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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

and their uses and relations in the sentence. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. is worthy of serious study. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question.The province of English grammar is. then. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. assist the classification of kindred expressions. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. Mental training. "Analysis. Coming back. An æsthetic benefit. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. and thus incite his observation. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. as. their forms. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation." What grammar is. if rightly presented. Literary English. it will at the same time. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. A broader view. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. Surely our noble language. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. rightly considered. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous).² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. but this is bad English now. however. If. its peculiar and abundant idioms. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. This will take in the usual divisions. there is still much for the grammarian to do. with its enormous vocabulary. as compared with Latin or Greek. The work it will cover. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. Authority as a basis. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. from the question. so that a small grammar will hold them all. . and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places." and "Syntax. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. to those who have studied the language historically. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). Few inflections. Making rules is risky. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. It is also evident.

When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. by which is meant the free. submission.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. which belongs to a people. . and the word nation stands for a whole group. not objects. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Occasionally. Part II. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. NOUNS. then. as they stand for ideas. The words state. and Inflections. Vulgar English.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. or standard. the nation is free. three divisions:² Part I. 1.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. The Uses of Words. from the eighteenth century on. the words sons and master name objects. Spoken English. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. The Parts of Speech. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. and may belong to any of those objects. PART I.²GIBBON. Such words are called nouns. but. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. besides this one. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. and will are evidently names of a different kind. too. Analysis of Sentences. In the more simple state of the Arabs. or Syntax. The following pages will cover. The plainest name is Arabs. Part III. reference will be made to vulgar English. that is.

We may say. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Besides considering persons. however. and things separately. the name of each is an individual or proper name. ATTRIBUTE. the man here. whether person. Collective. or a congress. etc. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. belonging to one. men in groups may be called a crowd. A noun is a name word. 3. or a council. or idea. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Thus. Thus. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. as here used. (a) 4. possessed by all. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. or the man in front of you. Abstract. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. and appropriate names to the groups. or a mob. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. This does not imply. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. is from a Latin word which means general. . and fixes the attention upon that particular city. substance. Proper. 2. Name for any individual of a class. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. 5. animals. (b) Common. Common. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only.Definition. a committee. animals. For instance. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. or things. but Chicago names one city. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. MATERIAL. we may think of them in groups. Classes of nouns. Individual. representing directly to the mind an object. or thing. reducing it to a narrow application. because each group is considered as a unit. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. place. They properly belong under common nouns. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Name for a group or collection of objects.

platinum. sugar. as in calling a city Cincinnati. mist. condition." "Learning is hard to acquire. 6. granite. soap. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. etc. frost. we speak of the wisdom of the man. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. paint..Names for things thought of in mass. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. but which are not called proper names. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. rain. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. instead of to each individual or separate object. proof means the act of proving. They remain common class names. earth. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). expressing state. or apart from their natural connection." "a man of understanding. conditions. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. iron. wheat. Names of ideas. but it is taken merely as a name. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. or actions. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. etc. celluloid. there is no such intention.²There are some nouns. The reason is. such as sun. clay. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. tea. and so on. etc. not things. frost. sugar. dew. sand. NOTE. moon. rock. wine. The quality is still there as much as before. gold. considered abstractly. wheat. potash." 9. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. snow. etc. Again. Such are glass. It may. (3) Geological bodies: mud. however. world. When we speak of a wise man. expressing attributes or qualities. or that which shows a thing has been proved. but in the words sun. 7. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. or action. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. cloud. we may say. stone. etc. "Painting is a fine art. and fasten a special name to the object considered. . earth. etc. etc. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. rice. rubber. Words naturally of limited application not proper. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. .

hope. night. 1. joy. thunder. as glad²joy. five abstract. the main bearings of this matter. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. as in the expressions. lightning. and they cannot express action. The verb. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. the great Puritan awakening. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words." "a brisk walk. To avoid difficulty. by altering its function. redness from red. 272. etc. those opinions and feelings. II. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. "a long run" "a bold move. ease. service from serve. the well-being of her subjects. Such are beauty. . the moon caused fearful forebodings. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. etc. there is time for such reasonings. shadow. action from act. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. as their name implies. her longing for their favor. They are only the husks of verbs. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. the rude drawings of the book. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. Exercises. the teachings of the High Spirit. height from high. hopeful²hope.Attribute abstract nouns. etc. childhood from child. etc. NOTE. day. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. energy. They cannot govern a word. winter. 273).. mastery from master. speech from speak. 10. theft from thieve. 12. a wedding or a festival. Thus. Verbal abstract nouns. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. he spread his blessings over the land. stupidity from stupid. kingship from king. Underived abstract nouns." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. Caution. (1) prudence from prudent. but are merely names of actions. five proper. in the beginning of his life. summer. is used as a noun. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. (2) peerage from peer.

as pneumonia. algebra. geology. pleurisy. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . diphtheria.2. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. as physics. mathematics? 3. typhus. (b) branches of knowledge. catarrh. Using a dictionary.

and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson.²EMERSON. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. as a davy. the word port. Sodom was famous for wickedness. from China. We know a number of objects made of iron. from Oporto. Nouns change by use. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. thus. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. but we may say. from Damascus. etc. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. a Hutton. from Corinth. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. port (wine). who was its inventor. and lo! a new system." referring to flat- . If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. a Locke. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. in Portugal. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. from a town in France. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. but most of them are in the following groups. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. a Lavoisier. or to go over to it entirely. a Fourier. Material nouns may be used as class names. Guillotin. a Bentham. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. levant and morocco (leather). "The cook made the irons hot.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. 14. currants. for example. Others of similar character are calico. from the name of Dr. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. damask. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Proper names transferred to common use. it imposes its classification on other men. 119). 15. arras. above. from Calicut. the guillotine. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. 13. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word.

²COLLINS. Next Anger rushed. purity. Test this in the following sentences:² .In lightnings owned his secret stings. coals. 17. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. that disposition is the thing to be created. that the power of art is founded on fact. but in case an art or a science. Personification of abstract ideas. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. that is. Traffic has lain down to rest. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. are still names of abstract ideas. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. clouds. and so on. candies. not material things. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. (3) By poetical use. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. etc.²BYRON.irons. his eyes. a rubber for erasing marks. clays. These are the same in material. abstract in meaning. 16. When it is said that art differs from science. tobaccos. Class nouns in use.²BRYANT. oils. or made plural. The words preceded by the article a. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. They are not then pure abstract nouns. For example. the abstract idea is partly lost. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. but differ in strength. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. This is a poetic usage.²PERCIVAL.²CARLYLE. tins. as stones. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. are abroad. and only Vice and Misery. smiled. though not confined to verse.²HAYNE. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. or the arts and sciences. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. be spoken of. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. From all around²Earth and her waters. on fire. or used as class nouns. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. but on dispositions which require to be created. papers. slates. A halfway class of words. which are made plural. paints. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. or. a steel to whet a knife on.²RUSKIN. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. mists. nor are they common class nouns. and say teas. Death. to prowl or to moan like night birds. etc.

nouns used to modify. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. sir?" and the "No.² GOLDSMITH. which belongs to another word. loves. Adjectives. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. meaning a walk in the morning. When I was young? Ah. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. etc. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. or from any expression. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns." which contains a pure adjective. NOTE.²BURNS. sir!" and the "What then. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. but is still a noun. But it is better to consider them as nouns. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.²IRVING. fear thy blow. Nouns used as descriptive terms. a bank in New York.² BURNS. Every why hath a wherefore. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. they cannot be compared. make our own so. the wealthy. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. as each repeated pleasure tired. By ellipses." "a New York bank.²SHAKESPEARE. 19. But ah! those pleasures. as descriptive adjectives are." "a morning walk. Conjunctions. however.Let us. Then comes the "Why. All these.²SHAKESPEARE. they do not express quality." "the State Bank Tax bill. "a family quarrel.²EMERSON. sir!"²MACAULAY . And still.²If the descriptive word be a material noun.The Solitary can despise. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. a bill as to tax on the banks. They are more like the possessive noun. if we must have great actions. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. for example. 18. were mere terrors of the night. Adverbs. or describe it. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions.

are used. Now. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. and Then. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. In the other sentences. in a sentence above.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Learning."²B. is ambiguous.. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. at the beginning. however. in speaking of the principal of a school. or a criminal.Nor iron bars a cage. Power laid his rod aside. whether it mean the sun or the cold. The it. Exercise. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. or a faithful domestic. 7. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. and tell to which class each belongs. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. too. FRANKLIN. When. but as a figure of speech. 8. why and wherefore. 1. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. etc. 2. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.²These remarks do not apply. 6. 5. but have an adjectival meaning. or a state secret. to such words as become pure nouns by use. the terms the great. that cobweb of the brain. There are many of these. 4. of words rather than of their meaning. 20. 3. without reference to its function in the sentence. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. It is to be remembered. NOTE. is the word "just.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods." and another of Dr. so. Stone walls do not a prison make. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. . There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. of course. the wealthy. When." or "legal. are spoken of as if pure nouns. Caution. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named.

and names of females are usually feminine.Fair guests. . A fool speaks all his mind. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 20. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. GENDER. 10. 23. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 19. 18. female. shattered and disabled. Greek. 14. 21. 17. What gender means in English.9. for every dropHinders needle and thread. but not so in English. he cried. 21. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. the silver moon is gone. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. In Latin. The fleet.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. The hours glide by. returned to Spain. 13. its bloom is shed. There are exceptions even to this general statement. And see. German. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. always feminine. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. the welcome. 16. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. that waits you here. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. and many other languages.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop.You seize the flower. A little weeping would ease my heart. 24. It is founded on sex. always masculine. 11. 15. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 12. 22. in English grammar. Male beings are.

22..²gender nouns.. clapping his burnished wings." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth." . "A little child shall lead them. that is. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. inanimate things are spoken of.. came to a stand just by the bridge. hortus (garden) is masculine.²masculine and feminine. 24. Of animals. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. that pattern of a husband. or additions to words.. those distinguishing the sex of the object. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Neuter nouns. All nouns. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. then. For instance: in Latin. Hence: Definition. mensa (table) is feminine. are named by gender nouns. but are spoken of as neuter. Thus. and neuter nouns. must be divided into two principal classes.²LAMB. der Tisch (table) is masculine. das Messer (knife) is neuter. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. . if of the female sex. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. in German.²IRVING. if there were any signs of life in it. according to use.When. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. The great difference is. according to their use. in other languages gender follows the form.. and consequently without sex. He next stooped down to feel the pig. corpus (body) is neuter. the name of it is masculine. No "common gender. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Gunpowder . Gender nouns. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. 23. the sex being of no consequence. with its gizzard under its wing. in English. those with which man comes in contact often.² I have seenA curious child .. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. those which do not distinguish sex. or which arouse his interest most.² IRVING. however. the name of it is feminine. or names of things without life. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.

etc. (2) By adding a suffix. they are neuter words. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. though both words have lost their original meanings. but spinster has now no connection with it. Put in convenient form. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. as in wine vat. is. II.. One feminine. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. domestic. ruler. If such words as parent. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. Native suffixes. According to the definition. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. 26. of course.25. for from they said vram. Gender shown by Prefixes. woman. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. or the lack of it. Male nouns beings. The inflections for gender belong. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. as he-goat²she-goat. Hence vixen is for fyxen. These remain in vixen and spinster. For fox they said vox. the division of words according to sex. I. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. generally to a masculine word. relative. teacher. . or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. cousin. (3) By using a different word for each gender. 27. Gender shown by Suffixes. 29. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. only to masculine and feminine nouns. puts a prefix before the masculine man. from the masculine fox. servant.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. 28. he-bear²she-bear. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. Very few of class I.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. and for the older word fat they said vat. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words.

it has none now in the words huckster.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. trickster. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Slightly changed and widely used. gamester. as. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . and are never used for words recognized as English. donna. señorita.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. punster. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. as. Ending of masculine not changed. Low Latin issa). song-str-ess. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Unaltered and little used. 30. the one most used. These are attached to foreign words. -ess (French esse. but in most cases it has not. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. executrix. as seam-stress. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). as czarina. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words.

"George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. chairman. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. NOTE. as. wagoness. Some of them have an interesting history. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. Gender shown by Different Words. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. from the French -esse. teacher or lady teacher." III. Instead of saying doctress. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. 31.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). 32. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. as. teacheresse. others have in their origin the same root. We frequently use such words as author. frendesse. from Latin imperatricem.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. the ending -ess. editor. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. or servauntesse. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. etc. neighboresse. fosteress. as in the fourteenth century.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. we use the feminine. In some of these pairs. as was said in the sixteenth century. neighbor (masculine and feminine). sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. to represent persons of either sex. we use the masculine termination. Thus. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases.

in Old English mere. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Icelandic gás. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Danish gaas. became identical. widuwa²widuwe. not immediately connected with witch. Besides gander and drake. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. The older forms.² . This gansa was modified into gan-ra. from Latin mea domina. Widower. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Three letters of ened have fallen away. leaving our word drake. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. but this has long been obsolete. probably meaning house dweller). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). The masculine was formed by adding -a. or lauerd in Middle English. written loverd. It is not connected historically with our word duck. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). lhauerd. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. among others) to be from the same root word. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Two masculines from feminines. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. 16). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf.). Madam is the French ma dame. the old sign of the masculine. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. for example. 33. gand-ra. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. as in many other words. had the masculine mearh (horse). finally gander. Mare. though both are ultimately from the same root. 34. etc. Personification. Witch is the Old English wicce.

37. treen (trees). (2) By changing the root vowel. I. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he.Her home is on the deep.²KEATS. 36. But other words were inflected afterwards. This inflection remains only in the word oxen.No towers along the steep.²CAMPBELL. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. (3) By adding -s (or -es). etc. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective."²BYRON. whenever we adopt a new word.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. for instance. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. The first two methods prevailed. Definition. more than one. eyen (eyes). The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. the engineer speaks so of his engine. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. NUMBER. that is. In nouns.²singular and plural. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. The -en inflection. the plural. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. This is not exclusively a poetic use. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. in Old English. and not by the form of the noun. 38.²COLERIDGE. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. 39. Effect of personification. Our language has two numbers. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. together with the third. 35. shoon (shoes). .Clustered around by all her starry Fays. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch."Now. Britannia needs no bulwarks.

² "God bless me! so then. retain the same form for plural meaning. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Akin to this class are some words. Brethren has passed through three stages. head. as. and get settled. sail. into Frederick town. lens.²MACAULAY. cannon. by. folk. 40. ditch. Other words following the same usage are. such as deer.The horse are thousands ten. Instead of -s. brace. quartz. when they mean soldiery. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Lee marched over the mountain wall. The old plural was brothru.²Over the mountains winding down. and is still found in dialects. etc. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. 42. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Examples of this inflection are. etc. . but they now add the ending -s. Children has passed through the same history.Horse and foot. glass. heathen. cross. turf. Kine is another double plural. after all. wight. but has now no singular. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. 41. after numerals (if not after numerals. they add -s): also trout. dozen."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. as. then brothre or brethre. II. swine. salmon. finally brethren. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. III. The words horse and foot. sheep. originally neuter. pair.-En inflection imitated by other words. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Such are box.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. people. that have the singular and plural alike. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. etc.²THOREAU.² The foot are fourscore thousand.²WHITTIER. or if preceded by the prepositions in.

e. molasses. volcano² volcanoes. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. summons. e. fairies. pains (care). Means plural. mathematics. they lose their identity. niche²niches. quoth then that ladie milde.²CENTURY DICTIONARY.-Es added in certain cases.. the Americas.g. Two words. Special Lists. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. knife²knives. physics. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² .²BRYANT. though this sound combines readily with -s. Proper nouns are regularly singular. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). half²halves. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. etc. etc. 43.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. means: as. however. Examples of these are. etc. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. a new syllable is made. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. also news.² Politics. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. race²races. hero²heroes. these words ended in -ie. prize²prizes. The lilie on hir stalke grene. politics. 15 and 17). as. Words in -ies. allies. Formerly. When such words take a plural ending. in its widest extent.²PROF. So live. and the real ending is therefore -s. and go over to other classes (Secs. chaise²chaises. some adding -s. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s.g. that when thy summons comes. daisies. economics. though they are plural in form.. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. fancies.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. etc. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. house²houses. means and politics. is both the science and the art of government. It served simply as a means of sight. 44. and many branches of learning. DANA. and some -es. negro²negroes. shelf²shelves. Some words are usually singular. 45. optics. the Washingtons.

W. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Now I read all the politics that come out. LAUGHLIN. by strongly conveying the passions. L.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²BURKE. Sometimes. CURTIS.²G. By these means. 46.Words. he pronounced to have been a tongs. . Some words have no corresponding singular.² MACAULAY. A relic which.²GOLDSMITH. riches will accumulate. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Politics plural.²IRVING. With great dexterity these means were now applied. if I recollect right. I say. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. Besides this. however. by those means which we have already mentioned. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²GOLDSMITH.²MOTLEY.²J.

48. or copies. pea²peas (separately). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. (2) abilities. as two sixpences. sixpence. 50. etc. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. two plurals. pence (collectively).. number²numbers: (1) figures.The air.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. twopence. 49. or epistles. In Early Modern English thank is found.²LONGFELLOW. Numbers also means issues.. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. index²indexes (to books). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. DANA. clothes (garments). in mournful numbers. In speaking of coins. pease (collectively). making a double plural.² I lisped in numbers. One plural. die²dies (stamps for coins. trouble. eaves. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. the other unlike it. .²was it subdued when.²one corresponding to the singular. faculties. as in the lines. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). (2) poetry. (2) revenue duties. carry off chaff.. (2) literature. of a periodical. dice (for gaming). shots (number of times fired). penny²pennies (separately). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). These make the last part plural. ways. two meanings. fish²fish (collectively). part²parts: (1) divisions. genius²geniuses (men of genius). brethren (of a society or church).). fishes (individuals or kinds). Two classes of compound words. etc.²POPE. for the numbers came. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. or work in a bellows?²PROF. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. riches. may add -s. shot²shot (collective balls). indices (signs in algebra). Tell me not. Three words were originally singular. genii (spirits). What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. (2) care.

manservant. the Misses Rich.²DR. Norman. Brown. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. 52. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Two methods in use for names with titles. and Mrs. firman. such as talisman. there is some disagreement among English writers. The title may be plural. HOLMES. woman servant. and then the three Miss Spinneys.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. but add -s. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. or the name may be pluralized. as man singer. Ottoman.² Then came Mr. for example.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. German. Mussulman. Brahman. the Drs. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. . Allen. then Silas Peckham. woman singer. as the Messrs. though the latter is often found. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. As to plurals of names with titles. 51. Briggs.

²GOLDSMITH. Domesticated words. and retain their foreign plurals. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Exercise. The Messrs.²GIBBON. They are then said to be naturalized. FROM THE GREEK. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. These are said to be domesticated. Du Maurier. 53. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Others have been adopted. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. FROM THE LATIN. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²DICKENS. or Anglicized. y y analysis antithesis .Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. or Englished.²THE CRITIC. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.

" "Avoid using too many and's (or ands).y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. 56. In the sentence. as. as. Words quoted merely as words. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. 54. also add -s or 's. Definition. 55. When the foreign words are fully naturalized.. and expresses a relation akin to possession. In the general wearing-away of inflections. they form their plurals in the regular way. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. Only two case forms." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s)." the word felon's modifies cell. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced." CASE. Letters.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. etc. figures. figures. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). cell has another relation. without reference to their meaning. etc. . "He sleeps in a felon's cell. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.

(2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. fate. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. must be understood for purposes of analysis. . 3.²nature. I. Human experience is the great test of truth. 2. may be said to have three cases. and merit. and experience. Uses of the Nominative. excessive grief." (2) As a predicate noun. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. when asked unawares.²the nominative. the objective. then. 57. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. 5.²person. the enemy of the living. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. 58. Excuses are clothes which. whether inflected or not.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. three things characterize man." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. they returned to their homes. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. and tell which use of the nominative each one has." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. completing a verb. Nouns. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Three properties belong to wisdom. learning. 4. 1. and the possessive. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.²one for the nominative and objective.

and tell which use each has:² 1. sword in hand and visor down. they are sands of precious gold. reconciles. thy wrath can send. 8. good Heaven. taking the object enemies. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. a patriarch of the village." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. wounded lies." Exercise. But of all plagues. distance. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil." (4) As the second object. 9. completing the verb. and meaning calmest. the word toward which the preposition points. and landlord of the inn. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. measure. (in the older stages of the language. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. But the flood came howling one day. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. Set a high price on your leisure moments. 3. Uses of the Objective. They charged. how have I frighted thee? II." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. (5) As the object of a preposition. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. . (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. and being equivalent to one verb. her first law broken. and makest a calm. 2. save. 4. 68.6. as will be seen in Sec. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. Conscience. 59. etc.Save." (3) Adverbially." "Thou makest the storm a calm. taking the object storm. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman.

And gave the leper to eat and drink. tempests that .²ADDISON.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. as shown in the sentences. It is a poetic expression. And whirling plate. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. as in these expressions. the Great Stone Face. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. Possession in some sense is the most common.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. (2) Objective possessive.His winter task a pastime made. 10. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 6. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. III. or in writing yesterday's elegy. 60. (3) Subjective possessive. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 61. Uses of the Possessive.5. The possessive case always modifies another word. The noblest mind the best contentment has. the most common of all. 9. and forfeits paid. 7.. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.²SHELLEY. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.²HAWTHORNE. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.² The unwearied sun. as. from day to day. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.e.²BYRON.Does his Creator's power display.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. expressed or understood. 8. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.

the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.e. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). and Obj.. 62. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. How the possessive is formed. Case Inflection.winter is likely to have). The use of the apostrophe. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. A false theory." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. however. making the possessive singular. "George Jones his book. Nom. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. PLURAL. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. ." "mannes herte [heart]. child NOTE. 64." "at his beddes syde. 56). A suggestion. Poss. growth which several days had developed). As said before (Sec. 1. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s." etc. One is the simple form of a word. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. the panther which the forest hides). Nom. as schoolboys sometimes write.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. lady Poss..e. Declension or inflection of nouns. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. 62. 63. and Obj. in Chaucer. "From every schires ende. there are only two case forms. To form the possessive plural." Use of the apostrophe.

They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. stands up for God's truth one man. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. being understood with it: for example. the poor miner Hans Luther's son." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. in the name of the emperor their master. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. etc. some such word as house. Cervantes' satirical work.²SWIFT." Possessive with compound expressions. as. containing words in apposition.²HOLMES. a word with a phrase. and she walked off from the don's. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. . but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.²CARLYLE. instead of the emperor their master's name.Though this opinion was untrue.. Peter's. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. as. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. 65. Possessive and no noun limited. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. etc. James's. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. Kate saw that. In compound expressions. I remember him in his cradle at St. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.²RUSKIN. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. Captain Scrapegrace's. but to the ear all may be alike.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. as by the countess's command. the possessive sign is usually last. 66."²DE QUINCEY. my neighbors. dwelling. store. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. 67." "A postscript is added. for goodness' sake. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. and from a desire to have distinct forms. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.. know the amount of my income.² LOWELL. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. church. the items of my son's.

Exercises. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. 1. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. 2. If. the. A peculiar form. as one modifier. a double possessive. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. ill-lighted except where she stands. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. however. objective.²CARLYLE. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. (See also Sec.²FROUDE. or subjective. corresponding to 's. especially when used with this or that. every. (b) Rewrite the sentence. making a double possessive. (3) It prevents ambiguity. and at the same time by a possessive noun. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. this. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. any. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. the sentence might be understood as just explained.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. 68. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Clearness. no. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . In most cases.²the introduction which Atterbury made.The double possessive. Emphasis. (1) When a word is modified by a. For example. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. the statement clearly means only one thing. Both of these are now used side by side. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. in such a sentence as. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. E. Blair). (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. etc. and tell whether each is appositional. HALE. that. sometimes they are used together. each. 87..²E. we use the phrase of Atterbury.

12. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 9.They say. 70. 14.Comes dancing from the East. At lovers' perjuries. day's harbinger. 6. 10. Nature herself. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 8. In parsing.3. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. in parsing a noun. Now the bright morning star. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 11. with every garland crowned. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. we state. 15. therefore. Hence. Jove laughs. 7. 69. There Shakespeare's self. and destroy the other. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 13. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. it seemed. 4. I must not see thee Osman's bride. some idioms²the double possessive.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 5. Friend. let him seasonably water the one. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it.² . 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.

In parsing any word. therefore singular number. and number. gender. object of the verb takes. (4) Its office in the sentence. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. Thief is a common class noun. 2. hence it is objective case. it denotes only one person. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. is a common class noun. and relations. has no governing word. masculine. a withered serving man. 68). and therefore nominative case. hence it is a common noun. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. singular number. MODEL FOR PARSING. and limits neckcloth. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. That in the captain's but a choleric word. . it has no sex. 3. like miller's. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. and to have it found out by accident. determining its case. 71. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. hence it is a gender noun. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. hence objective case. Neckcloth. therefore singular number. it is the name of a male being. which gender. NOTE. The correct method. Exercise.²common. it expresses time. therefore possessive case. as to case. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. if the latter.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. proper.(1) The class to which it belongs. but is the adverbial objective. 4. (3) Whether singular or plural number. it expresses possession or ownership. it is the object of the preposition by. therefore masculine gender. etc. Throat is neuter. subject of the verb is understood. the connection shows a male is meant. therefore neuter. a fresh tapster. inflections. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. names one thing.

where the Rhone enters the lake. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. standing for a name. 73. from a necessity for short." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Jarley's back being towards him. castle. Madame de Staël. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. were natives of Geneva. or for a person or thing. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 8. but by a question we say. PRONOUNS. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. Now." Again. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. 7. and prison. Necker.. A few miles from this point. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. .. Time makes the worst enemies friends. and his daughter. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. all in one. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. Definition. 9. 11. He giveth his beloved sleep. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. 72. and representative words.. instead of saying. sleep! 6. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious.²palace.5. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. 10. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.And hated her for her pride. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Mrs. (2) Interrogative pronouns. blessings light on him that first invented . Classes of pronouns. or for a group of persons or things. For instance. definite. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. A pronoun is a reference word. 76). financial minister to Louis XVI. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. The need of pronouns.

which cannot be used as adjectives. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. I Poss. 74. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. they are said to have person by agreement. as nouns have the same form. which have forms for person. (3) Third person. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. Singular. and the person or thing talked about. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which relate or refer to a noun. representing a person or thing spoken to. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. representing the person speaking. ours . whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. (4) Adjective pronouns. Person in grammar. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. my Plural. pronoun. Nom. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. (2) Second person. that is. Three persons of pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. the person or thing spoken to. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. or other word or expression. 77. This gives rise to a new term.. words. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. even if it had a special form. From analogy to pronouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. 75." Person of nouns. standing for a person or thing spoken of. primarily adjectives. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. 76. they must represent the person talking. "the distinction of person. mine.(3) Relative pronouns. we our.

Nom. by personification. yours you Plural. Nom. your. Obj. Old Form Common Form. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. or. theirs them Neut. Obj. she her. Masc. thine. First and second persons without gender. feminine h o. 78. and also for the neuter. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Poss. neuter. masculine h . Obj. neuter hit. But the third person has. in the singular. Poss.Obj. thou thee ye you you your. me us Singular. Old forms. Nom. Obj. yours you THIRD PERSON. yours Poss. it its it Poss. he his him Fem. namely. of all Three.. so also with the person or thing spoken to. you your. Nom. hers her Plur. Singular. SECOND PERSON. they their. The speaker may be either male or female. a separate form for each gender. thy Remarks on These Forms. Third person singular has gender. .

and sometimes its. perhaps being from the English demonstrative.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. 80. The form its. The plurals were h .²SHELLEY. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). even when referring to a single object. in Old English. etc. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. Two uses of the old singulars. them. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. etc.²BEECHER.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. We use it with a plural verb always. The consequence is. 82. just as we now say. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. which is a neuter noun. for example. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose." As shown above. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. the forms they.:² (1) In elevated style. which was often sounded with the h silent. This is of comparatively recent growth. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.. 81. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. as in prayers. thee. etc. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. thou Shepherd of Israel. (2) In addressing the Deity. two modern uses of thou. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. Second person always plural in ordinary English. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. it. their.Thou lovest. heora. as possessive of it. to thy care we commit the helpless. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. .² Oh. however. thy. 79. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. that didst comfort thy people of old.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. especially in poetry. Thou. heom.. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. There are. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. In spoken English. as.

us. and follow the usage of literary English. and not make more classes." the literary language would require he after was. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. Additional nominatives in spoken English. me. besides a nominative use. she. note the following:² 'Twas mine. him. Yet careful speakers avoid this. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. we. however. its. or. II. Absolute personal pronouns.Use of the pronouns in personification. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. "I am sure it was him. they. thy. thou. have a peculiar use. 86. yours. thine. 84 are always subjects. I The Nominative. her. and sometimes in ordinary speech. when they occur in the predicate position. he. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. for. his. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. The forms my. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. her. That is. him. theirs. in such a sentence as. In spoken English. ²SHAKESPEARE. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. Old use of mine and thine. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. our. your. 'tis his. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. us. though ye is occasionally used as objective. them.²COWPER. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. and has been slave to thousands. The words I. some say. though those named in Sec. 85. they have a nominative form. Nominative forms. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. ye.²BULWER. . 58). CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Not a separate class. I spare thee mine. to personify objects (Sec. hers. 84. And since thou own'st that praise. their. sometimes his and its. her. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. 34). 83.²LANDOR. them. The Possessive. The forms mine.

²ID. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. and with mine. pluck it out.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns." said Henry Woodstall. his. hers. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict."²SCOTT. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. The forms hers. 87. FIELDS. it tells of good old times. F. as in nouns.²SWIFT.² CARLYLE. (2) To bring emphasis. "Hold thy peace. T. are really double possessives. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. sometimes its.²CARLYLE. If thine eye offend thee. we have. ours. in that old Edinburgh house of his. thine. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.²THACKERAY. or satire. yours. thus. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. Like the noun possessives. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. for example. but few thy voice.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. ours. This ancient silver bowl of mine. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. anger. yours. Besides this. COOPER.²BIBLE.²J.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. Long Allen. commenting upon a letter of mine. theirs. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. . ²HOLMES. Double and triple possessives. Give every man thine ear. Their uses. theirs.²ID. This usage is still preserved in poetry.²J.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. we find. thus.²THACKERAY. (3) To express contempt.

Curse me this people. mine stands for my praise in the second. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. III.²ID. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. 20. but the form is the same as the objective. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. Both joined in making him a present. for whose benefit. 89. Now the objective. The Objective. or use in a sentence. "The good alone are great. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. The old dative case. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. in the first sentence. They all handled it. as shown in Sec. but nominative or objective in use. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it." "None but the brave deserves the fair.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. was marked by a separate case. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. In pronouns. 88. but expresses for whom. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. and mine in the second has an objective use. Besides this use of the objective. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. the thing is done. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. as it is called." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²BIBLE. 86: mine stands for my property. In their function. this dative use. In such sentences as. his for his property. . 90. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. But the first two have a nominative use. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. but not in form. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.

as. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. logical subject." (3) As a grammatical subject. Your mere puny stripling. thus.²D.²CARLYLE. has not made its progress. was passed by with indulgence. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.²ADDISON.²EMERSON. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. 91. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. to stand for the real. The word you.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²BACON. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. (3) In apposition. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. Indefinite use of you and your. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.² NEWMAN. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.²BULWER. It is a pity that he has so much learning. as. 92. or that he has not a great deal more. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. WEBSTER.Time is behind them and before them.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.²DE QUINCEY. you sneeze. in this century. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. which follows the verb.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. and they cry. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. like Chinese skill.² . ²EMERSON. as in the sentences. Society. why.²IRVING To empty here. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. you must condense there. or to the idea.

(thyself). the second is the old form of the second person." etc. who teams it. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²BURNS. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. we use such expressions as. Poor Christian was hard put to it.²DE QUINCEY.²IRVING. And millions in those solitudes." "He bought him a horse. it rained. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. 93. as. that is. and its plural selves. (ourself).²SCOTT. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. There was nothing for it but to return.²ID.²BUNYAN. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. And when I awoke." and there is an end of it. they dropped their arms. have laid them downIn their last sleep.²HOLMES. or COMPOUND PERSONAL.²HAWTHORNE."²IRVING. itself. I made up my mind to foot it. however. It was late and after midnight. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. when they are direct objects. farms it. who in turn tries all the professions. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. For example. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. ourselves.²BRYANT. as they are also called. himself. Of the two forms in parentheses. . Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. since firstThe flight of years began. peddles it. They are myself.² Now I lay me down to sleep. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but seldom in prose. used in poetry.It is finger-cold.²ANON. For when it dawned. This occurs in poetry..²COLERIDGE. herself.²EMERSON. keeps a school. A sturdy lad . "I found me a good book. yourself. themselves.. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²THOREAU. -selves. yourselves. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. 94. I set me down and sigh. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.

thyself.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. 96. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.²E.²EMERSON. shall dissolve. The question might arise.To you yourself. and the others were formed by analogy with these. as.²MILTON. NOTE. Origin of these reflexives.² TENNYSON. B. BROWNING.. especially in the speech of rulers.²SHAKESPEARE. As if it were thyself that's here. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. I shrink with pain. as in vulgar English. as.²WORDSWORTH. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. 95. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. for example. for example.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. Use of the reflexives. etc. Held dead within them till myself shall die.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. to every one. and build the lofty rhyme.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. ourselves. Threats to all.²ID. were changed into the possessive myself.² . In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. with self. In Middle English the forms meself.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. as we ourself have been. after the analogy of myself. to us.As girls were once.² The great globe itself . not the possessive forms. theself. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.

all conform to it. 97. One obsolete. feminine. Three now in use. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark.²DE QUINCEY. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 7. father. Come and trip it as we go. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. fight it out. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. . is wisdom. 9. which. and how to do it. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. To know what is best to do. 2. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. And it grew wondrous cold. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Courage. 5. 10. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. where the word is one with that it tells of.On the light fantastic toe. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Infancy conforms to nobody. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. let him lowly confess it. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Years ago. some each of masculine. and what. some of them being double possessives. 6. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR.² THACKERAY. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. and neuter. 8. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom).²B. but it is the soonest spoiled. 4. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 3. FRANKLIN.

99. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. These show that what is not inflected for case. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. it is selective. that it is always singular and neuter. as it always asks about somebody. 100. The use of who. Which of you. methought. As shown here. that. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. whispering sweet. it refers to either persons or things. not to persons. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. 98.There is an old word. ideas. it is always third person.. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. having three forms. which is not inflected for gender. whether. . Use of who and its forms. but now obsolete. referring to things. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. that is. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. actions. Use of which. etc. number.Promised. What wouldst thou do. with its possessive and objective. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. but for case alone. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. shall we say. used formerly to mean which of two. that it is not inflected for gender or number. or case. Use of what. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. the gold. Whose was that gentle voice.

but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. It usually precedes the pronoun. and what are also relative pronouns. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. what may be an adverb in some expressions. 104. which. 105. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. Further treatment of who. and so to make smoother discourse. which and what. whose? Obj. in Sec.² "The last of all the Bards was he. as. since it is subject of the verb had. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. which is nominative in the first sentence.²by the use of the words. 127). who? Poss. and also in having a conjunctive use.² . AND PLUR. or other word or expression. which is called the antecedent of the relative. SINGULAR Nom. as they take the place usually of a word already used. which and what are sometimes adjectives. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Who. as. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent." In the latter sentence. For instance.Who sung of Border chivalry. Thus we may say. The antecedent. objective in the last. "The last of all the Bards was he. nominative in the second also. Function of the relative pronoun. 99." Or. being the direct object of the verb shall take. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. AND PLUR. for which the pronoun stands. it may be shortened into. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. 103. pronoun. subject of doth love. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. who is used as objective instead of whom. 102. These bards sang of Border chivalry. who evidently refers to Bards. SING.101. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING.

5.. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²LOWELL In this.²SCOTT. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON..²W. both his and who have the antecedent priest.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. 3. Two kinds.²MILTON. 4. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. The origin of language is divine. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. the women whom women approve. Ye mariners of England. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.²THACKERAY. which. Generally speaking. Who and its forms. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. They had not their own luster. D. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 4. with all its capabilities . The embattled portal arch he pass'd. what. The men whom men respect. 106..That guard our native seas.² COX. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.²PARTON Which and its forms. 2. 107. are the men and women who bless their species. 6. When the word relative is used.Whom universal nature did lament. The nurse came to us. . 108. Indefinite relatives. that. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. will be discussed further on.Whose flag has braved. in the same sense in which man's nature. a simple relative is meant.²BYRON. 2. 3. a thousand years.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. is a divine creation. WHITNEY.²DR JOHNSON. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. but the look which is not of the earth. For her enchanting son. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.

bought up all the pigs that could be had.²EMERSON. Who. 110. The judge . which prevented him from taking his usual ride. ought to be kept in view.5... you will not be angry with me for telling you. which it certainly is not. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.²IRVING. 6. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.Is fit for treasons. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²GOLDSMITH. What. and spoils..²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.²BURKE. (a) This gradation . stratagems. else this description will seem exaggerated. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship... Already done is all that he would do. For what he sought below is passed above. W. The man that hath no music in himself. 3.. 111. The Tree Igdrasil.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²MARGARET FULLER. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²LAMB 3. That. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . Reader. 2.²H.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. BEECHER 5. 109.²DE QUINCEY. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 4. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. 107. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Examples of the relative that:² 1.

(2) It has three case forms. Scott. Gibbon. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.²DR. Cooper. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. who class With those who think the candles come too soon.²which for the nominative and objective. they are plural. 107. whose wound I had dressed. It has been seen (Sec. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. 112.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²LOWELL.. Witness the following examples:² And you.. possessive case of which. The little gorilla. (4) It has two case forms. 2. things. who is first person. in the first sentence. Who referring to animals. the relatives are singular. In 1. who. whom. Sec. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. and 3. whose for the possessive. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.. whom. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. that man.who.whose. JOHNSON. referring to animals. The robins. flung its arms around my neck.²IRVING..²THACKERAY. whose. . seemed as much excited as myself. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. in 4.²who. or ideas.²LEIGH HUNT.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. The sentences in Sec. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.²SWIFT. 96). and so on. 5.. and others. p. in the third. son. Smollett. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. Examples of whose. Kingsley. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. My horse. in the second. (3) It is nearly always third person. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. not persons. and 6. Which.. In sentence 4. 113. in 5. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. a man. the others are all third person. whose is second person.

² And."²RUSKIN. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. . Which and its antecedents. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. no possessive. and to persecute without pity.²THACKERAY. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Kingsley. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. This often occurs. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Sometimes. and numerous others.²SHAKESPEARE. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. (2) It has only one case form. (3) It is the same form for first. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. which is very notable and curious. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. The last two sentences in Sec.²DE QUINCEY. So in Matthew Arnold. animals.²first. and things. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. secondly (which made her stare). whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. the antecedent follows which. Burke. 109. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. thus. too. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. Men may be ready to fight to the death.114. second. This moribund '61. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. let us enter the church itself. 116. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light.² MCMASTER.²BEECHER. In the sentences of Sec. Primarily. 115.²RUSKIN.²SCOTT. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.² I swept the horizon. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. and third persons. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. That.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. which is worse.

Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.² What I would. either of which would be neuter. The sentences of Sec." (3) "These people heard him. that do I not.²BIBLE What fates impose. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. number. When expressed. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. The gender. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 117. for example. plural number. plural number. third person. what we said?²CARLYLE. and person of the relatives who. we can. For example. it usually follows. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. but this is not sanctioned as good usage." That evidently refers to truths. Sec. by taking them out.²SHAKESPEARE.²EMERSON. consequently is neuter." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. that he has. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. which. Nom. . 119. as. that do I. and is emphatic. who Poss. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. as in sentence 6. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. 118. 109. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. but what I hate. What. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. that men must needs abide. is always neuter. What a man does. whose Obj. third person. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose.

what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. but is singular. The whole expression is its subject. it is subject of the verb heard. 5. in the following sentences:² 1. and what is the direct object of the verb call. in (1). Some prefer another method of treatment. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. Parsing what. The relative what is handled differently. 4. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Exercise. . after all. the highest result of all education. so is in the objective case. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. In the sentence. I think they are trying to outwit nature. the simple relative." Here the subject of is. above. Now..We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. In the same way who. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. is what we call nature. 7. 3." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. What can't be cured. however. then parse the relatives. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. nobler souls with that which they are. because it has usually no antecedent. In (2). it is object of uttered. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. which is. third person. neuter. What must be endured? Answer. standing for the people understood. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. etc. who is sure to be cunninger than they. but of this. 6. and hence is in the nominative case. in (3)."²EMERSON. is subject of wrought upon and molded. people is the object of the preposition of. "What can't be cured must be endured. subject of heard. As shown by the following sentences. 8. Truths in sentence (2). The word what. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. is in the nominative case. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. First find the antecedents. 120. Another way. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. we is the subject.

What simple relative and what indefinite relative. less common are whoso. and his friend a fool. and parse that in the first clause. or what else soever. summer will have its flies. 2. 7. 121. whatsoever. whichsoever. whosoever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities.²BURKE. whatsoever. Take which you please. The simple relatives who. that is. It is clear that in 1.²MACAULAY. 123. 4. Only itself can inspire whom it will. that nothing else can stand in their presence. being referred to. object of do] they do. 5. 122. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. object of with] which [singular. 6. Death is there associated. Meaning and use. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. and in 2. They are whoever. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. no certain antecedent." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. whatever. whatever is equivalent to all things which. . not as direct as the simple relatives. It is no proof of a man's understanding. 2. 3. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives.²BURKE. in a new and original way. Do what we can. and which in the second clause.²you cannot have both. or stand on their head. which. no particular thing. to everything that. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. List and examples. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. whichever. by meaning and use. So with the other indefinites. "common souls pay with that [singular. Hence some take what as a double relative. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil.

the conjunctions wherein. Former use of as. . etc. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. for example. etc. Other substitutes. Sec. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. either one that.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.As shown in Sec. as was used just as we use that or which. what means anything that. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Two words. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. In early modern English. 121.²HAWTHORNE. Instead of the phrases in which. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. for example. 120.. thus. has been my heaviest affliction. This. but which only wealth could have purchased. Proof that they have the force of relatives.. whereby. whereupon. and that as after such is equivalent to which. are used.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 4. not following the word such. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. There is nothing but is related to us. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. everything that (or everything which). nothing that does not interest us. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. 2.² some particular thing. 417). by which. but and as. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 126. 121. upon which.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON. 124. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. etc.² 1.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. but mean any one whom. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. But and as. 125. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.

a question is disguised in each sentence. 127. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. "But what had become of them? They knew not. it is an interrogative. the full expression being. So in 2 (b). and whether what = that + which (if so." etc. second. Special caution needed here. which having the antecedent lines. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. Another caution. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. In studying such sentences." Likewise with which in 3 (b). 2. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. no antecedent is expressed. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. and 3 (b). which would indicate that they are not relatives. showing that who is plainly interrogative. But in 1 (b). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. it is a simple relative. Thus. "Who stood behind? We knew. 2 (b). The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. it is an indefinite relative). In sentences 1 (a). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. what is interrogative. 1 (b). . if expanded.²WHITTIER.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone.. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. who having the antecedent gentleman. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. would be. if not. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. if not. How to decide. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. 3. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. though the earthwork hid them. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun).²ID.²EMERSON.

but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Examine the following:² 1.² These are the sounds we feed upon.²G.128. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. and Court Calendars. The insect I am now describing lived three years. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. which.²FLETCHER. but the life of man in England. Thus. whence is the interrogative word.² THACKERAY. I visited many other apartments. whose has the antecedent you. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.²CARLYLE. When Goldsmith died. ELIOT. Put in the relatives who. the question is asked by the verb. 4.²GOLDSMITH. 5. Relative omitted when object. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. 3. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. Exercise.²SWIFT. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. In the first. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. In the second. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 129. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. and asks no question. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. 2. On the other hand. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. which has the antecedent hue. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.²HOLMES. .²FORSTER 6. In the third.

²SCOTT. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. 3. Examples are. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.²SHAKESPEARE. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge.²Id. . than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Also in literary English we find the same omission. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. which. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.7. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.² The silent truth that it was she was superior.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. There was such a crowd went. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. the house was full. which was already proceeding. It is rare in prose. 130.² LOWELL. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. and what. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. 6. that. 2. or indefinite relatives:² 1. who were to be rulers over whom. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. simple relatives. The nobles looked at each other. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. Function of adjective pronouns. and comparatively so in poetry.²CAMPBELL. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. 5. Relative omitted when subject. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.Ne'er looks upon the sun.

that. etc. expressed or understood. but in this function. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. must not modify any word. such as each. which we have seen in such expressions as. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. and on each is written. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. the former. 'Truth. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. 132." in the second. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. in order to be an adjective pronoun. and stand for a noun. a word. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²EMERSON. any. "another bank. 133. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. either. etc. Caution. or use. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. "each cube. or they may stand for nouns. but have lost their adjective use. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. or an argument in a paragraph. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. In the first use they are adjectives. "The dead are there. Primarily they are adjectives. Adjectives.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. none. etc. many. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. necessarily thought of: thus. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. . How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will." Classes of adjective pronouns." in the others. For instance. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. such as this. neither. For example. not pronouns." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon.131. in the first. few." that is. and another to get cool under. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. in letters of gold. or may be the whole of a sentence." "Where two men ride on a horse.²IRVING. as some. all.²BRYANT." "one man. "these pranks. It must come under the requirement of pronouns.

and sow wickedness. Even as I have seen. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²LOWELL. Exercises. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. as seemed good to each. reap the same. Compound. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. Their minds accorded into one strain.²EMERSON 4. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.²ID. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. A man inspires affection and honor.All these he saw. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. for example. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Simple. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. when the latter was the King of Spain. They had fewer books. but these were of the best. Some of these are simple pronouns.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.² They stood. and they have well performed the other. Such are a few isolated instances. 3. NOTE. or sat. because he was not lying in wait for these. but what he fain had seen He could not see. They have not shunned the one. 5. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. accidentally preserved. Definition and examples. 134. or reclined. 2. .²ID. they that plow iniquity.

you quickly come to the end of all. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. They led one another.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. None shall rule but the humble. Exercise.²KINGSLEY. for example. imbued. paused over a horoscope. such as one other. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. The word one has a reflexive form.²each other. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.Two are compound pronouns. another. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. or melt for others' woe. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²EMERSON.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.² One reflexive. Definition and examples. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The Soldan.²HOLMES. Much might be said on both sides. as some of the rangers had gone astray. Another opposes him with sound argument. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. 135.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. one another. with the superstitions of his time. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. Men take each other's measure when they react.²HAWTHORNE. as most were. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. Some inflected. as. ²HAWTHORNE. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. we might the more easily discharge them. as it were. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. .

no one. what. somebody else. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. every one else. nothing. anything. Jove laughs. naught. Now. . nobody. anybody.Exercise. Exercise. something. Definition and examples. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences.² At lovers' perjuries. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. also aught. etc. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. and was indefinite in Old English.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Every one else stood still at his post. etc. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. and they. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. every one (or everyone).²SHAKESPEARE. everybody. everything.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. but. 137. 136." It means something. anyone else. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Somebody. anybody else's. everybody else. as shown in the words everybody's. unlike adjective pronouns. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. they are never used as adjectives. I tell you what. as. and somewhat. in building of chaises. some one. they say.. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. They indefinite means people in general. any one (or anyone). The genius that created it now creates somewhat else.

17. indeed. 3. O thou that rollest above. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 9. 2.²a feature of natural scenery for which. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Exercise. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 8. were suffered to depart. All was now ready for action. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. A reminder. to which. The table was good. . 16. 138. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). from my earliest days. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 5. I first found myself among the mountains. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. For this did God send her a great reward. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. Others did the same thing. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. Whoever deals with M. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 4. 11. 18. and of no other. 14. 7. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. in his negotiations. 6. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 10.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 13. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 12.

And will your mother pity me. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . well-oiled dispositions. variety. Whatever he knows and thinks. 23. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 31. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. in all its height. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 30. that let him communicate. 27. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. They know not I knew thee. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. behold now the semblance of my being. hear! 33.Who knew thee too well. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 25.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. and seized a pen.Destroyer and preserver. 26. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. hear. 32. 21. oh. eat white bread or brown. 29. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. thou rollest now. who take the world easy. I who alone am. He sate him down. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 35.And it would work 'em woe. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. And I had done a hellish thing.19.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 34.

So with any object. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master." "a hundred men. It may have this office alone. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. the number is limited by adjectives." "some cities. 139. that is our permanent state. heavy or light. We are by nature observers." The office of an adjective. we need some word to point out the house we speak of.36." etc. We need to add some words to tell its color." "that house. as. ADJECTIVES. He teaches who gives. then. white or red. "one hat. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. etc. and he learns who receives. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. 40. He knew not what to do. 43. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. 41. size. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. If a chemist discovers a new substance. and if we are near. so that no other will be mistaken for it. such as in the expressions "this man. brittle or tough. Office of Adjectives. or with persons." "yonder hill. adjectives are used. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. etc. 39. For example. or liquid. 38. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. position. and so he read. in pointing out an object. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. becomes mine. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. who understands me. Substantives. As to the kind of words used. 37.. Who hears me. if we are at a distance. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. . Again. 44. 42. which was no bad step towards my liberation. or gaseous. 45.

it shows that he weighs men's minds. terrible." "this life-giving book." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. Definition. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." . the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. pointing out particular things. words primarily pronouns. to describe it or to limit its application. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. If he be thankful for small benefits. used to tell how many things are spoken of.² BACON. derived from proper nouns. Classes of adjectives." the "and there. such as safe. "Heaven-derived power." "the Roman writer Palladius. (4) Pronominal adjectives. etc.²POPE.140. happy. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." "ivory-handled pistols. They include relative and interrogative words. beautiful. fair." "next-door neighbor. 143." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. deep." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." and the still less significant "and so. Nouns are not. 142. Infinitives. remotest. To err is human. however." "the Christian pearl of charity." they constitute all his connections. To make this clear. rash. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." "unlooked-for burden. such as. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. or how much of a thing. Examples are. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. (2) Adjectives of quantity.²COLERIDGE. 141. "an old English manuscript. With exception of the "and then." "ice-cold water. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. to forgive. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. and their trash. divine." "half-dead traveler.

" "It came on like the rolling simoom. 144." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. having some of each subclass named in Sec. For instance: in the sentence." "a charming sight. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. 2. 145.But ever she looked on Mr. no." "One is hungry. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. Examples are.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. in studying these last-named words.²MACDONALD. Exercises. 'Tis midnight. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. Oxenham. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "trailing clouds.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. any.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. and another is drunken." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. much." was accomplished is a verb." "The shattered squares have opened into line." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. some. 1. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. Care is needed." was is the verb. in this. considerable. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." "an aged man." Caution. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²COLERIDGE. but small thoughts have I of sleep. 143." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. and accomplished is an adjective. which are either pure participles used to describe. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. .Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. sometimes small.

Not primarily pronouns. Thus. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "I have lost one brother. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. the former²the latter.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.²ID. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." Single ones of any number of changes. How many. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. those)." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards." "Then we wandered for many days. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. that. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. yonder (or yon). its wake. former." "In came some five and twenty more. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. The following sentences present some examples:² . Exercise.² Every town had its fair. every village. latter. and with them a few negroes." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. but I have gained fourscore. no." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. they come under the next division of adjectives. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. The list. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.²VAUGHAN.²KINGSLEY.²CARLYLE." (b) Indefinite numerals. are used with plural nouns. An arrow was quivering in each body. any. The demonstrative adjectives are this." "He had lived by hunting for some months. 146. as. When some.²THACKERAY. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. Examples. (plural these. instead of modifying them. "one blaze of musketry. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." "a dozen volunteers.

About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. In which evil strait Mr. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. they are changed to adjectives.²BANCROFT. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. tell how many things are meant. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. Exercise. Oxenham fought desperately.²ID.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. just as the corresponding pronouns do..²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. Indefinite relative adjectives. These do not. ²CARLYLE. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.²RUSKIN. As has been said. 147. 148. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. FRANKLIN. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²WORDSWORTH. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. what revenues or garnitures.²GOLDSMITH. of equal skill..²D. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. They are of two kinds.² It matters not what rank he has. 149.²ID.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Modify names of persons or things."²B.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. but.but all these charms are fled.²BULWER. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. WEBSTER.²KINGSLEY. Definition. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. for example. skill which was progressive²in the other. When we speak of the seventeenth century. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. These were thy charms. . like the other numerals. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. The taking of which bark. The silver and laughing Xenil. I verily believe. skill which was at pause. but in the one case.

Adjective what in exclamations. you at least give him full authority over your son. New torments I behold. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Examples of their use are. or whether any. whichever. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. whatever. it is impossible to determine.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. A lady once remarked..²IRVING. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.. what inquires about things or persons not known. whichsoever way I move. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. proved not altogether displeasing to him. as it rather seemed. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.²LAMB. As in the pronouns. In direct questions. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.150. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²RUSKIN. . whichsoever. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. In indirect questions. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.² EMERSON. which. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.²CARLYLE. He was turned before long into all the universe.²ID. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. the debt to the rich. 151. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. whatsoever. Whatsoever kind of man he is. and gaze. and new tormentedAround me. which is selective among what is known. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.²AGASSIZ. But when the Trojan war comes. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).And whichsoever way I turn. nature will be sure to bear us out in. Was there. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.

th s (modern those). we do so by means of their qualities. and when we compare the objects. But this had also another plural.Adjectives have two inflections. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. NUMBER. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. which changed its spelling to the modern form these.152. COMPARISON. those). In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. as. etc. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. and those as the plural of that. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. It is neither relative nor interrogative. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. of the quality. alas. 154. Those borrowed from this. .² Oh. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. That. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. gold is heavier than iron. The article that was used with neuter nouns. History of this²these and that²those.²but not the same degree. 155. we notice some differences between them as to size. or weight. color. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. All these have certain qualities.²number and comparison. This is the old demonstrative. or size. Thus. When we place two objects side by side. 153 . Meaning of comparison. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. weight. And yet. In exclamatory expressions. Exercise. the making of it right.²This. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. or amount. etc. which was fully inflected in Old English. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU..

though the simple. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. and the superlative. bluest. These are properly the only degrees. easy. infinite.²SEWARD. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. So with the words sole." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. 156. A main difference betwixt men is. for example.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative." "the largest soul. reddest. indefatigable. sufficient. organic. red. "more matter.²THACKERAY. blue. but were not common until a century later. easier. expressing the greatest degree of quality. enormous. "untamed thought." "no fewer than a hundred. or amounts in quantity." "the commonest speech. whose favorite pupil he was. to the simple form. 160. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. but.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. 157. Substitute for inflection in comparison. bluer. universal institution. with less wit.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. great. strictly considered. 159." "It is a nobler valor. Freedom is a perpetual. indomitable." Words that cannot be compared. giant-like. supreme. as. whether they attend their own affair or not. easiest. They came into use about the thirteenth century. Definition. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. immemorial. The two forms. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. 158. These are called degrees of comparison. and the superlative by adding -est. and many others. they are not compared. . expressing a greater degree of quality. as. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. redder. The comparative is formed by adding -er.

that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. Adjectives irregularly compared. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. strange. madam. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative." "the wonderfulest little shoes. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. easy. and patientest fusing. and other words are preceded by more and most. The general rule is." "more odd.²ID." "sorrowfulest spectacles. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. polished. though born in no very high degree. I will." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. harsh forms are usually avoided. who. quiet. as. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. falling on his knees. honestest. These long.²The Nation." "distantest relationships." said Henry Esmond.²ID.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. there needed to be a most genuine substance. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. etc. "So help me God. indisputablest.² CARLYLE A gentleman.Which rule.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. admirablest. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. most small. These are adjectives irregularly compared. 163. finest chiseling. was most finished." "more austere and holy. mournfulest. witty. peaceablest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. The following lists include the majority of them:² . To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. which hung behind in the queerest way. 162." Carlyle uses beautifulest. and yet familiar. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most.

"Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). [In] Inner Inmost. evil was the positive to worse. as in Shakespeare. lesser Elder. innermost Outmost. 1. as. oldest Nighest. though from a different root. 8. 3.²HAMLET. least. latter Hinder LIST II. There was an old comparative bet. The superlative I form was betst. uttermost Upmost. next Nearest Latest. Good or well Evil. outermost Utmost. 7.LIST I. (3) Little is used as positive to less. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. as in the sentence (14th century). hindermost Much or many More Farther.²MATTHEW ARNOLD.² O. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. which has gone out of use. 5. 9. 4. further Farthest. furthest 10. 2. a double comparative. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. bad. last Hindmost. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. (2) In Old English. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. List I. Hind 2. [Out] Outer. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. is often used. older Nigher Nearer Later. These have no adjective positive:² 1. Worser was once used.² We have it in a much lesser degree. throw away the worser part of it. 164. lesser. A double comparative. . worst. which has softened to the modern best. 6. utter 3. uppermost LIST III.

(8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. (5) The forms elder. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. greatest.² The more part being of one mind. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. Between the two sets as they now stand. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. the old forms. instead of lenger. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. List II. an old superlative ending. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. or series. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. to which is added -ost. are shown in such phrases as.²HAWTHORNE. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. making the modern farther. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. as long. for example. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. ²LAMB. doubling the inflection. Since later.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. latest. farrest. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte.²KINGSLEY. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. since the m is for -ma. meaning the largest part. The meanings greater. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. . but originally the comparison was nigh. but not in meaning. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. In imitation of further. a distinction has grown up between the two series. The form hindmost is really a double superlative.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. further. first. First became entirely detached from the series. muchel. moche. eldest. next. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. farthest. etc. furthest. and refer to time. is quite common. great. The latter. near. except the form next. to England we sailed. are earlier than older. strong. "Many a little makes a mickle. came into use. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative.²forth. th came into the others. etc." Its spelling has been micel. much. and the superlative nearest. there is scarcely any distinction. strenger. The most part kept a stolid indifference. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. as.. oldest.²ID.

163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.²DE QUINCEY. . Think what each adjective belongs to. The adjectives in List III. 166. (Sec. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. was descried The royal banner floating wide. There. being merely descriptive. Highest and midmost. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. but not in their meaning. BEECHER. in having no adjective positives. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. the upper light of the world.165. on the very topmost twig. or have no comparative forms.²H." "the innermost moral soul. W.²SCOTT. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. They have no superlatives. but her after deck was still dry. Her bows were deep in the water. Decidedly handsome." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.²KINGSLEY. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. The comparatives are so in form. In List II. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. List III.²HAWTHORNE. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. are like the comparative forms in List II. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. 167." "their utmost exertion." "The outer is of the day." "far-seeing as the sun. 168.²DE QUINCEY. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Her. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. but they have no adjective positives. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. and have no comparative force. by the by." -Most added to other words.²EMERSON. all may belong to the same noun.

But in this sentence. H. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. Exercise.²HOLMES. and moral truth. 6. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.²TRENCH. rich. deep. Our sometime sister. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Bradbury and Evans.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. In the following quotations. in this sentence. now our queen.²BIBLE. and broken. deeply black eyes. 2. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. usual modifies incomparable decision. 169. satisfactory." in which then is an adverb. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. in prose. STEPHENS 5.² My then favorite.²HAWTHORNE. Richard Hooker.²NOAH PORTER. round. solid. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. A few improper jests and a volley of good. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. and heaven-defying oaths. the then and still owners. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. 3. It may still be argued. The seldom use of it. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.For example. instead of saying. Other instances are. May we not. By a convenient brevity." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. we may say "the then king. therefore. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. our new government. philosophical. . STOWE. "the one who was then king." making then an adjective. 4. bright.²RUSKIN. and thine often infirmities.²A. 7." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²MRS. For thy stomach's sake. ²TROLLOPE. not decision alone. This. as. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. Whenever that look appeared in her wild.²HAWTHORNE.

170. These points out what truths. if it has number. (3) Its degree of comparison. if it can be compared. 10. In parsing an adjective. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Exercise. Unfamiliar describes truths. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. this. 6. She made no reply. and very few have number. with awkward but rapid pace. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. . manly way. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. To every several man. cannot be compared. seventy-five drachmas. or case. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 8. modifies the word truths. therefore descriptive. MODEL FOR PARSING. positive degree. 7. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. modifies truths. To every Roman citizen he gives. plural number. 2. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent.What to tell in parsing. 5. not inflected for number. therefore demonstrative. having a singular. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 4. I ask nothing of you. 3. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. person. compared by prefixing more and most. then. This gave the young people entire freedom. 9. and I waited for none. (4) What word or words it modifies. across the plain. the method of parsing is simple. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. Since adjectives have no gender. (2) Its number. frank.

14.11. 27. In music especially. . the tomahawk fell. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. during which time I waited. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 31. and therefore more interesting to us. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 28. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Like most gifted men. 19. 22. as for armies that were too many by half. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. those dogs in the yard. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. suggests such thoughts as these. 21. 33. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 32. 29. I know not what course others may take. 25. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 20. growing in the most unfavorable position. it rests on reality. and dogs. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. and many poles supported the lower ones. 23. are immutably fishes. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. it is so noble a fruit. Nearer to our own times. he won affections with ease. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Here lay two great roads. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 18. oxen. 13. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 24. Two hours elapsed. not so much for travelers that were few. yonder oxen in the pasture. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 12. is the settlement of our own country. To say what good of fashion we can. With every third step. 16. 26. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30.

just as adjectives do. the tother. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. he is no literary man. 172. or the tane. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. the other. Their origin. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like.²MACAULAY. An before vowel sounds. Many writers use an before h. In Middle English the became an article. Our expressions the one." An with consonant sounds. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. Two relics. the tither." "an honor. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment." "a yelling crowd. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. ARTICLES. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. 171." the words the and an belong to nouns.34.²SCOTT. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. even when not silent. In the sentence. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . 173. with an ordinary little garden. ðat. th o. for example. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. Examples: "a house. that other. 174. . and a before consonant sounds.²BREWER. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. A hard-struggling. that) which was also an article in Old English. 35. but the former is used. weary-hearted man was he. in vulgar English. these occurring as the tane. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general." "an orange. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. meaning one. such as we have been attempting to describe. 37. the latter is still preserved in the expression. a before consonant sounds. An historian. were formerly that one. s o. later th . sometimes the tother. An or a came from the old numeral n. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks." "a European. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. the tother.

it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. 176. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.. An and a are different forms of the same word.²This use is noticed when. is referred to. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. Reference to a known object. 179.²HEROES OF ASGARD. a person is introduced by a.² Don't you remember how. as in the sentence. An or a is the indefinite article. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.²G. BANCROFT. or class. The Dakota tribes." "the Ohio. and when the word river is omitted. 175. the older n. as "the Mississippi.. Articles are either definite or indefinite. and not a state or other geographical division. or any individual of a group or class. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. Kinds. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. An hereditary tenure of these offices. doubtless. Definition. or group. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. The is the definite article. which cannot be used alone. To call attention to attributes.²COLERIDGE.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. not descriptive.. When the is prefixed to a proper name. on opening a story. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. 178. thus." the article indicates clearly that a river.² . With names of rivers.²THACKERAY. or a group or class of things. An article is a limiting word.²IRVING. 177. NOTE. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. since it points out a particular individual. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.

He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. Kant. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Schelling.²KINGSLEY. Caution.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. or a match put between the fingers. His messages to the provincial authorities. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.The Bacon. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun.² As she hesitated to pass on.²GIBBON. would speedily extract the required information. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. NOTE. 2. The simple rise as by specific levity. the gallant. her. etc. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. 182.²MOTLEY. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 180.² The faint.²SCOTT. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. and the redwing. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. Common. With plural of abstract nouns. With adjectives used as nouns. 181. for example.²ID. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. The. laid it on the miry spot. as. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.²EMERSON.²EMERSON. One thing for its class. For possessive person pronouns. If the good is there. BANCROFT. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. 1. Half abstract. but into the region of all the virtues. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. not into a particular virtue. 183. the Spinoza. . marks it as half abstract or a common noun. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. so is the evil.²ID. the song sparrow. the Hume.²G.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. 202. and a preposition unite as a verb. representing something which it influences or controls. Has takes the object hypocrisy." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. hence is not a verb. or a material thing. Hence Definition. care."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. might have been anticipated is also one predicate.In (a). Of those expressing action. which means to go over. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. a verb. 204. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. Each influences some object. as. By examining a few verbs. In the sentence. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. the word following. 203." Examine the sentences in Sec. and shame the most astute. a preposition. (can) shame also has an object. but fearing is not a predicate. for example. to go is no predicate.²BULWER . and. The nature of intransitive verbs. and to receive the action expressed. obeyed is a predicate. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. but cannot be predicates. and not a verb. a noun.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. Definition and caution. all do not express it in the same way. or an idea. a). All these are called transitive verbs. in (2. The nature of the transitive verb. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. in (c). the most astute. b). to say something to or about some person or thing." put is the predicate. endured what? anguish. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. with some word understood. b). an adverb. in (3. in (b). or the object. in (2. lone took what? answer. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. 200: In (1). are united with verbs as one verb phrase. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (3. in this sentence from Bulwer. taking the staff which always guided her steps. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. In each case. which may be a person. "Put thou money in thy purse. 201. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. the most penetrating. from the Latin transire. can deceive has an object. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. etc. Now. "Put money in thy purse. we consider a verb as one word. c). an article. In the first. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. In giving a definition.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

²FRANKLIN. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. Unreal²cannot be true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. the second founder. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²MACAULAY. Condition or Supposition.²SHELLEY. 2). the first great founder of the Empire. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.²LONGFELLOW. and may or may not be regarded true.²D. If this be the glory of Julius. the writer can make the statement following. for example. as.²BRYCE. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.²may or may not be true. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. they were recorded in the Book of Life. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. Again. 221.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. 215. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. he will see the need of these ethics. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. WEBSTER. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. the representative system ultimately fail.² If.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. popular government must be pronounced impossible. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. .² Now. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. but. or be fulfilled. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. I. 222. in our case. ²EMERSON. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.I could lie down like a tired child. Most excellent stranger. as. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. Ideal.

. melodious. and should. as. since he [Byron] was dead.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. and striven energetically to save Ney.²N. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. NOTE. 223. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. though. clear.²MACAULAY. that we cannot but regret its absence. 7. The voice. etc. society could not hold together. but when the verb precedes the subject. she was regarded as a prodigy. that he might be strong to labor. If he had reason to dislike him.² CARLYLE. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.²FRANKLIN. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. 2. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. if he speak to you.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. The subjunctive. 6. But in no case could it be justified. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. if his lot had been mine. .²BAYNE. the clause being introduced by that or lest.²SWIFT. is used to express purpose. and sonorous.² If these things were true. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. Subjunctive of Purpose. Exercise.² It was necessary. to drink strong beer. thus. might. 8. 5.. may. II. is of similar physiognomy. unless. and what kind of condition:² 1. which cannot be true. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. ²LOWELL. he supposed. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 3. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. 4. if he was the man I take him for. would have sat still with joy and peace.²FRANKLIN.²CALHOUN. In the following conditional clauses.. except. do you think. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. Epaminondas." etc. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. he had better not have written.. would you.²EMERSON. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. P. I told him. especially be. WILLIS.

The transmigiation of souls is no fable. VII. To tell of what had passed..²D. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.Thou go not. VI. within its fairy bowers.. like the Latin. 226. till it meet the sun in his coming. Let it rise.²DE QUINCEY. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. I would it were! ²EMERSON. In Temporal Clauses.I have been the more particular.²SOUTHEY. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. the answer being regarded as doubtful.That vain it were her eyes to close. V.And we. In Indirect Questions. none of us could say. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. 227. Subjunctive of Result. WEBSTER. IV. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. In a Noun Clause. like the quarry-slave at night.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. . 225.²WORDSWORTH.. Ask the great man if there be none greater. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²BRYANT.²MOORE.Were wafted off to seas unknown. III.²COLERIDGE. Rise up.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. After a verb of wishing.²ID. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. I've wished that little isle had wings. 224. The English subjunctive.²CARLYLE. Expressing a Wish. So live.

is the ultimate fact of man's life. 228.² DICKENS. in apposition. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. VIII. in its various uses as subject. Object.²SCOTT.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²TENNYSON.And look thou tell me true. of cash. .And see the Braes of Yarrow. (b) Adjective. or whatsoever victual it may be. object. which may be (a) Pronoun. Whatever betide. After verbs of commanding.² Be the matter how it may. Complement.²THOREAU. That hunger of applause. tell me all that thou hast seen. that everything be in its place. etc. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. 229. often contains a subjunctive.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Some might lament that I were cold.²DE QUINCEY. Come.²CARLYLE.Subject. is. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.. The essence of originality is not that it be new. for example.²SHELLEY. See that there be no traitors in your camp. The noun clause.²WORDSWORTH.²COLERIDGE. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. The first merit. I have no thought what men they be. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. we'll turn aside.²COLERIDGE. Concessive Clauses.

² CARLYLE. point to their immortal works. ADAMS. to express a wish. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Oh. 232. In spoken English. (3) Request. a concession. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Honor all men. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. 231. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²J. At the present day. we had found [should have found] a poem here. however.(c) Adverb.²BRYANT.The spirit he loves remains. since commands are directed to a person addressed. love all men. entreaties. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. Q. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. though. Usually second person. 230. IMPERATIVE MOOD. . (2) Entreaty. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. Definition. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. or requests. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. (1) Command. It must be remembered. for example. fear none. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. and condition contrary to fact.²CHANNING. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.²SHELLEY.

One glance at their array! 5. there will her heart and her prayers be. Part we in friendship from your land. 6. Quoth she. Oh. receive my hand." Exercises on the Moods.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Mark thou this difference.And. 3. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair."²DICKENS Tell me.And God forget the stranger!" . nothing is to be preferred before justice. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. but I + you. etc. Break we our watch up. child of earth!While each performs his part."Hush! mother. noble earl. 2. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.²SCOTT. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.. Sometimes with first person in the plural. "The Devil take the goose. Meet is it changes should controlOur being.²SHAKESPEARE. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. to you implied in it. we may use the imperative with we in a command. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. or I + they. Whatever inconvenience ensue.²CAMPBELL. 8. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. 7. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4." whispered Kit. request. "Come along with me. lest we rust in ease. etc.

21.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. or do it at all. That sheaf of darts.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Think not that I speak for your sakes. and opinion displace opinion. He is. but repentant child. 23. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. she ought to have it.9. will it not fall unbound. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. in what pomps and prosperities he like. no literary man. 18. my dear madam. Marshall.That they might answer him. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. . 10. 26. 13. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. "Mr. then. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. whether he do it right or wrong.Except. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. He. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. "Oh. as though an instrument. Though abyss open under abyss. That a man parade his doubt. Well.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17." cried he. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt." 25. ruined. 19. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 20." 16.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. "tell me where I may find my poor. Forget thyself to marble." continued Old Morgan. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. let him live where else he like. it would speak.High up in silver spikes! 22. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. 11. how he may do his work. Though he were dumb. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 14.

five in the subjunctive. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. as. "Thou walkest. have. such as Latin and Greek.27. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. five in the imperative. called auxiliaries. the past. Siddons." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. past. tell him to wait. and future. "Thou walkedst. such as be. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. "I go away tomorrow. whatever she did. 234. When the older pronoun thou was in use. and the future tense. or future time. 235. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. past.²the present tense. or whether it were as one member of a general party. as the classical languages have.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. Meantime. which represented present and future time.² present." past. shall. or agree with it. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. past perfect. in the conjugations. also.²nothing could exceed the amiable. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. by means of the present. 28.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. Tenses in English. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present." "If he comes. 233. a form ending in -eth. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. in the third person singular. as. Tense means time. to direct his steps." present. Old English had only two tenses. will. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. "It is not in man that walketh. TENSE. kind." . The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. Definition. as will be shown later on. and future perfect tenses. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. The tenses in detail. PERSON AND NUMBER. and the past tense.

Singular 1. mood. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. been. I were 2. but in English. walked. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. "He walks. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. walks. 236. walking. choosing. chosen (old. and numbers. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. walketh. CONJUGATION. walk has walk. Few forms. choosest. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. persons. walkedst. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. [He] were [They] were . for example. In classical languages. [He] is [They] are 3. tense. moods. Singular 1. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. The verb be has more forms. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Definition. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. PRESENT TENSE. Singular 1.²am.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Indicative Mood." and this only in the present tense indicative. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. are. You are 2. chose. This is the third person. Singular 1. I be 2. since it is composed of several different roots. PRESENT TENSE. 238.²choose. chooseth. were. tenses. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. chooses. You (thou) be 3. chosest). etc. 237. as. wert) 3. singular number. etc. is. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Such verbs as choose have five.

(2) As auxiliary verbs. condition. (3) be. Instead of the plural are. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.His infancy was nurtured. is. for example. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. 239. to form the passive voice. The light that never was on sea and land.²THACKERAY. obligation. (b) With the past participle in -ed. -en. as. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. thus. same as the German sind. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (d) With the infinitive. to express intention. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. 240.²SHELLEY. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. which was now become an occasional banquet. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.Imperative Mood. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. Remarks on the verb be.²WORDSWORTH.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. etc. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²SCOTT. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²ID..²BURKE . etc. were.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. though it is usually a dialect form. (2) was. in four ways..²GOLDSMITH. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.

"I shall be. future perfect. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. You chose Plural. "I have gone" (present perfect). 1. Singular. We chose You chose 3." (2) Present perfect. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. 240." "He will choose. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. etc. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. I chose 2. 1. 242. Machinery of a verb in the voices. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. as. "I had gone" (past perfect). In addition to the above inflected forms. [He] choose [They] choose 3. I choose 2. by placing have. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You chose Plural. had. PRESENT TENSE. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). . PRESENT TENSE. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. tenses. past perfect. 1. I chose 2. Singular. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I choose 2. tenses. 1. Indicative Mood. as. Singular. You choose Plural. Singular. We chose You chose 3. We choose You choose PAST TENSE.241. (2).

] he choose. He has chosen. Future perfect. as. . Present definite. lest. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He had been choosing. Imperative Mood. Present perfect. "I was chosen. Present. Indicative Mood. singular number. He will have chosen. He will choose. he have chosen. He has been choosing. He chooses. Subjunctive Mood. Future definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. " Be choosing. Present definite." "They had been running. (2d per.) Choose. Future perfect definite. etc. of each tense. as. Present perfect. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. though. Past definite. Present definite. Present perfect definite. He will he choosing. Present perfect definite. Present. he chose (or were to choose). Past perfect definite. He had chosen. Past perfect. [If. He was choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. Past perfect definite. Past. Present." 243. He is choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. Past perfect. "I am running. will be given. Same as indicative. he were choosing (or were to be choosing)." "You are chosen. He will have been choosing. Only the third person. Future. he have been choosing. Same as indicative. Past." (4) The passive forms. Past definite. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He chose.

if learned at all. Past perfect. He will have been chosen. Present." "He did strike. " " " " " " " None." [Note to Teacher. he were being chosen. Exercises should be given. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). as. in affirmative sentences. he have been chosen. Past perfect definite. Also. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. None. but verbals. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature.²This table is not to be learned now. . lest. they will be discussed later (Sec.NOTE. however. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Subjunctive Mood. Past. Present perfect. Present tense. though. (2d per. Present perfect. Present definite. He had been chosen. He is chosen. 262). He is being chosen. Present perfect definite. None. None. Past. Future definite. None. None. Future perfect. etc. Present perfect definite. Future.] he be chosen. He was chosen. He was being chosen.. he had been chosen. Past definite. Present definite. None. He will be chosen. Future perfect definite. Present. Past perfect definite. Past definite. Imperative Mood. "He does strike.] [If. PASSIVE VOICE. He has been chosen. Past Perfect.) Be chosen. Indicative Mood.

VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. drove. bounden] bitten. According to form. 244. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. lay. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle.[adj. beg. Past Tense. catch. which are in parentheses Present Tense. ran. laid. but adds no ending. Some of these also have weak forms. Kinds. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. and may or may not change the vowel: as. NOTE. run. bit blown broken chidden. begged. drive. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. Definition. sleep. 245. as. bid bound. verbs are strong or weak. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . caught. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. slept. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden.

drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. trod worn woven won wound .sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. sunken] sat slain slidden.

²one meaning to adhere or cling. "his bounden duty. The former used to be cleave. borne is also a passive." In this confusion of usage. as.²COLERIDGE. as.²as (from Shakespeare).²IRVING. nor a dog barked. clave or clove. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. but is much used in vulgar English. instead of ate and eaten. the other. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. The form clomb is not used in prose." "the cloven hoof.²MILTON. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. as. Historically. to split. Not a cock crew. ²THACKERAY. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). How fairy Mab the junkets eat. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. Crew is seldom found in present-day English." "a drunken wretch. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated)."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove." "a sunken snag. probably to avoid confusion with this. and.²cleave.² Thou hast clomb aloft. now told us it was time for repose. Our cock. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. cleft (to split). Sometimes in literary English. cleaved.²GOLDSMITH.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. and sometimes occurs in poetry. as (from Holmes). 246. When it means to carry or to endure. . only one set remains certain. cleave. TAYLOR.²B. "stricken with paralysis. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. and another (born) for the passive. cleaved. cleft. especially in that of an earlier period. and the latter.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.² We had each drank three times at the well.²TENNYSON. for example." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. cloven. which always crew at eleven.

as "a shorn lamb. shaken.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. Fall. as. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. froze. Exercises. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs."²KINGSLEY. Break. shook. 7. drove. He sate him down." but not much as a participle. and seized a pen. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging.² We had all got safe on shore. broke. begun. 5. shore is rare. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting.²WORDSWORTH. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. fell. flung. fallen. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Find.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. which is seldom used except in poetry." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. 4. maiden. 8. (a) From the table (Sec. Freeze. broken.²SCOTT.²BYRON. found. Shake. even in poetry. One example out of many is. for example. 245). make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. driven. began.²BIBLE. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. 6.The form gotten is little used. Begin. found. 10. thrown. Give. Usually shear is a weak verb. and grasping at his sword. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Fling. flung. We usually say.²TENNYSON. 3. The butler was hanged. for example. Throw. frozen. 2. This heard Geraint. threw. gave. Drive. .² If. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. given. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. 9.²DE FOE.

according to the infinitive used. as it has two meanings.[To the Teacher.. 223. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. The l in could did not belong there originally. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. Must is historically a past-tense form..²CHANNING. 247. as it sometimes does. there is one general principle. Have we valuable territories and important posts. Can is used in the indicative only. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. . as.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. The same remarks apply to ought.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. of course. must have been an ocular deception. Subjunctive use. purpose. PAST.. it is used only in the indicative mood.²SCOTT. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. 220. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. Could may be subjunctive.²PAINE. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed."²WINIER. 249. 251. "So mote it be. It is indicative when it expresses permission. PAST. His superiority none might question. from the obsolete verb motan. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive." Must is present or past tense.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. for full drill on the forms. They are as follows:² PRESENT. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. or. Like must. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. "far off his coming shines. ability. 250. HAMILTON. as in Sec. (See also Sec.. Indicative Use: Permission.. PRESENT.²CHANNING This. etc.²HAWTHORNE. or when it expresses wish. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. Ability. etc. which survives in the sentence. but came through analogy with should and would.

I shall be gone. in the form of command. as.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. (b) In indirect quotations. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.² With respect to novels. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. (b) In questions asking for orders. 252. yea. WEBSTER. They shall have venison to eat. especially in the United States. and corn to hoe. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. C. my lad. to use will and would.²BULWER. as. The sea shall crush thee.²COOPER. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. for example.. Shall and Will. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. She rejects his suit with scorn. promise. MOULTON. while ought always has to. or confident prediction. shall and should are used. with pronouns of the first person. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.² Futurity and questions²first person.Nay. "I think I will go.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. future action). .²LONGFELLOW. not plod along like apeasant. as.²IRVING. shall and should are used. The following are examples:² Never mind. She should not walk. BROCKDEN BROWN. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. what shall I say?²N. he said.²THAXTER. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.² The time will come full soon. Second and third persons.²L. she should ride like a queen.² (a) To express authority. to the neglect of shall and should." Uses of shall and should.²MACAULAY.e.

²A. And promised. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.²WORDSWORTH.that I would do him justice. B. (c) With direct questions of the second person. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. or a promise. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. 253.. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. as the sole inventor.²SCOTT.²CABLE.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. purpose.²BYRON. time.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. for example. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. .²WORDSWORTH. for example. JR. and is equivalent to ought. with the conviction that he should win in the end.²WINTER..² I will go myself now. LARNED. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. I never was what I should be. etc. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²SWIFT. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²H. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. and will not return until all is finished. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. BROWN. Disguising a command. First. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²C.²WORDSWORTH. was to be expected. second and third persons. as. thus.²ROGERS. JAMES.

as. B. They will go to Sunday schools. Roland. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.²War Records. Thine was a dangerous gift. when thou wast born.. as if it were merely expected action. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. so you will. 254. will and would often denote an action as customary. AND THIRD PERSONS. BROWN..²the original meaning of the word will.. Would thou hadst it not. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. SECOND. action merely expected to occur.²SCOTT. will is used to express command. will and would are used to express simple futurity.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. would is used to express a wish... The gift of Beauty.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. as. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. and two of my people.. etc. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). To be sure. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. through storms their brothers are afraid of.² Subject I omitted: often so.² DICKENS. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.²SCOTT. When I am in town.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. for punishment or intimidation. and mark on the grounds the works. In this stately chair would he sit. This puts the order more mildly. without regard to future time. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. Mere futurity. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. . PASSIVE VOICE. for example. (4) With FIRST.²BURKE. for example. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.²IRVING. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²LANDOR.²BANCROFT.² Thou wilt take the skiff.

3. I shall choose. [He] shall be chosen. [They] shall choose. 1.Singular. [They] shall be chosen. 3. Plural. etc. We will choose. [They] will choose. 252 and 253. Thou shalt have a suit. promise. You will be chosen. Plural. (b) Examine the following sentences. We shall be chosen. [They] will be chosen. 2. 4. yet only seem. We will be chosen. To express determination. Exercises on Shall and Will. PASSIVE VOICE. I will be chosen. Singular. 3. "I shall not run. and justify the use of shall and will. Thou art what I would be. You shall be chosen. 2. Plural. Singular. 2. and that of the newest cut. 1. You shall be chosen. You will choose. Plural. He informed us." answered Herbert stubbornly. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 5. You will be chosen. I will choose. . You will choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. (a) From Secs. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. [He] will be chosen. 3. 1. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 2. [He] will choose. You shall choose. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 2. 6. 1. 3. You shall choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE. 2. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Singular. 3. We shall choose. 1. I shall be chosen. [He] shall choose.

Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. as.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. No. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. bereft. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 10. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 257. WEAK VERBS. 13. and I have nothing to say. 11. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. then. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. bereave beseech bereft. need some attention and explanation. 255. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. "I am a wayfarer. Without having attended to this. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. very anxious. my son. Lucy stood still.²Class I. Past Tense. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. stirred her slightly with his muzzle.²CHAUCER. Present Tense. put. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 12. Of smale houndes hadde she. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. and have no change of vowel. or mylk and wastel breed. bereaved besought . was -de or -te. The beast made a sluggish movement. 256." the stranger said. set. bereave besought Past Participle." 14. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. as if he would have more of the enchantment. put. This ending has now dropped off.7. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. set. But the rest.²ID. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. put. 9. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Irregular Weak Verbs. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.

pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leapt left lost meant paid penned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Cases when to is omitted. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. 10. like participles. expressing purpose. Infinitives. Nothing of the kind having been done. Perfect definite. 8. Perfect. When active. [To] be choosing. I returned to reflection on my situation.. [To] have been choosing. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. an indefinite and a perfect form. will (with should and would). 7. formed a kind of bedstead. Perfect. try clemency.²the creature warring against the creating power. a perfect. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Indefinite. Three saplings. 267. to was used before the infinitive generally. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. and a perfect definite form.6. [To] choose.. . an imperfect.. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 268. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. In Sec. But later. ACTIVE VOICE. 9. [To] be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] have been chosen. Indefinite. have no tense. 266. and when passive. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. INFINITIVES. when inflections became fewer. to express action unconnected with a subject. To with the infinitive. they have an indefinite. [To] have chosen. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. as in the Old English. Imperfect.

it may be the subject of a verb. But there was nothing to do. it has several attributes of a noun. 272. or the object of a verb or a preposition. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. feel. learn [doth learn is one verb. The gerund is like the participle in form. also let. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. 270. too. as in the expression." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. . (3) After had in the idiomatic use.²E. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. it is often preceded by the definite article. as the credulous imagine.. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent.). hear.² She was a kind. "I do go" etc. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. also in the imperative. under "Analysis. as. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning." Examples are. as. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. sometimes need (as. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. GERUNDS. They shall have venison to eat.²MACAULAY. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. negative.²it may be governed as a noun. as.²DE QUINCEY. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal." "I shall have chosen. must. E. see. poor woman!" cried Charles. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. bid (command). While the gerund expresses action. liberal woman.(2) After the verbs may (might)." (4) In exclamations.²HOWELLS. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.²COOPER. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. can (could). "He need not go") and dare (to venture). and corn to hoe.²TENNYSON. and like a noun in use. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. HALE. "He will choose.² What! doth she. "She ask my pardon. please.²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING. make. and emphatic forms of the present and past. "a house to let. watch. 269." etc. 271. do (as.

273. brilliant. which name an action or state. on your leaving the spot. and has been put down. which express action." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. 4. b). Words in -ing are of six kinds. may govern and be governed. (4) Pure adjectives. but do not assert. Then how pleasing is it. and five gerunds. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. when. II). making the definite tenses. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. (3) Participial adjectives. What a vast. to see the returning hope of the parents. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Exercise. which express action and also modify." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. (5) Gerunds. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." also (2. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. five infinitives." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. which have lost all verbal force. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. above. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. after examining the nest. 2.²Find sentences containing five participles. Sec. (6) Verbal nouns. and wonderful store of learning! . according to use as well as meaning. but cannot govern. which express action." Exercise." "Certainly dueling is bad. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. (2) Pure participles.

He spread his blessings all over the land.²strong or weak. or imperative. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. subjunctive. round which is an iron railing. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 16. I. bearing her national emblem. giving principal parts. 9. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. give reality to your teaching. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 7. Thackeray did not. but. much corroded.²which of the tenses given in Sec. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. (5) Person and number. like Sir Walter Scott. (b) as to use. Caution. (3) Mood. . 10. 11. you must. 15. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 6. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 14.²transitive or intransitive. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. write twenty pages without stopping. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 234. 12. In parsing verbs.5. by object lessons. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing.²indicative. 13. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. What is dreaming? 8. (4) Tense. he gave out sentence by sentence. dictating from his chair.²active or passive. VERBS. 275. (2) Voice. slowly.

(1) Participle. It has been intimated in Sec." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. and not taken as single verbs. call should a weak verb. verbals. Take these examples:² 1. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. (3) Gerund. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Exercise. 277. 2. Especially frequent are those made up of should. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. (c) to what word it belongs. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. 278. Let it rise! let it rise. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. If a participial adjective. perfect. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. and parting day linger and play on its summit. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. may. therefore active. can. indicative. definite. till it meet the sun in his coming. (a) From what verb derived. active. perfect. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. and should always be analyzed as phrases. VERBALS. But unless the verb is present. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. III. (2) Infinitive. (b) its use (Sec. indicative (as it means could). and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1.. Parse the verbs. intransitive. has for its subject Lee. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. we must beware of the rule. then parse it as an adjective. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 4. no sin nor sorrow. (b) whether active or passive. In 2. 278(2). etc. In such sentences as 1. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. followed by a pure infinitive without to. in the world. VERB PHRASES. might. must. could. call might a weak verb. etc. imperfect. 235. past tense. You are gathered to your fathers. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. see Sec. 2. give points (a) and (b). 3. has the subject government. (b) whether indefinite. 273). . past tense. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. and ends in -s. intransitive. usually it does not.276. would. II." Sometimes it does.

a new waking up of all that has life. 14. as the Hindoos say. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. as usual. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 8. With them. 19." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. he thought only of her. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 16. or. a sweet good will. Such a boy could not whistle or dance.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 21. 6. 11. 20. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. a new bursting forth of the sun. However that be. from a sort of temporary death. and wondered if she were yet awake. When he arose in the morning. The soul having been often born. 12. leaving me upon the bed. "God save our Lord the King!" 7.O God. He passed across the room to the washstand. morning is not a new issuing of light. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 9. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 22. 23. .Henceforth in me instill. So. 15. 24. see that it is in good condition. as rolled from wing to wing. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers.5. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. Right graciously he smiled on us. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 13.Down all the line. 18. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. a deafening shout. In going for water. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 17. 10.

" "He was absolute. who live with nature?²ID. to consent. and limit adjectives or adverbs. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. 279. to speak truly. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. thou sayest. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. place."²DE QUINCEY." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Is it only poets. and men of leisure and cultivation. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. . and so on.Feast while we may. or manner: as. because. And now wend we to yonder fountain. for example. When action is expressed. The word adverb means joined to a verb." An adjective or an adverb. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 27. Adverbs modify. ADVERBS. 26. Oh.²CARLYLE.25. Better it were. 29.² The young man reveres men of genius. A verb." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. as.²SHELLEY.²EMERSON.²time. and live ere life be spent. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend.²THACKERAY. To the almost terror of the persons present. "William's private life was severely pure. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Nor was it altogether nothing. they are more himself than he is. for the hour of rest is at hand. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].

and rather forced into the service of adjectives. Make music to the lonely ear. and that. hitherto. like the light of heaven. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.² LOWELL. but some verb understood. . is a modifying word. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. An adverb. 169 are felt to be elliptical. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. there are six classes:² (1) Time. but still with a rich bloom to it. (2) according to their use in the sentence.² FRANKLIN. 280. I draw forth the fruit. 282. before.²These last differ from the words in Sec. 281. Definition. which may qualify an action word or a statement. or a word group used as such. ALDRICH. not simply the forms used in predication. B. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.²TROLLOPE. Thus considered. It may also modify a sentence. A clause or sentence. to-day. then. A phrase.²BYRON.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. as now.²THOREAU.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. but really modifying. ²IRVING. not the noun.²LEIGH HUNT. thus. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. has induced some of us to attend it. 169.²T. We are offered six months' credit. ever. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. as. Surely happiness is reflective. perhaps. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. etc. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. as shown in the sentences.He was incidentally news dealer. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. all wet and glossy. NOTE. and half awfully. while those in Sec. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. lately. NOTE. being adverbs naturally and fitly. for example.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.

(2) Place.. and others. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. Motley. Meekness. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.thither. Emerson. etc.which gained him such universal popularity. White. much. (5) Degree. surely. not.thence.. slightly. two by two. too. (4) Number. singly.whence.where. This long's the text. slowly. 283.. especially the comparative of these words.²BROWNING.² The master. as well. whencesoever. (3) Manner. as little. telling how many times: once. possibly. at least. better. etc. just. etc. LOUIS STEVENSON.whither. probably. as perhaps. The more they multiply. etc. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. or how far he believes it to be true. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.yonder. . thus. beautifully. greatly. So also in Grote. that these adverbs form a very large class. the more perfect will be their obedience.was for this once of her opinion. telling how anything is done.²LECKY.²R. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.²DE QUINCEY.there.²HAWTHORNE. etc. etc. as here. and not infrequently are found in literary English.²SHAKESPEARE. whithersoever. the more evidently they love liberty.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. Thackeray. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. the more friends you will have. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.²BURKE. telling how much.. (see also Sec. I was. as hither. 283). Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. (6) Assertion. maybe. [Sidenote The status of such.near. as hence.²IRVING. enough. very. bravely. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. twice. while so precedes only the adjective usually.. above. for example. partly.

Kingsley. a mighty fine gentleman. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Aldrich. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Interrogative. 284. Direct questions. Notice meanings. Some adverbs. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.²BAYNE. 286. Holmes. Franklin.²FIELDING. Dickens. and other writers. De Quincey. A pretty large experience.Pretty. Burke. Such are most of those given already in Sec." said the king.² You are mighty courteous. Mighty." "That were far better [degree]. for example. 285. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. 282.² KINGSLEY. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. have the additional function of asking a question. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. B.²HAWTHORNE. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Defoe." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. and its lawn before [place]. besides modifying. Again.²GOLDSMITH. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.²THACKERAY. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Simple. It is only occasionally used in literary English.²THACKERAY. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." "He spoke positively [manner]. Neville." "I have seen you before [time]. and art but a fool. "Peace. Hard blows and hard money." "The house. ."²SCOTT. Beau Fielding. for example. Emerson. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.²"He walked too far [place].² "Mighty well. STOWE.²BULWER." "That is positively untrue [assertion].

There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. they smiled. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. (4) Degree. for example. 287. . When did this humane custom begin?²H. CLAY.²D. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (5) Reason. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BYRON (3) Manner. (4) Degree. I hearkened.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. WEBSTER. (2) Place. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²BULWER. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. I know not why. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. I will not ask where thou liest low. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (2) Place. I do not remember when I was taught to read.²BYRON.²POE.

288. furthest (rathe. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. and. further farthest. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. have the same inflection as adjectives. Many adverbs are compared. not an adverb. 290. The following. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Form vs. soon. sooner.²SHAKESPEARE. use. well much little far late Comparative. For further discussion. when does not express time and modify. only occasionally having -er and -est. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence." Exercise. when compared. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. highest.²EMERSON. Many adjectives have the same ending.²COLERIDGE. Then must she keep it safelier. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. but the whole clause. Only that we may wiselier see. . see Sec. obs.) rather 289.eyes.²TENNYSON. Exercise. just as adjectives do. representing four classes. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Its strings boldlier swept. Superlative.²BYRON.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. high. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. when. higher. Tell what each word in ly modifies. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.But in reality. as. irregularly compared.. soonest.

With his proud. 291. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. . or down the leaves laughed through.And his mien of kingly state. curiously jolly. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 2. instead of being used adverbially. nearly. He is inexpressibly mean. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. hard. to be sure.²CHAUCER. Not near so black as he was painted. more courtly in their manners.²THACKERAY. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. 8.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. There are eyes. if it has the verb be. And all about. Again. 5. evenly. whether adverbs or adjectives. But he must do his errand right. 3. The reason is. that in Old and Middle English. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²WORDSWORTH. even. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. etc. Such are most. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. kindly and good-natured in secret. 6. 7. merely introduces a sentence.² EMERSON. mostly. 292. 2. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. Special use of there. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.²IRVING. but with a different meaning. many words without -ly have the same form. Frequently the word there. as. quick-flashing eye. hardly.²ID. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. near.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride." Compare these:² 1.1. 4.²TENNYSON.

however theoretically enticing. if the word is compared. the Madonna is in great glory. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 17. 293. 2. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. burning in the center of the temple. 10. 5. 9. but continually shifted. (2) Degree of comparison. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 16. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. according to meaning and also use. 18. 3. and always. The higher we rise in the scale of being. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. In parsing adverbs. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. give² (1) The class. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. But a few steps farther on. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 15. is always politically unwise. 4. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. . the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. It is the Cross that is first seen.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. but from my fall? 6. 7. For the impracticable. and sate down on the steps of a house. 11. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. at the regular wine-shop. 12. Thither we went. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Exercise. (3) What word or word group it modifies.

" "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. Definition. Unlike adverbs. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. hence. 20. . or sentence groups.19. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. 294. then. 21. But now the wind rose again. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. CONJUNCTIONS. nor. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. therefore. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. Clauses. but the student will readily find them. connecting words. A conjunction is a linking word. upon which the sun now shone forth. word groups. should be omnipotent for evil? 24." Paragraphs. however. etc." Sentences. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. 22. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. It was pretty bad after that. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. sentences. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. 295. but side by side within the American Union.

. The assertion. Alternative. nor... both. Your letter. either. as and. Causal. and not man corn. also. Some go in threes.. yet. whether. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.... then. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. the window being open. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. (3) CAUSAL. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. introducing a reason or cause. serves but to show their ignorance. only.but (or but also). . joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. either. had its weight. Adversative. word groups.. the bread was spent. however..or. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.nor.. the butter too.or whether. as well as the room door... nor. Some of these go in pairs.. The chief ones are.. Correlatives. 298. neither. While the earth bears a plant....or.. or the sea rolls its waves. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. else. 297. but is emperor in his own right. as but. as. etc. whether. however. neither. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. joining words." Nevertheless. for. usually between two things. (2) ADVERSATIVE. likewise.. (2) Subordinate. as.or. not only.. neither.or.but. while. etc..nor. They are or.. answering to each other in the same sentence. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.Classes of conjunctions. etc.and. not only. expressing a choice.. moreover. still. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. 296. Nor mark'd they less. and. therefore. either. "Howbeit. as well as. (4) ALTERNATIVE. of the same rank.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. hence. whether.

provided that. nor wing of bird. especially that after so.²BURKE.²COOPER. etc. (3) MANNER: how.²J. etc.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. object. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. on condition that. ²ALLSTON. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. nor green leaf. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. whether. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. Time. howsoever. even if.. while. whithersoever. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. so. in order that. etc. so that. seeing. . however. as. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. (7) RESULT: that.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. etc.. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. He is not only bold and vociferous. whenever. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. although. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. now. whereto. provided. though. whence. in case. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. nor creeping thing. etc.. 299.as.²DE QUINCEY.²WILSON.. QUINCY. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. ere. so. whither. that. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. lest.²PAULDING. there will the heart be also.²BIBLE. wherever. since. as. except. until. in apposition. after. so that. unless. It is. Where the treasure is. sometimes if. since. so. before.²IRVING. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. Neither the place in which he found himself. whereas. nor echo. as. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (2) TIME: when. (6) PURPOSE: that.

²DEFOE. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. not as they were expected or intended. a thousand bodies.² WORDSWORTH. Let the world go how it will.²AMES.²EMERSON. We wish for a thousand heads. . There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²COLERIDGE. Substantive. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. JACKSON.That vain it were her eyes to close. I was again covered with water. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²BURKE.²AMES. H. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Comparison.²AMES.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²IRVING.That he gave her wounds repose. Manner.² HAWTHORNE. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Purpose.²CAMPBELL.²EMERSON. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Cause.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²EMERSON. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²BYRON. Result.² EMERSON. reason. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. but not so long but I held it out. Then Denmark blest our chief. As a soldier. Now he is dead.² H.So I behold them not. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Condition. Concession. Sparing neither whip nor spur.

(b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. They. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 15. hold a subordinate rank. 13. then. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. He was brought up for the church. In what point of view. 300. she faintly pressed her hand.Let us see whether the greatest. the lady called her servant. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. The moth fly. Exercises. 6. 3. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. 14.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 10. since. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. as. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. As will have been noticed. 9. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. And they lived happily forever after. Crept under the leaf. etc. however. that. . 2. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 7.²RUSKIN. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 12. it will remain harmless. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. the wisest. 4. No one had yet caught his character. as he shot in air. While a faction is a minority. Besides. While patriotism glowed in his heart. After he was gone. while. and hid her there. her real merit is known at home. some words²for example. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. And then recovering. 5.

expressing degree if taken separately. and be a bud again. 303. As for as if. they connect. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. . 302.²EMILY BRONTE. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong.. in this case. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. If analyzed. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. even as they would weep. "We meet.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. GREELEY.So slowly moved about.²IRVING. Consequently. and the frame will suit the picture. and part as though we parted not. So silently we seemed to speak. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.16. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. In poetry. as is often equivalent to as if..Clouded. none of the lashings having given way.As though a rose should shut. thus. 304. As though.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. As if. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. word groups. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. In parsing conjunctions." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. for example.²HOOD.²BYRON. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. (2) What words.. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. In Emerson's sentence. etc. the expression would be. SPECIAL REMARKS. as is shown by the use of as though. 301." as.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. His voice . sounded as though it came out of a barrel.

or in the forest. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. and its clause depends on the other. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. the Sphinx was slain. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.²EMERSON 3. 2. but of the natural. dines with as good an appetite. "Doctor. When the gods come among men. others belong to several classes. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. in 2.²DEFOE 2. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. that it might testify of that particular ray. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. 5. as beside his own chimneys. so that expresses result. when. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. etc. 10. so they paddled on. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and associates as happily.² 1. Exercise. 9. All the postulates of elfin annals. Some conjunctions. For example.²I find them true in Concord. and. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. and the like. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. such as nor. 6. 13. 11. 7. It may be safely trusted. so that I could not stir abroad. because it is his. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. or in the snow. . 3. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. It continued raining.. he sleeps as warm." said his wife to Martin Luther. He dismisses without notice his thought. because. and very seldom?" 8. so it be faithfully imparted. so means provided.²is subordinate of condition. 12. In classifying them. 4. At sea.Caution. are regularly of one particular class. If he could solve the riddle. they are not known. compare the sentences. in 3. and its clause is independent. He is the compend of time. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor.²that the fairies do not like to be named. so means therefore. he is also the correlative of nature. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries.

27. 25. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. It may be so in the majority of cases. that both were wayward. in this they agree. There was no iron to be seen. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last.²else it is none. For. in many a heart. 24. 29. 26. 19. won't you lay on? 17. of good novels only. Now you have the whip in your hand. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 15. however. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. whose names I omit. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. Still. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. therefore. 305. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. save it were sinful like herself. 20. 23. . to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. I speak. you must be. she might have the family countenance. And whether consciously or not.. when it was presented to them. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. the whole conditions are changed. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 18. enthroned. 22. 16.14. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 30. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 21. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 28. I rejoice to stand here no longer. It is clear. Goodness must have some edge to it. PREPOSITIONS. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at play. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at random. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. H. at first.²B.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. he stopped. at naught. etc. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. Helena.²ID. At that time [the earth] was richer. She saw the boat headed for her. at the best. at rest. by many a million of acres. at most. STODDARD. at war. (2) Time. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. Like at. the first port made by the ship. CONWAY. expressing the degree of difference. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. 320.²ALDRICH. By.²SWIFT. etc.² (1) The general meaning of place. by the ruins of nations. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at length. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. D. (4) Measure of excess. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations.²WARNER. by means near or close to.²M. at work. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.²COOPER. as.²R. at one. Exercise. For. at all. by the blessed memory of the departed.. at any rate.²EVERETT. ²PARTON. At St. by the wrecks of time. . TAYLOR The angel came by night. at peace. 321. Richard was standing by the window. at the worst. at least.²DE QUINCEY. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Exercise. (3) Agency or means. at once.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. By my faith. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.

they are now for us. "For a fool. E. GARRISON. He and they were for immediate attack. cause. considering that etc. and leaped for joy. for all his title. he repented of his folly. etc. poor fellow.²W. for all slips of hers. There are gains for all our losses. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. incitement to action." answered Master Brackett."²SCOTT By my faith.²ID.(2) In favor of. .²PARKMAN The people were then against us. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. The twilight being. (7) Concession. Still. BANCROFT. An Arab woman. respecting. for the benefit of.²HOOD.²PARKMAN. But the Colonel.²PARKMAN.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.²HOLMES. as to. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. etc. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. H. reason. (6) Like as.One of Eve's family. ate her child. (3) Duration of time. in behalf of. L. or in spite of. meaning with regard to.²LAMB.. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. meaning although. had a forest of poor relations. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. if your worship can accomplish that. or extent of space. "thou hast counseled wisely. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. "Nay. (9) Motive. as being.²E..²H. (5) Reference.²IRVING.²STODDARD." said the Lady of Lochleven. a person or thing.²EMERSON. the Colonna motto would fit you best. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. For him. etc. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. for famine. meaning in the character of. (4) Substitution or exchange.² RUSKIN. For the rest. but a few sunsets since.

did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. (3) Time. (2) Origin. The young cavaliers. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. Exercise. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. Exercise. cause. The king holds his authority of the people. from a desire of seeming valiant.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. 322. 323. if not a desperate man. ceased to be merciful. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²BANCROFT.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. more.²MILTON. like from. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The original meaning of of was separation or source. Of.²HUXLEY. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²H. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. Like boys escaped from school.²HIGGINSON. nay.²DRYDEN. The From Relation. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. . Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. H.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. (1) Origin or source.²HALE. From harmony. (4) Motive. or reason. From. A distrustful. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. The general idea in from is separation or source.²HUME.²ID.

ask.²DICKENS II. out of the most unpromising materials. beg. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Asked no odds of. there were only twenty-one members present. Of the Forty.² HUXLEY. as north of. E. reason. ²GAVARRE.²BAYARD TAYLOR. expressing a part of a number or quantity. divest. ²PARTON. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. acquitted them of. White shirt with diamond studs.²BOSWELL. or breastpin of native gold. cure. (5) Expressing agency. motive. etc. of his own knowledge. wide of. (6) Partitive. . that Cromwell once ruled England. Other Relations expressed by Of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. rob. "I am glad of that. More than one altar was richer of his vows.²BANCROFT. south of.²clear of. weeds. Back of that tree. (d) With words expressing distance. purge. HALE. etc.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. clear.²ID.. disarm. etc.²LEW WALLACE. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²PARKMAN. deprivation. the finest army that Europe had yet seen."²E. especially out of. You cannot make a boy know. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. such as ease. relieve.²HIGGINSON.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. etc. bare of. free. The hills were bare of trees. and grass.²SCOTT Who formed. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. bound with thongs of boar's hide. deprive. demand. Sandals. (c) After nouns expressing lack. free of. rid. He is away of his own free will. (3) With expressions of material. A singular want of all human relation. etc.²ALDRICH. (b) After some adjectives.

of is used in the sense of during. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (10) Of reference. 309. of late. ²IRVING. (8) Appositional. (9) Of time. etc.²HALLECK. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. of a sudden. (c) Two nouns.²LAMB.²COOPER. The fair city of Mexico. Idiomatic use with verbs. concerning. CHANNING. See also Sec. equal to about. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.He washed out some of the dirt.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²W. and the dignity of a queen.. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. when the first is descriptive of the second. for the possessive.²ID.²PRESCOTT.²FROUDE. with regard to. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Besides the phrases of old. (7) Possessive. E. Not even woman's love.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²BANCROFT. The nation of Lilliput. with its object. (b) Noun and gerund. could give shelter from his contumely. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. being equivalent to an infinitive. .²BANCROFT.²BANCROFT. Such a book as that of Job. standing.²LOWELL.²SWIFT. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²ALDRICH. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.

.²Find sentences with six uses of of. on high.²PARKMAN. (2) Time. Upon is seldom used to express time. disapprove. on trial. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. etc. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. avail (one's self). and not a day more. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. On. SIGOURNEY. The general meaning of on is position or direction. Exercise.²ALDRICH.²DE QUINCEY.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. To. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. permit. accept. 325. you are eighteen. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. 324. equal to about. (4) In adjurations. (3) Reference. On my life. on view.²PARKMAN.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. (b) With motion.²EMERSON. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. consist. on a sudden. ²BANCROFT. concerning. allow.²BRYANT. on the wing. without adding to their meaning.²MRS. Cannon were heard close on the left. on board. It also accompanies the verbs tire. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. Upon my reputation and credit. Exercise. etc. Upon. such as admit. approve.²PARKMAN. on the alert.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. repent. complain. and others. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.

His brother had died. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. (5) Equivalent to according to. gay Comedy appears.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²HALE.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING.²BULWER. does the mere music. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. (b) Referring to time. In Old English. Exercise. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. mid meant in company with. . interest. unmasked..²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. 268).²often to the loss of vigor. it may be genuine poetry.Come to the bridal chamber. Nor. had ceased to be.²B. (2) Expressing result. With. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment..²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. To the few. to him. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. 326.to be written over.. He usually gave his draft to an aid.²PARTON.²BENTON To our great delight.²BRYANT.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. We cook the dish to our own appetite..²LANG. whose influence is felt to this hour.²PARKMAN. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Death!²HALLECK. Revolutions. But when. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. to my taste.

With my crossbow I shot the albatross. to find the object of the preposition. (5) Opposition. He was wild with delight about Texas.²HOWELLS. or with the haunch of our near leader.²HALE. first of all. Exercise.²HOWELLS.²ALDRICH. He expired with these words. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²CHANNING. She seemed pleased with the accident. 327. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²EMERSON. E. . it is necessary. had already reached the defile.²WALLACE (7) Time. in spite of. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²DE QUINCEY. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. With all his sensibility. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. HALE. Messala. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. as with you.²DE QUINCEY. but a pleasure"?²LANG. with Heyward at its head. but with you.²SCOTT. he gave millions to the sword.²E. with all his boldness. opinion. (4) Estimation. (2) Instrumentality. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²Find sentences with four uses of with. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²COLERIDGE. motive. "poetry is not a pursuit.²LANG. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. transmitted from the beginning. felt it unsafe to trifle further. (3) Cause. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. It seemed a supreme moment with him.The advance.²COOPER. reason. I think. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. Either with the swingle-bar.

before the dwarf left the queen. (4) from the beginning. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage.²SWIFT 2. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. The guns were cleared of their lumber. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. In (1). and knocked me down flat on my face. In (3). though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. but all to no purpose. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. I felt my box raised very high in the air. like the clapping of wings. To our general surprise. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. (2) on which. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. I remember. because I had given the provocation. came tumbling about my ears. telling what man. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. or was. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. he followed us one day into those gardens. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The object of on board is ships. .²ID. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I looked towards my windows. 3. of without. the phrase answers the question where. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. And so on. I heard a noise just over my head. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. the malicious rogue. Be that as it will. Whereupon. of on. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. beginning. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. by which a dozen apples. of from. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. I called out several times. without a country modifies man. Exercises. 2. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. which. (3) without a country. country. In (2). with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. shook it directly over my head. hence we say. we met the defaulter here. 5. 4. but I received no other hurt. I speak these things from a love of justice. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. and then borne forward with prodigious speed.

He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. On all subjects known to man. 17. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The savage army was in war-paint. 13. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 29. 11. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 19. 8. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The mother sank and fell. 18. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 7. he favored the world with his opinions. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. I like to see the passing. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 9. 24. grasping at the child. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. after a restful morning. 15. His breeches were of black silk. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. in this respect. plumed for battle. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony.Without stop or stay.6. 26. when. 23. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 21. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 14. He locked his door from mere force of habit. to one dark and gloomy. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 16. With all his learning. 10. 25. in town. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. . Carteret was far from being a pedant. 22. 12. For my part. 27.He spurred his courser on. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 20.

² JOHNSON. And now it is like an angel's song.²BEECHER. A few are discussed below. (a) Indefinite relative.²WEBSTER. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. 330. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 329. That is what I understand by scientific education. That night was a memorable one. (c) Substantive conjunction.²COLERIDGE. .²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (4) As an adverb of degree.²STOCKTON. and be proud in the midst of its toil. THAT. and not according to form. (b) Of result. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.That makes the heavens be mute.30.²WEBSTER. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (1) Relative pronoun. WHAT.²HUXLEY. not merely by the amount of the tax. That was a dreadful mistake. 328. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (3) As a relative pronoun. He will raise the price. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. that you might behold this joyous day.²WEBSTER. We wish that labor may look up here.

²EMERSON.²ID. What.in Pera.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. silent still.but. 331. after not only.. Cox. If he has [been in America]. BUT. to see what might be hidden.²S. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. and silent all!²BYRON.. . (b) Copulative.²THACKERAY.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (b) Indirect question. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question..Which be they what they may. (8) Conjunction...these sounds are only to be heard. (9) As an exclamation. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.. (7) Adverb of degree.. or not only. nearly equivalent to partly.²EMERSON. (6) Exclamatory adjective. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. To say what good of fashion we can." (4) Relative adjective.²ID. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.Those shadowy recollections. it rests on reality.²WORDSWORTH. (a) Indefinite relative adjective..it is impossible to determine. What with the Maltese goats. What.²WEBSTER.S. he knows what good people are to be found there. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. "I'll tell you what. At what rate these materials would be distributed.. partly.. but the result of calculation. (b) Indirect question. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.

His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²SCOTT. (3) Preposition. As orphans yearn on to their mothers..Then arose not only tears. or who . And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. sometimes same... (b) Substantive. Who knows but. (b) Of manner. not.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. towards order. stands for that . at all moments. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. after a negative. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. but piercing cries.²IRVING.²EMERSON. (2) Relative pronoun. after such.²FRANKLIN.²MRS BROWNING. (d) Of reason. meaning except.²CARLYLE. not.²SHELLEY. (c) Of degree.. I shall see but little of it.. equivalent to that . meaning only. meaning otherwise . AS. Doing duty as a guard. (4) Relative pronoun. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. . 332. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. like the dog. ²CARLYLE.²LAMB. (5) Adverb.²IRVING.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²IRVING.. (e) Introducing an appositive word. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. on all sides.²HAWTHORNE. not. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. than.He yearned to our patriot bands. To lead but one measure.

liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. . 333. but its verb is omitted. like summer ocean's.²CASS. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²HALLECK.² HAWTHORNE.² A timid.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. like Martin was. That face. and as or as if takes its place. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Through which they put their heads. staring like a bewildered man. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. This follows a verb or a verbal. NOTE. like a cook beating eggs. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²ALDRICH.²SHAKESPEARE.²EMERSON. In this second use. No Emperor. They look. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. If the verb is expressed. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.-SCOTT. In each case. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. and is followed by a dative-objective. this.²EMERSON. ²PARKMAN. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²HIGGINSON. Give Ruskin space enough. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. nervous child. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like him awhile ago.²LONGFELLOW. There is no statue like this living man. Introduces a clause.LIKE.²MAYHEW. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²ALDRICH. and was clearly an adjective. Note the difference between these two uses. like drops out.²DARWIN. (1) An adjective. Stirring it vigorously. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²LAMB.²HAWTHORNE. indeed. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.

Some of these are imitative sounds. 336. but it still retains its identity as noun. Definition. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. clauses introduced by conjunctions." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. 335. Value of analysis. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. in separating them into their component parts.. entering into the structure of a sentence. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. verb.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. as. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech.²in determining case. What analysis is. tut! buzz! etc. etc. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin." PART II. that is.: for example. pronoun.INTERJECTIONS. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. 334. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. . subject and predicate. that is. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Definition. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. etc. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM.

you must not die!" interrogative. declarative. according to form. always friends?" imperative. question. 337. interrogative. "Come to the bridal chamber. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. 338. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. "Hath he not always treasures. But now all is to be changed. entreaty. or imperative.²a subject and a predicate. Definition: Predicate. (3) Imperative." 340. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. or request. "The quality of mercy is not strained. or command: for example. SIMPLE SENTENCES. but according to how many statements there are. This is the most common one. which puts the thought in a question. (2) Interrogative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. Examples of these three kinds are. Definition. Every sentence must contain two parts. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. "Old year. not according to the form in which a thought is put. A rare old plant is the ivy green. . 2. but the sentence would still be declarative. Division according to number of statements. which expresses command. but by no means vulgar. 339. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. hence. In order to get a correct definition of the subject." "What wouldst thou do. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. old man?" "Be thou familiar.Kinds of sentences as to form. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.

or an interrogative pronoun. 341. thou. on the other hand. 4. Listen. not of a rare old plant. Consequently. or ye) is in most cases omitted. as. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. "[You] behold her single in the field. In the interrogative sentence. and our definition must be the following. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 6. to suit all cases:² Subject. the subject (you.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. But if we try this with the second sentence. or adverb that asks about the subject. In analyzing such sentences. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Slavery they can have anywhere. a rare old plant. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. 7. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 3. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 8. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 2. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general.²What is the ivy green? Answer. The last of all the Bards was he. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions." Exercise. adjective. especially in poetry. to an ignorant man. 5. and the real subject is the latter. the subject is frequently after the verb. we have some trouble.²What is to be changed? Answer. . and is to be supplied. Thus. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. all. but about the ivy green. always reduce them to the order of a statement. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves.

It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object." indirect. "Ye call me chief. Direct Object. (5) Modifiers. (4) The complements. Indirect object. but chief belongs to the verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. and me here is not the object simply of call. "Ye honor me. direct. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. . Of a transitive verb. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. (6) Independent elements. but it is a true complement. (2) The predicate. or second object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. for example. 343. in addition to the object.10. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. just as if to say. and by object we mean the direct object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. but of call chief. The transitive verb often requires. The subject and predicate have been discussed. and means summoned. (3) The object." Complement: 344." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object.²transitive and intransitive. Examples of direct and indirect objects are." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). 342. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds.

she sat down to undress the two youngest children.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. "A cheery. feel. sir!' rang out in response. and barring the door. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as." "He was termed Thomas." (2) PARTICIPIAL. in the popular judgment. 364. he was now getting old." Things used as Subject." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. in exercise following Sec. become. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. as in the sentence. See sentence 19. as in drowning. but used as a single modifier." 345. introduced by a preposition: for example. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. seem. A phrase is a group of words. etc. 351." Also an expression used as a noun. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. to the completion of this man of the world. As to form. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. 355. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. ay." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. Thom of the Gills. and." "The good man." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . above sixty. or. taste. Complement of an intransitive verb. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. 346. more familiarly. "Brow and head were round. especially the forms of be. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. 347. 352. 'Ay. in the original Opium Confessions. An intransitive verb. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. as. I mentioned a case of that nature. Phrases." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. and of massive weight." (3) INFINITIVE.. for instance." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." All these complete intransitive verbs. appear. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. not containing a verb.

" (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. etc. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. (4) After "there introductory." Things used as Complement. but the real or logical subject is to print.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. "Therein has been. ." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." "Never. "'By God. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust).²the infinitive phrase. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. Disguised infinitive subject. my deficiency. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. or the thundering of organs." In this sentence. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. for which see Sec." "The dead are there. but they will be given in detail here. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." etc. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. and ever will be. but obscures the real subject." 348. was heard one syllable to justify." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." Things used as Direct Object. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. or their religion from their sect." The for did not belong there originally.²the talent of starting the game." "There are asking eyes. and by Saint George!' said the King. I saw the quick and the dead." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. 349. (2) In interrogative sentences. prowling eyes. from their lips." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. asserting eyes. 341.

are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. they are adjuncts of the object. As complement of an intransitive verb. or Complement. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. the object is made the subject by being passive." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." "Their tempers." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." . and whenever the complement is a noun.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." "Serving others is serving us." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. As complement of a transitive verb." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. and explaining or modifying the subject. 351. Modifiers of Subject. or the equivalent of the noun." In this last sentence. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." "I hear the echoes throng. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.350." "She asked her father's permission." (4) Participle. the shepherd girl. I. Like all the complements in this list." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Object. doubtless. (3) Infinitive.²completing the predicate. Of a transitive verb. and the words italicized are still complements. at the same time.²heads or tails. and." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. complements of the predicate." Modifiers. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.

" "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. was the scene from King John." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. tell whether the subject.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. was now called upon for his defense. unforgiving. austere. II. Tells how." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." Exercise. Since the predicate is always a verb." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. or . given at the request of a Dutch lady. 352. object. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. but noble teachers. Modifiers of the Predicate. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. and leading him from star to star. no sociable angel." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. and modify the predicate in the same way.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." "Give them not only noble teachings." "Him. but it is really a contracted clause. but with other men. 351." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." (For participial and infinitive phrases. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." "In the twinkling of an eye. see further Secs. Retained with passive. "He died like a God." In such a sentence as." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. this young idolater." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon.²proud. the verb being omitted. I have seasoned for thee. 357-363. or complement is modified. not with nature.²In each sentence in Sec. the prisoner at the bar.

the indirect object is retained. in regard to particulars. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. This. and other measures of precaution. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. (b) Pick out the subject. His books have no melody. To the men of this world. 7. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. a sort of personality to the whole writing. no emotion. Why does the horizon hold me fast." "One way lies hope. (a) Pick out subject." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. and.. 7. 4. how far. predicate." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. Evil.When the verb is changed from active to passive. according to old philosophers." "All such knowledge should be given her. and as many to oppose it. 3. 6. in this center? 4. 6. and the direct object is retained: for example. 5." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. On the voyage to Egypt. I took." (6) Adverbial objective. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 3. . and (direct) object:² 1. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. gives wonderful animation. he liked. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. predicate." Exercises. no humor. 8. but the children of the great. 5. is good in the making. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. etc. after dinner. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. no relief to the dead prosaic level. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. but to be loved. 2. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. Fashion does not often caress the great. They do not wish to be lovely. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 2. or how long. These answer the question when. to the animal strength and spirits. with my joy and grief. negative. But anger drives a man to say anything.

2. I felt myself. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 4. 5. this nun so martial. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. to the right and to the left. 2. Their intention was to have a gay. that was thy portion in life. six children sat by a peat fire. burthened with the anxieties of a man. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 4. after their long confinement to a ship. In one feature. and a member of the world. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. downwards.²the river Meuse. 3.. etc. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. Not the less I owe thee justice. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. a room seventeen feet by twelve. for the first time. Unhorse me. the attorney. A river formed the boundary. Not compound sentences. happy dinner. Paint me. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 6. in little peaceful Easedale.y 8. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. . y y y y Compound Subject. this imperial rider. viz. 3. then. expecting the return of their parents. I gave him an address to my friend. upwards. Yes. Compound Predicate. To suffer and to do. at the chief hotel. at length the warrior lady. must visit again the home of her childhood. 3. this dragoon so lovely. That night. I promised her protection against all ghosts. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. then. 5. 2. the blooming cornet. 4.

hurry. forming a sentence: "Oh. shouldered the rusty firelock. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. then the grammatical subject and predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. the predicate. Examples of compound subjects are. hurry. but it is to be noticed that. etc. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. may be the person or thing addressed. complements. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. the simple subject is situation. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety." Sentences with compound predicates are. Independent Elements of the Sentence. 355. the air of the mother. in the sentence. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. turned his steps homeward. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. the tone of her voice." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. ulcer. etc. in all such sentences as we quote below. they are not a necessary part. the object. etc. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. and the rest is the logical predicate." "Ye crags and peaks. "The company broke up.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. The exclamatory expression. 354. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. together with its modifiers. Of this.353. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. exposes." "Voyages and travels I would also have. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." "He shook his head." "The name of the child. and." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. For example. together with all its modifiers. modifiers. above: thus. Larger view of a sentence. and its object or complement. my brave young man!" . Bishop. same as (1). "Ah. the verb).. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. that is. however. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. several modifiers." And so with complements. two or more subjects of the same predicate. I'm with you once again.

" "Well. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. really. see Sec. "Oh. object." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. modifying a noun. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 351. truly. why. In their use. already noticed. 350. he closed his literary toils at dinner. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. see Sec. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. or complement (see Sec." "Why." (2) Adverbial." (3) Independent. her noticing even this is creditable. he somehow lived along. (1) Adjectival. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. the company broke up. The words well. (b) As a modifier of subject. or word used as a noun: for example. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. besides. such as perhaps. this story runs thus. such as however. 357. pronoun. prepositional phrases may be. There are some adverbs.." Another caution. 356. and some conjunctions." "No. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. moreover. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 4).(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. yes! everybody knew them. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. now. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. etc. 6). etc. y (2) The adverbial use. undoubtedly." (5) Participial phrase: "But. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. nevertheless. and so on. he was a conscientious man. instances of which were seen in Sec.. grandma. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. . how you're winking!" "Now." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. let him perish. that have an office in the sentence. 3. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. 352. 4). then." "Truth to say. 355." "At all events. six quill-driving gentlemen. therefore." (6) Single words: as. generally speaking. These need close watching. modifying the predicate. to the best of my remembrance. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb.

" "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. was speedily run through. 355. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. being equivalent to a future with obligation.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." "There. y (a) With may (might)." In this sentence." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.]. necessity. but require somewhat closer attention. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. and hence is adverbial. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." etc. This case excepted.should. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. See Sec. therefore. 358. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec." (c) With the definite forms of go. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes." (b) With the forms of be.seem. but having no other office than a verbal one. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every .would.can (could).000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. and they will be presented here in full." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. Wilt thou." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. he should not have known them at all. (5). suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. etc. The verbal use. "The letter of introduction. etc. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. containing no matters of business. ought. I. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. "Because I was.: as in the sentences. modifying was speedily run through. my dear. thus. or as nearly so as the student will require. and teach her how to be happy and good.

to please is equivalent to that he may please. 5). etc. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." 360. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." "Are you mad. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. The fact that the infinitives in Sec.: for example." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. To test this." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. result. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. modifying a noun that may be a subject." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). already examined." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. object. The adjectival use. to look means that he might look." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. The substantive use." "To say what good of fashion we can. notice the following:² In (1)." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. The adverbial use. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry.. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence.²both purpose clauses. 361. . hang the idiot. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. III. Don Guzman." "He insisted on his right to forget her. 361 are used adverbially." "To teach is to learn. above. II. IV. etc. complement. 362. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). to hear McOrator after dinner. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. (4) In apposition. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. and the eyes to fill?" 359. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. "But there was no time to be lost. 351. the Scotch fighting all the battles.

etc. Our life is March weather. 4. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (3). to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. object. 349). savage and serene in one hour.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. etc.²both expressing condition. The independent use. 2. 364. must be in a life. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 351). 363. 347). 355). as in Sec. V. to part means because I part. 268.. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. and to betray and to bring express the reason.In (2). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. If it is an incomplete verb. 351). to hear means if you should hear.. I will try to keep the balance true. 355. not in a book. (5) The subject (Sec. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. 352). to find shows the result of the return. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. etc. 3. In analyzing simple sentences. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. (7) Independent elements (Sec. In (5)." (See also Sec. give² (1) The predicate. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. which is of two kinds. In (3). . and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. and to say is equivalent to if we say. equivalent to that you betray. give the complement (Secs. 351). In (4). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence.

His opinion is always original. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. and only to be saved by invention and courage. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. Her aims were simple and obvious. in popular use. to the moral sphere. might be called flabby and irresolute. and spared nothing. 18. to restore civil and religious order. a good shot. with eager energy. a graceful dancer. two stricken hours. 19. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. To these gifts of nature. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. You may ramble a whole day together. 7. like a witch's oils. nor himself.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 15. is to have no political system at all. 13. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. through toys and atoms.The old crow of Cairo. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings.²to preserve her throne. nor money. good and amiable otherwise. I have heard Coleridge talk. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. an accomplished scholar. . 11. 6. 16. a skilled musician. The word conscience has become almost confined. 8. The water. 22. 9. and to the purpose. neither ammunition. We are always in peril. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. He risked everything. Old Adam. 5. It is easy to sugar to be sweet.4. always in a bad plight. nor troops. 20.Burnt green and blue and white. 12. 21. and every moment discover something new. nor generals. 23. To be hurried away by every event. 10. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 17. 14. The whole figure and air. to keep England out of war. 24.He sat in the shower. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. through evil agents. the carrion crow. just on the edge of destruction. Through the years and the centuries.

38. 41. baggage far in the rear. 37.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings.Distant. 30. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. and no provisions but wild berries. The villain. I dare this. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 27. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 32. 36. Fair name might he have handed down.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Upon this shore stood. or perhaps one virtue. 35. to bid you leave the place now and forever. the same Condé Olivarez. This amiable relative. Supposing this computation to be correct. 26. in less heroic and poetic form. it would not have been filial or ladylike. Of the same grandeur. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. 33. still. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. In the Acadian land. to be a reproach to such goodness. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. Oxford. 39. time-honored. in front of all this mighty crowd. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. ready to receive her. and in my own garden. an elderly man. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. I hate him and myself. haply. and the why. the ship was in an uproar. She had made a two days' march. secluded. Now. 40. and the wherefore? . surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 29. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. The cry. the prime minister of Spain. had but one foible. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Few in number. 34. 31.25. and. Must we in all things look for the how. the present capital of New England. in this world. proud foe. upon my own ground. But yield. on the shores of the Basin of Minas.

From her own loved island of sorrow. 365. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. the pride and beauty of the grove. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. 367. are really contracted clauses.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. which is the unit of speech. Some sentences look like simple ones in form.² "She is like some tender tree. . The simple sentence the basis. the expressions of manner introduced by like." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly." This must. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." Sentences with like." To show that these words are really omitted. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. As shown in Part I. but. thus.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. COMPLEX SENTENCES. 333)." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Words left out after than or as. if they were expanded. however. though often treated as phrases. as. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. 366. as would be the connective instead of like. (Sec." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. made merely for convenience and smoothness.

suffering.²the backbone. Hence the following definition:² Definition. or it may be applied to the others. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. which are so united that one member is the main one. containing a verb with its subject. we are aware. that is. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. etc. 368. 370. main. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. complement.." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. 371. A clause is a division of a sentence.. predicate. then we recognize this as the main statement. object. .. modifiers.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. is taken in. each clause has its subject. 369. object. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). and the last. A principal. Definition. as in this sentence. how great . | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. complements.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. or dependent on it. logically depends on suffering. and modifier. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. that . murmur. Independent clause. CLAUSES.. and the next one. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence.²the other members subordinate to it. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject.

(a) Ordinary apposition. for example. attention is called to them here. 372. Noun Clauses." (4) Apposition. ADJECTIVE. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. for example..Dependent clause. but logically the sentence is." "I was told that the house had not been shut.. clauses are divided into NOUN. thus. As to their office in the sentence." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. 373.. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things." (2) Object of a verb." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. 'I know that he can toil terribly. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.' is an electric touch. impertinences²would be grammatical. for a time.. 5).. over which the torrent came tumbling. adjectives." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. impertinences. pronoun. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. . verbal. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. infinitive. night or day. (b) that are . Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. so the object clause is retained. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. put an end to my fancies. is retained after a passive verb (Sec." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. We ourselves are getting . 352. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. with a noun clause in apposition with it.." 374." Just as the object noun. or adverbs. for a hundred years. But since they are complex in form. and ADVERB clauses. Kinds. and the whole clause is not.. and it is . etc.

Other examples of this construction are. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 3. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 10. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. where. how it changed from shape to shape. I was napping. sometimes by the conjunctions when. that. But the fact is. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Adjective Clauses. What history it had. 9. 6. whence." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. whereby.² "It is on the understanding. or equivalent of a noun. etc. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. he could know nothing. Examples of adjective clauses. that. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. that all safe legislation must be based. Such a man is what we call an original man. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. wherein. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. and not on the sentiment. . but. in the sentence. 5. of a nation. 2. as. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 7. a relative pronoun being understood. he would repent it. Frequently there is no connecting word. 8. 375. no man will ever know.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. whether he should choose one or not. still remains reasonable. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Except by what he could see for himself." Exercise. which. a falsehood incarnate. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. 4. whither. As the office of an adjective is to modify. that he was a scheming impostor. The reply of Socrates.

1. etc. . 8. which formed the center of the mansion." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 5. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 4. whether subject. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. Pick out the adjective clauses. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. 6. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 9. all is vacancy. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 10." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups." Exercise. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. 11. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. Adverbial Clauses." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 7. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. I walked home with Calhoun. No man is reason or illumination. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. the champions advanced through the lists." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness.. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 2. or that essence we were looking for.e. he begins to help us more as an effect. 3. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. object. which Rowena tasted. and tell what each one modifies. i.376.

with examples." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent.. tell what kind each is. but they require careful study." (3) REASON. 378. the milestones are grave-stones. is wider.: "But still. a verbal. shaping our actions." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church.377. however good she may be as a witness." "After leaving the whole party under the table. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. so far as we can. introduced by indefinite relatives." "When he was come up to Christian. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. whatever." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. Exercise. he goes away as if nothing had happened. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." (5) DEGREE. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints.² whoever. an adjective." "The right conclusion is. expressing the degree in which the horizon. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. and will be given in detail." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. and adverbial conjunctions." "The broader their education is. since he was too great to care to be original. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. to make up our shortcomings. or an adverb. the wider is the horizon of their thought." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." (7) RESULT." "He went several times to England. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." (9) CONCESSION. and what it modifies:² . etc. etc. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. Joanna is better." "Who cares for that. adverbs. no matter what remains. etc. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. however." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. that we should try. it takes precedence of everything else." These mean no matter how good. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly.

These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. to tell the truth. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. and modifiers. If the children gathered about her. so as to picture the parts and their relations. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves.1. with shrill. etc." 2. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. on a dark wintry night. snatching up stones to fling at them. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. predicate.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. banging about doors and windows. of which clause Odin is the subject. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. we are a little disappointed. 380. howling and whistling. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. object. they might perhaps say of their visitors. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. incoherent exclamations. its object is that Odin was a reality. as they sometimes did. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. find the principal subject and principal predicate. 3. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. then treat noun clauses as nouns. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. in the sentence. For example. when the wind was unruly. 379. and twirling weathercocks. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. 'Well.

2. (1) Find the principal clause. 3. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. d. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 380).. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 364. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. .. Exercises. 364. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .

bishop. 18. The deep eyes. that pressed her with an objection. Whether she said the word is uncertain. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 12. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold.4. Here lay two great roads. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. Next came a wretched Dominican. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. The night proved unusually dark. 13. that. He was what our country people call an old one. 20. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. who would yield to it least. dying for them. Had they been better chemists. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 6. . of a light hazel. as for armies that were too many by half. 22. could not have been effected. 10. M. Now. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 15. 8. 21. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 11. 23. the flower should revive for us. whom I choose. 24. 17. counselor that had none for herself. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 7. if applied to the Bible. 19. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. And those will often pity that weakness most. But now that she has become an establishment. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. had we been worse. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 16. the mixed result. for yours. I like that representation they have of the tree. This is she. namely. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. not so much for travelers that were few. 14. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. or whether any. 5. which. 9. the shepherd girl. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone.

6. 380. and stamped with his right number. if there be one to whom I am not equal. speed. then map out as in Sec. would easily reach. How formed. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. (b) First analyze. COMPOUND SENTENCES. That which we do not believe. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 2. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. we cannot adequately say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. and temper. 382. or commands. questions. 3. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 27. though we may repeat the words never so often. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. is to speak and write sincerely. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength." 4. but above it. These things we are forced to say. 28. 26. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened." said Bentley. It makes no difference how many friends I have. "No book. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. 383. 7. and not from his heart. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. the following complex sentences:² 1. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. "was ever written down by any but itself. . 5. Hence the definition. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. that it was no more than his daily walk. if continuously extended. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will.25.²which will not be disposed of. 30. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses.² Definition. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. and what content I can find in conversing with each.

and not the form of the connective. he soliloquizes. The coördinate conjunctions and. 386. Of the following illustrative sentences. nor does he know until he has tried. in (3). Speak your latent conviction. Thus in (1)." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. . (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. the waving grass. "Only the star dazzles. a complex member. and which complex:² 1. which are simple statements." 384. and nor the second and third complex members.. whereas. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. others sometimes coördinate. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. yet. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. a simple member. the planet has a faint. while (whilst). etc. in (2). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. Study the thought." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. from the second. as but. Another example is. and it shall be the universal sense. as in Sec. etc. 385. for. and connects the first and second complex members. he is twice a man. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Some of these are now conjunctions. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. he dilates.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. however. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). moon-like ray" (adversative). the semicolon separates the first. now adverbs or prepositions. 383 (1). tell which are compound. or but. nor. Connectives. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. 297). Exercise. if there are any. The division into members will be easier. he walks with arms akimbo.

387. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 10. 14. 4. for example. is particular. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 381. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 12. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. nay. (i) Separate it into its main members. to find a pot of buried gold. or. Love. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 3. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. so is every one of its parts. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec.2. 9. and not by what each is. Whilst the world is thus dual. Man does not stand in awe of man. however. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. you have gained something else. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. that it was Easter Sunday. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 5. 4. all pain. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 8. 13. For everything you have missed. Exercise. and for everything you gain. 11. 3. The gain is apparent. and thou shalt be loved. 2. I can still receive. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. In this manner. All loss. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. unobtrusive boy. he grew up to be a mild. and as yet very early in the morning. . I can yet love. 364. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. from a happy yet often pensive child. you lose something. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. passed in that time. 6. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. quiet. 7. the tax is certain. yield to them heart and life.

and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. They will shuffle and crow. and the cart as nigh the rake. why should we intrude? 10. "Strike. Stand aside. 16. 20. 18. let them mount and expand. "the iron is white. "as nigh the scythe as you can." 13. whilst frankness invites frankness. 14. 7. modesty. 19. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. Trust men. and the other dares not. 15. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and they will be true to you. is as thin and timid as any. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. because. puts the parties on a convenient footing. and they will show themselves great. that let him communicate. Whatever he knows and thinks. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and the peace of society is often kept. feign to confess here. as children. abide by it. 9. one is afraid. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and he learns who receives. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. We see the noble afar off. or we read books. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. only that they may brag and conquer there. 17. Come into port greatly." "keep the rake. or hope. and makes their business a friendship. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. or sail with God the seas." says the smith. He teaches who gives. and not a thought has enriched either party. and not an emotion of bravery. or men will never know and honor him aright. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 11. We go to Europe. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 6." says the haymaker. .5. and they repel us. 21. treat them greatly. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. crook and hide. if you rip up his claims. 8. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. or we pursue persons. give those merits room. When you have chosen your part.

or. Essential point in English syntax. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. INTRODUCTORY. PART III. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. so readily and lavishly they promise. Following the Latin method. they lose themselves in the crowd. adjective and noun. 390. 25. 380. So does culture with us. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . 24. We see young men who owe us a new world. and dodge the account. 388. but go about your business anywhere. but they never acquit the debt.²agreement and government. Ground covered by syntax. 23. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. verb and subject. it never was known to fall into the rear. By way of introduction. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. if they live. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English.22. the department of syntax will be a small affair. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. but its leading characteristic is. they die young. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. pronoun and antecedent. SYNTAX. Do not craze yourself with thinking. it ends in headache. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition.

"None remained but he. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. then. therefore. and imitate it. yet the expression is sustained by good authority." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. also expressing a possessive relation. The basis of syntax. Also in the sentence.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. good English. and it would not matter which one stood first. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. distinct forms would be used. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language.² First. In Latin. or settler may be the subject. but are not now. and added to it the preposition of. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. 393. Why study syntax? 391. take the sentence. Savage may be the subject. This is not logical. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. . a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. When usage varies as to a given construction. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. or when they exist side by side in good usage. the order being inverted. As an illustration of the last remark. In some cases. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. Second. For example. "The savage here the settler slew. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. pronoun and antecedent. the sentence. following the regular order of subject. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion." In this there is a possessive form. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. and whose judgment. some of which conform to classical grammar. both forms will be given in the following pages. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. sometimes verb and subject. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). 392. or the same writer will use both indifferently. etc. as to study inflected forms. authorities²that is. There is. Some rules not rigid." is ambiguous. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan." that is. and nothing but important points will be considered.

In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. .NOUNS. etc. and Peterborough's.²MCCULLOCH. 396.²RUSKIN. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Joint possession. Use of the possessive.²EMERSON. 394. Woman. the shore of Galilee. He kept Bolingbroke's.²THACKERAY.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. 397. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. and Peter's. but imply separate possession or ownership. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun." Juletta tells. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. for example. 408). When two or more possessives modify the same noun. and Pope's.²ROWE.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. and Paul's. ²ID. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Separate possession. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Putting Mr. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Bentham's principles together. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.² Live your king and country's best support.²MACAULAY.²MILTON. the antechamber of the High Priest. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²BYRON. 395. and Harley's. Mill's and Mr. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. sense and nature's easy fool. as. PRONOUNS.

² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. the real thought being forgotten.²BYRON. thus. together with the relative who. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.²WHITCHER. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. Some of the violations are universally condemned. 398." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. whom is the complement after the verb am. for example. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). Still. there are two general rules that require attention. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. others are generally. and should be the nominative form. the last expression has the support of many good writers. This should be "as she. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. General rules. Bedott Papers.²SHAKESPEARE. But he must be a stronger than thee.²POPE. as." 400. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. .) "The young Harper. I. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. if not universally.²TROLLOPE. Objective for the nominative.²THACKERAY.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. sanctioned. No mightier than thyself or me. who. Since most of the personal pronouns. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. 399.²SOUTHEY.

But still it is not she. A safe rule. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.²KINGSLEY.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.² For there was little doubt that it was he. is. both in England and America. One exception is to be noted. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. namely. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. the objective form is regularly found. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. In spoken English. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. "If there is any one embarrassed. ."²WINTHROP.²MACAULAY. on the other hand. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. The camp of Richard of England. for example. Patrick the Porter.²LONGFELLOW.² One I remember especially.²SCOTT. and the other forms of the verb be. they are yet holier than we.²FIELDING. "Who's there?"²"Me. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²THACKERAY. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. are. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS."²WM."²KINGSLEY. I have no other saint than thou to pray to." 401. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²COLERIDGE. The usage is too common to need further examples. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. it will not be me. unless a special. And it was heThat made the ship to go. but such is the fact. BLACK. "Than whom.²PARTON. as." There is no special reason for this.²RUSKIN. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.

Whom they were I really cannot specify. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. as. I speak not to" (he should be him. as. now. as. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. "Ask the murderer. 7.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 4. it is me. 8. object of saw). 3. 11. Nominative for the objective. Truth is mightier than us all. or preposition which governs it. . 5. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it.Exercise. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. verbal. you or me. 403. If there ever was a rogue in the world.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. as this from Shakespeare. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. Me in exclamations. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. or this." 6. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. 10. or us). It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. It is not me you are in love with. and prepositions. (3) By forgetting the construction. 2. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. but not he" (he should be him. used after verbs. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 9. verbals. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). the object of to)." the word being in apposition with murderer). 404.²MILTON. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb.

²KINGSLEY. Exception 2. partial Nature. Let you and I look at these. 2. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Who have we here?²ID. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. . as.Shall be left upon the morn. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.²KINGSLEY. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. as.² All were knocked down but us two. Thy shores are empires. as well as the objective.²STEELE. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. 405. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. who interrogative. "Who did you see?" or. and is usually avoided.²BYRON. for example.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²KINGSLEY. changed in all save thee.Exception 1.²BYRON. "Who were they talking to?" etc. Exercise. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. for they say there are none such in the world. save thou and thine. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Thou. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. We regularly say. etc. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. all but he. but he.²GOLDSMITH. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. None. I've sworn. Nature. I arraign. 406. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.

Markland. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 8. 11. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²SCOTT.²possessive. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach." 4. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. who.Ye I salute. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²THACKERAY. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Preceding a gerund.²RUSKIN. 5.3. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. II.²DE QUINCEY.²C. As antecedent of a relative. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. They crowned him long ago. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. They are coming for a visit to she and I. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. BROWN. Bartholomew. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²MACAULAY.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 6. and they know that as well as me. or objective? . Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. 9. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 12. This usage is not frequent. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. POSSESSIVE FORMS. with Jortin and Thirlby. 407. 10. 7. B.

" or "We heard of Brown's studying law." That is.²CARLYLE. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.408. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.² IRVING. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Possessive. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. both are gerunds. . Why both are found.² SCOTT. and that in the second. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. [who was] studying law.² THACKERAY. etc. object of heard of. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. that the bitterness of death was past. and asked why it was not made. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. We heard of Brown. The last incident which I recollect. The use of the objective is older. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. studying is a gerund. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind.²RUSKIN.²BREWER. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.²DICKENS. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.²DE QUINCEY. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. In the examples quoted. as he turned away from his wife. and the meaning is.²MACAULAY. sometimes it has the objective. But in common use there is no such distinction. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. Objective. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. Here I state them only in brief. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. Both types of sentences are found.² CARLYLE.

and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²DEFOE.² BRYANT. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. BROCKDEN BROWN. If any one did not know it. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. and ought to agree with them in person. it was his own fault. number.²DE QUINCEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. 409.²THACKERAY. .²EMERSON III. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. the pronoun will be neuter singular. The pale realms of shade. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. In such a case as the last three sentences. or is a distributive word. and gender.²when the antecedent.²C.²AUDUBON. Every city threw open its gates.²CABLE. if the antecedent is neuter. in one person.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²HUXLEY. Everybody had his own life to think of. Watch for the real antecedent.²HOLMES.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²THOREAU. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²DE QUINCEY.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²RUSKIN. preceded by a distributive. Examples of these constructions are. where there were examinations. 410. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. taking in each of many persons. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.

²PALEY. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. This is not considered the best usage.²BIBLE. If the part deserve any comment. Every one must judge of their own feelings. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²SCOTT.²BYRON. and giving them means of being so.²PALGRAVE.²DEFOE. . is to use the plural of the pronoun following. By using the plural pronoun. for example.²AUSTEN. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Whosoever hath any gold.²FIELDING. till they have lost him.²PAULDING. Struggling for life. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²THACKERAY. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²ID. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²ID. 411. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. not a mowing idiot. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.² Not the feeblest grandame. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. The sun.²EMERSON.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²HUXLEY. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. let them break it off. as anybody in their senses would have done.²RUSKIN.

It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. but. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. when coördinating." It defines beggar.) and a personal pronoun. Exercise. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. the definite relatives who. I. is equivalent to a conjunction (and.²ID. in each instance:² Who. unless both genders are implied." This means. because. It adds a new statement to what precedes.²ADDISON. In the following examples. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. but. etc. and he went away. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. which. 1. "I gave it to the beggar. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. Exercise. which.² SHERIDAN. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. who went away. 2. and that are restrictive or not. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. ." A relative.Where she was gone. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. A relative.²In the above sentences. or what was become of her. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. What these terms mean. according to the practice of every modern writer. 413. tell whether who. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. as. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. that being considered already clear. That is in most cases restrictive. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. or unrestrictive. and does not add a new statement. 412. and that always restrictive. when restrictive.²HAWTHORNE. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. no one could take upon them to say. As to their conjunctive use.

that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. and over England are saying. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. For example. etc. In what sense true. Hare has printed. as that does not vary for person or number. 13. 10." that is invariable as to person and number. With narrow shoulders. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.² MOTLEY.²DE QUINCEY. BEECHER 5.²ID. A grizzly-looking man appeared. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. in the sentence. down. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²ID.² NEWMAN. etc. 11. . and it is called logic. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. they. That.²THOREAU. she agreed to join the party. 7. So different from the wild. II. The general rule is.3. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. because of its antecedent. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. 6. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. it makes the verb third person singular. The rule. long arms and legs. W. these or that which. Which. who. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. However. 414. 4. 14. 12. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. On hearing their plan. which Mr.²HOLMES..² CARLYLE.² IRVING. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. which was to go over the Cordilleras. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand.²ADDISON.²H. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. he. etc. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. Yet how many are there who up. but. that were often vicious.²DE QUINCEY. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. We say I. 8. you. 9. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.

A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. or which .²LOWELL.²BOWLES. but the former has good authority. when he derided the shams of society. . struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. MORSE. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²M. "one of the finest books that has been published. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. He is one of those that deserve very well." One of . ARNOLD... and write the verb in the plural. Franklin. but myself. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²J... in winning a battle. etc. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. [singular or plural.²ADDISON. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. [plural] that who.] Both constructions are frequently found. etc.²HOWELLS.²ADDISON. but speaks of him as that sort.²whether we should say. JR.." or.²MACAULAY. French literature of the eighteenth century. The fiery youth . and in improving a victory..²SCOTT.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. Let us be of good cheer. 415. others regard books as the antecedent. A disputed point.²HOLMES. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. the true antecedent. Singular. with one as the principal word.²LECKY. who rarely speak at all. "one of the finest books that have been published.²LOWELL. The latter is rather more frequent. T.. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.

The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. return. and see if the sentence is made clearer. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²DEFOE. Exercise. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. 417.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. and such like: as.²BURNS. where. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. when this dust falls to the urn. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²IRVING.In that same state I came. III. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²GOLDSMITH. whence." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. I could see nothing except the sky. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. 416.A rare Roundabout performance. when the relative word is a pronoun. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention." "India is the place [in which.² THACKERAY.²ID. object of a preposition understood. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²SCOTT. or where] he died. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. that is.²SWIFT.²In the above sentences. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²ADDISON. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.² RUSKIN. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. IV.² . But I by backward steps would move.²EMERSON.And.²CARLYLE."²DICKENS. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.²VAUGHAN. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²EMERSON.

²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. Caution. if same is followed by a complete clause. etc. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. she passed the lamp over her face and person. as of knives. as is not used.²FRANKLIN. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. he. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. was a discoverer. but we find the relative who. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. Which. That. I might as well have staid at home.. for example. boats. 418.²WORDSWORTH.² Which. and working in the same spirit.² MACAULAY.. V. if I had resolved to go on with. The regular construction. Anacoluthic use of which.He considered.²SCOTT.²ADDISON. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. or that. W.²SWIFT. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. which.²R. They believe the same of all the works of art. Mr. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. but which is usually carefully avoided. .² BURKE. CHURCH. with Turner. but. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.me as his apprentice. looking-glasses. ²GOLDSMITH. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.² THACKERAY.

Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. But who.²RUSKIN. He delivered the letter. which when Mr. This was a gentleman. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors.²HAWTHORNE. (2) "Among the poorer sort. but none is expressed. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. After this came Elizabeth herself. .²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.²SHAKESPEARE.. 2. etc. le Conte. 419. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. And who. etc.. Thornhill had read. Exercise. now thrown upon their. That is. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. and which. Exercise. (3) "Among the poorer sort. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. who are now thrown. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. 4. he said that all submission was now too late.²DE QUINCEY. once a great favorite of M. or." etc. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.. but. As the sentences stand. or leave out both connective and relative. (1) "Among those who are poor. and who are now. and this be placed in the proper clause." etc.² Direction for rewriting." etc. Express both relatives. or omit the conjunction.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 1.She'd come again. 3.²SCOTT.²which if they once heard. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.

And which. 10.5. and which has never been described. Akin to the above is another fault. the French. That .. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity.² MOTLEY. I shall have complete copies.²IRVING. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²SCOTT. who. then. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.. Or who.²SCOTT. and which. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. But which. 8. Or which.²DE QUINCEY. as a false and astucious mark. "A mockery. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. etc. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. I saw upon the left a scene far different. Dr. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. 12. 11. 420. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. "What knight so craven. 13.²HAWTHORNE. English by name. 9." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. etc. one of signal interest. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.²DE QUINCEY. 1. . either from imitation of their frequent allies. which the Scotch had learned. Exercise. and repeat this for any further reference. and to whom no door is closed. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 6. like that spoken in the towns. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE..²PEARSON. indeed. and which may even be heard a mile off. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .. 7. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.

such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. In my native town of Salem. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. 10. Such as . that. 14. I grudge the dollar. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.... was hung in air. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. but which.. The Tree Igdrasil. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.²SCOTT. He flung into literature. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. 12. and whose examples and principles we inherit.²W. 8. I recommend some honest manual calling.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.²HAWTHORNE. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. 13. 6. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²HOLMES. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. 9.. the cent. That . and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. G. at the head of what. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. .²DE QUINCEY. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. the dime. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. which. and to whom I do not belong. Which .²DEFOE.. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. which. that . and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.²SCOTT That which . whom. in his Mephistopheles. 15. E.²BEECHER. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. Such as .. 3. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted..²EMERSON.²HOWELLS. 11. SIMMS. It rose into a thrilling passion. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.²HALLAM. was a bustling wharf. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. I give to such men as do not belong to me. 5. 7. such as they have very probably been bred to. half a century ago. He.²W.. CHANNING. 4..2. what.²EMERSON. but which is perhaps not so different from it. in his present condition.

as. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²DICKENS. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. Use of any. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. whether or not the two are equivalent. Distributives either and neither. always at war with one another. 422. England was then divided between kings and Druids. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Each other. 421. that not all combined. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. for example.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.² Some one must be poor. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. in which case any should be used instead. one another.² HAWTHORNE. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. as.²EMERSON. . as it were.²GOLDSMITH.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. and in want of his gold²or his corn. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²MACAULAY. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²ID.²HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN. By their original meaning. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. Assume that no one is in want of either. We call ourselves a rich nation.²RUSKIN.

² EMERSON. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. Examples of its use are. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). for him have I offended. then in Plutarch. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. 424. and is isolated.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . Do you think.²EMERSON. before that.²FRANKLIN.²SHAKESPEARE. even in Bettine. in the prose of the present day. None usually plural. then in Plotinus. The adjective pronoun none is. speak. Caution.²SCOTT. If any of you lack wisdom. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.. . Any usually plural. that I know of.²CARLYLE. let him ask of God. when any of them are so good as to visit me. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. afterwards in Goethe. any of his friends had died. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²PROF. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. None of Nature's powers do better service. any was often singular. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²THACKERAY. I beseech you. Do you think.²BURKE. as none of the French philosophers were. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. if ever man was.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. at one time in Bacon. 423.² In earnest. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. as. in Shakespeare. etc.²BEECHER Whenever. as.² If any.²STIRLING. In earlier Modern English. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory..²BIBLE. during his stay at Yuste.. whilst I still cherish their genius. usually plural. which is plural as often as singular.

²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²THOREAU. etc.. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .² PEARSON.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.² Singular. and less rarely in poetry. when it means all persons: for example. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. which is used absolutely. fixing his eyes on the mace. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. or somebody else's? 426.. that all was lost. the plural. for example. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. The light troops thought .²SCOTT Like the use of any. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. Somebody's else. and Ford has nobody's else.² None of them was cleansed. and all was lost on the other. The compounds somebody else. saving Naaman the Syrian. etc. When all were gone.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.. nobody else. as. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.²McMASTER.²NAPIER Plural. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. are treated as units. any one else. etc. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. etc. 425.

²G.curled once all over it in long tendrils.. the adjectives plural.² Saturday Review. etc.²in such as "these sort of books. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.² These kind of knaves I know. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.²SWEET. unlike anybody else's in the world. all manner of.²MULOCH. Whitefield or Wesley.²RUSKIN. P. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. or some other such great man as a bishop. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. Again. London.²DICKENS. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²N. These sort.² FIELDING.." "all manner of men. "Ye see." the nouns being singular. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft."²MRS. ." "those kind of trees.²RUSKIN. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. STOWE. ELIOT. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). His hair. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.²THACKERAY. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²AUSTEN. ADJECTIVES. for example. 427.²SHERIDAN. WILLIS.SYDNEY SMITH. or those sort of people. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. etc.

in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. for example." A question. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. In Old and Middle English. or one object with a class of objects. Use of the comparative degree. "This sort of trees should be planted. made to agree with it. gradually displacing the old. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. and the adjective is. and in this way may take a plural verb. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. ." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. Later form. when the necessary dispositions concur. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Of two such lessons. "A sort of uncertain sounds are.²RUSKIN. At the source. more alarming than a total silence.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. to express a higher degree of quality. 428. Should we say.² PRESCOTT. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Burke's sentence. with all manner of amusing books. which accounts for the construction." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. in spoken English." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. Consequently we have a confused expression. the victor or the vanquished. This the modern expression reverses. or the nouns to the plural. they said. as.The library was open. "This kind of rules are the best. "These kind of trees are best. According to the approved usage of Modern English. History of this construction. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. not "all kinds of wild animals. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular.² Which is the better able to defend himself. such as. The result.

See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. etc.²HUXLEY. Even Dodd himself. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. To the man who plays well. Other after the comparative form. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. 3.²MACAULAY. 6. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. would not have had the face. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.A braver ne'er to battle rode. has sanctioned. I am concerned to see that Mr. Gary. if not. ."²ID. Use of the superlative degree.²TROLLOPE.²CARLYLE. Henry.²WIRT. 5. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. by almost the breadth of my nail.²SCOTT. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. He is taller. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²HAWTHORNE.²LOWELL. Exercise. the highest stakes are paid. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 4. than any of his court. 430. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²SWIFT.² THACKERAY. 2. Superlative with two objects. 429.

Nor that I am more better than Prospero. CÆSAR. more particularly the last of them. Also from the same period. Double comparative and superlative. Examples from Shakespeare are. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. 1611. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²RUSKIN. whichever can be got easiest.²MRS. After the most straitest sect of our religion. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. who eat white bread or brown. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong..²EMERSON. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. Mary. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²ADDISON. The eldest.²TEMPEST. The following examples are used purposely.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians."²GOLDSMITH.²Bible. ha.²J."²HAWTHORNE.²HAMLET. These two properties seem essential to wit. I should say that one has the best cause. 431.²BEN JONSON.. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. "Ha. . OLIPHANT. and differ only in form. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. In all disputes between States. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²GOLDSMITH. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²IRVING. not a bit of high life among them.²DR BLAIR. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Rip was one of those . Come you more nearer."²BULWER.²SCOTT. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. and the other contains the best men.

433.² SMOLLETT. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.² With a singular noun.²RUSKIN. ARTICLES. and conceit in the last. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²LAMB. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Three first. First three. Definite article. ²COWPER. Examples of this construction are.²PRESCOTT. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. For Carlyle.²KINGSLEY. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The meaning intended is the same.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. . The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The merit of the Barb.²GIBBON. etc. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. etc. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. the Spanish.²ADDISON. Instances of both are given below. and Secretary Walsingham also. not only so in popular speech. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. but in literary English. The delay in the first three lines.²GIBBON. The first five had specific names. jar upon us constantly. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. As to these two expressions. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.

distinct. Here the youth of both sexes. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.²MACAULAY.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.²CARLYLE. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. The flowers.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. or to emphasize the meaning. with a plural noun. 433. He is master of the two-fold Logos. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. melodious. I think. having been arranged. as in Sec.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.. of the eighteenth century. 1508. 434. with a singular noun. to distinguish clearly. as. and the presents. .²PRESCOTT.²TAYLOR. No. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. One object and several modifiers. Origin of the Aryans. 433. and flexible language.²SCOTT.. With a plural noun.²NEWMAN.²THE NATION.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.² MACAULAY.²ID. however. The not repeated.²THACKERAY. of the higher and middling orders. the thought and the word. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. Indefinite article. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . Meaning same as in Sec. but is used with one only. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.² RUSKIN. were placed at a very tender age. the hour of parting came. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²TENNYSON. but inseparable from each other. the greatest poems. Frequently. The lofty. as. 435.

Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. JONSON.²JOHNSON. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. In the sentences of Secs. and a usurper. like the definite article. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. a tyrant. The indefinite article (compare Sec. 433 and 436.An early. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun." and "a red and a white geranium.²BULWER.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. 435.436. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. One article with several adjectives. one noun is expressed. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²DRYDEN. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. The indefinite article is used. a collegian. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. 437. 438. But in the following sentences. and inexhausted vein.²MACAULAY. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. . interest.²DICKENS. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. as. or clearness to each of several nouns.² MACAULAY.²S.²MACAULAY.²B.²THACKERAY. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. rich. 436). a round and a square one alternately. to limit two or more modified nouns. as in the first three of Sec. COLERIDGE. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. He saw him in his mind's eye. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. For rhetorical effect.² BURKE. Examples of this use are. T. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. a murderer.²BEECHER. only one of which is expressed.

all that academies can give. Another writer might. then. This was spoken of in Part I. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. as.²GIBBON.²CARLYLE This usage.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. Singulars connected by or or nor.²FROUDE. . ELIOT.VERBS. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. Collective noun of singular meaning.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. 276. was the earliest American land. In English. He sees that it is better to live in peace.. ARNOLD.²G. and the following illustrations prove it. as. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. for example. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Such. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²The Nation. Sec. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. like some others in this series. A broad and loose rule. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²COOPER. has got already.²AGASSIZ. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. 440. 439. without academies. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²M.²W. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. or the great intellectual life of our nation. Singular verb. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.

in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.² GOLDSMITH. that of a large town. for example.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. seems at the moment unpaid loss. and other singulars of plural form. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. ADAMS. Q. A fever.²GOLDSMITH. other names.² The unbought grace of life. but considered as meaning about the same thing.²GIBBON. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.²EMERSON .²DE QUINCEY.²BURKE. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. No. a loss of friends.²J. as. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. for example. and every four hours.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. ²EMERSON. nor Paul. a loss of wealth. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. or considered as appositional. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.Jesus is not dead.²CRITIC. Between ourselves. a cruel disappointment. a mutilation.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²WHITTIER. the cheap defense of nations. or as making up one general idea.² In a word. nor Mahomet. (4) When the subject is plural in form. is gone. Plural form and singular meaning. nor John. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. but each one emphatic. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. as.

the fine gentleman. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. as well as the Drama.²NEWMAN. Every fop. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. There is a moving tone of voice.²MACAULAY.² Asia. a cuirass.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²MACAULAY. and greaves.²PRESCOTT. is a man of wit. a gorget. Plural verb. The Epic. as well as Europe. For wide is heard the thundering fray. with death.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. an agitated gesture. sir!"²MACAULAY. Every sound. To receive presents or a bribe. the dismay. no. each. no discontinuity. and such like adjectives. as. Every week. was listened to for five hours.²ID. sir!" and the "What then. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.The author.² .²BUTLER. Here is no ruin. The oldest.²EMERSON. was like to crack.²SCOTT. as well as the newest. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. almost every day.²LONGFELLOW.²M ARNOLD. the partisan.²RUSKIN. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. Then comes the "Why. thus.²PRESCOTT. does not take the place of the man.The rout. an impassioned countenance. every boor. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. Her back. the ruin. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. was dazzled.²HAWTHORNE. the wit. many a. every echo. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. 441. every valet. in a judge. Subjects after the verb.²ID. nay.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. as.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. was punished. wineBegins to stir itself. no spent ball. sir?" and the "No. as well as sides. no matter if the second is plural).

²ADDISON.²SCOTT. A party of workmen were removing the horses. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. b).²B. making up a plural subject. the Duke of Berri.² One or two of these perhaps survive. a stream of fresh water. .²CARLYLE But its authorship. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. Far. Conjunction omitted. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. Philip of Anjou. of whom there were a number. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²DE QUINCEY. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²COLERIDGE.²FROUDE. were men of insignificant characters.²THOREAU.²GIBBON. shirt.² GIBBON.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. a green pasture.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. far away thy children leave the land. are sufficient to attract a colony.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. and its history are alike a mystery to us. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. All our household are at rest. as.² A multitude go mad about it. 440 (5.²EMERSON. as with a subject of plural form. its date. His clothes.²SWIFT. TAYLOR. The travelers. A shady grove. as in Sec.²FROUDE.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. The Dauphin.These bits of wood were covered on every square. The conjunction may be omitted. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. as. but the verb is plural. for example.²GOLDSMITH.²FRANKLIN.

the verb takes the construction of the first person. General usage. When the subjects. his blood dost shed.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.). Second or third and first person in the subject.²WHITTIER. Not I.²THACKERAY. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²ROWE.²GOLDSMITH.²M. If she or you are resolved to be miserable." "She or you may be sure. You and I are tolerably modest people.²BYRON. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. of different persons. "I have never said so.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. Exceptional examples. . 442.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. "You would not be wiser. we never talk politics. 444." or. for example. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Pattison or I have said.²LOWELL. If there is only one person in the subject. WEBSTER. ARNOLD. but thou. Not Altamont. 443.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. "He or I can go. This construction is at the best a little awkward. that is. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. as." etc.²THACKERAY. Ah. hadst been my lord.But notice the construction of this. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.²SMOLLETT.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. Nothing which Mr.²RUSKIN. but thou. nor should I. nor has she"). It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. the subject being really equivalent to we. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. You and I are farmers.²D.

Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. Also in verbals. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS)." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. How each of these professions are crowded.That neither of their intellects are vast. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. 2.²THACKERAY. 4. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 446. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²EMERSON.²BYRON. 3. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²and. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 5. In the following sentence.² TROLLOPE.²ID.²ADDISON. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. nor tree. 9. Neither of them.²MILTON. in my opinion. nor bush are there.445. 8. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²G. 10. In this sentence from Defoe.²BURKE. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²ADDISON. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. which it is proper to mention. Nor wood. In a word. Exercise.²SMOLLETT. 440-444):² 1. Neither of their counselors were to be present. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 7.Her course to intercept.²perhaps the devil. as we would hope. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 12. as illustrated above (Secs. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 6.²SCOTT. BANCROFT. Both death and I am found eternal. 11.

Of course. It should be remarked. as." . which I thought I should have acquired before that time.. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. I gave one quarter to Ann. for exact connection. 448.²FRANKLIN 6. to have seen should be changed to to see. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²THACKERAY. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. 4. 447. Two samples of indirect discourse. change them to a better form:² 1. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²R. The present rule is recent. CHURCH. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²KINGSLEY. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²DE QUINCEY 2. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. if not. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Definitions. on my return. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. W.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.²IRVING. Exercise..²MACAULAY. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. But I found I wanted a stock of words. meaning. Direct discourse²that is.² PALGRAVE 5. however. 3. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .

will. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Her prudence whispered eternally." Indirect. . The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. under interrogative pronouns. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. "Oh.. Summary of the expressions.. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main." etc.. Oh. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. Sebastian's. etc. "I cannot oblige you . She thought to herself. Direct. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. 1. introductory verb is in the past tense. 449." etc. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. His exact words were.. and the indirect question by whether or if. or regular interrogatives. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Direct. This includes the auxiliaries be. have. The substance of his lamentation was. interrogative adverbs. 2. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid.

PARTICIPLES.²ADDISON. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. the sound of their balls.²B. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. VERBALS. FRANKLIN. he assured me that nothing was more easy.²ID. handed down from his ancestor the historian. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. if this were expanded into a verb.Exercise. one summer afternoon.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. in the sentences first quoted. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. like distant peals of thunder. my first observation will be found nearly true.²GOLDSMITH." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. with his crew of the Half-moon. . Notice this. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. The trouble is. 450. and that he himself had heard. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. the first discoverer of the river and country.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. Careless use of the participial phrase. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.

²RUSKIN. This is the more common arrangement.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. leaving the principal statement as it is." etc. 3. and often. while defended or excused by others. Standard writers often use it." Exercise. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. the first sentence would be..² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.Correction. then.²ID. avoid it. Exercise.. INFINITIVES. Adverb between to and the infinitive. universal assertion. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.²LAUGHLIN. For example. It is a solemn.. 2.. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. many things to be carefully considered. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. purposely or not. In the following citations. my first collection was. 451. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.² HERBERT SPENCER. There are.. . if a strike is to succeed. . either "As I was pleased. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .²SCOTT.

Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. and earthenware.²BURKE. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. 10. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. but it is placed before the infinitive. Position of only.²GOLDSMITH.²The Nation. but they are often removed from the exact position.²ID. 13. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. etc. Now.² MACAULAY.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 9. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 7. china. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success.. 6. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² ." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. if they modify single words. but cannot misunderstand the thought. The spirits. Exercise. etc. 11. 12. is to be very cautiously admitted. In works of art. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. 8.²RUSKIN. 1533. even. ADVERBS.² ADDISON. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. when such adverbs as only. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. 5. which consists in multitude. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. etc. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. therefore. No.²SCOTT. The rigid rule in such a case would be. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. are used.. BLAIR.²TROLLOPE. from Irving. 452.²DR. this kind of grandeur. I wish the reader to clearly understand. even. A little sketch of his.4.

²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²SYDNEY SMITH. 17. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 8.²CHAUCER. No sonne.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 16. 5. might not marry. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. His last journey to Cannes.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²ID. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. .²MACAULAY.²SWIFT. for example.²THACKERAY. 11.²HIGGINSON. 4. 15. 12.²PALGRAVE. In relating these and the following laws. 6. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 2. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.1.²RUSKIN. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 7. Irving could only live very modestly. My master. 9. WILLIS. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²EMERSON. 453.²N. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²ID.²ID. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. P. The old usage. GROTE. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 14.²COOPER. were he never so old of yeares. 13.²MRS. He shouted in those clear. ²ASCHAM. to avoid a crowd.²MOTLEY. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. In Old and Middle English.² THACKERAY. 3. whence he was never destined to return. During the whole course of his administration. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 10. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.

STOWE. the usual way of regarding the question now is. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. one of the negatives is often a prefix. Not only could man not acquire such information. ²PAGE.²DEFOE. and is still kept in vulgar English. Therefore. nor the grandeur of no king. under the influence of Latin syntax. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. . 7.²BURKE. The prosperity of no empire. However. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. etc. and why:² 1. when one of the negatives is a connective. is not common. as.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. in Ole Virginia. can so agreeably affect.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.² HAMILTON. I did not act so hastily. Exercise. who hadn't been to school for nothing. denying each other. 2. but ought not to labor after it. neither. Regular law of negative in modern English.²LOWELL. however."²four negatives."²MRS. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. 6. There weren't no pies to equal hers. 4. uncommon. if two negatives are found together. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. STOWE. But. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. In the execution of this task.²BAYNE.²DE QUINCEY. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort.²HAWTHORNE. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. 3. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.²GROTE. This. as infrequent. Exceptional use. In the latter case. nor never shall. I never did see him again. 5.²HOLMES.²MRS. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.

nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. Choice and proper position of correlatives. CONJUNCTIONS." said the King. or. and. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.²LOWELL.. The sentence.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. and which." Besides neither ..²PRESCOTT. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. "well worthy to confer honor.. Correction. nor. or to reply to it. In the sentence... 455. either.²SCOTT. or with advantage. but (also).. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. but to their own safety..." both of the above requirements are violated.. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. but.. if the last precedes a verb... The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. 454.8. not only to the success of their common cause. should be scrutinized. as well as of the pronoun. even neither ." . not or is the proper correlative of neither. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. And who.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. there we were. nor is often changed to not²either .. "A weapon." may be changed to "This loose . and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. or to reply to it. either . the first should also.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . In these examples it will be noticed that nor.."²SCOTT. The sentences given in Secs. especially both . as the use of the conjunction.. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. or. not only . not merely . neither . if the second precedes a phrase. Things to be watched..

and chop up their own kin. Try and avoid the pronoun. . and I don't know but what he was right. but. substitute that. They will. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son.²RUSKIN.²ID. JEWETT. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 457. 2.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. Now. Some exceptions." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. but they will outrage.²FRANKLIN. 6. In the following sentences. murder. 5. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²S. but grown-up persons. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to.²GIBBON. as. nor the disgrace of assailing him.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. but. or but that. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. 7. 456. 4. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²THACKERAY. But what. Exercise. 3. not merely interest children. or the negative relative but. Correct the following sentences:² 1. too. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY. etc.² ADDISON. as. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. O. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. Try and for try to. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 8. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.Exercise.²BAIN. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.

The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies.²EMERSON. see Sec. 3.²EMERSON. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 305. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 5. PREPOSITIONS. 459.²ADDISON. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). as already seen in Sec. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. . but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²TROLLOPE.² BULWER. no separation or division by twos being implied.²ADDISON. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.² SWIFT. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.2. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. 313. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 4.²SCOTT. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.²BURKE. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. 458. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Between is used most often with two things only. 6. Between and among.

: Words with particular prepositions. Comply with. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. 461. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. and Stewart. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. by custom. Kant.²RUSKIN What have I. List I. Paley. etc. ²EMERSON. Two groups or one and a group. Mackintosh. correspond. Averse to. and Coleridge.²between philosophers like Spinoza. and philosophers like Locke. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Conversant with. averse.²KINGSLEY. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Abhorrent to. Different from. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. 460. LIST I. Conform to. Dependent on (upon). different. confer. involve.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Such are absolve. Acquit of. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Accord with. as. as. Some of them have.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Such are derogatory. . and another to convey a different meaning. Affinity between. Dissent from. Bestow on (upon). come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. a soldier of the Cross. Derogatory to. or one object and a group.

Correspond to (a thing). LIST II. as meaning to be in keeping with. ." also of persons. Confer with (talk with). Agree to (a proposal). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. as. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Confide in (trust in)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. as. Differ from (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). etc. Correspond with (write to). 463. and sometimes creeps into standard books. "The exile became reconciled to his fate.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings.). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). LIST III. Reconcile with (note below). Reconcile to (note below). Confer on (upon) (give to). but it is not good usage. Change for (a thing). Change to (become). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Change with (a person). A taste for (art." List III.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. in the sense of making friends with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Confide to (intrust to). Differ with (note below). List II. A taste of (food). as. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Independent of. Involve in.y y y Deprive of. 462.

Illustrations of "die of.²MACAULAY.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. they shall die by this hand. If I meet with any of 'em." (in behalf of). expect from. Who.²BURNETT. privation. She died of hard work." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. One of them said he would die for her. .²FIELDING. I am positively dying with hunger." (because of)." "die from.²MACAULAY. Take thought and die for Cæsar. instrument). ²ATHENÆUM. die for.²SCOTT." She would have been ready to die with shame.²GOLDSMITH. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²POPE. No one died from want at Longfeld. and ill treatment. People do not die of trifling little colds.²BOSWELL. die from.y y y Die by. Expect of. It would take me long to die of hunger." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. die with. "Die for.²BULWER. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. "Die for." (material cause.²G. It is a man of quality who dies for her. died for love of the fair Marcella. die of. ELIOT. "Die by.²G. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.:² "Die of.²ADDISON. simply from old age. "Die with.²GOLDSMITH. Part from.²SHAKESPEARE.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²MACAULAY. ELIOT. ²THACKERAY. as Cervantes informs us. "Die from." etc. part with. He died at last without disease.

²BULWER. That is more than I expected of you. ELIOT. "Part with" is used with both persons and things." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²G. 464. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. nothing better was to be expected.²G. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. and hated to part with them. kind of you. . How cruel of me!²COLLINS. "Expect from.²SCOTT.²WALPOLE. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²G. I can part with my children for their good.²MACAULAY. ELIOT. either of or in is used indifferently. Of Doctor P.²AUSTEN.²BULWER. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. "Part from." To part from you would be misery.²MACAULAY. ELIOT. I have just seen her." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²POE.²MARRYAT.²TROLLOPE. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. I part with all that grew so near my heart. Illustrations of "part with. as my friend.²SHAW. It was a little bad of you. 465. Kind in you. 466. which he would by no means part from. His precious bag.²WALLER." "part from:"² "Part with. just parted from her.²DICKENS." She will expect more attention from you. With words implying behavior or disposition. Burke parted from him with deep emotion." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. Illustrations of "expect of.

5. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction.²TENNYSON. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. thunder. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. Hampden. tedious perhaps. 8. But this is idle of you. 11. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. Thou tread'st. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. In. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. and ran up the alley. 3. This narrative. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. raging storms. . Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. nor blue.²CARLYLE. 7. thrown it over Amyas's head. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. but which the story renders necessary. nor yellow. nor of a pale red. 1. 14.²BULWER.²BEACONSFIELD. or which we are most imperatively required to do. with seraphims. it is commonly said that his profits are high. nor green. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 4.²DICKENS. 10. It will be anything but shrewd in you. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. or that they are any way dependent on each other. the vast abyss.He did not think it handsome of you. 9. In the friction between an employer and workman. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 15. Very natural in Mr. 13.²BULWER. or artillery. The noise of vast cataracts. 6. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean.

22. 19. When the glass or liquor are transparent. produce approbation. You have seen Cassio and she together. or how beautiful it is. . I never remember the heather so rich and abundant.And were I anything but what I am. and other angular figures. what is a just and unjust act. and almost as good as a pony. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 29. save Amyas. (Sec. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 31. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 33. 23. That night every man of the boat's crew. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 28. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. the acquiescence of the understanding. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. Squares.) 34. 18. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 37. 411. 38. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it.I would wish me only he. 24. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 27. but in the price paid to them. and most of us do know. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. But every man may know. 32. 35. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 20. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 21. 36. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. Friday. triangles. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 16. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. Every one of these letters are in my name. The effect of proportion and fitness. 25. 26. 30. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. were down with raging fever. you or me. 17.

the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. of. adverbs used complements. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. He had four children. as comparison definition demonstrative. from nominative clauses.000 between them. of. 102. 20. 25. demonstrative. 119. voice. adjectives. 40. 92.39. 124. . 89. 98. of. 310. Abstract with Active Address. 91. 47. pronouns. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. (2) Middle English. Adjectives. 124. 107. 47. as. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. nominative. article. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. of. INDEX. numeral. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 239. 260. A. 90. (3) Modern English. from about 1500 to the present time. nouns. 133. of. 116. origin of. syntax uses Absolute.

262. conjunctions. 291. antecedent. 109. conjunction. 184. sentence. 42. quantity. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 195. nouns. 190. 27. 97. Agreement. 27. adjectives. 328. 287. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 190. 115. Against. 191.from function how in not of of ordinal. 101. 302. and 185. of. adjectives. of. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 183. 194. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 106. 99. 323. objective. between of. to used of. predicate. nouns. 48. of. parse. 104. 303. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 187. clauses. modify. 207. of. 207. infinitive. 242. 303. compared. of. 114. . adjectives. quality. 116. Alms. 325. 148. plural pronominal. 194. of. 316. 116. 325. with with with subject. 239. antecedent. 103. 275. of. parse. from to of. as nouns.

pronouns. definition of of of Any. 47. of. words between. parse. Arrangement Articles. as uses verbs. See with definition complex compound simple who. 51. 84. syntax. 225. of. of of of And Antecedent. adjective. it. 294. 67. 275. 208. sentences. Auxiliary if. Anacoluthon Analysis. 331. sentences. A. of. 309. 49. and. of and pronoun of. 296. Are. after of. sentences. 120. . Agreement. though. definition how indefinite. 252. An. 300. which. which. 271. 101. 295. in in. 127. See 74. which. 67. same. 207. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. of. 90. 74. 124. 231. 79. 198. 148. 150. derivation in definite.Among. 264. 120. 240. possessive. syntax As. of. agreement personal as pronoun. to of. uses As At. 287.

of what. of. Be. 46. But. definition could. 37. 161. best. of pronouns. 260. 45. 195. Between. uses of. Can. uses nominative of. 84. 283. 46. 150. 278. adverb. pronoun. .Bad. 54. adjective. of nouns. 66. conjunctions Cherub. 39. 279. 62. of nouns. plurals of. 49. uses Better. 64. clauses of. comparison conjugation of. Children. of pronouns. of. possessive. 39. of nouns. nominative. Case. Cause. with But By. double possessive. 111. 110. Brethren. of pronouns. 262. See of. 47. Among. of. 110. number of. in Old and Modern English. 63. of nouns. 278. 210. 149. objective. Clause. Bridegroom. 194. 48. forms. 224. Case. 330. 262. syntax of. 279. of pronouns.

Cloths. analysis of. of. 157. of. 271. and forms of. of. of.definition kinds noun. . 43. 307. 257. 257. nouns. nouns. 258. of. adverbs. 264. 23. 239. of. 111. 189. and sentence. predicate of and from from of. 305. subject. 113. in analysis. 268. Cleave. plural of. of. 248. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. sentence. clothes. proper. 24. 53. superlative. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 257. verb. double. infinitive. of. 108. 110. definition degrees irregular. 307. 18. nouns. defective. material. 263. Clomb. adjectives. predicate. of. 158. 108. 315. 12. 312. 244. 18. English. 107. 43.

and clause. of of Conjunctions. 139. 269. sentences. sentences. subjunctive. coördinate. verbs. 196. . 73. pronouns. 193. replaced by objective. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 199. 194. other other parts of speech. Agreement. 149. adverbs. definition how subordinate. 289. 151. definition be. of.with Concord. to of. interrogative pronouns. conjunctions. 328. sentence. 194. in Old vs. same words. 143. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 231. Conjunctions. parse. correlative. analysis. 138. 195. Can. See English. pronoun. 194. pronoun. 188. 149. 255. 263. of. conjunctions. See analysis clauses. See in subjunctive. conjunction. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 207. 66. 195.

333. 35. with of. 80. Subordinate clause. for. clause. nouns. verb. 320. comparative. by. 242. discourse. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. pronouns. nouns. 303. 91. indirect. 315. of. 287.Declension. . Articles. 160. Comparison. duck. 300. adverbs See adjectives. object. of. Case. 99. 152. vs. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. passive adjectives. 102. possessive. tenses. Comparative. with. article. 26. 288. pronouns. 43. of. 90. 242. 185. See See 48. pronouns. See adjectives. 102. 51. of. of personal relative verbs. See 148. from. pronouns. use of dies. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. Degrees. 60.

adjective. pronoun. 102. the of sentence. 158. of. 234.Drank. adjective. other. pronouns. 300. literary. conjunction. 287. original. Elements Ellipsis. 241. Each. of. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 90. 40. 90. -En. of. plural. 42. 255. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 240. 112. ending. 33. predicate. vulgar. error in sentence. 12. 34. 287. 257. 328. of subject. 38. possessive suffix. to suffix. feminine plural English. syntax Each Eat Eaves. object. 280. of. 92. 92. added suffix. older. 62. in 'Em. of. 299. 110. . another. pronoun. suffix. 194. 92. spoken. Empress. of. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. drunk. 39. 32. 33. one ( t). 158. complement. 51. Either.

Few. 235. 152. as of from compared marking. 112. object. the. 102. of. 102. 189. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 48. 91.. 36. etc. etc. First Fish. modes "common goose. 334. 126. expect gone. first. Further. have adjective. 238. 212. 211. from. . two. 103. 43. 29. 148. 45. Farther. perfect. 32. 30. Feminine. as a noun. 308. of. nouns. 112. pronoun. definition distinguished in English. Gender. 212. For. fishes. 287. 110. few. From. gender. with in sex." 31. 319. of. uses Foreign Former.Every. plurals. two a further. 30.. See Gander. used of. 30. other languages. uses redundant. Future Future tense. 152. 147. adjective. First. with infinitive. to of.

distinguished syntax. 145. forms in Girl. 12. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 175. pronouns. 80. 13. 177. kinds of. He. 61. 9. 10. rather. it. of. on. 275. Got. of. . definition divisions opinions province H. 159. Had Hanged. personal relative geniuses. 173. 231. 101. 35. 60. pronoun. 285. definition basis of. noun. an better. Gerund. and case verbal with. its. Grammar. 12. 144. she. possessive pronouns. adjective. 43. I. person. for before. 61. first sentence.of of Genii. Government. had hung. His Husband. 159. 120. 36. 60. of. of. from participle of. 176. participle.

178. uses discourse. 73. 136. 245. pronouns. 93. meaning. 233. elements. mood. use article. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 105. 110. with of. See Articles. 131. in compared syntax. 323. 231. of. a object. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. summary See passive mood. of. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. questions. verbs. 319. 188. 320. Direct object. of. 72. adjectives. questions. pronoun. 248. 176. . indirect of. transitive. 85. Questions. adverbs. 153. 283. See you. 276. of. 257. 43. indices. your. of clause. sentence. 227. 131. adjectives. 67. words.

227. 303. pronoun. was uses me. 102. Latter.. 190. 281. 113. Less. a vs. 113. subject form. King. 126. lesser. 67. lie. 12. adjective. 36. 39. 61. of. 189. . Kine. -Ly. of. 36. etc. It." history etc. 245. lord. 276. and See words in. Lay. 63. 91. these double kind. Like. Last. 110. Lady. "It Its. of. latest.adverbs. 110. queen. Lady. in little. plural.. syntax the. uses Literary Little. Kind. See Madam. Lie. predicate. of. 36. English. syntax. 170. 226. Logic Logical Lord. Lay.

110. Neither. 113. of. mistress. sentences. 326. 112. Mood. of. 36. Master. 161. conjunctions Many. 135. of. 41. comparison Near. 110. See definition 136. of. double. 34. 114. Negative. Mighty Mine. nigh. 112. 256. 325. Modifier. 328. construction as of adverb. in adverbs comparison a. 137-144. mine. 189. 185. subjunctive. Means. Modifiers. 195. 137. imperative. position adverb.. of. 64. of. 188. 265. 144. Much. Enlargement. 126. 189. etc. indicative. of. superlatives. of. 187. -Most. syntax conjunction. 102. 160. 194. out of. might.Manner. Many Mapping Mare. Must. 112. 110. 287. . May. adjective. syntax nearer.

foreign. nouns. etc. gender nouns. abstract. 18. definition according of. 124. Not Noun Nouns. 46. Case. 19. See 194. kinds 90. analysis. 126. number once other plural. definition descriptive. in. 92. 25. words how compound. of. now plural. Nor. gender how kinds material. 46. 29. proper. 42. 41. syntax in gender nouns. become neuter. of. of of of of of a. class used singular. of. of. 41. 25. No Nominative. . 38. parse. 26. etc. 300. 56. 246. 301. 258. 17. 125.pronoun. 21. letters as 24. common. 45. become become formation case collective. 17. 328. 30. to of. of. half abstract. 20. 38-41. syntax Neuter or two News. and figures. 30. 17 19. of. clause. 30. nouns. used as. 41 43. 27. None. to use. formed. abstract. of. 32. material.

42. adverbial. 66. 101. article. conjunction. 278. of different possessive definite of. personal. 278. pronouns. spoken of instead nouns. passive adverbial. singular. 41. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 48. etc. singular. 240. 41. 242. 39. dative. in article. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 281. indirect. 285. 42 44.. pronouns. plural no two singular construction. 242. or plural. 235. and analysis. common. English. meaning. definite. 282. See in in in Numeral distributive. 195. with with with Now Number. Preposition. 60. 41.of same two with proper. 148. 196. in nouns. meanings. plural form. Nouns. 102. 124. indefinite. preposition. plural. See verb. . 92. of. verbs. 121. 106. with case. 279. adjectives. form. Numeral Object. nominative. 23. of. 48. 42. adjectives. of. 48. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. of. of. as forms titles. 48. 18. 48. of. 43. 101.

127. articles. See pronoun. of. 161. 237. nouns. Ordinal Other Ought. 325 275. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 293. 103. 306. 279. 115. 87. Each adjective. 91. another. of. 117. 216. adverbs. . as other. 41. treatment comparatives. 194. Older. 56. Omission On. 38. conjunction. Elder. of. 56. 93 other. 103. 94. 69. a in adjectives. for. uses numeral pronoun. adverb. of upon. with (the). 233. conjunctions. of of of of of models adjectives. 64. 101. Oxen. inverted. adjective. One.syntax Of. 116. pronoun. definite relative uses of. See the as of. Parsing. as of. position Order. ours. Ourself. 191. 213. 199. Our. Pains. of syntax. part analysis.

used as voice. of. 317. speech. not is. 174. 70. 43. 61. relatives. 63. from definition other of. 181. of. 56. 28. them. with. 100.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. Person. 27. 219. antecedent. of. 95. nominative. reflexive. verb idioms it from. 180. -ing words. 69. 281. pronouns. 119. and subject in. pease. 62. pronoun. of. 43. or of. 287. Pence. 172. phrase. pennies. pronouns. 172. of. 177. verbals. 59. predicate use of. 148. verbs. 335. 56. included various. 322. 80. of. 179. part adjective. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 59. 247. verbs. agreement of verb nouns. 59. parsed. in. phrases. 62. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 134. 173. of. absolute with of. article 150. . uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. possessive and of. 64.

antecedent of of pronouns. complete. in of. as double. 49. it. 51. pronoun. appositional. of. vs. 281. 285. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 41. relative. 247. noun nouns. simple. or See of of See 185. 245. nouns. 248. of. 236. of Phrase. 37. 241. participial. 245. 61. 67. 232. of. omitted. of. adjectives.objective syntax table triple uses of. 278. 303. Positive Possessive. 281. 303. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. of. English. 53. 247. syntax of of Politics. objects. plural. pronouns. Personal subjective. nouns. 52. 60. 25. 195. singular. nouns. 235. Personification. spoken of. 278. double. 64. of. adverbs of. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. kinds infinitive. pronoun. 54. singular degree. 63. Comparison. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. of nouns. . of. 206. of. See 60. 236. 's. 188. 50. Place. Nouns. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 106. 53. prepositional.

331. any. case. speech. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. as 54. interrogative. by parts of of. forms of. 203. Prepositions. 207. and one with else's. of. 285. 283. adverb. of. 208. 302. expressed as other of. verbs. plural. 280. who personal. by with shown certain of. usually to as than. 300. adjective. exclamatory. 89. 282. 132. 129. parse. what. of. 303. future. 147.Prefixes. 206. 333. plural. same used as adjectives. 105. 299. 64. 104. after but. and form form form form of. 195. by. neither. with tense certain. somebody definition how indefinite. meaning. parse. of. 287. words. 202. for predicate nominative. 332. plural. 187. . Pronouns. 72. case. 205. objective. of. 59. 105. another. 301. none. in exclamations. 93. interrogative. 58. 284. as antecedent of relative. 281. 95. objective. 32. 283. singular usually other. of. 219. as. each either. 279. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 186. 300. 58. all. possessive nominative to of. 203. of.

295. 99. which. 74. Rank. that. personal pronoun. of. 85. 69. which after same. of. with who. of. questions. use in as. 74. pronominal pronouns indirect. 101. use of history formed.possessive relative. same antecedent. Nouns. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. Direct same and different. in. and antecedent. 263. 296. of. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 84. of. and which. 87. . of. 291. Quantity. 85. 68. nouns. 286. of. See of. indirect compound. of. 189. 83. Quotations. 58. 69. 289. 80. in. 74. discourse. adverbs in. 279. from and interrogative. 87. Rather. 105. 293. of. 142. 289. in. who. 297. 195. pronouns. 188. conjunctions Quality. indirect. parse. or of. and relatives. with with gerund. 295. 293. Questions. pronoun. unrestrictive. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. agreement anacoluthon and as. to of.

would. See Sentences. Shear. 242. of of of complex Sentences. Simple in sate. object. 69. who. Seeing. tenses. 196. Self Sentences. effect. gender. and should. 43. Same Sat. which. 263. in of. 42. 231. 159. plural possessive as. kinds Sequence Set. clauses of. conjunctions Retained Riches. of. of sit. 259. suffix. 40. complex. 319. 'S. Shot. of. S. definition . 74. will. in form.syntax use Result. ending. forms shots. 195. Sex Shall. that. 51. simple. simple of. 26 271. 252. 196. 170. of. sentence. 231. elliptical. 294. pronoun. of. 29. reflexive analysis of compound. conjunction. 162. 255. 159. 289.

257. in Middle English. 240. 233. 186. as. English. 137. English. English. 38. 303. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 126. 303. 138. of. of. -es. 270. Subject. 258. etc. of. 257. used mood.. of. adverb. Spelling Spinster. 12. English. vs. 257.Singular Sir. 262. Modern use becoming else's. verbs. Split Spoken -Ster. 258. 245. to of. of. definition how kinds noun. 33. 237. 257. . 323. distinguish. 245. 38. adverb. 169. of. 144. -en. other Such Such Suffix -s. for. literary clause. sort. 36. in feminine suffix. logical. 260. 258. of. phonetic in infinitive. 33. See -En. these number. Somebody Sort. 32. 144. names as a. definition 67. disuse in spoken complete.

adjectives. 289. syntax of. meaning made up in Old of." introductory. 186. that uses That. article. 275. two basis not same definition definite. 108. 189. this.. 152. auxiliaries. 306. English. Then. 148. of. in double. of. 109. of. 275. classical of. . 307. of . 147. omission whom. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 106. Kind. when relative. 123. 306. which. as history The.. 119. king. subject. 87. meaning. Tenses. of. 120. coördinating. of languages. 297. 107. adverbs. they. and and of. degree. of. objects. plural as adverb.. me. 116. 186. 191. 147. definition in English Tense. 309. than of. 61. 147. 33. 277. of. There These kind. when as of. not suggesting adjectives.Suffixes. 222. English. restrictive. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 280. 319. of. object. of. 88. as history syntax Their. 106. form. in comparison. as adverbs. See etc. "the then foreign. 290.

of. Thou. kinds participle. thy. in of. 181. 247. uses history of. suffix. 175. of. 173. 323. 114. 330. first. Time. 176. uttermost. 195. in omitted uses T'other. from cleft to 174. Try Two Under. how infinitive. 175. Utter. See That. tother. of. 33. infinitive. 175. 20. gerund. -Trix. conjunctions prepositions To. first adjective. thee. uses of. Upon. carelessly uses syntax this. of. 128. preposition. 308. of. feminine and. 172. 119. -ing 111. 61. 172. 114. try two. words. 180. 322. 217. 188. verbs. . of. parse. 207. Upper. certain as the before with of. infinitive. See On. adverbs those. 248. exclamations. to.These. 322. etc. used. 185.. of. analysis. 114. 21. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. other noun. phrases.

past tense formed nominative. 167. 317. 154. Vixen. 160. made transitive. in person. conjugation of. definition of. . active meaning. 320. 131. 47. verbs by. 39. 223. 179. 148. 236. of incomplete predication. 245. with subject in number. 167. 155. analysis. 319. passive form. 130. 169. spelling of.Verbs. defective. but uses what. in indirect discourse. table of irregular. tense of. phonetic. 157. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 133. 330. 33. 242. how to parse. remarks on certain. formed by. 135. verbs. passive. transitive and intransitive. definition of. active. of. syntax of. retained object with passive. of English. auxiliary. 159. 154. strong. definition of. Vocative in Voice. of. 151. regular. 149. 134. 312. 129. sequence of. 148. weak. 154. mood of. 133. 150. becoming irregular. 169. change. voice of. table of. person and number of. agreement of. intransitive. 147. What. 312-316. 12.

36. 85. 111. 79. 72. Yes ending analysis. Whether. . questions. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. relative. 194. referring syntax Widower. 83. pronoun. Woman. 77. Words in Worse. relative indirect relative. would.. 105. spoken in of. 75. 72. of.what Whereby. uses See Shall. plural of in nouns -ing. Wife. 85. Will. 299. interrogative Which. 73. in in indefinite objective. pronoun. 218. 190. a. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. conjunction. animals. relative. 296. questions. in. 75. 40. questions. in -ly. of. Y. English. whereto. 104. 78. With. 37. Witch. 178. worser. 126. 295-299. 105. wizard. antecedent adjective. 32. questions. direct of. 246. Who. etc. 85. 83. 36. 72.

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