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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

The province of English grammar is. as compared with Latin or Greek. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. Mental training. Making rules is risky. This will take in the usual divisions. but this is bad English now. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. Coming back. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. then. assist the classification of kindred expressions.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. An æsthetic benefit. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. there is still much for the grammarian to do. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. "Analysis. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question." What grammar is. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. and their uses and relations in the sentence. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Few inflections. if rightly presented. so that a small grammar will hold them all. Surely our noble language. with its enormous vocabulary." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. If. is worthy of serious study. it will at the same time. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests." and "Syntax. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). and thus incite his observation. It is also evident. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). its peculiar and abundant idioms. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. The work it will cover. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. Authority as a basis. as. however. to those who have studied the language historically. . Literary English. rightly considered. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. their forms. from the question. A broader view.

and will are evidently names of a different kind. but. or Syntax. from the eighteenth century on.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. or standard. that is. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. by which is meant the free. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. The Parts of Speech. not objects. . too. Analysis of Sentences. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. submission. and may belong to any of those objects. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. three divisions:² Part I. Such words are called nouns. The Uses of Words.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant.²GIBBON. and the word nation stands for a whole group. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Occasionally. The words state. and Inflections. The plainest name is Arabs. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. Vulgar English.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Part II. The following pages will cover. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. besides this one. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. NOUNS. Part III. the nation is free. reference will be made to vulgar English. which belongs to a people. Spoken English. as they stand for ideas. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. the words sons and master name objects. 1. In the more simple state of the Arabs. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. then. PART I.

(a) 4. substance. as here used. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. however. They properly belong under common nouns. reducing it to a narrow application. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Thus. the man here. or idea. but Chicago names one city. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or a congress. Individual. ATTRIBUTE. This does not imply. We may say.Definition. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Name for any individual of a class. or the man in front of you. or a council. Common. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. or thing. Abstract. and things separately. the name of each is an individual or proper name. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Name for a group or collection of objects. (b) Common. etc. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. whether person. men in groups may be called a crowd. Classes of nouns. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or a mob. For instance. 5. place. 3. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. and appropriate names to the groups. Collective. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. because each group is considered as a unit. a committee. belonging to one. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Proper. animals. . Besides considering persons. MATERIAL. 2. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. animals. we may think of them in groups. representing directly to the mind an object. A noun is a name word. is from a Latin word which means general. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. or things. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Thus. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. possessed by all.

rice. considered abstractly. dew. condition. celluloid. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. etc. clay. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. proof means the act of proving. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. cloud. or actions. expressing state. we speak of the wisdom of the man. (3) Geological bodies: mud." "Learning is hard to acquire." "a man of understanding. not things. Names of ideas. It may.Names for things thought of in mass. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. frost. When we speak of a wise man. The reason is. stone. but which are not called proper names. however. wheat. earth. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. potash. conditions. sugar. etc. NOTE. earth. granite. wheat. sugar. gold. iron. rock. etc. . "Painting is a fine art. Such are glass. 6.. as in calling a city Cincinnati." 9.²There are some nouns. snow. etc. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). etc. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. tea. or that which shows a thing has been proved. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. sand. 7. Again. or action. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. but it is taken merely as a name. expressing attributes or qualities. paint. moon. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. we may say. etc. rain. The quality is still there as much as before. . They remain common class names. frost. or apart from their natural connection. world. instead of to each individual or separate object. mist. etc. Words naturally of limited application not proper. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. etc. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. and so on. platinum. rubber. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. there is no such intention. soap. such as sun. and fasten a special name to the object considered. but in the words sun. wine.

he spread his blessings over the land. They are only the husks of verbs. 1. service from serve." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. is used as a noun. the moon caused fearful forebodings. as in the expressions. hopeful²hope. those opinions and feelings. "a long run" "a bold move. Thus. kingship from king.. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. the teachings of the High Spirit. summer. speech from speak. Caution. the rude drawings of the book. lightning. etc. 272. Verbal abstract nouns. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. the great Puritan awakening. by altering its function. (1) prudence from prudent." "a brisk walk. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. as glad²joy. day. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. stupidity from stupid. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. Exercises. the main bearings of this matter. redness from red. height from high. night. mastery from master. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. Such are beauty. in the beginning of his life. five abstract. and they cannot express action. her longing for their favor. Underived abstract nouns. etc. five proper. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. thunder. They cannot govern a word. action from act. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. as their name implies. etc. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns.Attribute abstract nouns. 12.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. 273). hope. theft from thieve. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. NOTE. joy. the well-being of her subjects. The verb. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. but are merely names of actions. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. energy. winter. ease. (2) peerage from peer. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. II. there is time for such reasonings. 10. childhood from child. . etc. a wedding or a festival. To avoid difficulty. shadow.

as pneumonia. as physics. diphtheria. catarrh. (b) branches of knowledge. typhus. Using a dictionary. pleurisy. algebra.2. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. geology. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . mathematics? 3.

By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson.²EMERSON. damask. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. etc. or to go over to it entirely. for example. 15. the word port. from the name of Dr. from Calicut. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. from Oporto. but most of them are in the following groups. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. from China. 13. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. arras. who was its inventor. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. thus. it imposes its classification on other men. as a davy. currants. Proper names transferred to common use. Material nouns may be used as class names. a Bentham. from a town in France.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes." referring to flat- . 14. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Others of similar character are calico. Nouns change by use. from Damascus. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. "The cook made the irons hot. the guillotine. 119). a Fourier.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. We know a number of objects made of iron. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. in Portugal. above. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Guillotin. a Lavoisier. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. and lo! a new system. a Hutton. a Locke. levant and morocco (leather). port (wine). but we may say. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. from Corinth. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented.

papers. coals. purity. on fire. Personification of abstract ideas.²RUSKIN.In lightnings owned his secret stings. 16. mists. but differ in strength. Test this in the following sentences:² . or used as class nouns. When it is said that art differs from science. candies. that disposition is the thing to be created.²HAYNE. that is. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. smiled. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural.²COLLINS. his eyes. tobaccos. From all around²Earth and her waters. etc. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. a rubber for erasing marks. tins. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²BYRON. a steel to whet a knife on. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. be spoken of. and only Vice and Misery. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. and say teas. Death. These are the same in material. clouds. Class nouns in use. but in case an art or a science. This is a poetic usage. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. clays. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. which are made plural. are abroad. or made plural. not material things. slates. to prowl or to moan like night birds. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. A halfway class of words. are still names of abstract ideas. etc. paints. Traffic has lain down to rest. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. or the arts and sciences. abstract in meaning. They are not then pure abstract nouns.²BRYANT. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated.²PERCIVAL. and so on. For example.²CARLYLE. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. or. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. that the power of art is founded on fact. oils. 17. The words preceded by the article a.irons. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. nor are they common class nouns. as stones. Next Anger rushed. the abstract idea is partly lost. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. but on dispositions which require to be created. (3) By poetical use. though not confined to verse. of certain words necessarily singular in idea.

They may be regarded as elliptical expressions.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. 19. But ah! those pleasures. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. as descriptive adjectives are. loves. nouns used to modify. Conjunctions. however. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. And still. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.Let us.² GOLDSMITH. or describe it.²SHAKESPEARE. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. All these. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. NOTE.²SHAKESPEARE. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. They are more like the possessive noun.² BURNS. make our own so. sir!"²MACAULAY . a bill as to tax on the banks. were mere terrors of the night. if we must have great actions. or from any expression." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. they do not express quality.²BURNS. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns." "a New York bank.²IRVING. "a family quarrel. for example. which belongs to another word. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. sir!" and the "What then." which contains a pure adjective. 18. When I was young? Ah. Adverbs. meaning a walk in the morning." "a morning walk. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. but is still a noun. Every why hath a wherefore. as each repeated pleasure tired. But it is better to consider them as nouns. By ellipses. they cannot be compared. fear thy blow. etc. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. sir?" and the "No. the wealthy. Nouns used as descriptive terms.²EMERSON. a bank in New York. Then comes the "Why. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.The Solitary can despise. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. Adjectives." "the State Bank Tax bill.

Mather's called "Essays to do Good. whether it mean the sun or the cold. are used. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. There are many of these. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. Power laid his rod aside. or a state secret." and another of Dr. 4. 20. too.²These remarks do not apply. so. Caution. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named.Nor iron bars a cage. in speaking of the principal of a school. and Then. NOTE. 5. of course. the wealthy. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. 7. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. When. the terms the great. is ambiguous." or "legal. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. Now. or a criminal." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. and tell to which class each belongs.. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. The it. It is to be remembered. In the other sentences.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. Learning. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 6. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. 1. of words rather than of their meaning. but as a figure of speech.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Exercise. etc. however. or a faithful domestic. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. 2. . why and wherefore. is the word "just. Stone walls do not a prison make. without reference to its function in the sentence. FRANKLIN. 8. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. that cobweb of the brain. 3. at the beginning."²B. to such words as become pure nouns by use.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. When. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. but have an adjectival meaning. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. in a sentence above.

and names of females are usually feminine. and many other languages. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Greek. It is founded on sex. 15. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. but not so in English. . INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. German.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. he cried. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. the welcome.9. 10. 22. always masculine. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 17. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. returned to Spain. A fool speaks all his mind. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 16. 14. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. What gender means in English. in English grammar. The hours glide by. 13. that waits you here. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. the silver moon is gone. always feminine. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast.Fair guests. Male beings are. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 21. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 18. 11.You seize the flower. GENDER. 20. In Latin. 19. for every dropHinders needle and thread.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. And see. 12. 24. 21. its bloom is shed. The fleet. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 23. A little weeping would ease my heart. female. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. There are exceptions even to this general statement. shattered and disabled.

are named by gender nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. or which arouse his interest most. Hence: Definition. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. or additions to words. No "common gender.. must be divided into two principal classes..² IRVING. der Tisch (table) is masculine. however. All nouns. those with which man comes in contact often. that pattern of a husband. hortus (garden) is masculine. 24.²masculine and feminine." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. 22. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. the name of it is feminine. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. those which do not distinguish sex. He next stooped down to feel the pig. according to use.²IRVING. The great difference is.²gender nouns. or names of things without life. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Of animals. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. if there were any signs of life in it. Thus. 23. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.. corpus (body) is neuter.. Gender nouns. mensa (table) is feminine. .When. but are spoken of as neuter. For instance: in Latin.. then. if of the female sex. with its gizzard under its wing.² I have seenA curious child . those distinguishing the sex of the object. in English. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. clapping his burnished wings. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. in other languages gender follows the form. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. the sex being of no consequence. inanimate things are spoken of. in German. according to their use.. that is. the word child is neuter in the sentence. "A little child shall lead them. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words.²LAMB. the name of it is masculine. Gunpowder . and consequently without sex. das Messer (knife) is neuter. came to a stand just by the bridge." . and neuter nouns. Neuter nouns.

If such words as parent. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. generally to a masculine word. only to masculine and feminine nouns. domestic. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. etc. Hence vixen is for fyxen. 26. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Put in convenient form. Very few of class I. Native suffixes. II. 28. relative. Male nouns beings. of course. for from they said vram. Gender shown by Prefixes. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. The inflections for gender belong. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. from the masculine fox. as he-goat²she-goat. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. servant. puts a prefix before the masculine man. (2) By adding a suffix. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. According to the definition.25.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. I. the division of words according to sex. is. These remain in vixen and spinster. Gender shown by Suffixes. 29. . Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. 27. teacher. though both words have lost their original meanings. woman. and for the older word fat they said vat. or the lack of it. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. they are neuter words. One feminine. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. cousin. ruler. he-bear²she-bear. For fox they said vox.. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. as in wine vat. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. but spinster has now no connection with it.

song-str-ess. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Low Latin issa). but in most cases it has not. These are attached to foreign words. as czarina. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. donna. 30. punster. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. and are never used for words recognized as English. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. -ess (French esse. it has none now in the words huckster. trickster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. Ending of masculine not changed. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . gamester. executrix. Unaltered and little used. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. as seam-stress. señorita. as. the one most used.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. as. Slightly changed and widely used. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine.

sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . the ending -ess. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). from Latin imperatricem. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. wagoness. NOTE. Thus. In some of these pairs. Instead of saying doctress. 31. Some of them have an interesting history. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. etc. neighboresse.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. teacheresse. as was said in the sixteenth century. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. as. neighbor (masculine and feminine). editor. fosteress. frendesse. chairman. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. we use the masculine termination. We frequently use such words as author. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. as in the fourteenth century. we use the feminine. 32." III. teacher or lady teacher. from the French -esse. Gender shown by Different Words. others have in their origin the same root. as. or servauntesse. to represent persons of either sex.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male.

not immediately connected with witch. but this has long been obsolete. The older forms. Besides gander and drake. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). for example. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Widower. Two masculines from feminines. leaving our word drake. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. lhauerd. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper).² . but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. had the masculine mearh (horse). etc. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). as in many other words. Icelandic gás. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. finally gander. Personification.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Mare. or lauerd in Middle English. written loverd. gand-ra. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Madam is the French ma dame. among others) to be from the same root word. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. 34. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. 16). the old sign of the masculine. probably meaning house dweller). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). in Old English mere.). Danish gaas. became identical. from Latin mea domina. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. widuwa²widuwe. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). 33. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Witch is the Old English wicce. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. though both are ultimately from the same root.

²singular and plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. shoon (shoes). which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. the plural. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. together with the third.Her home is on the deep. Our language has two numbers. that is."Now. in Old English. In nouns. NUMBER."²BYRON. The first two methods prevailed. . This inflection remains only in the word oxen. whenever we adopt a new word. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. 39. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en.²COLERIDGE. Britannia needs no bulwarks. eyen (eyes). (2) By changing the root vowel. Effect of personification. This is not exclusively a poetic use. 37. 35.²CAMPBELL. the engineer speaks so of his engine.No towers along the steep. and not by the form of the noun.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. treen (trees). more than one. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine.²KEATS. 38. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. But other words were inflected afterwards. for instance. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. The -en inflection. 36. (3) By adding -s (or -es). and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Definition. etc. I.

such as deer. lens. pair. Examples of this inflection are. Instead of -s. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. ditch. turf.²THOREAU.The horse are thousands ten. but has now no singular. people. etc. The words horse and foot. sail. Other words following the same usage are. by. glass. Kine is another double plural. after numerals (if not after numerals. etc. swine.²WHITTIER. and get settled. then brothre or brethre.² The foot are fourscore thousand. as. . Brethren has passed through three stages. or if preceded by the prepositions in. cross. dozen. head. as. they add -s): also trout. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. after all. that have the singular and plural alike. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. wight. retain the same form for plural meaning. 40. heathen. folk. finally brethren.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. brace. Akin to this class are some words. and is still found in dialects. II.Horse and foot. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Children has passed through the same history. quartz. cannon.² "God bless me! so then. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. III. 41. borough²formerly had the same inflection. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English.²Over the mountains winding down. but they now add the ending -s. Lee marched over the mountain wall. originally neuter. sheep. salmon. Such are box.-En inflection imitated by other words. The old plural was brothru. into Frederick town. 42.²MACAULAY. etc. when they mean soldiery."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.

in its widest extent. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. they lose their identity. etc. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. etc. though they are plural in form. etc. Proper nouns are regularly singular. physics. 45.. some adding -s. politics. and the real ending is therefore -s. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. volcano² volcanoes. means and politics. economics. is both the science and the art of government. allies. that when thy summons comes. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Two words. hero²heroes. Formerly. these words ended in -ie. optics. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. mathematics. shelf²shelves. When such words take a plural ending.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. niche²niches. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. knife²knives. The lilie on hir stalke grene. a new syllable is made. chaise²chaises. Words in -ies. It served simply as a means of sight.²BRYANT. pains (care). (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe.g. summons. Some words are usually singular. etc. and go over to other classes (Secs. fancies. e. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. So live.²PROF. Means plural. Special Lists. though this sound combines readily with -s. Examples of these are.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . molasses. race²races. fairies. half²halves. 43. quoth then that ladie milde.g.² Politics. and some -es. 44.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). 15 and 17). house²houses. DANA. means: as. also news.-Es added in certain cases. the Washingtons. daisies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. and many branches of learning.. as. prize²prizes. negro²negroes. e. the Americas. however.

CURTIS. Besides this. he pronounced to have been a tongs. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. by those means which we have already mentioned.²BURKE. I say.Words. however. Some words have no corresponding singular. With great dexterity these means were now applied. it is furnished with a forceps. Sometimes. By these means. Now I read all the politics that come out. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. . LAUGHLIN. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²GOLDSMITH. L. W. Politics plural.² MACAULAY.²J. A relic which.²IRVING. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. 46.²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right. by strongly conveying the passions.²MOTLEY. riches will accumulate.²G.

pea²peas (separately). (2) care. ways. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. (2) abilities. or epistles. making a double plural. In speaking of coins. two meanings. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. penny²pennies (separately). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. number²numbers: (1) figures. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. fish²fish (collectively). Numbers also means issues. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. brethren (of a society or church). These make the last part plural. faculties. of a periodical. (2) poetry. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. twopence. etc. In Early Modern English thank is found. Three words were originally singular.²LONGFELLOW. genius²geniuses (men of genius). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). 48. riches. etc. pence (collectively). pease (collectively). for the numbers came. carry off chaff. in mournful numbers. sixpence. fishes (individuals or kinds). part²parts: (1) divisions.The air.²POPE. eaves. DANA. genii (spirits).. two plurals. index²indexes (to books). or work in a bellows?²PROF. .² I lisped in numbers. 50. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. Tell me not. as in the lines.²one corresponding to the singular..²was it subdued when. 49.. (2) revenue duties.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. (2) literature.). trouble. shot²shot (collective balls). or copies. die²dies (stamps for coins. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. the other unlike it. as two sixpences. may add -s. indices (signs in algebra). clothes (garments). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. One plural. dice (for gaming). Two classes of compound words. shots (number of times fired).

²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Brahman. such as talisman. HOLMES. or the name may be pluralized. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. German. for example. Norman. firman. and Mrs. as the Messrs. Allen. the Drs. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. The title may be plural. then Silas Peckham. Two methods in use for names with titles. woman singer. 52. The chief member adds -s in the plural. though the latter is often found. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. 51. Briggs. manservant. woman servant. there is some disagreement among English writers.² Then came Mr. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. but add -s. Ottoman. as man singer. Brown. Mussulman.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. . the Misses Rich.²DR. As to plurals of names with titles.

²GOLDSMITH. FROM THE GREEK. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²THE CRITIC.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Others have been adopted. They are then said to be naturalized. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. or Englished. and retain their foreign plurals. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. These are said to be domesticated.²GIBBON.²DICKENS. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Du Maurier. Exercise. 53. The Messrs. Domesticated words. or Anglicized. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. FROM THE LATIN. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. y y analysis antithesis . The domesticated words may retain the original plural.

y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words." the word felon's modifies cell. . figures. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). Words quoted merely as words. 54." CASE. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. In the sentence. Only two case forms. as. cell has another relation. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. figures. as." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). without reference to their meaning. In the general wearing-away of inflections." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). they form their plurals in the regular way. 56. etc. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. also add -s or 's. etc. Definition.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. 55. Letters. and expresses a relation akin to possession. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. helping to express the idea of place with the word in..

excessive grief. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 3.²person. whether inflected or not. three things characterize man. 57. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. must be understood for purposes of analysis. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. may be said to have three cases." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. 1. 4." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. when asked unawares. fate.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. and merit. I.²nature." (2) As a predicate noun. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. Excuses are clothes which. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations.²one for the nominative and objective. . The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. completing a verb.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. and the possessive.²the nominative. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. the objective. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Three properties belong to wisdom. 5. then. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. the enemy of the living. and experience. Nouns. Uses of the Nominative. they returned to their homes. learning. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and tell which use of the nominative each one has." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Human experience is the great test of truth. 2. 58.

save. and being equivalent to one verb. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. they are sands of precious gold. measure. distance. thy wrath can send. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. (5) As the object of a preposition. 2. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. oh save me from the candid friend! 7." Exercise. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. good Heaven. 8." "Cowards die many times before their deaths." (4) As the second object. reconciles. But the flood came howling one day. (in the older stages of the language. They charged. how have I frighted thee? II. and meaning calmest. But of all plagues. etc. .6. 9." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. the word toward which the preposition points. her first law broken. and tell which use each has:² 1. taking the object storm. completing the verb. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. 3. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. taking the object enemies. 59. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. as will be seen in Sec. wounded lies. 68. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. a patriarch of the village. Conscience." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Set a high price on your leisure moments.Save. Uses of the Objective. and landlord of the inn. sword in hand and visor down. and makest a calm." (3) Adverbially. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. 4.

III.²ADDISON. Possession in some sense is the most common.His winter task a pastime made. as in these expressions.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. The noblest mind the best contentment has. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. 9. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. and forfeits paid. 10. 7. the most common of all. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. The possessive case always modifies another word. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.And gave the leper to eat and drink. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. as shown in the sentences. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. expressed or understood. 8.e. And whirling plate. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. tempests that . for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. as. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. from day to day.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.²SHELLEY. or in writing yesterday's elegy. (2) Objective possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.²HAWTHORNE. It is a poetic expression. 6. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.² The unwearied sun. 61. 60. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.²BYRON. Uses of the Possessive. the Great Stone Face.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.Does his Creator's power display. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. (3) Subjective possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.5.

Nom. 62.e. 62. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). however. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. expressing the relations of nominative and objective." etc. One is the simple form of a word. lady Poss. How the possessive is formed. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. As said before (Sec. 64." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. To form the possessive plural. growth which several days had developed). the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. and Obj. A suggestion.. there are only two case forms. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. as schoolboys sometimes write. 1." "mannes herte [heart]. 63. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. Poss.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his.e. the panther which the forest hides). Nom. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. The use of the apostrophe. Case Inflection. 56). . ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. making the possessive singular. Declension or inflection of nouns. A false theory. in Chaucer. PLURAL. and Obj." "at his beddes syde. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. "George Jones his book. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. child NOTE. "From every schires ende. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case.winter is likely to have)." Use of the apostrophe..

James's.Though this opinion was untrue. the items of my son's. though instances are found with both appositional words marked.. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase." "A postscript is added. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. 66. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. Captain Scrapegrace's.²CARLYLE.²RUSKIN. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. containing words in apposition. and she walked off from the don's. but to the ear all may be alike. a word with a phrase. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. Peter's. Possessive and no noun limited. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.²HOLMES. my neighbors.²THACKERAY.² LOWELL. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. Kate saw that. store. I remember him in his cradle at St.²DE QUINCEY. as by the countess's command. and from a desire to have distinct forms. for goodness' sake. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. church.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. as. being understood with it: for example. the possessive sign is usually last. dwelling. etc. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. know the amount of my income. ."²DE QUINCEY. In other cases the s is seldom omitted." Possessive with compound expressions. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.²SWIFT. some such word as house. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. etc. in the name of the emperor their master. 67. instead of the emperor their master's name. stands up for God's truth one man. 65. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead.. In compound expressions. Cervantes' satirical work. as.

²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. objective. making a double possessive. and at the same time by a possessive noun. and tell whether each is appositional. no. or subjective. (See also Sec. (1) When a word is modified by a. any. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. If. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. however. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. (3) It prevents ambiguity. 2.The double possessive. and I used to like whatever they bade me like.. especially when used with this or that. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. this. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. every. In most cases. Clearness. as one modifier.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. that. sometimes they are used together. in such a sentence as. (b) Rewrite the sentence. 1. Blair). there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns.²E. corresponding to 's. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. HALE. the sentence might be understood as just explained.²FROUDE. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. A peculiar form. the statement clearly means only one thing.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Both of these are now used side by side. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es.²CARLYLE. etc. E. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. Exercises. 68. Emphasis. a double possessive. ill-lighted except where she stands. 87. For example. the. we use the phrase of Atterbury. each.

I must not see thee Osman's bride. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. Hence. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. day's harbinger. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.They say. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 14. 7. 6. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.Comes dancing from the East. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.3. 13. 4. it seemed. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.² . There Shakespeare's self. Nature herself. At lovers' perjuries. 11. some idioms²the double possessive. 69. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. Jove laughs. Friend. Now the bright morning star. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. In parsing. 12. 10. 15. 70. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 5. 8. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. with every garland crowned. and destroy the other. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. therefore.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. let him seasonably water the one. 9. in parsing a noun. we state.

and relations. determining its case. it has no sex. object of the verb takes. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 3. a fresh tapster. 2. and number. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. etc. inflections. 71. it expresses possession or ownership. names one thing.(1) The class to which it belongs. gender. and limits neckcloth.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. therefore possessive case. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. In parsing any word. hence it is objective case. has no governing word. therefore singular number. but is the adverbial objective. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. Thief is a common class noun. MODEL FOR PARSING. therefore masculine gender. if the latter. it denotes only one person. and therefore nominative case. hence objective case. Neckcloth. proper. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. it expresses time. singular number. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. Exercise. (4) Its office in the sentence. subject of the verb is understood. Throat is neuter.²common. NOTE. like miller's. 68). therefore neuter. . To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. is a common class noun. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. as to case. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. hence it is a common noun. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. and to have it found out by accident. That in the captain's but a choleric word. it is the name of a male being. therefore singular number. (3) Whether singular or plural number. hence it is a gender noun. 4. masculine. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. which gender. it is the object of the preposition by. The correct method. a withered serving man. the connection shows a male is meant.

76). Time makes the worst enemies friends. blessings light on him that first invented . since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. which are used to ask questions about persons or things.. were natives of Geneva. (2) Interrogative pronouns. 9. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. He giveth his beloved sleep. and prison. 11. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. all in one. 73. financial minister to Louis XVI.. 10. Madame de Staël. PRONOUNS. and his daughter.²palace. . A few miles from this point. where the Rhone enters the lake. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. 72." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. sleep! 6. Classes of pronouns. Definition. For instance. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.And hated her for her pride. instead of saying. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. or for a group of persons or things." Again. The need of pronouns. A pronoun is a reference word. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. and representative words.. Mrs.5. definite. or for a person or thing. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. Now. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Necker. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. standing for a name. Jarley's back being towards him. 7. but by a question we say. from a necessity for short. 8. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. castle.

which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns.(3) Relative pronouns. Singular. which have forms for person. even if it had a special form. (2) Second person. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. we our. (5) Indefinite pronouns. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. which cannot be used as adjectives. Person in grammar. they must represent the person talking. representing the person speaking. that is.. words. primarily adjectives. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. the person or thing spoken to. 76. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Three persons of pronouns. standing for a person or thing spoken of. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. and the person or thing talked about. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. representing a person or thing spoken to. ours . "the distinction of person. 77." Person of nouns. as nouns have the same form. pronoun. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 75. This gives rise to a new term. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. (3) Third person. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. they are said to have person by agreement. I Poss. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. which relate or refer to a noun. 74. or other word or expression. mine. From analogy to pronouns. (4) Adjective pronouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Nom. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. my Plural.

Third person singular has gender. Obj. he his him Fem. of all Three. The speaker may be either male or female. Singular. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. thine. SECOND PERSON. Old Form Common Form. yours you THIRD PERSON. theirs them Neut. Masc. your. hers her Plur. thy Remarks on These Forms. masculine h . me us Singular. or. thou thee ye you you your. 78. namely. Nom. feminine h o. and also for the neuter. by personification. yours Poss. First and second persons without gender. you your. . a separate form for each gender.Obj. Nom. neuter hit. Old forms. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. neuter. Nom. Obj. she her. Poss. it its it Poss. they their. Obj. yours you Plural. Poss. But the third person has. Nom.. so also with the person or thing spoken to. in the singular. Obj.

and sometimes its. The plurals were h . the Old English objective was hem (or heom). "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. 82. thou Shepherd of Israel. We use it with a plural verb always. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.. etc. heom.:² (1) In elevated style. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. thee. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. etc. etc. There are. as. (2) In addressing the Deity. however. as possessive of it. even when referring to a single object. which is a neuter noun. 79. The form its.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). the forms they.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. them. 81. thy. as in prayers. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels." As shown above. heora. . Two uses of the old singulars.²BEECHER.² Oh.²SHELLEY. just as we now say. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. especially in poetry. This is of comparatively recent growth. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. their. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. two modern uses of thou. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. it. that didst comfort thy people of old. in Old English.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. The consequence is.. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. Thou. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. to thy care we commit the helpless. 80.Thou lovest. which was often sounded with the h silent. Second person always plural in ordinary English. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. for example. In spoken English.

however. The forms mine. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. though those named in Sec. I The Nominative. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. in such a sentence as. note the following:² 'Twas mine. 34).²LANDOR. 84 are always subjects. 86. they have a nominative form. them. her. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. My arm better than theirs can ward it off." the literary language would require he after was. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. 58). when they occur in the predicate position. Old use of mine and thine. or. and sometimes in ordinary speech. they. our. 'tis his. her. though ye is occasionally used as objective. some say.²BULWER. and not make more classes. I spare thee mine. The Possessive. us. he. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. 85. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Yet careful speakers avoid this. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. him. us. II. The words I. them. its.²COWPER. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. And since thou own'st that praise. In spoken English. me. ye. and follow the usage of literary English. "I am sure it was him. besides a nominative use. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. thy. your. thine. Not a separate class. she. 83. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. thou. yours. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.Use of the pronouns in personification. sometimes his and its. theirs. Absolute personal pronouns. 84. That is. The forms my. their. Additional nominatives in spoken English. . and has been slave to thousands. have a peculiar use. his. him. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. for. we. hers. to personify objects (Sec. Nominative forms. her. ²SHAKESPEARE.

² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. yours. This ancient silver bowl of mine. theirs. or satire. Long Allen.²ID."²SCOTT. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. for example. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. his. it tells of good old times. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. we find.²J.²ID. theirs. Besides this. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. Their uses. (3) To express contempt. hers. .² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. yours. COOPER.² CARLYLE.²SWIFT. 87. in that old Edinburgh house of his. we have. are really double possessives. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. Like the noun possessives. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. ²HOLMES.²THACKERAY." said Henry Woodstall. Double and triple possessives. thus. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. but few thy voice. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. thine. commenting upon a letter of mine. "Hold thy peace. anger. pluck it out. sometimes its.²BIBLE. as in nouns. T. (2) To bring emphasis.²J. and with mine. The forms hers. ours. FIELDS. F. Give every man thine ear. If thine eye offend thee.²THACKERAY. thus. This usage is still preserved in poetry. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. ours.²CARLYLE.

For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. or use in a sentence. The old dative case. In pronouns. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. and mine in the second has an objective use. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray.²ID. Both joined in making him a present. mine stands for my praise in the second. 90. his for his property. as shown in Sec. The Objective. 89. this dative use. They all handled it. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. was marked by a separate case." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. Now the objective. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. 86: mine stands for my property. for whose benefit. but not in form. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. .What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. III." "None but the brave deserves the fair.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. They may be spoken of as possessive in form." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. "The good alone are great. In their function. but the form is the same as the objective.²BIBLE. 88. In such sentences as. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. 20. the thing is done. in the first sentence. but expresses for whom. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. Curse me this people. But the first two have a nominative use.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. as it is called. Besides this use of the objective. but nominative or objective in use.

² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²CARLYLE. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. in this century. you sneeze. Society. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. as in the sentences.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. 91. has not made its progress. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. why. Indefinite use of you and your. or to the idea.²DE QUINCEY.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.²BACON. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. as. like Chinese skill. you must condense there. to stand for the real. (3) In apposition.Time is behind them and before them. was passed by with indulgence. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²EMERSON. which follows the verb. Your mere puny stripling. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. and they cry. WEBSTER. thus.² NEWMAN. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.²ADDISON. as. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.² . It is a pity that he has so much learning. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. or that he has not a great deal more. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²D. ²EMERSON.²BULWER. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.²IRVING To empty here. The word you. 92. logical subject. You have oaten cakes baked some months before." (3) As a grammatical subject. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.

(ourself). it rained.²BURNS. that is. have laid them downIn their last sleep. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. This occurs in poetry. I made up my mind to foot it. And millions in those solitudes. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²SCOTT.. when they are direct objects. (thyself). -selves. we use such expressions as.. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. And when I awoke. . as.²COLERIDGE. 93. used in poetry. the second is the old form of the second person.² Now I lay me down to sleep.²IRVING. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw."²IRVING.²THOREAU. who in turn tries all the professions. as they are also called. 94.²HAWTHORNE.²BRYANT. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. A sturdy lad .²ID. I set me down and sigh. and its plural selves.It is finger-cold. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. yourself. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. peddles it. himself. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. however. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. For example. they dropped their arms. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. They are myself.²EMERSON." and there is an end of it. Of the two forms in parentheses. itself. There was nothing for it but to return. It was late and after midnight. themselves. "I found me a good book. but seldom in prose.²HOLMES. For when it dawned.²DE QUINCEY. since firstThe flight of years began. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.²BUNYAN." etc. who teams it. farms it. Poor Christian was hard put to it. ourselves. keeps a school. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. yourselves.²ANON." "He bought him a horse. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. herself. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.

and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. The question might arise. with self.²WORDSWORTH. for example. BROWNING. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. especially in the speech of rulers. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. as in vulgar English.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. 96.²MILTON. Origin of these reflexives.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.² . In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. Threats to all. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. 95. shall dissolve. for example. Use of the reflexives.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.² The great globe itself .. ourselves. to every one.²EMERSON.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. etc. after the analogy of myself.²SHAKESPEARE. and the others were formed by analogy with these. I shrink with pain. as. B.²ID. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. to us. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.² TENNYSON. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.²E. theself. were changed into the possessive myself. as. NOTE.To you yourself. and build the lofty rhyme.. Held dead within them till myself shall die. not the possessive forms. As if it were thyself that's here. as we ourself have been.As girls were once. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. thyself. In Middle English the forms meself.

7. where the word is one with that it tells of. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Years ago. 4. and neuter. To know what is best to do. Come and trip it as we go. all conform to it. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. which. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 3. 6. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. is wisdom. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 97. some each of masculine. father.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 2. feminine. . but it is the soonest spoiled. But if a man do not speak from within the veil.On the light fantastic toe.² THACKERAY. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. let him lowly confess it. FRANKLIN. and how to do it. One obsolete. 8. some of them being double possessives. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns.²B. Courage. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. fight it out. Infancy conforms to nobody. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). Three now in use. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.²DE QUINCEY. And it grew wondrous cold. 10. 5. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. and what. 9.

long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. These show that what is not inflected for case. Use of which. shall we say. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. or case.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. the gold.. that it is always singular and neuter. . that it is not inflected for gender or number. that is. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. whether.Promised. but for case alone. methought. 99. Use of what. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Which of you. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. etc. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. with its possessive and objective. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. as it always asks about somebody. 98. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. actions. which is not inflected for gender. it is always third person. Whose was that gentle voice. ideas.There is an old word. it is selective. What wouldst thou do. referring to things. not to persons. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. As shown here. whispering sweet. The use of who. used formerly to mean which of two. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. having three forms. number. but now obsolete. Use of who and its forms. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. that. it refers to either persons or things. 100.

for which the pronoun stands. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING.101. whose? Obj. Further treatment of who. what may be an adverb in some expressions. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. The antecedent. and what are also relative pronouns. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. as they take the place usually of a word already used. 104. pronoun. Function of the relative pronoun. It usually precedes the pronoun. as. and so to make smoother discourse. which and what are sometimes adjectives. which and what. since it is subject of the verb had. who evidently refers to Bards. 99. 102. "The last of all the Bards was he. which is called the antecedent of the relative. who? Poss. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. For instance." Or. which. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. 127). in Sec. Thus we may say. AND PLUR. 103. or other word or expression. who is used as objective instead of whom. SINGULAR Nom. as. These bards sang of Border chivalry. objective in the last. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. They will be spoken of again in the proper places.² . it may be shortened into." In the latter sentence. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which is nominative in the first sentence. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. AND PLUR. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word.Who sung of Border chivalry. being the direct object of the verb shall take.² "The last of all the Bards was he. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. SING. subject of doth love. Who. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. and also in having a conjunctive use. nominative in the second also. 105.²by the use of the words.

²PARTON Which and its forms.² COX. The origin of language is divine. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. 107. are the men and women who bless their species. the women whom women approve. both his and who have the antecedent priest. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. For her enchanting son. Who and its forms. 2. 2.²MILTON. Ye mariners of England.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.. a simple relative is meant. They had not their own luster. The men whom men respect. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.Whom universal nature did lament. will be discussed further on.. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 4. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. Generally speaking. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.²W.²THACKERAY.²DR JOHNSON. 108. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.²LOWELL In this. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. in the same sense in which man's nature. 3. Indefinite relatives.. a thousand years. which.That guard our native seas.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. but the look which is not of the earth. that. 6. Two kinds.²SCOTT.Whose flag has braved. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. When the word relative is used. 5. what. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.²BYRON. . with all its capabilities . 106. D. WHITNEY. 4. is a divine creation. 3. The nurse came to us.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.

Who. W. BEECHER 5.. (a) This gradation . you will not be angry with me for telling you. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. ought to be kept in view. The judge . which it certainly is not.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .²BURKE. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. and spoils. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. 109. What.²LAMB 3. The Tree Igdrasil.²H.² SHAKESPEARE 2. 4. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Examples of the relative that:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. The man that hath no music in himself.²IRVING.5. For what he sought below is passed above. That. 107. bought up all the pigs that could be had. 110.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 3. Already done is all that he would do. Reader. 111. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. 6.. 2.²MARGARET FULLER.²EMERSON. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully... Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them..²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to..²DE QUINCEY. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.Is fit for treasons. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. else this description will seem exaggerated. stratagems.

Cooper. Who referring to animals. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. in the second. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.. flung its arms around my neck.²IRVING. 112. (4) It has two case forms. p. 96). who is first person. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. Scott. a man. Examples of whose. Which. The sentences in Sec.²LOWELL. things. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. in the first sentence.²which for the nominative and objective. 113. whose is second person.. whose. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number.²SWIFT. in 4.²who. The little gorilla. 107.. Kingsley.²DR. seemed as much excited as myself. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. Sec. . not persons.. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Witness the following examples:² And you. In 1. they are plural. the relatives are singular. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. the others are all third person. and others. and so on. and 6. in the third. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. son. whom.²LEIGH HUNT. that man. possessive case of which.²THACKERAY. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. In sentence 4.. Gibbon. whom. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. (3) It is nearly always third person. who. or ideas.who. 2. It has been seen (Sec. The robins. referring to animals. My horse. Smollett. 5. whose for the possessive. (2) It has three case forms. whose wound I had dressed. in 5. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.whose. JOHNSON. and 3.

114. and third persons. thus. (3) It is the same form for first.²SCOTT. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. This moribund '61. Which and its antecedents. and to persecute without pity. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. and things. which is very notable and curious. This often occurs. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.² MCMASTER. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. Sometimes. So in Matthew Arnold. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. second. secondly (which made her stare). (2) It has only one case form. animals. Kingsley.²SHAKESPEARE. the antecedent follows which.²THACKERAY. 115. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.² And.²BEECHER. The last two sentences in Sec. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. In the sentences of Sec. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. and numerous others. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. 109. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.²RUSKIN. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. let us enter the church itself. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. Men may be ready to fight to the death.² I swept the horizon. no possessive. 116. which is worse. .²first. That."²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. Primarily. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. Burke. too. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent.

It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. third person. it usually follows." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed.²BIBLE What fates impose. we can. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent.² What I would. is always neuter. and person of the relatives who. either of which would be neuter." (3) "These people heard him. who Poss. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. that do I not. as in sentence 6. consequently is neuter." That evidently refers to truths. The sentences of Sec. When expressed." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 109. that he has. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. 119. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. whose Obj. Nom. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. for example. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. as. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. . but what I hate. number. what we said?²CARLYLE.²EMERSON. and is emphatic. plural number. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. that do I.²SHAKESPEARE. For example. The gender. What a man does. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. by taking them out. which. third person. that men must needs abide. 118. What. Sec. 117. plural number.

neuter. The whole expression is its subject. third person. standing for the people understood. and hence is in the nominative case. we is the subject. etc. Now. In the sentence. First find the antecedents. The relative what is handled differently. in the following sentences:² 1. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. In (2). who is sure to be cunninger than they. then parse the relatives. it is object of uttered. As shown by the following sentences. 6. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.. however. it is subject of the verb heard. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Some prefer another method of treatment. is what we call nature. 3. I think they are trying to outwit nature. after all. The word what. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. 7. Another way. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Exercise. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. subject of heard. so is in the objective case. in (3)."²EMERSON. Truths in sentence (2). in (1). 8. the simple relative. and what is the direct object of the verb call. but of this. 4. Parsing what. 5. . the highest result of all education. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona." Here the subject of is. What must be endured? Answer." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. nobler souls with that which they are. 120. because it has usually no antecedent. In the same way who. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. people is the object of the preposition of. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. What can't be cured. "What can't be cured must be endured. but is singular. which is. is in the nominative case. is subject of the verb can't be cured. above. is subject of wrought upon and molded. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time.

whosoever. and parse that in the first clause. 122. whatever. . 5. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. that nothing else can stand in their presence. So with the other indefinites. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 2. less common are whoso. by meaning and use. Hence some take what as a double relative." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. and which in the second clause. It is no proof of a man's understanding. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. object of do] they do.²BURKE.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. or what else soever. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. and his friend a fool. whatsoever. 4. 123. whichever. List and examples. It is clear that in 1. whichsoever. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. which. Take which you please. that is. or stand on their head. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. 6. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whatsoever. 3. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. Meaning and use. The simple relatives who. no particular thing. in a new and original way. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe.²you cannot have both. not as direct as the simple relatives. 7. Do what we can.²MACAULAY. to everything that.²BURKE. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 2. no certain antecedent. "common souls pay with that [singular. and in 2. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Only itself can inspire whom it will. 121. being referred to. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. They are whoever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. object of with] which [singular. Death is there associated. summer will have its flies.

are used. 121. by which. 2. thus. 4.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. whereby.² some particular thing. Sec. 126. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.²HAWTHORNE. as was used just as we use that or which.²DE QUINCEY. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. not following the word such. either one that. etc. Proof that they have the force of relatives. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. This. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. nothing that does not interest us.As shown in Sec. There is nothing but is related to us. everything that (or everything which).² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. but and as. 124. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. but mean any one whom. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. the conjunctions wherein. But and as.. . Former use of as. 417). has been my heaviest affliction. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.² 1. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. etc. Instead of the phrases in which. etc. 120. but which only wealth could have purchased. what means anything that. for example. In early modern English. whereupon.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. for example.²EMERSON. 125. upon which. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. Two words.. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. and that as after such is equivalent to which. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. 121. Other substitutes.

what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. "But what had become of them? They knew not. . though the earthwork hid them. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. second. a question is disguised in each sentence. 127. it is an interrogative. no antecedent is expressed." Likewise with which in 3 (b). But in 1 (b).²EMERSON. "Who stood behind? We knew. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. it is a simple relative. who having the antecedent gentleman. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). (b) But what had become of them they knew not. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. and 3 (b). if expanded. which would indicate that they are not relatives. So in 2 (b). Thus. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. 1 (b). which having the antecedent lines. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. 2 (b). 2. showing that who is plainly interrogative. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. How to decide. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. the full expression being. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 3.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. and whether what = that + which (if so. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. In sentences 1 (a). Another caution. would be.²WHITTIER. In studying such sentences. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. Special caution needed here. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. if not. what is interrogative. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first.²ID. it is an indefinite relative).. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure." etc. if not.

and Court Calendars. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 3. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Thus.²FORSTER 6.128. On the other hand. In the first. . Examine the following:² 1. In the second. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Relative omitted when object. and asks no question.²FLETCHER. ELIOT. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 4.²SWIFT. In the third. 5.²GOLDSMITH. 2. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences.²CARLYLE. whence is the interrogative word. Exercise. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. but the life of man in England. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. which has the antecedent hue. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. the question is asked by the verb.²HOLMES. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Put in the relatives who. 129. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. I visited many other apartments. whose has the antecedent you.² These are the sounds we feed upon.²G. which. When Goldsmith died.² THACKERAY. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.

Examples are. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 5. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. or indefinite relatives:² 1. the house was full. Also in literary English we find the same omission. simple relatives.7.² LOWELL. Function of adjective pronouns.²SHAKESPEARE. that. which. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. The nobles looked at each other. . We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball.²Id. It is rare in prose. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. and what.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. 3. There was such a crowd went. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Relative omitted when subject. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.²CAMPBELL. 130. who were to be rulers over whom.²SCOTT. and comparatively so in poetry. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. 2. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. which was already proceeding. 6. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.Ne'er looks upon the sun.

'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. "The dead are there. etc. few. all. any. or may be the whole of a sentence. but in this function. and stand for a noun." "Where two men ride on a horse. such as each." that is. such as this. Caution. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. "each cube. neither." "one man." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. expressed or understood. For example." in the others. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns.131. but have lost their adjective use.²EMERSON. . they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. a word. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. etc. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. in the first. or use. in order to be an adjective pronoun. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. must not modify any word.²BRYANT. not pronouns.²IRVING. Primarily they are adjectives. "these pranks. necessarily thought of: thus. For instance. or they may stand for nouns. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Adjectives. etc. that. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. or an argument in a paragraph. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. as some. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. 133. none." in the second. and on each is written. in letters of gold.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood." Classes of adjective pronouns. either. many. 'Truth. "another bank. the former. which we have seen in such expressions as. and another to get cool under. In the first use they are adjectives. 132. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.

(a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.²ID. Even as I have seen.²LOWELL.²ID.²EMERSON 4. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Exercises. They have not shunned the one. because he was not lying in wait for these. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. NOTE. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Some of these are simple pronouns.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Compound. and they have well performed the other. as seemed good to each. A man inspires affection and honor. reap the same. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. when the latter was the King of Spain.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Definition and examples. 3. Such are a few isolated instances. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. they that plow iniquity. 134. for example. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. accidentally preserved.² They stood. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. 2. or reclined. They had fewer books. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and sow wickedness. but what he fain had seen He could not see.All these he saw. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. Their minds accorded into one strain. 5. but these were of the best. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. . or sat. Simple.

²HOLMES. one another. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.² One reflexive. . They led one another. such as one other.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. The Soldan. for example. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. NUMERAL PRONOUNS.Two are compound pronouns. imbued. 135.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. Exercise. with the superstitions of his time. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The word one has a reflexive form. we might the more easily discharge them.²KINGSLEY.²EMERSON. None shall rule but the humble.²each other. Definition and examples.²HAWTHORNE. Some inflected. or melt for others' woe. Another opposes him with sound argument. you quickly come to the end of all. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. another. ²HAWTHORNE. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. as most were. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. paused over a horoscope. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. Men take each other's measure when they react. as it were. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. Much might be said on both sides. as some of the rangers had gone astray. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. as.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns.

These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. somebody else. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. in building of chaises.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered.²SHAKESPEARE. anybody else's. 137. everybody. every one else. nobody. and was indefinite in Old English. 136. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Jove laughs. Somebody. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. . naught. but. nothing. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. everything. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Now. anybody. also aught. as. anything. everybody else. as shown in the words everybody's. something.Exercise. They indefinite means people in general. I tell you what. and somewhat. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. what. anyone else. etc.. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. they are never used as adjectives. no one. Exercise. every one (or everyone). Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America.² At lovers' perjuries. any one (or anyone). Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy." It means something. Every one else stood still at his post. Definition and examples. unlike adjective pronouns. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. some one. etc. and they. they say. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.

17. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 7. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. All was now ready for action. Hutchinson tells us of herself. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 138. 4. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 6. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. O thou that rollest above. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Whoever deals with M. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 11. were suffered to depart. from my earliest days. in his negotiations. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. I first found myself among the mountains. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 13. 14. The table was good. 10. 16. For this did God send her a great reward. indeed. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 5. A reminder. 9. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 12. Exercise. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. . 2. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 8. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 18.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Others did the same thing. 3. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got.²a feature of natural scenery for which. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. to which. and of no other.

I who alone am. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 25. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. variety. 27. hear! 33.Destroyer and preserver. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. He sate him down. 32. Whatever he knows and thinks. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 34. 31.19. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. in all its height. eat white bread or brown. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld.Who knew thee too well. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. and seized a pen. hear. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 23. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. thou rollest now. oh. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. 30. And will your mother pity me.And it would work 'em woe.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. behold now the semblance of my being. 21. They know not I knew thee. who take the world easy. 29. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. that let him communicate. 35. 26. well-oiled dispositions. And I had done a hellish thing. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20.

" "yonder hill. such as in the expressions "this man. and so he read. Who hears me. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. brittle or tough. 139. who understands me. which was no bad step towards my liberation. If a chemist discovers a new substance. "one hat. adjectives are used.36. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house.. Office of Adjectives. size. position. and if we are near. We are by nature observers. He knew not what to do. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. or liquid. or gaseous. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. that is our permanent state. 39." etc. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. the number is limited by adjectives. 42. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. 43. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. As to the kind of words used. so that no other will be mistaken for it. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. if we wish to speak of a friend's house." The office of an adjective. if we are at a distance. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. and he learns who receives. white or red. . He teaches who gives. Here I began to howl and scream abominably." "a hundred men. Substantives. 44. 37. 40. 41. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. in pointing out an object. then. For example. So with any object. as. becomes mine. 45. etc. ADJECTIVES. 38. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. etc. or with persons. heavy or light." "some cities." "that house. We need to add some words to tell its color. Again. It may have this office alone.

Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." they constitute all his connections. it shows that he weighs men's minds. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. To err is human. deep. used to tell how many things are spoken of. divine. remotest. to describe it or to limit its application. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. "Heaven-derived power. and their trash. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. to forgive." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. Definition. such as." "unlooked-for burden." the "and there. terrible. beautiful. happy. pointing out particular things." . rash. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. They include relative and interrogative words." "the Roman writer Palladius. words primarily pronouns." "ivory-handled pistols. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES.²POPE. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. fair. "an old English manuscript." "the Christian pearl of charity." and the still less significant "and so. With exception of the "and then." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "next-door neighbor." "half-dead traveler. Infinitives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. (4) Pronominal adjectives. Nouns are not. 142. 141. such as safe." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. however.²COLERIDGE. (2) Adjectives of quantity. derived from proper nouns." "this life-giving book." "ice-cold water. Classes of adjectives. 143. etc. To make this clear. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.² BACON. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. or how much of a thing." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Examples are. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. If he be thankful for small benefits.140.

much. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. which are either pure participles used to describe. Exercises. . but small thoughts have I of sleep. in this. and another is drunken. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. 'Tis midnight. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. 2. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 143. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished.But ever she looked on Mr." "a charming sight." "The shattered squares have opened into line. in studying these last-named words." "It came on like the rolling simoom. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Examples are." was accomplished is a verb. For instance: in the sentence. 144. Oxenham. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. any. 1. no." Caution.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." was is the verb." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. and accomplished is an adjective. sometimes small." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.²MACDONALD." "One is hungry. Care is needed." "trailing clouds.²COLERIDGE. having some of each subclass named in Sec." "an aged man. considerable. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. some. 145.

Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.²VAUGHAN. Not primarily pronouns.²THACKERAY." "a dozen volunteers. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.²CARLYLE. are used with plural nouns.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. that. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "Then we wandered for many days." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. every village. The list. The following sentences present some examples:² . and with them a few negroes. as. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted." "He had lived by hunting for some months. instead of modifying them.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity." "In came some five and twenty more. How many. The demonstrative adjectives are this. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. any." "I have lost one brother. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. When some. "one blaze of musketry." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²ID.² Every town had its fair. the former²the latter. 146. Exercise. those). its wake. but I have gained fourscore. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. they come under the next division of adjectives. no.²KINGSLEY. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. (plural these. Examples. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. yonder (or yon). latter. An arrow was quivering in each body." (b) Indefinite numerals." Single ones of any number of changes. former. Thus. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.

These were thy charms.²GOLDSMITH. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²WORDSWORTH. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 147. The silver and laughing Xenil. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. skill which was at pause."²B. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. for example.²BANCROFT. 148. but. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. I verily believe. Indefinite relative adjectives.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.but all these charms are fled. ²CARLYLE. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. As has been said. When we speak of the seventeenth century. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.² It matters not what rank he has. but in the one case. like the other numerals. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Definition.²KINGSLEY.²D. tell how many things are meant. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. skill which was progressive²in the other. The taking of which bark. Exercise. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. . In which evil strait Mr. of equal skill. 149..²ID. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²RUSKIN. what revenues or garnitures. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²BULWER. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. These do not.²ID..²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. Modify names of persons or things. Oxenham fought desperately. they are changed to adjectives. They are of two kinds. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. WEBSTER. FRANKLIN. just as the corresponding pronouns do.

And whichsoever way I turn. whichever. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.²AGASSIZ. But when the Trojan war comes. as it rather seemed.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. He was turned before long into all the universe. whatever.. nature will be sure to bear us out in. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. and gaze. .²IRVING. In indirect questions. New torments I behold. whichsoever way I move. you at least give him full authority over your son. As in the pronouns.²CARLYLE.150. Examples of their use are. A lady once remarked. Adjective what in exclamations. which.²LAMB. In direct questions.²RUSKIN. Was there. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. the debt to the rich. which is selective among what is known. it is impossible to determine. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whatsoever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).²ID. whichsoever. what inquires about things or persons not known. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. Whatsoever kind of man he is.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.² EMERSON. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. and new tormentedAround me. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. 151.. proved not altogether displeasing to him. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. or whether any.

gold is heavier than iron. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. When we place two objects side by side. those). And yet. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. we notice some differences between them as to size.² Oh.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. weight. . and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. the making of it right. It is neither relative nor interrogative. This is the old demonstrative. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. color. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. of the quality. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. and those as the plural of that. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. NUMBER.²but not the same degree. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. alas. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. 155. or weight. 154.²This. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. which was fully inflected in Old English. That. Meaning of comparison. 153 . Thus. Exercise.Adjectives have two inflections. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. All these have certain qualities.152. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. or amount. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.. as. In exclamatory expressions. History of this²these and that²those. The article that was used with neuter nouns. or size. etc. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. Those borrowed from this. But this had also another plural. COMPARISON. and when we compare the objects. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU.²number and comparison. th s (modern those). etc. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. we do so by means of their qualities.

uninflected form is usually called the positive degree." "the largest soul. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. A main difference betwixt men is. 156.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. immemorial. but. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected." "It is a nobler valor. indomitable. The comparative is formed by adding -er. enormous. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. These are properly the only degrees. whether they attend their own affair or not." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. 159. as. These are called degrees of comparison.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. they are not compared. great. reddest. for example. easy. and the superlative by adding -est. "more matter. easiest. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative." "no fewer than a hundred. supreme. "untamed thought. indefatigable. bluest. with less wit. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them.²THACKERAY. The two forms. 157. organic.²SEWARD. 160. Freedom is a perpetual. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. Definition. though the simple. 158. universal institution. . bluer. redder. Substitute for inflection in comparison." "the commonest speech. red. blue. easier. So with the words sole. infinite. as. giant-like. They came into use about the thirteenth century. and many others. expressing a greater degree of quality.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. and the superlative. to the simple form." Words that cannot be compared. but were not common until a century later. or amounts in quantity. expressing the greatest degree of quality. whose favorite pupil he was. sufficient. strictly considered. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms.

163. mournfulest." Carlyle uses beautifulest. who.²ID. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. Adjectives irregularly compared. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. indisputablest. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words.² CARLYLE A gentleman. was most finished. "So help me God. The following lists include the majority of them:² . admirablest. madam. and patientest fusing. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative.²ID. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. honestest. falling on his knees." "the wonderfulest little shoes. most small." "distantest relationships. and other words are preceded by more and most. These long. though born in no very high degree. witty." "sorrowfulest spectacles." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. quiet. strange. finest chiseling. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." "more odd. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. which hung behind in the queerest way. I will. peaceablest. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. These are adjectives irregularly compared." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. The general rule is.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.² -er and -est or more and most? 161.²The Nation." said Henry Esmond.Which rule. easy." "more austere and holy. harsh forms are usually avoided. as. etc. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. polished. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. there needed to be a most genuine substance. 162.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. and yet familiar.

² We have it in a much lesser degree.² O. uttermost Upmost. 7.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. innermost Outmost. [In] Inner Inmost. utter 3. Worser was once used. 5. next Nearest Latest. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. throw away the worser part of it. is often used. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. as. further Farthest. as in the sentence (14th century). lesser. which has softened to the modern best. 1. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. though from a different root. as in Shakespeare. (3) Little is used as positive to less. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. [Out] Outer.²HAMLET. Hind 2. There was an old comparative bet. older Nigher Nearer Later. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 164. bad. worst. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.LIST I. . A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 2. hindermost Much or many More Farther. The superlative I form was betst. oldest Nighest. Good or well Evil. uppermost LIST III. a double comparative. least. last Hindmost. 6. (2) In Old English. furthest 10. 8. 3. outermost Utmost. latter Hinder LIST II. evil was the positive to worse. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 9. 4. List I. lesser Elder. A double comparative. which has gone out of use.

The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. and refer to time. . (9) Latter and last are the older forms. meaning the largest part. near. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. greatest. strong.. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. making the modern farther. further. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. ²LAMB. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. first. the old forms. eldest. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. much. The most part kept a stolid indifference. are shown in such phrases as. furthest. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. etc. a distinction has grown up between the two series. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. except the form next. Between the two sets as they now stand. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. latest. are earlier than older. but originally the comparison was nigh.²HAWTHORNE.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. or series.²ID. The latter. farthest. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte.²forth. farrest. for example.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. Since later. since the m is for -ma. but not in meaning. moche. List II. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. instead of lenger.² The more part being of one mind. next. "Many a little makes a mickle. as long. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English.²KINGSLEY. as. to which is added -ost. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. to England we sailed. and the superlative nearest." Its spelling has been micel. came into use. muchel. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. there is scarcely any distinction. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (5) The forms elder. an old superlative ending. First became entirely detached from the series. strenger. In imitation of further. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. etc. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. th came into the others.. oldest. great. doubling the inflection. is quite common. The meanings greater. (10) Hinder is comparative in form.

but they have no adjective positives." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. 167. 166.²SCOTT. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Her bows were deep in the water. The adjectives in List III. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Highest and midmost. and have no comparative force.²HAWTHORNE. BEECHER. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. . In List II." "far-seeing as the sun. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. all may belong to the same noun. Decidedly handsome." "their utmost exertion. or have no comparative forms. They have no superlatives." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing." "The outer is of the day. or each may modify a different word or group of words.165. on the very topmost twig.²H." "the innermost moral soul. but not in their meaning.²DE QUINCEY. There.²KINGSLEY. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. W. in having no adjective positives. List III. Her. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. are like the comparative forms in List II. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.²EMERSON. (Sec. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives." -Most added to other words. Think what each adjective belongs to. but her after deck was still dry. The comparatives are so in form. by the by. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. being merely descriptive. 168.²DE QUINCEY. the upper light of the world. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective.

Richard Hooker.²MRS. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.For example. Other instances are. 7. 4. bright. usual modifies incomparable decision. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank.²A. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE. By a convenient brevity. deep.²RUSKIN. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. 169. This. in this sentence. STOWE. ²TROLLOPE. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. rich. philosophical.²BIBLE. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. For thy stomach's sake." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. 3." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable." making then an adjective. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. . solid. and broken. The seldom use of it. Our sometime sister. as. and moral truth. the then and still owners. H. deeply black eyes.²HAWTHORNE. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. and heaven-defying oaths. instead of saying. not decision alone." in which then is an adverb. STEPHENS 5. satisfactory. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. and thine often infirmities. now our queen. therefore.²HOLMES. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. in prose. we may say "the then king.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²TRENCH.² My then favorite. 2. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. Bradbury and Evans. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. In the following quotations. A few improper jests and a volley of good. It may still be argued. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. round. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. 6. But in this sentence. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²NOAH PORTER. May we not. "the one who was then king. our new government.

therefore descriptive. 4. seventy-five drachmas. 170. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. having a singular. 3. This gave the young people entire freedom. I ask nothing of you. across the plain. then. (3) Its degree of comparison. not inflected for number. frank. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. compared by prefixing more and most. (2) Its number. and most astounding were those frightful yells. (4) What word or words it modifies. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. plural number. if it can be compared. or case. These points out what truths. To every Roman citizen he gives. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. 7. 6. if it has number. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. 5. She made no reply. with awkward but rapid pace. MODEL FOR PARSING. To every several man. cannot be compared. therefore demonstrative. Since adjectives have no gender. 8. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. Unfamiliar describes truths. manly way. and very few have number. 9. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 10. In parsing an adjective. the method of parsing is simple. modifies truths. Exercise.What to tell in parsing. 2. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. person. this. and I waited for none. . modifies the word truths. positive degree.

suggests such thoughts as these. Their name was the last word upon his lips. Here lay two great roads.11. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. it rests on reality. 18. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Two hours elapsed. 16. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. To say what good of fashion we can. 29. Like most gifted men. 14. 32. those dogs in the yard. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. yonder oxen in the pasture. With every third step. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 27. 28. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. not so much for travelers that were few. 22. are immutably fishes. 31. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 25. the tomahawk fell. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. and many poles supported the lower ones. 13. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. during which time I waited. 23. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 33. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. and dogs. the same love to France would have been nurtured. it is so noble a fruit. 26. 20. 19. . Nearer to our own times. 21. as for armies that were too many by half. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 24. he won affections with ease. growing in the most unfavorable position. is the settlement of our own country. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. and therefore more interesting to us. oxen. I know not what course others may take. In music especially. 12.

35. An or a came from the old numeral n. but the former is used. were formerly that one. s o. 174. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. ." "a European. and a before consonant sounds. 172. A hard-struggling. later th . in vulgar English. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. Our expressions the one. In the sentence. Examples: "a house. Many writers use an before h. for example.²SCOTT. such as we have been attempting to describe. weary-hearted man was he." "an honor. An historian. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. 173. when the word is not accented on the first syllable.²MACAULAY. 37. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. the tother." "a yelling crowd. the tither. with an ordinary little garden. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. Their origin. the other. these occurring as the tane. th o." An with consonant sounds. 171. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." "an orange. ARTICLES. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. a before consonant sounds.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. that other. he is no literary man. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. even when not silent. ðat. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. An before vowel sounds. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. Two relics. the latter is still preserved in the expression." the words the and an belong to nouns. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . just as adjectives do. In Middle English the became an article. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. meaning one. the tother.34. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. or the tane. sometimes the tother.²BREWER. that) which was also an article in Old English.

The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. An hereditary tenure of these offices. or class. An and a are different forms of the same word. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. The is the definite article. or any individual of a group or class. as "the Mississippi. or a group or class of things. 179. or group. Articles are either definite or indefinite. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. The Dakota tribes. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.²IRVING. BANCROFT. 178. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. as in the sentence.²THACKERAY.²COLERIDGE. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. NOTE. which cannot be used alone. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. and when the word river is omitted. the older n. 177. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. Reference to a known object. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. and not a state or other geographical division..²THOMAS JEFFERSON. Kinds. An or a is the indefinite article." the article indicates clearly that a river. With names of rivers. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. a person is introduced by a. To call attention to attributes. 176. not descriptive.²HEROES OF ASGARD. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. on opening a story.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. Definition. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. thus.² Don't you remember how. doubtless. is referred to.. since it points out a particular individual.² . An article is a limiting word. When the is prefixed to a proper name." "the Ohio.²This use is noticed when.²G.. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. 175.

His messages to the provincial authorities. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 2. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²ID. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. the Spinoza. so is the evil. NOTE. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²G.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.²ID.²SCOTT. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. the Hume. the song sparrow.²MOTLEY. not into a particular virtue. . Schelling. For possessive person pronouns. her. but into the region of all the virtues. The.² The faint. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. 183. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. Caution. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 182. or a match put between the fingers.²KINGSLEY. for example. BANCROFT.² As she hesitated to pass on. If the good is there.The Bacon. 1. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. and the redwing. as. 181. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. The simple rise as by specific levity.²EMERSON. With adjectives used as nouns. etc. 180. Half abstract. With plural of abstract nouns. would speedily extract the required information. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²GIBBON. One thing for its class. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²EMERSON. laid it on the miry spot. Common. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. Kant. the gallant.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. hence is not a verb. the most penetrating. a preposition. an article. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. or the object. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb." Examine the sentences in Sec. lone took what? answer. Has takes the object hypocrisy. which may be a person. Hence Definition. "Put thou money in thy purse. in (b). 204. in this sentence from Bulwer. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. in (2. can deceive has an object. etc. in (3. the most astute. in (c). The nature of intransitive verbs.²BULWER . A verb is a word used as a predicate. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. in (2. representing something which it influences or controls. (can) shame also has an object. In the first. care. and to receive the action expressed. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. All these are called transitive verbs. or an idea. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. 200: In (1). endured what? anguish. and shame the most astute. but fearing is not a predicate. which means to go over."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. taking the staff which always guided her steps. from the Latin transire. By examining a few verbs. in (3.In (a). 203. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. to go is no predicate. as. we consider a verb as one word. 201. Each influences some object. Now. 202. b). but cannot be predicates. Definition and caution. a). with some word understood. or a material thing." put is the predicate. the word following. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. for example. In giving a definition. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. In each case. to say something to or about some person or thing." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. a verb. "Put money in thy purse. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. and. and not a verb. a noun. b). In the sentence. The nature of the transitive verb. Of those expressing action. all do not express it in the same way. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. and a preposition unite as a verb. an adverb. obeyed is a predicate. c).

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. popular government must be pronounced impossible.²MACAULAY.²FRANKLIN. Condition or Supposition.²D. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. the writer can make the statement following.² If. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. the representative system ultimately fail.²may or may not be true. but. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].²BRYCE. as. 2).And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. they were recorded in the Book of Life. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. the second founder. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. If this be the glory of Julius. .²LONGFELLOW. he will see the need of these ethics.I could lie down like a tired child. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. I.² Now. for example. 215. 221. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. Most excellent stranger. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. 222. and may or may not be regarded true. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.²SHELLEY. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. WEBSTER. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. in our case. or be fulfilled. ²EMERSON. Ideal. Unreal²cannot be true. Again. as. the first great founder of the Empire. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.

that he might be strong to labor. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. the clause being introduced by that or lest. Subjunctive of Purpose. II.. which cannot be true. 5. might. if his lot had been mine. he had better not have written. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. do you think. she was regarded as a prodigy. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. If he had reason to dislike him.² CARLYLE.²CALHOUN. would you. 2. he supposed. etc. 6. is used to express purpose. melodious. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. NOTE. since he [Byron] was dead. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. especially be." etc. P. Epaminondas. and should. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. and sonorous. . the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. and striven energetically to save Ney. 8. thus. I told him. Exercise. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.² If these things were true. to drink strong beer.. clear. 4. and what kind of condition:² 1. as. that we cannot but regret its absence. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire.²FRANKLIN.²BAYNE.² It was necessary. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. ²LOWELL.²SWIFT. is of similar physiognomy.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. 7. if he speak to you. but when the verb precedes the subject. But in no case could it be justified. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. society could not hold together.²EMERSON.²N. In the following conditional clauses. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. would have sat still with joy and peace. The subjunctive. The voice.. 223. unless. may.²FRANKLIN.²MACAULAY. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. WILLIS. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. though. except. if he was the man I take him for. 3.

before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²D.²ID.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. To tell of what had passed. In a Noun Clause. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. till it meet the sun in his coming. VII. Rise up. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²DE QUINCEY. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. 224. 227. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. V.I have been the more particular. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. Expressing a Wish. After a verb of wishing.Thou go not. like the quarry-slave at night. Let it rise. 226. WEBSTER.. In Temporal Clauses.And we. So live.²SOUTHEY. . I would it were! ²EMERSON. none of us could say. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.That vain it were her eyes to close.²BRYANT.²WORDSWORTH. the answer being regarded as doubtful. IV. Subjunctive of Result. In Indirect Questions...Were wafted off to seas unknown.²CARLYLE. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²MOORE. VI.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²COLERIDGE. The English subjunctive.. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. Ask the great man if there be none greater. 225. I've wished that little isle had wings. like the Latin. within its fairy bowers. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. III. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.

it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. object. is.Subject. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. often contains a subjunctive.² DICKENS. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. VIII. 229.²TENNYSON. That hunger of applause. we'll turn aside. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²SCOTT. The noun clause. in apposition. The essence of originality is not that it be new. that everything be in its place. The first merit. (b) Adjective. tell me all that thou hast seen.²DE QUINCEY. which may be (a) Pronoun. is the ultimate fact of man's life.. Whatever betide. After verbs of commanding. Object. in its various uses as subject. I have no thought what men they be. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Some might lament that I were cold. . Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.² Be the matter how it may. Concessive Clauses.And see the Braes of Yarrow. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²COLERIDGE.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. 228.²COLERIDGE. of cash.²WORDSWORTH.²THOREAU. or whatsoever victual it may be. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Come. Complement.²SHELLEY.²CARLYLE. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.And look thou tell me true. for example. etc.

²J. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine.²CHANNING. It must be remembered. 230. In spoken English.² CARLYLE. however. we had found [should have found] a poem here. (1) Command. point to their immortal works. Oh. and condition contrary to fact. (2) Entreaty. 231.²BRYANT. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact.(c) Adverb. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. entreaties. ADAMS. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. (3) Request. fear none. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. a concession. since commands are directed to a person addressed.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. . Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. or requests. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. 232. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Q. Honor all men. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. At the present day. to express a wish.²SHELLEY. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Definition. Usually second person. for example. love all men.The spirit he loves remains. though.

. Part we in friendship from your land. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4." whispered Kit. 3. we may use the imperative with we in a command. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. there will her heart and her prayers be.²SHAKESPEARE.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart.²CAMPBELL. child of earth!While each performs his part. 8.One glance at their array! 5. nothing is to be preferred before justice. lest we rust in ease. Break we our watch up.And God forget the stranger!" ."Hush! mother. Whatever inconvenience ensue. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. 6. Mark thou this difference. noble earl. "The Devil take the goose. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. "Come along with me. but I + you. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. 2. 7. Sometimes with first person in the plural. request. Quoth she. receive my hand. to you implied in it. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID." Exercises on the Moods.And. etc.²SCOTT. or I + they. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Oh. etc. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go."²DICKENS Tell me.

If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote.9. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 14. how he may do his work. 20. He. and opinion displace opinion. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12." cried he. 10. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. 23." continued Old Morgan.High up in silver spikes! 22. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.Except. whether he do it right or wrong. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Forget thyself to marble." 25. in what pomps and prosperities he like. . tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Though abyss open under abyss. 11. or do it at all. but repentant child. 26. then. as though an instrument. let him live where else he like. it would speak. "tell me where I may find my poor. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar." 16. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. That sheaf of darts. she ought to have it. That a man parade his doubt.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. "Oh. 13.That they might answer him.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. 18. He is.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. ruined. "Mr. my dear madam. no literary man. 19. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. will it not fall unbound. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 21. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Well. Marshall. Think not that I speak for your sakes. Though he were dumb. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.

It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect." "If he comes.²nothing could exceed the amiable. or whether it were as one member of a general party." past. 235. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. such as Latin and Greek. 28." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. and the future tense. The tenses in detail. and the past tense.27. in the third person singular. a form ending in -eth. "Thou walkedst. by means of the present. Old English had only two tenses. "I go away tomorrow. past. will. whatever she did. PERSON AND NUMBER. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. past. as. in the conjugations. When the older pronoun thou was in use. five in the subjunctive. Tense means time. such as be. five in the imperative. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. which represented present and future time. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. "Thou walkest. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. 233. or future time. Definition. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. Meantime. TENSE. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. Siddons. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. as. and future. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Tenses in English. or agree with it.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. "It is not in man that walketh." present. past perfect. called auxiliaries. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. showing more exactly the time of the action or being." . 234. to direct his steps. shall. as the classical languages have. and future perfect tenses. as will be shown later on. tell him to wait.² present. kind. also.²the present tense. the past. have.

²am. and numbers. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. This is the third person. mood." and this only in the present tense indicative. persons.²choose. singular number. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. walking. etc. chosest). since it is composed of several different roots. I be 2. 237. moods. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. as. PRESENT TENSE. In classical languages. The verb be has more forms. 238. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. 236. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. for example. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. Few forms. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. walkedst. CONJUGATION. chosen (old. Singular 1. PRESENT TENSE. Definition. etc. choosing. chose. "He walks. You (thou) be 3. Singular 1. were. I were 2. been. chooses. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. tense. wert) 3. is. [He] is [They] are 3. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. Singular 1. but in English. walk has walk. walketh. walked. Singular 1. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. You are 2. walks. are. Such verbs as choose have five.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. choosest. Indicative Mood. chooseth. tenses. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. [He] were [They] were . conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb.

were. is. same as the German sind.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. -en. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²WORDSWORTH. which was now become an occasional banquet. for example. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. Instead of the plural are. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²GOLDSMITH.²ID. though it is usually a dialect form. (3) be..² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. 240. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. thus. (b) With the past participle in -ed. condition.²SCOTT. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. to express intention. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. The light that never was on sea and land. in four ways. 239. as. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.His infancy was nurtured. to form the passive voice. obligation. etc. Remarks on the verb be.²THACKERAY.²SHELLEY. etc. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. (2) was.Imperative Mood. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. (d) With the infinitive. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²BURKE .. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.

had. 1. Indicative Mood. You chose Plural. "I shall be. I chose 2. We chose You chose 3." (2) Present perfect. (2). by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. Singular. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. . future perfect. as. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. tenses. We chose You chose 3. by placing have. PRESENT TENSE. "I have gone" (present perfect). 242. I choose 2. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles." "He will choose. Singular. 1. In addition to the above inflected forms. You choose Plural. past perfect. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. You chose Plural. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). 240. PRESENT TENSE. 1. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. Singular.241. Singular. 1. I chose 2. You choose Plural. I choose 2. [He] choose [They] choose 3. tenses. Machinery of a verb in the voices. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. etc. as. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I had gone" (past perfect). FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE.

singular number. Present. Present perfect definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Past. of each tense. He chooses. Present definite. He chose. He will have been choosing. as. Present. Imperative Mood. He had chosen. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning." (4) The passive forms. Same as indicative. Present perfect. Past definite." 243. Past definite. He will choose. Present. He will have chosen. He has been choosing. He has chosen. Same as indicative. "I was chosen.) Choose. he have been choosing. . lest. Future. he were choosing (or were to be choosing)." "They had been running. as. Subjunctive Mood. He had been choosing. Past perfect definite. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Past perfect. Present perfect definite. Present definite. He will he choosing. will be given.] he choose. "I am running. (2d per. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Future definite. " Be choosing. etc. Future perfect definite. He is choosing. Present perfect. Future perfect. [If. Past. though. Indicative Mood. Only the third person. Past perfect. ACTIVE VOICE. He was choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. Past perfect definite." "You are chosen. Present definite. he have chosen. he chose (or were to choose).

None.²This table is not to be learned now. " " " " " " " None. Imperative Mood. Future perfect. None. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Present perfect definite. Present definite.) Be chosen. Present definite. He was chosen. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present perfect. Exercises should be given. Past perfect. Also. Future. Future definite. however. He had been chosen. but verbals. . lest. though. Present tense. he were being chosen. he have been chosen. None. He was being chosen.. 262). He has been chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. None. Past. He will be chosen. etc. "He does strike. Past perfect definite.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs." [Note to Teacher. Present. Past Perfect.] he be chosen. He is chosen.NOTE. Present perfect definite. Past. Past definite. in affirmative sentences. He is being chosen.] [If. He will have been chosen. (2d per. Subjunctive Mood. PASSIVE VOICE. Past definite. None. Present perfect. if learned at all. as. Present. None. they will be discussed later (Sec. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Past perfect definite. Indicative Mood." "He did strike. he had been chosen. Future perfect definite.

verbs are strong or weak.[adj. sleep. run. drive. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. caught. beg. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. NOTE. drove. and may or may not change the vowel: as. but adds no ending. Kinds. as. catch. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. bounden] bitten. According to form. lay. Some of these also have weak forms. 245. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bid bound. bit blown broken chidden. ran. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. which are in parentheses Present Tense. 244. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. Past Tense. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. slept. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. begged.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. Definition. laid.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound . stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sunken] sat slain slidden.

drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.² Thou hast clomb aloft. 246. "stricken with paralysis. and. probably to avoid confusion with this. . ²THACKERAY.²COLERIDGE. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. borne is also a passive. and another (born) for the passive. cleave. as. and sometimes occurs in poetry. cleaved.²cleave. to split. which always crew at eleven.²one meaning to adhere or cling. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. Our cock." "the cloven hoof."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. cleft (to split). Historically. as (from Holmes). cleaved. only one set remains certain.²as (from Shakespeare). "his bounden duty." "a drunken wretch. especially in that of an earlier period. Not a cock crew. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. nor a dog barked. When it means to carry or to endure. cloven. the other. The form clomb is not used in prose. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated)." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. for example. Sometimes in literary English.²IRVING." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active." "a sunken snag. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. now told us it was time for repose. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." In this confusion of usage. clave or clove.²MILTON.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. cleft. but is much used in vulgar English. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). instead of ate and eaten.²B.²GOLDSMITH. and the latter. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.² We had each drank three times at the well. The former used to be cleave. as. TAYLOR. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. as.²TENNYSON.

²WORDSWORTH. 3. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed.² If. This heard Geraint. froze. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. 8. found. began. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 9. flung."²KINGSLEY. as "a shorn lamb. maiden.² We had all got safe on shore. We usually say. begun. The butler was hanged." but not much as a participle. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. 5. shook. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective.The form gotten is little used.²SCOTT. Break. Usually shear is a weak verb. Fall.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. One example out of many is. Give. broken. (a) From the table (Sec. Shake. 4. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. driven. given.²BYRON. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Throw. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. . which is seldom used except in poetry. frozen. gave. found.²BIBLE. fallen. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. and grasping at his sword. threw. and seized a pen. Fling. flung. drove.²TENNYSON. Drive. shaken. 10.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. shore is rare. 2. Exercises. 6. for example. fell." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. thrown.²DE FOE. for example. as. He sate him down. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. 245). Begin. broke. Find. Freeze. even in poetry. 7.

as it has two meanings. (See also Sec. which survives in the sentence.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. must have been an ocular deception. according to the infinitive used. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe.²HAWTHORNE. 249. 250.²CHANNING This. Ability. "So mote it be. . In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. purpose. as.. from the obsolete verb motan. etc. 251.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. Like must. 247. 220. as it sometimes does. or when it expresses wish. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. Can is used in the indicative only. "far off his coming shines. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. Subjunctive use. 223. ability. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. Must is historically a past-tense form. His superiority none might question. it is used only in the indicative mood. but came through analogy with should and would.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.." Must is present or past tense."²WINIER. They are as follows:² PRESENT.[To the Teacher. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. PAST. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. It is indicative when it expresses permission.²SCOTT. or. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. as in Sec.²PAINE. etc..] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. PAST.²CHANNING. HAMILTON.. of course. Could may be subjunctive. Indicative Use: Permission. Have we valuable territories and important posts. PRESENT. The l in could did not belong there originally. The same remarks apply to ought. there is one general principle.. for full drill on the forms.

as. as. (b) In questions asking for orders. 252. and corn to hoe. promise. .²MACAULAY. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.²LONGFELLOW.." Uses of shall and should. shall and should are used.² With respect to novels. (b) In indirect quotations. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. future action). The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. my lad. She should not walk. with pronouns of the first person. I shall be gone.²L. he said. for example. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i.Nay. She rejects his suit with scorn. or confident prediction. The sea shall crush thee. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.²COOPER. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.²IRVING. Second and third persons.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. to the neglect of shall and should. what shall I say?²N. BROCKDEN BROWN. Shall and Will.² The time will come full soon.²BULWER. C.² Futurity and questions²first person. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. she should ride like a queen.²THAXTER. MOULTON. The following are examples:² Never mind. while ought always has to. "I think I will go. They shall have venison to eat. shall and should are used. yea. to use will and would. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. WEBSTER. as. not plod along like apeasant. in the form of command.² (a) To express authority. especially in the United States. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.e.

when the answer expected would express simple futurity.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. was to be expected.²BYRON. . (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²WINTER.. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²C. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice..²CABLE. and is equivalent to ought. JR. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. thus. B. for example. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. and will not return until all is finished. Disguising a command. etc. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. purpose. JAMES.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. as the sole inventor.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²A.² I will go myself now.²H. LARNED.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²SWIFT. second and third persons. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. 253. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.. as. for example. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. First.²ROGERS. And promised. with the conviction that he should win in the end.that I would do him justice.²WORDSWORTH. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. I never was what I should be. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²WORDSWORTH. BROWN. or a promise. time. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.

² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.²War Records.²SCOTT. When I am in town. B.. so you will. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² Thou wilt take the skiff.²BURKE. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. To be sure. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. The gift of Beauty. They will go to Sunday schools. PASSIVE VOICE. and mark on the grounds the works.² Subject I omitted: often so. 254.²the original meaning of the word will. will and would are used to express simple futurity. (4) With FIRST. will and would often denote an action as customary. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. for example.²LANDOR.. will is used to express command. (5) With the THIRD PERSON...² All this will sound wild and chimerical. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). Thine was a dangerous gift. as. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. In this stately chair would he sit. as. would is used to express a wish.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.. Mere futurity. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. as if it were merely expected action. etc. .²SCOTT.² DICKENS. Roland. action merely expected to occur. without regard to future time. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. for example. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. This puts the order more mildly. through storms their brothers are afraid of.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. BROWN. AND THIRD PERSONS. Would thou hadst it not. when thou wast born. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. and two of my people. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day..²BANCROFT. for punishment or intimidation. SECOND.²IRVING. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.

We will be chosen. "I shall not run. You shall choose. Plural. 1. 252 and 253. 3. 2. [They] will choose. You shall be chosen.Singular. Exercises on Shall and Will. 3. 1. You will be chosen. . [They] will be chosen. yet only seem. and that of the newest cut. [He] shall choose. 3. You will be chosen. 2. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. You will choose. etc. Singular. 5. PASSIVE VOICE. [He] shall be chosen. 3. 4. Plural. You shall choose. You shall be chosen. Plural. [They] shall choose. [They] shall be chosen. Thou art what I would be. Thou shalt have a suit. (b) Examine the following sentences. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Singular. Singular. 2. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. To express determination. You will choose. 2. promise. He informed us. 2. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 3. I will be chosen." answered Herbert stubbornly. 6. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. We will choose. I shall be chosen. We shall choose. We shall be chosen. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. [He] will choose. [He] will be chosen. (a) From Secs. Plural.:² ACTIVE VOICE. 3. and justify the use of shall and will. 2. I shall choose. I will choose. 1. 1. 1.

my son. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. 11. very anxious. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. put. WEAK VERBS. was -de or -te. put. bereaved besought . Irregular Weak Verbs. which may be called irregular weak verbs. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. and I have nothing to say. Present Tense. But the rest. Of smale houndes hadde she. Without having attended to this. 256. This ending has now dropped off. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. put. as if he would have more of the enchantment. "I am a wayfarer. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. The beast made a sluggish movement. then. bereave besought Past Participle.²ID. set. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. 10. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. need some attention and explanation.7. 255. or mylk and wastel breed. set." 14. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. Lucy stood still. Past Tense. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. bereave beseech bereft.²CHAUCER.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. and have no change of vowel. bereft. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. 9. 12." the stranger said. 257. No.²Class I. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. as. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 13.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

" t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). Perfect definite. to was used before the infinitive generally. [To] have been choosing. Indefinite. Cases when to is omitted. [To] choose. But later.. Perfect. Nothing of the kind having been done.²the creature warring against the creating power. 9. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Three saplings. a perfect. 10. expressing purpose. an indefinite and a perfect form. I returned to reflection on my situation. like participles. and a perfect definite form. they have an indefinite. 7.. Indefinite. Perfect. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. to express action unconnected with a subject. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. [To] have chosen. [To] be chosen. as in the Old English. try clemency. Imperfect. [To] have been chosen. When active. when inflections became fewer.. 268. Infinitives.6. . 267. 8. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. In Sec. To with the infinitive. PASSIVE VOICE. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. will (with should and would). have no tense. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. formed a kind of bedstead. ACTIVE VOICE. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. INFINITIVES. an imperfect. 266. [To] be choosing. and when passive.

" (4) In exclamations. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. "a house to let. as.²GOLDSMITH. it is often preceded by the definite article. must.² What! doth she. under "Analysis. E. While the gerund expresses action. liberal woman." etc. 271. 270. hear.²IRVING. as in the expression. .²HOWELLS. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. also let. or the object of a verb or a preposition. bid (command)." Examples are. and emphatic forms of the present and past. as. can (could). as the credulous imagine. it has several attributes of a noun. But there was nothing to do. 272. make. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. and like a noun in use. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. "She ask my pardon. too. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. sometimes need (as. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. please. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. do (as.. as. GERUNDS. watch. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. negative.²COOPER. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. They shall have venison to eat. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. 269. "I do go" etc. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. "He will choose.²TENNYSON." "I shall have chosen. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.² She was a kind. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. poor woman!" cried Charles. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. it may be the subject of a verb. The gerund is like the participle in form. feel. also in the imperative.²it may be governed as a noun.²DE QUINCEY. see. learn [doth learn is one verb.²E.(2) After the verbs may (might). and corn to hoe.²MACAULAY. HALE. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.).

(3) Participial adjectives. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. after examining the nest. according to use as well as meaning." "Certainly dueling is bad. (2) Pure participles. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek.²Find sentences containing five participles. II). and wonderful store of learning! . Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. which name an action or state." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. but do not assert. which have lost all verbal force. 2." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus." Exercise. to see the returning hope of the parents. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." also (2. What a vast. (4) Pure adjectives. (5) Gerunds. Then how pleasing is it. b). which express action. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. and has been put down. on your leaving the spot." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. which express action and also modify. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. 273. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. and five gerunds. above." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. (6) Verbal nouns. Words in -ing are of six kinds. five infinitives. when. may govern and be governed. but cannot govern. making the definite tenses. which express action." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. Exercise. brilliant. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. 4. Sec.

you must.²strong or weak. Thackeray did not.²active or passive. dictating from his chair. write twenty pages without stopping.5. 15. by object lessons. . but. much corroded. (3) Mood. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. I suppose I was dreaming about it. he gave out sentence by sentence. The only means of ascending was by my hands. round which is an iron railing. bearing her national emblem. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 11. giving principal parts. slowly. give reality to your teaching. 7. 9.²transitive or intransitive. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. (5) Person and number. like Sir Walter Scott. 14. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 12. 13. VERBS. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 16. or imperative. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. In parsing verbs. (b) as to use.²indicative. 275. 6. (2) Voice. Caution. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. (4) Tense. What is dreaming? 8. I. subjunctive. 234. 10. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. He spread his blessings all over the land.

must. could. and ends in -s. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Exercise." Sometimes it does. In such sentences as 1. and not taken as single verbs. give points (a) and (b). and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. etc. It has been intimated in Sec.276. 278. therefore active. see Sec. (3) Gerund. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. (1) Participle. You are gathered to your fathers. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. 277. VERBALS. usually it does not. Take these examples:² 1. indicative. Parse the verbs. The government might have been strong and prosperous. call might a weak verb. (b) whether active or passive. etc. in the world. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. and should always be analyzed as phrases. followed by a pure infinitive without to. call should a weak verb. may. we must beware of the rule. then parse it as an adjective. 2. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 235. has for its subject Lee. indicative (as it means could). Have been is a perfect active infinitive. might. 273). has the subject government. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. If a participial adjective. imperfect. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. verbals. can. Let it rise! let it rise. But unless the verb is present. till it meet the sun in his coming. and parting day linger and play on its summit. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. active. (2) Infinitive. 4. intransitive. (a) From what verb derived. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. VERB PHRASES. (c) to what word it belongs. (b) its use (Sec. . 2. Especially frequent are those made up of should. past tense. definite. In 2. no sin nor sorrow. intransitive. 278(2). and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. past tense. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. III. perfect. II. perfect. (b) whether indefinite. would.." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. 3.

as usual. he thought only of her. leaving me upon the bed. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 19. a deafening shout. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 23. 12. With them. and wondered if she were yet awake. In going for water. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. When he arose in the morning. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. However that be." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. see that it is in good condition. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. . 8. 10. a new bursting forth of the sun. 16. The soul having been often born. or. 6. a sweet good will. a new waking up of all that has life. 20. 17. as rolled from wing to wing. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. He passed across the room to the washstand. morning is not a new issuing of light. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 14. So. 9. 18.Henceforth in me instill. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. Whatever ground you sow or plant.O God. Right graciously he smiled on us. 24. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 13. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. from a sort of temporary death.5.²a getting-out of their bodies to think.Down all the line. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 11. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. as the Hindoos say. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 15. 22. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 21.

²CARLYLE. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. and limit adjectives or adverbs." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. as. and men of leisure and cultivation.25. for example. When action is expressed. to speak truly. Better it were. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way." "He was absolute.²THACKERAY. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. To the almost terror of the persons present. ADVERBS."²DE QUINCEY. 27. and so on. A verb.Feast while we may. and live ere life be spent. Is it only poets. Adverbs modify. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.²EMERSON. 29. to consent. Oh. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. place.² The young man reveres men of genius. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. because. who live with nature?²ID.²time. "William's private life was severely pure. And now wend we to yonder fountain. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. The word adverb means joined to a verb. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Nor was it altogether nothing. they are more himself than he is." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. thou sayest.²SHELLEY. . 26." An adjective or an adverb." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. for the hour of rest is at hand. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. or manner: as. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. 279.

not the noun.² LOWELL. ever. Definition. lately. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.²T. being adverbs naturally and fitly. not simply the forms used in predication. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. We are offered six months' credit. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. or a word group used as such. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. . which may qualify an action word or a statement.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time.²BYRON. 280. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. to-day. as shown in the sentences. Thus considered. like the light of heaven. hitherto. A clause or sentence. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. 169. perhaps.He was incidentally news dealer. An adverb. It may also modify a sentence. but still with a rich bloom to it. I draw forth the fruit. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.²These last differ from the words in Sec. A phrase. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. etc.²TROLLOPE. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. Surely happiness is reflective. Make music to the lonely ear. ALDRICH.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. 281. for example. and half awfully. there are six classes:² (1) Time. is a modifying word. all wet and glossy. NOTE. 169 are felt to be elliptical. ²IRVING. and that. (2) according to their use in the sentence. B. NOTE.² FRANKLIN. thus.²THOREAU. while those in Sec. 282. but some verb understood. as. as now. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.²LEIGH HUNT. has induced some of us to attend it. then. before. but really modifying.

that these adverbs form a very large class. partly.²LECKY.²R. etc. slightly. very. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. as perhaps. Thackeray.. (4) Number. etc. especially the comparative of these words. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. thus.²BURKE.thence. bravely. White. surely. the more evidently they love liberty. as here. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.yonder. Emerson. [Sidenote The status of such. as hence. possibly. or how far he believes it to be true. telling how many times: once...thither. (6) Assertion.²BROWNING. the more perfect will be their obedience. slowly. singly. beautifully. (see also Sec. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. for example. the more friends you will have. So also in Grote. maybe. enough. twice.² The master. much.there.whence.. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. while so precedes only the adjective usually.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. etc. at least. 283).near. telling how anything is done.where. whencesoever. and others. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. as little.²SHAKESPEARE. Meekness. whithersoever. above.²HAWTHORNE. I was. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. (3) Manner.. just.²IRVING. telling how much. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. better. not. The more they multiply. probably. etc. LOUIS STEVENSON. two by two. etc. This long's the text. (5) Degree. Motley. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. and not infrequently are found in literary English.(2) Place. 283. as well. . etc.was for this once of her opinion. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. greatly.which gained him such universal popularity. as hither. too. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.whither.²DE QUINCEY.

Defoe.² You are mighty courteous. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. B. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Aldrich. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Neville.²GOLDSMITH. for example. Mighty. Pretty is also used by Prescott. 285. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English."²SCOTT. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. and other writers. Some adverbs.²THACKERAY.²BULWER." "The house. Kingsley. a mighty fine gentleman. Dickens. for example. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Franklin. Emerson. Interrogative." "I have seen you before [time]." "That were far better [degree]. 282." "He spoke positively [manner]." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. De Quincey.²FIELDING. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.²BAYNE. "Peace. . Direct questions. and its lawn before [place]. Holmes. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. STOWE. Hard blows and hard money. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. and art but a fool." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. A pretty large experience. have the additional function of asking a question. Again.²"He walked too far [place]. besides modifying.²HAWTHORNE. 286. Notice meanings. Simple." said the king.²THACKERAY. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Beau Fielding.² "Mighty well.² KINGSLEY.Pretty. Burke. 284. It is only occasionally used in literary English. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.

I will not ask where thou liest low. for example.²D.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. When did this humane custom begin?²H.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.²POE. (4) Degree. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. WEBSTER. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. they smiled. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. I know not why.²BULWER. CLAY. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON.²BYRON (3) Manner. (5) Reason. 287. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. I do not remember when I was taught to read. I hearkened. (4) Degree. (2) Place. . (2) Place.

better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. but the whole clause. see Sec. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.²COLERIDGE. when.²TENNYSON.. obs.²EMERSON. Its strings boldlier swept. 290. irregularly compared. use. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. furthest (rathe. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. highest. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. soonest. For further discussion.²SHAKESPEARE. high. Superlative. . Then must she keep it safelier. only occasionally having -er and -est. Many adverbs are compared. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.eyes. when compared. 288. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs.. The following. not an adverb. just as adjectives do.) rather 289.²BYRON. higher. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. well much little far late Comparative. soon. and. further farthest. have the same inflection as adjectives. representing four classes." Exercise. Form vs. Many adjectives have the same ending. Exercise. Tell what each word in ly modifies. as. sooner. Only that we may wiselier see. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. when does not express time and modify.But in reality.

to be sure. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.1. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. or down the leaves laughed through. 3. curiously jolly. Frequently the word there. instead of being used adverbially. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. etc. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark.And his mien of kingly state.²ID. 2. 8. even. 6. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. There are eyes. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields." Compare these:² 1. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt.² EMERSON.²WORDSWORTH.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²TENNYSON. He is inexpressibly mean. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. . hardly. that in Old and Middle English. more courtly in their manners. But he must do his errand right. evenly. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²CHAUCER. 5. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. whether adverbs or adjectives. 7. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. Such are most. 4. merely introduces a sentence.²THACKERAY. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. near. many words without -ly have the same form. hard. 292. Again. mostly. but with a different meaning. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. And all about. 291. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. 2. Special use of there. kindly and good-natured in secret. quick-flashing eye. With his proud. The reason is.²IRVING. if it has the verb be. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. nearly. Not near so black as he was painted. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. as.

It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. but from my fall? 6. 18. at the regular wine-shop. For the impracticable. (2) Degree of comparison. Thither we went. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. if the word is compared. But a few steps farther on. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 16. 12. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. It is the Cross that is first seen. (3) What word or word group it modifies. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. according to meaning and also use. 9. 3. the Madonna is in great glory. 11. In parsing adverbs. 17. however theoretically enticing. 4. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and sate down on the steps of a house. and always. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 2. 10. 5. burning in the center of the temple. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. Exercise. 7. 15. give² (1) The class. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. is always politically unwise. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 293. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. . but continually shifted.

They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause." Sentences. . etc. upon which the sun now shone forth.19. connecting words. It was pretty bad after that. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. but side by side within the American Union. 20. sentences. word groups. 294. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. 22. hence. Clauses. CONJUNCTIONS." Paragraphs. Unlike adverbs. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. then. A conjunction is a linking word. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. But now the wind rose again. or sentence groups. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. Definition. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. therefore. but the student will readily find them. however. 295." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. nor. 21." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases.

(2) Subordinate.or. the butter too. both. The chief ones are..nor. then. 298. however.. also. the bread was spent. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative." Nevertheless. Adversative. word groups.or.. moreover. answering to each other in the same sentence.nor. .Classes of conjunctions.. "Howbeit.but (or but also). where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Nor mark'd they less. (2) ADVERSATIVE. the window being open. usually between two things. Some go in threes. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. (3) CAUSAL. either. 297. Correlatives.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. and not man corn. expressing a choice. serves but to show their ignorance.. whether. as.. Your letter.but. either. introducing a reason or cause. still. nor.and. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.. neither. While the earth bears a plant. as but. whether. etc. as well as. and. whether.. only. else.. as. The assertion.. (4) ALTERNATIVE. neither.or whether. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. had its weight. etc... or the sea rolls its waves. yet. Some of these go in pairs. 296. therefore. joining words. while.... hence. as well as the room door. as and. likewise.or..or. nor. Causal.. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. but is emperor in his own right. not only. of the same rank.. They are or. either. however.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. neither.. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. not only.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. etc. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Alternative.. for..

so. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. after.²IRVING. there will the heart be also. unless. except. He is not only bold and vociferous. Where the treasure is. since. whereas.as. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. etc. especially that after so.²COOPER. object. howsoever. so that. in apposition. Time. nor wing of bird. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican.²J. ere. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. sometimes if. until. provided that. QUINCY. on condition that. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. whereto. wherever.. before.²BIBLE. etc.. etc. Neither the place in which he found himself.²DE QUINCEY. etc. . whither.. although. as. as. nor creeping thing. in case.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. while. even if. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. provided. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. It is. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. since. now.²PAULDING. nor echo. nor green leaf. whence. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. (2) TIME: when. so. whenever. however. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²WILSON.. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. that. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. whithersoever.²BURKE. though. (6) PURPOSE: that. whether. as. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. (3) MANNER: how. ²ALLSTON. (7) RESULT: that. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. 299. so. in order that. lest. etc. seeing. so that.

Cause. I was again covered with water.² WORDSWORTH. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Purpose. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. a thousand bodies. . Then Denmark blest our chief.²CARLYLE Events proceed. We wish for a thousand heads.²AMES.²AMES. not as they were expected or intended.² EMERSON.²DEFOE.That vain it were her eyes to close. but not so long but I held it out. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²CAMPBELL.That he gave her wounds repose. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.So I behold them not. Concession.²EMERSON. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Manner.² HAWTHORNE.²BURKE. reason. H. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON. As a soldier.²IRVING.²AMES. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²COLERIDGE.² H. Substantive. Now he is dead. Result.²EMERSON. Comparison. JACKSON. Let the world go how it will. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²BYRON. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Condition.

(c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. the wisest. as he shot in air. her real merit is known at home. . 5. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. In what point of view. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. The moth fly. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. she faintly pressed her hand. etc. 10. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 300. the lady called her servant. 2. And they lived happily forever after. And then recovering. 6. while.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. He was brought up for the church. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 15. No one had yet caught his character. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. and hid her there.²RUSKIN. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 13. 14. 4. hold a subordinate rank. While a faction is a minority. While patriotism glowed in his heart. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Crept under the leaf. that. 12. then. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. Exercises. Besides. 3. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives.Let us see whether the greatest. it will remain harmless. After he was gone. They. since. some words²for example. As will have been noticed. 9. 7. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. as. however.

16." as. and the frame will suit the picture..² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. GREELEY. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. Consequently.. If analyzed. As for as if. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. they connect. word groups. His voice .As though a rose should shut.Clouded. for example. As though. even as they would weep.²IRVING. as is shown by the use of as though.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. and part as though we parted not. etc. (2) What words. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.²HOOD. 301. So silently we seemed to speak. 303. "We meet. the expression would be. thus.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. SPECIAL REMARKS. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. as is often equivalent to as if. In parsing conjunctions. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. expressing degree if taken separately.. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. In Emerson's sentence. none of the lashings having given way. In poetry. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. . But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. in this case. and be a bud again. 302." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.²BYRON.²EMILY BRONTE.So slowly moved about. 304. As if.

particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 13. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.²EMERSON 3. 5. so it be faithfully imparted. so means therefore. the Sphinx was slain. All the postulates of elfin annals. but of the natural. 11. and its clause is independent. 3. are regularly of one particular class. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. compare the sentences. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and associates as happily. he sleeps as warm.²is subordinate of condition.. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. Exercise. in 2. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. For example. so they paddled on. or in the snow. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. in 3. He dismisses without notice his thought." said his wife to Martin Luther. because. 10.²I find them true in Concord. so that I could not stir abroad. 6. dines with as good an appetite. or in the forest. and very seldom?" 8. he is also the correlative of nature.² 1. as beside his own chimneys. so means provided. Some conjunctions. If he could solve the riddle. 4. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. and. so that expresses result.²that the fairies do not like to be named. that it might testify of that particular ray. and the like. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. He is the compend of time. others belong to several classes. .²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.²DEFOE 2. It continued raining. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. 7. they are not known. At sea. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. It may be safely trusted. when. "Doctor. etc. such as nor.Caution. and its clause depends on the other. 2. When the gods come among men. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. In classifying them. 9. 12. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. because it is his.

It may be so in the majority of cases. 28. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. enthroned. Still. you must be. 18. 305. It is clear. she might have the family countenance. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 24. the whole conditions are changed. however. Goodness must have some edge to it. save it were sinful like herself. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. I speak. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 29. 22. 19. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. when it was presented to them. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. . For. won't you lay on? 17. PREPOSITIONS. 15. that both were wayward. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 26. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 20. whose names I omit. 30.. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 23. 21. And whether consciously or not. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. There was no iron to be seen. 27. of good novels only. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 25. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. therefore. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. in this they agree. Now you have the whip in your hand. in many a heart. 16.14. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last.²else it is none.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. Helena. TAYLOR The angel came by night. etc. Exercise. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. H.²B.²ALDRICH. at length. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. 320.²M.²R. at naught. She saw the boat headed for her. by the wrecks of time. by means near or close to. at least. expressing the degree of difference. at peace. as. at one.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at rest. ²PARTON. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. he stopped. By.²ID. (4) Measure of excess. at random.²WARNER. by the blessed memory of the departed. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²COOPER. by the ruins of nations. At St. Exercise. at once. (3) Agency or means. at play.²DE QUINCEY. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. Richard was standing by the window. at any rate. at most. by many a million of acres. At that time [the earth] was richer.²SWIFT. (2) Time. the first port made by the ship. . Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at work.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. By my faith. STODDARD. 321.²EVERETT. at the best. etc. at first. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at all.² (1) The general meaning of place. CONWAY. Like at. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at war. D.. at the worst. For.

they are now for us. (3) Duration of time. (7) Concession. "thou hast counseled wisely. poor fellow. BANCROFT.²H. and leaped for joy. ate her child. He and they were for immediate attack. meaning in the character of. For him. (6) Like as. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE."²SCOTT By my faith. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. For the rest.² RUSKIN. "For a fool. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. for all his title. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. as being. (4) Substitution or exchange. . that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. respecting. GARRISON. L.²PARKMAN. etc. (9) Motive. but a few sunsets since. An Arab woman.²HOOD. if your worship can accomplish that.²LAMB.²E. There are gains for all our losses. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. E.. for famine.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. meaning although.²HOLMES. for the benefit of.²W.²PARKMAN.²EMERSON. as to. he repented of his folly. had a forest of poor relations. considering that etc. or in spite of. (5) Reference." said the Lady of Lochleven.. the Colonna motto would fit you best. or extent of space.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. reason. incitement to action. etc.²ID. meaning with regard to.One of Eve's family. a person or thing. But the Colonel. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster." answered Master Brackett. The twilight being. cause. for all slips of hers. Still.²IRVING.²STODDARD. in behalf of. etc. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.(2) In favor of. H. "Nay.

it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. (4) Motive. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. (3) Time.²BANCROFT. if not a desperate man. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. like from. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²HUME.²ID. (1) Origin or source. . ceased to be merciful. The general idea in from is separation or source. nay. It was from no fault of Nolan's. more. Like boys escaped from school. Of. cause.²DRYDEN.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. The king holds his authority of the people.²HALE. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Exercise. H. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. Exercise.²HUXLEY. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²MILTON. The From Relation. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²HIGGINSON. (2) Origin. 322.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. from a desire of seeming valiant. 323. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²H. A distrustful. From. The young cavaliers.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. From harmony. or reason. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.

Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. cure. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. ²GAVARRE. motive. demand. the finest army that Europe had yet seen.²HIGGINSON. relieve. and grass. A singular want of all human relation. Other Relations expressed by Of. such as ease. expressing a part of a number or quantity. etc. etc. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. (c) After nouns expressing lack. wide of. that Cromwell once ruled England. E. rid. (5) Expressing agency. (6) Partitive.²ALDRICH.²BOSWELL.² HUXLEY. etc. Of the Forty. beg. purge.²PARKMAN. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Sandals. ²PARTON.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. etc. deprive. out of the most unpromising materials. Back of that tree. acquitted them of. weeds.²SCOTT Who formed. rob. (b) After some adjectives.²BANCROFT. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.. White shirt with diamond studs.²LEW WALLACE. bound with thongs of boar's hide. (3) With expressions of material. especially out of.²BAYARD TAYLOR. .²DICKENS II. free of. More than one altar was richer of his vows. deprivation. south of. bare of. etc. divest. HALE. You cannot make a boy know. as north of."²E. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. reason.²clear of. of his own knowledge. "I am glad of that. or breastpin of native gold. free.²ID. (d) With words expressing distance. clear. Asked no odds of. He is away of his own free will. there were only twenty-one members present. ask. The hills were bare of trees. disarm.

²BANCROFT. Not even woman's love. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. ²IRVING. (b) Noun and gerund. concerning. (10) Of reference.²W. Idiomatic use with verbs. The nation of Lilliput. (7) Possessive. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (8) Appositional.²ALDRICH. could give shelter from his contumely. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²LOWELL. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. with regard to.²BANCROFT. of late.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²LAMB. (9) Of time. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. . 309. Besides the phrases of old.²HALLECK. with its object. of a sudden. and the dignity of a queen.²SWIFT. when the first is descriptive of the second. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.He washed out some of the dirt. CHANNING. E. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²BANCROFT. The fair city of Mexico. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. etc. Such a book as that of Job. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. of is used in the sense of during. standing. equal to about. See also Sec. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²PRESCOTT. being equivalent to an infinitive.²ID..²COOPER. (c) Two nouns. for the possessive.²FROUDE.

complain. It also accompanies the verbs tire. permit. 324. . The general meaning of on is position or direction. allow. On. (4) In adjurations. Cannon were heard close on the left. disapprove. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. on the alert. avail (one's self). on trial. and not a day more.²Find sentences with six uses of of. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. equal to about. on the wing. etc. on high.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. on a sudden.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. (3) Reference. you are eighteen.²EMERSON. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. without adding to their meaning. Exercise. Exercise. SIGOURNEY.²DE QUINCEY. accept.²MRS. ²BANCROFT. approve. (b) With motion. 325. Upon my reputation and credit. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²PARKMAN. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. repent.²BRYANT. on board. on view. and others. Upon is seldom used to express time. To. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²PARKMAN. concerning. On my life. Upon.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²ALDRICH. consist. such as admit. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. etc. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²PARKMAN. (2) Time.

²B.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. But when.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²BENTON To our great delight. unmasked.Come to the bridal chamber.. whose influence is felt to this hour. mid meant in company with. does the mere music.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. 326..²often to the loss of vigor. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.. (b) Referring to time. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²HALE. With. to him. it may be genuine poetry.²PARKMAN. In Old English. (2) Expressing result.²PARTON. Death!²HALLECK. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. had ceased to be. to my taste. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. 268). gay Comedy appears.²BULWER. .. His brother had died. Revolutions. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Exercise.to be written over. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. (5) Equivalent to according to. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. To the few.²IRVING. interest.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. He usually gave his draft to an aid. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²LANG.²BRYANT.²GOLDSMITH.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Nor. We cook the dish to our own appetite.

²WALLACE (7) Time. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. reason.²LANG. (4) Estimation.²SCOTT. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.The advance. She seemed pleased with the accident. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. 327. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²CHANNING. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. had already reached the defile. opinion. with Heyward at its head.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²E. (2) Instrumentality.²EMERSON.²COOPER. as with you. it is necessary.²DE QUINCEY. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²HALE. It seemed a supreme moment with him. HALE. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. first of all. E.²DE QUINCEY. Either with the swingle-bar.²HOWELLS. or with the haunch of our near leader. . He was wild with delight about Texas.²ALDRICH.²HOWELLS. Exercise.²COLERIDGE. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. but with you. in spite of. "poetry is not a pursuit. Messala. transmitted from the beginning. With all his sensibility. motive. but a pleasure"?²LANG. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. (3) Cause. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. he gave millions to the sword. (5) Opposition. He expired with these words. with all his boldness. felt it unsafe to trifle further. I think. to find the object of the preposition.

by which a dozen apples. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. the malicious rogue. the phrase answers the question where. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. Exercises. I looked towards my windows. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. In (2). I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. but all to no purpose. shook it directly over my head. I remember. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. he followed us one day into those gardens.²SWIFT 2. like the clapping of wings. (3) without a country. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation.²ID. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. because I had given the provocation. and knocked me down flat on my face. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. 3. hence we say. before the dwarf left the queen. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. 5. (4) from the beginning. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I speak these things from a love of justice. we met the defaulter here. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. I called out several times. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. but I received no other hurt. In (1). and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. I felt my box raised very high in the air. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. of without. came tumbling about my ears. which. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. And so on. The guns were cleared of their lumber. In (3). of on. 2. To our general surprise. of from. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. beginning. The object of on board is ships. Be that as it will. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. telling what man. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. without a country modifies man.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. or was. 4. Whereupon. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. . I heard a noise just over my head. country. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. (2) on which.

13.Without stop or stay. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 22. .He spurred his courser on. to one dark and gloomy. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. He locked his door from mere force of habit. he favored the world with his opinions. With all his learning. 10. 16. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The savage army was in war-paint. 17. 8. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 19. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 18. On all subjects known to man. His breeches were of black silk. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. when. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. plumed for battle. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 14. For my part. 26.6. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. after a restful morning. 25. 29. I like to see the passing. 23. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. The mother sank and fell. 11. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. grasping at the child. 27. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. in this respect. in town. 21. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 7. 9. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 15. 12. 20. 24. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance.

(5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. that you might behold this joyous day. That was a dreadful mistake.²BEECHER. (4) As an adverb of degree. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.That makes the heavens be mute. not merely by the amount of the tax. 330. He will raise the price. 328.²STOCKTON.² JOHNSON.²WEBSTER. A few are discussed below. And now it is like an angel's song. and be proud in the midst of its toil. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. We wish that labor may look up here.²HUXLEY. That night was a memorable one. 329. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. . WHAT.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.30. (a) Indefinite relative. That is what I understand by scientific education. (c) Substantive conjunction. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (2) As an adjective pronoun. THAT. (1) Relative pronoun. and not according to form. (b) Of result.²COLERIDGE. (3) As a relative pronoun.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.

²WORDSWORTH.²EMERSON..²THACKERAY.Which be they what they may.. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (b) Copulative. (9) As an exclamation. . What. or not only. At what rate these materials would be distributed." (4) Relative adjective... and silent all!²BYRON.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. but the result of calculation.²ID. BUT. silent still. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.²EMERSON. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. nearly equivalent to partly.. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.. If he has [been in America].in Pera. "I'll tell you what. it rests on reality.. 331.these sounds are only to be heard. (b) Indirect question.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (8) Conjunction. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²WEBSTER.²S. Cox... he knows what good people are to be found there.but. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. To say what good of fashion we can..²ID. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. partly. to see what might be hidden. (b) Indirect question.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.Those shadowy recollections. What. What with the Maltese goats. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.it is impossible to determine.S. after not only. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (7) Adverb of degree.

.. To lead but one measure.²LAMB.Then arose not only tears. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.²EMERSON. (5) Adverb.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.²IRVING.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. on all sides. stands for that . not..²CARLYLE. not. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. like the dog. (2) Relative pronoun. (3) Preposition. ²CARLYLE. or who . after a negative. meaning except. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.. (b) Of manner. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. AS. but piercing cries.²HAWTHORNE. at all moments. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. towards order. . (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²FRANKLIN. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (b) Substantive. Who knows but. (c) Of degree.²IRVING. after such. equivalent to that .He yearned to our patriot bands. sometimes same. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. not. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (4) Relative pronoun. than. I shall see but little of it.²IRVING.²SCOTT.²MRS BROWNING. 332.. meaning otherwise ..²SHELLEY. meaning only. Doing duty as a guard. (e) Introducing an appositive word. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. (d) Of reason.

In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²DARWIN. Give Ruskin space enough. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. Note the difference between these two uses. (1) An adjective.²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE.²ALDRICH.²HIGGINSON. In this second use.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like a cook beating eggs. and is followed by a dative-objective. staring like a bewildered man. They look.-SCOTT. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²ALDRICH.²CASS.²MAYHEW. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²EMERSON. like Martin was. but this is not considered good usage: for example. .² HAWTHORNE. and as or as if takes its place.² A timid. Through which they put their heads. like him awhile ago. indeed. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. That face. and was clearly an adjective. like summer ocean's. There is no statue like this living man. but its verb is omitted. In each case. ²PARKMAN. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²LAMB. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. 333.²HALLECK. This follows a verb or a verbal. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. No Emperor. Introduces a clause.²SHAKESPEARE. I do with my friends as I do with my books. nervous child. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²LONGFELLOW. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. NOTE. like drops out. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. this. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. If the verb is expressed.LIKE. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. Stirring it vigorously.

and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. 335. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Some of these are imitative sounds.²in determining case. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. subject and predicate. 334." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. clauses introduced by conjunctions.: for example. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. Not all exclamatory words are interjections." PART II.INTERJECTIONS. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. that is. as. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. entering into the structure of a sentence. it is necessary to become expert in analysis.. Definition. that is. Value of analysis. 336. . etc. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. What analysis is. etc. verb. pronoun. tut! buzz! etc. but it still retains its identity as noun. in separating them into their component parts.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Definition. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric.

(2) Interrogative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. you must not die!" interrogative.²a subject and a predicate. (3) Imperative. not according to the form in which a thought is put. or request. old man?" "Be thou familiar. This is the most common one. according to form. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. "Old year. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. entreaty. but the sentence would still be declarative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. Every sentence must contain two parts. "The quality of mercy is not strained. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. declarative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject." "What wouldst thou do. 337. but by no means vulgar.Kinds of sentences as to form." 340. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. or command: for example. hence. Examples of these three kinds are. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. 2. Definition. question. But now all is to be changed. "Hath he not always treasures. or imperative. interrogative. Division according to number of statements. Definition: Predicate. which expresses command. always friends?" imperative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. . "Come to the bridal chamber. but according to how many statements there are. which puts the thought in a question. 338. 339.

thou. all. 8. and is to be supplied. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. Thus. a rare old plant. to suit all cases:² Subject. 3. always reduce them to the order of a statement." Exercise. In the interrogative sentence. as. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. or an interrogative pronoun. But if we try this with the second sentence. 6. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 7. not of a rare old plant. The last of all the Bards was he. the subject is frequently after the verb. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. but about the ivy green.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. and our definition must be the following. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. we have some trouble. or ye) is in most cases omitted.²What is the ivy green? Answer. In analyzing such sentences.²What is to be changed? Answer. adjective. we say all is the subject of the sentence. or adverb that asks about the subject. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. Listen. 4. 2. to an ignorant man. especially in poetry. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Slavery they can have anywhere. on the other hand. and the real subject is the latter. "[You] behold her single in the field. Consequently. 5. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. the subject (you. .² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 341.

²transitive and intransitive. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. direct. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. or second object. The transitive verb often requires. 342. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb.10. just as if to say. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds." Complement: 344. 343. (6) Independent elements. Direct Object. and me here is not the object simply of call. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. "Ye call me chief." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. and means summoned. (3) The object. . "She seldom saw her course at a glance. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. Of a transitive verb. but of call chief. (2) The predicate. in addition to the object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Indirect object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). The subject and predicate have been discussed. (4) The complements. for example. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed." indirect. "Ye honor me. and by object we mean the direct object. but it is a true complement. but chief belongs to the verb. (5) Modifiers.

The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. and barring the door. he was now getting old. to the completion of this man of the world." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. 364. "A cheery." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. A phrase is a group of words. and. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. 352. especially the forms of be. for instance. but used as a single modifier. become. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. appear. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. As to form. "Brow and head were round. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. 347. I mentioned a case of that nature. See sentence 19." (2) PARTICIPIAL." All these complete intransitive verbs. and of massive weight. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. or." "He was termed Thomas. 351." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. 'Ay." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. as. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." Also an expression used as a noun.. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. taste." "The good man. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. Complement of an intransitive verb. not containing a verb." (3) INFINITIVE. 355." Things used as Subject." 345. in the original Opium Confessions. as in drowning. feel. An intransitive verb. in the popular judgment. etc. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. seem. in exercise following Sec. more familiarly. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. Thom of the Gills. introduced by a preposition: for example. as in the sentence. Phrases. ay. sir!' rang out in response." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . above sixty. 346.

but obscures the real subject." Things used as Direct Object." The for did not belong there originally. and ever will be. (4) After "there introductory. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.²the talent of starting the game. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. my deficiency. (2) In interrogative sentences. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." Things used as Complement. or the thundering of organs." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. ." 348. "'By God. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. but they will be given in detail here. but the real or logical subject is to print." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. prowling eyes. was heard one syllable to justify. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. for which see Sec. Disguised infinitive subject. from their lips." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. etc." "There are asking eyes." In this sentence." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." "Never.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." "The dead are there.²the infinitive phrase. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. asserting eyes." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. I saw the quick and the dead. "Therein has been. 341. 349. or their religion from their sect. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." etc. and by Saint George!' said the King.

" "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. the object is made the subject by being passive." (4) Participle. Modifiers of Subject." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." . (3) Infinitive. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. I. or the equivalent of the noun." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. or Complement." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. 351. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this.350. Object. and. doubtless. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Of a transitive verb.²completing the predicate. complements of the predicate. Like all the complements in this list.²heads or tails." Modifiers. and the words italicized are still complements. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. at the same time." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. the shepherd girl. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." "She asked her father's permission. As complement of an intransitive verb." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. and whenever the complement is a noun. they are adjuncts of the object." "Their tempers. and explaining or modifying the subject. As complement of a transitive verb. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." "Serving others is serving us." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." In this last sentence." "I hear the echoes throng.

) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. 357-363. 352." "In the twinkling of an eye. but with other men. or . (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. the verb being omitted. "He died like a God. Tells how." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. or complement is modified. and leading him from star to star. but noble teachers. given at the request of a Dutch lady. Modifiers of the Predicate." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. was the scene from King John. II. Since the predicate is always a verb. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. unforgiving. see further Secs. I have seasoned for thee. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. Retained with passive." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. object.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland.²In each sentence in Sec." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. but it is really a contracted clause. not with nature. and modify the predicate in the same way." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. this young idolater. tell whether the subject.²proud. 351." Exercise." In such a sentence as. no sociable angel." (For participial and infinitive phrases. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. was now called upon for his defense." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. the prisoner at the bar." "Give them not only noble teachings. austere." "Him.

no relief to the dead prosaic level. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. no humor. in this center? 4. is good in the making." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. gives wonderful animation. and (direct) object:² 1. 3." "One way lies hope." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. etc.. 5. But anger drives a man to say anything. His books have no melody. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. Fashion does not often caress the great. 5. This. and the direct object is retained: for example. On the voyage to Egypt. Evil. but the children of the great. in regard to particulars. the indirect object is retained. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. predicate. or how long. 2. to the animal strength and spirits. (b) Pick out the subject. with my joy and grief. 2. I took. They do not wish to be lovely." (6) Adverbial objective. 4. 7. negative. 6. 3. . no emotion. how far. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause." "All such knowledge should be given her. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. Why does the horizon hold me fast. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. 7. and other measures of precaution. 6." Exercises. (a) Pick out subject. 8. he liked. and as many to oppose it. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. predicate. These answer the question when. according to old philosophers. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. a sort of personality to the whole writing. To the men of this world. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. but to be loved. and. after dinner.When the verb is changed from active to passive.

y 8. upwards. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Not compound sentences. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. that was thy portion in life. the blooming cornet. downwards. A river formed the boundary. in little peaceful Easedale. In one feature. and a member of the world. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 2. six children sat by a peat fire. That night. I promised her protection against all ghosts. this dragoon so lovely. 3. Yes. 2. y y y y Compound Subject. this nun so martial. 4. the attorney. 5. Compound Predicate. burthened with the anxieties of a man. at the chief hotel. expecting the return of their parents. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 2. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light.. Paint me.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. 3. viz. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. at length the warrior lady. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. a room seventeen feet by twelve. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Not the less I owe thee justice. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 3. to the right and to the left. Their intention was to have a gay. for the first time. etc. I gave him an address to my friend. I felt myself. 5. . then. To suffer and to do. happy dinner. this imperial rider. must visit again the home of her childhood. 4. 4. 6.²the river Meuse. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. after their long confinement to a ship. Unhorse me. then.

my brave young man!" . For example. Examples of compound subjects are. the tone of her voice. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. forming a sentence: "Oh. ulcer. Larger view of a sentence. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. modifiers." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. the simple subject is situation. 355." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. hurry. I'm with you once again. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. Bishop. exposes. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. two or more subjects of the same predicate. and the rest is the logical predicate. however. The exclamatory expression. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. Of this. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. same as (1). 354.353. several modifiers. in the sentence. together with all its modifiers. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. the predicate. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. "Ah. etc. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. and. "The company broke up. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. turned his steps homeward. but it is to be noticed that. the air of the mother." Sentences with compound predicates are." "The name of the child. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. and its object or complement. hurry. may be the person or thing addressed." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. they are not a necessary part. the object. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. in all such sentences as we quote below. that is. etc." And so with complements. etc.." "Ye crags and peaks. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate." "Voyages and travels I would also have. Independent Elements of the Sentence. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements." "He shook his head. shouldered the rusty firelock. above: thus. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. the verb). together with its modifiers. complements. then the grammatical subject and predicate.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind.

yes! everybody knew them. modifying the predicate. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "Truth to say." "No. how you're winking!" "Now. "Oh." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. (1) Adjectival. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. 352. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use." "At all events. he somehow lived along. pronoun. six quill-driving gentlemen. instances of which were seen in Sec. or word used as a noun: for example." (2) Adverbial. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. such as however." (6) Single words: as. The words well. see Sec. besides." Another caution. There are some adverbs. grandma. 355. . such as perhaps. why. already noticed. to the best of my remembrance. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. etc. now. the company broke up." "Why. 357. In their use. y (2) The adverbial use.. her noticing even this is creditable." (3) Independent. 3. modifying a noun. generally speaking. let him perish.. undoubtedly. really. and so on. he was a conscientious man." (5) Participial phrase: "But. 4). etc. 356. These need close watching. 351. this story runs thus. nevertheless. he closed his literary toils at dinner. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. or complement (see Sec. 6). prepositional phrases may be. 4). (b) As a modifier of subject. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. truly. see Sec." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "Well. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 350. object. that have an office in the sentence." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. and some conjunctions. then. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. therefore. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. moreover.

and teach her how to be happy and good. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. 358.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. etc. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. This case excepted. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every ." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. y (a) With may (might). modifying was speedily run through. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. Wilt thou. thus. and they will be presented here in full. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." "There.should. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public." (b) With the forms of be. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. (5). I.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb.can (could). or as nearly so as the student will require." In this sentence.seem. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. See Sec. "Because I was. my dear.: as in the sentences." (c) With the definite forms of go. but having no other office than a verbal one. "The letter of introduction." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. etc. was speedily run through. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. containing no matters of business. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. and hence is adverbial. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. The verbal use. therefore.]. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. but require somewhat closer attention." etc.would. 355. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. necessity. he should not have known them at all. ought. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. being equivalent to a future with obligation.

explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "He insisted on his right to forget her. To test this. was to have the foe's life at their mercy.." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. 5)." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). etc. The substantive use. hang the idiot. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. 351. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. The adverbial use. (4) In apposition. IV.: for example. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. complement. 361 are used adverbially." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. The adjectival use.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). etc. already examined. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions.²both purpose clauses." 360. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. above. modifying a noun that may be a subject. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. . III." "To say what good of fashion we can. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. object. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. "But there was no time to be lost. to please is equivalent to that he may please. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. the Scotch fighting all the battles. 361. to hear McOrator after dinner. result. 362. Don Guzman. notice the following:² In (1). Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. II. to look means that he might look." "To teach is to learn. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "Are you mad.

to find shows the result of the return. (7) Independent elements (Sec. etc. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. The independent use.²both expressing condition. 363. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. In (3). and to say is equivalent to if we say. give the complement (Secs. (3). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. not in a book. must be in a life. which is of two kinds.In (2).) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 2. 364. . give² (1) The predicate. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. to part means because I part. 349). (5) The subject (Sec.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. In analyzing simple sentences." (See also Sec. and to betray and to bring express the reason. savage and serene in one hour. 4. 351). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 355). 347). etc. In (5). I will try to keep the balance true. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 352). 268. Our life is March weather.. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. as in Sec." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. In (4). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. equivalent to that you betray. 355. V. 3. 351). If it is an incomplete verb. 351). to hear means if you should hear. etc. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. object..

23. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. through evil agents. just on the edge of destruction. Through the years and the centuries. 16. The word conscience has become almost confined. always in a bad plight. I have heard Coleridge talk. 10. a graceful dancer. 14. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 13. 9. through toys and atoms. Her aims were simple and obvious. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. might be called flabby and irresolute. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. to the moral sphere.He sat in the shower. in popular use. The water. nor troops. 20. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. the carrion crow. good and amiable otherwise. 24. a good shot. Old Adam. 7. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 18. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 8.4. The whole figure and air. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 6. His opinion is always original. 19. neither ammunition. 15. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. is to have no political system at all. 17. 22. a skilled musician. . 12. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. nor himself. to restore civil and religious order. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. To be hurried away by every event. We are always in peril. 21.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. To these gifts of nature. He risked everything. and to the purpose. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. with eager energy.The old crow of Cairo. 5. You may ramble a whole day together. nor money. and every moment discover something new.²to preserve her throne. an accomplished scholar. 11. to keep England out of war. nor generals. two stricken hours. like a witch's oils. and spared nothing.Burnt green and blue and white. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman.

it would not have been filial or ladylike. 26. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. had but one foible. Oxford. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors.Effacing many a stain of former crime. and. 33. I dare this. secluded. an elderly man. Must we in all things look for the how. Few in number. She had made a two days' march. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. time-honored. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 35. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. upon my own ground. and the wherefore? . proud foe. 29. the same Condé Olivarez. 38. and the why. Now. Of the same grandeur. In the Acadian land. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. 27. haply. Supposing this computation to be correct. 39. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. The cry. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. and in my own garden. the ship was in an uproar. 36. in this world. 30. in front of all this mighty crowd. and no provisions but wild berries. 31. 37.25. baggage far in the rear. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. ready to receive her. to be a reproach to such goodness. or perhaps one virtue. The villain. 34. to bid you leave the place now and forever. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. Upon this shore stood. Fair name might he have handed down. 40. the present capital of New England. This amiable relative. I hate him and myself. But yield. still. in less heroic and poetic form. the prime minister of Spain. 32. 41.Distant.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings.

compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. are really contracted clauses. the pride and beauty of the grove. thus. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. as would be the connective instead of like." To show that these words are really omitted. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. though often treated as phrases. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. which is the unit of speech. 365. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. 366. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Words left out after than or as. The simple sentence the basis. . 333)." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly.From her own loved island of sorrow. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. As shown in Part I. if they were expanded. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. but." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. made merely for convenience and smoothness. 367. COMPLEX SENTENCES. as." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom." Sentences with like.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. (Sec. however.² "She is like some tender tree." This must.

" The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. is taken in. CLAUSES. and the last. then we recognize this as the main statement. complements. . logically depends on suffering. and modifier. or it may be applied to the others. Independent clause. how great .²the other members subordinate to it. that is. A principal.. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.. and the next one. containing a verb with its subject.. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. main. 370. complement. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. Definition.²the backbone. which are so united that one member is the main one. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. murmur. 369. 371. suffering. etc. we are aware. as in this sentence. predicate. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. object.²the dependent or subordinate clauses..Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. Hence the following definition:² Definition. each clause has its subject. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. object. A clause is a division of a sentence. or dependent on it. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. modifiers. that . 368.

attention is called to them here. thus. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.. infinitive." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. (b) that are ." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. adjectives. over which the torrent came tumbling." 374.' is an electric touch. 5). Kinds. and it is . 372. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. We ourselves are getting .." (4) Apposition. and ADVERB clauses. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living.Dependent clause. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex." "I was told that the house had not been shut. put an end to my fancies." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs.." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. .. 'I know that he can toil terribly. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. pronoun. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. 373. for a time.. (a) Ordinary apposition.. or adverbs. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. but logically the sentence is. for example. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. with a noun clause in apposition with it. As to their office in the sentence. night or day. But since they are complex in form.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. impertinences²would be grammatical. and the whole clause is not. Noun Clauses.. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. for example. for a hundred years. impertinences. verbal. ADJECTIVE." Just as the object noun. so the object clause is retained." (2) Object of a verb. etc. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. clauses are divided into NOUN. 352. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.

The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 6. 7. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 8. Adjective Clauses. .² "It is on the understanding. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. sometimes by the conjunctions when. 2. whither. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. Such a man is what we call an original man. how it changed from shape to shape. Except by what he could see for himself. 3. that. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. no man will ever know. Frequently there is no connecting word. in the sentence. What history it had. Other examples of this construction are. whereby. he could know nothing. and not on the sentiment. Examples of adjective clauses. 5. that he was a scheming impostor. 9. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. which. I was napping. 4. But the fact is. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. of a nation." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. but. whether he should choose one or not. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. that all safe legislation must be based. a falsehood incarnate. As the office of an adjective is to modify. that. The reply of Socrates. 10. 375. he would repent it. a relative pronoun being understood. as.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. etc. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. where. wherein. or equivalent of a noun. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. whence. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. still remains reasonable." Exercise.

which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 1. or that essence we were looking for. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive.e." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." Exercise. 7." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. the champions advanced through the lists. and tell what each one modifies. he begins to help us more as an effect. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 6. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 10. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 2." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. i. all is vacancy. which Rowena tasted." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. . Adverbial Clauses. whether subject. 5. 8. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. 4. 9. which formed the center of the mansion. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. etc. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. object. 11.. 3. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. Pick out the adjective clauses. I walked home with Calhoun. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. No man is reason or illumination." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice.376. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds.

" These mean no matter how good. Joanna is better." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. to make up our shortcomings. an adjective. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. Exercise." (5) DEGREE. or an adverb. but they require careful study. that we should try. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. with examples." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. and adverbial conjunctions." "After leaving the whole party under the table. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. adverbs." "When he was come up to Christian. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." (3) REASON. shaping our actions. no matter what remains.² whoever. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." (9) CONCESSION. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome.377. the milestones are grave-stones." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. so far as we can." (7) RESULT. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. introduced by indefinite relatives. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go.: "But still. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. etc. and will be given in detail. it takes precedence of everything else." "Who cares for that. a verbal. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. however. whatever. since he was too great to care to be original. however good she may be as a witness. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. etc. and what it modifies:² ." "The right conclusion is." "He went several times to England." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. he goes away as if nothing had happened. is wider." "The broader their education is.. the wider is the horizon of their thought. etc. 378." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. expressing the degree in which the horizon. tell what kind each is.

'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. to tell the truth.1. find the principal subject and principal predicate. howling and whistling. incoherent exclamations. For example. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. snatching up stones to fling at them. they might perhaps say of their visitors. we are a little disappointed. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. 3. and modifiers. when the wind was unruly. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. etc. as they sometimes did. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. then treat noun clauses as nouns. 379. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. in the sentence. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit." 2." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. 'Well. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and twirling weathercocks. object. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . so as to picture the parts and their relations. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. its object is that Odin was a reality. of which clause Odin is the subject. banging about doors and windows. on a dark wintry night. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. If the children gathered about her. with shrill. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. 380. predicate.

. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. d. 3. 364.. 364.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. as seen in the "map" (Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. 380). Exercises. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. (1) Find the principal clause. 2..

that pressed her with an objection. 9. 7. 15. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. if applied to the Bible. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. Had they been better chemists. who would yield to it least. that. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. as for armies that were too many by half. 14. 21. This is she. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. or whether any. bishop. But now that she has become an establishment. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 22. Here lay two great roads. 24. The deep eyes. 10. namely. 18. could not have been effected. not so much for travelers that were few. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. the flower should revive for us. of a light hazel. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 5. whom I choose. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. had we been worse. dying for them. M. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 17. which. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 11. He was what our country people call an old one. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. the mixed result. The night proved unusually dark. 23. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 13. 19. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 8. 20. And those will often pity that weakness most. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. Next came a wretched Dominican. I like that representation they have of the tree. Whether she said the word is uncertain.4. 12. . The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. counselor that had none for herself. 6. 16. the shepherd girl. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. for yours. Now.

2.² Definition. 6. 28. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. if there be one to whom I am not equal. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. but above it. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. 27. 3. These things we are forced to say. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29." said Bentley. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 30." 4. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. speed. then map out as in Sec. "was ever written down by any but itself. COMPOUND SENTENCES. "No book. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 26. 7. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. if continuously extended. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 383. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. questions. would easily reach. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 382.²which will not be disposed of. and stamped with his right number. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. we cannot adequately say. . It makes no difference how many friends I have. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. or commands. that it was no more than his daily walk. 380. and temper.25. Hence the definition. is to speak and write sincerely. the following complex sentences:² 1. and not from his heart. 5. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. though we may repeat the words never so often. That which we do not believe. (b) First analyze. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. How formed.

and connects the first and second complex members. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. and it shall be the universal sense. Of the following illustrative sentences. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. yet. 385." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). nor does he know until he has tried. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. and which complex:² 1. the semicolon separates the first. and nor the second and third complex members.. which are simple statements. Connectives. he walks with arms akimbo. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. others sometimes coördinate." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. and not the form of the connective. from the second. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. the waving grass. The coördinate conjunctions and. for. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. the planet has a faint. . and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. he soliloquizes. The division into members will be easier. 386. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. tell which are compound. Some of these are now conjunctions. 297). now adverbs or prepositions. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. a simple member. Thus in (1). in (3). But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. nor. "Only the star dazzles. Another example is. he dilates. as in Sec. Exercise. he is twice a man. 383 (1). Study the thought. as but. in (2). etc. etc. or but. a complex member. while (whilst). if there are any. Speak your latent conviction. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. whereas." 384. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. moon-like ray" (adversative). however.

however. yield to them heart and life. passed in that time. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 3. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 381. 4.2. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. 3. 5. Exercise. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 9. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 7. 14. he grew up to be a mild. and thou shalt be loved. Whilst the world is thus dual. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. to find a pot of buried gold. and for everything you gain. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. nay. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. Man does not stand in awe of man. that it was Easter Sunday. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 10. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 6. (i) Separate it into its main members. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 4. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. all pain. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. In this manner. for example. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. I can yet love. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. I can still receive. The gain is apparent. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 364. 8. and as yet very early in the morning. so is every one of its parts. you have gained something else. or. unobtrusive boy. . and not by what each is. 2. All loss. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. from a happy yet often pensive child. 387. you lose something. the tax is certain. Love. 13. 11. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 12. quiet. is particular. For everything you have missed.

abide by it. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and he learns who receives." "keep the rake. because. or men will never know and honor him aright. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. puts the parties on a convenient footing. We go to Europe. and the cart as nigh the rake. 20. that let him communicate. and makes their business a friendship. is as thin and timid as any. Whatever he knows and thinks. 15. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. "Strike. Trust men. and they will be true to you. 7. or sail with God the seas." 13. if you rip up his claims.5. and not an emotion of bravery. which always make the Actual ridiculous. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. or we pursue persons. 8. give those merits room. "the iron is white. "as nigh the scythe as you can. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. whilst frankness invites frankness. treat them greatly. Come into port greatly. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. They will shuffle and crow. why should we intrude? 10. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. 17. let them mount and expand. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and the peace of society is often kept. 6. We see the noble afar off. Stand aside. He teaches who gives. or hope. as children. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow." says the haymaker. modesty. When you have chosen your part. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. or we read books. and the other dares not. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. and not a thought has enriched either party. 11." says the smith. 21. feign to confess here. and each shows only what lies at its focus. . 16. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. crook and hide. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and they repel us. one is afraid. 14. 9. 19. only that they may brag and conquer there. 18. and they will show themselves great.

it ends in headache. and dodge the account. Do not craze yourself with thinking. We see young men who owe us a new world. but they never acquit the debt. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. so readily and lavishly they promise. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. PART III. Essential point in English syntax. So does culture with us. 25. Ground covered by syntax. Following the Latin method.²agreement and government. it never was known to fall into the rear. 24. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. they die young. SYNTAX. or. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. verb and subject. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. 380. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. if they live. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 23. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. adjective and noun. but its leading characteristic is. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. 388. 390. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. but go about your business anywhere. INTRODUCTORY. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence.22. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. they lose themselves in the crowd. By way of introduction. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. pronoun and antecedent.

also expressing a possessive relation. therefore. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. pronoun and antecedent. the order being inverted. distinct forms would be used. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). as to study inflected forms. In Latin. sometimes verb and subject. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and added to it the preposition of. following the regular order of subject. but are not now. As an illustration of the last remark. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. and imitate it. and whose judgment. This is not logical. 392. take the sentence. Why study syntax? 391. For example. . 393. both forms will be given in the following pages.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. good English. then." In this there is a possessive form. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. or settler may be the subject. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's." is ambiguous. "The savage here the settler slew. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English." that is. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. or the same writer will use both indifferently. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. The basis of syntax. etc. In some cases." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. authorities²that is. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. When usage varies as to a given construction. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. Savage may be the subject. Second. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and it would not matter which one stood first. There is. the sentence.² First. "None remained but he. and nothing but important points will be considered. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. some of which conform to classical grammar. Some rules not rigid. Also in the sentence. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere.

and Pope's.²BYRON. sense and nature's easy fool. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Mill's and Mr.NOUNS. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Woman. the possessive sign is used with each noun.²MILTON.² He lands us on a grassy stage. 397. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. and Paul's. PRONOUNS.²MACAULAY. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. and Peterborough's.²THACKERAY. as. etc. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. or indicate joint ownership or possession. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Separate possession." Juletta tells.²ROWE. the antechamber of the High Priest. . for example. and Peter's. ²ID.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Use of the possessive. Joint possession. He kept Bolingbroke's. but imply separate possession or ownership.²MCCULLOCH. and Harley's. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. the shore of Galilee. 395. Bentham's principles together. 394. 408). Putting Mr.²EMERSON. 396.² Live your king and country's best support.

(1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. whom is the complement after the verb am. thus. 398. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. Objective for the nominative. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.²SHAKESPEARE.²SOUTHEY. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. the last expression has the support of many good writers. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. who. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. General rules.²WHITCHER. Some of the violations are universally condemned.²BYRON. there are two general rules that require attention. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.²TROLLOPE. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²THACKERAY. if not universally. Still. and should be the nominative form. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. for example. But he must be a stronger than thee.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Bedott Papers. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.²POPE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. the real thought being forgotten. together with the relative who. No mightier than thyself or me. others are generally.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. as. sanctioned. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. 399. This should be "as she." 400.) "The young Harper." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. Since most of the personal pronouns. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. I. .² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.

² For there was little doubt that it was he. it will not be me. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. BLACK. But still it is not she. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. Patrick the Porter. both in England and America. . "If there is any one embarrassed. on the other hand. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe." 401. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. namely. unless a special."²KINGSLEY.²KINGSLEY. "Than whom.²SCOTT."²WINTHROP.²FIELDING. One exception is to be noted. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²LONGFELLOW.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.² One I remember especially. but such is the fact.²RUSKIN. And it was heThat made the ship to go. The camp of Richard of England. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. they are yet holier than we. and the other forms of the verb be. The usage is too common to need further examples. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²THACKERAY. are.²COLERIDGE. as. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. is." There is no special reason for this. for example.²MACAULAY.²PARTON. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. the objective form is regularly found."²WM. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. A safe rule. "Who's there?"²"Me. In spoken English.

2.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. used after verbs. as this from Shakespeare. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. it is me. verbals. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 404. or preposition which governs it. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. Me in exclamations. as. or this. object of saw). (3) By forgetting the construction. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 11. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. "Ask the murderer." the word being in apposition with murderer). as. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 10. but not he" (he should be him. It is not me you are in love with. or us). I speak not to" (he should be him. 9. Whom they were I really cannot specify. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. and prepositions. the object of to). The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 7. as. 403. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. in the case of words used in apposition with the object.Exercise. Truth is mightier than us all. 8. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 5." 6.²MILTON. 4. now. 3. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. . "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. Nominative for the objective. you or me. verbal. You know whom it is that you thus charge.

Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. "Who did you see?" or. as. all but he. Thy shores are empires. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.Shall be left upon the morn. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. I've sworn.²STEELE. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. as. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. . Nature. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. after the preposition but (sometimes save). We regularly say. who interrogative. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²KINGSLEY. partial Nature. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. I arraign. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. changed in all save thee. for example. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²GOLDSMITH. etc. 2. Who have we here?²ID. Exception 2. and is usually avoided. Thou. "Who were they talking to?" etc.Exception 1.²KINGSLEY. Exercise. save thou and thine. but he. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. 405. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²KINGSLEY. 406.²BYRON. for they say there are none such in the world. Let you and I look at these.²BYRON. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. as well as the objective. None.² All were knocked down but us two.

It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. Preceding a gerund.²possessive. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 11. As antecedent of a relative. 8. II. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.²C. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 7. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. 12.²RUSKIN.Ye I salute." 4. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Bartholomew. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 9.²THACKERAY. 6. BROWN. with Jortin and Thirlby. This usage is not frequent. They are coming for a visit to she and I. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. They crowned him long ago. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. and they know that as well as me. B.3. or objective? . 10. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.²DE QUINCEY.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 407. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²MACAULAY. POSSESSIVE FORMS. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. Markland. 5. who.²SCOTT.

both are gerunds. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. The use of the objective is older. object of heard of. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. that the bitterness of death was past. We heard of Brown.²CARLYLE. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.² CARLYLE. ." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.² THACKERAY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. Possessive. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. Objective." That is. sometimes it has the objective. and asked why it was not made. Both types of sentences are found.² SCOTT. and the meaning is. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. as he turned away from his wife. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. studying is a gerund. etc. and that in the second. Here I state them only in brief. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.²BREWER. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. Why both are found. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. In the examples quoted.²RUSKIN. But in common use there is no such distinction. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. The last incident which I recollect.²DICKENS.408. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. [who was] studying law.²MACAULAY. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.²DE QUINCEY.² IRVING.

Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. The pale realms of shade. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²THACKERAY. Every city threw open its gates. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. BROCKDEN BROWN. 410.²when the antecedent. number. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²HUXLEY. . and ought to agree with them in person. Everybody had his own life to think of. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.² BRYANT. Watch for the real antecedent. If any one did not know it.²DE QUINCEY. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²THOREAU.²CABLE.²EMERSON III. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²C.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²DEFOE.²AUDUBON.²RUSKIN. taking in each of many persons. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. the pronoun will be neuter singular. In such a case as the last three sentences.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. and gender. if the antecedent is neuter. in one person. Examples of these constructions are. or is a distributive word. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. it was his own fault. preceded by a distributive. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. 409.²DE QUINCEY.²HOLMES. where there were examinations.

²PAULDING. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. 411.²THACKERAY. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²BYRON. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. This is not considered the best usage. for example. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. If the part deserve any comment. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²PALEY. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. as anybody in their senses would have done. and giving them means of being so. till they have lost him. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²RUSKIN. . the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²BIBLE. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Whosoever hath any gold. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²ID. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. let them break it off.²ID. not a mowing idiot.²DEFOE.² Not the feeblest grandame. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²SCOTT. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²FIELDING. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. The sun. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²PALGRAVE. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²HUXLEY. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²EMERSON.²AUSTEN. By using the plural pronoun. Struggling for life. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.

²In the above sentences. and does not add a new statement. It adds a new statement to what precedes." This means. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. which. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. but. Exercise. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. that being considered already clear. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.²ID. 2. no one could take upon them to say. 1. A relative. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. because. unless both genders are implied. tell whether who. or what was become of her.) and a personal pronoun.² SHERIDAN. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. according to the practice of every modern writer. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. and he went away. Exercise. and that always restrictive. In the following examples. and that are restrictive or not. What these terms mean. in each instance:² Who. as. . when coördinating. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. which. who went away. but.Where she was gone. As to their conjunctive use. 413." A relative. That is in most cases restrictive.²ADDISON. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. "I gave it to the beggar. I. etc. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. when restrictive. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. 412. the definite relatives who. or unrestrictive." It defines beggar.²HAWTHORNE.

"He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. and it is called logic.²ADDISON. In what sense true. these or that which. etc. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 414. On hearing their plan. and over England are saying. 10. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. Which." that is invariable as to person and number. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. The rule.² CARLYLE. as that does not vary for person or number. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. etc. it makes the verb third person singular. A grizzly-looking man appeared. 13. 11.²H. W. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.²THOREAU. For example. With narrow shoulders. 12. in the sentence. The general rule is. That. they. but. which was to go over the Cordilleras. 7. he. . that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. down.² MOTLEY.² IRVING. long arms and legs. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. II.²ID. 4. etc. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.²HOLMES. which Mr. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. 9..² NEWMAN. because of its antecedent. We say I.3.²ID. However. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. who.²DE QUINCEY. she agreed to join the party. So different from the wild. 14. you.²DE QUINCEY. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. 8. that were often vicious. 6. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. BEECHER 5. Hare has printed. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. Yet how many are there who up.

It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. but the former has good authority. ARNOLD.²ADDISON." One of .. and write the verb in the plural.²LOWELL. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest... "one of the finest books that have been published.²MACAULAY. JR. The latter is rather more frequent. . The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.] Both constructions are frequently found. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²J. but speaks of him as that sort. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. in winning a battle. etc.²M. MORSE.. who rarely speak at all. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²BOWLES. but myself.. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. others regard books as the antecedent. The fiery youth . and in improving a victory. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.. [plural] that who. Singular. Let us be of good cheer.²ADDISON.²HOLMES. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. or which . Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. T.. etc.²LECKY.²LOWELL.²HOWELLS.²whether we should say. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. He is one of those that deserve very well. with one as the principal word.²SCOTT. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived." or. when he derided the shams of society.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. Franklin. A disputed point. French literature of the eighteenth century. the true antecedent. [singular or plural. 415. "one of the finest books that has been published.

or where] he died.A rare Roundabout performance.²EMERSON. or is equivalent to the conjunction when." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. 416.²CARLYLE. 417. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²ID.²DEFOE.²In the above sentences. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire."²DICKENS. return. But I by backward steps would move.And. object of a preposition understood. III. where.²SCOTT." "India is the place [in which. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. that is. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.² THACKERAY. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.² RUSKIN. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²SWIFT. whence. and such like: as. I could see nothing except the sky. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. when the relative word is a pronoun. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. The same day I went aboard we set sail. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²VAUGHAN.²EMERSON.²ADDISON. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²GOLDSMITH.In that same state I came. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²IRVING.²BURNS. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. and see if the sentence is made clearer. IV. Exercise.² . when this dust falls to the urn.

looking-glasses. he.²R. etc. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and working in the same spirit. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. as is not used. ²GOLDSMITH. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. with Turner.He considered. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. Mr. was a discoverer. she passed the lamp over her face and person.²SWIFT.² MACAULAY.me as his apprentice.² Which. Caution. for example. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. if same is followed by a complete clause. The regular construction. or that.²FRANKLIN. They believe the same of all the works of art. Anacoluthic use of which. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. if I had resolved to go on with. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. V. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. 418.²SCOTT. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. CHURCH. but we find the relative who. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. That..² THACKERAY. Which.²ADDISON..²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.²WORDSWORTH. but which is usually carefully avoided. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. W. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. as of knives. I might as well have staid at home. but.² BURKE. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. . boats. which.

and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.²HAWTHORNE. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. After this came Elizabeth herself. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. etc. This was a gentleman. Exercise. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. And who. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.." etc. but none is expressed. 419. 2.²DE QUINCEY. 4. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. But who.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. and who are now. Thornhill had read. . There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. etc. (1) "Among those who are poor..²RUSKIN. he said that all submission was now too late. once a great favorite of M. That is. (2) "Among the poorer sort. and which. and this be placed in the proper clause. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus.² Direction for rewriting.²THACKERAY." etc. Exercise.. (3) "Among the poorer sort. 3. or omit the conjunction. or. le Conte. He delivered the letter. As the sentences stand. who are now thrown.²GOLDSMITH.²SHAKESPEARE. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. 1. which when Mr. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. but. Express both relatives.²which if they once heard.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. or leave out both connective and relative. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²SCOTT.She'd come again. now thrown upon their. With an albatross perched on his shoulder." etc. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.

"that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. 9. like that spoken in the towns.²PEARSON.. I saw upon the left a scene far different.² MOTLEY. etc. Akin to the above is another fault. Exercise. Or who. and repeat this for any further reference. Dr. I shall have complete copies. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. the French. and which. 7. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²SCOTT. etc.²IRVING. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character.²DE QUINCEY. one of signal interest. . Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. and which may even be heard a mile off. 11. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. either from imitation of their frequent allies.. then. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 6.²DE QUINCEY. English by name. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. 13.²HAWTHORNE. who. 10. which the Scotch had learned.. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. Or which. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. "What knight so craven.²SCOTT. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . 420. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. And which. indeed. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. 1. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. and to whom no door is closed. 8.5. That . and which has never been described. 12. "A mockery." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. But which. as a false and astucious mark.

²DE QUINCEY. and to whom I do not belong.²W. 5. Such as .²HALLAM.. I give to such men as do not belong to me. 8. what.. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.²HOWELLS.. G.. whom. half a century ago. In my native town of Salem. which. but which. but which is perhaps not so different from it. at the head of what. Which . SIMMS. 4.²HAWTHORNE. that. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. was hung in air. the dime. E.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 15. I grudge the dollar. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. 9. He flung into literature. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others..²EMERSON. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. that . that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 11. such as they have very probably been bred to. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. 12.²BEECHER. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. . His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. 10. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. Such as . Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. The Tree Igdrasil. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. I recommend some honest manual calling.²EMERSON. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.²SCOTT That which . CHANNING. which..²W. 14. 3.²SCOTT. 6. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. He.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. the cent. That ..2. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. in his Mephistopheles. in his present condition.²HOLMES...²DEFOE. was a bustling wharf. and whose examples and principles we inherit. 7. 13. It rose into a thrilling passion.

always at war with one another. . either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. By their original meaning. Distributives either and neither.² HAWTHORNE. Each other. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. in which case any should be used instead.²DICKENS. Assume that no one is in want of either. one another.²EMERSON. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²GOLDSMITH. 422. for example. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. as.² Some one must be poor.²ID. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.²MACAULAY.²RUSKIN. as it were.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. whether or not the two are equivalent. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²HAWTHORNE. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. Use of any. as. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. We call ourselves a rich nation. 421.²RUSKIN. that not all combined. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.

²EMERSON.. during his stay at Yuste. that I know of.²FRANKLIN. in Shakespeare. Any usually plural. speak.²THACKERAY. The adjective pronoun none is. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. as none of the French philosophers were. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. Do you think.²SCOTT. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. . which is plural as often as singular.² In earnest..² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.² EMERSON. None of Nature's powers do better service. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.²BURKE. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. Examples of its use are. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²BEECHER Whenever. in the prose of the present day.²STIRLING. as. Do you think.²PROF. In earlier Modern English. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.²SHAKESPEARE. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. then in Plutarch. then in Plotinus. if ever man was. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. If any of you lack wisdom.²CARLYLE. None usually plural. and is isolated. at one time in Bacon. 424. when any of them are so good as to visit me. before that. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. let him ask of God.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . I mean that any of them are dead? None are. as.²BIBLE. I beseech you. 423.. Caution. usually plural. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. any was often singular. any of his friends had died. whilst I still cherish their genius. etc. for him have I offended. even in Bettine.² If any. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. afterwards in Goethe.

as. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. 425.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. nobody else. and all was lost on the other. and less rarely in poetry. etc. the plural. are treated as units. or somebody else's? 426. The light troops thought . The compounds somebody else.. which is used absolutely. etc.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. for example. When all were gone.. any one else.²McMASTER.² PEARSON. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . Somebody's else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. etc.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.²THOREAU.² Singular.²NAPIER Plural. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. and Ford has nobody's else. fixing his eyes on the mace. that all was lost. etc.² None of them was cleansed. saving Naaman the Syrian. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. when it means all persons: for example. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.

ELIOT. "Ye see.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²MULOCH.²THACKERAY.²N. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. or those sort of people.²RUSKIN. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²DICKENS.²in such as "these sort of books. or some other such great man as a bishop.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. WILLIS. STOWE. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.SYDNEY SMITH. etc.curled once all over it in long tendrils. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). the adjectives plural.² Saturday Review.²AUSTEN.² These kind of knaves I know. These sort. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. London. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. ADJECTIVES." the nouns being singular.² FIELDING. for example. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated." "those kind of trees. P. etc. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. all manner of."²MRS. unlike anybody else's in the world.²G." "all manner of men. Again. His hair.²SWEET. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. . You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.²RUSKIN. 427. Whitefield or Wesley.. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²SHERIDAN.

which accounts for the construction. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. they said. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. "These kind of trees are best. such as. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. History of this construction. Use of the comparative degree.The library was open.²RUSKIN. the victor or the vanquished. This the modern expression reverses.² Which is the better able to defend himself. Of two such lessons. 428." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. or one object with a class of objects. as.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. or the nouns to the plural.² PRESCOTT. The result." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. Burke's sentence. and the adjective is. "This sort of trees should be planted. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. when the necessary dispositions concur. and in this way may take a plural verb. gradually displacing the old. with all manner of amusing books. in spoken English. made to agree with it. to express a higher degree of quality." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. not "all kinds of wild animals. Later form." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. Should we say. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. At the source. In Old and Middle English." A question. "This kind of rules are the best. for example. According to the approved usage of Modern English. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. more alarming than a total silence. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. Consequently we have a confused expression. .

The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²TROLLOPE. 3. has sanctioned. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. 429. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. Henry.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 430.²HUXLEY. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²CARLYLE. Exercise. .² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. would not have had the face. 4. He is taller. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. To the man who plays well. 6. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. than any of his court.²SCOTT. by almost the breadth of my nail. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. Use of the superlative degree.²HAWTHORNE. Even Dodd himself. if not. etc.²THACKERAY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. the highest stakes are paid. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. I am concerned to see that Mr.²SWIFT. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. 2. 5. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²WIRT. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.² THACKERAY."²ID. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.²LOWELL. Gary. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. Other after the comparative form. Superlative with two objects.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY.

Rip was one of those . was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²TEMPEST. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²SCOTT. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. 1611. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. and differ only in form. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²DR BLAIR. CÆSAR.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. The eldest. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. These two properties seem essential to wit. Examples from Shakespeare are. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. OLIPHANT.²RUSKIN. ha.²MRS. . "Ha. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²GOLDSMITH. In all disputes between States.²EMERSON. whichever can be got easiest.. Come you more nearer. Also from the same period.²ADDISON.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. Mary. and the other contains the best men.²IRVING."²GOLDSMITH."²BULWER.²HAMLET. not a bit of high life among them. After the most straitest sect of our religion. I should say that one has the best cause.. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. 431. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Double comparative and superlative. The following examples are used purposely.²BEN JONSON. who eat white bread or brown.²J."²HAWTHORNE.²Bible. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. more particularly the last of them.

For Carlyle. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. . The merit of the Barb. and conceit in the last.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432.² SMOLLETT. 433. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²GIBBON. ARTICLES. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Examples of this construction are. The first five had specific names. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. Instances of both are given below.²RUSKIN. The delay in the first three lines.²ADDISON. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. ²COWPER.²RUSKIN. Definite article.²LAMB. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The meaning intended is the same. the Spanish. but in literary English. and Secretary Walsingham also.²GIBBON. As to these two expressions. not only so in popular speech. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. etc. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²KINGSLEY. Three first. jar upon us constantly. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²PRESCOTT. First three. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²DE QUINCEY. etc.² With a singular noun. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.

²TAYLOR. Frequently. with a plural noun. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. with a singular noun.²THACKERAY. but inseparable from each other. but is used with one only. the thought and the word.²THE NATION. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.²CARLYLE. 433.²PRESCOTT. I think. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . of the eighteenth century. With a plural noun. as in Sec. 435. 434. having been arranged.²NEWMAN. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.² RUSKIN.²ID. Here the youth of both sexes.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. No.²TENNYSON.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.² MACAULAY. The not repeated.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²SCOTT. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. 1508. of the higher and middling orders. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. He is master of the two-fold Logos. The flowers. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. Indefinite article.. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. The lofty. Origin of the Aryans. however. melodious. the hour of parting came. or to emphasize the meaning. and flexible language. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. to distinguish clearly.. 433.²MACAULAY. as.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. Meaning same as in Sec. as. were placed at a very tender age. the greatest poems. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. distinct. One object and several modifiers. and the presents. .

²THACKERAY. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. T. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²MACAULAY.²BEECHER.²JOHNSON. 437." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.436. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. The indefinite article is used. The indefinite article (compare Sec. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. like the definite article. JONSON. One article with several adjectives. and inexhausted vein.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other." and "a red and a white geranium. or clearness to each of several nouns.²S.²BULWER. COLERIDGE. But in the following sentences. one noun is expressed. rich. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² MACAULAY. In the sentences of Secs.²DRYDEN.²DICKENS. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.²B. 433 and 436. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.² BURKE. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. 438.An early. a murderer. to limit two or more modified nouns. 435. . a round and a square one alternately.²MACAULAY. He saw him in his mind's eye. as. and a usurper. 436).² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. interest. only one of which is expressed. as in the first three of Sec. a collegian. For rhetorical effect. a tyrant. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. Examples of this use are.

He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.. Sec. without academies. 440. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Such. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²AGASSIZ.²FROUDE. 439. He sees that it is better to live in peace.²The Nation. Singulars connected by or or nor. 276. Collective noun of singular meaning. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. like some others in this series. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²G. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. A broad and loose rule. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Singular verb. .VERBS. Another writer might. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. was the earliest American land.²COOPER.²CARLYLE This usage. as. all that academies can give.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²W. as. or the great intellectual life of our nation. for example. This was spoken of in Part I.²M. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. ELIOT. has got already. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. In English. then. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²GIBBON. and the following illustrations prove it.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. ARNOLD.

or considered as appositional. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²J.² In a word. and every four hours. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²WHITTIER. is gone. A fever.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. but considered as meaning about the same thing.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. Plural form and singular meaning. nor Paul. nor John. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. seems at the moment unpaid loss. a loss of wealth. but each one emphatic. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. ²EMERSON. Between ourselves.² The unbought grace of life. nor Mahomet. for example.²GIBBON. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.Jesus is not dead. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.² GOLDSMITH. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.² Politics is the only field now open for me. a loss of friends.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. a mutilation.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²EMERSON . and other singulars of plural form. No.²DE QUINCEY. Q. that of a large town. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. ADAMS. the cheap defense of nations.²BURKE.²GOLDSMITH. or as making up one general idea. as. as. a cruel disappointment. other names.²CRITIC. for example.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.

a cuirass. no. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. Here is no ruin.²PRESCOTT. 441. as well as the newest. To receive presents or a bribe.²ID. every valet. many a. as. Every sound. an impassioned countenance.²ID. no discontinuity. sir?" and the "No. thus. does not take the place of the man.²BUTLER.²PRESCOTT.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²SCOTT. Then comes the "Why. every echo. and greaves. with death. the dismay.The author. the partisan.² Asia.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. no matter if the second is plural).²NEWMAN. Every fop. is a man of wit. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. as. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.² There is a right and a wrong in them. sir!" and the "What then. almost every day.²LONGFELLOW. an agitated gesture. was like to crack. There is a moving tone of voice. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Every week.²M ARNOLD. every boor. sir!"²MACAULAY. and such like adjectives. each.²HAWTHORNE. no spent ball. Subjects after the verb. The Epic. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. a gorget. The oldest.² .The rout. was punished. was listened to for five hours. was dazzled.²MACAULAY. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²MACAULAY. the ruin. as well as sides. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. Plural verb.²RUSKIN. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. nay. as well as the Drama. the fine gentleman. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. the wit. in a judge. wineBegins to stir itself. as well as Europe. Her back.²EMERSON.

²COLERIDGE. Conjunction omitted. b). making up a plural subject. as in Sec.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²THOREAU. as.²GOLDSMITH. Far.²ADDISON. as with a subject of plural form. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. TAYLOR. The travelers. the Duke of Berri.² GIBBON. His clothes.²B. of whom there were a number. Philip of Anjou. .²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. a stream of fresh water.²CARLYLE But its authorship. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.These bits of wood were covered on every square. far away thy children leave the land.²FROUDE. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²FROUDE.²FRANKLIN. All our household are at rest. The Dauphin.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.² A multitude go mad about it. are sufficient to attract a colony. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. The conjunction may be omitted. 440 (5. and its history are alike a mystery to us. shirt. for example.²SWIFT. as. were men of insignificant characters. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²EMERSON.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²GIBBON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²SCOTT. its date.² One or two of these perhaps survive. a green pasture. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. but the verb is plural. A shady grove.²DE QUINCEY.

for example. .²THACKERAY.²BYRON. When the subjects.²WHITTIER.²RUSKIN. hadst been my lord. General usage. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. This construction is at the best a little awkward. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it." "She or you may be sure. ARNOLD. Not I.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²ROWE.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.But notice the construction of this. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. Pattison or I have said. If there is only one person in the subject. Ah.²D. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH. "He or I can go. we never talk politics.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. his blood dost shed. Not Altamont. but thou. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. 442. WEBSTER.²THACKERAY. 444. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. "You would not be wiser. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. "I have never said so. nor should I. Nothing which Mr. of different persons.²LOWELL.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. You and I are tolerably modest people. but thou. You and I are farmers. nor has she"). Second or third and first person in the subject. that is." etc. as.²SMOLLETT. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. the verb takes the construction of the first person. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.). AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. Exceptional examples. 443.²M. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. the subject being really equivalent to we. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and." or.²DE QUINCEY.

"I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 2.²SMOLLETT. Nor wood.That neither of their intellects are vast.²ADDISON. in my opinion. 6. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 7." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. which it is proper to mention. Neither of them. 3. Both death and I am found eternal. 10.²THACKERAY. The following illustrate exceptional usage. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 11. nor tree.²EMERSON. 8. Exercise.²BYRON. 12. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. as illustrated above (Secs. How each of these professions are crowded.²perhaps the devil. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.445. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.² TROLLOPE. Also in verbals. as we would hope. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 440-444):² 1. 9.²and. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²G. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²ID.²ADDISON. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.Her course to intercept. In a word. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. BANCROFT.²BURKE. In this sentence from Defoe.²SCOTT. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. In the following sentence. 5. nor bush are there. 4.²MILTON. 446. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.

447.²IRVING. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.²KINGSLEY. Direct discourse²that is. INDIRECT DISCOURSE.² PALGRAVE 5. on my return. if not.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. meaning. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action..²R. to have divided with her whatever might remain. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²FRANKLIN 6. 3. to have seen should be changed to to see. for exact connection. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. change them to a better form:² 1. 448. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.. 4. Exercise.²THACKERAY. Two samples of indirect discourse. The present rule is recent. however.²DE QUINCEY 2. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. It should be remarked.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Definitions. Of course.²MACAULAY. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Indirect discourse means reported speech. W. CHURCH. as. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. But I found I wanted a stock of words. I gave one quarter to Ann." .

Direct. This includes the auxiliaries be. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. "Oh. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. 449. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. or regular interrogatives. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. . (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Her prudence whispered eternally. and the indirect question by whether or if. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. 1.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs." etc. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. She thought to herself." Indirect. etc.. Summary of the expressions. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. under interrogative pronouns. have. Sebastian's." etc.. interrogative adverbs. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. "I cannot oblige you . Direct. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Oh.. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. His exact words were.. will. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. 2. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. introductory verb is in the past tense. The substance of his lamentation was. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead.

having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. Notice this. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. he assured me that nothing was more easy. my first observation will be found nearly true. The trouble is. the first discoverer of the river and country. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. 450. . Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. if this were expanded into a verb. with his crew of the Half-moon. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. and that he himself had heard. PARTICIPLES. in the sentences first quoted. one summer afternoon.Exercise. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²ID. FRANKLIN. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Careless use of the participial phrase." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. the sound of their balls. like distant peals of thunder." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²B. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. VERBALS.²ADDISON.

purposely or not. . INFINITIVES. ..² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. many things to be carefully considered.²LAUGHLIN. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. In the following citations. There are. either "As I was pleased.. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. while defended or excused by others. my first collection was.²RUSKIN. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .Correction. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. and often. leaving the principal statement as it is. For example. This is the more common arrangement. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea..²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. avoid it. It is a solemn.. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. 3. Standard writers often use it. universal assertion.²SCOTT.² HERBERT SPENCER. if a strike is to succeed. 2. then. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. the first sentence would be.²ID. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress." etc. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. Adverb between to and the infinitive. 451." Exercise. Exercise.

²The Nation.² MACAULAY. 1533. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.²ID. BLAIR. but it is placed before the infinitive. The spirits. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.. are used. if they modify single words. china. even. 7. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. ADVERBS. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 12. 452. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. I wish the reader to clearly understand.²BURKE. and earthenware. etc.² ADDISON. is to be very cautiously admitted. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. 9. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 13.²TROLLOPE. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.²SCOTT. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. 6. 8. Now. In works of art. A little sketch of his. but they are often removed from the exact position. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. therefore. 5.²DR. which consists in multitude. Position of only.²GOLDSMITH. etc. when such adverbs as only. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 10. this kind of grandeur. even.4. 11." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. but cannot misunderstand the thought. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. The rigid rule in such a case would be. No.²RUSKIN. from Irving. etc.. Exercise.

²SWIFT. He shouted in those clear.²CHAUCER.²COOPER. might not marry. 14. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 12.²SYDNEY SMITH. to avoid a crowd. ²ASCHAM. 13. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 6.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. P.²ID. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 8. WILLIS. 453. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. No sonne.²HIGGINSON. 15. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.² THACKERAY. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 9. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. . 4. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 10. My master.²ID.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. His last journey to Cannes. 11.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN.²PALGRAVE. 5. During the whole course of his administration. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²THACKERAY. 3.²N. were he never so old of yeares.1. In Old and Middle English. 16. The old usage.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²ID. 17.²MOTLEY. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 7.²MRS. Irving could only live very modestly. In relating these and the following laws. whence he was never destined to return. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. 2. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. for example.²MACAULAY. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. GROTE. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.

STOWE. and is still kept in vulgar English. who hadn't been to school for nothing. if two negatives are found together. nor the grandeur of no king. In the execution of this task. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. is not common. uncommon. Therefore. nor never shall. and why:² 1. 3.² HAMILTON.²HAWTHORNE.²BAYNE. I did not act so hastily. Exercise.²MRS. however."²MRS. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. denying each other. etc. Not only could man not acquire such information. when one of the negatives is a connective.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²BURKE. The prosperity of no empire. There weren't no pies to equal hers. neither. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. In the latter case.²LOWELL. 7. ²PAGE. as infrequent.²HOLMES. Regular law of negative in modern English. one of the negatives is often a prefix. under the influence of Latin syntax. Exceptional use. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. But. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. in Ole Virginia. 2. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. However. can so agreeably affect. but ought not to labor after it. STOWE. 6. 4. the usual way of regarding the question now is. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.²GROTE.²DE QUINCEY. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.²DEFOE. I never did see him again. 5. ."²four negatives. as. This.

as the use of the conjunction. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. should be scrutinized. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. or to reply to it. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. or to reply to it. 455. as well as of the pronoun... 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.." both of the above requirements are violated. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.²SCOTT. but to their own safety."²SCOTT. or. not merely ... Things to be watched. "A weapon. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. but (also).. Choice and proper position of correlatives. Correction." Besides neither .. and. And who." .. even neither .... and which. 454. if the second precedes a phrase. the first should also. In the sentence. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. not only . and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is." said the King. if the last precedes a verb. not or is the proper correlative of neither. The sentences given in Secs. "well worthy to confer honor. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. CONJUNCTIONS. the first ought to be placed before a verb.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.²LOWELL. nor is often changed to not²either .." may be changed to "This loose . or with advantage. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. neither .. there we were. nor. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever.. not only to the success of their common cause. either. The sentence. either . but. especially both .. or..²PRESCOTT.8...

or but that. not merely interest children. and chop up their own kin. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. 2. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.² ADDISON. but they will outrage. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²RUSKIN. They will. . 6. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²GIBBON. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. substitute that. nor the disgrace of assailing him. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. and I don't know but what he was right. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 3.²FRANKLIN.²MACAULAY. 4. But what. as. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. but grown-up persons.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. 8. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Now. In the following sentences.²THACKERAY. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. but. 7. Try and for try to.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. JEWETT. or the negative relative but.²S.²BAIN. Try and avoid the pronoun. but. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. 5. 457. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. as. too. O. murder.²ID.Exercise. 456. Some exceptions. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. etc. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous.²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.

In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. Between and among. PREPOSITIONS. 459. 4. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²ADDISON. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.² SWIFT. as already seen in Sec. 5. 458. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. . Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 313. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²ADDISON. see Sec. Between is used most often with two things only.²EMERSON.² BULWER. 3. 6. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.2.²TROLLOPE. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. no separation or division by twos being implied. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²BURKE. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²EMERSON. 305.²SCOTT. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.

and philosophers like Locke. and Stewart. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Derogatory to. Kant.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Such are derogatory. different. Acquit of. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Two groups or one and a group. Affinity between. 461. Accord with. and Coleridge. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT.: Words with particular prepositions. Abhorrent to.²KINGSLEY. ²EMERSON. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. List I. by custom. correspond. Comply with. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Different from.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Mackintosh. Averse to. averse. LIST I. and another to convey a different meaning. Some of them have. etc. as.²between philosophers like Spinoza. confer. Dissent from. . Such are absolve.²RUSKIN What have I. involve. Conform to. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. as. Bestow on (upon). Dependent on (upon). Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Conversant with. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. or one object and a group. 460. a soldier of the Cross. Paley.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.

. Confer with (talk with). as. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. LIST III. Change with (a person). as. LIST II." List III. Change for (a thing). Confer on (upon) (give to). Correspond with (write to). 463. List II. in the sense of making friends with. Correspond to (a thing). Differ with (note below). 462. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons." also of persons. Agree to (a proposal). Independent of.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Reconcile to (note below). and sometimes creeps into standard books. as meaning to be in keeping with. but it is not good usage. Differ from (note below). "The king is reconciled to his minister. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). as." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with.y y y Deprive of. Involve in. etc. A taste of (food).). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Confide in (trust in). A taste for (art. Reconcile with (note below). Confide to (intrust to). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "The exile became reconciled to his fate.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Change to (become).

²THACKERAY. died for love of the fair Marcella. ²ATHENÆUM." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. die from.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY.²FIELDING. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. "Die from. If I meet with any of 'em. It is a man of quality who dies for her. ELIOT. die with." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. She died of hard work.²G. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²BOSWELL. Part from. One of them said he would die for her." (in behalf of). and ill treatment.²GOLDSMITH. People do not die of trifling little colds. they shall die by this hand. simply from old age. part with. privation. expect from. I am positively dying with hunger. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." etc. Illustrations of "die of. "Die by.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. He died at last without disease.²ADDISON. "Die for.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. die for.²POPE.²GOLDSMITH.²SHAKESPEARE. No one died from want at Longfeld.²SCOTT. ELIOT. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. Take thought and die for Cæsar.:² "Die of.²MACAULAY. Who." (material cause." (because of).y y y Die by. It would take me long to die of hunger.²G.²BURNETT. die of. "Die with. "Die for." She would have been ready to die with shame." "die from. Expect of. instrument). .²BULWER. as Cervantes informs us.

I have long expected something remarkable from you. I part with all that grew so near my heart. nothing better was to be expected. 465. ELIOT. "Expect from. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²SCOTT. which he would by no means part from.²G. That is more than I expected of you. "Part from. Illustrations of "part with. It was a little bad of you. I can part with my children for their good. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²SHAW." To part from you would be misery.²MACAULAY.²AUSTEN.²G. either of or in is used indifferently.²G. as my friend. With words implying behavior or disposition." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. as shown in the following quotations:² Of." "part from:"² "Part with. 466.²DICKENS. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. 464.²BULWER. Illustrations of "expect of." She will expect more attention from you. .²MARRYAT. His precious bag. kind of you. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. Of Doctor P. and hated to part with them. ELIOT.²WALPOLE.²MACAULAY. Kind in you." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²BULWER.²POE.²TROLLOPE. ELIOT. just parted from her.²WALLER. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. I have just seen her.

²DICKENS. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 7. 10. This narrative. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. But this is idle of you. It will be anything but shrewd in you. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 3.²BULWER. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 6. .²BULWER. 11. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. tedious perhaps. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. it is commonly said that his profits are high. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. 1.He did not think it handsome of you. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 13. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. nor blue. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. or that they are any way dependent on each other. In. Hampden. nor yellow. 9. and ran up the alley. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. nor green. 14.²CARLYLE. but which the story renders necessary. The noise of vast cataracts. In the friction between an employer and workman. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. Thou tread'st. 8. thrown it over Amyas's head. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. raging storms. 4.²TENNYSON. 5. thunder. nor of a pale red. the vast abyss.²BEACONSFIELD. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. or artillery. 15. with seraphims. Very natural in Mr.

We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 24. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 32.) 34. 411.And were I anything but what I am. or how beautiful it is. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 38. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 29. produce approbation. 30. Squares. 28. But every man may know. triangles. what is a just and unjust act. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. the acquiescence of the understanding. you or me. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 25. 16. 37. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. (Sec. 22.I would wish me only he. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. The effect of proportion and fitness. 36. Friday. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 35. 33. 17. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 18. save Amyas. and almost as good as a pony. Every one of these letters are in my name. 31. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. and other angular figures. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 19. 26. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 23. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. were down with raging fever. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 27. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. That night every man of the boat's crew. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. . and most of us do know. You have seen Cassio and she together. 20. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 21. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. but in the price paid to them.

90. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. A. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 107. He had four children.000 between them. (2) Middle English. 92. 47. of. adverbs used complements. nouns. syntax uses Absolute. origin of. Abstract with Active Address. . from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. INDEX. voice. 260. (3) Modern English. 40. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. pronouns. 89. from about 1500 to the present time. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. adjectives. Adjectives. of. 124. demonstrative. 133. 25. 310. 91. nominative. 47. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. as. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 102. 98. 239. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 119.39. 116. numeral. of. article. from nominative clauses. of. 124. 20.

. 323. 109. and 185. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. of. plural pronominal. quality. antecedent. predicate. 207. 104. infinitive. 195. Against. 190. 101. of. form as as they to in as uses uses of. of. conjunction. 116. modify. compared. 114. parse. of. 194. 48. 190. 291. 239. 302. quantity. adjectives. 184. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 148. 262. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 191. nouns. 325. Agreement. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. with with with subject. of. adjectives. 103.from function how in not of of ordinal. 325. 194. 316. 328. 115. 303. 242. of. Alms. 303. 275. 183. 287. between of. sentence. adjectives. from to of. 106. 27. 116. conjunctions. of. 187. objective. 207. 27. clauses. 42. nouns. to used of. 97. 99. parse. as nouns. antecedent.

of. 264. Anacoluthon Analysis. 198. 101. of. 296. of and pronoun of. sentences. which. uses As At. Are. 271. 309. 300. of of of And Antecedent. An. Agreement. words between. 231. which. 252. sentences. of. See 74. Arrangement Articles. adjective. it. after of. 67. 49. definition of of of Any. which. 120. 127. 120. 150. sentences. 67. 124. same. 79.Among. and. definition how indefinite. Auxiliary if. syntax. pronouns. in in. See with definition complex compound simple who. 225. 287. 148. 331. as uses verbs. of. A. parse. 90. 51. syntax As. 294. 47. agreement personal as pronoun. 275. 208. . of. derivation in definite. possessive. 207. 240. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 295. though. 84. 74. to of.

195. nominative. Children. 64. 150. of pronouns. 279. conjunctions Cherub. of nouns. Clause. 62. 46. uses nominative of. 262. 194. in Old and Modern English. 283. 330. pronoun. See of. 262. Cause. Brethren. Among. 260. of pronouns. uses Better. of. of pronouns. of pronouns. . double possessive. 210. adverb. of. of nouns. 279. 39. 49. 161. 149. 48. Can. syntax of. definition could. 110. 46. number of. of nouns. clauses of. 84. 63. of what. objective. 37.Bad. adjective. 278. 278. uses of. Bridegroom. 110. But. 54. 224. 39. of. Case. with But By. Between. Be. plurals of. comparison conjugation of. 111. Case. 66. possessive. forms. best. of nouns. 45. 47.

of. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. in analysis. Clomb. double. superlative. 113. 248. 108. 24. defective. 239. 53. of. adjectives.definition kinds noun. analysis of. 189. 271. 18. 305. and sentence. plural of. material. Cleave. 263. 268. of. 257. of. of. 18. 257. proper. of. 244. 264. . 108. clothes. 312. 307. 157. verb. 110. 257. infinitive. subject. 23. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 315. definition degrees irregular. 43. 158. nouns. nouns. 43. English. 307. sentence. and forms of. Cloths. of. 107. nouns. predicate. predicate of and from from of. 111. 12. of. 258. adverbs.

231. correlative. other other parts of speech. in Old vs. 269. 149. 194. Conjunctions. conjunction. 263. 73. 196. See in subjunctive. 138. of. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. definition be. See English. See analysis clauses. 194. parse. 199. pronouns. 195. 66. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 143. analysis. 188. Can. 207. . 195. same words. 149. 139. sentences. conjunctions. interrogative pronouns. subjunctive. to of. adverbs. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could.with Concord. pronoun. conjunctions. definition how subordinate. sentence. 255. 194. and clause. pronoun. Dative Declarative Declension of case. of. 193. coördinate. 328. 151. 289. of of Conjunctions. replaced by objective. verbs. sentences. Agreement.

with of. use of dies. Case. verb. 160. possessive. Comparison. indirect. 185. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. See See 48. Degrees. by. 35. 99.Declension. 300. 51. nouns. Articles. pronouns. 333. comparative. See adjectives. . 287. nouns. 80. See 148. duck. adverbs See adjectives. object. 60. clause. pronouns. of. of. 152. passive adjectives. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 315. article. 102. of. discourse. vs. 43. Subordinate clause. of. of personal relative verbs. 90. 91. from. Comparative. for. tenses. 242. 26. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. pronouns. 320. with. 303. 288. 242. pronouns. 102.

in 'Em. 300. 240. adjective. of. 51. 92. 62. 299. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 194. 102. error in sentence. 158. one ( t). 158. object. Elements Ellipsis. 92. . 39. of. Empress. plural. 92. vulgar. 33. another. conjunction. original. -En. drunk. the of sentence. 90. to suffix. Each. pronouns. 112. pronoun. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 42. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. ending. 32. 110. 234. Either. 12. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 90. predicate. of. feminine plural English. 328. older. suffix. literary. 287. 33. pronoun. of. 34. possessive suffix. 257. of. spoken. of. 241. 38. complement. added suffix. 40. adjective.Drank. other. 287. of subject. 280. 255.

Future Future tense. Farther. etc. See Gander. modes "common goose. adjective. 30. definition distinguished in English. two. fishes. 43. 147. used of. 235. 308. Further. expect gone. of. two a further. 103. 152. First. 102. perfect. as a noun. First Fish. 30. 36. For. first.. nouns. 212. to of. with in sex. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 29. 126. as of from compared marking. 30. other languages. 319. 287. 112. Feminine. From. 212. gender. of." 31. 48. 189. uses redundant. object. 148. few. 334. Gender.Every. 211. of. etc.. 91. 102. Few. 32. pronoun. 112. . uses Foreign Former. 152. have adjective. with infinitive. 238. 110. plurals. 45. the. from.

60. 61. 43. Gerund. definition divisions opinions province H. adjective. 12. 60. 285. 159. 10. she. first sentence. Grammar. and case verbal with. Had Hanged. pronoun. 80. I. 61. distinguished syntax. 275. 177. 9.of of Genii. . of. for before. Government. rather. 173. of. definition basis of. 159. Got. 13. 176. kinds of. 175. 231. 36. its. 120. an better. His Husband. noun. 144. participle. forms in Girl. He. person. of. had hung. from participle of. it. possessive pronouns. 35. 145. personal relative geniuses. of. on. 12. 101. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. pronouns.

73. mood. in compared syntax. meaning.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. with of. adjectives. 176. 283. 85. use article. 248. 105. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. See you. 110. transitive. adjectives. a object. pronoun. 323. uses discourse. your. 136. of. 67. of. Direct object. See Articles. sentence. indirect of. 319. elements. 178. 257. . 231. 227. 245. indices. 43. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 131. 72. 93. Questions. 188. of. questions. 131. questions. verbs. 153. pronouns. of clause. of. adverbs. 276. words. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. summary See passive mood. 320. 233.

36. Logic Logical Lord. queen. 110. predicate. these double kind. 61. a vs. King. Lady. adjective. Lay. plural. Like. 226. lord. syntax the. 245. of. 113. 189. of. Lady. English. 303. 126. 91. 113. 36. lesser. Last. See Madam. and See words in.. Less. Kind. 170. 63. . 12. subject form.. lie. pronoun. 281. "It Its. 190. in little. 39. 227. uses Literary Little. 67. Kine. Latter.adverbs. 102. -Ly. of. Lie. Lay. was uses me. It." history etc. 110. latest. of. syntax. etc. 36. 276.

137.Manner. Modifier. 64. mine. double. indicative. 194. adjective. Many Mapping Mare. 265. 189. .. of. Neither. of. 325. in adverbs comparison a. May. 187. comparison Near. might. of. 135. 112. of. Negative. 144. Mighty Mine. Master. subjunctive. of. mistress. Must. etc. 287. 161. position adverb. 112. syntax conjunction. out of. Means. 110. 102. of. 188. 195. 114. nigh. 34. 328. superlatives. syntax nearer. Much. 137-144. Mood. of. 185. -Most. See definition 136. Enlargement. imperative. sentences. 41. 126. 110. 113. 189. construction as of adverb. of. 110. 326. 36. conjunctions Many. Modifiers. 160. 112. 256.

half abstract. 20. 41.pronoun. 21. Not Noun Nouns. 124. syntax in gender nouns. 46. 32. 19. 30. of. 25. analysis. . become become formation case collective. 30. etc. number once other plural. definition according of. See 194. in. nouns. Nor. 27. 38-41. 328. of. of. Case. 92. formed. 25. to use. of. 301. common. proper. 41. abstract. 45. No Nominative. 46. now plural. letters as 24. syntax Neuter or two News. of. clause. 17. used as. 26. and figures. 56. 126. 41 43. etc. 42. 300. to of. gender nouns. words how compound. 17 19. 38. become neuter. 29. 258. foreign. of. kinds 90. of of of of of a. of. nouns. gender how kinds material. abstract. material. 30. class used singular. 18. 125. None. 246. parse. definition descriptive. 17.

101. pronouns. become syntax use with with with Nouns. plural no two singular construction. Preposition. meanings. singular. Nouns. nominative. 41. etc. singular. 285. 102. passive adverbial. 235. with with with Now Number. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 278. in nouns. 279. 48. 124. spoken of instead nouns. Numeral Object. indirect. 242. of different possessive definite of. preposition. adjectives. article. 121. English. of. . meaning. 60. verbs. of. 92. 196. of. 282. 195. common. 42 44. or plural. with case.. 66. 42. 106. See in in in Numeral distributive. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. definite. 43. adjectives. 278. 41. 48. 48. 242. 281. as forms titles. dative. of. See verb. indefinite. and analysis. 23. 18. pronouns. plural form. 240. conjunction. 101. plural. 42. form. in article. 48. personal. 41. of. adverbial. of.of same two with proper. 148. 48. 39.

213. 194. adverbs. 64. 56. 38. 161. of. as of. nouns. 115. 117. One. See the as of. 93 other. 69. 237. 191. as other. 293. Oxen. pronoun. 91. adjective.syntax Of. 199. of syntax. Elder. 279. definite relative uses of. 116. 233. ours. Pains. 127. Each adjective. See pronoun. conjunction. 101. of upon. Ourself. 94. 56. 216. of. Ordinal Other Ought. a in adjectives. Omission On. for. 325 275. Parsing. position Order. adverb. Our. 87. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 103. articles. with (the). . uses numeral pronoun. treatment comparatives. inverted. of. conjunctions. part analysis. another. Older. of of of of of models adjectives. 41. 306. 103.

59. 43. 181. parsed. agreement of verb nouns. of. possessive and of. in. pronouns. from definition other of. Pence. 219. 64. of. relatives. 62. absolute with of. speech. of. 179. of. 335. 59. verbals. reflexive. 317. 322. phrase. used as voice. 119. 56. 69. them. 27. 95. 172. 172. pennies. article 150. 173. 62. 43. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. verbs. 174. included various. 63. verbs. nominative. not is. 70. verb idioms it from. part adjective. pronouns. antecedent. predicate use of. 281. and subject in. phrases. Person. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 100. 247. . 28. pronoun. -ing words. 177. of. 134. of. 59. 287. with. pease. 56. 180. of.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. or of. 148. 61. 80.

English. 53. 303. Positive Possessive. 49. 278. 53. kinds infinitive. 51. of. simple. 278. See 60. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. participial. antecedent of of pronouns. relative. Personification. prepositional. 37. 50. of. it. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 281. of. 64. or See of of See 185. of. objects. 206. Nouns. of. 241. adjectives. of nouns. 54. 247. complete. Comparison. 25. Personal subjective. vs. pronouns. 's. spoken of. 61. 236. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. . objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. pronoun. 247. 232. 188. singular degree. omitted. of Phrase. 236. syntax of of Politics. 245. of. nouns. nouns. 106.objective syntax table triple uses of. 60. adverbs of. nouns. pronoun. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. singular. 285. noun nouns. 67. 248. 303. plural. double. Place. 235. of. 281. as double. 41. 52. 245. 63. 195. of. appositional. in of.

who personal. 104. . 285. adjective. as. 219. 300. 287. interrogative. 93. of. parse. 203. 132. 282. 332. 280. forms of. words. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. somebody definition how indefinite. meaning. 59. expressed as other of. 187. case. usually to as than. parse. 279. 202. after but. objective. 72. 301. of. 205. plural. of. case. 281. and form form form form of. 129. for predicate nominative. by parts of of. 300. 207. each either. 105. with tense certain. interrogative. neither. singular usually other. as antecedent of relative. 105. another. none. Pronouns. by. in exclamations. plural. future. 64. speech. as 54. exclamatory. 333. 206. 147. 195. 186. of. 89. of. 58. all. 95. of. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 302. 331. of. and one with else's. 32. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 283. 203. 303. Prepositions. adverb. what. possessive nominative to of. 283. 208. 299. objective. same used as adjectives. plural. verbs. 284. by with shown certain of.Prefixes. 58. any.

in. pronominal pronouns indirect. adverbs in. of. 263. 84. 291. with who. 74. discourse. questions. Nouns. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. indirect. indirect compound. in. 293. Questions. personal pronoun. of. See of. who. 195. which. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 295. 85. 69. 99. 69. and which. Quantity. of. of. from and interrogative. pronouns. 68. 286. of. 188. 142. that. pronoun.possessive relative. use of history formed. 101. in. 295. . 87. 74. 297. 296. 293. of. unrestrictive. 289. or of. use in as. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. Rather. conjunctions Quality. Quotations. 105. parse. nouns. same antecedent. with with gerund. 83. and relatives. Rank. to of. which after same. and antecedent. 189. 85. of. of. 289. 87. 58. 279. of. Direct same and different. agreement anacoluthon and as. 80. 74.

simple of. 159. plural possessive as. of. 40. 252. definition . 319. of. kinds Sequence Set.syntax use Result. will. 26 271. Seeing. that. of sit. in of. Shot. who. object. in form. 195. 69. sentence. forms shots. 289. which. Simple in sate. 231. 51. and should. 242. 162. ending. pronoun. 74. 259. of of of complex Sentences. elliptical. See Sentences. Shear. Same Sat. 29. clauses of. 'S. conjunctions Retained Riches. would. suffix. 42. Self Sentences. 231. conjunction. 43. 294. reflexive analysis of compound. complex. 170. 255. 196. gender. S. effect. 196. Sex Shall. of. tenses. of. 159. 263. simple.

etc. 144. Somebody Sort. 303. 303. -es. definition 67. English. 33. sort. disuse in spoken complete. 169. Spelling Spinster. vs. 38. of. as. 257. distinguish. phonetic in infinitive. 33. -en. 258. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 36. definition how kinds noun.Singular Sir. 258. in Middle English. 260. 257. 144. 32. Split Spoken -Ster. names as a. to of.. of. 126. adverb. 270. 138. 240. in feminine suffix. 137. Subject. English. of. English. of. 12. logical. for. verbs. 233. 257. 245. other Such Such Suffix -s. 245. these number. 38. 258. . 237. adverb. of. of. 257. used mood. 186. of. 323. Modern use becoming else's. literary clause. English. 262. See -En.

186. 148. as history syntax Their. plural as adverb. 106. 147." introductory. Tenses. adverbs. 306. 280. in double. when as of. as adverbs. 319. king. of. subject. meaning... than of. 87. . 222. English. of. two basis not same definition definite. of . in Modern number sequence table Than That. this. 191. of. form. There These kind. 106. omission whom. not suggesting adjectives. that uses That. 147. 116. "the then foreign. article. See etc. they. when relative. definition in English Tense. degree. in comparison. 275. 147. 275. which. coördinating. 297. 61. meaning made up in Old of. of. 152. of. 107. 189. 186. and and of. 88. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. object. of languages. Then. 123. 290. 277. 306. English. 108. 289. as history The. classical of. of. 309. syntax of. adjectives. of. 33. objects. Kind. restrictive. 119.. auxiliaries. 307.Suffixes. 109. me. of. 120.

other noun. carelessly uses syntax this. 207. 248. kinds participle. thy. 173. 175. adverbs those. Utter. 175. tother. infinitive. 114. 21. Try Two Under. etc. Upper. . 128.These. 61. 308. 323. Upon. 180. 175. Thou. gerund. 181. 172. how infinitive. 247. 185. 195. uttermost. See On. from cleft to 174. 172. parse. of. 322. certain as the before with of. 188. in of. first. suffix. to. 330. -Trix. 176. used. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. -ing 111. 114. infinitive. conjunctions prepositions To.. of. 322. verbs. 114. preposition. exclamations. 33. See That. of. of. feminine and. Time. uses of. try two. analysis. 119. 20. thee. in omitted uses T'other. phrases. uses history of. of. words. 217. first adjective. of. of.

Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. conjugation of. verbs. 149. made transitive. definition of. 320. mood of. strong. definition of. What. agreement of. 154. 159. 39. 134. table of. of. sequence of. tense of. defective. 317. 12. in indirect discourse. voice of. formed by. 150. in person. 167. 319. 169. transitive and intransitive. but uses what. 155. how to parse. 242. 223. auxiliary. phonetic. of English. 151. 236. passive form. past tense formed nominative. 169. Vixen. person and number of. of. 154. table of irregular. 131. Vocative in Voice. spelling of. 245. 148. intransitive. 154. . weak.Verbs. 312. 160. syntax of. 147. retained object with passive. 47. 135. regular. of incomplete predication. 129. 133. 167. 33. active. analysis. passive. active meaning. 148. 312-316. verbs by. 330. 130. definition of. 133. remarks on certain. with subject in number. becoming irregular. 179. change. 157.

104. questions. whereto. in. 36. Words in Worse. relative indirect relative.. 178. interrogative Which. worser. spoken in of. relative. plural of in nouns -ing. Whether. referring syntax Widower. 105. 85. animals. of. 37. English. 194. 75. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. wizard. questions. 85. With. 111. Y. 78. pronoun. Will. 299. pronoun. questions. 83. 77. Woman. would. 105. relative. 126. . 218. a. 246. Who. conjunction. 296. of. antecedent adjective. 36. Yes ending analysis. direct of. 83. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 85. Wife. 32. Witch. 73. questions. 40. in -ly. 75. etc. 72. 295-299. in in indefinite objective. 190.what Whereby. 72. uses See Shall. 72. 79.

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