roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

Produced by Stephen Schulze and the Distributed Proofreaders Team







Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

it will at the same time. if rightly presented. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Mental training." What grammar is. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Surely our noble language." and "Syntax. to those who have studied the language historically. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Making rules is risky. Coming back. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. from the question. . and thus incite his observation. rightly considered. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. An æsthetic benefit. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. Authority as a basis. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. so that a small grammar will hold them all. but this is bad English now. then. its peculiar and abundant idioms. If. their forms. This will take in the usual divisions.The province of English grammar is. with its enormous vocabulary. as. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). we have tabulated the inflections of the language. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. however. Few inflections. The work it will cover. is worthy of serious study. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). It is also evident. as compared with Latin or Greek. "Analysis.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Literary English. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. there is still much for the grammarian to do. A broader view. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.

and Inflections. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. NOUNS. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. by which is meant the free. PART I. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. the words sons and master name objects. then. too. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. The Parts of Speech.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Occasionally. Vulgar English. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Such words are called nouns. besides this one. and will are evidently names of a different kind.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Part II. and may belong to any of those objects. but. not objects. submission. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. that is. three divisions:² Part I.²GIBBON. The following pages will cover. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. as they stand for ideas. Analysis of Sentences.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. from the eighteenth century on. In the more simple state of the Arabs. or Syntax. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. The words state. Spoken English. Part III. . Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. or standard. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. the nation is free. 1. The Uses of Words. which belongs to a people. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. reference will be made to vulgar English. The plainest name is Arabs.

substance. however. or a council. They properly belong under common nouns. representing directly to the mind an object. a committee. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Collective. 2. 3. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. For instance. or idea. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. We may say. animals. This does not imply. reducing it to a narrow application. or things. belonging to one. MATERIAL. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Individual. or thing. (b) Common. 5. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. etc. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. Common. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Thus. but Chicago names one city. men in groups may be called a crowd. or a mob. Abstract. Besides considering persons. A noun is a name word. whether person. or a congress. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. animals. . possessed by all. as here used. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Thus. and appropriate names to the groups. the man here. or the man in front of you. Name for a group or collection of objects. is from a Latin word which means general.Definition. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. we may think of them in groups. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Name for any individual of a class. Proper. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. place. ATTRIBUTE. Classes of nouns. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. because each group is considered as a unit. and things separately. (a) 4. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities.

When we speak of a wise man. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. iron.Names for things thought of in mass. The reason is. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. dew. or apart from their natural connection. condition. as in calling a city Cincinnati. not things. moon. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. etc. wine. instead of to each individual or separate object." "Learning is hard to acquire. earth. They remain common class names.²There are some nouns. and fasten a special name to the object considered. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. wheat. world. gold. etc. but which are not called proper names. rock. mist. rubber. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. we speak of the wisdom of the man. proof means the act of proving. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. rain. platinum. "Painting is a fine art. . but in the words sun. Words naturally of limited application not proper. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. etc. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. expressing attributes or qualities. etc. earth. (3) Geological bodies: mud. considered abstractly. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below.. etc. and so on. Names of ideas." 9. however. frost. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). NOTE. such as sun. 6. etc. stone. Again. clay. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. sugar. frost. The quality is still there as much as before. soap. cloud. or actions. or that which shows a thing has been proved. sugar. potash. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. etc." "a man of understanding. rice. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. granite. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. conditions. etc. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. or action. paint. . Such are glass. sand. snow. It may. but it is taken merely as a name. wheat. we may say. there is no such intention. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. celluloid. 7. tea. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. expressing state.

as their name implies. five proper. five abstract. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. the teachings of the High Spirit. the main bearings of this matter. height from high. as in the expressions. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. 273). speech from speak. action from act. hopeful²hope. is used as a noun. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. the well-being of her subjects. etc. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. Thus. summer. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. Verbal abstract nouns.Attribute abstract nouns. the rude drawings of the book. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. a wedding or a festival. thunder. (2) peerage from peer.. the moon caused fearful forebodings. etc. stupidity from stupid. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. etc. childhood from child. shadow. 272. service from serve. 10. ease. II. joy. in the beginning of his life. theft from thieve. energy. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. 12. night. day. winter. The verb. there is time for such reasonings. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. etc. Caution. . They are only the husks of verbs. 1. her longing for their favor. kingship from king. he spread his blessings over the land. and they cannot express action. mastery from master. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. lightning. (1) prudence from prudent. those opinions and feelings. Such are beauty. by altering its function. NOTE. Exercises. They cannot govern a word. To avoid difficulty. hope. "a long run" "a bold move." "a brisk walk." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. Underived abstract nouns. redness from red. as glad²joy. the great Puritan awakening. but are merely names of actions. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech.

as physics. diphtheria. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. Using a dictionary. (b) branches of knowledge. pleurisy. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. geology. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice .2. mathematics? 3. typhus. catarrh. algebra. as pneumonia.

from a town in France. from China. 13. from Calicut. but most of them are in the following groups. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Proper names transferred to common use. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. a Lavoisier. a Hutton. from Oporto. who was its inventor. Others of similar character are calico. arras. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. 14. a Fourier. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. a Locke. the word port. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. as a davy. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Sodom was famous for wickedness. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. 15. thus. from Damascus. and lo! a new system. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. We know a number of objects made of iron.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. from Corinth. Material nouns may be used as class names. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. for example. from the name of Dr. port (wine). 119). Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. the guillotine. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application." referring to flat- . levant and morocco (leather). currants. Nouns change by use. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. damask. above. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning.²EMERSON. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. in Portugal. a Bentham. or to go over to it entirely. but we may say. Guillotin. etc. it imposes its classification on other men. "The cook made the irons hot.

examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. but on dispositions which require to be created. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. are abroad. clays. Traffic has lain down to rest. and only Vice and Misery. or made plural.²COLLINS. mists. Death. Next Anger rushed. Test this in the following sentences:² . paints.²CARLYLE. tins. 16. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. be spoken of. to prowl or to moan like night birds. that the power of art is founded on fact. A halfway class of words.²BYRON.²BRYANT. as stones. but in case an art or a science. They are not then pure abstract nouns. etc. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. nor are they common class nouns. candies. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. Personification of abstract ideas. a steel to whet a knife on. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. smiled. and so on. his eyes.irons. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural.²PERCIVAL. or the arts and sciences. or. a rubber for erasing marks. This is a poetic usage. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. etc. slates. clouds. that disposition is the thing to be created. or used as class nouns. (3) By poetical use. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. Class nouns in use. 17. The words preceded by the article a. tobaccos. on fire. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. and say teas. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. purity. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. are still names of abstract ideas. coals. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. which are made plural.²RUSKIN. For example. though not confined to verse. not material things. These are the same in material. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. the abstract idea is partly lost. abstract in meaning. When it is said that art differs from science. that is.In lightnings owned his secret stings.²HAYNE. but differ in strength. oils. From all around²Earth and her waters. papers.

And still.²SHAKESPEARE.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. By ellipses. All these." "a morning walk. a bill as to tax on the banks. loves. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective.²BURNS. which belongs to another word. When I was young? Ah.² BURNS. sir!"²MACAULAY . as each repeated pleasure tired. sir!" and the "What then. for example. and joysWhich I too keenly taste.²SHAKESPEARE. Then comes the "Why. as descriptive adjectives are. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms." which contains a pure adjective. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. a bank in New York. NOTE. Conjunctions. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. but is still a noun. 19. meaning a walk in the morning. make our own so. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.²EMERSON. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning." "a New York bank. the wealthy. they do not express quality. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech." "the State Bank Tax bill. however. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. or describe it. or from any expression. etc.Let us. 18. Adverbs.² GOLDSMITH. Adjectives. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. But ah! those pleasures. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Every why hath a wherefore.²IRVING. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. were mere terrors of the night. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. They are more like the possessive noun. if we must have great actions. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. "a family quarrel. Nouns used as descriptive terms. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. they cannot be compared. sir?" and the "No. fear thy blow.The Solitary can despise." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. nouns used to modify. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.

Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. The it. When.²These remarks do not apply. why and wherefore. Stone walls do not a prison make. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. but have an adjectival meaning. or a criminal. Now. Caution. in a sentence above. is the word "just.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. It is to be remembered. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. etc. to such words as become pure nouns by use." finally to stand?²RUSKIN." and another of Dr.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. in speaking of the principal of a school. 3. Power laid his rod aside. 1. 5. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. that cobweb of the brain. are spoken of as if pure nouns.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. In the other sentences. 20. but as a figure of speech. and Then. however. without reference to its function in the sentence."²B. or a state secret.Nor iron bars a cage. are used. FRANKLIN.. of words rather than of their meaning. There are many of these. whether it mean the sun or the cold." or "legal. 6. the wealthy. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. 7. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. at the beginning. is ambiguous. of course. . the terms the great. so. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. and tell to which class each belongs. Exercise. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. too. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. 2. or a faithful domestic. Learning. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. When. 4. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. NOTE. 8.

Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. A little weeping would ease my heart. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. and many other languages.9. always masculine. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. A fool speaks all his mind. GENDER. . the silver moon is gone. It is founded on sex. 14. 17. he cried. 19. 13. 23. in English grammar. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 12. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. and names of females are usually feminine. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. for every dropHinders needle and thread. that waits you here. The hours glide by. But pleasures are like poppies spread. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. Greek. 22.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. its bloom is shed. 11. 16. but not so in English. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. Male beings are. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 24. always feminine. 21. female. the welcome. The fleet. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. returned to Spain.You seize the flower. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. German.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 10. shattered and disabled. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. In Latin. 18. 21. 20.Fair guests. What gender means in English. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 15. And see.

applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. Thus. that pattern of a husband." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex." . or names of things without life.²gender nouns. and neuter nouns. All nouns. in other languages gender follows the form.²masculine and feminine. the name of it is feminine. in German. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. came to a stand just by the bridge. the word child is neuter in the sentence.. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. 23. "A little child shall lead them. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. Neuter nouns. are named by gender nouns. inanimate things are spoken of. mensa (table) is feminine. the sex being of no consequence.. that is. 22. those with which man comes in contact often. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. in English. must be divided into two principal classes. the name of it is masculine. corpus (body) is neuter. or additions to words. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex.² I have seenA curious child . hortus (garden) is masculine.When. Gender nouns.²LAMB.. then.. if of the female sex. Gunpowder . and consequently without sex.. For instance: in Latin. . der Tisch (table) is masculine. das Messer (knife) is neuter. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. if there were any signs of life in it. Of animals. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. 24. but are spoken of as neuter.²IRVING. He next stooped down to feel the pig. or which arouse his interest most. according to their use. those distinguishing the sex of the object. with its gizzard under its wing. clapping his burnished wings. however. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.² IRVING. according to use. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. those which do not distinguish sex. Hence: Definition. The great difference is. No "common gender.

[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. as in wine vat. but spinster has now no connection with it. (3) By using a different word for each gender. If such words as parent. teacher. 28. One feminine. from the masculine fox. generally to a masculine word. for from they said vram. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. they are neuter words. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Gender shown by Suffixes. II. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. ruler. . since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. though both words have lost their original meanings.. domestic. he-bear²she-bear. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. These remain in vixen and spinster.25. 26. I. puts a prefix before the masculine man. and for the older word fat they said vat. Male nouns beings. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. The inflections for gender belong. For fox they said vox. Very few of class I. According to the definition. is. or the lack of it. (2) By adding a suffix. 27. woman. servant. cousin. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. relative. Put in convenient form. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. Hence vixen is for fyxen. as he-goat²she-goat. the division of words according to sex. of course. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. etc. 29. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Gender shown by Prefixes. Native suffixes.

and are never used for words recognized as English. it has none now in the words huckster. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. These are attached to foreign words.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . señorita. -ess (French esse. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. 30.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. the one most used. but in most cases it has not. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. punster. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). Unaltered and little used. Ending of masculine not changed. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. Slightly changed and widely used. gamester. trickster. Low Latin issa). donna. as. as czarina. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. executrix. song-str-ess.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. as seam-stress. as. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.

neighboresse. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. as in the fourteenth century. chairman. etc. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. frendesse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. the ending -ess.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. Some of them have an interesting history. from Latin imperatricem. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. 31. neighbor (masculine and feminine). from the Old French maistre²maistresse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. to represent persons of either sex. fosteress. In some of these pairs. editor. wagoness. Thus. Instead of saying doctress. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. others have in their origin the same root. teacheresse. 32.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. we use the masculine termination. or servauntesse. as. NOTE. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. teacher or lady teacher. as." III. we use the feminine. as was said in the sixteenth century. from the French -esse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt .Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). Gender shown by Different Words. We frequently use such words as author. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress.

finally gander. The masculine was formed by adding -a. probably meaning house dweller). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. in Old English mere. Madam is the French ma dame. widuwa²widuwe. for example. It is not connected historically with our word duck. leaving our word drake. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning).² . 34. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. written loverd. Witch is the Old English wicce. though both are ultimately from the same root. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Icelandic gás. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. This gansa was modified into gan-ra.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Mare. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). as in many other words.). or lauerd in Middle English. but this has long been obsolete. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Widower. The older forms. the old sign of the masculine. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). gand-ra. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. 16). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Danish gaas. from Latin mea domina. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. 33. Besides gander and drake. had the masculine mearh (horse). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. became identical. etc. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). not immediately connected with witch. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Two masculines from feminines. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Personification. Three letters of ened have fallen away. lhauerd. among others) to be from the same root word.

but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. etc. The first two methods prevailed. for instance. eyen (eyes).²singular and plural. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. In nouns. and not by the form of the noun. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. in Old English. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. I. Definition. .Her home is on the deep. Our language has two numbers. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 35. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch."²BYRON. the plural. 36. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. 38.²CAMPBELL. 37.²KEATS. more than one. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. that is."Now. 39.²COLERIDGE. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. together with the third. (3) By adding -s (or -es). But other words were inflected afterwards.No towers along the steep. whenever we adopt a new word. NUMBER. (2) By changing the root vowel. the engineer speaks so of his engine. The -en inflection. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. Effect of personification. shoon (shoes). Britannia needs no bulwarks. treen (trees). This is not exclusively a poetic use. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.

Instead of -s. II.² The foot are fourscore thousand. Kine is another double plural. etc. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. cross.-En inflection imitated by other words. as. 40.² "God bless me! so then. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. sail. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. quartz. The words horse and foot. wight. that have the singular and plural alike. borough²formerly had the same inflection. after numerals (if not after numerals. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. finally brethren. Akin to this class are some words. etc. they add -s): also trout. Examples of this inflection are. 42. folk. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.Horse and foot. such as deer. Such are box. but they now add the ending -s. head. and is still found in dialects. etc.²THOREAU. glass. sheep."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. The old plural was brothru. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. . dozen. then brothre or brethre. retain the same form for plural meaning. Brethren has passed through three stages. 41. salmon.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. and get settled. by.²WHITTIER. as. or if preceded by the prepositions in. swine. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. Other words following the same usage are. people. when they mean soldiery.²MACAULAY. ditch.The horse are thousands ten. III. pair. lens. originally neuter. cannon.²Over the mountains winding down. after all. Children has passed through the same history. Lee marched over the mountain wall. but has now no singular. into Frederick town. brace. turf. heathen.

It served simply as a means of sight.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Two words. daisies. The lilie on hir stalke grene. allies. Special Lists. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. fancies. etc. Means plural. also news. a new syllable is made. and go over to other classes (Secs. half²halves. niche²niches. is both the science and the art of government. house²houses. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. 44. 15 and 17). Examples of these are. shelf²shelves. Formerly.²PROF. pains (care). economics. optics. the Washingtons. some adding -s. means and politics.Of maladie the which he hadde endured.. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. race²races.² Politics. and the real ending is therefore -s. quoth then that ladie milde. Proper nouns are regularly singular. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. chaise²chaises. hero²heroes. molasses. and some -es. etc. politics. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). So live. DANA. as. e. they lose their identity. physics. Words in -ies. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. though they are plural in form. the Americas. in its widest extent. summons. means: as. volcano² volcanoes. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. prize²prizes. When such words take a plural ending. and many branches of learning. Some words are usually singular.g. though this sound combines readily with -s. 43. etc. that when thy summons comes.²BRYANT. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. however. these words ended in -ie.-Es added in certain cases. e. knife²knives. etc.. fairies. mathematics.g. negro²negroes. 45. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² .

²G. With great dexterity these means were now applied. I say. however. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²GOLDSMITH. L. 46. By these means. W. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²GOLDSMITH.²BURKE. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. Now I read all the politics that come out. Politics plural. by those means which we have already mentioned.Words. CURTIS. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. if I recollect right. A relic which. Some words have no corresponding singular.²MOTLEY.²J.²IRVING. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. by strongly conveying the passions. Besides this. Sometimes. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.² MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. . riches will accumulate. LAUGHLIN. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. it is furnished with a forceps.

as two sixpences. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. die²dies (stamps for coins. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood).²one corresponding to the singular.² I lisped in numbers. part²parts: (1) divisions. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. the other unlike it. One plural. penny²pennies (separately). indices (signs in algebra).). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. two plurals. trouble. of a periodical.. In speaking of coins. pea²peas (separately). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. In Early Modern English thank is found.The air. (2) literature. . Tell me not. twopence. for the numbers came. faculties.. brethren (of a society or church). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. 50. ways. index²indexes (to books). or work in a bellows?²PROF. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. Three words were originally singular. pease (collectively). fish²fish (collectively).²was it subdued when. eaves. Numbers also means issues. (2) revenue duties. carry off chaff. genii (spirits).²POPE. (2) abilities. or epistles. may add -s. riches. dice (for gaming). 48.²LONGFELLOW. two meanings. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. pence (collectively).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. DANA.. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. (2) poetry. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). as in the lines. etc. making a double plural. fishes (individuals or kinds). shot²shot (collective balls). (2) care. These make the last part plural. Two classes of compound words. etc. or copies. shots (number of times fired). in mournful numbers. clothes (garments). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. sixpence. number²numbers: (1) figures. genius²geniuses (men of genius). 49.

there is some disagreement among English writers. Norman. but add -s.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Mussulman. the Misses Rich. Briggs. German.²DR. Brahman. firman. . though the latter is often found. woman singer. The chief member adds -s in the plural. such as talisman. or the name may be pluralized. Ottoman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. The title may be plural.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. the Drs. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Allen. Brown. 51. 52. As to plurals of names with titles.² Then came Mr. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. for example. as the Messrs. woman servant. HOLMES. Two methods in use for names with titles. manservant. as man singer. and Mrs. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. then Silas Peckham. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE.

²GOLDSMITH. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. or Anglicized.²THE CRITIC. Du Maurier. They are then said to be naturalized. Others have been adopted. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. FROM THE GREEK. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. These are said to be domesticated. The Messrs. y y analysis antithesis .Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. Domesticated words. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. 53. FROM THE LATIN. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Exercise. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.²GIBBON. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. or Englished. and retain their foreign plurals. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.²DICKENS.

also add -s or 's. and expresses a relation akin to possession. figures." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). In the general wearing-away of inflections. figures. they form their plurals in the regular way. Words quoted merely as words. Letters. In the sentence. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. etc. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. .y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. cell has another relation. as.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. 54. 55. Only two case forms. When the foreign words are fully naturalized.." CASE. without reference to their meaning. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. etc. 56. "He sleeps in a felon's cell." the word felon's modifies cell. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. Definition. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s)." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). as.

may be said to have three cases. whether inflected or not. three things characterize man. 5." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus." (2) As a predicate noun. 4. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 57. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. learning. Human experience is the great test of truth. when asked unawares. they returned to their homes. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead.²nature. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. and merit. excessive grief. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. and the possessive. Nouns. . (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. and experience." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. I. 3. the enemy of the living. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Uses of the Nominative.²person. 2.²one for the nominative and objective. Three properties belong to wisdom. Excuses are clothes which.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. 1. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. completing a verb. then.²the nominative." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. the objective. 58. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. fate.

they are sands of precious gold. measure. Conscience. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. reconciles. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. taking the object enemies. save. her first law broken. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. Uses of the Objective. etc." (4) As the second object. taking the object storm. wounded lies. good Heaven. completing the verb. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. as will be seen in Sec." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. 3. sword in hand and visor down." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. But of all plagues." Exercise. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. how have I frighted thee? II. 59. 68. 2. and landlord of the inn. and makest a calm. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. and being equivalent to one verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends.6. Set a high price on your leisure moments. (5) As the object of a preposition. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. thy wrath can send. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. They charged." (3) Adverbially. . distance. and tell which use each has:² 1. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. But the flood came howling one day. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. a patriarch of the village.Save. and meaning calmest. 4. 8. the word toward which the preposition points. 9. (in the older stages of the language. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." "Thou makest the storm a calm.

This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. as in these expressions. or in writing yesterday's elegy. 7. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. 10.And gave the leper to eat and drink. as shown in the sentences. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. The possessive case always modifies another word. The noblest mind the best contentment has. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.²ADDISON. tempests that .e.² The unwearied sun. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. 60.²BYRON. Uses of the Possessive. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. 8. the most common of all.Does his Creator's power display. 9. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. It is a poetic expression. Possession in some sense is the most common. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. as.. (2) Objective possessive. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. III. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. from day to day. expressed or understood. And whirling plate.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. 6.5.His winter task a pastime made. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. and forfeits paid. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.²HAWTHORNE. the Great Stone Face.²SHELLEY. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. (3) Subjective possessive. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 61.

and Obj.. 56). in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example.e." etc. as schoolboys sometimes write. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. As said before (Sec." "mannes herte [heart]." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. "George Jones his book.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. To form the possessive plural. How the possessive is formed. in Chaucer. there are only two case forms. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.. the panther which the forest hides). Case Inflection. lady Poss. Nom. child NOTE. 63. The use of the apostrophe. "From every schires ende. growth which several days had developed). expressing the relations of nominative and objective. however. 62. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. One is the simple form of a word. 64." Use of the apostrophe. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. and Obj. PLURAL.winter is likely to have). Nom. Poss. A false theory.e. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. making the possessive singular. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. 62. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. A suggestion." "at his beddes syde. Declension or inflection of nouns. 1. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. .

the items of my son's. Captain Scrapegrace's.² LOWELL. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience.²CARLYLE. a word with a phrase. dwelling. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. 67.²HOLMES. some such word as house. and from a desire to have distinct forms. etc. 66. James's. know the amount of my income.²DE QUINCEY. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. store. as. but to the ear all may be alike. for goodness' sake. Cervantes' satirical work. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows." Possessive with compound expressions. as. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Kate saw that. church. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.²RUSKIN. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive."²DE QUINCEY. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.. In compound expressions.Though this opinion was untrue. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. being understood with it: for example. in the name of the emperor their master." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. stands up for God's truth one man. etc. 65. and she walked off from the don's. the possessive sign is usually last. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. . and the connection must tell us what form is intended.²THACKERAY. instead of the emperor their master's name. my neighbors. as by the countess's command. I remember him in his cradle at St. Peter's. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. Possessive and no noun limited." "A postscript is added.²SWIFT. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. containing words in apposition. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase.

and I used to like whatever they bade me like. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. sometimes they are used together. every. In most cases. If.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Both of these are now used side by side. and at the same time by a possessive noun. in such a sentence as. Blair).. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. each. as one modifier.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony.The double possessive. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.²E. no. the. (3) It prevents ambiguity. this. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . (See also Sec. and tell whether each is appositional. For example. 87. objective. 68. Clearness. that. the statement clearly means only one thing. corresponding to 's. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. however. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. Emphasis. 2. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. the sentence might be understood as just explained. HALE.²CARLYLE. especially when used with this or that. or subjective. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. a double possessive. E. we use the phrase of Atterbury. any. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns.²FROUDE. (b) Rewrite the sentence. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. making a double possessive. etc. A peculiar form. Exercises. ill-lighted except where she stands. 1. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. (1) When a word is modified by a.

never in the tongueOf him that makes it. with every garland crowned. 14. 11. it seemed. 69. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 4. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. let him seasonably water the one. 10. 6. 8. we state. some idioms²the double possessive. in parsing a noun. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Now the bright morning star. 7. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. In parsing. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. Friend. Jove laughs. 13.A weary waste expanding to the skies.Comes dancing from the East. 5.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 12. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence.3. day's harbinger. and destroy the other. Nature herself. 70. Hence. I must not see thee Osman's bride. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. At lovers' perjuries. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience.They say. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. therefore. 9. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. There Shakespeare's self. 15.² .

it is the object of the preposition by. determining its case. it is the name of a male being. the connection shows a male is meant. it has no sex. singular number. a withered serving man. MODEL FOR PARSING. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. Neckcloth. and number. hence it is a common noun. masculine. hence objective case. 2. it expresses time. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. That in the captain's but a choleric word. therefore possessive case. NOTE.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. it expresses possession or ownership. gender. a fresh tapster. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. and relations. has no governing word. names one thing. (3) Whether singular or plural number. proper. 68). therefore singular number. 71. subject of the verb is understood. it denotes only one person. object of the verb takes. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. like miller's. Thief is a common class noun. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. is a common class noun. and to have it found out by accident. etc. Throat is neuter. inflections. 4. therefore masculine gender. as to case. 3. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. and therefore nominative case. and limits neckcloth. if the latter. hence it is objective case.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. Exercise. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. (4) Its office in the sentence. hence it is a gender noun. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. therefore neuter.²common. . but is the adverbial objective. therefore singular number. In parsing any word. which gender.(1) The class to which it belongs. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. The correct method.

(2) Interrogative pronouns. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome.. Definition.²palace. and representative words. 10. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. sleep! 6. instead of saying. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. or for a group of persons or things. 72. standing for a name. Jarley's back being towards him. financial minister to Louis XVI. castle. Madame de Staël. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.. 73.. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. . if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 11. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. 7." Again. and his daughter. were natives of Geneva. blessings light on him that first invented . but by a question we say.5. Now. He giveth his beloved sleep. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. For instance. from a necessity for short." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. or for a person or thing. we evidently cannot state the owner's name.And hated her for her pride. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. and prison. A pronoun is a reference word. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Necker. PRONOUNS. all in one. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. A few miles from this point. Classes of pronouns. 9. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. The need of pronouns. 8. 76). Mrs. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. where the Rhone enters the lake. definite.

Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. I Poss." Person of nouns. and the person or thing talked about. which cannot be used as adjectives. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 76. 75. From analogy to pronouns. (3) Third person. Three persons of pronouns. "the distinction of person. representing the person speaking. Person in grammar. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. primarily adjectives. which have forms for person. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. that is. which relate or refer to a noun. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Nom. words. we our. representing a person or thing spoken to. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. 77.. as nouns have the same form. (2) Second person. (4) Adjective pronouns. the person or thing spoken to. my Plural. they must represent the person talking. they are said to have person by agreement. or other word or expression. Singular. (5) Indefinite pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 74. ours . It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. even if it had a special form. This gives rise to a new term.(3) Relative pronouns. mine. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. pronoun.

neuter. Obj. your. Singular. Old forms. Obj. Obj. Nom.Obj. you your. namely. feminine h o. The speaker may be either male or female. thine. thou thee ye you you your. yours you Plural. Obj. in the singular. But the third person has. or. Poss. Old Form Common Form. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Nom. they their. Third person singular has gender. of all Three. theirs them Neut.. SECOND PERSON. hers her Plur. she her. Nom. 78. Nom. it its it Poss. and also for the neuter. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. a separate form for each gender. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. First and second persons without gender. yours you THIRD PERSON. thy Remarks on These Forms. yours Poss. . me us Singular. Masc. he his him Fem. masculine h . Poss. by personification. neuter hit.

²BEECHER. etc.Thou lovest. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. just as we now say. and sometimes its. to thy care we commit the helpless. it." As shown above. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. (2) In addressing the Deity. 80.. thou Shepherd of Israel.:² (1) In elevated style. which was often sounded with the h silent. Two uses of the old singulars. especially in poetry. two modern uses of thou. In spoken English. as in prayers.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. them. thy. even when referring to a single object.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. as possessive of it. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. . heora. as. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. 82. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. their. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. 79. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. This is of comparatively recent growth. 81. Thou. heom..Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). which is a neuter noun. There are. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. Second person always plural in ordinary English. etc.²SHELLEY. We use it with a plural verb always. The form its. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. however. in Old English. the forms they. for example. The consequence is. that didst comfort thy people of old. The plurals were h . etc. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The old form was his (from the nominative hit).² Oh. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. thee.

or. In spoken English. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns.²COWPER. she. sometimes his and its. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. Nominative forms. to personify objects (Sec. hers. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. ²SHAKESPEARE. though ye is occasionally used as objective. and not make more classes. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. your. thy. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. us. Absolute personal pronouns. they have a nominative form. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. theirs. 84 are always subjects. their. thou. "I am sure it was him. he. her. him. Not a separate class. thine.Use of the pronouns in personification. I spare thee mine. and follow the usage of literary English. Old use of mine and thine. us. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. when they occur in the predicate position. in such a sentence as. him. That is. and sometimes in ordinary speech. her. ye. our. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. And since thou own'st that praise. them. 'tis his. they.²LANDOR. Additional nominatives in spoken English. them." the literary language would require he after was. and has been slave to thousands. 86. yours. The forms mine. 83. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. 34). The Possessive. The words I. . his. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. though those named in Sec. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 58).²BULWER. The forms my. her. for. Yet careful speakers avoid this. besides a nominative use. note the following:² 'Twas mine. 84. its. we. have a peculiar use. me. some say. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. however. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. II. I The Nominative. 85.

it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. T. are really double possessives. theirs. as in nouns.²ID. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. Their uses. or satire. pluck it out. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. his. theirs. (3) To express contempt. thus. hers. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. The forms hers. FIELDS. Besides this. . and with mine.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. F. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection."²SCOTT. Give every man thine ear. we have. for example. thus.²J. commenting upon a letter of mine. ours.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.²CARLYLE. yours.²THACKERAY. Like the noun possessives. This ancient silver bowl of mine. thine. in that old Edinburgh house of his. it tells of good old times.² CARLYLE. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.²ID. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. we find. 87. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.²J. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. sometimes its.²BIBLE. Double and triple possessives. but few thy voice. (2) To bring emphasis. "Hold thy peace. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. anger. COOPER. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²SWIFT. This usage is still preserved in poetry." said Henry Woodstall. If thine eye offend thee.²THACKERAY. yours. ²HOLMES. ours. Long Allen.

" "None but the brave deserves the fair. In such sentences as. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. "The good alone are great.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. Now the objective. but not in form. Both joined in making him a present." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. or use in a sentence. III. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. 20. the thing is done. and mine in the second has an objective use. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. for whose benefit. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. as it is called. . as shown in Sec. was marked by a separate case.²ID. They all handled it. But the first two have a nominative use." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²BIBLE. but the form is the same as the objective. 86: mine stands for my property. The Objective. his for his property. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. 89.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. 88. this dative use. The old dative case. Curse me this people. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. 90.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. but nominative or objective in use. mine stands for my praise in the second. In their function. but expresses for whom. Besides this use of the objective. In pronouns. in the first sentence.

in this century. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. was passed by with indulgence. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.² . SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.Time is behind them and before them.² NEWMAN. Society. has not made its progress. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. like Chinese skill.²CARLYLE. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. Indefinite use of you and your. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. 92.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. why." (3) As a grammatical subject. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. The word you. you sneeze. Your mere puny stripling. to stand for the real. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. as in the sentences. It is a pity that he has so much learning.²D. as. 91. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.²BACON. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.²IRVING To empty here.²BULWER. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. ²EMERSON. or that he has not a great deal more. as. you must condense there. logical subject.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. thus. (3) In apposition. WEBSTER. which follows the verb. or to the idea. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. and they cry.

have laid them downIn their last sleep. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb."²IRVING. as. This occurs in poetry.²IRVING. (thyself). The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. themselves. who in turn tries all the professions. I set me down and sigh. And when I awoke. however. Of the two forms in parentheses. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.. the second is the old form of the second person.²THOREAU. who teams it. himself. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. It was late and after midnight." etc. -selves.²HOLMES. that is. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. they dropped their arms.²ANON. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.. when they are direct objects.²HAWTHORNE. There was nothing for it but to return. yourselves. I made up my mind to foot it. but seldom in prose. (ourself). since firstThe flight of years began." "He bought him a horse. For when it dawned. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. farms it. as they are also called. ourselves. keeps a school. And millions in those solitudes. and its plural selves. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²ID. itself. yourself.²BUNYAN. . They are myself.² Now I lay me down to sleep. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. "I found me a good book. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²COLERIDGE.It is finger-cold. herself. we use such expressions as.²BRYANT.²BURNS. peddles it. A sturdy lad . 93.²EMERSON. Poor Christian was hard put to it. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. it rained. 94." and there is an end of it.²SCOTT. For example.²DE QUINCEY. used in poetry.

for example.As girls were once. thyself.²E. ourselves.²SHAKESPEARE. Use of the reflexives. not the possessive forms. and build the lofty rhyme. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. as.² . to every one. shall dissolve. Held dead within them till myself shall die. As if it were thyself that's here. to us. etc.²WORDSWORTH. were changed into the possessive myself.²ID. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. B. 95. BROWNING. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. Origin of these reflexives.²MILTON. I shrink with pain. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. as in vulgar English. as we ourself have been. especially in the speech of rulers. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. Threats to all.² TENNYSON. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and the others were formed by analogy with these. 96. theself. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.To you yourself. The question might arise. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian..² The great globe itself . for example. NOTE. with self. In Middle English the forms meself. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl..²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. after the analogy of myself. as.²EMERSON. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.

7. 97. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. and how to do it. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. but it is the soonest spoiled. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. all conform to it. Come and trip it as we go. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. FRANKLIN. Courage. and what. let him lowly confess it. and neuter. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.On the light fantastic toe. feminine. Infancy conforms to nobody. father. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 3. 2. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. where the word is one with that it tells of. some each of masculine. Three now in use. 9. fight it out. 5.²B. some of them being double possessives. 10. 4. . is wisdom. One obsolete. 8. And it grew wondrous cold.² THACKERAY. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. and one would like to hear counsel on one point.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. Years ago.²DE QUINCEY. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). To know what is best to do. which. 6.

The use of who. whether. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. methought. it is selective. not to persons. that. 98. it is always third person. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. which is not inflected for gender.There is an old word. but for case alone. Use of what. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. actions. Use of who and its forms. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. What wouldst thou do. referring to things. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. number. shall we say. 99. . 100.Promised. used formerly to mean which of two. Whose was that gentle voice. but now obsolete. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. whispering sweet. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects.. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. having three forms. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Use of which. that it is always singular and neuter. the gold. that is. that it is not inflected for gender or number. as it always asks about somebody. etc. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. with its possessive and objective. or case.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. ideas. it refers to either persons or things. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. Which of you. As shown here. These show that what is not inflected for case.

it may be shortened into. who is used as objective instead of whom. Who. It usually precedes the pronoun. and so to make smoother discourse. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. which and what are sometimes adjectives. or other word or expression. SINGULAR Nom. as. 103. AND PLUR. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. subject of doth love. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. which. in Sec. 104. which is nominative in the first sentence. who evidently refers to Bards. 99. nominative in the second also. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also.Who sung of Border chivalry. being the direct object of the verb shall take." Or. whose? Obj. 127). Function of the relative pronoun. as they take the place usually of a word already used. objective in the last. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. "The last of all the Bards was he. Thus we may say. AND PLUR. and also in having a conjunctive use.²by the use of the words. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 105. 102. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case.² "The last of all the Bards was he." In the latter sentence. The antecedent. as. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. what may be an adverb in some expressions.² . RELATIVE PRONOUNS. pronoun.101. SING. who? Poss. which and what. which is called the antecedent of the relative. Further treatment of who. since it is subject of the verb had. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. and what are also relative pronouns. For instance. for which the pronoun stands.

That guard our native seas. . Indefinite relatives. but the look which is not of the earth. D.²MILTON.²DR JOHNSON.²W. The nurse came to us. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. 4. with all its capabilities .Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. Two kinds.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.Whom universal nature did lament. WHITNEY. The men whom men respect. 6. 3. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²LOWELL In this. The origin of language is divine. both his and who have the antecedent priest.²BYRON. 2.Whose flag has braved.. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. a simple relative is meant. When the word relative is used.²PARTON Which and its forms. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.. 4. 106.² COX.²SCOTT. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. the women whom women approve. is a divine creation. in the same sense in which man's nature. that. Generally speaking. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 108. 107. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. a thousand years. will be discussed further on. 5. 3. They had not their own luster. which. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.²THACKERAY. 2. Who and its forms. For her enchanting son. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. what. are the men and women who bless their species. Ye mariners of England.

What. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. 109.5.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²LAMB 3. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²H.Is fit for treasons. 110. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. Who. Already done is all that he would do. 2. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²IRVING. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.... stratagems. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. 111. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. That..²BURKE. Examples of the relative that:² 1.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. you will not be angry with me for telling you. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and spoils. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. The man that hath no music in himself.² SHAKESPEARE 2. ought to be kept in view. For what he sought below is passed above.. 4. which it certainly is not. 3. The Tree Igdrasil. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²MARGARET FULLER. (a) This gradation ... the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . 107.²EMERSON. The judge . Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. no bad type of what often happens in that country. 6.²GOLDSMITH. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. W. Reader. else this description will seem exaggerated. BEECHER 5.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²DE QUINCEY.

My horse... (3) It is nearly always third person. and so on. 107. It has been seen (Sec. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.. The sentences in Sec. Scott.²THACKERAY. whose. Smollett. and others. p. a man. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. in the second. . (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Who referring to animals. whose wound I had dressed. who is first person. (4) It has two case forms. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.²IRVING. things. seemed as much excited as myself. 96).²which for the nominative and objective. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. who. whom. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. 112. in the first sentence. 2. the others are all third person.who. flung its arms around my neck. Gibbon. Sec. Cooper. Witness the following examples:² And you. that man. in 5.. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. The little gorilla. and 6. JOHNSON. (2) It has three case forms.²LEIGH HUNT. not persons.²LOWELL.. whose is second person. in the third.²DR.²SWIFT. or ideas. the relatives are singular. The robins.²who.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.. In 1. they are plural. possessive case of which. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. son. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. whose for the possessive.whose. 5. referring to animals. Examples of whose. whom. 113. In sentence 4. and 3. in 4. Kingsley. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. Which. who class With those who think the candles come too soon.

² And. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. In the sentences of Sec. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. no possessive. which is worse.114. . This moribund '61. the antecedent follows which.²RUSKIN. Sometimes. This often occurs. thus. Men may be ready to fight to the death.²SHAKESPEARE. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. So in Matthew Arnold. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.²DE QUINCEY. (2) It has only one case form. animals. Which and its antecedents. Burke. 115.²BEECHER. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. Kingsley. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. and third persons. second.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. (3) It is the same form for first. The last two sentences in Sec. and to persecute without pity."²RUSKIN. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Primarily.² I swept the horizon. and numerous others. too. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. 116. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. let us enter the church itself. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.² MCMASTER. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.²first. secondly (which made her stare).²THACKERAY. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. and things. That. 109. which is very notable and curious.²SCOTT. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.

Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. What a man does." That evidently refers to truths. whose Obj. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true.²BIBLE What fates impose. For example.² What I would. number. that men must needs abide." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. The sentences of Sec. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. which. consequently is neuter. Sec. Nom.²SHAKESPEARE. 118. When expressed. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. What. 119. that do I not. The gender. that he has. what we said?²CARLYLE.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. by taking them out. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and is emphatic. Who plainly stands for those or the people. it usually follows. for example.²EMERSON. that do I. plural number. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. who Poss. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. but what I hate. is always neuter. 109. as in sentence 6. plural number. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. as." (3) "These people heard him. and person of the relatives who. we can. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. . and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. either of which would be neuter. third person. third person. 117." Since the relatives hold the sentence together.

which is. then parse the relatives. I think they are trying to outwit nature. is in the nominative case. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. and what is the direct object of the verb call. Another way. and hence is in the nominative case. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. in (3). subject of heard. so is in the objective case. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Some prefer another method of treatment. What must be endured? Answer. First find the antecedents. 3. What can't be cured. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Exercise. third person. but is singular. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. etc. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. is subject of the verb can't be cured. In (2). The word what. Now. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case." Here the subject of is. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order.. the highest result of all education. is what we call nature. . 7. it is subject of the verb heard. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. The relative what is handled differently. 4. standing for the people understood. 120. above. neuter. In the same way who. however." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. The whole expression is its subject. after all. In the sentence. we is the subject. it is object of uttered. people is the object of the preposition of. 6. but of this. in (1). I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. "What can't be cured must be endured. Parsing what. the simple relative. 8. nobler souls with that which they are. Truths in sentence (2)."²EMERSON. because it has usually no antecedent. that takes the case of the truths in (2). whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. who is sure to be cunninger than they. in the following sentences:² 1. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. is subject of wrought upon and molded. 5. As shown by the following sentences.

They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 5. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. So with the other indefinites. and in 2. 122. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Meaning and use. whichever. no certain antecedent. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are.²BURKE.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. whosoever. Take which you please." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. whatsoever. They are whoever. being referred to. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. no particular thing. 123. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 2. Death is there associated. by meaning and use. Hence some take what as a double relative. It is clear that in 1. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. . "common souls pay with that [singular. which. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. List and examples. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. or stand on their head. and which in the second clause. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1.²BURKE. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities.²MACAULAY. and his friend a fool. 4. The simple relatives who. whichsoever. whatsoever. to everything that. 6. summer will have its flies. 121. that is. Only itself can inspire whom it will. 7. object of with] which [singular. 3. It is no proof of a man's understanding. 2. in a new and original way.²you cannot have both. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. or what else soever. object of do] they do. less common are whoso. not as direct as the simple relatives. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. Do what we can. and parse that in the first clause. whatever. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny.

are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. either one that.. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. the conjunctions wherein. etc. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. 120. are used. 417). 121.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. 4. 124. not following the word such. what means anything that. 121. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. Sec..²DE QUINCEY. as was used just as we use that or which.² 1. upon which. and that as after such is equivalent to which. In early modern English. Other substitutes. . whereupon. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. nothing that does not interest us. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. There is nothing but is related to us. This. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. everything that (or everything which).²EMERSON. 126. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. for example. has been my heaviest affliction. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Proof that they have the force of relatives. whereby.² some particular thing.As shown in Sec.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 2. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. Two words. Former use of as. but mean any one whom. But and as. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. thus.²HAWTHORNE. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Instead of the phrases in which.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. by which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. etc. for example. but and as. 125. but which only wealth could have purchased.

if not. 2. 1 (b). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized.²EMERSON. Thus. second. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. no antecedent is expressed.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. the full expression being..²ID. if not. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). In studying such sentences. though the earthwork hid them. which having the antecedent lines. a question is disguised in each sentence. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. Another caution. which would indicate that they are not relatives. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. 127. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by." Likewise with which in 3 (b). showing that who is plainly interrogative. who having the antecedent gentleman. would be. if expanded. 3. (b) Well we knew who stood behind.²WHITTIER. In sentences 1 (a). But in 1 (b). 2 (b). there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. and whether what = that + which (if so. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. it is an interrogative. "Who stood behind? We knew. "But what had become of them? They knew not. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. So in 2 (b). and 3 (b). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power." etc. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. what is interrogative. . it is a simple relative. Special caution needed here. How to decide. it is an indefinite relative).

128. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Relative omitted when object. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists.²CARLYLE. whence is the interrogative word. Thus. When Goldsmith died. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. and asks no question. On the other hand. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. ELIOT. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. which. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. I visited many other apartments. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. Exercise. 2. whose has the antecedent you. In the second.²HOLMES. Put in the relatives who. 4. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. which has the antecedent hue.²SWIFT. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Examine the following:² 1. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.² These are the sounds we feed upon.²GOLDSMITH. In the third.²FLETCHER. 3.²FORSTER 6. and Court Calendars. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. the question is asked by the verb. In the first.² THACKERAY. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 129. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²G. . but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. but the life of man in England. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. 5. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence.

or indefinite relatives:² 1.²SHAKESPEARE.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge.7. and what. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. 6. which.²CAMPBELL. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4.²Id. . ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. and comparatively so in poetry. The nobles looked at each other. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. 5.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. There was such a crowd went. who were to be rulers over whom. Also in literary English we find the same omission. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 2. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. which was already proceeding. 130. 3. Examples are. the house was full. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²SCOTT.² LOWELL. Relative omitted when subject. Function of adjective pronouns. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. simple relatives. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. It is rare in prose. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. that.Ne'er looks upon the sun. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.

and another to get cool under. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. For example. and stand for a noun. "these pranks.²IRVING. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. not pronouns. 'Truth. few. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words." "one man. "The dead are there. in the first. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. 133. or use. many. any. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples." Classes of adjective pronouns. expressed or understood. Caution. . they are properly classed as adjective pronouns." that is.²BRYANT. "another bank. For instance. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. but have lost their adjective use. 132. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. and on each is written. must not modify any word. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. etc. in order to be an adjective pronoun. that. such as each. a word. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. or an argument in a paragraph. the former. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. but in this function. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. In the first use they are adjectives. etc. such as this. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.²EMERSON. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. neither. or they may stand for nouns. necessarily thought of: thus. none. either." in the second." "Where two men ride on a horse. Adjectives. as some. or may be the whole of a sentence. all. Primarily they are adjectives.131. which we have seen in such expressions as. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. in letters of gold. "each cube." in the others. etc.

They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and they have well performed the other. Exercises. accidentally preserved. and sow wickedness. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. or sat. 2. NOTE. reap the same. Definition and examples. Even as I have seen.²ID. they that plow iniquity. Their minds accorded into one strain. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. or reclined. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Compound.All these he saw.²ID.² They stood. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. when the latter was the King of Spain. They had fewer books. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. as seemed good to each. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Some of these are simple pronouns. for example. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. because he was not lying in wait for these.²LOWELL.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. but these were of the best. A man inspires affection and honor. but what he fain had seen He could not see. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. They have not shunned the one. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. 5. Such are a few isolated instances. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. 3. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 134.²EMERSON 4. . Simple.

such as one other. imbued. The Soldan. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. 135.²EMERSON. Some inflected. None shall rule but the humble. Men take each other's measure when they react. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. or melt for others' woe. Definition and examples. NUMERAL PRONOUNS.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. ²HAWTHORNE. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Exercise.²each other.² One reflexive. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²HAWTHORNE. another. Another opposes him with sound argument. They led one another. as some of the rangers had gone astray. for example. The word one has a reflexive form. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many.²HOLMES. as. with the superstitions of his time. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. paused over a horoscope.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. Much might be said on both sides. one another. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.Two are compound pronouns. we might the more easily discharge them. as most were. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. .²KINGSLEY. you quickly come to the end of all. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. as it were.

Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. everybody else. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Exercise. anything. and was indefinite in Old English. naught. but. Definition and examples. every one else.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. and somewhat. anybody. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. in building of chaises. no one. etc. everything. what. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. anybody else's. 137. everybody. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. something. Every one else stood still at his post. as shown in the words everybody's. Somebody. nothing. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy.² At lovers' perjuries. anyone else." It means something.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. etc.. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. every one (or everyone). unlike adjective pronouns.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. they are never used as adjectives. Jove laughs. . That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did.²SHAKESPEARE. I tell you what. they say. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. nobody.Exercise. and they. somebody else. any one (or anyone). 136. They indefinite means people in general. some one. Now. as. also aught.

18. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. in his negotiations. The table was good. 8. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. were suffered to depart. indeed. 4. Whoever deals with M.²a feature of natural scenery for which. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. O thou that rollest above. 13. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. All was now ready for action. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 16. 17. round as the shield of my fathers! 15.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. A reminder. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 2. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 138. For this did God send her a great reward. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 5. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 7. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. I first found myself among the mountains. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 9. . Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Others did the same thing. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. and of no other. 11. 12. Exercise. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. from my earliest days. 10. 6. 14. to which. 3. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted.

whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 26. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. 34. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 32. behold now the semblance of my being. and seized a pen. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing.And it would work 'em woe. 29. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. in all its height. They know not I knew thee. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. He sate him down. well-oiled dispositions. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 23. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. hear. 27. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 21. And will your mother pity me.Who knew thee too well. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. hear! 33.Destroyer and preserver.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. And I had done a hellish thing. 25. thou rollest now. 35.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. Whatever he knows and thinks. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 30. who take the world easy. I who alone am. variety. that let him communicate. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. eat white bread or brown. oh.19. 31. These hopes are mine as much as theirs.

" "a hundred men. 41. For example. who understands me. 39. 43. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. and if we are near." "some cities. adjectives are used. so that no other will be mistaken for it. 42. if we are at a distance. ADJECTIVES. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. 37. Office of Adjectives. We need to add some words to tell its color. He teaches who gives. the number is limited by adjectives. As to the kind of words used. 45. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. which was no bad step towards my liberation. etc. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. 38. Who hears me." The office of an adjective. or with persons. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house." etc. 40. that is our permanent state. . 44. We are by nature observers. becomes mine. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Substantives. size. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. So with any object. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. He knew not what to do. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. as. "one hat. position. If a chemist discovers a new substance." "that house. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. heavy or light. Again. white or red. or liquid. such as in the expressions "this man.36. It may have this office alone.. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. and so he read. 139. etc. in pointing out an object. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. and he learns who receives. brittle or tough. or gaseous." "yonder hill. then.

Definition. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. 142." they constitute all his connections. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. 143. pointing out particular things. or how much of a thing. fair. "Heaven-derived power." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. however. With exception of the "and then. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. terrible. 141. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. rash." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. to describe it or to limit its application. to forgive. Nouns are not." "ice-cold water." "ivory-handled pistols. (2) Adjectives of quantity. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. They include relative and interrogative words. To err is human. used to tell how many things are spoken of. (4) Pronominal adjectives. beautiful." "the Christian pearl of charity. To make this clear.²POPE." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "unlooked-for burden." "half-dead traveler. remotest." the "and there. words primarily pronouns." and the still less significant "and so. "an old English manuscript. deep. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES.²COLERIDGE." "this life-giving book. etc. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them." . and their trash. happy." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES.140. Classes of adjectives. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. such as.² BACON. Examples are." "next-door neighbor. it shows that he weighs men's minds. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. divine. such as safe. Infinitives. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. derived from proper nouns. If he be thankful for small benefits." "the Roman writer Palladius.

" "One is hungry. sometimes small. which are either pure participles used to describe. but small thoughts have I of sleep.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. considerable." Caution." "trailing clouds. Care is needed. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. in studying these last-named words. 143." "an aged man. any. no. 1." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. 2." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "It came on like the rolling simoom. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." "The shattered squares have opened into line." was is the verb. . 145. and accomplished is an adjective. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "a charming sight. 144. much. some. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many.²COLERIDGE. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. having some of each subclass named in Sec." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. and another is drunken. 'Tis midnight.²MACDONALD. Exercises. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." was accomplished is a verb." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. Oxenham. in this. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Examples are.But ever she looked on Mr. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. For instance: in the sentence. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by.

are used with plural nouns. any." "In came some five and twenty more. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. instead of modifying them." "Then we wandered for many days. yonder (or yon). (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "a dozen volunteers. and with them a few negroes.² Every town had its fair. An arrow was quivering in each body. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. Thus." Single ones of any number of changes. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. that.²ID. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound.²VAUGHAN. The demonstrative adjectives are this.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. former. those). their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. Exercise. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." (b) Indefinite numerals. The list. Not primarily pronouns. as.²CARLYLE. Examples. its wake." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. 146." "I have lost one brother. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. the former²the latter. How many. but I have gained fourscore.²THACKERAY. latter. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. (plural these. no. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." "He had lived by hunting for some months. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives.²KINGSLEY. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. every village. When some." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. The following sentences present some examples:² . "one blaze of musketry. they come under the next division of adjectives.

In which evil strait Mr.but all these charms are fled. but. Oxenham fought desperately. Exercise. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. WEBSTER.²ID. These were thy charms.²WORDSWORTH. These do not. they are changed to adjectives. skill which was progressive²in the other. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²BULWER.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. When we speak of the seventeenth century.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. Indefinite relative adjectives.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. The taking of which bark. Modify names of persons or things. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.²GOLDSMITH. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.. Definition.²ID. 149. FRANKLIN. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. 147. I verily believe.²KINGSLEY. . we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. skill which was at pause.²RUSKIN. of equal skill.² It matters not what rank he has. but in the one case. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. They are of two kinds. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. what revenues or garnitures.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. like the other numerals."²B. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. The silver and laughing Xenil. just as the corresponding pronouns do. ²CARLYLE. 148. tell how many things are meant. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²BANCROFT. As has been said. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. for example. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century..²D. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.

the debt to the rich. whichever.² EMERSON. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. as it rather seemed. New torments I behold. whichsoever way I move.²RUSKIN. what inquires about things or persons not known. In direct questions. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. whichsoever. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.. nature will be sure to bear us out in.²LAMB. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.²ID. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. . you at least give him full authority over your son. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. which. He was turned before long into all the universe. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. or whether any. Was there. proved not altogether displeasing to him.And whichsoever way I turn.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.²CARLYLE. and gaze. whatsoever.150. Examples of their use are. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. 151. whatever.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). which is selective among what is known. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. But when the Trojan war comes.. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Whatsoever kind of man he is. A lady once remarked. In indirect questions. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²AGASSIZ. it is impossible to determine. and new tormentedAround me. As in the pronouns. Adjective what in exclamations.²IRVING.

²number and comparison. This is the old demonstrative. COMPARISON. The article that was used with neuter nouns. of the quality. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.²This. It is neither relative nor interrogative. the making of it right. we notice some differences between them as to size. etc. or size.152. 153 . it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. which was fully inflected in Old English.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness.. 154. Those borrowed from this. All these have certain qualities.Adjectives have two inflections. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. 155. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. weight. gold is heavier than iron. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. color. . etc. th s (modern those). Thus. Meaning of comparison. or weight. That. and those as the plural of that.²but not the same degree. we do so by means of their qualities. as. In exclamatory expressions. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. But this had also another plural. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. When we place two objects side by side. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. History of this²these and that²those. And yet. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. and when we compare the objects. NUMBER. or amount. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. which changed its spelling to the modern form these.² Oh. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. Exercise. those). a sapphire is bluer than the sky. alas.

157. "more matter. These are properly the only degrees. giant-like. bluest. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree.²THACKERAY. easiest. as. strictly considered. So with the words sole. A main difference betwixt men is. enormous. to the simple form. supreme. whose favorite pupil he was. infinite. and many others.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. redder. 158. indomitable. but were not common until a century later." "the commonest speech. and the superlative.²SEWARD." "no fewer than a hundred. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. or amounts in quantity. 160. immemorial. reddest. but." "It is a nobler valor. Definition. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. organic. 156. great. with less wit. They came into use about the thirteenth century. indefatigable. 159. sufficient." "the largest soul. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. and the superlative by adding -est." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. as. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. . These are called degrees of comparison. universal institution. Substitute for inflection in comparison. easier. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. easy.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. whether they attend their own affair or not. The comparative is formed by adding -er. "untamed thought. expressing a greater degree of quality. Freedom is a perpetual. The two forms. though the simple." Words that cannot be compared. red. expressing the greatest degree of quality. blue. bluer. for example. they are not compared.

" "the immensest quantity of thrashing. mournfulest. admirablest. finest chiseling. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." "more austere and holy.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree.² CARLYLE A gentleman. and yet familiar.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. was most finished. strange. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. though born in no very high degree. The following lists include the majority of them:² . "So help me God. harsh forms are usually avoided. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. madam. which hung behind in the queerest way. indisputablest. polished." "distantest relationships. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain." Carlyle uses beautifulest.Which rule. honestest. The general rule is. and other words are preceded by more and most." "the wonderfulest little shoes.²ID. who. witty. I will. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. quiet. Adjectives irregularly compared.²The Nation." "more odd. These long. etc. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. most small. 163. and patientest fusing.²ID. as." said Henry Esmond. falling on his knees." "sorrowfulest spectacles. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. easy." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. there needed to be a most genuine substance. These are adjectives irregularly compared. peaceablest. 162. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning.

² O. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 1.² We have it in a much lesser degree. A double comparative. next Nearest Latest. uppermost LIST III. . as in the sentence (14th century). 4. 7. 2. as. These have no adjective positive:² 1. is often used. Worser was once used. which has softened to the modern best. [Out] Outer. Hind 2. throw away the worser part of it.²HAMLET. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. lesser. furthest 10. [In] Inner Inmost. List I. a double comparative. bad. though from a different root. older Nigher Nearer Later. further Farthest. There was an old comparative bet. 6. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 5.LIST I. Good or well Evil. evil was the positive to worse. innermost Outmost. 3. latter Hinder LIST II. 164. lesser Elder. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). as in Shakespeare. oldest Nighest. (2) In Old English. The superlative I form was betst. last Hindmost. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. worst. least.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. outermost Utmost. utter 3. uttermost Upmost. 9. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. (3) Little is used as positive to less. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. hindermost Much or many More Farther. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. which has gone out of use. 8.

and refer to time. meaning the largest part. moche. farthest. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. The form hindmost is really a double superlative.²KINGSLEY. etc. or series. greatest. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. farrest. and on it were built a double comparative nearer.² The more part being of one mind. next. but not in meaning. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. near. as. for example.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. to England we sailed. etc. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative.. the old forms. came into use. much. there is scarcely any distinction. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. great. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. except the form next. first. oldest. making the modern farther.²HAWTHORNE. latest. strenger. strong. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. eldest. ²LAMB.²ID. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. First became entirely detached from the series. an old superlative ending. In imitation of further. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. . further. List II. since the m is for -ma. instead of lenger.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. but originally the comparison was nigh. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. as long. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. is quite common. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. to which is added -ost. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. The latter. "Many a little makes a mickle. Since later. Between the two sets as they now stand. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative.²forth. doubling the inflection. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. The meanings greater. are shown in such phrases as." Its spelling has been micel. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. furthest. th came into the others. a distinction has grown up between the two series. and the superlative nearest. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. The most part kept a stolid indifference. muchel.. are earlier than older. (5) The forms elder.

the upper light of the world. BEECHER." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. They have no superlatives.²DE QUINCEY. There.²KINGSLEY. or have no comparative forms. Highest and midmost.²SCOTT." "The outer is of the day. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING." -Most added to other words. 168. List III. being merely descriptive. 167. The comparatives are so in form. are like the comparative forms in List II.²DE QUINCEY. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. (Sec. In List II. but not in their meaning." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. and have no comparative force.²H. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives." "their utmost exertion.²HAWTHORNE. was descried The royal banner floating wide. or each may modify a different word or group of words. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Decidedly handsome. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. in having no adjective positives. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²EMERSON.165. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. 166. but they have no adjective positives. . on the very topmost twig. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Her. all may belong to the same noun. W. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Her bows were deep in the water." "the innermost moral soul." "far-seeing as the sun. by the by. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. Think what each adjective belongs to. The adjectives in List III. but her after deck was still dry.

and moral truth.² My then favorite. in this sentence.²HAWTHORNE. "the one who was then king.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. bright.²HOLMES. Other instances are. usual modifies incomparable decision. This. the then and still owners. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. we may say "the then king. But in this sentence. now our queen. 169. Bradbury and Evans. as. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Exercise. Our sometime sister. and heaven-defying oaths. May we not. not decision alone. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank.²BIBLE. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. STEPHENS 5.For example. ²TROLLOPE. STOWE. and thine often infirmities.²MRS. 7. 2. deeply black eyes. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision.²TRENCH. our new government.²NOAH PORTER." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. deep. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²RUSKIN. therefore. 3. It may still be argued. 6. For thy stomach's sake. . solid. and broken. round. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²HAWTHORNE. H. 4." making then an adjective." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. rich. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²A. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. Richard Hooker. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. in prose. In the following quotations. instead of saying. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. philosophical. A few improper jests and a volley of good. By a convenient brevity. The seldom use of it. satisfactory." in which then is an adverb.

and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. this. To every Roman citizen he gives. 10. or case. To every several man. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. with awkward but rapid pace. MODEL FOR PARSING. modifies truths. seventy-five drachmas. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. Unfamiliar describes truths. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 9. (3) Its degree of comparison. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. 2. having a singular. (2) Its number. and very few have number. if it can be compared. and I waited for none. 4. if it has number. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. therefore descriptive. 3. plural number. (4) What word or words it modifies. 7. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. I ask nothing of you. compared by prefixing more and most. positive degree. cannot be compared. Exercise.What to tell in parsing. and most astounding were those frightful yells. This gave the young people entire freedom. 6. . the method of parsing is simple. Since adjectives have no gender. 5. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. modifies the word truths. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. These points out what truths. therefore demonstrative. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. not inflected for number. across the plain. frank. She made no reply. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. manly way. 170. In parsing an adjective. then. 8. person.

I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. it rests on reality. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Two hours elapsed. growing in the most unfavorable position. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. he won affections with ease. 31. Nearer to our own times. Here lay two great roads. is the settlement of our own country. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. yonder oxen in the pasture. oxen. the tomahawk fell. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. the same love to France would have been nurtured. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. In music especially. 25. are immutably fishes. 28. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. Like most gifted men. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. and therefore more interesting to us. 12. 23. With every third step. I know not what course others may take. . 33. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 32. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 14. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. suggests such thoughts as these. 19. not so much for travelers that were few. 27. 26.11. 24. 22. 16. 18. and dogs. 29. To say what good of fashion we can. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 21. 20. those dogs in the yard. and many poles supported the lower ones. 13. during which time I waited. Their name was the last word upon his lips. as for armies that were too many by half. it is so noble a fruit.

35. later th . An before vowel sounds. were formerly that one. but the former is used." "a European." the words the and an belong to nouns." "a yelling crowd. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. such as we have been attempting to describe.²SCOTT. the tother. these occurring as the tane. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. the tither. the latter is still preserved in the expression. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. Their origin. s o. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. ARTICLES. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. and that remained a demonstrative adjective." "an orange. Two relics. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like.²MACAULAY. 173. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. with an ordinary little garden." An with consonant sounds. A hard-struggling. . a before consonant sounds. In Middle English the became an article. Our expressions the one. Examples: "a house. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. sometimes the tother.34. In the sentence. An or a came from the old numeral n. just as adjectives do. or the tane. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. 174. 171. the tother. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. for example. in vulgar English. that other. the other. even when not silent. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment." "an honor. 37. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. th o. and a before consonant sounds. that) which was also an article in Old English. An historian. ðat. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. weary-hearted man was he. Many writers use an before h.²BREWER. he is no literary man. meaning one. 172.

or any individual of a group or class. thus. which cannot be used alone. 175. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. 179.²HEROES OF ASGARD. To call attention to attributes. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. Reference to a known object. With names of rivers.²G. NOTE. An or a is the indefinite article. 178.²THACKERAY. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. since it points out a particular individual.² ." "the Ohio. the older n.²IRVING. Articles are either definite or indefinite. Definition. BANCROFT.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. The Dakota tribes. The is the definite article.² Don't you remember how. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. and not a state or other geographical division. 177. and when the word river is omitted. An and a are different forms of the same word.²COLERIDGE. not descriptive. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. An hereditary tenure of these offices. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. on opening a story. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri.. Kinds." the article indicates clearly that a river.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. is referred to. or class. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. 176. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. or group. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. An article is a limiting word. doubtless.. as in the sentence. When the is prefixed to a proper name. a person is introduced by a. as "the Mississippi.. or a group or class of things. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.²This use is noticed when.

²ID. for example. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. her. 182. so is the evil. as. NOTE. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. Caution.²MOTLEY. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. but into the region of all the virtues. Kant. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. 181. BANCROFT. the Spinoza. the gallant. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.²GIBBON. etc. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.²SCOTT. the Hume. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. One thing for its class. If the good is there. With plural of abstract nouns. Half abstract.²EMERSON. For possessive person pronouns. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. Common. The simple rise as by specific levity.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.²KINGSLEY. With adjectives used as nouns. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. Schelling. His messages to the provincial authorities. would speedily extract the required information.²ID.²G. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. . 2. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.²EMERSON. laid it on the miry spot.The Bacon. 183. The. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. not into a particular virtue.² As she hesitated to pass on. 180. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. and the redwing. 1. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.² The faint. the song sparrow. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. or a match put between the fingers. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. in (3. taking the staff which always guided her steps. 201. hence is not a verb. (can) shame also has an object. representing something which it influences or controls. and a preposition unite as a verb. Each influences some object. which means to go over. endured what? anguish. Now. and. Of those expressing action. a). care. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. but fearing is not a predicate. can deceive has an object." Examine the sentences in Sec. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. The nature of intransitive verbs. obeyed is a predicate.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. Has takes the object hypocrisy." put is the predicate. "Put money in thy purse. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. and shame the most astute. b). and not a verb. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. to say something to or about some person or thing. Hence Definition. In each case. 202. or an idea. 200: In (1)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. All these are called transitive verbs.²BULWER . the most penetrating. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. lone took what? answer. from the Latin transire. but cannot be predicates. an article. to go is no predicate. By examining a few verbs. in this sentence from Bulwer. or a material thing. "Put thou money in thy purse. a noun. 204. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. c). a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. b). a preposition. Definition and caution. In the sentence. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. in (2. A verb is a word used as a predicate. all do not express it in the same way. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. for example. an adverb.In (a). In the first. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. the most astute. which may be a person. etc. or the object. and to receive the action expressed. as. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. a verb. 203. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. The nature of the transitive verb. in (2. we consider a verb as one word. with some word understood. In giving a definition. in (c). might have been anticipated is also one predicate. the word following. in (3. in (b).

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Condition or Supposition. Most excellent stranger.² Now. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. the first great founder of the Empire.²MACAULAY. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. and may or may not be regarded true.²BRYCE. in our case.²LONGFELLOW. as.²SHELLEY. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.² If. 222. they were recorded in the Book of Life. as. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. 221. Again. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. popular government must be pronounced impossible. ²EMERSON.²may or may not be true. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. the second founder. 215. the writer can make the statement following.I could lie down like a tired child. the representative system ultimately fail. I. If this be the glory of Julius.²D. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. WEBSTER. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. or be fulfilled. but. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. 2). Unreal²cannot be true. Ideal. he will see the need of these ethics.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. .²FRANKLIN. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. for example. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.

would you. unless.²CALHOUN. The subjunctive.²BAYNE. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. if he was the man I take him for. II. thus. Epaminondas. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 4.²N. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²SWIFT. is of similar physiognomy. WILLIS. Exercise. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.. he had better not have written. 223. if his lot had been mine. to drink strong beer. melodious. if he speak to you. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. and what kind of condition:² 1.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. though.² If these things were true. NOTE.²FRANKLIN. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. that we cannot but regret its absence. 2. is used to express purpose. 8. and should.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if.. he supposed. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. may. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. as. If he had reason to dislike him. but when the verb precedes the subject. society could not hold together. which cannot be true. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. and sonorous. ²LOWELL. P. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. that he might be strong to labor.² It was necessary. since he [Byron] was dead. she was regarded as a prodigy. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. except." etc. 5. . But in no case could it be justified. clear. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.²FRANKLIN.. I told him. In the following conditional clauses. do you think. etc.² CARLYLE.²MACAULAY. and striven energetically to save Ney. might. would have sat still with joy and peace. The voice. especially be. 7. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 3.²EMERSON. Subjunctive of Purpose. 6.

in her confusion she had not distinctly known. V. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.Were wafted off to seas unknown. Expressing a Wish. Subjunctive of Result. 225. III. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. WEBSTER. Rise up. like the quarry-slave at night. within its fairy bowers. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. After a verb of wishing.²D.Thou go not. I would it were! ²EMERSON. I've wished that little isle had wings. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²SOUTHEY. 227. 226. The English subjunctive. Ask the great man if there be none greater.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. like the Latin.²WORDSWORTH. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²CARLYLE.. VI. ..²BRYANT.And we.That vain it were her eyes to close.²MOORE.. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. 224. So live. In a Noun Clause. VII. till it meet the sun in his coming. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. In Indirect Questions.²DE QUINCEY. In Temporal Clauses.²COLERIDGE.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. Let it rise.I have been the more particular. none of us could say.²ID. IV. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. To tell of what had passed. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.

This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²CARLYLE.²SCOTT. Object.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. The first merit. in apposition.²THOREAU. we'll turn aside. Some might lament that I were cold. for example. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. VIII. is.²TENNYSON. of cash. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. The noun clause.² Be the matter how it may. (b) Adjective.Subject.² DICKENS. which may be (a) Pronoun. Concessive Clauses. that everything be in its place. in its various uses as subject. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²SHELLEY.. 229. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. .And see the Braes of Yarrow. 228. After verbs of commanding. I have no thought what men they be.²COLERIDGE.And look thou tell me true.²WORDSWORTH. See that there be no traitors in your camp. That hunger of applause. Whatever betide. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Complement. object.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²DE QUINCEY. often contains a subjunctive. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. Come. etc. The essence of originality is not that it be new. or whatsoever victual it may be. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²COLERIDGE. tell me all that thou hast seen. is the ultimate fact of man's life.

Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. love all men. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. It must be remembered. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. point to their immortal works. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. entreaties. . or requests.²CHANNING. At the present day. (2) Entreaty. Honor all men. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. however. fear none. 231. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. 232. Usually second person. we had found [should have found] a poem here. (3) Request.² CARLYLE.²BRYANT. and condition contrary to fact. to express a wish.(c) Adverb. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Definition.²SHELLEY. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. In spoken English. ADAMS. IMPERATIVE MOOD. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected.The spirit he loves remains. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were.²J. Q. (1) Command. 230. a concession. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Oh. for example. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. since commands are directed to a person addressed. though.

²SHAKESPEARE. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. but I + you. Quoth she. we may use the imperative with we in a command. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. lest we rust in ease. Whatever inconvenience ensue. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. child of earth!While each performs his part." Exercises on the Moods. 6. etc.²SCOTT. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Oh. 8. etc." whispered Kit. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. nothing is to be preferred before justice. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. "The Devil take the goose. Part we in friendship from your land. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. receive my hand. 2. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 7. "Come along with me. 3.."²DICKENS Tell me. request. to you implied in it. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.²CAMPBELL." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.And God forget the stranger!" .And. Mark thou this difference.One glance at their array! 5."Hush! mother. there will her heart and her prayers be. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. or I + they. Break we our watch up. noble earl.

High up in silver spikes! 22. 18. Though abyss open under abyss. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. Marshall. will it not fall unbound. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. how he may do his work." continued Old Morgan. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. or do it at all. she ought to have it.That they might answer him. That a man parade his doubt. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. whether he do it right or wrong. "Oh. Forget thyself to marble. my dear madam. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt." cried he. 23. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 21." 25. Think not that I speak for your sakes. and opinion displace opinion. 14. 11. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. "Mr. then. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. it would speak. 20.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Well. 13. but repentant child. Though he were dumb. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls.9. let him live where else he like. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 19. 26. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. as though an instrument.Except." 16. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. . in what pomps and prosperities he like. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. 10.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. He. ruined. That sheaf of darts. He is. no literary man. "tell me where I may find my poor.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.

there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. Tenses in English. "Thou walkest. PERSON AND NUMBER. "Thou walkedst. or whether it were as one member of a general party. the past. which represented present and future time. tell him to wait. 233. also.²the present tense. as the classical languages have. past. Siddons. as.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents." past. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. as will be shown later on. such as Latin and Greek. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. by means of the present. as. have. in the conjugations. will. Meantime. past. and future perfect tenses. "It is not in man that walketh. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs." "If he comes.² present.27. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. and future. shall. and the past tense. TENSE. in the third person singular. five in the subjunctive. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. whatever she did.²nothing could exceed the amiable. and the future tense. The tenses in detail. 235. Definition." . to direct his steps. "I go away tomorrow. or agree with it. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. called auxiliaries. 234. 28. Tense means time. a form ending in -eth. Old English had only two tenses. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages." present. or future time. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. five in the imperative. When the older pronoun thou was in use. past perfect. kind. such as be. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present.

chosest). In classical languages. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. chosen (old. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. I be 2. Singular 1. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. as. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. but in English. choosest. Singular 1. [He] were [They] were . tense. mood. walks.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. 236. singular number. chooseth. You (thou) be 3. tenses. 238. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. etc. Few forms. The verb be has more forms. wert) 3. walketh. "He walks. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. Definition. 237. were. moods. chooses. You are 2. walked. This is the third person. since it is composed of several different roots. [He] is [They] are 3. PRESENT TENSE. is. I were 2. walkedst. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Singular 1. chose. walk has walk.²choose." and this only in the present tense indicative. persons. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. walking. choosing. been. for example. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. Indicative Mood. are. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. PRESENT TENSE. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Singular 1. CONJUGATION. Such verbs as choose have five. and numbers. etc.²am.

.²SHELLEY. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (d) With the infinitive. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.Imperative Mood. for example. (3) be. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. obligation. (b) With the past participle in -ed. 240.²BURKE . in four ways. The light that never was on sea and land. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. is.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. though it is usually a dialect form.²THACKERAY. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. Remarks on the verb be. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Instead of the plural are.²ID. etc. as.His infancy was nurtured.²GOLDSMITH. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. thus. 239. condition. (2) was. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. to form the passive voice. (2) As auxiliary verbs. -en. same as the German sind. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. etc. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. to express intention. which was now become an occasional banquet. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. were.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.

We chose You chose 3. "I shall be. Singular. You choose Plural. "I had gone" (past perfect). I chose 2. Singular. "I have gone" (present perfect).241. 1. [He] choose [They] choose 3. Singular. Indicative Mood. You chose Plural." (2) Present perfect. 1. I choose 2." "He will choose. PRESENT TENSE. as. You chose Plural. . FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. We chose You chose 3. 242. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). by placing have. future perfect. etc. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. (2). had. 1. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. tenses. Machinery of a verb in the voices. You choose Plural. PRESENT TENSE. as. I chose 2. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. I choose 2. past perfect. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. 240. In addition to the above inflected forms. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. tenses. 1.

Future perfect. Present perfect. as. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning.] he choose. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. " Be choosing. will be given. Present definite. Past perfect. Present perfect definite. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. as. he chose (or were to choose). He was choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. Future perfect definite. Past perfect. Future definite. Present definite. (2d per. Present. "I am running. Present perfect definite. " " " " " " " he be choosing." "They had been running. Same as indicative. though. singular number. Future. Present. He will he choosing. Subjunctive Mood. Indicative Mood. Past perfect definite. Present definite. he have chosen. lest. He has been choosing. Present perfect.) Choose. etc. He is choosing." "You are chosen. He will choose. He chose. He has chosen. Same as indicative. He will have chosen. He had chosen. Past. Past definite. Only the third person. of each tense." (4) The passive forms. He chooses. He had been choosing. Past definite. He will have been choosing." 243. "I was chosen. Past perfect definite. . Past. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). [If. Imperative Mood. ACTIVE VOICE. Present. he have been choosing.

Indicative Mood. in affirmative sentences. Past Perfect.. He is being chosen. Present. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. None. Present definite. Subjunctive Mood.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Future perfect. "He does strike. He will have been chosen. 262). Past perfect. None. He was chosen. lest. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Present perfect.) Be chosen. Present tense. None. though. He had been chosen. Imperative Mood. He was being chosen. but verbals.] he be chosen. however. Future definite. he have been chosen. Present definite. Present. Also. He has been chosen. Past. Present perfect. he had been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. " " " " " " " None. Past perfect definite. Past definite. None. Past perfect definite." "He did strike. . (2d per. as. Past. Past definite. if learned at all. Present perfect definite.] [If. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. etc. they will be discussed later (Sec. he were being chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. None. He will be chosen. None. He is chosen.NOTE. Exercises should be given. Future. Future perfect definite. Present perfect definite." [Note to Teacher. he were chosen (or were to be chosen).

bounden] bitten. as. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. NOTE. slept. Definition. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . laid. and may or may not change the vowel: as. verbs are strong or weak. begged. catch. run. Some of these also have weak forms. but adds no ending. Kinds. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. ran. beg. sleep. According to form. 244.[adj. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. which are in parentheses Present Tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. Past Tense. bit blown broken chidden. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. drove. 245. caught. lay. drive. bid bound.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drunken] driven eaten.

trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

246. instead of ate and eaten. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²TENNYSON. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²one meaning to adhere or cling." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. cleft. . as. cleaved. for example. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. ²THACKERAY." "the cloven hoof. Our cock." In this confusion of usage.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. especially in that of an earlier period.²COLERIDGE. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. but is much used in vulgar English. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. cloven.²IRVING. to split. as." "a drunken wretch. and. the other. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). as (from Holmes).²GOLDSMITH. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. which always crew at eleven. cleft (to split). The former used to be cleave. and the latter. Sometimes in literary English. TAYLOR. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.²as (from Shakespeare). probably to avoid confusion with this. now told us it was time for repose. "stricken with paralysis."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. only one set remains certain.²cleave.²B. and another (born) for the passive." "a sunken snag. When it means to carry or to endure. borne is also a passive. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.² We had each drank three times at the well.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. and sometimes occurs in poetry. Not a cock crew. clave or clove. cleaved. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).²MILTON. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. "his bounden duty. Historically. The form clomb is not used in prose. cleave. as. nor a dog barked.

shore is rare. 10. We usually say. 5. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. He sate him down. Give. 245).Shore thro' the swarthy neck. Throw. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. as "a shorn lamb. broke. 2. for example." but not much as a participle. Exercises. flung. shook. flung. froze. Fling. Freeze. 7. threw. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. 3. fell. found."²KINGSLEY. driven. and seized a pen. frozen. fallen. and grasping at his sword.² If. 6. even in poetry. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Fall.² We had all got safe on shore. gave. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Begin. Drive. One example out of many is.²DE FOE. Break. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs.²BYRON. . which is seldom used except in poetry.²BIBLE. (a) From the table (Sec. began. Find. as. The butler was hanged. begun. shaken. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. drove.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. 8. thrown. Shake. 4. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. 9. This heard Geraint. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. maiden. Usually shear is a weak verb. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. given.²TENNYSON. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective.The form gotten is little used. broken. for example. found.

Have we valuable territories and important posts. They are as follows:² PRESENT. The l in could did not belong there originally.²SCOTT.²CHANNING This. 251. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. 250. . which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. as in Sec. 220. from the obsolete verb motan. according to the infinitive used. or when it expresses wish. ability. "far off his coming shines.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.. PRESENT. It is indicative when it expresses permission. etc. Like must.. The same remarks apply to ought. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. "So mote it be. as..[To the Teacher. 223." Must is present or past tense. 249.²CHANNING. which survives in the sentence. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. (See also Sec. must have been an ocular deception. Can is used in the indicative only. Subjunctive use. 247.²HAWTHORNE. but came through analogy with should and would. as it has two meanings. His superiority none might question. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. there is one general principle. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.²PAINE.. Must is historically a past-tense form. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. for full drill on the forms. Indicative Use: Permission. it is used only in the indicative mood. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. Ability."²WINIER. PAST.. purpose. as it sometimes does. etc. of course.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. PAST. Could may be subjunctive. HAMILTON.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. or. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise.

²L.. as. promise. to use will and would.² Futurity and questions²first person. yea.²BULWER. shall and should are used. BROCKDEN BROWN. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²MACAULAY.² The time will come full soon. in the form of command. They shall have venison to eat.Nay. MOULTON. not plod along like apeasant. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. for example. The sea shall crush thee. with pronouns of the first person. (b) In questions asking for orders. what shall I say?²N. to the neglect of shall and should. shall and should are used. future action).²LONGFELLOW. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. 252. he said. my lad. she should ride like a queen. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. Shall and Will. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. Second and third persons.²COOPER. "I think I will go. as. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.²THAXTER. The following are examples:² Never mind. WEBSTER. as.²IRVING. I shall be gone.e. (b) In indirect quotations. C. She should not walk.² (a) To express authority. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave." Uses of shall and should. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. She rejects his suit with scorn. or confident prediction. while ought always has to.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.² With respect to novels. especially in the United States.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. . and corn to hoe. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.

. JAMES.. And promised.²CABLE. as. as the sole inventor.²SCOTT. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. was to be expected. with the conviction that he should win in the end. purpose. JR. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. BROWN. or a promise. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. second and third persons. (c) With direct questions of the second person. and will not return until all is finished.²WINTER.²WORDSWORTH. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. I never was what I should be.²BYRON.²A. for example. thus. etc. and is equivalent to ought. . Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. for example. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. LARNED.²H. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. First. B.² I will go myself now.²SWIFT.that I would do him justice. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²ROGERS. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. time. 253. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²WORDSWORTH.²WORDSWORTH.²C.. Disguising a command. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.

so you will.. (4) With FIRST. In this stately chair would he sit.²IRVING. Mere futurity. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.² Subject I omitted: often so.²LANDOR.²the original meaning of the word will. When I am in town.²SCOTT. will and would are used to express simple futurity. as if it were merely expected action. Roland. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. will is used to express command.² Thou wilt take the skiff. This puts the order more mildly.²SCOTT.. as. through storms their brothers are afraid of. They will go to Sunday schools. B. and mark on the grounds the works. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. To be sure. PASSIVE VOICE. as.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. when thou wast born. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. AND THIRD PERSONS.²BANCROFT.² DICKENS. would is used to express a wish. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.. action merely expected to occur. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. without regard to future time. . and two of my people. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.. SECOND. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. The gift of Beauty. for example. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. Would thou hadst it not. etc. BROWN. 254. will and would often denote an action as customary.²BURKE. for punishment or intimidation.²War Records... and fetch off certain plate and belongings. for example. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. Thine was a dangerous gift.

4. (a) From Secs.Singular. You shall be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Thou shalt have a suit. 2. 1. Plural. Thou art what I would be. PASSIVE VOICE. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 1. 2. Singular. yet only seem. . [They] will choose. 6. Exercises on Shall and Will. You will choose. and that of the newest cut. 1. [He] will be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. 3. 3. 2. We shall be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences." answered Herbert stubbornly. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. To express determination. 2. Plural. 2. 252 and 253. He informed us. [They] shall choose. [He] shall choose. Plural. 1. You shall choose. You shall be chosen. etc. "I shall not run. promise. We will choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE. 1. 3. I will be chosen. You will be chosen. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Singular. I will choose. Singular. We shall choose. You will be chosen. 5. You shall choose. [They] will be chosen. I shall choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 3. [They] shall be chosen. [He] will choose. Plural. and justify the use of shall and will. 3. I shall be chosen. 2. We will be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. You will choose. 3.

stirred her slightly with his muzzle. The beast made a sluggish movement. Of smale houndes hadde she. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. WEAK VERBS. Past Tense. 11. (2) Those which end in -d or -t." 14. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. 13. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. set. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. bereave beseech bereft. 257. The old ending to verbs of Class II. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. set. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this.²CHAUCER. This ending has now dropped off." the stranger said. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. which may be called irregular weak verbs. and I have nothing to say. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. bereaved besought . "I am a wayfarer. my son. 9. But the rest. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. bereave besought Past Participle. put. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²Class I. Without having attended to this.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used].² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. Lucy stood still. Present Tense. 10. 12. was -de or -te. Irregular Weak Verbs. then. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. as. very anxious. and have no change of vowel.7. put. put. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. 255. bereft. No. or mylk and wastel breed. as if he would have more of the enchantment. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.²ID. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. 256. need some attention and explanation.

stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . spelt spilt staid. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Perfect.²the creature warring against the creating power. 266. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. formed a kind of bedstead. Indefinite. 9. to express action unconnected with a subject. [To] choose. Indefinite.6. [To] have chosen. like participles. [To] have been chosen. [To] have been choosing. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. and a perfect definite form. 8. to was used before the infinitive generally. ACTIVE VOICE.. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive.. and when passive. 7. a perfect. 268. In Sec. To with the infinitive. try clemency. 10. Perfect definite. Three saplings. expressing purpose. as in the Old English. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE.. 267. Perfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. When active. Imperfect. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. INFINITIVES. Infinitives. they have an indefinite. have no tense. [To] be chosen. I returned to reflection on my situation. when inflections became fewer. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Cases when to is omitted. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] be choosing. will (with should and would). Nothing of the kind having been done. But later. an imperfect. . an indefinite and a perfect form.

please." etc. or the object of a verb or a preposition. The gerund is like the participle in form. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. 271. it has several attributes of a noun. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.²E.(2) After the verbs may (might).²it may be governed as a noun. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.² What! doth she. HALE.²MACAULAY. 272. make. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. "a house to let. But there was nothing to do. and like a noun in use. learn [doth learn is one verb. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs.²DE QUINCEY. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. as. also let.²GOLDSMITH. as. 270.²COOPER. . rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. 269. it is often preceded by the definite article. must. hear.²TENNYSON. E. negative.²IRVING. under "Analysis.). They shall have venison to eat. do (as. While the gerund expresses action.. "He will choose. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. "She ask my pardon. poor woman!" cried Charles. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. it may be the subject of a verb. and emphatic forms of the present and past. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. liberal woman." (4) In exclamations. watch. as the credulous imagine. sometimes need (as. bid (command). too. also in the imperative. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.² She was a kind. "I do go" etc. and corn to hoe. GERUNDS." "I shall have chosen. as. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride." Examples are. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. see. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.²HOWELLS. feel. as in the expression. can (could). it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.

(5) Gerunds. which express action. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. Sec. above." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. Then how pleasing is it. (4) Pure adjectives. according to use as well as meaning. making the definite tenses. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. after examining the nest.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. (3) Participial adjectives. II). Words in -ing are of six kinds. brilliant. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (6) Verbal nouns. 4. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. when. and wonderful store of learning! ." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." Exercise. and five gerunds." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." also (2." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. may govern and be governed. (2) Pure participles. and has been put down. 273. on your leaving the spot. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. but cannot govern. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. which name an action or state. which express action and also modify. 2." "Certainly dueling is bad. What a vast. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. b). five infinitives." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. which have lost all verbal force. to see the returning hope of the parents. but do not assert." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths.²Find sentences containing five participles. Exercise. which express action.

I. bearing her national emblem.²strong or weak.²indicative. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. you must.5. I suppose I was dreaming about it.²transitive or intransitive. VERBS. round which is an iron railing. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 275. In parsing verbs. write twenty pages without stopping. . (b) as to use. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. or imperative. Caution. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. He spread his blessings all over the land. Thackeray did not.²active or passive. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 11. 6. 13. 15. 12. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. What is dreaming? 8. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking.²which of the tenses given in Sec. give reality to your teaching. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. much corroded. giving principal parts. 9. (3) Mood. (2) Voice. like Sir Walter Scott. he gave out sentence by sentence. (5) Person and number. The only means of ascending was by my hands. subjunctive. 14. dictating from his chair. by object lessons. slowly. 234. 10. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 7. but. 16. (4) Tense.

The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. past tense. In 2. The government might have been strong and prosperous. 2. indicative. perfect. III. definite. give points (a) and (b)." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. see Sec. Exercise. active. You are gathered to your fathers. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. might. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. till it meet the sun in his coming. intransitive. we must beware of the rule. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. In such sentences as 1. (b) its use (Sec. (3) Gerund. and should always be analyzed as phrases. call should a weak verb. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Let it rise! let it rise. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived.276. verbals. (a) From what verb derived. has the subject government. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. VERB PHRASES. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. must. indicative (as it means could). Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. may. intransitive. 278(2). perfect. 3. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. Take these examples:² 1. and parting day linger and play on its summit. and ends in -s. past tense. (b) whether active or passive. 273). . It has been intimated in Sec. 277. II. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. call might a weak verb. has for its subject Lee. would. (c) to what word it belongs. can. But unless the verb is present. (2) Infinitive. usually it does not.. 278. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. If a participial adjective. and not taken as single verbs. (1) Participle. (b) whether indefinite. followed by a pure infinitive without to. therefore active." Sometimes it does. Parse the verbs. 2. in the world. etc. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. Especially frequent are those made up of should. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. then parse it as an adjective. could. VERBALS. imperfect. etc. 235. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. no sin nor sorrow. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. 4.

Whatever ground you sow or plant. a sweet good will. a deafening shout. Right graciously he smiled on us. 14. as the Hindoos say." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. as rolled from wing to wing. 19. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. he thought only of her. morning is not a new issuing of light.Down all the line. 22. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 10. or. 20.5. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 24. leaving me upon the bed. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 9. 12. 18. 6. 13. When he arose in the morning. He passed across the room to the washstand. 8. as usual. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 17. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 21.Henceforth in me instill. However that be. 11. see that it is in good condition. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. from a sort of temporary death. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. . The soul having been often born. and wondered if she were yet awake. 15. In going for water. 16. So. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. a new waking up of all that has life. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements.O God.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. With them. a new bursting forth of the sun. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 23. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring.

²SHELLEY. and limit adjectives or adverbs. as. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. Nor was it altogether nothing. to speak truly. thou sayest.² The young man reveres men of genius. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. The word adverb means joined to a verb. and so on. and live ere life be spent. who live with nature?²ID." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. or manner: as. because. for example." An adjective or an adverb. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. 279. ADVERBS. to consent. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. 26. "William's private life was severely pure.25. Oh. 27. . place. Better it were. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²EMERSON. for the hour of rest is at hand. they are more himself than he is. When action is expressed. Adverbs modify.Feast while we may.²time." "He was absolute. To the almost terror of the persons present."²DE QUINCEY. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. 29.²CARLYLE. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. A verb. and men of leisure and cultivation. Is it only poets. And now wend we to yonder fountain. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.²THACKERAY.

hitherto. perhaps. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.²T. which may qualify an action word or a statement. as shown in the sentences.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. Definition. but still with a rich bloom to it. and that. all wet and glossy. An adverb. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead.²THOREAU. then. 281. as now. for example.² LOWELL. It may also modify a sentence.²TROLLOPE. while those in Sec. has induced some of us to attend it. or a word group used as such. Surely happiness is reflective.²LEIGH HUNT. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. Make music to the lonely ear. NOTE. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. as. and half awfully. B. there are six classes:² (1) Time. (2) according to their use in the sentence. but really modifying. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. but some verb understood. A clause or sentence. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. to-day.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. .² FRANKLIN. like the light of heaven. 169 are felt to be elliptical.²BYRON. not simply the forms used in predication. ever. before.He was incidentally news dealer. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.²These last differ from the words in Sec. thus. NOTE. A phrase.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. 280. 169. ALDRICH. etc. Thus considered. being adverbs naturally and fitly. is a modifying word. 282. not the noun. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. ²IRVING. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. I draw forth the fruit. lately. We are offered six months' credit.

etc. [Sidenote The status of such. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. the more evidently they love liberty. The more they multiply. etc.²BROWNING. the more friends you will have..² The master. greatly.²HAWTHORNE. LOUIS STEVENSON. just. So also in Grote. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. slowly.. better. 283. (5) Degree. for example. as here... Special remarks on adverbs of degree. maybe. probably. that these adverbs form a very large class. while so precedes only the adjective usually.²LECKY. as hence.²BURKE.²DE QUINCEY. bravely. etc. or how far he believes it to be true. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. and not infrequently are found in literary English. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. the more perfect will be their obedience.yonder. telling how much. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.which gained him such universal popularity. possibly. enough. Thackeray. surely. partly. at least. slightly. and others. very. telling how many times: once. as little. Motley.²R. etc.²SHAKESPEARE.(2) Place. (3) Manner. singly. two by two. I was. (see also Sec. etc. This long's the text. beautifully.²IRVING.thither. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. especially the comparative of these words.where.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. whithersoever. as perhaps.there. thus. etc. above. Meekness. whencesoever. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. too.whither. . telling how anything is done. as hither.was for this once of her opinion. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.near. White. much. as well.whence..thence. 283). (4) Number. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. twice. (6) Assertion. not.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. Emerson.

" "I have seen you before [time]. Mighty. Direct questions. Pretty is also used by Prescott. A pretty large experience. a mighty fine gentleman. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived." "He spoke positively [manner]. Beau Fielding.² "Mighty well. besides modifying. "Peace.²BAYNE. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Neville. . and other writers. Holmes. Notice meanings. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. have the additional function of asking a question. STOWE. Aldrich. Dickens.²HAWTHORNE. and its lawn before [place]. 285. 282.²FIELDING. Franklin. 284. Simple. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. for example. and art but a fool." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.² You are mighty courteous.² KINGSLEY. 286. for example.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY."²SCOTT. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form.²"He walked too far [place]." "The house. Again. De Quincey. It is only occasionally used in literary English." said the king. Interrogative. B." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Burke. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Emerson. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Defoe. Kingsley. Hard blows and hard money. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.²THACKERAY. Some adverbs. Such are most of those given already in Sec.²BULWER." "That were far better [degree].Pretty.

Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. (2) Place. (4) Degree. When did this humane custom begin?²H. I do not remember when I was taught to read. I hearkened. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (4) Degree. (5) Reason. I know not why. . 287. (2) Place. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. they smiled.²D. WEBSTER. for example.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.²BULWER.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BYRON. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²POE. I will not ask where thou liest low. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.²BYRON (3) Manner. CLAY. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.

last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.But in reality." Exercise. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. soon.. higher. but the whole clause.²BYRON. sooner. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. only occasionally having -er and -est. Only that we may wiselier see. just as adjectives do. For further discussion. see Sec. not an adverb. The following. highest. when. Form vs. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. when compared.²EMERSON. 288. have the same inflection as adjectives.) rather 289.eyes. well much little far late Comparative. high. and.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs.²COLERIDGE. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Tell what each word in ly modifies. obs. Exercise. are often used as adjectives:² Positive.. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. furthest (rathe. Its strings boldlier swept. irregularly compared. Then must she keep it safelier. soonest. Many adverbs are compared. 290. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. use. Superlative. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. as.²SHAKESPEARE. .²TENNYSON. further farthest. representing four classes. when does not express time and modify. Many adjectives have the same ending.

1. There are eyes.² EMERSON. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. . It is true he was rarely heard to speak. Not near so black as he was painted. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. 3. Special use of there. And all about. mostly. etc. Frequently the word there. many words without -ly have the same form. Again. curiously jolly. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²WORDSWORTH.²ID. evenly. 5. hardly. 7. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. or down the leaves laughed through.²TENNYSON.²CHAUCER. quick-flashing eye. whether adverbs or adjectives. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. 291. instead of being used adverbially. Such are most. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. 292. nearly. 8.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. kindly and good-natured in secret. hard.And his mien of kingly state. that in Old and Middle English. to be sure. merely introduces a sentence. but with a different meaning. He is inexpressibly mean. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. The reason is. near. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. With his proud. even. 2. as.²THACKERAY. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. But he must do his errand right. 4. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. if it has the verb be. 6." Compare these:² 1. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 2. more courtly in their manners. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.²IRVING.

but continually shifted. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Exercise. 15.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. burning in the center of the temple. however theoretically enticing. 4. . 11. 5. But a few steps farther on. 10. at the regular wine-shop. give² (1) The class. In parsing adverbs. The higher we rise in the scale of being. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 3. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. For the impracticable. if the word is compared. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. and always. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. (3) What word or word group it modifies. according to meaning and also use. 2. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 17. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Thither we went. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 9. 293. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. is always politically unwise. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. (2) Degree of comparison. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. the Madonna is in great glory. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 12. It is the Cross that is first seen. and sate down on the steps of a house. 18. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 16. 7. but from my fall? 6.

should be omnipotent for evil? 24. but side by side within the American Union. therefore. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. hence. 21. nor. 295. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. then. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. But now the wind rose again. A conjunction is a linking word. CONJUNCTIONS." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. 22.19. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames." Paragraphs." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. . It was pretty bad after that. or sentence groups. but the student will readily find them. etc. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. 294. 20. Unlike adverbs. however. Clauses. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. connecting words. Definition. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. sentences. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. upon which the sun now shone forth." Sentences. word groups. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority.

but is emperor in his own right. not only... introducing a reason or cause.. Some go in threes. however.. had its weight. Alternative.. and not man corn... else. 297. neither.Classes of conjunctions. therefore.or. (3) CAUSAL. joining words. etc. 298. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. Adversative. both. the window being open. only. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. word groups. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. for.. serves but to show their ignorance. of the same rank. the bread was spent.or. as well as. Some of these go in pairs. or the sea rolls its waves. While the earth bears a plant. then.. neither. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.but (or but also). either. not only. as and. either. They are or.. hence. Your letter. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. "Howbeit. etc.. usually between two things. Causal. 296..or. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.. (2) ADVERSATIVE. the butter too. nor. The assertion.but.or whether. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. answering to each other in the same sentence. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. whether.nor. while. Nor mark'd they less. moreover. nor. yet.. etc. as well as the room door.. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.. still. also. whether. (2) Subordinate.. as but. (4) ALTERNATIVE.or. whether. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. either. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. likewise." Nevertheless... . where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. as. and.. expressing a choice. neither. Correlatives. The chief ones are.. as.and.. however.nor..

unless. even if. He is not only bold and vociferous. whenever. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. especially that after so. (2) TIME: when. object. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. provided. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.²BURKE. etc. nor creeping thing. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. QUINCY. ere.²COOPER. as. since. now. as.²DE QUINCEY. whithersoever. before. (3) MANNER: how.²J. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. whither. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where.. nor echo. as. though. seeing.²BIBLE. that. 299. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will.. in order that. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. there will the heart be also. on condition that.²PAULDING. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. provided that. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. whereas. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. however. etc. etc. until. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry.. in apposition. Time. nor wing of bird. howsoever. so. in case. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. sometimes if. since. Where the treasure is. whether. etc.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body.²IRVING. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. Neither the place in which he found himself. It is. after.. so. so that. although. except. whereto. whence. so. lest. (6) PURPOSE: that. etc. while. wherever. nor green leaf.²WILSON. (7) RESULT: that. so that. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. . ²ALLSTON. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. (9) SUBSTANTIVE:

²AMES.²COLERIDGE. Result.That he gave her wounds repose. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²CAMPBELL.²CARLYLE Events proceed.That vain it were her eyes to close. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. not as they were expected or intended.²DEFOE. reason.²EMERSON.² WORDSWORTH.²AMES. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. but not so long but I held it out. Sparing neither whip nor spur. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Manner. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.² H. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²EMERSON.²IRVING. Let the world go how it will. Then Denmark blest our chief. Concession.² EMERSON. Now he is dead. We wish for a thousand heads. Cause.So I behold them not. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²BURKE. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²BYRON. Condition. As a soldier. Substantive. I was again covered with water. Comparison. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. a thousand bodies.²EMERSON. H. . What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²AMES. Purpose.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. JACKSON.² HAWTHORNE.

12. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. While patriotism glowed in his heart. . As will have been noticed. the lady called her servant. 3. 10. however. her real merit is known at home. No one had yet caught his character. while. And then recovering. Besides. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. and hid her there. 14. 5. etc. that. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. it will remain harmless. she faintly pressed her hand. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. And they lived happily forever after. In what point of view. He was brought up for the church. They.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions.²RUSKIN. Exercises. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. since. 300. 2. After he was gone. 15. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. as he shot in air. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 4. some words²for example.Let us see whether the greatest. 13. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 6. then. the wisest. While a faction is a minority. hold a subordinate rank. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. The moth fly. 7. as. 9. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. Crept under the leaf. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions.

tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. . they connect. in this case. So silently we seemed to speak." as.As though a rose should shut. As for as if. SPECIAL REMARKS. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. expressing degree if taken separately. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. for example. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.. GREELEY.." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. as is often equivalent to as if.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. the expression would be. 303.So slowly moved about. In Emerson's sentence. even as they would weep. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. In parsing conjunctions. as is shown by the use of as though. "We meet. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. Consequently. and be a bud again. thus. and part as though we parted not. 301.16. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. In poetry. As though.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. As if. 304.²EMILY BRONTE.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²HOOD. etc. His voice . (2) What words. If analyzed. word groups.²BYRON. and the frame will suit the picture. none of the lashings having given way. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.²IRVING. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.Clouded. 302. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain..

There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. All the postulates of elfin annals. but of the natural. 6. For example. 3. in 2. If he could solve the riddle. He is the compend of time. he sleeps as warm. When the gods come among men. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. such as nor. when. in 3. and very seldom?" 8. so that expresses result. he is also the correlative of nature." said his wife to Martin Luther. It may be safely trusted.. others belong to several classes. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. and its clause is independent. so means therefore. 10. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. so it be faithfully imparted.²DEFOE 2. because it is his. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. 2. the Sphinx was slain. . etc. dines with as good an appetite.² 1. are regularly of one particular class. or in the forest. 11. that it might testify of that particular ray. they are not known. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. and the like. "Doctor. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. as beside his own chimneys. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 12. 5. Exercise. 13. 4. 7. so that I could not stir abroad.²I find them true in Concord. so they paddled on. because. and associates as happily. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. compare the sentences. He dismisses without notice his thought. In classifying them.²that the fairies do not like to be named. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. so means provided. or in the snow.Caution.²is subordinate of condition. At sea. and its clause depends on the other.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. and. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. 9. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. Some conjunctions. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. It continued raining.²EMERSON 3.

23. 305. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. you must be. 16. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. in this they agree. Now you have the whip in your hand. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 18. whose names I omit. 28. 25. It may be so in the majority of cases. that both were wayward. 15. 21. 22. won't you lay on? 17. I rejoice to stand here no longer. . 29. she might have the family countenance. the whole conditions are changed. 24.. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. And whether consciously or not. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. PREPOSITIONS. 19. enthroned. There was no iron to be seen. save it were sinful like herself. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. It is clear. 20. of good novels only. Goodness must have some edge to it. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 30.²else it is none. in many a heart. when it was presented to them. however. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 27. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. Still. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. therefore. For. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. I speak. 26. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge.14.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

321.²EVERETT. at first. At St. . By. at war. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. TAYLOR The angel came by night. H. At that time [the earth] was richer.²B. by the blessed memory of the departed.²SWIFT.²ID. Richard was standing by the window. at the best.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at play. Like at. D.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at all. (4) Measure of excess. STODDARD. etc. at the worst. at one. at rest. By my faith. at any rate. by the wrecks of time. Exercise.²M. Exercise. CONWAY. (3) Agency or means. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. he stopped. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. at work.²DE QUINCEY. at most.² (1) The general meaning of place.²ALDRICH.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. (2) Time. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. etc. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. by the ruins of nations. as. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.²WARNER. She saw the boat headed for her. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. by many a million of acres. at naught. at peace. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at length. at least. For. the first port made by the ship. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. ²PARTON.²R. at once. Helena. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. expressing the degree of difference. by means near or close to.²COOPER. 320.. at random.

²EMERSON. for famine." answered Master Brackett. meaning in the character of. etc. H. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. the Colonna motto would fit you best. E.²HOLMES.²W. or in spite of. if your worship can accomplish that.² RUSKIN. "thou hast counseled wisely. (6) Like as. etc. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. "Nay..²IRVING.²PARKMAN. meaning although. But the Colonel. (9) Motive. He and they were for immediate attack. GARRISON.(2) In favor of. respecting. or extent of space. they are now for us. reason.²STODDARD. There are gains for all our losses. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. (4) Substitution or exchange.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. poor fellow. incitement to action. a person or thing. for all his title. had a forest of poor relations. but a few sunsets since. . Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. An Arab woman.. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. considering that etc. in behalf of. (7) Concession. as to. For him. BANCROFT.²PARKMAN.²LAMB. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE."²SCOTT By my faith. as being. etc. "For a fool. meaning with regard to. ate her child. L. (5) Reference.²ID. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. For the rest." said the Lady of Lochleven. for all slips of hers. he repented of his folly. and leaped for joy. for the benefit of. cause.²HOOD.One of Eve's family.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. (3) Duration of time. The twilight being.²E. Still. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.²H.

(1) Origin or source. The general idea in from is separation or source.²HUXLEY.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. Of. From harmony. Like boys escaped from school. like from. (4) Motive. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²ID. 322. From.²BANCROFT. Exercise. The young cavaliers. The original meaning of of was separation or source. nay. (3) Time. ceased to be merciful. (2) Origin.²HIGGINSON. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. A distrustful. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. more. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The From Relation.²MILTON. H. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. if not a desperate man. It was from no fault of Nolan's. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. from a desire of seeming valiant. or reason. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²HUME. The king holds his authority of the people. . 323. cause.²H. Exercise. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²DRYDEN.²HALE. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.

purge.²SCOTT Who formed. etc. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. bound with thongs of boar's hide. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. E. divest. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²ALDRICH. deprive. acquitted them of. weeds. rid. of his own knowledge. (d) With words expressing distance. disarm. You cannot make a boy know. "I am glad of that. cure. and grass. ²PARTON. beg. clear.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. (6) Partitive.²BOSWELL. Other Relations expressed by Of. A singular want of all human relation. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²DICKENS II. Back of that tree. expressing a part of a number or quantity. as north of. relieve.²BAYARD TAYLOR. He is away of his own free will. etc. south of. HALE.. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. bare of. out of the most unpromising materials.² HUXLEY. The hills were bare of trees. there were only twenty-one members present. . Of the Forty. (3) With expressions of material. deprivation.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause."²E. demand. wide of. (b) After some adjectives. especially out of. or breastpin of native gold. ask. that Cromwell once ruled England. rob. Sandals. Asked no odds of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. More than one altar was richer of his vows.²PARKMAN. motive.²clear of. such as ease. etc. etc. reason. etc. ²GAVARRE.²ID. (5) Expressing agency.²BANCROFT. White shirt with diamond studs. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. the finest army that Europe had yet seen.²LEW WALLACE. free. free of.²HIGGINSON.

(7) Possessive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.²ALDRICH.²LOWELL. equal to about. concerning. etc. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. E.²BANCROFT. and the dignity of a queen. of is used in the sense of during. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. standing. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²COOPER. . 309.²BANCROFT. See also Sec.. (9) Of time. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. (c) Two nouns. The nation of Lilliput.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. ²IRVING. (8) Appositional.²BANCROFT. of a sudden.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²ID.²SWIFT. Besides the phrases of old.²W.He washed out some of the dirt. could give shelter from his contumely. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. with its object.²HALLECK. of late. Idiomatic use with verbs. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. when the first is descriptive of the second. being equivalent to an infinitive. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (10) Of reference.²LAMB. with regard to. CHANNING. for the possessive.²FROUDE. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. The fair city of Mexico. (b) Noun and gerund. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. Such a book as that of Job.²PRESCOTT. Not even woman's love.

on a sudden. repent.²PARKMAN. approve.²EMERSON. disapprove. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. On my life. Exercise. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. (3) Reference. permit. Exercise. Upon is seldom used to express time. you are eighteen. The general meaning of on is position or direction. (2) Time. SIGOURNEY. and not a day more. avail (one's self). on the wing. and others. 324.²BRYANT. equal to about. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. complain.²MRS. It also accompanies the verbs tire. such as admit. on view. on board. etc.²ALDRICH.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. Upon my reputation and credit. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. without adding to their meaning. on trial.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. Cannon were heard close on the left. on high.²DE QUINCEY. (b) With motion. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. Upon. allow. accept. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²PARKMAN. concerning. . (4) In adjurations.²Find sentences with six uses of of. 325. ²BANCROFT. on the alert. etc. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. consist. To. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. On. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats.²PARKMAN.

²WEBSTER (4) Expressing be written over. to him. (5) Equivalent to according to. To the few.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²BRYANT. He usually gave his draft to an aid.²PARKMAN. does the mere music. With... while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²B. mid meant in company with.²BULWER.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry... whose influence is felt to this hour.Come to the bridal chamber. had ceased to be. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. Nor. .'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. 268).²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²PARTON. Revolutions. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²GOLDSMITH. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. (b) Referring to time.²IRVING. gay Comedy appears. Exercise. In Old English. 326. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. unmasked. His brother had died. to my taste.²BENTON To our great delight. Death!²HALLECK. interest. it may be genuine poetry.²LANG. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. (2) Expressing result.²often to the loss of vigor. But when.²HALE. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.

with Heyward at its head.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. but a pleasure"?²LANG. it is necessary.²DE QUINCEY. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. had already reached the defile. (4) Estimation. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²CHANNING. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. He was wild with delight about Texas. With all his sensibility. "poetry is not a pursuit. reason. 327.²HOWELLS.²Find sentences with four uses of with.The advance.²LANG. (2) Instrumentality. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. E. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²COOPER.²COLERIDGE. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²DE QUINCEY. HALE.²ALDRICH. motive. He expired with these words. transmitted from the beginning. to find the object of the preposition. (5) Opposition. felt it unsafe to trifle further. Either with the swingle-bar. he gave millions to the sword. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. She seemed pleased with the accident.²E. (3) Cause. It seemed a supreme moment with him. as with you. . first of all. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. or with the haunch of our near leader. with all his boldness. but with you. opinion. Messala.²WALLACE (7) Time. in spite of.²HOWELLS. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²HALE. Exercise. I think.

I heard a noise just over my head. I looked towards my windows. To our general surprise. I speak these things from a love of justice. The object of on board is ships. shook it directly over my head. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. 5. I remember. the malicious rogue. 3. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. Be that as it will. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. but I received no other hurt. of without. (3) without a country. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. hence we say. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. because I had given the provocation. (4) from the beginning. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. and knocked me down flat on my face. In (3). (2) on which. And so on. . and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted.²SWIFT 2. Whereupon. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. before the dwarf left the queen. the phrase answers the question where. 4. but all to no purpose. I felt my box raised very high in the air. beginning. In (1). They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. Exercises. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. 2. The guns were cleared of their lumber. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. of on. came tumbling about my ears. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. like the clapping of wings. or was. by which a dozen apples. he followed us one day into those gardens.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. country. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. In (2). The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. I called out several times. we met the defaulter here. which. of from. without a country modifies man. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted.²ID. telling what man. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak.

11. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. when. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 10. plumed for battle. in town. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. His breeches were of black silk. For my part. 14. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 29. 26. The mother sank and fell. 18. 7. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. to one dark and gloomy. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. The savage army was in war-paint. 27. grasping at the child. 20. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 13. I like to see the passing. 23. he favored the world with his opinions. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 9. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent.Without stop or stay. in this respect. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. He locked his door from mere force of habit.He spurred his courser on. 22. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 24. 25. after a restful morning. On all subjects known to man. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 8. 15. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. . 21. 19. 16. With all his learning. 12. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 17. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. Carteret was far from being a pedant.6. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service.

(3) As a relative pronoun. That is what I understand by scientific education. He will raise the price.²BEECHER. A few are discussed below.30. that you might behold this joyous day. 330. And now it is like an angel's song. and be proud in the midst of its toil.That makes the heavens be mute. 328.²HUXLEY. (2) As an adjective pronoun.²WEBSTER. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (b) Of result. (a) Indefinite relative. That night was a memorable one. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. . not merely by the amount of the tax. 329.²STOCKTON. THAT. We wish that labor may look up here.²WEBSTER. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (1) Relative pronoun. WHAT. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²WEBSTER.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. That was a dreadful mistake. and not according to form. (4) As an adverb of degree. (c) Substantive conjunction. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.² JOHNSON.²COLERIDGE. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.

Cox.. to see what might be hidden.. (b) Indirect question. (8) Conjunction.²ID. (7) Adverb of degree. 331.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (b) Copulative. BUT. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (9) As an exclamation. and silent all!²BYRON.²WORDSWORTH.²EMERSON. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. (b) Indirect question. "I'll tell you what. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. he knows what good people are to be found there. nearly equivalent to partly. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way..S. What with the Maltese goats. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. If he has [been in America]. Pera. after not only. is impossible to determine. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.Those shadowy recollections.²WEBSTER.but. but the result of calculation.²S. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. it rests on reality.²ID..²THACKERAY." (4) Relative adjective.. or not only.these sounds are only to be heard. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY... . Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. What. (6) Exclamatory adjective. silent still.²EMERSON. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT... (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative..Which be they what they may. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. At what rate these materials would be distributed. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. To say what good of fashion we can.

His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²EMERSON.²IRVING. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.. or who .He yearned to our patriot bands.²HAWTHORNE. (b) Of manner.. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (b) Substantive. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. stands for that ..Then arose not only tears. To lead but one measure. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. sometimes same. not. (3) Preposition. but piercing cries.²SCOTT.²CARLYLE. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. AS.²IRVING. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. than. meaning otherwise .²IRVING.. (e) Introducing an appositive word. on all sides. meaning except. I shall see but little of it. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. . meaning only.²MRS BROWNING. equivalent to that . As orphans yearn on to their mothers. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. not. towards order. (d) Of reason. (5) Adverb. like the dog.²LAMB. 332.²FRANKLIN. Who knows but. not. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result...²SHELLEY. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. after a negative. at all moments.. after such. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. ²CARLYLE.. Doing duty as a guard. (2) Relative pronoun. (4) Relative pronoun. (c) Of degree.

Give Ruskin space enough. That face. nervous child. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. In each case. like him awhile ago. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. (1) An adjective.² HAWTHORNE.²LONGFELLOW.²LAMB. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. Introduces a clause. If the verb is expressed. like summer ocean's. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.-SCOTT. but this is not considered good usage: for example. like a cook beating eggs. There is no statue like this living man. I do with my friends as I do with my books. and was clearly an adjective. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. No Emperor. 333. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. They look. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. this.²EMERSON.²MAYHEW. In this second use. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. indeed. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.LIKE. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. Through which they put their heads. This follows a verb or a verbal. NOTE.²DARWIN.² A timid.²HAWTHORNE.²CASS. like drops out. Note the difference between these two uses. like Martin was. staring like a bewildered man. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²ALDRICH. ²PARKMAN. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²EMERSON. . Stirring it vigorously. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²HIGGINSON.²SHAKESPEARE.²ALDRICH. and is followed by a dative-objective. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. and as or as if takes its place. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²HALLECK. but its verb is omitted.

but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Definition. that is. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." PART II.: for example. Definition. pronoun. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. 335.INTERJECTIONS. verb. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin.²in determining case.. clauses introduced by conjunctions. but it still retains its identity as noun." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. tut! buzz! etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. in separating them into their component parts. . Not all exclamatory words are interjections. subject and predicate. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. etc. 336. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. as. What analysis is. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Some of these are imitative sounds. etc.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. that is. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. entering into the structure of a sentence." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Value of analysis. 334. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion.

you must not die!" interrogative. "Old year. Examples of these three kinds are.²a subject and a predicate. or imperative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. entreaty. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named." 340. but by no means vulgar. 339. "The quality of mercy is not strained. This is the most common one. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. old man?" "Be thou familiar. 2. Division according to number of statements. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "Hath he not always treasures. But now all is to be changed. not according to the form in which a thought is put. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. which puts the thought in a question. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. but according to how many statements there are. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. question. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. Every sentence must contain two parts. declarative. (2) Interrogative. always friends?" imperative. hence. . or request. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. "Come to the bridal chamber. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. according to form." "What wouldst thou do. or command: for example. Definition: Predicate. Definition. but the sentence would still be declarative. (3) Imperative. A rare old plant is the ivy green.Kinds of sentences as to form. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. 337. which expresses command. 338. interrogative.

3. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. especially in poetry. or adverb that asks about the subject. thou. or ye) is in most cases omitted. and our definition must be the following. In analyzing such sentences. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Listen. 5. 4. "[You] behold her single in the field.²What is to be changed? Answer. 6. the subject (you. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. 7. we have some trouble. The last of all the Bards was he.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. In the interrogative sentence. and the real subject is the latter. Thus. all. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. but about the ivy green. adjective. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. to an ignorant man. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 341. on the other hand. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. and is to be supplied. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Consequently. always reduce them to the order of a statement. as. 8. Slavery they can have anywhere. the subject is frequently after the verb. to suit all cases:² Subject.²What is the ivy green? Answer. . But if we try this with the second sentence. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences." Exercise. 2. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. not of a rare old plant. or an interrogative pronoun. a rare old plant. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions.

(2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. just as if to say. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. in addition to the object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (3) The object. for example. but chief belongs to the verb." indirect. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Of a transitive verb.10. Direct Object. 343. but it is a true complement. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. direct. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. and me here is not the object simply of call. (2) The predicate." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). "Ye honor me. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. "Ye call me chief. (4) The complements.²transitive and intransitive. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (5) Modifiers. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. or second object. Indirect object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. and by object we mean the direct object. . 342. (6) Independent elements. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. The transitive verb often requires. but of call chief. and means summoned. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning." Complement: 344.

not containing a verb." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. feel." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. appear. introduced by a preposition: for example." Things used as Subject. as. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. "A cheery. 352. 351. especially the forms of be. more familiarly." 345. 364. 'Ay. As to form. An intransitive verb. or. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. but used as a single modifier." "The good man. and barring the door.. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . Complement of an intransitive verb. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. etc. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds." Also an expression used as a noun. as in drowning." (2) PARTICIPIAL. 347. for instance. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. sir!' rang out in response. "Brow and head were round. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. become. in the original Opium Confessions. and." "He was termed Thomas. as in the sentence. to the completion of this man of the world. 355. ay." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." (3) INFINITIVE. taste.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. in the popular judgment. in exercise following Sec. and of massive weight." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary." All these complete intransitive verbs. A phrase is a group of words. I mentioned a case of that nature. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. Phrases. Thom of the Gills. See sentence 19." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. above sixty. he was now getting old. 346. seem. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house.

for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." In this sentence." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. but they will be given in detail here. but the real or logical subject is to print. etc. or the thundering of organs. "'By God. but obscures the real subject. or their religion from their sect. (4) After "there introductory. asserting eyes. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." "There are asking eyes." etc." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. from their lips. for which see Sec. my deficiency. 349." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. "Therein has been." The for did not belong there originally. prowling eyes.²the infinitive phrase." Things used as Direct Object." "The dead are there.²the talent of starting the game." 348." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. was heard one syllable to justify." Things used as Complement. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). .(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. 341. I saw the quick and the dead. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. Disguised infinitive subject. and ever will be. and by Saint George!' said the King. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. (2) In interrogative sentences." "Never.

it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. As complement of a transitive verb. or the equivalent of the noun. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. doubtless. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. and explaining or modifying the subject." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." Modifiers. Of a transitive verb. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." "I hear the echoes throng.²heads or tails." In this last sentence.350." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. and." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. or Complement. the object is made the subject by being passive. As complement of an intransitive verb. 351." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." "She asked her father's permission.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. I. complements of the predicate. Modifiers of Subject. and the words italicized are still complements." "Serving others is serving us.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. the shepherd girl. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.²completing the predicate." . and whenever the complement is a noun. (3) Infinitive. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." "Their tempers. Object." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. they are adjuncts of the object." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. at the same time." (4) Participle." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. Like all the complements in this list.

" These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. 352. "He died like a God." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (For participial and infinitive phrases. was now called upon for his defense.²proud." "In the twinkling of an eye. but noble teachers. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. the verb being omitted. 351. tell whether the subject. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. or complement is modified.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. and modify the predicate in the same way." "Give them not only noble teachings." "Him. and leading him from star to star." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. Since the predicate is always a verb. or . 357-363. this young idolater. not with nature. but with other men. object. Retained with passive." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. the prisoner at the bar. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. austere." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." In such a sentence as." Exercise. was the scene from King John. see further Secs. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. but it is really a contracted clause. Tells how.²In each sentence in Sec. I have seasoned for thee." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. unforgiving. no sociable angel. Modifiers of the Predicate." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. given at the request of a Dutch lady. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. II.

" "One way lies hope. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light.." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. 4. predicate. no relief to the dead prosaic level. Evil. and as many to oppose it. and. predicate. 6. a sort of personality to the whole writing." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. etc. 7. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. and the direct object is retained: for example. in this center? 4. 3. This. A merciless oppressor hast thou been." (6) Adverbial objective. how far." "All such knowledge should be given her. and (direct) object:² 1. His books have no melody. to the animal strength and spirits. 2. but to be loved. and other measures of precaution. On the voyage to Egypt. These answer the question when. according to old philosophers. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. gives wonderful animation. I took." Exercises. with my joy and grief. To the men of this world. Why does the horizon hold me fast. (b) Pick out the subject. Fashion does not often caress the great. 8. but the children of the great. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. in regard to particulars. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. . the man of ideas appears out of his reason." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. negative. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 6. (a) Pick out subject. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. But anger drives a man to say anything. They do not wish to be lovely. is good in the making. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 3. or how long. 2. 7.When the verb is changed from active to passive. after dinner. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. 5. 5. no emotion. he liked. no humor. the indirect object is retained.

for the first time. happy dinner. the present Archbishop of Dublin.y 8. in little peaceful Easedale. etc. To suffer and to do. the attorney. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. expecting the return of their parents. Yes. I felt myself. 2. at length the warrior lady. Their intention was to have a gay. . and a member of the world. that was thy portion in life. this dragoon so lovely. to the right and to the left. downwards. this nun so martial. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. at the chief hotel. then. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 4. 2. Not compound sentences. I gave him an address to my friend. then. Paint me. 2. In one feature. Unhorse me. 3. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. That night. after their long confinement to a ship. Not the less I owe thee justice. 3.²the river Meuse. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. A river formed the boundary. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 4. viz. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. must visit again the home of her childhood. y y y y Compound Subject.. six children sat by a peat fire. 3. Compound Predicate. this imperial rider. 4. a room seventeen feet by twelve. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 5. upwards. 5. the blooming cornet. 6. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1.

"The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. ulcer." "Ye crags and peaks.353. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. the air of the mother. the object. For example. the tone of her voice. in the sentence. and its object or complement. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. I'm with you once again. and. etc." Sentences with compound predicates are.." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. etc. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. the predicate." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. above: thus." "The name of the child. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. turned his steps homeward. "Ah. shouldered the rusty firelock. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. 355. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. but it is to be noticed that. etc. hurry. the verb). Of this. The exclamatory expression. Larger view of a sentence. Bishop." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. hurry." And so with complements." "He shook his head. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. complements. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. two or more subjects of the same predicate. Examples of compound subjects are. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. exposes. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. the simple subject is situation. modifiers. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. may be the person or thing addressed. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject." "Voyages and travels I would also have. Independent Elements of the Sentence. 354. "The company broke up. then the grammatical subject and predicate. together with all its modifiers. in all such sentences as we quote below. my brave young man!" . and returned to the more important concerns of the election. however. that is. several modifiers.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. and the rest is the logical predicate. together with its modifiers. same as (1). It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. they are not a necessary part. forming a sentence: "Oh.

" Another caution.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. her noticing even this is creditable. generally speaking. he somehow lived along. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. such as however. 352. besides. see Sec. 4). In their use. he closed his literary toils at dinner. moreover." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. let him perish. modifying a noun. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb." (5) Participial phrase: "But. already noticed. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. 4). 355. the company broke up. now. 357. 356. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. y (2) The adverbial use. why." "At all events. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. instances of which were seen in Sec. There are some adverbs. and some conjunctions. how you're winking!" "Now. then. etc. undoubtedly. really. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. yes! everybody knew them. grandma. nevertheless.." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. object." (6) Single words: as. 350. 351. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. (b) As a modifier of subject. "Oh." "Truth to say. truly. The words well. such as perhaps. (1) Adjectival." "Well. or complement (see Sec. and so on. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "No. 6). therefore." (3) Independent. prepositional phrases may be. that have an office in the sentence." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon.. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. to the best of my remembrance. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. These need close watching. . this story runs thus. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. he was a conscientious man." "Why. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 3. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion." (2) Adverbial. etc. modifying the predicate. pronoun. six quill-driving gentlemen. or word used as a noun: for example. see Sec." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes.

y (a) With may (might). "Because I was. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public.would. ought. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every .There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. etc." (c) With the definite forms of go. and they will be presented here in full. etc." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason." In this sentence. I. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. my dear. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." (b) With the forms of be. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. or as nearly so as the student will require. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. Wilt thou. and teach her how to be happy and good.can (could). but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business." "There. was speedily run through. therefore.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. This case excepted. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. "The letter of introduction. 355." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. 358. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble.: as in the sentences.should. See Sec. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing.seem.]." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening." etc. but require somewhat closer attention. but having no other office than a verbal one. necessity. (5). being equivalent to a future with obligation. thus. and hence is adverbial." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. modifying was speedily run through. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. containing no matters of business. he should not have known them at all. The verbal use.

" "Are you mad." "To say what good of fashion we can.." "He insisted on his right to forget her." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. hang the idiot. The adjectival use. To test this. The fact that the infinitives in Sec.²both purpose clauses. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. 361.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. notice the following:² In (1)." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. "But there was no time to be lost. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. result." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again.: for example. complement." "To teach is to learn. The substantive use. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. etc. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). the Scotch fighting all the battles. 361 are used adverbially. 5). "Do they not cause the heart to beat. 362." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." 360. The adverbial use. 351. above. IV. to hear McOrator after dinner. to look means that he might look. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). (4) In apposition. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. modifying a noun that may be a subject. already examined. etc. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. III. . object. II. Don Guzman. and the eyes to fill?" 359. to please is equivalent to that he may please." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this.

as in Sec. 4. 355). 268.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. savage and serene in one hour. (3).. must be in a life. which is of two kinds. (5) The subject (Sec. 352).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. (7) Independent elements (Sec. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. 351). etc. give² (1) The predicate. If it is an incomplete verb. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. and to say is equivalent to if we say.²both expressing condition. 363. . to part means because I part. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. In (4). (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. In (3). etc. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. give the complement (Secs. equivalent to that you betray. 351). to find shows the result of the return. Our life is March weather.. object. The independent use. In analyzing simple sentences. I will try to keep the balance true. 349). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec." (See also Sec. 364. 2." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. V. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 347). In (5). etc. to hear means if you should hear.In (2). 3. 351). not in a book. 355. and to betray and to bring express the reason.

The water. 9. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 23. with eager energy. just on the edge of destruction. through toys and atoms. through evil agents. 24.²to preserve her throne. 19.The old crow of Cairo. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. a skilled musician. Old Adam. His opinion is always original. We are always in peril. . The word conscience has become almost confined. and spared nothing. He risked everything. 5. and every moment discover something new.He sat in the shower.4. 18. Through the years and the centuries. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. You may ramble a whole day together. and only to be saved by invention and courage. to restore civil and religious order. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. To these gifts of nature. 20. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. The whole figure and air. nor troops. an accomplished scholar. 21. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. neither ammunition. Her aims were simple and obvious. always in a bad plight. the carrion crow. a graceful dancer. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy.Burnt green and blue and white. 16. 12. a good shot. is to have no political system at all. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. nor generals. 8. good and amiable otherwise. nor himself. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. might be called flabby and irresolute. To be hurried away by every event. 6.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. in popular use. and to the purpose. 15. 14. two stricken hours. I have heard Coleridge talk. 10. to keep England out of war. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 11. like a witch's oils. 13. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. nor money. 22. to the moral sphere. 7. 17.

was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. to be a reproach to such goodness. 26. had but one foible. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. haply. and. Oxford. 37. in this world. to bid you leave the place now and forever. Fair name might he have handed down. ready to receive her.25. 35. 34. still. In the Acadian land. 33. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. But yield. This amiable relative. and in my own garden. or perhaps one virtue. it would not have been filial or ladylike. and no provisions but wild berries. upon my own ground. 36. 30. in front of all this mighty crowd. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 31. Upon this shore stood. 32. 40. Few in number. 29.Distant. the present capital of New England. an elderly man. proud foe. 39. She had made a two days' march. Must we in all things look for the how. in less heroic and poetic form. the same Condé Olivarez. Now. Supposing this computation to be correct. Of the same grandeur. The villain.Effacing many a stain of former crime. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. the prime minister of Spain. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. I dare this. 27. and the wherefore? . and the why. The cry. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 41. I hate him and myself.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 38. baggage far in the rear. the ship was in an uproar. time-honored. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. secluded.

compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. 367. though often treated as phrases. if they were expanded. which is the unit of speech." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. COMPLEX SENTENCES." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. (Sec. thus." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. As shown in Part I." Sentences with like. made merely for convenience and smoothness. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. as would be the connective instead of like. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. however. The simple sentence the basis. ." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. but." This must. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." To show that these words are really omitted. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. are really contracted clauses.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. the expressions of manner introduced by like. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. 333).² "She is like some tender tree. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. 365. as.From her own loved island of sorrow. the pride and beauty of the grove. Words left out after than or as. 366.

370. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. murmur. CLAUSES. main. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. logically depends on suffering. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. and the last." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. is taken in.²the backbone. which are so united that one member is the main one. . complement. then we recognize this as the main statement. or it may be applied to the others.²the other members subordinate to it. 368. A clause is a division of a sentence. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. A principal. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind.. predicate. and the next one. containing a verb with its subject. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. we are aware. object. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. Hence the following definition:² Definition. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). modifiers.. 371. that . Definition. that is. suffering. each clause has its subject. or dependent on it.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.. Independent clause. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. etc.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. object. how great . 369. and modifier. as in this sentence. complements. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second.

'I know that he can toil terribly.' is an electric touch." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.. with a noun clause in apposition with it." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. We ourselves are getting . and it is . But since they are complex in form. for a hundred years." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." Just as the object noun. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. or adverbs. 373. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.Dependent clause. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject.. (a) Ordinary apposition.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. for a time. infinitive." (4) Apposition. verbal. (b) that are . "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. . As to their office in the sentence. 352. adjectives. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex.. ADJECTIVE. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. etc." (2) Object of a verb.. pronoun. night or day.. attention is called to them here. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. but logically the sentence is." "I was told that the house had not been shut. Kinds. and the whole clause is not. impertinences²would be grammatical." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. thus. and ADVERB clauses. for example.. put an end to my fancies. over which the torrent came tumbling.. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. 5). so the object clause is retained. impertinences. Noun Clauses. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise." 374. 372." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. clauses are divided into NOUN. for example.

a falsehood incarnate." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation." Exercise. As the office of an adjective is to modify. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 5. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. that. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. whence. 2. Except by what he could see for himself. 6. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. whither. in the sentence. Adjective Clauses. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. etc. 7. no man will ever know. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. where. Frequently there is no connecting word. of a nation. 3. that. that he was a scheming impostor. . Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. What history it had. and not on the sentiment. 4. sometimes by the conjunctions when. 10. which. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. whereby. 8. but. that all safe legislation must be based. 375. 9. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. Other examples of this construction are. Such a man is what we call an original man. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. Examples of adjective clauses. a relative pronoun being understood. or equivalent of a noun. But the fact is. how it changed from shape to shape. he could know nothing. still remains reasonable. whether he should choose one or not.² "It is on the understanding. wherein. he would repent it. The reply of Socrates. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. I was napping. as.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis.

I walked home with Calhoun. object. the champions advanced through the lists. which Rowena tasted." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 3. 11. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle.376. Pick out the adjective clauses. 10. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. he begins to help us more as an effect. i. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. No man is reason or illumination. 4. which formed the center of the mansion. 9. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 5." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 1.e. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. all is vacancy. and tell what each one modifies. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause.. 6. 8." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 2." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. . or that essence we were looking for." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 7. etc. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture." Exercise." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. Adverbial Clauses. whether subject.

however good she may be as a witness. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. or an adverb. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. and will be given in detail. etc. etc. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. however." (7) RESULT." "The right conclusion is." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal.² whoever. but they require careful study. with examples. so far as we can. expressing the degree in which the horizon. the wider is the horizon of their thought. an adjective. it takes precedence of everything else. shaping our actions." These mean no matter how good. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "The broader their education is. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." "Who cares for that. is wider. no matter what remains." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. etc. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. that we should try." "When he was come up to Christian." "After leaving the whole party under the table." (5) DEGREE. whatever. 378. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. a verbal. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. to make up our shortcomings." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "He went several times to England.: "But still. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. he goes away as if nothing had happened. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. the milestones are grave-stones." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion.377. Exercise. introduced by indefinite relatives." (9) CONCESSION. Joanna is better. tell what kind each is." (3) REASON. adverbs. Shakespeare is our city of refuge.. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. since he was too great to care to be original." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. and adverbial conjunctions. and what it modifies:² .

and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. to tell the truth. 379. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. predicate. howling and whistling." 2.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. 'Well. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. so as to picture the parts and their relations. object. incoherent exclamations. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. banging about doors and windows. and twirling weathercocks. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and modifiers. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. snatching up stones to fling at them. 3. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. its object is that Odin was a reality. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit.1. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. in the sentence. find the principal subject and principal predicate. they might perhaps say of their visitors. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. when the wind was unruly. on a dark wintry night. 380. For example. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. etc. with shrill. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. of which clause Odin is the subject. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. If the children gathered about her. we are a little disappointed. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and communicated itself to a thousand objects." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. then treat noun clauses as nouns. as they sometimes did. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph.

(3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. Exercises. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (1) Find the principal clause. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.. as seen in the "map" (Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 364. 2.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. . \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. 3.. 364. 380). True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. d.

But now that she has become an establishment. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 23. counselor that had none for herself. 14. 13. 16. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. namely. if applied to the Bible. 20. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 10. the mixed result. not so much for travelers that were few. The night proved unusually dark. The deep eyes. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. that pressed her with an objection. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 24. who would yield to it least. or whether any. the shepherd girl. whom I choose.4. Next came a wretched Dominican. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. And those will often pity that weakness most. which. 8. 22. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. the flower should revive for us. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. had we been worse. 15. 5. 19. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 9. Whether she said the word is uncertain. dying for them. 12. Here lay two great roads. bishop. . 11. This is she. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 7. 17. for yours. I like that representation they have of the tree. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. Now. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. that. Had they been better chemists. as for armies that were too many by half. of a light hazel. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. could not have been effected. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. He was what our country people call an old one. 21. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 6. M. 18. that has clung to her faith in the imagination.

The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. and temper. and stamped with his right number. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. speed. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. It makes no difference how many friends I have. and what content I can find in conversing with each. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. . Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 27. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. "No book. 26. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 3. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. but above it.25. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia." said Bentley. then map out as in Sec. "was ever written down by any but itself. 382. 6. Hence the definition. questions. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 5. the following complex sentences:² 1. though we may repeat the words never so often. if there be one to whom I am not equal. we cannot adequately say. 383. That which we do not believe." 4. 2. 7. 380.²which will not be disposed of. COMPOUND SENTENCES. that it was no more than his daily walk. (b) First analyze. 28. These things we are forced to say. and not from his heart. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. if continuously extended. 30. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. is to speak and write sincerely. would easily reach. How formed. or commands.² Definition.

which are simple statements. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. moon-like ray" (adversative). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. as in Sec." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. Of the following illustrative sentences. in (3). etc. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). the planet has a faint. The division into members will be easier. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. 297). from the second. Some of these are now conjunctions. 386. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. he soliloquizes. "Only the star dazzles. for. and not the form of the connective. nor. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. and connects the first and second complex members. others sometimes coördinate. the waving grass. Study the thought. Another example is. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. 383 (1). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. he dilates. a complex member." 384. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. nor does he know until he has tried. as but. and nor the second and third complex members. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. yet. in (2). the semicolon separates the first. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. whereas. and it shall be the universal sense. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. and which complex:² 1. he is twice a man.. 385. Speak your latent conviction. now adverbs or prepositions. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. Exercise. etc. Connectives. Thus in (1). if there are any. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. he walks with arms akimbo. .This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. while (whilst). however. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. a simple member. or but. The coördinate conjunctions and. tell which are compound.

However some may think him wanting in zeal. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 11. 12. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. and thou shalt be loved. quiet. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. however. you lose something. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. and as yet very early in the morning. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none.2. 4. 9. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 14. I can still receive. and for everything you gain. All loss. all pain. 4. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. The gain is apparent. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. Whilst the world is thus dual. . and not by what each is. 10. 13. 6. 364. that it was Easter Sunday. 3. the tax is certain. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 7. (i) Separate it into its main members. passed in that time. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. to find a pot of buried gold. 5. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. 8. he grew up to be a mild. 2. 3. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. is particular. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. For everything you have missed. for example. yield to them heart and life. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. unobtrusive boy. or. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. you have gained something else. so is every one of its parts. Man does not stand in awe of man. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. Exercise. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. In this manner. Love. 387. nay. from a happy yet often pensive child. 381. I can yet love.

"the iron is white." "keep the rake. 18. 6. 20. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world.5. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. Trust men. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 11. "Strike. Whatever he knows and thinks. is as thin and timid as any. and the other dares not." says the smith. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. Stand aside. 14. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. or we read books. We go to Europe. We see the noble afar off. abide by it. 8. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. When you have chosen your part. feign to confess here. why should we intrude? 10. 19. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. . but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. if you rip up his claims. crook and hide. and not a thought has enriched either party. and the cart as nigh the rake. puts the parties on a convenient footing. that let him communicate. let them mount and expand. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. They will shuffle and crow. modesty. and they repel us. and they will be true to you." 13. and the peace of society is often kept. or hope. 17. or we pursue persons." says the haymaker. 21. give those merits room. as children. 16. one is afraid. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 15. because. and you are without effort impelled to truth. He teaches who gives. whilst frankness invites frankness. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 9. 7. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and he learns who receives. and they will show themselves great. only that they may brag and conquer there. or men will never know and honor him aright. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and not an emotion of bravery. Come into port greatly. treat them greatly. and makes their business a friendship. or sail with God the seas.

but its leading characteristic is. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. pronoun and antecedent. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . the department of syntax will be a small affair. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. it ends in headache. PART III. or. So does culture with us. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. 24. Following the Latin method. if they live. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. We see young men who owe us a new world.²agreement and government. 25. but go about your business anywhere. Do not craze yourself with thinking. adjective and noun. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. verb and subject. they lose themselves in the crowd. 390. Essential point in English syntax. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Ground covered by syntax. SYNTAX. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. but they never acquit the debt. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. it never was known to fall into the rear. 380. By way of introduction. they die young. so readily and lavishly they promise. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. INTRODUCTORY. 23. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms.22. 388. and dodge the account.

it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. and added to it the preposition of. For example. following the regular order of subject. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used." In this there is a possessive form. Why study syntax? 391. In some cases. both forms will be given in the following pages. or settler may be the subject. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). and whose judgment. sometimes verb and subject. Also in the sentence. As an illustration of the last remark. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. the order being inverted. therefore." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. authorities²that is. The basis of syntax. also expressing a possessive relation. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and imitate it. or the same writer will use both indifferently. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Some rules not rigid. "None remained but he." that is. some of which conform to classical grammar. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. then. or when they exist side by side in good usage. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. good English. 392. etc. When usage varies as to a given construction. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard." is ambiguous. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. as to study inflected forms. pronoun and antecedent. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language.² First. Savage may be the subject. .form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. distinct forms would be used. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. In Latin. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. There is. the sentence. and nothing but important points will be considered. 393. Second. and it would not matter which one stood first. This is not logical. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. "The savage here the settler slew. but are not now. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. take the sentence. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts.

Adam and Eve's morning hymn. 397. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Woman.²BYRON. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. . the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Separate possession. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. the antechamber of the High Priest. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.NOUNS. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. and Peterborough's.²EMERSON. and Pope's.²MCCULLOCH. PRONOUNS. but imply separate possession or ownership.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. and Paul's. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. ²ID. Mill's and Mr. 394. Joint possession. for example. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. 396.²THACKERAY. or indicate joint ownership or possession. 395.²ROWE. Bentham's principles together.²MILTON. Putting Mr. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. as. Use of the possessive. He kept Bolingbroke's.² Live your king and country's best support. sense and nature's easy fool. and Harley's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY." Juletta tells. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.² He lands us on a grassy stage. the shore of Galilee. 408). But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. and Peter's. etc. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.

whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). and should be the nominative form. for example.²SOUTHEY.²TROLLOPE. But he must be a stronger than thee." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is." 400. Still. Bedott Papers. thus. who.²POPE. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Objective for the nominative. I. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²BYRON. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Since most of the personal pronouns. . Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Some of the violations are universally condemned. General rules. the real thought being forgotten.) "The young Harper. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. whom is the complement after the verb am. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.²WHITCHER. sanctioned. if not universally.²SHAKESPEARE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. there are two general rules that require attention.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. No mightier than thyself or me. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. 398. This should be "as she. the last expression has the support of many good writers. together with the relative who. others are generally.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.²THACKERAY. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. as. 399.

The usage is too common to need further examples. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²COLERIDGE. the objective form is regularly found.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. And it was heThat made the ship to go. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. But still it is not she.²FIELDING. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. unless a special.²MACAULAY. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. BLACK. "Who's there?"²"Me. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. is. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.²LONGFELLOW. and the other forms of the verb be. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. namely. "Than whom. One exception is to be noted. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. In spoken English."²WM. Patrick the Porter. but such is the fact. they are yet holier than we. "If there is any one embarrassed. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed."²KINGSLEY. The camp of Richard of England.²SCOTT. on the other hand.² One I remember especially. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. it will not be me.²RUSKIN. as. .²PARTON." There is no special reason for this.²THACKERAY. both in England and America. for example. A safe rule. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. are. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²KINGSLEY." 401.² For there was little doubt that it was he."²WINTHROP.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON.

11. or this. 8. used after verbs. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. and prepositions. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 10. 3. .²MILTON. the object of to). verbals. object of saw). giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Whom they were I really cannot specify. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. or preposition which governs it. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. "Ask the murderer. 404.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. but not he" (he should be him. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 9. If there ever was a rogue in the world. as. as." 6. 7. Me in exclamations.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. as. you or me." the word being in apposition with murderer). 403. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. 4. as this from Shakespeare. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. it is me. or us). It is not me you are in love with. (3) By forgetting the construction. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 2.Exercise. I speak not to" (he should be him. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. Truth is mightier than us all. 5. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. verbal. now. Nominative for the objective. You know whom it is that you thus charge.

It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. None. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. and is usually avoided.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²STEELE.²GOLDSMITH.²KINGSLEY. Exception 2. I arraign. partial Nature. "Who did you see?" or. I've sworn. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. as. 405. for they say there are none such in the world. . Thy shores are empires. who interrogative. Exercise. Let you and I look at these. etc. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.² All were knocked down but us two. changed in all save thee. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. as. but he. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²BYRON. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Thou. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²KINGSLEY. 406. all but he. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Who have we here?²ID.Exception 1. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²KINGSLEY. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. We regularly say. for example. as well as the objective.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. save thou and thine. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.Shall be left upon the morn.²BYRON. 2. Nature. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.

Markland. with Jortin and Thirlby. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 11.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 12. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. II. 7. 407. 10.²SCOTT. or objective? . They crowned him long ago. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 8. POSSESSIVE FORMS.Ye I salute. 5. This usage is not frequent." 4. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. B. BROWN. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.3.²MACAULAY.²RUSKIN. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 9. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. As antecedent of a relative. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. who. and they know that as well as me. Preceding a gerund. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. Bartholomew.²C.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²possessive. 6.

both are gerunds. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. studying is a gerund." That is. sometimes it has the objective. and asked why it was not made.² THACKERAY. as he turned away from his wife. that the bitterness of death was past. and that in the second.² SCOTT. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. object of heard of. [who was] studying law. Objective.²BREWER. The last incident which I recollect.²RUSKIN. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. We heard of Brown. Possessive. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. . Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. Why both are found. and the meaning is. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning.²DE QUINCEY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. Here I state them only in brief.² IRVING. Both types of sentences are found. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.²DICKENS. In the examples quoted. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. But in common use there is no such distinction.²MACAULAY. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.²CARLYLE. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.408. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. The use of the objective is older." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.² CARLYLE. etc.

²EMERSON III. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. Every city threw open its gates. preceded by a distributive.²HOLMES. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²THOREAU. Everybody had his own life to think of. in one person. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. Watch for the real antecedent.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. In such a case as the last three sentences. 410. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²C. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. and ought to agree with them in person.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. or is a distributive word. BROCKDEN BROWN. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. where there were examinations.²RUSKIN. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. If any one did not know it. The pale realms of shade. if the antecedent is neuter. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²HUXLEY.² BRYANT.²CABLE.²AUDUBON. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. it was his own fault. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. Examples of these constructions are. 409. and gender.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²DE QUINCEY. taking in each of many persons.²when the antecedent.²DEFOE. . and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. number. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.

Every one must judge of their own feelings.² Not the feeblest grandame.²PAULDING. . as anybody in their senses would have done.²HUXLEY.Avoided: By using both pronouns. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²FIELDING.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. not a mowing idiot. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. By using the plural pronoun. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. for example.²RUSKIN. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. and giving them means of being so. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²BYRON. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²PALEY. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²DEFOE. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Whosoever hath any gold. If the part deserve any comment.²ID. 411.²SCOTT.²BIBLE.²THACKERAY. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. The sun.²PALGRAVE. let them break it off.²EMERSON. till they have lost him. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²ID. Struggling for life.²AUSTEN. This is not considered the best usage.

and that may be coördinating or restrictive. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. but. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. but. "I gave it to the beggar. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. when restrictive. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent.²In the above sentences. 413. That is in most cases restrictive. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES." This means. when coördinating.²ADDISON. . the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide." It defines beggar. 2. It adds a new statement to what precedes. What these terms mean. Exercise.) and a personal pronoun. 1. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. that being considered already clear. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word.²HAWTHORNE. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. or unrestrictive. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. no one could take upon them to say.²ID. 412. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. tell whether who. unless both genders are implied. and that are restrictive or not. the definite relatives who. As to their conjunctive use." A relative. and he went away. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. I. according to the practice of every modern writer. In the following examples. because. as.² SHERIDAN. which. in each instance:² Who. and does not add a new statement. etc. or what was become of her. which. and that always restrictive. Exercise. who went away. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side.Where she was gone. A relative.

With narrow shoulders. and over England are saying. 13. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. In what sense true. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. 12. Which. 9. W. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. The rule. 4. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. etc. BEECHER 5. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.² MOTLEY. We say I. long arms and legs. and it is called logic. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public." that is invariable as to person and number.²DE QUINCEY. II. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.²THOREAU. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. you.²DE QUINCEY. as that does not vary for person or number. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. However. For example. The general rule is. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 14. because of its antecedent. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. Yet how many are there who up. that were often vicious. A grizzly-looking man appeared. 6. who. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. So different from the wild. down. in the sentence. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. On hearing their plan. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. it makes the verb third person singular. etc.²ADDISON.² NEWMAN. but. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. etc. he. 11. . which was to go over the Cordilleras.3. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. 8. these or that which. Hare has printed.²H. 414.²ID. 7. she agreed to join the party. which Mr..² IRVING.²ID. 10. they.² CARLYLE. That.²HOLMES.

²ADDISON..²whether we should say.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. who rarely speak at all. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. [singular or plural. JR. and write the verb in the plural. "one of the finest books that have been published.²LOWELL. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.²LECKY.²ADDISON. when he derided the shams of society." or.. 415.²M.²HOWELLS. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²MACAULAY. French literature of the eighteenth century. Franklin. in winning a battle. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. and in improving a victory. or which . but speaks of him as that sort. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. but the former has good authority. He is one of those that deserve very well. but myself.²HOLMES. [plural] that who.²LOWELL.. Let us be of good cheer. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²BOWLES. "one of the finest books that has been published. the true antecedent... . T. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. others regard books as the antecedent. MORSE.] Both constructions are frequently found.²SCOTT. A disputed point. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. The fiery youth . etc. The latter is rather more frequent.²J. Singular. etc." One of . with one as the principal word. ARNOLD.

²IRVING.² RUSKIN. return. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. I could see nothing except the sky. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. where. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. object of a preposition understood. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.A rare Roundabout performance. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.And. or where] he died.²EMERSON. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. III.²EMERSON. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.² . It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²GOLDSMITH. But I by backward steps would move. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England." "India is the place [in which. whence. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²VAUGHAN. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. Exercise. 417. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²ADDISON.²SCOTT.² THACKERAY. that is.²CARLYLE.²BURNS. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²In the above sentences. The same day I went aboard we set sail. and such like: as. when the relative word is a pronoun.²DEFOE. and see if the sentence is made clearer." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. 416.²SWIFT.In that same state I came. or is equivalent to the conjunction when."²DICKENS. when this dust falls to the urn. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²ID.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. IV. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.

Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. which. boats. That.²R.² MACAULAY. but. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. W. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. as his apprentice. CHURCH. etc.He considered. and working in the same spirit. as is not used. as of knives. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. V.²WORDSWORTH.² Which.²SWIFT. ²GOLDSMITH.. or that.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. but which is usually carefully avoided. The regular construction. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. . she passed the lamp over her face and person. looking-glasses.² THACKERAY. if I had resolved to go on with. but we find the relative who.² BURKE. Mr. with Turner.²FRANKLIN. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.²ADDISON. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. if same is followed by a complete clause. was a discoverer. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. They believe the same of all the works of art. 418. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. for example. Anacoluthic use of which. Caution. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²SCOTT. I might as well have staid at home. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.. Which.

but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. (2) "Among the poorer sort. After this came Elizabeth herself. As the sentences stand. and this be placed in the proper clause. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.She'd come again." etc. Exercise. or." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors." etc. or leave out both connective and relative. once a great favorite of M. And who. he said that all submission was now too late. 4. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. which when Mr. Express both relatives. 1. Thornhill had read. who are now thrown. This was a gentleman..²SHAKESPEARE.²RUSKIN. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.²HAWTHORNE.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. He delivered the letter. but none is expressed. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. etc. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. (3) "Among the poorer sort. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. and which. or omit the conjunction.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.² Direction for rewriting. le Conte. but.²which if they once heard. Exercise." etc. and who are now. etc.²THACKERAY. 419. But who.²SCOTT.. That is. 2.²DE QUINCEY. . The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²GOLDSMITH.. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 3. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. (1) "Among those who are poor. now thrown upon their.

9. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. 420.² MOTLEY. Or who. and repeat this for any further reference. like that spoken in the towns. either from imitation of their frequent allies. Or which. as a false and astucious mark. Exercise. etc. which the Scotch had learned. and which. and to whom no door is closed. That . 6.. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. then. . or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character.²DE QUINCEY.. 10. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . English by name. 7. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.²SCOTT. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.. 13. 8. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. I saw upon the left a scene far different. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. 11. 1. "What knight so craven.²HAWTHORNE. etc. who. indeed. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. and which may even be heard a mile off. I shall have complete copies.²SCOTT.²IRVING. 12. And which. and which has never been described. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man..5.²DE QUINCEY. "A mockery. Akin to the above is another fault. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. one of signal interest.²PEARSON. the French. Dr. But which.

I give to such men as do not belong to me.²HOLMES.. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.. was a bustling wharf. half a century ago. and to whom I do not belong.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.²EMERSON. but which is perhaps not so different from it.²HOWELLS. It rose into a thrilling passion..²DEFOE. 8. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. which. the dime. I recommend some honest manual calling. That . 13.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.. which.²SCOTT. 10..²SCOTT That which . even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. 4.²W. I grudge the dollar.²DE QUINCEY.. Such as . in his present condition. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. and whose examples and principles we inherit. Which . Such as . 14. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart..2. in his Mephistopheles. G.²BEECHER. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. 9. 11.. whom. 7.²W. 15. that. The Tree Igdrasil. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. 3. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. .²EMERSON. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. In my native town of Salem. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 5. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. CHANNING. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. at the head of what. 6. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. but which. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. 12. such as they have very probably been bred to. He.²HALLAM. was hung in air.. He flung into literature. that . the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. SIMMS. E.²HAWTHORNE. what.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. the cent.

Use of any. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. for example. 421. one another.²HAWTHORNE. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.² Some one must be poor. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. By their original meaning. that not all combined. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. as it were. as.²EMERSON. . We call ourselves a rich nation. England was then divided between kings and Druids. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. as.²MACAULAY.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.²RUSKIN. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. Assume that no one is in want of either.²RUSKIN. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. in which case any should be used instead. whether or not the two are equivalent. 422. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. Distributives either and neither. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. always at war with one another.²GOLDSMITH. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²ID.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²DICKENS. and in want of his gold²or his corn. Each other.² HAWTHORNE. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.

and is isolated.² In earnest. 423. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). then in Plotinus. whilst I still cherish their genius.²SHAKESPEARE. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. . The adjective pronoun none is. in the prose of the present day. then in Plutarch. for him have I offended. If any of you lack wisdom.²THACKERAY. any was often singular. that I know of. Do you think. Examples of its use are.²STIRLING. as. let him ask of God.²FRANKLIN. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. at one time in Bacon. usually plural. None of Nature's powers do better service. during his stay at Yuste...²PROF.²SCOTT.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. Do you think. afterwards in Goethe. even in Bettine. as. any of his friends had died. In earlier Modern English. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. I beseech you. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. if ever man was.²EMERSON. speak. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BEECHER Whenever.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . which is plural as often as singular. 424.²CARLYLE.²BIBLE. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²BURKE. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.² If any. etc. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. None usually plural. Any usually plural. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. Caution. as none of the French philosophers were. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.² EMERSON. in Shakespeare. before that. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. when any of them are so good as to visit me..

The light troops thought .²SCOTT Like the use of any. the plural. etc. and less rarely in poetry. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. Somebody's else.² PEARSON.²THOREAU.² None of them was cleansed.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. for example.. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. or somebody else's? 426.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. saving Naaman the Syrian. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. etc. etc.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.² Singular. etc.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and all was lost on the other.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. The compounds somebody else. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²McMASTER. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.²NAPIER Plural. When all were gone. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. are treated as units. and Ford has nobody's else. as. nobody else. which is used absolutely. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell... 425. when it means all persons: for example. fixing his eyes on the mace. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. any one else. that all was lost.

there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²RUSKIN. "Ye see. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. His hair. ELIOT. These sort. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²SWEET. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English."²MRS. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. or some other such great man as a bishop..²N. P.²in such as "these sort of books." "all manner of men. or those sort of people. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. unlike anybody else's in the world.²G. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). WILLIS. STOWE. for example. all manner of. London.²AUSTEN. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.² These kind of knaves I know. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. and may be found not infrequently in literary English..²SHERIDAN." the nouns being singular. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. Whitefield or Wesley.² FIELDING. etc. . which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. Again.² Saturday Review." "those kind of trees.²MULOCH.²DICKENS.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²RUSKIN. the adjectives plural.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²THACKERAY.SYDNEY SMITH. 427. etc. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. ADJECTIVES. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.

which accounts for the construction.² Which is the better able to defend himself. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.²RUSKIN. Use of the comparative degree. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. or one object with a class of objects. for example. gradually displacing the old. in spoken English. . 428. "These kind of trees are best. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. and in this way may take a plural verb.² PRESCOTT. made to agree with it. Later form." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). more alarming than a total silence. Burke's sentence. Consequently we have a confused expression. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. as. or the nouns to the plural. "A sort of uncertain sounds are.The library was open. "This sort of trees should be planted." A question. According to the approved usage of Modern English. In Old and Middle English. Should we say. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. Of two such lessons. not "all kinds of wild animals. with all manner of amusing books. "This kind of rules are the best. to express a higher degree of quality. the victor or the vanquished. they said. The result. and the adjective is. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. such as. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. This the modern expression reverses. when the necessary dispositions concur. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. At the source. History of this construction." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS.

Gary. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own.²TROLLOPE.²CARLYLE.²SCOTT. the highest stakes are paid.A braver ne'er to battle rode.²THACKERAY. by almost the breadth of my nail. . has sanctioned. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. 430. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. To the man who plays well.²HAWTHORNE.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Other after the comparative form. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. Superlative with two objects. Exercise.²MACAULAY. etc.²SWIFT. 3. Henry. I am concerned to see that Mr.² THACKERAY. 429. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. Use of the superlative degree. He is taller. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold."²ID. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. 6. than any of his court. 5. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²HUXLEY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²WIRT. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.²LOWELL. if not. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. 4. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Even Dodd himself. 2. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²MACAULAY. would not have had the face.

"Let us see which will laugh loudest. and the other contains the best men. 1611. "Ha. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. I should say that one has the best cause.²SCOTT.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²IRVING.²MRS. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²J.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Mary. OLIPHANT. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. These two properties seem essential to wit.²GOLDSMITH. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. ha. and differ only in form."²BULWER. more particularly the last of them. CÆSAR. . After the most straitest sect of our religion. who eat white bread or brown.²HAMLET. Come you more nearer. The following examples are used purposely.²Bible.²EMERSON.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²RUSKIN. whichever can be got easiest."²HAWTHORNE. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.²DR BLAIR. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²BEN JONSON. Double comparative and superlative. 431. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. not a bit of high life among them.. The eldest.. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Rip was one of those . There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²TEMPEST. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.²ADDISON. In all disputes between States. Examples from Shakespeare are. Also from the same period."²GOLDSMITH.

The first five had specific names. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²RUSKIN.² With a singular noun. The merit of the Barb. jar upon us constantly. ²COWPER. For Carlyle. 433.²ADDISON. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²DE QUINCEY. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. .²GIBBON. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. etc.²RUSKIN. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. As to these two expressions. but in literary English. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. Instances of both are given below. ARTICLES. These are the three first needs of civilized life. Definite article.²PRESCOTT. etc. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. and Secretary Walsingham also. not only so in popular speech. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Three first.²KINGSLEY. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²GIBBON. the Spanish. Examples of this construction are. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. First three.² SMOLLETT. The meaning intended is the same. The delay in the first three lines. and conceit in the last.²LAMB.

He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. 1508.² MACAULAY. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT. and the presents. but inseparable from each other. or to emphasize the meaning.²TAYLOR.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.²CARLYLE.²THACKERAY.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. 434. Origin of the Aryans. I think. Frequently. as. With a plural noun. . without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. as. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. and flexible language.²THE NATION.²MACAULAY. as in Sec..² RUSKIN. distinct. of the higher and middling orders. however. The lofty. No. the hour of parting came. the greatest poems. of the eighteenth century. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. He is master of the two-fold Logos. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . melodious. 433. were placed at a very tender age. but is used with one only. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.²ID. 435.²NEWMAN.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. having been arranged. The not repeated. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. 433. Here the youth of both sexes. One object and several modifiers. with a plural noun. with a singular noun.²TENNYSON. the thought and the word. The flowers. Indefinite article. to distinguish clearly. Meaning same as in Sec.

In the sentences of Secs.²JOHNSON. JONSON.²DICKENS. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. 435. The indefinite article is used. a tyrant. and a usurper. 433 and 436.²THACKERAY. as in the first three of Sec. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²B. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. a murderer. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. 436).An early.² BURKE. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. as. He saw him in his mind's eye.436. 438. But in the following sentences. Examples of this use are. one noun is expressed." and "a red and a white geranium. only one of which is expressed. a round and a square one alternately. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. The indefinite article (compare Sec. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. and inexhausted vein.² MACAULAY. a collegian. COLERIDGE. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. .² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²MACAULAY. T.²MACAULAY. to limit two or more modified nouns. interest. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. like the definite article. or clearness to each of several nouns.²DRYDEN. For rhetorical effect.²S. One article with several adjectives.²BULWER.²BEECHER. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. rich. 437.

depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²GIBBON. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²W. or the great intellectual life of our nation. without academies. like some others in this series. Singular verb. ARNOLD.²CARLYLE This usage. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. has got already. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. as. A broad and loose rule. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning.VERBS. 440.²G. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. 276. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. Collective noun of singular meaning. He sees that it is better to live in peace.. then. Another writer might. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²AGASSIZ.²The Nation. all that academies can give.²M. Such. was the earliest American land. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. 439. as. . This was spoken of in Part I. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. In English.²FROUDE. and the following illustrations prove it. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Sec.²COOPER. ELIOT. for example. Singulars connected by or or nor.

(5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. nor Paul. and every four hours. and other singulars of plural form. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. as. Q. ADAMS.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. for example.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. a loss of wealth. or as making up one general idea.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²WHITTIER. nor Mahomet. Between ourselves.² Politics is the only field now open for me. No. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. the cheap defense of nations. (4) When the subject is plural in form. ²EMERSON. or considered as appositional. a loss of friends.² GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY. as. other names.Jesus is not dead.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. seems at the moment unpaid loss. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²GIBBON.²BURKE.²CRITIC. for example. but considered as meaning about the same thing. Plural form and singular meaning. nor John. a mutilation.² The unbought grace of life. A fever. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. but each one emphatic. that of a large town. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.²EMERSON . all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²GOLDSMITH. is gone.²J. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. a cruel disappointment. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.² In a word.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.

²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. almost every day. thus. 441. an impassioned countenance. Then comes the "Why. sir!"²MACAULAY.² Asia. Every fop. as. does not take the place of the man. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. The oldest.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. wineBegins to stir itself. Here is no ruin. as well as the Drama. the ruin. every valet. the dismay. every echo. To receive presents or a bribe.²ID. every boor. sir!" and the "What then.²ID. Every sound.²MACAULAY. nay. no discontinuity. many a. no matter if the second is plural). Her back. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²PRESCOTT. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. sir?" and the "No. the fine gentleman. each. in a judge. was dazzled.²BUTLER.²M ARNOLD.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. and such like adjectives.²PRESCOTT. Every week. There is a moving tone of voice. Subjects after the verb. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.The rout. a gorget.²EMERSON.² . Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. was punished. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. with death.The author. Plural verb. and greaves. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. an agitated gesture. the partisan. was like to crack. The Epic. as well as sides. no spent ball.² There is a right and a wrong in them. as. was listened to for five hours. as well as the newest. the wit. a cuirass. as well as Europe. no. is a man of wit. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²NEWMAN.²LONGFELLOW.

Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²SCOTT. a green pasture.²GOLDSMITH. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. of whom there were a number.²FROUDE. shirt.² A multitude go mad about it.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. His clothes.² GIBBON. were men of insignificant characters.²COLERIDGE. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. far away thy children leave the land. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. as.²FROUDE. All our household are at rest.²B.²SWIFT.²DE QUINCEY. making up a plural subject. are sufficient to attract a colony. A party of workmen were removing the horses. Philip of Anjou.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²FRANKLIN. as in Sec.²THOREAU. 440 (5. a stream of fresh water. as with a subject of plural form. Far. Conjunction omitted. TAYLOR. A shady grove. the Duke of Berri. The travelers.²CARLYLE But its authorship. for example.²EMERSON. and its history are alike a mystery to us. The conjunction may be omitted.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. The Dauphin.²GIBBON.² One or two of these perhaps survive. its date. .²ADDISON. as. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. b). but the verb is plural.

Pattison or I have said.²RUSKIN. we never talk politics.²LOWELL. that is. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²THACKERAY. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. When the subjects. Ah. This construction is at the best a little awkward.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. but thou.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and." etc." or. You and I are farmers. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. his blood dost shed.²DE QUINCEY. 442. nor has she").²WHITTIER. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. ARNOLD.²BYRON. 444.²ROWE. "I have never said so." "She or you may be sure. "You would not be wiser. Exceptional examples. as.). in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. for example.²THACKERAY. but thou.²SMOLLETT. Not Altamont. If there is only one person in the subject. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. hadst been my lord. Nothing which Mr. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. General usage. "He or I can go. nor should I. Not I. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²M. WEBSTER. 443. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. Second or third and first person in the subject. .²GOLDSMITH.But notice the construction of this.²RUSKIN.²D. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. of different persons. the subject being really equivalent to we. You and I are tolerably modest people.

²SMOLLETT. nor bush are there." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 2. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. In this sentence from Defoe.²and. 3. in my opinion. How each of these professions are crowded. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). In a word.²THACKERAY.²ADDISON. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 446. nor tree. Also in verbals.² TROLLOPE. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. 5. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.445. Both death and I am found eternal. Neither of them. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. 9. as illustrated above (Secs. 11.²G. 10.²BYRON.²BURKE.²MILTON. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²ADDISON. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 6. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 12. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. 8. as we would hope.Her course to intercept. which it is proper to mention.²ID. BANCROFT. 7.That neither of their intellects are vast.²perhaps the devil.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Exercise. 440-444):² 1. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. In the following sentence. Neither of their counselors were to be present. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 4. Nor wood.

I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Indirect discourse means reported speech. It should be remarked.. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . 448.²R. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. change them to a better form:² 1. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. I gave one quarter to Ann." . I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. Exercise. if not. to have divided with her whatever might remain.²IRVING.²MACAULAY. however. Of course. on my return. W. for exact connection. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. Two samples of indirect discourse. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. Definitions.² PALGRAVE 5. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²DE QUINCEY 2. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²KINGSLEY.²FRANKLIN 6..²THACKERAY. Direct discourse²that is.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. 4. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. 3. as. CHURCH. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. meaning. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. But I found I wanted a stock of words. 447. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. to have seen should be changed to to see. The present rule is recent. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.

" etc. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. have. "Oh. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. "I cannot oblige you . This includes the auxiliaries be.. Direct. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. . and the indirect question by whether or if. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. 1. Sebastian's... but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. etc. not attempting to follow the entire quotation." Indirect. under interrogative pronouns. introductory verb is in the past tense. Summary of the expressions. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. 2. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. interrogative adverbs. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Her prudence whispered eternally. Direct. His exact words were.. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. The substance of his lamentation was. will. She thought to herself. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form." etc. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. 449. Oh. or regular interrogatives.

I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected.²GOLDSMITH. VERBALS. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. FRANKLIN. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. if this were expanded into a verb. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. like distant peals of thunder. handed down from his ancestor the historian. PARTICIPLES. he assured me that nothing was more easy. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.Exercise. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²B. the first discoverer of the river and country." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. .²ADDISON. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. my first observation will be found nearly true. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. with his crew of the Half-moon.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. in the sentences first quoted. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example.²ID. 450. one summer afternoon. and that he himself had heard. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. The trouble is. the sound of their balls. Notice this. Careless use of the participial phrase. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.

² HERBERT SPENCER. universal assertion. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. while defended or excused by others.. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. if a strike is to succeed.²SCOTT." Exercise. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. 451.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. Exercise. Standard writers often use it. INFINITIVES. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.²RUSKIN.. In the following citations. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. There are.. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.²LAUGHLIN. 2. either "As I was pleased. my first collection was. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . and often.. It is a solemn. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.Correction. many things to be carefully considered. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. avoid it. leaving the principal statement as it is.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. This is the more common arrangement. 3.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject.²ID. then. Adverb between to and the infinitive. purposely or not. . than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. ." etc. For example. the first sentence would be.

Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. even.. 9. is to be very cautiously admitted. but it is placed before the infinitive. 7. etc. 12. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. etc. therefore. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. this kind of grandeur. In works of art. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.²TROLLOPE. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 10. Exercise. A little sketch of his. BLAIR. are used. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.²RUSKIN. Now. but they are often removed from the exact position." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. and earthenware. etc. when such adverbs as only. ADVERBS. 5.²SCOTT.4. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 452. if they modify single words. 11. 1533. The spirits. 13.²ID.² MACAULAY.²The Nation.. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. from Irving.²BURKE.²GOLDSMITH. which consists in multitude. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 6. china. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. The rigid rule in such a case would be. but cannot misunderstand the thought. I wish the reader to clearly understand. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 8.²DR.² ADDISON.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. No. even. Position of only.

5.1. 14.² THACKERAY. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²MACAULAY.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. In relating these and the following laws. GROTE. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²COOPER. 4. The old usage. My master.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 10. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. His last journey to Cannes.²HIGGINSON. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 15. ²ASCHAM. 3.²CHAUCER. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. 453. P. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²ID. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²PALGRAVE. for example. 7. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 12.²ID. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²MRS. were he never so old of yeares. 11. to avoid a crowd. During the whole course of his administration. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. .²EMERSON. 13. might not marry.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. No sonne. 17. Irving could only live very modestly. 16.²ID.²SYDNEY SMITH.²RUSKIN. 6.²MOTLEY. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 2.²N. He shouted in those clear. 8.²THACKERAY. whence he was never destined to return. 9. In Old and Middle English. WILLIS.²SWIFT.

The prosperity of no empire. when one of the negatives is a connective. 5. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. uncommon. the usual way of regarding the question now is. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. . STOWE.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. 6.²MRS. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.²BURKE. 4.²LOWELL. neither. 3. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. but ought not to labor after it. 2.²HAWTHORNE.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.² HAMILTON. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. I did not act so hastily. however. However. under the influence of Latin syntax. In the latter case. and is still kept in vulgar English. 7. But. In the execution of this task. This. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. Not only could man not acquire such information. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. Exercise. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. who hadn't been to school for nothing. I never did see him again.²HOLMES. Regular law of negative in modern English. Therefore. etc. nor the grandeur of no king. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. in Ole Virginia."²four negatives. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. if two negatives are found together. denying each other. Exceptional use. nor never shall. ²PAGE. and why:² 1. one of the negatives is often a prefix."²MRS.²DE QUINCEY. as. There weren't no pies to equal hers.²DEFOE.²GROTE. is not common. as infrequent. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. STOWE. can so agreeably affect.²BAYNE.

if the second precedes a phrase.²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT. should be scrutinized.. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. Things to be watched. CONJUNCTIONS. not only . neither . The sentences given in Secs. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. In these examples it will be noticed that nor......²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. or. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.." may be changed to "This loose . there we were.. but to their own safety. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. or.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. but. and which.. The sentence.. either . as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. 454. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.²LOWELL." ." said the King. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. "well worthy to confer honor. even neither . 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. Choice and proper position of correlatives. and.. but (also). The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . the first should also. not only to the success of their common cause. "A weapon. nor is often changed to not²either . as the use of the conjunction. or to reply to it..." both of the above requirements are violated. 455. Correction. And who. or to reply to it." Besides neither . either. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.8. or with advantage. especially both . if the last precedes a verb. the first ought to be placed before a verb. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever."²SCOTT. In the sentence.... nor.. as well as of the pronoun. not merely . not or is the proper correlative of neither..

not merely interest children.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. Try and avoid the pronoun. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. as. substitute that. and chop up their own kin. 5. 8. as. and I don't know but what he was right. 6. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Now.²MACAULAY. etc.Exercise. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. 457. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²GOLDSMITH.² ADDISON. 4." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. O. or the negative relative but. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²FRANKLIN. 3. They will. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. JEWETT. nor the disgrace of assailing him. too. Exercise. But what. but.²THACKERAY. Try and for try to. but. murder.²BAIN.²S. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son.²RUSKIN. In the following sentences. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²GIBBON.²ID. 7. but they will outrage.²THACKERAY. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. 456. but grown-up persons. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. or but that. 2. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Correct the following sentences:² 1. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Some exceptions. .

²EMERSON. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 313.²ADDISON.²TROLLOPE. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. PREPOSITIONS. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 6.²SCOTT. Between and among. 305. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.²EMERSON. 459.²ADDISON. . 5. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. as already seen in Sec. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.² SWIFT.²BURKE. 458. no separation or division by twos being implied. 4. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.² BULWER.2. see Sec. 3. Between is used most often with two things only. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.

Accord with. Affinity between. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. by custom. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. List I. Two groups or one and a group. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Conversant with.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Abhorrent to. Derogatory to. LIST I. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Such are absolve. Acquit of. a soldier of the Cross. and Stewart. and Coleridge. Kant. as.: Words with particular prepositions. confer. as. Dependent on (upon). .² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. or one object and a group.²RUSKIN What have I. Paley.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Different from. ²EMERSON. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Dissent from. Bestow on (upon). etc. 460. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. correspond. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. involve. and philosophers like Locke. Averse to. different. Comply with. and another to convey a different meaning.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Such are derogatory. averse. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Some of them have.²KINGSLEY. 461. Mackintosh. Conform to.

"differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. A taste for (art. Agree to (a proposal). Confer on (upon) (give to). Involve in. as. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Reconcile with (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Correspond to (a thing). as. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Confer with (talk with). in the sense of making friends with.y y y Deprive of." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Confide in (trust in). List II. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Confide to (intrust to).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings." List III. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. 463. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Change to (become). 462. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. as meaning to be in keeping with. Change with (a person)." also of persons. as. Independent of. Change for (a thing).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. but it is not good usage. Differ with (note below). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. . A taste of (food). Correspond with (write to). LIST III. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Differ from (note below). etc. LIST II.). Reconcile to (note below).

²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²BURNETT. No one died from want at Longfeld.²G. die from. It would take me long to die of hunger.²ADDISON. ²THACKERAY. privation. It is a man of quality who dies for her. "Die by. Part from. "Die with. ELIOT.²MACAULAY. simply from old age.²SCOTT. expect from." etc.²MACAULAY." (material cause. Who.²BULWER. die for. instrument)." (because of). One of them said he would die for her. died for love of the fair Marcella. die with.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing." She would have been ready to die with shame.²GOLDSMITH. If I meet with any of 'em." "die from. ELIOT.²FIELDING. as Cervantes informs us.²G.²BOSWELL. He died at last without disease." (in behalf of). Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²POPE. and ill treatment. "Die from. I am positively dying with hunger. "Die for. Take thought and die for Cæsar. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. die of.²SHAKESPEARE.²GOLDSMITH. part with. Expect of." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²MACAULAY. Illustrations of "die of. "Die for. they shall die by this hand. ²ATHENÆUM. People do not die of trifling little colds.:² "Die of. . She died of hard work.y y y Die by.

"Part from. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. It was a little bad of you.²TROLLOPE.²SHAW. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. With words implying behavior or disposition. nothing better was to be expected. ELIOT.²WALPOLE. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²SCOTT. "Expect from. 465. just parted from her. ." She will expect more attention from you.²MACAULAY." "expect from:"² "Expect of." "part from:"² "Part with.²BULWER. I can part with my children for their good.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. ELIOT.²AUSTEN.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. Illustrations of "part with. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²MARRYAT. Kind in you. either of or in is used indifferently. Illustrations of "expect of. kind of you. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²WALLER. ELIOT. 464. Of Doctor P.²G.²DICKENS. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²G. His precious bag. I have long expected something remarkable from you. That is more than I expected of you. as my friend.²POE. and hated to part with them." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. which he would by no means part from.²G. I have just seen her." To part from you would be misery. 466.

14. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. Very natural in Mr. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. 3. tedious perhaps.He did not think it handsome of you. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. nor of a pale red. nor yellow. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 1. But this is idle of you.²BULWER. 11. and ran up the alley. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. In. 7. It will be anything but shrewd in you. This narrative. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. nor green. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. In the friction between an employer and workman.²BEACONSFIELD. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. but which the story renders necessary. 10. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. the vast abyss. thunder. or that they are any way dependent on each other. . 6. The noise of vast cataracts. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing.²DICKENS. 5. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. Hampden. 4. 13. or which we are most imperatively required to do. with seraphims. or artillery. 9. 15. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. thrown it over Amyas's head. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss.²BULWER. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. nor blue. Thou tread'st.²CARLYLE. 8. raging storms. That is very unreasonable in a person so young.²TENNYSON.

the light is sometimes softened in the passage. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 38. and other angular figures. but in the price paid to them. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Squares. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. you or me. 31. You have seen Cassio and she together. (Sec. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. what is a just and unjust act. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. But every man may know. and almost as good as a pony. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 21. 26. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 16. and most of us do know. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. . were down with raging fever. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. Every one of these letters are in my name. 22. 30. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. or how beautiful it is. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. The effect of proportion and fitness. 35. 17. 27. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 29. 32.) 34. 24. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. triangles. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 18. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them.I would wish me only he. the acquiescence of the understanding. Friday. 20. 37. 36. 411.And were I anything but what I am. 23. 19. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. produce approbation. 33. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 25. 28. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. save Amyas. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. That night every man of the boat's crew. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion.

THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 116. from nominative clauses. numeral. of. adjectives. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 91. nouns.000 between them. (2) Middle English. 40. 102. INDEX. of. Abstract with Active Address. 310. article. of. 89. 90. pronouns. (3) Modern English. 92. as comparison definition demonstrative. 133. Adjectives. adverbs used complements. syntax uses Absolute.39. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 107. 98. of. 124. 239. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 119. of. 260. 124. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. as. 20. 47. voice. 47. demonstrative. 25. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. . A. He had four children. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. nominative. from about 1500 to the present time. origin of.

to used of. 109. 325. 101. 262. of. 328. 303. objective. of. antecedent. parse. clauses. 242. . Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. between of. plural pronominal. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. infinitive. 207. adjectives. of. 27. nouns. 190. 106. 187. 116. 207. predicate. of. as nouns. compared. 99. from to of.from function how in not of of ordinal. 194. Agreement. 115. 239. 325. with with with subject. of. 291. conjunction. 103. conjunctions. 195. 116. 190. of. 104. Against. 183. adjectives. quality. and 185. 114. quantity. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 194. 302. modify. nouns. 287. sentence. parse. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 275. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 27. 42. 303. of. Alms. 97. antecedent. 323. 316. adjectives. 48. 191. 184. 148.

of of of And Antecedent. 240. of. 127.Among. sentences. 207. 49. See with definition complex compound simple who. Arrangement Articles. 90. to of. 296. 300. of. 67. which. 271. 287. Auxiliary if. 295. 84. sentences. 231. in in. 51. though. 124. 294. 47. same. . of. 264. of. which. syntax. 275. 120. 148. An. A. See 74. 150. 120. pronouns. adjective. after of. uses As At. words between. which. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. as uses verbs. Agreement. parse. of. 101. Anacoluthon Analysis. definition of of of Any. of and pronoun of. possessive. it. 309. 67. 331. 198. definition how indefinite. and. agreement personal as pronoun. 79. 208. 225. 74. syntax As. derivation in definite. sentences. Are. 252.

adjective. of pronouns. pronoun. uses of. Cause. of what. in Old and Modern English. plurals of. of. 46. of nouns. 278. of nouns. Clause. 283. 279. 110. 111. 224. of. Brethren. 48. 46. 54. 262. uses nominative of. possessive. 330. syntax of. Can. 260. of. 194. 161. 278. Among. 262. 63. 47. 39. 195. objective. of nouns. double possessive. forms. of nouns. 39. 150. adverb. uses Better. Case. nominative. Between.Bad. Bridegroom. 210. best. 110. of pronouns. See of. 149. 66. 64. But. of pronouns. with But By. comparison conjugation of. 62. 49. number of. 279. Case. Be. 37. 45. . 84. of pronouns. Children. definition could. conjunctions Cherub. clauses of.

268. plural of. defective. 23. 258. infinitive. 24. 12. analysis of. sentence. of. 53. 312. of. subject. 107. and forms of. 18. double. 43. of. 108. English. 158. 305. of. 244. predicate. 18. material. 257. . clothes. 257. 157. adverbs. 189. 263. verb. Cloths. nouns. 257. of. 239. and sentence. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. definition degrees irregular. proper. nouns. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 110. nouns. 43. adjectives. 307. superlative. Cleave. 315. 271. of. 111. of. 264. 248.definition kinds noun. Clomb. 108. 113. of. 307. predicate of and from from of. of. in analysis.

sentences. to of. same words. pronoun. other other parts of speech. 196. 194. 149. interrogative pronouns. Dative Declarative Declension of case. coördinate. of. See English. 207. 73. 255. 151. 66. definition how subordinate. definition be.with Concord. 143. 188. 149. 263. parse. of. pronoun. 194. replaced by objective. sentence. of of Conjunctions. and clause. 195. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 195. verbs. adverbs. pronouns. 328. 138. 199. subjunctive. conjunction. conjunctions. . 289. See analysis clauses. 139. Agreement. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 231. Can. in Old vs. See in subjunctive. sentences. 269. 193. Conjunctions. 194. conjunctions. correlative. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. analysis.

333. 242. of. of. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 51. Comparison. indirect. 303. 60. use of dies. See adjectives. pronouns. for. of personal relative verbs. 152. of. from. 43. . 91. by.Declension. 90. 300. 26. 288. 287. 102. 315. nouns. 185. passive adjectives. 35. See 148. verb. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. pronouns. 242. possessive. Articles. clause. See See 48. article. vs. nouns. with. duck. comparative. 160. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 80. 102. discourse. Degrees. pronouns. Case. tenses. adverbs See adjectives. 320. Comparative. pronouns. of. object. with of. Subordinate clause. 99.

of. possessive suffix. adjective. 110. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder.Drank. 287. another. 158. added suffix. spoken. pronoun. 12. 328. 102. 62. Either. Elements Ellipsis. of. 299. . 51. drunk. 42. 158. plural. 39. of. 287. the of sentence. 257. 90. of. feminine plural English. of. ending. adjective. 32. pronoun. complement. 92. 255. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 38. -En. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. object. 33. suffix. 33. 300. to suffix. of. conjunction. 234. 90. other. Each. 40. 112. of subject. in 'Em. original. predicate. 280. 240. 194. 34. error in sentence. older. 92. Empress. vulgar. one ( t). 241. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. pronouns. literary. 92.

. 32. gender. as a noun. From. with infinitive. 126. 30. object. uses Foreign Former. 102. 212. 152. . 334. of.. For. few. etc. 48. adjective. 147. nouns. Feminine. 152. the. 189. of.Every. pronoun. Few. Future Future tense. two a further. 211. have adjective. 212. as of from compared marking. 287. modes "common goose. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. Further. two. to of. with in sex. Gender. See Gander. 235. fishes. 43. expect gone. 110. 36. first. 91. 148. 30. 319. 112. perfect. First. Farther. 102. 112. etc. plurals. uses redundant. used of. other languages. 29. from. First Fish. 238. definition distinguished in English. 103. 45. 308. of. 30." 31.

pronouns. 61. 176. from participle of. definition divisions opinions province H. definition basis of. and case verbal with. possessive pronouns. Got. pronoun. 175. distinguished syntax. 35. 144. personal relative geniuses. 10. 36. forms in Girl. first sentence. 231. Government. Had Hanged. 120. His Husband. 285. 80. 145. 12. kinds of. 9. Grammar. on. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. adjective. it. 60. . I. 177. 61. Gerund. 101. had hung. person. participle. noun. an better. of. 173. of. its. of. of. 12. 13. for before. 275. she. 159. 60. He. 159. rather. 43.of of Genii.

248. 67. 105. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. summary See passive mood. 72. indices. 320. use article. 153. verbs. 178. 85. . 131. 276. mood. uses discourse. 323. a object. adjectives. 176. sentence. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 110. with of. 73. of clause. questions. meaning. transitive. adverbs. See you.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. adjectives. 319. questions. Direct object. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. Questions. 188. 93. 131. of. 245. 43. 231. 283. of. 227. of. words. of. 233. elements. pronoun. indirect of. 136. See Articles. pronouns. 257. your. in compared syntax.

245. See Madam. 226. Lay. pronoun. 91. a vs. Less. was uses me. lesser. 113. 36. 190. 110. and See words in. of. English. subject form. uses Literary Little. 110. 36. Latter. Kind. lord. of. of. queen. -Ly. Like. of. "It Its. latest." history etc. It. Lady. Kine. 189. 113. lie. 170. in little. Logic Logical Lord. King. syntax. . 126. predicate. syntax the. adjective. 102. 12. Lady. etc..adverbs. Lie. 61. Last. 67. 63. plural. 303. these double kind.. 227. 39. 36. 276. 281. Lay.

Enlargement. 185. Mighty Mine. 144. syntax nearer. 36. 110. comparison Near. subjunctive. double. conjunctions Many. 265. superlatives. of. Modifier. 110. 135. 64. -Most. 326. 113. 287. syntax conjunction. Must. 187. 328. indicative. Master. See definition 136. 102. adjective. 325. Many Mapping Mare. sentences. construction as of adverb. of. mistress. 137. May. Mood. 34. Means. imperative. etc. 188. mine. 112.. of. 189. out of. nigh. 112. position adverb. . Neither. 137-144. 112. 41. might. 161. Negative. 195. 110. 160. 256. 189. of.Manner. of. in adverbs comparison a. Much. 114. 126. of. of. Modifiers. 194. of.

258. 30. gender nouns. 25. No Nominative. Case. definition according of. 30. 38-41. and figures. proper. of. syntax Neuter or two News. kinds 90. 17. to use. definition descriptive. 328. 92. of. 300. in. 26. etc. letters as 24. formed. common. 27. foreign. 38. 246. Nor.pronoun. 126. of. 125. abstract. of of of of of a. 46. 45. of. 41. become become formation case collective. 30. . 46. class used singular. 41. clause. 29. half abstract. gender how kinds material. 17. nouns. 56. 21. number once other plural. syntax in gender nouns. 42. words how compound. 124. 301. 20. used as. of. to of. 25. analysis. etc. 18. 17 19. See 194. 41 43. abstract. None. 32. of. 19. material. become neuter. of. Not Noun Nouns. parse. nouns. now plural.

of. article. meaning. 281. English. 285. 42. 39. definite. 41. form. 278. with case. 18. Preposition. 148. spoken of instead nouns. Nouns. 43. passive adverbial. 242. 106. in article. singular. adverbial. 48. personal. 60. 196. as forms titles..of same two with proper. 48. verbs. adjectives. of different possessive definite of. of. 235. 102. 242. of. and analysis. pronouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. 48. 42 44. or plural. meanings. preposition. conjunction. 195. in nouns. 23. 66. plural no two singular construction. nominative. 48. 42. 101. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 240. 101. indefinite. See verb. 41. etc. indirect. pronouns. singular. 121. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 278. 282. 48. common. 92. plural form. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 279. . adjectives. of. plural. of. 124. Numeral Object. 41. of. with with with Now Number. dative.

adjective. 56. part analysis. nouns. . 237. Oxen. 93 other. articles. adverbs. Omission On. of syntax. Pains. ours. indefinite possessive One One as Only. of of of of of models adjectives. treatment comparatives. Our. 56. uses numeral pronoun. Ourself. adverb. 116. 325 275. definite relative uses of. 191. 69. 216. 233. 91. 194. Ordinal Other Ought. 101.syntax Of. of. 199. as other. 117. Parsing. another. 293. See the as of. 115. See pronoun. One. 213. Elder. with (the). pronoun. 103. 87. for. 38. 94. 279. 127. 306. Older. 103. of. of. 41. of upon. as of. a in adjectives. conjunction. 64. 161. Each adjective. inverted. conjunctions. position Order.

62. 43. 174. 62. article 150. 172. of. of. 69. 335. 281. pronouns. 287. 56. -ing words. of. pronoun. nominative. part adjective. parsed. not is. 180. and subject in. in. predicate use of. 95. 219. pronouns. 100. antecedent. Person. 59. from definition other of. 134. or of. possessive and of. verb idioms it from. of. verbs. pease. 28. included various. verbals.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. phrase. 59. 173. agreement of verb nouns. verbs. 70. them. 247. 317. 179. speech. reflexive. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 177. 43. 181. 59. Pence. 27. 80. 61. of. 119. phrases. used as voice. 63. absolute with of. with. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. pennies. . 56. 172. relatives. 322. 64. of. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. of. 148.

247. 281. 53. singular. plural. 285. 49. 278. pronoun. of Phrase. . noun nouns. 61. Personification.objective syntax table triple uses of. 245. See 60. it. 278. 303. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. objects. spoken of. 67. of. of. of. of nouns. 64. relative. Place. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. prepositional. 53. pronoun. conjunctions prepositions Plural. nouns. 247. 188. syntax of of Politics. Positive Possessive. of. 241. antecedent of of pronouns. double. complete. in of. 's. 54. simple. of. participial. 37. or See of of See 185. nouns. adjectives. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. Nouns. of. 236. vs. of. kinds infinitive. as double. 52. 232. 235. 248. Personal subjective. 281. nouns. 51. 41. 60. 245. 303. singular degree. 106. 206. adverbs of. 236. of. 50. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. omitted. 25. appositional. pronouns. English. 63. Comparison. 195.

of. Pronouns. with tense certain. 283. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. of. 301. plural. 219. by with shown certain of. 208. 129. singular usually other. 303. 279. expressed as other of. interrogative. forms of. of. none. future. speech. 203. 147. plural. 105. 58. 285. interrogative. in exclamations. each either. 333. 331. 332. 202. exclamatory. case. 72. 299. 284. 302. of. adjective. adverb. 281. verbs. meaning. case. 283. 89. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. usually to as than. as. what. and one with else's. 300. by. 105. of. 32. words. 104. 207. 132. 280. of. by parts of of. for predicate nominative. parse. 187. of. 195. as antecedent of relative. 64. 186. same used as adjectives. 58. any.Prefixes. who personal. and form form form form of. 95. somebody definition how indefinite. 93. after but. 206. as 54. . plural. 205. another. objective. possessive nominative to of. Prepositions. all. 300. parse. objective. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 282. 59. 203. neither. 287.

of. in. or of. of.possessive relative. conjunctions Quality. of. 195. 87. which after same. . questions. 99. and which. that. and antecedent. indirect compound. unrestrictive. 295. Rank. 263. 58. which. of. of. discourse. pronoun. 289. indirect. who. 289. 74. of. Quantity. Rather. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 142. pronouns. Nouns. 297. 69. 87. 84. 295. Quotations. of. 291. personal pronoun. 293. Questions. 188. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. same antecedent. with with gerund. of. to of. in. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 286. from and interrogative. 293. pronominal pronouns indirect. 105. with who. use in as. 279. and relatives. parse. See of. agreement anacoluthon and as. 74. 83. 80. Direct same and different. 68. adverbs in. in. 85. use of history formed. 296. 101. nouns. 85. of. 189. 69. 74.

319. of of of complex Sentences. 231. tenses. in form. Sex Shall. 252. Same Sat. of sit. would. reflexive analysis of compound. S. 159. ending. Shot. in of. of. sentence. conjunctions Retained Riches. 74. Self Sentences. Seeing. See Sentences. 231. 242. 196. 259. 26 271. 294. elliptical.syntax use Result. effect. of. forms shots. 195. who. 43. 162. conjunction. 'S. gender. Simple in sate. 263. that. pronoun. Shear. 289. of. 170. object. suffix. kinds Sequence Set. complex. will. 255. 42. definition . and should. plural possessive as. 51. simple of. 29. which. 69. simple. clauses of. 40. 159. of. 196.

definition 67. 186. these number. 257. 138. logical. See -En. English. of. of. 270. for. etc. 38. 245. . English. 303. adverb. 33. English. of. 245. in Middle English. distinguish. 323. 233. 144. 38. sort. 126. 262. -es. names as a. definition how kinds noun. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 237.. of. Split Spoken -Ster. to of. 258. Subject. of. 303.Singular Sir. 33. vs. 257. Spelling Spinster. adverb. in feminine suffix. verbs. as. 240. 144. 257. 258. of. 258. used mood. phonetic in infinitive. 257. 137. other Such Such Suffix -s. Somebody Sort. 36. 169. 260. Modern use becoming else's. English. 12. literary clause. -en. of. 32. disuse in spoken complete.

306. 61. of. of . 319. 222. 87. plural as adverb. Tenses. 108. 109. as history The. 147. of. in double. of. coördinating. this. when relative.. 277. 289. classical of. as history syntax Their. syntax of. 120. two basis not same definition definite. 106. "the then foreign. omission whom. . king. 116. as adverbs. 147. of. which. 107. 307. Then. 306. definition in English Tense. of. 33. There These kind. English. auxiliaries. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. when as of. 148. 152. meaning made up in Old of. Kind. 189. 88. 309. 186. in Modern number sequence table Than That. meaning. English.Suffixes. of. me. See etc. form. than of. 106. 186. 297. article. subject. not suggesting adjectives. 275. that uses That. 147. adverbs.. adjectives. of. 119. 280. of. and and of. degree. 290. restrictive. objects. in comparison.. 191. they. 123. object. of languages." introductory. 275.

175. 308. 181. 322. 195. of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. uttermost. adverbs those. Time. Utter. of. first. of. certain as the before with of. thy. uses history of. verbs. 322. 248. 207. infinitive. first adjective. 217. kinds participle. 61. See On. 119. how infinitive. used. See That. 188. preposition. 185. try two. 323. .. carelessly uses syntax this. 114. suffix. 172. words. etc. 330. parse. -Trix. exclamations. Try Two Under. feminine and. in of. to. analysis. 173. thee. infinitive. 33. of. 128. of. phrases. 172. 21. tother. uses of. 114. 175. in omitted uses T'other. gerund. Thou. of. 20. from cleft to 174. 175.These. other noun. Upper. Upon. -ing 111. 114. 176. 180. of. 247. conjunctions prepositions To.

sequence of. of incomplete predication. phonetic. 47. past tense formed nominative. voice of. passive form. 149. 12. but uses what. in indirect discourse. of. 155. 312-316. syntax of. defective. agreement of. made transitive. 167. 148. 151. formed by. 133. passive. mood of. 33. 160. 245. 320. 154. retained object with passive. regular. verbs by. 148. 319. intransitive. verbs. active meaning. 236. 317. 131. What. 330. 179. 154. 242. 133. strong. . of English. definition of. Vixen. becoming irregular. remarks on certain. 169. 157. of. 167. 135. active. 147. 169. with subject in number. change. conjugation of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 129. table of irregular. person and number of. how to parse. 223. table of. transitive and intransitive. in person. 39. 150. weak. spelling of. auxiliary. tense of. Vocative in Voice. 154. 134. analysis. 130.Verbs. definition of. 159. 312. definition of.

in -ly. antecedent adjective. 194. Y. . in in indefinite objective. 178. 296. of. 36. 79. direct of. Yes ending analysis. worser. 85. conjunction. wizard. relative. spoken in of. 75. 85. 72. 78. With. 246. questions. whereto. Wife. plural of in nouns -ing. 72. 126. Witch. 190.. 72. 105. 111. referring syntax Widower. Words in Worse. 85. in. 32. pronoun. 105. 218. uses See Shall. 104. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. animals. questions. Who. would. 83. relative indirect relative. pronoun. interrogative Which. Woman. 299. questions. relative. 37. 295-299. 40. 75. Whether. of.what Whereby. 83. English. a. 77. questions. Will. etc. 36. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 73.

performances and research. complying with the rules is very easy.htm or 14006-h. 61. especially commercial redistribution. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark. yourselves. and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks. End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of An English Grammar by Produced by Stephen Schulze and the Distributed Proofreaders Team Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will be renamed.Yon. M. singular of yonder. 70. W. You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works. Sewell *** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR *** ***** This file should be named 14006-h. Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works. Special rules. Yourself. Redistribution is subject to the trademark license. 64. set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license. *** START: FULL LICENSE *** THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free distribution of electronic works. Yours. They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks. by using or distributing this work (or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project Gutenberg"). and yours. apply to copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark. plural. You. so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without permission and without paying copyright royalties. Baskervill and ***** This and all associated files of various formats will be found in: http://www. reports.gutenberg. unless you receive specific permission. you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project . 103. If you do not charge anything for copies of this eBook.

distributing or creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project Gutenberg-tm work. performing. 1.E Copyright laws in most countries are in a constant state of change.C below. copying.1. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern what you can do with this work.E. you must cease using and return or destroy all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.C. performing.D. Section 1. See paragraph 1. displaying or creating derivative works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg are removed. "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark. If you do not agree to abide by all the terms of this agreement. See paragraph 1. If an individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are located in the United States. owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others. 1. displaying. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work. with active links to.A. There are a few things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation" or PGLAF). we do not claim a right to prevent you from copying. If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. understand.8. you indicate that you have read. Nearly all the individual works in the collection are in the public domain in the United States. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg: The following sentence. It may only be used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. 1. distributing.E. The Foundation makes no representations concerning the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United States. 1. If you are outside the United States. There are a lot of things you can do with Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. agree to and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property (trademark/copyright) agreement. you may obtain a refund from the person or entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at http://gutenberg. check the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement before downloading. or other immediate 1. we hope that you will support the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with the work.B. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works 1. Of course. .

marked up. 1. 1. your use and distribution must comply with both paragraphs 1. or with which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed. 1.E.8.9. 1. give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided . the work can be copied and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees or charges. of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other 1.E. or any files containing a part of this work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.E.E.gutenberg.3. 1.E.E. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is posted with permission of the copyright holder). displayed.2. displaying. provide a copy.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E. fee or expense to the user. without prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 through 1. If you are redistributing or providing access to a work with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the work. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary. display. copied or distributed: This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. performed.4. Do not charge a fee for access to. the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears.9. you must. viewing. nonproprietary or proprietary form. or any part of this electronic work.8 or 1. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted with the permission of the copyright holder.1 with active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project Gutenberg-tm License.E. or a means of obtaining a copy upon You may copy it. including any word processing or hypertext form.E.7 and any additional terms imposed by the copyright holder. copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.1 through 1.6. Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm License as specified in paragraph 1.E. However. at no additional cost. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm License terms from this work.access to. Do not copy.gutenberg.5.E. distribute or redistribute this electronic work.E. a means of exporting a copy. viewed. 1.8 or 1. you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E. Additional terms will be linked to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.E. compressed. performing.7. perform.1.E. if you provide access to or distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (www.

The fee is owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark. do copyright research on. in accordance with paragraph 1. 1. Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the address specified in Section 4.You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. Royalty payments must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns.You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm License. You must require such a user to return or destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of Project Gutenberg-tm works. inaccurate or corrupt data.You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works. a full refund of any money paid for a work or a replacement copy. the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.F.F.1.that . 1. a copyright or other intellectual property infringement. but not limited to.9. a defective or damaged disk or other medium.E. LIMITED WARRANTY. "Information about donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. transcription errors. and any other party distributing a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement.3.F.3. you must obtain permission in writing from both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael Hart. may contain "Defects.F. ." . transcribe and proofread public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm collection. the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Contact the Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below. and the medium on which they may be stored. 1. or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by your equipment. a computer virus. . DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES . costs and expenses.Except for the "Right of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set forth in this agreement. Despite these efforts." such as. disclaim all liability to you for damages. if a defect in the electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days of receipt of the work. the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark. but he has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable effort to identify. including legal .2.You provide. 1. incomplete.

you can receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a written explanation to the person you received the work from. and any volunteers associated with the production. (b) alteration. EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. 1.3. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth in paragraph 1. LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND . INDEMNITY . CONSEQUENTIAL. promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. or additions or deletions to any Project Gutenberg-tm work. modification. any agent or employee of the Foundation.4. costs and expenses. the agreement shall be interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by the applicable state law.F. If the second copy is also defective. middle-aged and new computers. YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE.You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation.F. INDIRECT. that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm work. this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND. PUNITIVE OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.If you discover a defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it.F. harmless from all liability. the person or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers including obsolete. AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL. YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION. The person or entity that provided you with the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a refund. including legal fees. DIRECT. you may demand a refund in writing without further opportunities to fix the problem. STRICT LIABILITY. Section 2. If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the law of the state applicable to this agreement. and (c) any Defect you cause. Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the assistance they need. INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE. 1. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions. It exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from people in all walks of life.F. If you received the work on a physical medium. THE TRADEMARK OWNER. If you received the work electronically. you must return the medium with your written explanation.3. 1.6. anyone providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance with this agreement. 1.5. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages. the trademark owner. BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH F3.fees. is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will . old.F.

Its business office is located at 809 North 1500 West. In 2001. The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. (801) We do not solicit donations in locations where we have not received written confirmation of compliance. Gregory B. Salt Lake City. Email contact links and up to date contact information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official page at http://pglaf. federal laws and your state's Section 4. Many small donations ($1 to $5. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a considerable effort. Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we have not met the solicitation requirements. much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up with these requirements. To SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any particular state visit http://pglaf. see Sections 3 and 4 and the Foundation web page at http://www. Newby Chief Executive and Director gbnewby@pglaf.S. The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification number is 64-6221541. the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations. Contributions to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent permitted by U. S. we know of no prohibition against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who . Section 3. For additional contact information: Dr. but its volunteers and employees are scattered throughout numerous locations. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest array of equipment including outdated equipment.000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt status with the IRS.remain freely available for generations to come. Foundation Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit 501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal Revenue Service. The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United States. AK. To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and how your efforts and donations can help. UT 84116. email business@pglaf.

all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U. laws alone swamp our small staff. online payments and credit card donations. please visit: http://pglaf. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared with anyone. unless a copyright notice is included.S. Thus. but we cannot make any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from outside the United States. we do not necessarily keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition. .org/donate Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic Professor Michael This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm. To donate. Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility: http://www. he produced and distributed Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.gutenberg. For thirty years. how to help produce our new eBooks. Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation methods and addresses.S. including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. International donations are gratefully accepted. works. Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed editions. Donations are accepted in a number of other ways including including checks.approach us with offers to donate. U. and how to subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.