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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

so that a small grammar will hold them all. if rightly presented. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. and thus incite his observation. Coming back. The work it will cover. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. as compared with Latin or Greek. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). If. but this is bad English now. This will take in the usual divisions. Mental training. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Literary English. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. and their uses and relations in the sentence. A broader view. Authority as a basis. . with its enormous vocabulary. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. as. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. rightly considered. however. its peculiar and abundant idioms.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. then. Few inflections. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. "Analysis. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. is worthy of serious study. Making rules is risky. Surely our noble language. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning." and "Syntax. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.The province of English grammar is. there is still much for the grammarian to do." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. their forms. from the question. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). It is also evident. assist the classification of kindred expressions. it will at the same time. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. An æsthetic benefit. to those who have studied the language historically." What grammar is.

as they stand for ideas. Occasionally. Spoken English. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. and may belong to any of those objects. The Parts of Speech.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. or Syntax. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. but. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. Part III. In the more simple state of the Arabs. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Vulgar English. Part II. which belongs to a people. by which is meant the free. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. the nation is free. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. too. reference will be made to vulgar English. Analysis of Sentences. The Uses of Words. and will are evidently names of a different kind. The plainest name is Arabs.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. the words sons and master name objects.²GIBBON. three divisions:² Part I. and the word nation stands for a whole group. that is. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. submission. besides this one. NOUNS.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. not objects. Such words are called nouns. from the eighteenth century on. The following pages will cover. or standard. and Inflections. 1. The words state. . then. PART I.

and fixes the attention upon that particular city. is from a Latin word which means general. as here used. A noun is a name word. and things separately. or things. Name for any individual of a class. because each group is considered as a unit. Thus. however. MATERIAL. or a congress. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Name for a group or collection of objects. place. (b) Common. or thing. Common. a committee. the name of each is an individual or proper name. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. reducing it to a narrow application. etc. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Collective. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. we may think of them in groups. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. (a) 4. or a mob. men in groups may be called a crowd. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. representing directly to the mind an object. or idea. or a council. . possessed by all. belonging to one. Individual. 5. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. or the man in front of you. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. ATTRIBUTE. Classes of nouns. Abstract.Definition. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. animals. animals. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. the man here. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. We may say. Proper. Besides considering persons. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. substance. They properly belong under common nouns. and appropriate names to the groups. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Thus. but Chicago names one city. 2. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. For instance. 3. whether person. This does not imply.

tea. etc." 9. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. etc. etc. conditions. The quality is still there as much as before. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. or that which shows a thing has been proved. cloud. 7. but in the words sun. expressing attributes or qualities. Again. rock. wheat. celluloid. potash. mist." "Learning is hard to acquire. condition. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. 6. but it is taken merely as a name. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. earth. world. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. considered abstractly. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. NOTE. paint. Names of ideas. frost. stone. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. etc. sugar. Such are glass. gold. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. expressing state. such as sun. etc. snow." "a man of understanding. or actions. (3) Geological bodies: mud. frost. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. sugar. etc. moon. . that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. we speak of the wisdom of the man. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. etc. Words naturally of limited application not proper. we may say. and so on. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. platinum. clay. It may. rice.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. instead of to each individual or separate object. When we speak of a wise man.²There are some nouns. granite. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. or apart from their natural connection. but which are not called proper names. not things. earth. there is no such intention. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). . wine. and fasten a special name to the object considered. rain. however. "Painting is a fine art. soap. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. dew. The reason is. sand. They remain common class names.. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. iron. wheat. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. as in calling a city Cincinnati. or action. rubber. proof means the act of proving.

1. the well-being of her subjects. five proper. the rude drawings of the book. 12. the great Puritan awakening. there is time for such reasonings. hopeful²hope. action from act. etc. the main bearings of this matter. summer. Verbal abstract nouns. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. day. They are only the husks of verbs. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. the teachings of the High Spirit. and they cannot express action. height from high. lightning. II. in the beginning of his life. Underived abstract nouns. ease. 10. as glad²joy. stupidity from stupid. is used as a noun. They cannot govern a word. those opinions and feelings. service from serve. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. her longing for their favor. Caution. joy. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. . From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. by altering its function. Thus. Exercises. winter. 273). as their name implies. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs." "a brisk walk. 272.. To avoid difficulty.Attribute abstract nouns. childhood from child. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. he spread his blessings over the land. mastery from master. speech from speak. a wedding or a festival. as in the expressions. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. (2) peerage from peer. energy. The verb. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. five abstract. shadow. hope. etc.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. theft from thieve. NOTE. but are merely names of actions. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. night. etc. thunder. (1) prudence from prudent. etc. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. kingship from king." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. Such are beauty. "a long run" "a bold move. the moon caused fearful forebodings. redness from red.

diphtheria. as pneumonia. geology. (b) branches of knowledge. mathematics? 3. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. algebra. catarrh. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. Using a dictionary.2. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . pleurisy. typhus. as physics.

we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. for example. Sodom was famous for wickedness. arras." referring to flat- . the word port. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. "The cook made the irons hot. We know a number of objects made of iron.²EMERSON. 13. thus. 14. from the name of Dr. a Fourier. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. from a town in France. it imposes its classification on other men. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. a Bentham. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. 119). but we may say. Others of similar character are calico. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Proper names transferred to common use. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. or to go over to it entirely. 15.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. and lo! a new system.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. the guillotine. from Corinth. a Lavoisier. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. a Locke. in Portugal. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. a Hutton. etc. port (wine). Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. who was its inventor. Nouns change by use. damask. from China. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. as a davy. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. from Damascus. above. Guillotin. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. levant and morocco (leather). from Oporto. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. Material nouns may be used as class names. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. but most of them are in the following groups. from Calicut. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. currants.

These are the same in material. or the arts and sciences. Personification of abstract ideas. but differ in strength. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.²BYRON. mists. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated.²HAYNE. purity. and only Vice and Misery. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. and say teas. papers. They are not then pure abstract nouns. but on dispositions which require to be created. be spoken of. etc. abstract in meaning. not material things.²CARLYLE. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. tins. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. smiled. candies. For example.²RUSKIN. clays. A halfway class of words. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. are abroad. or. oils.²PERCIVAL. clouds.²COLLINS. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. a rubber for erasing marks.In lightnings owned his secret stings. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. that disposition is the thing to be created. the abstract idea is partly lost. though not confined to verse. or made plural. etc. which are made plural. on fire. Traffic has lain down to rest. that the power of art is founded on fact. This is a poetic usage. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. 17. are still names of abstract ideas. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. that is.²BRYANT. a steel to whet a knife on. and so on. From all around²Earth and her waters. paints. but in case an art or a science.irons. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. Test this in the following sentences:² . his eyes. coals. nor are they common class nouns. Death. 16. (3) By poetical use. Class nouns in use. as stones. Next Anger rushed. When it is said that art differs from science. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. slates. to prowl or to moan like night birds. The words preceded by the article a. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. or used as class nouns. tobaccos.

19.² GOLDSMITH.Let us. which belongs to another word.²IRVING. meaning a walk in the morning. but is still a noun. Then comes the "Why. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. they do not express quality. sir!" and the "What then. They are more like the possessive noun. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. as each repeated pleasure tired. Conjunctions. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. or describe it.²SHAKESPEARE. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS." "a morning walk. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. etc. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. And still. sir?" and the "No. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. a bill as to tax on the banks. Adverbs. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. or from any expression. When I was young? Ah. the wealthy. fear thy blow. But ah! those pleasures. make our own so. a bank in New York. Nouns used as descriptive terms.² BURNS. they cannot be compared. sir!"²MACAULAY .²BURNS." "the State Bank Tax bill. as descriptive adjectives are. loves. for example. NOTE. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. Adjectives. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON. All these. 18. "a family quarrel. nouns used to modify. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. Every why hath a wherefore. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.²SHAKESPEARE. however. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. were mere terrors of the night.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. By ellipses. But it is better to consider them as nouns. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow." which contains a pure adjective. if we must have great actions.The Solitary can despise." "a New York bank. The noun may borrow from any part of speech." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives.

" and another of Dr. etc." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. in a sentence above. Stone walls do not a prison make. 7. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. is the word "just. of words rather than of their meaning."²B. 3.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. or a state secret. 6. There are many of these.. The it. 8. NOTE.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. however. or a faithful domestic. too. without reference to its function in the sentence. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Power laid his rod aside. whether it mean the sun or the cold. 1.Nor iron bars a cage. so. 2. Now. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. Caution. are spoken of as if pure nouns. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. of course. in speaking of the principal of a school. Exercise. are used. In the other sentences.²These remarks do not apply. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. the wealthy. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. and tell to which class each belongs. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. 5. It is to be remembered. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. but have an adjectival meaning. or a criminal. 20." or "legal. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. but as a figure of speech. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. at the beginning. 4. When. and Then. to such words as become pure nouns by use. that cobweb of the brain. why and wherefore. the terms the great. FRANKLIN. When. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. is ambiguous. . A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Learning.

Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. . German. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 21. and names of females are usually feminine. 13. that waits you here. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. And see. 24. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop.Fair guests. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. A fool speaks all his mind. shattered and disabled. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. the welcome. Male beings are. female. but not so in English. for every dropHinders needle and thread. always feminine. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 23. he cried. 10. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 18. There are exceptions even to this general statement. In Latin. The hours glide by. GENDER. 21. its bloom is shed. What gender means in English. A little weeping would ease my heart. Greek. 14. returned to Spain.9. 12. 17. the silver moon is gone. It is founded on sex. 22. 19. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea.You seize the flower. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. The fleet. 15. always masculine. 11. 16. in English grammar. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 20. and many other languages.

the word child is neuter in the sentence.. in German. He next stooped down to feel the pig. das Messer (knife) is neuter.When. with its gizzard under its wing. in English. that pattern of a husband. Thus. according to their use." . or which arouse his interest most..² I have seenA curious child . der Tisch (table) is masculine. 24. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. Gunpowder . mensa (table) is feminine. Neuter nouns. "A little child shall lead them. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. No "common gender. those with which man comes in contact often. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. and neuter nouns. if of the female sex. if there were any signs of life in it. but are spoken of as neuter. For instance: in Latin. and consequently without sex. Of animals. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. 22.² IRVING.²masculine and feminine. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. 23. in other languages gender follows the form. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. then.. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. that is. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. . Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals... must be divided into two principal classes. inanimate things are spoken of. All nouns. came to a stand just by the bridge. or names of things without life. or additions to words. Hence: Definition. however. those distinguishing the sex of the object. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Gender nouns. hortus (garden) is masculine. clapping his burnished wings.²LAMB. the name of it is feminine. the name of it is masculine. according to use. those which do not distinguish sex.²IRVING. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. The great difference is. corpus (body) is neuter. the sex being of no consequence..²gender nouns. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. are named by gender nouns.

Native suffixes. . There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. One feminine. woman. ruler. the division of words according to sex. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. The inflections for gender belong. as in wine vat. Put in convenient form. generally to a masculine word. domestic. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. 28. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. teacher. Gender shown by Prefixes. puts a prefix before the masculine man. but spinster has now no connection with it. cousin. II. servant.. they are neuter words.25. though both words have lost their original meanings. I. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. Hence vixen is for fyxen. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. only to masculine and feminine nouns. According to the definition.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. 29. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. or the lack of it. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Gender shown by Suffixes. Very few of class I. of course. These remain in vixen and spinster. 26. etc. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. is. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. relative. he-bear²she-bear. as he-goat²she-goat. Male nouns beings. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. from the masculine fox. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. If such words as parent. and for the older word fat they said vat. (2) By adding a suffix. for from they said vram. 27. For fox they said vox.

it has none now in the words huckster.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). gamester. as seam-stress. as. Unaltered and little used. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. 30. -ess (French esse. Low Latin issa). and are never used for words recognized as English. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as czarina. as. song-str-ess. donna. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Slightly changed and widely used. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. executrix.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. señorita. trickster. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . These are attached to foreign words. the one most used. Ending of masculine not changed. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. punster. but in most cases it has not. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine.

NOTE. fosteress. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. 31. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . In some of these pairs. as in the fourteenth century. Some of them have an interesting history. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. teacheresse. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. others have in their origin the same root. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. teacher or lady teacher. Thus. frendesse. from Latin imperatricem. as. We frequently use such words as author.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. to represent persons of either sex.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. neighboresse. as. we use the masculine termination. wagoness. neighbor (masculine and feminine). the ending -ess. as was said in the sixteenth century. etc. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. or servauntesse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Instead of saying doctress." III. editor. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. 32. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. chairman. Gender shown by Different Words. we use the feminine. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. from the French -esse.

but this has long been obsolete. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. 33. Witch is the Old English wicce. for example. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English.). etc. not immediately connected with witch. from Latin mea domina. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Icelandic gás. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. 16). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). leaving our word drake. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). though both are ultimately from the same root. Besides gander and drake. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. lhauerd. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). 34. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Danish gaas. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. probably meaning house dweller). The masculine was formed by adding -a. had the masculine mearh (horse). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. as in many other words. in Old English mere. Two masculines from feminines. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. It is not connected historically with our word duck. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. written loverd. widuwa²widuwe. Three letters of ened have fallen away. became identical. or lauerd in Middle English. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Personification.² . gand-ra. finally gander. Madam is the French ma dame.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. The older forms. Mare. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Widower. among others) to be from the same root word. the old sign of the masculine.

²CAMPBELL. eyen (eyes). more than one. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. shoon (shoes). etc. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. the plural. (2) By changing the root vowel. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. 39. NUMBER. 35. I. together with the third.²singular and plural. the engineer speaks so of his engine. The first two methods prevailed. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. The -en inflection. Our language has two numbers. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. Effect of personification.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. Britannia needs no bulwarks. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. whenever we adopt a new word.No towers along the steep. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. This is not exclusively a poetic use."Now.²COLERIDGE. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Definition. and not by the form of the noun. In nouns. for instance.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. 36. 37. in Old English.Her home is on the deep. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. . The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. (3) By adding -s (or -es). that is."²BYRON. treen (trees).²KEATS. 38. But other words were inflected afterwards. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.

. but they now add the ending -s. Brethren has passed through three stages. quartz. and get settled.²THOREAU.² "God bless me! so then.² The foot are fourscore thousand. swine. then brothre or brethre. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Kine is another double plural. as. sail. retain the same form for plural meaning. and is still found in dialects.²WHITTIER. Akin to this class are some words. Lee marched over the mountain wall.The horse are thousands ten. but has now no singular. originally neuter. cross. Such are box.-En inflection imitated by other words. brace. pair. that have the singular and plural alike. such as deer. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. folk. ditch. sheep. lens. head. Children has passed through the same history. The words horse and foot. turf. etc. Other words following the same usage are. after all. they add -s): also trout. dozen.²Over the mountains winding down. as. III. etc. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. 41.²MACAULAY. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. finally brethren. borough²formerly had the same inflection."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. people. by. II. salmon. wight. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. when they mean soldiery. heathen. glass. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. 40. 42. into Frederick town. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. Instead of -s. etc. Examples of this inflection are.Horse and foot. cannon.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. after numerals (if not after numerals. The old plural was brothru.

fancies. also news. though they are plural in form. prize²prizes. negro²negroes. chaise²chaises.² Politics.²PROF. though this sound combines readily with -s. etc. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. in its widest extent. and many branches of learning. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular.²BRYANT. volcano² volcanoes. physics. half²halves. summons. 44. etc. It served simply as a means of sight. Proper nouns are regularly singular. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. 45. daisies. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. Examples of these are.g. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. When such words take a plural ending. and some -es. Means plural.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. means: as. shelf²shelves. 43.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. optics. Words in -ies. molasses. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). as. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. politics.. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. that when thy summons comes. Some words are usually singular. quoth then that ladie milde. knife²knives. fairies. these words ended in -ie. house²houses. and go over to other classes (Secs. 15 and 17). pains (care). And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.g. DANA. e. the Washingtons. and the real ending is therefore -s. Formerly. allies. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. is both the science and the art of government. Special Lists. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . some adding -s. etc. economics. e. mathematics. Two words. they lose their identity. however. the Americas. So live. etc. a new syllable is made. hero²heroes. niche²niches. means and politics. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o.-Es added in certain cases. race²races. The lilie on hir stalke grene..

if I recollect right. Politics plural. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²BURKE. I say. By these means. Now I read all the politics that come out.²G. . he pronounced to have been a tongs. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Some words have no corresponding singular. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. Sometimes. it is furnished with a forceps. W. L.²MOTLEY.²GOLDSMITH. by those means which we have already mentioned. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Besides this. CURTIS.²J. A relic which.²IRVING. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. however.²GOLDSMITH. LAUGHLIN. by strongly conveying the passions.²GOLDSMITH.Words.² MACAULAY. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. 46. riches will accumulate.

the other unlike it. Two classes of compound words. or copies.). carry off chaff. These make the last part plural.² I lisped in numbers.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. faculties. 48. as in the lines. making a double plural. In Early Modern English thank is found. genii (spirits).The air. twopence. pea²peas (separately). in mournful numbers. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. pence (collectively). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. riches. shots (number of times fired). What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. may add -s. Numbers also means issues. One plural. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. (2) revenue duties. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. part²parts: (1) divisions. genius²geniuses (men of genius). (2) literature. 50. DANA. as two sixpences. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. two plurals. clothes (garments).. penny²pennies (separately). for the numbers came. dice (for gaming). 49. brethren (of a society or church). trouble. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood).²was it subdued when. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.²POPE. (2) poetry. fish²fish (collectively). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. Three words were originally singular. shot²shot (collective balls). . etc. sixpence. two meanings. index²indexes (to books). number²numbers: (1) figures. or work in a bellows?²PROF. (2) abilities. or epistles. In speaking of coins. Tell me not. fishes (individuals or kinds).²LONGFELLOW. pease (collectively). (2) care. die²dies (stamps for coins.. of a periodical. ways. indices (signs in algebra). eaves. etc..²one corresponding to the singular.

such as talisman. Two methods in use for names with titles. The chief member adds -s in the plural. and then the three Miss Spinneys. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. the Drs. Ottoman. there is some disagreement among English writers. or the name may be pluralized.²DR. manservant. the Misses Rich. Briggs. as man singer. woman singer. as the Messrs. German. HOLMES. Brahman. Mussulman. then Silas Peckham. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. 52.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Allen. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. woman servant. though the latter is often found. As to plurals of names with titles. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. .y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. 51. firman. Norman. for example. Brown.² Then came Mr. and Mrs. but add -s. The title may be plural.

²DICKENS. or Anglicized. 53. and retain their foreign plurals. These are said to be domesticated. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. Domesticated words. y y analysis antithesis . FROM THE GREEK.²THE CRITIC. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Du Maurier. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Others have been adopted.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. or Englished. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Exercise. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. They are then said to be naturalized. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. The Messrs. FROM THE LATIN. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.²GIBBON.²GOLDSMITH.

55. Only two case forms. Definition. In the sentence." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands).. etc. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). .² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. figures. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. as. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. they form their plurals in the regular way. Words quoted merely as words. also add -s or 's. 56. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s).y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. as. and expresses a relation akin to possession. 54." CASE. In the general wearing-away of inflections. cell has another relation." the word felon's modifies cell. without reference to their meaning. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. etc. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. Letters.

Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 4. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. 57. 58. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. fate." (2) As a predicate noun. .²nature. may be said to have three cases. 1. and the possessive. 2.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. when asked unawares.²the nominative. 3. whether inflected or not. Excuses are clothes which. excessive grief. learning. Human experience is the great test of truth. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. I. the objective. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and merit. Three properties belong to wisdom. three things characterize man.²person. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. the enemy of the living." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. and experience. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. completing a verb.²one for the nominative and objective. 5. they returned to their homes. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. then. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Nouns. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. Uses of the Nominative." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise.

8. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. etc. and landlord of the inn. But of all plagues. sword in hand and visor down. her first law broken. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. reconciles. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. good Heaven. But the flood came howling one day. They charged. . this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. they are sands of precious gold. save. 68." Exercise. 3. 2. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. (5) As the object of a preposition. Set a high price on your leisure moments. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. Uses of the Objective." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. and being equivalent to one verb. and meaning calmest. completing the verb." (4) As the second object. a patriarch of the village.6. the word toward which the preposition points. 59. taking the object storm." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. and makest a calm. Conscience. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. taking the object enemies. as will be seen in Sec. how have I frighted thee? II.Save. and tell which use each has:² 1. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. (in the older stages of the language. wounded lies. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. 4." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. measure. distance. 9." "Thou makest the storm a calm. thy wrath can send." (3) Adverbially.

The noblest mind the best contentment has.²SHELLEY. III. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. the most common of all. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.²ADDISON. the Great Stone Face. (3) Subjective possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. 10.5.His winter task a pastime made. 61. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.e.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.And gave the leper to eat and drink. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. 60. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 8. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. and forfeits paid. The possessive case always modifies another word. or in writing yesterday's elegy. And whirling plate. (2) Objective possessive.²HAWTHORNE.. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. Possession in some sense is the most common.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. 9. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.Does his Creator's power display. It is a poetic expression. as in these expressions.² The unwearied sun. from day to day.²BYRON.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. expressed or understood. 6. as. tempests that . If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. Uses of the Possessive. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. as shown in the sentences. 7.

Case Inflection. and Obj.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec." Use of the apostrophe. The use of the apostrophe. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. PLURAL.. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. 63..e. however. "From every schires ende. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. there are only two case forms. child NOTE. Nom. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. 62." "mannes herte [heart]. One is the simple form of a word. 64. . By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. How the possessive is formed. lady Poss. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. 1. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. "George Jones his book. To form the possessive plural.e.winter is likely to have). 62. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. making the possessive singular. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. As said before (Sec. growth which several days had developed). Nom. Poss. and Obj. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. in Chaucer. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. the panther which the forest hides). "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). 56). as schoolboys sometimes write. Declension or inflection of nouns." etc. A false theory." "at his beddes syde. A suggestion.

"²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. etc.² LOWELL. Cervantes' satirical work. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. Kate saw that. my neighbors. a word with a phrase. but to the ear all may be alike. 65. as. Peter's.. In compound expressions. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. . as." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. being understood with it: for example. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. 66.²RUSKIN. 67. some such word as house. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. for goodness' sake. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. stands up for God's truth one man. the possessive sign is usually last. containing words in apposition. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. as by the countess's command. and she walked off from the don's. instead of the emperor their master's name. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. James's. Captain Scrapegrace's.²HOLMES. know the amount of my income. I remember him in his cradle at St.²DE QUINCEY. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign." Possessive with compound expressions. and from a desire to have distinct forms. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. in the name of the emperor their master. dwelling. etc.. the items of my son's. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. Possessive and no noun limited.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.²CARLYLE. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. church. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.²SWIFT.Though this opinion was untrue." "A postscript is added. store.

A peculiar form. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. 2. and at the same time by a possessive noun. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. ill-lighted except where she stands. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. Blair). each. objective. the statement clearly means only one thing. If. corresponding to 's. Both of these are now used side by side. etc. the sentence might be understood as just explained. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. E.²CARLYLE. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . In most cases. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. however. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. 87. sometimes they are used together. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. a double possessive. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. especially when used with this or that. For example.²E. in such a sentence as. (1) When a word is modified by a. (3) It prevents ambiguity. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. that. and tell whether each is appositional. 68.²FROUDE.. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. 1. making a double possessive. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. (b) Rewrite the sentence. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. Emphasis. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. as one modifier. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. Clearness. (See also Sec.²the introduction which Atterbury made. any. every. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. HALE. or subjective. no.The double possessive. we use the phrase of Atterbury. Exercises.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. this. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. the.

Comes dancing from the East. it seemed. with every garland crowned. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. Now the bright morning star. There Shakespeare's self. therefore. 15. 12. we state.² . some idioms²the double possessive.They say. At lovers' perjuries. 11. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 10. Friend. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. In parsing. 70. and destroy the other. 14. 5. 6. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 8. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 9. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 13. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.A weary waste expanding to the skies. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. Jove laughs. 7.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.3. in parsing a noun. Hence. day's harbinger. 69. let him seasonably water the one. 4. Nature herself. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.

if the latter. singular number. MODEL FOR PARSING. Exercise. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. and limits neckcloth. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. it has no sex. (4) Its office in the sentence. hence it is a common noun. it denotes only one person. a withered serving man. and to have it found out by accident. it is the object of the preposition by. 71. In parsing any word. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. it expresses time. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. Neckcloth. subject of the verb is understood. 68). has no governing word. proper. therefore singular number. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue.²common. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. therefore masculine gender. and number. which gender. . Throat is neuter. etc. as to case. it expresses possession or ownership. names one thing. 3. it is the name of a male being. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.(1) The class to which it belongs. object of the verb takes. like miller's.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. hence it is objective case. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. is a common class noun. the connection shows a male is meant. a fresh tapster. masculine. 4. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. Thief is a common class noun. (3) Whether singular or plural number. and therefore nominative case. therefore possessive case. determining its case. and relations. The correct method. hence it is a gender noun. gender.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. therefore singular number. 2. That in the captain's but a choleric word. therefore neuter. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. inflections. but is the adverbial objective. hence objective case. NOTE.

76). the military gentleman shook his forefinger. instead of saying. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Jarley's back being towards him. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. sleep! 6. For instance." Again.And hated her for her pride. 7. and his daughter. PRONOUNS.. and representative words.. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. definite. 9. 10. Madame de Staël. standing for a name. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. A few miles from this point. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. castle.. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. A pronoun is a reference word. and prison. financial minister to Louis XVI. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. He giveth his beloved sleep.²palace. from a necessity for short. Now. all in one. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. Classes of pronouns. but by a question we say. (2) Interrogative pronouns. or for a person or thing." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. The need of pronouns. where the Rhone enters the lake. Time makes the worst enemies friends. or for a group of persons or things. 73. Mrs. . were natives of Geneva. 11. 8. blessings light on him that first invented . 72. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Necker.5. Definition. which distinguish person by their form (Sec.

(3) Relative pronouns. they are said to have person by agreement. 77. as nouns have the same form. Person in grammar. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. (4) Adjective pronouns.. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. (2) Second person. (3) Third person." Person of nouns. From analogy to pronouns. 76. which have forms for person. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Nom. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. Singular. (5) Indefinite pronouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. words. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. representing the person speaking. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. even if it had a special form. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. or other word or expression. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. I Poss. which cannot be used as adjectives. primarily adjectives. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. that is. my Plural. "the distinction of person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. 74. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. This gives rise to a new term. ours . Three persons of pronouns. 75. pronoun. the person or thing spoken to. which relate or refer to a noun. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. representing a person or thing spoken to. mine. they must represent the person talking. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. and the person or thing talked about. we our.

. and also for the neuter. by personification.Obj. Obj. 78. me us Singular. Obj. SECOND PERSON. your. Poss. neuter. Old forms. Third person singular has gender. Nom. you your. But the third person has. Poss. Obj. yours you Plural. namely. neuter hit. thine. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Singular. she her. Old Form Common Form. of all Three. he his him Fem. feminine h o.. theirs them Neut. masculine h . thy Remarks on These Forms. Masc. yours Poss. or. Nom. in the singular. Obj. a separate form for each gender. The speaker may be either male or female. Nom. so also with the person or thing spoken to. yours you THIRD PERSON. it its it Poss. they their. thou thee ye you you your. hers her Plur. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. First and second persons without gender. Nom.

thy. as in prayers. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. and sometimes its. 80. which is a neuter noun. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time." As shown above. that didst comfort thy people of old. Second person always plural in ordinary English. 79. Two uses of the old singulars. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.²BEECHER. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. Thou. them. The form its. heom. which was often sounded with the h silent. There are. etc.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. This is of comparatively recent growth. In spoken English. in Old English.:² (1) In elevated style. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. as. We use it with a plural verb always. the forms they. 81. however. . though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. thou Shepherd of Israel. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). The old form was his (from the nominative hit). just as we now say. thee. The plurals were h . it.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar.Thou lovest. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. two modern uses of thou. as possessive of it. heora. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children.² Oh. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose..²SHELLEY. 82. (2) In addressing the Deity. The consequence is. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. to thy care we commit the helpless. especially in poetry. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. etc. their. etc.. for example. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. even when referring to a single object.

your. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. we. she. note the following:² 'Twas mine. Old use of mine and thine. or.²COWPER. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me.²LANDOR. their. he. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. and sometimes in ordinary speech. besides a nominative use. and not make more classes. 86. 85. though ye is occasionally used as objective. 84. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. I spare thee mine. them. theirs. her. 58). Absolute personal pronouns. us. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. 84 are always subjects. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. II. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns.Use of the pronouns in personification. 34). them. and follow the usage of literary English. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. our. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. 83. 'tis his. thou. That is." the literary language would require he after was. in such a sentence as. to personify objects (Sec. us. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. however. The forms mine. ²SHAKESPEARE. In spoken English. his. Not a separate class. hers. "I am sure it was him. thine. him. yours. sometimes his and its. Yet careful speakers avoid this. . Nominative forms. when they occur in the predicate position. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. her. her. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. thy. The Possessive. they have a nominative form. have a peculiar use. The words I. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns.²BULWER. And since thou own'st that praise. Additional nominatives in spoken English. me. and has been slave to thousands. ye. for. they. though those named in Sec. its. him. some say. I The Nominative. The forms my.

"I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. theirs. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. (3) To express contempt. (2) To bring emphasis. we find. This usage is still preserved in poetry. Like the noun possessives. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. Long Allen. ²HOLMES.²THACKERAY. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. ours. This ancient silver bowl of mine. The forms hers.²THACKERAY. commenting upon a letter of mine.²ID. T. and with mine.²J.²CARLYLE. anger. thus. yours. 87. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too." said Henry Woodstall. ours. his. for example. thus. hers.²BIBLE. in that old Edinburgh house of his. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. Double and triple possessives. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. COOPER. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. F. "Hold thy peace.²SWIFT.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.² CARLYLE. .²ID. yours. theirs. Give every man thine ear. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. thine. If thine eye offend thee. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. it tells of good old times.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. FIELDS."²SCOTT.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. are really double possessives. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²J. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. Their uses. pluck it out. or satire. sometimes its. but few thy voice. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. as in nouns. we have. Besides this.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.

²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. "The good alone are great. and mine in the second has an objective use. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. this dative use. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. In such sentences as. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. Now the objective. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. as it is called. but the form is the same as the objective. . Curse me this people. In their function. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. 90. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In pronouns. for whose benefit. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. his for his property. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. The old dative case. but nominative or objective in use." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. but not in form. in the first sentence. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. mine stands for my praise in the second. but expresses for whom. 20. 88. Both joined in making him a present. 86: mine stands for my property. 89. or use in a sentence. The Objective. They all handled it. was marked by a separate case. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. as shown in Sec.²BIBLE. the thing is done.²ID. Besides this use of the objective." "None but the brave deserves the fair. III.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. But the first two have a nominative use.

thus. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use." (3) As a grammatical subject. as in the sentences.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. or to the idea. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. 91. It is a pity that he has so much learning. (3) In apposition. you must condense there. why. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²BACON. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. or that he has not a great deal more. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. logical subject. Society. Your mere puny stripling.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. which follows the verb. to stand for the real.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. ²EMERSON. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. has not made its progress. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. like Chinese skill. WEBSTER. Indefinite use of you and your.Time is behind them and before them. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. 92.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE.²BULWER.² NEWMAN. The word you.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. as.² . him that so often and so gladly I talked with. was passed by with indulgence.²DE QUINCEY. in this century. you sneeze. as.²IRVING To empty here.²D. and they cry.²ADDISON.

keeps a school."²IRVING.²BURNS. A sturdy lad . but seldom in prose. yourselves. the second is the old form of the second person. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. ourselves. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.²EMERSON.It is finger-cold.²BUNYAN. himself." and there is an end of it.²COLERIDGE. since firstThe flight of years began.²HOLMES. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. itself. they dropped their arms. that is.²THOREAU. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. as they are also called.²ID. have laid them downIn their last sleep. And when I awoke.²DE QUINCEY.. yourself. or COMPOUND PERSONAL.²SCOTT. "I found me a good book. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. (ourself).²IRVING. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. For example. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. It was late and after midnight. There was nothing for it but to return.² Now I lay me down to sleep.. as. I set me down and sigh. used in poetry.²BRYANT. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. For when it dawned. we use such expressions as. -selves. Of the two forms in parentheses. This occurs in poetry. who in turn tries all the professions. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. and its plural selves.²ANON. peddles it. Poor Christian was hard put to it." etc. it rained." "He bought him a horse. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. 93. And millions in those solitudes. however. who teams it. . when they are direct objects.²HAWTHORNE. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. They are myself. themselves. farms it. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 94. herself. (thyself). I made up my mind to foot it.

What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. In Middle English the forms meself.²MILTON. Threats to all. NOTE. and build the lofty rhyme. especially in the speech of rulers.To you yourself. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. The question might arise. Origin of these reflexives. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. after the analogy of myself. Held dead within them till myself shall die.²EMERSON.² . not the possessive forms. ourselves.² The great globe itself . As if it were thyself that's here. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. I shrink with pain.²SHAKESPEARE. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. Use of the reflexives. as.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. theself. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. to every one.² TENNYSON. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. for example. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.As girls were once. thyself. as in vulgar English. B.²WORDSWORTH. with self. 96. to us. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. BROWNING.²ID. shall dissolve. as. for example. 95.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. etc. as we ourself have been.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. were changed into the possessive myself. and the others were formed by analogy with these.²E..

Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. 4. . INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 6. And it grew wondrous cold.²B. where the word is one with that it tells of. some of them being double possessives. Come and trip it as we go. some each of masculine. 97. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 7. father.²DE QUINCEY. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.² THACKERAY. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 9. 3. let him lowly confess it. Courage. and how to do it. feminine. 2. 10. but it is the soonest spoiled. To know what is best to do. is wisdom. fight it out. Three now in use. and neuter. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. 5. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. One obsolete. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. and what. all conform to it. Years ago. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils.On the light fantastic toe. FRANKLIN. Infancy conforms to nobody. 8. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). which.

number. These show that what is not inflected for case. Use of what. but for case alone. ideas. 98. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. 100. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. actions. used formerly to mean which of two. that it is always singular and neuter. it is always third person. shall we say.. referring to things. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Use of which. Which of you. that is. Whose was that gentle voice. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. but now obsolete. methought. The use of who. or case. it is selective. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. having three forms.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. which is not inflected for gender. As shown here. as it always asks about somebody.There is an old word.Promised. Use of who and its forms. 99. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. that. whether. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. whispering sweet. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. with its possessive and objective. the gold. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. not to persons. etc. . Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. What wouldst thou do. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. it refers to either persons or things. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects.

as they take the place usually of a word already used. which is called the antecedent of the relative. who evidently refers to Bards.Who sung of Border chivalry. AND PLUR. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. who is used as objective instead of whom. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English." In the latter sentence. subject of doth love. SING. as. and so to make smoother discourse. 105. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. who? Poss.² . 99. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 103. 104. objective in the last. SINGULAR Nom. The antecedent." Or. Thus we may say. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. which is nominative in the first sentence. whose? Obj. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. and also in having a conjunctive use. "The last of all the Bards was he. It usually precedes the pronoun. and what are also relative pronouns. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 127). for which the pronoun stands. as. AND PLUR.² "The last of all the Bards was he. it may be shortened into. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Further treatment of who. being the direct object of the verb shall take. Function of the relative pronoun. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. which and what. 102. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. in Sec. since it is subject of the verb had.101. which and what are sometimes adjectives. which. pronoun. For instance. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. nominative in the second also. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. or other word or expression. Who.²by the use of the words. what may be an adverb in some expressions.

That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 106. 4. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.²LOWELL In this.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. is a divine creation.. The men whom men respect. 107.That guard our native seas. that. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.² COX. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Ye mariners of England. 5.²PARTON Which and its forms. what.. Indefinite relatives.²MILTON. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.²THACKERAY. . but the look which is not of the earth. WHITNEY. When the word relative is used. 4.²W. with all its capabilities .The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. will be discussed further on.²DR JOHNSON. a thousand years. both his and who have the antecedent priest. 6. which. 3. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. Who and its forms.²BYRON. 2. For her enchanting son. The nurse came to us.²SCOTT.. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. in the same sense in which man's nature. Two kinds.Whose flag has braved. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. 108. are the men and women who bless their species. Generally speaking. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. D. They had not their own luster. 3. a simple relative is meant. the women whom women approve.Whom universal nature did lament. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. 2. The origin of language is divine. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.

The man that hath no music in himself.²MARGARET FULLER. 2. 6.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. Already done is all that he would do. else this description will seem exaggerated.²H. Who.²GOLDSMITH. 107.5.²IRVING. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 3. ought to be kept in view.²BURKE. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. The judge .] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.. 109.²EMERSON. 111... and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. which it certainly is not. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . and spoils. stratagems. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. Reader. (a) This gradation . That. 4..Is fit for treasons.²DE QUINCEY.. Examples of the relative that:² 1. What. you will not be angry with me for telling you. no bad type of what often happens in that country. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.² SHAKESPEARE 2. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. For what he sought below is passed above.. W. 110. BEECHER 5.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. The Tree Igdrasil. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²LAMB 3.

Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. whom. Witness the following examples:² And you. The sentences in Sec. 96). seemed as much excited as myself. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. they are plural.²SWIFT. Gibbon. Sec. in 4.who. 107. Which.. whose for the possessive. My horse. The little gorilla.whose. 5. things. Kingsley. in the first sentence.²who. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Examples of whose. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. not persons. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. Smollett. referring to animals. p. whom. Who referring to animals. a man. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. 2. that man.²LEIGH HUNT. the relatives are singular. Cooper. son. whose is second person.²IRVING.²LOWELL. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.. and others. and 3.²THACKERAY. In sentence 4.. whose. The robins.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. In 1.²which for the nominative and objective. who. 112. 113. . possessive case of which. who class With those who think the candles come too soon.. in the third. and 6. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.. the others are all third person. or ideas. and so on. whose wound I had dressed. JOHNSON. flung its arms around my neck. who is first person. It has been seen (Sec. Scott.²DR..have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. in 5. (2) It has three case forms. in the second. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. (3) It is nearly always third person. (4) It has two case forms.

no possessive. Burke. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. Sometimes. and to persecute without pity. second. So in Matthew Arnold. and things. . all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain.² I swept the horizon.²BEECHER. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²SCOTT. and third persons.²DE QUINCEY. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.114. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus."²RUSKIN. animals.²first. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. In the sentences of Sec. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. (3) It is the same form for first. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. 115. Which and its antecedents. This moribund '61. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. which is worse. Men may be ready to fight to the death. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. secondly (which made her stare). and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.² And. let us enter the church itself. and numerous others. 109. which is very notable and curious.² MCMASTER. This often occurs. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. Primarily. That. the antecedent follows which. (2) It has only one case form. 116.²SHAKESPEARE. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.²RUSKIN. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. too. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. The last two sentences in Sec. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. Kingsley. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. thus.²THACKERAY.

consequently is neuter. by taking them out. 119. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. that men must needs abide.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. as in sentence 6. Nom. ." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. for example. When expressed. we can.²BIBLE What fates impose. that do I. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular." (3) "These people heard him. Sec. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. it usually follows. 109." That evidently refers to truths. The sentences of Sec. plural number. what we said?²CARLYLE.²SHAKESPEARE. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. who Poss. For example. either of which would be neuter. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. third person. plural number. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. is always neuter. that he has. The gender. 118. whose Obj. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. and is emphatic. and person of the relatives who." Since the relatives hold the sentence together.² What I would. third person. which. What a man does. as. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. that do I not. number. 117. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things.²EMERSON. but what I hate. What. Who plainly stands for those or the people. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause.

" the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. What must be endured? Answer. neuter. Truths in sentence (2). what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 4. so is in the objective case. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. people is the object of the preposition of. nobler souls with that which they are. third person. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. 8. In the same way who. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. who is sure to be cunninger than they. above. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. it is subject of the verb heard."²EMERSON." Here the subject of is. 3. however. subject of heard. but is singular. but of this. The word what. the simple relative.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. What can't be cured. Now. Some prefer another method of treatment. I think they are trying to outwit nature. In the sentence. because it has usually no antecedent. is what we call nature. is in the nominative case. Parsing what. is subject of wrought upon and molded. . is subject of the verb can't be cured. standing for the people understood.. 7. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. the highest result of all education. 5. in (3). and hence is in the nominative case. Exercise. then parse the relatives. in (1). "What can't be cured must be endured. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. In (2). Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. after all. and what is the direct object of the verb call. Another way. in the following sentences:² 1. The relative what is handled differently. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. that takes the case of the truths in (2). The whole expression is its subject. which is. As shown by the following sentences. etc. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. First find the antecedents. 6. we is the subject. it is object of uttered. 120.

It is no proof of a man's understanding.²you cannot have both. whichever. not as direct as the simple relatives. being referred to. and parse that in the first clause. and which in the second clause. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. which. The simple relatives who.²BURKE. It is clear that in 1. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Meaning and use. in a new and original way. They are whoever. or stand on their head. or what else soever. 2.²BURKE. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 122. whosoever. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. . The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. 7. to everything that. 6. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. whatsoever. whatever. Take which you please. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. 123. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. less common are whoso. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. summer will have its flies. So with the other indefinites." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. 121. no particular thing. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. whichsoever. Only itself can inspire whom it will. List and examples. Hence some take what as a double relative. whatsoever. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. by meaning and use. and his friend a fool.²MACAULAY. 4. "common souls pay with that [singular. object of do] they do. Do what we can. no certain antecedent. object of with] which [singular. 3. that is. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. and in 2. Death is there associated. 5. that nothing else can stand in their presence. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 2.

has been my heaviest affliction.²DE QUINCEY..²EMERSON. 121. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.² 1. not following the word such. 126. but and as. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. But and as. Sec. everything that (or everything which). . as shown by the last sentence in Sec. upon which. Two words. for example. Former use of as. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3.² some particular thing.. 120. whereupon. Proof that they have the force of relatives.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. thus. but mean any one whom. but which only wealth could have purchased. what means anything that. as was used just as we use that or which. for example. 125. 124. 417). etc. 121. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. either one that. 2. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. There is nothing but is related to us. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. and that as after such is equivalent to which. This. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. the conjunctions wherein. In early modern English. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. Other substitutes.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. are used. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.As shown in Sec. whereby. 4. Instead of the phrases in which. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed.²HAWTHORNE. nothing that does not interest us. by which. etc.

But in 1 (b).A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. the full expression being. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. 1 (b). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. 127. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. would be. showing that who is plainly interrogative. 3." Likewise with which in 3 (b). It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. which having the antecedent lines. it is an interrogative. 2 (b).²WHITTIER." etc. So in 2 (b). The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. a question is disguised in each sentence. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does.. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. How to decide. Another caution.²EMERSON. 2. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. In studying such sentences. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. who having the antecedent gentleman. what is interrogative. if expanded. and 3 (b). though the earthwork hid them. Special caution needed here.²ID. it is an indefinite relative). Thus. if not. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. no antecedent is expressed. In sentences 1 (a). second. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. . and whether what = that + which (if so. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). "But what had become of them? They knew not. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. it is a simple relative. if not. which would indicate that they are not relatives. "Who stood behind? We knew.

Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. When Goldsmith died. whose has the antecedent you.²GOLDSMITH.²G. Relative omitted when object. 3. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. . In the third.²HOLMES. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.²FORSTER 6.²FLETCHER. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. In the second.128.²CARLYLE. Examine the following:² 1.²SWIFT. and Court Calendars. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. whence is the interrogative word. 5. 2. I visited many other apartments. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. which. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. the question is asked by the verb. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. ELIOT. Thus. Exercise. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question.² THACKERAY. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. but the life of man in England. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 129. which has the antecedent hue. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 4. On the other hand. Put in the relatives who. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. In the first.² These are the sounds we feed upon. and asks no question. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.

6. 130.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. or indefinite relatives:² 1. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. 2. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. Relative omitted when subject. and what. Also in literary English we find the same omission. and comparatively so in poetry. the house was full. 3. simple relatives. 5. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Function of adjective pronouns.²Id. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. There was such a crowd went. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4.²CAMPBELL. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. that. . than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. It is rare in prose. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.²SCOTT.² LOWELL. The nobles looked at each other. who were to be rulers over whom.Ne'er looks upon the sun. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²SHAKESPEARE. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Examples are.7. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. which was already proceeding. which.

For example. necessarily thought of: thus. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. In the first use they are adjectives. or they may stand for nouns. 132. either. many." "Where two men ride on a horse. . one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. and another to get cool under. must not modify any word." in the others. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched.131. Primarily they are adjectives. etc. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. expressed or understood. none. in order to be an adjective pronoun. such as each. and stand for a noun. in the first. such as this. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. "these pranks. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.²IRVING. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. but in this function. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. neither. "another bank. any. the former. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. few. For instance. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. etc.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. as some. all. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns.²BRYANT. and on each is written. 133. 'Truth." that is. or may be the whole of a sentence. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples." "one man. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. but have lost their adjective use. "each cube. not pronouns. Adjectives. or an argument in a paragraph. "The dead are there." in the second. or use. which we have seen in such expressions as. a word." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. that. in letters of gold. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. Caution." Classes of adjective pronouns.²EMERSON. etc.

and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Even as I have seen. and they have well performed the other. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. 5. for example. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²ID. 3.²EMERSON 4. reap the same. as seemed good to each. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. they that plow iniquity. 134.² They stood. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. They had fewer books. Some of these are simple pronouns. 2.²ID. Such are a few isolated instances. and sow wickedness. when the latter was the King of Spain. or reclined.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. but these were of the best. A man inspires affection and honor. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Compound. Definition and examples. accidentally preserved. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.²LOWELL.All these he saw. or sat. Their minds accorded into one strain. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Simple. Exercises. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. because he was not lying in wait for these. but what he fain had seen He could not see. . NOTE. They have not shunned the one.

They led one another. Men take each other's measure when they react. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. or melt for others' woe. ²HAWTHORNE.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. Exercise. imbued. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. The Soldan.² One reflexive.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. one another. another.²HAWTHORNE. you quickly come to the end of all. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²EMERSON. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. with the superstitions of his time. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. for example.Two are compound pronouns. Definition and examples. we might the more easily discharge them. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. such as one other. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. 135. as some of the rangers had gone astray. paused over a horoscope. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. None shall rule but the humble.²each other. as it were.²HOLMES. The word one has a reflexive form.²KINGSLEY. . as most were. Another opposes him with sound argument. as. Much might be said on both sides. Some inflected.

Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. they say. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. Every one else stood still at his post. as. etc. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy.Exercise. what. 136. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. and they. any one (or anyone). Exercise. nobody. every one (or everyone). Now. as shown in the words everybody's. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. Definition and examples. in building of chaises. and was indefinite in Old English.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. no one. 137. naught.." It means something. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. They indefinite means people in general. . Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. I tell you what. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.²SHAKESPEARE. also aught. anybody else's. some one. and somewhat. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. anybody. but. anyone else. everybody else. Somebody. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. everything. something. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Jove laughs. nothing.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. everybody. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. they are never used as adjectives. unlike adjective pronouns. every one else.² At lovers' perjuries. somebody else. anything. etc.

16. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 10. Whoever deals with M. 9. 5. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 6.See also "Syntax" (Sec. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. All was now ready for action. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 12. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. and of no other. 11. in his negotiations. Hutchinson tells us of herself. to which. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). from my earliest days. 2. were suffered to depart. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 18.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Others did the same thing. 8. 7. 14. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 17. 138. Exercise. The table was good. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 3. 4. indeed. A reminder. For this did God send her a great reward. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. I first found myself among the mountains. O thou that rollest above. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. . Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 13.

Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 35. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. behold now the semblance of my being. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. They know not I knew thee.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. and seized a pen. 29. well-oiled dispositions.Destroyer and preserver. eat white bread or brown.And it would work 'em woe. 30. hear! 33. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . and tracedWords which I could not guess of. variety. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 21. He sate him down. I who alone am. thou rollest now. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. 26. who take the world easy. And I had done a hellish thing. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 32. 27. hear.Who knew thee too well. in all its height. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. And will your mother pity me. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. oh.19.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 34. 25. Whatever he knows and thinks. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 23. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 31. that let him communicate.

we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. Who hears me. For example. adjectives are used. 44. white or red. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. 45. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house.36. 41. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. or liquid. We need to add some words to tell its color. position. 40. Substantives. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. who understands me. 42. or with persons. as. that is our permanent state. such as in the expressions "this man. or gaseous. which was no bad step towards my liberation." etc. He knew not what to do. 139. As to the kind of words used. We are by nature observers. if we are at a distance. It may have this office alone. in pointing out an object. and so he read. 37." "a hundred men. heavy or light." "yonder hill. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. etc. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. So with any object. so that no other will be mistaken for it. He teaches who gives. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Again. 39. then.. size. etc. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. . ADJECTIVES. and if we are near. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." The office of an adjective. the number is limited by adjectives." "that house. 43. becomes mine. brittle or tough. If a chemist discovers a new substance. "one hat. Office of Adjectives. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present." "some cities. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 38. and he learns who receives.

pointing out particular things. beautiful. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. remotest.² BACON. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "this life-giving book. Examples are." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White." and the still less significant "and so. happy." the "and there. They include relative and interrogative words. however. 143. and their trash. Definition. derived from proper nouns." "half-dead traveler." "the Roman writer Palladius. such as. to describe it or to limit its application.²POPE. "Heaven-derived power. Infinitives. To make this clear. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." "unlooked-for burden. etc." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. To err is human. fair. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." "ice-cold water. (4) Pronominal adjectives. 141." ." "ivory-handled pistols." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. to forgive. such as safe. With exception of the "and then. Classes of adjectives. Nouns are not.140. rash. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them." "the Christian pearl of charity. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. words primarily pronouns. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." they constitute all his connections. deep. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. If he be thankful for small benefits. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. 142. it shows that he weighs men's minds. "an old English manuscript. used to tell how many things are spoken of. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." "next-door neighbor. divine. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. terrible.²COLERIDGE. or how much of a thing.

" "The clearness and quickness are amazing. 'Tis midnight. no. which are either pure participles used to describe. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. Oxenham. Care is needed.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. 2. 1. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many." was accomplished is a verb." "It came on like the rolling simoom.But ever she looked on Mr. in studying these last-named words. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. sometimes small. much. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. For instance: in the sentence." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. 144. . 145. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. having some of each subclass named in Sec. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. They have these three subdivisions:² How much." "an aged man. Exercises. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." was is the verb. and accomplished is an adjective.²MACDONALD." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." "One is hungry. Examples are." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. considerable.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." Caution. some. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished.²COLERIDGE.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. any. and another is drunken. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. in this.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." "trailing clouds. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. 143. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished." "The shattered squares have opened into line. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." "a charming sight.

Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. When some. as.²CARLYLE. its wake.²VAUGHAN. latter. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening." "Then we wandered for many days. any. An arrow was quivering in each body." (b) Indefinite numerals. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Examples. that.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. no. (plural these. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." Single ones of any number of changes. The list. the former²the latter." "He had lived by hunting for some months." "I have lost one brother. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. "one blaze of musketry. Thus.²KINGSLEY. Exercise. 146.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. former. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. but I have gained fourscore." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER.²ID.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. How many. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Not primarily pronouns.² Every town had its fair. those). for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. instead of modifying them. are used with plural nouns.²THACKERAY. yonder (or yon). which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "In came some five and twenty more. they come under the next division of adjectives. and with them a few negroes. The following sentences present some examples:² . The demonstrative adjectives are this. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. every village." "a dozen volunteers.

²ID.. what revenues or garnitures.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. Oxenham fought desperately.²BANCROFT.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. 147. just as the corresponding pronouns do. In which evil strait Mr. FRANKLIN. skill which was at pause.²ID. like the other numerals. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. The silver and laughing Xenil. These were thy charms. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. 148. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Definition. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. but. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²BULWER. The taking of which bark. Indefinite relative adjectives.²RUSKIN. ²CARLYLE. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. These do not.but all these charms are fled. Exercise. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. As has been said.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²KINGSLEY. WEBSTER. for example. but in the one case. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.²WORDSWORTH.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.² It matters not what rank he has.. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. . skill which was progressive²in the other. 149. was the ruin of every mother's son of us."²B. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. Modify names of persons or things.²GOLDSMITH. I verily believe. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. They are of two kinds. tell how many things are meant.²D. they are changed to adjectives. of equal skill.

which. which is selective among what is known.²IRVING. and new tormentedAround me. or whether any. whatever. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.And whichsoever way I turn. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. New torments I behold. He was turned before long into all the universe. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. As in the pronouns. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.²ID. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.²CARLYLE.² EMERSON. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. the debt to the rich. Whatsoever kind of man he is. and gaze.. you at least give him full authority over your son. nature will be sure to bear us out in. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. In indirect questions. as it rather seemed. whichsoever. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. Examples of their use are. what inquires about things or persons not known. proved not altogether displeasing to him. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.150.²RUSKIN. A lady once remarked. .. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whichever. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). In direct questions. Adjective what in exclamations. it is impossible to determine. whatsoever. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whichsoever way I move. But when the Trojan war comes.²LAMB.²AGASSIZ. Was there. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. 151.

th s (modern those). and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. we do so by means of their qualities. COMPARISON. But this had also another plural. or amount. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. .²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. color. Exercise.152. etc. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. History of this²these and that²those. This is the old demonstrative. and those as the plural of that. In exclamatory expressions. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. the making of it right. 155.. alas. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. of the quality.² Oh.²but not the same degree. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. or size. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. It is neither relative nor interrogative. When we place two objects side by side. 153 . weight.²number and comparison. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. as. etc.Adjectives have two inflections. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. Meaning of comparison. gold is heavier than iron. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. Those borrowed from this. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. or weight.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. which was fully inflected in Old English. NUMBER. and when we compare the objects. That. Thus. those). we notice some differences between them as to size.²This. And yet. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. 154. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. The article that was used with neuter nouns. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. All these have certain qualities.

though the simple. organic. So with the words sole. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. These are properly the only degrees. These are called degrees of comparison. A main difference betwixt men is. with less wit. redder. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. for example. "more matter. to the simple form. and the superlative. "untamed thought. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. 160.²SEWARD.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. and the superlative by adding -est. easiest. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. easy. 159. 158." "the largest soul. sufficient. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. . Definition. and many others." "no fewer than a hundred. reddest. expressing a greater degree of quality. supreme. but. They came into use about the thirteenth century. indefatigable. indomitable. bluer. strictly considered. as. Freedom is a perpetual. whose favorite pupil he was.²THACKERAY." Words that cannot be compared. as. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. expressing the greatest degree of quality. enormous. whether they attend their own affair or not. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. or amounts in quantity. bluest.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. Substitute for inflection in comparison. they are not compared. universal institution. giant-like. red. The two forms. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative." "the commonest speech. great. infinite. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. but were not common until a century later. The comparative is formed by adding -er. immemorial. easier. blue.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. 156." "It is a nobler valor. 157.

" From Ruskin: "The sharpest. These long." said Henry Esmond." "more odd. which hung behind in the queerest way. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. though born in no very high degree. falling on his knees. The following lists include the majority of them:² . easy. and other words are preceded by more and most. polished. indisputablest. and yet familiar. who.²ID. etc. strange. "So help me God." "the wonderfulest little shoes. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. peaceablest." "more austere and holy. witty. mournfulest. These are adjectives irregularly compared.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. finest chiseling. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives." "sorrowfulest spectacles. there needed to be a most genuine substance. honestest.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. most small. madam.Which rule.² CARLYLE A gentleman. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given.²The Nation. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative." Carlyle uses beautifulest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. admirablest. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. was most finished. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. quiet. and patientest fusing. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. The general rule is. as.²ID." "distantest relationships. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. 162. harsh forms are usually avoided. 163.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. I will. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. Adjectives irregularly compared.

worst. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 164. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. a double comparative. innermost Outmost. 6. though from a different root. which has gone out of use. There was an old comparative bet. The superlative I form was betst. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less.²HAMLET. hindermost Much or many More Farther. utter 3. 1. next Nearest Latest. 9. further Farthest. oldest Nighest. last Hindmost. throw away the worser part of it. 4. 2. furthest 10. [Out] Outer. . as in Shakespeare.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. Hind 2.LIST I. lesser. 5. as in the sentence (14th century).² O. lesser Elder. A double comparative. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. uppermost LIST III. [In] Inner Inmost.² We have it in a much lesser degree. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. evil was the positive to worse. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. These have no adjective positive:² 1. (3) Little is used as positive to less. outermost Utmost. (2) In Old English. least. bad. which has softened to the modern best. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. uttermost Upmost. is often used. 3. Good or well Evil. older Nigher Nearer Later. Worser was once used. as. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 8. List I. 7. latter Hinder LIST II.

came into use. next.²forth. farrest. the parallel form mickle being rarely used.² The more part being of one mind. farthest. moche. to England we sailed." Its spelling has been micel. first. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. ²LAMB. meaning the largest part. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. In imitation of further.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. greatest. latest. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. "Many a little makes a mickle. but not in meaning. but originally the comparison was nigh. doubling the inflection. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.²ID. for example. strong. making the modern farther.. a distinction has grown up between the two series. or series. The latter. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. oldest. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. (5) The forms elder. an old superlative ending. the old forms. near. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. Between the two sets as they now stand. is quite common. as long. etc. The meanings greater. muchel. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. The most part kept a stolid indifference. First became entirely detached from the series. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. th came into the others. to which is added -ost. are earlier than older. instead of lenger. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. and the superlative nearest. Since later. great. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. since the m is for -ma. . except the form next. are shown in such phrases as. eldest.²HAWTHORNE. as. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. strenger. further.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti.. etc. furthest. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. and refer to time. List II. there is scarcely any distinction. much.²KINGSLEY. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional.

²SCOTT. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. all may belong to the same noun. Decidedly handsome. by the by. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing.²EMERSON. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Her bows were deep in the water. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. (Sec." "far-seeing as the sun. 166. The adjectives in List III. on the very topmost twig. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective." "their utmost exertion. the upper light of the world.²DE QUINCEY. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. 168." "The outer is of the day. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. Highest and midmost. was descried The royal banner floating wide. The comparatives are so in form." "the innermost moral soul.165." -Most added to other words.²DE QUINCEY. Think what each adjective belongs to. in having no adjective positives." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. but not in their meaning.²HAWTHORNE. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. or have no comparative forms. or each may modify a different word or group of words. There. . but her after deck was still dry. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.²H. They have no superlatives. W. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN.²KINGSLEY. List III. In List II. and have no comparative force. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. BEECHER. Her. 167. but they have no adjective positives. being merely descriptive. are like the comparative forms in List II. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.

" decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.For example. Exercise. we may say "the then king. It may still be argued. solid. deeply black eyes." in which then is an adverb. By a convenient brevity. as. therefore.²HAWTHORNE. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²RUSKIN. usual modifies incomparable decision. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. Richard Hooker. and broken.²HAWTHORNE. Our sometime sister. deep. now our queen. ²TROLLOPE. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. Other instances are. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank.²TRENCH. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. "the one who was then king. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. and heaven-defying oaths. A few improper jests and a volley of good. Bradbury and Evans. in this sentence. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. May we not. round.²NOAH PORTER. But in this sentence. The seldom use of it. H. 3.²A.²MRS. . our new government. and moral truth. STEPHENS 5. and thine often infirmities. 2. rich. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. 4. 6. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. not decision alone.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. the then and still owners. satisfactory. bright. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²BIBLE. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. philosophical.²HOLMES.² My then favorite." making then an adjective. For thy stomach's sake. 7. In the following quotations. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. STOWE. in prose. 169. This. instead of saying.

seventy-five drachmas. the method of parsing is simple. and I waited for none. To every Roman citizen he gives. (3) Its degree of comparison. MODEL FOR PARSING. therefore demonstrative. and very few have number. In parsing an adjective. Exercise. then. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 3. not inflected for number. 170. manly way. 2. I ask nothing of you. if it has number. person. 10. . 5. Unfamiliar describes truths. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1.What to tell in parsing. or case. modifies truths. She made no reply. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. plural number. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. cannot be compared. having a singular. this. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. This gave the young people entire freedom. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. frank. 6. Since adjectives have no gender. 4. 7. therefore descriptive. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. 8. To every several man. modifies the word truths. (2) Its number. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. positive degree. and most astounding were those frightful yells. across the plain. if it can be compared. 9. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. compared by prefixing more and most. (4) What word or words it modifies. with awkward but rapid pace. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. These points out what truths. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday.

oxen. 12. To say what good of fashion we can. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. . On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. growing in the most unfavorable position. the tomahawk fell. not so much for travelers that were few. Two hours elapsed. is the settlement of our own country. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Their name was the last word upon his lips.11. 14. In music especially. it is so noble a fruit. it rests on reality. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 27. 28. are immutably fishes. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. and therefore more interesting to us. 33. 32. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Nearer to our own times. 23. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. during which time I waited. 26. suggests such thoughts as these. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 18. Like most gifted men. 13. as for armies that were too many by half. 24. 21. those dogs in the yard. 19. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 25. he won affections with ease. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. the same love to France would have been nurtured. I know not what course others may take. 16. With every third step. Here lay two great roads. 22. and many poles supported the lower ones. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 31. yonder oxen in the pasture. 20. 29. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. and dogs.

35. 171. An before vowel sounds. for example. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. with an ordinary little garden. An historian. just as adjectives do." An with consonant sounds. the tither. even when not silent.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the other. s o. the latter is still preserved in the expression. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. such as we have been attempting to describe. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general.²MACAULAY. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. A hard-struggling. Two relics. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds.²SCOTT." "an honor. and a before consonant sounds. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. Examples: "a house. the tother." the words the and an belong to nouns. In the sentence. that other. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. ARTICLES. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. or the tane. weary-hearted man was he. he is no literary man. 172. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. these occurring as the tane. in vulgar English. but the former is used. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives." "a European. were formerly that one. Many writers use an before h." "a yelling crowd. In Middle English the became an article.²BREWER. 173. ðat. Our expressions the one. . that) which was also an article in Old English. sometimes the tother. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. th o. the tother. Their origin. later th . nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. a before consonant sounds. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road.34." "an orange. An or a came from the old numeral n. 174. 37. meaning one. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel.

175. BANCROFT. which cannot be used alone.²COLERIDGE.²G. or a group or class of things. An and a are different forms of the same word.²IRVING.² Don't you remember how. An article is a limiting word. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. 179.. as "the Mississippi. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. as in the sentence.²THACKERAY.²HEROES OF ASGARD.² ." "the Ohio. a person is introduced by a. 177. or class. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. The Dakota tribes. thus.. the older n. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. 176..He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. With names of rivers. When the is prefixed to a proper name." the article indicates clearly that a river. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. on opening a story. doubtless. An hereditary tenure of these offices. Articles are either definite or indefinite.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. or group. Definition. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. To call attention to attributes. not descriptive. 178. or any individual of a group or class. Kinds. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. An or a is the indefinite article. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. since it points out a particular individual. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. Reference to a known object.²This use is noticed when. is referred to. NOTE. and when the word river is omitted. The is the definite article. and not a state or other geographical division. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.

²EMERSON. 2. as.²ID. The. her. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. 180. Schelling. laid it on the miry spot. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.²G. 1. for example.²SCOTT. 183.²GIBBON. NOTE. would speedily extract the required information. the Spinoza. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²EMERSON.²MOTLEY.²ID. With adjectives used as nouns. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. the song sparrow. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.The Bacon. and the redwing. His messages to the provincial authorities. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. so is the evil. The simple rise as by specific levity. or a match put between the fingers. For possessive person pronouns. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.² The faint. not into a particular virtue. BANCROFT. but into the region of all the virtues. One thing for its class. 182. etc.²KINGSLEY. 181. With plural of abstract nouns. the gallant.² As she hesitated to pass on. Common. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. If the good is there. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. Caution. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Half abstract. . as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. Kant. the Hume.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

Of those expressing action. in this sentence from Bulwer. an adverb. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. or the object. and not a verb." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. representing something which it influences or controls. "Put money in thy purse. we consider a verb as one word. an article. in (c). in (b). in (3. a preposition. which may be a person. 201. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. The nature of intransitive verbs. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. Each influences some object. a verb. to go is no predicate. with some word understood. "Put thou money in thy purse. b). All do not express action: some denote state or condition. and. for example. etc.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. In giving a definition. Hence Definition. hence is not a verb. endured what? anguish. a noun. a). By examining a few verbs." put is the predicate. In the first. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. in (2. can deceive has an object. in (2. obeyed is a predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. 204. In the sentence. the most astute. taking the staff which always guided her steps. All these are called transitive verbs. 202." Examine the sentences in Sec. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. or an idea."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. or a material thing. In each case. A verb is a word used as a predicate. all do not express it in the same way. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. 203. and shame the most astute. in (3. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. The nature of the transitive verb. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. 200: In (1). lone took what? answer. c). Now. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating.²BULWER . which means to go over. (can) shame also has an object. but cannot be predicates. and a preposition unite as a verb. the most penetrating. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb.In (a). as. but fearing is not a predicate. the word following. from the Latin transire. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. care. and to receive the action expressed. to say something to or about some person or thing. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. Definition and caution. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. b).

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Most excellent stranger. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. Again.²SHELLEY.²BRYCE. and may or may not be regarded true. ²EMERSON. 221. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.² If. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. If this be the glory of Julius. the first great founder of the Empire. the second founder.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. he will see the need of these ethics. the representative system ultimately fail. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.²MACAULAY. I. Unreal²cannot be true.²may or may not be true. 2). in our case. as. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.²LONGFELLOW.²D. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. for example. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. Ideal. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. popular government must be pronounced impossible. WEBSTER. but. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.²FRANKLIN. as. or be fulfilled. . the writer can make the statement following. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. they were recorded in the Book of Life.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.I could lie down like a tired child. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. 222. Condition or Supposition. 215.² Now. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.

. is used to express purpose. If he had reason to dislike him. would have sat still with joy and peace. if he speak to you. might. society could not hold together. except. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. In the following conditional clauses. would you. II. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. do you think. 4. if his lot had been mine. he had better not have written.²FRANKLIN." etc. though. Subjunctive of Purpose.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. which cannot be true. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. 5. if he was the man I take him for. thus. The voice. and striven energetically to save Ney. But in no case could it be justified.²EMERSON. especially be. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding.²BAYNE. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. unless.² CARLYLE. 6. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. as. WILLIS.. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. The subjunctive. ²LOWELL. Exercise. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. I told him. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. and should.²N. etc. clear. . "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.. melodious. and sonorous.. that we cannot but regret its absence.²MACAULAY. Epaminondas. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. NOTE.² It was necessary. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.² If these things were true. may. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. he supposed.²CALHOUN. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 8. that he might be strong to labor. since he [Byron] was dead. to drink strong beer. 2. P.²FRANKLIN. she was regarded as a prodigy. 7.²SWIFT. and what kind of condition:² 1. 223. is of similar physiognomy. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. 3. but when the verb precedes the subject.

WEBSTER. like the quarry-slave at night.²COLERIDGE. within its fairy bowers. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Rise up.²D.²DE QUINCEY. IV. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. the answer being regarded as doubtful.Were wafted off to seas unknown. Ask the great man if there be none greater. till it meet the sun in his coming. The English subjunctive.I have been the more particular. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²BRYANT. 224. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. So live.. Expressing a Wish. V. 226. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. VII. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.That vain it were her eyes to close.. III.²SOUTHEY.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. I've wished that little isle had wings.²CARLYLE. In a Noun Clause. After a verb of wishing.²WORDSWORTH. In Temporal Clauses. none of us could say. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. 227.. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. Subjunctive of Result.²ID. VI. In Indirect Questions. 225. I would it were! ²EMERSON. To tell of what had passed. Let it rise.Thou go not. .And we. like the Latin. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²MOORE..

that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. (b) Adjective.²CARLYLE. is the ultimate fact of man's life. The essence of originality is not that it be new. Object. tell me all that thou hast seen. in its various uses as subject. we'll turn aside.² Be the matter how it may. often contains a subjunctive. VIII.² DICKENS. 229.²SCOTT.Subject.²DE QUINCEY. of cash. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. or whatsoever victual it may be.And look thou tell me true. That hunger of applause.²SHELLEY. is.²COLERIDGE. in apposition. 228. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. object.And see the Braes of Yarrow. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²COLERIDGE. I have no thought what men they be. which may be (a) Pronoun. etc. The first merit.²WORDSWORTH. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²THOREAU. Complement. . See that there be no traitors in your camp. Whatever betide. After verbs of commanding. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. Come. The noun clause. Some might lament that I were cold. that everything be in its place. Concessive Clauses.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. the sentence is the same²that rejects it..² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²TENNYSON. for example.

. 231. IMPERATIVE MOOD. (1) Command.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. for example. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. love all men. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. In spoken English. At the present day. or requests. Usually second person. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. point to their immortal works.The spirit he loves remains. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. (2) Entreaty. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. 230. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. (3) Request. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. entreaties. and condition contrary to fact. a concession.²SHELLEY. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. ADAMS.²BRYANT. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts.² CARLYLE. Q. however. Oh.²CHANNING. since commands are directed to a person addressed.²J. 232. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Definition. to express a wish. Honor all men. fear none.(c) Adverb. though. we had found [should have found] a poem here. It must be remembered.

or I + they. 3.. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences."Hush! mother. to you implied in it. Part we in friendship from your land. 7." Exercises on the Moods. receive my hand." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.²CAMPBELL. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Quoth she. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. but I + you. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. etc. "Come along with me. Break we our watch up. we may use the imperative with we in a command. request.²SCOTT. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. there will her heart and her prayers be." whispered Kit. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I."²DICKENS Tell me. nothing is to be preferred before justice.²SHAKESPEARE. 2. child of earth!While each performs his part. Mark thou this difference..And. noble earl. Oh.One glance at their array! 5. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. lest we rust in ease. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. etc.And God forget the stranger!" . 6. "The Devil take the goose.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Sometimes with first person in the plural. 8. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.

And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.9. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. 23." continued Old Morgan. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 10. "Oh. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. That sheaf of darts." cried he." 16. 11. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Marshall. she ought to have it. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. 14. 18. then. but repentant child. Well. and opinion displace opinion. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. how he may do his work. my dear madam. . "Mr. will it not fall unbound. 20. Think not that I speak for your sakes.Except. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. or do it at all. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 13. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause.That they might answer him. "tell me where I may find my poor. Forget thyself to marble. it would speak." 25. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Though abyss open under abyss.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. in what pomps and prosperities he like. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. no literary man. let him live where else he like. He. whether he do it right or wrong. He is. 21. ruined. That a man parade his doubt. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. Though he were dumb. 19.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls.High up in silver spikes! 22. as though an instrument. 26.

showing more exactly the time of the action or being.² present. Old English had only two tenses. called auxiliaries. by means of the present. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. five in the subjunctive. and the future tense. will. kind. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. "I go away tomorrow. tell him to wait. a form ending in -eth. Tenses in English.27." "If he comes. such as Latin and Greek. which represented present and future time. or future time. whatever she did. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. past. "Thou walkedst. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. past perfect. Siddons. 235. or agree with it. past. in the third person singular.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. the past." . in the conjugations. TENSE. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. "It is not in man that walketh. or whether it were as one member of a general party. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. shall. as will be shown later on. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. The tenses in detail. 28. and future perfect tenses. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages." past. also.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. as. Meantime. as the classical languages have. PERSON AND NUMBER. and the past tense. five in the imperative. When the older pronoun thou was in use. as.²nothing could exceed the amiable. "Thou walkest. to direct his steps. Tense means time. Definition. such as be. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. have. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. 234. and future." present.²the present tense. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. 233.

I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. chooses. Definition. chose. been.²choose. I were 2. [He] were [They] were . walketh. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. are. This is the third person. were. etc. persons. Singular 1. and numbers. choosest. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices." and this only in the present tense indicative. Singular 1. PRESENT TENSE. In classical languages. PRESENT TENSE. Singular 1. I be 2. walks. 236. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. wert) 3. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. singular number. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. [He] is [They] are 3. walking. "He walks.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. walkedst. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. tense. mood. as. Such verbs as choose have five. choosing. The verb be has more forms.²am. etc. for example. 238. since it is composed of several different roots. is. Indicative Mood. tenses. You are 2. Few forms. chooseth. chosest). 237. Singular 1. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. but in English. CONJUGATION. walk has walk. You (thou) be 3. walked. moods. chosen (old.

²WORDSWORTH. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²GOLDSMITH. 239. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. were. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.His infancy was nurtured.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. to form the passive voice. (d) With the infinitive.Imperative Mood. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. to express intention. (2) As auxiliary verbs.. (b) With the past participle in -ed. -en. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature.²SCOTT. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.²ID. in four ways. is. for example. The light that never was on sea and land.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. etc. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²SHELLEY. as. which was now become an occasional banquet.²THACKERAY. condition. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. obligation. 240.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. same as the German sind. Instead of the plural are. etc. thus. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. though it is usually a dialect form. (2) was. (3) be.²BURKE . Remarks on the verb be.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.

"I have gone" (present perfect). 1. 240. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. future perfect. (2). . PRESENT TENSE. You chose Plural. You choose Plural. 1. I chose 2. We chose You chose 3. I choose 2. past perfect. had. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. tenses. tenses. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. "I shall be. Singular. You chose Plural. 1. You choose Plural. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. I choose 2." (2) Present perfect. Singular.241. as. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 242." "He will choose. etc. In addition to the above inflected forms. as. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. "I had gone" (past perfect). The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. Singular. 1. Machinery of a verb in the voices. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. We chose You chose 3. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. Singular. I chose 2. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] choose [They] choose 3. by placing have. Indicative Mood.

Past definite. He will have chosen. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. he have chosen. (2d per." 243. Present definite. He was choosing. Present. Present perfect definite. Past perfect. He is choosing. Present perfect. Same as indicative." (4) The passive forms. Indicative Mood. Present perfect definite. singular number. Past.(3) The definite form of each tense. He has chosen. Past. as. Future definite. He chooses. as. Imperative Mood. He chose. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. He had chosen. " Be choosing. Present definite. "I am running. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect. Future perfect. Future. Only the third person. Present. [If. "I was chosen. of each tense. He will choose. he have been choosing. Future perfect definite. Present. etc. Past perfect definite. He will he choosing. though. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. . will be given.] he choose. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He has been choosing.) Choose." "They had been running. Past perfect. he chose (or were to choose). Present definite. He will have been choosing." "You are chosen. Same as indicative. ACTIVE VOICE. He had been choosing. Past definite. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past perfect definite. lest.

Present perfect definite. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Future. lest. Future perfect. He is chosen. etc. Present definite. None.NOTE. Present." [Note to Teacher.²This table is not to be learned now. (2d per. Present. Future definite. None. Future perfect definite. "He does strike. Past perfect definite. Indicative Mood. He is being chosen. Present tense. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. however. He was chosen. He will have been chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present definite. Past. Imperative Mood. Past.] [If. Exercises should be given. Past Perfect. " " " " " " " None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. he were being chosen. None. He was being chosen. if learned at all. Past definite. he had been chosen. in affirmative sentences. Past definite. Present perfect.) Be chosen. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). . Past perfect. Past perfect definite. Present perfect definite. as. he have been chosen. He will be chosen. Also. though." "He did strike. 262). but verbals. He had been chosen. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect.] he be chosen. None. they will be discussed later (Sec.. PASSIVE VOICE. None. None. He has been chosen.

bit blown broken chidden. beg. caught. bid bound. drove. drive.[adj. but adds no ending. verbs are strong or weak. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. slept. bounden] bitten. lay. 244. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . which are in parentheses Present Tense. catch. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. run. as. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. sleep.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. According to form. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. begged. NOTE. Kinds. Some of these also have weak forms. Past Tense. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. ran. and may or may not change the vowel: as. laid. 245. Definition.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound .

²one meaning to adhere or cling. Not a cock crew. and sometimes occurs in poetry.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. probably to avoid confusion with this. but is much used in vulgar English. cloven. When it means to carry or to endure. as. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. now told us it was time for repose.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²as (from Shakespeare). "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. as. 246. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." "a drunken wretch. .²IRVING.²B. and another (born) for the passive. to split. Historically. "stricken with paralysis. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. "his bounden duty. which always crew at eleven. ²THACKERAY. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. instead of ate and eaten. TAYLOR.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. and the latter.²GOLDSMITH. the other." "a sunken snag." In this confusion of usage. The former used to be cleave.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated)." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. as (from Holmes).² We had each drank three times at the well. Sometimes in literary English. borne is also a passive. especially in that of an earlier period. The form clomb is not used in prose. cleft (to split). The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²cleave. clave or clove.²MILTON. cleaved. for example. as. cleave."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. only one set remains certain." "the cloven hoof. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). How fairy Mab the junkets eat. and. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. cleft. Our cock.²TENNYSON. cleaved.²COLERIDGE. nor a dog barked.

²WORDSWORTH. Break. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. even in poetry. We usually say. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. broken. broke.²DE FOE. for example. gave. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate." but not much as a participle. Exercises.The form gotten is little used.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. began. 2. fell. Give. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. begun.²BIBLE. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Fall. Fling. 8.²SCOTT. shaken.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. Begin. and grasping at his sword. flung. One example out of many is.² If. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Usually shear is a weak verb. maiden. This heard Geraint.²BYRON. 10. shook. Shake. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. 5.² We had all got safe on shore. He sate him down. thrown. 9. threw. Throw." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 3. 7. and seized a pen."²KINGSLEY. drove. froze. frozen. The butler was hanged. fallen. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. which is seldom used except in poetry. as. . 6. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. given. as "a shorn lamb. for example.²TENNYSON. shore is rare. Drive. driven. 4. 245). Freeze. Find. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. found. found. (a) From the table (Sec. flung.

The l in could did not belong there originally. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. HAMILTON."²WINIER. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. Could may be subjunctive. 223. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. His superiority none might question. . It is indicative when it expresses permission. there is one general principle. from the obsolete verb motan. 249.²CHANNING This. Indicative Use: Permission. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. purpose. Can is used in the indicative only. "So mote it be.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. of course. for full drill on the forms. PAST. as.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. 247. it is used only in the indicative mood. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. "far off his coming shines.[To the Teacher. 220. or. They are as follows:² PRESENT. etc. PAST. Like must.. ability. according to the infinitive used. Must is historically a past-tense form. 250.. etc. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. PRESENT." Must is present or past tense. as in Sec. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.²HAWTHORNE. 251.²SCOTT. as it sometimes does.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.²CHANNING. Have we valuable territories and important posts. (See also Sec. or when it expresses wish. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. but came through analogy with should and would. must have been an ocular deception.²PAINE..which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A.. The same remarks apply to ought.. Ability. as it has two meanings. Subjunctive use. which survives in the sentence.

"I think I will go. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. WEBSTER. yea. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. or confident prediction. The following are examples:² Never mind.²IRVING. 252. and corn to hoe.² With respect to novels. shall and should are used. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. as.²BULWER. as. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. with pronouns of the first person. .² Futurity and questions²first person. The sea shall crush thee. Shall and Will. to use will and would. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. future action). I shall be gone.²COOPER. as.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. especially in the United States. C. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. (b) In indirect quotations. what shall I say?²N." Uses of shall and should. She rejects his suit with scorn. not plod along like apeasant.²MACAULAY.²L. she should ride like a queen. while ought always has to. MOULTON.Nay.² (a) To express authority.²LONGFELLOW.e. She should not walk. for example. promise. Second and third persons. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. my lad. to the neglect of shall and should.²THAXTER. he said. shall and should are used. BROCKDEN BROWN. (b) In questions asking for orders. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.² The time will come full soon. They shall have venison to eat. in the form of command.

thus. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person..² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. etc.. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. for example. And promised. was to be expected. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²CABLE.²WORDSWORTH.²ROGERS.²WINTER.²SCOTT. LARNED.²WORDSWORTH. as. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.that I would do him justice. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. First. purpose. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. for example.²C. 253. as the sole inventor. Disguising a command. with the conviction that he should win in the end. or a promise. second and third persons. BROWN. JR. B..Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²H. and is equivalent to ought.² I will go myself now.²SWIFT. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²BYRON. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. . JAMES.²A. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. (c) With direct questions of the second person. I never was what I should be. time. and will not return until all is finished.²WORDSWORTH.

will and would are used to express simple futurity. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).²IRVING.² DICKENS.²BANCROFT.. for example. To be sure. They will go to Sunday schools. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. SECOND. and two of my people..²LANDOR. as. without regard to future time. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. In this stately chair would he sit. 254.. Would thou hadst it not.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. will and would often denote an action as customary. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. AND THIRD PERSONS. for punishment or intimidation.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. (4) With FIRST. and mark on the grounds the works. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.² Subject I omitted: often so. as..²SCOTT. The gift of Beauty. Thine was a dangerous gift. would is used to express a wish.²War Records. Roland. action merely expected to occur. . What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. When I am in town. PASSIVE VOICE.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.. B. will is used to express command. for example. through storms their brothers are afraid of. so you will.²BURKE.² Thou wilt take the skiff. BROWN. etc. as if it were merely expected action. Mere futurity.²the original meaning of the word will.²SCOTT. when thou wast born. This puts the order more mildly.

We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. I shall choose. You shall be chosen. promise. 2. You will choose. We will choose. PASSIVE VOICE. 3. Singular. (b) Examine the following sentences. 3. (a) From Secs. 3. You shall choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. 1. I will be chosen. You shall choose. . I will choose. I shall be chosen. 2. You will be chosen. yet only seem. 2. 1. [They] will be chosen. [They] shall choose. You will be chosen. Plural.Singular. [He] will be chosen. and that of the newest cut. We will be chosen. 2. 3. 6. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. You will choose. We shall choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Plural. We shall be chosen. [They] will choose. 4. [He] will choose. etc. 3. 2. 1. 3. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Singular. 252 and 253. Singular. [He] shall be chosen. 1. 2. He informed us. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. and justify the use of shall and will. Exercises on Shall and Will. You shall be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. Plural. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 1. 5. [He] shall choose. Thou art what I would be. "I shall not run. Plural. Thou shalt have a suit. To express determination.

11. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. Without having attended to this. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. was -de or -te. as if he would have more of the enchantment.²Class I. bereft. or mylk and wastel breed.²ID. Present Tense.7. bereave beseech bereft. But the rest. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. Past Tense. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. which may be called irregular weak verbs. bereaved besought . my son. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. very anxious. as. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 13. and I have nothing to say. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries." the stranger said. No. put. 9. and have no change of vowel. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 257. Irregular Weak Verbs. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Lucy stood still.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. need some attention and explanation. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. WEAK VERBS. then. The beast made a sluggish movement. This ending has now dropped off. 10. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. put. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. set. 255.²CHAUCER. bereave besought Past Participle.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. "I am a wayfarer. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. set. 256." 14. 12. put. Of smale houndes hadde she.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. spelt spilt staid. hid kept knelt laid leaned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made .

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

To with the infinitive. Perfect. formed a kind of bedstead. 266. a perfect. an indefinite and a perfect form. 9. [To] be choosing. When active. . like participles. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). Nothing of the kind having been done. INFINITIVES. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system.²the creature warring against the creating power. when inflections became fewer. have no tense. and a perfect definite form. 268. [To] be chosen.. PASSIVE VOICE. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Cases when to is omitted. expressing purpose. ACTIVE VOICE. and when passive. Indefinite. [To] choose. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Indefinite. [To] have been choosing. they have an indefinite. 267. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. [To] have chosen. [To] have been chosen.. to express action unconnected with a subject. But later.6. In Sec. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Imperfect. 7. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted.. 10. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. I returned to reflection on my situation. Infinitives. 8. Perfect definite. an imperfect. Three saplings. as in the Old English. try clemency. Perfect. will (with should and would). to was used before the infinitive generally. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking.

270. 272.²MACAULAY. it is often preceded by the definite article. But there was nothing to do. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.(2) After the verbs may (might)." Examples are. the gerund may be called a noun verbal.²TENNYSON. feel. see. GERUNDS. "He will choose. make. 269. and corn to hoe. HALE. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative.²IRVING. negative.²HOWELLS. can (could).²COOPER. liberal woman. must.²GOLDSMITH. as. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. watch. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. as. as the credulous imagine." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms." etc. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). do (as. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. "I do go" etc. "She ask my pardon. also in the imperative. 271." "I shall have chosen. it has several attributes of a noun. bid (command). Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. it may be the subject of a verb.²E.² What! doth she. sometimes need (as. and like a noun in use.. "a house to let." (4) In exclamations. While the gerund expresses action. and emphatic forms of the present and past. . E. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs.²it may be governed as a noun. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. learn [doth learn is one verb.²DE QUINCEY. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. as. hear. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. under "Analysis. The gerund is like the participle in form. or the object of a verb or a preposition. as in the expression. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. They shall have venison to eat. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. also let.). please.² She was a kind. poor woman!" cried Charles. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. too.

they find the nurslings untouched! 3. on your leaving the spot." "Certainly dueling is bad. when. Exercise. according to use as well as meaning. and wonderful store of learning! . to see the returning hope of the parents. (6) Verbal nouns." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. (3) Participial adjectives. which have lost all verbal force. What a vast. Sec." Exercise." also (2." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. (2) Pure participles. (4) Pure adjectives. 4. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. brilliant. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. which name an action or state. and five gerunds. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. but cannot govern. five infinitives." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. may govern and be governed. which express action. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. making the definite tenses.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. and has been put down. 273." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb.²Find sentences containing five participles. after examining the nest. Words in -ing are of six kinds. Then how pleasing is it. b). II). which express action. (5) Gerunds. but do not assert." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. 2. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. which express action and also modify. above.

like Sir Walter Scott. Thackeray did not. dictating from his chair. VERBS. I. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. but. He spread his blessings all over the land. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 11. giving principal parts. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. he gave out sentence by sentence. 6.²strong or weak. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. or imperative. 12. bearing her national emblem. by object lessons. slowly. 13. 16.²indicative. 9. In parsing verbs.²active or passive.²transitive or intransitive. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. (2) Voice. I suppose I was dreaming about it. (5) Person and number. write twenty pages without stopping. 14.²which of the tenses given in Sec. you must. 15. 10. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 234. much corroded. (4) Tense. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. . What is dreaming? 8. 7.5. 275. (3) Mood. (b) as to use. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. The only means of ascending was by my hands. give reality to your teaching. subjunctive. round which is an iron railing. Caution. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating.

intransitive. past tense. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. III. 278. The government might have been strong and prosperous. VERB PHRASES. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. Exercise. Especially frequent are those made up of should. in the world. You are gathered to your fathers. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. would." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. In 2. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. (b) whether indefinite. no sin nor sorrow. (b) whether active or passive. followed by a pure infinitive without to. must. . till it meet the sun in his coming. therefore active. call should a weak verb. may. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 278(2). and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. could. 2. can. In such sentences as 1. and should always be analyzed as phrases. (1) Participle. verbals. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. (2) Infinitive. VERBALS. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. active. and not taken as single verbs. Let it rise! let it rise. But unless the verb is present. give points (a) and (b). call might a weak verb. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. If a participial adjective. (3) Gerund. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived." Sometimes it does. imperfect. 277.. might. Take these examples:² 1. etc. 2. perfect. see Sec. usually it does not. indicative (as it means could). "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. and ends in -s.276. (c) to what word it belongs. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. (b) its use (Sec. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. intransitive. 3. definite. and parting day linger and play on its summit. II. etc. 235. then parse it as an adjective. has the subject government. perfect. Parse the verbs. has for its subject Lee. 4. (a) From what verb derived. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. past tense. 273). we must beware of the rule. indicative. It has been intimated in Sec.

15. a new waking up of all that has life.Down all the line. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. However that be. morning is not a new issuing of light. 14. 23. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 20. a deafening shout. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. as rolled from wing to wing.O God. 22. as the Hindoos say. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 16. When he arose in the morning. 19. 24. a sweet good will. Right graciously he smiled on us. from a sort of temporary death. 21. . He passed across the room to the washstand. In going for water. he thought only of her. leaving me upon the bed. see that it is in good condition. as usual. 9. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts.Henceforth in me instill. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 8. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. Whatever ground you sow or plant. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 12. 10. The soul having been often born. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 13." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. So. 17. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. With them.5. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. or. 18. "God save our Lord the King!" 7.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. a new bursting forth of the sun. and wondered if she were yet awake. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 11. 6.

and men of leisure and cultivation. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. and live ere life be spent. A verb. Is it only poets.25. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Better it were. they are more himself than he is. And now wend we to yonder fountain.²SHELLEY. to speak truly. Oh. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. Nor was it altogether nothing. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way.Feast while we may.²CARLYLE. and so on. for the hour of rest is at hand. or manner: as. because. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road."²DE QUINCEY. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. When action is expressed. and limit adjectives or adverbs. To the almost terror of the persons present. . to consent." An adjective or an adverb.²THACKERAY." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. place." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²time. The word adverb means joined to a verb. who live with nature?²ID. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].²EMERSON. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. "William's private life was severely pure.² The young man reveres men of genius. thou sayest." "He was absolute. ADVERBS. 279. as. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. 26. 27. Adverbs modify. for example." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. 29.

We are offered six months' credit. B. 169. 282.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.²TROLLOPE. is a modifying word. like the light of heaven. being adverbs naturally and fitly. not the noun. A clause or sentence. ALDRICH. Thus considered. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. then.²THOREAU. NOTE. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. there are six classes:² (1) Time. but still with a rich bloom to it. and half awfully.² FRANKLIN. etc. hitherto. but some verb understood. ever. I draw forth the fruit. but really modifying. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.²LEIGH HUNT.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. not simply the forms used in predication. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. An adverb. as shown in the sentences.²These last differ from the words in Sec. while those in Sec. 169 are felt to be elliptical. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. It may also modify a sentence. and that. ²IRVING. for example. thus. 281. before. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. Make music to the lonely ear. NOTE.²BYRON. Surely happiness is reflective.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. 280. . (2) according to their use in the sentence. as now. has induced some of us to attend it.²T. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. all wet and glossy. or a word group used as such. Definition. which may qualify an action word or a statement.² LOWELL. lately. as. to-day. A phrase.He was incidentally news dealer. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. perhaps.

Thackeray.which gained him such universal popularity. beautifully.where..(2) Place. etc. as here. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. etc. above. as hither. too. for example. etc. partly. slowly.near. not.²IRVING.was for this once of her opinion. The more they multiply. especially the comparative of these words. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. and others. just. and not infrequently are found in literary English.. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.. whithersoever. that these adverbs form a very large class.. the more friends you will have. telling how anything is done. bravely. So also in Grote. [Sidenote The status of such. telling how much. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.² The master. etc. (6) Assertion. greatly.whither.²DE QUINCEY. thus. very. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. enough.thither. Motley.whence. 283. maybe. while so precedes only the adjective usually. or how far he believes it to be true. (see also Sec. the more evidently they love liberty. LOUIS STEVENSON. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. better.²LECKY.yonder. etc. I was. the more perfect will be their obedience. whencesoever. (4) Number. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.²HAWTHORNE. White. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.thence. (5) Degree. Meekness. Emerson.there. surely.. probably. as well. singly. telling how many times: once. This long's the text. . as hence.²BROWNING. at least. 283). much.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. as perhaps.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. (3) Manner. slightly.²R. possibly. as little. two by two. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.²BURKE. twice. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.

" ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²"He walked too far [place]. It is only occasionally used in literary English." "That is positively untrue [assertion].²BAYNE.²BULWER. have the additional function of asking a question. Defoe. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Burke. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise." "He spoke positively [manner]. for example. Dickens. Neville. Emerson.² You are mighty courteous." said the king. and art but a fool. Pretty is also used by Prescott.²THACKERAY. and its lawn before [place]. Notice meanings. Simple. besides modifying. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Mighty. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Direct questions. 285. 282.²THACKERAY. A pretty large experience. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. B. Holmes. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Interrogative. "Peace. 284. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Again. Beau Fielding. and other writers.²GOLDSMITH."²SCOTT." "That were far better [degree].²FIELDING. Aldrich. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Hard blows and hard money. 286. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Some adverbs. a mighty fine gentleman. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.² "Mighty well." "The house." "I have seen you before [time]. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. for example.²HAWTHORNE. Kingsley. Franklin. . De Quincey.Pretty.² KINGSLEY. STOWE.

CLAY. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. they smiled. (4) Degree. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²D.²POE. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. (5) Reason. 287. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (2) Place. . When did this humane custom begin?²H. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. (4) Degree. I will not ask where thou liest low.²BYRON (3) Manner. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (2) Place. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I do not remember when I was taught to read. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²BYRON. I know not why. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. for example.²BULWER. WEBSTER. I hearkened.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.

Tell what each word in ly modifies. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.But in reality. Its strings boldlier swept.eyes. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. 290. soonest. and. Many adjectives have the same ending. further farthest. not an adverb. Superlative. The following. higher. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. . see Sec. when. soon.. use.²TENNYSON. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. only occasionally having -er and -est. when does not express time and modify. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. just as adjectives do." Exercise. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. representing four classes. irregularly compared. well much little far late Comparative. when compared. but the whole clause. high. highest.²EMERSON. obs. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Then must she keep it safelier. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. sooner. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Form vs.) rather 289. Exercise. furthest (rathe. have the same inflection as adjectives.²BYRON. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. 288. Only that we may wiselier see. For further discussion. Many adverbs are compared.²SHAKESPEARE.²COLERIDGE.. as.

²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.²IRVING. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. near.And his mien of kingly state. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.² EMERSON. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. whether adverbs or adjectives. . or down the leaves laughed through. but with a different meaning. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. Such are most. 6. Special use of there. if it has the verb be. 7. hardly.²CHAUCER. as. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. 3. The reason is. etc." Compare these:² 1. many words without -ly have the same form. curiously jolly. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. With his proud. merely introduces a sentence.²WORDSWORTH. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. 4. to be sure. more courtly in their manners. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.²ID. 292. quick-flashing eye. 2. Again. even. kindly and good-natured in secret. But he must do his errand right. 2. 291. mostly. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. evenly. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. It is true he was rarely heard to speak.²THACKERAY.1.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. hard. Frequently the word there. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. And all about. There are eyes. instead of being used adverbially. nearly. Not near so black as he was painted.²TENNYSON. 8. 5. that in Old and Middle English. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. He is inexpressibly mean.

burning in the center of the temple. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 9. It is the Cross that is first seen. but from my fall? 6.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 5. 3. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. and always. Exercise. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 15. however theoretically enticing. according to meaning and also use. 10. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. if the word is compared. (3) What word or word group it modifies. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. In parsing adverbs. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. But a few steps farther on. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and sate down on the steps of a house. 16. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 2. 18. For the impracticable. but continually shifted. Thither we went. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. is always politically unwise. 11. the Madonna is in great glory. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 17. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. (2) Degree of comparison. 7. at the regular wine-shop. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 4. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 12. . give² (1) The class. 293. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.

connecting words." Paragraphs. upon which the sun now shone forth. and the stern drifted in toward the bank." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. sentences. CONJUNCTIONS. Unlike adverbs. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Definition. but side by side within the American Union. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives." Sentences. . Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. or sentence groups. But now the wind rose again. 21. however. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. word groups. therefore.19. 22. A conjunction is a linking word. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. nor. 295. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. etc. hence. Clauses. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. but the student will readily find them. 20. It was pretty bad after that. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. then. 294." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases.

Causal. Adversative. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE." Nevertheless.Classes of conjunctions.. Alternative.or whether. both.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.. for. moreover. the window being open. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. had its weight. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.. yet.. (3) CAUSAL. as... Correlatives. While the earth bears a plant.. but is emperor in his own right.. Your letter.. therefore.. either. or the sea rolls its waves. not only.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. neither... as. serves but to show their ignorance. whether.. 296. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. nor.. the bread was spent.and.. (4) ALTERNATIVE.or. etc.or. They are or.nor. not only. Some go in threes. (2) Subordinate. word groups. introducing a reason or cause. as and. Some of these go in pairs. answering to each other in the same sentence.nor. expressing a choice. whether. 297. usually between two things. "Howbeit.but.. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. The assertion. neither. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. still. The chief ones are.. whether.or. neither. .or. of the same rank. else. hence.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. and not man corn. the butter too. then. also. 298. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. etc. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. as well as... nor. however. likewise. either. as well as the room door.but (or but also).. and.. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. as but. either. while. joining words. etc. (2) ADVERSATIVE. Nor mark'd they less. only. however..

nor echo. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.²BIBLE. while. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. 299. provided that. on condition that. there will the heart be also. (7) RESULT: that. whereas. It is. He is not only bold and vociferous.²DE QUINCEY. whenever. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if.²BURKE. etc. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will.²PAULDING. QUINCY. (2) TIME: when. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. (3) MANNER: how. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. whithersoever. nor wing of bird. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. etc.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. especially that after so. as. so. whether. after. even if.²WILSON. etc. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. in case. unless. (6) PURPOSE: that. since. so. ere.. Neither the place in which he found himself. howsoever. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. nor creeping thing. whither. now. as. although. since. provided. in apposition. whence.. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. in order that. that. until.²IRVING.²J. Time.²COOPER. etc. before. etc. seeing. whereto. so. so that. object. wherever. nor green leaf. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. so that. as. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. lest.. . sometimes if. except. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where.. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. Where the treasure is. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. ²ALLSTON. however.

It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. As a soldier. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Condition. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Sparing neither whip nor spur. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Let the world go how it will. .² WORDSWORTH.²BYRON. Comparison.²BURKE.²DEFOE.²CARLYLE Events proceed.That vain it were her eyes to close.²AMES. So many thoughts moved to and fro.² HAWTHORNE. Manner.²AMES.²IRVING.²CAMPBELL. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. H.² EMERSON.²EMERSON. Now he is dead.²EMERSON. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. but not so long but I held it out. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. a thousand bodies. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. reason. Cause. Substantive.So I behold them not. I was again covered with water. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. not as they were expected or intended.² H. Concession. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. We wish for a thousand heads.That he gave her wounds repose. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Purpose.²AMES. Result. JACKSON.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON. Then Denmark blest our chief.

After he was gone. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 7. as he shot in air. as. 2. And they lived happily forever after. 300. hold a subordinate rank. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. As will have been noticed.²RUSKIN. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. Crept under the leaf. 6. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. They. 3. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. she faintly pressed her hand. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. that. The moth fly.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. then. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. . classify them if conjunctions:² 1. the lady called her servant. it will remain harmless. 10. some words²for example. 4. 15. since. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Besides. 14. No one had yet caught his character. He was brought up for the church. Exercises. 12. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. While a faction is a minority. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 9. In what point of view. 5. etc. And then recovering.Let us see whether the greatest. 13. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. her real merit is known at home. while. however. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. and hid her there. the wisest.

So silently we seemed to speak.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. His voice . The raft and the money had been thrown near her. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. as is often equivalent to as if.²BYRON. and the frame will suit the picture. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.²HOOD. 304. In parsing conjunctions. none of the lashings having given way. for example. and part as though we parted not. in this case. the expression would be. thus. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.. word groups.As though a rose should shut. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. .16.. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. 302. As though.²EMILY BRONTE. etc. 303.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. (2) What words. even as they would weep.Clouded. If analyzed. and be a bud again. expressing degree if taken separately. 301. As for as if.²IRVING. as is shown by the use of as though. In poetry. "We meet." as. GREELEY. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. As if. In Emerson's sentence.. SPECIAL REMARKS. they connect. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. Consequently.So slowly moved about.

5. It continued raining. are regularly of one particular class. 3. In classifying them. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. the Sphinx was slain. It may be safely trusted. Exercise. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. compare the sentences..²I find them true in Concord. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. For example. and very seldom?" 8. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. . so that expresses result.²that the fairies do not like to be named. 4. or in the forest. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. All the postulates of elfin annals. 6. 12. or in the snow. He is the compend of time. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. dines with as good an appetite. they are not known. 13. he is also the correlative of nature. when. but of the natural. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. He dismisses without notice his thought.Caution. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. he sleeps as warm.²DEFOE 2. 10. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. so means therefore.²EMERSON 3. because. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. etc. 9. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. If he could solve the riddle. Some conjunctions." said his wife to Martin Luther. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. in 2. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. "Doctor. and. 2. that it might testify of that particular ray.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. and associates as happily.² 1. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and its clause is independent. in 3. so it be faithfully imparted. At sea. When the gods come among men. and the like. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. as beside his own chimneys. so means provided. so that I could not stir abroad. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. so they paddled on. 7. because it is his. others belong to several classes. and its clause depends on the other. 11. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. such as nor.²is subordinate of condition.

26. 29. that both were wayward. save it were sinful like herself. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. It is clear. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. There was no iron to be seen. 305. 22. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 21. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. PREPOSITIONS. 27. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 15. It may be so in the majority of cases. in many a heart. therefore. whose names I omit. won't you lay on? 17. For. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 19. however. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. Goodness must have some edge to it. Now you have the whip in your hand. enthroned. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. . 28. 20. 24. I speak. she might have the family countenance. 23. 25. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. And whether consciously or not. 16.14. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. Still. you must be. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 18. in this they agree. the whole conditions are changed. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object.²else it is none. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. when it was presented to them. of good novels only. 30. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don.. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at work. at all. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. D. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at length. at least. Exercise.²WARNER. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Like at.. expressing the degree of difference.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at the best. STODDARD. at play. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. by the blessed memory of the departed.²ALDRICH. at war. For. by the ruins of nations.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. (3) Agency or means.²DE QUINCEY. She saw the boat headed for her. by the wrecks of time. etc. at once. at naught. at the worst. Helena. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. H. by means near or close to. at any rate. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. 321. and phrases signifying state or condition of being.²SWIFT. ²PARTON. at one.²B. at peace. at random. Richard was standing by the window. (2) Time. . he stopped. Exercise. 320.² (1) The general meaning of place. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. By my faith. By. by many a million of acres. CONWAY.²EVERETT. at most. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.²ID. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. as. At St.²COOPER. the first port made by the ship. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. At that time [the earth] was richer. at first. at rest.²R. (4) Measure of excess.²M. etc.

Still. for the benefit of. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²LAMB. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. (7) Concession. etc. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. "Nay. or extent of space. poor fellow. for all his title. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. GARRISON. or in spite of. considering that etc. He and they were for immediate attack. ate her child.² RUSKIN. meaning with regard to.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. (3) Duration of time. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. a person or thing. reason. H. respecting. in behalf of.²PARKMAN. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. and leaped for joy.²PARKMAN. (4) Substitution or exchange. had a forest of poor relations. For him. "For a fool. as being. There are gains for all our losses. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.²H. meaning although. for famine. he repented of his folly.²ID. (5) Reference. "thou hast counseled wisely. incitement to action. etc. BANCROFT. if your worship can accomplish that. For the rest. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. for all slips of hers.²EMERSON.²W.²STODDARD. But the Colonel. The twilight being.²E."²SCOTT By my faith. E. but a few sunsets since.²IRVING.(2) In favor of. L.." answered Master Brackett. they are now for us. An Arab woman.One of Eve's family. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. as to. .²HOLMES. meaning in the character of.²HOOD. (6) Like as. the Colonna motto would fit you best." said the Lady of Lochleven. etc.. cause. (9) Motive.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.

ceased to be merciful.²ID. if not a desperate man.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. (2) Origin. like from. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. The general idea in from is separation or source.²DRYDEN. . Like boys escaped from school. (3) Time. Exercise. (4) Motive. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²HUME. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. From harmony. The young cavaliers. 322. cause. 323. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. From.²HIGGINSON. H. Of. (1) Origin or source. The king holds his authority of the people.²HALE. more. The From Relation.²H. or reason. The original meaning of of was separation or source. Exercise.²MILTON.²BANCROFT. nay. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. A distrustful.²HUXLEY. It was from no fault of Nolan's. from a desire of seeming valiant.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.

Sandals. cure.²ALDRICH. out of the most unpromising materials. (5) Expressing agency. ²GAVARRE. wide of.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. Back of that tree. of his own knowledge. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. beg. free. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. (b) After some adjectives. etc. ²PARTON. bound with thongs of boar's hide. etc. (3) With expressions of material. Other Relations expressed by Of. such as ease. A singular want of all human relation. He is away of his own free will. deprive.²PARKMAN. E. deprivation.²ID. ask. and grass.²BANCROFT. (6) Partitive. acquitted them of. expressing a part of a number or quantity. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. rob. there were only twenty-one members present. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²HIGGINSON. (d) With words expressing distance. You cannot make a boy know.²SCOTT Who formed. White shirt with diamond studs. clear. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. purge.²DICKENS II. free of. More than one altar was richer of his vows.²BOSWELL. rid. bare of. that Cromwell once ruled England. relieve. etc. "I am glad of that.²clear of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. south of.. divest. motive. etc. Of the Forty. HALE. reason. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. disarm. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. Asked no odds of. (c) After nouns expressing lack. etc. as north of.²BAYARD TAYLOR. especially out of. demand. or breastpin of native gold.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. The hills were bare of trees."²E. weeds.² HUXLEY.²LEW WALLACE. .

This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. (c) Two nouns. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. (9) Of time. when the first is descriptive of the second. See also Sec. . ²IRVING. for the possessive.²BANCROFT. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²ALDRICH. equal to about. concerning.²LAMB.²PRESCOTT. E.²COOPER. The fair city of Mexico. (8) Appositional..²HALLECK.²BANCROFT. with its object. with regard to. (7) Possessive.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. and the dignity of a queen. standing.²SWIFT. (10) Of reference.²FROUDE. etc. Not even woman's love. Such a book as that of Job. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. being equivalent to an infinitive.²LOWELL. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. CHANNING. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. of a sudden. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Besides the phrases of old.²ID.²BANCROFT. of is used in the sense of during. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. (b) Noun and gerund.He washed out some of the dirt. could give shelter from his contumely. Idiomatic use with verbs. of late. The nation of Lilliput.²W. 309.

On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. etc. on board. on high. 324. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. on view. avail (one's self).²PARKMAN. ²BANCROFT. disapprove. Exercise. permit. The general meaning of on is position or direction. approve.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. on the wing. SIGOURNEY. accept. Upon is seldom used to express time. Exercise.²Find sentences with six uses of of.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. repent. consist.²EMERSON. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence.²ALDRICH. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. (b) With motion. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. allow. Cannon were heard close on the left. 325. and others.²PARKMAN. concerning. such as admit. On my life. It also accompanies the verbs tire. on a sudden. . complain. To. you are eighteen. equal to about.²MRS. on the alert. Upon my reputation and credit.²DE QUINCEY. (2) Time. Upon.²PARKMAN. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. without adding to their meaning. etc.²BRYANT. and not a day more. (4) In adjurations. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. (3) Reference.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. On. on trial.

Revolutions. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.Come to the bridal chamber. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. to him..²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. In Old English.²B.²PARTON.²GOLDSMITH.²BRYANT. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. We cook the dish to our own appetite. But when.²often to the loss of vigor.. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²IRVING. unmasked. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern be written over. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. gay Comedy appears.²LANG. He usually gave his draft to an aid.²PARKMAN. His brother had died. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.. whose influence is felt to this hour. (b) Referring to time.²BENTON To our great delight. To the few. Exercise. Death!²HALLECK. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²HALE. (5) Equivalent to according to. it may be genuine poetry.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. With.. mid meant in company with. Nor.²BULWER. (2) Expressing result. 326. .'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. does the mere music. to my taste. interest. had ceased to be.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. 268).

²EMERSON.²HALE. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²CHANNING. to find the object of the preposition.²COLERIDGE.²DE QUINCEY. he gave millions to the sword. with all his boldness. It seemed a supreme moment with him.²COOPER. Exercise. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. with Heyward at its head. She seemed pleased with the accident. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. (4) Estimation. He was wild with delight about Texas. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²HOWELLS. "poetry is not a pursuit.²ALDRICH. (3) Cause. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²SCOTT.²HOWELLS. 327.²Find sentences with four uses of with. but a pleasure"?²LANG. transmitted from the beginning. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. Either with the swingle-bar. or with the haunch of our near leader. HALE. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. motive. (5) Opposition. E.²WALLACE (7) Time. opinion. He expired with these words. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. in spite of.The advance. as with you.²LANG. it is necessary. had already reached the defile.²E. With all his sensibility. (2) Instrumentality. . first of all. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. reason. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. I think. Messala.²DE QUINCEY. but with you.

he followed us one day into those gardens. (2) on which. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. the malicious rogue. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. because I had given the provocation. To our general surprise. or was. by which a dozen apples. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I felt my box raised very high in the air. 4. Whereupon. without a country modifies man. which. of from. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. and knocked me down flat on my face. like the clapping of wings. came tumbling about my ears. I heard a noise just over my head. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. hence we say. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. before the dwarf left the queen. but I received no other hurt. (4) from the beginning. And so on. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. we met the defaulter here. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I called out several times. the phrase answers the question where.²ID. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. The guns were cleared of their lumber. In (1). Exercises. (3) without a country. beginning. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. Be that as it will. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. 5.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. I speak these things from a love of justice. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. .²SWIFT 2. but all to no purpose. The object of on board is ships. 2. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. 3. country. shook it directly over my head. telling what man. of without. In (3). I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. I looked towards my windows. of on. I remember. In (2). which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours.

. For my part. 29. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 12. 7. I like to see the passing. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. The mother sank and fell. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 15. when. 14. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 17. 26. after a restful morning. The savage army was in war-paint. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 27. 11. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 9. in town. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. With all his learning. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 23. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 13. 21. 8.Without stop or stay. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 22. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. grasping at the child.He spurred his courser on. 18.6. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 16. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 25. 20. plumed for battle. 10. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. to one dark and gloomy. His breeches were of black silk. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 19. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. he favored the world with his opinions. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 24. in this respect. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. On all subjects known to man.

330. . and not according to form. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (1) Relative pronoun. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER.²HUXLEY. 329. That is what I understand by scientific education.² JOHNSON. (b) Of result. WHAT. (a) Indefinite relative. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.That makes the heavens be mute. THAT. and be proud in the midst of its toil. And now it is like an angel's song. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (4) As an adverb of degree. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. that you might behold this joyous day. That was a dreadful mistake.30. That night was a memorable one. A few are discussed below. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (3) As a relative pronoun. (c) Substantive conjunction. 328. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. He will raise the price.²BEECHER.²WEBSTER.²STOCKTON. not merely by the amount of the tax. We wish that labor may look up here.²COLERIDGE.

. nearly equivalent to partly. he knows what good people are to be found there.S..these sounds are only to be heard.. (b) Indirect question.. BUT. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.. but the result of calculation. (b) Indirect question.²THACKERAY. (8) Conjunction..²ID.. (9) As an exclamation. or not only. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. What with the Maltese goats. (6) Exclamatory adjective." (4) Relative adjective. partly.²ID.. What.²WORDSWORTH. 331. If he has [been in America]. silent still.but. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. At what rate these materials would be distributed. What. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. it rests on reality. Cox.. to see what might be hidden.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.²S.²EMERSON. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. .²WEBSTER.Which be they what they may. (b) Copulative.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. To say what good of fashion we can.. "I'll tell you what. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. and silent all!²BYRON. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.Those shadowy recollections. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²EMERSON.. after not only. (7) Adverb of is impossible to Pera.

it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.²IRVING. like the dog.Then arose not only tears. ²CARLYLE. . His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. meaning only. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE..²IRVING. (b) Substantive.²FRANKLIN. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (4) Relative pronoun.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. not.²LAMB. after such. or who . not. on all sides. (3) Preposition. than. after a negative. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. (2) Relative pronoun. meaning except.²EMERSON.. but piercing cries. AS. (d) Of reason.²HAWTHORNE. stands for that . Doing duty as a guard...²SCOTT. not. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. equivalent to that . 332.²CARLYLE. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (e) Introducing an appositive word.. I shall see but little of it. sometimes same.²IRVING. To lead but one measure.He yearned to our patriot bands. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.²MRS BROWNING. Who knows but. As orphans yearn on to their mothers..²SHELLEY. meaning otherwise . at all moments. (b) Of manner.. (5) Adverb. (c) Of degree. towards order.

²HAWTHORNE. In each case. Through which they put their heads. No Emperor.²SHAKESPEARE.²ALDRICH. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. 333. and as or as if takes its place. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. but its verb is omitted. like Martin was. like drops out. nervous child. (1) An adjective. That face. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. ²PARKMAN. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²HALLECK. They look.²EMERSON.²ALDRICH.²CASS. Note the difference between these two uses. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²MAYHEW. Introduces a clause. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like a cook beating eggs. If the verb is expressed. Stirring it vigorously. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW. indeed.² A timid. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. . In this second use. There is no statue like this living man. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²HIGGINSON. like him awhile ago.LIKE.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²DARWIN. but this is not considered good usage: for example. Give Ruskin space enough. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. and was clearly an adjective. NOTE. this. I do with my friends as I do with my books. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. staring like a bewildered man.²LAMB.-SCOTT. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. like summer ocean's. This follows a verb or a verbal.² HAWTHORNE. and is followed by a dative-objective. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.

verb.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. . Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Value of analysis. etc. Some of these are imitative sounds. What analysis is. entering into the structure of a sentence.. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. as. etc. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. subject and predicate." "Up! for shame! [adverb]." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].: for example. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Definition. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. tut! buzz! etc. pronoun. that is. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. 334. 336. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed." PART II. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. that is. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.INTERJECTIONS. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. Definition. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. clauses introduced by conjunctions. but it still retains its identity as noun. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. in separating them into their component parts. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. 335.²in determining case.

The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. always friends?" imperative. but according to how many statements there are. But now all is to be changed. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. (3) Imperative. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. or request. 339. Definition: Predicate. 338. interrogative. This is the most common one. entreaty. which expresses command. according to form. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. Every sentence must contain two parts." "What wouldst thou do. not according to the form in which a thought is put. "Hath he not always treasures. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. declarative. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. but the sentence would still be declarative.Kinds of sentences as to form. or imperative. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. old man?" "Be thou familiar. hence. or command: for example. you must not die!" interrogative. 2. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. "Come to the bridal chamber. which puts the thought in a question.²a subject and a predicate. 337. "Old year. Division according to number of statements. "The quality of mercy is not strained. SIMPLE SENTENCES. question. Definition." 340. A rare old plant is the ivy green. (2) Interrogative. but by no means vulgar. Examples of these three kinds are. .

and is to be supplied. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. always reduce them to the order of a statement. especially in poetry. . The last of all the Bards was he. 3. on the other hand. 4. 5. or ye) is in most cases omitted. In analyzing such sentences. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 6. Thus. 2.²What is to be changed? Answer. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. In the interrogative sentence. 7. "[You] behold her single in the field.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 341." Exercise. and our definition must be the following. to an ignorant man. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. Slavery they can have anywhere. the subject is frequently after the verb. but about the ivy green. and the real subject is the latter. or adverb that asks about the subject. not of a rare old plant. Consequently. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. the subject (you. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. we have some trouble. 8. we say all is the subject of the sentence. as. But if we try this with the second sentence. adjective. all. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Listen. to suit all cases:² Subject. thou.²What is the ivy green? Answer. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. a rare old plant. or an interrogative pronoun.

(1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. in addition to the object. (5) Modifiers." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). but chief belongs to the verb. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. direct. and by object we mean the direct object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. "Ye honor me. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object.²transitive and intransitive. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (3) The object. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.10. Direct Object. for example. The transitive verb often requires. and me here is not the object simply of call. or second object. (4) The complements. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. and means summoned. just as if to say. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. Indirect object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. 343. but it is a true complement. (2) The predicate." indirect. but of call chief." Complement: 344. The subject and predicate have been discussed. "Ye call me chief. . 342. Of a transitive verb. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. (6) Independent elements.

must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. "Brow and head were round. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." All these complete intransitive verbs. Phrases. in the original Opium Confessions." (2) PARTICIPIAL." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. in the popular judgment. as in drowning. but used as a single modifier. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. 347. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. appear. A phrase is a group of words. Thom of the Gills." 345." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. See sentence 19. and barring the door. become. "A cheery. 364. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. sir!' rang out in response." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. above sixty." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. etc." Also an expression used as a noun. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. 351. and of massive weight. he was now getting old." Things used as Subject." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . or. more familiarly. seem. feel. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. especially the forms of be." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter.." (3) INFINITIVE. An intransitive verb. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. 346. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. as.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. ay. in exercise following Sec. 352. and. I mentioned a case of that nature. to the completion of this man of the world. 355." "The good man." "He was termed Thomas. for instance. introduced by a preposition: for example. taste. As to form. Complement of an intransitive verb. as in the sentence. not containing a verb." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. 'Ay. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it.

(3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. and by Saint George!' said the King. Disguised infinitive subject. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." The for did not belong there originally. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time.²the talent of starting the game. "'By God." Also expressions used as nouns: for example.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. but obscures the real subject. but the real or logical subject is to print. or the thundering of organs. I saw the quick and the dead." In this sentence." Things used as Direct Object. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. ." "Never." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. for which see Sec. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. etc. from their lips. (2) In interrogative sentences." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." "There are asking eyes. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. 341. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party.²the infinitive phrase. but they will be given in detail here. asserting eyes. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. my deficiency. 349. "Therein has been." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. prowling eyes." Things used as Complement. (4) After "there introductory. was heard one syllable to justify." etc. or their religion from their sect." 348. and ever will be." "The dead are there.

" It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (4) Participle.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. As complement of a transitive verb." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. they are adjuncts of the object. I. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. at the same time." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." . it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." Modifiers." "Their tempers. or Complement. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways.350. and explaining or modifying the subject. the shepherd girl.²heads or tails. Of a transitive verb." "I hear the echoes throng. (3) Infinitive. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. Modifiers of Subject. doubtless.²completing the predicate." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." "Serving others is serving us. and the words italicized are still complements. and whenever the complement is a noun. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." In this last sentence. As complement of an intransitive verb. the object is made the subject by being passive. or the equivalent of the noun. 351. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. Like all the complements in this list. complements of the predicate. and. Object. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." "She asked her father's permission. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny.

" "Give them not only noble teachings. and modify the predicate in the same way. Tells how." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. and leading him from star to star." Exercise.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. given at the request of a Dutch lady. I have seasoned for thee. not with nature." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. or complement is modified. "He died like a God." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. but with other men. or . 351. unforgiving. 352.²In each sentence in Sec. but noble teachers. but it is really a contracted clause. was now called upon for his defense.²proud. Since the predicate is always a verb. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. the prisoner at the bar.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. see further Secs." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. 357-363. object." In such a sentence as. the verb being omitted. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "Him. tell whether the subject. austere." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. Retained with passive. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. this young idolater." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. was the scene from King John." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. Modifiers of the Predicate." (For participial and infinitive phrases." "In the twinkling of an eye. II. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. no sociable angel." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve.

in regard to particulars. 2. gives wonderful animation. 4. 6. 3. ." Exercises. Why does the horizon hold me fast. predicate. and. 6. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. I took. 3. no emotion. On the voyage to Egypt." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. no humor. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. after dinner. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. in this center? 4. 7. (a) Pick out subject. and other measures of precaution." (6) Adverbial objective." "One way lies hope. a sort of personality to the whole writing. 8. but the children of the great. etc. These answer the question when." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. or how long.. (b) Pick out the subject." "All such knowledge should be given her." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. is good in the making. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. with my joy and grief. This. Evil. to the animal strength and spirits. Fashion does not often caress the great. 5. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. predicate. but to be loved. But anger drives a man to say anything. according to old philosophers. how far. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. 7. To the men of this world. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. he liked. and the direct object is retained: for example. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. His books have no melody. They do not wish to be lovely. 5. and as many to oppose it. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. the indirect object is retained. and (direct) object:² 1. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. negative. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. 2. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. no relief to the dead prosaic level.When the verb is changed from active to passive.

And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 6. this imperial rider. I promised her protection against all ghosts.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. a room seventeen feet by twelve. Not the less I owe thee justice. for the first time. 2. viz. downwards. . in little peaceful Easedale. that was thy portion in life. this dragoon so lovely. Yes. To suffer and to do. the present Archbishop of Dublin. and a member of the world. at the chief hotel. y y y y Compound Subject. A river formed the boundary. I gave him an address to my friend. 3. Compound Predicate. must visit again the home of her childhood. I felt myself. Paint me. 4. 3. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. upwards. In one feature. 2. happy dinner. etc. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1.. 3.y 8.²the river Meuse. burthened with the anxieties of a man. then. Their intention was to have a gay. That night. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. Unhorse me. expecting the return of their parents. Not compound sentences. this nun so martial. to the right and to the left. after their long confinement to a ship. 4. six children sat by a peat fire. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. the attorney. then. at length the warrior lady. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. 5. 4. the blooming cornet. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 5. 2.

complements. same as (1)." "The name of the child. may be the person or thing addressed. two or more subjects of the same predicate. etc. hurry. shouldered the rusty firelock. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. For example. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. Bishop. and the rest is the logical predicate." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are.353. 354. they are not a necessary part. then the grammatical subject and predicate." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. that is. but it is to be noticed that. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. etc. the verb). in all such sentences as we quote below. turned his steps homeward. in the sentence. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. "The company broke up. I'm with you once again. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. however. and its object or complement. Larger view of a sentence. the air of the mother. Examples of compound subjects are.." "Voyages and travels I would also have. my brave young man!" . "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. together with its modifiers. hurry. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. and. several modifiers. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. Of this. ulcer." "He shook his head.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. 355. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. forming a sentence: "Oh. Independent Elements of the Sentence. etc. the tone of her voice. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. The exclamatory expression. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. "Ah." Sentences with compound predicates are. the simple subject is situation. above: thus. together with all its modifiers. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. modifiers. the predicate. the object. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. exposes." And so with complements." "Ye crags and peaks. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is.

. moreover." "Why. There are some adverbs. this story runs thus. 351. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. instances of which were seen in Sec. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." "At all events. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. then. her noticing even this is creditable. (1) Adjectival. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. yes! everybody knew them. therefore. These need close watching." Another caution. to the best of my remembrance. he somehow lived along. how you're winking!" "Now. modifying a noun. see Sec. 352.." "No. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. etc. prepositional phrases may be. (b) As a modifier of subject. or word used as a noun: for example. 6). six quill-driving gentlemen. generally speaking. and so on.." (5) Participial phrase: "But. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. already noticed." (3) Independent. modifying the predicate. why." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. undoubtedly. 4). 355. y (2) The adverbial use. The words well. nevertheless. he closed his literary toils at dinner. 3. see Sec." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat." "Truth to say. In their use. truly. etc. the company broke up. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. 4). grandma. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared." (2) Adverbial. 356. that have an office in the sentence. really. he was a conscientious man. and some conjunctions. let him perish. pronoun. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. besides." "Well." (6) Single words: as. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. now. "Oh. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. such as perhaps. such as however. 350." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. object. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. or complement (see Sec. 357.

: as in the sentences. y (a) With may (might). containing no matters of business.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. was speedily run through." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. "The letter of introduction. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. (5).should. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. and hence is adverbial." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. 355. This case excepted. or as nearly so as the student will require. being equivalent to a future with obligation.]. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason." "There." In this sentence.seem.can (could)." etc. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. modifying was speedily run through. etc. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. etc. necessity. I." (b) With the forms of be. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. but require somewhat closer attention. thus. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. but having no other office than a verbal one. and they will be presented here in full. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. See Sec. ought." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb." (c) With the definite forms of go. Wilt thou. therefore. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. and teach her how to be happy and good. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. The verbal use. my dear. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. "Because I was.would. he should not have known them at all. 358. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.

361." "Are you mad. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). The fact that the infinitives in Sec. above. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. III." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." "To say what good of fashion we can. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. complement. notice the following:² In (1). which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." "He insisted on his right to forget her. Don Guzman. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. (4) In apposition. "But there was no time to be lost. and the eyes to fill?" 359. to please is equivalent to that he may please. The adjectival use. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. etc.: for example. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. to hear McOrator after dinner. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. object." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. 5). To test this. 362. The substantive use. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. etc. II. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. IV.²both purpose clauses. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. 351. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. modifying a noun that may be a subject." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." "To teach is to learn. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. the Scotch fighting all the battles. already examined. The adverbial use." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. 361 are used adverbially. hang the idiot. . result." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." 360. to look means that he might look..

347). 2. etc. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 355). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. In analyzing simple sentences. 351). (5) The subject (Sec.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 351). must be in a life. I will try to keep the balance true." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. to hear means if you should hear. 4. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. V. (7) Independent elements (Sec. to find shows the result of the return. If it is an incomplete verb. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 349). and to betray and to bring express the reason. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. etc.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. to part means because I part. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (3). which is of two kinds. . 363. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity." (See also Sec. 268. Our life is March weather..In (2). object. 3. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. The independent use. give the complement (Secs. 355. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. In (4). 352). etc. give² (1) The predicate. not in a book. 364.. 351). Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. as in Sec. savage and serene in one hour. and to say is equivalent to if we say. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. In (3). equivalent to that you betray. In (5).²both expressing condition.

and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 21. and spared nothing. I have heard Coleridge talk. two stricken hours. and to the purpose. He risked everything. nor troops. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men.4. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. always in a bad plight. 22.He sat in the shower. 5. 6. 15. and every moment discover something new. The word conscience has become almost confined. We are always in peril. To be hurried away by every event. through toys and atoms. 19.The old crow of Cairo. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 23. a graceful dancer. 17. neither ammunition. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. . The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 8. nor himself. 7. a skilled musician. nor generals. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. and only to be saved by invention and courage.²to preserve her throne. to keep England out of war. 24. You may ramble a whole day together. an accomplished scholar. 13. like a witch's oils. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. The water. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 14. 9. 16.Burnt green and blue and white. good and amiable otherwise. the carrion crow. with eager energy. 10. might be called flabby and irresolute. a good shot. The whole figure and air. just on the edge of destruction. Through the years and the centuries. to the moral sphere. Old Adam. 12. 18. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. to restore civil and religious order. through evil agents. 20. in popular use. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. His opinion is always original. To these gifts of nature. Her aims were simple and obvious. nor money. is to have no political system at all. 11.

Must we in all things look for the how. in this world. an elderly man. Now. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. 33. 29. and no provisions but wild berries. in less heroic and poetic form. I dare this. Oxford. Of the same grandeur. In the Acadian land. the prime minister of Spain. 39. The villain. 26. the present capital of New England. to bid you leave the place now and forever. to be a reproach to such goodness. the same Condé Olivarez. But yield. She had made a two days' march. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. still. Fair name might he have handed down. and the why. 38. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. secluded. I hate him and myself. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. or perhaps one virtue. baggage far in the rear. Supposing this computation to be correct.Effacing many a stain of former crime. had but one foible. 27. 34. Few in number. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. ready to receive her. The cry. Upon this shore stood. 32. upon my own ground. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 30.25. proud foe. it would not have been filial or ladylike. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. This amiable relative. and in my own garden. 41. haply. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 40. and the wherefore? .Distant. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 37. 31. 35. in front of all this mighty crowd. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. the ship was in an uproar. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. and. 36. time-honored.

as. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom." To show that these words are really omitted. the expressions of manner introduced by like. The simple sentence the basis. which is the unit of speech. though often treated as phrases. but. 333).² "They'll shine o'er her sleep.From her own loved island of sorrow. 366. made merely for convenience and smoothness. . like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. Words left out after than or as. are really contracted clauses. 365. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. the pride and beauty of the grove. if they were expanded. (Sec." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly." Sentences with like." This must.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. COMPLEX SENTENCES." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement.² "She is like some tender tree. thus. however." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. As shown in Part I. as would be the connective instead of like. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. 367.

which are so united that one member is the main one. we are aware... 369. Independent clause. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). 371. or it may be applied to the others.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. A principal. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. 370.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. . logically depends on suffering. then we recognize this as the main statement. 368. Hence the following definition:² Definition. and modifier. and the last.. as in this sentence. complements. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.²the other members subordinate to it. main. or dependent on it. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. suffering. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. etc.. that . and the next one." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.²the backbone.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. object. complement. Definition. that is. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. modifiers. object. each clause has its subject. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. is taken in. how great . murmur. containing a verb with its subject. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. CLAUSES. A clause is a division of a sentence. predicate.

373. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. for a time. clauses are divided into NOUN.' is an electric touch. night or day. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.. As to their office in the sentence.. and it is . that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. impertinences²would be grammatical. put an end to my fancies. with a noun clause in apposition with it." (4) Apposition." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.. over which the torrent came tumbling. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. thus. so the object clause is retained. 'I know that he can toil terribly. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. verbal. impertinences. We ourselves are getting . and the whole clause is not. Kinds. for example. and ADVERB clauses. (b) that are ." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. 5). . etc. or adverbs." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs.. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. (a) Ordinary apposition. infinitive. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. pronoun. for a hundred years. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall.. but logically the sentence is.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause." Just as the object noun." 374. But since they are complex in form." "I was told that the house had not been shut. Noun Clauses. for example. adjectives. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.Dependent clause. ADJECTIVE. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. 352." (2) Object of a verb. 372." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. attention is called to them here.

to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. sometimes by the conjunctions when. The reply of Socrates. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Other examples of this construction are." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. still remains reasonable. of a nation. whether he should choose one or not. he would repent it. 7. which. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Examples of adjective clauses." Exercise. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. I was napping. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 2. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. but. that all safe legislation must be based. 10. 6. wherein. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. whither. a falsehood incarnate. how it changed from shape to shape. that. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. as. As the office of an adjective is to modify. that. 5. that he was a scheming impostor. in the sentence. whereby. . whence. Frequently there is no connecting word. 4. 9. 375. Except by what he could see for himself. 8. no man will ever know. or equivalent of a noun. he could know nothing. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. Adjective Clauses. But the fact is. a relative pronoun being understood.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis.² "It is on the understanding. and not on the sentiment. etc. 3. where. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Such a man is what we call an original man. What history it had.

etc. or that essence we were looking for." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. whether subject. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 9. 2.376. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. Pick out the adjective clauses." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 1. he begins to help us more as an effect. 8." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 4. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 5." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. Adverbial Clauses. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture.. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. which Rowena tasted. No man is reason or illumination. i." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 7. 3." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 11. 10. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds.e. . In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. I walked home with Calhoun. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." Exercise. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 6. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. the champions advanced through the lists. object. all is vacancy. which formed the center of the mansion. and tell what each one modifies. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble.

The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "He went several times to England.² whoever. whatever." "When he was come up to Christian." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is].: "But still. shaping our actions. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. etc. Exercise. however good she may be as a witness." "Who cares for that." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. however. etc." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "The broader their education is. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. an adjective. and adverbial conjunctions. the wider is the horizon of their thought." These mean no matter how good. tell what kind each is. 378. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. so far as we can. that we should try. but they require careful study. and will be given in detail. or an adverb." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. it takes precedence of everything else. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." (3) REASON. adverbs. is wider." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. introduced by indefinite relatives." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. to make up our shortcomings." "After leaving the whole party under the table. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. a verbal. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." (7) RESULT. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. etc." (5) DEGREE. and what it modifies:² .. expressing the degree in which the horizon." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. he goes away as if nothing had happened. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. no matter what remains." "The right conclusion is. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience.377. Joanna is better. with examples. since he was too great to care to be original." (9) CONCESSION." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. the milestones are grave-stones.

cannot conceive is the principal predicate. For example. predicate." 2. 'Well. incoherent exclamations.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. so as to picture the parts and their relations. howling and whistling. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . etc. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. find the principal subject and principal predicate. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. its object is that Odin was a reality. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and twirling weathercocks. and modifiers. snatching up stones to fling at them. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. we are a little disappointed. If the children gathered about her. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. 379. to tell the truth. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. banging about doors and windows. in the sentence. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. they might perhaps say of their visitors. object." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. with shrill. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. 3. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. when the wind was unruly.1. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. on a dark wintry night. 380. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. as they sometimes did. of which clause Odin is the subject. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. then treat noun clauses as nouns.

(3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 364. as seen in the "map" (Sec. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. . 3. Exercises. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 2. 380). That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (1) Find the principal clause. d. 364. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and ... | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (2) Analyze it according to Sec.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.

the shepherd girl. I like that representation they have of the tree. Here lay two great roads. not so much for travelers that were few. The deep eyes. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. counselor that had none for herself. Next came a wretched Dominican. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 19. 22. for yours. 24. or whether any. whom I choose. who would yield to it least. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. The night proved unusually dark.4. 5. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 10. of a light hazel. had we been worse. namely. which. Had they been better chemists. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 14. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. bishop. . 13. 18. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 11. 15. 21. as for armies that were too many by half. And those will often pity that weakness most. 8. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. M. 16. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 17. could not have been effected. the flower should revive for us. Now. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. Whether she said the word is uncertain. if applied to the Bible. He was what our country people call an old one. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 20. 23. But now that she has become an establishment. 6. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. dying for them. This is she. that. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. the mixed result. 7. 12. that pressed her with an objection. 9. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident.

and temper. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. questions. "was ever written down by any but itself. 382. we cannot adequately say. 30. Hence the definition. These things we are forced to say. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 6. How formed. COMPOUND SENTENCES. "No book. 26. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained.25. if continuously extended. 28. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. 5. but above it. 27. speed. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. (b) First analyze. That which we do not believe." said Bentley. and stamped with his right number. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face." 4. then map out as in Sec. 383. or commands.² Definition. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia.²which will not be disposed of. 380. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. that it was no more than his daily walk. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. the following complex sentences:² 1. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. is to speak and write sincerely. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. . would easily reach. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. though we may repeat the words never so often. 7. 3. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 2. and what content I can find in conversing with each. and not from his heart. if there be one to whom I am not equal. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion.

386. tell which are compound. Study the thought. and not the form of the connective. as but. 385. Connectives. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). for. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. he is twice a man. the semicolon separates the first. a simple member.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Speak your latent conviction. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. Exercise. and connects the first and second complex members. 383 (1). yet. Some of these are now conjunctions. etc. others sometimes coördinate. . from the second. Another example is. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. however. The division into members will be easier. now adverbs or prepositions. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. as in Sec. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. and it shall be the universal sense. "Only the star dazzles. while (whilst). in (2). he dilates. etc.. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. the planet has a faint. if there are any. Thus in (1). The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. 297). he soliloquizes. and nor the second and third complex members. he walks with arms akimbo. whereas." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. Of the following illustrative sentences. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. introduce independent clauses (see Sec." 384. or but. a complex member. and which complex:² 1. which are simple statements. the waving grass. moon-like ray" (adversative). nor. The coördinate conjunctions and. in (3). nor does he know until he has tried.

but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. so is every one of its parts. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. All loss. Whilst the world is thus dual. Man does not stand in awe of man. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. however. unobtrusive boy. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. I can still receive. 14. or. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. for example. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. you have gained something else. For everything you have missed. to find a pot of buried gold. 10. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 8. 5. (i) Separate it into its main members. passed in that time. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 364. 2. 4. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 12. 9. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. . and thou shalt be loved. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 6. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. is particular. 387. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. you lose something. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 3. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 3. In this manner. nay. 4. the tax is certain. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 11. quiet. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES.2. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. 381. Love. and as yet very early in the morning. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 7. that it was Easter Sunday. yield to them heart and life. 13. I can yet love. and for everything you gain. from a happy yet often pensive child. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. The gain is apparent. and not by what each is. all pain. Exercise. he grew up to be a mild.

and not a thought has enriched either party. abide by it. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and the other dares not. He teaches who gives. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. 7. and they will be true to you. that let him communicate. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and they will show themselves great. and he learns who receives. 11. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 6. "the iron is white. We see the noble afar off. as children." says the smith. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies." says the haymaker. They will shuffle and crow. 14. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world." 13. and not an emotion of bravery. Trust men. only that they may brag and conquer there. let them mount and expand. one is afraid. or hope. 16. which always make the Actual ridiculous. "Strike. 8. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Stand aside. or we read books. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. We go to Europe. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 9. give those merits room. crook and hide. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and each shows only what lies at its focus. "as nigh the scythe as you can. modesty. and you are without effort impelled to truth. 20. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. whilst frankness invites frankness. Whatever he knows and thinks. 17. 19. feign to confess here. and the cart as nigh the rake. or we pursue persons.5. 18. 21. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. When you have chosen your part. and they repel us. and makes their business a friendship. or sail with God the seas. treat them greatly. if you rip up his claims. why should we intrude? 10. Come into port greatly. and the peace of society is often kept. 15. is as thin and timid as any. or men will never know and honor him aright. because." "keep the rake. .

We see young men who owe us a new world. SYNTAX. but go about your business anywhere. but they never acquit the debt. they die young. By way of introduction. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. So does culture with us. 388. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. or. if they live. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Ground covered by syntax. 380. 24. 23.²agreement and government. and dodge the account. verb and subject. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. they lose themselves in the crowd. it ends in headache. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. pronoun and antecedent. 25. PART III. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. but its leading characteristic is. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . 390. it never was known to fall into the rear. Following the Latin method. INTRODUCTORY. adjective and noun. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning.22. so readily and lavishly they promise. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. the department of syntax will be a small affair. Essential point in English syntax. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence.

The basis of syntax. There is. "The savage here the settler slew. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. some of which conform to classical grammar. as to study inflected forms. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. and it would not matter which one stood first. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. take the sentence. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. distinct forms would be used. but are not now. In some cases. pronoun and antecedent. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. also expressing a possessive relation. As an illustration of the last remark. good English. When usage varies as to a given construction. and nothing but important points will be considered. the order being inverted. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. "None remained but he. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. therefore. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). For example. then." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. etc. Some rules not rigid. and whose judgment. 392. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. or settler may be the subject. or when they exist side by side in good usage. Why study syntax? 391. following the regular order of subject. sometimes verb and subject." that is. authorities²that is. In Latin." In this there is a possessive form. . It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere." is ambiguous. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. Second. both forms will be given in the following pages. 393. This is not logical.² First. and imitate it. the sentence. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. Also in the sentence. and added to it the preposition of. Savage may be the subject. or the same writer will use both indifferently.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly.

397. Use of the possessive. etc. for example.²ROWE. He kept Bolingbroke's. Oliver and Boyd's printing office." Juletta tells. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.² Live your king and country's best support. ²ID. 408). . 396. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. and Peter's. and Harley's. as.² He lands us on a grassy stage.²EMERSON. Mill's and Mr.²BYRON. or indicate joint ownership or possession. the shore of Galilee. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. and Pope's. and Peterborough's. and Paul's. but imply separate possession or ownership.²MACAULAY. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Bentham's principles together. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. 394.²MILTON. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. sense and nature's easy fool. Separate possession. 395.²THACKERAY. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.NOUNS.²MCCULLOCH. Joint possession. the antechamber of the High Priest. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²RUSKIN. Putting Mr. Woman. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. PRONOUNS.

(2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. there are two general rules that require attention. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Bedott Papers. who. as." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. for example. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. whom is the complement after the verb am. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. 398.²THACKERAY. the real thought being forgotten. and should be the nominative form.²TROLLOPE. sanctioned." 400. others are generally. Some of the violations are universally condemned.²WHITCHER.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. 399. together with the relative who. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. the last expression has the support of many good writers.²SOUTHEY. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. .²SHAKESPEARE. Since most of the personal pronouns.²POPE. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. But he must be a stronger than thee. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. This should be "as she. thus. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²BYRON. Still. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Objective for the nominative. No mightier than thyself or me.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. General rules. I.) "The young Harper. if not universally.

they are yet holier than we. unless a special. "If there is any one embarrassed. The camp of Richard of England. In spoken English. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed." There is no special reason for this. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.² For there was little doubt that it was he."²WM.² One I remember especially. One exception is to be noted. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. . Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. BLACK. both in England and America. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²KINGSLEY. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.²SCOTT.²FIELDING. But still it is not she.²LONGFELLOW.²RUSKIN. it will not be me. as. "Who's there?"²"Me. for example.²THACKERAY. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. the objective form is regularly found. Patrick the Porter.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. are. and the other forms of the verb be. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. namely. but such is the fact. And it was heThat made the ship to go. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. on the other hand. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was." 401. is. A safe rule. "Than whom."²KINGSLEY.²MACAULAY.²PARTON. The usage is too common to need further examples.²COLERIDGE."²WINTHROP. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.

he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. or preposition which governs it. . object of saw). 5. It is not me you are in love with. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned." 6. (3) By forgetting the construction. Whom they were I really cannot specify. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 403. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 11. I speak not to" (he should be him. now. 7. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences.²MILTON. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 4. used after verbs. 2. Me in exclamations. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). verbal. it is me. 10. Truth is mightier than us all. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 3. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. and prepositions. 8. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. as.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. or this. as this from Shakespeare. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. you or me. 9. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. You know whom it is that you thus charge. but not he" (he should be him. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. "Ask the murderer. the object of to). It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. verbals.Exercise. 404. Nominative for the objective." the word being in apposition with murderer). or us). "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. as. as.

We regularly say.² All were knocked down but us two.²KINGSLEY. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. but he. Exception 2. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. changed in all save thee. I arraign. None. as. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. 2.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²STEELE. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²KINGSLEY. as. .Shall be left upon the morn. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. 405. Thou. all but he. and is usually avoided. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. as well as the objective. Nature. Thy shores are empires. for they say there are none such in the world.²KINGSLEY. I've sworn. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. "Who did you see?" or. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. etc. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. save thou and thine. who interrogative. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. for example.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. partial Nature. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²BYRON. 406. Who have we here?²ID.Exception 1.²BYRON. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Let you and I look at these.

He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.²RUSKIN. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. 5. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. They crowned him long ago.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. Bartholomew. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 7. or objective? .²C. II. 8.3. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. B. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. This usage is not frequent. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. who. Preceding a gerund. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 11. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 10. Markland.²possessive. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. As antecedent of a relative. They are coming for a visit to she and I.Ye I salute. and they know that as well as me. 12. BROWN. 9. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. 6." 4. with Jortin and Thirlby.²THACKERAY. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. "Nonsense!" said Amyas.²MACAULAY. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 407.

was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. object of heard of." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. Both types of sentences are found. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.² SCOTT.²CARLYLE. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.² IRVING. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.²DE QUINCEY. We heard of Brown. that the bitterness of death was past. both are gerunds. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. and asked why it was not made. But in common use there is no such distinction. and that in the second. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.²MACAULAY. Objective. In the examples quoted. as he turned away from his wife. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Here I state them only in brief. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. . and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²RUSKIN. Why both are found.²BREWER. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. sometimes it has the objective.² THACKERAY. [who was] studying law." That is. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. etc.² CARLYLE. studying is a gerund. The use of the objective is older. The last incident which I recollect.²DICKENS. Possessive. and the meaning is.408.

²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. .²THACKERAY. and gender. number. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²AUDUBON. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. The pale realms of shade. BROCKDEN BROWN.²HUXLEY. preceded by a distributive. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. 410.²DEFOE.²RUSKIN. If any one did not know it.²DE QUINCEY. where there were examinations.² BRYANT.²DE QUINCEY. Watch for the real antecedent.²HOLMES. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. Every city threw open its gates.²THOREAU. Examples of these constructions are.²when the antecedent. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. Everybody had his own life to think of.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. In such a case as the last three sentences. and ought to agree with them in person. it was his own fault. taking in each of many persons.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²EMERSON III. if the antecedent is neuter.²CABLE. or is a distributive word. in one person. 409. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²C.

each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. not a mowing idiot. . By using the plural pronoun. If the part deserve any comment. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²PALEY. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²ID. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²BYRON.²DEFOE. Every one must judge of their own feelings. for example. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²HUXLEY.²BIBLE. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. The sun.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. till they have lost him. and giving them means of being so. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²ID.²PAULDING. This is not considered the best usage.²RUSKIN. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²THACKERAY.²PALGRAVE. let them break it off.² Not the feeblest grandame. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Struggling for life.²AUSTEN.²EMERSON. Whosoever hath any gold. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.Avoided: By using both pronouns. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. as anybody in their senses would have done. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. 411.²FIELDING. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²SCOTT.

412. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. . when restrictive. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. tell whether who. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. and that always restrictive. according to the practice of every modern writer. the definite relatives who.²HAWTHORNE. who went away. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES.²In the above sentences. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. in each instance:² Who. Exercise. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. because. that being considered already clear. unless both genders are implied. What these terms mean. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.²ADDISON. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. 1. which. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. when coördinating. which. but. as. but. A relative. and that are restrictive or not." This means. In the following examples." It defines beggar. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. or what was become of her. and does not add a new statement.²ID.) and a personal pronoun. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word.Where she was gone. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. "I gave it to the beggar. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. As to their conjunctive use." A relative. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. and he went away.² SHERIDAN. Exercise. It adds a new statement to what precedes. 2. no one could take upon them to say. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. I. etc. 413. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. That is in most cases restrictive. or unrestrictive.

. it makes the verb third person singular. down. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.² MOTLEY.² CARLYLE. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.²H. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.²ID. they. as that does not vary for person or number. On hearing their plan. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.²THOREAU. but. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. which Mr.²ID. 13. 11. Which. In what sense true. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. A grizzly-looking man appeared. So different from the wild. 14. etc. That. 8. that were often vicious. 10. For example." that is invariable as to person and number. 6. 4.3. you. 9. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. who. she agreed to join the party.²HOLMES.²ADDISON. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. long arms and legs.²DE QUINCEY. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. because of its antecedent. The general rule is.² NEWMAN. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. However. Hare has printed. etc. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. these or that which.² IRVING. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. and over England are saying. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. Yet how many are there who up. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 12. 414. and it is called logic. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. etc. With narrow shoulders.²DE QUINCEY. We say I. 7. in the sentence.. II. W. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. BEECHER 5. The rule. he. which was to go over the Cordilleras.

415. etc. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²M. "one of the finest books that have been published. others regard books as the antecedent. The latter is rather more frequent.²ADDISON. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent." One of .²J. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY." or. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. Singular. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. ARNOLD. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. or which .²ADDISON.²MACAULAY. JR. but myself. Franklin. when he derided the shams of society. but the former has good authority..²BOWLES. and in improving a victory..Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²HOLMES. in winning a battle. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. [plural] that who. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²HOWELLS. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. the true antecedent.. "one of the finest books that has been published... He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. but speaks of him as that sort.²LOWELL. T.²SCOTT. who rarely speak at all. Let us be of good cheer..²LECKY. The fiery youth . remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.. MORSE. with one as the principal word. A disputed point. etc. and write the verb in the plural. French literature of the eighteenth century. [singular or plural.²whether we should say. He is one of those that deserve very well.] Both constructions are frequently found. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. .²LOWELL.

In that same state I came. where.²IRVING.²SWIFT.² THACKERAY. 416. But I by backward steps would move. or where] he died. return.²ADDISON. and such like: as. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. Exercise. when the relative word is a pronoun. I could see nothing except the sky. when this dust falls to the urn. that is.²DEFOE."²DICKENS. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²CARLYLE.²ID.²BURNS. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²GOLDSMITH. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. object of a preposition understood. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.² RUSKIN.A rare Roundabout performance. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.²EMERSON. 417. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²VAUGHAN. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.²In the above sentences. whence. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.And. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire." "India is the place [in which. III.² ." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. The same day I went aboard we set sail. IV. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. and see if the sentence is made clearer. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.

. which. I might as well have staid at home. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² MACAULAY. . There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Caution. for example. if same is followed by a complete clause. Mr. boats. 418.He considered. etc. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner.²ADDISON. if I had resolved to go on with. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²FRANKLIN. Which. ²GOLDSMITH.²R.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. but which is usually carefully avoided. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.² THACKERAY. but we find the relative who. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.. The regular construction. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.²SWIFT. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. he. looking-glasses. They believe the same of all the works of as his apprentice. or that. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.²WORDSWORTH. That.²SCOTT.² Which. as is not used. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. W. with Turner. she passed the lamp over her face and person. V. and working in the same spirit. Anacoluthic use of which. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. CHURCH. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. was a discoverer. as of knives. but.² BURKE.

and this be placed in the proper clause. who are now thrown. and which. (3) "Among the poorer sort.²which if they once heard. etc. As the sentences stand. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. 3.²RUSKIN. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. 1.² Direction for rewriting. or leave out both connective and relative. Express both relatives. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.She'd come again. Exercise. once a great favorite of M. Exercise. but none is expressed.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. le Conte. now thrown upon their. Thornhill had read. 2. (2) "Among the poorer sort.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT.. .. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. but. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors." etc. After this came Elizabeth herself. But who." etc. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. 419. he said that all submission was now too late. and in whom I myself was not a little interested." etc. That is. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. which when Mr. (1) "Among those who are poor. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. And who. or omit the conjunction. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²SHAKESPEARE.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²HAWTHORNE. etc. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. He delivered the letter.²THACKERAY. and who are now.²GOLDSMITH." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. This was a gentleman. 4. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. or.

7. and repeat this for any further reference. . the French. and which. and which may even be heard a mile off. and to whom no door is closed. 10. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . then. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. I saw upon the left a scene far different. Akin to the above is another fault. English by name. Or who. And which.²DE QUINCEY. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character.²IRVING. 6. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 8. "What knight so craven. "A mockery. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. That . etc. indeed. either from imitation of their frequent allies.²SCOTT. and which has never been described. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.. as a false and astucious mark. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. 13. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. Dr.²PEARSON. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 9.²DE QUINCEY. Or which. I shall have complete copies. one of signal interest. like that spoken in the towns. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house.. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. Exercise. 11. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. 420. 1. which the Scotch had learned. who.²HAWTHORNE.. etc.. 12.²SCOTT.5. But which.² MOTLEY.

6. was a bustling wharf. Which .. was hung in air..²SCOTT That which . 10. G.²BEECHER. 9. and to whom I do not belong. at the head of what.. that. It rose into a thrilling passion. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²HOLMES. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. He. 12.²DEFOE.. whom.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.. 3. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 13. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.²HAWTHORNE.²HALLAM. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.²HOWELLS.. 8. The Tree Igdrasil. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. the dime. in his present condition. but which is perhaps not so different from it.. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.²W. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. I grudge the dollar. CHANNING.. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. He flung into literature. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. 11. I recommend some honest manual calling.²DE QUINCEY. 14. but which. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Such as . what. In my native town of Salem.²EMERSON. half a century ago. 15. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. 4. Such as . SIMMS. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. That . and whose examples and principles we inherit. which. such as they have very probably been bred to. in his Mephistopheles. which. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. 5.. . the cent.. I give to such men as do not belong to me.²SCOTT. 7.²W. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.²EMERSON. E. that . Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with..2. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.

let us not increase them by dissension among each other. 421. as it were. as.²HAWTHORNE. that not all combined.² HAWTHORNE. in which case any should be used instead.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²RUSKIN. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²DICKENS.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²ID. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. Distributives either and neither.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.²GOLDSMITH. always at war with one another.² Some one must be poor. Each other. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²RUSKIN. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. whether or not the two are equivalent. By their original meaning.²MACAULAY. Use of any. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. for example. as. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Assume that no one is in want of either. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. England was then divided between kings and Druids. one another. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. . and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. 422.²EMERSON. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. We call ourselves a rich nation.

whilst I still cherish their genius.²SCOTT. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Caution. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²BURKE. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. and is isolated. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.² EMERSON. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²BIBLE. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²SHAKESPEARE. let him ask of God. afterwards in Goethe. In earlier Modern English. Do you think.²STIRLING.²PROF. .. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. if ever man was. I beseech you. None of Nature's powers do better service..Once I took such delight in Montaigne . which is plural as often as singular. at one time in Bacon. Examples of its use are. usually plural. then in Plotinus. The adjective pronoun none is.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. during his stay at Yuste. in Shakespeare.²THACKERAY. as. that I know of.²CARLYLE.²BEECHER Whenever. before that. Any usually plural. 424. as. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. then in Plutarch.² If any. Do you think. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. speak. None usually plural. even in Bettine. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. any was often singular..²FRANKLIN. as none of the French philosophers were. etc. 423.² In earnest. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. in the prose of the present day. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). any of his friends had died. If any of you lack wisdom. for him have I offended.²EMERSON.

and Ford has nobody's else.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. as. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²NAPIER Plural. etc. and all was lost on the other.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.²THOREAU. any one else. etc. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.. are treated as units.. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. that all was lost. or somebody else's? 426. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . etc.² None of them was cleansed. When all were gone. The compounds somebody else.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. fixing his eyes on the mace. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. for example. nobody else. and less rarely in poetry.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. The light troops thought . when it means all persons: for example.²SCOTT Like the use of any. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. which is used absolutely. Somebody's else.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. 425. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. saving Naaman the Syrian. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²McMASTER. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.² PEARSON. etc.² Singular. the plural..

"²MRS.²G. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences." "all manner of men. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. WILLIS. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. Again.. all manner of. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. 427. Whitefield or Wesley.² FIELDING. or some other such great man as a bishop. ADJECTIVES.curled once all over it in long tendrils.² These kind of knaves I know. His hair. STOWE. unlike anybody else's in the world. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). "Ye see. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. . Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²DICKENS.²SHERIDAN. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.²in such as "these sort of books.²THACKERAY.SYDNEY SMITH.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS." the nouns being singular." "those kind of trees. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²RUSKIN. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.²RUSKIN. These sort. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. for example. ELIOT.²MULOCH. etc.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. the adjectives plural. London. P.² Saturday Review.²AUSTEN. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²SWEET. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²N. etc. or those sort of people.

This the modern expression reverses. or the nouns to the plural.² PRESCOTT. According to the approved usage of Modern English. made to agree with it. "This kind of rules are the best. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract.²RUSKIN. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. "These kind of trees are best. or one object with a class of objects." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. At the source." A question. in spoken English. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. Of two such lessons. and the adjective is. Burke's sentence.² Which is the better able to defend himself. more alarming than a total silence. when the necessary dispositions concur. History of this construction. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. gradually displacing the old. Should we say.The library was open. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. In Old and Middle English." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. 428. the victor or the vanquished. such as. to express a higher degree of quality. Use of the comparative degree. they said. which accounts for the construction." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. for example. "This sort of trees should be planted." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. not "all kinds of wild animals. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. The result. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. Later form. Consequently we have a confused expression. . But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. with all manner of amusing books. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. as. and in this way may take a plural verb.²a strong man with nothing but his fists.

4. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²TROLLOPE. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. Gary.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 3. if not. 5. etc. 2.²HAWTHORNE. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. would not have had the face. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²CARLYLE. by almost the breadth of my nail. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. than any of his court.²THACKERAY.²HUXLEY. Even Dodd himself. I am concerned to see that Mr.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn.²WIRT. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. To the man who plays well. 6. 429. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. Exercise. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. has sanctioned. Other after the comparative form. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. Superlative with two objects."²ID. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. the highest stakes are paid. Henry. 430.²MACAULAY.² THACKERAY. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²MACAULAY. He is taller. Use of the superlative degree. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²SWIFT. . it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²LOWELL.

²EMERSON.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense."²HAWTHORNE."²GOLDSMITH. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²TEMPEST. I should say that one has the best cause. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. Double comparative and superlative.²BEN JONSON. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. OLIPHANT..²Bible. not a bit of high life among them. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²ADDISON. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.²IRVING. who eat white bread or brown.²MRS. and differ only in form. Rip was one of those . Mary. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. more particularly the last of them. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²GOLDSMITH.²DR BLAIR. CÆSAR. whichever can be got easiest. . In all disputes between States.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²SCOTT. 431. The eldest."²BULWER. The following examples are used purposely. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²J. and the other contains the best men.²HAMLET. ha. 1611. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Also from the same period. Examples from Shakespeare are. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. Come you more nearer.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.. These two properties seem essential to wit.²RUSKIN. After the most straitest sect of our religion. "Ha.

THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. jar upon us constantly. As to these two expressions. etc.²PRESCOTT. Definite article. and Secretary Walsingham also. The first five had specific names.² SMOLLETT. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.²ADDISON.²GIBBON. the Spanish. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The delay in the first three lines. Three first. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²GIBBON. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²KINGSLEY. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. Examples of this construction are.² With a singular noun. The meaning intended is the same. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. For Carlyle.²RUSKIN.²LAMB. not only so in popular speech. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. These are the three first needs of civilized life. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. etc. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²DE QUINCEY. and conceit in the last. First three. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. Instances of both are given below. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. ARTICLES. 433. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. ²COWPER. but in literary English. The merit of the Barb. .²RUSKIN. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.

²SCOTT. the hour of parting came. the thought and the word. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.. 1508. Meaning same as in Sec.²TAYLOR. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. 433.²ID. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. with a plural noun. The not repeated. 435. but inseparable from each other. however. or to emphasize the meaning. as. 434. to distinguish clearly.²NEWMAN. and the presents. I think.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. With a plural noun. The lofty.²CARLYLE.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.. Origin of the Aryans. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²TENNYSON. The flowers. One object and several modifiers. having been arranged. Indefinite article. were placed at a very tender age. Frequently.² RUSKIN. of the higher and middling orders. 433. No. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. of the eighteenth century. .²THACKERAY. as. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. with a singular noun. the greatest poems.²THE NATION. but is used with one only.² MACAULAY. Here the youth of both sexes. He is master of the two-fold Logos.²PRESCOTT. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . and flexible language. melodious.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. as in Sec.²MACAULAY. distinct.

a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. a collegian. to limit two or more modified nouns. 433 and 436. Examples of this use are.²JOHNSON. In the sentences of Secs. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. and inexhausted vein. or clearness to each of several nouns. 437. .² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. 435.436. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. interest. a murderer. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. T. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. and a usurper. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 438.² MACAULAY.An early. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. COLERIDGE. only one of which is expressed. one noun is expressed. For rhetorical effect. rich.²BEECHER.²S. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²BULWER." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.²B. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. One article with several adjectives. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. a tyrant. The indefinite article (compare Sec. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. JONSON. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. as in the first three of Sec.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 436).²MACAULAY. like the definite article. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² BURKE.²MACAULAY." and "a red and a white geranium. He saw him in his mind's eye. But in the following sentences. a round and a square one alternately. as.²DRYDEN. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. The indefinite article is used.²DICKENS.²THACKERAY.

The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. 439. without academies. Sec. for example.²COOPER. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. Singulars connected by or or nor. In English. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. and the following illustrations prove it. or the great intellectual life of our nation.²AGASSIZ. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²The Nation. He sees that it is better to live in peace. was the earliest American land.²W. ELIOT. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²G.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Singular verb. ARNOLD. as.VERBS. .² It is by no means sure that either our literature. Another writer might. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. This was spoken of in Part I. all that academies can give. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. 440. as. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. then.. like some others in this series. A broad and loose rule.²M. Such.²CARLYLE This usage.²GIBBON. has got already. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²FROUDE. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Collective noun of singular meaning. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 276.

"Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²DE QUINCEY. that of a large town. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. Between ourselves. No. (4) When the subject is plural in form. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. Plural form and singular meaning. nor Paul. a mutilation. Q.²EMERSON .²CRITIC.²WHITTIER.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. or as making up one general idea.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.² Politics is the only field now open for me. other names. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. as.²BURKE.Jesus is not dead. but each one emphatic. but considered as meaning about the same thing. a loss of wealth. and other singulars of plural form. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. ADAMS. a cruel disappointment.²J.² The unbought grace of life. the cheap defense of nations.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. nor John.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. for example. or considered as appositional. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. is gone. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. seems at the moment unpaid loss. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²GIBBON.²GOLDSMITH. and every four hours. nor Mahomet.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.² In a word. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. A fever. a loss of friends. ²EMERSON.² GOLDSMITH. for example. as.

a cuirass.²PRESCOTT. and greaves.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. every valet. The Epic. Plural verb. Every sound. There is a moving tone of voice.²PRESCOTT. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. Her back. For wide is heard the thundering fray. a gorget.²SCOTT. thus. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²ID. sir?" and the "No.²MACAULAY. no discontinuity. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. an agitated gesture.The rout.²BUTLER. as well as the Drama.²EMERSON. as well as sides.²HAWTHORNE.² Asia. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. sir!"²MACAULAY. as well as the newest.²RUSKIN. was listened to for five hours. the fine gentleman. with death.² . as. Every fop. was like to crack. is a man of wit.²NEWMAN. Here is no ruin.² There is a right and a wrong in them. an impassioned countenance. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. every boor. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. no.²MACAULAY. was punished. many a. no matter if the second is plural). The oldest. the ruin. the wit. the dismay. in a judge. was dazzled. sir!" and the "What then. as. and such like adjectives. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.The author. To receive presents or a bribe. does not take the place of the man. Subjects after the verb.²M ARNOLD. as well as Europe. almost every day.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. nay.²ID. Every week. the partisan.²LONGFELLOW. Then comes the "Why. wineBegins to stir itself. every echo. each. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. 441. no spent ball.

² GIBBON.²FRANKLIN. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²EMERSON. b). are sufficient to attract a colony.²SCOTT.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²SWIFT. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. His clothes. Philip of Anjou. 440 (5. as in Sec.²DE QUINCEY.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²COLERIDGE. a green pasture. of whom there were a number. but the verb is plural. The travelers. for example. Conjunction omitted.²B. All our household are at rest. as. The conjunction may be omitted.²CARLYLE But its authorship. TAYLOR.²ADDISON.²FROUDE.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.² A multitude go mad about it. A party of workmen were removing the horses. A shady grove.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²GOLDSMITH. far away thy children leave the land. were men of insignificant characters. as with a subject of plural form. the Duke of Berri. as. making up a plural subject.These bits of wood were covered on every square. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.² One or two of these perhaps survive. shirt. its date. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²FROUDE. a stream of fresh water. Far. The Dauphin. .²THOREAU.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.²GIBBON.

It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. You and I are tolerably modest people. 442. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. 443. we never talk politics. "I have never said so. as. Pattison or I have said. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²SMOLLETT. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and." "She or you may be sure. Second or third and first person in the subject. but thou. the subject being really equivalent to we. nor has she"). Not I. for example.²DE QUINCEY. nor should I. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²ROWE." etc. You and I are farmers.²THACKERAY.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. When the subjects. that is. of different persons. Nothing which Mr.²THACKERAY.). Ah. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. "He or I can go. hadst been my lord." or.²RUSKIN. his blood dost shed.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²M.²BYRON. Not Altamont. . Exceptional examples. "You would not be wiser. 444.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. WEBSTER.But notice the construction of this. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. If there is only one person in the subject. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. but thou.²LOWELL. General usage. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²D.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH. ARNOLD.²WHITTIER.

²BYRON. Nor wood. in my opinion. 7. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. How each of these professions are crowded." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²G. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. nor bush are there.²and. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. nor tree. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 4. Neither of them. which it is proper to mention.445.²MILTON. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . The following illustrate exceptional usage. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²ADDISON. 10. In the following sentence.²SMOLLETT. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. 6. 440-444):² 1. In a word. 446. as we would hope. In this sentence from Defoe.²SCOTT.²EMERSON. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.Her course to intercept. 8. Both death and I am found eternal. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 3. 12. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 5. as illustrated above (Secs. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. 11.²BURKE.²ID. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.²ADDISON.²THACKERAY.That neither of their intellects are vast. 2. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²perhaps the devil.² TROLLOPE. Also in verbals. 9. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Exercise. BANCROFT.

He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. for exact connection.²THACKERAY. 4. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²DE QUINCEY 2. W.²FRANKLIN 6.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²IRVING. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. Indirect discourse means reported speech. if not.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. Direct discourse²that is. meaning. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. 3. on my return. to have divided with her whatever might remain.²MACAULAY.. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. It should be remarked.²R. The present rule is recent. Definitions. Exercise. change them to a better form:² 1. I gave one quarter to Ann.²KINGSLEY.." . CHURCH. 448. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. as. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. 447. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. Of course. But I found I wanted a stock of words. however. Two samples of indirect discourse. to have seen should be changed to to see.² PALGRAVE 5.

. 1. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Sebastian's.. . Her prudence whispered eternally. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Direct. Direct. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person." Indirect. under interrogative pronouns. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. etc. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. or regular interrogatives. His exact words were. will. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. The substance of his lamentation was." etc. "I cannot oblige you . introductory verb is in the past tense. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. This includes the auxiliaries be." etc. "Oh. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Oh. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.. 449. Summary of the expressions.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. She thought to herself. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. interrogative adverbs. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. and the indirect question by whether or if. 2. not attempting to follow the entire quotation.. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. have.

" and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. the first discoverer of the river and country. Careless use of the participial phrase. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. The trouble is. like distant peals of thunder.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. with his crew of the Half-moon." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. PARTICIPLES. and that he himself had heard. VERBALS. in the sentences first quoted.²B. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. 450.²ID. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. . FRANKLIN.²ADDISON. handed down from his ancestor the historian. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. my first observation will be found nearly true. the sound of their balls. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. if this were expanded into a verb. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.²GOLDSMITH. one summer afternoon. Notice this.Exercise. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected.

Adverb between to and the infinitive. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. Standard writers often use it. 451. and often.²LAUGHLIN.²ID. avoid it.." Exercise. leaving the principal statement as it is. This is the more common arrangement. INFINITIVES. then. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. Exercise. either "As I was pleased. the first sentence would be. There are. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. In the following citations. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . universal assertion.²SCOTT. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. if a strike is to succeed.²RUSKIN.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. . The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. my first collection was. many things to be carefully considered. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. 3. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. 2.Correction.. while defended or excused by others.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. It is a solemn. For example.. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.² HERBERT SPENCER... . purposely or not." etc.

²TROLLOPE. Position of only. but they are often removed from the exact position. No. 5. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. if they modify single words. A little sketch of his. china.²GOLDSMITH. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. but cannot misunderstand the thought. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. 6. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .² ADDISON.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. etc. BLAIR. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 12. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. therefore. In works of art. 11.4. 452. The rigid rule in such a case would be. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation.²SCOTT. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. this kind of grandeur. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. Now. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. but it is placed before the infinitive. even. 7.²ID. are used. Exercise. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. which consists in multitude..²RUSKIN. 1533. from Irving.²BURKE.. ADVERBS. etc." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. 13. I wish the reader to clearly understand. 10. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. and earthenware.²The Nation.²DR.² MACAULAY. is to be very cautiously admitted. when such adverbs as only. The spirits. 9. 8. etc. even.

His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. P.²N. 5.²ID. 11.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 6. 13.²THACKERAY. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 12. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. might not marry. 14.²MACAULAY.²SWIFT. 16. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²ID. whence he was never destined to return. During the whole course of his administration.²RUSKIN. . for example. 7. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²ID. In relating these and the following laws. The old usage.²SYDNEY SMITH. 9.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 4. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. In Old and Middle English. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. My master. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 15.²MOTLEY. 3. His last journey to Cannes. GROTE. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. WILLIS.²HIGGINSON. Irving could only live very modestly.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.1.²CHAUCER. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²EMERSON. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 8. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. No sonne. 10.²MRS.²PALGRAVE. ²ASCHAM. 2. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. He shouted in those clear. 17.²COOPER. 453. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. to avoid a crowd. were he never so old of yeares.² THACKERAY.

STOWE.²HOLMES. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language."²MRS.²HAWTHORNE. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. In the execution of this task. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. in Ole Virginia. . or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.²GROTE. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. etc. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. I did not act so hastily.²DEFOE. and why:² 1. can so agreeably affect. In the latter case. ²PAGE. the usual way of regarding the question now is. 2. 6. is not common. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²LOWELL. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. STOWE. Therefore.²BURKE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Exercise."²four negatives. However. if two negatives are found together. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. 3. uncommon. and is still kept in vulgar English. denying each other. under the influence of Latin syntax.²BAYNE. 7. nor never shall.²MRS. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. The prosperity of no empire. I never did see him again. This. neither. Regular law of negative in modern English. one of the negatives is often a prefix. Not only could man not acquire such information. as infrequent. But.² HAMILTON.²DE QUINCEY. 4. but ought not to labor after it. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. nor the grandeur of no king. Exceptional use. 5. when one of the negatives is a connective. as. There weren't no pies to equal hers. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. however.

. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. And who. The sentences given in Secs.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . and which. the first should also. if the second precedes a phrase. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. or. as the use of the conjunction. 455.. either . The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. nor is often changed to not²either .."²SCOTT. if the last precedes a verb. or. Things to be watched. or to reply to it... as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. Choice and proper position of correlatives. the first ought to be placed before a verb. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.. Correction.²PRESCOTT. but. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.." . and." may be changed to "This loose ." said the King.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. there we were.." Besides neither . not only to the success of their common cause. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. even neither . "A weapon. not merely .²SCOTT. as well as of the pronoun. The sentence. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is... and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. neither ." both of the above requirements are violated. "well worthy to confer honor. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. not only ... a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. but (also).²LOWELL.8. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. In the sentence... 454.. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. either. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. should be scrutinized. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. or with advantage. or to reply to it. but to their own safety. CONJUNCTIONS. especially both . not or is the proper correlative of neither. nor.

Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. But what. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. They will.²ID. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Some exceptions. or the negative relative but. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. In the following sentences. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. 3. substitute that. Correct the following sentences:² 1.²THACKERAY. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. Try and avoid the pronoun. murder. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. and chop up their own kin. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²GOLDSMITH. as. . 457.²THACKERAY.²GIBBON.² ADDISON. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. O.²S. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²RUSKIN. too. but. JEWETT. not merely interest children. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 456.²BAIN. Try and for try to. 5.²FRANKLIN. nor the disgrace of assailing him.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.Exercise. etc. but. or but that. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. Now. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. and I don't know but what he was right. Exercise. but they will outrage. as. 4. but grown-up persons.²MACAULAY. 6. 7. 8. 2.

305. Between is used most often with two things only. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies.²SCOTT. 3. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. . as already seen in Sec. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Between and among.²EMERSON. 5. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.2. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. 459.²ADDISON. 313. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²TROLLOPE. no separation or division by twos being implied. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 4. 6. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.² SWIFT. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. PREPOSITIONS.²ADDISON.²BURKE.² BULWER.²EMERSON. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 458. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. see Sec.

Such are derogatory. averse. confer. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Mackintosh. Paley. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Different from. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. . and Coleridge. Kant. different. Conversant with. and philosophers like Locke.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. a soldier of the Cross. 461. Acquit of. Affinity between. 460. List I. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions.²KINGSLEY. and another to convey a different meaning. Derogatory to. as. Dependent on (upon). Some of them have. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. LIST I.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope.: Words with particular prepositions. Comply with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. etc. involve.²between philosophers like Spinoza. by custom. as. Abhorrent to. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Dissent from. ²EMERSON. correspond. Averse to. Two groups or one and a group.²RUSKIN What have I. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Such are absolve. Accord with. and Stewart. or one object and a group. Conform to. Bestow on (upon).

as. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Correspond to (a thing). as meaning to be in keeping with. Confide to (intrust to). Change for (a thing). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). as. Confer with (talk with). LIST III. LIST II. etc. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Independent of. Involve in. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. A taste for (art. Change with (a person). Reconcile with (note below). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.). Differ from (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). "The king is reconciled to his minister. A taste of (food). Change to (become). 462.y y y Deprive of. . as. Disappointed in (a thing obtained)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Confer on (upon) (give to)." also of persons. Reconcile to (note below). 463. Agree to (a proposal). but it is not good usage.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. List II. Confide in (trust in). in the sense of making friends with. and sometimes creeps into standard books." List III. Correspond with (write to). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Differ with (note below).

She died of hard work. "Die from. die of. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. die from." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²BULWER. ²THACKERAY. "Die for. expect from.²POPE.²SHAKESPEARE.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²G. One of them said he would die for her. die with.²MACAULAY.²BOSWELL. It would take me long to die of hunger." (because of).²FIELDING.²MACAULAY. He died at last without disease.:² "Die of. "Die by. died for love of the fair Marcella.²BURNETT. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. It is a man of quality who dies for her. I am positively dying with hunger. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. instrument). ELIOT.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. If I meet with any of 'em. "Die with. privation. "Die for.²SCOTT. Expect of. . part with.²G.y y y Die by. ELIOT. they shall die by this hand. Take thought and die for Cæsar. and ill treatment." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²ADDISON. ²ATHENÆUM. Part from. Who. Illustrations of "die of. No one died from want at Longfeld." (material cause. die for.²MACAULAY." (in behalf of). People do not die of trifling little colds. simply from old age. as Cervantes informs us." etc." "die from.²GOLDSMITH." She would have been ready to die with shame.²GOLDSMITH.

and hated to part with them.²SCOTT. 465.²BULWER. I have long expected something remarkable from you. With words implying behavior or disposition. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. Kind in you. Of Doctor P. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. 466. either of or in is used indifferently. nothing better was to be expected." "expect from:"² "Expect of." To part from you would be misery. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²WALLER.²AUSTEN. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²TROLLOPE.²G." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²DICKENS. kind of you. Illustrations of "expect of. which he would by no means part from.²POE." "part from:"² "Part with. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²MACAULAY. "Expect from.²BULWER. as my friend.²SHAW. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. That is more than I expected of you. 464. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²MACAULAY. just parted from her.²WALPOLE.²G." She will expect more attention from you. His precious bag. Illustrations of "part with. I have just seen her. "Part from. ELIOT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. I part with all that grew so near my heart. It was a little bad of you. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. ELIOT. . ELIOT.²G. I can part with my children for their good.²MARRYAT.

with seraphims. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 11. 5.²BULWER. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. Thou tread'st. tedious perhaps. 14. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. . Very natural in Mr. 1. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 15. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. In the friction between an employer and workman.²BULWER. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. But this is idle of you.²CARLYLE. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.²BEACONSFIELD. The noise of vast cataracts. Hampden. raging storms. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. 7. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. thrown it over Amyas's head. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. or artillery. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. nor yellow. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 3. 4. 13. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. and ran up the alley. the vast abyss.²TENNYSON. 6. In. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. nor blue. or that they are any way dependent on each other. nor green.He did not think it handsome of you.²DICKENS. 10. thunder. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 8. but which the story renders necessary. This narrative. nor of a pale red. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 9.

or what kind of life they are to lead in it. or how beautiful it is. 32. 33. When the glass or liquor are transparent. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 22.I would wish me only he. were down with raging fever. 411. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. (Sec. 27. 26. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 21.) 34. Friday. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. what is a just and unjust act. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 17. 20. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. triangles. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 31. That night every man of the boat's crew. and most of us do know. 25. 19. 23. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. and almost as good as a pony. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. . 38. but in the price paid to them. 37. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 29. 36. 18. 30. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. the acquiescence of the understanding. You have seen Cassio and she together. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. The effect of proportion and fitness. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Every one of these letters are in my name. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. and other angular figures. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 35. produce approbation. But every man may know. Squares.And were I anything but what I am. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 24. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. save Amyas. you or me. 28. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 16.

310. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. of. 107. of. INDEX. 119. 91. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. voice. He had four children. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. nominative. 40. 98. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 20. as comparison definition demonstrative. 102. Adjectives. from nominative clauses. 25. A. 47.000 between them. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 92. 124. adjectives. numeral. (3) Modern English. as. of. pronouns. 47. 90. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. adverbs used complements. of. 260. 89.39. demonstrative. Abstract with Active Address. origin of. 124. syntax uses Absolute. 116. from about 1500 to the present time. (2) Middle English. . nouns. 133. 239. of. article.

objective. 27. parse. 194. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 275. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 116. . 303. 207. 194. 262. and 185. 191. antecedent. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. predicate. 323. parse. 190. 42. 242. 207. to used of. 302. adjectives. 101. quantity. 109. modify. 148. of. 99. infinitive. 190. Alms. 187. plural pronominal. 195. adjectives. 115. 116. 328. 325. conjunctions. 48. of. 183. sentence. 239. 106. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. nouns. 287. with with with subject. of. of. from to of. Agreement. compared. 325. clauses. 291. quality. of. 184. 27. of. 303. Against. adjectives. between of. as nouns. conjunction. 104.from function how in not of of ordinal. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. nouns. of. 316. antecedent. 114. 103. 97.

264. of. 208. 67. definition how indefinite. 84. sentences. Anacoluthon Analysis. it. same. Are. of. syntax As. 120. of. 90. agreement personal as pronoun. 51. of and pronoun of. of. 309. syntax. pronouns. 79. which. derivation in definite. of of of And Antecedent. 275. 74. of. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 47. . 49. See with definition complex compound simple who. sentences. 231. possessive. 252. See 74. to of. and. parse. An.Among. 101. 296. 240. after of. 124. 287. Auxiliary if. Agreement. though. uses As At. words between. 331. adjective. in in. 67. 225. sentences. 127. 120. 295. 207. 198. which. 150. 148. A. 300. Arrangement Articles. as uses verbs. 294. definition of of of Any. which. 271.

262. 195. with But By. 110. 278. objective. 279. possessive. 283. 262. 54. in Old and Modern English. Cause. of nouns. of nouns. adverb. clauses of. Case. uses nominative of. Between. Can. conjunctions Cherub. 150. Children. of what. 66. 111. 47. number of. of. 260. best. definition could. Among. But. Bridegroom. forms. 330. . Be. 110. syntax of. Case. double possessive. uses of. See of. 149. 49. 210. of pronouns. uses Better. adjective. 37. of pronouns. 46. pronoun. 161. of. 39. 46. 39. nominative. 62. 194. 279. of. 45. 84. 224. of pronouns. Brethren. 64. of nouns. of nouns. plurals of. Clause.Bad. 63. of pronouns. 48. 278. comparison conjugation of.

subject. of. double. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 158. 107. adverbs. Cloths. 257. English. 24. of. 307. verb. defective. 110. Cleave. 43. 53. 257. Clomb. 23. of. sentence. 307. of. nouns. of. analysis of. 315. 258. 305. predicate of and from from of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. nouns. clothes. in analysis. of. 248. 108. 263. 157. 189. material. and sentence. definition degrees irregular. of. 18. nouns. 264. 43. 312. . 12. 244. 268. adjectives. of. proper. and forms of. predicate. 239. 18. 111.definition kinds noun. plural of. superlative. infinitive. 113. 271. 108. 257.

replaced by objective. conjunctions. same words. 139. 195. 255. sentences. coördinate. sentence. See in subjunctive. . of. subjunctive. of of Conjunctions. and clause. 66. 328. correlative. 199. 289. 188. 194. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. See English. pronoun. definition be. 149. 194. 194. interrogative pronouns. adverbs. other other parts of speech. 263. 193. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. Conjunctions. conjunction. 138. in Old vs. 269. of. Can. See analysis clauses. 231. analysis. definition how subordinate. 207. Dative Declarative Declension of case. sentences. verbs. Agreement. 149. 195. 73. 151. 196. pronouns. to of. 143.with Concord. conjunctions. parse. pronoun.

80. of personal relative verbs. 102. 43. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. discourse. 300. 91. for. 287. 99. 51. passive adjectives. from. with. comparative. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 288. 242. object. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. indirect. possessive. clause. See See 48. 333. pronouns. 160. use of dies. Comparative. Comparison. duck. . verb. pronouns. pronouns. vs. with of. Case. of. 315. 185. 152. 320. adverbs See adjectives. of. 90. See 148. 242. Subordinate clause. pronouns. 60. nouns. 35. See adjectives. tenses. of. article.Declension. 26. 303. Articles. of. nouns. by. 102. Degrees.

of. predicate. adjective. 240. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 241. 299. suffix. 33. another. conjunction. 255. 40. error in sentence. 92. 38. older. vulgar. Elements Ellipsis. 92. 32. 280. to suffix. 158. -En. pronoun. of subject. 102. 62. feminine plural English. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. of. Each. ending. . 33. 300. 90. one ( t). Empress. 328. 12. 287. of. in 'Em. literary. spoken. Either. of.Drank. of. 90. 287. 92. 112. plural. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 39. 34. the of sentence. pronoun. possessive suffix. object. 51. other. adjective. 234. pronouns. 42. complement. 158. syntax Each Eat Eaves. drunk. of. 194. added suffix. 110. 257. original.

Future Future tense. as of from compared marking. definition distinguished in English. other languages. For. few. 308. nouns. with in sex. plurals. 103. 110. 334. 45. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. the. two a further. first. 152. as a noun. 152. expect gone.. Gender. Further. 36. First. Few. 91. 29. 30. two. 43. Feminine. 147. used of. 287. adjective. . have adjective. perfect. 212. uses Foreign Former. 238. 30. with infinitive.. 189. object. fishes. 112. 102. from. 32. From. etc. gender. 319. pronoun. etc. of. 235. 30. See Gander. Farther. modes "common goose. 112. 212.Every. uses redundant. of. 148. 48." 31. to of. 126. First Fish. 102. 211. of.

personal relative geniuses. kinds of. an better. Got. definition basis of. 159. His Husband. 231. 144. 12. 177. 159. noun. and case verbal with. 35. 43. Gerund. 120. 176. 9. its.of of Genii. it. 36. 60. 80. Grammar. 275. participle. 10. Government. of. 101. 173. definition divisions opinions province H. forms in Girl. of. Had Hanged. 13. for before. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. first sentence. He. she. I. adjective. 145. 60. 61. person. of. distinguished syntax. 175. possessive pronouns. rather. 285. had hung. of. 12. 61. . pronoun. pronouns. from participle of. on.

67. . uses discourse. Questions. use article. indirect of. 257. pronoun. of. pronouns. words. 73. of. 93. 188. 136. 320. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 85. 283. 231. adverbs. of clause. transitive. adjectives. with of. 131. mood. questions. See Articles. of. 276. a object. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. indices. 110. Direct object. 72. 227. 319. 248. elements. 178. 43. 176. of. 131.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 105. 245. 153. summary See passive mood. meaning. in compared syntax. your. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. See you. sentence. adjectives. 323. verbs. 233. questions.

303. 113. adjective. -Ly. 113. of. 67. 110.adverbs. etc. 226. syntax the. of. queen. pronoun. English. 227. lord. Lady. Less. 63.. Logic Logical Lord. 170. 12. See Madam. latest. predicate. King. was uses me. 110. 91. 126. a vs. 281. Lay. these double kind. syntax. . Lay. plural. 102. 39. Lady. of. 245. Latter. uses Literary Little. 36. lesser. of. Lie. 189. 36. 276. Kine.. Like." history etc. 190. 61. in little. subject form. Last. and See words in. lie. Kind. 36. "It Its. It.

of. 114. 102. subjunctive. superlatives. mistress. 195. Enlargement. Modifier. 194. of. syntax nearer. 189. Mood. 326. indicative. of. sentences. etc. construction as of adverb. 110. May. 112. comparison Near. 34. Must. Means. 189. 137. position adverb. Negative. of. in adverbs comparison a. -Most. syntax conjunction. 256. of. 112. 287. might. Many Mapping Mare. . of. imperative. of. 137-144. 112. Much.. See definition 136. 64. Neither. Modifiers. Master. 161. double. conjunctions Many. of. 126.Manner. 41. nigh. adjective. mine. 185. 187. 144. 325. 110. out of. 328. 160. 265. 36. 110. Mighty Mine. 188. 135. 113.

29. 21. kinds 90. to use. 46. analysis. clause. of. 42. to of. foreign. gender nouns. See 194. definition according of. 126. abstract. now plural. letters as 24. 258. 124. nouns. of. 38. definition descriptive. proper. and figures. Not Noun Nouns. 25. 17. etc. become become formation case collective. None. become neuter. 41. in. common. of. nouns.pronoun. of of of of of a. 92. Nor. syntax in gender nouns. parse. 27. 20. 18. syntax Neuter or two News. 300. of. formed. 17. 38-41. used as. 41. 30. 45. of. 19. No Nominative. class used singular. 26. 56. 25. of. . words how compound. half abstract. 41 43. 246. 17 19. 30. material. gender how kinds material. etc. 30. abstract. of. 125. Case. 328. 32. 301. number once other plural. 46.

definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 66. 43. 148. 48. 48. in article. pronouns. definite. article. preposition. or plural. singular.. 242. meaning. . and analysis. plural no two singular construction. 281. 242. 102. See verb. Preposition. of. become syntax use with with with Nouns. common. 279. conjunction. English.of same two with proper. 41. dative. 278. singular. 101. 41. 48. 101. of different possessive definite of. 235. of. spoken of instead nouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. as forms titles. 278. 92. adverbial. 196. Nouns. 41. with with with Now Number. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. plural. 42. 39. Numeral Object. 121. 195. form. adjectives. indefinite. pronouns. 282. plural form. 60. 124. passive adverbial. 42. 18. 23. of. of. of. indirect. personal. etc. meanings. 42 44. 106. 285. 48. of. verbs. 240. nominative. with case. adjectives. 48. in nouns.

293. of syntax. 64. Oxen. Parsing. 237. 87. 115. 103. Elder. Ourself. Our. 56. 94. 161. of of of of of models adjectives. 116. as of. uses numeral pronoun. position Order. indefinite possessive One One as Only. another. a in adjectives. adverb. Omission On. 325 275. 38. conjunction. as other. Ordinal Other Ought. adjective. Each adjective. with (the). 213. 194. of upon. Pains. of. nouns. 191. . articles. 69. of. treatment comparatives. of. ours. 279. pronoun. 91. 216. See pronoun. 199. 41. for. conjunctions. 101. 233. Older. 56. 306. One.syntax Of. See the as of. 103. 93 other. part analysis. 127. inverted. adverbs. definite relative uses of. 117.

80. phrase. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. Person. of. 181. 148.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. pennies. 100. verbals. verb idioms it from. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 28. pronouns. 180. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. part adjective. 119. 172. 317. of. 59. relatives. 61. predicate use of. 134. 179. 322. with. of. antecedent. of. 59. of. in. phrases. 62. used as voice. Pence. 62. -ing words. 172. verbs. verbs. included various. 56. 64. from definition other of. 177. parsed. of. 281. 63. 219. 174. 59. of. 43. 69. not is. 287. 335. and subject in. 173. absolute with of. 27. nominative. article 150. 70. reflexive. or of. pronoun. 247. 43. 95. speech. . agreement of verb nouns. pronouns. 56. pease. possessive and of. them.

and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 67. 247. See 60. 236. 60. English. appositional.objective syntax table triple uses of. 235. antecedent of of pronouns. of. 245. as double. objects. 232. Personal subjective. or See of of See 185. prepositional. pronouns. 281. 303. Positive Possessive. 64. nouns. relative. 's. 245. 61. 41. 278. vs. 53. 281. of. pronoun. 53. of. of Phrase. 188. 52. Place. Personification. 303. 54. of. 51. conjunctions prepositions Plural. spoken of. 236. of. kinds infinitive. 50. syntax of of Politics. noun nouns. 206. nouns. omitted. 49. Comparison. . adverbs of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. singular. in of. 285. adjectives. nouns. of. 241. pronoun. complete. 37. simple. it. of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 278. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 248. participial. singular degree. 106. Nouns. of nouns. double. plural. 195. 63. 25. of. 247.

104. of. 287. Pronouns. 279. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. of. case. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 205. as. Prepositions. 282. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. neither. by. 300. plural. 203. 331. of. somebody definition how indefinite. 333. exclamatory. 203. for predicate nominative. adjective. 303. 132. parse. in exclamations. 105. after but. . and form form form form of. of. case. 300. another. 93. future. 299. of. words. 332. with tense certain. 95. who personal.Prefixes. meaning. 206. 284. 187. 59. 280. 219. 202. adverb. 285. forms of. verbs. 207. objective. any. speech. 301. interrogative. 129. same used as adjectives. of. 283. 58. and one with else's. 195. 147. by with shown certain of. plural. 58. 105. by parts of of. possessive nominative to of. all. 72. interrogative. 32. none. of. plural. 186. as 54. as antecedent of relative. 302. what. each either. 283. expressed as other of. usually to as than. parse. singular usually other. 281. 64. 208. objective. 89.

101. 74. 195. use of history formed. of. pronoun. which. 295. Quantity. 295. and relatives. 188. conjunctions Quality. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 291. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 289. in. 87. 293. with with gerund. which after same. indirect compound. 99. 296. same antecedent. of. of.possessive relative. 84. of. 286. in. 69. or of. 289. parse. to of. 74. indirect. that. use in as. 80. . Direct same and different. Rather. personal pronoun. 85. 58. Nouns. Questions. adverbs in. and antecedent. in. unrestrictive. of. 85. 297. discourse. 83. questions. and which. of. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 279. of. See of. from and interrogative. 87. 263. Quotations. 68. of. 69. who. with who. pronouns. nouns. 74. 189. Rank. agreement anacoluthon and as. 293. of. 105. pronominal pronouns indirect. 142.

who. 289. 231. 252. 294. 259. kinds Sequence Set. effect. 196. Shot. 170. 26 271. Self Sentences. 40. of. of. 255. and should. 29. Simple in sate. forms shots. elliptical. tenses. 231. clauses of. 51. 69. 242. Seeing. would. will. reflexive analysis of compound. 319. 'S. complex. in of. suffix. ending. 159. of. S. 159. conjunctions Retained Riches. plural possessive as. conjunction. 43. sentence. Shear. See Sentences. 263. simple of. of of of complex Sentences. simple. of sit. which. Same Sat. definition . gender. pronoun. 162. object. 196. in form. of. that. 42. 195.syntax use Result. 74. Sex Shall.

144. 270. in Middle English. 138. 245. of. 257. 258. logical. 303.Singular Sir. 186. 245. in feminine suffix. of. 303. 257. -es. 36. of. Modern use becoming else's. 260. of. English. sort. 137. used mood. these number. English. distinguish. 169. other Such Such Suffix -s. 233. 32. adverb. literary clause. vs. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. English. 33. definition how kinds noun. See -En. disuse in spoken complete. phonetic in infinitive. verbs. 237. -en. 126. Subject. 144. 33. 257.. adverb. Somebody Sort. 258. 258. 38. Split Spoken -Ster. 12. etc. 38. 240. Spelling Spinster. 257. 323. definition 67. of. of. of. to of. as. . names as a. for. 262. English.

in Modern number sequence table Than That. article. 123. 107. 289. 147. 186. "the then foreign. 108. of languages. 119. adjectives. auxiliaries. of. of. . of. 222. 307." introductory. 88. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. omission whom. syntax of. of. classical of. of. 120. 109. 297. king. subject. 33. object. 319. 275. 309. 152. adverbs. of. 148. 87. coördinating. There These kind. when relative. 106. 306. See etc. degree. they. Tenses. this. meaning. of . 306. as history syntax Their.Suffixes. meaning made up in Old of. 189. which. 290. 280.. 277. of. 186. form. in comparison. 147. 61.. 147. not suggesting adjectives. 275. when as of. 106. and and of. English. as adverbs. two basis not same definition definite. 116. me. than of. in double. Kind.. Then. objects. plural as adverb. of. English. as history The. definition in English Tense. that uses That. restrictive. 191.

114. -Trix. adverbs those. tother. 217. 175. in of. 322. Time. how infinitive. . of. 114. of. gerund. to. words. preposition. of. 175. infinitive. conjunctions prepositions To. suffix. Try Two Under. 173. of. thy. 181. of. 21. 175.These. 128. 248. Upon. 33. 172. phrases. thee. 185. 119. first adjective. analysis. carelessly uses syntax this. -ing 111. 323. 176. 61. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. etc. uses of. first. 20. 322. try two. 114. in omitted uses T'other. uses history of. uttermost.. 207. 195. 180. Thou. See On. certain as the before with of. used. See That. other noun. 330. from cleft to 174. feminine and. exclamations. 172. Upper. of. parse. 247. 308. infinitive. kinds participle. verbs. of. 188. Utter.

167. table of irregular. conjugation of. auxiliary. 150. but uses what. passive form. formed by. 155. 135. 245. definition of. 39. 154. mood of. of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 147. 12. how to parse. 169. with subject in number. . 148. 319. weak. becoming irregular. 242. 169. 330. active meaning. 33. transitive and intransitive. intransitive. 157. tense of. 312-316. analysis. 149. 317. sequence of. 236. definition of. 154. passive. active. 134. 130. syntax of. definition of. What. made transitive. defective. remarks on certain. voice of. 133. retained object with passive. 133. 129. 167. agreement of. 160. verbs. 159. table of. strong. change. of English. 148.Verbs. in indirect discourse. spelling of. verbs by. Vixen. past tense formed nominative. Vocative in Voice. of. 223. 131. 154. of incomplete predication. 312. 320. 47. 179. 151. in person. person and number of. phonetic. regular.

direct of. questions. Y. 72. 105. 72. 246. of. animals. Whether. etc. interrogative Which. 77. 85. Who. Witch. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. would. 75. 75. With. 78. a. 83. relative. 126. Will. Woman.. 295-299. 178. 36. spoken in of. uses See Shall. in in indefinite objective. 37. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. antecedent adjective. questions. 105. 32. relative. worser. in -ly. 36. English. 190. 79. 73. of. 72. conjunction. Words in Worse. 85. referring syntax Widower. 85. . 104. questions. 299. 218. pronoun. 83. questions. 40. Yes ending analysis. Wife. in. wizard. 194.what Whereby. pronoun. plural of in nouns -ing. whereto. 296. relative indirect relative. 111.

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