roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

Few inflections. A broader view. to those who have studied the language historically. but this is bad English now. then. The work it will cover. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). rightly considered. "Analysis. as compared with Latin or Greek. Coming back. with its enormous vocabulary. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. Surely our noble language. so that a small grammar will hold them all. there is still much for the grammarian to do. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. Making rules is risky. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections).² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. it will at the same time. its peculiar and abundant idioms. Mental training. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. It is also evident. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. is worthy of serious study. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. however. and their uses and relations in the sentence. as. An æsthetic benefit. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. from the question.The province of English grammar is. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. if rightly presented. Authority as a basis. . and thus incite his observation. This will take in the usual divisions. If. assist the classification of kindred expressions." What grammar is." and "Syntax. their forms." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. Literary English. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste.

but. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. and will are evidently names of a different kind.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. from the eighteenth century on. besides this one. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. by which is meant the free. as they stand for ideas. that is. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. or Syntax. Occasionally. and Inflections. too. Such words are called nouns. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Analysis of Sentences. not objects. then. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. Part II. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. The following pages will cover. NOUNS.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. The Parts of Speech. and may belong to any of those objects. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. The plainest name is Arabs. three divisions:² Part I. Vulgar English. the words sons and master name objects. submission. reference will be made to vulgar English. The words state. The Uses of Words. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. Part III.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct.²GIBBON. 1. PART I. . the nation is free. which belongs to a people. Spoken English. or standard. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. In the more simple state of the Arabs.

etc. Besides considering persons. This does not imply. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. whether person. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. possessed by all. A noun is a name word. 3. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. . Thus. or the man in front of you. Abstract. For instance. or thing. We may say. (a) 4. MATERIAL. Name for any individual of a class. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. animals. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. as here used. Thus. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. however. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Name for a group or collection of objects. or idea. or a council. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Individual. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. the man here. Collective. 2. or things. because each group is considered as a unit. (b) Common. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. is from a Latin word which means general. ATTRIBUTE. we may think of them in groups. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. men in groups may be called a crowd. Classes of nouns. 5. reducing it to a narrow application. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Common. but Chicago names one city. animals.Definition. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. a committee. or a mob. place. or a congress. substance. They properly belong under common nouns. and appropriate names to the groups. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. belonging to one. Proper. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. and things separately. representing directly to the mind an object.

gold. frost. wheat. sand. . but it is taken merely as a name. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. we may say. cloud. tea. expressing attributes or qualities.Names for things thought of in mass. soap." "Learning is hard to acquire. dew. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. rock. or that which shows a thing has been proved. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. etc. platinum. etc. mist. iron. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. we speak of the wisdom of the man. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. condition. rubber. paint. The quality is still there as much as before. Again. considered abstractly. frost. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. but which are not called proper names. sugar. When we speak of a wise man. snow. but in the words sun." 9. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class.²There are some nouns. Names of ideas. . or actions. however. or apart from their natural connection. etc. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. conditions. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. earth. rice. wine. expressing state. Such are glass. wheat. etc. etc. and so on. as in calling a city Cincinnati." "a man of understanding. and fasten a special name to the object considered. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). etc. potash. 7. "Painting is a fine art. NOTE. The reason is.. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. granite. celluloid. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. 6. stone. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. earth. etc. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. They remain common class names. sugar. moon. instead of to each individual or separate object. there is no such intention. etc. rain. such as sun. not things. (3) Geological bodies: mud. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. It may. Words naturally of limited application not proper. or action. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. world. clay. proof means the act of proving.

Thus. five abstract. 273). day. NOTE. mastery from master. in the beginning of his life. kingship from king. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. redness from red. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. speech from speak. those opinions and feelings. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. and they cannot express action. the great Puritan awakening. Caution. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. her longing for their favor. "a long run" "a bold move. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns.Attribute abstract nouns. the main bearings of this matter. etc. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. Exercises. the teachings of the High Spirit. 272. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. shadow. To avoid difficulty. 12. They cannot govern a word. (2) peerage from peer. the rude drawings of the book. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. but are merely names of actions. childhood from child. as glad²joy. 1. he spread his blessings over the land. action from act. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. winter. a wedding or a festival. Underived abstract nouns." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. thunder. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. summer. (1) prudence from prudent. theft from thieve. joy. by altering its function. Such are beauty. service from serve. II. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. height from high. etc. etc. as their name implies. ease. is used as a noun. hopeful²hope. there is time for such reasonings." "a brisk walk. lightning.. the moon caused fearful forebodings. etc. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. Verbal abstract nouns. as in the expressions. the well-being of her subjects. night. 10. five proper. The verb. . energy. They are only the husks of verbs. hope. stupidity from stupid.

diphtheria. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Using a dictionary. algebra. typhus. pleurisy. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. mathematics? 3.2. as pneumonia. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. as physics. (b) branches of knowledge. geology. catarrh.

Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. thus. from the name of Dr. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. a Hutton. but most of them are in the following groups. from Damascus. port (wine). nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. it imposes its classification on other men. for example. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. from China. "The cook made the irons hot. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. from Oporto. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. from a town in France." referring to flat- . Material nouns may be used as class names. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. above. in Portugal. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. from Corinth. We know a number of objects made of iron. 15. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. 119). damask. 13. a Fourier. a Locke. Proper names transferred to common use. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Guillotin. but we may say.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. from Calicut. 14. Others of similar character are calico. a Bentham. Nouns change by use. Sodom was famous for wickedness. a Lavoisier.²EMERSON. or to go over to it entirely. the word port. who was its inventor. as a davy. and lo! a new system. the guillotine. currants. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. arras. etc. levant and morocco (leather).

and only Vice and Misery. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Next Anger rushed. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. From all around²Earth and her waters. These are the same in material. clays. that is.²RUSKIN. Test this in the following sentences:² . clouds. or the arts and sciences. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. but differ in strength. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. or. though not confined to verse. 16. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. paints. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. his eyes.irons. be spoken of. are abroad. abstract in meaning. tins. or used as class nouns. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. which are made plural. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. The words preceded by the article a. or made plural. purity. This is a poetic usage. smiled. and so on. Personification of abstract ideas. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. that the power of art is founded on fact. a steel to whet a knife on. tobaccos.²COLLINS. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract.²CARLYLE. For example. A halfway class of words. oils. Class nouns in use. papers. but on dispositions which require to be created. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. and say teas. but in case an art or a science. that disposition is the thing to be created. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.²BYRON. as stones. etc. nor are they common class nouns. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. to prowl or to moan like night birds.²BRYANT. coals. candies. mists. not material things. a rubber for erasing marks. They are not then pure abstract nouns. on fire. etc. Death. the abstract idea is partly lost. When it is said that art differs from science. 17.In lightnings owned his secret stings. slates.²PERCIVAL. Traffic has lain down to rest.²HAYNE. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. are still names of abstract ideas. (3) By poetical use. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron.

meaning a walk in the morning." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. The noun may borrow from any part of speech.² GOLDSMITH. were mere terrors of the night.²SHAKESPEARE. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.The Solitary can despise. 18. they do not express quality. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. "a family quarrel. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. Conjunctions. but is still a noun. But it is better to consider them as nouns." "the State Bank Tax bill.²IRVING. make our own so. 19. sir!"²MACAULAY .² BURNS. sir!" and the "What then. sir?" and the "No. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. or describe it. they cannot be compared. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. They are more like the possessive noun. fear thy blow. When I was young? Ah. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. if we must have great actions. Every why hath a wherefore. for example. Then comes the "Why. etc. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. the wealthy. a bank in New York. as descriptive adjectives are." "a morning walk. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Adverbs. But ah! those pleasures. And still. which belongs to another word. however. a bill as to tax on the banks. Nouns used as descriptive terms." "a New York bank.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. loves.²EMERSON. NOTE. or from any expression. Adjectives. All these.²SHAKESPEARE. nouns used to modify." which contains a pure adjective. as each repeated pleasure tired. By ellipses. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.²BURNS.Let us. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS.

8. but as a figure of speech. in a sentence above. but have an adjectival meaning. too. The it. of words rather than of their meaning. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 3. is the word "just. Stone walls do not a prison make. in speaking of the principal of a school. are used. 4. are spoken of as if pure nouns. so. 2. 7. Learning. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Caution. NOTE. or a criminal. whether it mean the sun or the cold.²These remarks do not apply. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. FRANKLIN. of course. There are many of these. 1. why and wherefore. Power laid his rod aside. however. .Nor iron bars a cage. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. the wealthy.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. It is to be remembered. is ambiguous. that the above cases are shiftings of the use..(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage." and another of Dr. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. When. Now."²B. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. 5. and Then. When. In the other sentences. at the beginning. or a faithful domestic. without reference to its function in the sentence. Exercise." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies." or "legal. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. and tell to which class each belongs. that cobweb of the brain. 6. 20. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. the terms the great.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. or a state secret. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. etc.

in English grammar. 18. 24. that waits you here. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 13. And see. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 12.9. 16. Male beings are. 14. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 23. female. and many other languages. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 21. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 19. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. always masculine. German. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 20. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. The fleet. and names of females are usually feminine. There are exceptions even to this general statement.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. GENDER. 10. always feminine. for every dropHinders needle and thread. A little weeping would ease my heart. 11. returned to Spain. . the welcome. shattered and disabled. 21. the silver moon is gone.You seize the flower. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 17. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 22. but not so in English. he cried. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. In Latin. A fool speaks all his mind. Greek. The hours glide by. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving.Fair guests. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 15. its bloom is shed. What gender means in English. It is founded on sex.

those which do not distinguish sex. according to use. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. Of animals. 24. For instance: in Latin.. must be divided into two principal classes. then. those with which man comes in contact often. or which arouse his interest most. All nouns. Gunpowder . those distinguishing the sex of the object. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.²LAMB. hortus (garden) is masculine. the name of it is masculine. if of the female sex. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. corpus (body) is neuter. and neuter nouns. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. "A little child shall lead them." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. the name of it is feminine. or names of things without life.²gender nouns. der Tisch (table) is masculine..² I have seenA curious child . but are spoken of as neuter.. if there were any signs of life in it. or additions to words. No "common gender.²masculine and feminine. in other languages gender follows the form. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. the word child is neuter in the sentence. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.²IRVING. das Messer (knife) is neuter. inanimate things are spoken of. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. Gender nouns. are named by gender nouns. however. The great difference is. according to their use.² IRVING. Neuter nouns. and consequently without sex. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. clapping his burnished wings. 22.When. .." . that pattern of a husband. the sex being of no consequence. 23. mensa (table) is feminine. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. He next stooped down to feel the pig. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. in German.. came to a stand just by the bridge. Thus. Hence: Definition.. with its gizzard under its wing. in English. that is.

Put in convenient form. II. from the masculine fox. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. of course. These remain in vixen and spinster. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. 28. for from they said vram. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. The inflections for gender belong.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Native suffixes. the division of words according to sex. One feminine. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. as in wine vat. generally to a masculine word. According to the definition. servant. but spinster has now no connection with it. as he-goat²she-goat. I. they are neuter words. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. puts a prefix before the masculine man. or the lack of it. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. 26. Gender shown by Suffixes. . etc. 27. only to masculine and feminine nouns. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. is. domestic. teacher. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex.. If such words as parent. Very few of class I. though both words have lost their original meanings. Hence vixen is for fyxen. he-bear²she-bear. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. do not show the sex to which the persons belong.25. For fox they said vox.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Gender shown by Prefixes. relative. woman. (2) By adding a suffix. and for the older word fat they said vat. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. Male nouns beings. ruler. cousin. (3) By using a different word for each gender. 29.

(2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Low Latin issa). the one most used. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. as seam-stress. but in most cases it has not. executrix. as. Slightly changed and widely used. as. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. -ess (French esse. song-str-ess. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. donna.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. punster. gamester. 30. These are attached to foreign words. as czarina. it has none now in the words huckster. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. señorita. trickster. Ending of masculine not changed. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Unaltered and little used. and are never used for words recognized as English.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster.

Some of them have an interesting history. from the French -esse. Thus. We frequently use such words as author. others have in their origin the same root. as. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. In some of these pairs. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. neighboresse. as. teacher or lady teacher.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. etc. Gender shown by Different Words. 31. from Latin imperatricem. teacheresse. 32. we use the masculine termination. neighbor (masculine and feminine). editor. NOTE. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. frendesse. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male." III.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. fosteress. to represent persons of either sex. chairman. Instead of saying doctress. the ending -ess. as was said in the sixteenth century. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . we use the feminine. or servauntesse. as in the fourteenth century. wagoness.

The masculine was formed by adding -a. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. for example. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Personification. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. written loverd. Icelandic gás. had the masculine mearh (horse). in Old English mere. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. It is not connected historically with our word duck. King and queen are said by some (Skeat.² . and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). gand-ra. the old sign of the masculine. widuwa²widuwe. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). among others) to be from the same root word. Mare. probably meaning house dweller). 16). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. but this has long been obsolete. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. or lauerd in Middle English. finally gander. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Witch is the Old English wicce. as in many other words. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Madam is the French ma dame. Widower. etc. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. 34. though both are ultimately from the same root. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. leaving our word drake.). Two masculines from feminines. not immediately connected with witch. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). became identical. lhauerd. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Three letters of ened have fallen away. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. 33. The older forms. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. from Latin mea domina. Danish gaas. Besides gander and drake.

in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. more than one. 36. 37. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. treen (trees). the plural.Her home is on the deep. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. the engineer speaks so of his engine. for instance. But other words were inflected afterwards. whenever we adopt a new word. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 35. that is. Our language has two numbers. (3) By adding -s (or -es). The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. and not by the form of the noun. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne.²CAMPBELL. (2) By changing the root vowel. . In nouns. I. Effect of personification.²KEATS. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. 38. in Old English.No towers along the steep. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. shoon (shoes)."²BYRON. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. The first two methods prevailed. Definition. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. together with the third. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. 39."Now.²singular and plural. The -en inflection. NUMBER. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. Britannia needs no bulwarks. etc. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.²COLERIDGE. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. This is not exclusively a poetic use. eyen (eyes).

etc. pair.²MACAULAY. sail. ditch. as. lens. but they now add the ending -s. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. The old plural was brothru. 42. people. cannon. when they mean soldiery.²WHITTIER. originally neuter. etc. Other words following the same usage are. cross. head. . brace. salmon.² "God bless me! so then. that have the singular and plural alike. sheep.The horse are thousands ten. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. but has now no singular. Instead of -s. 41."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. after numerals (if not after numerals.²Over the mountains winding down. Lee marched over the mountain wall.-En inflection imitated by other words. III. Akin to this class are some words. turf. The words horse and foot. II. Kine is another double plural. after all. such as deer. they add -s): also trout.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. etc.Horse and foot. dozen. into Frederick town. Children has passed through the same history. borough²formerly had the same inflection. or if preceded by the prepositions in. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. as. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. then brothre or brethre. heathen. quartz. folk. finally brethren.²THOREAU. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Brethren has passed through three stages.² The foot are fourscore thousand. swine. Such are box. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. and get settled. glass. Examples of this inflection are. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. 40. wight. retain the same form for plural meaning. by. and is still found in dialects.

as. some adding -s. fancies. these words ended in -ie. negro²negroes. Means plural. Words in -ies. Examples of these are. pains (care). daisies. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.²BRYANT. quoth then that ladie milde. however.g. and the real ending is therefore -s. economics. volcano² volcanoes. also news..At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Formerly. When such words take a plural ending. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. 43.. molasses. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. in its widest extent. etc. 44. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. though they are plural in form.g. etc. means: as. DANA. politics. shelf²shelves. half²halves. fairies. hero²heroes. mathematics.-Es added in certain cases. means and politics. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Proper nouns are regularly singular. prize²prizes. race²races.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. e. So live. etc. house²houses. and many branches of learning. the Americas. It served simply as a means of sight. though this sound combines readily with -s. a new syllable is made. and go over to other classes (Secs. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. optics. summons. Some words are usually singular. Special Lists. Two words. that when thy summons comes. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). physics. 45. the Washingtons. chaise²chaises. e.²PROF. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. etc. and some -es. is both the science and the art of government. knife²knives. niche²niches. 15 and 17). Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . allies. The lilie on hir stalke grene. they lose their identity.² Politics. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name.

Now I read all the politics that come out. 46. however. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. riches will accumulate. it is furnished with a forceps.²MOTLEY. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²GOLDSMITH.² MACAULAY.²G. I say. L. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²GOLDSMITH. LAUGHLIN. Some words have no corresponding singular. by those means which we have already mentioned. Politics plural. Besides this. W.²IRVING. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.Words.²J. By these means. by strongly conveying the passions. CURTIS.²BURKE. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. if I recollect right. he pronounced to have been a tongs. .²GOLDSMITH. A relic which. Sometimes.

Two classes of compound words.. etc.. penny²pennies (separately). making a double plural. (2) revenue duties. (2) poetry. etc. or work in a bellows?²PROF. fish²fish (collectively).² I lisped in numbers. as in the lines.²one corresponding to the singular. two meanings. . (2) abilities. part²parts: (1) divisions. genii (spirits). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. carry off chaff. One plural. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. 49. shot²shot (collective balls). cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). two plurals. eaves.²LONGFELLOW. pea²peas (separately). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). Tell me not. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. trouble. index²indexes (to books). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. In Early Modern English thank is found. shots (number of times fired).²was it subdued when. pease (collectively). Three words were originally singular. sixpence. for the numbers came. pence (collectively). Numbers also means issues. in mournful numbers. riches. genius²geniuses (men of genius).The air. 50. In speaking of coins. (2) literature. ways.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. or epistles. of a periodical. DANA. or copies.).. die²dies (stamps for coins. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. dice (for gaming). 48. brethren (of a society or church). fishes (individuals or kinds). indices (signs in algebra). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. may add -s. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. as two sixpences. number²numbers: (1) figures. twopence. These make the last part plural. the other unlike it. (2) care.²POPE. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. faculties. clothes (garments). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet.

for example. but add -s.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. or the name may be pluralized. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. manservant. such as talisman. German. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Ottoman. Brahman.² Then came Mr. the Drs. Briggs. woman singer. as man singer. As to plurals of names with titles. the Misses Rich. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. and Mrs. there is some disagreement among English writers. as the Messrs. though the latter is often found. 51. Brown. then Silas Peckham. woman servant. firman. Allen. The chief member adds -s in the plural. . The title may be plural. Two methods in use for names with titles. 52. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.²DR. Mussulman.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Norman. HOLMES.

Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.²GOLDSMITH. or Englished. The Messrs. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Exercise. 53. or Anglicized. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²GIBBON. Others have been adopted.²DICKENS. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²THE CRITIC. These are said to be domesticated. and retain their foreign plurals. Du Maurier. They are then said to be naturalized. Domesticated words. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. FROM THE LATIN. FROM THE GREEK. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. y y analysis antithesis . Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.

55. also add -s or 's.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. without reference to their meaning. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. figures. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. cell has another relation. 54." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). as. Only two case forms. .y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. etc. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. they form their plurals in the regular way. In the general wearing-away of inflections. Definition. figures. Letters. Words quoted merely as words. etc. "He sleeps in a felon's cell." the word felon's modifies cell. and expresses a relation akin to possession. as. 56. In the sentence. form their plurals by adding -s or 's." CASE." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)..

one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. 5. Nouns. excessive grief. 4. I. fate. 1. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Excuses are clothes which. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. and the possessive.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. and merit. Three properties belong to wisdom. completing a verb. 3. the enemy of the living.²person. 57. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations." (2) As a predicate noun. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. when asked unawares. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. whether inflected or not. learning. and experience. Human experience is the great test of truth. 2.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. three things characterize man.²one for the nominative and objective. they returned to their homes. the objective. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. may be said to have three cases.²nature. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²the nominative. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. then. Uses of the Nominative." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. . 58." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. must be understood for purposes of analysis.

as will be seen in Sec. taking the object storm." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. distance. They charged. . 59. (5) As the object of a preposition. 2. Set a high price on your leisure moments." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. how have I frighted thee? II. the word toward which the preposition points. 4. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. they are sands of precious gold." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. and meaning calmest. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. save. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. 8. (in the older stages of the language." Exercise. and tell which use each has:² 1." "Thou makest the storm a calm. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. good Heaven. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. and landlord of the inn. her first law broken. 9. 3. Uses of the Objective. completing the verb. wounded lies. a patriarch of the village. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. measure.6. thy wrath can send. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. reconciles. taking the object enemies.Save. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and being equivalent to one verb. 68. Conscience. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. But the flood came howling one day." (3) Adverbially. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. and makest a calm. But of all plagues. etc. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. sword in hand and visor down. Tender men sometimes have strong wills." (4) As the second object.

His winter task a pastime made. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.Does his Creator's power display. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. 6. expressed or understood. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. And whirling plate. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. The noblest mind the best contentment has. The possessive case always modifies another word. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. Possession in some sense is the most common.²ADDISON. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.²HAWTHORNE. It is a poetic expression. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.² The unwearied sun. 8. III. as in these expressions.e. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.And gave the leper to eat and drink. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. the most common of all. as. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.²SHELLEY.5. (2) Objective possessive. Uses of the Possessive. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. from day to day. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. 10. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 60. and forfeits paid. 61. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. the Great Stone Face. tempests that . as shown in the sentences. (3) Subjective possessive. or in writing yesterday's elegy. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.²BYRON.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. 7.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.. 9.

By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. A suggestion. 62. there are only two case forms. 62. as schoolboys sometimes write. in Chaucer. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. PLURAL. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.winter is likely to have). Case Inflection. A false theory. child NOTE. 64. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. 56). only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. 63. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2." Use of the apostrophe. Nom. growth which several days had developed). "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)..²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. To form the possessive plural.e. Nom. however." "mannes herte [heart]. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. Poss. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es.e.. 1. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. making the possessive singular. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. "From every schires ende." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. How the possessive is formed. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i." etc. lady Poss. and Obj. . and Obj. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. As said before (Sec." "at his beddes syde. The use of the apostrophe. the panther which the forest hides). was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. One is the simple form of a word. Declension or inflection of nouns. "George Jones his book.

Peter's. store." Possessive with compound expressions. as. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.²CARLYLE.. containing words in apposition.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves.²THACKERAY. as. know the amount of my income. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. James's. but to the ear all may be alike. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.² LOWELL. as by the countess's command. dwelling. for goodness' sake. a word with a phrase. etc. instead of the emperor their master's name. ." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter."²DE QUINCEY." "A postscript is added. some such word as house.Though this opinion was untrue. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. and she walked off from the don's.²HOLMES. being understood with it: for example. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. stands up for God's truth one man. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. I remember him in his cradle at St. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. In compound expressions. 66. my neighbors. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. Kate saw that.²SWIFT.²RUSKIN. the possessive sign is usually last. 65. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. in the name of the emperor their master. church. etc. the items of my son's.²DE QUINCEY. 67. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. Possessive and no noun limited. Cervantes' satirical work. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience.. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. Captain Scrapegrace's. and from a desire to have distinct forms. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.

corresponding to 's. (b) Rewrite the sentence. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . especially when used with this or that. etc. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. ill-lighted except where she stands. and at the same time by a possessive noun. however. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. HALE. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. the sentence might be understood as just explained. (1) When a word is modified by a. 68. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. each. Clearness. 1. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. Emphasis.²CARLYLE. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. in such a sentence as. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. the. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. every. we use the phrase of Atterbury. In most cases. For example. 87. Both of these are now used side by side. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. as one modifier. a double possessive. no.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. Exercises. 2. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. making a double possessive. Blair). I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. objective. any.. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²FROUDE.²the introduction which Atterbury made. (See also Sec.²E. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. that. If. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. (3) It prevents ambiguity. this.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. or subjective. E. the statement clearly means only one thing. A peculiar form. and tell whether each is appositional. sometimes they are used together.The double possessive.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us.

13. There Shakespeare's self. Now the bright morning star.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen.² . 70. Jove laughs. 5. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. At lovers' perjuries.Comes dancing from the East. 4. 11. let him seasonably water the one. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 6. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 12. in parsing a noun. 69. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 7.They say. and destroy the other.3. Nature herself. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. Hence. I must not see thee Osman's bride. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. some idioms²the double possessive. day's harbinger. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 9. 14. it seemed. In parsing. 10. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 15. 8. with every garland crowned. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. we state. therefore. Friend. My quarrel and the English queen's are one.

which gender. like miller's. a fresh tapster.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. hence it is a common noun. therefore masculine gender. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. 68). . determining its case. names one thing. and limits neckcloth. subject of the verb is understood. etc. Exercise. 3. The correct method.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. therefore neuter. gender. and relations. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. it has no sex. Throat is neuter. and number. and to have it found out by accident. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. NOTE. proper. MODEL FOR PARSING. masculine. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. Thief is a common class noun. it is the name of a male being. 71. In parsing any word. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.(1) The class to which it belongs. is a common class noun. it denotes only one person. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. singular number. Neckcloth. if the latter. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. and therefore nominative case. it expresses time. has no governing word. 4.²common. (4) Its office in the sentence. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. it is the object of the preposition by. the connection shows a male is meant. a withered serving man. 2. object of the verb takes. therefore singular number. as to case. inflections. (3) Whether singular or plural number. therefore singular number. therefore possessive case. hence it is a gender noun. That in the captain's but a choleric word. but is the adverbial objective. hence objective case. hence it is objective case. it expresses possession or ownership. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does.

"Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.. were natives of Geneva. Now. 8. The need of pronouns. castle. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. sleep! 6.²palace. standing for a name. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. or for a group of persons or things. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. . which distinguish person by their form (Sec. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. PRONOUNS. A few miles from this point... This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome." Again. For instance. 7. Mrs. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. 10. all in one. blessings light on him that first invented . or for a person or thing. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. instead of saying. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Time makes the worst enemies friends. financial minister to Louis XVI. Madame de Staël.And hated her for her pride. Necker. 9. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. and prison. He giveth his beloved sleep. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession.5. 11. and his daughter. 73. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. from a necessity for short. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. 72. Definition. (2) Interrogative pronouns. A pronoun is a reference word. Jarley's back being towards him. but by a question we say." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. and representative words. Classes of pronouns. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. where the Rhone enters the lake. 76). definite.

75. Person in grammar. pronoun. my Plural. 74. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Three persons of pronouns. (4) Adjective pronouns. representing a person or thing spoken to. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. standing for a person or thing spoken of. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Nom.. From analogy to pronouns. (2) Second person. "the distinction of person. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. even if it had a special form. which relate or refer to a noun. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. 77. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. they must represent the person talking. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. the person or thing spoken to. they are said to have person by agreement. words. mine. representing the person speaking. This gives rise to a new term. primarily adjectives. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. Singular. ours ." Person of nouns. as nouns have the same form. which cannot be used as adjectives. which have forms for person. or other word or expression. and the person or thing talked about. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. (5) Indefinite pronouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. (3) Third person. 76. that is. we our. I Poss. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns.(3) Relative pronouns.

thou thee ye you you your. SECOND PERSON. you your. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. yours you Plural. Singular. Nom. yours you THIRD PERSON. neuter. Third person singular has gender. Old Form Common Form. he his him Fem. your. neuter hit. in the singular. thine. The speaker may be either male or female. yours Poss. Poss. of all Three. Poss. thy Remarks on These Forms. so also with the person or thing spoken to. namely. by personification. or. But the third person has. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. . masculine h . Obj. and also for the neuter. a separate form for each gender. theirs them Neut. feminine h o. Obj. Masc. it its it Poss. Nom. First and second persons without gender. me us Singular. Old forms.. they their. Obj. she her.Obj. hers her Plur. Nom. Nom. 78. Obj.

heora. thy. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. and sometimes its. etc.Thou lovest. the forms they. In spoken English. (2) In addressing the Deity. ." As shown above.² Oh. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. There are. 81.²SHELLEY. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. The plurals were h . it. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. Thou. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. etc. as. which is a neuter noun. their. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. Two uses of the old singulars.²BEECHER. This is of comparatively recent growth. even when referring to a single object. to thy care we commit the helpless. etc. that didst comfort thy people of old. thee.:² (1) In elevated style. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. 80. thou Shepherd of Israel. as possessive of it. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. heom. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. two modern uses of thou.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. The consequence is. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. 82. them. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. We use it with a plural verb always. however.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. The form its.. especially in poetry. for example. Second person always plural in ordinary English. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). 79. in Old English. as in prayers. which was often sounded with the h silent.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. just as we now say.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. the Old English objective was hem (or heom).

The words I. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. The forms my. they have a nominative form. or. and has been slave to thousands. I The Nominative.²LANDOR. 34). theirs. 85. her. we. hers. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. him. The forms mine. sometimes his and its. That is. she." the literary language would require he after was. thou. and not make more classes. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. 58). though ye is occasionally used as objective. me. Not a separate class. And since thou own'st that praise. to personify objects (Sec. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. Additional nominatives in spoken English. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. them. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and follow the usage of literary English. 'tis his. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. for. her. some say. I spare thee mine. however. 84 are always subjects. 84. "I am sure it was him. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. 86. thine. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. ye. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. they. them.²BULWER. though those named in Sec. 83. him. and sometimes in ordinary speech. yours. he. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. when they occur in the predicate position. . there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. have a peculiar use. his. us. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.Use of the pronouns in personification. us. your. note the following:² 'Twas mine. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. our. Absolute personal pronouns. its. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. ²SHAKESPEARE. II. In spoken English. Old use of mine and thine. The Possessive.²COWPER. Nominative forms. besides a nominative use. thy. their. in such a sentence as. her. Yet careful speakers avoid this.

² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. theirs.² CARLYLE. for example. in that old Edinburgh house of his. yours.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. pluck it out. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. "Hold thy peace. This usage is still preserved in poetry. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.²CARLYLE. but few thy voice. sometimes its. thine. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. anger. (3) To express contempt.²THACKERAY. hers.²J. If thine eye offend thee. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. The forms hers. as in nouns. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. thus. thus."²SCOTT. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.²SWIFT. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. T.²BIBLE. COOPER.²ID. Give every man thine ear." said Henry Woodstall. F. and with mine. his. yours. (2) To bring emphasis. it tells of good old times. This ancient silver bowl of mine. we have. Long Allen. ours.²ID. Their uses. Double and triple possessives.²THACKERAY. 87. Like the noun possessives. we find. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. commenting upon a letter of mine. ²HOLMES. FIELDS. Besides this.²J. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. ours. theirs. are really double possessives. or satire. .

In Old English there was one case which survives in use. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. 20. the thing is done. mine stands for my praise in the second. this dative use. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In their function. They may be spoken of as possessive in form.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. 90. The Objective. but nominative or objective in use. but not in form. or use in a sentence. They all handled it. as shown in Sec. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. Now the objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. 88.²BIBLE. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. in the first sentence." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. as it is called. In pronouns.²ID." "None but the brave deserves the fair. 86: mine stands for my property. Curse me this people. but expresses for whom. his for his property. for whose benefit. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. but the form is the same as the objective. and mine in the second has an objective use. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. was marked by a separate case. "The good alone are great. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In such sentences as. The old dative case.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. But the first two have a nominative use. Both joined in making him a present. III. 89. Besides this use of the objective. . For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition.

WEBSTER. ²EMERSON.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.²BACON. in this century. and they cry.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² NEWMAN. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.Time is behind them and before them. 92. logical subject. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.² . The word you. has not made its progress. The peasants take off their hats as you pass." (3) As a grammatical subject. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. Indefinite use of you and your.²BULWER. (3) In apposition. like Chinese skill. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. or that he has not a great deal more.²D.²DE QUINCEY. as. thus.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. was passed by with indulgence. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. 91. as in the sentences. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²EMERSON. or to the idea.²CARLYLE. Your mere puny stripling. you sneeze.²IRVING To empty here. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. to stand for the real. why. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²ADDISON. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. which follows the verb. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. Society. It is a pity that he has so much learning. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. as. you must condense there.

And when I awoke. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. as they are also called.²SCOTT. farms it. . (thyself). "I found me a good book. themselves. Poor Christian was hard put to it." "He bought him a horse. it rained. keeps a school. but seldom in prose. This occurs in poetry.. For example. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia.²BRYANT. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²IRVING. I set me down and sigh. herself. who in turn tries all the professions. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. ourselves. the second is the old form of the second person. For when it dawned. And millions in those solitudes. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. who teams it. (ourself). yourselves. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 94.²BUNYAN.²COLERIDGE.²BURNS.²ID. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²HOLMES. we use such expressions as. have laid them downIn their last sleep.. himself. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. Of the two forms in parentheses. they dropped their arms.²DE QUINCEY. -selves.²THOREAU. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. itself.²EMERSON." and there is an end of it." etc.²HAWTHORNE. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. as. They are myself. I made up my mind to foot it. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.² Now I lay me down to sleep. however. A sturdy lad .It is finger-cold. since firstThe flight of years began. 93. yourself. that is. when they are direct objects. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. peddles it."²IRVING.²ANON. and its plural selves. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. There was nothing for it but to return. It was late and after midnight. used in poetry.

²E. as.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.As girls were once. Use of the reflexives.²ID.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. with self. 95. The question might arise. B. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. Held dead within them till myself shall die. theself.²EMERSON.² TENNYSON. and build the lofty rhyme. as we ourself have been. BROWNING.²SHAKESPEARE. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. for example.²MILTON. I shrink with pain. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.² The great globe itself .² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. shall dissolve. thyself. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. NOTE. were changed into the possessive myself. as in vulgar English. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.. for example. As if it were thyself that's here. not the possessive forms. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.. Origin of these reflexives. ourselves. as. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.To you yourself. after the analogy of myself. especially in the speech of rulers. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. etc. and the others were formed by analogy with these. Threats to all.²WORDSWORTH. to every one.² . 96. In Middle English the forms meself. to us. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.

And it grew wondrous cold. 97. feminine. father. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. 10. fight it out. and neuter. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and how to do it. 5. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. all conform to it. Years ago. 9. Courage. To know what is best to do. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 3. 6. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. . some of them being double possessives. let him lowly confess it.²B. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Infancy conforms to nobody. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. FRANKLIN. is wisdom. Come and trip it as we go. 8. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 2. One obsolete. Three now in use. 7. which. and one would like to hear counsel on one point.²DE QUINCEY. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. and what. where the word is one with that it tells of.On the light fantastic toe. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 4. but it is the soonest spoiled. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. some each of masculine.² THACKERAY.

long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. 100. What wouldst thou do. which is not inflected for gender. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. 98. These show that what is not inflected for case. but for case alone. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. with its possessive and objective. number. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. . The use of who. not to persons. Which of you. it is always third person. Whose was that gentle voice. Use of what. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. methought.. whether.Promised. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Use of who and its forms.There is an old word. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. etc. 99. whispering sweet. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Use of which. actions. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. that. as it always asks about somebody. or case. but now obsolete. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. it refers to either persons or things. shall we say. that it is always singular and neuter. that it is not inflected for gender or number. As shown here. ideas. referring to things. having three forms. the gold. it is selective.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. used formerly to mean which of two. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. that is.

which. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. for which the pronoun stands. being the direct object of the verb shall take. and so to make smoother discourse. AND PLUR. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. or other word or expression. as. It usually precedes the pronoun. pronoun.² . Further treatment of who. which and what." In the latter sentence. what may be an adverb in some expressions. 127). Thus we may say. Who. objective in the last. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. which is called the antecedent of the relative." Or.101. and also in having a conjunctive use. For instance. These bards sang of Border chivalry.Who sung of Border chivalry. nominative in the second also. 104. as. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. since it is subject of the verb had. Function of the relative pronoun. which is nominative in the first sentence. 105. who evidently refers to Bards. SINGULAR Nom. subject of doth love. and what are also relative pronouns. in Sec. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English.²by the use of the words.² "The last of all the Bards was he. 103. SING. who? Poss. it may be shortened into. 99. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. The antecedent. whose? Obj. which and what are sometimes adjectives. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. "The last of all the Bards was he. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. AND PLUR. who is used as objective instead of whom. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. 102. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec.

6. will be discussed further on. but the look which is not of the earth. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 3. the women whom women approve. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. D.²PARTON Which and its forms. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.Whom universal nature did lament. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 4.²W. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. WHITNEY.²BYRON. are the men and women who bless their species. .²THACKERAY.²DR JOHNSON. 4. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. which. Ye mariners of England. When the word relative is used. 108. For her enchanting son.. 107. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. 2.. 106. in the same sense in which man's nature.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. 2.² COX.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. a simple relative is meant. with all its capabilities . Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE.²SCOTT. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. The nurse came to us. both his and who have the antecedent priest. a thousand years. 3. what.²MILTON. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. Two kinds.Whose flag has braved.. They had not their own luster. is a divine creation. Indefinite relatives. The origin of language is divine. Generally speaking.That guard our native seas. 5.²LOWELL In this. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. that. The men whom men respect. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. Who and its forms.

²BURKE.²LAMB 3. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. The man that hath no music in himself. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²DE QUINCEY. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . The judge . ought to be kept in view.. Reader. 111. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.² SHAKESPEARE 2. Who. 4. 2. 109. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.²H. stratagems. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. W. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling..5. 107. The Tree Igdrasil. 110. Already done is all that he would do.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. What. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²EMERSON. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²IRVING. 3.Is fit for treasons.. BEECHER 5. you will not be angry with me for telling you. (a) This gradation . and spoils. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to... which it certainly is not.. Examples of the relative that:² 1. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.²GOLDSMITH.²MARGARET FULLER. else this description will seem exaggerated. 6. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. That.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. For what he sought below is passed above. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

whose.. referring to animals. son.²DR. It has been seen (Sec. Kingsley. 96). and 6.²which for the nominative and objective. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].. 107.²THACKERAY. Sec. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. not persons. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals..²LEIGH HUNT.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. Cooper.²IRVING.²SWIFT. and 3. possessive case of which. things. whom. The robins. whom. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. and others. The little gorilla. in the first sentence. whose wound I had dressed. Smollett. 5. in 5. Witness the following examples:² And you.²who. In 1. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. Examples of whose. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. who is first person. or ideas. Scott. that man. JOHNSON. and so on. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. whose for the possessive. My horse. Which. 113. in the third. Gibbon. 2. p. The sentences in Sec.who. In sentence 4. in the second.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. (3) It is nearly always third person.²LOWELL. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. the others are all third person.. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. . 112.whose. who. (2) It has three case forms.. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. the relatives are singular. (4) It has two case forms. flung its arms around my neck. a man. they are plural. seemed as much excited as myself. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.. whose is second person. Who referring to animals. in 4.

115. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. In the sentences of Sec. 116. Sometimes. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent.²BEECHER. Which and its antecedents."²RUSKIN. which is very notable and curious.²SHAKESPEARE. animals. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. secondly (which made her stare).²THACKERAY. So in Matthew Arnold. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. which is worse. and things. no possessive. Burke. (3) It is the same form for first. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. the antecedent follows which. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.² I swept the horizon. too. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. (2) It has only one case form. This often occurs. This moribund '61.²DE QUINCEY.114. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. let us enter the church itself. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. The last two sentences in Sec.²RUSKIN. second. . whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. and to persecute without pity. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Kingsley. 109. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns.² And. That. Men may be ready to fight to the death. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Primarily.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. and numerous others. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.²first. thus. and third persons.² MCMASTER.²SCOTT.

whose Obj. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. 109. by taking them out. is always neuter.²SHAKESPEARE. When expressed. For example. that men must needs abide.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. but this is not sanctioned as good usage.²EMERSON. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. that do I not. The gender. for example. that he has. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. that do I. either of which would be neuter.² What I would. What. 117. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. consequently is neuter. and person of the relatives who. third person. plural number. 119. and is emphatic. we can. which. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. it usually follows. what we said?²CARLYLE. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. . What a man does. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS." That evidently refers to truths." (3) "These people heard him. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true.²BIBLE What fates impose. plural number. but what I hate. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. 118. as. third person. as in sentence 6. The sentences of Sec. Nom. Who plainly stands for those or the people. number. Sec. who Poss. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths.

the simple relative. is what we call nature. I think they are trying to outwit nature. What must be endured? Answer. Parsing what. In the same way who. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. and what is the direct object of the verb call. but is singular. people is the object of the preposition of. In (2). 3. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. Exercise. 4. What can't be cured. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. standing for the people understood. third person. 5. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time." Here the subject of is. etc. nobler souls with that which they are. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. 8. subject of heard. and hence is in the nominative case. who is sure to be cunninger than they. neuter. In the sentence. it is object of uttered. in (3). however. The whole expression is its subject. in (1). in the following sentences:² 1. that takes the case of the truths in (2). we is the subject. then parse the relatives." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. is in the nominative case. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. ."²EMERSON. 120. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Now.. First find the antecedents. The word what. the highest result of all education. is subject of the verb can't be cured. above. 6. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. "What can't be cured must be endured. so is in the objective case. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. The relative what is handled differently. it is subject of the verb heard. which is. Some prefer another method of treatment. because it has usually no antecedent. Truths in sentence (2). is subject of wrought upon and molded. As shown by the following sentences. after all. but of this. 7. Another way.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case.

or stand on their head.²MACAULAY. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 5. in a new and original way. to everything that. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. no certain antecedent. summer will have its flies. and which in the second clause. which. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.²BURKE. They are whoever. being referred to. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. object of with] which [singular. that nothing else can stand in their presence. by meaning and use.²you cannot have both. List and examples. Take which you please. 7. 123. Hence some take what as a double relative. no particular thing. whichsoever. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. The simple relatives who. 4. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. and his friend a fool. object of do] they do. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. that is. whichever. 6. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. whosoever. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Death is there associated. less common are whoso. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous.²BURKE. Do what we can. whatsoever. 122. and parse that in the first clause. . Meaning and use. "common souls pay with that [singular. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. whatsoever. Only itself can inspire whom it will. not as direct as the simple relatives. 121. and in 2. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. 2. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. It is clear that in 1. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. It is no proof of a man's understanding. 2. 3. whatever. or what else soever. So with the other indefinites.

as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. etc. 2. This. for example. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 126. etc. But and as. 120. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. There is nothing but is related to us. 4.² 1. everything that (or everything which). Sec. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 121. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. whereby. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.²DE QUINCEY.² some particular thing...² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. not following the word such. but mean any one whom. nothing that does not interest us. In early modern English. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. the conjunctions wherein. Other substitutes. and that as after such is equivalent to which. for example. Instead of the phrases in which. but and as. what means anything that. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. whereupon. 121.²EMERSON. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. 417). 125.As shown in Sec. etc. has been my heaviest affliction. 124. Former use of as.²HAWTHORNE. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. by which. are used. as was used just as we use that or which. Two words. either one that. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. upon which. but which only wealth could have purchased. Proof that they have the force of relatives. thus. .² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have.

the full expression being. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. "But what had become of them? They knew not. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun).²WHITTIER. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. 2 (b). In studying such sentences. if expanded. a question is disguised in each sentence. if not. it is an indefinite relative). 2. "Who stood behind? We knew. second. 127. no antecedent is expressed.²EMERSON. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. and whether what = that + which (if so. which having the antecedent lines. 1 (b). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized.²ID. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. But in 1 (b). 3. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. it is a simple relative. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. . and 3 (b). Thus. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. Special caution needed here. How to decide." etc. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. In sentences 1 (a). The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. which would indicate that they are not relatives. what is interrogative. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. who having the antecedent gentleman. it is an interrogative. showing that who is plainly interrogative. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. Another caution.. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. would be." Likewise with which in 3 (b). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. if not. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. So in 2 (b).A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. though the earthwork hid them.

half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. I visited many other apartments. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. On the other hand. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. which has the antecedent hue. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²FORSTER 6. whence is the interrogative word. 5. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. 2. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. which. and Court Calendars. Examine the following:² 1. The insect I am now describing lived three years. the question is asked by the verb. . Relative omitted when object. In the first. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.128. but the life of man in England.²G. Thus.²FLETCHER. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²HOLMES. 4. In the third. ELIOT. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Exercise.²GOLDSMITH. and asks no question.²CARLYLE.² These are the sounds we feed upon.² THACKERAY. 129. whose has the antecedent you. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. 3. Put in the relatives who. In the second. When Goldsmith died.²SWIFT.

Also in literary English we find the same omission.Ne'er looks upon the sun. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. 5.²Id. 2. There was such a crowd went. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.² LOWELL. or indefinite relatives:² 1. the house was full. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. Relative omitted when subject. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. It is rare in prose. Examples are. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.²SHAKESPEARE.7.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. which. 3. that. and what. Function of adjective pronouns. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. and comparatively so in poetry. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. . simple relatives.²CAMPBELL. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. which was already proceeding. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. The nobles looked at each other.²SCOTT. 130. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. 6. who were to be rulers over whom.

in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory.131. It must come under the requirement of pronouns." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. For instance. 132. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. such as each.²IRVING. etc. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. in order to be an adjective pronoun. none. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. the former. in the first. Primarily they are adjectives. which we have seen in such expressions as. "The dead are there. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²EMERSON." Classes of adjective pronouns. "another bank. etc. not pronouns. For example. or an argument in a paragraph. Adjectives. necessarily thought of: thus. . 'Truth. such as this." "Where two men ride on a horse. or they may stand for nouns. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. in letters of gold. and stand for a noun. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. and another to get cool under. that. neither. and on each is written. as some. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. expressed or understood. in the second they retain an adjective meaning.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. but have lost their adjective use. 133. "each cube. must not modify any word. In the first use they are adjectives. or use. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. a word. either. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words." in the second. but in this function. or may be the whole of a sentence. all. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS." that is.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. any. Caution." in the others.²BRYANT. etc." "one man. many. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. "these pranks. few. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence.

134.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Such are a few isolated instances. Even as I have seen. . (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose.²ID. or sat. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Simple. 2.²EMERSON 4.² They stood. reap the same. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. and sow wickedness. Exercises. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. for example. 5. NOTE. as seemed good to each.²LOWELL. They have not shunned the one. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²ID. accidentally preserved. but what he fain had seen He could not see. or reclined. because he was not lying in wait for these. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. they that plow iniquity. Some of these are simple pronouns. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. Compound. Definition and examples.All these he saw. but these were of the best. They had fewer books. 3. A man inspires affection and honor. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and they have well performed the other. Their minds accorded into one strain. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. when the latter was the King of Spain.

²HAWTHORNE. we might the more easily discharge them. Men take each other's measure when they react. Some inflected. as it were. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. one another. as. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. The Soldan. for example.²EMERSON. Another opposes him with sound argument. paused over a horoscope. None shall rule but the humble. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²each other. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Exercise. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.²HOLMES. such as one other. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. 135.²KINGSLEY. .It felt the guidance that it does not claim. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. as most were. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. ²HAWTHORNE. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. Much might be said on both sides.Two are compound pronouns. imbued.² One reflexive.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. Definition and examples. another. with the superstitions of his time. The word one has a reflexive form. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. as some of the rangers had gone astray. or melt for others' woe. They led one another. you quickly come to the end of all. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.

every one else. and somewhat. every one (or everyone). as. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. also aught. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. some one. naught.Exercise. etc. anybody. as shown in the words everybody's. they are never used as adjectives. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. etc. but. something. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. nothing. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. . and was indefinite in Old English. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Definition and examples. 136. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things.. They indefinite means people in general. Jove laughs. 137. everybody. anything. no one." It means something.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. any one (or anyone). everybody else. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. what. Now. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. nobody. anybody else's. they say. Every one else stood still at his post.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.² At lovers' perjuries. anyone else. unlike adjective pronouns. and they. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. somebody else. in building of chaises. everything. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. I tell you what. Somebody.²SHAKESPEARE. Exercise. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

18. 13. 12. Exercise. 4. 9. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. indeed. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Hutchinson tells us of herself. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. The table was good. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. from my earliest days. 3. 2. to which. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. All was now ready for action. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. . but not to quite so enormous an extent. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 6.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Others did the same thing. 11. 8. 7. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. I first found myself among the mountains. 17. 5. in his negotiations. 14. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. For this did God send her a great reward.²a feature of natural scenery for which. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. and of no other. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). were suffered to depart. 16. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 10. 138. Whoever deals with M. A reminder. O thou that rollest above. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again.

By the old Hall which may be mine no more. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 29.19. 27. oh. hear! 33. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. He sate him down. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. And will your mother pity me. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.And it would work 'em woe. hear. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 35. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . A smile of hers was like an act of grace. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. that let him communicate. well-oiled dispositions. behold now the semblance of my being. eat white bread or brown. who take the world easy. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 30. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. variety. 32. 21. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. And I had done a hellish thing. and seized a pen.Destroyer and preserver. They know not I knew thee. in all its height. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. I who alone am. 34. thou rollest now. 31. Whatever he knows and thinks. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 26. 23.Who knew thee too well.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 25. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish.

if we wish to speak of a friend's house. such as in the expressions "this man. ADJECTIVES. Who hears me. 44. size. Again. position. 42. in pointing out an object. He teaches who gives. 38.36. It may have this office alone. He knew not what to do. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. If a chemist discovers a new substance. 43. As to the kind of words used." "some cities. "one hat. 37. etc. if we are at a distance. which was no bad step towards my liberation. and so he read. So with any object. 139. Substantives. 45. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. or gaseous. so that no other will be mistaken for it. becomes mine. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. Office of Adjectives. and if we are near. the number is limited by adjectives. adjectives are used. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. 40. ." "yonder hill. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present.. For example." "that house. as. brittle or tough. who understands me. and he learns who receives. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. that is our permanent state. etc. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. We are by nature observers. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. or liquid. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 39. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house." "a hundred men." etc. white or red. We need to add some words to tell its color. heavy or light." The office of an adjective. then. 41. or with persons.

fair. such as. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive.² BACON. 141." "half-dead traveler." "the Christian pearl of charity. and their trash. happy. 143. beautiful.140. divine. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. used to tell how many things are spoken of. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "ice-cold water. words primarily pronouns. Examples are. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. Classes of adjectives." and the still less significant "and so. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." they constitute all his connections. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. such as safe. or how much of a thing. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. "Heaven-derived power." . rash. to describe it or to limit its application. 142." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. (2) Adjectives of quantity. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. "an old English manuscript." the "and there. With exception of the "and then.²POPE. remotest." "the Roman writer Palladius. Definition." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. pointing out particular things. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. To err is human. To make this clear. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. They include relative and interrogative words." "ivory-handled pistols. If he be thankful for small benefits. (4) Pronominal adjectives. to forgive." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES.²COLERIDGE. Nouns are not. derived from proper nouns. it shows that he weighs men's minds. terrible. deep. however. etc. Infinitives." "next-door neighbor." "unlooked-for burden." "this life-giving book.

" "It came on like the rolling simoom." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. 'Tis midnight." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. but small thoughts have I of sleep. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. 1. which are either pure participles used to describe. in this. much. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb.But ever she looked on Mr. in studying these last-named words. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "an aged man." was is the verb.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. Exercises. and accomplished is an adjective. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. any. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." Caution. having some of each subclass named in Sec." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. no. sometimes small. Examples are. Oxenham.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.²COLERIDGE. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. some. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.²MACDONALD. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. 2. 144. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. 145." was accomplished is a verb. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. For instance: in the sentence. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. considerable. . Care is needed. and another is drunken. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. 143." "trailing clouds." "One is hungry." "a charming sight." "The shattered squares have opened into line. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of.

" Single ones of any number of changes. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time.²ID. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. When some.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. Thus. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. its wake. Examples. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. The demonstrative adjectives are this. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. that. The following sentences present some examples:² . Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. 146. any." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²CARLYLE. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. they come under the next division of adjectives." "He had lived by hunting for some months.²KINGSLEY. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. but I have gained fourscore. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. the former²the latter. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "In came some five and twenty more. as. The list. Not primarily pronouns.² Every town had its fair. instead of modifying them. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. and with them a few negroes. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.²VAUGHAN. Exercise." (b) Indefinite numerals. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. those). which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. yonder (or yon). used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. are used with plural nouns. An arrow was quivering in each body. "one blaze of musketry. How many. (plural these." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. latter.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking." "Then we wandered for many days." "I have lost one brother. every village." "a dozen volunteers. no.²THACKERAY. former.

they are changed to adjectives.²WORDSWORTH. FRANKLIN.. They are of two kinds. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. 149. I verily believe. but in the one case.²GOLDSMITH. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. skill which was at pause. tell how many things are meant.²ID.²BANCROFT.²KINGSLEY. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. of equal skill. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Definition. Modify names of persons or things. skill which was progressive²in the other. As has been said. Exercise. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. Indefinite relative adjectives.²RUSKIN. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. In which evil strait Mr. for example.²D.but all these charms are fled. just as the corresponding pronouns do. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²BULWER. . These do not. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. like the other numerals.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. but. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. WEBSTER. Oxenham fought desperately.²ID. These were thy charms.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. The taking of which bark. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be."²B.. The silver and laughing Xenil. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.² It matters not what rank he has.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. When we speak of the seventeenth century. ²CARLYLE. 147. what revenues or garnitures. 148.

150. New torments I behold. Adjective what in exclamations..² EMERSON. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.. whatsoever. which is selective among what is known.²RUSKIN. as it rather seemed. which. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whichsoever way I move. Examples of their use are.²ID. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. Whatsoever kind of man he is.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.²LAMB. and gaze. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. it is impossible to determine. what inquires about things or persons not known. In direct questions. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. you at least give him full authority over your son. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whichever. nature will be sure to bear us out in. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. proved not altogether displeasing to him. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.And whichsoever way I turn. the debt to the rich. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.²CARLYLE. and new tormentedAround me. Was there. He was turned before long into all the universe. In indirect questions.²AGASSIZ. 151. whichsoever. But when the Trojan war comes. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.²IRVING. whatever. As in the pronouns. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. A lady once remarked. . or whether any.

²but not the same degree. or size. etc. History of this²these and that²those. Exercise. or amount.Adjectives have two inflections. It is neither relative nor interrogative. The article that was used with neuter nouns. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. Meaning of comparison. weight. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.² Oh. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. That. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. NUMBER. . But this had also another plural.. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. 154.152. of the quality. and when we compare the objects. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. Thus. In exclamatory expressions. or weight. as. color. This is the old demonstrative. COMPARISON. gold is heavier than iron. etc. and those as the plural of that. we do so by means of their qualities. 155. All these have certain qualities.²This. And yet. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. those). which was fully inflected in Old English. we notice some differences between them as to size. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. When we place two objects side by side. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. Those borrowed from this. the making of it right. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. alas. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. th s (modern those). 153 .²number and comparison.

and the superlative. with less wit. blue. 159. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. Substitute for inflection in comparison. immemorial. redder. as." "the largest soul. So with the words sole. and the superlative by adding -est. easiest." "It is a nobler valor. sufficient. "more matter. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. giant-like. they are not compared." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. bluest. "untamed thought. easy. strictly considered. 157. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. but. These are properly the only degrees. 160.²SEWARD. infinite. A main difference betwixt men is. bluer. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 156." Words that cannot be compared. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them." "no fewer than a hundred.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. easier.²THACKERAY. These are called degrees of comparison.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. expressing a greater degree of quality." "the commonest speech. indomitable. though the simple. reddest. The two forms. organic. but were not common until a century later. to the simple form. and many others. 158. universal institution.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. enormous. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. for example. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. The comparative is formed by adding -er. supreme. Definition. as. expressing the greatest degree of quality. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. whether they attend their own affair or not. indefatigable. . whose favorite pupil he was. or amounts in quantity. great. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. Freedom is a perpetual. red.

Which rule. most small." "more odd. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. "So help me God." "the wonderfulest little shoes. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. peaceablest. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning.²ID. witty." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. which hung behind in the queerest way. easy. harsh forms are usually avoided. admirablest. honestest. was most finished. The general rule is. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. and other words are preceded by more and most.²ID. falling on his knees. These are adjectives irregularly compared. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. I will. as. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. finest chiseling. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. These long. there needed to be a most genuine substance. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. etc. though born in no very high degree." "more austere and holy." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. Adjectives irregularly compared. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est." Carlyle uses beautifulest. 162. polished. mournfulest. and patientest fusing.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.² CARLYLE A gentleman. The following lists include the majority of them:² . indisputablest. who. quiet.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. and yet familiar." "distantest relationships." said Henry Esmond. 163. madam. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by." "sorrowfulest spectacles.²The Nation. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. strange.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative.

These have no adjective positive:² 1. 4. A double comparative. lesser. 9. is often used. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest.² O. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. worst. 5. Worser was once used. 2. bad. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. as in the sentence (14th century). outermost Utmost. evil was the positive to worse. furthest 10. . and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. The superlative I form was betst. though from a different root.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. utter 3. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. which has gone out of use. There was an old comparative bet. 7. 8. further Farthest.LIST I. uppermost LIST III. [Out] Outer. last Hindmost. oldest Nighest. older Nigher Nearer Later.²HAMLET. List I. a double comparative. as. Hind 2. innermost Outmost. least. 164. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). lesser Elder. (3) Little is used as positive to less. which has softened to the modern best. hindermost Much or many More Farther. 3. throw away the worser part of it. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. Good or well Evil. uttermost Upmost. next Nearest Latest. 1. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. latter Hinder LIST II. [In] Inner Inmost. 6. as in Shakespeare.² We have it in a much lesser degree. (2) In Old English.

next.. The form hindmost is really a double superlative.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. except the form next. an old superlative ending. The meanings greater. muchel. a distinction has grown up between the two series. to which is added -ost. is quite common. farrest. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. near. doubling the inflection. moche. and the superlative nearest. meaning the largest part. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. etc. In imitation of further. further. to England we sailed. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. farthest. strenger. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. or series. but originally the comparison was nigh. greatest.²forth. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. furthest. are shown in such phrases as..²ID. eldest. "Many a little makes a mickle. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. Since later. List II. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. much. there is scarcely any distinction. as long. . ²LAMB." Its spelling has been micel. etc. and refer to time.²KINGSLEY. since the m is for -ma. as. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. Between the two sets as they now stand. but not in meaning. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. First became entirely detached from the series. The latter. latest. th came into the others. are earlier than older. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. first. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. strong. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. The most part kept a stolid indifference. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. great. instead of lenger. latter and last are used in speaking of succession.² The more part being of one mind. (5) The forms elder. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. for example.²HAWTHORNE. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. the old forms. oldest. came into use. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. making the modern farther.

165." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. Highest and midmost. and have no comparative force. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. The comparatives are so in form. on the very topmost twig. or each may modify a different word or group of words. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. The adjectives in List III.²H. but her after deck was still dry. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Decidedly handsome. W. all may belong to the same noun. In List II. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN." "The outer is of the day. BEECHER.²DE QUINCEY. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink.²EMERSON. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. 166. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. . 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.²SCOTT. Think what each adjective belongs to.²HAWTHORNE. by the by. are like the comparative forms in List II. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. There.²KINGSLEY. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "their utmost exertion." -Most added to other words. They have no superlatives. but not in their meaning. 168. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 167. the upper light of the world. but they have no adjective positives." "the innermost moral soul. (Sec. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove.²DE QUINCEY. being merely descriptive. Her. in having no adjective positives. Her bows were deep in the water. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. or have no comparative forms." "far-seeing as the sun. List III.

STOWE. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. and heaven-defying oaths. now our queen. Other instances are. rich. as. in this sentence. philosophical. Bradbury and Evans. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. our new government. Richard Hooker. A few improper jests and a volley of good. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. 4. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²HAWTHORNE. bright.² My then favorite. 169. in prose. In the following quotations. Exercise.²TRENCH. round. and moral truth.²A. Whenever that look appeared in her wild.²HOLMES. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. deeply black eyes. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 2.For example.²BIBLE. H. we may say "the then king.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. It may still be argued. STEPHENS 5. solid." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.²HAWTHORNE. 3. not decision alone. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. deep. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. . 6.²RUSKIN. usual modifies incomparable decision. the then and still owners. therefore. But in this sentence. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. For thy stomach's sake. The seldom use of it. ²TROLLOPE. satisfactory.²NOAH PORTER. May we not. "the one who was then king. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. instead of saying.²MRS." making then an adjective. and broken. and thine often infirmities. By a convenient brevity. Our sometime sister. This." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. 7." in which then is an adverb. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.

The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. with awkward but rapid pace. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. MODEL FOR PARSING. (3) Its degree of comparison. 4. To every several man. This gave the young people entire freedom. having a singular. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. 2. In parsing an adjective. seventy-five drachmas. across the plain. 5. and most astounding were those frightful yells. or case. She made no reply. modifies the word truths. I ask nothing of you. compared by prefixing more and most. Exercise. modifies truths. 170. 10. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. (2) Its number. To every Roman citizen he gives. plural number. the method of parsing is simple. manly way. this. 6. 9. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. and very few have number. These points out what truths. 8. then. frank. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. cannot be compared. therefore descriptive. if it has number. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. Since adjectives have no gender. therefore demonstrative. 7. not inflected for number. person. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. and I waited for none. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs.What to tell in parsing. if it can be compared. Unfamiliar describes truths. . (4) What word or words it modifies. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. positive degree. 3. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way.

you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. those dogs in the yard. With every third step. 21. during which time I waited. 32. Like most gifted men. 16. 27. oxen. 29. and therefore more interesting to us. and dogs. the tomahawk fell. suggests such thoughts as these. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Two hours elapsed. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. it is so noble a fruit. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. not so much for travelers that were few. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. In music especially. 19. as for armies that were too many by half. 14. is the settlement of our own country. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. are immutably fishes. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. it rests on reality. 22. To say what good of fashion we can. 28. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. and many poles supported the lower ones. I know not what course others may take. 33. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 20. 12. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Their name was the last word upon his lips. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. Nearer to our own times. 13. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. he won affections with ease.11. 24. 23. growing in the most unfavorable position. 25. Here lay two great roads. 26. yonder oxen in the pasture. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. . The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 31. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 18. the same love to France would have been nurtured.

because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. 172. . sometimes the tother. Two relics. An or a came from the old numeral n. 171. A hard-struggling." the words the and an belong to nouns. later th .²SCOTT. In Middle English the became an article." "an honor. for example." "a European." An with consonant sounds. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. just as adjectives do.²MACAULAY. Many writers use an before h. Our expressions the one.²BREWER. 173. the other. Examples: "a house. weary-hearted man was he. An before vowel sounds. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. these occurring as the tane. In the sentence. a before consonant sounds. the tother." "a yelling crowd. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. An historian. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. 174.34. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. the tither. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . 37. ARTICLES.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. or the tane. were formerly that one. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. s o. ðat. 35. that other. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road." "an orange. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. the tother. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. he is no literary man. meaning one. and a before consonant sounds. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. the latter is still preserved in the expression. with an ordinary little garden. th o. in vulgar English. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. that) which was also an article in Old English. even when not silent. Their origin. such as we have been attempting to describe. but the former is used.

the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. a person is introduced by a. doubtless. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. Definition.²G. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. To call attention to attributes. or class. NOTE.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business.²This use is noticed when.² Don't you remember how. An or a is the indefinite article. as in the sentence. and when the word river is omitted. When the is prefixed to a proper name. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. not descriptive. With names of rivers.² .²THOMAS JEFFERSON. The is the definite article. Articles are either definite or indefinite.. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. 175.²HEROES OF ASGARD. or group. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. An article is a limiting word. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of." "the Ohio.. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.²IRVING. Kinds. the older n. which cannot be used alone. Reference to a known object. 176. 178. 177. since it points out a particular individual. BANCROFT. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. as "the Mississippi. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. on opening a story. An and a are different forms of the same word. or any individual of a group or class. An hereditary tenure of these offices.. The Dakota tribes. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.²COLERIDGE. 179. thus. or a group or class of things. is referred to." the article indicates clearly that a river.²THACKERAY. and not a state or other geographical division.

Kant. or a match put between the fingers.²EMERSON. NOTE. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. for example. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. The. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. 181. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 2. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. If the good is there.² The faint.²EMERSON. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. The simple rise as by specific levity. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. the Hume. the gallant.²KINGSLEY. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. Schelling. With adjectives used as nouns.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. would speedily extract the required information. Caution. One thing for its class. laid it on the miry spot. With plural of abstract nouns. etc.The Bacon. For possessive person pronouns.²ID. so is the evil.²MOTLEY. 183.²ID. her. the song sparrow. Half abstract. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. BANCROFT.²G. as. and the redwing. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. . Common. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. His messages to the provincial authorities. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. 180. 1. the Spinoza. not into a particular virtue.²SCOTT. but into the region of all the virtues. 182.²GIBBON. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.² As she hesitated to pass on.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. etc. taking the staff which always guided her steps. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. and a preposition unite as a verb. the word following. for example. we consider a verb as one word. and. in (2. Each influences some object. a noun. "Put money in thy purse. 201. The nature of intransitive verbs. representing something which it influences or controls. all do not express it in the same way. in (3. an adverb." put is the predicate. In the first. Has takes the object hypocrisy. obeyed is a predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. and shame the most astute. and not a verb. in (c). The nature of the transitive verb. an article. c).²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. and to receive the action expressed. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. lone took what? answer. in (3. in (b). a preposition. 204. or a material thing. By examining a few verbs. the most penetrating. can deceive has an object. All these are called transitive verbs. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. in (2. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. but fearing is not a predicate. b). with some word understood. In each case. b). in this sentence from Bulwer." Examine the sentences in Sec. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. endured what? anguish. a verb. but cannot be predicates. A verb is a word used as a predicate. which may be a person.²BULWER . hence is not a verb. In the sentence. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. "Put thou money in thy purse. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. to say something to or about some person or thing. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. a). Now. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. (can) shame also has an object. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. 203.In (a). Definition and caution. as. Hence Definition. the most astute. from the Latin transire. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. or the object. or an idea. Of those expressing action. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. 202. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. to go is no predicate. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. In giving a definition. which means to go over. 200: In (1). care.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

the first great founder of the Empire.²MACAULAY.²BRYCE. Again. Most excellent stranger.²D. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. Unreal²cannot be true. the writer can make the statement following. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. as. WEBSTER.² Now. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.²LONGFELLOW. 222. Ideal.I could lie down like a tired child. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. 2). STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.²SHELLEY. the representative system ultimately fail. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. I. for example. the second founder. ²EMERSON.² If. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. 215. they were recorded in the Book of Life.²FRANKLIN. popular government must be pronounced impossible. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. 221. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. and may or may not be regarded true. he will see the need of these ethics.²may or may not be true. . the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. as. If this be the glory of Julius. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. Condition or Supposition. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. in our case. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. or be fulfilled. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. but.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].

²CALHOUN..² It was necessary. 6. that he might be strong to labor. society could not hold together. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. since he [Byron] was dead. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. 2.²FRANKLIN.²EMERSON.²BAYNE. ²LOWELL.. as. would have sat still with joy and peace. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²N. do you think. especially be. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. would you. P. .²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. The voice. might. 3. II. that we cannot but regret its absence. though. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. to drink strong beer. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. etc. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 223. The subjunctive. clear. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.²MACAULAY.²FRANKLIN." etc. she was regarded as a prodigy. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. if he speak to you. and sonorous. I told him. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. Epaminondas. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. he supposed. 4. thus.²SWIFT. is of similar physiognomy. Subjunctive of Purpose. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. unless. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.. but when the verb precedes the subject. and should. he had better not have written. may. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. 7. and striven energetically to save Ney. 8. WILLIS.² CARLYLE.² If these things were true. But in no case could it be justified. melodious. except. and what kind of condition:² 1. 5. is used to express purpose. NOTE. In the following conditional clauses. Exercise. if his lot had been mine. the clause being introduced by that or lest.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. if he was the man I take him for.. If he had reason to dislike him. which cannot be true.

that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²DE QUINCEY.²D. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. the answer being regarded as doubtful. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. none of us could say. Let it rise. 227. IV. Rise up. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²BRYANT. Expressing a Wish. In Indirect Questions. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.. 226.²SOUTHEY.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.And we..²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. WEBSTER. So live.²COLERIDGE. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.²WORDSWORTH. I've wished that little isle had wings.Thou go not.²ID. VI.. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. I would it were! ²EMERSON. 224. like the Latin.I have been the more particular. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. like the quarry-slave at night. In Temporal Clauses. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. till it meet the sun in his coming. .²MOORE. To tell of what had passed. The English subjunctive.²CARLYLE.. In a Noun Clause. within its fairy bowers. Ask the great man if there be none greater. Subjunctive of Result. III.That vain it were her eyes to close. 225.Were wafted off to seas unknown. VII. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. After a verb of wishing. V.

And look thou tell me true. That hunger of applause.²SCOTT. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. I have no thought what men they be.²COLERIDGE. The first merit. is. Concessive Clauses.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. that everything be in its place.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. object. (b) Adjective. 229.²TENNYSON. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.² DICKENS. VIII. Whatever betide. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.² Be the matter how it may. Object. 228. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.And see the Braes of Yarrow. After verbs of commanding. etc. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.Subject. tell me all that thou hast seen. is the ultimate fact of man's life.. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. .²THOREAU. which may be (a) Pronoun. we'll turn aside. in its various uses as subject. of cash.²CARLYLE. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²COLERIDGE. Some might lament that I were cold. often contains a subjunctive.²DE QUINCEY. Come. The noun clause. in apposition. The essence of originality is not that it be new.²WORDSWORTH. for example. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.²SHELLEY. or whatsoever victual it may be. Complement.

however. ADAMS.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. or requests. Usually second person. fear none.²BRYANT. Oh.²CHANNING.²J. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. 231. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. point to their immortal works. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. It must be remembered. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.The spirit he loves remains. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. (1) Command. though. and condition contrary to fact. we had found [should have found] a poem here.²SHELLEY. IMPERATIVE MOOD.² CARLYLE. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. (2) Entreaty. (3) Request. to express a wish. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Honor all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. love all men. At the present day. In spoken English. . 232. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.(c) Adverb. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. entreaties. for example. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. a concession. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. Definition. 230. Q.

Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart.²SHAKESPEARE. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID." whispered Kit. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.And. child of earth!While each performs his part. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. to you implied in it. lest we rust in ease.²CAMPBELL. nothing is to be preferred before justice. 7. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Oh. Mark thou this difference.One glance at their array! 5. there will her heart and her prayers be. 6."²DICKENS Tell me. 8." Exercises on the Moods. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. "The Devil take the goose. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. request. Part we in friendship from your land.And God forget the stranger!" . "Come along with me. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. etc. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. or I + they. Whatever inconvenience ensue. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry..²SCOTT. etc. Break we our watch up. 3. 2.."Hush! mother. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. but I + you. noble earl. receive my hand. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Quoth she. Sometimes with first person in the plural." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.

13. "tell me where I may find my poor. He is. 23. whether he do it right or wrong. 11. 19. how he may do his work.Except. it would speak. Well. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. 18. and opinion displace opinion. 26. That a man parade his doubt. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. as though an instrument. Think not that I speak for your sakes. .High up in silver spikes! 22." 25. then.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Though abyss open under abyss. Though he were dumb. Forget thyself to marble. no literary man. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. Marshall.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. she ought to have it. That sheaf of darts. He.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner." 16.That they might answer him.9. in what pomps and prosperities he like." continued Old Morgan. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. 21. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. or do it at all. will it not fall unbound. "Oh. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. "Mr. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree." cried he. ruined. 20. 10. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 14. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. my dear madam. but repentant child. let him live where else he like. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.

five in the subjunctive. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. and the future tense." . Meantime. or whether it were as one member of a general party. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. 28. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. and future perfect tenses. will. or future time.²the present tense. as the classical languages have. to direct his steps. shall. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. or agree with it. past perfect." "If he comes. Definition. 233. "I go away tomorrow. Tenses in English. The tenses in detail. When the older pronoun thou was in use. as. "Thou walkedst. also. as will be shown later on. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. Siddons. kind. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. called auxiliaries. Tense means time. the past. tell him to wait. "Thou walkest.27. in the conjugations. 234. by means of the present. TENSE. and the past tense. PERSON AND NUMBER.² present. 235. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. in the third person singular. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. such as Latin and Greek. as." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. five in the imperative. have. past. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. past. "It is not in man that walketh. whatever she did." present.²nothing could exceed the amiable. a form ending in -eth.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. Old English had only two tenses. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. which represented present and future time. such as be." past. and future.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages.

PRESENT TENSE. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. wert) 3. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. walked. Indicative Mood. etc. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. chosest). walketh. 236. 238. and numbers. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. been. singular number. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast.²choose. were. Singular 1. chosen (old. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. walk has walk. walks. choosing. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. CONJUGATION. tense. PRESENT TENSE. mood. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. In classical languages. Singular 1.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. as. This is the third person. The verb be has more forms. Singular 1. but in English. moods. persons. 237. chooses. You are 2. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb." and this only in the present tense indicative. are. for example. Few forms. Definition. [He] is [They] are 3. [He] were [They] were .²am. Singular 1. etc. is. tenses. choosest. chose. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. I be 2. walkedst. "He walks. I were 2. since it is composed of several different roots. Such verbs as choose have five. walking. You (thou) be 3. chooseth.

thus.Imperative Mood. (d) With the infinitive.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. as. 239. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. etc.²THACKERAY. is. obligation. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.His infancy was nurtured.. (3) be. though it is usually a dialect form.²SCOTT. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.²SHELLEY. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. in four ways.²BURKE . to express intention. condition. 240.²GOLDSMITH. were.²ID. -en. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. to form the passive voice. same as the German sind. which was now become an occasional banquet.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.²WORDSWORTH.. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. (2) was. Remarks on the verb be. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. etc. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (b) With the past participle in -ed. The light that never was on sea and land. Instead of the plural are. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. for example. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. (2) As auxiliary verbs.

I chose 2. Machinery of a verb in the voices. You chose Plural." (2) Present perfect. 242." "He will choose. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. Indicative Mood. 1. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. 1. tenses. Singular. 1. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. as. "I have gone" (present perfect). "I shall be. tenses. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. etc. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. Singular. 1. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). had. [He] choose [They] choose 3. You choose Plural. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. We chose You chose 3. (2). as. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. future perfect. We chose You chose 3.241. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. past perfect. PRESENT TENSE. Singular. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. "I had gone" (past perfect). In addition to the above inflected forms. I choose 2. You chose Plural. PRESENT TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. I choose 2. 240. by placing have. I chose 2. Singular. .

Present perfect. " " " " " " " he be choosing. as. Only the third person. Same as indicative. Future perfect definite. ACTIVE VOICE. [If. he have chosen. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. of each tense. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Indicative Mood." 243. Past perfect. Present definite. (2d per. "I was chosen. He chose. He has chosen. He chooses. Future definite." "You are chosen.] he choose. He had chosen. singular number. Present perfect.(3) The definite form of each tense. as. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. He will have chosen. He was choosing. Future." "They had been running. though. Same as indicative. Past. "I am running. . Present definite. Present perfect definite. He will have been choosing. Present definite.) Choose. Future perfect. " Be choosing. He has been choosing. Imperative Mood. He will choose." (4) The passive forms. He is choosing. Past perfect definite. lest. Present. etc. Past. Present. He will he choosing. he have been choosing. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. he chose (or were to choose). will be given. Present. Past definite. Past definite. He had been choosing. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect definite.

" [Note to Teacher. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. etc. they will be discussed later (Sec. he had been chosen.] [If. Past perfect definite. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. He is being chosen. Imperative Mood. Present definite. He is chosen. as. Present perfect definite. " " " " " " " None. He was being chosen. Indicative Mood. Past definite. None. though. 262). PASSIVE VOICE.NOTE. Present perfect definite. Past Perfect. Future perfect.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Past definite. Future. He had been chosen. Past perfect definite. if learned at all. but verbals. he have been chosen. (2d per. Present perfect. Present. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Past. Present perfect. Present tense.) Be chosen. Exercises should be given. Future perfect definite. Present.] he be chosen. Future definite. he were being chosen. lest. He will be chosen. Present definite. Past. He will have been chosen. Subjunctive Mood. in affirmative sentences.. "He does strike. None. Also. Past perfect. None. He has been chosen. None. None." "He did strike.²This table is not to be learned now. He was chosen. however. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. .

244. Definition. run. drove. Past Tense. and may or may not change the vowel: as. sleep. 245. laid. slept. but adds no ending. beg. Kinds. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. begged. drive. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. bit blown broken chidden. ran. bounden] bitten. According to form.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. bid bound. catch. as. NOTE. verbs are strong or weak. lay. Some of these also have weak forms. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . which are in parentheses Present Tense. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle.[adj. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. caught. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS.

drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound .sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang.

instead of ate and eaten. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. cleaved.²B. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. as (from Holmes). Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. but is much used in vulgar English.²MILTON. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. The former used to be cleave.²as (from Shakespeare). Not a cock crew.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. for example." "a drunken wretch. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. especially in that of an earlier period.² Thou hast clomb aloft. borne is also a passive. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). nor a dog barked.²COLERIDGE. and sometimes occurs in poetry. TAYLOR.²IRVING." "the cloven hoof. Our cock."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. only one set remains certain. cleft. the other. and another (born) for the passive. clave or clove. When it means to carry or to endure. ²THACKERAY. now told us it was time for repose.²cleave. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. as. . The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. as. The form clomb is not used in prose. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. cleft (to split). 246. which always crew at eleven. as.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. "his bounden duty." "a sunken snag. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). Sometimes in literary English.²TENNYSON." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. probably to avoid confusion with this. "stricken with paralysis." In this confusion of usage.²GOLDSMITH. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. and the latter.² We had each drank three times at the well. cleaved. cleave. to split. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. and. cloven. Historically.²one meaning to adhere or cling.

drove. (a) From the table (Sec. as "a shorn lamb. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.² We had all got safe on shore. begun. fell.²BYRON. This heard Geraint. He sate him down. as.² If. and grasping at his sword. One example out of many is. maiden. Exercises. gave. Freeze. Begin. Throw. Shake. for example. Drive. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Usually shear is a weak verb. shaken.²SCOTT."²KINGSLEY. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense." but not much as a participle. Find. for example. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. 3. 6.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. broke. 5. and seized a pen. flung. shook. froze. shore is rare.²DE FOE." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. driven. 4. frozen. broken.The form gotten is little used. which is seldom used except in poetry.²TENNYSON. found. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. The butler was hanged. began. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. 7.²BIBLE.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. fallen. Break. given. flung. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. Fall. 10. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. threw. found. 8. thrown. 2. 245). Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective.²WORDSWORTH. Give. We usually say. even in poetry. . 9. Fling.

etc... 250.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. Could may be subjunctive. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. purpose. but came through analogy with should and would. Must is historically a past-tense form. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. as. (See also Sec. . The same remarks apply to ought. for full drill on the forms. The l in could did not belong there originally. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. etc.. according to the infinitive used. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. as it sometimes does. must have been an ocular deception. from the obsolete verb motan. PRESENT. Like must.[To the Teacher. PAST.²HAWTHORNE. His superiority none might question. Can is used in the indicative only. "far off his coming shines. It is indicative when it expresses permission.²PAINE."²WINIER. or. 223. which survives in the sentence. Ability. it is used only in the indicative mood. ability. They are as follows:² PRESENT. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. "So mote it be.²SCOTT.²CHANNING This. HAMILTON.. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. or when it expresses wish..) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. Subjunctive use. 249. of course. Indicative Use: Permission. 247.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. PAST. there is one general principle.²CHANNING. 251. Have we valuable territories and important posts. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise." Must is present or past tense. 220. as in Sec. as it has two meanings. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.

How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.² (a) To express authority.²L. Shall and Will. in the form of command. to the neglect of shall and should. to use will and would.²MACAULAY. MOULTON. She rejects his suit with scorn. (b) In questions asking for orders. shall and should are used. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²LONGFELLOW.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. while ought always has to.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. 252.²BULWER. especially in the United States.e. my lad. she should ride like a queen. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. as. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. BROCKDEN BROWN. future action).²COOPER.²IRVING. WEBSTER. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.. or confident prediction. with pronouns of the first person. I shall be gone. The sea shall crush thee. C. yea. Second and third persons. promise. . and corn to hoe. She should not walk." Uses of shall and should. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. for example.Nay. as. They shall have venison to eat. shall and should are used.² The time will come full soon.²THAXTER. what shall I say?²N. not plod along like apeasant. as. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. (b) In indirect quotations. "I think I will go. The following are examples:² Never mind. he said. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.² With respect to novels.² Futurity and questions²first person.

(1) With the FIRST PERSON. . when the answer expected would express simple futurity. (c) With direct questions of the second person. second and third persons. 253.²ROGERS.. Disguising a command.²CABLE.²A.²WORDSWORTH.²SCOTT.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. I never was what I should be. and will not return until all is finished. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²SWIFT. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. B..²WINTER. and is equivalent to ought. for example. JAMES. And promised..²C.that I would do him justice. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²H.²WORDSWORTH. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. for example. purpose. with the conviction that he should win in the end. or a promise.²BYRON. was to be expected. BROWN. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. etc. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.² I will go myself now. as. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. as the sole inventor. time.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.²WORDSWORTH. LARNED. thus. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. JR. First.

²War Records. This puts the order more mildly. BROWN. for punishment or intimidation. etc. Mere futurity. without regard to future time.²LANDOR. and two of my people. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²SCOTT. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. as if it were merely expected action. 254. as. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. SECOND. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. will is used to express command. as.² DICKENS.²IRVING. for example. . action merely expected to occur. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).²the original meaning of the word will. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. PASSIVE VOICE.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt... and mark on the grounds the works.. so you will. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. Would thou hadst it not. would is used to express a wish. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. when thou wast born.² Thou wilt take the skiff.. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. When I am in town. through storms their brothers are afraid of. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. The gift of Beauty. for example. will and would often denote an action as customary.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. They will go to Sunday schools. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. In this stately chair would he sit.²BANCROFT. AND THIRD PERSONS. (4) With FIRST.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. will and would are used to express simple futurity. B..²BURKE. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. To be sure. Roland..²SCOTT.² Subject I omitted: often so. Thine was a dangerous gift.

(b) Examine the following sentences. I shall be chosen. yet only seem. 3. PASSIVE VOICE. We will choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 3. promise. [They] will be chosen. 2. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 3. [They] shall choose. Singular. You shall choose. and justify the use of shall and will. 1. Plural. 3. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. We shall be chosen. Thou art what I would be. Plural. [He] will be chosen. You will be chosen. He informed us. 252 and 253. You shall choose. [He] shall choose.Singular. Singular. I shall choose. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 4. (a) From Secs. You shall be chosen. Plural. You shall be chosen." answered Herbert stubbornly. [He] shall be chosen. We will be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. "I shall not run. 1. You will choose. To express determination. We shall choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE. Plural. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 3. 5. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. [They] shall be chosen. and that of the newest cut. etc. . I will be chosen. 6. 1. [He] will choose. 2. Singular. I will choose. 2. You will be chosen. 3. 2. 2. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 2. [They] will choose. 1. You will choose.

Irregular Weak Verbs. set. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. or mylk and wastel breed. very anxious. 255.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. which may be called irregular weak verbs. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.7. need some attention and explanation. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. 9. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. Present Tense. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. put. my son. 256. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. WEAK VERBS. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set." the stranger said. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. as. Without having attended to this. bereave besought Past Participle. bereave beseech bereft. 10. was -de or -te. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. bereaved besought . "I am a wayfarer. Past Tense. set.²Class I. as if he would have more of the enchantment. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. and I have nothing to say.²CHAUCER. No. 11. This ending has now dropped off. bereft. and have no change of vowel. put. then. Of smale houndes hadde she.²ID. 13. put. The beast made a sluggish movement. 12. But the rest. Lucy stood still. 257. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics." 14. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. The old ending to verbs of Class II.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.

spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leant leaped. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

to express action unconnected with a subject. In Sec. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. [To] be choosing. formed a kind of bedstead. When active. [To] have been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. But later. [To] choose. Perfect. 10. when inflections became fewer. [To] have chosen. Nothing of the kind having been done. ACTIVE VOICE.. try clemency. I returned to reflection on my situation. will (with should and would). 8. and when passive. 9. Indefinite. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Infinitives. an indefinite and a perfect form. Imperfect. [To] be chosen. Cases when to is omitted. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. To with the infinitive.. have no tense. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). 7.6. 266. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system.. like participles. Indefinite. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. as in the Old English. . It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. and a perfect definite form. they have an indefinite. to was used before the infinitive generally. Perfect definite. 268. Three saplings. INFINITIVES. a perfect. Perfect. an imperfect. expressing purpose. 267. [To] have been choosing. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE.²the creature warring against the creating power.

Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. E. too. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. "a house to let. 270. make. do (as. 272. it is often preceded by the definite article. as. it has several attributes of a noun. or the object of a verb or a preposition. also let. can (could).²COOPER. watch. 271. as the credulous imagine. hear. negative.² She was a kind.² What! doth she. 269. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.²TENNYSON. learn [doth learn is one verb. it may be the subject of a verb. and corn to hoe. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. as. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. also in the imperative. must. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. GERUNDS." etc. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.(2) After the verbs may (might). "He will choose. and emphatic forms of the present and past. liberal woman. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay.²E. as.²GOLDSMITH. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.²IRVING.²it may be governed as a noun.²MACAULAY. under "Analysis. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. see." "I shall have chosen. poor woman!" cried Charles. The gerund is like the participle in form. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. But there was nothing to do. and like a noun in use. "She ask my pardon.. sometimes need (as. feel. bid (command). . "He need not go") and dare (to venture). please. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative." (4) In exclamations.²HOWELLS." Examples are. "I do go" etc. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. HALE. They shall have venison to eat. as in the expression. While the gerund expresses action.²DE QUINCEY.).

in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. (5) Gerunds. but do not assert. after examining the nest. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun." also (2. according to use as well as meaning." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. b). II). and wonderful store of learning! ." "Certainly dueling is bad. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. which express action. above. (4) Pure adjectives. 2.²Find sentences containing five participles. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." Exercise. Exercise. making the definite tenses. brilliant. which express action. five infinitives. and five gerunds. Words in -ing are of six kinds. What a vast. (6) Verbal nouns. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. 273. Then how pleasing is it. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. which have lost all verbal force. to see the returning hope of the parents. (2) Pure participles. which express action and also modify. when. may govern and be governed. 4. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. (3) Participial adjectives. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. which name an action or state. but cannot govern. on your leaving the spot. and has been put down. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. Sec.

13.²indicative. The only means of ascending was by my hands. write twenty pages without stopping. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. (b) as to use. 16. slowly. (5) Person and number. (3) Mood.²transitive or intransitive. dictating from his chair.²strong or weak. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 9. 6. Caution.²active or passive. round which is an iron railing. 14. much corroded. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. like Sir Walter Scott. but. He spread his blessings all over the land. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. (4) Tense.5. In parsing verbs. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 12. subjunctive. 10. by object lessons. 7. 275. 234. you must. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. he gave out sentence by sentence. 15. VERBS. I suppose I was dreaming about it. give reality to your teaching. bearing her national emblem. (2) Voice. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. I. or imperative. . Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 11. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow.²which of the tenses given in Sec. giving principal parts. Thackeray did not. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. What is dreaming? 8.

2. intransitive. Especially frequent are those made up of should. 273). 4. and ends in -s. can. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. has the subject government. and not taken as single verbs. (b) whether indefinite. 2. definite. VERB PHRASES. has for its subject Lee. If a participial adjective. till it meet the sun in his coming. Have been is a perfect active infinitive.. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. followed by a pure infinitive without to. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. etc. must. etc. intransitive. perfect. and should always be analyzed as phrases. might. (2) Infinitive.276. in the world. may. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. no sin nor sorrow. give points (a) and (b). (1) Participle. past tense. It has been intimated in Sec. 235. (c) to what word it belongs. You are gathered to your fathers. (b) its use (Sec. The government might have been strong and prosperous. In 2. perfect. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. past tense. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. could. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. see Sec. verbals. usually it does not. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. indicative. therefore active. (a) From what verb derived. VERBALS. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. imperfect. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. 278(2). But unless the verb is present. we must beware of the rule. In such sentences as 1. would. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Let it rise! let it rise. Exercise. Take these examples:² 1. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. 278. active. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 3. (3) Gerund. II. indicative (as it means could). . III. (b) whether active or passive. 277. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. call should a weak verb. Parse the verbs. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. then parse it as an adjective. call might a weak verb. and parting day linger and play on its summit." Sometimes it does.

16. In going for water. The soul having been often born. 10. and wondered if she were yet awake. 12.Henceforth in me instill. a new bursting forth of the sun. However that be. 13. or. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. as rolled from wing to wing. 20. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts.5. 24. 6. from a sort of temporary death.O God. 11. he thought only of her. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 9. a deafening shout. So. 18. 19. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. When he arose in the morning. as usual. 17. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. He passed across the room to the washstand. 8.Down all the line. 21. as the Hindoos say. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. . Read this Declaration at the head of the army. Right graciously he smiled on us. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. see that it is in good condition. 14. 15. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. Whatever ground you sow or plant. morning is not a new issuing of light. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 22. a new waking up of all that has life. With them. a sweet good will. 23. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. leaving me upon the bed.

who live with nature?²ID." An adjective or an adverb.25. to consent. "William's private life was severely pure. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. as. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. 26. and limit adjectives or adverbs. 27.Feast while we may. place. and live ere life be spent.²time. When action is expressed. thou sayest." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. for example. A verb. and so on.²EMERSON. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. . Nor was it altogether nothing. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4." "He was absolute. or manner: as. they are more himself than he is. and men of leisure and cultivation."²DE QUINCEY. 29. Adverbs modify.²THACKERAY. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. The word adverb means joined to a verb. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. To the almost terror of the persons present. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.²CARLYLE. Oh. ADVERBS. for the hour of rest is at hand. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. because. Is it only poets.² The young man reveres men of genius. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Better it were. 279. to speak truly.²SHELLEY. And now wend we to yonder fountain." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly.

perhaps. 169. as. for example.²TROLLOPE.He was incidentally news dealer. has induced some of us to attend it.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.²THOREAU. Make music to the lonely ear.²BYRON. B. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. ever.² FRANKLIN. hitherto. as now. and half awfully. as shown in the sentences. not simply the forms used in predication.²These last differ from the words in Sec.²LEIGH HUNT. but really modifying.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. 169 are felt to be elliptical. I draw forth the fruit. before. Definition. Thus considered. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. all wet and glossy. there are six classes:² (1) Time. which may qualify an action word or a statement. It may also modify a sentence. not the noun. A clause or sentence.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. Surely happiness is reflective. NOTE. ALDRICH. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. ²IRVING. while those in Sec. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. etc. 281. then. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. A phrase. . 280. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. to-day.² LOWELL. but still with a rich bloom to it. We are offered six months' credit. (2) according to their use in the sentence. lately. but some verb understood.²T. thus. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. and that. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. 282. An adverb. being adverbs naturally and fitly. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. is a modifying word. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. NOTE. like the light of heaven. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. or a word group used as such.

²BROWNING. The more they multiply. that these adverbs form a very large class. better.thence.²LECKY. Emerson. whencesoever.there. White. the more friends you will have. slightly... etc.where. as here. surely. greatly. This long's the text. or how far he believes it to be true.. for example. enough. (4) Number. [Sidenote The status of such. Thackeray. (see also Sec. the more perfect will be their obedience.which gained him such universal popularity. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. the more evidently they love liberty.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. and others. etc.yonder. singly. not. probably. partly. 283. as hence.near. I was. just.²HAWTHORNE.thither. maybe. telling how much.(2) Place. etc. possibly. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. . whithersoever. 283). (5) Degree. two by two. as well.. Motley. and not infrequently are found in literary English. etc. Meekness. as perhaps. So also in Grote. twice. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. at least. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. telling how anything is done. too.whence. above.² The master.²IRVING. as hither. slowly.whither.²DE QUINCEY.²SHAKESPEARE.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. thus. while so precedes only the adjective usually. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. as little. very. beautifully. (6) Assertion. bravely. etc. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. especially the comparative of these words.²R. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. (3) Manner.. LOUIS STEVENSON. much.was for this once of her opinion. telling how many times: once.²BURKE. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. etc.

for example. besides modifying. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Pretty is also used by Prescott." "The house.² KINGSLEY. "Peace.Pretty.²THACKERAY. Some adverbs. Aldrich.²"He walked too far [place].²THACKERAY." said the king. 285. a mighty fine gentleman. Burke. 286."²SCOTT. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. for example.²HAWTHORNE. Kingsley. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Interrogative. Beau Fielding. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. and its lawn before [place].² You are mighty courteous." "That were far better [degree]. It is only occasionally used in literary English.²FIELDING.²GOLDSMITH." "He spoke positively [manner]. Dickens. B. 282." "I have seen you before [time]. De Quincey. have the additional function of asking a question. and art but a fool. and other writers.² "Mighty well. A pretty large experience. Defoe.²BAYNE. Hard blows and hard money. Neville. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. STOWE.²BULWER. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Mighty. ." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Again. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Franklin. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Emerson. Notice meanings. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. 284. Direct questions. Simple. Holmes." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.

(2) Place. (5) Reason.²POE. (4) Degree.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²BYRON. I do not remember when I was taught to read. (4) Degree.²BYRON (3) Manner. I will not ask where thou liest low.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. they smiled. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. I know not why. . Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. 287.²BULWER. CLAY. WEBSTER. When did this humane custom begin?²H. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. (2) Place.²D. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. for example. I hearkened.

. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. sooner. Then must she keep it safelier. when compared. have the same inflection as adjectives. Form vs. use. as. high. Many adjectives have the same ending.) rather 289. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. 288. 290. Tell what each word in ly modifies.²COLERIDGE. further farthest. but the whole clause. when does not express time and modify. furthest (rathe. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. highest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.²BYRON. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. higher.. The following. soon. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. well much little far late Comparative. when. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Only that we may wiselier see. just as adjectives do.²TENNYSON.But in reality. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. and. see Sec." Exercise. For further discussion. only occasionally having -er and -est. Superlative. not an adverb. obs. soonest. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.²SHAKESPEARE.²EMERSON..eyes. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. representing four classes. irregularly compared. Its strings boldlier swept. Many adverbs are compared. Exercise.

5.²THACKERAY. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. 3. quick-flashing eye. as. nearly. 2. With his proud. And all about. near. 4. hardly. but with a different meaning. if it has the verb be. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. evenly. hard.²ID. Frequently the word there. 292.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face." Compare these:² 1. The reason is. more courtly in their manners.And his mien of kingly state.1. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries.²WORDSWORTH. whether adverbs or adjectives. But he must do his errand right. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Such are most.²TENNYSON. etc. even. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. curiously jolly. that in Old and Middle English. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. instead of being used adverbially. many words without -ly have the same form. 8. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. . 6. 2. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. mostly. 7. or down the leaves laughed through. Again. There are eyes. Not near so black as he was painted.² EMERSON. He is inexpressibly mean. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²CHAUCER. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. Special use of there.²IRVING. merely introduces a sentence. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. to be sure. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. It is true he was rarely heard to speak.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. kindly and good-natured in secret. 291.

12. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. burning in the center of the temple. 3. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. give² (1) The class. In parsing adverbs. 11. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. but continually shifted. 16. For the impracticable. the Madonna is in great glory. 2. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. (2) Degree of comparison. if the word is compared. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. is always politically unwise. but from my fall? 6. . 15. at the regular wine-shop. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. however theoretically enticing. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 10. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 5. 17. But a few steps farther on. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Thither we went. and always. 4. according to meaning and also use. It is the Cross that is first seen. 7. Exercise. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 18. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and sate down on the steps of a house. 9. 293. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS.

It was pretty bad after that. But now the wind rose again. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. 295. therefore. 20. connecting words. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. but side by side within the American Union. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Clauses. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. hence. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives.19. word groups. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. upon which the sun now shone forth. Definition." Paragraphs. 294. but the student will readily find them. 21. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. 22. sentences. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. A conjunction is a linking word. Unlike adverbs. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. or sentence groups." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States." Sentences. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. . (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. then. however. etc. CONJUNCTIONS. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. nor.

then.but (or but also). Adversative. Alternative... Some of these go in pairs.or.. as well as the room door. serves but to show their ignorance. neither. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. usually between two things... 298. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.. for. as and. The chief ones are. as.. hence.. answering to each other in the same sentence. while. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. Some go in threes.or whether... as. (4) ALTERNATIVE. and not man corn. not only. likewise." Nevertheless. Nor mark'd they less.. etc.. however. also. Correlatives. The assertion. They are or. (2) Subordinate. only. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.and. not only. . Your letter. however. the butter too. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. else.. whether. or the sea rolls its waves. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. yet.. as but. nor.. neither.. "Howbeit.or. the bread was spent. joining words. as well as. and. both.or.. either. etc.Classes of conjunctions. Causal. therefore. 296.but. nor. either.. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. etc.nor. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. either. introducing a reason or cause. moreover. still. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. (2) ADVERSATIVE... whether. expressing a choice. whether.. the window being open.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. of the same rank. (3) CAUSAL.. While the earth bears a plant. but is emperor in his own right. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. neither. had its weight. word groups.nor.or.. 297.

He is not only bold and vociferous. Time..the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. etc. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. whence. wherever. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. in apposition. until.. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. ²ALLSTON. lest. . there will the heart be also. etc. nor creeping thing. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.²IRVING. whether. howsoever. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. that. It is.. Neither the place in which he found himself. ere. whither. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. (7) RESULT: that. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. as. while. as. even if.²DE QUINCEY. so. in case. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. seeing. whereas. so that. nor wing of bird. nor green leaf. (6) PURPOSE: that. sometimes if. now. (2) TIME: when..²WILSON. whereto. except. since. however. especially that after so. whithersoever. before. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. etc.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.²BIBLE. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. though.²COOPER. in order that. 299. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place.²BURKE. provided. so. Where the treasure is. unless. provided that.²J. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. (3) MANNER: how. whenever.²PAULDING. as. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. nor echo. etc. object. so that. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. although. since. QUINCY. so. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. etc. on condition that.

²EMERSON. reason. Comparison.² WORDSWORTH. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.² H. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²EMERSON.²EMERSON. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Manner.² EMERSON. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²IRVING. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.²DEFOE. As a soldier. JACKSON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. a thousand bodies. . Let the world go how it will.²BURKE. We wish for a thousand heads. Condition.²AMES. Now he is dead. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. H.So I behold them not. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²AMES.²BYRON. not as they were expected or intended. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²COLERIDGE.² HAWTHORNE. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Result. I was again covered with water.That he gave her wounds repose. Then Denmark blest our chief. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Concession.²AMES. but not so long but I held it out. Purpose.That vain it were her eyes to close. Cause. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Substantive.²CAMPBELL.

While a faction is a minority. 9. and hid her there. After he was gone. etc. 14. that. 300. And they lived happily forever after. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. No one had yet caught his character. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. some words²for example. As will have been noticed. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. it will remain harmless. He was brought up for the church. while. 5. then. 13.²RUSKIN. And then recovering. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 7. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. They. as he shot in air. . However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. In what point of view. since. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. the wisest. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. the lady called her servant. however. 3. hold a subordinate rank. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. Exercises. as. 12. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. Besides. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 2. her real merit is known at home. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 6.Let us see whether the greatest. The moth fly. 10. she faintly pressed her hand. 15. 4. Crept under the leaf. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished.

the expression would be. So silently we seemed to speak. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.So slowly moved about.²BYRON. 301. they connect. In parsing conjunctions. As though. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. and be a bud again. 302. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. even as they would weep. etc. and the frame will suit the picture.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. In Emerson's sentence. for example. "We meet. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong." as. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.As though a rose should shut. GREELEY. His voice . none of the lashings having given way. expressing degree if taken separately.. As if. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. word groups. in this case. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. as is shown by the use of as though.Clouded. as is often equivalent to as if. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. and part as though we parted not. (2) What words. 304.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. thus. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner... SPECIAL REMARKS." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.16. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. 303. As for as if.²EMILY BRONTE. .² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. If analyzed.²IRVING.²HOOD. Consequently. In poetry.

hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.²I find them true in Concord. All the postulates of elfin annals. For example. 4." said his wife to Martin Luther. when. It may be safely trusted. he is also the correlative of nature. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery.²that the fairies do not like to be named. 9. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. so they paddled on. 3. that it might testify of that particular ray. in 2. so that expresses result.²is subordinate of condition. compare the sentences. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.² 1. others belong to several classes. dines with as good an appetite. and the like. and very seldom?" 8. 13. . they are not known. and its clause is independent. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. and its clause depends on the other. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. so means provided. "Doctor. and. or in the forest.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. as beside his own chimneys.Caution. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. At sea. so means therefore. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. in 3. the Sphinx was slain. Some conjunctions. 12. 2. 5. because. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. 6. If he could solve the riddle. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. He dismisses without notice his thought. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. In classifying them. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. so that I could not stir abroad.. etc. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. 10. It continued raining. he sleeps as warm. 11. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. He is the compend of time. Exercise. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. but of the natural.²DEFOE 2. and associates as happily. so it be faithfully imparted. are regularly of one particular class. When the gods come among men. or in the snow. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. 7. such as nor. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. because it is his.²EMERSON 3.

and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. that both were wayward. I rejoice to stand here no longer. Now you have the whip in your hand. 19. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. however. . therefore. 15. in many a heart. 18. you must be. It may be so in the majority of cases. 30. 20. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 23. 16. 21. she might have the family countenance. 22. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. whose names I omit.²else it is none. There was no iron to be seen. 27. 28. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. save it were sinful like herself. 305. when it was presented to them. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. I speak. enthroned. 29. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I never rested until I had a copy of the book.14. It is clear. 25. Still. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 24. 26. won't you lay on? 17. For. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. PREPOSITIONS. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. And whether consciously or not. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. Goodness must have some edge to it. of good novels only. the whole conditions are changed.. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. in this they agree.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at naught. STODDARD. at war. the first port made by the ship.² (1) The general meaning of place. . by the blessed memory of the departed. By.²ID. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. by means near or close to.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. as. At that time [the earth] was richer. At St. at length.²EVERETT. at one. at peace. at rest. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at least. She saw the boat headed for her. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at work. ²PARTON. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at any rate. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at once. (4) Measure of excess. Exercise. by many a million of acres. etc. Like at. at play. he stopped. at first. By my faith. at all.²WARNER. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Richard was standing by the window. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. CONWAY.²SWIFT. H.. etc.²ALDRICH. 321.²COOPER. TAYLOR The angel came by night. D.²DE QUINCEY. at the worst. (3) Agency or means.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.²M. by the wrecks of time. at the best. For.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. (2) Time. Helena. by the ruins of nations.²B.²R. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at random. 320. expressing the degree of difference. at most. Exercise.

²HOLMES. "Nay. ate her child.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²E. had a forest of poor relations.One of Eve's family. (4) Substitution or exchange.(2) In favor of. as being. (3) Duration of time. cause. or extent of space. There are gains for all our losses. as to. (9) Motive. meaning with regard to. .²ID. For him. "thou hast counseled wisely.²PARKMAN. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. Still. (7) Concession. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. etc. but a few sunsets since.²PARKMAN.²HOOD. The twilight being. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²STODDARD. H. for the benefit of.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.²EMERSON. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. E.²H. (6) Like as. for all slips of hers. for famine.. poor fellow. He and they were for immediate attack.²W. L. An Arab woman. he repented of his folly. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. the Colonna motto would fit you best. respecting. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. incitement to action. reason. But the Colonel. meaning although. in behalf of.. For the rest. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. a person or thing. considering that etc. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. (5) Reference." answered Master Brackett. BANCROFT. and leaped for joy. etc. or in spite of." said the Lady of Lochleven.²IRVING. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. if your worship can accomplish that. "For a fool. etc. meaning in the character of. they are now for us. GARRISON.²LAMB."²SCOTT By my faith. for all his title.² RUSKIN.

ceased to be merciful. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. nay. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. more.²ID.²DRYDEN. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. The From Relation. (2) Origin. 323. Of.²HALE. The young cavaliers.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. The general idea in from is separation or source. The original meaning of of was separation or source. . did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. It was from no fault of Nolan's. H. 322. (1) Origin or source. if not a desperate man. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. From harmony.²BANCROFT.²H. A distrustful. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. (3) Time.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²HUXLEY. from a desire of seeming valiant. Like boys escaped from school. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. cause. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²HIGGINSON. or reason. Exercise.²HUME.²MILTON. (4) Motive.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Exercise. From. like from. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. The king holds his authority of the people.

White shirt with diamond studs.²PARKMAN. (6) Partitive. (3) With expressions of material. etc. The hills were bare of trees. and grass."²E. divest. south of. Sandals. especially out of. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. deprivation. etc. (5) Expressing agency. Of the Forty.²LEW WALLACE. etc.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. that Cromwell once ruled England. He is away of his own free will. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. ask. Back of that tree. cure.²ALDRICH. bound with thongs of boar's hide. there were only twenty-one members present. etc. (b) After some adjectives. weeds. Other Relations expressed by Of. HALE. disarm.²BOSWELL.²ID. purge.²BAYARD TAYLOR.²SCOTT Who formed. (c) After nouns expressing lack.. You cannot make a boy know. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. ²GAVARRE. clear.² HUXLEY. ²PARTON. relieve. of his own knowledge. out of the most unpromising materials. such as ease. as north of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. free of.²HIGGINSON. Asked no odds of.²BANCROFT. reason. demand. rid. .²clear of. wide of.²DICKENS II. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. bare of. A singular want of all human relation. rob. deprive. etc. or breastpin of native gold. free. (d) With words expressing distance. More than one altar was richer of his vows.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. "I am glad of that. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. E. acquitted them of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. motive. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. beg.

²BANCROFT. concerning.²ID.²BANCROFT. of late. (b) Noun and gerund. and the dignity of a queen. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²COOPER. ²IRVING. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. The nation of Lilliput. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. of a sudden. Such a book as that of Job. The fair city of Mexico. equal to about. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. E. with its object. CHANNING. . 309. (8) Appositional. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. being equivalent to an infinitive. (c) Two nouns. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. Idiomatic use with verbs. standing. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages..He washed out some of the dirt. when the first is descriptive of the second. Not even woman's love.²ALDRICH. Besides the phrases of old.²LAMB. (10) Of reference.²HALLECK. etc. (9) Of time.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²LOWELL. of is used in the sense of during. could give shelter from his contumely. for the possessive. See also Sec.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²PRESCOTT.²BANCROFT. (7) Possessive.²W.²FROUDE.²SWIFT. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. with regard to.

on high. concerning.²DE QUINCEY. Upon. without adding to their meaning.²ALDRICH. 324. Upon my reputation and credit. It also accompanies the verbs tire. On.²BRYANT. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²PARKMAN. on view.²EMERSON. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. approve. permit. Exercise. To. etc. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. avail (one's self). ²BANCROFT. repent.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. complain. accept. SIGOURNEY. Cannon were heard close on the left. allow.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. disapprove. (b) With motion.²MRS. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. on the wing. such as admit. you are eighteen. on the alert. Upon is seldom used to express time. on board. on a sudden. etc. and others. 325. . (4) In adjurations. consist. (2) Time.²Find sentences with six uses of of.²PARKMAN. The general meaning of on is position or direction. and not a day more. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. Exercise. on trial. On my life.²PARKMAN. equal to about. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. (3) Reference.

²HALE.²PARTON. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. But when. Revolutions. To the few.. In Old English..²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. (b) Referring to time.²BULWER. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. to my taste. mid meant in company with. (2) Expressing result. gay Comedy appears. be written over. does the mere music. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Nor. to him.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Death!²HALLECK. 326. unmasked.. His brother had died.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. interest.²often to the loss of vigor. (5) Equivalent to according to.Come to the bridal chamber. whose influence is felt to this hour. With.²B.²LANG.²BRYANT. 268).²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²IRVING. He usually gave his draft to an aid. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²PARKMAN. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²BENTON To our great delight. it may be genuine poetry.²GOLDSMITH. had ceased to be. . We cook the dish to our own appetite.

I think. Either with the swingle-bar.²LANG. opinion. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. it is necessary. with Heyward at its head. (5) Opposition. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.²HOWELLS. (4) Estimation. He was wild with delight about Texas.²SCOTT. he gave millions to the sword. With all his sensibility. "poetry is not a pursuit. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. Exercise. but a pleasure"?²LANG. to find the object of the preposition. first of all. . For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. or with the haunch of our near leader. HALE.The advance. as with you. in spite of. reason. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²COLERIDGE.²ALDRICH. E.²DE QUINCEY.²COOPER. He expired with these words. Messala.²HALE. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²CHANNING.²WALLACE (7) Time. (3) Cause. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²Find sentences with four uses of with. had already reached the defile. She seemed pleased with the accident. 327. felt it unsafe to trifle further. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. motive. with all his boldness. but with you. (2) Instrumentality. It seemed a supreme moment with him.²HOWELLS. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. transmitted from the beginning.²E.

but I received no other hurt. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. I heard a noise just over my head. In (1). telling what man. before the dwarf left the queen. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. came tumbling about my ears. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. without a country modifies man. like the clapping of wings. which. of from. I called out several times. because I had given the provocation. the malicious rogue. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. 3. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. of on. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. the phrase answers the question where. by which a dozen apples. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. or was. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. 5. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. shook it directly over my head. Exercises. (4) from the beginning. To our general surprise. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. Whereupon. I remember. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. In (2). on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met.²ID. Be that as it will. 2.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. The object of on board is ships. . There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. of without. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. The guns were cleared of their lumber. I speak these things from a love of justice. beginning. I looked towards my windows. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. 4. and knocked me down flat on my face. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted.²SWIFT 2. (2) on which. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. (3) without a country. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. country. but all to no purpose. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. he followed us one day into those gardens. hence we say. And so on. we met the defaulter here. In (3). I felt my box raised very high in the air.

On all subjects known to man. 15. in town. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 13. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. grasping at the child. The savage army was in war-paint.He spurred his courser on. 25. 27. 16. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. plumed for battle. 11. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 10. when. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. he favored the world with his opinions. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 7. . 26. 14. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 9. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 29. 19. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. For my part. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 24. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. after a restful morning. to one dark and gloomy. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 22. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 21. The mother sank and fell. With all his learning. I like to see the passing.6. in this respect. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 18. 8. He locked his door from mere force of habit. though unbroken by the peal of church bells.Without stop or stay. 17. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 12. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. His breeches were of black silk. 20. 23.

If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. And now it is like an angel's song. 330. That is what I understand by scientific education. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.²BEECHER.²WEBSTER.That makes the heavens be mute. (1) Relative pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. A few are discussed below. and be proud in the midst of its toil.30. not merely by the amount of the tax. that you might behold this joyous day.²COLERIDGE. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.² JOHNSON. (a) Indefinite relative. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That night was a memorable one. (c) Substantive conjunction. (3) As a relative pronoun. (b) Of result. . We wish that labor may look up here.²HUXLEY.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²WEBSTER. That was a dreadful mistake. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. WHAT. 328.²STOCKTON. (4) As an adverb of degree. and not according to form. He will raise the price.²WEBSTER. THAT. 329.

(1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Pera. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.Are yet the fountain light of all our day.²EMERSON. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.²ID.. (b) Indirect question. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. but the result of calculation. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²WORDSWORTH. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.but. What with the Maltese goats. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union..²S. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. partly. (b) Indirect question..Which be they what they may. to see what might be hidden. 331.S.. If he has [been in America]. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question... (9) As an exclamation.Those shadowy recollections. What. it rests on reality. What.²EMERSON. (b) Copulative..²WEBSTER. Cox. At what rate these materials would be distributed. he knows what good people are to be found there. "I'll tell you what. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. nearly equivalent to partly. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY." (4) Relative adjective.. silent still.²THACKERAY. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. or not only.. after not only. (8) Conjunction. . BUT.. (7) Adverb of degree. and silent all!² is impossible to determine.these sounds are only to be heard. To say what good of fashion we can..²ID..

To lead but one measure. on all sides. after such. (e) Introducing an appositive word. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. meaning otherwise .. Who knows but. sometimes same. AS.Then arose not only tears. stands for that . (c) Of degree. at all moments. (3) Preposition.... towards order. or who . There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. meaning only.. 332. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (4) Relative pronoun. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. not. (d) Of reason.. (2) Relative pronoun.²IRVING. . not.²LAMB.²SCOTT.²FRANKLIN. equivalent to that . (b) Substantive. meaning except. ²CARLYLE. not. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING. like the dog.²EMERSON. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²MRS BROWNING. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. I shall see but little of it.²CARLYLE. after a negative..²HAWTHORNE. Doing duty as a guard. (b) Of manner. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²SHELLEY.He yearned to our patriot bands. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.. (5) Adverb. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.²IRVING. but piercing cries. than. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.

²HAWTHORNE. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.LIKE. and as or as if takes its place. but its verb is omitted.²HALLECK. There is no statue like this living man. NOTE. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. ²PARKMAN. this. staring like a bewildered man. like him awhile ago. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²EMERSON. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. Note the difference between these two uses. like summer ocean's. indeed. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. like drops out. In this second use. I do with my friends as I do with my books. (1) An adjective. and was clearly an adjective. Through which they put their heads.²ALDRICH. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. Stirring it vigorously. In each case. like Martin was. That face. .²DARWIN.²MAYHEW. but this is not considered good usage: for example. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²EMERSON. This follows a verb or a verbal. No Emperor.² A timid. and is followed by a dative-objective. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. They look.²ALDRICH. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. 333.²SHAKESPEARE. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²LAMB.²LONGFELLOW. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.-SCOTT. If the verb is expressed.²HIGGINSON. Introduces a clause.²CASS.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. like a cook beating eggs.² HAWTHORNE. Give Ruskin space enough. nervous child.

A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. that is. etc. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. entering into the structure of a sentence. Some of these are imitative sounds. Value of analysis. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. in separating them into their component parts. as. clauses introduced by conjunctions. but it still retains its identity as noun." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. 336..INTERJECTIONS. subject and predicate. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].²in determining case. What analysis is. 334.: for example. . it is necessary to become expert in analysis. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. 335. that is. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. etc. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. Definition. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. pronoun. Definition. verb. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. tut! buzz! etc." PART II.

Examples of these three kinds are. . (3) Imperative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. "Come to the bridal chamber. But now all is to be changed. 2. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. A rare old plant is the ivy green. old man?" "Be thou familiar. Definition. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. interrogative. which expresses command. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. or command: for example. you must not die!" interrogative. according to form. "The quality of mercy is not strained." 340. but according to how many statements there are. not according to the form in which a thought is put. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. or request. or imperative. hence. 337. "Old year. but by no means vulgar. entreaty. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. This is the most common one. 339. declarative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation.Kinds of sentences as to form. SIMPLE SENTENCES. Definition: Predicate. which puts the thought in a question. Every sentence must contain two parts. always friends?" imperative. 338. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. but the sentence would still be declarative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. "Hath he not always treasures. Division according to number of statements. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.²a subject and a predicate. (2) Interrogative." "What wouldst thou do. question.

the subject (you. to an ignorant man. . Consequently. and is to be supplied. or an interrogative pronoun.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.²What is to be changed? Answer. In the interrogative sentence. 341. thou. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. always reduce them to the order of a statement. the subject is frequently after the verb. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. we say all is the subject of the sentence." Exercise. especially in poetry. Thus. as. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. But if we try this with the second sentence. 2. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. 8. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. "[You] behold her single in the field. on the other hand. 4.²What is the ivy green? Answer. The last of all the Bards was he. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 5. and the real subject is the latter. we have some trouble. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. 7. 6. to suit all cases:² Subject. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. not of a rare old plant. In analyzing such sentences. or ye) is in most cases omitted. a rare old plant. but about the ivy green. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. Slavery they can have anywhere. 3. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. adjective. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. Listen. or adverb that asks about the subject. all. and our definition must be the following.

" indirect. and me here is not the object simply of call. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions.²transitive and intransitive. just as if to say. Of a transitive verb. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. The transitive verb often requires. 342. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. The subject and predicate have been discussed. Direct Object. 343.10. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds." Complement: 344. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. but chief belongs to the verb. (4) The complements. in addition to the object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. and means summoned. "Ye call me chief. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. "Ye honor me. direct. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. (2) The predicate." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. (3) The object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. . Indirect object. (5) Modifiers. or second object. but it is a true complement. (6) Independent elements. but of call chief. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. and by object we mean the direct object. for example.

or.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 351. feel. especially the forms of be. appear. "Brow and head were round. more familiarly.. Thom of the Gills. and. in the popular judgment. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. seem. "A cheery. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. as in the sentence. as in drowning. he was now getting old." "He was termed Thomas." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. to the completion of this man of the world." All these complete intransitive verbs. not containing a verb. become. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. sir!' rang out in response. in the original Opium Confessions." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. 355." Also an expression used as a noun. but used as a single modifier. A phrase is a group of words. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. above sixty." (2) PARTICIPIAL. for instance. I mentioned a case of that nature. Phrases. See sentence 19. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. 352. 'Ay. Complement of an intransitive verb. 364." 345. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. An intransitive verb." "The good man. 346. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (3) INFINITIVE. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. introduced by a preposition: for example. etc. and of massive weight." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. as. 347." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . ay." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary." Things used as Subject. and barring the door. taste. As to form. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. in exercise following Sec. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds.

and by Saint George!' said the King. ." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." "Never. etc. 341." "There are asking eyes." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." Also expressions used as nouns: for example.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. 349. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. but they will be given in detail here. was heard one syllable to justify. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." Things used as Direct Object. I saw the quick and the dead." In this sentence. "Therein has been." etc. Disguised infinitive subject." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. (2) In interrogative sentences. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." Things used as Complement." 348. and ever will be. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). (4) After "there introductory. or the thundering of organs." "The dead are there. asserting eyes. "'By God. for which see Sec." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. my deficiency. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. from their lips." The for did not belong there originally.²the talent of starting the game. but the real or logical subject is to print. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. or their religion from their sect. prowling eyes. but obscures the real subject." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. Complement: Of an intransitive verb.²the infinitive phrase.

Like all the complements in this list. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. Of a transitive verb." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.²heads or tails. 351. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. doubtless. the object is made the subject by being passive. I. Modifiers of Subject. As complement of an intransitive verb.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. they are adjuncts of the object." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. and. (3) Infinitive." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. and explaining or modifying the subject." .350." Modifiers." "I hear the echoes throng. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. and whenever the complement is a noun. the shepherd girl. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. and the words italicized are still complements. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways.²completing the predicate. at the same time." (4) Participle. complements of the predicate." "Their tempers." "She asked her father's permission. Object." "Serving others is serving us." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. or Complement. As complement of a transitive verb." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." In this last sentence." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. or the equivalent of the noun.

and leading him from star to star." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. but it is really a contracted clause." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. given at the request of a Dutch lady. tell whether the subject. was the scene from King John. not with nature." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. Since the predicate is always a verb. object. 357-363. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. 351." (For participial and infinitive phrases. but noble teachers. the prisoner at the bar. "He died like a God. unforgiving. the verb being omitted. see further Secs." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." Exercise. Modifiers of the Predicate. but with other men. 352. was now called upon for his defense. no sociable angel. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing.²proud.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. and modify the predicate in the same way." "Him. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. Retained with passive.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. II. or . I have seasoned for thee." In such a sentence as. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. this young idolater. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter.²In each sentence in Sec. Tells how." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." "Give them not only noble teachings. austere." "In the twinkling of an eye. or complement is modified." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon.

is good in the making. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. and as many to oppose it. after dinner. Evil. and (direct) object:² 1.When the verb is changed from active to passive. and the direct object is retained: for example. in regard to particulars. (a) Pick out subject. They do not wish to be lovely. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. On the voyage to Egypt. This. 3. 3. and. how far. with my joy and grief. 2. 5. etc. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. predicate. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. negative. but the children of the great. a sort of personality to the whole writing. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. and other measures of precaution. . Fashion does not often caress the great. 4. These answer the question when. no emotion. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. To the men of this world. he liked. gives wonderful animation." "One way lies hope. But anger drives a man to say anything. 6." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. predicate. the indirect object is retained. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. I took. His books have no melody. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 7. 8." (6) Adverbial objective. but to be loved. 2. 5. no humor." "All such knowledge should be given her. to the animal strength and spirits." Exercises." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. according to old philosophers. in this center? 4. no relief to the dead prosaic level." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. or how long. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 7. 6. (b) Pick out the subject..

Not the less I owe thee justice. then. 6.y 8.²the river Meuse. y y y y Compound Subject. 2. must visit again the home of her childhood. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. Compound Predicate. 3. the present Archbishop of Dublin. this imperial rider. A river formed the boundary. . viz. at length the warrior lady. 4. 4. I promised her protection against all ghosts. downwards.. Paint me. 4.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. and a member of the world. then. expecting the return of their parents. Not compound sentences. That night. 3. the blooming cornet. burthened with the anxieties of a man. Unhorse me. upwards. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. at the chief hotel. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. I gave him an address to my friend. Yes. happy dinner. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. six children sat by a peat fire. In one feature. To suffer and to do. this dragoon so lovely. 2. Their intention was to have a gay. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. a room seventeen feet by twelve. 5. the attorney. after their long confinement to a ship. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. for the first time. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. I felt myself. in little peaceful Easedale. 2. 3. this nun so martial. that was thy portion in life. etc. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. 5. to the right and to the left.

"He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. etc. the simple subject is situation. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. For example." "Voyages and travels I would also have. together with its modifiers. 355. Of this." And so with complements. they are not a necessary part. 354. complements. hurry. etc. Examples of compound subjects are." "He shook his head. same as (1). "The company broke up. that is. The exclamatory expression. "Ah. my brave young man!" ." "The name of the child. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. lurking far down in the depths of human nature.353. in all such sentences as we quote below." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. the verb). then the grammatical subject and predicate. but it is to be noticed that. Bishop. above: thus.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. together with all its modifiers." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. modifiers. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. turned his steps homeward. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. the air of the mother. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. Independent Elements of the Sentence. ulcer. forming a sentence: "Oh. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. etc. and its object or complement. two or more subjects of the same predicate. may be the person or thing addressed. I'm with you once again. Larger view of a sentence.. and. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. the object. in the sentence. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. the predicate. and returned to the more important concerns of the election." "Ye crags and peaks. and the rest is the logical predicate. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are." Sentences with compound predicates are. however. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. several modifiers. the tone of her voice. hurry. exposes. shouldered the rusty firelock.

prepositional phrases may be. or word used as a noun: for example. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. and some conjunctions. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. this story runs thus. the company broke up. generally speaking. why. see Sec. 3. nevertheless. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. besides." "No. undoubtedly. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. There are some adverbs." (2) Adverbial. 356. 352. that have an office in the sentence. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. modifying a noun. grandma." (6) Single words: as." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. instances of which were seen in Sec." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. and so on. (1) Adjectival. six quill-driving gentlemen.. 4). such as however. truly. her noticing even this is creditable." "At all events." "Truth to say. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 357.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." "Why. therefore. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. 350. "Oh. pronoun. such as perhaps. . let him perish." (3) Independent. modifying the predicate." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. y (2) The adverbial use. how you're winking!" "Now. he somehow lived along." (5) Participial phrase: "But. really. already noticed. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. or complement (see Sec. etc. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. These need close watching. 4). he closed his literary toils at dinner. etc. moreover. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. The words well. In their use. object. see Sec. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. now. to the best of my remembrance.. 355." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife." Another caution. 351. 6). then." "Well. he was a conscientious man. yes! everybody knew them. (b) As a modifier of subject.

" "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. ought. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. but having no other office than a verbal one. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar." "There. was speedily run through. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. or as nearly so as the student will require. 358." In this sentence. etc. etc. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." (c) With the definite forms of go.would. (5)." (b) With the forms of be." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. and teach her how to be happy and good. and they will be presented here in full. containing no matters of business. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . Wilt thou. therefore.: as in the sentences. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.can (could).000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. See Sec. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. 355. "Because I was.]. he should not have known them at all. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. The verbal use. I. "The letter of introduction. my dear. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. y (a) With may (might). and hence is adverbial. but require somewhat closer attention.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. being equivalent to a future with obligation." etc. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. This case excepted.seem.should. modifying was speedily run through. thus." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. necessity.

object. IV. To test this. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor.²both purpose clauses. II. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. The adjectival use. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. 362." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. The substantive use. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. etc." "He insisted on his right to forget her." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. 361.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). 361 are used adverbially." 360. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. Don Guzman. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck.." "To say what good of fashion we can." "To teach is to learn. modifying a noun that may be a subject. 5). etc." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. to hear McOrator after dinner. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. notice the following:² In (1)." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. to look means that he might look. "But there was no time to be lost. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. . The adverbial use. 351." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. hang the idiot. complement. to please is equivalent to that he may please. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. result. III.: for example. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "Are you mad. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). already examined. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. (4) In apposition. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). above. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. the Scotch fighting all the battles. and the eyes to fill?" 359.

² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence." (See also Sec. In (4). . This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. In (3). savage and serene in one hour. 4. and to betray and to bring express the reason. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec.²both expressing condition. to find shows the result of the return. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. etc. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 351). and to say is equivalent to if we say. 351). V. 349). (7) Independent elements (Sec. 351). which is of two kinds." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 352). I will try to keep the balance true. as in Sec. to hear means if you should hear. 355). etc. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions.. In analyzing simple sentences. If it is an incomplete verb.. 2. 355. to part means because I part. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. The independent use. 268. (3). (5) The subject (Sec. 364. 363. Our life is March weather. 3. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. give the complement (Secs. 347). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. not in a book. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. In (5). object.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. give² (1) The predicate.In (2). etc. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. equivalent to that you betray. must be in a life.

He risked everything. through toys and atoms. 11. might be called flabby and irresolute. 16. two stricken hours. 14. through evil agents. nor money. 19. always in a bad plight. Old Adam. 21. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 8. Through the years and the centuries. The water. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. a good shot. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. Her aims were simple and obvious. 5. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. nor himself. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. the carrion crow. The whole figure and air. 23. 6. His opinion is always original. We are always in peril. 12. like a witch's oils. 18. I have heard Coleridge talk. good and amiable otherwise. to the moral sphere. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings.4.Burnt green and blue and white. in popular use. a graceful dancer. is to have no political system at all. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. to restore civil and religious order. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. To these gifts of nature. to keep England out of war. a skilled musician.²to preserve her throne. 17. neither ammunition. To be hurried away by every event. The word conscience has become almost confined. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 10. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 22. nor generals. and every moment discover something new. 9. and to the purpose. 15. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. You may ramble a whole day together. 20.He sat in the shower. 13. . and spared nothing.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. with eager energy.The old crow of Cairo. just on the edge of destruction. 24. nor troops. 7. an accomplished scholar.

the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. in front of all this mighty crowd. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. baggage far in the rear. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. to be a reproach to such goodness. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. and the wherefore? . and the why. Supposing this computation to be correct. Upon this shore stood. 37. I dare this. The cry. 29. Must we in all things look for the how. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. But yield. and in my own garden. 27. and no provisions but wild berries. it would not have been filial or ladylike. to bid you leave the place now and forever. or perhaps one virtue. 26.25. The villain. 35. 41. 40. the present capital of New England. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. the ship was in an uproar. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. the prime minister of Spain. Now. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. I hate him and myself.Distant. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. secluded. upon my own ground. ready to receive her. Oxford.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Of the same grandeur. 38. in less heroic and poetic form. This amiable relative. had but one foible. 32. 30. 39. haply. She had made a two days' march. Few in number. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. time-honored.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 34. proud foe. In the Acadian land. in this world. an elderly man. 36. still. 31. 33. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. the same Condé Olivarez. Fair name might he have handed down. and.

From her own loved island of sorrow. though often treated as phrases. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. As shown in Part I. 333). however. . Words left out after than or as." To show that these words are really omitted. which is the unit of speech.² "She is like some tender tree. but." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. as would be the connective instead of like. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]." This must. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. 366. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. the pride and beauty of the grove." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. COMPLEX SENTENCES. The simple sentence the basis. 365. 367. made merely for convenience and smoothness. as. are really contracted clauses. thus." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. if they were expanded. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country." Sentences with like. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. (Sec. the expressions of manner introduced by like." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.

370. object. that .²the dependent or subordinate clauses. how great . or dependent on it. containing a verb with its subject.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. etc. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. and the next one. is taken in. complements. each clause has its subject. then we recognize this as the main statement. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. complement. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. A principal. logically depends on suffering. Independent clause. modifiers. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. which are so united that one member is the main one. predicate. murmur." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. . and modifier. 371. CLAUSES. Hence the following definition:² Definition. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.. or it may be applied to the others. as in this sentence. 369. and the last.²the other members subordinate to it.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. A clause is a division of a sentence. 368. Definition. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). object.²the backbone... we are aware.. main. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. that is. suffering.

" (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are.. impertinences²would be grammatical. As to their office in the sentence.. (b) that are ." Just as the object noun." (2) Object of a verb. with a noun clause in apposition with it. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. But since they are complex in form. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. night or day." (4) Apposition. clauses are divided into NOUN." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. ADJECTIVE.. for example. put an end to my fancies." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.. Kinds." "I was told that the house had not been shut. . "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. or adverbs. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. 352.Dependent clause. and the whole clause is not.. verbal. and ADVERB clauses. etc. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. 372." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." 374. 'I know that he can toil terribly. for example. Noun Clauses. so the object clause is retained. infinitive. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. and it is . pronoun. (a) Ordinary apposition. for a hundred years. over which the torrent came tumbling. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. thus." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. for a time. impertinences. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. We ourselves are getting . attention is called to them here. 5). "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.' is an electric touch.. 373. but logically the sentence is.. adjectives. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.

Other examples of this construction are. . as. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. 10. As the office of an adjective is to modify. but. which. that he was a scheming impostor. 2." Exercise. of a nation. whence. how it changed from shape to shape. that. that all safe legislation must be based. a relative pronoun being understood. or equivalent of a noun. Such a man is what we call an original man. But the fact is. sometimes by the conjunctions when. and not on the sentiment. no man will ever know. where. Frequently there is no connecting word.² "It is on the understanding. Except by what he could see for himself. a falsehood incarnate. whereby. in the sentence. that. wherein. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. whether he should choose one or not. 9. he would repent it. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. I was napping. 375. he could know nothing. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. Examples of adjective clauses. 6. What history it had." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. etc. 5. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. whither. Adjective Clauses. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. The reply of Socrates. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 3. still remains reasonable. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 8. 7. 4.

Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 11. 1." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. whether subject." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place." Exercise. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 6. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 4. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 8. the champions advanced through the lists. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. i. . Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. I walked home with Calhoun. etc." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. all is vacancy. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. Pick out the adjective clauses. 7. No man is reason or illumination. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. and tell what each one modifies. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. which formed the center of the mansion. he begins to help us more as an effect.e. Adverbial Clauses. or that essence we were looking for. 10. 5. which Rowena tasted.." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 9. 3. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture.376. 2. object.

: "But still. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. an adjective." "When he was come up to Christian. and will be given in detail. adverbs. tell what kind each is. expressing the degree in which the horizon. is wider. etc." "The right conclusion is. he goes away as if nothing had happened.. a verbal. introduced by indefinite relatives. shaping our actions. etc. since he was too great to care to be original. and what it modifies:² ." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. but they require careful study. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." "After leaving the whole party under the table." (7) RESULT. so far as we can. or an adverb. to make up our shortcomings." (9) CONCESSION. no matter what remains. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. however good she may be as a witness. whatever." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. etc. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. with examples.377. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. Joanna is better. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. 378." "The broader their education is." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. the milestones are grave-stones. that we should try. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. it takes precedence of everything else. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study.² whoever. the wider is the horizon of their thought. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "He went several times to England. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." (3) REASON." These mean no matter how good. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. Exercise. however." (5) DEGREE." "Who cares for that. and adverbial conjunctions.

For example. of which clause Odin is the subject. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. object. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. they might perhaps say of their visitors. howling and whistling. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. snatching up stones to fling at them. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. to tell the truth. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. find the principal subject and principal predicate. If the children gathered about her. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph.1. 379. we are a little disappointed. 380." 2. 'Well. etc. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. when the wind was unruly. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. banging about doors and windows. 3. and modifiers. its object is that Odin was a reality. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and communicated itself to a thousand objects. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. so as to picture the parts and their relations.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. then treat noun clauses as nouns. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. and twirling weathercocks. in the sentence. on a dark wintry night. predicate. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. with shrill." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. incoherent exclamations. as they sometimes did.

2.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much.. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. as seen in the "map" (Sec. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Exercises. 364.. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (1) Find the principal clause. 380). d. 3. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. 364. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. . that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.

or whether any. And those will often pity that weakness most.4. This is she. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 21. who would yield to it least. had we been worse. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. dying for them. 5. Had they been better chemists. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 6. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. that. 15. that pressed her with an objection. I like that representation they have of the tree. 22. the shepherd girl. 18. which. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. But now that she has become an establishment. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 11. Now. M. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 23. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. not so much for travelers that were few. the mixed result. 7. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Here lay two great roads. He was what our country people call an old one. for yours. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. namely. of a light hazel. the flower should revive for us. 19. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. could not have been effected. The night proved unusually dark. Next came a wretched Dominican. 13. 17. 24. 12. 10. bishop. 20. 16. if applied to the Bible. The deep eyes. . had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 8. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 14. whom I choose. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 9. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. as for armies that were too many by half. counselor that had none for herself. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer.

What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 3. That which we do not believe. if there be one to whom I am not equal. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. and stamped with his right number. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. but above it. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. Hence the definition. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. would easily reach. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 6. These things we are forced to say. 5. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 30. "No book." 4. we cannot adequately say. speed. 2. that it was no more than his daily walk. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 380. 26. and temper. 382. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. questions.²which will not be disposed of. 7. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. 28. It makes no difference how many friends I have. (b) First analyze. is to speak and write sincerely. . if continuously extended.² Definition. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. then map out as in Sec. and not from his heart. COMPOUND SENTENCES.25. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. though we may repeat the words never so often. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. "was ever written down by any but itself." said Bentley. How formed. the following complex sentences:² 1. or commands. 27. 383.

" 384. a simple member. the waving grass. The coördinate conjunctions and. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. The division into members will be easier." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. as in Sec. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. nor. if there are any. for. 386. and nor the second and third complex members. and not the form of the connective. . tell which are compound. 385. from the second. he dilates. the semicolon separates the first. and connects the first and second complex members. etc. "Only the star dazzles. which are simple statements. the planet has a faint. others sometimes coördinate. Of the following illustrative sentences. Another example is. Study the thought. Connectives. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. moon-like ray" (adversative). a complex member. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. he soliloquizes. as but.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Thus in (1). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. nor does he know until he has tried. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. in (2). etc. Exercise. 297).. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. and which complex:² 1. or but. and it shall be the universal sense. whereas. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. in (3). yet. he is twice a man. Some of these are now conjunctions. however. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. while (whilst). and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). now adverbs or prepositions. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. the semicolons cut apart the independent members." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. 383 (1). Speak your latent conviction. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. he walks with arms akimbo.

2. 7. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. Man does not stand in awe of man. is particular. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. Whilst the world is thus dual. for example. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. so is every one of its parts. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. For everything you have missed. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. or. 12. However some may think him wanting in zeal. and for everything you gain. . 11. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. The gain is apparent. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. the tax is certain. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. I can still receive. all pain. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. however. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. 2. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. from a happy yet often pensive child. 387. and thou shalt be loved. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 14. 6. he grew up to be a mild. you have gained something else. 4. Exercise. 13. 5. that it was Easter Sunday. 9. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. and as yet very early in the morning. 4. nay. 8. All loss. yield to them heart and life. 10. 3. In this manner. you lose something. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. Love. 381. (i) Separate it into its main members. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. quiet. 364. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. unobtrusive boy. passed in that time. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. and not by what each is. 3. I can yet love. to find a pot of buried gold. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience.

" says the haymaker. and they repel us. and they will be true to you." "keep the rake. Come into port greatly. 9. abide by it. 6. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. puts the parties on a convenient footing. which always make the Actual ridiculous. "as nigh the scythe as you can. give those merits room. 18. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 20. . and makes their business a friendship. is as thin and timid as any. one is afraid. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. or sail with God the seas." 13. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and not a thought has enriched either party. He teaches who gives. or we read books. and the peace of society is often kept. 8. Stand aside. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. We see the noble afar off.5. 14. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and the cart as nigh the rake. if you rip up his claims. treat them greatly. "Strike. 19." says the smith. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. as children. let them mount and expand. 16. Trust men. We go to Europe. modesty. only that they may brag and conquer there. or hope. and he learns who receives. Whatever he knows and thinks. 11. that let him communicate. and not an emotion of bravery. 15. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. When you have chosen your part. feign to confess here. and they will show themselves great. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 7. or men will never know and honor him aright. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and the other dares not. whilst frankness invites frankness. "the iron is white. They will shuffle and crow. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. or we pursue persons. 21. because. crook and hide. 17. why should we intrude? 10. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade.

By way of introduction. but go about your business anywhere. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . 25. if they live. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. 380. 388.²agreement and government. it never was known to fall into the rear.22. Essential point in English syntax. INTRODUCTORY. So does culture with us. SYNTAX. 390. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. they lose themselves in the crowd. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. but they never acquit the debt. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Following the Latin method. the department of syntax will be a small affair. it ends in headache. verb and subject. they die young. PART III. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Ground covered by syntax. but its leading characteristic is. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. and dodge the account. Do not craze yourself with thinking. pronoun and antecedent. We see young men who owe us a new world. adjective and noun. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. 23. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. or. so readily and lavishly they promise. 24.

and it would not matter which one stood first. but are not now. distinct forms would be used. then. or the same writer will use both indifferently. good English. "None remained but he. ." that is. 392. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). In some cases. as to study inflected forms. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Also in the sentence. or settler may be the subject. This is not logical. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. or when they exist side by side in good usage." is ambiguous. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. There is. pronoun and antecedent." In this there is a possessive form. the sentence. For example. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. 393. following the regular order of subject. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Second. yet the expression is sustained by good authority.² First. both forms will be given in the following pages. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. and nothing but important points will be considered. The basis of syntax. also expressing a possessive relation.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. some of which conform to classical grammar. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. etc. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. Some rules not rigid. and added to it the preposition of. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. As an illustration of the last remark. In Latin. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. "The savage here the settler slew. authorities²that is. and imitate it. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. therefore. Why study syntax? 391. sometimes verb and subject. When usage varies as to a given construction. Savage may be the subject. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. and whose judgment. the order being inverted. take the sentence.

or indicate joint ownership or possession.²RUSKIN. Bentham's principles together. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. and Harley's.²ROWE. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Woman. and Peter's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. . 397. 396. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.² Live your king and country's best support. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. but imply separate possession or ownership. Separate possession. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. He kept Bolingbroke's. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. the shore of Galilee. Putting Mr. as. the possessive sign is used with each noun. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.² He lands us on a grassy stage. 395.²THACKERAY. 408). for example. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. and Peterborough's. 394." Juletta tells.²MILTON.²MCCULLOCH. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²BYRON. etc.²EMERSON. the antechamber of the High Priest.²MACAULAY. Joint possession. and Paul's. Mill's and Mr. sense and nature's easy fool. Use of the possessive. PRONOUNS. and Pope's. ²ID. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.NOUNS.

²SOUTHEY. others are generally. But he must be a stronger than thee. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. I. together with the relative who. the real thought being forgotten." 400. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. whom is the complement after the verb am. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. This should be "as she. General rules.²SHAKESPEARE. Still. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. sanctioned. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.²POPE.²WHITCHER.²THACKERAY. who. Since most of the personal pronouns. there are two general rules that require attention. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. as. the last expression has the support of many good writers. for example. . Objective for the nominative.) "The young Harper. Some of the violations are universally condemned. if not universally.²TROLLOPE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. No mightier than thyself or me. 398. 399. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. thus.²BYRON. and should be the nominative form.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Bedott Papers.

but such is the fact." 401. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.² For there was little doubt that it was he. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. unless a special. Patrick the Porter. . The usage is too common to need further examples.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²LONGFELLOW. it will not be me.²RUSKIN. One exception is to be noted. and the other forms of the verb be. BLACK. "If there is any one embarrassed. And it was heThat made the ship to go. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS." There is no special reason for this. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. both in England and America. as.²KINGSLEY.²PARTON. A safe rule. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. they are yet holier than we. "Than whom. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. "Who's there?"²"Me.² One I remember especially. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. are. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so."²WM. The camp of Richard of England. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule."²KINGSLEY.²FIELDING.²THACKERAY. is. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. But still it is not she.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. on the other hand.²SCOTT. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.²COLERIDGE. for example."²WINTHROP. In spoken English. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²MACAULAY. the objective form is regularly found. namely.

or this. I speak not to" (he should be him. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. as. 11. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. Truth is mightier than us all. now. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. (3) By forgetting the construction. or us)." the word being in apposition with murderer).²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID." 6. 404. 8. as. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. If there ever was a rogue in the world. Nominative for the objective.Exercise. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author.²MILTON. object of saw). It is not me you are in love with. the object of to). 10. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. Me in exclamations. 7. as. or preposition which governs it. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 2.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. 9. 403. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Whom they were I really cannot specify. verbal. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. used after verbs. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. "Ask the murderer. as this from Shakespeare. verbals. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. but not he" (he should be him. it is me. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. you or me. 5. and prepositions. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. . in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 3. 4.

Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. "Who were they talking to?" etc.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.Exception 1. partial Nature. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Exercise. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Exception 2.²GOLDSMITH. Let you and I look at these. etc. as. I arraign. Thy shores are empires. as well as the objective. We regularly say. save thou and thine. changed in all save thee. None. 2. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Thou. Nature.²BYRON.Shall be left upon the morn. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. for they say there are none such in the world. all but he. and is usually avoided. but he.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²STEELE. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. 406. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²KINGSLEY.²KINGSLEY. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.² All were knocked down but us two. I've sworn. . Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. "Who did you see?" or. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²KINGSLEY. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. for example. as. Who have we here?²ID.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. who interrogative.²BYRON. 405. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.

They are coming for a visit to she and I. They crowned him long ago. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 11. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. 10. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour.Ye I salute. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. This usage is not frequent. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 6. who. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. POSSESSIVE FORMS. II. or objective? . Bartholomew." 4. B.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.²DE QUINCEY.3.²MACAULAY.²C. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. Markland. 9.²SCOTT.²possessive. 5. with Jortin and Thirlby. 8. 7. As antecedent of a relative. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. BROWN. 12. Preceding a gerund. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 407. and they know that as well as me. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.

Here I state them only in brief. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. and the meaning is. . in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.² IRVING. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.² SCOTT. and asked why it was not made. In the examples quoted. Objective. and that in the second. The last incident which I recollect. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.²RUSKIN. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. But in common use there is no such distinction. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. both are gerunds. The use of the objective is older. that the bitterness of death was past. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. as he turned away from his wife. etc." That is. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.² THACKERAY.²MACAULAY.²BREWER. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. [who was] studying law." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. Both types of sentences are found. object of heard of. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.²DICKENS. studying is a gerund. We heard of Brown. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning.²CARLYLE. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. sometimes it has the objective.²DE QUINCEY. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.408.² CARLYLE. Why both are found. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. Possessive. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.

²HOLMES. if the antecedent is neuter.²C.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. Every city threw open its gates.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.² BRYANT.²DEFOE. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²DE QUINCEY.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. and gender. In such a case as the last three sentences. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²DE QUINCEY. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. number. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. and ought to agree with them in person. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. in one person. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²RUSKIN.²CABLE. Watch for the real antecedent. preceded by a distributive. If any one did not know it. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²when the antecedent. it was his own fault. 410.²EMERSON III. taking in each of many persons.²THOREAU. the pronoun will be neuter singular. .² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. or is a distributive word. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²THACKERAY.²HUXLEY. 409. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. Examples of these constructions are.²AUDUBON. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. Everybody had his own life to think of. BROCKDEN BROWN. The pale realms of shade. where there were examinations.

²BYRON.²BIBLE.²SCOTT.²FIELDING. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²PALEY. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. By using the plural pronoun. Whosoever hath any gold.²HUXLEY. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²PALGRAVE.²ID. 411. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.² Not the feeblest grandame. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. This is not considered the best usage. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²PAULDING. not a mowing idiot. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²AUSTEN. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. for example. Struggling for life. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²EMERSON. . If the part deserve any comment. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²ID.²THACKERAY.²DEFOE. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. and giving them means of being so. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. The sun.Avoided: By using both pronouns. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. as anybody in their senses would have done. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. let them break it off.²RUSKIN. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. till they have lost him. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.

but. What these terms mean. That is in most cases restrictive. It adds a new statement to what precedes. but.²In the above sentences.) and a personal pronoun. 412. according to the practice of every modern writer. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide.²ADDISON. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. tell whether who.²ID. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. or unrestrictive. which." This means. As to their conjunctive use. and that always restrictive. Exercise. in each instance:² Who. because. etc. I.Where she was gone. "I gave it to the beggar. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.²HAWTHORNE. that being considered already clear. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest." It defines beggar. Exercise. 413. and does not add a new statement. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. and that may be coördinating or restrictive." A relative.² SHERIDAN. and he went away. or what was become of her. A relative. which. In the following examples. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. 1. 2. who went away. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. when coördinating. unless both genders are implied. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. when restrictive. the definite relatives who. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. and that are restrictive or not. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. no one could take upon them to say. as. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. . who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side.

The rule.²HOLMES. 12. because of its antecedent. that were often vicious. Which.² CARLYLE. For example. So different from the wild. The general rule is. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. Hare has printed. 9. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 10. . 8. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. they. Yet how many are there who up. down. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.3. etc. she agreed to join the party. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. W. A grizzly-looking man appeared. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. long arms and legs.² IRVING.² MOTLEY. in the sentence. he. who. as that does not vary for person or number.²ID. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.²THOREAU. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.²ID." that is invariable as to person and number. On hearing their plan.²H. but. 11.. 414. it makes the verb third person singular.²DE QUINCEY. 14. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. 13. However. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. That. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. We say I. 6. which was to go over the Cordilleras. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. In what sense true. etc. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. these or that which. etc. BEECHER 5. 7. and it is called logic. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. With narrow shoulders. you.²ADDISON. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. 4. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.²DE QUINCEY. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. II. and over England are saying. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.² NEWMAN. which Mr.

" One of . Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books..²LOWELL. in winning a battle.²whether we should say. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²LOWELL. Franklin. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. "one of the finest books that have been published. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. with one as the principal word." or.. [singular or plural. [plural] that who. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²M..] Both constructions are frequently found.²J. T. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. etc. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. 415. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. A disputed point.. MORSE. but myself. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. ARNOLD.²LECKY.²ADDISON. others regard books as the antecedent..²HOWELLS.²ADDISON. French literature of the eighteenth century. who rarely speak at all. the true antecedent. Let us be of good cheer. The fiery youth . and in improving a victory. etc. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. but speaks of him as that sort. or which . "one of the finest books that has been published.²MACAULAY. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. but the former has good authority. when he derided the shams of society.²BOWLES.²HOLMES. JR. He is one of those that deserve very well. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²SCOTT. .. The latter is rather more frequent.. and write the verb in the plural. Singular.

416.² THACKERAY.² .²IRVING. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. whence. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²EMERSON. 417. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. when this dust falls to the urn.²SWIFT. I could see nothing except the sky. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²DEFOE. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²VAUGHAN.²GOLDSMITH. where. object of a preposition understood. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. when the relative word is a pronoun. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²BURNS. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going."²DICKENS.²In the above sentences. But I by backward steps would move.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²SCOTT.²EMERSON. that is." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. IV. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.² RUSKIN. III. and see if the sentence is made clearer. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.²ADDISON. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.And. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. The same day I went aboard we set sail. Exercise." "India is the place [in which.²ID. and such like: as.A rare Roundabout performance.In that same state I came. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²CARLYLE. return. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. or where] he died.

Mr.² BURKE. Anacoluthic use of which.²SCOTT. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. That. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. V. but. but we find the relative who. . They believe the same of all the works of art. was a discoverer. I might as well have staid at home. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. boats. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.²FRANKLIN. with Turner. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as his apprentice. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²SWIFT. 418. she passed the lamp over her face and person. W. ²GOLDSMITH. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. for example.² Which. The regular construction. or that. if I had resolved to go on with. as is not used. Which. CHURCH.. which.He considered. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² MACAULAY. etc. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. as of knives. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. but which is usually carefully avoided. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.² THACKERAY. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. he.²WORDSWORTH.²ADDISON. looking-glasses. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. and working in the same spirit. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. Caution.²R. if same is followed by a complete clause.

²DE QUINCEY. etc. As the sentences stand. (1) "Among those who are poor. Exercise. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 3. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. 419. . but. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. That is. After this came Elizabeth herself. 1. and this be placed in the proper clause. But who. Thornhill had read.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. Exercise. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. 2. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. and which. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.. (2) "Among the poorer sort. who are now thrown. He delivered the letter.²SHAKESPEARE. Express both relatives. which when Mr." etc. 4. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. but none is expressed.²GOLDSMITH. once a great favorite of M." etc. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. (3) "Among the poorer sort.² Direction for rewriting. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²THACKERAY. etc. And who. he said that all submission was now too late.²HAWTHORNE. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. or. or omit the conjunction. or leave out both connective and relative. This was a gentleman.²which if they once heard. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.. and who are now thrown upon their compassion." etc.²SCOTT.²RUSKIN.. le Conte.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.She'd come again. now thrown upon their. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. and who are now. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.

9. like that spoken in the towns.. which the Scotch had learned. And which.²HAWTHORNE. . Dr. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. one of signal interest. But which. either from imitation of their frequent allies.. 13. 6. "A mockery. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. "What knight so craven. who.. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. etc. 1. etc. Or who." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. and which has never been described.²DE QUINCEY. Or which. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 7. Exercise. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. and repeat this for any further reference. Akin to the above is another fault. 12. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²SCOTT. as a false and astucious mark. and which.²SCOTT. 10. I saw upon the left a scene far different.²PEARSON.. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.² MOTLEY. That . I shall have complete copies. 11. 420.5. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. 8. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.²DE QUINCEY. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. then. and to whom no door is closed. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. the French. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.²IRVING. indeed. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. and which may even be heard a mile off. English by name.

and to whom I do not belong.. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Such as . E. that .. but which. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. which.²HOWELLS. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.²HAWTHORNE. 5. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.²EMERSON. 6. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. that. which. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. 11. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. That . 8. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.. 4. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. He flung into literature..²EMERSON. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. Which . 12. half a century ago. was hung in air. It rose into a thrilling passion. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.²DE QUINCEY. and whose examples and principles we inherit. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. whom. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity... even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.. was a bustling wharf. Such as . and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. . 7. at the head of what. SIMMS. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. The Tree Igdrasil.²SCOTT That which . I recommend some honest manual calling. in his present condition. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.²W. in his Mephistopheles.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.²SCOTT. I give to such men as do not belong to me. 3. CHANNING.2. 14. In my native town of Salem.²W.²HOLMES. He. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 15. but which is perhaps not so different from it... 10..²DEFOE. the cent. the dime. 9.. 13. what. such as they have very probably been bred to. G.²BEECHER.²HALLAM. I grudge the dollar.

England was then divided between kings and Druids.²MACAULAY. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²EMERSON. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²RUSKIN. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. 422. whether or not the two are equivalent. . and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²ID. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²GOLDSMITH. We call ourselves a rich nation. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. 421. Distributives either and neither.²HAWTHORNE. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. as it were. as. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. in which case any should be used instead.² Some one must be poor. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Each other. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. one another. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. and in want of his gold²or his corn. By their original meaning.²DICKENS.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. Use of any. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²RUSKIN.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. always at war with one another. as. Assume that no one is in want of either.² HAWTHORNE. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. that not all combined. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. for example.

for him have I offended. Caution. whilst I still cherish their genius.²BURKE. before that. as none of the French philosophers were.² If any. usually plural.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . any of his friends had died.² EMERSON. as.²EMERSON. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. None of Nature's powers do better service. then in Plotinus. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. Do you think.²BIBLE. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. Examples of its use are. even in Bettine. Do you think. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. etc. If any of you lack wisdom. that I know of. let him ask of God. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. None usually plural.²FRANKLIN.²PROF.²STIRLING.. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). . if ever man was. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. Any usually plural. in the prose of the present day. speak. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. when any of them are so good as to visit me. in Shakespeare. 423. any was often singular. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.² In earnest.²SHAKESPEARE. during his stay at Yuste. as. and is isolated. which is plural as often as singular. In earlier Modern English. afterwards in Goethe.²BEECHER Whenever.²CARLYLE.²SCOTT..²THACKERAY. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. The adjective pronoun none is. 424. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. I beseech you. then in Plutarch. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. at one time in Bacon.

The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. are treated as units.² PEARSON. etc. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. the plural.. etc.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. 425.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. when it means all persons: for example. The compounds somebody else. nobody else. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. Somebody's else.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. which is used absolutely. that all was lost. or somebody else's? 426. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. The light troops thought . for example. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.² Singular.. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. as. When all were gone. fixing his eyes on the mace.²McMASTER.²SCOTT Like the use of any. and Ford has nobody's else. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.² None of them was cleansed.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. and all was lost on the other.²THOREAU.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural..²NAPIER Plural. etc. saving Naaman the Syrian. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. etc.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. any one else. and less rarely in poetry.

" the nouns being singular. "Ye see. His hair.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²RUSKIN. Again. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. unlike anybody else's in the world. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. all manner of. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.curled once all over it in long tendrils. or some other such great man as a bishop.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case." "all manner of men.²N. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic..² FIELDING."²MRS. Whitefield or Wesley.² These kind of knaves I know.²SWEET.²DICKENS. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²RUSKIN. . there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. London. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. ELIOT. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.²SHERIDAN. etc.²in such as "these sort of books. These sort.² Saturday Review.²THACKERAY. etc.²G. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. WILLIS." "those kind of trees.²MULOCH. STOWE. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. or those sort of people. ADJECTIVES. the adjectives plural. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²AUSTEN. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).SYDNEY SMITH. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. P. for example. 427.

such as. they said. 428. . as. Of two such lessons. when the necessary dispositions concur. Use of the comparative degree." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. and the adjective is. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. gradually displacing the old. This the modern expression reverses." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. Consequently we have a confused expression. History of this construction. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.The library was open. or the nouns to the plural. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind)." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. Burke's sentence. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. or one object with a class of objects. made to agree with it. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. with all manner of amusing books.² Which is the better able to defend himself. At the source. "This sort of trees should be planted. to express a higher degree of quality. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. "This kind of rules are the best. "These kind of trees are best. Later form. According to the approved usage of Modern English. more alarming than a total silence. and in this way may take a plural verb.² PRESCOTT. not "all kinds of wild animals. Should we say. for example." A question. The result. In Old and Middle English. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. which accounts for the construction. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. the victor or the vanquished.²RUSKIN. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. in spoken English.

Superlative with two objects. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. if not. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.A braver ne'er to battle rode.²MACAULAY.² THACKERAY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²SWIFT. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²WIRT. etc. 3. I am concerned to see that Mr. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. 430. To the man who plays well. Gary. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Other after the comparative form. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²THACKERAY. 4.²HAWTHORNE. would not have had the face. 2. by almost the breadth of my nail. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²SCOTT. 5. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. 429. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. He is taller. than any of his court. .²LOWELL. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. the highest stakes are paid. Even Dodd himself. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Exercise.²TROLLOPE. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 6. Use of the superlative degree.²HUXLEY."²ID. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. Henry. has sanctioned. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²MACAULAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.

I should say that one has the best cause.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. ha.²J. and the other contains the best men.. more particularly the last of them. The following examples are used purposely."²BULWER. "Ha.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²MRS. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. The eldest. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome..²HAMLET. Rip was one of those . OLIPHANT. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. .²BEN JONSON.²Bible. CÆSAR.²ADDISON. Mary. Double comparative and superlative.²SCOTT. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. Also from the same period.²IRVING. 431."²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH."²HAWTHORNE. 1611. Examples from Shakespeare are. whichever can be got easiest. who eat white bread or brown. Come you more nearer. and differ only in form.²RUSKIN. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. After the most straitest sect of our religion. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²DR BLAIR. These two properties seem essential to wit. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. In all disputes between States.²EMERSON. not a bit of high life among them.²TEMPEST. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.

²DE QUINCEY. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²KINGSLEY. As to these two expressions. but in literary English.²GIBBON.²LAMB. First three. and conceit in the last. The meaning intended is the same. ²COWPER.²RUSKIN. The delay in the first three lines. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. ARTICLES. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. For Carlyle.²ADDISON. jar upon us constantly. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The merit of the Barb.²PRESCOTT. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. Definite article.² SMOLLETT. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. and Secretary Walsingham also. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. the Spanish.² With a singular noun. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. etc. 433. Three first. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.²RUSKIN. etc. The first five had specific names. .²GIBBON. Instances of both are given below. Examples of this construction are. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. not only so in popular speech.

There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. Origin of the Aryans. The not repeated.²TAYLOR. He is master of the two-fold Logos.² MACAULAY.²SCOTT. the thought and the word. One object and several modifiers. The flowers. 433. but is used with one only.²CARLYLE. and the presents.² RUSKIN. but inseparable from each other. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. distinct.²THACKERAY. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. Here the youth of both sexes.²ID. Indefinite article. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. however. I think. 434. of the higher and middling orders. as in Sec. with a plural noun. of the eighteenth century. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²THE NATION.²PRESCOTT. With a plural noun. as.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. The lofty. Meaning same as in Sec.. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. 433. with a singular noun. 1508.. the greatest poems. to distinguish clearly.²MACAULAY. or to emphasize the meaning. . having been arranged. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. Frequently. as. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. No.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.²TENNYSON. were placed at a very tender age.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. melodious.²NEWMAN. the hour of parting came. 435. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. and flexible language.

But in the following sentences. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.²BEECHER. COLERIDGE. and inexhausted vein. one noun is expressed. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. In the sentences of Secs.²BULWER. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. 438. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²MACAULAY. a collegian.² MACAULAY. 433 and 436. 436).An early. 437. and a usurper. as. to limit two or more modified nouns.²DRYDEN. JONSON.²MACAULAY." and "a red and a white geranium. The indefinite article is used. One article with several adjectives. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. like the definite article.²JOHNSON. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. T." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. 435.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. For rhetorical effect. Examples of this use are.²S. a murderer.²THACKERAY.²DICKENS. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.436. or clearness to each of several nouns.²B.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. a round and a square one alternately. rich. only one of which is expressed. He saw him in his mind's eye. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. interest. a tyrant.² BURKE. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. . as in the first three of Sec. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.

²COOPER. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. This was spoken of in Part I. has got already. or the great intellectual life of our nation. 276.²CARLYLE This usage. like some others in this series. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Sec. .²G. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 440. He sees that it is better to live in peace. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²FROUDE. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. all that academies can give.²M.²The Nation. for example. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. ELIOT.VERBS.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²W. In English.²AGASSIZ. as. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.²GIBBON. ARNOLD. Collective noun of singular meaning. Such. Singular verb. was the earliest American land. without academies.. as. then. Singulars connected by or or nor. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. A broad and loose rule. 439. Another writer might. and the following illustrations prove it.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.

three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. for example. but each one emphatic. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²GOLDSMITH. the cheap defense of nations. that of a large town.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. but considered as meaning about the same thing. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. a cruel disappointment. or considered as appositional. A fever. ADAMS. as. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²WHITTIER.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. No. ²EMERSON.²GIBBON. Between ourselves.²BURKE. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. (4) When the subject is plural in form. as. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. seems at the moment unpaid loss. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. and other singulars of plural form. nor Mahomet. or as making up one general idea.² Politics is the only field now open for me. for example.² The unbought grace of life. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. a loss of wealth.Jesus is not dead. nor Paul.²DE QUINCEY.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. nor John. other names.²EMERSON . (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. and every four hours.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. a loss of friends. a mutilation. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²J.² GOLDSMITH. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. Q. Plural form and singular meaning.²CRITIC. is gone.² In a word.

was listened to for five hours. as well as the Drama. an impassioned countenance. as. an agitated gesture. For wide is heard the thundering fray. was punished. Then comes the "Why. in a judge.²PRESCOTT.² .²ID.²SCOTT. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. nay. no. every boor.²LONGFELLOW. was like to crack. Every week. the ruin. and greaves. as well as Europe. There is a moving tone of voice. 441. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. The oldest.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.²RUSKIN. Here is no ruin. each. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²ID. the partisan. a cuirass. sir!"²MACAULAY. does not take the place of the man. Every sound. no discontinuity. no spent ball.² There is a right and a wrong in them. the fine gentleman. with death. thus. no matter if the second is plural). the wit. wineBegins to stir itself. sir?" and the "No. many a. Subjects after the verb.The rout. is a man of wit. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²NEWMAN. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. and such like adjectives. almost every day. Every fop.² Asia. a gorget.²MACAULAY.²M ARNOLD.²PRESCOTT. Plural verb.²EMERSON.The author. Her back. as well as the newest. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²BUTLER.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. every valet. every echo. as. sir!" and the "What then. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. To receive presents or a bribe. the dismay.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²MACAULAY. as well as sides.²HAWTHORNE. The Epic. was dazzled. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.

far away thy children leave the land. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. are sufficient to attract a colony. Conjunction omitted.² A multitude go mad about it. 440 (5. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²DE QUINCEY. The conjunction may be omitted. shirt. His clothes. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²GIBBON.²EMERSON. of whom there were a number.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²FROUDE. making up a plural subject. The travelers. as. a stream of fresh water. A shady grove.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.² One or two of these perhaps survive. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²COLERIDGE.²ADDISON. as. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. b). .²B. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. for example. Philip of Anjou.²GOLDSMITH. the Duke of Berri. as with a subject of plural form.² GIBBON. The Dauphin. All our household are at rest. but the verb is plural. TAYLOR. its date.²FRANKLIN. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. Far.²SWIFT.²SCOTT.These bits of wood were covered on every square.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²FROUDE. were men of insignificant characters.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. A party of workmen were removing the horses. a green pasture. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²THOREAU. as in Sec.

AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. ." "She or you may be sure. "I have never said so. 444. for example. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. General usage.). "You would not be wiser. the subject being really equivalent to we.But notice the construction of this. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. nor should I. When the subjects. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. If there is only one person in the subject. that is. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.²BYRON. hadst been my lord.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²WHITTIER. of different persons. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²D. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. 442. his blood dost shed.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Pattison or I have said." or. Ah.²ROWE. Not Altamont. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.²GOLDSMITH. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. nor has she"). we never talk politics.²RUSKIN. Exceptional examples.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. "He or I can go." etc. as. You and I are tolerably modest people. Second or third and first person in the subject. but thou. This construction is at the best a little awkward. the verb takes the construction of the first person. 443. ARNOLD. but thou.²LOWELL.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²SMOLLETT.²M. Nothing which Mr. You and I are farmers. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. WEBSTER. Not I.

²MILTON. 2. In the following sentence. How each of these professions are crowded. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²ID.² TROLLOPE.Her course to intercept. 4. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. Exercise. as illustrated above (Secs. 11. nor tree. Neither of their counselors were to be present. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²EMERSON. 10. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. 7. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²ADDISON. Also in verbals.²G. nor bush are there.²BURKE." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²BYRON. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. BANCROFT.That neither of their intellects are vast. as we would hope.²THACKERAY. 3. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²ADDISON. Both death and I am found eternal.²and. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 5.445. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. In this sentence from Defoe. which it is proper to mention. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²SMOLLETT. 12. 446. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. In a word. 8. in my opinion.²perhaps the devil. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. 9. Nor wood. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . Neither of them.²SCOTT. 440-444):² 1. 6. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).

if not. But I found I wanted a stock of words.. 447. change them to a better form:² 1. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²FRANKLIN 6. 448. I gave one quarter to Ann.. It should be remarked. Of course. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. meaning.²IRVING.²DE QUINCEY 2. to have seen should be changed to to see. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. for exact connection. Definitions. Indirect discourse means reported speech. Two samples of indirect discourse. W. Exercise.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. as. on my return. Direct discourse²that is.² PALGRAVE 5. The present rule is recent. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.²R. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. however. 3.²KINGSLEY. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise." . CHURCH. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.²MACAULAY. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²THACKERAY. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. to have divided with her whatever might remain.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. 4.

introductory verb is in the past tense. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. "Oh. Oh. under interrogative pronouns. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. This includes the auxiliaries be. Direct. Her prudence whispered eternally. and the indirect question by whether or if. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. 449.." Indirect. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. She thought to herself." etc. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. . the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. or regular interrogatives. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead." etc. Summary of the expressions. Direct. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. have. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. His exact words were. Sebastian's.. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. etc.. interrogative adverbs.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. "I cannot oblige you . will.. 1. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. 2. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. The substance of his lamentation was.

my first observation will be found nearly true. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. with his crew of the Half-moon. 450. like distant peals of thunder. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. handed down from his ancestor the historian. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. .²ID. VERBALS. if this were expanded into a verb. PARTICIPLES. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works.²GOLDSMITH. FRANKLIN.²ADDISON. one summer afternoon.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. the sound of their balls. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.²B. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. the first discoverer of the river and country." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact.Exercise. in the sentences first quoted. Careless use of the participial phrase. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. and that he himself had heard. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Notice this. The trouble is. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land.

That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them..²SCOTT. 451. while defended or excused by others. .. my first collection was...² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. many things to be carefully considered. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. avoid it. the first sentence would be. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. Standard writers often use it. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress.. In the following citations. . INFINITIVES. 2. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. 3. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. It is a solemn. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.Correction. either "As I was pleased. Adverb between to and the infinitive.²LAUGHLIN. leaving the principal statement as it is. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.² HERBERT SPENCER. Exercise. if a strike is to succeed. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. There are.²RUSKIN. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. and often.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. purposely or not. For example.²ID. universal assertion. then." Exercise. This is the more common arrangement. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea ." etc.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject.

but they are often removed from the exact position. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. No. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²GOLDSMITH. when such adverbs as only. etc.² MACAULAY.²The Nation. 11. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. 7. and earthenware. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. from Irving. 10. if they modify single words. china. Position of only. 6.²SCOTT. even. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. etc.. which consists in multitude.²ID.²DR. but cannot misunderstand the thought. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .²RUSKIN. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. but it is placed before the infinitive. The rigid rule in such a case would be.4. etc. therefore. 5. Now. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 1533. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. is to be very cautiously admitted. In works of art. 13. 12. BLAIR. 9.²BURKE. this kind of grandeur.² ADDISON. are used. I wish the reader to clearly understand. ADVERBS. even. Exercise. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.²TROLLOPE.. The spirits. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. 8. A little sketch of his. 452. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.

11. My master. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²COOPER.²SWIFT. He shouted in those clear.1.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. . P.²SYDNEY SMITH. 9.²ID. 5. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 14. 12. ²ASCHAM.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. During the whole course of his administration.²THACKERAY. No sonne.²MACAULAY. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²ID. might not marry.²CHAUCER. for example. He could only afford to keep one old horse. to avoid a crowd.²PALGRAVE. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²RUSKIN. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 453. were he never so old of yeares. WILLIS. 2. In relating these and the following laws. 15. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 7. His last journey to Cannes. 8.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²ID. 17. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.² THACKERAY. 3. 13. 16. GROTE. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. The old usage.²N. whence he was never destined to return.²EMERSON. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. In Old and Middle English. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. 6. Irving could only live very modestly.²MRS.²MOTLEY.²HIGGINSON. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 4. 10.

one of the negatives is often a prefix.²LOWELL. etc. nor the grandeur of no king. 7. as. STOWE. But. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.²MRS. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. Regular law of negative in modern English. however. if two negatives are found together."²four negatives.²HAWTHORNE. Not only could man not acquire such information. 4. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. ²PAGE. and is still kept in vulgar English."²MRS.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. uncommon. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. can so agreeably affect. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. 3. This. The prosperity of no empire. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. who hadn't been to school for nothing.²GROTE. In the execution of this task. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. Therefore. 6. as infrequent. There weren't no pies to equal hers. in Ole Virginia. However. nor never shall. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. 5. is not common. the usual way of regarding the question now is.²BAYNE. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.²BURKE. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect.²DEFOE.² HAMILTON. but ought not to labor after it. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. . and why:² 1. I did not act so hastily. In the latter case.²DE QUINCEY. STOWE. when one of the negatives is a connective. I never did see him again. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. Exercise. Exceptional use. under the influence of Latin syntax. 2.²HOLMES. neither. denying each other.

but." both of the above requirements are violated." said the King. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. but (also). there we were. or to reply to it. and. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.²SCOTT.." Besides neither ..²PRESCOTT. even neither . if the second precedes a phrase. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical." .8. CONJUNCTIONS. either. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.. the first should also. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever.. or with advantage. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. Things to be watched. should be scrutinized. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.. or. as well as of the pronoun. not merely . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. neither .. if the last precedes a verb. Choice and proper position of correlatives.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. as the use of the conjunction. The sentence. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. 454. either ." may be changed to "This loose ... the first ought to be placed before a verb."²SCOTT..²LOWELL... And who. especially both . but to their own safety.. or to reply to it. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. Correction. nor is often changed to not²either . In the sentence. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. "A weapon.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. not or is the proper correlative of neither. or.. not only ... 455. not only to the success of their common cause.. and which. nor.. The sentences given in Secs. "well worthy to confer honor.

not merely interest children. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 456. O. and I don't know but what he was right. 8.²THACKERAY. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. 7. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 5.²THACKERAY. substitute that.²ID. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. JEWETT. as. In the following sentences. but. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Now. or but that. Try and for try to. but grown-up persons. Some exceptions. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. 6. as. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 3. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²RUSKIN. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²GIBBON. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. but.²FRANKLIN. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Exercise. Try and avoid the pronoun. 457. . etc. They will. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. But what. 4. too. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. murder.² ADDISON. and chop up their own kin.²MACAULAY. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²S.Exercise. but they will outrage. 2. or the negative relative but.²BAIN. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.²GOLDSMITH. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son.

²EMERSON. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.² BULWER.2.²ADDISON.²TROLLOPE. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.²BURKE. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. 313. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. see Sec. Between and among. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 6. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 305. PREPOSITIONS. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.²ADDISON. as already seen in Sec.²SCOTT. 3. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Between is used most often with two things only. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. 459. 4. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.²EMERSON. 458. 5. no separation or division by twos being implied.² SWIFT. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. .

Such are derogatory. Such are absolve.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Two groups or one and a group. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. as. 461. and Coleridge. correspond. Affinity between. Averse to. confer. or one object and a group. Kant. Abhorrent to. Accord with. Some of them have. different.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. and another to convey a different meaning. Bestow on (upon).²KINGSLEY. LIST I. and philosophers like Locke. . Comply with. Different from. Acquit of. ²EMERSON. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Derogatory to. involve. and Stewart.: Words with particular prepositions. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. averse. Paley. etc. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. as.²RUSKIN What have I. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Dissent from. Conversant with. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Dependent on (upon). between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. a soldier of the Cross. List I. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Conform to. 460. Mackintosh.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. by custom.

as. Agree to (a proposal). Change to (become)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. List II.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Confide in (trust in). Change with (a person). . "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). 463. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. as meaning to be in keeping with. Correspond with (write to). Differ from (note below). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Independent of. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. A taste of (food). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Differ with (note below). as. Reconcile to (note below).). Correspond to (a thing). but it is not good usage. as. A taste for (art. Reconcile with (note below). etc." also of persons. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Involve in. Change for (a thing)." List III.y y y Deprive of.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Confer on (upon) (give to). in the sense of making friends with. LIST III. LIST II. Confide to (intrust to). and sometimes creeps into standard books. Confer with (talk with). "The king is reconciled to his minister. 462.

One of them said he would die for her.:² "Die of.²BURNETT. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. Who.²GOLDSMITH. It would take me long to die of hunger.²FIELDING." (material cause. die of. People do not die of trifling little colds.²MACAULAY. simply from old age. and ill treatment. died for love of the fair Marcella. If I meet with any of 'em. "Die from. "Die for. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread." She would have been ready to die with shame.²GOLDSMITH.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.y y y Die by. they shall die by this hand.²G.²ADDISON.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. die with. expect from. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. Take thought and die for Cæsar." etc.²POPE. die for.²G.²SCOTT. die from. privation.²BULWER." (in behalf of)." "die from. ELIOT. He died at last without disease. ELIOT. as Cervantes informs us. No one died from want at Longfeld.²SHAKESPEARE.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. It is a man of quality who dies for her. ²ATHENÆUM. Illustrations of "die of. Part from. . "Die by." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. ²THACKERAY. "Die for." (because of). part with. "Die with. She died of hard work.²BOSWELL." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. Expect of. instrument). I am positively dying with hunger. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.

With words implying behavior or disposition. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²BULWER. "Part from.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. I have long expected something remarkable from you. either of or in is used indifferently. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. ELIOT. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²MARRYAT. It was a little bad of you.²G. I part with all that grew so near my heart. ELIOT.²SCOTT. Of Doctor P. Illustrations of "expect of. and hated to part with them.²G.²MACAULAY." "expect from:"² "Expect of. 464. I have just seen her. That is more than I expected of you. just parted from her. "Expect from. His precious bag. 465.²G. Illustrations of "part with." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²SHAW.²TROLLOPE.²BULWER. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. as my friend. nothing better was to be expected. 466. ELIOT. .²WALLER.²DICKENS." She will expect more attention from you." "part from:"² "Part with. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. I can part with my children for their good. kind of you." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. Kind in you.²MACAULAY.²WALPOLE.²AUSTEN." To part from you would be misery.²POE. which he would by no means part from.

with seraphims. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. Thou tread'st.²BULWER. tedious perhaps. Very natural in Mr. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 10. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. In. raging storms. 6. 9. and ran up the alley. or artillery. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 1. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. 4. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 15. the vast abyss. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 11. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. .²CARLYLE. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 8.²TENNYSON. or which we are most imperatively required to do. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. it is commonly said that his profits are high. Hampden. nor green. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 7. 13.²BULWER. but which the story renders necessary. nor blue. 5. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 3. This narrative. thrown it over Amyas's head. The noise of vast cataracts. 14.He did not think it handsome of you. But this is idle of you. In the friction between an employer and workman. or that they are any way dependent on each other. thunder.²DICKENS. nor yellow.²BEACONSFIELD. nor of a pale red. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.

and most of us do know. That night every man of the boat's crew. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. were down with raging fever.) 34. When the glass or liquor are transparent. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 28. 37. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. you or me. 17. the acquiescence of the understanding. 26. save Amyas. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 36. and almost as good as a pony. 411. 33. 20. 23.I would wish me only he. triangles. Every one of these letters are in my name. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. what is a just and unjust act. . 24. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. Squares. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. and other angular figures. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. The effect of proportion and fitness. 19. 27. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 32. (Sec. 31. Friday. 29. 38. 18. 16. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. but in the price paid to them.And were I anything but what I am. or how beautiful it is. You have seen Cassio and she together. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 35. 21. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. But every man may know. produce approbation. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 25. 30. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 22.

of. 20. nominative. article. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 116. pronouns. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 47. Adjectives. as. from about 1500 to the present time. of. 25. as comparison definition demonstrative. voice. of. adverbs used complements. demonstrative. 119. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 124.000 between them.39. 98. 40. 107. INDEX. . nouns. (2) Middle English. A. syntax uses Absolute. numeral. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 89. of. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. adjectives. 91. Abstract with Active Address. 260. 310. He had four children. 102. 133. of. 90. (3) Modern English. 47. origin of. 124. from nominative clauses. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 92. 239.

103. 195. 191. 115. 183. plural pronominal. of. 114. conjunctions. . 287. parse. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 104. 291. of. 194. compared. 97. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. nouns. 194. 325. 109. 328. predicate. between of. 303. adjectives. as nouns. 190. antecedent. 303. 262. antecedent. 207. and 185. to used of. clauses. 116. 187. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 242. 239. of. 148. of. Agreement. from to of. objective. 302. 106. Alms. 99. 42. Against. with with with subject. infinitive. 323. 207. of. 275. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. modify. 101. quantity. 27. 116. conjunction.from function how in not of of ordinal. nouns. 27. 316. quality. 48. of. 325. 184. sentence. adjectives. adjectives. parse. 190.

Agreement. 79. derivation in definite. which. to of. of. A. 252. sentences. 231. of. definition of of of Any. 207. 296. uses As At. 198. 120. 271. 295. of. sentences. 309. See 74. 120. 287. 47. 67. syntax As. 49. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. of. which. See with definition complex compound simple who. pronouns. parse. 208. it.Among. in in. definition how indefinite. after of. 294. words between. 225. 124. . adjective. syntax. 127. 300. of and pronoun of. 240. 51. Auxiliary if. 275. 331. 101. of of of And Antecedent. 264. 90. Anacoluthon Analysis. 84. An. 67. of. which. Are. and. though. agreement personal as pronoun. as uses verbs. 74. same. 150. sentences. possessive. 148. Arrangement Articles.

Brethren. uses of. 279. comparison conjugation of. of what. 66. 195.Bad. See of. 84. 62. 46. 283. 46. objective. 194. 149. number of. of nouns. of. of nouns. syntax of. 48. with But By. uses nominative of. 45. 49. 224. of. of nouns. Case. of nouns. 262. Case. plurals of. 47. 111. definition could. adverb. 279. pronoun. 110. 110. 37. conjunctions Cherub. 210. . Between. 278. 39. of pronouns. But. 278. 161. Be. Cause. 54. 63. adjective. in Old and Modern English. of pronouns. of pronouns. forms. 150. uses Better. double possessive. 262. 39. Bridegroom. 330. best. clauses of. possessive. Clause. Children. Can. of. 260. of pronouns. 64. nominative. Among.

271. of. 257. nouns. 263.definition kinds noun. 189. 43. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. subject. of. 248. 111. of. 110. 158. clothes. 244. 268. 264. sentence. 53. of. 18. 305. 257. 257. 312. . 43. proper. material. 108. Cloths. predicate of and from from of. 157. verb. 307. double. adverbs. 23. analysis of. 107. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. 307. of. English. defective. of. 113. predicate. 239. adjectives. and forms of. in analysis. 315. 18. nouns. and sentence. superlative. infinitive. 258. 12. 24. of. of. nouns. plural of. Clomb. Cleave. 108. definition degrees irregular.

194. 289. 195. 149. See analysis clauses. conjunction. pronouns. 73. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 263. pronoun. 194. and clause. See in subjunctive. 139. 196. pronoun. adverbs. 66. 151. conjunctions. correlative. 207. 195. 328. parse. replaced by objective. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. Agreement. 149. verbs.with Concord. conjunctions. 231. subjunctive. Conjunctions. 193. coördinate. 194. same words. 255. of of Conjunctions. to of. . sentences. 188. sentences. in Old vs. analysis. of. interrogative pronouns. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 199. definition how subordinate. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 143. 138. definition be. other other parts of speech. See English. Can. sentence. 269. of.

pronouns. nouns. 35. with. 99. 90. nouns. 60. of. passive adjectives. 242. 315.Declension. pronouns. 80. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. Comparison. from. discourse. Case. with of. 160. 43. verb. See 148. by. 152. adverbs See adjectives. Degrees. 102. 320. Articles. See adjectives. 300. 51. 288. vs. comparative. 303. 102. 26. . of personal relative verbs. clause. possessive. use of dies. 185. duck. pronouns. 242. See See 48. 333. object. 91. for. tenses. of. of. 287. Subordinate clause. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. of. article. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. indirect. pronouns. Comparative.

38. 51. pronoun. Empress. drunk. 92. Each. vulgar. one ( t).Drank. literary. 40. 299. Either. plural. complement. 234. adjective. of. of. ending. of. predicate. 92. other. 158. 42. 241. . object. 92. 34. conjunction. 90. 12. original. 300. of. another. -En. 110. 62. adjective. 90. 240. possessive suffix. 102. added suffix. of. 255. 194. in 'Em. 158. syntax Each Eat Eaves. error in sentence. 112. pronouns. 280. older. pronoun. 33. 39. 32. the of sentence. of. 328. 287. 257. to suffix. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. suffix. 287. 33. feminine plural English. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. Elements Ellipsis. of subject. spoken.

of. as a noun. 212. Gender. uses redundant. 112. nouns. have adjective. Future Future tense. Further." 31. etc. to of. first. gender. 103. 112. 30. 29. 152. See Gander. used of. 32. 152. of. . object. other languages. as of from compared marking. 238. two. definition distinguished in English. plurals. etc.. two a further. with infinitive. First Fish. 189. 147. For. of. uses Foreign Former. 102. 235. the. 319. 148. 102. perfect. 126. few.. adjective. 287. expect gone. 91. 36. with in sex. 48. 308. First. 43. Farther. Few. 212. 30. from. modes "common goose. 45.Every. fishes. 334. 211. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. Feminine. 30. 110. From. pronoun.

10. 13. 35. Government. He. 61. of. Gerund. 175. 159. 12. definition basis of. 61. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. noun. from participle of. 231. participle. Got. and case verbal with. definition divisions opinions province H. of. it. 60. had hung. of. 36. His Husband. possessive pronouns. 9. . 101. its. rather. 80. forms in Girl. 275. 12. for before. 177. 285. kinds of. 43. 159. adjective. first sentence. she. personal relative geniuses. 60. person. distinguished syntax. an better. 120. Grammar. pronoun. I.of of Genii. of. pronouns. 144. Had Hanged. 173. 176. on. 145.

questions.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 323. Direct object. 233. of. 188. 276. sentence. adverbs. 131. . in compared syntax. of clause. meaning. verbs. use article. 72. questions. pronoun. transitive. 85. pronouns. 93. indices. with of. your. a object. of. 176. summary See passive mood. 248. 227. 153. 110. mood. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 73. 178. words. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 319. adjectives. 67. Questions. uses discourse. 257. 131. 283. 320. 231. of. See you. 105. indirect of. 136. 43. 245. of. adjectives. See Articles. elements.

36. 36." history etc.. subject form. Lay. 113. of. Lay. 39. lesser. 12. of. 303. 126. predicate. Last. 245. 63. King. 226. It. and See words in. lord. 190. 36. Logic Logical Lord. plural. 67. adjective.. 276. 110. Latter. 113. 61. was uses me. English. Lady. -Ly. Lie. lie. Kine. . Like. 110. Lady. uses Literary Little. 91.adverbs. of. 189. a vs. 227. syntax the. "It Its. Less. latest. these double kind. etc. 102. pronoun. See Madam. of. 281. 170. Kind. in little. syntax. queen.

. 112. adjective. of. etc. syntax conjunction. 110. double. subjunctive. 114. 137-144. Neither. of.Manner. Enlargement. 113. 36. in adverbs comparison a. 188. 187. might. 325. 102. 265. 328. position adverb. 189. 110. sentences. of. 126. indicative. 112. 195. Mood. 64. construction as of adverb. Master. Modifier. 144. Means. 326. imperative. out of. -Most. mine. Mighty Mine. May. 189. of. of. Negative. 160. Modifiers. 137. 112. . Must. of. 287. Much. 185. conjunctions Many. syntax nearer. 256. mistress. nigh. 135. 161. comparison Near. 34. superlatives. Many Mapping Mare. See definition 136. of. 194. 110. of. 41.

17 19. of. words how compound. to use. 19. of. 246. 27. Case. 42. half abstract. 21. 258. etc. syntax in gender nouns. 32. foreign. in. Nor. 25. 328. of. of. 125. to of. kinds 90. of. gender how kinds material. become neuter. of of of of of a. abstract. number once other plural. and figures. etc. See 194. 17. proper. 20. 56. parse.pronoun. 30. 45. 92. 301. nouns. formed. 126. analysis. used as. 124. of. 30. 17. 46. No Nominative. abstract. 41. 30. 29. 26. 41 43. clause. class used singular. syntax Neuter or two News. letters as 24. 300. of. 41. 18. become become formation case collective. now plural. None. gender nouns. definition according of. 38. common. . definition descriptive. nouns. 25. 46. material. 38-41. Not Noun Nouns.

121. indirect. 102. 41. pronouns. singular. etc.of same two with proper. See verb. as forms titles. 48. 41. 18. adjectives. 240. 282. of. 66. 43. . 101. conjunction. 281. article. 106. personal. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. plural no two singular construction. meanings. 235. Nouns. 279. become syntax use with with with Nouns. pronouns. and analysis. with with with Now Number. 39. 285. 242. plural form. 196. of different possessive definite of. 48. spoken of instead nouns. Numeral Object. nominative. 124. definite. common. 101. 278.. 195. of. in article. adverbial. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 42 44. singular. 278. 60. of. See in in in Numeral distributive. adjectives. of. 48. 148. indefinite. 92. 42. plural. 48. meaning. 41. 42. passive adverbial. with case. dative. form. 23. or plural. verbs. 242. English. preposition. Preposition. of. of. in nouns. 48.

161. with (the). 93 other. 194. 199. 233. Older. as other. 237. 191. 103. articles. position Order. of. See the as of. pronoun. inverted. 38. ours. adverb. 127. 87. uses numeral pronoun. as of. definite relative uses of. of. 56. for. Omission On. 64. 216. adverbs. 101. 213. Parsing. part analysis. conjunction. Our. of upon. 279. of of of of of models adjectives. 41. Oxen. 117. adjective. of syntax. another. 306. Each adjective. nouns. a in adjectives. . 94. 103. Elder. 115. 293. 325 275.syntax Of. conjunctions. indefinite possessive One One as Only. See pronoun. Pains. One. 69. 56. treatment comparatives. 116. Ordinal Other Ought. of. Ourself. 91.

177. speech. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 148. parsed. absolute with of. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 335. 56. 61. with. pronoun. 180. of. 317. 69. of. of. 62. 172. 219. part adjective. reflexive. 134. verbs. relatives. nominative. or of. 174. 59. of. 56. used as voice. 173. Person. 100. of.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. pennies. 247. . 287. 28. of. phrases. 64. -ing words. 322. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. pronouns. from definition other of. 43. 119. 80. included various. 179. 181. in. predicate use of. 172. pronouns. 27. them. antecedent. phrase. verbals. 95. 62. verbs. article 150. 59. verb idioms it from. 43. and subject in. 59. agreement of verb nouns. possessive and of. 63. not is. Pence. pease. of. 281. 70.

participial. 53. 25. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 278. spoken of. double. 54. in of.objective syntax table triple uses of. 41. 67. 245. English. conjunctions prepositions Plural. it. 64. relative. vs. or See of of See 185. Personification. 206. of. omitted. 63. adjectives. 285. of. 51. adverbs of. antecedent of of pronouns. 232. of. 37. 52. appositional. noun nouns. 245. prepositional. 236. syntax of of Politics. 303. plural. of. 241. singular degree. as double. simple. 195. nouns. Comparison. Nouns. 247. See 60. 278. nouns. singular. 60. pronouns. 61. of. of. 106. kinds infinitive. Positive Possessive. . pronoun. 's. 49. 235. 281. 247. 236. 50. complete. pronoun. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. of. 281. nouns. Place. 188. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 303. of Phrase. objects. 53. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 248. Personal subjective. of. of nouns.

and one with else's. forms of. as 54. 58. 283. adjective. of. 279. Pronouns. 207. adverb. of. 300. parse. 105. of. interrogative. any. what. 104. objective. another. speech. 95. 93. 282. parse. exclamatory. 284. plural. verbs. possessive nominative to of. as. words. expressed as other of. 32. interrogative. 301. future. 332. case. 186. singular usually other. 59. 287. 205. 281. of. 300. same used as adjectives. 208. 132. Prepositions. 333. all. 280. 58. 202. by parts of of.Prefixes. plural. 203. and form form form form of. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 64. 219. 187. 283. case. somebody definition how indefinite. of. in exclamations. 105. of. who personal. 302. 203. 285. of. objective. after but. 129. none. 303. each either. 72. 195. neither. for predicate nominative. 89. 206. . after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. by. meaning. 331. as antecedent of relative. usually to as than. by with shown certain of. plural. 147. 299. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. with tense certain.

Questions. with who. of. 80. agreement anacoluthon and as.possessive relative. Quantity. questions. 74. pronouns. 279. 105. of. Direct same and different. use of history formed. 74. which after same. who. and antecedent. 263. Rank. 68. adverbs in. 189. 295. Quotations. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. same antecedent. 296. See of. 142. conjunctions Quality. 84. of. from and interrogative. 195. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 297. 291. and relatives. 69. to of. of. of. 87. of. 74. in. personal pronoun. discourse. 101. 87. 58. 99. 289. 85. parse. pronominal pronouns indirect. with with gerund. or of. in. of. 295. unrestrictive. use in as. 188. 69. of. which. of. Nouns. indirect compound. Rather. indirect. 293. 286. 289. 293. 83. 85. and which. . clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. pronoun. nouns. that. in.

69. simple of. See Sentences. 162. 195. would. 231. definition . that. 74. 40. and should. in of. 42. 159. of. Simple in sate. ending. of. conjunction. pronoun. 196. complex. conjunctions Retained Riches.syntax use Result. 255. suffix. Self Sentences. who. of. 252. 263. Shear. plural possessive as. 231. 294. elliptical. 196. of. 43. tenses. 'S. in form. effect. 26 271. which. of of of complex Sentences. S. 289. Seeing. Shot. kinds Sequence Set. 51. 259. Sex Shall. simple. object. reflexive analysis of compound. sentence. 29. clauses of. Same Sat. 170. 319. 159. will. of sit. forms shots. gender. 242.

Spelling Spinster. names as a. 144. 126. 233. -es. See -En. 260. Modern use becoming else's. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 257. literary clause. English. sort. of. of. logical. of. 38. Subject.. to of. -en. 245. 138. adverb. 237. of. for. other Such Such Suffix -s. 257. 303. of. . 32. these number. disuse in spoken complete. used mood. 186. definition how kinds noun. 137. 12. Split Spoken -Ster. etc. of. 323. distinguish.Singular Sir. 257. 240. adverb. 33. 33. English. in feminine suffix. 262. 36. English. 258. 303. as. 169. 270. phonetic in infinitive. 258. 258. definition 67. Somebody Sort. 144. English. 257. 245. of. 38. in Middle English. verbs. vs.

article. me. 88. meaning. 306. of. of . adverbs. 116. not suggesting adjectives. as adverbs. 289. two basis not same definition definite. which. 307. 147. of. 106.. 123. classical of. of. "the then foreign. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. as history The. king. 147. meaning made up in Old of. of. subject. syntax of. Kind. they. . in double. object. that uses That. restrictive. in comparison. 120." introductory. English. See etc. 297. 275. 275. 309. English. in Modern number sequence table Than That. degree. 33. this. 148. 280. 119. Then. coördinating. of languages. of. omission whom. 87. 277. 319. 106. definition in English Tense. of. 147. There These kind. 222. 107. 290. plural as adverb. 152. Tenses.Suffixes.. 61. when as of. of. than of. 189.. form. when relative. auxiliaries. 186. adjectives. of. as history syntax Their. 108. and and of. 109. 186. 191. 306. objects.

248. Time. exclamations. uttermost. 217.These. words. 180. 114. try two. 176. certain as the before with of. preposition. 61. of. gerund. from cleft to 174. 207. in omitted uses T'other. thee. See That. of. See On. suffix. parse. Upper. of. conjunctions prepositions To. 322. 128. analysis. 175. phrases. 33. how infinitive. used. carelessly uses syntax this. 181. kinds participle. 114. 172. uses of. 175. 172. 21. 175. 247. 330. in of. -ing 111. Upon. first adjective. tother.. -Trix. first. 308. 20. 119. of. of. to. of. Utter. of. 185. etc. verbs. thy. feminine and. other noun. 173. 195. 188. . Thou. infinitive. adverbs those. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. Try Two Under. 322. infinitive. 114. 323. uses history of.

active meaning. 133. 160. 149. becoming irregular. 167. in indirect discourse. 39. 159. of. 151. transitive and intransitive. 157. table of irregular. 312-316. 148. 133. 330. spelling of. phonetic. 134. definition of. formed by. mood of. . Vocative in Voice. verbs by. 320. 317. verbs.Verbs. 169. 167. 148. change. 130. 47. of. sequence of. weak. passive. 150. of English. syntax of. analysis. 155. active. with subject in number. 131. regular. but uses what. 135. in person. 223. strong. how to parse. voice of. 154. 12. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. definition of. 154. auxiliary. past tense formed nominative. defective. intransitive. agreement of. 154. passive form. 33. 179. 169. made transitive. 236. 147. tense of. 129. person and number of. Vixen. remarks on certain. 245. 242. definition of. 319. conjugation of. retained object with passive. table of. What. of incomplete predication. 312.

wizard. 72. 40. direct of. 296. in -ly. With. conjunction. pronoun. questions. pronoun. 178. a. relative. 36. 85. 83. Words in Worse. Whether. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 105. 37. of. Will. Wife. 72. whereto.. Y. plural of in nouns -ing. relative indirect relative. 75. Yes ending analysis. of.what Whereby. uses See Shall. 72. questions. 79. 295-299. 78. English. 32. Woman. 299. 77. antecedent adjective. referring syntax Widower. questions. in in indefinite objective. . interrogative Which. Witch. etc. would. spoken in of. worser. in. 75. 246. 36. 104. 126. 190. 105. 83. 73. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 85. 85. questions. 111. Who. relative. 218. animals. 194.

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