSON III. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²DE QUINCEY. In such a case as the last three sentences. taking in each of many persons.

Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Whosoever hath any gold. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. till they have lost him. If the part deserve any comment. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Struggling for life. The sun. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²AUSTEN. as anybody in their senses would have done. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²FIELDING. By using the plural pronoun. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. let them break it off.²BIBLE. 411.²HUXLEY.²PALGRAVE. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²THACKERAY. Every one must judge of their own feelings. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²BYRON. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. and giving them means of being so. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²SCOTT. This is not considered the best usage. for example.²EMERSON. not a mowing idiot. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. . but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²ID.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²PAULDING. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²RUSKIN.²PALEY.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.² Not the feeblest grandame.²DEFOE.²ID.

Where she was gone. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. as. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate." A relative. no one could take upon them to say. when coördinating. and that are restrictive or not." This means. and he went away. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. As to their conjunctive use. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. It adds a new statement to what precedes. unless both genders are implied.) and a personal pronoun." It defines beggar. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. etc. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. or what was become of her. Exercise. . the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. Exercise. 413. but.²ID. 412. "I gave it to the beggar. in each instance:² Who. In the following examples. and does not add a new statement. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. who went away. because. and that always restrictive. tell whether who. I.²ADDISON.²HAWTHORNE. or unrestrictive. the definite relatives who. which. when restrictive. which. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. but. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.²In the above sentences.² SHERIDAN. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. that being considered already clear. 1. What these terms mean. according to the practice of every modern writer. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. That is in most cases restrictive. 2. A relative.

Hare has printed. long arms and legs. which Mr. So different from the wild. In what sense true.²DE QUINCEY. Yet how many are there who up. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. etc. which was to go over the Cordilleras. in the sentence. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. 6. 9. BEECHER 5. she agreed to join the party. because of its antecedent. A grizzly-looking man appeared. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.²ADDISON. 10. these or that which.²THOREAU. but. down. With narrow shoulders. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. 13. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. W. Which. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.² IRVING. 7. you. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. For example.. 8.²DE QUINCEY. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. it makes the verb third person singular. and over England are saying. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.² CARLYLE. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. etc. That.²H. We say I.²HOLMES.²ID.3. 14. The general rule is. they. and it is called logic. he. as that does not vary for person or number. However. 414. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. II. .²ID. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.² MOTLEY. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. The rule. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 4." that is invariable as to person and number. who.² NEWMAN. that were often vicious. 11. On hearing their plan. 12. etc.

in winning a battle.²MACAULAY. who rarely speak at all.. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions." One of . A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. ARNOLD. Franklin. etc. with one as the principal word. [singular or plural. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²whether we should say.. but the former has good authority.²HOWELLS.. when he derided the shams of society. or which . T. but myself. but speaks of him as that sort. "one of the finest books that have been published.²LOWELL. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. "one of the finest books that has been published. [plural] that who. etc. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. .²ADDISON. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²HOLMES. Singular.²BOWLES.²M.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.²LECKY. JR.. and write the verb in the plural. others regard books as the antecedent. 415. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. the true antecedent.²LOWELL. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.. He is one of those that deserve very well.. The fiery youth .] Both constructions are frequently found. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent." or. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²J. Let us be of good cheer.. MORSE. The latter is rather more frequent. and in improving a victory. A disputed point.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. French literature of the eighteenth century. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.

Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. where.²EMERSON.² THACKERAY. object of a preposition understood." "India is the place [in which.In that same state I came.² RUSKIN. whence. The same day I went aboard we set sail. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. when the relative word is a pronoun. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²DEFOE.²VAUGHAN. Exercise. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. But I by backward steps would move.²SCOTT." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²IRVING.²ID.²BURNS. and such like: as. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. return. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. III.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. 416.² . The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. that is. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. 417. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. and see if the sentence is made clearer. or where] he died.And. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²EMERSON. when this dust falls to the urn.²CARLYLE.²SWIFT. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE."²DICKENS.²ADDISON.²GOLDSMITH. I could see nothing except the sky. IV.²In the above sentences.A rare Roundabout performance. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.

looking-glasses. Caution. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.² MACAULAY. The regular construction. as of knives. if same is followed by a complete clause. . but which is usually carefully avoided. 418. ²GOLDSMITH. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. V. but we find the relative who. he. They believe the same of all the works of art. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. or that. with Turner.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. was a discoverer. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles.²ADDISON. W.² THACKERAY. boats. and working in the same spirit.. etc.²FRANKLIN. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. CHURCH. I might as well have staid at home. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²SWIFT. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.² BURKE. which. Mr. but.²WORDSWORTH.²R.He considered. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who.² Which. for example.²SCOTT. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.. Which. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the as his apprentice. That. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. she passed the lamp over her face and person. as is not used. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. if I had resolved to go on with. Anacoluthic use of which.

now thrown upon their." etc. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. 1. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and this be placed in the proper clause.She'd come again. But still the house affairs would draw her thence." etc. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. or omit the conjunction. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. and which. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. As the sentences stand. Thornhill had read.²GOLDSMITH. 4. This was a gentleman.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. who are now thrown. 3.²RUSKIN. He delivered the letter. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.²which if they once heard. Exercise.. Exercise.²SHAKESPEARE. or." etc. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.²THACKERAY. and who are now. . and in whom I myself was not a little interested. etc.²HAWTHORNE. but none is expressed. 419.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. Express both relatives. etc.²DE QUINCEY. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. After this came Elizabeth herself. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.² Direction for rewriting. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. But who.²SCOTT. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. he said that all submission was now too late. And who. which when Mr.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. That is. 2. once a great favorite of M. or leave out both connective and relative." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. but. le Conte. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. (2) "Among the poorer sort.. (1) "Among those who are poor..

English by name.²DE QUINCEY. 8. 7. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.²PEARSON. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. and to whom no door is closed. and which may even be heard a mile off.²HAWTHORNE.. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony..5.²SCOTT. which the Scotch had learned.. and which has never been described. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 13. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 6. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.. 1. Exercise. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.² MOTLEY. Akin to the above is another fault. like that spoken in the towns. Dr. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. I shall have complete copies. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. And which. . but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . Or who. 11. who. etc. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. and repeat this for any further reference. 9. then. That . indeed. and which. either from imitation of their frequent allies. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. etc. one of signal interest. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.²IRVING. as a false and astucious mark. 420. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. But which. I saw upon the left a scene far different. 10. "What knight so craven. 12. the French. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. Or which. "A mockery.

the dime. and whose examples and principles we inherit. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. I give to such men as do not belong to me. but which is perhaps not so different from it. in his Mephistopheles. that.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 11. 5. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.²HALLAM. Which . at the head of what.. which. SIMMS. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. that . but which. 4. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. whom.²BEECHER. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 13. G..2. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. half a century ago.²HOLMES. 6. which. I recommend some honest manual calling. 9. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.. what. . 8. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. It rose into a thrilling passion. The Tree Igdrasil.. in his present condition. the cent.²DEFOE.²W. I grudge the dollar.. CHANNING.²EMERSON. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. He flung into literature. was a bustling wharf. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. E.²HOWELLS. In my native town of Salem. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.. and to whom I do not belong.. such as they have very probably been bred to.²HAWTHORNE. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. Such as . and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President... He..²W. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. 15. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. 7. 10. was hung in air. That .²DE QUINCEY. 3. 12.²SCOTT.²SCOTT That which . such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. 14. Such as .²EMERSON.

and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and in want of his gold²or his corn. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. for example. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. 421.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. Assume that no one is in want of either. Distributives either and neither. By their original meaning.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²EMERSON. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. . were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²ID. whether or not the two are equivalent.² HAWTHORNE. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. England was then divided between kings and Druids. Each other. as. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.²RUSKIN. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Use of any.²DICKENS. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.² Some one must be poor. We call ourselves a rich nation. 422. always at war with one another. as it were.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²HAWTHORNE. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. as. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²RUSKIN. that not all combined. in which case any should be used instead. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.²MACAULAY. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. one another.²GOLDSMITH.

which is plural as often as singular. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. Caution. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.²CARLYLE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BIBLE. before that.²SCOTT. The adjective pronoun none is. let him ask of God.² In earnest. any was often singular. if ever man was. Do you think.² If any. I beseech you. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. during his stay at Yuste.²FRANKLIN. in Shakespeare. . in the prose of the present day. that I know of.²PROF. whilst I still cherish their genius. afterwards in Goethe. as none of the French philosophers were.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. In earlier Modern English. If any of you lack wisdom.²EMERSON. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. any of his friends had died. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times..²STIRLING. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²BURKE. then in Plutarch. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. usually plural. Do you think. 423. None of Nature's powers do better service.² EMERSON. as. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any..²THACKERAY. etc. as. None usually plural. at one time in Bacon. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BEECHER Whenever. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). for him have I offended. Examples of its use are. then in Plotinus. and is isolated. 424. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. Any usually plural..Once I took such delight in Montaigne . but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. even in Bettine. speak. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²SHAKESPEARE.

etc. or somebody else's? 426.²SCOTT Like the use of any. The compounds somebody else.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. that all was lost. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. When all were gone. 425.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. for example. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible..²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. etc. the plural. when it means all persons: for example. and Ford has nobody's else.² Singular.² PEARSON. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and less rarely in poetry. and all was lost on the other. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²THOREAU. any one else.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. The light troops thought .²NAPIER Plural.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. which is used absolutely. fixing his eyes on the mace. nobody else. saving Naaman the Syrian. Somebody's else. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.. as. are treated as units.²McMASTER. etc.² None of them was cleansed. etc..

" "those kind of trees.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²G. These sort." the nouns being singular. London.. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic..²SHERIDAN.SYDNEY SMITH.²RUSKIN. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²N. Again. STOWE. His hair.² Saturday Review.²DICKENS. WILLIS.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. ELIOT. for example. P.²AUSTEN. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. etc. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. the adjectives plural. all manner of. 427. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.² FIELDING. or those sort of people."²MRS.²MULOCH. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.² These kind of knaves I know. or some other such great man as a bishop." "all manner of men. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²THACKERAY. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. ADJECTIVES.²SWEET. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²RUSKIN. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. etc.²in such as "these sort of books. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). unlike anybody else's in the world. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. "Ye see. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. Whitefield or Wesley. .

Later form. In Old and Middle English. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. Should we say. made to agree with it. more alarming than a total silence. The result.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. they said. in spoken English. and the adjective is. "This sort of trees should be planted. "These kind of trees are best. "This kind of rules are the best. such as.²RUSKIN. or one object with a class of objects. not "all kinds of wild animals. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. for example.² PRESCOTT. Use of the comparative degree. 428. Consequently we have a confused expression." A question.² Which is the better able to defend himself. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. or the nouns to the plural. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. when the necessary dispositions concur. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. which accounts for the construction. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. This the modern expression reverses. the victor or the vanquished. At the source. to express a higher degree of quality. gradually displacing the old. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. According to the approved usage of Modern English. and in this way may take a plural verb.The library was open. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. . Of two such lessons." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). History of this construction. Burke's sentence. as. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. with all manner of amusing books.

²MACAULAY. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²THACKERAY. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. than any of his court.²HUXLEY.A braver ne'er to battle rode. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 430.²MACAULAY. 6.²SWIFT."²ID. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. Exercise. 4. by almost the breadth of my nail. if not. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. 3.²TROLLOPE.²LOWELL. Other after the comparative form. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 429. To the man who plays well. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Gary. Use of the superlative degree. etc. . I am concerned to see that Mr. 5.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. has sanctioned.²WIRT. Even Dodd himself. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. Superlative with two objects. Henry. 2.²SCOTT. would not have had the face.² THACKERAY. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. the highest stakes are paid. He is taller. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.

431. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²Bible. After the most straitest sect of our religion. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Rip was one of those . She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²TEMPEST.²SCOTT. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. . OLIPHANT.²DR BLAIR.²J. whichever can be got easiest.²IRVING."²GOLDSMITH. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Double comparative and superlative. and the other contains the best men. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. I should say that one has the best cause. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. These two properties seem essential to wit.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²BEN JONSON. "Let us see which will laugh loudest."²HAWTHORNE.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. and differ only in form. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. Come you more nearer. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. In all disputes between States. Mary. Also from the same period. ha. Examples from Shakespeare are."²BULWER..²MRS.²ADDISON. CÆSAR.²RUSKIN. more particularly the last of them.²GOLDSMITH. The following examples are used purposely. 1611. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²HAMLET. "Ha. The eldest.. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. not a bit of high life among them.²EMERSON. who eat white bread or brown.

and Secretary Walsingham also. . etc. The first five had specific names. and conceit in the last. jar upon us constantly. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. ²COWPER.²PRESCOTT. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. ARTICLES.²GIBBON. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²GIBBON. but in literary English. Definite article. As to these two expressions.²DE QUINCEY. The meaning intended is the same. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²RUSKIN.² SMOLLETT. The delay in the first three lines. The merit of the Barb. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. the Spanish. First three. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. For Carlyle. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. 433. Instances of both are given below. not only so in popular speech.² With a singular noun. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²KINGSLEY. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²LAMB. etc. Examples of this construction are.²RUSKIN. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. Three first. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²ADDISON. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.

with a singular noun. He is master of the two-fold Logos. of the higher and middling orders. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²TAYLOR.²MACAULAY. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. 433. 433. of the eighteenth century. Indefinite article.²NEWMAN.²SCOTT.²TENNYSON. I think. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. or to emphasize the meaning. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. 434. Meaning same as in Sec. to distinguish clearly. The not repeated. Here the youth of both sexes. No. as.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. the thought and the word. but inseparable from each other. Frequently. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. as in Sec. 435. 1508.. but is used with one only.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. the hour of parting came.²PRESCOTT. having been arranged. Origin of the Aryans.. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. The flowers. as. distinct.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. the greatest poems. With a plural noun. however. melodious. and flexible language. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. and the presents.²CARLYLE. were placed at a very tender age. . The lofty. One object and several modifiers.²ID.²THE NATION.² MACAULAY. with a plural noun.² RUSKIN.²THACKERAY.

²MACAULAY. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.²BULWER." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind." and "a red and a white geranium. Examples of this use are.436. One article with several adjectives. one noun is expressed. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. 436). James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. rich. T.²S. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. JONSON. a collegian. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. COLERIDGE. to limit two or more modified nouns. only one of which is expressed. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.An early. 433 and 436. like the definite article. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. But in the following sentences. The indefinite article is used. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.²JOHNSON.² BURKE.²MACAULAY. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²DICKENS. a round and a square one alternately. a tyrant.²THACKERAY. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. interest.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. or clearness to each of several nouns. and a usurper.²B. as in the first three of Sec. 437. In the sentences of Secs. and inexhausted vein. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²DRYDEN.² MACAULAY. . a murderer. as. He saw him in his mind's eye. For rhetorical effect. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 435.²BEECHER. 438. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.

²AGASSIZ. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. ELIOT. Collective noun of singular meaning. and the following illustrations prove it. like some others in this series. 440. without academies.²G.²GIBBON. or the great intellectual life of our nation. for example. 439. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. He sees that it is better to live in peace. In English.²COOPER. Such. as. Another writer might. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.²FROUDE. A broad and loose rule. was the earliest American land.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. ARNOLD.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. 276. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. as.²W. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. This was spoken of in Part I. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. has got already. Singulars connected by or or nor. then.²CARLYLE This usage. Singular verb.²M. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²The Nation. all that academies can give. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. .VERBS. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Sec. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men..

ADAMS. or considered as appositional. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. a mutilation. the cheap defense of nations. a cruel disappointment. as. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.²J.² In a word. is gone. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. nor Mahomet. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.² The unbought grace of life. or as making up one general idea.² GOLDSMITH. A fever. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.² Politics is the only field now open for me. but considered as meaning about the same thing. and every four hours. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. and other singulars of plural form.²EMERSON .²GIBBON. ²EMERSON.²BURKE. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. Q. as. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. a loss of wealth. that of a large town. for example. other names. nor Paul. but each one emphatic. No.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. Plural form and singular meaning. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²GOLDSMITH.²CRITIC. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. Between ourselves.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. a loss of friends.²WHITTIER. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. for example. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.Jesus is not dead.²DE QUINCEY. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. nor John.

almost every day.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. Then comes the "Why. the ruin. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. nay.²ID. thus. sir!" and the "What then. the wit. every boor. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. The Epic.²EMERSON. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. and greaves.² .²BUTLER. as well as the newest.²ID. the fine gentleman. each.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. was punished. was listened to for five hours. Every fop. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. Every sound. as. a gorget. every valet. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²RUSKIN. a cuirass. the dismay. To receive presents or a bribe. Subjects after the verb.² There is a right and a wrong in them. as well as sides. as well as Europe. an impassioned countenance. does not take the place of the man.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. in a judge. an agitated gesture.²M ARNOLD. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. no.²LONGFELLOW. no discontinuity. and such like adjectives.²MACAULAY. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Here is no ruin. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. no matter if the second is plural).²HAWTHORNE. 441. as well as the Drama. was dazzled. sir!"²MACAULAY. The oldest. no spent ball. Her back.² Asia. Plural verb. every echo.The rout. There is a moving tone of voice.²PRESCOTT.²NEWMAN. many a.²PRESCOTT. sir?" and the "No. as. wineBegins to stir itself. the partisan. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. was like to crack.The author. with death. is a man of wit. Every week.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.

² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.² One or two of these perhaps survive. are sufficient to attract a colony.²GIBBON.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. The Dauphin.²ADDISON. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. a stream of fresh water. Philip of Anjou. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. Far. The conjunction may be omitted.These bits of wood were covered on every square. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. b).²GOLDSMITH.²THOREAU. and its history are alike a mystery to us. TAYLOR. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²EMERSON.²FRANKLIN.² A multitude go mad about it.²FROUDE.²SCOTT.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. for example. as. but the verb is plural. 440 (5.²B. The travelers. the Duke of Berri. as with a subject of plural form.²FROUDE. a green pasture. far away thy children leave the land. making up a plural subject. His clothes.²CARLYLE But its authorship. All our household are at rest. its date.²COLERIDGE. . were men of insignificant characters. of whom there were a number. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. Conjunction omitted.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²DE QUINCEY.²SWIFT. shirt. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.² GIBBON. as. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. A shady grove. as in Sec.

Exceptional examples. If there is only one person in the subject. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²ROWE. nor should I.²BYRON. the subject being really equivalent to we. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. "I have never said so.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. but thou.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. Not I.But notice the construction of this. his blood dost shed. "He or I can go.²SMOLLETT. . General usage. You and I are farmers. for example.²M.). of different persons. Ah. we never talk politics. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. as.²D.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN. ARNOLD. Nothing which Mr. Pattison or I have said. Not Altamont. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. 444." or. You and I are tolerably modest people. "You would not be wiser. nor has she"). If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. that is.²WHITTIER." "She or you may be sure.²RUSKIN." etc. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. but thou. Second or third and first person in the subject. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. WEBSTER. 443. 442.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²THACKERAY. hadst been my lord.²LOWELL. When the subjects. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.

Neither of them. 5. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.²ADDISON.² TROLLOPE. as we would hope. The following illustrate exceptional usage. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.Her course to intercept.²and. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. In the following sentence. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. nor tree. 8. 9.²THACKERAY.²SMOLLETT.²perhaps the devil.²SCOTT. which it is proper to mention. 3. nor bush are there. Also in verbals. in my opinion. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²ADDISON. 7. 10.²EMERSON. 4. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . BANCROFT. 6. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 440-444):² 1. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 2.That neither of their intellects are vast. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. 446. In a word. 12.²G. Exercise. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²ID. as illustrated above (Secs.²BYRON. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.445. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²MILTON. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 11. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. In this sentence from Defoe. Both death and I am found eternal. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. Nor wood." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²BURKE. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. How each of these professions are crowded.

I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.²THACKERAY. 447. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.² PALGRAVE 5.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.. Two samples of indirect discourse.²R. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²DE QUINCEY 2. Direct discourse²that is.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.. The present rule is recent. Exercise. change them to a better form:² 1. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. meaning. if not. W. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. on my return. as. 3.²MACAULAY." . for exact connection. to have seen should be changed to to see.²IRVING. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²KINGSLEY. however. 4. Definitions. It should be remarked. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. Of course. I gave one quarter to Ann. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. 448. But I found I wanted a stock of words. CHURCH.²FRANKLIN 6. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.

etc. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. 449. The substance of his lamentation was. ." Indirect. This includes the auxiliaries be. introductory verb is in the past tense. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. 2." etc. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Direct..(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Direct. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. His exact words were. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead." etc. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. She thought to herself. interrogative adverbs. or regular interrogatives.. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. and the indirect question by whether or if.. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Her prudence whispered eternally. Sebastian's. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. "Oh. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. have. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. 1. Summary of the expressions.. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. "I cannot oblige you . Oh. under interrogative pronouns. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. will. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid.

Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. the sound of their balls. VERBALS.²ID. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. PARTICIPLES. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. the first discoverer of the river and country. with his crew of the Half-moon. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. and that he himself had heard. Careless use of the participial phrase. my first observation will be found nearly true. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.Exercise. in the sentences first quoted.²GOLDSMITH. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. if this were expanded into a verb. . kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. one summer afternoon. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. like distant peals of thunder. he assured me that nothing was more easy. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. The trouble is. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. handed down from his ancestor the historian. 450. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. Notice this.²B. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. FRANKLIN. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²ADDISON.

avoid it.²RUSKIN. 2. 451... and often. This is the more common arrangement. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.²SCOTT.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.²LAUGHLIN. It is a solemn. . Adverb between to and the infinitive. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. In the following citations.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. many things to be carefully considered. either "As I was pleased. if a strike is to succeed. For example.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.Correction. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. then. the first sentence would be. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. INFINITIVES." Exercise.²ID. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. There are.. Standard writers often use it. leaving the principal statement as it is. Exercise. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. universal assertion.. 3.. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. while defended or excused by others. purposely or not. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.² HERBERT SPENCER." etc. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. . my first collection was. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .

Position of only. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. BLAIR. and earthenware. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. 12. if they modify single words. 6.4. 1533. but it is placed before the infinitive. I wish the reader to clearly understand. when such adverbs as only. etc.²BURKE. 9. The rigid rule in such a case would be. A little sketch of his. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.²SCOTT. 5. even. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks..A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. therefore. The spirits.²GOLDSMITH. from Irving. In works of art. 452. 8. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. is to be very cautiously admitted. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .² ADDISON. 7. but cannot misunderstand the thought. but they are often removed from the exact position. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. Exercise. No.²DR. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. this kind of grandeur. ADVERBS. 13. Now.² MACAULAY. etc.²RUSKIN. etc." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success.²ID. 10. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. china. are used. even.²The Nation. which consists in multitude. 11.²TROLLOPE.

two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²MOTLEY.²MRS. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²SYDNEY SMITH. 10. WILLIS.²ID.²ID.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²MACAULAY. 16. to avoid a crowd. for example. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. Irving could only live very modestly. were he never so old of yeares. 11.²THACKERAY.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. . 13.²ID. The old usage.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 2. 17. P. During the whole course of his administration. 6. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. My master. He shouted in those clear. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²CHAUCER. ²ASCHAM. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²COOPER. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.² THACKERAY.²N. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. might not marry. whence he was never destined to return.²EMERSON. 15.1. 3. In Old and Middle English. His last journey to Cannes.²RUSKIN. 4.²PALGRAVE. 5. 9. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 14. In relating these and the following laws. 8. 12. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. No sonne. GROTE.²HIGGINSON. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 7.²SWIFT. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 453.

In the latter case. Exercise. denying each other.²HOLMES.²LOWELL. Therefore. Exceptional use. as infrequent. and why:² 1.²MRS. however.²DEFOE. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. as. However. 6. neither. but ought not to labor after it. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. 4."²MRS. . nor the grandeur of no king. under the influence of Latin syntax. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. STOWE.²DE QUINCEY. There weren't no pies to equal hers. can so agreeably affect. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Regular law of negative in modern English.²HAWTHORNE. ²PAGE. But. in Ole Virginia. 7. Not only could man not acquire such information. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.² HAMILTON. one of the negatives is often a prefix.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all."²four negatives. if two negatives are found together. is not common. uncommon. STOWE. nor never shall. In the execution of this task.²BURKE. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. 3. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. I did not act so hastily. and is still kept in vulgar English.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. This. The prosperity of no empire. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²GROTE. 2. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. 5. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. the usual way of regarding the question now is. etc. I never did see him again. when one of the negatives is a connective.²BAYNE.

"²SCOTT. as well as of the pronoun.. if the last precedes a verb.. should be scrutinized. or to reply to it." Besides neither . The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ." may be changed to "This loose . the first should also...²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. either.. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. In the sentence. The sentence. not only to the success of their common cause. or. but to their own safety. nor is often changed to not²either . but (also). A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. not merely . Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever.²PRESCOTT. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. and. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. Correction. or. either . a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. 455." .. nor.. as the use of the conjunction. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. or with advantage.8.. neither . not only . there we were. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. And who.. 454.. or to reply to it...²LOWELL. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. and which. CONJUNCTIONS. "well worthy to confer honor. The sentences given in Secs.. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. if the second precedes a phrase. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. Things to be watched.. Choice and proper position of correlatives. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. even neither ." both of the above requirements are violated. especially both . not or is the proper correlative of neither." said the King.. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. "A weapon. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. but...²SCOTT.

Try and for try to.²BAIN. substitute that. 3. but. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Some exceptions. Now. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that.²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. 4. but grown-up persons. 8. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.² ADDISON. Correct the following sentences:² 1.²GIBBON. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. . not merely interest children. They will. JEWETT. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. 457. But what.²FRANKLIN. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. In the following sentences. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. etc. or the negative relative but. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. nor the disgrace of assailing him. too.²THACKERAY. 5.Exercise. and chop up their own kin. murder." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. 7. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²RUSKIN.²ID. 2. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. 6. and I don't know but what he was right. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 456. Exercise. as. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. but. O.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. but they will outrage. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. as. Try and avoid the pronoun. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²S.²MACAULAY. or but that.

4. 459.²SCOTT. 458. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²ADDISON. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. no separation or division by twos being implied. PREPOSITIONS. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.² SWIFT. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²BURKE. 313. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. Between and among. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.²EMERSON. 6. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 5. Between is used most often with two things only.² BULWER. 3. as already seen in Sec.²TROLLOPE. 305. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.2.²ADDISON. see Sec. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.²EMERSON. .

to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Mackintosh. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Different from. Derogatory to. or one object and a group. as. and philosophers like Locke. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. confer. Affinity between. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Bestow on (upon). ²EMERSON.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. 461.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. correspond. and Stewart. 460.²RUSKIN What have I. Such are absolve. and Coleridge. a soldier of the Cross. List I.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Averse to. Conform to. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. involve. and another to convey a different meaning. Kant. Accord with. Acquit of. Two groups or one and a group. different. Paley.²KINGSLEY. by custom. Conversant with. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions.: Words with particular prepositions. Dependent on (upon).²between philosophers like Spinoza. Such are derogatory. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. averse. Dissent from. as. LIST I. Some of them have. Abhorrent to. etc. . Comply with.

462. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Differ from (note below). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. etc.). A taste for (art. Reconcile with (note below).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Confide in (trust in). Change to (become). . Correspond to (a thing). as meaning to be in keeping with." List III. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Reconcile to (note below). Confer with (talk with). A taste of (food). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. as. Correspond with (write to). as. Independent of. LIST II. Confide to (intrust to). Involve in." also of persons. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Change with (a person). Change for (a thing). Agree to (a proposal). but it is not good usage. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). as. 463. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Confer on (upon) (give to). Differ with (note below).y y y Deprive of. in the sense of making friends with. LIST III. and sometimes creeps into standard books. List II." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with.

²BURNETT. instrument).²G. "Die for.y y y Die by. ELIOT. and ill treatment.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. I am positively dying with hunger. Illustrations of "die of." (in behalf of). If I meet with any of 'em. Part from. Who.²FIELDING. "Die with.²POPE.²GOLDSMITH." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Take thought and die for Cæsar. She died of hard work. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²BULWER. It is a man of quality who dies for her. Expect of.²GOLDSMITH.²SHAKESPEARE.²MACAULAY. privation. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. expect from. ²THACKERAY. "Die for.²MACAULAY." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. as Cervantes informs us. "Die by. ²ATHENÆUM. He died at last without disease. simply from old age.:² "Die of. part with. they shall die by this hand." etc.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. die from.²MACAULAY. die of.²BOSWELL. died for love of the fair Marcella. It would take me long to die of hunger." She would have been ready to die with shame.²G.²SCOTT. One of them said he would die for her. ELIOT. "Die from." "die from." (because of)." (material cause. People do not die of trifling little colds. die for. No one died from want at Longfeld. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²ADDISON. die with. . I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.

. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. 465. kind of you. With words implying behavior or disposition. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²WALLER. ELIOT. "Expect from." To part from you would be misery.²MACAULAY." "expect from:"² "Expect of. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. Illustrations of "expect of. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²MACAULAY.²G. either of or in is used indifferently.²SHAW.²G." She will expect more attention from you.²G. His precious bag.²POE. I have just seen her.²BULWER. Kind in you. Of Doctor P." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH." "part from:"² "Part with. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. ELIOT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. ELIOT. as my friend. just parted from her. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²DICKENS." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. which he would by no means part from. I part with all that grew so near my heart. Illustrations of "part with. That is more than I expected of you. I have long expected something remarkable from you. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²WALPOLE. I can part with my children for their good. and hated to part with them.²AUSTEN. 464. "Part from.²TROLLOPE.²SCOTT.²MARRYAT. nothing better was to be expected.²BULWER. 466. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. It was a little bad of you.

6. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 13. 15. but which the story renders necessary.²BULWER. . 7. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. 4. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. it is commonly said that his profits are high.²BULWER. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. Thou tread'st. or artillery. This narrative. nor blue. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean.²DICKENS. with seraphims. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 8. 5. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. and ran up the alley.He did not think it handsome of you.²CARLYLE. The noise of vast cataracts. In.²BEACONSFIELD. 1. nor of a pale red. Hampden. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. In the friction between an employer and workman. 11. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 10. raging storms. the vast abyss. tedious perhaps. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. But this is idle of you. Very natural in Mr. 9. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 14. It will be anything but shrewd in you. nor yellow.²TENNYSON. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. nor green. thrown it over Amyas's head. 3. or that they are any way dependent on each other. thunder.

The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 411. 24. 29. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 17. 30. Every one of these letters are in my name. 32. 25. (Sec. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 37. were down with raging fever. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 38. 26. 20. you or me. the acquiescence of the understanding. and most of us do know. 31. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. That night every man of the boat's crew. . what is a just and unjust act. produce approbation. 33.And were I anything but what I am. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 21. 28. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 23. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. The effect of proportion and fitness. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Squares. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. save Amyas. But every man may know. but in the price paid to them. or how beautiful it is. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 35. You have seen Cassio and she together.I would wish me only he. 22. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 36.) 34. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 27. triangles. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 16. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 18. Friday. 19. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. and almost as good as a pony. and other angular figures.

of. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. from nominative clauses. 92. He had four children. of. 47. 116. 310. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. syntax uses Absolute. 133. 47. nouns. 89. 239. as comparison definition demonstrative. 124. INDEX. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. (2) Middle English. Adjectives. pronouns. of. 25. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 102. demonstrative. as.39. of. (3) Modern English. 119. 40. . from about 1500 to the present time. 260. nominative. adverbs used complements. 107. 20. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. of. origin of. article.000 between them. voice. Abstract with Active Address. adjectives. 124. numeral. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 91. A. 98. 90.

quantity. and 185. objective. infinitive. 207.from function how in not of of ordinal. of. 194. with with with subject. 316. 183. . 103. 101. 27. from to of. between of. compared. 323. 114. 303. 287. 190. 106. sentence. quality. nouns. of. of. nouns. 42. 187. 116. 239. 262. 242. of. 116. 115. 48. 194. 291. conjunction. Agreement. 148. 104. predicate. 302. 325. of. 275. parse. conjunctions. 109. antecedent. 303. 328. adjectives. 97. of. modify. parse. Alms. 27. clauses. 207. 190. 99. adjectives. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. Against. antecedent. adjectives. to used of. plural pronominal. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. of. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. as nouns. 184. 195. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 325. 191.

possessive. An. uses As At. of. 208. 275. Arrangement Articles. Anacoluthon Analysis. 84. 79. 295. adjective. same. 300. of. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 49. parse. of. 296. which. 127. of and pronoun of. 120. See 74. 309. it. 198. A. 67. of. syntax. sentences. definition of of of Any. words between. 74. 51. 90. 294. agreement personal as pronoun. See with definition complex compound simple who. 264. which. sentences. 240. as uses verbs. after of. derivation in definite. sentences. which. 150. 331. definition how indefinite. in in. pronouns. 287. 120. and. of of of And Antecedent. 101. 231. 124. of. 271. 252.Among. to of. 47. Agreement. 67. Auxiliary if. . though. Are. 207. syntax As. 225. 148.

262. uses nominative of. Between. 279. nominative. Cause. 49.Bad. 63. 111. 48. best. 84. But. Bridegroom. clauses of. 47. 283. syntax of. 224. 330. of. 37. 194. of nouns. plurals of. objective. 110. number of. See of. 279. Among. 110. double possessive. of what. with But By. of. 66. 149. 54. adjective. Be. Clause. 45. uses Better. pronoun. in Old and Modern English. of nouns. 46. of pronouns. 64. of. 46. of pronouns. 150. 39. 262. conjunctions Cherub. uses of. definition could. of nouns. 39. of pronouns. Case. Case. 278. forms. 195. possessive. of pronouns. . 210. comparison conjugation of. Can. 62. Brethren. 278. 260. 161. Children. of nouns. adverb.

110. nouns. verb. nouns. of. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 258. nouns. 157. predicate. English. 53. 108. 158. 23. double. defective. 244.definition kinds noun. 307. 43. of. of. 111. analysis of. 312. 257. 24. 268. 305. and sentence. infinitive. material. . 248. of. 271. 189. 12. 107. adverbs. adjectives. 264. Cleave. predicate of and from from of. proper. 113. of. 257. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. Clomb. 315. 307. of. 239. and forms of. 43. Cloths. of. 18. subject. definition degrees irregular. of. 18. plural of. 108. in analysis. superlative. clothes. 263. 257. sentence.

in Old vs. of. 289. See English. other other parts of speech. 149. 66. of of Conjunctions. 73. and clause. to of. 255. adverbs. 139. definition how subordinate. Conjunctions. 195. 194. correlative. 194. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. sentences. 151. 193. 231. See in subjunctive. analysis. 188. 263. 269. Can. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 199. subjunctive. Agreement. 195. of. conjunctions. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. See analysis clauses. . 149. pronoun. 207. coördinate. interrogative pronouns. 138. parse. sentences. conjunctions. sentence. pronoun.with Concord. definition be. 194. same words. conjunction. 328. replaced by objective. verbs. pronouns. 196. 143. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could.

of. with. 102. pronouns. Degrees. by. of. See See 48. discourse. tenses. . indirect. pronouns. See 148. of personal relative verbs. 102. See adjectives. 90.Declension. 242. vs. article. 320. 80. Comparison. comparative. pronouns. 26. passive adjectives. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. verb. use of dies. Case. duck. 51. for. 91. Subordinate clause. 43. 288. 300. nouns. 287. pronouns. object. of. 60. with of. nouns. adverbs See adjectives. 303. 242. of. Comparative. possessive. clause. 185. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. from. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 160. 315. 99. Articles. 333. 152. 35.

predicate. 39. 12. 112. 255. pronoun. 241. 287. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. older. 240. of. 33. ending. 194. pronoun. syntax Each Eat Eaves. the of sentence. adjective. of. 328. spoken. 34. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. object. one ( t). of. 158. feminine plural English. possessive suffix. 90. Each. 90. of. 32. 257. Elements Ellipsis. 287. 110. 92. 234. other. Either. of. 92. 33. suffix. 40. of subject. complement. plural. -En. 158. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. . added suffix. in 'Em. 102. 51. another. Empress. pronouns. 38. of. drunk. 92. 42. to suffix. vulgar. 300. original. error in sentence.Drank. 299. 62. 280. conjunction. literary. adjective.

43. with infinitive. as a noun. etc. first. 235. For. have adjective.Every. .. 334." 31. definition distinguished in English. 30. Future Future tense. 319. used of. 212. two a further. uses redundant. fishes. uses Foreign Former. etc. 147. 212. 110. gender. with in sex. of. two. 211. from. 103. perfect. to of. See Gander. Few. 36. of. modes "common goose. 287. 112. object. 32. of. 30. 189. First. 91. 102. pronoun. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. as of from compared marking. adjective. Gender. 48. 152. 45. From. 152. Feminine. 238. 29.. 112. 30. 148. nouns. First Fish. 308. Further. other languages. plurals. 102. 126. the. few. Farther. expect gone.

159. Had Hanged. its. she. forms in Girl. 13. participle. of. personal relative geniuses. 101. noun. 173. 61. 176. and case verbal with. for before. of. 145. His Husband. 35. Got.of of Genii. pronouns. 80. 177. kinds of. definition basis of. an better. 159. of. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. definition divisions opinions province H. rather. person. of. pronoun. 285. 9. I. 36. 10. on. Gerund. He. 60. from participle of. had hung. it. 12. 144. 60. 275. 43. Grammar. 175. possessive pronouns. 61. adjective. . 231. distinguished syntax. 120. first sentence. 12. Government.

323. 136. uses discourse. 110. 93. 188. 131. of. indirect of. verbs. adjectives. use article. adjectives. mood. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. See Articles. 153. a object. your. See you. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. meaning. 131. indices. questions. of clause. 227. 245. questions. in compared syntax. with of. summary See passive mood. adverbs. 320. 248. transitive. . 233. pronoun. 43. elements. 178. sentence. 257. 85. 176. 319. 231. 283. Questions. 73. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. Direct object. of. words. 67. 105. 276. of. 72.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. of. pronouns.

67. "It Its. these double kind. of. a vs. King. -Ly. 126. 245.. 281.adverbs. of. syntax the. syntax. plural. Lady. 36. of. Lay.. etc. lie. uses Literary Little. 189. 91. 227. 113. English. latest. 113. See Madam. 36. Logic Logical Lord. 36. 276. queen. 170. of. pronoun. Lady. 39. Kine. adjective. 63. in little. Like. predicate. 61. 110. 102. Lie. and See words in. was uses me. Latter. Kind. 12. lesser." history etc. Less. subject form. It. 110. 190. 226. Last. Lay. . 303. lord.

325. of. 265. 112. 189. 144. Mighty Mine. nigh. etc. 112. May. 110. 160. in adverbs comparison a. construction as of adverb. 126. Enlargement. 287. superlatives.. 189. adjective. position adverb. 185. imperative. 112. out of. comparison Near. 113. mistress. Neither. of. Mood. of. 187. Master. Many Mapping Mare. Negative. 256. 34. 194. might. of. 137-144. of. 102. . Modifiers. sentences. of. 41. -Most. 188. mine. Much. 135. of. double. 110. Means. conjunctions Many. indicative.Manner. 195. See definition 136. syntax conjunction. subjunctive. 110. of. syntax nearer. 64. 328. 161. 326. 36. 137. Must. 114. Modifier.

300. half abstract. 41. 17. 46. abstract. 301. 18. to use. 246. Nor. abstract. See 194. of. 17. 25. and figures. proper. gender nouns. . 29. 125. kinds 90. definition according of. number once other plural. Not Noun Nouns. 30. 126. 38-41. material. of. of. parse. 32. in. letters as 24. definition descriptive. 46. to of. 26. used as. of. 38. nouns. syntax Neuter or two News. formed. No Nominative. nouns. 45. of of of of of a. 25. syntax in gender nouns. now plural. 19. 20. 56. become neuter. of. 27. of. 328.pronoun. gender how kinds material. common. Case. words how compound. of. 30. 258. become become formation case collective. class used singular. etc. etc. clause. 124. 41. 21. analysis. None. 92. foreign. 41 43. 30. 42. 17 19.

41. 48. 121. conjunction. of. 39. singular. adverbial. passive adverbial. 23. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. plural. 48.. 66. 41. English. or plural. 196. adjectives. Preposition. 235. of. 195. 240. singular. 42. as forms titles. personal. 41. become syntax use with with with Nouns. See verb. 281. meanings. plural no two singular construction. 279. 48. pronouns. 124. 18. indefinite. with case. article. nominative.of same two with proper. etc. definite. adjectives. of. 106. of. in article. 101. pronouns. in nouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. 285. with with with Now Number. 42. and analysis. 278. common. 242. 60. 48. of different possessive definite of. 278. 148. 43. 101. verbs. 42 44. meaning. Nouns. 92. preposition. dative. 48. 282. plural form. of. spoken of instead nouns. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. indirect. form. 102. 242. Numeral Object. . of.

See the as of. 279. 213. as other. 64. 56. conjunctions. Each adjective. Parsing.syntax Of. nouns. 293. adjective. 161. 237. adverb. Ourself. 69. Our. of. 216. 115. of upon. 38. adverbs. of. 93 other. 87. 194. 233. 199. as of. conjunction. 91. One. for. indefinite possessive One One as Only. definite relative uses of. 325 275. with (the). 103. 101. Ordinal Other Ought. uses numeral pronoun. pronoun. a in adjectives. of of of of of models adjectives. position Order. inverted. 94. Elder. 41. 306. Pains. Oxen. part analysis. Omission On. 127. Older. See pronoun. 191. of syntax. ours. another. . treatment comparatives. 116. 117. 103. 56. of. articles.

parsed. pennies. 172. 174. verbs. 62. 179. of. 134. Person. 28. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 219. reflexive. phrase. 80. 100. verb idioms it from. of. 59. article 150. . included various. phrases. 59. 62. pronouns. them. 27. relatives. in. 119. predicate use of. verbs. or of. with. 181. 63. 173. 317. used as voice. of. speech. 61. 70. from definition other of. 335. of. pronouns. of. 172. 59. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 287. 247.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. of. 43. -ing words. not is. 95. 64. possessive and of. 56. Pence. absolute with of. 43. 56. verbals. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 177. 148. pronoun. 69. antecedent. pease. agreement of verb nouns. nominative. and subject in. part adjective. 281. 180. 322. of.

281. English. nouns. simple. 206. of nouns. 188. 278. Comparison. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 53. kinds infinitive. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 64. relative. pronouns. complete. 236. of. 248. plural. in of. 241. 236. 232. of. . 106. spoken of. 67. singular degree. 53. 49. pronoun. Personal subjective. of. adverbs of. 61. 235. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 195. adjectives. prepositional. 41. as double. antecedent of of pronouns. syntax of of Politics.objective syntax table triple uses of. 285. Place. nouns. Positive Possessive. 's. objects. participial. See 60. omitted. 51. 50. 54. 303. 281. of. of. 245. vs. Personification. of. nouns. 278. double. 25. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. singular. it. conjunctions prepositions Plural. of. pronoun. 52. 37. Nouns. of Phrase. appositional. or See of of See 185. 245. 247. of. 60. 303. noun nouns. 63. 247.

333. 301. 95. after but. plural. 147. 59. plural. 281. 89. 300. words. adjective. 285. 207. 279. plural. adverb. by parts of of. 208. 105. neither. as 54. 58. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. interrogative. any. . 195. 206. Pronouns. of. of. 104. of. by. 303. in exclamations. and form form form form of. 302. 300. 32. as antecedent of relative. as. 186. case. 283. none. usually to as than. 93. forms of. 203. 205. 203. and one with else's. 72. with tense certain. 332. of. all. 219. expressed as other of. for predicate nominative. who personal. of. objective. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. speech. 331. same used as adjectives. 282. 280. interrogative. 187. 105. exclamatory. future. 283. of. each either. meaning. objective. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 64. possessive nominative to of. 58. another. parse. 284. singular usually other. what. Prepositions. of. case. 202. parse. 129. 132. 299. 287. verbs. somebody definition how indefinite. by with shown certain of.Prefixes.

discourse. Rather. pronouns. 84. from and interrogative. who. in. nouns. 74. 83. Quotations. 286. and which. with with gerund. 69. Nouns. same antecedent. indirect compound. 296. 297. conjunctions Quality. 195. Direct same and different. 289. 188. 69. of. and relatives. 68. questions. of. use of history formed. 105. 293. 293. 87. 87. 74. of. pronominal pronouns indirect. 85. 142. 279. which. . 85. with who. 74. 58. indirect. 80. Rank. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 189. of. of. that. 263. 291. 289. of. in. or of. 101.possessive relative. of. Questions. use in as. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. to of. in. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 295. of. personal pronoun. which after same. 99. and antecedent. See of. adverbs in. agreement anacoluthon and as. 295. pronoun. parse. Quantity. of. unrestrictive.

complex. 43. kinds Sequence Set. forms shots. of sit. conjunction. object. 69. 289. 159. 162. simple. simple of. 170. 159. of. in form. effect. of. would.syntax use Result. who. Same Sat. of. in of. 'S. of. suffix. 231. clauses of. 42. 242. definition . 74. 196. gender. Seeing. will. elliptical. Shot. Self Sentences. Simple in sate. conjunctions Retained Riches. 252. which. reflexive analysis of compound. 26 271. 231. and should. 196. of of of complex Sentences. ending. 319. plural possessive as. 195. that. 51. 255. 294. 29. pronoun. See Sentences. tenses. 40. sentence. 259. Sex Shall. S. 263. Shear.

definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 233. -en. 257. 126. as. Spelling Spinster. these number. Somebody Sort. logical. 270. 137. 260. of. adverb. in Middle English. 36. 245. 245. disuse in spoken complete. Subject. verbs. 144. 138. English. of. 144. of. etc. 32. 38.. definition 67. adverb. English. of. to of. sort. English. 237. definition how kinds noun. 262. English. 258. 257. 323. See -En. of. 303. 258. in feminine suffix. 169. vs. 303. 38. 258. Split Spoken -Ster. literary clause. 12. . of. 33. names as a. -es. 33. of. other Such Such Suffix -s. 240. used mood. 186. 257.Singular Sir. for. phonetic in infinitive. 257. Modern use becoming else's. distinguish.

. 275. There These kind. 147. 147. objects. 106. 116. 191. of languages. 309. 319. when as of. this. in double. object. 61. that uses That. 307. Kind." introductory. Then. 119. 106.. 186. form. me. classical of. 107. subject. of. 306. of . when relative. meaning. 123. 289. which. coördinating. syntax of. English. 297. adjectives. 108. restrictive. English. in comparison. 306. 87.. two basis not same definition definite. of. plural as adverb. and and of. definition in English Tense. 33. than of. 290. of. 275. degree. See etc. as history The. 147. 109. of. 189. not suggesting adjectives.Suffixes. of. 280. 88. meaning made up in Old of. of. 277. . Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. as history syntax Their. 148. they. omission whom. 152. in Modern number sequence table Than That. of. 222. article. as adverbs. "the then foreign. adverbs. of. 120. auxiliaries. king. 186. Tenses.

207. 330. 173. infinitive. thee. -Trix. phrases. words. used. of. kinds participle. of. try two. preposition. first. first adjective. 180. uttermost. 181. See On. 61. 322. 323. 175. gerund. Upon. parse. how infinitive. 21. 175. of. 247. 172. 185. in omitted uses T'other. Thou. 114. suffix. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. feminine and. to. Utter. verbs. 20. -ing 111. of. certain as the before with of. 188. infinitive. 195. of. 322. adverbs those. thy. tother. carelessly uses syntax this. uses history of. 172. of. 119. 308.. 217. See That. Time. 175. analysis. 114. of. Try Two Under. etc. conjunctions prepositions To. 114. in of.These. 248. uses of. 176. other noun. 128. 33. from cleft to 174. Upper. exclamations. .

Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. auxiliary. agreement of. 167. change. definition of. regular. 169. transitive and intransitive. conjugation of. What. intransitive. Vocative in Voice. tense of. active meaning. retained object with passive. 245. 223. table of irregular. mood of. voice of. how to parse. syntax of. 130. in indirect discourse. phonetic. person and number of. 236. 151. . strong. 154. 12. 242. becoming irregular. definition of. 148. table of. in person. 154. 312. 133. verbs. 312-316. defective. 320. but uses what. active. passive. 149. of English. analysis. passive form. 134. 133. of. Vixen. 135. of incomplete predication. of. 330. past tense formed nominative. 169. remarks on certain. formed by. 150. spelling of. 179. sequence of. 131. 47. 33. verbs by. 159. 167.Verbs. 155. 319. made transitive. 317. with subject in number. 148. definition of. 147. weak. 160. 39. 157. 129. 154.

questions. With. pronoun. relative. 105. Wife. Y.what Whereby. 218. 85. Woman.. questions. of. 178. 77. English. 104. 194. animals. 75. 72. . 83. 85. worser. whereto. questions. relative. 40. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. spoken in of. in -ly. 105. 72. uses See Shall. conjunction. 296. etc. 78. 111. Witch. of. 83. in in indefinite objective. Words in Worse. Whether. antecedent adjective. 299. interrogative Which. 36. 36. 85. Who. 126. would. 75. 37. wizard. referring syntax Widower. 190. 79. 295-299. 32. 73. direct of. 246. plural of in nouns -ing. questions. Will. pronoun. a. Yes ending analysis. 72. in. relative indirect relative.

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