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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

Literary English. if rightly presented." What grammar is. "Analysis. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). then. so that a small grammar will hold them all. Authority as a basis. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.The province of English grammar is. An æsthetic benefit. its peculiar and abundant idioms. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. This will take in the usual divisions. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. Mental training. it will at the same time. Few inflections. rightly considered. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. and their uses and relations in the sentence. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Surely our noble language. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). their forms. A broader view. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. from the question. to those who have studied the language historically. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. . Making rules is risky. If. there is still much for the grammarian to do. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. The work it will cover. is worthy of serious study." and "Syntax. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. as compared with Latin or Greek. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). Grammar is eminently a means of mental training." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. It is also evident. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. Coming back. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. as. but this is bad English now.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. and thus incite his observation. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. however. with its enormous vocabulary.

²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Occasionally. but. and may belong to any of those objects. then. The following pages will cover. PART I. and Inflections. three divisions:² Part I.²GIBBON. and the word nation stands for a whole group. and will are evidently names of a different kind. too. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. the nation is free.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Analysis of Sentences. The plainest name is Arabs. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. The words state. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. Vulgar English. 1. . that is. Spoken English. NOUNS. The Parts of Speech. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. In the more simple state of the Arabs. by which is meant the free. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. or Syntax. reference will be made to vulgar English. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. as they stand for ideas. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. not objects. the words sons and master name objects. besides this one. or standard. Part II. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. The Uses of Words. which belongs to a people. Part III.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Such words are called nouns. submission. from the eighteenth century on.

or a mob. MATERIAL. Name for a group or collection of objects. and things separately. as here used. Besides considering persons. or a congress. Abstract. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. men in groups may be called a crowd. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. because each group is considered as a unit. place. 2. but Chicago names one city. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. They properly belong under common nouns. or things. 5. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. a committee. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. reducing it to a narrow application. Proper. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. possessed by all. whether person. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Collective. animals. substance. . but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Thus. or thing. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. representing directly to the mind an object. or idea. and appropriate names to the groups. is from a Latin word which means general.Definition. the man here. (a) 4. Individual. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. animals. Classes of nouns. however. belonging to one. etc. ATTRIBUTE. Thus. A noun is a name word. Common. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. we may think of them in groups. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. This does not imply. 3. or the man in front of you. (b) Common. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Name for any individual of a class. For instance. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. We may say. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or a council. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object.

earth. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. but which are not called proper names. platinum. considered abstractly. granite. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. instead of to each individual or separate object. clay. frost. such as sun. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. The quality is still there as much as before." "a man of understanding. rain. 6. etc. It may. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. but it is taken merely as a name. etc. as in calling a city Cincinnati. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. cloud. etc. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below.Names for things thought of in mass. wheat. tea. rock. potash. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). proof means the act of proving. or apart from their natural connection. not things. and so on. there is no such intention. etc. earth. . "Painting is a fine art. .²There are some nouns. sugar. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. 7. and fasten a special name to the object considered. etc. Such are glass. paint. we speak of the wisdom of the man. The reason is. or action. wheat. (3) Geological bodies: mud. we may say. NOTE. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. rice. wine. celluloid. dew. frost. Names of ideas. mist. or actions. When we speak of a wise man. etc. iron. world. sand. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. etc. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. soap. snow. condition. Again. They remain common class names." 9. but in the words sun. conditions. however." "Learning is hard to acquire. gold. Words naturally of limited application not proper. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. sugar. moon. expressing attributes or qualities. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. etc. or that which shows a thing has been proved. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. rubber.. expressing state. stone.

(1) prudence from prudent. the teachings of the High Spirit. Verbal abstract nouns. II. he spread his blessings over the land. They cannot govern a word. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. day. the main bearings of this matter. etc. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. childhood from child. mastery from master. height from high. the well-being of her subjects. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. 12. NOTE. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. "a long run" "a bold move. The verb. etc. shadow." "a brisk walk. etc. Caution. five proper. energy. as their name implies. ease.Attribute abstract nouns. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. kingship from king.. as in the expressions. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. the moon caused fearful forebodings. and they cannot express action. 272. (2) peerage from peer. action from act. 10. joy. Exercises. the great Puritan awakening. Thus. summer. as glad²joy. her longing for their favor. service from serve. five abstract. a wedding or a festival. 273). theft from thieve. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. there is time for such reasonings. but are merely names of actions. is used as a noun. etc. hopeful²hope. stupidity from stupid. in the beginning of his life. thunder. 1. winter. redness from red. Such are beauty. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. those opinions and feelings. They are only the husks of verbs. hope. by altering its function. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. lightning. Underived abstract nouns. speech from speak. night. . Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. To avoid difficulty. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. the rude drawings of the book.

as pneumonia. diphtheria. typhus. as physics. geology. Using a dictionary. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. pleurisy. catarrh. (b) branches of knowledge. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4.2. mathematics? 3. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . algebra.

and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. but we may say. 13. as a davy. it imposes its classification on other men. from the name of Dr. in Portugal. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. currants. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. from Damascus. above. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. from Corinth. "The cook made the irons hot. We know a number of objects made of iron.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. and lo! a new system. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. damask. or to go over to it entirely. from a town in France. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Guillotin. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Proper names transferred to common use. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Nouns change by use. 14. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. thus. a Locke. the word port. from Calicut. a Hutton. 15. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. who was its inventor." referring to flat- . If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. the guillotine. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Others of similar character are calico. for example. a Fourier. arras. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. from Oporto. from China.²EMERSON. levant and morocco (leather). a Lavoisier. but most of them are in the following groups. etc. a Bentham. 119). Material nouns may be used as class names. port (wine).

which are made plural. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. a rubber for erasing marks.²PERCIVAL. be spoken of. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. that the power of art is founded on fact.²RUSKIN. oils. to prowl or to moan like night birds.In lightnings owned his secret stings. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Next Anger rushed. When it is said that art differs from science. but on dispositions which require to be created. on fire. mists. (3) By poetical use. though not confined to verse. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.²BRYANT. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. They are not then pure abstract nouns.²HAYNE. purity. his eyes. but differ in strength. as stones.²CARLYLE. paints. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. not material things. 16. slates. that disposition is the thing to be created. and only Vice and Misery. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. Traffic has lain down to rest. 17. Personification of abstract ideas. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. For example. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. This is a poetic usage.²COLLINS. A halfway class of words. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. and say teas. smiled. or used as class nouns. or the arts and sciences. a steel to whet a knife on. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Test this in the following sentences:² .irons. the abstract idea is partly lost. Class nouns in use. that is. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. These are the same in material. but in case an art or a science. tins. papers. and so on. coals. tobaccos. clouds. or. or made plural. clays. From all around²Earth and her waters. are abroad. nor are they common class nouns. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural.²BYRON. candies. etc. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. etc. abstract in meaning. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. The words preceded by the article a. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. Death. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. are still names of abstract ideas.

sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. sir?" and the "No. And still." "the State Bank Tax bill. as descriptive adjectives are. or describe it. a bank in New York. Adverbs. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. By ellipses. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. Then comes the "Why. Adjectives. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.² GOLDSMITH. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.²BURNS.²IRVING. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. sir!" and the "What then. were mere terrors of the night. they cannot be compared. sir!"²MACAULAY . which belongs to another word. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. "a family quarrel. as each repeated pleasure tired. fear thy blow. 18. But it is better to consider them as nouns.²EMERSON. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. But ah! those pleasures. a bill as to tax on the banks. Conjunctions. but is still a noun. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. or from any expression. make our own so. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. the wealthy. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. they do not express quality. Nouns used as descriptive terms. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. if we must have great actions. for example. All these. however. NOTE." "a morning walk. 19.² BURNS.²SHAKESPEARE." "a New York bank." which contains a pure adjective. Every why hath a wherefore. etc. They are more like the possessive noun.²SHAKESPEARE. nouns used to modify. meaning a walk in the morning. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. loves.Let us. When I was young? Ah.The Solitary can despise.

too. 5. and Then. but have an adjectival meaning. Power laid his rod aside. When. In the other sentences. why and wherefore. is ambiguous. of course. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. It is to be remembered. however." or "legal. the terms the great. so. whether it mean the sun or the cold. NOTE. FRANKLIN.Nor iron bars a cage. or a criminal. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. is the word "just.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies.²These remarks do not apply. The it. and tell to which class each belongs. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. are spoken of as if pure nouns. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. or a faithful domestic. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. 6. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Hope springs eternal in the human breast." and another of Dr. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. of words rather than of their meaning. are used. There are many of these. Exercise. 3. Learning.. 20. the wealthy. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. When. . at the beginning. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used."²B. 8. 2. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. in speaking of the principal of a school. Now. etc. Stone walls do not a prison make. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. to such words as become pure nouns by use. 7." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. without reference to its function in the sentence. in a sentence above. 1. that cobweb of the brain. but as a figure of speech. 4. or a state secret. Caution.

Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 20. Male beings are. The fleet. 11. In Latin. 17. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more.Fair guests. he cried. the silver moon is gone.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. But pleasures are like poppies spread. and names of females are usually feminine. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 12. in English grammar. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. 21. 19. and many other languages. but not so in English. German. always feminine. 18. 15. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 10. The hours glide by. A fool speaks all his mind. 14. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. for every dropHinders needle and thread.9. GENDER. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. the welcome. returned to Spain. shattered and disabled. .Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. its bloom is shed. 13. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. always masculine. What gender means in English. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. Greek. 16. that waits you here.You seize the flower. 23. 24. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. A little weeping would ease my heart. female. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 21. It is founded on sex. 22. And see.

as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. then. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. All nouns. the name of it is masculine. but are spoken of as neuter. with its gizzard under its wing. in English. the sex being of no consequence.. if of the female sex.²LAMB. are named by gender nouns. corpus (body) is neuter. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. das Messer (knife) is neuter. or additions to words. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. and neuter nouns. Gender nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence. in other languages gender follows the form. those with which man comes in contact often. or names of things without life. those which do not distinguish sex.²masculine and feminine. 23. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. that pattern of a husband. according to use. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.² I have seenA curious child . Some words either gender or neuter nouns.²IRVING. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. He next stooped down to feel the pig. mensa (table) is feminine. der Tisch (table) is masculine.. must be divided into two principal classes. clapping his burnished wings. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Hence: Definition. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. For instance: in Latin. inanimate things are spoken of. Neuter nouns. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. according to their use. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. the name of it is feminine. in German. Of animals.² IRVING. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID.. that is... neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. . Thus." . and consequently without sex. 22. 24. however. or which arouse his interest most. those distinguishing the sex of the object. hortus (garden) is masculine. if there were any signs of life in it. The great difference is." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth.When. Gunpowder .²gender nouns. "A little child shall lead them. No "common gender.. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. came to a stand just by the bridge.

teacher. (2) By adding a suffix. the division of words according to sex. generally to a masculine word. puts a prefix before the masculine man. as he-goat²she-goat. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Hence vixen is for fyxen. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. 27. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Very few of class I. One feminine. According to the definition. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. is. The inflections for gender belong. 26. Gender shown by Suffixes. II. I. 29. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. For fox they said vox. Native suffixes. servant.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. cousin. or the lack of it. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. of course. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. . domestic. and for the older word fat they said vat. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. do not show the sex to which the persons belong.25. (3) By using a different word for each gender.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Put in convenient form. 28. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. relative. ruler. they are neuter words. as in wine vat. from the masculine fox. If such words as parent. for from they said vram. though both words have lost their original meanings. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. but spinster has now no connection with it.. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Gender shown by Prefixes. woman. etc. he-bear²she-bear. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. These remain in vixen and spinster. Male nouns beings. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes.

punster. as czarina. and are never used for words recognized as English. 30. Unaltered and little used. gamester. trickster. song-str-ess. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). Low Latin issa). señorita. it has none now in the words huckster. donna. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. as. These are attached to foreign words.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. but in most cases it has not. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. as. Ending of masculine not changed. executrix. the one most used.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Slightly changed and widely used. as seam-stress. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. -ess (French esse. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix.

to represent persons of either sex. chairman. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Thus. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. teacheresse. we use the feminine. 31. the ending -ess.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. as. In some of these pairs. as in the fourteenth century. neighboresse. fosteress. 32. we use the masculine termination. wagoness. as was said in the sixteenth century. etc. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. frendesse. teacher or lady teacher. Some of them have an interesting history. from the French -esse. editor. neighbor (masculine and feminine).Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Instead of saying doctress. or servauntesse.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. as. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. NOTE. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. Gender shown by Different Words. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor." III. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . others have in their origin the same root. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. We frequently use such words as author. from Latin imperatricem.

Icelandic gás. among others) to be from the same root word. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). probably meaning house dweller). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Madam is the French ma dame. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. or lauerd in Middle English. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. 16). Widower. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. The masculine was formed by adding -a. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. not immediately connected with witch. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Three letters of ened have fallen away. etc. the old sign of the masculine. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used.² . King and queen are said by some (Skeat. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. widuwa²widuwe. finally gander. from Latin mea domina. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Mare. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). had the masculine mearh (horse). as in many other words. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. though both are ultimately from the same root. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent).). Personification. lhauerd. Danish gaas. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. for example. 33. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). in Old English mere. Witch is the Old English wicce. but this has long been obsolete. Besides gander and drake. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Two masculines from feminines.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. written loverd. leaving our word drake. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. became identical. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. 34. gand-ra. The older forms.

where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. whenever we adopt a new word. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. Our language has two numbers. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. that is. the plural.²KEATS. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. I. In nouns. (2) By changing the root vowel. 37. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England.Her home is on the deep. Effect of personification."Now. NUMBER. 38. The -en inflection. more than one. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. Definition. eyen (eyes). together with the third.No towers along the steep. treen (trees).²COLERIDGE.²singular and plural. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. This is not exclusively a poetic use. But other words were inflected afterwards. in Old English. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.²CAMPBELL. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. etc. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. 35. Britannia needs no bulwarks. 36."²BYRON. (3) By adding -s (or -es). and not by the form of the noun. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. shoon (shoes). In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. The first two methods prevailed. for instance. . Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. the engineer speaks so of his engine. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. 39.

wight. but has now no singular. pair.The horse are thousands ten. head. such as deer. III. that have the singular and plural alike. Brethren has passed through three stages.² "God bless me! so then.²WHITTIER. ditch. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. originally neuter. as. The words horse and foot. retain the same form for plural meaning. swine. finally brethren. then brothre or brethre. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. The old plural was brothru. Such are box. 40. Akin to this class are some words. Lee marched over the mountain wall. and get settled. Examples of this inflection are. etc. cannon. borough²formerly had the same inflection.² The foot are fourscore thousand. 41. by. 42."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.²MACAULAY. II. glass. cross.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. etc. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Other words following the same usage are. but they now add the ending -s. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. after all. Instead of -s. into Frederick town. they add -s): also trout. folk. . lens. heathen. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. after numerals (if not after numerals. as.²THOREAU. quartz. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. brace.Horse and foot. sheep. people.²Over the mountains winding down. etc. Children has passed through the same history. Kine is another double plural. when they mean soldiery. sail. turf. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like.-En inflection imitated by other words. dozen. salmon. and is still found in dialects.

and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. the Americas. and the real ending is therefore -s. knife²knives. house²houses.g. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. though they are plural in form.. Proper nouns are regularly singular. Some words are usually singular. shelf²shelves. mathematics. these words ended in -ie. So live. summons. negro²negroes. and go over to other classes (Secs. quoth then that ladie milde. e. etc. is both the science and the art of government. though this sound combines readily with -s. however. Formerly. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. physics. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. in its widest extent. also news. economics. 15 and 17). may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . and many branches of learning. 44. half²halves. e. The lilie on hir stalke grene. allies. optics. some adding -s. race²races. politics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). the Washingtons. etc. It served simply as a means of sight. means and politics.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. that when thy summons comes. Words in -ies.g. DANA.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. molasses. volcano² volcanoes. as. pains (care). If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. chaise²chaises. etc. prize²prizes. and some -es. hero²heroes. niche²niches.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. means: as. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.-Es added in certain cases. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. a new syllable is made. fairies.²PROF. Two words. Means plural. they lose their identity. 45. When such words take a plural ending. Examples of these are. fancies. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. etc. 43.. Special Lists.² Politics.²BRYANT. daisies.

Besides this. . Sometimes. CURTIS. By these means. I say. it is furnished with a forceps. Politics plural. however. A relic which. he pronounced to have been a tongs.² MACAULAY.²J. by strongly conveying the passions. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. L.²BURKE. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING. W. 46. Now I read all the politics that come out. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²GOLDSMITH. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right. by those means which we have already mentioned. LAUGHLIN. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.Words.²G. Some words have no corresponding singular. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. riches will accumulate.²MOTLEY.

One plural. ways. clothes (garments). fishes (individuals or kinds). Tell me not. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. (2) literature. 48. In Early Modern English thank is found. in mournful numbers. two plurals. number²numbers: (1) figures. In speaking of coins. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. may add -s.²LONGFELLOW.The air. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. trouble. Three words were originally singular. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood).² I lisped in numbers... pease (collectively). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. (2) revenue duties. sixpence. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. genius²geniuses (men of genius). pea²peas (separately). etc. of a periodical. as in the lines. the other unlike it.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. Two classes of compound words. Numbers also means issues. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. (2) poetry. pence (collectively). twopence. carry off chaff. riches. making a double plural. etc. index²indexes (to books). . for the numbers came. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. 50. or work in a bellows?²PROF.). as two sixpences. brethren (of a society or church). or epistles. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. shot²shot (collective balls).²POPE. two meanings. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth).²was it subdued when. penny²pennies (separately). die²dies (stamps for coins. fish²fish (collectively). 49.. (2) care. dice (for gaming). or copies. DANA. faculties.²one corresponding to the singular. part²parts: (1) divisions. (2) abilities. genii (spirits). shots (number of times fired). eaves. These make the last part plural. indices (signs in algebra).

y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. firman. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. and then the three Miss Spinneys. .²DR. Norman. Briggs. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. 51. Mussulman. but add -s. Ottoman. The title may be plural. The chief member adds -s in the plural. the Misses Rich. HOLMES. and Mrs. there is some disagreement among English writers. or the name may be pluralized. German.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. for example. Brahman. as the Messrs. As to plurals of names with titles. the Drs. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Two methods in use for names with titles. woman servant. such as talisman. Brown. woman singer. manservant. though the latter is often found.² Then came Mr. as man singer. 52. then Silas Peckham.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Allen.

Exercise. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.²GOLDSMITH. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. or Anglicized. The Messrs. FROM THE LATIN. and retain their foreign plurals. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. or Englished. Domesticated words. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.²GIBBON.²THE CRITIC. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. These are said to be domesticated. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. They are then said to be naturalized. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Others have been adopted. 53. FROM THE GREEK.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Du Maurier. y y analysis antithesis .²DICKENS. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.

without reference to their meaning. Only two case forms. as. as. figures. also add -s or 's.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. etc. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. figures. Definition. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s)." CASE. Letters. .² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. and expresses a relation akin to possession. 54. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. cell has another relation. etc." the word felon's modifies cell. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s)." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). Words quoted merely as words. 56. In the sentence.. 55. In the general wearing-away of inflections. they form their plurals in the regular way. helping to express the idea of place with the word in.

whether inflected or not. Nouns. . Human experience is the great test of truth. 5." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. excessive grief. 4. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. when asked unawares. learning. 57. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. must be understood for purposes of analysis. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise.²the nominative. Uses of the Nominative. Three properties belong to wisdom." (2) As a predicate noun. and the possessive. 2. 3.²person. 58. three things characterize man.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. and experience. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns.²nature. and merit.²one for the nominative and objective. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. then. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. the enemy of the living. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. the objective. they returned to their homes. I. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 1.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Excuses are clothes which." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. may be said to have three cases. fate. completing a verb.

naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman.6. distance. Conscience. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." "Thou makest the storm a calm. the word toward which the preposition points. and meaning calmest. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. completing the verb." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. sword in hand and visor down. thy wrath can send. etc. save. taking the object enemies. her first law broken. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. reconciles. 9. as will be seen in Sec. good Heaven. measure. and landlord of the inn. Set a high price on your leisure moments. 68. They charged. defining the action of a verb by denoting time." Exercise. 4. and tell which use each has:² 1. a patriarch of the village. But the flood came howling one day." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. (5) As the object of a preposition. Uses of the Objective. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. how have I frighted thee? II. 2. taking the object storm. . they are sands of precious gold." (3) Adverbially. 8. and makest a calm." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. and being equivalent to one verb. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. 59." (4) As the second object. wounded lies. But of all plagues.Save. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 3. (in the older stages of the language.

as in these expressions.²HAWTHORNE. the most common of all. or in writing yesterday's elegy. And whirling plate. as shown in the sentences. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.Does his Creator's power display.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. 10. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. The noblest mind the best contentment has.. the Great Stone Face. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. (3) Subjective possessive. 61. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. The possessive case always modifies another word.5. Uses of the Possessive.²ADDISON. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.²SHELLEY. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. 9. (2) Objective possessive. and forfeits paid. expressed or understood. tempests that .² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. It is a poetic expression.His winter task a pastime made. 6.²BYRON. as. from day to day. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.e. 60.² The unwearied sun. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. III.And gave the leper to eat and drink. Possession in some sense is the most common. 8. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. 7. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.

"George Jones his book. How the possessive is formed. lady Poss. 62. as schoolboys sometimes write. "From every schires ende. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i.winter is likely to have). in Chaucer. Declension or inflection of nouns. child NOTE. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. and Obj. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. and Obj. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. Nom. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es." etc. 64. As said before (Sec. growth which several days had developed). By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. making the possessive singular. 1. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. however. To form the possessive plural. A false theory.e. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. A suggestion. the panther which the forest hides). "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "mannes herte [heart].²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. there are only two case forms. 56). PLURAL. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his." Use of the apostrophe. 62.. Nom. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Poss. One is the simple form of a word. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. .. 63." "at his beddes syde. The use of the apostrophe. Case Inflection.e.

. etc. as. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. James's. the items of my son's. the possessive sign is usually last."²DE QUINCEY. In compound expressions. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign." Possessive with compound expressions. my neighbors. Cervantes' satirical work. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence.²RUSKIN. 65. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. but to the ear all may be alike.Though this opinion was untrue. Kate saw that. in the name of the emperor their master. some such word as house. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. and from a desire to have distinct forms.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. know the amount of my income. as by the countess's command. instead of the emperor their master's name. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. 66. I remember him in his cradle at St. In other cases the s is seldom omitted." "A postscript is added. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. as. store. Captain Scrapegrace's. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. stands up for God's truth one man. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. dwelling.² LOWELL.²CARLYLE.. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. a word with a phrase. Peter's. etc.²DE QUINCEY. Possessive and no noun limited. 67.²SWIFT. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.²THACKERAY. and she walked off from the don's. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. being understood with it: for example.²HOLMES. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. church. for goodness' sake." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. containing words in apposition.

²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. Exercises. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. the statement clearly means only one thing. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. E. making a double possessive. this. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. objective. (See also Sec. a double possessive. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²the introduction which Atterbury made.²E. the sentence might be understood as just explained. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. the. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. 2. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. sometimes they are used together. For example. each. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. Clearness. every. corresponding to 's. Blair). If. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. and tell whether each is appositional. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . in such a sentence as. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. 87. no. ill-lighted except where she stands. that. (3) It prevents ambiguity. especially when used with this or that. (1) When a word is modified by a. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. Emphasis. and at the same time by a possessive noun. 68.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. as one modifier. any. A peculiar form. (b) Rewrite the sentence.²FROUDE.. however. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. 1. we use the phrase of Atterbury. Both of these are now used side by side.²CARLYLE. HALE. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. or subjective.The double possessive. etc. In most cases.

10. Friend. Nature herself. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 11. 8. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. In parsing. we state. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. in parsing a noun. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. it seemed. Hence. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 12.² . therefore. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 5. At lovers' perjuries. 7. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. There Shakespeare's self.They say. I must not see thee Osman's bride. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.Comes dancing from the East.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 70. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 15. Jove laughs. with every garland crowned. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 13. and destroy the other. 69. let him seasonably water the one. some idioms²the double possessive. 14.3. 9. 4. Now the bright morning star. 6. day's harbinger.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.

²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. has no governing word. 68). a withered serving man. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. masculine.²common. is a common class noun. (3) Whether singular or plural number. it denotes only one person. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy.(1) The class to which it belongs. therefore masculine gender. Neckcloth. and to have it found out by accident. therefore possessive case. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Thief is a common class noun. 3. and number. inflections. (4) Its office in the sentence. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. hence it is a gender noun. which gender. and relations. it has no sex. if the latter. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. the connection shows a male is meant. In parsing any word. The correct method. proper. as to case. 4. Exercise. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. MODEL FOR PARSING. . hence it is objective case. names one thing. but is the adverbial objective. hence objective case. and limits neckcloth. Throat is neuter. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. That in the captain's but a choleric word. 2. singular number. it is the name of a male being. like miller's. subject of the verb is understood. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. therefore singular number. 71. NOTE. it expresses possession or ownership. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. therefore singular number. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. therefore neuter. it expresses time. determining its case. gender. object of the verb takes. hence it is a common noun. a fresh tapster. and therefore nominative case. etc. it is the object of the preposition by.

The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. sleep! 6. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. all in one. from a necessity for short. and prison. 9. definite. 8.. 73. 7. standing for a name. A pronoun is a reference word. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Now. or for a group of persons or things. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. 76). "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious.. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. and representative words. 72. A few miles from this point. but by a question we say. blessings light on him that first invented . Necker. For instance. Classes of pronouns. and his daughter. 11. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. financial minister to Louis XVI. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. were natives of Geneva. 10. The need of pronouns. where the Rhone enters the lake. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. or for a person or thing. castle. PRONOUNS. . if we wish to know about the ownership of a house.5. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. Jarley's back being towards him. Time makes the worst enemies friends. we evidently cannot state the owner's name.And hated her for her pride. Definition. instead of saying. Mrs." Again. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns.. He giveth his beloved sleep.²palace. Madame de Staël. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.

Person in grammar. standing for a person or thing spoken of. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 75. From analogy to pronouns. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. This gives rise to a new term. 76. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. we our. or other word or expression. even if it had a special form. representing a person or thing spoken to. 74. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. "the distinction of person. and the person or thing talked about. which have forms for person. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. mine. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (2) Second person. my Plural. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of.. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. that is. pronoun. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. they must represent the person talking. they are said to have person by agreement. Singular. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. (3) Third person. as nouns have the same form. 77. ours . representing the person speaking. I Poss." Person of nouns. primarily adjectives. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. which cannot be used as adjectives. Nom. which relate or refer to a noun. the person or thing spoken to. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. (4) Adjective pronouns.(3) Relative pronouns. words. (5) Indefinite pronouns. Three persons of pronouns.

Obj. they their. thou thee ye you you your. Obj. Obj. The speaker may be either male or female. Old forms. yours you THIRD PERSON. Old Form Common Form. theirs them Neut. neuter hit. Nom. so also with the person or thing spoken to. he his him Fem.Obj. neuter. your. me us Singular. a separate form for each gender. it its it Poss. hers her Plur. namely. in the singular. .. Masc. Poss. thy Remarks on These Forms. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Third person singular has gender. of all Three. First and second persons without gender. 78. Nom. SECOND PERSON. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Singular. yours Poss. she her. Poss. But the third person has. Obj. Nom. feminine h o. and also for the neuter. thine. masculine h . by personification. or. yours you Plural. Nom. you your.

though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. that didst comfort thy people of old. as in prayers. Thou. in Old English. just as we now say.:² (1) In elevated style. etc. to thy care we commit the helpless. (2) In addressing the Deity. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. as. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. 82. 81. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). The consequence is. thy. Second person always plural in ordinary English. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. Two uses of the old singulars. which is a neuter noun. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. We use it with a plural verb always. heora. etc. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.² Oh. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. In spoken English. thou Shepherd of Israel. which was often sounded with the h silent. for example. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. The form its. the forms they.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. The plurals were h ." As shown above. . 79.. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. as possessive of it. etc.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. however.Thou lovest. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. it. even when referring to a single object. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). two modern uses of thou. There are. 80..The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. heom. thee. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. but make the plural you do duty for the singular.²SHELLEY.²BEECHER. This is of comparatively recent growth. them. their. especially in poetry. and sometimes its.

for. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. Nominative forms. thine. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. hers. though ye is occasionally used as objective. and not make more classes. and sometimes in ordinary speech. when they occur in the predicate position. Absolute personal pronouns. he. her. "I am sure it was him. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. she. our. her. 83. 'tis his. I The Nominative. The forms mine. The forms my.²BULWER. have a peculiar use. me. And since thou own'st that praise. thou. theirs. your. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. thy. 84. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. us.²LANDOR. and has been slave to thousands. us. The Possessive. 86. Additional nominatives in spoken English. sometimes his and its.Use of the pronouns in personification. I spare thee mine. 58). or. them. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. her. in such a sentence as. his. . to personify objects (Sec. and follow the usage of literary English. besides a nominative use. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. II. 34). its. Old use of mine and thine. they. though those named in Sec. some say. they have a nominative form. him. him. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The words I. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. ²SHAKESPEARE. note the following:² 'Twas mine. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. them. In spoken English. we. 85. Yet careful speakers avoid this." the literary language would require he after was. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. Not a separate class. their. 84 are always subjects. yours.²COWPER. ye. That is. however. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns.

a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.²J. thus. COOPER. but few thy voice. sometimes its. ours. ours.²ID. we have. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. as in nouns. Besides this. thine. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.²THACKERAY. . (4) To make a noun less limited in application. or satire.²CARLYLE." said Henry Woodstall. (2) To bring emphasis. thus.²SWIFT. FIELDS. it tells of good old times.² CARLYLE.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. Long Allen. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. are really double possessives. ²HOLMES. yours. in that old Edinburgh house of his. we find. If thine eye offend thee.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.²THACKERAY. T. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²BIBLE. hers. his.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. theirs. for example."²SCOTT. This usage is still preserved in poetry. yours. Double and triple possessives. "Hold thy peace. F. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. theirs. (3) To express contempt. pluck it out. The forms hers. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. Their uses. anger. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.²J. commenting upon a letter of mine. and with mine. Give every man thine ear.²ID. Like the noun possessives. 87. This ancient silver bowl of mine.

88. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. as it is called. was marked by a separate case. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. The old dative case. 86: mine stands for my property. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. The Objective. "The good alone are great. Besides this use of the objective. for whose benefit. 90. the thing is done.²BIBLE. in the first sentence. this dative use. but not in form. 89.²ID. and mine in the second has an objective use.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. mine stands for my praise in the second. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. Both joined in making him a present. In such sentences as. or use in a sentence. but the form is the same as the objective." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. . there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." "None but the brave deserves the fair. 20.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. Curse me this people. In pronouns. but expresses for whom. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. as shown in Sec. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. III.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. In their function. They all handled it. Now the objective. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. But the first two have a nominative use. but nominative or objective in use. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. his for his property.

as.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. was passed by with indulgence. you must condense there. and they cry. which follows the verb. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. Society. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. has not made its progress. The word you. 91. WEBSTER. Indefinite use of you and your.²ADDISON.²BULWER.²D. thus. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. It is a pity that he has so much learning. to stand for the real. as.²BACON.²IRVING To empty here. why. Your mere puny stripling.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²EMERSON. or that he has not a great deal more. like Chinese skill. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.Time is behind them and before them. as in the sentences. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. 92." (3) As a grammatical subject. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. in this century. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.² NEWMAN. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.² .²DE QUINCEY. you sneeze. ²EMERSON. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²CARLYLE. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (3) In apposition. or to the idea. logical subject. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.

²SCOTT. as they are also called. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition.²BURNS.²IRVING. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. keeps a school. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²ID." etc.. as. himself. 94. 93. the second is the old form of the second person. it rained.²ANON.²THOREAU. And when I awoke. itself. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. (thyself). who teams it.²DE QUINCEY. They are myself.²BUNYAN. I made up my mind to foot it. There was nothing for it but to return. farms it. but seldom in prose.² Now I lay me down to sleep." and there is an end of it. yourselves. ourselves..²HOLMES.²EMERSON. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. -selves. yourself. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. that is. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. "I found me a good book. A sturdy lad . For example. peddles it. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. This occurs in poetry. For when it dawned. And millions in those solitudes. Poor Christian was hard put to it. since firstThe flight of years began." "He bought him a horse. It was late and after midnight. they dropped their arms. used in poetry. we use such expressions as.²HAWTHORNE. and its plural selves. herself."²IRVING. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²BRYANT. (ourself). referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. have laid them downIn their last sleep.²COLERIDGE.It is finger-cold. who in turn tries all the professions. when they are direct objects. Of the two forms in parentheses. . are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. I set me down and sigh. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. themselves. however. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined.

shall dissolve. especially in the speech of rulers. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Use of the reflexives.² .² Only itself can inspire whom it will.²E. and the others were formed by analogy with these. etc. As if it were thyself that's here.²SHAKESPEARE. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. theself.To you yourself.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. B. I shrink with pain. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. 95.² TENNYSON. for example. were changed into the possessive myself. BROWNING. thyself. ourselves. to every one. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. with self. Held dead within them till myself shall die. In Middle English the forms meself.. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.As girls were once. Origin of these reflexives. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. to us. for example. NOTE. as. and build the lofty rhyme.²ID. not the possessive forms..²MILTON. as. as we ourself have been.²WORDSWORTH.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. Threats to all. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. The question might arise. after the analogy of myself. 96.²EMERSON.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.² The great globe itself .² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. as in vulgar English.

Exercises on Personal Pronouns. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. One obsolete. Years ago. 7. fight it out. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Infancy conforms to nobody.²DE QUINCEY. To know what is best to do. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. which. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 5. Three now in use. Come and trip it as we go. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. and what. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. and neuter. . but it is the soonest spoiled. And it grew wondrous cold. some of them being double possessives. is wisdom. some each of masculine. father. 4.On the light fantastic toe. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom).Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 9. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns.² THACKERAY.²B. 6. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. 8. 3. Courage. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. FRANKLIN. where the word is one with that it tells of. and how to do it. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. 2. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. all conform to it. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 10. let him lowly confess it. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. feminine. 97.

100. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. number. it is selective. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. referring to things. old man?²SHAKESPEARE.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been.. not to persons. As shown here. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. that is. actions. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. it is always third person. or case. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Whose was that gentle voice. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer.Promised. These show that what is not inflected for case. methought. What wouldst thou do. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. ideas. whispering sweet. The use of who. Use of who and its forms. 98. which is not inflected for gender. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. . but for case alone. 99. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Which of you. that it is always singular and neuter. as it always asks about somebody. that. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. but now obsolete. Use of which. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. it refers to either persons or things. shall we say. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Use of what. etc.There is an old word. with its possessive and objective. the gold. having three forms. used formerly to mean which of two. whether.

²by the use of the words. since it is subject of the verb had. pronoun. who? Poss. SING. or other word or expression. Function of the relative pronoun. as." In the latter sentence. being the direct object of the verb shall take. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and what are also relative pronouns. 104. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. who evidently refers to Bards. "The last of all the Bards was he. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. Further treatment of who. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. as. which is nominative in the first sentence. it may be shortened into. which and what. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. which and what are sometimes adjectives. For instance. what may be an adverb in some expressions. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. for which the pronoun stands.² . Thus we may say. objective in the last. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. 99.² "The last of all the Bards was he. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. AND PLUR. which. in Sec. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. subject of doth love. as they take the place usually of a word already used. AND PLUR. SINGULAR Nom. It usually precedes the pronoun. and also in having a conjunctive use. nominative in the second also. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 105. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. and so to make smoother discourse. 103.101. The antecedent. 102.Who sung of Border chivalry. which is called the antecedent of the relative. who is used as objective instead of whom. whose? Obj. 127). Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. Who. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun." Or. They will be spoken of again in the proper places.

²BYRON. is a divine creation. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. which. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. 108. the women whom women approve. are the men and women who bless their species. what.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.. 3. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. . Indefinite relatives. 107. WHITNEY.²DR JOHNSON.²MILTON. will be discussed further on. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 4. Two kinds.²W. 5.²THACKERAY.Whose flag has braved.That guard our native seas. 2. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.² COX. When the word relative is used. with all its capabilities .²SCOTT. The men whom men respect. 2. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. in the same sense in which man's nature. Ye mariners of England. 4. D.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. They had not their own luster. For her enchanting son. but the look which is not of the earth.. a thousand years. Who and its forms. The origin of language is divine. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 6.²PARTON Which and its forms. a simple relative is meant.²LOWELL In this. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.. that. Generally speaking. 3.Whom universal nature did lament. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. The nurse came to us. both his and who have the antecedent priest. 106. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.

Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.²MARGARET FULLER. The man that hath no music in himself. 110. else this description will seem exaggerated.5.. bought up all the pigs that could be had. Reader. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship... 2.²LAMB 3. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .²H. which it certainly is not. and spoils. For what he sought below is passed above. 6.Is fit for treasons.. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²BURKE. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. (a) This gradation . Already done is all that he would do.² SHAKESPEARE 2. 3.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. That. What. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. Examples of the relative that:² 1. The judge .²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. 107. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²IRVING. ought to be kept in view. stratagems. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. you will not be angry with me for telling you.²GOLDSMITH.. 109.. BEECHER 5.²DE QUINCEY. 4. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. The Tree Igdrasil. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.²EMERSON.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 111.. no bad type of what often happens in that country. W. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. Who. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.

108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.²THACKERAY. whose for the possessive. Sec. a man. . While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. Who referring to animals. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. Cooper. who.²which for the nominative and objective.²LOWELL. and so on. (2) It has three case forms. 112. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. the relatives are singular. they are plural. referring to animals. whose wound I had dressed.. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. My horse. Smollett. The little gorilla. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. in the first sentence. (3) It is nearly always third person. the others are all third person.. whom. 113. In 1.. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. who is first person. and 3. flung its arms around my neck. or ideas. in the third. Witness the following examples:² And you.²DR. seemed as much excited as myself. things. In sentence 4. Which. p. It has been seen (Sec. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²IRVING. not persons. (4) It has two case forms. possessive case of which. The robins.. whose is second person.²LEIGH HUNT. Examples of whose. son. whom. JOHNSON. that man. 107. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo..(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²who. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.who. and others. 2. Scott.²SWIFT. in the second.. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. 96). whose. in 4. and 6.whose. in 5. Gibbon. The sentences in Sec. Kingsley. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 5.

This often occurs. secondly (which made her stare). 109.²RUSKIN. and things."²RUSKIN. and third persons. second. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example.²THACKERAY. Primarily. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Which and its antecedents.²SHAKESPEARE. Men may be ready to fight to the death. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Sometimes. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. and to persecute without pity. no possessive. let us enter the church itself.²first. Burke. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. The last two sentences in Sec. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. . Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. animals. So in Matthew Arnold. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.²DE QUINCEY. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. the antecedent follows which. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. thus. That. In the sentences of Sec. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. (3) It is the same form for first. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. 116. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.²BEECHER. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. too. which is very notable and curious. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. and numerous others. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. This moribund '61. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent.² I swept the horizon. (2) It has only one case form. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.114. Kingsley.² And.²SCOTT.² MCMASTER. which is worse. 115.

²SHAKESPEARE. 109. Sec. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. plural number. it usually follows. but what I hate. third person. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. For example. what we said?²CARLYLE. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. either of which would be neuter. as in sentence 6. by taking them out. Who plainly stands for those or the people." That evidently refers to truths. third person. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. as. that men must needs abide. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. When expressed. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed.²BIBLE What fates impose. we can. that do I not." (3) "These people heard him. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.²EMERSON. What. 118. and is emphatic." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. consequently is neuter. 117. that he has.² What I would. 119. is always neuter. and person of the relatives who. who Poss. for example. Nom. that do I. plural number. which. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. The gender. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. number. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. What a man does." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. . The sentences of Sec. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. whose Obj.

7. but of this. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. standing for the people understood. As shown by the following sentences. The whole expression is its subject.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. What can't be cured. then parse the relatives. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. 3. Some prefer another method of treatment. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. etc. What must be endured? Answer. Exercise." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. In the same way who. and hence is in the nominative case. the simple relative. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. . Truths in sentence (2). "What can't be cured must be endured. In (2). because it has usually no antecedent. is subject of wrought upon and molded. 8. 4. Now. it is object of uttered. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. and what is the direct object of the verb call. subject of heard. that takes the case of the truths in (2). above. I think they are trying to outwit nature. which is. so is in the objective case. Another way. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Parsing what. is what we call nature. people is the object of the preposition of." Here the subject of is. third person. nobler souls with that which they are. The relative what is handled differently. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 6."²EMERSON. 120. neuter. The word what. we is the subject. however. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. is in the nominative case. 5. in (3). the highest result of all education. after all. in the following sentences:² 1. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. First find the antecedents. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. In the sentence. but is singular. in (1). it is subject of the verb heard..

object of with] which [singular. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. and which in the second clause. It is no proof of a man's understanding. Meaning and use.²BURKE. whichsoever. 5. whatever is equivalent to all things which. List and examples.²you cannot have both. The simple relatives who. and in 2.²BURKE. They are whoever. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. Do what we can. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. It is clear that in 1. "common souls pay with that [singular. no certain antecedent. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. 3. whichever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. in a new and original way. to everything that. whosoever. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. Only itself can inspire whom it will. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. and his friend a fool. not as direct as the simple relatives. being referred to. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. So with the other indefinites. which.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil.²MACAULAY. object of do] they do. summer will have its flies. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. no particular thing. 122. and parse that in the first clause. whatever. . 123. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 2. Take which you please. Hence some take what as a double relative. by meaning and use. 6. 4. or what else soever. 7." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. whatsoever. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whatsoever. 121. Death is there associated. 2. less common are whoso. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. or stand on their head. that is.

Former use of as. 121. nothing that does not interest us. thus. Sec. Two words.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. upon which.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Proof that they have the force of relatives.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. either one that. 4. This.. whereupon. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. everything that (or everything which). etc.²DE QUINCEY. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.²HAWTHORNE. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. whereby.² 1. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. etc. not following the word such. are used. what means anything that. for example. but which only wealth could have purchased. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. Instead of the phrases in which. 2. by which. has been my heaviest affliction.As shown in Sec. In early modern English. 124. 417). 126. 121. for example. but mean any one whom. 125. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. There is nothing but is related to us. . as was used just as we use that or which. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Other substitutes. etc. But and as. 120. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.²EMERSON.² some particular thing. but and as. the conjunctions wherein. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. and that as after such is equivalent to which.

if not. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. second. In studying such sentences. 127. a question is disguised in each sentence." etc. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. if expanded. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. if not.²EMERSON. 1 (b). what is interrogative. which having the antecedent lines. it is a simple relative. it is an indefinite relative). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. . 2 (b). (b) But what had become of them they knew not. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. showing that who is plainly interrogative. 2. Another caution. Special caution needed here. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. So in 2 (b). PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. "But what had become of them? They knew not. which would indicate that they are not relatives.²WHITTIER.²ID. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. would be. though the earthwork hid them. How to decide. "Who stood behind? We knew. and 3 (b). who having the antecedent gentleman. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. it is an interrogative. and whether what = that + which (if so. 3." Likewise with which in 3 (b). it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun).A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. But in 1 (b). no antecedent is expressed. In sentences 1 (a). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. Thus. the full expression being.

whence is the interrogative word.² THACKERAY. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. On the other hand. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²SWIFT. which has the antecedent hue. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. the question is asked by the verb. and asks no question. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Exercise. 5. In the second. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. .²FORSTER 6. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.²FLETCHER. which.²HOLMES. but the life of man in England. In the first. 2. whose has the antecedent you. Put in the relatives who.²CARLYLE. Examine the following:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. Thus. The insect I am now describing lived three years. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Relative omitted when object. 129. I visited many other apartments. 4. 3. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²G. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question.128. ELIOT. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. When Goldsmith died. In the third. and Court Calendars. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.² These are the sounds we feed upon. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of.

It is rare in prose. 5. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. Relative omitted when subject. which was already proceeding. which.²CAMPBELL. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.²SCOTT. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. Function of adjective pronouns. 2. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. and what.² LOWELL. Also in literary English we find the same omission. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. 130. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. or indefinite relatives:² 1. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. that.²Id. 6.Ne'er looks upon the sun.²SHAKESPEARE. and comparatively so in poetry. . the house was full.7. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. who were to be rulers over whom. The nobles looked at each other. simple relatives. There was such a crowd went. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. Examples are. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 3. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.

"Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. a word. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. necessarily thought of: thus. Adjectives. For instance." "one man.²EMERSON. none. or an argument in a paragraph. or may be the whole of a sentence. "these pranks. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns." that is. . neither. which we have seen in such expressions as. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. few. In the first use they are adjectives.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. in the first. or they may stand for nouns. not pronouns.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. but have lost their adjective use. "each cube. but in this function. expressed or understood. in the second they retain an adjective meaning." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. as some." in the others. It must come under the requirement of pronouns.²IRVING.131. etc. 'Truth. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. or use. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. any." in the second. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS." "Where two men ride on a horse. either.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. "The dead are there. such as this. in letters of gold.²BRYANT. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Primarily they are adjectives. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. 132. must not modify any word. the former. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. such as each. and stand for a noun. For example. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. and another to get cool under. etc. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. "another bank. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. Caution. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. in order to be an adjective pronoun. that. all. etc." Classes of adjective pronouns. many. 133. and on each is written.

and they have well performed the other. but these were of the best. or sat. Such are a few isolated instances. Exercises. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books.²EMERSON 4. Their minds accorded into one strain. or reclined. . Compound.²ID. 2. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. but what he fain had seen He could not see. accidentally preserved. as seemed good to each. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. They had fewer books. reap the same. Definition and examples. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. 5. 3. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. They have not shunned the one. when the latter was the King of Spain. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. Some of these are simple pronouns. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. 134.²LOWELL. they that plow iniquity. NOTE. Even as I have seen.All these he saw.² They stood. Simple. because he was not lying in wait for these. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and sow wickedness.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. for example. A man inspires affection and honor. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.²ID. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose.

into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. another. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.²HOLMES. Much might be said on both sides. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. you quickly come to the end of all. The Soldan. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.²HAWTHORNE. as most were. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. one another. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Exercise. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. as it were. 135.²KINGSLEY. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²EMERSON. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. with the superstitions of his time.² One reflexive. such as one other. The word one has a reflexive form. None shall rule but the humble.²each other. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. imbued. Another opposes him with sound argument. or melt for others' woe.Two are compound pronouns. Definition and examples. . Men take each other's measure when they react. paused over a horoscope. we might the more easily discharge them. as. for example. They led one another. Some inflected.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. ²HAWTHORNE.

² At lovers' perjuries. anybody else's. I tell you what. they are never used as adjectives. 136. Exercise. nothing. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. every one else. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. any one (or anyone). everybody else.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Definition and examples. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. anyone else. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. 137. etc. as. Jove laughs. what. they say. and they. etc. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. . some one. everything. and was indefinite in Old English. anything. somebody else. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. something. Somebody. nobody. anybody.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns.²SHAKESPEARE. but. also aught. They indefinite means people in general. every one (or everyone). William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. naught. in building of chaises. everybody. no one. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. as shown in the words everybody's." It means something. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Now. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. and somewhat. Every one else stood still at his post.. unlike adjective pronouns.Exercise.

but not to quite so enormous an extent.²a feature of natural scenery for which. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. For this did God send her a great reward. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. O thou that rollest above. 10. 7. 17. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 12. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). All was now ready for action. 18. . 5. The table was good. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. to which. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. Others did the same thing. 9. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. in his negotiations. 13. 8. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Exercise. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 11. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. and of no other. 3. I first found myself among the mountains. 14. 6. 138. indeed. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. were suffered to depart. Whoever deals with M.See also "Syntax" (Sec. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. A reminder. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 16. from my earliest days. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 4. 2. round as the shield of my fathers! 15.

By the old Hall which may be mine no more. oh. 25. variety. And I had done a hellish thing. 32. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. These hopes are mine as much as theirs.19. I who alone am. eat white bread or brown.Destroyer and preserver. in all its height. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. well-oiled dispositions. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . hear. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. behold now the semblance of my being. thou rollest now. 21. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. hear! 33. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. and seized a pen. And will your mother pity me. 35.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 31. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 23. 29. who slept last night like a corpse? 22.And it would work 'em woe. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 34. Whatever he knows and thinks.Who knew thee too well. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 26. who take the world easy. 30. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 27. that let him communicate. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. They know not I knew thee. He sate him down.

and so he read. Substantives. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. 38. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. For example." "yonder hill." "some cities. Office of Adjectives. So with any object. etc. or liquid. 37. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. We are by nature observers. white or red. and he learns who receives. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 45. etc. brittle or tough. so that no other will be mistaken for it. 139. As to the kind of words used.. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning." etc. . size. He teaches who gives. ADJECTIVES. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. the number is limited by adjectives." The office of an adjective. He knew not what to do. becomes mine.36." "that house. which was no bad step towards my liberation. 42." "a hundred men. in pointing out an object. 43. 44. such as in the expressions "this man. as. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. If a chemist discovers a new substance. It may have this office alone. if we are at a distance. position. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. that is our permanent state. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Again. "one hat. who understands me. and if we are near. heavy or light. then. or with persons. 41. 39. We need to add some words to tell its color. or gaseous. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Who hears me. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. adjectives are used. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. 40.

but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. Examples are. words primarily pronouns. (4) Pronominal adjectives. to describe it or to limit its application." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives.² BACON. to forgive. however. 142." "this life-giving book." the "and there. Classes of adjectives." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. "an old English manuscript. etc. Nouns are not. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "next-door neighbor. it shows that he weighs men's minds. such as. and their trash. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. divine.²POPE. To make this clear. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. To err is human. deep. used to tell how many things are spoken of. (2) Adjectives of quantity. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. With exception of the "and then. remotest." "half-dead traveler. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. beautiful." ." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. terrible." "ice-cold water. "Heaven-derived power. Infinitives. derived from proper nouns. pointing out particular things. If he be thankful for small benefits. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." they constitute all his connections. 143." "ivory-handled pistols. fair. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." "the Roman writer Palladius.140. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. Definition." "unlooked-for burden." "the Christian pearl of charity." and the still less significant "and so. happy. such as safe.²COLERIDGE. rash. or how much of a thing. 141. They include relative and interrogative words.

" "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "One is hungry. 143. having some of each subclass named in Sec. some. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. any. They have these three subdivisions:² How much." "It came on like the rolling simoom. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. and accomplished is an adjective." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "trailing clouds. in studying these last-named words. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. 145.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." "The clearness and quickness are amazing.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. which are either pure participles used to describe. 1. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.But ever she looked on Mr. Exercises. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun.²COLERIDGE. Examples are. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. much." "a charming sight. sometimes small. Care is needed. and another is drunken. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." was is the verb." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." Caution. 2. Oxenham." was accomplished is a verb. in this. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 'Tis midnight." "an aged man." "The shattered squares have opened into line. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. 144. .²MACDONALD. no. considerable.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. For instance: in the sentence.

" (b) Indefinite numerals. they come under the next division of adjectives. 146.²THACKERAY. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. those). (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. are used with plural nouns.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. but I have gained fourscore. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. and with them a few negroes." Single ones of any number of changes." "In came some five and twenty more. instead of modifying them. The list. "one blaze of musketry. How many. Thus. Not primarily pronouns. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. When some.² Every town had its fair.²KINGSLEY. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. every village.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "a dozen volunteers. as. The following sentences present some examples:² . Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. former. yonder (or yon). Exercise.²VAUGHAN. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. that. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. no." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.²ID." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. The demonstrative adjectives are this." "Then we wandered for many days. Examples. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. the former²the latter. An arrow was quivering in each body. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards.²CARLYLE. (plural these. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "He had lived by hunting for some months. its wake. latter." "I have lost one brother. any.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.

About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. FRANKLIN.²RUSKIN.. They are of two kinds. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. The taking of which bark. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. WEBSTER. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. for example.but all these charms are fled. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.²KINGSLEY. . as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives..²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions."²B. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. Indefinite relative adjectives.²BULWER. tell how many things are meant. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. but. just as the corresponding pronouns do. skill which was at pause.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Exercise. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. The silver and laughing Xenil. they are changed to adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. but in the one case.²ID.² It matters not what rank he has. of equal skill. like the other numerals. skill which was progressive²in the other. I verily believe.²WORDSWORTH. ²CARLYLE. Oxenham fought desperately.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²GOLDSMITH. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.²D. These do not. Modify names of persons or things. As has been said.²BANCROFT. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. 147. These were thy charms. Definition. 148. In which evil strait Mr. 149.²ID. what revenues or garnitures. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.

whichsoever.150. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. nature will be sure to bear us out in. As in the pronouns. and gaze. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. which is selective among what is known. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. Examples of their use are. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. what inquires about things or persons not known. 151. it is impossible to determine. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. which. proved not altogether displeasing to him. whatever. whichever. . and points to yonder glade?² POPE. whatsoever. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. But when the Trojan war comes.² EMERSON. In direct questions. In indirect questions.²RUSKIN. as it rather seemed. you at least give him full authority over your son. A lady once remarked. New torments I behold.²IRVING. and new tormentedAround me. Adjective what in exclamations. the debt to the rich.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Whatsoever kind of man he is. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. or whether any.²ID. Was there.And whichsoever way I turn.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. He was turned before long into all the universe.²AGASSIZ. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.²CARLYLE. whichsoever way I move.. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.²LAMB.

In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.² Oh. In exclamatory expressions.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. th s (modern those). of the quality. the making of it right. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.Adjectives have two inflections. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. and those as the plural of that. as. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.. COMPARISON. and when we compare the objects. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. Those borrowed from this. we do so by means of their qualities. The article that was used with neuter nouns. we notice some differences between them as to size. Meaning of comparison. gold is heavier than iron. weight. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. color. This is the old demonstrative. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. All these have certain qualities.152. When we place two objects side by side. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. or size. History of this²these and that²those. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. 155.²This. That. . but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE.²number and comparison.²but not the same degree. or weight.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. It is neither relative nor interrogative. But this had also another plural. 154. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. NUMBER. or amount. And yet. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. alas. 153 . etc. Thus. those). etc. Exercise. which was fully inflected in Old English. which changed its spelling to the modern form these.

Freedom is a perpetual. 159." "the largest soul. . There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. 158. but were not common until a century later.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. Definition. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. The two forms. whether they attend their own affair or not. red. strictly considered." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. So with the words sole. universal institution. redder. Substitute for inflection in comparison. 160. reddest. "untamed thought. infinite. easiest. easier. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree." "no fewer than a hundred." Words that cannot be compared. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. blue. as.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE." "It is a nobler valor. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. bluer. indefatigable." "the commonest speech. and the superlative. easy. but. or amounts in quantity. to the simple form. supreme. 156. The comparative is formed by adding -er. expressing the greatest degree of quality. immemorial. they are not compared. and the superlative by adding -est.²SEWARD. They came into use about the thirteenth century. enormous.²THACKERAY. and many others. These are called degrees of comparison. for example. sufficient. organic. whose favorite pupil he was. great. as. 157. with less wit. "more matter. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. expressing a greater degree of quality. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. though the simple. These are properly the only degrees. bluest. A main difference betwixt men is. indomitable. giant-like. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms.

162. These are adjectives irregularly compared.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. quiet." From Ruskin: "The sharpest." "the wonderfulest little shoes. though born in no very high degree. indisputablest. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. honestest. The following lists include the majority of them:² . most small. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. 163. and patientest fusing." "sorrowfulest spectacles. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. was most finished.²ID. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. "So help me God. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. harsh forms are usually avoided. These long. witty. mournfulest. who. and yet familiar. peaceablest. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. strange. admirablest. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. The general rule is. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.² CARLYLE A gentleman." "more odd." said Henry Esmond. there needed to be a most genuine substance.Which rule. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. Adjectives irregularly compared. polished. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. falling on his knees. easy. as." "more austere and holy.²ID. I will." "distantest relationships. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. madam. which hung behind in the queerest way.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. etc. finest chiseling." Carlyle uses beautifulest.²The Nation. and other words are preceded by more and most.

"Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). 3. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 8. latter Hinder LIST II. 5. [In] Inner Inmost. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. which has softened to the modern best. a double comparative. bad. as in the sentence (14th century). as. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. utter 3. least. 164. There was an old comparative bet. uppermost LIST III. 1. A double comparative. These have no adjective positive:² 1. outermost Utmost. older Nigher Nearer Later. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. oldest Nighest. (3) Little is used as positive to less. Hind 2.² We have it in a much lesser degree. throw away the worser part of it. as in Shakespeare.²HAMLET. . lesser Elder. innermost Outmost. 2. evil was the positive to worse. 4. [Out] Outer. 7. Good or well Evil. last Hindmost. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 6. which has gone out of use. is often used. furthest 10. worst. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. uttermost Upmost. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. (2) In Old English. further Farthest. The superlative I form was betst. next Nearest Latest. hindermost Much or many More Farther. List I. 9.² O. Worser was once used. though from a different root.LIST I. lesser.²MATTHEW ARNOLD.

" Its spelling has been micel. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. etc.. an old superlative ending. for example. but not in meaning. next. etc. came into use. greatest. making the modern farther. are shown in such phrases as. Between the two sets as they now stand. but originally the comparison was nigh. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. In imitation of further. a distinction has grown up between the two series. are earlier than older. ²LAMB. (5) The forms elder. Since later. farrest.² The more part being of one mind. latest. to England we sailed. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. moche. List II. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms.. first. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. meaning the largest part.²forth. or series. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. and refer to time. to which is added -ost. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. is quite common. muchel. doubling the inflection. The latter. but in former times much was used in the sense of large.²HAWTHORNE. and the superlative nearest. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. near. instead of lenger. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. except the form next. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. as long. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. farthest. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. oldest. The most part kept a stolid indifference.²KINGSLEY. eldest.²ID. The meanings greater. First became entirely detached from the series. "Many a little makes a mickle. strong.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. furthest. . Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. further. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. the old forms. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. since the m is for -ma. strenger. great. much. as. there is scarcely any distinction. th came into the others.

The comparatives are so in form." "their utmost exertion. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. (Sec. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. W." -Most added to other words. in having no adjective positives. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. The adjectives in List III. all may belong to the same noun. was descried The royal banner floating wide. 166. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." "the innermost moral soul. but her after deck was still dry. the upper light of the world. List III. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove." "The outer is of the day." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.²KINGSLEY. but they have no adjective positives. being merely descriptive." "far-seeing as the sun. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace.²H.²EMERSON. and have no comparative force. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. In List II. but not in their meaning. on the very topmost twig.165. Her. .²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. They have no superlatives. or have no comparative forms. 168. 167. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. by the by. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. There. Decidedly handsome." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. Think what each adjective belongs to. or each may modify a different word or group of words. Her bows were deep in the water. BEECHER. Highest and midmost. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN.²HAWTHORNE.²SCOTT. are like the comparative forms in List II.

the then and still owners. in prose. . and thine often infirmities.²A. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. By a convenient brevity. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. 2. as.²TRENCH." in which then is an adverb. It may still be argued. rich. May we not. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. philosophical.²MRS.²BIBLE. and broken. H. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. 169. therefore. not decision alone. For thy stomach's sake.²HAWTHORNE. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. Our sometime sister. and moral truth. we may say "the then king. and heaven-defying oaths. But in this sentence. in this sentence. deeply black eyes. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. ²TROLLOPE." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. Bradbury and Evans. 3. bright. Exercise.²RUSKIN. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.² My then favorite. In the following quotations. STEPHENS 5. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. satisfactory. 4.For example. now our queen.²HOLMES. deep. 6. A few improper jests and a volley of good. "the one who was then king.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. This. round. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. Whenever that look appeared in her wild." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility." making then an adjective. STOWE.²HAWTHORNE. Richard Hooker. solid. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. 7. our new government.²NOAH PORTER. usual modifies incomparable decision. instead of saying. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. The seldom use of it. Other instances are.

(3) Its degree of comparison. and very few have number. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. frank. To every several man. 10. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. modifies truths.What to tell in parsing. This gave the young people entire freedom. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. across the plain. 170. seventy-five drachmas. positive degree. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. MODEL FOR PARSING. not inflected for number. 4. modifies the word truths. or case. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 5. this. the method of parsing is simple. . To every Roman citizen he gives. person. I ask nothing of you. Exercise. plural number. 6. with awkward but rapid pace. then. 2. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. compared by prefixing more and most. if it can be compared. having a singular. Since adjectives have no gender. 3. therefore demonstrative. (4) What word or words it modifies. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. These points out what truths. In parsing an adjective. manly way. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. cannot be compared. 8. She made no reply. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 7. Unfamiliar describes truths. 9. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. (2) Its number. therefore descriptive. and I waited for none. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. and most astounding were those frightful yells. if it has number.

33. 32. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. and many poles supported the lower ones. In music especially. 23. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. oxen. growing in the most unfavorable position. it is so noble a fruit. 27. 22. Nearer to our own times. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 16. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 21. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Their name was the last word upon his lips. With every third step. 25. 28. 12. as for armies that were too many by half. is the settlement of our own country. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. suggests such thoughts as these. during which time I waited. those dogs in the yard. Two hours elapsed. not so much for travelers that were few. he won affections with ease. 14. the tomahawk fell. 19. . The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 20. yonder oxen in the pasture.11. 31. it rests on reality. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. Here lay two great roads. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Like most gifted men. To say what good of fashion we can. are immutably fishes. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 24. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. the same love to France would have been nurtured. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. and dogs. and therefore more interesting to us. 26. 29. I know not what course others may take. 13. 18.

Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. In the sentence. he is no literary man. 174. Two relics. sometimes the tother. An historian. but the former is used. In Middle English the became an article. or the tane. A hard-struggling. and a before consonant sounds. 37. the tother. Many writers use an before h. Our expressions the one. a before consonant sounds. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. later th ." "an orange. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . An before vowel sounds. th o. 172. meaning one.²BREWER. Examples: "a house. in vulgar English. s o.²SCOTT. An or a came from the old numeral n. that) which was also an article in Old English. 173. the tother. were formerly that one. the latter is still preserved in the expression." the words the and an belong to nouns. Their origin. such as we have been attempting to describe. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. even when not silent. when the word is not accented on the first syllable." "an honor." An with consonant sounds. ARTICLES. for example. . Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. the other. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant." "a European. that other. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. the tither. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. ðat. just as adjectives do. and that remained a demonstrative adjective.²MACAULAY. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment." "a yelling crowd. with an ordinary little garden. 35. 171. these occurring as the tane.34. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. weary-hearted man was he.

or class.²G.. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. 176. or any individual of a group or class. as "the Mississippi. An and a are different forms of the same word. 177. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. The Dakota tribes. is referred to. BANCROFT. or group." "the Ohio. which cannot be used alone. Definition. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²COLERIDGE. When the is prefixed to a proper name. since it points out a particular individual.²THACKERAY. the older n. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. not descriptive. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. An hereditary tenure of these offices. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. An article is a limiting word. 175..² . a person is introduced by a.² Don't you remember how. on opening a story. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. NOTE.. To call attention to attributes.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. thus. Reference to a known object.²HEROES OF ASGARD. An or a is the indefinite article." the article indicates clearly that a river. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. With names of rivers. 179.²This use is noticed when. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.²IRVING. doubtless. The is the definite article. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. or a group or class of things. Kinds. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. 178. as in the sentence. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. Articles are either definite or indefinite. and when the word river is omitted. and not a state or other geographical division.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.

182. her.The Bacon. for example. 2. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. but into the region of all the virtues. would speedily extract the required information. 180. the gallant. Schelling. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun.²EMERSON. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. The. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. . If the good is there.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. as. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. With adjectives used as nouns.² The faint.²ID. Half abstract. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²GIBBON. etc. With plural of abstract nouns. the Hume. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²SCOTT. Caution. the Spinoza. not into a particular virtue. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.²ID.²MOTLEY.² As she hesitated to pass on. 183. and the redwing. The simple rise as by specific levity.²G. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. 1. or a match put between the fingers. 181.²EMERSON. His messages to the provincial authorities. For possessive person pronouns. Kant. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. so is the evil.²KINGSLEY. One thing for its class. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. NOTE. Common. BANCROFT. the song sparrow. laid it on the miry spot.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

a verb." Examine the sentences in Sec. 202. All these are called transitive verbs. c). 204. in (b). and to receive the action expressed. but fearing is not a predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. and not a verb. In each case. which may be a person. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. By examining a few verbs. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. obeyed is a predicate."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. In the first. we consider a verb as one word. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. Now.²BULWER . can deceive has an object. the most astute. hence is not a verb. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. an adverb. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. and. as. and a preposition unite as a verb. Definition and caution. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. In giving a definition. a noun. all do not express it in the same way. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. lone took what? answer. 203. the most penetrating. In the sentence. Of those expressing action. or the object. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. endured what? anguish. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. to say something to or about some person or thing. the word following. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. representing something which it influences or controls. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. Hence Definition. an article. to go is no predicate. (can) shame also has an object. "Put thou money in thy purse. "Put money in thy purse. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. from the Latin transire. 200: In (1). it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. in (2. b). The nature of the transitive verb. Each influences some object. A verb is a word used as a predicate.In (a). care. in (2. with some word understood. or a material thing. 201. in (3. for example. The nature of intransitive verbs. taking the staff which always guided her steps. a preposition. in this sentence from Bulwer." put is the predicate. and shame the most astute. b). etc. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. in (c). may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. but cannot be predicates. which means to go over." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. or an idea. in (3. a).

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

and may or may not be regarded true. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. . Unreal²cannot be true. as. 222. the representative system ultimately fail. or be fulfilled.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. Again.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. Ideal. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. the second founder. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. in our case. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.²SHELLEY. Most excellent stranger. as.²FRANKLIN. the first great founder of the Empire. I. they were recorded in the Book of Life. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. for example. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. but.² Now.²BRYCE. Condition or Supposition.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].²may or may not be true. popular government must be pronounced impossible. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. 215. If this be the glory of Julius. ²EMERSON. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²LONGFELLOW.²D. the writer can make the statement following.²MACAULAY. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. 221. 2). WEBSTER.I could lie down like a tired child. he will see the need of these ethics.² If.

would have sat still with joy and peace. but when the verb precedes the subject. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. 6.²MACAULAY.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. ²LOWELL. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 4. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. he had better not have written. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. he supposed. . NOTE. The subjunctive. thus. would you.²N. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. 2.²FRANKLIN. 223. might.²BAYNE. if he was the man I take him for. if his lot had been mine. P. society could not hold together. II. I told him. 8. Exercise." etc.² CARLYLE. may. and should. as.²SWIFT. since he [Byron] was dead. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. But in no case could it be justified. In the following conditional clauses. 5..²FRANKLIN. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE.. If he had reason to dislike him. etc.²CALHOUN.²EMERSON. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. especially be. clear. Subjunctive of Purpose. except. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. 3. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. and sonorous. that he might be strong to labor. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created.² It was necessary. The voice.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.. she was regarded as a prodigy. and what kind of condition:² 1. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. melodious. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. though.. if he speak to you. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. is used to express purpose. that we cannot but regret its absence. to drink strong beer. do you think. and striven energetically to save Ney. WILLIS. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding.² If these things were true. which cannot be true. Epaminondas. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. is of similar physiognomy. 7. unless.

He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. In Temporal Clauses. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.That vain it were her eyes to close.²WORDSWORTH. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. till it meet the sun in his coming. Expressing a Wish. Subjunctive of Result. After a verb of wishing.Thou go not. . the answer being regarded as doubtful. In Indirect Questions. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.²ID. In a Noun Clause. I would it were! ²EMERSON. Ask the great man if there be none greater. The English subjunctive. V.I have been the more particular. Let it rise.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.. So live. 224. VI. VII. Rise up.. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. within its fairy bowers.²CARLYLE. I've wished that little isle had wings. WEBSTER. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. like the Latin. 226.And we.Were wafted off to seas unknown. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. III.²D. like the quarry-slave at night...²MOORE.²COLERIDGE. IV. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.²SOUTHEY.²BRYANT. 227. To tell of what had passed.²DE QUINCEY. none of us could say.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. 225.

229.And see the Braes of Yarrow.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. The noun clause.² Be the matter how it may. . or whatsoever victual it may be. Come. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. in apposition.²SCOTT.²CARLYLE. for example.²COLERIDGE. object. etc. tell me all that thou hast seen. The first merit. Some might lament that I were cold. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²TENNYSON. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. Complement. which may be (a) Pronoun. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²COLERIDGE. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Whatever betide. See that there be no traitors in your camp.² DICKENS. I have no thought what men they be.²SHELLEY. 228. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.. we'll turn aside.²DE QUINCEY. is. The essence of originality is not that it be new. that everything be in its place. often contains a subjunctive. Concessive Clauses.²WORDSWORTH. of cash. After verbs of commanding.²THOREAU.And look thou tell me true. Object.Subject. VIII. is the ultimate fact of man's life. (b) Adjective.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. in its various uses as subject. That hunger of applause.

. entreaties.² CARLYLE. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. (2) Entreaty. It must be remembered. love all men.²CHANNING. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. Honor all men.²SHELLEY. In spoken English. to express a wish. 232.²BRYANT. (3) Request. since commands are directed to a person addressed. a concession. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. IMPERATIVE MOOD. though. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. and condition contrary to fact. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. ADAMS. At the present day. fear none. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. 230. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. however. or requests. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. point to their immortal works. Usually second person. 231. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Q. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.²J. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. Definition.The spirit he loves remains. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Oh.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. for example.(c) Adverb. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. (1) Command. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought.

Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.²CAMPBELL. "The Devil take the goose. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Part we in friendship from your land. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. noble earl. Oh. Mark thou this difference. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled.And God forget the stranger!" .One glance at their array! 5. lest we rust in ease." whispered Kit. Sometimes with first person in the plural. nothing is to be preferred before justice. but I + you. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. receive my hand.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. 2.²SCOTT.And. "Come along with me. child of earth!While each performs his part. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. request. there will her heart and her prayers be. to you implied in it. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. 6. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Quoth she."²DICKENS Tell me. 8. 3.. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.²SHAKESPEARE. Break we our watch up. or I + they. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. etc. 7. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.." Exercises on the Moods."Hush! mother. etc. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.

He is. 10. let him live where else he like. 18. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. . in what pomps and prosperities he like. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. Though he were dumb. 19. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. 14. will it not fall unbound. but repentant child. my dear madam." continued Old Morgan. "Oh. it would speak. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. 11.High up in silver spikes! 22. 21. no literary man. 23.Except. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. ruined. how he may do his work. whether he do it right or wrong. as though an instrument. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. and opinion displace opinion.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls." cried he. 20.9. 26.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. then." 25. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.That they might answer him. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast." 16. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. "Mr. or do it at all. Though abyss open under abyss. 13. That a man parade his doubt. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. Well. she ought to have it. He. That sheaf of darts. Marshall.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Think not that I speak for your sakes. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. "tell me where I may find my poor. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. Forget thyself to marble.

TENSE. tell him to wait.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. have. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. "Thou walkedst. which represented present and future time. and the past tense. called auxiliaries.27. Old English had only two tenses." . Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. "I go away tomorrow. PERSON AND NUMBER. and the future tense. the past. shall." "If he comes. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs." past. as the classical languages have. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. kind. and future perfect tenses. and future. past perfect. as. "Thou walkest. in the conjugations. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. Meantime. as will be shown later on. past. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. or whether it were as one member of a general party. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses.²the present tense. five in the subjunctive.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. also. five in the imperative. When the older pronoun thou was in use. Definition. past. "It is not in man that walketh. 233.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Tense means time. 235." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. The tenses in detail. whatever she did. in the third person singular. Siddons. or agree with it. or future time. such as Latin and Greek. will. by means of the present. Tenses in English.² present. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. to direct his steps." present. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. as. 234. 28. such as be. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. a form ending in -eth.

are. as. walking. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. been. You (thou) be 3. Few forms.²am. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. [He] were [They] were . chooses. 236. walk has walk. I be 2. [He] is [They] are 3. Singular 1. You are 2. Indicative Mood. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. "He walks. since it is composed of several different roots. PRESENT TENSE. I were 2. Singular 1. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. 237. etc. CONJUGATION. walked. etc. chose. is. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. mood. Such verbs as choose have five. 238.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. chooseth. walketh. Definition. choosest. chosen (old. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. were. tense. Singular 1. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. but in English. walkedst. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. singular number." and this only in the present tense indicative. chosest). In classical languages. and numbers.²choose. Singular 1. The verb be has more forms. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. moods. for example. persons. PRESENT TENSE. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. walks. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. choosing. This is the third person. wert) 3. tenses.

Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. (d) With the infinitive. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. etc. (2) As auxiliary verbs. though it is usually a dialect form. The light that never was on sea and land. were.²ID.²WORDSWORTH. (2) was.²BURKE .Imperative Mood. for example.. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²SHELLEY. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. in four ways. condition. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.. is. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. etc. 239. (3) be.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. which was now become an occasional banquet.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.²SCOTT. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. Remarks on the verb be.²THACKERAY. as. (b) With the past participle in -ed. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. obligation.²GOLDSMITH. thus.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Instead of the plural are. to form the passive voice. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. 240.His infancy was nurtured. same as the German sind. to express intention. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. -en.

Some of these have been indicated in Sec. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. I choose 2. . We chose You chose 3. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. "I shall be. We chose You chose 3. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 1. past perfect. You choose Plural. Singular. 1. by placing have. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. Indicative Mood. You chose Plural. Singular. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 1. as. I choose 2. I chose 2. (2). INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [He] choose [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE. tenses. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. You choose Plural. tenses. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb.241. Singular. In addition to the above inflected forms. as. Singular." "He will choose. etc. 240. I chose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. Machinery of a verb in the voices. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 1. PRESENT TENSE. had. "I have gone" (present perfect). 242. You chose Plural. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. future perfect." (2) Present perfect. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I had gone" (past perfect).

Imperative Mood. Present perfect. He will have chosen. he have chosen. ACTIVE VOICE. [If. Past perfect definite. He will he choosing. Present. He had chosen. "I am running. . Past perfect. " Be choosing. "I was chosen. of each tense. Same as indicative.) Choose. Past. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present perfect. Only the third person. he chose (or were to choose). lest. Present definite. He will have been choosing. as. Present definite." "You are chosen. Past definite. He was choosing. Future definite. Indicative Mood. He will choose. Present perfect definite." (4) The passive forms. Past definite. Past perfect. Present definite. he have been choosing. Future perfect definite. as.(3) The definite form of each tense.] he choose. Present perfect definite. Future perfect. He chooses. Present. singular number. Past. Future. He chose. " " " " " " " he be choosing. etc. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He had been choosing." "They had been running. Same as indicative. Present. though. will be given. Subjunctive Mood. He has been choosing. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Past perfect definite." 243. He is choosing. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. He has chosen. (2d per.

None. Indicative Mood. Past definite. None.] he be chosen." [Note to Teacher. he were being chosen. if learned at all. He is chosen. Present perfect. (2d per. Past perfect definite.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present definite. however. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Also. Future perfect. None. in affirmative sentences. though. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Subjunctive Mood. lest. Future perfect definite. Past.) Be chosen. He has been chosen. He will have been chosen. Present perfect. Present. Exercises should be given. Future definite. Past Perfect. he have been chosen. "He does strike. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). PASSIVE VOICE.] [If. 262).NOTE. he had been chosen.. He is being chosen. Present definite. None. Past perfect. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He was being chosen. Past. Past definite. but verbals. He had been chosen. Past perfect definite. None. Present tense." "He did strike. Future. He was chosen. Present. Present perfect definite. " " " " " " " None.²This table is not to be learned now. . None. Present perfect definite. they will be discussed later (Sec. as. etc. Imperative Mood. He will be chosen.

A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. drove. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. Past Tense. Kinds. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. drive. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. lay. as. but adds no ending. which are in parentheses Present Tense. ran. sleep. beg. bit blown broken chidden. run. Definition.[adj. caught. bounden] bitten. slept. NOTE.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. begged. catch. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. According to form. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. 245. bid bound. 244. laid. and may or may not change the vowel: as. verbs are strong or weak. Some of these also have weak forms.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten.

trod worn woven won wound .sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.

the other. The former used to be cleave.²COLERIDGE. as. cleft (to split). borne is also a passive. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. and." "the cloven hoof. as.² Thou hast clomb aloft. cloven. Not a cock crew. clave or clove. which always crew at eleven. cleave.²IRVING. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. Our cock.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. now told us it was time for repose. cleaved. and another (born) for the passive."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²B. cleft. only one set remains certain. Crew is seldom found in present-day English." "a sunken snag. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. 246. probably to avoid confusion with this. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. especially in that of an earlier period. as (from Holmes).² We had each drank three times at the well." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. . and sometimes occurs in poetry. instead of ate and eaten." In this confusion of usage. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. to split. as. cleaved.²as (from Shakespeare)." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²MILTON. "stricken with paralysis. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).²TENNYSON. nor a dog barked. Sometimes in literary English.²GOLDSMITH." "a drunken wretch. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).²cleave. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. for example.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. and the latter.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. "his bounden duty. The form clomb is not used in prose. but is much used in vulgar English. When it means to carry or to endure. TAYLOR. Historically.²one meaning to adhere or cling. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. ²THACKERAY.

Usually shear is a weak verb. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Shake. One example out of many is.²TENNYSON. 4. flung. The butler was hanged. broke. Throw." but not much as a participle. Exercises. fallen. Freeze. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. broken. gave.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. froze. 3. fell. This heard Geraint. began. frozen. shaken. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Give. 245).² We had all got safe on shore. driven. drove. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. threw." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. We usually say. 10. 9. thrown. Fall. found.²DE FOE. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting.²SCOTT. Fling. He sate him down.²BYRON."²KINGSLEY. (a) From the table (Sec. 8. Begin. 7. flung. and grasping at his sword. 2. Drive.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.²BIBLE.The form gotten is little used. for example. and seized a pen. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.²WORDSWORTH. shook. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. for example. which is seldom used except in poetry. begun. shore is rare. maiden. . even in poetry. given.² If. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. as. found. Break. 5. 6. as "a shorn lamb. Find. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.

which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. "far off his coming shines. etc. as. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248.[To the Teacher.. it is used only in the indicative mood. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. 247. as in Sec.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. It is indicative when it expresses permission.²CHANNING. HAMILTON. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. etc. for full drill on the forms. The same remarks apply to ought. Must is historically a past-tense form. which survives in the sentence. Can is used in the indicative only. 251. Indicative Use: Permission.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. from the obsolete verb motan. there is one general principle. 249.²CHANNING This. 250. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. Like must. Could may be subjunctive. or when it expresses wish... "So mote it be. as it sometimes does. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged.²PAINE. as it has two meanings. but came through analogy with should and would. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. ability. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. or. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. Have we valuable territories and important posts. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 223. PRESENT. according to the infinitive used. PAST. Subjunctive use. 220... The l in could did not belong there originally. PAST. of course.²SCOTT. His superiority none might question. (See also Sec. Ability. .²HAWTHORNE."²WINIER. purpose. must have been an ocular deception." Must is present or past tense.

² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.² The time will come full soon.² With respect to novels. She should not walk. C. future action). (b) In questions asking for orders. MOULTON. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. 252.² Futurity and questions²first person. . (b) In indirect quotations. shall and should are used. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.. in the form of command. as.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.Nay. as. my lad.²L. WEBSTER.²THAXTER. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.²BULWER. BROCKDEN BROWN. "I think I will go.²MACAULAY. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.²LONGFELLOW. while ought always has to.²IRVING. with pronouns of the first person. for example. he said. or confident prediction. to the neglect of shall and should." Uses of shall and should. as. Second and third persons. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. The sea shall crush thee. shall and should are used.²COOPER.² (a) To express authority. especially in the United States. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. They shall have venison to eat. what shall I say?²N. The following are examples:² Never mind. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. she should ride like a queen. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. not plod along like apeasant. to use will and would. I shall be gone. She rejects his suit with scorn. Shall and Will. and corn to hoe.e. yea. promise. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i.

would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. as.²WORDSWORTH.²SWIFT. time. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²A. (c) With direct questions of the second person. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. with the conviction that he should win in the end.²C. LARNED.. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.that I would do him justice. as the sole inventor.²CABLE.²WORDSWORTH. or a promise.²SCOTT. etc.²BYRON. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²H. 253. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. for example. and is equivalent to ought. And promised. JR. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. B. thus.. Disguising a command. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. was to be expected. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. I never was what I should be. First. . and will not return until all is finished. for example. second and third persons. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. BROWN.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. purpose.² I will go myself now..Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²WINTER.²WORDSWORTH. JAMES. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²ROGERS.

will is used to express command. Thine was a dangerous gift. will and would are used to express simple futurity. In this stately chair would he sit. and mark on the grounds the works. so you will. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. when thou wast born.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. as if it were merely expected action. action merely expected to occur.² Thou wilt take the skiff. BROWN.²IRVING. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. Would thou hadst it not.² DICKENS. PASSIVE VOICE. for example. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. They will go to Sunday schools. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.²SCOTT. and two of my people. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.²BANCROFT. you'll always have somebody to sit with you... This puts the order more mildly. will and would often denote an action as customary. . B. SECOND.²War Records. etc. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. through storms their brothers are afraid of. for punishment or intimidation.²BURKE. (4) With FIRST. 254.² Subject I omitted: often so. as.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. The gift of Beauty. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). To be sure. Mere futurity. as.²the original meaning of the word will.. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.²LANDOR.. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. without regard to future time. Roland. AND THIRD PERSONS. When I am in town. would is used to express a wish. for example.²SCOTT..

(b) Examine the following sentences. I shall be chosen. [They] will be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. You will be chosen. etc. Exercises on Shall and Will. I shall choose. You will choose. You shall choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. and that of the newest cut. [They] shall choose. Singular. I will choose. We shall be chosen. 2. 2. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 3. Plural. 2. You shall be chosen. (a) From Secs. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 1. [They] shall be chosen. He informed us. We will be chosen. promise. "I shall not run. 3. We shall choose. 3. Singular. Plural. Plural. 2. You will choose. 2. 3. 1. 1. Plural. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so.:² ACTIVE VOICE. We will choose. PASSIVE VOICE. 4. 3. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. You shall choose. and justify the use of shall and will.Singular. You shall be chosen. 1. To express determination. You will be chosen. 3. [He] will be chosen. I will be chosen. 252 and 253. . yet only seem. Thou shalt have a suit. Singular. 2. [He] shall choose. 5. 1. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. [They] will choose. 6. [He] will choose. Thou art what I would be.

Of smale houndes hadde she. which may be called irregular weak verbs. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while.²Class I." the stranger said. 256. put.²ID. bereave beseech bereft. Irregular Weak Verbs. and I have nothing to say. very anxious. 257. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. was -de or -te. WEAK VERBS. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. No." 14. The old ending to verbs of Class II. bereaved besought . need some attention and explanation.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. as. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. Without having attended to this. 255. This ending has now dropped off. "I am a wayfarer. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. my son. then. 9. 13. Present Tense. set. 11. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. 12. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. set. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. bereave besought Past Participle. The beast made a sluggish movement. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set.²CHAUCER.7. or mylk and wastel breed. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. as if he would have more of the enchantment. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. and have no change of vowel. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. Past Tense. 10. put. bereft.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Lucy stood still. But the rest. put. that sche fedde With rosted flessh.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Infinitives.. and a perfect definite form. I returned to reflection on my situation. expressing purpose. Perfect. as in the Old English.. will (with should and would). When active. Nothing of the kind having been done. formed a kind of bedstead. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. they have an indefinite. an imperfect. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. have no tense. [To] choose. [To] be chosen. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. an indefinite and a perfect form. try clemency. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. and when passive. [To] have been chosen. .. 8. to was used before the infinitive generally. To with the infinitive.6. Perfect. [To] have been choosing. to express action unconnected with a subject. Perfect definite. Imperfect. 268. when inflections became fewer. ACTIVE VOICE. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. [To] be choosing. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. [To] have chosen. In Sec. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. like participles. Indefinite. Three saplings. Indefinite. INFINITIVES. a perfect. 9. 7. 267. 10. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Cases when to is omitted. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow).²the creature warring against the creating power. PASSIVE VOICE. 266. But later.

" (4) In exclamations. GERUNDS." Examples are. make. 272. it has several attributes of a noun. it is often preceded by the definite article. negative. While the gerund expresses action. as. "She ask my pardon. "He will choose. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²E. as the credulous imagine.²IRVING. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. and corn to hoe." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. The gerund is like the participle in form. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. too. . liberal woman. 270. But there was nothing to do. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. bid (command). under "Analysis. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.²HOWELLS. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. HALE." etc. learn [doth learn is one verb. poor woman!" cried Charles. also let. hear. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).²MACAULAY. 271. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. and like a noun in use. as in the expression.²TENNYSON. must." "I shall have chosen. or the object of a verb or a preposition. and emphatic forms of the present and past. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. watch.²it may be governed as a noun. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. do (as. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. as. "a house to let. see. also in the imperative.² She was a kind. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. please.. They shall have venison to eat.(2) After the verbs may (might). can (could). sometimes need (as. E. as.²DE QUINCEY. feel. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs.²GOLDSMITH.² What! doth she.²COOPER. it may be the subject of a verb. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. 269. "I do go" etc.).

" "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. when. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. II). but cannot govern. which express action and also modify. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." also (2. which have lost all verbal force. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. Words in -ing are of six kinds. making the definite tenses. (5) Gerunds. which express action." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. (3) Participial adjectives. on your leaving the spot. 4. (4) Pure adjectives. but do not assert. and wonderful store of learning! . What a vast." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. and five gerunds. Then how pleasing is it. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." Exercise. above." "Certainly dueling is bad." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. 2. b). (2) Pure participles. brilliant. 273. (6) Verbal nouns. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. which name an action or state. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. to see the returning hope of the parents. and has been put down. Exercise. according to use as well as meaning." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. which express action. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. Sec. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. may govern and be governed. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability.²Find sentences containing five participles. five infinitives. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. after examining the nest." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use.

I.²which of the tenses given in Sec. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. much corroded.²transitive or intransitive. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. . VERBS.²strong or weak. 12. or imperative. 11. 275. 15. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 13. (5) Person and number. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. he gave out sentence by sentence. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. write twenty pages without stopping. dictating from his chair. 6. In parsing verbs. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. (2) Voice. bearing her national emblem. 14. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing.5. (b) as to use. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 7. The only means of ascending was by my hands.²indicative. Caution. like Sir Walter Scott. (4) Tense. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. subjunctive. round which is an iron railing. 9. Thackeray did not. He spread his blessings all over the land. giving principal parts. I suppose I was dreaming about it. slowly. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 16. 10. you must. 234. give reality to your teaching. but. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. What is dreaming? 8. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. by object lessons. (3) Mood.²active or passive.

276. indicative (as it means could). 4. (b) whether active or passive. would. no sin nor sorrow. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. VERB PHRASES. etc. But unless the verb is present. (3) Gerund. II. etc. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. therefore active. The government might have been strong and prosperous. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 277. If a participial adjective. see Sec. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. . Let it rise! let it rise. III. followed by a pure infinitive without to. has for its subject Lee. 278. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. Exercise. (2) Infinitive. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. imperfect. (b) whether indefinite. and should always be analyzed as phrases. VERBALS. 2. (c) to what word it belongs. past tense. In 2. indicative. perfect. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. we must beware of the rule. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. definite. It has been intimated in Sec. till it meet the sun in his coming. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. in the world. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. call should a weak verb. intransitive. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. In such sentences as 1. may. verbals. perfect." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. (a) From what verb derived. active. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived." Sometimes it does. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. and ends in -s. could. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. 235. 273). give points (a) and (b). then parse it as an adjective.. and not taken as single verbs. 3. and parting day linger and play on its summit. 2. Take these examples:² 1. Parse the verbs. past tense. 278(2). must. Especially frequent are those made up of should. call might a weak verb. usually it does not. has the subject government. intransitive. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (b) its use (Sec. You are gathered to your fathers. (1) Participle. can. might.

8. 15. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. When he arose in the morning. 23. as usual. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 13. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. a deafening shout. With them. 12. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts.Henceforth in me instill. a sweet good will.Down all the line.5. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. He passed across the room to the washstand. from a sort of temporary death. 10. as rolled from wing to wing. or. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. leaving me upon the bed. In going for water. 20. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. and wondered if she were yet awake. 19. The soul having been often born. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.O God. morning is not a new issuing of light. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. a new bursting forth of the sun. a new waking up of all that has life. . 9. 18. 14. 22. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. Right graciously he smiled on us. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. Whatever ground you sow or plant. However that be. 21. as the Hindoos say. 11. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 16. 6. see that it is in good condition. So. 17. 24. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. he thought only of her.

or manner: as. To the almost terror of the persons present. The word adverb means joined to a verb. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. 279."²DE QUINCEY. who live with nature?²ID.² The young man reveres men of genius. Is it only poets. ADVERBS.Feast while we may. and live ere life be spent. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. and so on. as. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. to speak truly." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²THACKERAY. Better it were.²SHELLEY. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Oh. When action is expressed. for example. they are more himself than he is. place. A verb.²time. thou sayest. because. And now wend we to yonder fountain." An adjective or an adverb. for the hour of rest is at hand. 29. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.²EMERSON. 27. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. to consent.25." "He was absolute. Nor was it altogether nothing. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. and limit adjectives or adverbs. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. Adverbs modify.²CARLYLE. and men of leisure and cultivation. "William's private life was severely pure. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 26. .

ALDRICH. thus. 169 are felt to be elliptical. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. and that.²These last differ from the words in Sec. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. but still with a rich bloom to it. hitherto. NOTE. ²IRVING. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. perhaps. Make music to the lonely ear.²THOREAU. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.² LOWELL. An adverb. has induced some of us to attend it. Thus considered.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. while those in Sec. is a modifying word. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead.²TROLLOPE. . (2) according to their use in the sentence. as shown in the sentences. B. and half awfully.²LEIGH HUNT.²BYRON. A phrase. not simply the forms used in predication. like the light of heaven. there are six classes:² (1) Time.²T. Definition. I draw forth the fruit. 282. We are offered six months' credit. for example. It may also modify a sentence. to-day. being adverbs naturally and fitly. all wet and glossy. 281. A clause or sentence. 169. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. 280. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. before.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. or a word group used as such. as. then.² FRANKLIN. but some verb understood. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. lately. Surely happiness is reflective.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. etc. ever. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.He was incidentally news dealer. not the noun. NOTE. as now. which may qualify an action word or a statement. but really modifying.

²BURKE.. too. (4) Number.near. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. much. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. Meekness. beautifully. just.where.²IRVING.(2) Place. (6) Assertion. telling how much. etc. etc. 283. I was. slowly.whence. LOUIS STEVENSON. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.whither. not. the more friends you will have... telling how anything is done. probably. possibly. twice.there.. better. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Emerson. as little.² The master. very. etc. especially the comparative of these words. etc.thence. whencesoever.yonder. as perhaps.²DE QUINCEY. slightly. singly. and not infrequently are found in literary English. above. that these adverbs form a very large class.²BROWNING.which gained him such universal popularity. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. (see also Sec. while so precedes only the adjective usually.thither. (5) Degree. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. as here. partly. etc..²R. . (b) PLACE TO WHICH. [Sidenote The status of such. thus. surely. whithersoever. Motley. greatly. The more they multiply. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. the more perfect will be their obedience. This long's the text. at least. telling how many times: once.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. bravely. the more evidently they love liberty. 283). maybe. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. Thackeray. enough. (3) Manner. for example. and others.²SHAKESPEARE.²LECKY. or how far he believes it to be true. as well. So also in Grote. as hence. White.²HAWTHORNE. as hither. two by two. etc.was for this once of her opinion.

Defoe.²BULWER. .²FIELDING. besides modifying. De Quincey.²"He walked too far [place].² KINGSLEY." "I have seen you before [time]. "Peace. and other writers. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Emerson. Beau Fielding. Holmes. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. 284. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Pretty is also used by Prescott. STOWE." "The house." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Notice meanings. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived." "That were far better [degree]. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Kingsley. for example.²GOLDSMITH.²BAYNE. a mighty fine gentleman. Direct questions.²HAWTHORNE. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Again. A pretty large experience. and art but a fool. Neville. Simple. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Some adverbs.Pretty. for example. Burke. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²THACKERAY. 285. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. have the additional function of asking a question. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. B. 286. Such are most of those given already in Sec.² You are mighty courteous. Interrogative. Dickens. Hard blows and hard money. and its lawn before [place]."²SCOTT.²THACKERAY. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Franklin. Mighty.² "Mighty well. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. 282. Aldrich." "He spoke positively [manner]." said the king.

287. I know not why.²BYRON.²D. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. (4) Degree. CLAY. (5) Reason. (2) Place.²BYRON (3) Manner. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (2) Place. for example. they smiled.²BULWER. WEBSTER. (4) Degree. I do not remember when I was taught to read. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. I hearkened. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²POE.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. When did this humane custom begin?²H. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. I will not ask where thou liest low. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. .

The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb." Exercise. not an adverb. see Sec. Many adverbs are compared. further farthest. just as adjectives do. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.²SHAKESPEARE. well much little far late Comparative.) rather 289. 288. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. use. soon. have the same inflection as adjectives.. The following. higher. Tell what each word in ly modifies. when compared. Exercise. Only that we may wiselier see. when does not express time and modify. sooner. but the whole clause. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. as. For further discussion.²TENNYSON.. . Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. Form vs. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. highest. irregularly compared. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. when. Its strings boldlier swept.²BYRON. obs. 290.²COLERIDGE. Superlative. high. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.²EMERSON. furthest (rathe. representing four classes.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.But in reality. Then must she keep it safelier. Many adjectives have the same ending. only occasionally having -er and -est. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. and. soonest.eyes.

curiously jolly. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 292. 3. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. He is inexpressibly mean. nearly. But he must do his errand right. even.²ID. Special use of there. more courtly in their manners.²TENNYSON. instead of being used adverbially. 6. And all about. Not near so black as he was painted. near. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. whether adverbs or adjectives. quick-flashing eye." Compare these:² 1. etc. mostly. or down the leaves laughed through.²CHAUCER. hard. There are eyes. 7. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. . as. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. Such are most. 2. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.² EMERSON. evenly.²IRVING. many words without -ly have the same form. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. but with a different meaning. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. With his proud. Frequently the word there.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. The reason is. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. Again. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.1. hardly.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 4. to be sure. kindly and good-natured in secret. 2. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. if it has the verb be.²WORDSWORTH. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 8. merely introduces a sentence. 5. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.And his mien of kingly state.²THACKERAY. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 291. that in Old and Middle English.

18. But a few steps farther on. is always politically unwise. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. . It is the Cross that is first seen.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. at the regular wine-shop. 2. give² (1) The class. (2) Degree of comparison. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Thither we went. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 9. 293. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. but continually shifted. For the impracticable. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 10. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 7. In parsing adverbs. if the word is compared. the Madonna is in great glory. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. however theoretically enticing. Exercise. 12. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 3. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. according to meaning and also use. 4. 16. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. and always. but from my fall? 6. 15. 11. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. (3) What word or word group it modifies. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. burning in the center of the temple. 17. 5. and sate down on the steps of a house. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. The higher we rise in the scale of being.

word groups. but side by side within the American Union. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. or sentence groups. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. Unlike adverbs. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. 20. CONJUNCTIONS." Paragraphs. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. however. but the student will readily find them. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. then." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. connecting words. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. etc. A conjunction is a linking word. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. sentences. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. Clauses. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. 295. 22. upon which the sun now shone forth. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. Definition. therefore. But now the wind rose again. . hence. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God.19. 294. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. nor. 21." Sentences. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. It was pretty bad after that. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but.

. of the same rank. (3) CAUSAL. as well as the room door.. as. 298. answering to each other in the same sentence. nor. nor. The assertion. Your letter. etc. also..... (2) ADVERSATIVE.but (or but also). the bread was spent.. 297.or. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. as and. 296. Nor mark'd they less.. Adversative.. Some go in threes. not only. hence.nor.nor. and not man corn. as but. for. neither.or. The chief ones are.or. Correlatives.. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.Classes of conjunctions.. introducing a reason or cause. both....or whether. serves but to show their ignorance. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. Causal. not only. while. (2) Subordinate. whether.. neither. They are or. expressing a choice. then. however. but is emperor in his own right.or. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. While the earth bears a plant. word groups.. usually between two things." Nevertheless. as. however. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. or the sea rolls its waves. Some of these go in pairs. the window being open.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. the butter too. whether..but.. as well as. either. and.. etc.and. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. either. etc. Alternative.. "Howbeit. neither. (4) ALTERNATIVE. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. . Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative... yet.. joining words. still. therefore. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. moreover. either. likewise. only.. whether. else. had its weight.

Time. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. 299. etc.²WILSON. while. unless. He is not only bold and vociferous. so. (2) TIME: when. (3) MANNER: how. ²ALLSTON. however. sometimes if.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.²PAULDING. wherever. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. although. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. provided that. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. whence. nor echo. nor wing of bird. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. object. there will the heart be also.. as.²BURKE. so. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.²BIBLE. provided. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. now. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. as. whereto. though. seeing. before. etc. QUINCY. (6) PURPOSE: that. Neither the place in which he found himself. It is. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. lest. after. so.²COOPER.. etc. nor creeping thing. whither. whenever. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. etc. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. on condition that. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. whether. so that. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.. in case.as. since. etc. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. as. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. since.²IRVING. until. whereas. Where the treasure is. except. . especially that after so. in order that.²DE QUINCEY. whithersoever. howsoever. (7) RESULT: that.. that. ere. even if. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. so that.²J. nor green leaf. in apposition.

I was again covered with water. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. not as they were expected or intended. Condition.²EMERSON. So many thoughts moved to and fro. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.That vain it were her eyes to close.²AMES.²COLERIDGE. a thousand bodies.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.So I behold them not. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.² EMERSON. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON. We wish for a thousand heads. As a soldier. Comparison. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Substantive. Purpose. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.That he gave her wounds repose. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Now he is dead.²EMERSON.²BURKE. Then Denmark blest our chief. . reason.² H.²CAMPBELL. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Concession.²IRVING. Cause. H. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Manner. Let the world go how it will.²AMES.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²DEFOE. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. but not so long but I held it out. Result.²BYRON.²AMES.² WORDSWORTH. JACKSON.² HAWTHORNE. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.

²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 3. etc. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. the wisest. After he was gone. however. hold a subordinate rank. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. . No one had yet caught his character. As will have been noticed. it will remain harmless. that. since. 7. Besides. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 5. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. while. 13. the lady called her servant. 10. In what point of view. And they lived happily forever after. she faintly pressed her hand. 14. They. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice.Let us see whether the greatest. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. as he shot in air. 300. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. While patriotism glowed in his heart. then. as. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 9. some words²for example. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. And then recovering. 15. 12. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 4. her real merit is known at home. and hid her there. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms.²RUSKIN. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. He was brought up for the church. 2. Crept under the leaf. 6. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. Exercises. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. The moth fly. While a faction is a minority. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city.

even as they would weep. 303.Clouded. in this case. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. In parsing conjunctions. and part as though we parted not. for example. GREELEY. word groups. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. 302.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. as is shown by the use of as though. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. 304. In Emerson's sentence.So slowly moved about. Consequently. "We meet. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain." as.²IRVING. (2) What words. So silently we seemed to speak. As if. SPECIAL REMARKS. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. as is often equivalent to as if. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. As for as if. If analyzed.. . In poetry.. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. none of the lashings having given way. expressing degree if taken separately.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²HOOD. the expression would be. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.As though a rose should shut. and the frame will suit the picture. 301." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. etc. and be a bud again. thus.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. As though. they connect. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.²BYRON. His voice .²EMILY BRONTE. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.16. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.

because it is his.²I find them true in Concord. so means therefore. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. 4. At sea. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.²DEFOE 2. 9. compare the sentences. others belong to several classes.² 1. because. 2. so that I could not stir abroad. He dismisses without notice his thought. Exercise. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. or in the forest. so it be faithfully imparted. when. such as nor. and the like. 3. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. Some conjunctions. the Sphinx was slain. in 3.²that the fairies do not like to be named. It may be safely trusted. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. It continued raining. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. When the gods come among men. so means provided. but of the natural. and. are regularly of one particular class. they are not known. and very seldom?" 8.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. so they paddled on. . In classifying them. in 2.. he sleeps as warm. 12." said his wife to Martin Luther. and its clause depends on the other. so that expresses result. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. as beside his own chimneys. For example. etc. he is also the correlative of nature. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. "Doctor. dines with as good an appetite. and its clause is independent.²is subordinate of condition. 7. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. and associates as happily.²EMERSON 3. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. that it might testify of that particular ray. 5. If he could solve the riddle. or in the snow. 11. He is the compend of time.Caution. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. All the postulates of elfin annals. 13. 10. 6. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye.

in this they agree. PREPOSITIONS. Now you have the whip in your hand. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. I rejoice to stand here no longer. For. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 25. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. won't you lay on? 17. 19. in many a heart. save it were sinful like herself. enthroned. 23.14. the whole conditions are changed. . I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. however. 20. 30. And whether consciously or not. 18. 24. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. seeing that it behooves me to hasten.. 26. It is clear. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. Goodness must have some edge to it. you must be. I speak. when it was presented to them. 28. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. therefore. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 305. that both were wayward. 27. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. though there may be little resemblance otherwise.²else it is none. 15. 16. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. Still. There was no iron to be seen. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. whose names I omit. 21. of good novels only. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. It may be so in the majority of cases. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. she might have the family countenance. 29. 22.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

Exercise. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at first. by means near or close to. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at work.²ID. expressing the degree of difference. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. by the blessed memory of the departed. etc. She saw the boat headed for her. 320. at the best. CONWAY. at any rate. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. For.. STODDARD. at naught. ²PARTON.²EVERETT.²WARNER.²ALDRICH. he stopped. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. By my faith. Helena. By. Like at. (3) Agency or means.²DE QUINCEY. at all. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. the first port made by the ship. at the worst. at most.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. Richard was standing by the window. as.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. by the ruins of nations.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at rest. .²R.²SWIFT. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at length. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at once.²B. at random. At St. by the wrecks of time. 321. Exercise. H. at war. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²M. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. (4) Measure of excess.² (1) The general meaning of place. at play. at least. at one. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. (2) Time. D. by many a million of acres. At that time [the earth] was richer. etc.²COOPER. at peace.

"Nay. (5) Reference.²ID. as to. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. or in spite of. (6) Like as. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. for all his title. or extent of space. poor fellow. in behalf of. H. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. if your worship can accomplish that. a person or thing. An Arab woman. GARRISON.²IRVING. He and they were for immediate attack. ate her child.²W. they are now for us. respecting. "thou hast counseled wisely.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. E. (7) Concession. for the benefit of. meaning with regard to.²HOLMES. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. but a few sunsets since. (3) Duration of time.²EMERSON. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. (9) Motive. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland." said the Lady of Lochleven. meaning in the character of.²E. (4) Substitution or exchange.²PARKMAN. etc.²LAMB. the Colonna motto would fit you best. cause. incitement to action. The twilight being. and leaped for joy. reason. etc.²H. L. BANCROFT.²HOOD. . (8) Meaning notwithstanding. as being. for famine."²SCOTT By my faith.² RUSKIN. For him.²STODDARD. "For a fool. had a forest of poor relations." answered Master Brackett.One of Eve's family.²PARKMAN. considering that etc. For the rest. There are gains for all our losses.. etc.(2) In favor of. Still.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. for all slips of hers.. But the Colonel. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. meaning although. he repented of his folly.

The general idea in from is separation or source. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²HUME. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The From Relation. more. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²HIGGINSON.²H. (2) Origin.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. Exercise.²HUXLEY. . or reason. From harmony. From. (1) Origin or source. (4) Motive.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. A distrustful. like from. nay. H. ceased to be merciful. 322. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²HALE.²MILTON. if not a desperate man. The original meaning of of was separation or source. from a desire of seeming valiant. 323. Exercise. The young cavaliers. (3) Time.²ID.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Like boys escaped from school. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. cause.²BANCROFT. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²DRYDEN. The king holds his authority of the people. Of.

"I am glad of that. HALE.²ALDRICH.²clear of. out of the most unpromising materials. rob. etc. Back of that tree.²BAYARD TAYLOR. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. bound with thongs of boar's hide. A singular want of all human relation. etc. and grass. Sandals. White shirt with diamond studs. purge. such as ease.²BANCROFT. free. cure. clear. More than one altar was richer of his vows.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. free of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. (6) Partitive. relieve. of his own knowledge. (3) With expressions of material. divest. disarm. weeds. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. (d) With words expressing distance. ask. demand."²E. beg.²SCOTT Who formed.. He is away of his own free will. . as north of. acquitted them of. E. expressing a part of a number or quantity. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. south of. etc. You cannot make a boy know.²PARKMAN. motive. that Cromwell once ruled England. there were only twenty-one members present. especially out of. etc.²HIGGINSON. (b) After some adjectives. ²GAVARRE. bare of.²DICKENS II. deprive. wide of. rid. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. Other Relations expressed by Of. (5) Expressing agency. Of the Forty. etc. reason. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. ²PARTON. deprivation. or breastpin of native gold.²LEW WALLACE. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²ID.²BOSWELL.² HUXLEY. Asked no odds of. The hills were bare of trees.

²BANCROFT. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. Not even woman's love. standing. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²HALLECK. (b) Noun and gerund. CHANNING. See also Sec. 309.²COOPER. (c) Two nouns. of is used in the sense of during. with its object. E. being equivalent to an infinitive. (8) Appositional. Such a book as that of Job. concerning.²LAMB. (9) Of time.²BANCROFT. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. (7) Possessive. and the dignity of a queen. The fair city of Mexico. Besides the phrases of old. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.He washed out some of the dirt. ²IRVING.²BANCROFT. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. with regard to. . Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. (10) Of reference..²ID. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²SWIFT.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. of late.²ALDRICH.²W. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. could give shelter from his contumely. when the first is descriptive of the second.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. for the possessive. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. The nation of Lilliput. Idiomatic use with verbs.²LOWELL.²PRESCOTT. etc. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²FROUDE. of a sudden. equal to about.

approve. (3) Reference. ²BANCROFT. (4) In adjurations.²DE QUINCEY. Upon my reputation and credit. complain. accept. such as admit.²Find sentences with six uses of of. The general meaning of on is position or direction.²ALDRICH. Cannon were heard close on the left. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. concerning. disapprove.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. On. Exercise. repent. on trial.²BRYANT. and others. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. and not a day more. (2) Time.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. equal to about. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. on board. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. 325. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. Exercise. 324.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.²EMERSON. on view. . consist. etc.²PARKMAN. permit. without adding to their meaning. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²PARKMAN. on a sudden. on the alert. On my life.²MRS. you are eighteen. on high. SIGOURNEY. etc. To.²PARKMAN. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. on the wing. (b) With motion. Upon is seldom used to express time. avail (one's self). It also accompanies the verbs tire. allow. Upon.

²HALE. it may be genuine poetry.. With. 326. Exercise.²IRVING. to my taste. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. had ceased to be. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²GOLDSMITH. (b) Referring to time.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. His brother had died. Death!²HALLECK. To the few.²PARKMAN. unmasked.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. He usually gave his draft to an aid. 268). does the mere music. (2) Expressing result..²B.to be written over. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²LANG. to him.²often to the loss of vigor. whose influence is felt to this hour. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. mid meant in company with. . We cook the dish to our own appetite. (5) Equivalent to according to. But when.Come to the bridal chamber.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. Nor. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.²BRYANT. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²BULWER. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. interest. gay Comedy appears.²PARTON.. Revolutions.²BENTON To our great delight. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. In Old English..

With all his sensibility. . it is necessary.²HOWELLS.²ALDRICH. but with you. He was wild with delight about Texas. as with you. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. "poetry is not a pursuit.²DE QUINCEY.The advance.²CHANNING. He expired with these words. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. (5) Opposition. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²LANG.²SCOTT. transmitted from the beginning. with all his boldness.²HALE. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²EMERSON.²WALLACE (7) Time. but a pleasure"?²LANG. 327. to find the object of the preposition. he gave millions to the sword.²Find sentences with four uses of with. Exercise. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. Messala. opinion. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²COOPER. in spite of. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. motive.²COLERIDGE. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. E. (4) Estimation. It seemed a supreme moment with him. with Heyward at its head. She seemed pleased with the accident. Either with the swingle-bar. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²E.²HOWELLS. had already reached the defile. reason. I think.²DE QUINCEY. or with the haunch of our near leader. (3) Cause. first of all. HALE. (2) Instrumentality. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.

telling what man. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. because I had given the provocation. without a country modifies man. In (1). country. the phrase answers the question where. Exercises. I speak these things from a love of justice. I looked towards my windows. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. And so on. by which a dozen apples. hence we say. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. (3) without a country. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. the malicious rogue. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance.²ID. of on. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. we met the defaulter here. I called out several times. In (3).The phrases are (1) on board the ships. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. The guns were cleared of their lumber. . I heard a noise just over my head. and knocked me down flat on my face. he followed us one day into those gardens. but all to no purpose. Be that as it will. before the dwarf left the queen. The object of on board is ships. 5. In (2). 4. beginning. (4) from the beginning. of without.²SWIFT 2. I remember. 2. Whereupon. 3. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. To our general surprise. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. came tumbling about my ears. like the clapping of wings. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. or was. (2) on which. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. shook it directly over my head. which. I felt my box raised very high in the air. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. of from. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. but I received no other hurt. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted.

The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 9. The savage army was in war-paint. 11. in town. The mother sank and fell. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 13. 20. On all subjects known to man. 16. 26. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. He locked his door from mere force of habit. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. after a restful morning. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 23. 15. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. grasping at the child. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 25.6. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 19. 27. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 17. 22. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. His breeches were of black silk.He spurred his courser on. plumed for battle. in this respect. he favored the world with his opinions. 21.Without stop or stay. 24. 18. I like to see the passing. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. . On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 14. 12. 29. when. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 8. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 7. to one dark and gloomy. With all his learning. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. For my part. 10.

(b) Of result. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun. 330. And now it is like an angel's song. . he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. THAT.²WEBSTER.30. (2) As an adjective pronoun. that you might behold this joyous day. (a) Indefinite relative. WHAT. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²HUXLEY.² JOHNSON. (1) Relative pronoun. A few are discussed below. and not according to form. (4) As an adverb of degree.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. We wish that labor may look up here. He will raise the price. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.That makes the heavens be mute. not merely by the amount of the tax. 329. (c) Substantive conjunction. 328. That was a dreadful mistake.²STOCKTON. That night was a memorable one. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. That is what I understand by scientific education.²COLERIDGE.²WEBSTER. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²BEECHER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.

Those shadowy recollections.²ID. What.it is impossible to determine. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. partly. What with the Maltese goats. after not only. What. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. BUT.²THACKERAY. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. but the result of calculation.²EMERSON. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. Cox.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (9) As an exclamation. he knows what good people are to be found there.²EMERSON. or not only...²S. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.these sounds are only to be heard. to see what might be hidden. it rests on reality.²WORDSWORTH. "I'll tell you what. If he has [been in America]." (4) Relative adjective.. ..²WEBSTER. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (b) Indirect question. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. (6) Exclamatory adjective. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way... Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.²ID. (8) Conjunction.. 331.. (b) Indirect question.in Pera.. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.. To say what good of fashion we can.S.Which be they what they may. and silent all!²BYRON. nearly equivalent to partly.but.. silent still. (b) Copulative. (7) Adverb of degree.

.He yearned to our patriot bands. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (4) Relative pronoun. Doing duty as a guard. not. (b) Of manner. at all moments. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. (b) Substantive. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.²HAWTHORNE. Who knows but. (c) Of degree.²IRVING.²FRANKLIN. ... like the dog. (d) Of reason. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. (2) Relative pronoun. I shall see but little of it.²MRS BROWNING.. than. not. sometimes same. equivalent to that . (5) Adverb.²SCOTT. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction..²SHELLEY. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. towards order. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²IRVING. (3) Preposition. meaning except. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. after such. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. on all sides. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. meaning only. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. after a negative.. stands for that .Then arose not only tears. or who .²EMERSON. 332. To lead but one measure.²LAMB.. meaning otherwise .²IRVING.²CARLYLE. (e) Introducing an appositive word. not. ²CARLYLE. but piercing cries. AS..

Give Ruskin space enough.²MAYHEW. They look. Through which they put their heads. like him awhile ago. In this second use.²LONGFELLOW. 333.²HALLECK. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. (1) An adjective. Stirring it vigorously. this.²HAWTHORNE.²DARWIN.²ALDRICH. No Emperor.² A timid. If the verb is expressed.²LAMB. That face. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²CASS. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. and as or as if takes its place. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.-SCOTT. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like a cook beating eggs. indeed.²ALDRICH. nervous child. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. In each case. Introduces a clause. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. Note the difference between these two uses.²EMERSON. There is no statue like this living man.²EMERSON. and was clearly an adjective. but this is not considered good usage: for example. . like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. NOTE. like Martin was.² HAWTHORNE. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. This follows a verb or a verbal.²SHAKESPEARE. like drops out.LIKE. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. ²PARKMAN. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. like summer ocean's. staring like a bewildered man. and is followed by a dative-objective.²HIGGINSON. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. but its verb is omitted. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. I do with my friends as I do with my books.

pronoun." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Some of these are imitative sounds. etc.: for example.²in determining case. ." PART II. that is. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. 335. verb. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. tut! buzz! etc. Definition. etc. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.. clauses introduced by conjunctions. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun].INTERJECTIONS. as. entering into the structure of a sentence.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Definition. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. but it still retains its identity as noun. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. subject and predicate. 336. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. 334. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. What analysis is. Value of analysis. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. in separating them into their component parts. that is. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.

"Old year. always friends?" imperative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. 339. .²a subject and a predicate. (2) Interrogative.Kinds of sentences as to form." 340. But now all is to be changed. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. but according to how many statements there are. according to form. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. or request. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader." "What wouldst thou do. interrogative. question. "Come to the bridal chamber. or imperative. Division according to number of statements. Definition: Predicate. Examples of these three kinds are. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. 337. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. not according to the form in which a thought is put. This is the most common one. which expresses command. entreaty. but the sentence would still be declarative. declarative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. or command: for example. A rare old plant is the ivy green. old man?" "Be thou familiar. you must not die!" interrogative. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Definition. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. 338. "The quality of mercy is not strained. Every sentence must contain two parts. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. 2. hence. (3) Imperative. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "Hath he not always treasures. but by no means vulgar. which puts the thought in a question.

What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. always reduce them to the order of a statement. 8. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. the subject (you. But if we try this with the second sentence. and the real subject is the latter. The last of all the Bards was he. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. In analyzing such sentences. or ye) is in most cases omitted. adjective. . or an interrogative pronoun.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. as. and our definition must be the following. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. on the other hand. "[You] behold her single in the field. but about the ivy green. Slavery they can have anywhere. thou.²What is the ivy green? Answer. 5. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general.²What is to be changed? Answer. and is to be supplied. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. 7. Listen. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. to suit all cases:² Subject. all. 341. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. especially in poetry. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. or adverb that asks about the subject. a rare old plant. 3. Consequently. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 6. to an ignorant man. not of a rare old plant." Exercise. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Thus. we have some trouble. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. In the interrogative sentence. 2. 4. the subject is frequently after the verb.

and means summoned. "Ye honor me." indirect. (2) The predicate. but of call chief. in addition to the object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. "Ye call me chief. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (6) Independent elements. (3) The object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief)." Complement: 344. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. (5) Modifiers. . The subject and predicate have been discussed. and me here is not the object simply of call. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (4) The complements. and by object we mean the direct object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. just as if to say. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. but it is a true complement. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. or second object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. The transitive verb often requires. Direct Object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. for example. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. direct. but chief belongs to the verb.²transitive and intransitive. 343. Indirect object. Of a transitive verb. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object.10. 342.

sir!' rang out in response. and barring the door. taste. I mentioned a case of that nature. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." (2) PARTICIPIAL. Phrases. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." 345. not containing a verb. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. and of massive weight. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. "Brow and head were round. in the original Opium Confessions." "The good man. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as." Also an expression used as a noun. to the completion of this man of the world." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. 364. especially the forms of be. etc. as.. he was now getting old. appear. 346." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. in the popular judgment. As to form." "He was termed Thomas. introduced by a preposition: for example. feel." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" ." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. seem. or. as in drowning. "A cheery. A phrase is a group of words." All these complete intransitive verbs. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. 355." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 351. An intransitive verb. 347. but used as a single modifier." (3) INFINITIVE. ay. as in the sentence." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. more familiarly. in exercise following Sec." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. 'Ay." Things used as Subject. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. for instance. become. 352. Thom of the Gills. and. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. above sixty. See sentence 19. Complement of an intransitive verb.

There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." etc. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. or the thundering of organs. 341. or their religion from their sect. Disguised infinitive subject.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect.²the infinitive phrase." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. but the real or logical subject is to print. and by Saint George!' said the King. for which see Sec. etc. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. was heard one syllable to justify." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. and ever will be. "'By God." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." The for did not belong there originally. from their lips. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. 349. but obscures the real subject. asserting eyes." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." "There are asking eyes. my deficiency." In this sentence. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. prowling eyes." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." "Never. (2) In interrogative sentences.²the talent of starting the game." 348. "Therein has been." Things used as Complement. . but they will be given in detail here. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." Things used as Direct Object. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." "The dead are there. (4) After "there introductory. I saw the quick and the dead." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects.

" It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." Modifiers. As complement of an intransitive verb. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. Modifiers of Subject." "She asked her father's permission." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken.350. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." In this last sentence. As complement of a transitive verb." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. and the words italicized are still complements. the shepherd girl." (4) Participle. the object is made the subject by being passive. and explaining or modifying the subject. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. (3) Infinitive." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. I. doubtless. Object. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.²completing the predicate." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. and whenever the complement is a noun.²heads or tails." "I hear the echoes throng.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. they are adjuncts of the object. 351. or Complement." "Their tempers. Like all the complements in this list." "Serving others is serving us. Of a transitive verb.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." . or the equivalent of the noun. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. complements of the predicate. at the same time.

not with nature.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. Since the predicate is always a verb. given at the request of a Dutch lady. or complement is modified. II." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. Tells how. but it is really a contracted clause." Exercise. "He died like a God." "In the twinkling of an eye.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. 352. but with other men.²proud." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. unforgiving. was the scene from King John." "Him." In such a sentence as." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. and leading him from star to star. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. 351. Modifiers of the Predicate. tell whether the subject. 357-363. see further Secs." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. but noble teachers. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." (For participial and infinitive phrases." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." "Give them not only noble teachings. this young idolater." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. object." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. I have seasoned for thee. or . the prisoner at the bar. austere." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. and modify the predicate in the same way. the verb being omitted. Retained with passive. no sociable angel. was now called upon for his defense.²In each sentence in Sec.

3. To the men of this world. and (direct) object:² 1." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. no humor. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. how far. But anger drives a man to say anything. but the children of the great. with my joy and grief." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. in this center? 4. Fashion does not often caress the great. They do not wish to be lovely. but to be loved.. or how long. and other measures of precaution. and as many to oppose it. 2. according to old philosophers. 7. Why does the horizon hold me fast. (a) Pick out subject. he liked." "All such knowledge should be given her. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. I took. 5. in regard to particulars." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. 6. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. a sort of personality to the whole writing. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause." (6) Adverbial objective." Exercises. predicate. 4. negative. is good in the making. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. This. after dinner. the indirect object is retained. His books have no melody. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. and the direct object is retained: for example. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. Evil. 8. gives wonderful animation. ." "One way lies hope. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. On the voyage to Egypt. etc. predicate. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. 2. (b) Pick out the subject. 6. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 7. 3. no emotion. to the animal strength and spirits. no relief to the dead prosaic level. and. These answer the question when. 5. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light.When the verb is changed from active to passive.

for the first time. at length the warrior lady. the attorney. 6. Not the less I owe thee justice.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. Not compound sentences. 2. this nun so martial. and a member of the world. expecting the return of their parents. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. A river formed the boundary. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. upwards. must visit again the home of her childhood. that was thy portion in life. etc. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. Yes. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. Their intention was to have a gay. this imperial rider. this dragoon so lovely.y 8. I promised her protection against all ghosts. Unhorse me. then. 2. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 3. 5. at the chief hotel. Paint me. 4. 3. y y y y Compound Subject. in little peaceful Easedale. . I gave him an address to my friend. That night. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. happy dinner.²the river Meuse. burthened with the anxieties of a man.. To suffer and to do. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. to the right and to the left. I felt myself. In one feature. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 4. 2. 5. the blooming cornet. downwards. six children sat by a peat fire. after their long confinement to a ship. a room seventeen feet by twelve. 3. 4. viz. then. Compound Predicate.

then the grammatical subject and predicate. etc. however. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. modifiers. ulcer. "The company broke up. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. 354. together with all its modifiers. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. etc. and its object or complement. that is." "Ye crags and peaks. 355.353. I'm with you once again. in the sentence. two or more subjects of the same predicate. For example." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh." "He shook his head. may be the person or thing addressed. shouldered the rusty firelock. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety." "The name of the child. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. and. above: thus. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject." "Voyages and travels I would also have. but it is to be noticed that. Bishop. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. in all such sentences as we quote below. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. the air of the mother." And so with complements. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. the verb). "Ah.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. the object. turned his steps homeward. complements. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. Larger view of a sentence. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. my brave young man!" . do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them.. the tone of her voice. several modifiers. etc. Examples of compound subjects are." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. exposes. The exclamatory expression. together with its modifiers. the simple subject is situation." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. hurry. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. Of this. same as (1). and the rest is the logical predicate. forming a sentence: "Oh. Independent Elements of the Sentence. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. hurry." Sentences with compound predicates are. the predicate. they are not a necessary part.

"He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. her noticing even this is creditable. let him perish." Another caution. pronoun." "At all events. this story runs thus. he somehow lived along. There are some adverbs. 3. etc. see Sec. nevertheless. yes! everybody knew them. six quill-driving gentlemen. object. such as perhaps. the company broke up." (2) Adverbial. The words well. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. that have an office in the sentence. These need close watching. now. undoubtedly. . and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. (b) As a modifier of subject. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. moreover." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. modifying the predicate. 351." (3) Independent." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. truly. really.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. how you're winking!" "Now. (1) Adjectival. then. such as however. 357." "Truth to say. to the best of my remembrance." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. or complement (see Sec." (5) Participial phrase: "But. why. "Oh. he closed his literary toils at dinner. 4). and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. 4). besides. 355. grandma. prepositional phrases may be. therefore. In their use. see Sec." "No. or word used as a noun: for example." "Well. etc. modifying a noun.. generally speaking. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. he was a conscientious man. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. 352." (6) Single words: as." "Why.. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. 6). y (2) The adverbial use. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. and so on. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. instances of which were seen in Sec. 350. 356. already noticed. and some conjunctions. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples.

thus. was speedily run through. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. he should not have known them at all." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. This case excepted.]. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. Wilt thou. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. etc. 355.should. "The letter of introduction." "There. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. I. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec.would. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. (5). "Because I was. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. modifying was speedily run through. 358.seem. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . and hence is adverbial." etc.: as in the sentences.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. The verbal use." In this sentence. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. containing no matters of business. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. but having no other office than a verbal one. being equivalent to a future with obligation. and teach her how to be happy and good. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. etc. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.can (could)." (b) With the forms of be. but require somewhat closer attention. my dear. See Sec. necessity. ought. and they will be presented here in full. or as nearly so as the student will require. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. y (a) With may (might). therefore." (c) With the definite forms of go.

to look means that he might look." "He insisted on his right to forget her. result. "But there was no time to be lost." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. to hear McOrator after dinner. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. above. is evident from the meaning of the sentences.: for example. III. etc. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions.²both purpose clauses. (4) In apposition." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. 362. etc. The substantive use. IV. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. 5). The adjectival use." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. object." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. already examined. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. hang the idiot. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. II. The adverbial use." "To teach is to learn. 361. Don Guzman. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "Are you mad. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. complement. modifying a noun that may be a subject. notice the following:² In (1). To test this. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." 360. 351. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. to please is equivalent to that he may please. 361 are used adverbially. the Scotch fighting all the battles." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." "To say what good of fashion we can.. .moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. "Do they not cause the heart to beat.

363.In (2).²both expressing condition. to hear means if you should hear.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS." (See also Sec. equivalent to that you betray. 352). (7) Independent elements (Sec. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. give the complement (Secs. In analyzing simple sentences. etc. In (5). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 351). and to say is equivalent to if we say. give² (1) The predicate. to part means because I part." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 355). which is of two kinds. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. object. V. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. must be in a life. In (3). 4.. etc. The independent use. as in Sec. Our life is March weather. 351). I will try to keep the balance true. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. 347).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. . 268. 355. (5) The subject (Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 349). 3. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. (3). and to betray and to bring express the reason. to find shows the result of the return. savage and serene in one hour. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. If it is an incomplete verb. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. not in a book. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 2. 364. 351). In (4).. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. etc. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have.

She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 17. good and amiable otherwise. The water. . and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. to the moral sphere. 20. 6. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. and to the purpose. and every moment discover something new. nor money.²to preserve her throne. two stricken hours. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 18. Old Adam. 15. just on the edge of destruction. might be called flabby and irresolute. through toys and atoms. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. We are always in peril. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. He risked everything.The old crow of Cairo. 19. You may ramble a whole day together.Burnt green and blue and white. The word conscience has become almost confined. 9. His opinion is always original. like a witch's oils. nor generals. and spared nothing. is to have no political system at all. Her aims were simple and obvious. 10. 12. neither ammunition. 11.He sat in the shower. in popular use. a good shot. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 22. through evil agents. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language.4. 7. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. with eager energy. a graceful dancer. always in a bad plight. To these gifts of nature. I have heard Coleridge talk. nor troops. 16. To be hurried away by every event. and only to be saved by invention and courage. Through the years and the centuries. the carrion crow.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 24. to restore civil and religious order. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 13. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. an accomplished scholar. 23. 5. 14. nor himself. to keep England out of war. a skilled musician. 21. The whole figure and air. 8.

Upon this shore stood. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 30. to bid you leave the place now and forever. and the wherefore? . Must we in all things look for the how. in front of all this mighty crowd. 34. had but one foible.Distant. in this world.25. 31. the same Condé Olivarez. 33. or perhaps one virtue. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. still. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. The cry. in less heroic and poetic form. time-honored. Of the same grandeur. baggage far in the rear. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. to be a reproach to such goodness. 27. She had made a two days' march. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. Now. the prime minister of Spain. and. the ship was in an uproar. 37. 38. the present capital of New England. upon my own ground. and no provisions but wild berries. But yield. haply. proud foe. 39. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Few in number. This amiable relative. 35. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 32. Oxford. and in my own garden. The villain. In the Acadian land. an elderly man. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. secluded. and the why. 41. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Fair name might he have handed down. I dare this. 36. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. ready to receive her. 29. 40.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Supposing this computation to be correct. I hate him and myself. 26.

365. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. but. the pride and beauty of the grove. COMPLEX SENTENCES. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine].CONTRACTED SENTENCES." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. 333)." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. made merely for convenience and smoothness." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. (Sec. 367. though often treated as phrases. 366. however. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. The simple sentence the basis. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. Words left out after than or as.² "She is like some tender tree. As shown in Part I. .² "They'll shine o'er her sleep." Sentences with like. as." This must. as would be the connective instead of like." To show that these words are really omitted. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. which is the unit of speech. are really contracted clauses. if they were expanded. thus.From her own loved island of sorrow. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].

. suffering. 369. is taken in.²the dependent or subordinate clauses." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. as in this sentence. A principal. each clause has its subject. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. object. and the next one. object. then we recognize this as the main statement. and the last.. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. modifiers. etc. A clause is a division of a sentence. which are so united that one member is the main one. 371. or it may be applied to the others. Hence the following definition:² Definition.²the backbone. 368. that is. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. predicate. . A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). 370.²the other members subordinate to it. main.. containing a verb with its subject. Definition. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. logically depends on suffering.. complement. or dependent on it.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. CLAUSES. and modifier. how great . But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. murmur. that .Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. complements. we are aware. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. Independent clause. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.

night or day. with a noun clause in apposition with it. ADJECTIVE. 352." (2) Object of a verb. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. 373." (4) Apposition. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. but logically the sentence is. put an end to my fancies. Kinds.' is an electric touch." 374. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. over which the torrent came tumbling. attention is called to them here. for a time. But since they are complex in form. for a hundred years... 'I know that he can toil terribly. impertinences²would be grammatical." Just as the object noun." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. and it is . As to their office in the sentence. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. etc. impertinences.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex... but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some.Dependent clause." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. (b) that are ." "I was told that the house had not been shut. or adverbs. pronoun. 372. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. infinitive. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. (a) Ordinary apposition. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. 5). "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. for example. so the object clause is retained. Noun Clauses. and the whole clause is not. and ADVERB clauses. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.. verbal. We ourselves are getting . clauses are divided into NOUN. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. for example. ." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. thus.. adjectives.

What history it had. that all safe legislation must be based. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. that. and not on the sentiment. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. Other examples of this construction are. that." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. where. that he was a scheming impostor. a relative pronoun being understood. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. still remains reasonable. Such a man is what we call an original man. how it changed from shape to shape. whither. . I was napping. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. Adjective Clauses. whence. 7. or equivalent of a noun. which. a falsehood incarnate. 5. but. of a nation. 10. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. As the office of an adjective is to modify.² "It is on the understanding. But the fact is. 375. 2. The reply of Socrates. as.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. 9. 3. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. 8. etc. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. he would repent it." Exercise. he could know nothing. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. wherein. no man will ever know. whether he should choose one or not. Except by what he could see for himself. 6. Frequently there is no connecting word. Examples of adjective clauses. whereby. in the sentence. sometimes by the conjunctions when. 4.

11. 6. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 5. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. i. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 10. 9. object." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 8. 1. 7. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." Exercise. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.. 4. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. the champions advanced through the lists. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. . which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. or that essence we were looking for. and tell what each one modifies." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. etc. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. 3. which Rowena tasted. Adverbial Clauses. No man is reason or illumination. all is vacancy. 2. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble.e. Pick out the adjective clauses. whether subject. he begins to help us more as an effect. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. which formed the center of the mansion. I walked home with Calhoun.376.

377. however. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." (7) RESULT. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. etc." "After leaving the whole party under the table. that we should try. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. is wider. 378. whatever. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. Exercise. to make up our shortcomings. no matter what remains.." "The right conclusion is. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." (3) REASON. an adjective. expressing the degree in which the horizon. since he was too great to care to be original. and what it modifies:² ." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. so far as we can. it takes precedence of everything else. shaping our actions." (9) CONCESSION." "Who cares for that. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. with examples." "When he was come up to Christian. tell what kind each is. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. the milestones are grave-stones." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study.² whoever. however good she may be as a witness." (5) DEGREE." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. he goes away as if nothing had happened. etc. or an adverb. adverbs." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. and adverbial conjunctions." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. Joanna is better." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. and will be given in detail.: "But still. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. the wider is the horizon of their thought. a verbal. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "He went several times to England." "The broader their education is. introduced by indefinite relatives. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." These mean no matter how good. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. etc. but they require careful study.

as they sometimes did. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. and twirling weathercocks. 'Well. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. find the principal subject and principal predicate. when the wind was unruly. If the children gathered about her. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. For example. with shrill. then treat noun clauses as nouns. predicate. object." 2. to tell the truth. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. 3. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. banging about doors and windows. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. howling and whistling. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. we are a little disappointed. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. etc. they might perhaps say of their visitors.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. 379. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. its object is that Odin was a reality. so as to picture the parts and their relations. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ ." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. snatching up stones to fling at them. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. and modifiers.1. incoherent exclamations. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. of which clause Odin is the subject. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. on a dark wintry night. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. 380. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. in the sentence.

as seen in the "map" (Sec.. d.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. . (1) Find the principal clause. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 3. 380). Take the place and attitude which belong to you.. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. Exercises. 364. 2. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 364.

He was what our country people call an old one. 6. bishop. 14. counselor that had none for herself. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 17. which. could not have been effected. if applied to the Bible. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. who would yield to it least. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Now. 18. Had they been better chemists. 8. 9.4. 13. Here lay two great roads. I like that representation they have of the tree. 11. as for armies that were too many by half. M. 19. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 21. namely. 22. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 16. Next came a wretched Dominican. whom I choose. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. The night proved unusually dark. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. the shepherd girl. 15. The deep eyes. 7. dying for them. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. of a light hazel. or whether any. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. But now that she has become an establishment. 10. the flower should revive for us. the mixed result. This is she. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. And those will often pity that weakness most. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. that. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 20. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. that pressed her with an objection. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 24. for yours. 5. had we been worse. not so much for travelers that were few. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. . 23. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 12.

and stamped with his right number. COMPOUND SENTENCES. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 28. Hence the definition. These things we are forced to say. 3. that it was no more than his daily walk. we cannot adequately say. 382. and temper. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. though we may repeat the words never so often. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 5. questions." 4. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 2. It makes no difference how many friends I have. . "No book. but above it. (b) First analyze. How formed. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 383. 380. if continuously extended. 7. and what content I can find in conversing with each. "was ever written down by any but itself.25. or commands. then map out as in Sec. if there be one to whom I am not equal.² Definition. and not from his heart. 6. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 26. is to speak and write sincerely. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 30." said Bentley. speed. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 27. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. That which we do not believe. would easily reach.²which will not be disposed of. the following complex sentences:² 1. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements.

and none but he knows what that is which he can do. which are simple statements. and it shall be the universal sense." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. Some of these are now conjunctions. in (2). Thus in (1). Another example is. and not the form of the connective. nor. Of the following illustrative sentences. Speak your latent conviction. he is twice a man. Study the thought. if there are any. 385. etc. he walks with arms akimbo. and which complex:² 1." 384. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. moon-like ray" (adversative). whereas. yet. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. etc. from the second. however. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and connects the first and second complex members. 297). as in Sec. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. tell which are compound. and nor the second and third complex members. he dilates. a simple member. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). the waving grass. the semicolon separates the first. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. for.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. 383 (1). Exercise. "Only the star dazzles. a complex member. 386. in (3). while (whilst). or but. The coördinate conjunctions and.. . The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. Connectives. nor does he know until he has tried. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. now adverbs or prepositions. others sometimes coördinate. he soliloquizes. the planet has a faint. The division into members will be easier. as but. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses.

so is every one of its parts. 9. 7. Man does not stand in awe of man. he grew up to be a mild. nay. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 381. I can yet love. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. and for everything you gain. Love. 6. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. For everything you have missed. is particular. 3. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 13. and thou shalt be loved. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 12. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. for example. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. Whilst the world is thus dual.2. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 8. 4. All loss. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. you lose something. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. all pain. from a happy yet often pensive child. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 3. that it was Easter Sunday. quiet. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. passed in that time. 14. or. Exercise. 387. yield to them heart and life. 4. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. the tax is certain. 5. 10. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. unobtrusive boy. to find a pot of buried gold. and as yet very early in the morning. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. however. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. 11. . the universe remains to the heart unhurt. The gain is apparent. 2. I can still receive. and not by what each is. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 364. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. In this manner. (i) Separate it into its main members. you have gained something else. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his.

let them mount and expand. 11. They will shuffle and crow. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 18. 9. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. or we read books. because. "as nigh the scythe as you can. 15. 19. He teaches who gives. give those merits room. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and they will be true to you. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 17. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and the cart as nigh the rake. and not a thought has enriched either party. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. why should we intrude? 10. if you rip up his claims. and they will show themselves great. and not an emotion of bravery. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 14." "keep the rake. modesty. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. We go to Europe. whilst frankness invites frankness." 13. or hope. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. one is afraid. or we pursue persons. and makes their business a friendship. treat them greatly. and the peace of society is often kept. 21." says the haymaker.5. as children. 8. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and he learns who receives. When you have chosen your part. or men will never know and honor him aright. only that they may brag and conquer there. "Strike. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. crook and hide. and they repel us. or sail with God the seas. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 20." says the smith. Stand aside. 6. 7. Trust men. feign to confess here. We see the noble afar off. abide by it. is as thin and timid as any. Whatever he knows and thinks. puts the parties on a convenient footing. "the iron is white. 16. and the other dares not. Come into port greatly. that let him communicate. . Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats.

that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Following the Latin method. 390. By way of introduction. Essential point in English syntax. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. So does culture with us. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. but its leading characteristic is. Do not craze yourself with thinking. 24. it ends in headache. SYNTAX. 23.22. but they never acquit the debt. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. pronoun and antecedent. INTRODUCTORY. they die young. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. We see young men who owe us a new world. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. or. and dodge the account. but go about your business anywhere. so readily and lavishly they promise. Ground covered by syntax. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. adjective and noun. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 380. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. if they live. verb and subject. 25. they lose themselves in the crowd. 388. PART III. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement.²agreement and government. it never was known to fall into the rear.

The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. therefore. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. and added to it the preposition of. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. The basis of syntax. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. etc. "The savage here the settler slew. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. pronoun and antecedent. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. or when they exist side by side in good usage. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. "None remained but he. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. but are not now. or the same writer will use both indifferently. sometimes verb and subject. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Why study syntax? 391." that is. distinct forms would be used. This is not logical." is ambiguous. both forms will be given in the following pages. authorities²that is. Savage may be the subject. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. As an illustration of the last remark. also expressing a possessive relation. some of which conform to classical grammar. Second. as to study inflected forms. When usage varies as to a given construction. or settler may be the subject. and imitate it. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. In Latin. Some rules not rigid. . while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language)." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. 392. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. good English. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. There is. In some cases. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. and whose judgment. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and nothing but important points will be considered. the order being inverted. and it would not matter which one stood first. then. take the sentence." In this there is a possessive form. 393. the sentence. following the regular order of subject. Also in the sentence. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree.² First. For example.

But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²MCCULLOCH. He kept Bolingbroke's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Mill's and Mr. 408).²BYRON. 394. ²ID. and Pope's. Use of the possessive. and Peter's. 396. and Harley's. the antechamber of the High Priest. or indicate joint ownership or possession.²MILTON. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²THACKERAY. Separate possession. Joint possession. PRONOUNS.² Live your king and country's best support. etc. Putting Mr.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. as. 395.²ROWE. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. the shore of Galilee. Bentham's principles together. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. and Paul's." Juletta tells. sense and nature's easy fool. Woman.²MACAULAY. . but imply separate possession or ownership. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²RUSKIN. for example.²EMERSON. and Peterborough's. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. 397.² He lands us on a grassy stage.NOUNS. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.

I. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.²POPE. others are generally.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. 399.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. No mightier than thyself or me. there are two general rules that require attention. the last expression has the support of many good writers.²WHITCHER. Since most of the personal pronouns. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. whom is the complement after the verb am.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville." 400. thus. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. General rules. together with the relative who. the real thought being forgotten.²TROLLOPE. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. Still. 398. Objective for the nominative. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. as. Some of the violations are universally condemned. But he must be a stronger than thee. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²SHAKESPEARE. sanctioned. Bedott Papers. This should be "as she. if not universally. who.) "The young Harper.²SOUTHEY.²BYRON. for example.²THACKERAY. . and should be the nominative form.

The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²MACAULAY. and the other forms of the verb be."²WINTHROP. for example. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. unless a special. Patrick the Porter. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. namely. as. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. ."²WM. The camp of Richard of England. "If there is any one embarrassed. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. But still it is not she. The usage is too common to need further examples. BLACK. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne." There is no special reason for this. A safe rule. One exception is to be noted.²SCOTT. are. is.² One I remember especially. it will not be me." 401.²KINGSLEY. "Than whom.²FIELDING.²THACKERAY. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.²RUSKIN. "Who's there?"²"Me. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. And it was heThat made the ship to go. on the other hand."²KINGSLEY.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.² For there was little doubt that it was he. In spoken English.²LONGFELLOW.²PARTON. both in England and America. they are yet holier than we. the objective form is regularly found. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²COLERIDGE. but such is the fact. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.

as. 7.Exercise. as this from Shakespeare. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. or this. Nominative for the objective. 4. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. now. 403. as. 5. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 8. Me in exclamations. object of saw). (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. or us). We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. Truth is mightier than us all. 9. verbal." 6. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. and prepositions. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. ." the word being in apposition with murderer). verbals. 10.²MILTON. You know whom it is that you thus charge. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 3. you or me. as. It is not me you are in love with. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 11. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 2. If there ever was a rogue in the world.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. (3) By forgetting the construction. or preposition which governs it. I speak not to" (he should be him. used after verbs. "Ask the murderer. the object of to). 404. it is me. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. but not he" (he should be him.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. Whom they were I really cannot specify. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women.

Thou. as well as the objective. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. who interrogative. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.Shall be left upon the morn. "Who were they talking to?" etc.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. 406.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. as. and is usually avoided. for example. Thy shores are empires. but he.²BYRON. None.Exception 1.²STEELE. 405. all but he. We regularly say. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. partial Nature. as. Exception 2.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. save thou and thine.²KINGSLEY. Who have we here?²ID. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Exercise. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²GOLDSMITH.² All were knocked down but us two. 2. changed in all save thee. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. etc. "Who did you see?" or. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.²KINGSLEY. . I've sworn.²BYRON. Nature.²KINGSLEY. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. Let you and I look at these. I arraign. after the preposition but (sometimes save). The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. for they say there are none such in the world.

" 4. 12. 9.²C. 8. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St.²DE QUINCEY. As antecedent of a relative. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.²possessive. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.3. II. This usage is not frequent. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Preceding a gerund. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. They are coming for a visit to she and I. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. with Jortin and Thirlby.Ye I salute. 6.²THACKERAY. 11.²RUSKIN. POSSESSIVE FORMS. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 407. who. BROWN. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. B.²SCOTT. 10. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. Bartholomew. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. or objective? . Markland. 5. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. and they know that as well as me. They crowned him long ago. 7.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²MACAULAY.

and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. as he turned away from his wife. object of heard of. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.²DICKENS. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.² SCOTT.²RUSKIN. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. studying is a gerund. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. The last incident which I recollect. But in common use there is no such distinction.²BREWER. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.²MACAULAY. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.² IRVING. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. Possessive. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. [who was] studying law. The use of the objective is older. sometimes it has the objective. and the meaning is. We heard of Brown. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. and asked why it was not made. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.408. . In the examples quoted. Here I state them only in brief. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²DE QUINCEY. that the bitterness of death was past. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.²CARLYLE. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. Objective. etc. Both types of sentences are found.² THACKERAY." That is." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. both are gerunds. and that in the second. Why both are found. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.² CARLYLE.

it was his own fault. Watch for the real antecedent. Examples of these constructions are.²CABLE.²DE QUINCEY. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²RUSKIN. BROCKDEN BROWN.²C. If any one did not know it. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²THACKERAY. number. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. if the antecedent is neuter. The pale realms of shade.²DEFOE. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. preceded by a distributive. and gender.²DE QUINCEY.²THOREAU. . in one person. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²HOLMES. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. and ought to agree with them in person.²AUDUBON. or is a distributive word. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²when the antecedent. 410. In such a case as the last three sentences. the pronoun will be neuter singular.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²HUXLEY. taking in each of many persons. 409. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²EMERSON III. where there were examinations. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.² BRYANT. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. Every city threw open its gates. Everybody had his own life to think of.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.

411. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²EMERSON. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. By using the plural pronoun.²FIELDING.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²BYRON. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²AUSTEN.²ID. for example.² Not the feeblest grandame.²PAULDING. not a mowing idiot. and giving them means of being so. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. let them break it off. as anybody in their senses would have done. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²SCOTT.²HUXLEY. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. This is not considered the best usage. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²THACKERAY. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²PALEY. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Struggling for life. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Whosoever hath any gold.²DEFOE. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²ID. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. If the part deserve any comment. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²BIBLE.²RUSKIN.²PALGRAVE. till they have lost him. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. The sun. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. . Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.

"Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. 412. unless both genders are implied. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. and does not add a new statement. tell whether who. I. and he went away. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. but.²In the above sentences. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. .) and a personal pronoun. who went away. 2.²ID. the definite relatives who.Where she was gone. that being considered already clear. because. A relative. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. when restrictive. which.² SHERIDAN. which. or unrestrictive. as. 1. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive." This means. but. 413. etc. and that always restrictive. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. What these terms mean. In the following examples.²HAWTHORNE. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. in each instance:² Who. when coördinating. according to the practice of every modern writer. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. Exercise. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. As to their conjunctive use. no one could take upon them to say. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.²ADDISON." A relative. That is in most cases restrictive. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. "I gave it to the beggar." It defines beggar. and that are restrictive or not. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. Exercise. or what was become of her. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. It adds a new statement to what precedes.

or it might have gone hard with the tutor. BEECHER 5. However. 9.²H. For example.²ID. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. in the sentence. 7. 13. but. . long arms and legs. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. it makes the verb third person singular. 414. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.²ID. as that does not vary for person or number. We say I." that is invariable as to person and number.²HOLMES. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.² CARLYLE. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.²THOREAU.. and over England are saying.² NEWMAN. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. which was to go over the Cordilleras. 8. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.²DE QUINCEY.² IRVING. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. 10. On hearing their plan. A grizzly-looking man appeared. these or that which. 4. that were often vicious. down. etc. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. The general rule is. 12.²ADDISON. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. she agreed to join the party. etc. and it is called logic. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. Hare has printed. he. So different from the wild. W. Yet how many are there who up. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. The rule.² MOTLEY. who. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 14.3. 11. In what sense true. II.²DE QUINCEY. you. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. Which. they. etc. which Mr. That. because of its antecedent. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. 6. With narrow shoulders.

He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.] Both constructions are frequently found. but speaks of him as that sort..²SCOTT. [plural] that who. but the former has good authority. French literature of the eighteenth century. others regard books as the antecedent. [singular or plural. .. or which . the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. Let us be of good cheer. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. The fiery youth ." One of .²whether we should say. 415. T. A disputed point. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. The latter is rather more frequent.. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. in winning a battle. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²M.²LOWELL..²LECKY.²J. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. and in improving a victory. but myself. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. Franklin." or.²BOWLES.²LOWELL. and write the verb in the plural.²ADDISON. Singular. etc. He is one of those that deserve very well. JR. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. the true antecedent. MORSE. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. etc. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. ARNOLD. "one of the finest books that has been published. when he derided the shams of society.²HOWELLS.. who rarely speak at all.²ADDISON.²HOLMES. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. "one of the finest books that have been published..²MACAULAY. with one as the principal word.

²In the above sentences.²EMERSON.²DEFOE.²EMERSON. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.² RUSKIN. that is. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²ID. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. and see if the sentence is made clearer." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.In that same state I came.²CARLYLE. III. object of a preposition understood.And.²IRVING. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.A rare Roundabout performance.²BURNS.²ADDISON."²DICKENS. or where] he died.²SWIFT. Exercise. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. when the relative word is a pronoun. The same day I went aboard we set sail. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. 416.² . return. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. where.²VAUGHAN. But I by backward steps would move. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. and such like: as. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. when this dust falls to the urn.²SCOTT.²GOLDSMITH. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going." "India is the place [in which. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. whence. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. 417. IV.² THACKERAY. I could see nothing except the sky. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.

Anacoluthic use of which. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. which. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. boats. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. CHURCH.. if I had resolved to go on with. and working in the same spirit. was a discoverer. They believe the same of all the works of art.me as his apprentice.²WORDSWORTH. but which is usually carefully avoided. or that. ²GOLDSMITH. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. etc.²SWIFT. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Which.²ADDISON. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.² THACKERAY.² MACAULAY. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. I might as well have staid at home. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²FRANKLIN. Mr. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. Caution. with Turner. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. she passed the lamp over her face and person. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. as of knives. but. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. for example. he. but we find the relative who.²SCOTT.He considered. V. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. That. The regular construction. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner.² Which. 418. as is not used. looking-glasses.. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.²R. . W. if same is followed by a complete clause.² BURKE.

once a great favorite of M. 3. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. Exercise.²GOLDSMITH. But still the house affairs would draw her thence." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus.. 419.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. or omit the conjunction. . should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. Express both relatives. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.. After this came Elizabeth herself. Thornhill had read. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. (3) "Among the poorer sort. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort." etc." etc. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. That is. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. 1. 4.²RUSKIN. but. or leave out both connective and relative. And who. He delivered the letter." etc.² Direction for rewriting.She'd come again. and this be placed in the proper clause. 2. which when Mr. now thrown upon their.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY.²which if they once heard. le Conte.²THACKERAY. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. he said that all submission was now too late.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. But who. Exercise. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²HAWTHORNE.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. and which. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. but none is expressed. who are now thrown.. (2) "Among the poorer sort. (1) "Among those who are poor. or. etc. etc. As the sentences stand. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. This was a gentleman.²SHAKESPEARE. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. and who are now.

then. 10. 7. 12. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Akin to the above is another fault. 9. "What knight so craven. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . and which. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. and which has never been described. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. And which. 13. who.²PEARSON. which the Scotch had learned. But which. either from imitation of their frequent allies. . whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. indeed.²IRVING. 11." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. etc. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. and which may even be heard a mile off. the French.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. "A mockery.5. 1. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²SCOTT. English by name. Or who. Or which. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. 420. Dr. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. 8. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.²DE QUINCEY.. 6. and to whom no door is closed.. Exercise. one of signal interest. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. That . Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. etc. like that spoken in the towns. as a false and astucious mark. I saw upon the left a scene far different.. I shall have complete copies.² MOTLEY.²HAWTHORNE.. and repeat this for any further reference. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.

. was hung in air. He. half a century ago. Such as . but which. 3.²DEFOE. but which is perhaps not so different from it.²W. at the head of what. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. that. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.²HOLMES. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. That . He flung into literature. It rose into a thrilling passion. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after..²SCOTT.. 9. the dime. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and whose examples and principles we inherit. . 13.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. In my native town of Salem. 7. 12. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. SIMMS.2. which. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. 8. 6.²BEECHER. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. E.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.²HOWELLS.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. in his Mephistopheles. 4. 15. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.. what.. The Tree Igdrasil. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. I grudge the dollar.²SCOTT That which . the cent. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. G. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.. CHANNING. in his present condition. was a bustling wharf. 5. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. Which . and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. Such as . and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. I give to such men as do not belong to me.. 14. 11.. 10. which. that .²HALLAM..²W. I recommend some honest manual calling. and to whom I do not belong... Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. whom. such as they have very probably been bred to. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.

421.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. whether or not the two are equivalent. always at war with one another. Use of any. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. one another.²HAWTHORNE. Assume that no one is in want of either. that not all combined.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. . as it were. in which case any should be used instead. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. Distributives either and neither. 422. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²MACAULAY.²DICKENS. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. Each other. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.² Some one must be poor.² HAWTHORNE.²GOLDSMITH. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. as.²ID. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²RUSKIN. as. for example. and in want of his gold²or his corn. By their original meaning. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²RUSKIN. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. We call ourselves a rich nation. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²EMERSON. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.

any of his friends had died. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BURKE. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. Any usually plural. in the prose of the present day. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²FRANKLIN. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory..²BEECHER Whenever. let him ask of God. even in Bettine. 423. usually plural. any was often singular.²PROF. Caution. that I know of. and is isolated. when any of them are so good as to visit me..²EMERSON. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. if ever man was. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. The adjective pronoun none is.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be..²THACKERAY. None usually plural. during his stay at Yuste.²CARLYLE. as. as. as none of the French philosophers were. Examples of its use are.²SHAKESPEARE.² EMERSON.²BIBLE. in Shakespeare. In earlier Modern English. etc. afterwards in Goethe. at one time in Bacon. None of Nature's powers do better service. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.²STIRLING. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. before that. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. Do you think. Do you think. speak. then in Plutarch. . for him have I offended.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²SCOTT.² If any. I beseech you. If any of you lack wisdom. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. 424. then in Plotinus. which is plural as often as singular.² In earnest. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. whilst I still cherish their genius.

Somebody's else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. etc. when it means all persons: for example.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. and all was lost on the other..²McMASTER.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. for example. and Ford has nobody's else. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . are treated as units. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. the plural.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.. etc. etc.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. The compounds somebody else. any one else. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.²NAPIER Plural. When all were gone.²SCOTT Like the use of any. which is used absolutely.² PEARSON. and less rarely in poetry.²THOREAU. 425.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. nobody else.² None of them was cleansed. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. that all was lost. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.. etc. as.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. The light troops thought . fixing his eyes on the mace.² Singular.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. or somebody else's? 426. saving Naaman the Syrian.

²THACKERAY.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²RUSKIN. These sort.² FIELDING. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.² These kind of knaves I know. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. or some other such great man as a bishop. etc. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).² Saturday Review. Again. ELIOT. 427.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case." "those kind of trees. London. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got..²in such as "these sort of books.²DICKENS. or those sort of people. Whitefield or Wesley. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. WILLIS."²MRS.SYDNEY SMITH.²SWEET.²G. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. . ADJECTIVES. the adjectives plural. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. STOWE. etc..²MULOCH.²AUSTEN.curled once all over it in long tendrils." "all manner of men. "Ye see. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. unlike anybody else's in the world. for example. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. all manner of." the nouns being singular.²RUSKIN. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²N. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. P. His hair.²SHERIDAN. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.

²a strong man with nothing but his fists. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. the victor or the vanquished. and in this way may take a plural verb. for example." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. such as. and the adjective is. gradually displacing the old. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. Should we say. to express a higher degree of quality. Consequently we have a confused expression. Use of the comparative degree. with all manner of amusing books.² PRESCOTT. History of this construction.²RUSKIN. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. Of two such lessons. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. "This kind of rules are the best." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. or the nouns to the plural. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. . as. 428. At the source. This the modern expression reverses." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject.² Which is the better able to defend himself. not "all kinds of wild animals. According to the approved usage of Modern English. when the necessary dispositions concur.The library was open. Later form." A question. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. they said. more alarming than a total silence. which accounts for the construction. or one object with a class of objects. in spoken English. In Old and Middle English. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. made to agree with it. "These kind of trees are best. Burke's sentence. "This sort of trees should be planted. The result. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY.

. 3. 5. 6.²CARLYLE. Even Dodd himself. if not. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. I am concerned to see that Mr.²MACAULAY. than any of his court.²WIRT. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. Other after the comparative form. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. by almost the breadth of my nail. To the man who plays well. Exercise. 2.²SWIFT.² THACKERAY. Superlative with two objects."²ID. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 4. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²TROLLOPE. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. would not have had the face.A braver ne'er to battle rode. etc. has sanctioned.²HAWTHORNE. Henry.²THACKERAY. He is taller. the highest stakes are paid. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²LOWELL. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Gary. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²HUXLEY.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. Use of the superlative degree. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. 429.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 430.

ha. Rip was one of those . I should say that one has the best cause. whichever can be got easiest. Come you more nearer.²GOLDSMITH. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. Double comparative and superlative. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. who eat white bread or brown."²GOLDSMITH.²TEMPEST. not a bit of high life among them. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. more particularly the last of them.. "Ha.²MRS. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. After the most straitest sect of our religion. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.²EMERSON. Mary. These two properties seem essential to wit. 1611.²ADDISON. In all disputes between States. The following examples are used purposely. Also from the same period.²HAMLET. OLIPHANT. "Let us see which will laugh loudest."²BULWER. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²SCOTT. and the other contains the best men. .²J. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. Examples from Shakespeare are. The eldest. and differ only in form. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense.²Bible. CÆSAR.²IRVING. 431.²BEN JONSON. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English."²HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN.²DR BLAIR. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.

The first five had specific names.²PRESCOTT.²RUSKIN.²GIBBON. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. . not only so in popular speech. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²KINGSLEY. but in literary English. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²LAMB.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. etc. 433. For Carlyle. Definite article. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.² With a singular noun. and conceit in the last. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. the Spanish. and Secretary Walsingham also. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. Three first. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The meaning intended is the same. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²ADDISON.²GIBBON. Instances of both are given below.²DE QUINCEY. The merit of the Barb. jar upon us constantly. ARTICLES. First three. Examples of this construction are. ²COWPER.²RUSKIN. As to these two expressions. The delay in the first three lines. etc.² SMOLLETT. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.

435. Frequently.²TENNYSON. 434. with a singular noun.²MACAULAY. of the higher and middling orders.²THACKERAY.² RUSKIN. With a plural noun.²NEWMAN. the thought and the word. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. but inseparable from each other. the hour of parting came. as. The flowers. Origin of the Aryans. as..²TAYLOR. with a plural noun.² MACAULAY. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. Here the youth of both sexes. as in Sec.²PRESCOTT. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. One object and several modifiers. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. No.. The lofty. Meaning same as in Sec. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. 433. and the presents.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.²SCOTT. to distinguish clearly. distinct. were placed at a very tender age. I think. 1508.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. of the eighteenth century. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. . The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. but is used with one only.²THE NATION. melodious.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. however. or to emphasize the meaning. He is master of the two-fold Logos. 433.²ID.²CARLYLE. Indefinite article. The not repeated. the greatest poems. and flexible language. having been arranged.

The indefinite article is used. But in the following sentences." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. He saw him in his mind's eye. 435.²JOHNSON. T. JONSON. as in the first three of Sec. One article with several adjectives. like the definite article. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.²THACKERAY. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. a collegian. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. For rhetorical effect.² MACAULAY. one noun is expressed. a murderer.²B.²S. to limit two or more modified nouns. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. only one of which is expressed. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. and a usurper. 437. 433 and 436.² BURKE. COLERIDGE. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²DRYDEN. a round and a square one alternately.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²MACAULAY. a tyrant. and inexhausted vein. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²DICKENS.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. . as.An early. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.²MACAULAY." and "a red and a white geranium. 436). 438. or clearness to each of several nouns. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²BULWER. rich. In the sentences of Secs. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.436. Examples of this use are.²BEECHER. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. interest. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. The indefinite article (compare Sec.

has got already.. then. without academies. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²The Nation. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. A broad and loose rule. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. 440. Singular verb. 276. for example. Collective noun of singular meaning. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. . (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. Another writer might.²FROUDE. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. Such. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.VERBS. Sec. all that academies can give.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. and the following illustrations prove it. as. Singulars connected by or or nor. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²W. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. 439.²GIBBON. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. In English. ARNOLD.²AGASSIZ. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²G. as. like some others in this series.²M. was the earliest American land. or the great intellectual life of our nation. He sees that it is better to live in peace. ELIOT. This was spoken of in Part I.²COOPER. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²CARLYLE This usage.

²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²BURKE. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. Q. but considered as meaning about the same thing. A fever. and other singulars of plural form.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. a loss of wealth. for example. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. (4) When the subject is plural in form. a cruel disappointment. nor Mahomet. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²CRITIC. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. other names. ²EMERSON. the cheap defense of nations. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²GOLDSMITH. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.² GOLDSMITH.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. as. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. No.²GIBBON. but each one emphatic. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²EMERSON .²J.² The unbought grace of life. is gone.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. as. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.² In a word.² Politics is the only field now open for me. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. for example. or as making up one general idea. ADAMS. nor Paul. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. a loss of friends.²DE QUINCEY. or considered as appositional. and every four hours. Plural form and singular meaning. nor John. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. Between ourselves. a mutilation.²WHITTIER.Jesus is not dead. that of a large town.

is divided into tragedy and Comedy. Here is no ruin.²BUTLER. To receive presents or a bribe.The author.² . as well as the Drama. with death.²EMERSON. thus. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. Every sound. Every week. There is a moving tone of voice. does not take the place of the man. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. every valet. every echo. the dismay. sir?" and the "No. was dazzled. as. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. almost every day. Plural verb. sir!"²MACAULAY. nay.²LONGFELLOW.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. no spent ball.²MACAULAY.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. no discontinuity. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. no. an agitated gesture. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. in a judge.²PRESCOTT. Subjects after the verb. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. wineBegins to stir itself. an impassioned countenance. was listened to for five hours. the wit. 441.² Asia. the ruin. is a man of wit. as well as the newest. For wide is heard the thundering fray. The oldest.²ID. no matter if the second is plural). Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. Every fop.²PRESCOTT. a cuirass.²MACAULAY.²HAWTHORNE. the fine gentleman. Then comes the "Why.²M ARNOLD. as well as Europe. many a. and such like adjectives. was like to crack. as. was punished.²RUSKIN.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²SCOTT. and greaves.²ID. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. a gorget. as well as sides. sir!" and the "What then.²NEWMAN. Her back.The rout. The Epic. every boor. each. the partisan.

TAYLOR.²ADDISON.²FROUDE.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. . The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²COLERIDGE.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. All our household are at rest.² GIBBON. as in Sec. Philip of Anjou. b). as. as with a subject of plural form. making up a plural subject. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. for example. its date.²DE QUINCEY. Far. are sufficient to attract a colony. a stream of fresh water. as. His clothes.²GIBBON.² A multitude go mad about it.²CARLYLE But its authorship. and its history are alike a mystery to us.² One or two of these perhaps survive. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. The conjunction may be omitted. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. The Dauphin.²SWIFT. but the verb is plural. far away thy children leave the land.²EMERSON. were men of insignificant characters. shirt.²B. the Duke of Berri. The travelers.²SCOTT. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. of whom there were a number. 440 (5.²FROUDE. a green pasture. Conjunction omitted. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.These bits of wood were covered on every square. A shady grove.²GOLDSMITH.²THOREAU.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²FRANKLIN. A party of workmen were removing the horses. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.

brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. nor should I. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. his blood dost shed.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. If there is only one person in the subject. This construction is at the best a little awkward.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. Exceptional examples. for example. . Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. Not I.But notice the construction of this. Nothing which Mr. You and I are tolerably modest people. 442.²LOWELL. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and." etc.²RUSKIN.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. nor has she").²SMOLLETT. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. hadst been my lord. General usage.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.). You and I are farmers. When the subjects. Second or third and first person in the subject. the subject being really equivalent to we. Pattison or I have said.²D. the verb takes the construction of the first person. 444. that is. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. Not Altamont. 443. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. "You would not be wiser. "He or I can go. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²THACKERAY. Ah.²BYRON.²GOLDSMITH. of different persons. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as." "She or you may be sure.²RUSKIN. but thou.²THACKERAY. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²M. "I have never said so.²WHITTIER." or.²DE QUINCEY. WEBSTER. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.²ROWE. but thou. we never talk politics. ARNOLD. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. as.

8. 440-444):² 1. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. Nor wood. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²G.²perhaps the devil. In a word. Exercise.²ADDISON. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. 12. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. BANCROFT. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. nor tree.Her course to intercept. 446. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²BYRON. In this sentence from Defoe. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.That neither of their intellects are vast. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.²and. 6. In the following sentence.²SCOTT. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. as illustrated above (Secs. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²ADDISON." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. Both death and I am found eternal. 4. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 5.445.²SMOLLETT. Neither of them. nor bush are there. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. 2. as we would hope. 7.² TROLLOPE. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.²ID.²THACKERAY. Also in verbals. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 11. 10. 3.²BURKE. 9. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . in my opinion. which it is proper to mention. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze.²EMERSON.²MILTON. How each of these professions are crowded.

as.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Of course. 3. to have seen should be changed to to see. if not. Indirect discourse means reported speech. for exact connection. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. 4. however.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. 448. The present rule is recent. I gave one quarter to Ann.²THACKERAY. But I found I wanted a stock of words. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.²DE QUINCEY 2. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. It should be remarked. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action." . which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²IRVING.²KINGSLEY.. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.²MACAULAY.² PALGRAVE 5. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. meaning.²FRANKLIN 6. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 447. Two samples of indirect discourse. CHURCH.. Definitions. Exercise. to have divided with her whatever might remain. change them to a better form:² 1. W. on my return. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.²R. Direct discourse²that is.

and the subjunctive mood of verbs.. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Sebastian's. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. The substance of his lamentation was. Direct. 1. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. . (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. have. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis." Indirect. interrogative adverbs. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat." etc. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat.. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. and the indirect question by whether or if. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. "I cannot oblige you . The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. His exact words were.. under interrogative pronouns. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. She thought to herself. introductory verb is in the past tense.. or regular interrogatives. will. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. 449. "Oh. Direct. Her prudence whispered eternally. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. 2." etc. etc. This includes the auxiliaries be. Summary of the expressions. Oh.

being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. handed down from his ancestor the historian." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. with his crew of the Half-moon. PARTICIPLES. and that he himself had heard. The trouble is.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. the sound of their balls.²GOLDSMITH.²ADDISON.Exercise. Careless use of the participial phrase. FRANKLIN. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. my first observation will be found nearly true." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. VERBALS.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. one summer afternoon. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. the first discoverer of the river and country. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²B. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. he assured me that nothing was more easy. in the sentences first quoted. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. if this were expanded into a verb. Notice this. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. . like distant peals of thunder. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. 450. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance.²ID.

Adverb between to and the infinitive. 451. In the following citations. leaving the principal statement as it is.²RUSKIN. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. then.. if a strike is to succeed. 2.²ID.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . There are. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. 3. Standard writers often use it." etc. the first sentence would be. universal assertion. . He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. It is a solemn. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. my first collection was. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. and often. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. either "As I was pleased. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.²SCOTT. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. while defended or excused by others. many things to be carefully considered. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.Correction. .' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. Exercise.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.²LAUGHLIN.. purposely or not." Exercise.. INFINITIVES. For example. This is the more common arrangement.. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.² HERBERT SPENCER. avoid it.. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.

²The Nation. even. Position of only.²TROLLOPE. The spirits. 1533. etc.² ADDISON.²RUSKIN." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. china. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. The rigid rule in such a case would be.² MACAULAY. are used. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. I wish the reader to clearly understand. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. A little sketch of his. ADVERBS. 5.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. when such adverbs as only. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .. In works of art. is to be very cautiously admitted. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.²BURKE. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. from Irving. Exercise. etc. but they are often removed from the exact position.²ID. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²GOLDSMITH. but it is placed before the infinitive. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 13. BLAIR. if they modify single words.4. therefore. 11.. 8. but cannot misunderstand the thought. No. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 452. 10. etc.²SCOTT. this kind of grandeur. 6. 9. which consists in multitude. even. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen.²DR. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. 12. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. and earthenware. 7. Now.

Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²CHAUCER. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 16. were he never so old of yeares. During the whole course of his administration. P. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²ID.²SWIFT. My master. 9. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 15. 11. The old usage. 14.²ID. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. WILLIS.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. for example.²N.²PALGRAVE. 3. 13.1. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.² THACKERAY. His last journey to Cannes. He shouted in those clear. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²MOTLEY. In relating these and the following laws. to avoid a crowd.²ID. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. Irving could only live very modestly.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 5.²MRS. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²THACKERAY. 7. 6.²EMERSON. . In Old and Middle English. GROTE.²RUSKIN. No sonne. might not marry. ²ASCHAM. 453. 2.²HIGGINSON.²COOPER. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 10.²MACAULAY. whence he was never destined to return. 8. 12. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²SYDNEY SMITH. 4. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 17.

4.²LOWELL. etc. but ought not to labor after it. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. under the influence of Latin syntax. when one of the negatives is a connective. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. This. can so agreeably affect. nor never shall. in Ole Virginia. as. 3. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. neither.²MRS. Not only could man not acquire such information. uncommon. 5. However.²DE QUINCEY. Exercise. who hadn't been to school for nothing. 2. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. . I never did see him again. ²PAGE. is not common. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. however. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²BURKE. 6. Exceptional use. and is still kept in vulgar English. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. if two negatives are found together.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. In the latter case.²DEFOE. and why:² 1. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. Regular law of negative in modern English. I did not act so hastily. The prosperity of no empire. But. one of the negatives is often a prefix. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. 7.²HAWTHORNE. In the execution of this task. as infrequent. Therefore.²BAYNE. denying each other. STOWE. There weren't no pies to equal hers."²four negatives. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.² HAMILTON.²HOLMES. STOWE. nor the grandeur of no king. the usual way of regarding the question now is.²GROTE. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way."²MRS.

.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. Things to be watched.. "well worthy to confer honor. especially both . but. as the use of the conjunction. either . "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. 454. as well as of the pronoun. not only to the success of their common cause. "A weapon. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals... as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. or with advantage. should be scrutinized... either. or... neither . or. or to reply to it.²LOWELL. there we were.. even neither . Choice and proper position of correlatives. and which... Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. The sentences given in Secs." both of the above requirements are violated. nor is often changed to not²either ." .. And who. nor. not or is the proper correlative of neither. if the last precedes a verb. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . not merely . 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here." may be changed to "This loose .8. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.. or to reply to it.²PRESCOTT.. CONJUNCTIONS. Correction. and. but (also)." Besides neither .. not only . the first ought to be placed before a verb.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. The sentence. 455. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. but to their own safety. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives." said the King. In the sentence. if the second precedes a phrase. the first should also.²SCOTT."²SCOTT. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.

and chop up their own kin.²THACKERAY. Exercise. Try and for try to. In the following sentences. or but that. O. 6. They will. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²BAIN. but grown-up persons. 8.²ID. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 456.²GOLDSMITH. but. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²S. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.² ADDISON.²THACKERAY. . The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 5. but they will outrage. not merely interest children. as. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²MACAULAY. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. substitute that. but.²RUSKIN. too. But what.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. 4. 2. 3. etc. and I don't know but what he was right. or the negative relative but.²FRANKLIN. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.Exercise. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.²GIBBON. Try and avoid the pronoun. or but that for the words but what:² 1. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Some exceptions. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. JEWETT. 457. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. as. Now." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. 7. murder. Correct the following sentences:² 1.

305. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.2. . There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.²BURKE. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. see Sec. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.² SWIFT. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. 313. 458. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.²SCOTT. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²ADDISON. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. no separation or division by twos being implied.² BULWER. PREPOSITIONS.²TROLLOPE. 4. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 6. Between is used most often with two things only. 459. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. as already seen in Sec. 3. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 5.²EMERSON. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Between and among.²EMERSON.²ADDISON. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.

Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. or one object and a group. Acquit of. Some of them have. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. LIST I. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. as. Derogatory to. Dissent from. Conversant with. averse. and philosophers like Locke. as. Dependent on (upon). confer. Accord with. ²EMERSON. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. .²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. by custom. and Stewart. Paley.: Words with particular prepositions. List I. Conform to. and another to convey a different meaning. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Such are derogatory. and Coleridge.²RUSKIN What have I. correspond. Averse to. Bestow on (upon). different. Different from. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Mackintosh. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Comply with. Two groups or one and a group. Affinity between. involve. 461. Abhorrent to. Kant. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. a soldier of the Cross.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Such are absolve. 460. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions.²KINGSLEY. etc.

LIST III. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Confide in (trust in). 462. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Confide to (intrust to). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. but it is not good usage. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). .y y y Deprive of. Correspond with (write to). Confer on (upon) (give to). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Differ with (note below). etc. Differ from (note below). Change for (a thing). as. Confer with (talk with). as. A taste of (food). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. as. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. List II." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Correspond to (a thing). Change to (become)." List III.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning.). Agree to (a proposal). 463. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Independent of. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. A taste for (art. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Reconcile to (note below). Involve in. LIST II." also of persons. Reconcile with (note below). in the sense of making friends with. as meaning to be in keeping with. Change with (a person).

" "die from. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." She would have been ready to die with shame.²BOSWELL. Take thought and die for Cæsar. No one died from want at Longfeld. die of. die for. It would take me long to die of hunger. I am positively dying with hunger.²MACAULAY. simply from old age. ELIOT." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. "Die by. expect from.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. die with. privation. died for love of the fair Marcella. "Die with. . ELIOT." etc. He died at last without disease.²MACAULAY. If I meet with any of 'em. as Cervantes informs us.y y y Die by.²FIELDING. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²GOLDSMITH.²MACAULAY. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. they shall die by this hand.²SCOTT. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²POPE.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. "Die for.²G. Illustrations of "die of.:² "Die of. People do not die of trifling little colds. part with. ²ATHENÆUM." (in behalf of). and ill treatment. She died of hard work.²G.²GOLDSMITH. die from. "Die for. ²THACKERAY. Who. instrument)." (because of)." (material cause.²BULWER.²SHAKESPEARE. "Die from. One of them said he would die for her." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. Expect of.²ADDISON. Part from.²BURNETT.

as shown in the following quotations:² Of." She will expect more attention from you. 464. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²BULWER. I have just seen her. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²TROLLOPE. Illustrations of "part with.²G. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. It was a little bad of you. Illustrations of "expect of. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²POE. which he would by no means part from. kind of you. just parted from her. Kind in you.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. I have long expected something remarkable from you. and hated to part with them. nothing better was to be expected.²SCOTT. ELIOT. 466.²WALPOLE. either of or in is used indifferently. "Expect from. as my friend.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²AUSTEN. ELIOT.²SHAW. 465. Cleveland was sorry to part with him." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. Of Doctor P.²BULWER." To part from you would be misery." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. His precious bag. With words implying behavior or disposition.²DICKENS.²WALLER." "part from:"² "Part with." "expect from:"² "Expect of. I can part with my children for their good.²G. "Part from. ELIOT.²MARRYAT. That is more than I expected of you.²G. .

Thou tread'st. nor explained by accuracy of speaking.²DICKENS. Very natural in Mr. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 14. thrown it over Amyas's head. but which the story renders necessary. It will be anything but shrewd in you. nor yellow. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. and ran up the alley. thunder.²TENNYSON. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. In. 1. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 6. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 7. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 9. But this is idle of you. the vast abyss. tedious perhaps. nor green. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 4.He did not think it handsome of you. In the friction between an employer and workman. it is commonly said that his profits are high. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 15. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. with seraphims. The noise of vast cataracts. 10.²BULWER.²BEACONSFIELD. 8. .²BULWER. 5. Hampden. 3. raging storms. 11. nor of a pale red. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 13. nor blue. This narrative.²CARLYLE. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. or artillery.

These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. what is a just and unjust act. you or me. 35. 37. Friday. were down with raging fever. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. and other angular figures.And were I anything but what I am. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 26. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. and most of us do know. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 22. but in the price paid to them. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 28. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 31. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. save Amyas. 17. Neither of them are remarkable for precision.I would wish me only he. 30. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 27. 29. 21. 32. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 20. 16. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. produce approbation. Squares. 38. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 24. . Every one of these letters are in my name. 19. triangles. The effect of proportion and fitness. You have seen Cassio and she together. 18. and almost as good as a pony. or how beautiful it is. But every man may know. (Sec.) 34. 36. 23. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 25. 411. 33. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. That night every man of the boat's crew. the acquiescence of the understanding.

47. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 107. 124. 239. of. of. 92. nominative. 91. . Adjectives. syntax uses Absolute. 116. He had four children. pronouns. from nominative clauses. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 260. of. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. adverbs used complements. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. voice. of. numeral. origin of. (3) Modern English. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. (2) Middle English.39. Abstract with Active Address. demonstrative. 25. A. adjectives. as. 102. 20. 124. 119. 40. nouns. 47. 89. of. from about 1500 to the present time.000 between them. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. as comparison definition demonstrative. 90. 133. 310. 98. article. INDEX.

to used of. 194. 106. 207. 48. parse. 114. 291. modify. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. compared. conjunctions. quantity. of. 115. 325. adjectives. 27. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. between of. 109. of. 148. parse. 99. of. antecedent. Alms. 103. conjunction. of. infinitive. 302. 325. 316. 323. of. as nouns. 184. objective. 195. 303. antecedent. and 185. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 242. 42. 116. 190. nouns. 27. form as as they to in as uses uses of. quality. 275. Agreement. predicate. adjectives. from to of. 97. 328. of. nouns. with with with subject. adjectives. of. 187. 287.from function how in not of of ordinal. Against. 183. . sentence. 190. 207. 262. 101. 303. 191. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. plural pronominal. 116. 104. 194. clauses. 239.

90. and. See with definition complex compound simple who. of. syntax As. Arrangement Articles. 84. 252. 124. 225. which. adjective. 294. definition how indefinite. 120.Among. 51. 150. 67. in in. 67. See 74. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. though. A. 331. Auxiliary if. of. of. 309. 264. sentences. agreement personal as pronoun. 295. which. 49. An. 101. 296. 74. parse. to of. 287. Anacoluthon Analysis. 198. 148. . of. possessive. of. 47. words between. derivation in definite. as uses verbs. of of of And Antecedent. 208. same. which. 120. after of. sentences. it. 271. pronouns. sentences. 300. Are. 127. syntax. of and pronoun of. 207. 231. definition of of of Any. Agreement. 79. uses As At. 240. 275.

Be. 210. conjunctions Cherub. uses of. 330. of. 161. objective. of pronouns. 194. 149. syntax of. . 279. 278. 278. 262. 283. Case. 110. of nouns. of pronouns. 39. 224. 260. But. 64. Brethren. double possessive. 262. Bridegroom. 37. comparison conjugation of. Can. 62. 46. of pronouns. adjective. 45. plurals of. of what. uses nominative of.Bad. best. possessive. 110. nominative. of nouns. in Old and Modern English. definition could. 84. number of. 48. Among. 63. 39. See of. of nouns. 66. Cause. forms. uses Better. Between. 46. with But By. of pronouns. 111. clauses of. pronoun. 195. of nouns. Children. of. adverb. of. 54. Case. 49. 47. Clause. 150. 279.

nouns. defective. predicate. 107. clothes. 307. superlative. 268. Cleave. English. 312. 315. material. 271. 189. of. 244. 43. 24. Cloths. nouns. proper. verb. and sentence. . 263. analysis of. 307. of. of. adverbs. 43. 108. of. 110. and forms of. of. 23. definition degrees irregular. 264. 248. predicate of and from from of. 18. 239. subject. 258. adjectives. of. in analysis. Clomb. 108. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. double. of. 113. 257. 18. of. 12. 257. infinitive. 305. of. sentence. 257. nouns. 111. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 53.definition kinds noun. 157. 158. plural of.

73. See in subjunctive. same words. other other parts of speech. 196. 328. 195. Agreement. pronouns. 151. sentence. 193. conjunction. to of.with Concord. 149. Dative Declarative Declension of case. and clause. sentences. 255. subjunctive. interrogative pronouns. of. 263. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. parse. See English. verbs. in Old vs. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 143. 231. 194. 149. pronoun. of of Conjunctions. conjunctions. definition how subordinate. correlative. 199. analysis. 194. Conjunctions. replaced by objective. 207. 66. 194. . of. adverbs. 195. 139. 188. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. conjunctions. sentences. 289. 269. 138. Can. pronoun. definition be. See analysis clauses. coördinate.

indirect. pronouns. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. See adjectives. 242. See See 48. tenses. duck. vs. Degrees. discourse. 320. passive adjectives. 315. 35. 90. with. Comparison. 288. of. by. pronouns. 303. verb. from. See 148. Articles. 333. of. Case. 99. 185. article. of personal relative verbs. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake.Declension. object. nouns. 43. 102. clause. for. of. 287. of. 242. adverbs See adjectives. Comparative. nouns. comparative. use of dies. 91. 152. Subordinate clause. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 160. . possessive. pronouns. 60. 102. with of. pronouns. 300. 80. 51. 26.

194. older. 299. of. 112. 34. 92. feminine plural English. 328. Each. pronouns. 110. 158. 241. vulgar. to suffix. one ( t). literary. suffix. Either. of. of. another. adjective. conjunction.Drank. syntax Each Eat Eaves. -En. . 40. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. other. plural. object. 255. 287. pronoun. possessive suffix. 90. 300. 51. 39. 33. of. of. 287. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. Empress. original. 158. spoken. 102. 42. pronoun. added suffix. adjective. ending. 92. drunk. of. complement. 240. 90. 38. the of sentence. predicate. error in sentence. 92. in 'Em. 33. 62. 257. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 234. 280. 12. Elements Ellipsis. of subject. 32.

with in sex. from. See Gander. Farther. object. few. 212. pronoun. Few. 30. 30. 319. 36. For. 30. nouns. fishes. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 91. Future Future tense. etc. 112. 103. plurals. 110. 238. First. uses Foreign Former. as a noun. as of from compared marking. 152.Every. First Fish. 148. two. Gender. 147. two a further. etc. 29. 32. other languages. first. 308. Feminine. of. to of. 43. definition distinguished in English.. uses redundant. 152. perfect. modes "common goose. . 211. expect gone. adjective. 102. 189. have adjective. the. gender." 31. 126. From. Further. 102. used of. with infinitive. of. 212.. 235. 48. of. 112. 287. 334. 45.

first sentence. kinds of. Grammar. 175. He. I. Had Hanged. 159. 10. 120. of. noun. 176. 173. had hung. person. 177. 60. from participle of. 12. 101. she. 43. rather. it. of. 159. 13. 61. of. of. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. . for before. pronouns. 36. 275. 12. and case verbal with. distinguished syntax. 35. forms in Girl.of of Genii. definition divisions opinions province H. pronoun. Gerund. on. an better. 231. 144. 60. personal relative geniuses. its. participle. definition basis of. adjective. possessive pronouns. 9. Government. 145. His Husband. 80. 61. 285. Got.

248. See you. 176. 323. words. 43. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. adjectives. in compared syntax. of. sentence. 153. 67. 188. elements. of. 136. 257. 245. adverbs. indirect of. a object. 283. summary See passive mood. See Articles. 131. verbs. pronoun. adjectives. . of. 105. 72. indices. 93. with of. questions. 231. use article. of clause. 178. Questions. 131. 85. mood.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 320. 233. transitive. uses discourse. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. questions. 73. your. 110. meaning. 227. Direct object. 319. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. of. pronouns. 276.

pronoun. Latter. See Madam. 63. 190. 113. -Ly. Logic Logical Lord. Lie. in little. 67. 227. lord. 281. queen. was uses me.. Lay. 36. Lady. 276. of. 110. Kind. lie. lesser. 91. English.adverbs. Lady. latest. subject form. a vs. plural. King. Last. 12. 170. 36. 126. 113. 39. 110. 189.. 245. 303. these double kind. Like. Kine. It. syntax. of. 36. . of. predicate. Less. 226. syntax the. 61. 102. of. etc. adjective." history etc. Lay. and See words in. "It Its. uses Literary Little.

326. Modifier. double. 135. 137. 137-144. Much. 160. 194. adjective. mine. might. 64. 110. 188. 256.Manner. 265. Negative. subjunctive. 126. Means. Many Mapping Mare. Must. 189. of. of. construction as of adverb. position adverb. 161. 112. -Most. 189. imperative. comparison Near. superlatives. of. of. sentences. 325. 185. 113. Neither. 287. Mood. 328. of. See definition 136. etc. 112. Mighty Mine. Enlargement. Modifiers. Master. 102. syntax conjunction. nigh. out of. . 187. 41. in adverbs comparison a. of. conjunctions Many. May. 36. syntax nearer. 34. of. mistress. 144. 195. of. indicative. 112. 110. 114. 110..

to of. become become formation case collective. of. half abstract. clause. words how compound. syntax in gender nouns. Nor. analysis. 17. used as. definition according of. 25. 328. 41 43. etc. 42. definition descriptive. 32. nouns. become neuter. 30. 41. class used singular. No Nominative.pronoun. 30. etc. nouns. 56. of. of. 17. None. of. gender how kinds material. 46. 126. of. kinds 90. letters as 24. foreign. 30. now plural. 124. 246. 38-41. 29. material. 41. 26. to use. 125. 19. common. Case. Not Noun Nouns. 92. of of of of of a. number once other plural. abstract. and figures. parse. of. 300. See 194. gender nouns. of. 25. 46. 45. 18. abstract. 258. 20. proper. . in. 38. 17 19. syntax Neuter or two News. 27. 301. 21. formed.

of. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 60. of. pronouns. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 48. definite. plural. 278. 235. See verb. See in in in Numeral distributive. article. 41. of. in nouns. as forms titles. 101. verbs. 195. pronouns. 42. dative. common. spoken of instead nouns. 41. 48. 18. conjunction. of. 23. 285. 148. . 42. 240. indefinite. English. meanings. 196. Preposition. 281. plural no two singular construction. with case. plural form. singular. 101. with with with Now Number. adjectives. 106. 41. etc. preposition. personal. 48. in article. of. 39. 124. Numeral Object. 48.. 43. 242. or plural. 278. 121. 48. passive adverbial. form. 282. 42 44. 92. 279. meaning. of. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. nominative. indirect. singular. of different possessive definite of. Nouns. adjectives. 102. 66.of same two with proper. and analysis. adverbial. 242.

213. 87. See pronoun. 237. a in adjectives. Ourself. One. Each adjective. 191. 56. Older. adjective. treatment comparatives. 194. 325 275. 306. 94. of. Omission On. . 116. Elder. another. definite relative uses of. 38. uses numeral pronoun. Pains. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 216. as of. part analysis. 93 other. of. 233. 117. adverb.syntax Of. Parsing. 161. Our. with (the). of upon. 127. of. conjunction. ours. 56. 64. See the as of. 69. of of of of of models adjectives. 279. 101. Ordinal Other Ought. 41. 91. articles. adverbs. nouns. 103. for. of syntax. 115. as other. position Order. 199. conjunctions. pronoun. 103. Oxen. 293. inverted.

article 150. predicate use of. 80. 174. 63. -ing words. of. 62. 56. verbs. reflexive. 180. 148. 119. used as voice. 134. or of. of. parsed. 322. 56. absolute with of. of. verb idioms it from. 59. possessive and of. pronouns. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. verbals. included various. and subject in. 28. pronouns. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. pennies. 173. 43. 172. . agreement of verb nouns. 70. 179. of. of. 59. 247. 172. 181. 59. 43. from definition other of. phrases. speech. pronoun. in. of. Pence. part adjective. of. 62. 335. 69. with. pease. 317. antecedent. 64. relatives. 281. 95. Person. 177. phrase. 287. 219. not is. them.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 61. nominative. 100. verbs. 27.

complete. appositional. prepositional. 281. 52. 106. Personal subjective. spoken of. of. 206. omitted. in of. conjunctions prepositions Plural. double. nouns. 281. 49. 285. 278. Place. 61. of. 60. relative. 's. or See of of See 185. 232. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. Comparison. 50. 236. plural. as double. Personification. pronoun. 236. of. 41. 53. nouns. 248. antecedent of of pronouns. kinds infinitive. of. 235. 54. 247. adverbs of. See 60. 25. of. objects. singular. noun nouns. 241. it. adjectives. 247. nouns. 245. of Phrase. of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of.objective syntax table triple uses of. simple. 53. 67. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. participial. singular degree. 303. vs. pronoun. Nouns. 303. 64. 245. 188. 195. English. Positive Possessive. 51. syntax of of Politics. 37. 63. of. 278. . of nouns. pronouns. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. of.

usually to as than. objective. Pronouns. 58. by parts of of. 287. 280. 283. verbs. with tense certain. as. after but. adjective. 203. 206. 299. case. 129. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 284. exclamatory. 205. 195. 303. in exclamations. interrogative. of. any. objective. meaning. plural. neither. 202. 95. speech. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. possessive nominative to of. all. 285. 104. plural. 203. 332. of. another. of. 302. 187. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. somebody definition how indefinite. plural. and form form form form of. adverb. 279. what. 89. future. Prepositions. as antecedent of relative. 186. singular usually other. 32. 105. 281. 283. 72. 93. and one with else's. . 105. 219. of. 300. 208. 300. parse. for predicate nominative. 301. 132. 333. each either. of. words. expressed as other of. parse. same used as adjectives. 59. of. case. 64. 282. by with shown certain of. who personal. 58. of. as 54. forms of. none. by.Prefixes. 147. interrogative. 331. 207.

295. agreement anacoluthon and as. from and interrogative. 85. 296. which. 69. pronominal pronouns indirect. conjunctions Quality. 297. 83. 99. with with gerund. 84. pronouns. 101. 69. 85. and relatives. and antecedent. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 87. nouns. indirect. in. of. 188. of. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 293. of. . 291. 142. 293. with who. 295. or of. 87. that. 263. of. of. Rather. personal pronoun. 80. 289. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. Quantity. who. pronoun. 105. 68. discourse. Nouns. in. adverbs in. 74. and which. 74. Direct same and different. of. of. questions. 58. of. which after same. unrestrictive. Questions. 286. parse. 279. indirect compound. same antecedent.possessive relative. 74. Quotations. Rank. See of. in. of. 189. use in as. to of. 289. 195. use of history formed.

in of. S. who. Simple in sate. suffix. 196. which. 43. 74. reflexive analysis of compound. Shear. kinds Sequence Set. pronoun. 294. Same Sat. that. of. would. object. 263. clauses of. See Sentences. simple. 42. conjunctions Retained Riches. 159. Seeing. 26 271. ending. 51. 231. 252. conjunction. plural possessive as. 170. effect. 255. tenses. Shot. Self Sentences. of. of sit.syntax use Result. complex. 196. of. 40. sentence. 69. 162. gender. of. Sex Shall. 319. simple of. of of of complex Sentences. definition . 231. 'S. 259. forms shots. and should. 29. will. 289. in form. 159. elliptical. 242. 195.

Modern use becoming else's. 32. names as a. literary clause. definition how kinds noun. Subject. 258. disuse in spoken complete. of. 137. used mood. in Middle English. 257. logical. 245. English. 257.. 260. 126. these number. vs. of. -es. English. other Such Such Suffix -s. 245. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. See -En. 240. 258. 270.Singular Sir. phonetic in infinitive. sort. 257. verbs. 303. of. . 262. of. 237. 303. 257. definition 67. 38. 12. distinguish. 323. 138. 33. Somebody Sort. adverb. 258. 144. Split Spoken -Ster. 186. 36. of. adverb. to of. etc. English. Spelling Spinster. 144. 233. 33. in feminine suffix. English. 169. of. -en. as. for. of. 38.

Tenses.. which. object. 106. 189. 147.. two basis not same definition definite. of. English. 280. not suggesting adjectives. "the then foreign. of. than of. 147. 309. . 88. that uses That. 106. coördinating. subject. Kind. 319. meaning. 116. 290. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 120. 306. 61. article. 186. auxiliaries. of. English. 307. 87. in double. definition in English Tense. meaning made up in Old of. and and of. 275. See etc. me. Then. of. of. 107. as adverbs. 109. adjectives. 222. this. form. plural as adverb. they. 275. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. of. 306. of . 33. objects. 152. adverbs. omission whom. in comparison. as history syntax Their. 297. 186.. of languages. restrictive. 147. 289. when relative. of." introductory. classical of. 148. syntax of. There These kind. 191. 108. of. 123. degree.Suffixes. 119. when as of. king. 277. as history The.

tother. in omitted uses T'other. 21. infinitive. 185. first. 330. 322. thy. . 33. adverbs those. first adjective. of. 175. used. to. of. suffix. 128. words. 248. verbs. 217. 180. 322. of. 20. 207. Thou.. analysis. exclamations. 172. infinitive. uses history of. thee. phrases. of. -Trix. See That. Utter. in of. 172. 114. Time. Try Two Under. See On. conjunctions prepositions To. gerund. 114. 247. 308. of. other noun. feminine and. preposition. 175. 195. of. Upper. 176. Upon. uttermost. kinds participle. 119. -ing 111. 181. parse. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 175. 323. carelessly uses syntax this. of. try two. 173. 61. from cleft to 174. 188. how infinitive.These. etc. certain as the before with of. 114. uses of.

voice of. 245. conjugation of. auxiliary. 12. of. 129. strong. in indirect discourse. of. 169. made transitive. verbs. 39. active. 157. Vocative in Voice. 312-316. 148. 148. but uses what. 33. with subject in number. tense of. how to parse. in person. passive form. defective. 47. person and number of. past tense formed nominative. table of. transitive and intransitive. definition of. 223.Verbs. 133. sequence of. 147. formed by. 242. 135. 131. intransitive. passive. verbs by. 151. What. 169. 319. active meaning. mood of. analysis. 330. 134. change. regular. 179. 312. agreement of. 320. 159. 167. table of irregular. 130. of English. weak. phonetic. 150. becoming irregular. 317. 160. 236. 154. . 154. retained object with passive. definition of. of incomplete predication. 167. 133. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. remarks on certain. spelling of. definition of. syntax of. Vixen. 155. 154. 149.

etc. 79. 178. 36. of. of. would. Yes ending analysis. questions. 111. questions. whereto. Witch. Will. pronoun. 104. in in indefinite objective. wizard. Y. 72. 299. 296. 75. questions.. 246. 36. questions. plural of in nouns -ing. 194. 37. Words in Worse. Woman. 218. worser. in. 72. Whether. conjunction. Wife. 78. relative indirect relative. 77. antecedent adjective. pronoun. 83. 85. With. relative. 190. 83. 85. 32. uses See Shall. 105. spoken in of.what Whereby. 295-299. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. a. relative. 85. animals. . 75. interrogative Which. English. in -ly. referring syntax Widower. direct of. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 40. 73. 72. 105. Who. 126.

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