roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

Mental training. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. their forms. is worthy of serious study. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). so that a small grammar will hold them all. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). "Analysis. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words." and "Syntax. This will take in the usual divisions. Making rules is risky. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. it will at the same time. Coming back. to those who have studied the language historically. It is also evident. from the question. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. if rightly presented. Surely our noble language. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question.The province of English grammar is." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. An æsthetic benefit. A broader view. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. assist the classification of kindred expressions. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. then. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. there is still much for the grammarian to do. . Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. as compared with Latin or Greek. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. its peculiar and abundant idioms. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. as. Authority as a basis. with its enormous vocabulary. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests." What grammar is. The work it will cover. Literary English. If. however. and their uses and relations in the sentence. but this is bad English now. Few inflections. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. and thus incite his observation. rightly considered.

1. Part II. and the word nation stands for a whole group. the nation is free. . The words state. and will are evidently names of a different kind. In the more simple state of the Arabs. The plainest name is Arabs. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. but. that is. three divisions:² Part I. or standard. The Uses of Words. then. besides this one. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Such words are called nouns. The Parts of Speech. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. reference will be made to vulgar English.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. too. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. NOUNS. not objects. and may belong to any of those objects. Part III. Spoken English. PART I. as they stand for ideas.²GIBBON.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. Occasionally.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. which belongs to a people. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. from the eighteenth century on. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. The following pages will cover. submission. by which is meant the free. or Syntax. the words sons and master name objects. Analysis of Sentences. and Inflections. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. Vulgar English.

but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. or a council. Abstract. Classes of nouns.Definition. 2. is from a Latin word which means general. possessed by all. Common. representing directly to the mind an object. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. or the man in front of you. We may say. 5. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. a committee. . The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. For instance. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. the man here. or a mob. place. substance. MATERIAL. Collective. (a) 4. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. men in groups may be called a crowd. This does not imply. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. or thing. and appropriate names to the groups. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. however. Name for a group or collection of objects. etc. A noun is a name word. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Besides considering persons. but Chicago names one city. as here used. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. Proper. the name of each is an individual or proper name. belonging to one. animals. They properly belong under common nouns. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. reducing it to a narrow application. Thus. (b) Common. Thus. and things separately. animals. we may think of them in groups. 3. whether person. Name for any individual of a class. because each group is considered as a unit. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. or things. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Individual. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. ATTRIBUTE. or a congress. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. or idea.

. instead of to each individual or separate object. as in calling a city Cincinnati. platinum. Such are glass. They remain common class names. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. etc. When we speak of a wise man. we speak of the wisdom of the man. etc. proof means the act of proving. etc." "a man of understanding. iron. sugar. rice. world. NOTE. wheat. and so on. . wine. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. mist. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. snow. gold. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. or that which shows a thing has been proved. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. rubber. 7.Names for things thought of in mass. potash. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron." 9. but it is taken merely as a name. etc. and fasten a special name to the object considered. moon. rock. not things. "Painting is a fine art. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. dew. etc. frost. etc. stone. Words naturally of limited application not proper. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). expressing state. or action. soap. It may. we may say. tea. granite. but which are not called proper names. there is no such intention. earth. The reason is. paint. frost. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. sand. condition. earth. Abstract nouns are names of qualities." "Learning is hard to acquire. expressing attributes or qualities. or actions. (3) Geological bodies: mud. Again. or apart from their natural connection. conditions. Names of ideas. etc. such as sun. sugar. etc. 6. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. clay. rain. considered abstractly. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. but in the words sun. The quality is still there as much as before. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. . If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. however. wheat. celluloid.²There are some nouns. cloud. (4) Natural phenomena: rain.

ease. the teachings of the High Spirit. and they cannot express action. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. They cannot govern a word. 10. as glad²joy. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. joy. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. hope.Attribute abstract nouns. (2) peerage from peer. 12. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. lightning. her longing for their favor. NOTE. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. "a long run" "a bold move. is used as a noun. speech from speak. he spread his blessings over the land. the moon caused fearful forebodings. Underived abstract nouns. as their name implies. theft from thieve. a wedding or a festival. there is time for such reasonings. etc. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. (1) prudence from prudent. To avoid difficulty. winter. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. height from high. in the beginning of his life. They are only the husks of verbs. but are merely names of actions." "a brisk walk. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. Thus. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. five abstract. service from serve. II. etc. by altering its function. as in the expressions. 273). . They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. the well-being of her subjects. Verbal abstract nouns. 272. energy. the great Puritan awakening.. Such are beauty." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. summer. kingship from king. the main bearings of this matter. those opinions and feelings. night. shadow. etc. Exercises. childhood from child. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. 1. stupidity from stupid. redness from red. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. day. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. thunder. hopeful²hope. action from act. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. Caution. The verb. five proper.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. etc. mastery from master. the rude drawings of the book.

2. Using a dictionary. mathematics? 3. as pneumonia. typhus. pleurisy. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. as physics. (b) branches of knowledge. diphtheria. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. geology. catarrh. algebra.

Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. above. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. Nouns change by use. and lo! a new system. a Locke. arras. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. the word port. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson." referring to flat- . from Calicut. from Damascus. it imposes its classification on other men.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Proper names transferred to common use. Guillotin. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Material nouns may be used as class names. but most of them are in the following groups. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. damask. the guillotine. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. from China. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. a Lavoisier. as a davy. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. a Fourier. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. thus. currants. 119). port (wine). from the name of Dr. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. a Hutton. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. in Portugal. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. who was its inventor. Sodom was famous for wickedness. from Oporto.²EMERSON. etc. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Others of similar character are calico. from a town in France. "The cook made the irons hot. levant and morocco (leather). We know a number of objects made of iron. or to go over to it entirely. but we may say. a Bentham. for example. from Corinth. 15. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. 13. 14.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS.

on fire. Class nouns in use. or made plural. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice.irons. etc. (3) By poetical use. but in case an art or a science. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. etc. purity. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. or. Traffic has lain down to rest. Personification of abstract ideas. are still names of abstract ideas. tobaccos. as stones. A halfway class of words. papers. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Death. 17. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. 16. Next Anger rushed. The words preceded by the article a. are abroad. that disposition is the thing to be created. clouds. which are made plural. a steel to whet a knife on. nor are they common class nouns.In lightnings owned his secret stings. not material things. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. clays. but differ in strength.²BRYANT. For example. but on dispositions which require to be created. Test this in the following sentences:² . This is a poetic usage. They are not then pure abstract nouns. or used as class nouns. When it is said that art differs from science. slates. that is. that the power of art is founded on fact. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. paints. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. smiled. mists. oils. and say teas. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. coals. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. abstract in meaning. his eyes.²RUSKIN. a rubber for erasing marks. candies. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind.²PERCIVAL.²BYRON. be spoken of. tins. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. the abstract idea is partly lost. and only Vice and Misery.²COLLINS.²HAYNE. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. though not confined to verse. From all around²Earth and her waters. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. and so on. These are the same in material. to prowl or to moan like night birds. or the arts and sciences.²CARLYLE.

loves. Then comes the "Why. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. nouns used to modify. however. a bank in New York. 19.²EMERSON. were mere terrors of the night. sir!"²MACAULAY . etc. By ellipses. All these." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives." which contains a pure adjective. if we must have great actions. Conjunctions. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. But ah! those pleasures. meaning a walk in the morning. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. the wealthy.²SHAKESPEARE. fear thy blow. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. And still.The Solitary can despise. for example. Adjectives. They are more like the possessive noun. NOTE. make our own so." "a morning walk.² BURNS. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. 18. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Adverbs. "a family quarrel." "a New York bank.²IRVING. which belongs to another word. sir?" and the "No. they cannot be compared. When I was young? Ah.²BURNS. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Every why hath a wherefore. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. a bill as to tax on the banks.Let us. as descriptive adjectives are." "the State Bank Tax bill. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. Nouns used as descriptive terms. But it is better to consider them as nouns.²SHAKESPEARE. or from any expression. sir!" and the "What then. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. they do not express quality.² GOLDSMITH. but is still a noun. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. or describe it. as each repeated pleasure tired.

is ambiguous. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. FRANKLIN. but as a figure of speech. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. 8. When. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. whether it mean the sun or the cold. are spoken of as if pure nouns. It is to be remembered.And Ceremony doff'd her pride."²B. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. in a sentence above. There are many of these. are used. Learning. or a criminal. too. that cobweb of the brain.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. . etc. In the other sentences. or a faithful domestic. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. Caution. of course. 5. in speaking of the principal of a school. without reference to its function in the sentence. the terms the great. why and wherefore. however. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. Power laid his rod aside." and another of Dr. but have an adjectival meaning." or "legal. Stone walls do not a prison make. 4. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words.²These remarks do not apply. The it.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. or a state secret. NOTE. 3. to such words as become pure nouns by use. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. 1. 2.Nor iron bars a cage. When. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used.. Now. is the word "just. and tell to which class each belongs. 20. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. so. Exercise. of words rather than of their meaning. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. the wealthy. 6. 7. and Then. at the beginning. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.

German. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. A little weeping would ease my heart. for every dropHinders needle and thread. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 24. and names of females are usually feminine. the welcome. returned to Spain. its bloom is shed. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. the silver moon is gone. The fleet. but not so in English. 17. Greek.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. always feminine. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 18. 16. 21. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 19. female. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 11. and many other languages. In Latin. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 21. 14. that waits you here. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. What gender means in English. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. GENDER.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.9. shattered and disabled. The hours glide by. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 10. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. always masculine. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. . Male beings are. A fool speaks all his mind. in English grammar. 13. It is founded on sex.Fair guests. 12.You seize the flower. 23. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 15. he cried. 20. 22. And see.

Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words..² IRVING. if of the female sex. Gender nouns. are named by gender nouns. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.²IRVING. those which do not distinguish sex. the sex being of no consequence. came to a stand just by the bridge. 24. but are spoken of as neuter. Some words either gender or neuter nouns.² I have seenA curious child . Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.²masculine and feminine. then.. in other languages gender follows the form.²LAMB. in German. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. and consequently without sex. Gunpowder . that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. or names of things without life. that is. das Messer (knife) is neuter. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID.. according to use. the name of it is masculine. must be divided into two principal classes. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. inanimate things are spoken of.. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. .²gender nouns. and neuter nouns." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. corpus (body) is neuter. For instance: in Latin. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. der Tisch (table) is masculine. however." . The great difference is. He next stooped down to feel the pig. All nouns. Thus. in English. if there were any signs of life in it. that pattern of a husband. or additions to words. Hence: Definition. those with which man comes in contact often.When. hortus (garden) is masculine. according to their use. or which arouse his interest most. the word child is neuter in the sentence.. mensa (table) is feminine. clapping his burnished wings. those distinguishing the sex of the object. "A little child shall lead them. 22. with its gizzard under its wing.. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. the name of it is feminine. No "common gender. Of animals. Neuter nouns. 23.

cousin. These remain in vixen and spinster. Very few of class I. is. relative. One feminine. Hence vixen is for fyxen. 29.. puts a prefix before the masculine man. 27. or the lack of it. I. II.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. etc. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Native suffixes. The inflections for gender belong. For fox they said vox. and for the older word fat they said vat. from the masculine fox. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. the division of words according to sex. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word.25. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Gender shown by Suffixes. If such words as parent. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. 28. (2) By adding a suffix. Male nouns beings. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. for from they said vram. generally to a masculine word. he-bear²she-bear. 26. . servant. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. woman. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. According to the definition. though both words have lost their original meanings. they are neuter words. as he-goat²she-goat. Gender shown by Prefixes. but spinster has now no connection with it. domestic. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. of course. as in wine vat. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. teacher. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Put in convenient form. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. ruler.

The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . Slightly changed and widely used. punster. señorita. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). gamester. and are never used for words recognized as English. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as. as seam-stress.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. song-str-ess. trickster. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. it has none now in the words huckster. the one most used. These are attached to foreign words. Low Latin issa). The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. Unaltered and little used. as.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. -ess (French esse.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. donna. 30. executrix. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as czarina. but in most cases it has not. Ending of masculine not changed.

frendesse.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. wagoness. as. Some of them have an interesting history. as. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt ." III. others have in their origin the same root. Instead of saying doctress. editor.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). 31. NOTE. chairman. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. Thus. 32. from Latin imperatricem. neighboresse. as in the fourteenth century. or servauntesse. as was said in the sixteenth century. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. we use the feminine. neighbor (masculine and feminine). from the French -esse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. to represent persons of either sex. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. Gender shown by Different Words. teacher or lady teacher. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. fosteress. teacheresse. We frequently use such words as author. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. etc. we use the masculine termination. In some of these pairs. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. the ending -ess. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also.

or lauerd in Middle English. Widower. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). though both are ultimately from the same root. widuwa²widuwe. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. 34. but this has long been obsolete. lhauerd. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. among others) to be from the same root word. finally gander. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Three letters of ened have fallen away. as in many other words. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. in Old English mere. Besides gander and drake. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. leaving our word drake. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. gand-ra. 16). It is not connected historically with our word duck. not immediately connected with witch. The older forms. Madam is the French ma dame. Icelandic gás. Witch is the Old English wicce. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Two masculines from feminines. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. became identical. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). had the masculine mearh (horse).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. from Latin mea domina. 33.). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). the old sign of the masculine. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century.² . King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Personification. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Mare. for example. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. etc. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. The masculine was formed by adding -a. written loverd. probably meaning house dweller). Danish gaas.

In nouns. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. 37. The -en inflection. Definition. (3) By adding -s (or -es). But other words were inflected afterwards."²BYRON. This is not exclusively a poetic use. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. we make its plural by adding -s or -es.²CAMPBELL."Now. for instance. 35. NUMBER. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. Our language has two numbers.Her home is on the deep. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. The first two methods prevailed. 38. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. shoon (shoes). in Old English.²KEATS. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. eyen (eyes). more than one. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.²COLERIDGE. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. 36.²singular and plural. and not by the form of the noun. whenever we adopt a new word. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. the plural.No towers along the steep. treen (trees). etc. Effect of personification. the engineer speaks so of his engine. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. Britannia needs no bulwarks. together with the third. that is. 39. . I.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. (2) By changing the root vowel.

The horse are thousands ten. wight. Other words following the same usage are. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Instead of -s. and get settled. Brethren has passed through three stages. as. heathen. cross. 40. quartz.² The foot are fourscore thousand. Children has passed through the same history. glass. ditch. 42. The words horse and foot. III. brace. when they mean soldiery. folk. sheep. into Frederick town."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. dozen. 41.-En inflection imitated by other words. by. originally neuter. sail. that have the singular and plural alike. The old plural was brothru. as. Akin to this class are some words. head. etc. Lee marched over the mountain wall. after numerals (if not after numerals. swine. and is still found in dialects. or if preceded by the prepositions in. cannon. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. The weakening of inflections led to this addition.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. etc. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. people. but has now no singular. Kine is another double plural. they add -s): also trout. turf. Such are box. then brothre or brethre.Horse and foot. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. such as deer.² "God bless me! so then. borough²formerly had the same inflection. . you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. salmon.²THOREAU. but they now add the ending -s.²MACAULAY. pair. lens. II. etc. finally brethren. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. retain the same form for plural meaning.²WHITTIER. Examples of this inflection are. after all.²Over the mountains winding down.

race²races. means: as. however. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. in its widest extent. house²houses. that when thy summons comes.²PROF. The lilie on hir stalke grene. mathematics.. DANA. they lose their identity. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. volcano² volcanoes. etc. Means plural. half²halves.-Es added in certain cases. though this sound combines readily with -s. a new syllable is made. politics.g. Some words are usually singular. some adding -s. fairies. etc. 45. and the real ending is therefore -s. When such words take a plural ending. 43. negro²negroes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. Special Lists. Words in -ies.g. physics. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. Two words.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe.²BRYANT. daisies. and go over to other classes (Secs. the Washingtons. Formerly. is both the science and the art of government. means and politics. Proper nouns are regularly singular. as. pains (care). and some -es. 15 and 17). It served simply as a means of sight. quoth then that ladie milde. allies. fancies. the Americas.. knife²knives. chaise²chaises. etc. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . e. Examples of these are. hero²heroes. molasses. niche²niches. etc. So live. prize²prizes. 44. though they are plural in form. e. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. these words ended in -ie. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. and many branches of learning. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. also news. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). shelf²shelves. summons. economics. optics. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves.² Politics.

Some words have no corresponding singular. by those means which we have already mentioned. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. however.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps.²J. CURTIS. 46.²IRVING. By these means.²GOLDSMITH. I say. W. Politics plural.²MOTLEY. Now I read all the politics that come out. L. riches will accumulate.²BURKE. if I recollect right. . fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.² MACAULAY. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. he pronounced to have been a tongs. by strongly conveying the passions.²G. Besides this. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. With great dexterity these means were now applied.Words. LAUGHLIN.²GOLDSMITH. Sometimes. A relic which.

or copies. number²numbers: (1) figures. the other unlike it. twopence.).²POPE. One plural. (2) revenue duties. etc. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). clothes (garments). or epistles. In Early Modern English thank is found. genii (spirits).² I lisped in numbers. fish²fish (collectively). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. ways. as two sixpences. 49. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). two meanings. die²dies (stamps for coins.²one corresponding to the singular. (2) abilities. Numbers also means issues. as in the lines. or work in a bellows?²PROF.. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. eaves. pea²peas (separately). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. brethren (of a society or church). penny²pennies (separately). shot²shot (collective balls). indices (signs in algebra).. (2) poetry. DANA. faculties. pease (collectively). genius²geniuses (men of genius). (2) care. 50. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. (2) literature. for the numbers came. trouble. Tell me not. 48. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.The air. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. etc. of a periodical. riches. index²indexes (to books). sixpence. fishes (individuals or kinds). may add -s. In speaking of coins. dice (for gaming). pence (collectively). Other words have one plural form with two meanings.²LONGFELLOW. .. in mournful numbers. Two classes of compound words. two plurals. shots (number of times fired). Three words were originally singular.²was it subdued when. These make the last part plural. carry off chaff. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. making a double plural. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. part²parts: (1) divisions.

Briggs. or the name may be pluralized. Mussulman. as the Messrs. 52. German. woman servant. though the latter is often found.²DR. firman. such as talisman. the Misses Rich. there is some disagreement among English writers. then Silas Peckham. for example. Norman. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Brown. as man singer. . HOLMES. Allen. Brahman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.² Then came Mr.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. 51. The title may be plural. As to plurals of names with titles. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Ottoman. Two methods in use for names with titles. manservant. the Drs. and Mrs. but add -s. woman singer. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE.

Exercise.²THE CRITIC. FROM THE LATIN. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. The Messrs.²GOLDSMITH. These are said to be domesticated. and retain their foreign plurals. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. 53. or Anglicized. Others have been adopted. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. Du Maurier. They are then said to be naturalized. y y analysis antithesis . or Englished.²DICKENS. Domesticated words.²GIBBON. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. FROM THE GREEK. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.

form their plurals by adding -s or 's. cell has another relation. . In the general wearing-away of inflections.. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). When the foreign words are fully naturalized. 55. Only two case forms." the word felon's modifies cell. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. 56. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. figures. as. figures. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. as." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Letters." CASE. etc.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. In the sentence. Definition. Words quoted merely as words. also add -s or 's.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. they form their plurals in the regular way. etc. and expresses a relation akin to possession. without reference to their meaning. 54.

they returned to their homes. 1. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. and merit. the enemy of the living.²nature. excessive grief. . (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. completing a verb." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise.²one for the nominative and objective. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Uses of the Nominative. and the possessive. 3. fate. 2. Three properties belong to wisdom. when asked unawares. Excuses are clothes which. and experience.²the nominative. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. Human experience is the great test of truth. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 58. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. the objective.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. 4. three things characterize man. whether inflected or not.²person. then. I.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. learning. 5. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Nouns. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. must be understood for purposes of analysis. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. may be said to have three cases." (2) As a predicate noun. 57.

Uses of the Objective.Save. save. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. as will be seen in Sec. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. good Heaven. the word toward which the preposition points. 59." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. etc. how have I frighted thee? II." (3) Adverbially. But the flood came howling one day. 8. they are sands of precious gold. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. sword in hand and visor down. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. But of all plagues. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. taking the object storm." Exercise. 3. Conscience. 68.6. distance. and being equivalent to one verb. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. thy wrath can send. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 2. wounded lies. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. and meaning calmest. a patriarch of the village. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 9. measure. reconciles." (4) As the second object. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. . and tell which use each has:² 1. and makest a calm." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 4. (in the older stages of the language. (5) As the object of a preposition. and landlord of the inn. They charged. taking the object enemies. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. her first law broken. completing the verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. Set a high price on your leisure moments.

the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. 6. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.²HAWTHORNE. It is a poetic expression. (2) Objective possessive.His winter task a pastime made. as. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. The possessive case always modifies another word. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. tempests that . Possession in some sense is the most common. 7.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.And gave the leper to eat and drink. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 60.5.²ADDISON. The noblest mind the best contentment has. or in writing yesterday's elegy.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. 9.² The unwearied sun. expressed or understood. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. as in these expressions.²BYRON.Does his Creator's power display. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. and forfeits paid. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.e. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. as shown in the sentences. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. the most common of all. 8. from day to day. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. 61. III. 10. And whirling plate. (3) Subjective possessive. the Great Stone Face.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.²SHELLEY. Uses of the Possessive.

One is the simple form of a word. PLURAL.e. as schoolboys sometimes write." "mannes herte [heart]. and Obj. and Obj. As said before (Sec. child NOTE. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. lady Poss. growth which several days had developed). The use of the apostrophe." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. "George Jones his book. 1. "From every schires ende. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i." "at his beddes syde. To form the possessive plural. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. A false theory.. 63. How the possessive is formed. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. there are only two case forms. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. making the possessive singular." etc. however. Declension or inflection of nouns. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. A suggestion. Poss. 64. . The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. Case Inflection. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). 62. in Chaucer. Nom. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. 56). Nom.e.." Use of the apostrophe. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.winter is likely to have). the panther which the forest hides).²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 62.

Possessive and no noun limited. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead.²DE QUINCEY. and from a desire to have distinct forms." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. as. as. store." "A postscript is added. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.. 65. for goodness' sake. stands up for God's truth one man.²THACKERAY. dwelling. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.. Captain Scrapegrace's. etc. the items of my son's."²DE QUINCEY.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. in the name of the emperor their master. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. as by the countess's command. instead of the emperor their master's name. but to the ear all may be alike. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. . Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.Though this opinion was untrue. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. and she walked off from the don's. a word with a phrase. Kate saw that. church. the possessive sign is usually last. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase.²SWIFT. some such word as house. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. James's. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. In compound expressions. etc." Possessive with compound expressions. 66. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. I remember him in his cradle at St.² LOWELL.²CARLYLE. my neighbors. being understood with it: for example. know the amount of my income. Cervantes' satirical work.²RUSKIN. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. containing words in apposition. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. 67. Peter's. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.²HOLMES.

. as one modifier. ill-lighted except where she stands. each. If. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. that. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. in such a sentence as. 1. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.²CARLYLE. (3) It prevents ambiguity. every. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. HALE. 87. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. Exercises. Both of these are now used side by side. etc. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. making a double possessive. and at the same time by a possessive noun. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. Emphasis. or subjective. Clearness. Blair). 2. A peculiar form. no. (1) When a word is modified by a. however. For example. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. In most cases. objective.²E. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . we use the phrase of Atterbury.²FROUDE. (See also Sec. corresponding to 's. the.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's.The double possessive. a double possessive. and tell whether each is appositional.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. especially when used with this or that.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. E. sometimes they are used together. this.²the introduction which Atterbury made. the statement clearly means only one thing. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. the sentence might be understood as just explained. 68. any. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. (b) Rewrite the sentence.

7. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 10. Nature herself.3. Hence. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 6. 5. 4.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. we state. it seemed. 8.They say. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Jove laughs. in parsing a noun. some idioms²the double possessive. 12. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 15. 14. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. let him seasonably water the one.Comes dancing from the East. Friend. therefore. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 9. with every garland crowned. At lovers' perjuries.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 70. 69.² . 13. and destroy the other. There Shakespeare's self. In parsing. Now the bright morning star. 11. day's harbinger. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.

To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. (4) Its office in the sentence.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. therefore singular number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. but is the adverbial objective. therefore masculine gender. Neckcloth. and to have it found out by accident. the connection shows a male is meant. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. proper. a fresh tapster. and therefore nominative case. and limits neckcloth. which gender. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth.(1) The class to which it belongs.²common. if the latter. is a common class noun. therefore neuter. it denotes only one person. . Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. 2. 68). therefore possessive case. In parsing any word. That in the captain's but a choleric word. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. etc. a withered serving man. and relations. and number. 4. hence it is objective case. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. object of the verb takes. has no governing word. determining its case. gender. singular number. inflections. it expresses possession or ownership. hence it is a gender noun. MODEL FOR PARSING. 3. Exercise. 71. Thief is a common class noun. subject of the verb is understood. names one thing. masculine. it is the name of a male being. like miller's. NOTE. it has no sex. hence it is a common noun. therefore singular number. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. it expresses time. The correct method. Throat is neuter. as to case. it is the object of the preposition by. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. (3) Whether singular or plural number. hence objective case.

²palace. definite. A few miles from this point. He giveth his beloved sleep.And hated her for her pride. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. all in one. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. . The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. Mrs. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. PRONOUNS. and prison.." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Time makes the worst enemies friends. instead of saying. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. financial minister to Louis XVI. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Madame de Staël. 73. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. castle. sleep! 6. A pronoun is a reference word. or for a group of persons or things. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. Now. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. Definition. The need of pronouns. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. 8. 76). Jarley's back being towards him. 72. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 11. Necker. 10. and representative words. were natives of Geneva. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.. Classes of pronouns. but by a question we say. blessings light on him that first invented . and his daughter. from a necessity for short. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 7.." Again. standing for a name. where the Rhone enters the lake. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. For instance. or for a person or thing. 9. which distinguish person by their form (Sec.5.

if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. the person or thing spoken to. "the distinction of person. and the person or thing talked about. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. 75. Singular. words. or other word or expression. Nom. which have forms for person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. even if it had a special form. (2) Second person. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. which cannot be used as adjectives. This gives rise to a new term. ours . representing the person speaking. (5) Indefinite pronouns. mine. primarily adjectives. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. From analogy to pronouns. 76. (4) Adjective pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. we our. as nouns have the same form. they must represent the person talking. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. 77. Three persons of pronouns. my Plural. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. which relate or refer to a noun. Person in grammar. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. that is. (3) Third person. I Poss. they are said to have person by agreement.(3) Relative pronouns." Person of nouns. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. pronoun.. representing a person or thing spoken to. 74. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns.

Old Form Common Form. thine. . Poss. Nom. me us Singular. neuter. hers her Plur. thy Remarks on These Forms. Nom. namely. Poss. so also with the person or thing spoken to. The speaker may be either male or female. and also for the neuter. in the singular. you your. Nom. yours you THIRD PERSON. your. or. Obj. Old forms. But the third person has.. Nom. Singular. yours you Plural. SECOND PERSON. Obj. First and second persons without gender. he his him Fem. thou thee ye you you your. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. theirs them Neut. Masc. neuter hit. they their. by personification. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Obj. of all Three. Third person singular has gender. a separate form for each gender. 78. she her. Obj. feminine h o. yours Poss.Obj. it its it Poss. masculine h .

but make the plural you do duty for the singular.. just as we now say. etc.. Second person always plural in ordinary English. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century." As shown above. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. (2) In addressing the Deity. especially in poetry. 82.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. etc. two modern uses of thou. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. thee.:² (1) In elevated style. as. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century.²BEECHER. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. the forms they.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. as in prayers. In spoken English. The plurals were h . The consequence is. 81. however. 80. This is of comparatively recent growth. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. . that didst comfort thy people of old.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. it. for example. Two uses of the old singulars. thy. which was often sounded with the h silent.² Oh. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. even when referring to a single object.²SHELLEY. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. Thou. to thy care we commit the helpless. heom. which is a neuter noun. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. their. etc. as possessive of it. 79. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. There are. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). them. heora. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. in Old English.Thou lovest. We use it with a plural verb always. and sometimes its. The form its. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. thou Shepherd of Israel. the Old English objective was hem (or heom).

86. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. them.²BULWER. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. And since thou own'st that praise. thine. he. Additional nominatives in spoken English. our. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. II. I spare thee mine. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. when they occur in the predicate position. The forms mine. 83. ²SHAKESPEARE." the literary language would require he after was. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. us. 'tis his. yours. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. thou. Not a separate class. and sometimes in ordinary speech. us. The Possessive. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. its. in such a sentence as. for. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. they. her. . In spoken English. thy.²LANDOR. 58). and follow the usage of literary English. note the following:² 'Twas mine. have a peculiar use. 84. Nominative forms. theirs. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. Absolute personal pronouns. his. them. however. though those named in Sec. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. and not make more classes. they have a nominative form. besides a nominative use. sometimes his and its. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. him. she. I The Nominative. though ye is occasionally used as objective. Old use of mine and thine. or. hers. 84 are always subjects. That is. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. your. 34). her. Yet careful speakers avoid this. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. me. him. ye. to personify objects (Sec.Use of the pronouns in personification. "I am sure it was him. and has been slave to thousands. some say. The forms my. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. their. The words I. her.²COWPER. we. 85.

F."²SCOTT. Double and triple possessives. Their uses. hers. This ancient silver bowl of mine. in that old Edinburgh house of his. This usage is still preserved in poetry. The forms hers. and with mine.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. sometimes its.²ID. (2) To bring emphasis.²J. we have. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.²BIBLE.²J.² CARLYLE. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. Besides this.²ID. pluck it out. anger. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. FIELDS. 87. but few thy voice. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. Like the noun possessives. yours. . as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. "Hold thy peace.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. his. it tells of good old times.²THACKERAY. yours. thus. Give every man thine ear. COOPER.²THACKERAY. ours. If thine eye offend thee. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. we find. Long Allen. T. theirs. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. are really double possessives.²SWIFT. commenting upon a letter of mine. theirs. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. (3) To express contempt.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master." said Henry Woodstall. thus. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. thine. for example. ²HOLMES. as in nouns. ours. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. or satire.²CARLYLE.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.

according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb." "None but the brave deserves the fair. and mine in the second has an objective use.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. In such sentences as. Curse me this people. 20. was marked by a separate case. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. as it is called.²BIBLE. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. but the form is the same as the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. They all handled it. but expresses for whom. Besides this use of the objective. But the first two have a nominative use. this dative use. 90. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. for whose benefit. 89. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. the thing is done. The Objective. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. mine stands for my praise in the second. The old dative case.²ID. In their function. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. or use in a sentence. 86: mine stands for my property. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. in the first sentence.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. 88. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. "The good alone are great. III. In pronouns. as shown in Sec. . but not in form. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. Now the objective. but nominative or objective in use. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. his for his property. Both joined in making him a present.

as in the sentences. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. The word you. you sneeze. WEBSTER. has not made its progress. as. or to the idea.²DE QUINCEY. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. Indefinite use of you and your. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. ²EMERSON. as. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.² NEWMAN.²CARLYLE.²BACON. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. logical subject. 91.Time is behind them and before them.² . which follows the verb. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.²EMERSON. was passed by with indulgence. why. in this century. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (3) In apposition. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. Society. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²ADDISON." (3) As a grammatical subject. and they cry.²BULWER. It is a pity that he has so much learning. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²IRVING To empty here. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. you must condense there. like Chinese skill. to stand for the real. Your mere puny stripling. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.²D. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. or that he has not a great deal more. thus.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. 92.

" etc. who teams it. farms it. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. yourselves. and its plural selves. itself. but seldom in prose. peddles it. Of the two forms in parentheses.²SCOTT. They are myself.²EMERSON. For example.. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It was late and after midnight. themselves. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²COLERIDGE. or COMPOUND PERSONAL.² Now I lay me down to sleep.²ANON." and there is an end of it. I made up my mind to foot it. There was nothing for it but to return. the second is the old form of the second person. we use such expressions as.²BUNYAN. it rained. they dropped their arms. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively.²HAWTHORNE."²IRVING. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. (ourself). This occurs in poetry. have laid them downIn their last sleep.²ID. herself. For when it dawned.It is finger-cold.²BURNS. that is. himself. however. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. . as they are also called. A sturdy lad . when they are direct objects. as. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. And millions in those solitudes. since firstThe flight of years began." "He bought him a horse. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. who in turn tries all the professions. Poor Christian was hard put to it. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. 94.. ourselves.²BRYANT.²THOREAU. used in poetry.²IRVING. 93. I set me down and sigh. And when I awoke. -selves. keeps a school. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined.²HOLMES. yourself. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²DE QUINCEY. (thyself). The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. "I found me a good book.

² TENNYSON. Use of the reflexives.²EMERSON. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.. as..² The great globe itself . In Middle English the forms meself.²ID.²MILTON. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. and build the lofty rhyme. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. with self. especially in the speech of rulers. for example.² .² Only itself can inspire whom it will. 95. ourselves. theself. etc. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. not the possessive forms. were changed into the possessive myself. B. As if it were thyself that's here. Threats to all. after the analogy of myself. as in vulgar English.²E. BROWNING. for example. as we ourself have been.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. I shrink with pain. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. 96.As girls were once.²SHAKESPEARE.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.²WORDSWORTH. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. to every one. as.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. NOTE.To you yourself. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Held dead within them till myself shall die. thyself. to us. Origin of these reflexives. The question might arise. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. shall dissolve. and the others were formed by analogy with these.

The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. 2. fight it out. 3. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Three now in use.² THACKERAY. father. where the word is one with that it tells of. some of them being double possessives. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 10. and what. and how to do it. some each of masculine. Courage. 6. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. and neuter. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. Infancy conforms to nobody. Come and trip it as we go. FRANKLIN. To know what is best to do. . 9.On the light fantastic toe. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. And it grew wondrous cold. Years ago. which.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. let him lowly confess it.²B. all conform to it. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. is wisdom. feminine. but it is the soonest spoiled. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language.²DE QUINCEY. 97. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 5. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 7. 8. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 4. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. One obsolete.

DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. 98.Promised. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. not to persons. methought. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. that. it refers to either persons or things. These show that what is not inflected for case. etc.. Which of you.There is an old word. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. 99. number. which is not inflected for gender. whispering sweet. that is. .What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. as it always asks about somebody. 100. or case. it is always third person. but now obsolete. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Use of which. it is selective. that it is not inflected for gender or number. that it is always singular and neuter. used formerly to mean which of two. As shown here. referring to things. shall we say. ideas. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Use of who and its forms. Whose was that gentle voice. whether. having three forms. The use of who. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Use of what. actions. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. with its possessive and objective. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. What wouldst thou do. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. but for case alone. the gold.

The antecedent. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. objective in the last. Thus we may say. 127). pronoun. which is called the antecedent of the relative. which is nominative in the first sentence. in Sec. AND PLUR. For instance. being the direct object of the verb shall take.²by the use of the words. Further treatment of who. which and what are sometimes adjectives. These bards sang of Border chivalry. subject of doth love. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. 99. 105. what may be an adverb in some expressions." Or. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. SINGULAR Nom. who evidently refers to Bards. since it is subject of the verb had. 102. SING. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. AND PLUR. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. or other word or expression." In the latter sentence. for which the pronoun stands. as.² . and so to make smoother discourse. Who. nominative in the second also. which. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent.101. It usually precedes the pronoun. and also in having a conjunctive use. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 103.² "The last of all the Bards was he. as they take the place usually of a word already used. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. and what are also relative pronouns. "The last of all the Bards was he. as. which and what. Function of the relative pronoun. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. who is used as objective instead of whom. who? Poss. 104. whose? Obj.Who sung of Border chivalry. it may be shortened into.

a thousand years. that. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. Indefinite relatives.. Two kinds. . Who and its forms. 3. 3. 106.²DR JOHNSON. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.² COX.²MILTON. both his and who have the antecedent priest.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.²BYRON. WHITNEY. which. The nurse came to us. will be discussed further on. 2. but the look which is not of the earth. with all its capabilities . The men whom men respect.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 6. D.That guard our native seas. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. They had not their own luster. 5. 107.²THACKERAY. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. When the word relative is used. are the men and women who bless their species. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.²SCOTT.²PARTON Which and its forms. The origin of language is divine. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 4. a simple relative is meant.. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²LOWELL In this. what. 4. 2.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. Generally speaking. For her enchanting son. Ye mariners of England.. the women whom women approve.Whose flag has braved. in the same sense in which man's nature. 108.²W.Whom universal nature did lament. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. is a divine creation. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.

. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable..²GOLDSMITH. The man that hath no music in himself. Already done is all that he would do. and spoils.²LAMB 3. 2. That.²H.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. Reader.²MARGARET FULLER. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. The judge . stratagems. 6. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.. else this description will seem exaggerated. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. bought up all the pigs that could be had. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.² SHAKESPEARE 2. W. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. ought to be kept in view. 4.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher.5. Who.Is fit for treasons. 111. Examples of the relative that:² 1.²DE QUINCEY. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.. 107. no bad type of what often happens in that country. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1... 3. which it certainly is not. The Tree Igdrasil. For what he sought below is passed above.²IRVING. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . 110. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. 109.²EMERSON. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. What.²BURKE. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. BEECHER 5. you will not be angry with me for telling you.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. (a) This gradation .

or ideas. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].who.²LEIGH HUNT. It has been seen (Sec. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. and 3. things. whom. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. 113. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. My horse. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. In 1. Smollett.²which for the nominative and objective.²THACKERAY. p. JOHNSON. Witness the following examples:² And you. Cooper. 5.whose.. whose wound I had dressed. . whose for the possessive.²SWIFT.²DR..²who. referring to animals. 107. and 6. in the second. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. who. who is first person.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. (4) It has two case forms. flung its arms around my neck. in 4. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²LOWELL. in the third. The little gorilla. whose is second person. son. whose. whom. The robins. Which. (3) It is nearly always third person. In sentence 4.. a man. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. they are plural.. Examples of whose. in 5.²IRVING. 96). Gibbon. possessive case of which. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Who referring to animals.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. The sentences in Sec.. the others are all third person. the relatives are singular. and others. that man. not persons. Scott. and so on. Kingsley. Sec.. in the first sentence. (2) It has three case forms. 2. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. seemed as much excited as myself. 112.

²RUSKIN. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. secondly (which made her stare). Which and its antecedents.²BEECHER.²SHAKESPEARE. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. That. 115. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. and numerous others. In the sentences of Sec. let us enter the church itself. Burke.²SCOTT. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²first. the antecedent follows which. thus. and things."²RUSKIN. Men may be ready to fight to the death. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. Sometimes. 116. and to persecute without pity.²DE QUINCEY. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. This often occurs. (3) It is the same form for first. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. The last two sentences in Sec. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. 109. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. This moribund '61. second. (2) It has only one case form.² And.114. So in Matthew Arnold. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. no possessive. animals. and third persons. which is worse.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. too. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.² I swept the horizon. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. Primarily. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. . Kingsley.²THACKERAY. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.² MCMASTER. which is very notable and curious.

as. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. we can.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. that men must needs abide. and is emphatic. either of which would be neuter." (3) "These people heard him. as in sentence 6. it usually follows. . 117. that do I. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. that he has. Nom. What a man does.²EMERSON. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. number. Who plainly stands for those or the people. whose Obj. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. third person. third person. Sec. 118.²BIBLE What fates impose. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular.²SHAKESPEARE. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. When expressed. by taking them out. is always neuter. that do I not. plural number. 119. plural number. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS." That evidently refers to truths. which. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. for example. what we said?²CARLYLE. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. consequently is neuter. For example. What. and person of the relatives who. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. The gender." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. but what I hate. who Poss. The sentences of Sec. 109.² What I would.

The word what. 120. is in the nominative case. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. As shown by the following sentences. third person. then parse the relatives. Another way. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. What must be endured? Answer. which is. however. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. etc. so is in the objective case. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. who is sure to be cunninger than they. and hence is in the nominative case."²EMERSON. 6. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. The whole expression is its subject. and what is the direct object of the verb call. In (2). In the sentence. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. after all. First find the antecedents. What can't be cured. people is the object of the preposition of. The relative what is handled differently. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. in (3). 3. neuter. in the following sentences:² 1. above. Now.. 5. Some prefer another method of treatment. 8. is subject of the verb can't be cured. subject of heard. "What can't be cured must be endured. 7. the simple relative. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. it is object of uttered. in (1). Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. the highest result of all education. but of this. but is singular. we is the subject. Exercise. . Parsing what. In the same way who. that takes the case of the truths in (2). it is subject of the verb heard. 4.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. I think they are trying to outwit nature. is what we call nature. standing for the people understood. Truths in sentence (2)." Here the subject of is. because it has usually no antecedent." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. nobler souls with that which they are.

not as direct as the simple relatives. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. 2." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.²MACAULAY. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. whichever. and in 2. that is. 5. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. being referred to.²BURKE. "common souls pay with that [singular. which. and his friend a fool. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. object of do] they do.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. by meaning and use. Death is there associated. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. 3. Hence some take what as a double relative. object of with] which [singular. no certain antecedent. . 122. So with the other indefinites. or what else soever. and parse that in the first clause. whatever is equivalent to all things which. List and examples. It is clear that in 1. or stand on their head. whosoever. less common are whoso. whatsoever. 2. 123. 7.²you cannot have both. summer will have its flies. that nothing else can stand in their presence. Only itself can inspire whom it will. whichsoever. They are whoever. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. 6. whatsoever. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. to everything that. in a new and original way. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases.²BURKE. whatever. The simple relatives who. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Meaning and use. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. It is no proof of a man's understanding. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. no particular thing. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 121. 4. Do what we can. and which in the second clause. Take which you please.

Proof that they have the force of relatives.. but mean any one whom. what means anything that. 121. and that as after such is equivalent to which. has been my heaviest affliction.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. In early modern English. by which. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. whereupon. But and as.As shown in Sec. 125. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Instead of the phrases in which. etc. not following the word such. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. 120. either one that. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. thus. 4. whereby. upon which.²HAWTHORNE. 417). Two words.. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.² some particular thing. 126.² 1. everything that (or everything which). amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Other substitutes. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 2. but and as. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. . Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.²EMERSON. but which only wealth could have purchased. are used. nothing that does not interest us. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. This. There is nothing but is related to us.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. for example.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. as was used just as we use that or which. etc. 124. Former use of as. etc. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. the conjunctions wherein. Sec. 121.²DE QUINCEY. for example. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which.

would be. if not. How to decide. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. if expanded.²WHITTIER. a question is disguised in each sentence. In sentences 1 (a). though the earthwork hid them." Likewise with which in 3 (b). PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. which would indicate that they are not relatives. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. Another caution. which having the antecedent lines. 1 (b). what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. second. But in 1 (b). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. it is an indefinite relative). who having the antecedent gentleman. no antecedent is expressed. In studying such sentences. and 3 (b). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. 127.." etc. Special caution needed here. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. 2 (b).A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. "But what had become of them? They knew not. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. . "Who stood behind? We knew. Thus. and whether what = that + which (if so. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. But compare the following in pairs:² 1.²ID. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. 2. showing that who is plainly interrogative. it is a simple relative. (b) But what had become of them they knew not.²EMERSON. it is an interrogative. 3. the full expression being. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). what is interrogative. if not. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. So in 2 (b).

He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question.²CARLYLE.²GOLDSMITH. 4. but the life of man in England. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. In the third. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. In the first.²FORSTER 6. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. . half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. and Court Calendars. Exercise. whose has the antecedent you. ELIOT. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.² These are the sounds we feed upon.²FLETCHER. the question is asked by the verb. I visited many other apartments. Put in the relatives who. which has the antecedent hue. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.128. When Goldsmith died.² THACKERAY. Examine the following:² 1. 3. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. whence is the interrogative word. In the second. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²HOLMES. On the other hand. and asks no question. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. 5. Thus. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. 2.²SWIFT. 129. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Relative omitted when object. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²G. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. which.

What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 6. and what. It is rare in prose. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. There was such a crowd went. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.²CAMPBELL.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Function of adjective pronouns. who were to be rulers over whom. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Examples are. 3. simple relatives.²Id. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. 2. 5. and comparatively so in poetry. .² The silent truth that it was she was superior.²SCOTT. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.²SHAKESPEARE.² LOWELL. Relative omitted when subject. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. Also in literary English we find the same omission.7. the house was full. 130. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. or indefinite relatives:² 1. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. which. that. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. which was already proceeding. The nobles looked at each other. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.

" that is. but in this function. Caution." Classes of adjective pronouns. Primarily they are adjectives. or they may stand for nouns. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS." "one man. or may be the whole of a sentence. any. and on each is written. few. the former. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. such as each. 'Truth. etc. that. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. many. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory.²BRYANT. etc. and another to get cool under. in order to be an adjective pronoun. but have lost their adjective use. in the first. or use. "another bank. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. none. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. either. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. which we have seen in such expressions as. necessarily thought of: thus." "Where two men ride on a horse.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns.²IRVING. a word. in letters of gold. as some. In the first use they are adjectives. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. etc. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. 132. "The dead are there. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence." in the others.131. all. "these pranks.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. not pronouns.²EMERSON. neither." in the second. For instance. such as this. Adjectives. 133. expressed or understood. and stand for a noun. or an argument in a paragraph. "each cube. must not modify any word. . Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. For example." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon.

They had fewer books. but these were of the best. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. reap the same.² They stood. Their minds accorded into one strain. They have not shunned the one. Simple.All these he saw. for example. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. but what he fain had seen He could not see. and sow wickedness. 5. Exercises.²ID. they that plow iniquity. Some of these are simple pronouns.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. . Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. accidentally preserved. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. or sat. Compound. Even as I have seen. when the latter was the King of Spain. 3. Definition and examples.²EMERSON 4.²LOWELL. 2. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. as seemed good to each. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Such are a few isolated instances. or reclined. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and they have well performed the other. 134. because he was not lying in wait for these.²ID. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. NOTE. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. A man inspires affection and honor.

There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. They led one another. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Exercise. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. as some of the rangers had gone astray. Definition and examples. for example. as it were. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. we might the more easily discharge them. as. None shall rule but the humble. The Soldan. 135.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²EMERSON. one another. with the superstitions of his time. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. as most were. ²HAWTHORNE.²each other.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. Much might be said on both sides. another. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. . or melt for others' woe. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns.²HOLMES. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. such as one other. you quickly come to the end of all. The word one has a reflexive form. Some inflected. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. Another opposes him with sound argument. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.²HAWTHORNE.² One reflexive. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.²KINGSLEY. imbued. paused over a horoscope.Two are compound pronouns. Men take each other's measure when they react.

something. and they. and was indefinite in Old English. but. in building of chaises. nobody. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. anybody. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. anyone else.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. anything. everybody else. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. no one. as. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. as shown in the words everybody's.²SHAKESPEARE. everything. Jove laughs. 137. Every one else stood still at his post. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. any one (or anyone). They indefinite means people in general. every one else. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. etc. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. 136. and somewhat. somebody else. Somebody.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. naught. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. also aught. . That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did.There is always somewhere a weakest spot.Exercise. every one (or everyone). Now." It means something. Definition and examples. unlike adjective pronouns.. what. Exercise. some one. anybody else's.² At lovers' perjuries. they are never used as adjectives. etc. nothing. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. they say. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. everybody. I tell you what.

it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 16. 14. 13. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. I first found myself among the mountains. 11. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. to which. 138. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. All was now ready for action. A reminder. Whoever deals with M. were suffered to depart. from my earliest days. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Others did the same thing. 3. O thou that rollest above. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 7. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 6. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to.See also "Syntax" (Sec. . Exercise. 4. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 5. Hutchinson tells us of herself. The table was good. 18. 8. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 12. and of no other. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. but not to quite so enormous an extent. indeed. For this did God send her a great reward. 9. 2. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use.²a feature of natural scenery for which. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. in his negotiations. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 17. 10.

And I had done a hellish thing. in all its height. I who alone am. variety. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.Who knew thee too well. 32. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 30.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. Whatever he knows and thinks. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 29.19. eat white bread or brown. and seized a pen. oh. 31. 21. well-oiled dispositions. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. that let him communicate. 34. hear. 35. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own.And it would work 'em woe. hear! 33. 25. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. who take the world easy. 26. thou rollest now. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. He sate him down. behold now the semblance of my being. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . And will your mother pity me. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish.Destroyer and preserver. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 23. 27. Who and what was Milton? That is to say.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. They know not I knew thee. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20.

42. 44. Office of Adjectives. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. He knew not what to do. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun." The office of an adjective. If a chemist discovers a new substance. 39. brittle or tough. 43." etc. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 139. such as in the expressions "this man. Again. then." "a hundred men. etc. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. and he learns who receives. It may have this office alone. in pointing out an object. or gaseous. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. becomes mine. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. as. We need to add some words to tell its color. As to the kind of words used. Who hears me. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. if we are at a distance. and so he read. . position. "one hat. adjectives are used. who understands me. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. that is our permanent state." "some cities. 40. For example. so that no other will be mistaken for it." "yonder hill.. or liquid. 37.36. white or red. etc. ADJECTIVES. 38. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. which was no bad step towards my liberation. heavy or light. size. the number is limited by adjectives. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. 41. He teaches who gives. or with persons. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning." "that house. Substantives. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. We are by nature observers. and if we are near. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. 45. So with any object.

happy. pointing out particular things. such as safe." "next-door neighbor. (4) Pronominal adjectives. 143. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "this life-giving book." they constitute all his connections. however. beautiful." "unlooked-for burden.²COLERIDGE. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. "Heaven-derived power.140. Examples are. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." "ivory-handled pistols. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. etc. words primarily pronouns. it shows that he weighs men's minds. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. to describe it or to limit its application. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. divine." . Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. 141. Infinitives. or how much of a thing. To err is human. Nouns are not. Classes of adjectives." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. used to tell how many things are spoken of. derived from proper nouns. rash. "an old English manuscript." "ice-cold water. terrible. To make this clear.²POPE. remotest. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "half-dead traveler. They include relative and interrogative words." the "and there. fair." "the Christian pearl of charity. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." "the Roman writer Palladius. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. such as. With exception of the "and then. If he be thankful for small benefits. 142. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. and their trash.² BACON. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. Definition." and the still less significant "and so. deep. to forgive.

Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." "One is hungry. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted.But ever she looked on Mr." was is the verb. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. 'Tis midnight. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. but small thoughts have I of sleep. For instance: in the sentence.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. 1. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. ." was accomplished is a verb. 2." "an aged man. Care is needed. some. no. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. in studying these last-named words." "trailing clouds. 145. considerable. and accomplished is an adjective. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. any.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." "a charming sight." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. having some of each subclass named in Sec." Caution. Exercises. Oxenham.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. 144. and another is drunken." "It came on like the rolling simoom. much. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. 143. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. which are either pure participles used to describe. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "The clearness and quickness are amazing.²COLERIDGE. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. sometimes small." "The shattered squares have opened into line. in this. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Examples are. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.²MACDONALD. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by.

those)." Single ones of any number of changes. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. Examples.²THACKERAY. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. 146.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. Not primarily pronouns." "He had lived by hunting for some months. Thus. When some.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. and with them a few negroes. The list. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "Then we wandered for many days. An arrow was quivering in each body. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. yonder (or yon). any." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards.²KINGSLEY. its wake. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. as. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. latter. instead of modifying them.²VAUGHAN. How many. "one blaze of musketry.² Every town had its fair. they come under the next division of adjectives." "I have lost one brother." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. The following sentences present some examples:² . but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. the former²the latter. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. Exercise. that. The demonstrative adjectives are this." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. but I have gained fourscore." (b) Indefinite numerals.²ID. are used with plural nouns.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.²CARLYLE. former." "a dozen volunteers. no. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. every village." "In came some five and twenty more. (plural these. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts.

Exercise. In which evil strait Mr. The taking of which bark. but in the one case. what revenues or garnitures. like the other numerals. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²WORDSWORTH.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. 148. Oxenham fought desperately. These do not. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. The silver and laughing Xenil. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. ²CARLYLE. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. for example. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. tell how many things are meant.² It matters not what rank he has. As has been said. of equal skill. Definition.²BULWER. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²ID. They are of two kinds.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. These were thy charms. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. When we speak of the seventeenth century. Modify names of persons or things. 147. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned..²ID. they are changed to adjectives. I verily believe. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.²KINGSLEY. 149. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. WEBSTER. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. skill which was progressive²in the other. but. just as the corresponding pronouns do. . skill which was at pause.²BANCROFT. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns..²RUSKIN.but all these charms are fled. Indefinite relative adjectives. FRANKLIN.²GOLDSMITH.²D."²B. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.

² EMERSON. which is selective among what is known. Was there. Whatsoever kind of man he is.²LAMB.²RUSKIN. . Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. or whether any. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. and gaze.150. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). whatever. and new tormentedAround me. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.²IRVING. A lady once remarked. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.²CARLYLE. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. In indirect questions. whichever.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. as it rather seemed. New torments I behold. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whichsoever way I move. nature will be sure to bear us out in. it is impossible to determine. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. you at least give him full authority over your son. which. what inquires about things or persons not known. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. proved not altogether displeasing to him.. But when the Trojan war comes. Examples of their use are. In direct questions.²AGASSIZ. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. the debt to the rich. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. As in the pronouns. and points to yonder glade?² POPE..And whichsoever way I turn. Adjective what in exclamations. He was turned before long into all the universe.²ID. whatsoever. whichsoever. 151.

All these have certain qualities.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. 155. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. When we place two objects side by side. alas. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.²This. weight. gold is heavier than iron. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. we do so by means of their qualities. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. we notice some differences between them as to size. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. NUMBER. It is neither relative nor interrogative. But this had also another plural. those). of the quality. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.152. 153 . Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. Those borrowed from this. etc. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. .²but not the same degree.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. Meaning of comparison.²number and comparison. History of this²these and that²those. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. And yet. COMPARISON. as. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. The article that was used with neuter nouns. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. th s (modern those).Adjectives have two inflections. the making of it right. and those as the plural of that. 154. In exclamatory expressions. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. Thus. That.² Oh. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. color. or size. which was fully inflected in Old English. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. or weight. etc.. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. or amount. This is the old demonstrative. and when we compare the objects. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. Exercise.

great. . easier. strictly considered. "untamed thought. 158. enormous. infinite. blue. red. expressing the greatest degree of quality. indomitable. whose favorite pupil he was. A main difference betwixt men is. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. Substitute for inflection in comparison.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. The comparative is formed by adding -er. Freedom is a perpetual." "no fewer than a hundred." "the largest soul." Words that cannot be compared. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. to the simple form.²THACKERAY. The two forms. supreme. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. indefatigable. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. as. immemorial. organic. whether they attend their own affair or not. they are not compared. easiest.²SEWARD. easy. though the simple. They came into use about the thirteenth century. giant-like. 157. or amounts in quantity.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. So with the words sole. expressing a greater degree of quality." "It is a nobler valor. with less wit. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. reddest. bluest. "more matter. universal institution. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. and many others. sufficient. These are properly the only degrees. but. redder. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. bluer. and the superlative. but were not common until a century later. and the superlative by adding -est. Definition." "the commonest speech. as. 159. 160. 156." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. These are called degrees of comparison. for example.

strange. madam. witty.²ID. finest chiseling. These long. was most finished. easy. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression.²The Nation. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. polished. there needed to be a most genuine substance. etc." Carlyle uses beautifulest. quiet. mournfulest. "So help me God. 162. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. and yet familiar." "distantest relationships. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. Adjectives irregularly compared.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. 163. indisputablest. most small." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. as. though born in no very high degree." "sorrowfulest spectacles. falling on his knees. The following lists include the majority of them:² . and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. harsh forms are usually avoided.² CARLYLE A gentleman.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. admirablest. which hung behind in the queerest way. who." "more odd. and patientest fusing. and other words are preceded by more and most. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables.²ID.Which rule. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. peaceablest. I will. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. These are adjectives irregularly compared. honestest. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words." "the wonderfulest little shoes. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." said Henry Esmond. The general rule is." "more austere and holy." "the immensest quantity of thrashing.

uppermost LIST III. There was an old comparative bet. which has softened to the modern best. 3. uttermost Upmost. Good or well Evil. 1. 2. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 5. evil was the positive to worse. lesser Elder. lesser. Worser was once used. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost).²MATTHEW ARNOLD. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.LIST I. utter 3. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. is often used. innermost Outmost. [In] Inner Inmost. next Nearest Latest. worst. older Nigher Nearer Later. List I. [Out] Outer. as in Shakespeare. (2) In Old English. 6. Hind 2. as in the sentence (14th century). a double comparative. further Farthest. 4. last Hindmost. as. (3) Little is used as positive to less. throw away the worser part of it. oldest Nighest.² O.²HAMLET. . hindermost Much or many More Farther. which has gone out of use. 164. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. bad. latter Hinder LIST II. furthest 10. outermost Utmost.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 7. least. 8. though from a different root. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 9. The superlative I form was betst. A double comparative.

coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. strong. strenger. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. are shown in such phrases as. came into use.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. farthest. instead of lenger. is quite common. there is scarcely any distinction. but not in meaning.²HAWTHORNE. except the form next. List II. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. "Many a little makes a mickle.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it." Its spelling has been micel. etc. much. muchel. an old superlative ending. farrest. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. latest. as long. th came into the others. doubling the inflection. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. Between the two sets as they now stand. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. and the superlative nearest. . In imitation of further.. Since later. or series. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. First became entirely detached from the series. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. are earlier than older. (5) The forms elder. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. and refer to time. to which is added -ost. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. The most part kept a stolid indifference. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. making the modern farther. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. greatest. but originally the comparison was nigh. since the m is for -ma. the old forms.²KINGSLEY. as. great.. for example. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. next. further. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. a distinction has grown up between the two series.²forth. The meanings greater. etc. moche. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. The latter.² The more part being of one mind. eldest. near. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. (9) Latter and last are the older forms.²ID. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. meaning the largest part. ²LAMB. oldest. first. to England we sailed. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. furthest. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective.

by the by. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. 166. List III. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. ." "The outer is of the day. and have no comparative force. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove." "far-seeing as the sun. They have no superlatives. but not in their meaning. the upper light of the world. Highest and midmost. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. being merely descriptive.²DE QUINCEY. There. or have no comparative forms. The comparatives are so in form. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Her bows were deep in the water. are like the comparative forms in List II." "their utmost exertion. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. The adjectives in List III. but they have no adjective positives. but her after deck was still dry." "the innermost moral soul. (Sec. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. Her.²H. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. BEECHER.²KINGSLEY." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²EMERSON. or each may modify a different word or group of words. 167. on the very topmost twig. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." -Most added to other words. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²DE QUINCEY. Decidedly handsome.165. 168. in having no adjective positives. In List II. Think what each adjective belongs to.²HAWTHORNE.²SCOTT. all may belong to the same noun. was descried The royal banner floating wide. W.

look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. satisfactory. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. STOWE. deeply black eyes. In the following quotations.²RUSKIN.For example. 3." making then an adjective. rich. now our queen. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. Exercise. The seldom use of it. usual modifies incomparable decision. May we not. 7. and heaven-defying oaths. Other instances are.²NOAH PORTER. 2.²TRENCH. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. in this sentence. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. By a convenient brevity." in which then is an adverb. For thy stomach's sake. philosophical. 4. ²TROLLOPE. not decision alone.²BIBLE. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. instead of saying." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. Our sometime sister. bright. round.² My then favorite. But in this sentence.²A. H. and thine often infirmities.²HOLMES.²HAWTHORNE. as. our new government. deep. and broken. and moral truth. the then and still owners. solid. Bradbury and Evans. A few improper jests and a volley of good. It may still be argued. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. Richard Hooker. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. we may say "the then king. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank.²MRS. 6. . "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. "the one who was then king. STEPHENS 5. 169. This.²HAWTHORNE. therefore. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. in prose." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.

positive degree. (2) Its number. with awkward but rapid pace. compared by prefixing more and most. therefore demonstrative. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 5. 4. or case. 3. (4) What word or words it modifies. I ask nothing of you. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. This gave the young people entire freedom. plural number. seventy-five drachmas. if it has number. if it can be compared. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. To every several man. this. person. 7. MODEL FOR PARSING. therefore descriptive. cannot be compared. and very few have number. the method of parsing is simple. Exercise.What to tell in parsing. These points out what truths. frank. having a singular. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. To every Roman citizen he gives. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. She made no reply. 9. In parsing an adjective. Unfamiliar describes truths. manly way. 6. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. . not inflected for number. across the plain. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 170. 2. modifies truths. and I waited for none. then. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. modifies the word truths. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 10. (3) Its degree of comparison. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. 8. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. Since adjectives have no gender.

and therefore more interesting to us. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. Their name was the last word upon his lips. not so much for travelers that were few. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 16. suggests such thoughts as these. Like most gifted men. growing in the most unfavorable position. are immutably fishes. 29. the tomahawk fell. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. is the settlement of our own country. Two hours elapsed. Here lay two great roads. 26. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Nearer to our own times. 33. he won affections with ease. 24.11. 20. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. it is so noble a fruit. oxen. 25. With every third step. 18. and dogs. To say what good of fashion we can. . during which time I waited. it rests on reality. 23. 21. 14. yonder oxen in the pasture. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. those dogs in the yard. 22. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 32. 31. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 27. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. In music especially. 12. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. I know not what course others may take. 28. 13. 19. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. as for armies that were too many by half. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. the same love to France would have been nurtured. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. and many poles supported the lower ones.

were formerly that one. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road.²BREWER. the other. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel." "a European. a before consonant sounds. In Middle English the became an article. In the sentence.²SCOTT. with an ordinary little garden. 174. 172.²MACAULAY. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. 35. An or a came from the old numeral n. that) which was also an article in Old English. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. that other. even when not silent. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. ." An with consonant sounds. s o. Examples: "a house. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect." "a yelling crowd. 173. A hard-struggling. 37. An historian. ðat. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. meaning one. th o." the words the and an belong to nouns. just as adjectives do. later th . sometimes the tother. for example. and a before consonant sounds. Our expressions the one. these occurring as the tane. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words.34. the tother. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. the tother. or the tane. 171. but the former is used. An before vowel sounds. in vulgar English." "an honor. the tither. Many writers use an before h. ARTICLES. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general." "an orange. Their origin. the latter is still preserved in the expression. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. Two relics. weary-hearted man was he. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. such as we have been attempting to describe. he is no literary man.

²This use is noticed when. which cannot be used alone. When the is prefixed to a proper name.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. The Dakota tribes. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. An and a are different forms of the same word. doubtless. a person is introduced by a. 179. 175. not descriptive. as in the sentence. To call attention to attributes. Reference to a known object. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. The is the definite article. and when the word river is omitted. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. is referred to. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. thus. the older n. BANCROFT.." the article indicates clearly that a river. since it points out a particular individual. An or a is the indefinite article. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. Kinds. Articles are either definite or indefinite.² Don't you remember how." "the Ohio. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.² . because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. Definition. NOTE. or class. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla..²COLERIDGE.²G. An hereditary tenure of these offices. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. With names of rivers. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. as "the Mississippi.²IRVING. 178. 176. on opening a story. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. and not a state or other geographical division.²HEROES OF ASGARD. 177.²THACKERAY. or a group or class of things.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. or group. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. An article is a limiting word.. or any individual of a group or class. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.

²EMERSON. etc. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. The. Caution. 181. Schelling. the gallant. her. NOTE. With adjectives used as nouns.²MOTLEY.²GIBBON. With plural of abstract nouns.² The faint. as. . is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. 2.² As she hesitated to pass on.²KINGSLEY.The Bacon. or a match put between the fingers.²SCOTT. would speedily extract the required information. The simple rise as by specific levity. 183. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. Half abstract. One thing for its class. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. the Hume. If the good is there. so is the evil.²ID. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. the Spinoza. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. 182. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. laid it on the miry spot.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. but into the region of all the virtues. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²ID. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. His messages to the provincial authorities. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. BANCROFT. For possessive person pronouns.²EMERSON. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. Kant. Common. not into a particular virtue. for example. 1. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. the song sparrow. 180.²G. and the redwing.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. which means to go over. Hence Definition. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. The nature of the transitive verb.In (a). but fearing is not a predicate. in (c). "Put money in thy purse. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. to go is no predicate. and shame the most astute. we consider a verb as one word. which may be a person.²BULWER ."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. care. 204. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. in (3. 203. a verb. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. Now. and. b). Each influences some object. in (b). an article. in (2. "Put thou money in thy purse. b). from the Latin transire. and to receive the action expressed. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. In giving a definition. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. the word following. 200: In (1). may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. an adverb. can deceive has an object." put is the predicate. and not a verb. to say something to or about some person or thing. or an idea. but cannot be predicates. All these are called transitive verbs. 201. Has takes the object hypocrisy. in (3. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in this sentence from Bulwer. in (2. The nature of intransitive verbs. c). or the object. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. (can) shame also has an object. 202. taking the staff which always guided her steps. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. In each case. representing something which it influences or controls. the most penetrating. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. obeyed is a predicate. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. the most astute. etc. By examining a few verbs." Examine the sentences in Sec. as. all do not express it in the same way. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. a preposition. hence is not a verb. lone took what? answer. and a preposition unite as a verb. Definition and caution. a noun. endured what? anguish. In the first. a). Of those expressing action. for example. or a material thing. with some word understood. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. In the sentence.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Ideal.²BRYCE. the first great founder of the Empire. in our case. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.I could lie down like a tired child. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. . Unreal²cannot be true. ²EMERSON.²MACAULAY.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. as. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. they were recorded in the Book of Life. If this be the glory of Julius. but. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. or be fulfilled. 222.² If. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. the second founder. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. as.²FRANKLIN. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. Condition or Supposition. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. the writer can make the statement following.²SHELLEY.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.²D. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.²LONGFELLOW. for example. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. Again. I. 2). if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. 215. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. Most excellent stranger. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. popular government must be pronounced impossible. 221. the representative system ultimately fail. and may or may not be regarded true. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. he will see the need of these ethics.²may or may not be true.² Now. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. WEBSTER.

Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. NOTE. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire.² If these things were true.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. Epaminondas. P. society could not hold together. she was regarded as a prodigy. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. . may.. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. But in no case could it be justified. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. The subjunctive. II.²MACAULAY. ²LOWELL. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. might. if he speak to you.²SWIFT. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. If he had reason to dislike him. to drink strong beer.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.²BAYNE. thus. that we cannot but regret its absence. 223. the clause being introduced by that or lest. is of similar physiognomy. unless. especially be. he had better not have written.²N.²EMERSON. which cannot be true.² It was necessary.² CARLYLE.²FRANKLIN.²CALHOUN.. and should. he supposed. would have sat still with joy and peace. as. if his lot had been mine. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true." etc. I told him. 5. 7. 4. 3.²FRANKLIN. etc. In the following conditional clauses. since he [Byron] was dead. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. that he might be strong to labor. but when the verb precedes the subject. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. 8. would you. and sonorous. do you think. melodious. and striven energetically to save Ney. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. if he was the man I take him for. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. Subjunctive of Purpose.. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. 6. and what kind of condition:² 1. WILLIS. is used to express purpose. Exercise. except. The voice. though. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 2. clear.

²CARLYLE. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. Let it rise..²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.²SOUTHEY. In Temporal Clauses. To tell of what had passed. within its fairy bowers. the answer being regarded as doubtful. 224.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. The English subjunctive.²D. 226. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. none of us could say. Ask the great man if there be none greater.. After a verb of wishing. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. VII. VI. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. V. WEBSTER. 227. IV. like the Latin.And we.Thou go not.²COLERIDGE.²MOORE. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. Subjunctive of Result. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.²BRYANT. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.I have been the more particular. In Indirect Questions.Were wafted off to seas unknown. 225. like the quarry-slave at night. Rise up. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. III. Expressing a Wish. So live.²WORDSWORTH..²ID.That vain it were her eyes to close. In a Noun Clause. till it meet the sun in his coming. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.²DE QUINCEY. I've wished that little isle had wings. . I would it were! ²EMERSON..

²WORDSWORTH.²COLERIDGE. or whatsoever victual it may be.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. VIII. that everything be in its place. object. in its various uses as subject.²TENNYSON.²COLERIDGE. The essence of originality is not that it be new.. 228.Subject. often contains a subjunctive. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²SCOTT. The first merit. Come. That hunger of applause. I have no thought what men they be. tell me all that thou hast seen. Some might lament that I were cold. we'll turn aside. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. Complement. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.² DICKENS. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²SHELLEY. See that there be no traitors in your camp. 229. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²THOREAU. Object. which may be (a) Pronoun.And see the Braes of Yarrow. is. (b) Adjective. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Whatever betide.² Be the matter how it may. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. Concessive Clauses. The noun clause. of cash.And look thou tell me true. in apposition. .²CARLYLE. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. for example.²DE QUINCEY. is the ultimate fact of man's life. etc. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. After verbs of commanding.

entreaties. Usually second person. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. 232. (1) Command. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought.(c) Adverb. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.² CARLYLE. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.The spirit he loves remains. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²SHELLEY. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. a concession. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. we had found [should have found] a poem here. for example. Oh. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. IMPERATIVE MOOD.²CHANNING. love all men. . but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. (3) Request. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. since commands are directed to a person addressed. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. At the present day.²J. (2) Entreaty. Q. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. In spoken English. point to their immortal works. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Definition. however. to express a wish. 231. or requests. though. 230. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. fear none. and condition contrary to fact. Honor all men. It must be remembered. ADAMS. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts.²BRYANT.

"Come along with me.And."²DICKENS Tell me. Oh.And God forget the stranger!" . but I + you. 7. noble earl. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.²SHAKESPEARE. nothing is to be preferred before justice. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 6. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. we may use the imperative with we in a command." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 8.One glance at their array! 5.²SCOTT. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Quoth she. Whatever inconvenience ensue. receive my hand. "The Devil take the goose." Exercises on the Moods. etc.. etc. Sometimes with first person in the plural. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. 3. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. lest we rust in ease. request. 2. child of earth!While each performs his part. there will her heart and her prayers be.. or I + they."Hush! mother. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Mark thou this difference. to you implied in it. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart.²CAMPBELL. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I." whispered Kit. Part we in friendship from your land. Break we our watch up. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.

21. no literary man. That sheaf of darts. 10. Though he were dumb. Forget thyself to marble." cried he. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar." continued Old Morgan. let him live where else he like." 25. . is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. That a man parade his doubt. 11. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. 26.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. my dear madam. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. 13. 18. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Though abyss open under abyss. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls.That they might answer him.9. how he may do his work. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. will it not fall unbound. then. she ought to have it. or do it at all. He is. 20. as though an instrument. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Marshall. in what pomps and prosperities he like.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Well. it would speak. 14. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. "Mr. 23. Think not that I speak for your sakes. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. but repentant child. and opinion displace opinion.Except. ruined." 16. 19. whether he do it right or wrong.High up in silver spikes! 22. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. "Oh.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. "tell me where I may find my poor. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. He. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.

and the future tense. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. as will be shown later on. or future time. called auxiliaries. and future perfect tenses. 234. Tenses in English. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. Tense means time." "If he comes." present. or whether it were as one member of a general party.²nothing could exceed the amiable. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents.27.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. as. "Thou walkest. Siddons. 28. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. PERSON AND NUMBER. and future. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. The tenses in detail. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. 233. as the classical languages have. the past. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. and the past tense. such as be. whatever she did. past." ." past. "I go away tomorrow. shall." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. past perfect. 235. "Thou walkedst. in the third person singular. will. Definition. Old English had only two tenses. past. such as Latin and Greek. tell him to wait. When the older pronoun thou was in use. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. a form ending in -eth. Meantime. have. or agree with it.² present. five in the subjunctive. "It is not in man that walketh. as. TENSE. five in the imperative. in the conjugations. by means of the present. to direct his steps.²the present tense. which represented present and future time. also. kind. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as.

I be 2. "He walks. singular number. walk has walk. are. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. You are 2. Singular 1. were. etc. and numbers. choosing. tenses. The verb be has more forms. [He] were [They] were . This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. as. CONJUGATION. walked. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. wert) 3. chosest). In classical languages. PRESENT TENSE. walkedst. etc. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Singular 1." and this only in the present tense indicative. but in English. walketh. I were 2. Such verbs as choose have five. [He] is [They] are 3. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. walks. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. Definition. Few forms. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. Indicative Mood. choosest.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. PRESENT TENSE. is. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2.²choose. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. chooses. tense. chose. been. since it is composed of several different roots. You (thou) be 3. walking. 237. Singular 1. Singular 1. mood. 238. for example.²am. 236. persons. chooseth. moods. chosen (old. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. This is the third person.

as. to express intention.²BURKE . Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.²THACKERAY.²ID. 240.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. obligation. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.Imperative Mood.. (2) As auxiliary verbs. same as the German sind. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. Remarks on the verb be. though it is usually a dialect form. to form the passive voice. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. which was now become an occasional banquet. The light that never was on sea and land. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. thus. in four ways.²GOLDSMITH. condition. (b) With the past participle in -ed. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.His infancy was nurtured. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. (3) be.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. -en. for example.²SHELLEY. etc. 239. etc. (d) With the infinitive. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. is. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²WORDSWORTH.²SCOTT. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. (2) was. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. Instead of the plural are.. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. were.

Some of these have been indicated in Sec. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. 242. tenses. had. I choose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. Singular. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). You choose Plural. 240. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. "I shall be. We chose You chose 3. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. "I have gone" (present perfect). made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. "I had gone" (past perfect). as. I choose 2. In addition to the above inflected forms. future perfect. as. You chose Plural." (2) Present perfect. . INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. past perfect. 1. (2). Singular. I chose 2. You chose Plural. by placing have. Indicative Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. I chose 2. We chose You chose 3." "He will choose. 1. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. tenses. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. Singular. Machinery of a verb in the voices. etc.241. You choose Plural. 1. 1. Singular. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] choose [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE.

" " " " " " " he be choosing. Past. lest. Present definite. Present. Indicative Mood. " Be choosing. as. Present perfect. though. Past perfect definite.] he choose. he have been choosing. Present. He has chosen. He had chosen. he chose (or were to choose)." "You are chosen. will be given. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. (2d per. Subjunctive Mood. Past definite. Same as indicative. Future perfect. Imperative Mood. Same as indicative. Past perfect. Present definite. He has been choosing. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Only the third person. Future perfect definite. Past definite. . as. Present perfect definite. Past. He chose." "They had been running. Future definite. Past perfect definite." (4) The passive forms. Present perfect definite. Present. He was choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. he have chosen. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Future." 243. of each tense. He is choosing. Present definite. He will choose. [If. He had been choosing. He chooses.(3) The definite form of each tense.) Choose. He will he choosing. "I was chosen. Past perfect. etc. singular number. He will have chosen. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. "I am running. Present perfect. He will have been choosing.

He was being chosen. Present perfect." "He did strike. though. (2d per. PASSIVE VOICE. Present perfect. Indicative Mood.] he be chosen. Present definite. Imperative Mood. None.) Be chosen. Past. etc. as. He will have been chosen. Present. Subjunctive Mood. None. He is chosen.. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. if learned at all. 262).NOTE. None. Past perfect. Present perfect definite. Future perfect. Present. lest. he were being chosen. he had been chosen. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Future perfect definite. Future. . Past perfect definite. Present tense.²This table is not to be learned now. Future definite. None. Past Perfect. they will be discussed later (Sec. Exercises should be given. He was chosen. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He will be chosen. Past perfect definite. He had been chosen. Past definite. Present perfect definite. None. he have been chosen. Also. Present definite. "He does strike. None. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms." [Note to Teacher.] [If. but verbals. He is being chosen. " " " " " " " None. Past definite. however. He has been chosen. Past.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. in affirmative sentences.

verbs are strong or weak. as. Kinds.[adj. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . Past Tense. 245. According to form. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. beg. drive. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. bit blown broken chidden. lay. run. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. catch. Definition. slept. begged. sleep. NOTE. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. bid bound. Some of these also have weak forms. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. 244. laid. and may or may not change the vowel: as. bounden] bitten. caught. ran. but adds no ending. which are in parentheses Present Tense. drove.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sunken] sat slain slidden.

and sometimes occurs in poetry.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat." In this confusion of usage. Historically. now told us it was time for repose. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. clave or clove. TAYLOR.²MILTON. nor a dog barked. as. for example. borne is also a passive. but is much used in vulgar English. 246.²B. to split. cleaved.²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING. probably to avoid confusion with this.²TENNYSON. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." "the cloven hoof. cleave.² Thou hast clomb aloft." "a sunken snag. only one set remains certain. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). The former used to be cleave. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). cleaved. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. instead of ate and eaten. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. "his bounden duty.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.²COLERIDGE. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. and the latter. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. Sometimes in literary English. as.²cleave." Stricken is used mostly of diseases." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²one meaning to adhere or cling. When it means to carry or to endure. The form clomb is not used in prose. Our cock. and." "a drunken wretch. cleft. ."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. and another (born) for the passive.² We had each drank three times at the well. Not a cock crew. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. as (from Holmes).²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. cloven. the other. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. which always crew at eleven. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. especially in that of an earlier period. "stricken with paralysis.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. ²THACKERAY. as. cleft (to split).²as (from Shakespeare).

got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. flung.²WORDSWORTH. even in poetry. Usually shear is a weak verb."²KINGSLEY. for example. as. Fall. 5. Throw. One example out of many is. 10. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. and seized a pen. fell.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. driven." but not much as a participle. . Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.² We had all got safe on shore. broke. Break. shaken.²BIBLE. 6. Exercises. (a) From the table (Sec. broken. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. 4. This heard Geraint. begun. Shake. and grasping at his sword.The form gotten is little used. given. 245).²TENNYSON. drove. fallen.²BYRON. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 2. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. We usually say. frozen. Fling. Begin. began. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang.²DE FOE.² If. Drive.²SCOTT. found. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. for example. flung. He sate him down. 9. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. found. gave." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. maiden. Give. Find. 3. The butler was hanged. as "a shorn lamb. threw. 8. 7. shook. froze. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. thrown. shore is rare. which is seldom used except in poetry. Freeze.

"So mote it be. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.. as it has two meanings.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. PAST. . there is one general principle. Indicative Use: Permission. ability.. etc. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. as it sometimes does. "far off his coming shines.[To the Teacher. must have been an ocular deception. His superiority none might question. Have we valuable territories and important posts. Could may be subjunctive. Must is historically a past-tense form.²SCOTT.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. Can is used in the indicative only. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. They are as follows:² PRESENT. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.. etc. purpose. of course. as. Subjunctive use. HAMILTON. but came through analogy with should and would. or when it expresses wish. for full drill on the forms. 220. 249. according to the infinitive used. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248.²HAWTHORNE. or.. It is indicative when it expresses permission. 223. 250.. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. as in Sec.²CHANNING This. 247. Ability.²PAINE. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. 251." Must is present or past tense. The l in could did not belong there originally. from the obsolete verb motan. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. it is used only in the indicative mood. PRESENT. (See also Sec. Like must. PAST."²WINIER. which survives in the sentence.²CHANNING. The same remarks apply to ought.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.

Second and third persons. my lad. while ought always has to. what shall I say?²N. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.e. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. or confident prediction. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. . and corn to hoe. I shall be gone. in the form of command. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. with pronouns of the first person.²IRVING.² The time will come full soon.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.²THAXTER. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.Nay. not plod along like apeasant. BROCKDEN BROWN.²L. promise. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.² Futurity and questions²first person. especially in the United States. as. future action). "I think I will go. yea.² (a) To express authority. They shall have venison to eat. MOULTON. The following are examples:² Never mind.² With respect to novels. shall and should are used. as.. she should ride like a queen. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. as. (b) In indirect quotations. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. shall and should are used. to use will and would. She rejects his suit with scorn.²BULWER. She should not walk.²COOPER. for example. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. The sea shall crush thee.²MACAULAY." Uses of shall and should.²LONGFELLOW.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. C. (b) In questions asking for orders. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. to the neglect of shall and should. Shall and Will. he said. WEBSTER. 252.

LARNED. and is equivalent to ought. BROWN.² I will go myself now. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. thus. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. (c) With direct questions of the second person. time. Disguising a command..²WORDSWORTH. And promised. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. purpose.²WORDSWORTH. First. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²WINTER.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. as the sole inventor. ..Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²C. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. or a promise.²ROGERS. as..²H.that I would do him justice.²SWIFT. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²BYRON. JR. I never was what I should be. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. B. with the conviction that he should win in the end. for example. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. etc.²CABLE. JAMES. for example.²A. second and third persons. was to be expected. 253. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²WORDSWORTH.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²SCOTT. and will not return until all is finished. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.

In this stately chair would he sit. as. without regard to future time. etc. Roland.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.²BANCROFT. will and would often denote an action as customary. will is used to express command. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. for punishment or intimidation.²the original meaning of the word will. AND THIRD PERSONS. would is used to express a wish.. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. B. Mere futurity. so you will. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. When I am in town.² Subject I omitted: often so. Would thou hadst it not.²BURKE. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² DICKENS.. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. (4) With FIRST. action merely expected to occur.. They will go to Sunday schools. when thou wast born.²SCOTT. Thine was a dangerous gift.²SCOTT.²LANDOR. for example. To be sure.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. .. and mark on the grounds the works. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. as. as if it were merely expected action.²War Records.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. will and would are used to express simple futurity. SECOND.. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. and two of my people.²IRVING. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.² Thou wilt take the skiff.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. 254. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. through storms their brothers are afraid of. PASSIVE VOICE. for example. BROWN. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. This puts the order more mildly. The gift of Beauty.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.

"I shall not run. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. You shall choose. 3. 2. 1. promise. [He] shall choose. and that of the newest cut. [They] will choose. You shall choose. You will choose. 1. To express determination. Exercises on Shall and Will. I will be chosen. 3. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. 252 and 253.:² ACTIVE VOICE. [He] will be chosen. He informed us. 3. 2. [They] shall choose. Thou art what I would be. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Plural. I shall choose. . 3. 3. You will choose. (b) Examine the following sentences. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. You shall be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. 5.Singular. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 2. 1. 2. 4. We will choose. Plural." answered Herbert stubbornly. Singular. Plural. [He] will choose. You shall be chosen. Singular. 1. Singular. 2. I shall be chosen. You will be chosen. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. We will be chosen. Plural. (a) From Secs. [They] shall be chosen. yet only seem. etc. [He] shall be chosen. I will choose. We shall choose. 3. and justify the use of shall and will. 6. [They] will be chosen. 2. You will be chosen. We shall be chosen.

"and would like permission to remain with you a little while. The beast made a sluggish movement. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. put." the stranger said. and I have nothing to say. "I am a wayfarer.²ID. or mylk and wastel breed. bereave besought Past Participle. Present Tense. 9. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. very anxious. which may be called irregular weak verbs. The old ending to verbs of Class II. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. WEAK VERBS. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. then. my son. This ending has now dropped off. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. No. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. 13.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. 257. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. bereft. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.²CHAUCER. bereave beseech bereft." 14. Irregular Weak Verbs. and have no change of vowel. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. Past Tense. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please.7. set. But the rest. Lucy stood still. bereaved besought . But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. put. 10. Without having attended to this. was -de or -te. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. 12. as. 256.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.²Class I. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. put. 255. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. need some attention and explanation. Of smale houndes hadde she. as if he would have more of the enchantment. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 11. set.

burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

But later. When active. formed a kind of bedstead. I returned to reflection on my situation. and when passive. to was used before the infinitive generally. PASSIVE VOICE. 266. Three saplings. and a perfect definite form. 9. try clemency. [To] choose. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). have no tense. . 7. ACTIVE VOICE. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. they have an indefinite. as in the Old English.. Indefinite. like participles. Perfect definite.. expressing purpose. Perfect. [To] be chosen.6. 10. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. In Sec.. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. an imperfect. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. 268. [To] be choosing. Imperfect. Infinitives. a perfect. an indefinite and a perfect form. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. [To] have been choosing. Perfect. Cases when to is omitted. to express action unconnected with a subject. INFINITIVES. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. when inflections became fewer. will (with should and would).²the creature warring against the creating power. [To] have chosen. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. [To] have been chosen. Nothing of the kind having been done. 267. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. To with the infinitive. 8. Indefinite.

The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. as. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. see. feel. "a house to let. E. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. can (could). it has several attributes of a noun. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. please. negative. do (as. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. learn [doth learn is one verb. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. liberal woman. sometimes need (as.² What! doth she. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). But there was nothing to do. 271. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²IRVING. GERUNDS.² She was a kind. it may be the subject of a verb. HALE. as the credulous imagine. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. and corn to hoe. bid (command).. make.). She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches." Examples are." etc.²COOPER. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. also in the imperative. "He will choose. and emphatic forms of the present and past. While the gerund expresses action.²MACAULAY. hear.²DE QUINCEY. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. too. under "Analysis. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William." "I shall have chosen. They shall have venison to eat.²it may be governed as a noun. and like a noun in use. poor woman!" cried Charles. . also let. as in the expression. 272. "She ask my pardon. the gerund may be called a noun verbal.²HOWELLS." (4) In exclamations.(2) After the verbs may (might). Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. it is often preceded by the definite article. 269. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. The gerund is like the participle in form. 270. must. or the object of a verb or a preposition.²E.²GOLDSMITH. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. as. as. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. "I do go" etc.²TENNYSON. watch. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.

It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Exercise. which name an action or state. (6) Verbal nouns. 2." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. II). The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. Words in -ing are of six kinds." Exercise." "Certainly dueling is bad. Sec. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. 273. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. making the definite tenses. (3) Participial adjectives. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. after examining the nest.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. but cannot govern. above. What a vast. which express action and also modify. and five gerunds. Then how pleasing is it. (4) Pure adjectives. on your leaving the spot. and wonderful store of learning! . according to use as well as meaning." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1.²Find sentences containing five participles. may govern and be governed. b). Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. when." also (2. and has been put down. (5) Gerunds. five infinitives." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. which express action. brilliant. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. but do not assert. to see the returning hope of the parents. (2) Pure participles. 4. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which have lost all verbal force. which express action.

(b) as to use. subjunctive. he gave out sentence by sentence. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 13. give reality to your teaching. 12. What is dreaming? 8. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb.²indicative. 10. write twenty pages without stopping. 6. by object lessons. (3) Mood.5. 234. (5) Person and number. much corroded. 11. slowly.²transitive or intransitive. 275. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 15. He spread his blessings all over the land. like Sir Walter Scott. 7. 16. Caution. giving principal parts. bearing her national emblem. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 14. VERBS. In parsing verbs. but. . I suppose I was dreaming about it. (2) Voice. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. round which is an iron railing. I. or imperative. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing.²strong or weak. dictating from his chair.²which of the tenses given in Sec. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 9. (4) Tense.²active or passive. you must. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. Thackeray did not.

or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. can. past tense. If a participial adjective. In 2. and not taken as single verbs. etc. usually it does not. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. call should a weak verb. (3) Gerund. intransitive. But unless the verb is present. give points (a) and (b). (2) Infinitive. in the world. (a) From what verb derived. verbals. imperfect. has the subject government. Especially frequent are those made up of should. and parting day linger and play on its summit. might. definite. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. III. You are gathered to your fathers. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Parse the verbs. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. (b) whether indefinite. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Take these examples:² 1.. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Let it rise! let it rise. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. . perfect." Sometimes it does. call might a weak verb." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. VERBALS. see Sec. (1) Participle. 277. etc. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. could. followed by a pure infinitive without to. therefore active. VERB PHRASES. (b) whether active or passive. In such sentences as 1. intransitive. active. would. It has been intimated in Sec. perfect. indicative. II. till it meet the sun in his coming. no sin nor sorrow. and should always be analyzed as phrases. 2. past tense. may. 3. (b) its use (Sec. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. then parse it as an adjective. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. we must beware of the rule. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. 235. and ends in -s. (c) to what word it belongs. 4. 273). 278. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. must. Exercise. indicative (as it means could). 278(2). if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. has for its subject Lee.276. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. 2.

from a sort of temporary death." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 8.O God.5. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 17. 20. With them. 21. In going for water. 14. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. he thought only of her. 23. as the Hindoos say. So.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. as rolled from wing to wing. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements.Henceforth in me instill. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 22. a sweet good will. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. When he arose in the morning. leaving me upon the bed. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 13. However that be. a new bursting forth of the sun. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 9.Down all the line. He passed across the room to the washstand. 6. or. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 10. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. The soul having been often born. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. see that it is in good condition. Right graciously he smiled on us. 15. a deafening shout. 11. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 12. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 18. morning is not a new issuing of light. and wondered if she were yet awake. a new waking up of all that has life. . 16. 24. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. as usual. 19.

I have always talked to him as I would to a friend." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. ADVERBS. To the almost terror of the persons present." "He was absolute. Better it were. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.²THACKERAY. 279. because. And now wend we to yonder fountain. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. and men of leisure and cultivation.²time. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. When action is expressed. Is it only poets." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. and live ere life be spent.25.Feast while we may. as. 27. A verb. for the hour of rest is at hand. and so on. 29. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. they are more himself than he is. Adverbs modify. 26.²EMERSON. to consent. The word adverb means joined to a verb. and limit adjectives or adverbs. thou sayest."²DE QUINCEY. Oh. or manner: as. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. place. Nor was it altogether nothing. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. who live with nature?²ID. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. to speak truly." An adjective or an adverb. .²SHELLEY. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road.²CARLYLE.² The young man reveres men of genius. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. "William's private life was severely pure. for example.

being adverbs naturally and fitly. 169 are felt to be elliptical. 282. but some verb understood.² LOWELL. is a modifying word. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. while those in Sec. Thus considered.²TROLLOPE. We are offered six months' credit. but really modifying. which may qualify an action word or a statement. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. perhaps. Make music to the lonely ear. as shown in the sentences. 280.²THOREAU. not simply the forms used in predication. thus.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. ALDRICH. (2) according to their use in the sentence. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. then. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. ever. for example.²LEIGH HUNT. 281. like the light of heaven. It may also modify a sentence. to-day. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. as. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. I draw forth the fruit. and that. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. 169.²T. A phrase. before. lately. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. NOTE. Surely happiness is reflective. NOTE. there are six classes:² (1) Time. and half awfully. as now. not the noun. A clause or sentence. B. ²IRVING. hitherto. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. all wet and glossy. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. An adverb. has induced some of us to attend it. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.² FRANKLIN. or a word group used as such. Definition. etc.²BYRON.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.²These last differ from the words in Sec.He was incidentally news dealer. but still with a rich bloom to it. .

just. not.. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.²DE QUINCEY.whither. This long's the text. maybe. beautifully. (3) Manner. whithersoever. bravely. much.(2) Place. Meekness. I was. at least. the more friends you will have.. as hither. whencesoever.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. above.where. better.²IRVING. for example.²BURKE. and not infrequently are found in literary English. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. etc.yonder. the more evidently they love liberty. telling how many times: once. (see also Sec. White. as hence. etc.²HAWTHORNE.whence. while so precedes only the adjective usually.was for this once of her opinion. possibly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. twice.thither. telling how much. as little. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. (6) Assertion. that these adverbs form a very large class.near. Thackeray. 283). enough. (4) Number.there. too. Motley.²R. and others. the more perfect will be their obedience. etc. (5) Degree. . slightly..² The master. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.thence. as here. singly. LOUIS STEVENSON.²BROWNING. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. telling how anything is done. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. slowly. [Sidenote The status of such. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. probably. surely. etc. Emerson. thus. as well. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.²LECKY.which gained him such universal popularity. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.. So also in Grote. partly.. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. The more they multiply.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. or how far he believes it to be true. very. as perhaps. etc. greatly. especially the comparative of these words. 283. two by two.

I perceived his sisters mighty busy." said the king. Neville. for example." "The house. Kingsley." "That were far better [degree].² You are mighty courteous. Hard blows and hard money. Dickens. and art but a fool. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples." "I have seen you before [time]. A pretty large experience. and its lawn before [place]. B. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Direct questions. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Mighty.²GOLDSMITH. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.²BAYNE. Beau Fielding. besides modifying. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Pretty is also used by Prescott.²THACKERAY." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Again. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. for example.²FIELDING.²THACKERAY. 285." "He spoke positively [manner]. Notice meanings. Burke. STOWE. Aldrich. "Peace. and other writers.²BULWER. 286. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Defoe. Franklin. Such are most of those given already in Sec.² "Mighty well.²"He walked too far [place]. De Quincey. Simple. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Emerson.²HAWTHORNE. Interrogative. Holmes. a mighty fine gentleman. Some adverbs.Pretty." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE."²SCOTT. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. . 282. have the additional function of asking a question.² KINGSLEY. 284.

for example. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (4) Degree.²D. CLAY. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BULWER. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. (2) Place. 287. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.²BYRON (3) Manner. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²POE. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. When did this humane custom begin?²H. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. (2) Place.²BYRON. (4) Degree. I will not ask where thou liest low. . Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I do not remember when I was taught to read. (5) Reason. I know not why. WEBSTER. they smiled. I hearkened.

high. further farthest. Tell what each word in ly modifies. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Exercise. not an adverb. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.²TENNYSON. Form vs. Then must she keep it safelier. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. Only that we may wiselier see.) rather 289. only occasionally having -er and -est. Many adjectives have the same ending. when. have the same inflection as adjectives.²EMERSON. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Many adverbs are compared. soonest.²COLERIDGE.eyes. when compared. and. higher. see Sec." Exercise. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. just as adjectives do.²SHAKESPEARE. For further discussion. . Superlative. sooner. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. are often used as adjectives:² Positive.²BYRON. but the whole clause. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 288. irregularly compared. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. obs. soon. The following. representing four classes. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs.But in reality. 290. well much little far late Comparative.. as. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Its strings boldlier swept. when does not express time and modify.. furthest (rathe. use. highest.

The reason is.²TENNYSON. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate.²IRVING. Frequently the word there. 292.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. 5. merely introduces a sentence. kindly and good-natured in secret. 8. 2.1. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. . This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 4. hardly. mostly. 7.² EMERSON. or down the leaves laughed through. And all about. 2. With his proud. instead of being used adverbially. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. He is inexpressibly mean. etc. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. near. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. 3.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²ID. if it has the verb be. curiously jolly. many words without -ly have the same form.²WORDSWORTH. evenly.²THACKERAY. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. Again. but with a different meaning. as. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 6. Not near so black as he was painted. more courtly in their manners. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. quick-flashing eye." Compare these:² 1. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. whether adverbs or adjectives. Such are most. Special use of there.²CHAUCER. nearly. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. even. that in Old and Middle English. to be sure. 291.And his mien of kingly state. But he must do his errand right. There are eyes. hard. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.

10. 15. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. Thither we went. 293. It is the Cross that is first seen. but continually shifted. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 3.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. is always politically unwise. and sate down on the steps of a house. 7. according to meaning and also use. 2. however theoretically enticing. But a few steps farther on. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. (2) Degree of comparison. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. and always. give² (1) The class. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. burning in the center of the temple. at the regular wine-shop. but from my fall? 6. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. For the impracticable. 12. the Madonna is in great glory. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 16. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 18. 4. 17. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 5. Exercise. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 11. In parsing adverbs. . 9. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. if the word is compared. (3) What word or word group it modifies.

Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. 294. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. connecting words. . 22. Unlike adverbs. hence. sentences. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. Clauses. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. word groups.19. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. But now the wind rose again. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. A conjunction is a linking word. or sentence groups. 21. etc." Sentences. nor. It was pretty bad after that. then. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words." Paragraphs." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. however. therefore. 295. Definition. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. but side by side within the American Union. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. but the student will readily find them. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. 20. upon which the sun now shone forth. CONJUNCTIONS. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. she would undoubtedly have succumbed.

Some of these go in pairs. either.. however. (3) CAUSAL. .. as but. the bread was spent. either. and not man corn.. nor. hence. whether. Correlatives. Alternative. etc. The chief ones are. (4) ALTERNATIVE. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.. (2) Subordinate.. Nor mark'd they less. "Howbeit.and. Your letter. usually between two things. The assertion. for..nor. word groups. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. still.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. neither. expressing a choice. but is emperor in his own right. else. (2) ADVERSATIVE. Causal. as well as the room door.nor.. whether. as well as..or.. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. moreover.or. then... For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. While the earth bears a plant. as. the window being open..but (or but also).or whether..Classes of conjunctions.. yet. Some go in threes.. as. They are or. both. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. however. either. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.but. serves but to show their ignorance.. had its weight... introducing a reason or cause. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. and. of the same rank... 296. 298. whether. likewise. while. also. therefore.or. etc. the butter too.. nor. as and. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. neither. joining words." Nevertheless. not only. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.or. neither.. 297.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. only. not only. answering to each other in the same sentence.. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Adversative. or the sea rolls its waves. etc.

. so. He is not only bold and vociferous. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. (7) RESULT: that. except. 299. nor wing of bird. nor creeping thing. since. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. Time.²DE QUINCEY. whence. in apposition. as. sometimes if. in order that. after. whither. now. Where the treasure is. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. etc.²COOPER. .²J. whenever. though. in case.²WILSON. wherever. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets ²ALLSTON. that. etc. especially that after so. so. etc. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. since.²BURKE. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. howsoever. It is. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. even if. unless. etc. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. although. provided that. so that. as. seeing. nor echo. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. (3) MANNER: how.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. whether.²IRVING.²BIBLE. before. (2) TIME: when. there will the heart be also.²PAULDING. object. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. Neither the place in which he found himself. (6) PURPOSE: that.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. while.. ere. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. QUINCY. whereas.. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. whereto. so. so that. however. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. etc. whithersoever. until. provided. as. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. lest. nor green leaf. on condition that.

his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. . he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. As a soldier. I was again covered with water. Then Denmark blest our chief.² EMERSON. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Purpose. Now he is dead. So many thoughts moved to and fro. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²CAMPBELL. Result. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²IRVING. Manner.That vain it were her eyes to close. Substantive.²BURKE. Condition. Let the world go how it will. We wish for a thousand heads. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. not as they were expected or intended.² WORDSWORTH.So I behold them not.²AMES. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Comparison. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. a thousand bodies.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²EMERSON. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.That he gave her wounds repose.²AMES. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.² H. Cause. Sparing neither whip nor spur. JACKSON. Concession.² HAWTHORNE.²AMES. H.²BYRON. but not so long but I held it out.²CARLYLE Events proceed. reason.²DEFOE.

some words²for example. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. While a faction is a minority. 6. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 7. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. The moth fly. her real merit is known at home. that. 5. it will remain harmless. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. etc. 13. 4. and hid her there. she faintly pressed her hand. 300. In what point of view. Exercises. the wisest. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. And then recovering. as. however.²RUSKIN. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. He was brought up for the church. 9. While patriotism glowed in his heart.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 10. 2. 12. the lady called her servant. Crept under the leaf. After he was gone. hold a subordinate rank. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 15. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. since. No one had yet caught his character. then. while. Besides. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. And they lived happily forever after. . (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. They. 3. As will have been noticed. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad.Let us see whether the greatest. 14. as he shot in air.

In Emerson's sentence. As if.²HOOD. as is shown by the use of as though. the expression would be. 303. .² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.As though a rose should shut.. 301. (2) What words. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. for example. even as they would weep.16. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. 302.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. and part as though we parted not." as.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. As though. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. 304. thus.²EMILY BRONTE.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. in this case. As for as if.. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. etc. In poetry.²IRVING. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. none of the lashings having given way. In parsing conjunctions. Consequently. word groups. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. as is often equivalent to as if. expressing degree if taken separately. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. His voice . Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. they connect. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. GREELEY. "We meet. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.. and the frame will suit the picture. and be a bud again. So silently we seemed to speak. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. If analyzed.Clouded.So slowly moved about.²BYRON. SPECIAL REMARKS.

and associates as happily. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. For example. because it is his. 5. dines with as good an appetite. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. When the gods come among men.² 1. In classifying them. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. 11. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. but of the natural. he sleeps as warm. Exercise.²is subordinate of condition. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. so it be faithfully imparted. the Sphinx was slain. so that I could not stir abroad. because. so that expresses result. 6. that it might testify of that particular ray. he is also the correlative of nature. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. "Doctor. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. and its clause is independent. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. All the postulates of elfin annals. 10. 12. 9.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. when. It continued raining. It may be safely trusted. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye.. At sea. 13. 3. in 3. compare the sentences. are regularly of one particular class.²that the fairies do not like to be named. He dismisses without notice his thought.²DEFOE 2. 4. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. 7. and its clause depends on the other. and very seldom?" 8. and. or in the snow. in 2. they are not known. If he could solve the riddle. so means provided.²I find them true in Concord. or in the forest. others belong to several classes.²EMERSON 3. so they paddled on. He is the compend of time.Caution. etc. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. 2. and the like. . that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. Some conjunctions. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. so means therefore. such as nor." said his wife to Martin Luther. as beside his own chimneys.

Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. the whole conditions are changed. 23. of good novels only. I speak. 20. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. Now you have the whip in your hand. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. And whether consciously or not. 19. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. that both were wayward. 29. Still. therefore. 305. however. you must be. enthroned. PREPOSITIONS. It is clear. 15. though there may be little resemblance otherwise.. 22. Goodness must have some edge to it. 25. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. It may be so in the majority of cases. 26. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. save it were sinful like herself. . 16. 18. in this they agree. whose names I omit. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 24. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 30. For. I rejoice to stand here no longer. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. in many a heart.14. she might have the family countenance. There was no iron to be seen. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 27.²else it is none. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. when it was presented to them. 21. won't you lay on? 17. 28.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²M. at first. Exercise. (2) Time. the first port made by the ship. at all. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. as. by many a million of acres. TAYLOR The angel came by night. Richard was standing by the window.²EVERETT. at peace.²COOPER. (4) Measure of excess. at one. ²PARTON. at most. 320. For. at work. By. at war. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. (3) Agency or means. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.²B. at length. by the wrecks of time. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation.²SWIFT. at the best.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last.² (1) The general meaning of place. etc. at rest.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. D. etc. at play. at any rate. at once. at random. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. Like at.²DE QUINCEY. At that time [the earth] was richer. he stopped. by means near or close to. .²ID. H. at the worst. Helena. at naught. by the blessed memory of the departed. expressing the degree of difference. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. by the ruins of nations. STODDARD. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. By my faith. 321. She saw the boat headed for her. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. Exercise. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. At St. at least.²WARNER.²ALDRICH.²R. CONWAY. and phrases signifying state or condition of being.

. reason. (5) Reference.²ID.²W. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. The twilight being. But the Colonel.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. as to. for the benefit of. ate her child. as being." said the Lady of Lochleven. etc. "thou hast counseled wisely. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline."²SCOTT By my faith. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. for all slips of hers. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. meaning although.²HOLMES. (3) Duration of time. (4) Substitution or exchange. if your worship can accomplish that. they are now for us. cause.² RUSKIN. in behalf of. a person or thing. he repented of his folly. For him. E. There are gains for all our losses.(2) In favor of. incitement to action. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. the Colonna motto would fit you best. etc. meaning with regard to.²EMERSON. He and they were for immediate attack.²E. for all his title.²IRVING.²HOOD. and leaped for joy. H.. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity." answered Master Brackett. had a forest of poor relations.One of Eve's family. for famine. (6) Like as. or in spite of. respecting. (7) Concession. (9) Motive. BANCROFT.²H.²LAMB. meaning in the character of. An Arab woman. considering that etc. GARRISON. Still. poor fellow. but a few sunsets since.²PARKMAN. etc. "For a fool. or extent of space. For the rest. .²STODDARD. "Nay. L.²PARKMAN.

²MILTON. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²ID.²HUME. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²H. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. ceased to be merciful. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The general idea in from is separation or source. The original meaning of of was separation or source. From. The young cavaliers.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²HIGGINSON. (1) Origin or source. cause. if not a desperate man. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. like from. H. 322. The king holds his authority of the people. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Exercise. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. . The From Relation.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²HALE. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. Of. (3) Time. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²HUXLEY. more.²BANCROFT. A distrustful. It was from no fault of Nolan's. Exercise. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. 323. or reason. (4) Motive.²DRYDEN. from a desire of seeming valiant. From harmony. (2) Origin. nay. Like boys escaped from school.

rob. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. of his own knowledge. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. divest. etc. Asked no odds of. Sandals. deprivation. deprive. etc. and grass. reason. Of the Forty. free of. You cannot make a boy know.²PARKMAN. (c) After nouns expressing lack. expressing a part of a number or quantity. The hills were bare of trees. ²GAVARRE.²BOSWELL. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. Back of that tree. out of the most unpromising materials. weeds.²HIGGINSON. bound with thongs of boar's hide. that Cromwell once ruled England.²BAYARD TAYLOR.. (d) With words expressing distance. ²PARTON. (5) Expressing agency.²clear of. etc.² HUXLEY. More than one altar was richer of his vows. ask. . or breastpin of native gold.²LEW WALLACE. (3) With expressions of material.²DICKENS II. HALE.²ID. free. south of. there were only twenty-one members present. rid. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. White shirt with diamond studs. etc. relieve. especially out of. demand. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. etc.²ALDRICH. wide of. clear.²BANCROFT.²SCOTT Who formed. (b) After some adjectives. He is away of his own free will. Other Relations expressed by Of. such as ease. (6) Partitive. disarm. E.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. beg. as north of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. he had raised a little Gothic chapel."²E. purge. acquitted them of. cure. "I am glad of that. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. bare of. motive. A singular want of all human relation.

Idiomatic use with verbs. (8) Appositional.²PRESCOTT. of late. and the dignity of a queen. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²LAMB. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. E.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²FROUDE. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. The fair city of Mexico. when the first is descriptive of the second. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²ID.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²ALDRICH.²BANCROFT. with regard to. See also Sec. The nation of Lilliput. ²IRVING. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.²SWIFT. (9) Of time.²BANCROFT. for the possessive. (7) Possessive. 309. Besides the phrases of old. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. . The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. (b) Noun and gerund. Such a book as that of Job. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. being equivalent to an infinitive. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. with its object. of a sudden.. equal to about. could give shelter from his contumely. concerning. Not even woman's love. of is used in the sense of during. etc. (c) Two nouns.²BANCROFT.²COOPER.²LOWELL.²W. CHANNING.²HALLECK. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. (10) Of reference. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. standing.He washed out some of the dirt.

²PARKMAN. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. (b) With motion. on the wing. on board. (4) In adjurations.²PARKMAN. concerning. (2) Time. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. repent. approve.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. On my life. 325. Upon my reputation and credit. SIGOURNEY. Upon. without adding to their meaning. on high.²DE QUINCEY. etc. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²BRYANT. and not a day more. equal to about.²MRS. disapprove. on view. 324. you are eighteen. on the alert. on a sudden. on trial. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. . The general meaning of on is position or direction.²ALDRICH. It also accompanies the verbs tire. ²BANCROFT.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. Upon is seldom used to express time.²EMERSON. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. On. complain. allow.²Find sentences with six uses of of. consist.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. Exercise. Exercise. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. accept. etc. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. such as admit.²PARKMAN. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (3) Reference. avail (one's self). To. and others. permit. Cannon were heard close on the left. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.

of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Death!²HALLECK. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²BULWER.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²PARTON.²IRVING.. (b) Referring to time. to him. 268). We cook the dish to our own appetite. had ceased to be. (5) Equivalent to according to.. 326. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. With.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. unmasked.²often to the loss of vigor.Come to the bridal chamber. To the few. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. He usually gave his draft to an aid. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²PARKMAN.²LANG. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. (2) Expressing result. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. gay Comedy appears. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Exercise.. mid meant in company with. His brother had died.² be written over.²B. to my taste. does the mere music. But when. whose influence is felt to this hour.. Revolutions. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. it may be genuine poetry. interest.²GOLDSMITH. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²BENTON To our great delight. . In Old English. Nor.²BRYANT.

²LANG. She seemed pleased with the accident. reason. Exercise. first of all.²EMERSON. Either with the swingle-bar. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. (5) Opposition. transmitted from the beginning.²SCOTT. (2) Instrumentality. felt it unsafe to trifle further. I think.²E. (4) Estimation.²CHANNING. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. It seemed a supreme moment with him. with Heyward at its head. it is necessary.²DE QUINCEY.²HALE. He was wild with delight about Texas. with all his boldness.²ALDRICH. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²COOPER. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. . E. as with you. With all his sensibility. in spite of. "poetry is not a pursuit. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. to find the object of the preposition. opinion.²HOWELLS. he gave millions to the sword.²Find sentences with four uses of with. but with you. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. motive. 327.The advance. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. HALE. but a pleasure"?²LANG. or with the haunch of our near leader. He expired with these words. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. (3) Cause. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. had already reached the defile. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²HOWELLS.²WALLACE (7) Time.²COLERIDGE. Messala.²DE QUINCEY.

like the clapping of wings. telling what man. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. because I had given the provocation. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. 3. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. I felt my box raised very high in the air. (2) on which. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. but I received no other hurt. came tumbling about my ears. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. but all to no purpose.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. which. Whereupon. hence we say. 5. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. 4. I remember. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. I heard a noise just over my head. or was. .²SWIFT 2. And so on. of from. I looked towards my windows. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. beginning. the phrase answers the question where. the malicious rogue. To our general surprise. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. before the dwarf left the queen. and knocked me down flat on my face. (3) without a country. he followed us one day into those gardens. The guns were cleared of their lumber. of on. country. Be that as it will. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky.²ID. In (2). (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. (4) from the beginning. of without. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. Exercises. 2. In (3). I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. we met the defaulter here. The object of on board is ships. without a country modifies man. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. I speak these things from a love of justice. I called out several times. shook it directly over my head. In (1). and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. by which a dozen apples.

A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. I like to see the passing. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 23. 8. The mother sank and fell. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. to one dark and gloomy. 29. He locked his door from mere force of habit. in town. 18. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 24. 9. 21. On all subjects known to man. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance.He spurred his courser on. Carteret was far from being a pedant. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 22. 7. 19. 20.Without stop or stay. after a restful morning. For my part. 14. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. when. 16. in this respect. The savage army was in war-paint. plumed for battle. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. he favored the world with his opinions. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 26. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 27. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. grasping at the child. . 11. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 10. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 13.6. 12. With all his learning. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 25. 17. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 15. His breeches were of black silk.

²WEBSTER.²BEECHER. A few are discussed below. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (3) As a relative pronoun. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. We wish that labor may look up here. WHAT. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (a) Indefinite relative. And now it is like an angel's song. that you might behold this joyous day. That was a dreadful mistake. and not according to form. (c) Substantive conjunction. 328. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. and be proud in the midst of its toil. . (b) Of result. not merely by the amount of the tax.²HUXLEY.²WEBSTER. He will raise the price.² JOHNSON.²STOCKTON. THAT. 330. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.30. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (4) As an adverb of degree. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²COLERIDGE. That is what I understand by scientific education. 329.²WEBSTER.That makes the heavens be mute. That night was a memorable one.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (1) Relative pronoun. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.

What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (a) Indefinite relative Pera. What with the Maltese goats. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.. it rests on reality.²WORDSWORTH.Those shadowy recollections.but.²THACKERAY. he knows what good people are to be found there. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. .. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the is impossible to determine. To say what good of fashion we can.. Cox. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (b) Indirect question. What. to see what might be hidden.. (8) Conjunction. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.²ID... What. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²WEBSTER.." (4) Relative adjective.²S.²ID. nearly equivalent to partly. (6) Exclamatory adjective..these sounds are only to be heard. silent still. or not only. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. after not only. (7) Adverb of degree. and silent all!²BYRON.S. 331. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. partly.²EMERSON..²EMERSON.. BUT. (9) As an exclamation. but the result of calculation.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. (b) Indirect question. "I'll tell you what.Which be they what they may. (b) Copulative. If he has [been in America]..

. (b) Substantive. (d) Of reason. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. at all moments. . To lead but one measure.²MRS BROWNING. not. meaning only. but piercing cries. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (b) Of manner.. not.²CARLYLE. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. like the dog.. sometimes same.²HAWTHORNE. (e) Introducing an appositive word.²FRANKLIN. meaning otherwise . As orphans yearn on to their mothers. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. not.Then arose not only tears. ²CARLYLE. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. after such. AS. 332. (c) Of degree. Doing duty as a guard. equivalent to that . after a negative. (2) Relative pronoun. (5) Adverb. meaning except.²IRVING. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven..²IRVING. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. towards order. I shall see but little of it. (3) Preposition. or who . on all sides. stands for that .. than..²EMERSON.²IRVING.. Who knows but.²SHELLEY..²LAMB. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²SCOTT.He yearned to our patriot bands. (4) Relative pronoun.

like Martin was. In this second use.²EMERSON. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. No Emperor.²MAYHEW. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. Stirring it vigorously.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. (1) An adjective. like him awhile ago. In each case.LIKE. .²LONGFELLOW. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. and is followed by a dative-objective. but its verb is omitted. but this is not considered good usage: for example. ²PARKMAN. this. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²ALDRICH. nervous child. like a cook beating eggs.² HAWTHORNE.²DARWIN.²EMERSON. like summer ocean's. Note the difference between these two uses. NOTE. and was clearly an adjective. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. indeed. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²SHAKESPEARE. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. 333. Introduces a clause. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²HAWTHORNE.-SCOTT. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²ALDRICH.²LAMB.²HALLECK. staring like a bewildered man. Through which they put their heads.²HIGGINSON. That face. They look. and as or as if takes its place.²CASS.² A timid. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. like drops out. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. If the verb is expressed. There is no statue like this living man. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. Give Ruskin space enough. This follows a verb or a verbal.

entering into the structure of a sentence." PART II. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. tut! buzz! etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. etc. Some of these are imitative sounds. What analysis is." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. etc. Definition. 336. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. pronoun. 335. in separating them into their component parts. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. that is. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.²in determining case. verb. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. that is. but it still retains its identity as noun. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Definition. subject and predicate. as. 334." "Up! for shame! [adverb].²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax.: for example. Value of analysis. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.. clauses introduced by conjunctions." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. . A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.INTERJECTIONS.

always friends?" imperative.Kinds of sentences as to form. interrogative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. but the sentence would still be declarative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. not according to the form in which a thought is put. Examples of these three kinds are.²a subject and a predicate. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. or command: for example. old man?" "Be thou familiar. 338. This is the most common one. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. "Come to the bridal chamber. 339. question." "What wouldst thou do. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Definition: Predicate. hence. 2." 340. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. entreaty. which expresses command. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Definition. but according to how many statements there are. or imperative. declarative. or request. . Division according to number of statements. which puts the thought in a question. 337. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. you must not die!" interrogative. (3) Imperative. But now all is to be changed. but by no means vulgar. according to form. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "Old year. "Hath he not always treasures. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. SIMPLE SENTENCES. Every sentence must contain two parts. (2) Interrogative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement.

. "[You] behold her single in the field. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. or an interrogative pronoun. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. and the real subject is the latter. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. a rare old plant. 341.²What is to be changed? Answer. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. and is to be supplied. Thus. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. 4. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. In the interrogative sentence. 7. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 3. 5. Listen. 8. The last of all the Bards was he." Exercise. Slavery they can have anywhere. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. especially in poetry. but about the ivy green. the subject is frequently after the verb. 2. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. all. or adverb that asks about the subject. to suit all cases:² Subject. to an ignorant man. always reduce them to the order of a statement. the subject (you. adjective. Consequently. or ye) is in most cases omitted. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. not of a rare old plant. In analyzing such sentences. thou. on the other hand. and our definition must be the following.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 6. we have some trouble. But if we try this with the second sentence. as.

(1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb.²transitive and intransitive. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. "Ye call me chief. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (4) The complements. and means summoned. 343. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. or second object. in addition to the object. and by object we mean the direct object. Indirect object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. (5) Modifiers. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. 342. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning." indirect. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (3) The object." Complement: 344. and me here is not the object simply of call. Of a transitive verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. "Ye honor me. direct. . (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. The transitive verb often requires. but of call chief. just as if to say. but it is a true complement. Direct Object. but chief belongs to the verb. (6) Independent elements." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief).10. for example. (2) The predicate. The subject and predicate have been discussed.

355." (2) PARTICIPIAL. 347. in exercise following Sec." Things used as Subject. and. or. sir!' rang out in response. become. etc. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. "Brow and head were round. A phrase is a group of words. Complement of an intransitive verb." "He was termed Thomas. 346. ay. seem. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 352. 351. more familiarly. above sixty. Thom of the Gills. Phrases. feel." (3) INFINITIVE. introduced by a preposition: for example. 'Ay. An intransitive verb. appear. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. and of massive weight. not containing a verb. in the popular judgment. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." All these complete intransitive verbs. especially the forms of be. as in the sentence. he was now getting old." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." 345. I mentioned a case of that nature. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. for instance. as in drowning. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. to the completion of this man of the world." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . "A cheery. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. See sentence 19." "The good man. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. As to form. as. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." Also an expression used as a noun. taste. in the original Opium Confessions. 364. but used as a single modifier.. and barring the door. (1) PREPOSITIONAL.

" 348. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. (2) In interrogative sentences. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. and ever will be." Things used as Complement. 341." "The dead are there. for which see Sec. or their religion from their sect." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. but the real or logical subject is to print. ." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." The for did not belong there originally. but obscures the real subject. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). prowling eyes. but they will be given in detail here. I saw the quick and the dead. asserting eyes." etc.²the talent of starting the game." "Never. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. Disguised infinitive subject. 349. was heard one syllable to justify." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. (4) After "there introductory." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." "There are asking eyes. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. my deficiency.²the infinitive phrase." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. or the thundering of organs." Things used as Direct Object." In this sentence. etc." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. "'By God. from their lips. "Therein has been. and by Saint George!' said the King.

²completing the predicate.²heads or tails. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." Modifiers. As complement of an intransitive verb." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." In this last sentence. complements of the predicate. the object is made the subject by being passive. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. 351." "I hear the echoes throng. doubtless. and the words italicized are still complements." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. Object." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. or the equivalent of the noun. Modifiers of Subject. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. and whenever the complement is a noun." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. (3) Infinitive." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. I. or Complement. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." "She asked her father's permission." "Serving others is serving us." "Their tempers.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. As complement of a transitive verb. at the same time." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." (4) Participle.350. they are adjuncts of the object. the shepherd girl. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." . and. and explaining or modifying the subject. Of a transitive verb.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Like all the complements in this list.

" (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. tell whether the subject.²In each sentence in Sec. or complement is modified. given at the request of a Dutch lady. Retained with passive." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." "In the twinkling of an eye." Exercise. I have seasoned for thee." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. Tells how. the verb being omitted. the prisoner at the bar. Since the predicate is always a verb. and modify the predicate in the same way. this young idolater. object. "He died like a God. unforgiving. was the scene from King John." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. no sociable angel. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." "Him. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. but with other men. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. was now called upon for his defense." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. 352." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve.²proud. austere." (For participial and infinitive phrases. and leading him from star to star." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. see further Secs. or ." In such a sentence as.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. 351. Modifiers of the Predicate. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but it is really a contracted clause. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. but noble teachers. 357-363." "Give them not only noble teachings. not with nature. II.

(a) Pick out subject. Evil.. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. 2. to the animal strength and spirits. and other measures of precaution. etc. according to old philosophers. But anger drives a man to say anything." Exercises." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. but to be loved. Fashion does not often caress the great. is good in the making. and the direct object is retained: for example. and as many to oppose it. and." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. 6. predicate. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 2. no humor. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. with my joy and grief. I took. gives wonderful animation. (b) Pick out the subject. 7. These answer the question when. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. This. 3. On the voyage to Egypt. a sort of personality to the whole writing. 3.When the verb is changed from active to passive. . His books have no melody. 8. in regard to particulars. and (direct) object:² 1. 5." "One way lies hope. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 4. he liked. no relief to the dead prosaic level. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. predicate. To the men of this world. after dinner. 5. but the children of the great. the indirect object is retained." (6) Adverbial objective." "All such knowledge should be given her. negative. They do not wish to be lovely. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 6. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. Why does the horizon hold me fast. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. in this center? 4. or how long. 7. no emotion. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. how far.

I promised her protection against all ghosts.. 3. the blooming cornet. in little peaceful Easedale. To suffer and to do. happy dinner. 2. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 3. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 2. viz. I gave him an address to my friend. Paint me. then. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 2. 5. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 3. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. Compound Predicate. after their long confinement to a ship. 4. and a member of the world.²the river Meuse. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. Yes. . 6. a room seventeen feet by twelve. Unhorse me. Their intention was to have a gay. this nun so martial. the attorney. to the right and to the left. Not the less I owe thee justice. this imperial rider. 4. then. 5. downwards.y 8. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. six children sat by a peat fire. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. for the first time. upwards. 4. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. this dragoon so lovely. burthened with the anxieties of a man. I felt myself. That night. must visit again the home of her childhood. etc. y y y y Compound Subject. at length the warrior lady. that was thy portion in life. expecting the return of their parents. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. Not compound sentences. A river formed the boundary. at the chief hotel.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. In one feature.

that is." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. and. the verb). Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. Of this. turned his steps homeward. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. modifiers. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. forming a sentence: "Oh. 354. shouldered the rusty firelock. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. my brave young man!" . "Ah. may be the person or thing addressed. I'm with you once again. then the grammatical subject and predicate." "He shook his head. hurry. and its object or complement." "Voyages and travels I would also have. Independent Elements of the Sentence.. the tone of her voice. the predicate. Larger view of a sentence." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. complements. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. above: thus. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. etc. hurry. lurking far down in the depths of human nature." And so with complements. in the sentence. etc. they are not a necessary part. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. several modifiers. in all such sentences as we quote below.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. 355. same as (1). the air of the mother. etc. together with all its modifiers. but it is to be noticed that. exposes. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. the object. Bishop. For example. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. together with its modifiers. the simple subject is situation. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. ulcer.353. "The company broke up." "Ye crags and peaks. and the rest is the logical predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. The exclamatory expression." "The name of the child. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. Examples of compound subjects are." Sentences with compound predicates are. however.

(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. modifying the predicate. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES." "Why." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. object. truly. six quill-driving gentlemen." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon." (6) Single words: as. . limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. 3. he closed his literary toils at dinner. why. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared." "Truth to say. pronoun. prepositional phrases may be. 350.. generally speaking. 356." (5) Participial phrase: "But. There are some adverbs. already noticed. and so on." (2) Adverbial. 6). and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. yes! everybody knew them. moreover. really. to the best of my remembrance. modifying a noun. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. this story runs thus." (3) Independent. that have an office in the sentence. or word used as a noun: for example." "Well." "At all events." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. or complement (see Sec. how you're winking!" "Now. the company broke up. grandma. 357. therefore. he somehow lived along. (b) As a modifier of subject." Another caution. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. nevertheless. These need close watching. see Sec. and some conjunctions. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. etc." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. 352. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. besides. "Oh. instances of which were seen in Sec. her noticing even this is creditable. undoubtedly. then. such as perhaps. now. 4). The words well. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "No. see Sec. 355. etc. he was a conscientious man. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use.. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. let him perish. (1) Adjectival. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. In their use. 4). such as however. 351. y (2) The adverbial use.

" "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. I. therefore.]. y (a) With may (might). but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. ought." (c) With the definite forms of go." etc. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. modifying was speedily run through." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. (5). but having no other office than a verbal one. etc. thus. containing no matters of business." (b) With the forms of be.: as in the sentences. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. my dear. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. See Sec. 355.should. he should not have known them at all. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. The verbal use.would. but require somewhat closer attention. 358. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. etc.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. or as nearly so as the student will require. and they will be presented here in full. Wilt thou. This case excepted." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening." In this sentence. being equivalent to a future with obligation. "The letter of introduction." "There. and teach her how to be happy and good. "Because I was. necessity. and hence is adverbial.can (could). and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. (1) Completing an incomplete verb.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.seem. was speedily run through.

notice the following:² In (1). IV. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "Are you mad." "To teach is to learn. to please is equivalent to that he may please. 361 are used adverbially. To test this. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. The adjectival use. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. result. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. already examined. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. above. etc. etc. modifying a noun that may be a subject." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. 5). to hear McOrator after dinner. and the eyes to fill?" 359. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. The substantive use." "He insisted on his right to forget her. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose.²both purpose clauses." "To say what good of fashion we can. 362. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. Don Guzman." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. (4) In apposition. hang the idiot. The adverbial use." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. . III." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them.. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. object. the Scotch fighting all the battles. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories.: for example. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. to look means that he might look. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. "But there was no time to be lost." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. II. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. 361." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. complement." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. 351." 360.

etc. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. to find shows the result of the return. 4. I will try to keep the balance true. etc.. 268. give the complement (Secs. as in Sec. . and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 355). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. V. not in a book. 3. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. 352). equivalent to that you betray. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. to hear means if you should hear.²both expressing condition.. object. 349). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. which is of two kinds. 363. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. In (3). to part means because I part. must be in a life. (5) The subject (Sec. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 351). 2. In (5). and to betray and to bring express the reason. 351). (7) Independent elements (Sec. 364. and to say is equivalent to if we say.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 355. savage and serene in one hour. In analyzing simple sentences.In (2). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. If it is an incomplete verb. give² (1) The predicate. Our life is March weather. In (4). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 351). 347). Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (3).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. etc." (See also Sec. The independent use.

At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. a skilled musician. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 8. Through the years and the centuries. 22. 24. two stricken hours. just on the edge of destruction. and every moment discover something new. To these gifts of nature. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. nor himself. and spared nothing. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. I have heard Coleridge talk. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. The word conscience has become almost confined. The whole figure and air. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. nor money. nor generals. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. To be hurried away by every event. to keep England out of war. 10. 14.He sat in the shower.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. always in a bad plight. a good shot. like a witch's oils. to the moral sphere. and to the purpose. 9. 21. The water. We are always in peril. with eager energy. through toys and atoms. might be called flabby and irresolute. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 20. 17. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. to restore civil and religious order. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 5. Her aims were simple and obvious.The old crow of Cairo. an accomplished scholar. 18. 19. 12. You may ramble a whole day together. .Burnt green and blue and white.4. nor troops. 13. Old Adam. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. His opinion is always original. 11. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest.²to preserve her throne. in popular use. 23. good and amiable otherwise. He risked everything. 15. 7. is to have no political system at all. a graceful dancer. the carrion crow. 6. neither ammunition. 16. through evil agents.

surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 41. 26. She had made a two days' march. and in my own garden. in less heroic and poetic form. Now. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. in front of all this mighty crowd. I hate him and myself. In the Acadian land. Few in number. 30. 32. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. time-honored. 35. I dare this. the prime minister of Spain. 36.Effacing many a stain of former crime. But yield. 34. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 38. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. the present capital of New England. Must we in all things look for the how. Upon this shore stood. 29. baggage far in the rear. and the why. 39. or perhaps one virtue. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Fair name might he have handed down. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. and no provisions but wild berries. an elderly man. had but one foible. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors.25. This amiable relative. 37. the ship was in an uproar. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 33. the same Condé Olivarez. and the wherefore? . still. Oxford. to bid you leave the place now and forever. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 31. 27. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. and. Of the same grandeur.Distant. ready to receive her. The villain. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. Supposing this computation to be correct. The cry. secluded. upon my own ground. in this world. 40. proud foe. to be a reproach to such goodness. haply.

thus.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. the pride and beauty of the grove. though often treated as phrases. . COMPLEX SENTENCES. (Sec. As shown in Part I." Sentences with like." To show that these words are really omitted. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. but. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. made merely for convenience and smoothness." This must. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. The simple sentence the basis.From her own loved island of sorrow. Words left out after than or as. 365. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. 333)." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. are really contracted clauses. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 366. as.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. however. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. if they were expanded. as would be the connective instead of like.² "She is like some tender tree. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. which is the unit of speech. 367." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences.

etc. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. suffering.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. main. that is. logically depends on suffering. we are aware. 369.. then we recognize this as the main statement. or dependent on it. Independent clause. or it may be applied to the others. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. Definition.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. that . murmur. how great . Hence the following definition:² Definition. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. predicate. and modifier. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). 368. as in this sentence. and the last." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. each clause has its subject. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. which are so united that one member is the main one. object.. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. modifiers.²the other members subordinate to it.. CLAUSES.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. complement.. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. . and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. containing a verb with its subject. complements. is taken in. A principal. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. A clause is a division of a sentence.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. and the next one. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. 370.²the backbone. object. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. 371.

"The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." "I was told that the house had not been shut. with a noun clause in apposition with it. verbal. (b) that are . (a) Ordinary apposition. thus. impertinences. clauses are divided into NOUN.." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.. for a time. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. 373... and ADVERB clauses. 352." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.. for a hundred years. for example. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. impertinences²would be grammatical. etc. ADJECTIVE. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. Noun Clauses. 372." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. . attention is called to them here. As to their office in the sentence. and the whole clause is not. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.. put an end to my fancies." 374. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.' is an electric touch." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. and it is ." (2) Object of a verb. But since they are complex in form. so the object clause is retained. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. 'I know that he can toil terribly. infinitive. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. adjectives." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. but logically the sentence is." (4) Apposition. 5). is retained after a passive verb (Sec. for example. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.Dependent clause. night or day. over which the torrent came tumbling.. pronoun. We ourselves are getting ." Just as the object noun. Kinds." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. or adverbs.

that all safe legislation must be based. no man will ever know. that. of a nation. But the fact is. I was napping. or equivalent of a noun. Adjective Clauses. etc. he could know nothing. still remains reasonable. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. What history it had. As the office of an adjective is to modify. in the sentence.² "It is on the understanding. Except by what he could see for himself. as. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun." Exercise. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. a relative pronoun being understood. 6. where. but. which. . Other examples of this construction are. The reply of Socrates. 375. whether he should choose one or not. he would repent it." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. how it changed from shape to shape. 4. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 7. 2. that. 9. Examples of adjective clauses. sometimes by the conjunctions when. a falsehood incarnate. Such a man is what we call an original man. and not on the sentiment. whereby. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. wherein. whence. Frequently there is no connecting word. that he was a scheming impostor. 10. 5. whither. 8. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. 3. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who.

which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Adverbial Clauses. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. the champions advanced through the lists. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. all is vacancy. which formed the center of the mansion. object. and tell what each one modifies. which Rowena tasted." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 7. Pick out the adjective clauses. 3. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. . 9. 2. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture.e. whether subject. 6. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. I walked home with Calhoun." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 5." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. i. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 11. 4. 1. No man is reason or illumination." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 10." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. or that essence we were looking for. etc." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups." Exercise. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 8. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness..376. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. he begins to help us more as an effect. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.

so far as we can. an adjective. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. tell what kind each is. expressing the degree in which the horizon.377. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. etc. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. etc." (5) DEGREE.² whoever." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. to make up our shortcomings." "The right conclusion is. and adverbial conjunctions. however good she may be as a witness. and will be given in detail." These mean no matter how good.. since he was too great to care to be original. the wider is the horizon of their thought. shaping our actions. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." (3) REASON. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. he goes away as if nothing had happened. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. Joanna is better. is wider." "Who cares for that. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." (7) RESULT. or an adverb. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. whatever. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. no matter what remains. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and what it modifies:² .: "But still. but they require careful study." "He went several times to England." "When he was come up to Christian. with examples." (9) CONCESSION." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. adverbs. etc. a verbal." "After leaving the whole party under the table." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. 378. Exercise." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." "The broader their education is. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. however. that we should try. it takes precedence of everything else. introduced by indefinite relatives. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. the milestones are grave-stones." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion.

'Well. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. incoherent exclamations. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. (2) First take the sentence as a whole.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. its object is that Odin was a reality. to tell the truth. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ ." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. snatching up stones to fling at them. as they sometimes did. For example. and twirling weathercocks. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. howling and whistling. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. If the children gathered about her. banging about doors and windows. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject." 2. in the sentence. so as to picture the parts and their relations. on a dark wintry night. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. object. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. 3. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. they might perhaps say of their visitors. find the principal subject and principal predicate. of which clause Odin is the subject. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. 379. and modifiers. etc. we are a little disappointed. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. then treat noun clauses as nouns. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. predicate. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 380. with shrill. when the wind was unruly.1. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied.

Exercises. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 380). | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (1) Find the principal clause. 364.. as seen in the "map" (Sec. . 3. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.. d. 2. 364. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.

whom I choose. 16. 21. 11. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 6. namely. 13. the shepherd girl. as for armies that were too many by half. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. This is she. 24. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 15. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. But now that she has become an establishment. or whether any. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. bishop. . 17. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 20. 19. M. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. The night proved unusually dark. if applied to the Bible. that. Here lay two great roads. Had they been better chemists. the mixed result. could not have been effected. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 10. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 8. 22. for yours.4. of a light hazel. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. dying for them. He was what our country people call an old one. 5. And those will often pity that weakness most. had we been worse. not so much for travelers that were few. 14. who would yield to it least. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Next came a wretched Dominican. 9. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. which. the flower should revive for us. The deep eyes. 12. Now. I like that representation they have of the tree. 23. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 18. 7. counselor that had none for herself. that pressed her with an objection.

then map out as in Sec. is to speak and write sincerely. the following complex sentences:² 1. 26. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 30. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 28. 2. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 5. 382. speed. "No book. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. . 3.²which will not be disposed of. if continuously extended. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. or commands. and stamped with his right number. and not from his heart. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. if there be one to whom I am not equal. but above it. 383. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 27.25. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. Hence the definition. These things we are forced to say. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. though we may repeat the words never so often. that it was no more than his daily walk. COMPOUND SENTENCES. and temper. would easily reach. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. That which we do not believe. we cannot adequately say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. It makes no difference how many friends I have." 4. 380. "was ever written down by any but itself. 6. and what content I can find in conversing with each. How formed. 7.² Definition. questions. (b) First analyze. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29." said Bentley. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength.

383 (1). 386.. Thus in (1). and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. now adverbs or prepositions. The division into members will be easier. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. and which complex:² 1. 297). The coördinate conjunctions and. and it shall be the universal sense. which are simple statements. "Only the star dazzles. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. however. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. while (whilst). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. moon-like ray" (adversative). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. he is twice a man. Of the following illustrative sentences. Connectives. he walks with arms akimbo. in (3). . etc. Another example is. Speak your latent conviction. etc. others sometimes coördinate. tell which are compound. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. yet. from the second. nor does he know until he has tried. Study the thought. a complex member. as but. Some of these are now conjunctions. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. he dilates. the planet has a faint." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. and connects the first and second complex members. and not the form of the connective. a simple member. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. he soliloquizes. Exercise. whereas. and nor the second and third complex members. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. the semicolon separates the first. or but. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. as in Sec. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. 385." 384. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. in (2). for." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. the waving grass. if there are any. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. nor.

but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. The gain is apparent. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 3. 5. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 9. or. and not by what each is. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. and as yet very early in the morning. to find a pot of buried gold. the tax is certain. Exercise. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 364. so is every one of its parts.2. 2. 13. 4. 6. 12. Love. Man does not stand in awe of man. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. for example. (i) Separate it into its main members. 7. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 11. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 8. I can yet love. he grew up to be a mild. All loss. Whilst the world is thus dual. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. is particular. 14. yield to them heart and life. and for everything you gain. passed in that time. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. nay. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. all pain. you have gained something else. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. quiet. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 381. 387. unobtrusive boy. and thou shalt be loved. that it was Easter Sunday. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. I can still receive. For everything you have missed. you lose something. 10. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. In this manner. 3. 4. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. . however. from a happy yet often pensive child.

is as thin and timid as any. "the iron is white. abide by it. 16. 15. 7. Whatever he knows and thinks. and they will show themselves great. and the other dares not. why should we intrude? 10. 18. and he learns who receives. "Strike. and they will be true to you. because. give those merits room.5. and makes their business a friendship. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves." 13. We see the noble afar off. and you are without effort impelled to truth. treat them greatly. Stand aside. and the peace of society is often kept. or men will never know and honor him aright." says the smith. modesty." says the haymaker. Trust men. 19. 11. . and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. and not a thought has enriched either party. one is afraid. puts the parties on a convenient footing. Times of heroism are generally times of terror." "keep the rake. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. or we pursue persons. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. or we read books. 6. or sail with God the seas. let them mount and expand. that let him communicate. 14. feign to confess here. He teaches who gives. When you have chosen your part. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 20. We go to Europe. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. as children. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. if you rip up his claims. 17. only that they may brag and conquer there. or hope. whilst frankness invites frankness. 9. and they repel us. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and the cart as nigh the rake. and not an emotion of bravery. which always make the Actual ridiculous. Come into port greatly. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. They will shuffle and crow. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and each shows only what lies at its focus. crook and hide. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 8. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 21.

Do not craze yourself with thinking. SYNTAX. Ground covered by syntax. 25. 388. So does culture with us. adjective and noun. and dodge the account. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. they die young. verb and subject. or. INTRODUCTORY. 23. it never was known to fall into the rear. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. but they never acquit the debt. We see young men who owe us a new world. Essential point in English syntax. Following the Latin method. it ends in headache. By way of introduction. 390. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 380. but go about your business anywhere.22. pronoun and antecedent. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. the department of syntax will be a small affair. PART III. 24. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. so readily and lavishly they promise.²agreement and government. if they live. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . but its leading characteristic is. they lose themselves in the crowd. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning.

there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. 393. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar." In this there is a possessive form. therefore.² First. sometimes verb and subject. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. etc. There is. authorities²that is. Why study syntax? 391. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. In Latin. "None remained but he. following the regular order of subject. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. The basis of syntax. Also in the sentence. and imitate it. the order being inverted. . In some cases." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. also expressing a possessive relation. For example. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. or the same writer will use both indifferently. the sentence. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. and it would not matter which one stood first. but are not now. When usage varies as to a given construction. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. good English." that is. This is not logical." is ambiguous. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. and nothing but important points will be considered. Savage may be the subject. Second. take the sentence. as to study inflected forms. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. and whose judgment. pronoun and antecedent.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. distinct forms would be used. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. then. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. some of which conform to classical grammar. Some rules not rigid. and added to it the preposition of. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. both forms will be given in the following pages. As an illustration of the last remark. or when they exist side by side in good usage. or settler may be the subject. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). 392. "The savage here the settler slew.

²EMERSON. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. PRONOUNS. . Use of the possessive. Mill's and Mr. 395.²THACKERAY. Putting Mr. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. the shore of Galilee. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. for example. and Peterborough's. but imply separate possession or ownership. 394. 396. 408).²BYRON. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²MILTON. 397. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²RUSKIN. and Peter's. Bentham's principles together. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.²MCCULLOCH." Juletta tells. ²ID. sense and nature's easy fool.²ROWE. Separate possession.²MACAULAY. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. and Pope's. as. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. etc. the antechamber of the High Priest.² Live your king and country's best support. the possessive sign is used with each noun.NOUNS.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Joint possession. and Paul's. and Harley's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. He kept Bolingbroke's. or indicate joint ownership or possession. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Woman. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.

² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Objective for the nominative.²TROLLOPE.²SOUTHEY. But he must be a stronger than thee. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. who. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. Since most of the personal pronouns. sanctioned. the real thought being forgotten. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. as. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. 398. there are two general rules that require attention.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. I. 399. together with the relative who. and should be the nominative form. General rules. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Still.²THACKERAY. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. Bedott Papers. for example. Some of the violations are universally condemned. This should be "as she. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. if not universally. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. ." 400." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.²BYRON. thus. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. whom is the complement after the verb am.²WHITCHER. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.) "The young Harper.²POPE.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. the last expression has the support of many good writers. others are generally. No mightier than thyself or me.²SHAKESPEARE.

is. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. "If there is any one embarrassed."²WINTHROP. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²RUSKIN. But still it is not she. the objective form is regularly found.²LONGFELLOW. Patrick the Porter.²SCOTT. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²THACKERAY.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. unless a special. BLACK. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²FIELDING.² For there was little doubt that it was he.²KINGSLEY. A safe rule."²WM.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. as. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. they are yet holier than we. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. namely. both in England and America.² One I remember especially. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²COLERIDGE. and the other forms of the verb be."²KINGSLEY. but such is the fact. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²MACAULAY. "Than whom. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. The usage is too common to need further examples.²PARTON. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. And it was heThat made the ship to go." There is no special reason for this. for example. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. One exception is to be noted. are. . I have no other saint than thou to pray to. "Who's there?"²"Me. In spoken English. it will not be me. on the other hand. The camp of Richard of England." 401.

²MILTON. I speak not to" (he should be him." the word being in apposition with murderer). Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 9. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. it is me. If there ever was a rogue in the world. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 3. 404. you or me. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 11. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. Truth is mightier than us all. 5. verbal. used after verbs. and prepositions. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. . 4. You know whom it is that you thus charge. 10. as. as. 7. the object of to). as this from Shakespeare. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. Nominative for the objective. 403. as. 2. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. It is not me you are in love with. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me)." 6. verbals. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns.Exercise. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 8. or preposition which governs it. (3) By forgetting the construction. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. Me in exclamations. or this. or us). object of saw). "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. "Ask the murderer.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. but not he" (he should be him. now. Whom they were I really cannot specify.

. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. I've sworn. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²BYRON. changed in all save thee. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Thou. etc. who interrogative. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. None.² All were knocked down but us two. Nature.²KINGSLEY. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. as well as the objective. 406. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. and is usually avoided.²KINGSLEY. "Who did you see?" or. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. I arraign.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. save thou and thine. Let you and I look at these.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. as. We regularly say. for they say there are none such in the world. after the preposition but (sometimes save). for example.²BYRON. Thy shores are empires.²GOLDSMITH. "Who were they talking to?" etc.Exception 1. Exception 2. 405.²KINGSLEY.²STEELE. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. partial Nature. as. 2. all but he. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Who have we here?²ID. but he. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.Shall be left upon the morn. Exercise.

As antecedent of a relative. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. 10. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. "Nonsense!" said Amyas.²C. 11. who. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Bartholomew.²RUSKIN. or objective? . This usage is not frequent. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. 6. with Jortin and Thirlby. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 12. They crowned him long ago. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.3. II. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.²MACAULAY. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 8. 407." 4. and they know that as well as me.Ye I salute. 9.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. POSSESSIVE FORMS. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. Markland.²DE QUINCEY. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Preceding a gerund.²possessive. 5. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. B.²SCOTT. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. BROWN. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 7.²THACKERAY.

He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. The last incident which I recollect. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. In the examples quoted. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying." That is. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. Here I state them only in brief. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.² THACKERAY. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. studying is a gerund. as he turned away from his wife. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.²DICKENS. But in common use there is no such distinction. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. Objective. that the bitterness of death was past.² SCOTT. and asked why it was not made. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE. Why both are found. [who was] studying law.² IRVING. Possessive.²BREWER. The use of the objective is older. sometimes it has the objective. . We heard of Brown. Both types of sentences are found. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²MACAULAY. both are gerunds. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. etc. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and that in the second.408. and the meaning is. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.²RUSKIN. object of heard of. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.² CARLYLE.

There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. it was his own fault.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²HUXLEY. taking in each of many persons.²RUSKIN. if the antecedent is neuter.²THACKERAY. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.² BRYANT. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. . If any one did not know it.²CABLE.²HOLMES.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. and ought to agree with them in person. BROCKDEN BROWN. number. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. The pale realms of shade.²AUDUBON. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. 409.²DEFOE.²THOREAU. and gender. Every city threw open its gates. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. In such a case as the last three sentences. Watch for the real antecedent. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²when the antecedent. Everybody had his own life to think of.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²C.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON III. 410. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. preceded by a distributive.²DE QUINCEY. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. where there were examinations. the pronoun will be neuter singular. Examples of these constructions are. or is a distributive word. in one person.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.

Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²ID. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²BYRON.²ID.²PALGRAVE. as anybody in their senses would have done.²PAULDING. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. and giving them means of being so. let them break it off.²AUSTEN. for example.²BIBLE. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²FIELDING.²RUSKIN. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²HUXLEY. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²EMERSON.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.Avoided: By using both pronouns. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Struggling for life. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. If the part deserve any comment.²PALEY. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. .² Not the feeblest grandame. till they have lost him. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. This is not considered the best usage. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. not a mowing idiot. By using the plural pronoun. 411. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Whosoever hath any gold. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²DEFOE. The sun.

the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health.) and a personal pronoun. and that always restrictive. 412. because. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. when restrictive. in each instance:² Who.² SHERIDAN. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. That is in most cases restrictive." It defines beggar. A relative. 1. who went away. according to the practice of every modern writer. but. Exercise. the definite relatives who. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. It adds a new statement to what precedes. which.²ID. 2. and he went away.Where she was gone. and does not add a new statement. 413. and that are restrictive or not. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. or unrestrictive. etc." A relative. that being considered already clear. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as.²In the above sentences. "I gave it to the beggar. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. In the following examples. which. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. or what was become of her. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. . no one could take upon them to say. As to their conjunctive use. when coördinating. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. unless both genders are implied.²HAWTHORNE. I. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent." This means. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. What these terms mean.²ADDISON. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. tell whether who. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. but. Exercise.

Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. she agreed to join the party.² CARLYLE. We say I. that were often vicious. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. which Mr. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 12. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. A grizzly-looking man appeared. these or that which. 4.²ID. in the sentence. BEECHER 5. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. you.² IRVING. Which. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.²THOREAU.²ID. So different from the wild. Yet how many are there who up. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.² MOTLEY. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. The general rule is. which was to go over the Cordilleras. The rule.²ADDISON. II.²DE QUINCEY. On hearing their plan. and it is called logic. 13.²HOLMES. etc. Hare has printed. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.²DE QUINCEY. With narrow shoulders. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. as that does not vary for person or number. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand.. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. but. 8.3. etc. . because of its antecedent. In what sense true. and over England are saying. they. 414. who. W." that is invariable as to person and number. 11. For example. 10. it makes the verb third person singular. etc. down. 9. 14. 7.² NEWMAN. However.²H. That. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. long arms and legs. 6. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. he. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.

. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²BOWLES." or. MORSE. and write the verb in the plural. The fiery youth . A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. the true antecedent. A disputed point. but the former has good authority. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²LOWELL. "one of the finest books that have been published.. [singular or plural. ARNOLD. but myself. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²ADDISON.. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²LOWELL.] Both constructions are frequently found. others regard books as the antecedent. 415.. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.²MACAULAY. . [plural] that who. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²HOLMES. etc. He is one of those that deserve very well.²LECKY. T. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²HOWELLS. Singular. "one of the finest books that has been published. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²ADDISON.²M.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. Franklin. or which . He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived." One of .²J. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.. JR. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. etc. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.²whether we should say. and in improving a victory. The latter is rather more frequent. French literature of the eighteenth century. but speaks of him as that sort. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.. in winning a battle. with one as the principal word..²SCOTT. Let us be of good cheer. who rarely speak at all. when he derided the shams of society.

416. The same day I went aboard we set sail. where. or where] he died. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²In the above sentences. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. IV.²BURNS.²CARLYLE. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.In that same state I came. and such like: as. 417. object of a preposition understood. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²EMERSON. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. Exercise.A rare Roundabout performance.² THACKERAY. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²SCOTT. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. return. But I by backward steps would move.²VAUGHAN. III. when this dust falls to the urn. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. that is. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. and see if the sentence is made clearer.² RUSKIN.²ID. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. whence.²EMERSON. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. when the relative word is a pronoun.²IRVING.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series."²DICKENS. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.² .²GOLDSMITH. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers." "India is the place [in which. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. I could see nothing except the sky.²ADDISON.²DEFOE.And.²SWIFT. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.

she passed the lamp over her face and person.. was a discoverer. They believe the same of all the works of art. W. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.² BURKE.² THACKERAY.² MACAULAY. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.² as his apprentice. but which is usually carefully avoided. I might as well have staid at home. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. but we find the relative who. but. That. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. as of knives. looking-glasses. which. 418. if same is followed by a complete clause.²ADDISON. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. he. Mr. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.He considered. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. with Turner. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. . The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. CHURCH.²SCOTT.. boats.²R. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. Caution. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as is not used. for example. Which. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²SWIFT. V.²FRANKLIN.²WORDSWORTH. or that. The regular construction. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. ²GOLDSMITH. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. if I had resolved to go on with. and working in the same spirit.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. etc. Anacoluthic use of which.

he said that all submission was now too late. As the sentences stand. le Conte. or omit the conjunction.²RUSKIN. or. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. (2) "Among the poorer sort." etc. (1) "Among those who are poor. but none is expressed. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.² Direction for rewriting.. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.. or leave out both connective and relative. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.²SCOTT. but." etc.. . should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. and which. Exercise.²THACKERAY.She'd come again. But who. and this be placed in the proper clause.²SHAKESPEARE. Exercise. who are now thrown. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. Express both relatives. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. That is. etc. 419. After this came Elizabeth herself. 3. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. And who. which when Mr. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. He delivered the letter. once a great favorite of M.²GOLDSMITH. 1." etc." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. now thrown upon their. etc. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. Thornhill had read.²HAWTHORNE.²which if they once heard.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. 4.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. 2. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. This was a gentleman. and who are now.²DE QUINCEY.

²SCOTT. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. etc.²DE QUINCEY. either from imitation of their frequent allies. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. Or which. "What knight so craven. and which may even be heard a mile off.²SCOTT. 12. one of signal interest. and which. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 11. Or who. indeed. I saw upon the left a scene far different. That . which is likewise a variation from the best usage. the French. 1. But which. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian..5.. like that spoken in the towns.. as a false and astucious mark. Dr. English by name. 8. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house.. 9. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. And which. and repeat this for any further reference. which the Scotch had learned.² MOTLEY. "A mockery. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. 7. 6. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . etc.²PEARSON. 13. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. I shall have complete copies. and which has never been described. Akin to the above is another fault. 420. 10. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE. . Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. then. who.²IRVING. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. and to whom no door is closed.

4. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. the dime..²HOWELLS. He flung into literature.. at the head of what. I give to such men as do not belong to me. which. in his present condition. That . such as they have very probably been bred to. He. 3. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.²DE QUINCEY. which.. 11.²SCOTT. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. CHANNING.. 15. 10. and to whom I do not belong.. I grudge the dollar. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 9. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.²HOLMES. and whose examples and principles we inherit. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.. Which . that . Such as .² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.²DEFOE. Such as . G. half a century ago. 5. the cent. 6. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. 7.2. It rose into a thrilling passion. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. 14.²EMERSON. In my native town of Salem. E. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.²W. but which is perhaps not so different from it. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.. in his Mephistopheles. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. was hung in air. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.²SCOTT That which . and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. SIMMS.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.²HALLAM. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.²BEECHER.. but which. whom. 13. 12. . 8. what.. The Tree Igdrasil. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²W. I recommend some honest manual calling... that.²EMERSON. was a bustling wharf.²HAWTHORNE.

and in want of his gold²or his corn.²RUSKIN. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. 421.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Assume that no one is in want of either. 422. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²EMERSON. for example. as.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. Distributives either and neither.²ID. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. in which case any should be used instead. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. whether or not the two are equivalent. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. as it were. Each other. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. .²GOLDSMITH.²HAWTHORNE. always at war with one another.²RUSKIN. that not all combined. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. We call ourselves a rich nation.² HAWTHORNE.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. one another. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Use of any. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.² Some one must be poor.²DICKENS. as. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. England was then divided between kings and Druids. By their original meaning. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.

afterwards in Goethe. as. at one time in Bacon.² If any. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as none of the French philosophers were.. Do you think. in Shakespeare.²SHAKESPEARE. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. any of his friends had died.²EMERSON.²PROF.²SCOTT. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²FRANKLIN. None of Nature's powers do better service.. during his stay at Yuste. Examples of its use are. Do you think. let him ask of God. In earlier Modern English. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.²BURKE. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. when any of them are so good as to visit me. I beseech you. Caution. for him have I offended.²BEECHER Whenever. if ever man was. before that. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. then in Plutarch. usually plural. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. If any of you lack wisdom. whilst I still cherish their genius. etc. as. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²BIBLE.² In earnest. then in Plotinus. in the prose of the present day. Any usually plural.² EMERSON.. that I know of. even in Bettine.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. which is plural as often as singular. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²THACKERAY. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. None usually plural. 424. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. and is isolated. 423. The adjective pronoun none is. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. any was often singular. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²CARLYLE.²STIRLING. . speak.

and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. etc.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. etc. 425. for example. that all was lost. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. any one else. as. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.. or somebody else's? 426. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. When all were gone. saving Naaman the Syrian.²McMASTER.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.. etc. etc.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.² None of them was cleansed.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. the plural. are treated as units. and all was lost on the other. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²NAPIER Plural. fixing his eyes on the mace. The light troops thought . and less rarely in poetry. which is used absolutely. Somebody's else.² Singular.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. when it means all persons: for example. and Ford has nobody's else. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else..² PEARSON.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. The compounds somebody else. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²THOREAU. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. nobody else.

there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. unlike anybody else's in the world. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.²MULOCH. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.² Saturday Review.²AUSTEN. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.." the nouns being singular.SYDNEY SMITH. These sort. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. WILLIS.² FIELDING. 427.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. or those sort of people.²G. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²THACKERAY. ADJECTIVES.² These kind of knaves I know. STOWE. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²SWEET. His hair. ELIOT. . etc.²RUSKIN." "those kind of trees.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. etc. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²SHERIDAN. or some other such great man as a bishop. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.. "Ye see. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. P."²MRS. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots." "all manner of men. Again.²N. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²in such as "these sort of books. Whitefield or Wesley. for example. all manner of. the adjectives plural.²RUSKIN.²DICKENS. London.

more alarming than a total silence. In Old and Middle English." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. as. Consequently we have a confused expression. and the adjective is. and in this way may take a plural verb. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms." A question. with all manner of amusing books. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. made to agree with it. when the necessary dispositions concur. in spoken English. At the source. . Burke's sentence. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. gradually displacing the old. Later form. Should we say. This the modern expression reverses. for example. Of two such lessons.² PRESCOTT. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. which accounts for the construction.² Which is the better able to defend himself.The library was open.²RUSKIN. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. not "all kinds of wild animals. or one object with a class of objects. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. to express a higher degree of quality. they said. such as. History of this construction. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. or the nouns to the plural." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). "This kind of rules are the best. The result. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. the victor or the vanquished." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. Use of the comparative degree. According to the approved usage of Modern English. "These kind of trees are best." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. 428. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. "This sort of trees should be planted.

²SCOTT. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²MACAULAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. has sanctioned. Exercise. 4. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²SWIFT.²MACAULAY. etc. Use of the superlative degree. 6.²HUXLEY. Other after the comparative form. than any of his court. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. 430. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. 2. Even Dodd himself.²CARLYLE. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 5.²WIRT. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²LOWELL. To the man who plays well. Gary. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn.²THACKERAY.² THACKERAY. by almost the breadth of my nail. He is taller.A braver ne'er to battle rode."²ID.²TROLLOPE. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. Superlative with two objects. Henry. the highest stakes are paid. would not have had the face. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²HAWTHORNE. . The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. if not. I am concerned to see that Mr. 3. 429. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.

²ADDISON.²J. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. 1611. 431.. These two properties seem essential to wit.²DR BLAIR. and differ only in form.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. The following examples are used purposely. . In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. who eat white bread or brown.²RUSKIN.²MRS. Nor that I am more better than Prospero."²BULWER. CÆSAR. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²Bible. Come you more nearer. In all disputes between States. Rip was one of those .²IRVING. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Also from the same period. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. Examples from Shakespeare are.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense.²GOLDSMITH. I should say that one has the best cause. After the most straitest sect of our religion. ha. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. and the other contains the best men."²HAWTHORNE.²SCOTT. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. The eldest. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. Double comparative and superlative.²TEMPEST.²EMERSON.²BEN JONSON.. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. whichever can be got easiest."²GOLDSMITH. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²HAMLET. "Ha. more particularly the last of them. Mary. not a bit of high life among them. OLIPHANT.

²ADDISON. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²GIBBON. the Spanish. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. etc. The first five had specific names.²GIBBON.²LAMB.²RUSKIN. The merit of the Barb.²RUSKIN. 433. As to these two expressions. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²PRESCOTT. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. Three first. and conceit in the last. The delay in the first three lines.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The meaning intended is the same. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. For Carlyle. Instances of both are given below. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. . First three. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. ²COWPER. etc. jar upon us constantly.²KINGSLEY. and Secretary Walsingham also. but in literary English. Examples of this construction are. These are the three first needs of civilized life.² With a singular noun. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.²DE QUINCEY. Definite article. ARTICLES.² SMOLLETT. not only so in popular speech.

It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²NEWMAN. of the higher and middling orders. and flexible language.. Origin of the Aryans. With a plural noun. The lofty.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. the greatest poems. with a plural noun. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. but inseparable from each other.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. and the presents. No. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. the thought and the word.²ID. distinct. Frequently. as. 1508. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. having been arranged. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. I think. The not repeated. as in Sec. were placed at a very tender age. One object and several modifiers. . and the trunks and bonnet boxes . 434. He is master of the two-fold Logos. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. of the eighteenth century.² MACAULAY. with a singular noun. the hour of parting came.²CARLYLE. to distinguish clearly. but is used with one only. or to emphasize the meaning. 433. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. 435.²THE NATION.²PRESCOTT.²TENNYSON.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. The flowers.²MACAULAY. as. Indefinite article. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. however.²SCOTT. 433.²THACKERAY.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. Meaning same as in Sec.²TAYLOR.² RUSKIN. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. Here the youth of both sexes. melodious..

The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.² MACAULAY. like the definite article. He saw him in his mind's eye. Examples of this use are. a collegian.²MACAULAY. one noun is expressed.²DRYDEN. as. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.An early. and inexhausted vein. and a usurper. 433 and 436.²S. a tyrant. or clearness to each of several nouns. 435.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. In the sentences of Secs. 436). 434) is used to lend special emphasis. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. 437. One article with several adjectives.²JOHNSON." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²B. to limit two or more modified nouns. interest. . Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²DICKENS.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. 438. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. rich. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.²BULWER. as in the first three of Sec. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. JONSON. a murderer.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. For rhetorical effect. The indefinite article (compare Sec. The indefinite article is used. T. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²BEECHER. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. only one of which is expressed. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. COLERIDGE.436. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.² BURKE. But in the following sentences. a round and a square one alternately." and "a red and a white geranium.

²GIBBON. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. then. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. Another writer might.²M. for example. as. Sec. Collective noun of singular meaning. without academies.²G. and the following illustrations prove it. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Singular verb. 276. . 440. 439. A broad and loose rule. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²FROUDE. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²CARLYLE This usage.VERBS. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. This was spoken of in Part I. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. has got already.²COOPER.²AGASSIZ. He sees that it is better to live in peace. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.²W. or the great intellectual life of our nation. ARNOLD. all that academies can give. Singulars connected by or or nor. Such. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. was the earliest American land. as. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. like some others in this series.²The Nation. In English. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.. ELIOT. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.

No. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.² In a word. or considered as appositional. or as making up one general idea. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. Q. nor John. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. but each one emphatic. other names. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²J. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. nor Paul.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. A fever. Between ourselves. ²EMERSON. but considered as meaning about the same thing.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.²DE QUINCEY. a mutilation. that of a large town. as. and every four hours.²EMERSON . as.Jesus is not dead.²CRITIC.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²BURKE.² GOLDSMITH.²WHITTIER.²GOLDSMITH. nor Mahomet. a loss of wealth. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²GIBBON.² The unbought grace of life. Plural form and singular meaning. a loss of friends. ADAMS. the cheap defense of nations. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. seems at the moment unpaid loss. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. and other singulars of plural form.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. for example. a cruel disappointment. is gone. for example. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.

²PRESCOTT. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. was punished. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²M ARNOLD.²MACAULAY. The oldest. the partisan. as well as the newest.The rout.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. sir?" and the "No. the dismay. an impassioned countenance. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. no discontinuity.²LONGFELLOW.²ID. sir!" and the "What then. Every fop. as well as sides. every valet.²PRESCOTT. Here is no ruin.The author. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²EMERSON. no spent ball.²SCOTT.² Asia. The Epic.²HAWTHORNE. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. was like to crack.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. each. Subjects after the verb. many a. every boor. the fine gentleman. Her back. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. was listened to for five hours. was dazzled. There is a moving tone of voice. in a judge.²NEWMAN. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²ID. nay. sir!"²MACAULAY. an agitated gesture. does not take the place of the man.²MACAULAY. and such like adjectives. with death. no matter if the second is plural). is a man of wit. as. a gorget. the ruin. as. To receive presents or a bribe. the wit. 441. Plural verb.² . Every week. Then comes the "Why.²RUSKIN.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. wineBegins to stir itself. as well as Europe.²BUTLER. a cuirass. no. and greaves. Every sound. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. For wide is heard the thundering fray. as well as the Drama. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. every echo.² There is a right and a wrong in them. thus. almost every day.

and its history are alike a mystery to us. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²GIBBON.²DE QUINCEY.²FROUDE. The conjunction may be omitted. were men of insignificant characters. as with a subject of plural form. Conjunction omitted. the Duke of Berri.These bits of wood were covered on every square. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.² A multitude go mad about it. but the verb is plural.²ADDISON. as. A party of workmen were removing the horses. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. are sufficient to attract a colony.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²THOREAU. His clothes. b). The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. Far. The Dauphin.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. for example.²COLERIDGE.²B.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. of whom there were a number. as. as in Sec. 440 (5. making up a plural subject. All our household are at rest. a green pasture.²FRANKLIN.²FROUDE.² GIBBON. A shady grove.²GOLDSMITH.² One or two of these perhaps survive.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²SWIFT.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. its date. The travelers. TAYLOR. . a stream of fresh water. Philip of Anjou. far away thy children leave the land. shirt. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.

²GOLDSMITH. the subject being really equivalent to we. 443." etc. You and I are farmers.²BYRON. "You would not be wiser. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²THACKERAY. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. that is.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions." or. hadst been my lord. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. When the subjects.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. . in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. WEBSTER. nor has she"). but thou. nor should I. his blood dost shed." "She or you may be sure.). Second or third and first person in the subject.²RUSKIN. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. we never talk politics.²WHITTIER. of different persons. ARNOLD. for example. but thou. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²THACKERAY. Ah. General usage. 442.²DE QUINCEY.²LOWELL. "He or I can go. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. the verb takes the construction of the first person. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²SMOLLETT.²RUSKIN. If there is only one person in the subject.But notice the construction of this.²D. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²M. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. Not I. Exceptional examples. as. You and I are tolerably modest people.²ROWE. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. 444. Nothing which Mr. Pattison or I have said. "I have never said so. Not Altamont.

445. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. as illustrated above (Secs. nor bush are there.²BURKE. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 3. Both death and I am found eternal. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²G. 9. Also in verbals. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. as we would hope. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. 5. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 10. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²EMERSON. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²ID. 446.²SMOLLETT. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. In the following sentence. which it is proper to mention. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²ADDISON. 7." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. in my opinion. 440-444):² 1.²perhaps the devil.²THACKERAY. 2. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²SCOTT. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. How each of these professions are crowded.²BYRON. Exercise. Nor wood.Her course to intercept. In this sentence from Defoe. Neither of them. 12. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 11. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. In a word. Neither of their counselors were to be present. BANCROFT. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²MILTON.That neither of their intellects are vast. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. nor tree.² TROLLOPE. 4. 8. 6.²and.²ADDISON.

²FRANKLIN 6. meaning. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²R. Exercise. however. 3. Indirect discourse means reported speech. to have divided with her whatever might remain. if not. on my return. Definitions. Direct discourse²that is. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Of course. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action..²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY 2.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. change them to a better form:² 1. I gave one quarter to Ann. 448. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise." . CHURCH. It should be remarked. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. for exact connection.² PALGRAVE 5. W. to have seen should be changed to to see.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. Two samples of indirect discourse.²MACAULAY.²KINGSLEY. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²IRVING. as. 4. But I found I wanted a stock of words. The present rule is recent. 447. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.

introductory verb is in the past tense. Summary of the expressions. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. etc. . 2.. This includes the auxiliaries be. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. "I cannot oblige you . She thought to herself. His exact words were." Indirect. 1. under interrogative pronouns. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Her prudence whispered eternally. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. or regular interrogatives. 449. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. "Oh. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. will.. Direct. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St.. Direct. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis." etc. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. have.. Sebastian's. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that." etc. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. The substance of his lamentation was. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. interrogative adverbs. and the indirect question by whether or if. Oh.

having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. 450.Exercise. one summer afternoon. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. if this were expanded into a verb. Notice this. in the sentences first quoted. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. handed down from his ancestor the historian. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. and that he himself had heard. PARTICIPLES.²ID.²B. like distant peals of thunder. the sound of their balls. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. . my first observation will be found nearly true.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. The trouble is. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name.²GOLDSMITH. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. Careless use of the participial phrase. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. with his crew of the Half-moon. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. FRANKLIN.²ADDISON. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. the first discoverer of the river and country. VERBALS.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. being the course which his confessor had enjoined.

either "As I was pleased.. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. In the following citations.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. then. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. For example. avoid it. my first collection was.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. while defended or excused by others. purposely or not. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. Standard writers often use it. . INFINITIVES. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. the first sentence would be. There are. This is the more common arrangement. 3. Exercise. and often.Correction. Adverb between to and the infinitive. .²SCOTT. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.²ID. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.." etc. many things to be carefully considered.²LAUGHLIN.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. leaving the principal statement as it is. 2. It is a solemn. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers..² HERBERT SPENCER. if a strike is to succeed. universal assertion..²RUSKIN." Exercise.. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. 451.

5.²GOLDSMITH. china. 12. if they modify single words.²BURKE. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. is to be very cautiously admitted. etc. I wish the reader to clearly understand. but cannot misunderstand the thought. but it is placed before the infinitive.² ADDISON. etc.. even. 11. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. No. 10. when such adverbs as only." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. BLAIR.²DR.²SCOTT. etc. 9. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. 13..²The Nation. even. 7. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. 1533. 452. 6. therefore. 8. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. In works of art. Position of only. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.4. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. from Irving. A little sketch of his. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. The spirits. are used. and earthenware.²TROLLOPE. but they are often removed from the exact position. Now. Exercise.²RUSKIN.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.²ID. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . ADVERBS. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. which consists in multitude. The rigid rule in such a case would be. this kind of grandeur.² MACAULAY. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.

Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.1. GROTE.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 3. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. P. 7. My master.²COOPER. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²SWIFT. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 15. 6. He could only afford to keep one old horse. might not marry. 12. 11.²N.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. were he never so old of yeares. In Old and Middle English. 4.²SYDNEY SMITH. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. WILLIS. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.² THACKERAY. He shouted in those clear. His last journey to Cannes.²ID. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. During the whole course of his administration. for example.²MACAULAY.²CHAUCER. 17. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 13.²EMERSON. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 14. . I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²ID. 5.²MOTLEY. to avoid a crowd. Irving could only live very modestly.²PALGRAVE. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 16. whence he was never destined to return.²HIGGINSON. In relating these and the following laws.²MRS. The old usage. 8. 10. ²ASCHAM. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²ID. 2. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²THACKERAY. 453. 9. No sonne.²RUSKIN.

the usual way of regarding the question now is. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. Exercise. who hadn't been to school for nothing. 3. can so agreeably affect. 4. uncommon.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. is not common. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. 5. However. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. The prosperity of no empire.²BAYNE. I never did see him again. as."²four negatives. if two negatives are found together. however. I did not act so hastily. etc. Not only could man not acquire such information. and why:² 1. but ought not to labor after it."²MRS. as infrequent. nor the grandeur of no king. in Ole Virginia. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. one of the negatives is often a prefix.²MRS.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. 6. There weren't no pies to equal hers.² HAMILTON. This. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. under the influence of Latin syntax.²HAWTHORNE.²BURKE. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. and is still kept in vulgar English. Regular law of negative in modern English. 7. . You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.²LOWELL. STOWE. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. neither. ²PAGE. denying each other. In the execution of this task.²DEFOE.²GROTE. 2. when one of the negatives is a connective.²HOLMES.²DE QUINCEY. STOWE. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. nor never shall. But. Exceptional use. Therefore. In the latter case.

misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. The sentence.. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals..." said the King. CONJUNCTIONS. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . and which. 455. but.. And who. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. not only . either.. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here... Correction.. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. not only to the success of their common cause. if the second precedes a phrase. or.. In the sentence. not or is the proper correlative of neither. nor is often changed to not²either . Choice and proper position of correlatives. the first should also. or to reply to it." may be changed to "This loose . or with advantage. and... "A weapon.²SCOTT. either . not merely . but (also). neither . as the use of the conjunction. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. as well as of the pronoun. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel."²SCOTT.. Things to be watched.. or.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever." Besides neither . "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it... or to reply to it." both of the above requirements are violated." . but to their own safety..²PRESCOTT. especially both . even neither . A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. if the last precedes a verb.²LOWELL.. "well worthy to confer honor. The sentences given in Secs. nor. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. 454.8. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. should be scrutinized. there we were. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.

Try and for try to.Exercise. 456. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Try and avoid the pronoun. murder.²ID. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. nor the disgrace of assailing him.² ADDISON.²MACAULAY.²BAIN. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 7. 6. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Now. too. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 2. Exercise. But what. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Some exceptions. In the following sentences. .²RUSKIN. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²FRANKLIN. as.²THACKERAY. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. and chop up their own kin. 4. JEWETT. 8. or the negative relative but. not merely interest children. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. but they will outrage. but. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Correct the following sentences:² 1. but grown-up persons. or but that. O. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. and I don't know but what he was right.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. etc.²GOLDSMITH. 3. 5.²THACKERAY. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. as. but. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. substitute that. They will." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous.²GIBBON. 457.²S.

2.²ADDISON.²EMERSON. 3. 6.²TROLLOPE. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. Between is used most often with two things only.² BULWER.²BURKE. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 458. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²ADDISON. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.²SCOTT. Between and among. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. 313. 5. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. no separation or division by twos being implied. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. as already seen in Sec. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. PREPOSITIONS. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 305. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. 459. .²EMERSON. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.² SWIFT. 4. see Sec. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Abhorrent to. and philosophers like Locke. etc. a soldier of the Cross. correspond. . Paley. averse. 460. confer. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Some of them have.: Words with particular prepositions. Kant. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. and another to convey a different meaning. ²EMERSON. Acquit of. Conform to.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. different. Such are derogatory. Such are absolve. Dissent from. Affinity between. Comply with. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Different from. as. involve.²KINGSLEY. Derogatory to. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. by custom. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. 461.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Conversant with.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Two groups or one and a group.²between philosophers like Spinoza. or one object and a group. Dependent on (upon). Accord with. Mackintosh. Averse to. Bestow on (upon).²RUSKIN What have I. as. and Coleridge. LIST I. and Stewart. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. List I.

etc." List III. Correspond to (a thing). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. as. Change for (a thing). Agree to (a proposal).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. but it is not good usage. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Involve in. Differ from (note below).y y y Deprive of. Correspond with (write to).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). as meaning to be in keeping with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). A taste of (food). as. Confer with (talk with). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. LIST III. Independent of. Confer on (upon) (give to)." also of persons. Reconcile with (note below). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Reconcile to (note below). List II. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. 462. 463. in the sense of making friends with. Confide in (trust in). LIST II. Change with (a person). Differ with (note below). Confide to (intrust to). and sometimes creeps into standard books. Change to (become). as. A taste for (art. . "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. "The king is reconciled to his minister.).

die from. privation. "Die from. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²G. die for. instrument). She died of hard work. He died at last without disease. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. as Cervantes informs us.²SHAKESPEARE. and ill treatment.²MACAULAY.:² "Die of.²MACAULAY." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²BURNETT. Part from. die of.²BOSWELL.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. they shall die by this hand. "Die with." etc. One of them said he would die for her. Who. "Die for. . ²THACKERAY." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. It would take me long to die of hunger. expect from. I am positively dying with hunger.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT.²BULWER. die with. died for love of the fair Marcella." "die from. "Die for." She would have been ready to die with shame. Take thought and die for Cæsar. People do not die of trifling little colds." (in behalf of). I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²G.y y y Die by. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." (because of). simply from old age." (material cause.²ADDISON. Illustrations of "die of. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²POPE.²GOLDSMITH. ²ATHENÆUM. "Die by. ELIOT. If I meet with any of 'em.²FIELDING. No one died from want at Longfeld. Expect of. part with.²GOLDSMITH. ELIOT.

.²G. His precious bag.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. ELIOT. nothing better was to be expected. ELIOT.²AUSTEN. I can part with my children for their good.²DICKENS.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY.²G." "part from:"² "Part with. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general." She will expect more attention from you. just parted from her. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²WALLER." "expect from:"² "Expect of. either of or in is used indifferently. Kind in you. It was a little bad of you. I part with all that grew so near my heart. 466. ELIOT. "Part from. 465.²SHAW.²BULWER.²BULWER. and hated to part with them. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. which he would by no means part from. Of Doctor P. "Expect from.²TROLLOPE. Burke parted from him with deep emotion." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. I have just seen her." To part from you would be misery. I have long expected something remarkable from you." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. as my friend.²G. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. Illustrations of "expect of. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. kind of you. With words implying behavior or disposition. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²MARRYAT. 464. Illustrations of "part with.²SCOTT.²POE. That is more than I expected of you.²WALPOLE.

11. 9. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.²BULWER. 6. . This narrative. nor of a pale red. tedious perhaps. 14. 8. or artillery. But this is idle of you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. Hampden. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction.He did not think it handsome of you. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²CARLYLE. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. with seraphims. 10. In the friction between an employer and workman. 1.²BULWER. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. thunder. 5. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. nor green. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. Thou tread'st. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. nor blue. 3. or that they are any way dependent on each other. nor yellow. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Very natural in Mr. 4. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. The noise of vast cataracts. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. but which the story renders necessary. and ran up the alley.²DICKENS.²BEACONSFIELD. 7. raging storms.²TENNYSON. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 13. it is commonly said that his profits are high. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. In. the vast abyss. 15. thrown it over Amyas's head.

whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 21. and other angular figures. 30. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 411. When the glass or liquor are transparent. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. the acquiescence of the understanding. 22. or how beautiful it is.And were I anything but what I am. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. . 33. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant.I would wish me only he. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 31. 19. 16. 27. produce approbation. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 20. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. were down with raging fever. (Sec. That night every man of the boat's crew. triangles. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 26. what is a just and unjust act. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. Squares. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. and almost as good as a pony. but in the price paid to them. 36. 29. 18. But every man may know. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. Friday. 23. 24. The effect of proportion and fitness. 28. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 17. you or me. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is.) 34. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 32. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. Every one of these letters are in my name. You have seen Cassio and she together. 38. save Amyas. and most of us do know. 37. 25. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 35. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves.

. 90. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 91. 40. 20. article. origin of. 89. 116. numeral. (2) Middle English. demonstrative. 92. 133. 107. 239. from about 1500 to the present time. (3) Modern English. 102. 310. A. voice. 260. syntax uses Absolute. 124. Abstract with Active Address. 47. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. of. from nominative clauses. nominative.000 between them. Adjectives. as. 98. of. nouns. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. 119. 25. of. 47. INDEX. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. He had four children.39. 124. adjectives. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. of. adverbs used complements. pronouns.

quality. antecedent. 97. 291. 27. 325. 183. modify. 148. 27. of. nouns. of. 239. quantity. 116. 104.from function how in not of of ordinal. 99. Agreement. 328. Against. 101. of. 187. 191. conjunction. 262. plural pronominal. 207. between of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. infinitive. adjectives. 195. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 194. antecedent. 207. 287. 109. and 185. 323. 42. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. clauses. sentence. 302. conjunctions. of. 316. as nouns. nouns. 303. 190. 184. 194. to used of. 106. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 242. 190. 303. of. of. adjectives. 114. of. 103. . 48. 275. with with with subject. 116. 325. adjectives. parse. predicate. compared. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. Alms. from to of. objective. parse. 115.

of. Arrangement Articles. 51. 275. Auxiliary if. . 294. adjective. 120. 287. 79. though. as uses verbs. which. A. 101. of. 67. same. Anacoluthon Analysis. sentences. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. after of. it. Agreement. of of of And Antecedent. 148. derivation in definite. 331. agreement personal as pronoun. 240. sentences. 296.Among. 264. 127. in in. of and pronoun of. 252. 198. See with definition complex compound simple who. 124. of. of. 90. 309. 271. and. to of. 84. syntax As. 207. of. parse. 49. pronouns. syntax. 150. 67. Are. which. 74. 208. See 74. words between. 300. An. 225. which. uses As At. 120. 295. definition how indefinite. 231. possessive. definition of of of Any. 47. sentences.

adverb. 45. See of. nominative. adjective. Can. Be. of pronouns. 279. 54. 64. 46. of what. 149. But. definition could. 111. double possessive. 47. possessive. 224. 37. 262. number of. Among. 194. 110. 278. in Old and Modern English. 210. objective. with But By. Children. of nouns. 283.Bad. Case. . 279. of. 330. Between. 39. pronoun. 260. uses nominative of. forms. of pronouns. 84. Cause. 195. 278. of. uses Better. uses of. Case. 150. best. of nouns. 66. 49. clauses of. comparison conjugation of. 46. of nouns. Clause. 110. 161. 39. 62. of nouns. plurals of. of pronouns. 48. syntax of. Brethren. of. Bridegroom. 262. 63. of pronouns. conjunctions Cherub.

312. clothes. and forms of. defective. 305. 108. Cleave. 263. of. 23. adverbs. of. material. 43. 257. 257. of. and sentence. in analysis. adjectives. 244. 12. subject. 18. infinitive. definition degrees irregular. 315. 24. Clomb. of.definition kinds noun. 107. 157. 108. . 264. 53. 258. 189. 239. double. analysis of. Cloths. nouns. 307. 268. 113. predicate. 158. 248. 111. nouns. of. of. of. superlative. 110. predicate of and from from of. 257. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. verb. 18. 307. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. English. nouns. proper. sentence. 271. of. plural of. of. 43.

parse. definition be. verbs. 231. to of. same words. sentences. adverbs. 73. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 138. in Old vs. pronoun. 188. Agreement. 289.with Concord. 149. . analysis. 195. See analysis clauses. 66. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 263. and clause. pronoun. Conjunctions. sentence. other other parts of speech. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. pronouns. interrogative pronouns. definition how subordinate. 149. 196. of of Conjunctions. 328. 194. 143. 255. conjunctions. 269. 199. subjunctive. replaced by objective. 194. correlative. conjunctions. 193. coördinate. 195. of. See in subjunctive. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 139. 194. 207. 151. of. sentences. Can. conjunction. See English.

26. 99. 287. 242. pronouns. pronouns. by. discourse. use of dies. object. of. with. pronouns. 152. 60. passive adjectives. 185. verb.Declension. See 148. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 315. 90. 91. See adjectives. from. 43. Subordinate clause. 303. 160. comparative. 102. of. indirect. nouns. vs. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 102. 242. of. Comparative. 333. of personal relative verbs. tenses. See See 48. Articles. 288. clause. 320. Degrees. . 80. adverbs See adjectives. 51. for. nouns. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. pronouns. of. 300. duck. Comparison. Case. with of. 35. article. possessive.

300. object. 194. 90. of. 12. another. 92. plural. 42. 287. 33. 110. of. Either. of. 257. suffix. 34. 33. 62. 51. 234. one ( t).Drank. in 'Em. 92. Empress. of. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. spoken. possessive suffix. . 280. the of sentence. added suffix. Elements Ellipsis. pronouns. adjective. original. of. 102. 38. 241. complement. 112. Each. conjunction. 299. 39. of subject. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 90. vulgar. 328. 32. 255. pronoun. ending. pronoun. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 92. predicate. 40. 287. literary. 158. 240. syntax Each Eat Eaves. error in sentence. -En. older. to suffix. drunk. adjective. of. 158. feminine plural English. other.

29. 308. to of. object. 43. adjective.Every. Few. 238.. 212. have adjective. nouns. . of. 212. Future Future tense. definition distinguished in English. See Gander. used of. 147." 31. 30. fishes. etc. 126. plurals. 152. 112. of. 189. few. For. 334. 148. 48. First Fish. 36. two. 235. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. uses redundant. expect gone. First. 319. From. 30. with in sex. etc. 32. 102. Feminine. Farther. 110. 102.. 91. gender. 211. 287. Further. 45. two a further. other languages. perfect. Gender. first. from. 152. as of from compared marking. 30. modes "common goose. the. 112. 103. of. pronoun. as a noun. with infinitive. uses Foreign Former.

His Husband. participle. 145. of. forms in Girl. 159. 10. 60. 120. Gerund. 80. 101. 173. 285. 13. 35. had hung. possessive pronouns. adjective. 36. 61. definition basis of. 231. of. definition divisions opinions province H. I. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. pronoun. 61. He. . pronouns. first sentence. and case verbal with. 275. 60. from participle of. 43. Government. 176. 175. she. 12. of. noun. of. personal relative geniuses. distinguished syntax. an better. 12. Got. Had Hanged. 159. it. for before. on.of of Genii. kinds of. Grammar. 177. 9. rather. 144. person. its.

105. of. 73.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 245. questions. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 231. 43. 320. a object. verbs. of. See you. elements. indices. uses discourse. 131. 248. 227. transitive. 176. Direct object. of. in compared syntax. of. 188. words. 323. sentence. 136. 85. 276. mood. adverbs. 178. summary See passive mood. with of. 131. 233. meaning. 67. 72. pronouns. . Questions. 110. pronoun. 283. questions. adjectives. of clause. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 319. indirect of. 257. 93. your. See Articles. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. use article. adjectives. 153.

170. Kine. 36. pronoun. 61. uses Literary Little. predicate. and See words in. Last. English. 245." history etc. etc. subject form. Logic Logical Lord. of. 113. of. Latter. in little. 39. 189. a vs. 276. . was uses me. Lay.. Lady. queen. plural. lord. 102. -Ly. 110. latest. 190. 113. syntax the. Kind. 67. 226.. adjective.adverbs. of. Lady. Less. "It Its. 303. 63. It. 110. 281. of. 91. syntax. 126. 227. 36. King. lie. Lay. Like. 36. lesser. 12. these double kind. See Madam. Lie.

sentences. etc. double. Neither. adjective. See definition 136. 112. 126. of. 110. 102. 160.. May. Enlargement. 110. 114. 195. 113. 34. 328. of. nigh. 326. -Most. Master. 189. out of. of. 188. Means. might. position adverb. 187. Mighty Mine. 110. 194. of. 137-144. Must. conjunctions Many. 325. 161. 287. mistress. 112. indicative. of. Negative. 64. of. syntax nearer. Mood. 137. 135. imperative. 41. 189. Modifiers. Many Mapping Mare. comparison Near. Modifier. . 185. 144. syntax conjunction. Much. subjunctive. of. 112. 36. superlatives. construction as of adverb. 265. in adverbs comparison a.Manner. mine. 256. of.

number once other plural. 20. of. nouns. 46. 41. 92. 41 43. gender nouns. 45. etc. clause. Not Noun Nouns. kinds 90. 30. become neuter. of. 258. of. 18. and figures.pronoun. 300. definition descriptive. of. 17 19. formed. foreign. nouns. 42. definition according of. etc. 26. of. words how compound. 126. 17. to use. become become formation case collective. proper. 56. used as. 21. material. analysis. 38-41. common. 301. half abstract. 46. . Nor. 19. 25. to of. 125. 32. 17. None. See 194. in. letters as 24. of of of of of a. now plural. of. 246. abstract. 41. 328. 124. parse. abstract. 30. of. syntax Neuter or two News. 30. No Nominative. 38. gender how kinds material. 29. class used singular. 27. Case. 25. syntax in gender nouns.

plural form. indirect. pronouns. of. 41. 48. meanings. dative. 196. indefinite. 101. 18. 41.. etc. English.of same two with proper. adverbial. or plural. . 48. passive adverbial. 101. and analysis. 42 44. of. with with with Now Number. Nouns. preposition. 92. 60. in nouns. 278. form. personal. 42. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 124. 285. 102. as forms titles. 281. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 121. 240. 42. plural. Preposition. 242. 43. 106. spoken of instead nouns. singular. 48. 242. 279. common. 195. verbs. with case. 66. adjectives. plural no two singular construction. See verb. pronouns. of different possessive definite of. of. of. article. definite. 235. of. 48. in article. Numeral Object. of. 282. 48. 41. nominative. 39. conjunction. 278. singular. 148. See in in in Numeral distributive. adjectives. 23. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. meaning.

194. 279. part analysis. 115. 237. 306. position Order. 161. See pronoun. another. of. 213. adverbs. Oxen. 117. conjunctions. 41. Ourself. ours. inverted. Our. Elder. of of of of of models adjectives.syntax Of. indefinite possessive One One as Only. adjective. 93 other. nouns. One. 64. 325 275. of syntax. . treatment comparatives. for. definite relative uses of. Parsing. 216. Older. as of. 101. See the as of. 56. adverb. Ordinal Other Ought. 69. 87. 91. uses numeral pronoun. 103. Pains. a in adjectives. 56. of upon. pronoun. 116. conjunction. as other. 191. with (the). Each adjective. 38. of. of. articles. Omission On. 233. 94. 293. 199. 103. 127.

pronouns. 69. 134. 43. of. 281. 287. 181. Pence. from definition other of. absolute with of. in. 80. 28. of. with. parsed. 322. 59. not is. 148. 172. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. verbs. 317. nominative. used as voice. pronoun. of. 335. 247. 56. of. part adjective. 59. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 95. reflexive. predicate use of. 64. 62. of. 173. article 150. 56. speech. and subject in. pronouns. or of. 27. possessive and of. 179. 70. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 62. 119. verbs. 59. . agreement of verb nouns. antecedent. verb idioms it from. Person. 43. of. included various. phrase. phrases. verbals. relatives. 100. 180. 63. them. 174.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 177. pennies. of. 61. 219. 172. pease. -ing words.

pronoun. nouns. as double. 61. of. 54. simple. it. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 285. 303. 64. Nouns. 245. syntax of of Politics. of Phrase.objective syntax table triple uses of. adverbs of. 195. 63. participial. 245. 281. pronouns. 51. of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 248. 247. relative. 53. 278. appositional. in of. of. 206. 281. . 236. 247. or See of of See 185. English. Personal subjective. double. 303. prepositional. of nouns. 37. objects. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 's. antecedent of of pronouns. 232. complete. conjunctions prepositions Plural. adjectives. See 60. vs. noun nouns. 67. 106. of. 235. kinds infinitive. of. nouns. spoken of. 60. Comparison. of. singular degree. singular. plural. 236. 278. 52. Personification. omitted. of. Place. 41. pronoun. 188. 53. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 25. nouns. 50. 241. Positive Possessive. 49. of.

58. 58. none. parse. 186. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 287. with tense certain. 332. 299. 285. 207. 282. as. 104. 280. somebody definition how indefinite. 331. of. 284. adjective. another. 93. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. by with shown certain of. of. interrogative. . interrogative. 219. 281. 333. adverb. in exclamations. meaning. as antecedent of relative. case. Prepositions. 195. verbs. after but. usually to as than. by. same used as adjectives. 64. 208. each either. objective. 205. future. of. 95. and one with else's. 32. 279. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. of. 300. forms of. and form form form form of.Prefixes. possessive nominative to of. of. 300. of. speech. 89. objective. 202. plural. 187. 301. 129. 283. what. 302. words. any. 72. expressed as other of. plural. of. singular usually other. exclamatory. 105. 303. 203. 206. 147. plural. by parts of of. for predicate nominative. 105. neither. 59. as 54. 203. 283. Pronouns. who personal. all. 132. parse. case.

adverbs in. 105. 74. 85. nouns. 84. 293. 99. to of. from and interrogative. 101. 297. Quotations. 263. 195. and relatives. 189. in. in. 69. use of history formed. of. 295. pronouns. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. Direct same and different. use in as. Questions. personal pronoun. Rank. 69. 295. same antecedent. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. of. of. 296. 74. who. and which. of. agreement anacoluthon and as. 83. of. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 188. . or of. of. 74. with with gerund. 293. with who. 87. in. 142. which. unrestrictive. Nouns. 291. 286. of. 85. that. See of. parse. 87. and antecedent.possessive relative. 289. pronominal pronouns indirect. pronoun. 68. of. 289. of. indirect compound. 279. indirect. which after same. 80. questions. discourse. conjunctions Quality. 58. Rather. Quantity.

tenses. 255.syntax use Result. 40. 42. 195. would. forms shots. Shear. Same Sat. in form. S. 69. 170. 196. reflexive analysis of compound. 231. elliptical. 74. object. simple. of sit. Self Sentences. 51. pronoun. ending. 196. 242. Seeing. Simple in sate. gender. sentence. 294. definition . who. that. Shot. simple of. suffix. complex. of. Sex Shall. and should. 159. conjunction. kinds Sequence Set. effect. 231. plural possessive as. 259. 26 271. in of. clauses of. 289. 'S. conjunctions Retained Riches. of of of complex Sentences. 29. 162. of. See Sentences. which. of. of. 43. 263. 319. 159. 252. will.

adverb. 12. See -En. definition how kinds noun. 245. 32. 258. 257. 186. phonetic in infinitive. distinguish. 169. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. for. Modern use becoming else's. in feminine suffix. vs. English. other Such Such Suffix -s. of. 240. as. 137. 233. these number. of. 303. -en. 36.. literary clause. 237. Split Spoken -Ster. of. . 303. 257. 144. of. 262. 323. 260. 258. names as a. 257. Subject. Somebody Sort. 270. English. 258. 245. used mood. English. verbs. etc. 33. 33. Spelling Spinster. 38. definition 67. in Middle English. of. logical. to of. -es.Singular Sir. English. 126. adverb. 144. 257. of. 138. sort. disuse in spoken complete. of. 38.

two basis not same definition definite. 87. meaning made up in Old of. 297. 119. in double. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 319. 290. of. definition in English Tense. than of. king. English. 147. of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. me. 222. not suggesting adjectives. "the then foreign. syntax of. . 189. of. 307. 191. auxiliaries. this. 107. 106. meaning. they. objects. 306. classical of. 108. which. of. 147. 61. 309. 148. and and of.. as adverbs. 277. object. omission whom. 275. See etc. degree. that uses That. adverbs. of.Suffixes. 147. 186. of. There These kind. 116. 33. in comparison. of." introductory. subject. 289. restrictive. 123.. of languages. as history syntax Their. form. 88. Tenses. 275.. 306. English. when relative. plural as adverb. adjectives. as history The. 280. article. 186. Then. of. Kind. of . 120. 152. 106. when as of. coördinating. 109.

Upper. in of. Try Two Under. 114. Upon. 217. to. gerund. of. 172. feminine and. Time. of. other noun. preposition. 247. 323.. uttermost.These. exclamations. kinds participle. analysis. parse. verbs. 114. try two. phrases. 175. 180. 173. uses of. 330. 119. 195. used. of. 21. 175. uses history of. Thou. etc. 61. 181. 185. adverbs those. 248. thy. of. of. infinitive. from cleft to 174. certain as the before with of. See That. how infinitive. 172. 207. carelessly uses syntax this. of. -ing 111. 322. Utter. See On. 175. 114. 20. 176. infinitive. first. 322. in omitted uses T'other. thee. 308. first adjective. 128. words. . 188. conjunctions prepositions To. of. -Trix. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. suffix. tother. 33.

table of irregular. auxiliary. 160. Vocative in Voice. change. remarks on certain. mood of. passive. how to parse. 154. passive form. 148. retained object with passive. 169. of English. 134. transitive and intransitive. strong. 47. 133. 154. table of. 223. verbs. definition of. 147. person and number of. 155. weak. 148. voice of. 319. spelling of. 236. formed by. 151. 154. of. 312-316. but uses what. 149. 320. verbs by. 12. 39. 157. . sequence of. definition of.Verbs. conjugation of. of. 150. 130. 242. 169. 245. analysis. made transitive. 167. Vixen. 159. active. 317. syntax of. regular. agreement of. in person. 129. 167. definition of. What. 312. tense of. with subject in number. phonetic. of incomplete predication. intransitive. 179. 33. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 131. past tense formed nominative. active meaning. 330. defective. in indirect discourse. 135. 133. becoming irregular.

worser. . 246. questions. 72. relative indirect relative. 178. 85. Woman. pronoun. 190. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. interrogative Which. 105. 73. 78. of. would. 75. in. 36. With. Words in Worse. Wife. 83. 296.what Whereby. 194. 295-299. English. 36. 83. Yes ending analysis. of. 32. relative. Will. whereto. 85.. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. conjunction. 299. 37. 79. Who. relative. 104. Witch. spoken in of. 85. questions. in -ly. direct of. Whether. Y. 75. uses See Shall. antecedent adjective. referring syntax Widower. 40. 105. 111. 72. plural of in nouns -ing. wizard. animals. pronoun. 218. in in indefinite objective. 77. a. 126. 72. questions. questions. etc.

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