roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

and their uses and relations in the sentence. A broader view. it will at the same time. An æsthetic benefit. as. Coming back. its peculiar and abundant idioms. "Analysis. as compared with Latin or Greek. Making rules is risky. there is still much for the grammarian to do. their forms. Literary English. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. . so that a small grammar will hold them all. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. if rightly presented. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. however. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. This will take in the usual divisions. is worthy of serious study. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. but this is bad English now. If. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now." and "Syntax. rightly considered. Few inflections. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation." What grammar is. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. It is also evident. then. and thus incite his observation. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. The work it will cover. we have tabulated the inflections of the language." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. with its enormous vocabulary. Surely our noble language. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.The province of English grammar is. from the question. Mental training.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. to those who have studied the language historically. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Authority as a basis. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). assist the classification of kindred expressions.

Occasionally. Vulgar English. three divisions:² Part I.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. THE PARTS OF SPEECH.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. or Syntax. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Part III. or standard. Spoken English. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. reference will be made to vulgar English. too. and will are evidently names of a different kind. The plainest name is Arabs. The Uses of Words. not objects. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. the words sons and master name objects. then. Part II. which belongs to a people. NOUNS.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. In the more simple state of the Arabs. PART I. The Parts of Speech. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. and the word nation stands for a whole group. and Inflections. besides this one. but. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. by which is meant the free. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.²GIBBON. and may belong to any of those objects. The words state. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. the nation is free. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. The following pages will cover. Analysis of Sentences. that is. 1. from the eighteenth century on. . Such words are called nouns. submission. as they stand for ideas. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself.

representing directly to the mind an object. MATERIAL. or a congress. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. but Chicago names one city. and things separately. For instance. reducing it to a narrow application. (a) 4. however. ATTRIBUTE. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Abstract. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. belonging to one. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. and appropriate names to the groups. They properly belong under common nouns. a committee. Name for any individual of a class. the name of each is an individual or proper name. place. we may think of them in groups. men in groups may be called a crowd. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. as here used. We may say. or a mob. the man here. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Classes of nouns. A noun is a name word. possessed by all. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. Common. Besides considering persons. 3. Collective. 2. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. substance.Definition. This does not imply. because each group is considered as a unit. Name for a group or collection of objects. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or idea. 5. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. Individual. (b) Common. or a council. or thing. animals. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. is from a Latin word which means general. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Thus. or the man in front of you. whether person. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. . (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Proper. or things. etc. Thus. animals.

etc. condition.²There are some nouns. considered abstractly. frost. "Painting is a fine art. not things. etc. soap. but in the words sun. sand. etc. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. but which are not called proper names. such as sun. tea. expressing attributes or qualities. however. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. world. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). and so on. rain. paint. They remain common class names. 6. rock. sugar. etc. When we speak of a wise man. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. It may. . Such are glass. or apart from their natural connection. or actions. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. (3) Geological bodies: mud.Names for things thought of in mass. mist. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. Again. wheat. rubber. frost. Names of ideas. instead of to each individual or separate object. earth. gold. wine. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. or that which shows a thing has been proved. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects.. Words naturally of limited application not proper. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. wheat. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. etc. we may say. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. earth. etc. conditions. granite. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. moon. rice. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. etc." 9. but it is taken merely as a name. and fasten a special name to the object considered. or action. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. dew. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known." "a man of understanding. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. clay. expressing state. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. stone." "Learning is hard to acquire. celluloid. 7. etc. as in calling a city Cincinnati. The quality is still there as much as before. potash. cloud. NOTE. we speak of the wisdom of the man. sugar. The reason is. . iron. platinum. snow. proof means the act of proving. there is no such intention.

a wedding or a festival. Underived abstract nouns. 272." "a brisk walk. the rude drawings of the book. stupidity from stupid. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. those opinions and feelings. night. Verbal abstract nouns. height from high. is used as a noun. etc. the teachings of the High Spirit. redness from red. II. winter. 1. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. as their name implies. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. (1) prudence from prudent. hopeful²hope. as in the expressions. action from act. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. day. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. The verb. childhood from child. as glad²joy. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. They cannot govern a word. Such are beauty." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move.Attribute abstract nouns. They are only the husks of verbs. her longing for their favor. the great Puritan awakening. (2) peerage from peer. . and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. NOTE.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. etc. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. by altering its function. 273). speech from speak. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. To avoid difficulty. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function.. energy. joy. theft from thieve. kingship from king. and they cannot express action. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. in the beginning of his life. etc. five proper. "a long run" "a bold move. 10. five abstract. ease. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. Exercises. etc. summer. service from serve. the moon caused fearful forebodings. hope. there is time for such reasonings. the main bearings of this matter. 12. Thus. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. shadow. he spread his blessings over the land. the well-being of her subjects. lightning. mastery from master. Caution. but are merely names of actions. thunder. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs.

diphtheria. (b) branches of knowledge.2. algebra. geology. mathematics? 3. pleurisy. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. catarrh. as physics. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Using a dictionary. typhus. as pneumonia.

a Fourier. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. from the name of Dr.²EMERSON. arras. Proper names transferred to common use. from Damascus. thus. who was its inventor. currants. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. but most of them are in the following groups. or to go over to it entirely. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. but we may say. from Corinth." referring to flat- . as a davy. levant and morocco (leather). If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. a Lavoisier. Nouns change by use. from China. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Material nouns may be used as class names. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. damask. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. from a town in France. above. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. and lo! a new system. We know a number of objects made of iron. for example. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. in Portugal. a Locke. 14. Others of similar character are calico. port (wine). 119). Sodom was famous for wickedness. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. from Oporto. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. etc. from Calicut. the word port. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Guillotin. the guillotine. 15. 13. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. it imposes its classification on other men. a Hutton. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. a Bentham. "The cook made the irons hot.

the abstract idea is partly lost. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. and so on. but in case an art or a science. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. are still names of abstract ideas. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. This is a poetic usage. candies. are abroad. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. From all around²Earth and her waters.²BRYANT. which are made plural. When it is said that art differs from science. tins. slates. and say teas.²RUSKIN. 17. that is. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Next Anger rushed. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. etc. but on dispositions which require to be created. paints. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. abstract in meaning.In lightnings owned his secret stings. but differ in strength.irons. nor are they common class nouns. though not confined to verse. a steel to whet a knife on. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Test this in the following sentences:² . smiled. papers. a rubber for erasing marks. to prowl or to moan like night birds. Personification of abstract ideas. or used as class nouns. that the power of art is founded on fact. Traffic has lain down to rest. For example. his mask melting like a nightmare dream.²COLLINS. on fire.²PERCIVAL. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. purity. (3) By poetical use.²BYRON. A halfway class of words. The words preceded by the article a. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. Death. They are not then pure abstract nouns. oils. tobaccos. or. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. These are the same in material. and only Vice and Misery. Class nouns in use. etc. that disposition is the thing to be created. clays. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.²CARLYLE.²HAYNE. his eyes. not material things. mists. be spoken of. coals. as stones. or the arts and sciences. clouds. 16. or made plural. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron.

meaning a walk in the morning. make our own so.²SHAKESPEARE. fear thy blow. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. All these. sir?" and the "No. etc. And still. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. if we must have great actions. nouns used to modify." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives.²IRVING. Every why hath a wherefore.²EMERSON. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. or describe it. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech." "the State Bank Tax bill. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Then comes the "Why. When I was young? Ah. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms." "a morning walk. By ellipses. however. loves. But it is better to consider them as nouns. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. a bank in New York.² BURNS. Adverbs. They are more like the possessive noun. or from any expression. which belongs to another word. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. 18. they cannot be compared. for example. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. as each repeated pleasure tired. Nouns used as descriptive terms. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. But ah! those pleasures. were mere terrors of the night. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.Let us. Adjectives.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. "a family quarrel. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. and joysWhich I too keenly taste." which contains a pure adjective. sir!" and the "What then.²SHAKESPEARE. 19. a bill as to tax on the banks. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns." "a New York bank. Conjunctions. the wealthy. NOTE. as descriptive adjectives are.² GOLDSMITH.²BURNS. but is still a noun. sir!"²MACAULAY . they do not express quality. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns.The Solitary can despise.

Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. are used. to such words as become pure nouns by use. or a state secret. the wealthy. 3. Learning. the terms the great. When. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. of course. 1." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. and tell to which class each belongs. Power laid his rod aside. is the word "just. of words rather than of their meaning. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. FRANKLIN. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. Now.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. 8. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Caution. Stone walls do not a prison make. without reference to its function in the sentence. in speaking of the principal of a school." and another of Dr. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. but have an adjectival meaning.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. 20.Nor iron bars a cage." or "legal. In the other sentences. but as a figure of speech.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. NOTE. Exercise. There are many of these. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. It is to be remembered. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. When. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. 7. or a criminal. so."²B. .. in a sentence above. are spoken of as if pure nouns. however. 5.²These remarks do not apply. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. or a faithful domestic. at the beginning. 4. etc. 6. too. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. whether it mean the sun or the cold. is ambiguous. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. that cobweb of the brain. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. why and wherefore. 2. The it. and Then.

Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 21. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 14. What gender means in English. shattered and disabled. 10. returned to Spain. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 17. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 24. he cried. and many other languages. In Latin. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. And see. 21. the welcome. always masculine.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.Fair guests. but not so in English. always feminine. It is founded on sex. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. 23. 15. the silver moon is gone. female.You seize the flower. in English grammar. and names of females are usually feminine. 18. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Greek. its bloom is shed. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. A fool speaks all his mind. Male beings are. 13. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. German. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. The fleet. 12. But pleasures are like poppies spread. that waits you here. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 20. 11. The hours glide by. . 16. A little weeping would ease my heart. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.9. 19. GENDER. 22.

² I have seenA curious child . those distinguishing the sex of the object.. and neuter nouns.When. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Of animals. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. however. hortus (garden) is masculine. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.. then. in German. Gender nouns. or additions to words. if there were any signs of life in it. . For instance: in Latin. those which do not distinguish sex. He next stooped down to feel the pig.. 24. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. das Messer (knife) is neuter. that pattern of a husband. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. Thus. if of the female sex. with its gizzard under its wing. those with which man comes in contact often. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. All nouns. must be divided into two principal classes.²IRVING. came to a stand just by the bridge." .. inanimate things are spoken of. or which arouse his interest most. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. No "common gender. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. and consequently without sex.²LAMB. in English. in other languages gender follows the form.. Gunpowder . but are spoken of as neuter. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. 23. the name of it is feminine. that is. the name of it is masculine. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. "A little child shall lead them. The great difference is. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words.² IRVING.²masculine and feminine." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth.. Neuter nouns. according to use. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. corpus (body) is neuter. 22. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Hence: Definition. the sex being of no consequence. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. according to their use.²gender nouns. mensa (table) is feminine. or names of things without life. clapping his burnished wings. are named by gender nouns.

there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. 27. and for the older word fat they said vat. The inflections for gender belong. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. from the masculine fox. 26. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. of course. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Native suffixes. 29. for from they said vram.. Gender shown by Prefixes. is. or the lack of it. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. they are neuter words. These remain in vixen and spinster. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. puts a prefix before the masculine man. If such words as parent. etc. teacher. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. . woman. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. One feminine. as in wine vat. (2) By adding a suffix. Put in convenient form. the division of words according to sex. Very few of class I. Gender shown by Suffixes. Hence vixen is for fyxen. relative. 28. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. I. though both words have lost their original meanings. servant. but spinster has now no connection with it. (3) By using a different word for each gender. cousin. ruler. only to masculine and feminine nouns.25. II. domestic. he-bear²she-bear.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. generally to a masculine word. as he-goat²she-goat. For fox they said vox. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. According to the definition. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Male nouns beings.

The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . as. Ending of masculine not changed. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. the one most used. gamester. as. -ess (French esse. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. donna. señorita. Unaltered and little used. Slightly changed and widely used. 30. These are attached to foreign words. punster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. trickster. song-str-ess. it has none now in the words huckster. as czarina. as seam-stress.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. and are never used for words recognized as English. executrix. Low Latin issa). but in most cases it has not. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). (1) Those belonging to borrowed words.

sprang into a popularity much greater than at present." III.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). 32. to represent persons of either sex. NOTE. others have in their origin the same root. the ending -ess. chairman. neighboresse. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. wagoness. as. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. or servauntesse.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. as in the fourteenth century. Ending -ess less used now than formerly.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. etc. teacher or lady teacher. as. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. from the French -esse. In some of these pairs. from Latin imperatricem. teacheresse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. we use the feminine. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Instead of saying doctress. 31. Thus. neighbor (masculine and feminine). we use the masculine termination. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. editor. Some of them have an interesting history. as was said in the sixteenth century. fosteress. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. frendesse. We frequently use such words as author. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Gender shown by Different Words.

widuwa²widuwe. etc. It is not connected historically with our word duck. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Danish gaas.). Personification. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. gand-ra. Besides gander and drake. as in many other words. finally gander. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. in Old English mere.² . but this has long been obsolete. Widower. Icelandic gás. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. probably meaning house dweller). The masculine was formed by adding -a. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. The older forms. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). leaving our word drake. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. had the masculine mearh (horse). the old sign of the masculine. from Latin mea domina. Witch is the Old English wicce. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. 16). lhauerd. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). among others) to be from the same root word. 33. for example. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Two masculines from feminines.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Mare. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). or lauerd in Middle English. became identical. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Madam is the French ma dame. though both are ultimately from the same root. 34. written loverd. not immediately connected with witch. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns.

The -en inflection. for instance. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. eyen (eyes).²singular and plural. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.²CAMPBELL. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. together with the third."²BYRON. 37. In nouns. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. more than one. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. whenever we adopt a new word. the plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.No towers along the steep. The first two methods prevailed. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en.²KEATS. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. in Old English. that is.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. 38. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. the engineer speaks so of his engine. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. This is not exclusively a poetic use. I. NUMBER. and not by the form of the noun. 35. .Clustered around by all her starry Fays. 36. Britannia needs no bulwarks. (3) By adding -s (or -es). 39. But other words were inflected afterwards. etc. (2) By changing the root vowel. Definition.²COLERIDGE. shoon (shoes). Our language has two numbers. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine.Her home is on the deep."Now. treen (trees). Effect of personification.

when they mean soldiery. or if preceded by the prepositions in. borough²formerly had the same inflection. sail. Such are box. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. . etc. Children has passed through the same history. glass. 42. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. wight.Horse and foot. Other words following the same usage are. ditch. people.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. etc. sheep. Kine is another double plural. brace.²WHITTIER. and is still found in dialects. finally brethren. turf. Examples of this inflection are. retain the same form for plural meaning. after numerals (if not after numerals.The horse are thousands ten. Lee marched over the mountain wall. II. dozen.²MACAULAY. that have the singular and plural alike. quartz. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Instead of -s. into Frederick town. etc.²THOREAU. and get settled. head. such as deer."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. cannon.² "God bless me! so then. but has now no singular. heathen. they add -s): also trout. then brothre or brethre. originally neuter. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. III.²Over the mountains winding down. by. as. Brethren has passed through three stages. Akin to this class are some words. swine. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. lens. after all. 40. salmon. folk. as. The words horse and foot.-En inflection imitated by other words. The old plural was brothru. but they now add the ending -s.² The foot are fourscore thousand. pair. 41. cross.

politics. and the real ending is therefore -s. niche²niches. etc. etc. house²houses. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). however. 15 and 17). they lose their identity. chaise²chaises. e. Proper nouns are regularly singular. daisies. as. physics. Special Lists. It served simply as a means of sight. in its widest extent. The lilie on hir stalke grene. So live.-Es added in certain cases. shelf²shelves. economics. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. 45. Words in -ies. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. though they are plural in form. Means plural. is both the science and the art of government. volcano² volcanoes. mathematics. e. pains (care). and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. When such words take a plural ending. the Washingtons. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . etc. molasses.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. Formerly. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. 43. the Americas.g. means: as. hero²heroes. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s.² Politics. quoth then that ladie milde. etc. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. half²halves. fairies. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. prize²prizes. optics. DANA.g.. these words ended in -ie. means and politics.²PROF. Examples of these are. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. also news. Some words are usually singular. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. and go over to other classes (Secs. fancies.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe.²BRYANT. negro²negroes. some adding -s. knife²knives. allies. Two words. 44. race²races. and many branches of learning. a new syllable is made. that when thy summons comes. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe.. though this sound combines readily with -s. summons. and some -es.

riches will accumulate.²BURKE. By these means. . however. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Politics plural.Words. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. LAUGHLIN.²G.²IRVING. 46. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²GOLDSMITH. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. CURTIS. L. Sometimes. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right.² MACAULAY. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²GOLDSMITH. Now I read all the politics that come out. by those means which we have already mentioned. Besides this.²J. it is furnished with a forceps. he pronounced to have been a tongs. A relic which.²MOTLEY. Some words have no corresponding singular. W. I say. by strongly conveying the passions.

carry off chaff. clothes (garments). (2) abilities.). brethren (of a society or church). pea²peas (separately).. trouble. die²dies (stamps for coins. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). 48.²was it subdued when. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. (2) literature. shots (number of times fired). the other unlike it. One plural.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. In Early Modern English thank is found. fish²fish (collectively). . (2) revenue duties. or copies.²POPE. twopence. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. DANA. These make the last part plural.. number²numbers: (1) figures. (2) care. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). or work in a bellows?²PROF.. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. etc. pease (collectively). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. indices (signs in algebra). part²parts: (1) divisions. two plurals. making a double plural. genii (spirits). (2) poetry. Two classes of compound words. genius²geniuses (men of genius). etc. dice (for gaming). sixpence. in mournful numbers. faculties. fishes (individuals or kinds). 49. Three words were originally singular. riches. In speaking of coins.²LONGFELLOW. Numbers also means issues. index²indexes (to books). pence (collectively). shot²shot (collective balls). ways. may add -s. as two sixpences. for the numbers came. Tell me not. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.² I lisped in numbers. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. of a periodical.The air. penny²pennies (separately). as in the lines. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. or epistles. two meanings. 50. eaves.²one corresponding to the singular.

as the Messrs. Norman. there is some disagreement among English writers. Two methods in use for names with titles. manservant. as man singer. As to plurals of names with titles. though the latter is often found. Mussulman. German. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.² Then came Mr. and then the three Miss Spinneys. woman servant. for example.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Ottoman. firman. Briggs. 51. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. woman singer. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Brahman. but add -s. the Misses Rich. HOLMES. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Brown. or the name may be pluralized.²DR. 52. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Allen. the Drs. such as talisman. . The title may be plural. and Mrs. then Silas Peckham.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.

²GIBBON. These are said to be domesticated. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. The Messrs.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Du Maurier. or Anglicized. Exercise. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. y y analysis antithesis .²THE CRITIC. FROM THE LATIN. Others have been adopted. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²DICKENS. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Domesticated words. FROM THE GREEK. and retain their foreign plurals. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. They are then said to be naturalized.²GOLDSMITH. 53. or Englished.

y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. 55. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). and expresses a relation akin to possession. figures. 56. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. they form their plurals in the regular way. Letters. 54. without reference to their meaning. as. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." the word felon's modifies cell. etc.. In the sentence. Definition. In the general wearing-away of inflections. Only two case forms. Words quoted merely as words.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. as. cell has another relation. also add -s or 's. . "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)." CASE." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). etc. figures. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.

Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 3. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. when asked unawares. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Three properties belong to wisdom. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. and experience.²one for the nominative and objective. the enemy of the living. completing a verb. and merit. . learning. 4. must be understood for purposes of analysis. I. Nouns. 57.²the nominative. three things characterize man. and the possessive. Human experience is the great test of truth. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. fate. whether inflected or not." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word.²nature. excessive grief. the objective. 2.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. they returned to their homes. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Uses of the Nominative.²person. 58." (2) As a predicate noun." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 1.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. then. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. 5. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. may be said to have three cases. Excuses are clothes which.

Save. . oh save me from the candid friend! 7. and being equivalent to one verb. as will be seen in Sec. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. (5) As the object of a preposition. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. good Heaven." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 68. how have I frighted thee? II. her first law broken. the word toward which the preposition points. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. 3. Conscience. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. 8. Uses of the Objective. completing the verb. taking the object enemies. and meaning calmest. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. 2. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 9. 4. But of all plagues. sword in hand and visor down. But the flood came howling one day. Set a high price on your leisure moments. etc." (3) Adverbially. and makest a calm." Exercise. save. measure.6. wounded lies. taking the object storm." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. a patriarch of the village. they are sands of precious gold. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. (in the older stages of the language. thy wrath can send. They charged." (4) As the second object. reconciles. distance. and tell which use each has:² 1. 59. and landlord of the inn." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb.

Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.² The unwearied sun. 6. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.5. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. or in writing yesterday's elegy. (3) Subjective possessive. And whirling plate. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.²SHELLEY. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. the Great Stone Face. as shown in the sentences. Possession in some sense is the most common. 7. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. from day to day.Does his Creator's power display. 60. the most common of all. (2) Objective possessive.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.e.²HAWTHORNE. as in these expressions. The noblest mind the best contentment has. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. tempests that .. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. It is a poetic expression. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.²BYRON. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. III. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.His winter task a pastime made.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.²ADDISON. Uses of the Possessive. expressed or understood.And gave the leper to eat and drink. and forfeits paid. 8. 9. 61. as. 10. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. The possessive case always modifies another word.

ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. there are only two case forms. "From every schires ende. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). and Obj. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. One is the simple form of a word. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example." "at his beddes syde. 64. "George Jones his book. . Poss." "mannes herte [heart]." etc.winter is likely to have). however. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. 56). How the possessive is formed.e. Nom. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.. 63. in Chaucer. A suggestion.. 62. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. making the possessive singular. Declension or inflection of nouns. 62. child NOTE. To form the possessive plural. growth which several days had developed). lady Poss. A false theory. Nom. and Obj. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. as schoolboys sometimes write.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec." Use of the apostrophe. The use of the apostrophe. PLURAL. As said before (Sec. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.e. 1. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. the panther which the forest hides). Case Inflection.

store. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. Possessive and no noun limited.. .²SWIFT. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. the items of my son's. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. as. tailor's bill²THACKERAY.Though this opinion was untrue.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. and she walked off from the don's. church. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. Kate saw that. in the name of the emperor their master. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.²THACKERAY. my neighbors. stands up for God's truth one man. I remember him in his cradle at St. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. 65. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²HOLMES. for goodness' sake. know the amount of my income. a word with a phrase. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. but to the ear all may be alike. the possessive sign is usually last. and from a desire to have distinct forms. as. etc. James's. some such word as house.²RUSKIN. containing words in apposition. 67. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. instead of the emperor their master's name. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.²DE QUINCEY. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. Peter's. 66. In other cases the s is seldom omitted." Possessive with compound expressions." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.² LOWELL. Cervantes' satirical work.²CARLYLE. being understood with it: for example.. In compound expressions. as by the countess's command. dwelling. etc." "A postscript is added. Captain Scrapegrace's."²DE QUINCEY.

(2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.The double possessive. especially when used with this or that. A peculiar form. Both of these are now used side by side. Emphasis. every. in such a sentence as. HALE. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. a double possessive. etc. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. and at the same time by a possessive noun.²CARLYLE. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. (1) When a word is modified by a. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. For example. If. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. (See also Sec. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.²FROUDE. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. any. Clearness. or subjective. the statement clearly means only one thing. (b) Rewrite the sentence. however. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. 1.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. we use the phrase of Atterbury. that. corresponding to 's. ill-lighted except where she stands. making a double possessive. 68. this. as one modifier. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . (3) It prevents ambiguity.²E. the. no.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. E.. Exercises. Blair). sometimes they are used together. and tell whether each is appositional. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. 2.²the introduction which Atterbury made. the sentence might be understood as just explained.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. each. objective. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. In most cases. 87.

day's harbinger. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. with every garland crowned. 69. let him seasonably water the one. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.They say. 6. There Shakespeare's self. 15. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 14. Jove laughs.3. 11.² . In parsing. 10.A weary waste expanding to the skies. Nature herself. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it.Comes dancing from the East. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. in parsing a noun. Friend. At lovers' perjuries. some idioms²the double possessive. Hence. 7. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 4. we state. Now the bright morning star. therefore. 9. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 70. 12. 5. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. and destroy the other. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 13. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 8.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. it seemed.

masculine. Thief is a common class noun. it is the object of the preposition by. the connection shows a male is meant. is a common class noun. it has no sex. and to have it found out by accident. NOTE. therefore masculine gender. singular number. has no governing word. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. Neckcloth.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy.²common. . and limits neckcloth. object of the verb takes. hence it is objective case. 3. gender. it expresses time. The correct method. etc. determining its case. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. Throat is neuter. but is the adverbial objective. hence objective case. 68). like miller's.(1) The class to which it belongs. 4. hence it is a common noun. if the latter. 71. (3) Whether singular or plural number. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Exercise. MODEL FOR PARSING. proper. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. and relations. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. as to case. inflections. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. which gender. names one thing. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. a withered serving man. therefore possessive case. hence it is a gender noun. a fresh tapster.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. and therefore nominative case. (4) Its office in the sentence. and number. therefore singular number. therefore singular number. In parsing any word. subject of the verb is understood. That in the captain's but a choleric word. it expresses possession or ownership. it denotes only one person. therefore neuter. 2. it is the name of a male being.

connected with the shore by a drawbridge.And hated her for her pride. 9. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. A pronoun is a reference word. we evidently cannot state the owner's name..²palace. Madame de Staël. He giveth his beloved sleep. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Mrs. financial minister to Louis XVI. all in one. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. 76). Jarley's back being towards him. Classes of pronouns. 8. Now. A few miles from this point. and his daughter.. For instance. where the Rhone enters the lake. blessings light on him that first invented . stands the famous Castle of Chillon. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. and representative words. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Time makes the worst enemies friends." Again. 73. sleep! 6. . or for a person or thing. 11. or for a group of persons or things.. but by a question we say. 72. definite.5. Necker. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Definition. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. castle. 7. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. standing for a name. instead of saying. 10. and prison. The need of pronouns. from a necessity for short. were natives of Geneva. PRONOUNS. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious.

Three persons of pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Singular. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON.. even if it had a special form. that is. ours . (2) Second person. (3) Third person. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 76. as nouns have the same form. primarily adjectives. and the person or thing talked about. I Poss. This gives rise to a new term. we our. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. my Plural. which cannot be used as adjectives. 74. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. which have forms for person. (4) Adjective pronouns. Person in grammar. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. which relate or refer to a noun. standing for a person or thing spoken of. representing the person speaking. representing a person or thing spoken to. From analogy to pronouns. 77. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Nom. they are said to have person by agreement. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. "the distinction of person. words. the person or thing spoken to. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. pronoun. (5) Indefinite pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person.(3) Relative pronouns. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. or other word or expression. 75. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. they must represent the person talking." Person of nouns. mine.

by personification. Third person singular has gender. hers her Plur. of all Three. thine. yours you Plural. thou thee ye you you your. Singular. neuter. SECOND PERSON. Old forms. it its it Poss. masculine h . your. neuter hit. Obj. Obj. Obj. Nom. But the third person has. Nom. namely. me us Singular.. 78. Obj. thy Remarks on These Forms. or. and also for the neuter. he his him Fem. you your. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Nom. theirs them Neut. in the singular. she her. Old Form Common Form. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. they their. a separate form for each gender. feminine h o. Poss. The speaker may be either male or female. so also with the person or thing spoken to.Obj. yours you THIRD PERSON. Poss. First and second persons without gender. . Nom. yours Poss. Masc.

in Old English. etc. 79.:² (1) In elevated style. thou Shepherd of Israel. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). for example. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. Thou. thy. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. The consequence is.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. as. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. their. just as we now say. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. however. especially in poetry. heora.Thou lovest." As shown above. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. which was often sounded with the h silent.² Oh. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them.. even when referring to a single object. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. them. etc. In spoken English. 80. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). which is a neuter noun. etc. that didst comfort thy people of old. The plurals were h . . and sometimes its. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. Second person always plural in ordinary English. two modern uses of thou. The form its.. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. 81. There are. heom. thee. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. Two uses of the old singulars. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. This is of comparatively recent growth. to thy care we commit the helpless.²SHELLEY. as in prayers. We use it with a plural verb always. 82. the forms they. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English.²BEECHER. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. it.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. as possessive of it. (2) In addressing the Deity. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.

The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. however. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. 84. Nominative forms. 83. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. in such a sentence as. ye." the literary language would require he after was. The Possessive. he. some say. him. thou. hers. us. and sometimes in ordinary speech. The forms my. for. The forms mine. to personify objects (Sec. our. Old use of mine and thine. 86. us. yours. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. ²SHAKESPEARE. The words I. II. its. and not make more classes. In spoken English. 85. "I am sure it was him. him. Not a separate class. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. we. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. and has been slave to thousands. theirs. though ye is occasionally used as objective. sometimes his and its. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. when they occur in the predicate position. Yet careful speakers avoid this. though those named in Sec. her. or.²COWPER. thy. 84 are always subjects. 'tis his. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. And since thou own'st that praise. I The Nominative. thine. me.²LANDOR. I spare thee mine.Use of the pronouns in personification. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. she.²BULWER. his. they. 58). besides a nominative use. them. 34). That is. your. them. they have a nominative form. her. note the following:² 'Twas mine. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. and follow the usage of literary English. have a peculiar use. . ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. Additional nominatives in spoken English. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. her. their. Absolute personal pronouns.

(2) To bring emphasis. F. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. Besides this.²THACKERAY. This usage is still preserved in poetry. .²THACKERAY. Like the noun possessives. anger. or satire. yours.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. T.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. The forms hers.² CARLYLE. Their uses. If thine eye offend thee."²SCOTT. ours.²SWIFT. and with mine. ²HOLMES. we find. yours. as in nouns.²ID. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. are really double possessives.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. "Hold thy peace. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.²CARLYLE. This ancient silver bowl of mine. for example.²ID.²J. 87. FIELDS. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. Give every man thine ear.²BIBLE. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. his. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. thine. sometimes its. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. pluck it out. (3) To express contempt. hers. Double and triple possessives. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. COOPER. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²J. commenting upon a letter of mine. theirs. theirs. thus." said Henry Woodstall. ours. but few thy voice. thus. it tells of good old times. Long Allen. we have. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee.

according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective." "None but the brave deserves the fair.²ID. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. . but nominative or objective in use. Now the objective. as shown in Sec. But the first two have a nominative use. this dative use. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. III. In such sentences as. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. as it is called. 90. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In their function. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. but not in form. Both joined in making him a present. the thing is done. Besides this use of the objective. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. 89. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns.²BIBLE. or use in a sentence. The Objective. In pronouns. for whose benefit. mine stands for my praise in the second. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. Curse me this people. but expresses for whom. but the form is the same as the objective. "The good alone are great.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. his for his property. 88." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. 20. was marked by a separate case. 86: mine stands for my property. The old dative case. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. They all handled it." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. and mine in the second has an objective use. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. in the first sentence.

²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²EMERSON. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. in this century.²ADDISON. 92. which follows the verb. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. has not made its progress. ²EMERSON. why.²CARLYLE.Time is behind them and before them.²BULWER. as. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. thus. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. or to the idea. as.² NEWMAN. like Chinese skill.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. logical subject. or that he has not a great deal more. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²D. The word you. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. him that so often and so gladly I talked with." (3) As a grammatical subject. Your mere puny stripling. to stand for the real. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²DE QUINCEY. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. 91. (3) In apposition. WEBSTER. was passed by with indulgence.² . Indefinite use of you and your. It is a pity that he has so much learning. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. as in the sentences. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. Society.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. you sneeze.²IRVING To empty here. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. and they cry. you must condense there. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.²BACON. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.

Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. "I found me a good book. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. used in poetry.²ID. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.. ourselves." "He bought him a horse. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²THOREAU.²BURNS. keeps a school. themselves. Poor Christian was hard put to it. They are myself. And millions in those solitudes.²HOLMES. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.²SCOTT. yourself. A sturdy lad . -selves. have laid them downIn their last sleep. itself. And when I awoke. we use such expressions as. This occurs in poetry. as. I made up my mind to foot it.²BUNYAN. For example. It was late and after midnight. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition.²HAWTHORNE. they dropped their arms. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. 94.²IRVING. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 93. (thyself).. since firstThe flight of years began. (ourself). . and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²DE QUINCEY. who teams it.²EMERSON. farms it. herself.²ANON. For when it dawned."²IRVING. and its plural selves.It is finger-cold. Of the two forms in parentheses. who in turn tries all the professions. the second is the old form of the second person. but seldom in prose.²COLERIDGE. it rained. I set me down and sigh." etc." and there is an end of it. that is. yourselves. however. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. peddles it. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. as they are also called.² Now I lay me down to sleep. when they are direct objects. himself. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²BRYANT. There was nothing for it but to return.

for example.²ID.²E. 95. as in vulgar English. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.²SHAKESPEARE..²WORDSWORTH. 96. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. shall dissolve.² . theself.²EMERSON. not the possessive forms.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. were changed into the possessive myself. The question might arise. as. BROWNING. I shrink with pain. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. as.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. with self. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. Held dead within them till myself shall die.. to us. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.² TENNYSON.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. NOTE. In Middle English the forms meself. especially in the speech of rulers.² The great globe itself .²MILTON.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.As girls were once. for example. to every one. and the others were formed by analogy with these. ourselves. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. etc. as we ourself have been. Threats to all. after the analogy of myself. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. B. As if it were thyself that's here.To you yourself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. thyself. Use of the reflexives. Origin of these reflexives. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. and build the lofty rhyme.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.

is wisdom. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Come and trip it as we go.On the light fantastic toe. Courage. some each of masculine. 3. where the word is one with that it tells of. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 5. some of them being double possessives. 7.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. feminine. 9. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Three now in use. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. Years ago. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. And it grew wondrous cold. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. One obsolete. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. 2. 10. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. FRANKLIN. and what.²DE QUINCEY. all conform to it. Infancy conforms to nobody. 4. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.²B. let him lowly confess it. 8. 6. 97. father. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. .² THACKERAY. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. but it is the soonest spoiled. which. and neuter. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. To know what is best to do. fight it out. and how to do it.

As shown here. but now obsolete. having three forms. These show that what is not inflected for case. but for case alone. not to persons. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. it is always third person. Whose was that gentle voice. ideas. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. it refers to either persons or things. .What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. methought. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Use of what. whispering sweet. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. used formerly to mean which of two.There is an old word. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES.Promised.. that it is not inflected for gender or number. whether. shall we say. which is not inflected for gender. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. The use of who. Use of who and its forms. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. What wouldst thou do. that it is always singular and neuter. 98. 99. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Which of you. or case. it is selective. number. etc. referring to things. 100. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. with its possessive and objective. that. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. that is. as it always asks about somebody. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. the gold. actions. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Use of which.

102. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. who evidently refers to Bards. SINGULAR Nom. 99. "The last of all the Bards was he. and also in having a conjunctive use. for which the pronoun stands. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The antecedent. who? Poss. what may be an adverb in some expressions. SING. AND PLUR.² "The last of all the Bards was he. Who. and what are also relative pronouns. who is used as objective instead of whom. Function of the relative pronoun. nominative in the second also. since it is subject of the verb had. which is called the antecedent of the relative. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent.101. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. which and what. 104.² .²by the use of the words. Further treatment of who." Or. which. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. For instance. These bards sang of Border chivalry. which is nominative in the first sentence. pronoun. and so to make smoother discourse. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. objective in the last. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. 127). 103. AND PLUR. as. It usually precedes the pronoun. which and what are sometimes adjectives. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. 105.Who sung of Border chivalry. it may be shortened into. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Thus we may say. subject of doth love. whose? Obj. or other word or expression." In the latter sentence. in Sec. being the direct object of the verb shall take. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. as.

5. what. 6. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. WHITNEY. is a divine creation.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT.Whom universal nature did lament. The nurse came to us. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 108. The men whom men respect. 3. 106. a thousand years. a simple relative is meant. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²PARTON Which and its forms. which. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 2. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. with all its capabilities .. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. .Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.. 4. The origin of language is divine. both his and who have the antecedent priest.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Who and its forms.²DR JOHNSON. 4. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. that. For her enchanting son.Whose flag has braved. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.² COX.That guard our native seas. Generally speaking. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. 107. Two kinds. When the word relative is used. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. D. Ye mariners of England. 3. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. Indefinite relatives. are the men and women who bless their species.²LOWELL In this. will be discussed further on. in the same sense in which man's nature. 2. but the look which is not of the earth.²MILTON. the women whom women approve.. They had not their own luster.²W.²BYRON.

] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. That. 2. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²MARGARET FULLER. Already done is all that he would do. For what he sought below is passed above. Reader. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. stratagems.. 3.²GOLDSMITH. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. The Tree Igdrasil.. bought up all the pigs that could be had. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.²EMERSON.²IRVING. 110. W. no bad type of what often happens in that country.. What. else this description will seem exaggerated. BEECHER 5.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²H. The judge . and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. which it certainly is not. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. and spoils. (a) This gradation . 107. Examples of the relative that:² 1. 6.. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them..Is fit for treasons. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 111. you will not be angry with me for telling you.²BURKE.5.²LAMB 3.²DE QUINCEY. Who. 109.. ought to be kept in view. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. The man that hath no music in himself. 4..

(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. whom. 113. whose. referring to animals.²THACKERAY. and so on. who.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. possessive case of which.²who. in 4. (4) It has two case forms. the relatives are singular. Witness the following examples:² And you. a man. 5. in 5. The robins. whose wound I had dressed. and 3.. things. whose for the possessive. 107. It has been seen (Sec. whom. . Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. The sentences in Sec.. p. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.²DR. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. or ideas. the others are all third person. that man. in the first sentence. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.. Which. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Cooper. (3) It is nearly always third person. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. My horse. son. they are plural. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. in the third. In 1. seemed as much excited as myself. not persons.²LOWELL. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.²SWIFT.²IRVING. Sec. and others. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. 112. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.. In sentence 4. Scott. The little gorilla.²LEIGH HUNT. whose is second person. flung its arms around my neck. Examples of whose. 2.²which for the nominative and objective.whose. JOHNSON... rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. Who referring to animals. (2) It has three case forms. Kingsley. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. who is first person. 96). Gibbon. Smollett. and 6. in the second.who.

(2) It has only one case form.²RUSKIN. 116. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. which is very notable and curious. secondly (which made her stare).² And. which is worse. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.114. Primarily. Kingsley. let us enter the church itself. 109. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. the antecedent follows which.²DE QUINCEY.²first. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. So in Matthew Arnold.²BEECHER. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds."²RUSKIN. and things. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. Burke. .²THACKERAY. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Which and its antecedents. too. 115. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. Sometimes. no possessive. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. animals.² MCMASTER.²SHAKESPEARE. The last two sentences in Sec. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. (3) It is the same form for first. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. thus.²SCOTT. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. In the sentences of Sec. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. second. Men may be ready to fight to the death. That. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. and to persecute without pity. and third persons. and numerous others. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.² I swept the horizon. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. This often occurs. This moribund '61.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain.

that do I not. 119. as in sentence 6. Nom. it usually follows. What. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. third person. what we said?²CARLYLE. who Poss. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. but what I hate. 109. Sec.² What I would. 118. which. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES.²BIBLE What fates impose. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. What a man does. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. is always neuter. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. For example. that he has. third person. plural number." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. plural number. The sentences of Sec. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. Who plainly stands for those or the people.²SHAKESPEARE." (3) "These people heard him. as. . and is emphatic. When expressed.²EMERSON. consequently is neuter. and person of the relatives who." That evidently refers to truths. that do I. we can. by taking them out. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. that men must needs abide. The gender." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. whose Obj. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. for example. 117. number. either of which would be neuter.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed.

Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. that takes the case of the truths in (2). nobler souls with that which they are. standing for the people understood." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. then parse the relatives. above. In the same way who. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking." Here the subject of is. so is in the objective case. after all. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. Truths in sentence (2). in (3). in the following sentences:² 1. The word what. it is object of uttered. 5. etc. 120. is subject of the verb can't be cured. 8. people is the object of the preposition of. in (1). because it has usually no antecedent. but is singular. however."²EMERSON. is in the nominative case. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. I think they are trying to outwit nature. . who is sure to be cunninger than they. Another way. 7. Now. but of this. 4. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Some prefer another method of treatment. is what we call nature. In the sentence. is subject of wrought upon and molded.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. The whole expression is its subject. Parsing what. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. subject of heard.. which is. What can't be cured. the simple relative. neuter. 6. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. In (2). third person. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. First find the antecedents. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. and hence is in the nominative case. The relative what is handled differently. What must be endured? Answer. 3. As shown by the following sentences. the highest result of all education. "What can't be cured must be endured. we is the subject. and what is the direct object of the verb call. it is subject of the verb heard. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Exercise.

summer will have its flies. Meaning and use. whatsoever. object of with] which [singular. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. It is clear that in 1. 121. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. 4. and in 2. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. less common are whoso. whatever is equivalent to all things which. whichsoever. which. or what else soever.²BURKE. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1.²BURKE. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. whosoever. Take which you please. by meaning and use. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. that is. They are whoever. Only itself can inspire whom it will. and parse that in the first clause. The simple relatives who. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 122. whatsoever. in a new and original way. Hence some take what as a double relative. whatever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil.²you cannot have both. no particular thing. being referred to. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. 2. Death is there associated. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. not as direct as the simple relatives." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. no certain antecedent. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. to everything that. or stand on their head. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 2. "common souls pay with that [singular. whichever. 3. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 5. 123. object of do] they do. and which in the second clause. List and examples. 7. It is no proof of a man's understanding. Do what we can. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1.²MACAULAY. 6. So with the other indefinites. . and his friend a fool. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are.

whereby. as was used just as we use that or which. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. etc. There is nothing but is related to us. thus. This. Proof that they have the force of relatives. has been my heaviest affliction. 417). 124. Instead of the phrases in which.. everything that (or everything which).² 1. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. Two words. but mean any one whom. In early modern English. and that as after such is equivalent to which. the conjunctions wherein.² some particular thing. . For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. not following the word such. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Former use of as. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.²HAWTHORNE. are used. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.²EMERSON. but which only wealth could have purchased. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which.As shown in Sec. 4. etc. 125. 2.. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. etc. 120. Other substitutes. 126. by which. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. but and as. But and as. either one that. 121. for example. Sec.²DE QUINCEY. what means anything that. whereupon. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. 121.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. nothing that does not interest us. for example. upon which.

so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. . it is an indefinite relative). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. 2 (b). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. and whether what = that + which (if so. a question is disguised in each sentence. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. In studying such sentences. though the earthwork hid them. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. showing that who is plainly interrogative.²EMERSON. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. 127. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. would be. Another caution. "Who stood behind? We knew. Special caution needed here. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does.. and 3 (b). if expanded." etc. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. Thus. But in 1 (b). what is interrogative. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. the full expression being. if not. 3. it is a simple relative." Likewise with which in 3 (b). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. which having the antecedent lines.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. it is an interrogative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. But compare the following in pairs:² 1.²WHITTIER. second. 2. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). no antecedent is expressed. if not.²ID. which would indicate that they are not relatives. In sentences 1 (a). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. who having the antecedent gentleman. How to decide. 1 (b). So in 2 (b).

²SWIFT. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.²FLETCHER. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. Put in the relatives who.²CARLYLE. whence is the interrogative word. Relative omitted when object. ELIOT. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. which has the antecedent hue. When Goldsmith died. 5. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. whose has the antecedent you. 129. Exercise. and asks no question.² These are the sounds we feed upon. The insect I am now describing lived three years. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. 3. the question is asked by the verb. . and Court Calendars.²GOLDSMITH. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. Thus. 2. which.²HOLMES. In the second. 4. In the third.²G. On the other hand. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists.128.² THACKERAY. In the first. I visited many other apartments. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question.²FORSTER 6. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. but the life of man in England. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. Examine the following:² 1.

the house was full. 5. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. who were to be rulers over whom.7.Ne'er looks upon the sun.²Id. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. and comparatively so in poetry. Relative omitted when subject.²CAMPBELL. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Also in literary English we find the same omission. There was such a crowd went. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.²SCOTT. and what. or indefinite relatives:² 1. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 3. . ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 130. The nobles looked at each other. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. Examples are. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. 2. that. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. which was already proceeding. 6.² LOWELL.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. simple relatives. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.²SHAKESPEARE. which. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. It is rare in prose. Function of adjective pronouns.

(2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Primarily they are adjectives. expressed or understood. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. few. not pronouns. in letters of gold. either. which we have seen in such expressions as. Adjectives.²BRYANT." Classes of adjective pronouns.²EMERSON. or may be the whole of a sentence. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. many. such as this. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood." "Where two men ride on a horse. neither. For instance. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. etc.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. that. or they may stand for nouns. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. or an argument in a paragraph. but have lost their adjective use.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. a word.²IRVING. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. Caution." in the others. etc. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. . Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. or use. such as each. any. in the first. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. must not modify any word. as some.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns.131. necessarily thought of: thus. 132. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns." in the second. all. in order to be an adjective pronoun. and on each is written. etc. For example. In the first use they are adjectives. "each cube. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. the former. but in this function. and another to get cool under. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples." that is. 'Truth. 133. none." "one man. "The dead are there. "these pranks. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. and stand for a noun. "another bank.

² They stood. They have not shunned the one. for example. 3. . They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. A man inspires affection and honor. Exercises.²EMERSON 4. Even as I have seen. They had fewer books. as seemed good to each. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. or reclined.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. and they have well performed the other. accidentally preserved.²ID. Some of these are simple pronouns. because he was not lying in wait for these. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Such are a few isolated instances. reap the same. but these were of the best.²ID. 5. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface.All these he saw. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. NOTE. 2. Their minds accorded into one strain. Simple. they that plow iniquity. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. when the latter was the King of Spain. Compound. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. or sat.²LOWELL. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. and sow wickedness. Definition and examples. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. 134.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books.

into a high pavilion of their thoughts. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The word one has a reflexive form. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.²EMERSON. for example. as it were.²HAWTHORNE.²HOLMES. such as one other. imbued. as most were. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. 135. Much might be said on both sides.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. Definition and examples. Exercise. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. one another. ²HAWTHORNE. Another opposes him with sound argument. as some of the rangers had gone astray. . Men take each other's measure when they react. we might the more easily discharge them. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. Some inflected. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. as. The Soldan.² One reflexive.²KINGSLEY. They led one another. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. another.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. you quickly come to the end of all. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.²each other.Two are compound pronouns. None shall rule but the humble. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. or melt for others' woe. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. paused over a horoscope. with the superstitions of his time.

any one (or anyone). anything.Exercise. something. somebody else. as shown in the words everybody's. Definition and examples. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. everybody. Exercise. Somebody. 137.²SHAKESPEARE. nobody. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Jove laughs. every one (or everyone). naught. I tell you what. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. every one else. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. .²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns." It means something. etc. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. nothing. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. they say. and they. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. everybody else..²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Every one else stood still at his post. anyone else. unlike adjective pronouns. as. and somewhat.² At lovers' perjuries. what. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. everything. but. anybody else's. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. and was indefinite in Old English. 136. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. some one. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. They indefinite means people in general. they are never used as adjectives. in building of chaises. Now. anybody. also aught. no one. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. etc. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues.

HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. to which. indeed. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. All was now ready for action. O thou that rollest above.²a feature of natural scenery for which. The table was good. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 4. 11. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. Exercise. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). For this did God send her a great reward. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 3. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 138. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. and of no other. 17. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. Others did the same thing. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 13. in his negotiations.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 18. 12. were suffered to depart. 7. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. I first found myself among the mountains. 8. 2. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 9. 5. Hutchinson tells us of herself. from my earliest days. 6. 14. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 10. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. A reminder. Whoever deals with M. . 16.

who slept last night like a corpse? 22. And I had done a hellish thing. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 26. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 25. that let him communicate. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. who take the world easy. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. And will your mother pity me. 31. 23. 34. hear! 33. 30. eat white bread or brown. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 32. A smile of hers was like an act of grace.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld.And it would work 'em woe. 29. thou rollest now.Who knew thee too well. 27. They know not I knew thee. 21. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. oh.19. behold now the semblance of my being. variety. He sate him down.Destroyer and preserver. hear. well-oiled dispositions.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. I who alone am. in all its height. 35. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. and seized a pen. Whatever he knows and thinks. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble.

and if we are near." "yonder hill." "that house. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 43." etc. or gaseous. white or red. in pointing out an object. As to the kind of words used.. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. We are by nature observers. It may have this office alone." "a hundred men. "one hat. Who hears me. that is our permanent state. 40. who understands me. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. Again. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. if we are at a distance. size. adjectives are used. 45. becomes mine. the number is limited by adjectives. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. So with any object. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. We need to add some words to tell its color. He knew not what to do. If a chemist discovers a new substance. etc. 42. or liquid." The office of an adjective. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. ADJECTIVES. or with persons. Substantives. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. as. such as in the expressions "this man. brittle or tough. 44. For example. 39. . and he learns who receives. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. Office of Adjectives. 41. which was no bad step towards my liberation. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 38. heavy or light. etc. so that no other will be mistaken for it. position.36. 139. He teaches who gives. then." "some cities. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. and so he read. 37.

" they constitute all his connections. such as safe. If he be thankful for small benefits.140. remotest. beautiful." "half-dead traveler. it shows that he weighs men's minds. divine. 143. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. derived from proper nouns." "ice-cold water." "the Roman writer Palladius. words primarily pronouns. or how much of a thing." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. To make this clear. terrible. With exception of the "and then. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "next-door neighbor. deep. Examples are." "this life-giving book.² BACON." "the Christian pearl of charity. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "unlooked-for burden." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. Nouns are not. happy.²POPE. to forgive. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. They include relative and interrogative words. however. pointing out particular things. to describe it or to limit its application. Infinitives." the "and there. and their trash. rash.²COLERIDGE. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. such as. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. "an old English manuscript. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. Classes of adjectives. (4) Pronominal adjectives. used to tell how many things are spoken of. 142." "ivory-handled pistols. fair. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." and the still less significant "and so. Definition. "Heaven-derived power. 141." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. etc." . To err is human.

'Tis midnight.²MACDONALD.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." "an aged man. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. sometimes small. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. much. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and another is drunken. considerable. any. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." "trailing clouds." "The shattered squares have opened into line. which are either pure participles used to describe. 143. but small thoughts have I of sleep. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb.²COLERIDGE.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. Care is needed. some. 144. Oxenham." was accomplished is a verb." was is the verb." "It came on like the rolling simoom. and accomplished is an adjective. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. 1. For instance: in the sentence." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. 2. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "a charming sight. Exercises. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. in studying these last-named words.But ever she looked on Mr. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. in this. having some of each subclass named in Sec. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. no." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." Caution." "One is hungry. 145. Examples are.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. . and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.

The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.²KINGSLEY.²VAUGHAN. The demonstrative adjectives are this.² Every town had its fair. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. every village. any. the former²the latter. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. latter.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. Examples." "I have lost one brother. yonder (or yon). "one blaze of musketry.²CARLYLE.²THACKERAY. and with them a few negroes. When some. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. The list.²ID. An arrow was quivering in each body. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. those). Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound." "He had lived by hunting for some months. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. Not primarily pronouns." Single ones of any number of changes. instead of modifying them. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." "In came some five and twenty more. no. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. they come under the next division of adjectives. as." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Exercise. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. The following sentences present some examples:² ." "Then we wandered for many days. 146." "a dozen volunteers. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted." (b) Indefinite numerals. (plural these. former. that. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. are used with plural nouns." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. but I have gained fourscore. How many. Thus. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. its wake. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.

Exercise.²GOLDSMITH. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives.²BANCROFT. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. 149. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²KINGSLEY.²BULWER. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Oxenham fought desperately. but in the one case.²ID. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here."²B. Indefinite relative adjectives. for example. 148. 147. ²CARLYLE. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²ID. but. These were thy charms.. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. they are changed to adjectives. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.² It matters not what rank he has.²D. of equal skill. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. what revenues or garnitures.but all these charms are fled. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. These do not. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²WORDSWORTH.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. In which evil strait Mr. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. They are of two kinds. When we speak of the seventeenth century. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. . The silver and laughing Xenil. WEBSTER. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. As has been said. like the other numerals. skill which was progressive²in the other. The taking of which bark.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²RUSKIN. FRANKLIN. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. skill which was at pause. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.. Definition. tell how many things are meant. I verily believe. Modify names of persons or things.

and points to yonder glade?² POPE.² EMERSON. proved not altogether displeasing to him.. as it rather seemed.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Was there. . In direct questions. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. nature will be sure to bear us out in.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). you at least give him full authority over your son. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. whichsoever way I move. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. Examples of their use are. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. In indirect questions. Adjective what in exclamations.²CARLYLE.²ID. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. He was turned before long into all the universe.²IRVING. what inquires about things or persons not known. 151. whichever. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. which. it is impossible to determine. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. which is selective among what is known. A lady once remarked. and new tormentedAround me.²LAMB. But when the Trojan war comes. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. and gaze.²AGASSIZ. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. or whether any. New torments I behold. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. whatsoever. Whatsoever kind of man he is. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. whatever.150.And whichsoever way I turn. the debt to the rich. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whichsoever. As in the pronouns.

it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. 154. color. of the quality. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. Meaning of comparison. COMPARISON.²number and comparison. th s (modern those). That. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. those). Exercise.²but not the same degree. etc. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. gold is heavier than iron. Thus.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. The article that was used with neuter nouns.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. But this had also another plural. the making of it right. alas. This is the old demonstrative. and when we compare the objects. 153 .. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. NUMBER.²This. Those borrowed from this. . All these have certain qualities. History of this²these and that²those. 155. we notice some differences between them as to size. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article.Adjectives have two inflections. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. weight. or size. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. In exclamatory expressions. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. etc.152. It is neither relative nor interrogative. we do so by means of their qualities. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. and those as the plural of that. When we place two objects side by side. which was fully inflected in Old English. And yet. as. or weight.² Oh. or amount.

158. expressing a greater degree of quality.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality." Words that cannot be compared. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. "more matter. The two forms. and many others." "no fewer than a hundred. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. sufficient. These are properly the only degrees. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree." "It is a nobler valor. they are not compared. but were not common until a century later. to the simple form." "the commonest speech. and the superlative by adding -est. 159. enormous. strictly considered. Definition. . 160. red. or amounts in quantity. whose favorite pupil he was. Substitute for inflection in comparison." "the largest soul. easiest. 156. giant-like. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. expressing the greatest degree of quality. bluer. They came into use about the thirteenth century. whether they attend their own affair or not. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. reddest. Freedom is a perpetual. These are called degrees of comparison. with less wit. for example. indomitable. immemorial. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. as.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. The comparative is formed by adding -er. bluest. organic.²SEWARD.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. easy. and the superlative. though the simple. A main difference betwixt men is. supreme. universal institution.²THACKERAY. as. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. indefatigable. blue. So with the words sole. "untamed thought. easier. 157. infinite. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. great. redder. but.

strange. harsh forms are usually avoided. 163. and patientest fusing. who. 162. most small. polished.² CARLYLE A gentleman. I will. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. which hung behind in the queerest way." "distantest relationships. quiet. The general rule is. admirablest. honestest. finest chiseling.Which rule." "more odd. as. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. The following lists include the majority of them:² . examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. peaceablest. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries." "sorrowfulest spectacles. mournfulest." said Henry Esmond. was most finished. Adjectives irregularly compared." Carlyle uses beautifulest. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. These are adjectives irregularly compared." "the wonderfulest little shoes. These long." "more austere and holy. there needed to be a most genuine substance.²The Nation.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. madam. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most.²ID. indisputablest. falling on his knees. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. though born in no very high degree. and yet familiar.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. and other words are preceded by more and most. easy. "So help me God. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. witty.²ID. etc. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.

² O. latter Hinder LIST II. 9. last Hindmost. though from a different root. older Nigher Nearer Later.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. uttermost Upmost. 4. A double comparative. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 3.² We have it in a much lesser degree. which has gone out of use. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. evil was the positive to worse. (2) In Old English. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 7. furthest 10. Worser was once used. utter 3. a double comparative. 164. next Nearest Latest. bad. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. as. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. lesser Elder. [Out] Outer. which has softened to the modern best. outermost Utmost. . worst. is often used. Hind 2. 1. further Farthest. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. List I. innermost Outmost. as in Shakespeare. 6. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost).²HAMLET. 8. (3) Little is used as positive to less. Good or well Evil.LIST I. oldest Nighest. There was an old comparative bet. [In] Inner Inmost. These have no adjective positive:² 1. The superlative I form was betst. lesser. uppermost LIST III. least. as in the sentence (14th century). 5. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. throw away the worser part of it. 2. hindermost Much or many More Farther.

first. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. latest. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. ²LAMB. moche. The meanings greater. Since later. etc. instead of lenger. further. are earlier than older. farrest. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. (5) The forms elder.²ID. eldest. furthest. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further." Its spelling has been micel. but not in meaning. greatest. to which is added -ost..Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. except the form next. th came into the others.² The more part being of one mind. as. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. The most part kept a stolid indifference. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. a distinction has grown up between the two series. but in former times much was used in the sense of large.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. and refer to time. Between the two sets as they now stand.²KINGSLEY. "Many a little makes a mickle. there is scarcely any distinction. List II. First became entirely detached from the series. as long. came into use.. or series. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. farthest. making the modern farther. strong. for example. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. . since the m is for -ma. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force.²HAWTHORNE. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. the old forms. muchel. strenger. meaning the largest part. is quite common. etc. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. and the superlative nearest. great. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.²forth. In imitation of further. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. oldest. near. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. an old superlative ending. are shown in such phrases as. to England we sailed. but originally the comparison was nigh. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. doubling the inflection. The latter. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. much. next.

168." "The outer is of the day. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "their utmost exertion. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. Think what each adjective belongs to. the upper light of the world. all may belong to the same noun." "far-seeing as the sun. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region.²HAWTHORNE. 167. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. . 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. BEECHER. but her after deck was still dry. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. The comparatives are so in form. on the very topmost twig. Her bows were deep in the water. by the by. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²H. 166. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Decidedly handsome.²DE QUINCEY. being merely descriptive. Highest and midmost.165. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²SCOTT.²KINGSLEY." -Most added to other words. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. but they have no adjective positives. They have no superlatives. in having no adjective positives. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. are like the comparative forms in List II. Her. W. List III. (Sec.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. and have no comparative force. There. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. but not in their meaning. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. The adjectives in List III. or have no comparative forms. In List II." "the innermost moral soul. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.

philosophical. 169. our new government. instead of saying. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. H. we may say "the then king. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. and thine often infirmities. not decision alone. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. "the one who was then king.²A. deeply black eyes. 6. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. and moral truth." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. 4.²RUSKIN. Richard Hooker." making then an adjective. therefore. satisfactory. It may still be argued.²TRENCH. 2. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. and heaven-defying oaths.²HAWTHORNE. Our sometime sister. solid. round. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. . STOWE. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. in this sentence. 3. as. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. the then and still owners. May we not. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. 7.² My then favorite. deep. This.²HOLMES. By a convenient brevity. now our queen. For thy stomach's sake.For example. Other instances are. But in this sentence. Exercise. rich. and broken.²MRS. In the following quotations. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. The seldom use of it. ²TROLLOPE. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank." in which then is an adverb. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank.²NOAH PORTER. STEPHENS 5. usual modifies incomparable decision. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. Bradbury and Evans. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. bright.²BIBLE. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. in prose." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.²HAWTHORNE. A few improper jests and a volley of good.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs.

having a singular. 5. positive degree. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. She made no reply. These points out what truths. this. seventy-five drachmas. . I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 2.What to tell in parsing. 3. cannot be compared. (4) What word or words it modifies. 9. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 7. 8. Exercise. In parsing an adjective. (2) Its number. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. if it can be compared. I ask nothing of you. not inflected for number. modifies the word truths. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. the method of parsing is simple. across the plain. person. 4. therefore demonstrative. and very few have number. or case. To every several man. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. 6. 170. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. Since adjectives have no gender. if it has number. compared by prefixing more and most. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. (3) Its degree of comparison. This gave the young people entire freedom. Unfamiliar describes truths. then. with awkward but rapid pace. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. plural number. MODEL FOR PARSING. To every Roman citizen he gives. modifies truths. frank. manly way. therefore descriptive. and most astounding were those frightful yells. and I waited for none. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. 10.

27. 24. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. and dogs. suggests such thoughts as these. are immutably fishes. those dogs in the yard. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Like most gifted men. 16.11. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 21. 18. To say what good of fashion we can. 26. 19. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 25. 31. In music especially. 28. 14. growing in the most unfavorable position. With every third step. 22. I know not what course others may take. 23. he won affections with ease. not so much for travelers that were few. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. as for armies that were too many by half. Nearer to our own times. oxen. 32. the tomahawk fell. 29. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 13. it rests on reality. 20. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. the same love to France would have been nurtured. Here lay two great roads. is the settlement of our own country. during which time I waited. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. yonder oxen in the pasture. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. Two hours elapsed. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 33. and therefore more interesting to us. it is so noble a fruit. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. . 12. and many poles supported the lower ones. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. yet are remarkably self-forgetful.

" An with consonant sounds. An historian. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. that) which was also an article in Old English. weary-hearted man was he." "an honor. Many writers use an before h. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. with an ordinary little garden. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Examples: "a house. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. An before vowel sounds. Two relics. s o. a before consonant sounds. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. even when not silent. In Middle English the became an article. such as we have been attempting to describe. the other. 171. In the sentence. 37. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." the words the and an belong to nouns. sometimes the tother. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. but the former is used. the latter is still preserved in the expression. 173. meaning one. . for example. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. ARTICLES. 172." "a European. th o.²BREWER. and a before consonant sounds. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . A hard-struggling. or the tane. the tother. An or a came from the old numeral n. 35." "a yelling crowd. these occurring as the tane.²SCOTT. in vulgar English.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. the tother. Their origin. that other. just as adjectives do. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. the tither." "an orange. Our expressions the one. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. ðat.34. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. 174. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.²MACAULAY. he is no literary man. were formerly that one. later th .

175. Kinds. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. Definition. and when the word river is omitted. and not a state or other geographical division. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. thus. the older n. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. An and a are different forms of the same word.²HEROES OF ASGARD. 176. Reference to a known object.²G. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. a person is introduced by a.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. An or a is the indefinite article. To call attention to attributes. not descriptive. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. BANCROFT. doubtless. The Dakota tribes. 177. The is the definite article. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.. An article is a limiting word. or class. or group. An hereditary tenure of these offices. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. since it points out a particular individual. With names of rivers..² Don't you remember how. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. as in the sentence.²This use is noticed when.²IRVING.. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. on opening a story. 178.²COLERIDGE.²THACKERAY. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. NOTE. Articles are either definite or indefinite." the article indicates clearly that a river. 179. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. which cannot be used alone." "the Ohio. When the is prefixed to a proper name. or any individual of a group or class.² . or a group or class of things. is referred to. as "the Mississippi. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.

²KINGSLEY. If the good is there. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²GIBBON. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. not into a particular virtue. the song sparrow. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.The Bacon. Caution. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. BANCROFT. . But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. as. 181. NOTE.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. etc. One thing for its class. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. With plural of abstract nouns.² The faint.² As she hesitated to pass on. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²SCOTT. her. Schelling. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. the Spinoza. but into the region of all the virtues.²EMERSON.²ID. Half abstract. The simple rise as by specific levity. 180. for example. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 183. The. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. the Hume. 182. or a match put between the fingers. With adjectives used as nouns. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.²MOTLEY. laid it on the miry spot. would speedily extract the required information.²EMERSON.²G. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. Common. so is the evil. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. 2.²ID. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. His messages to the provincial authorities. For possessive person pronouns. the gallant. and the redwing. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. 1. Kant.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. a preposition. to go is no predicate. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. and not a verb. (can) shame also has an object. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. in (b). 200: In (1). 203. a noun. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. 202. a). obeyed is a predicate. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. hence is not a verb. or the object.In (a). in (c). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. In the first. care. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. which may be a person. but fearing is not a predicate. b)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. b). which means to go over. 204. The nature of intransitive verbs. etc. might have been anticipated is also one predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. "Put thou money in thy purse. as. from the Latin transire. A verb is a word used as a predicate. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. to say something to or about some person or thing. By examining a few verbs. in (3. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. a verb." Examine the sentences in Sec. The nature of the transitive verb. for example. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. and to receive the action expressed. In the sentence.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. we consider a verb as one word. Definition and caution. All these are called transitive verbs. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. in (3. taking the staff which always guided her steps. all do not express it in the same way. Hence Definition. endured what? anguish.²BULWER . In giving a definition. with some word understood. "Put money in thy purse." put is the predicate. in (2. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. 201. an adverb. Each influences some object. or an idea. the most astute. can deceive has an object. In each case. Of those expressing action. an article. in (2. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. and. but cannot be predicates. and shame the most astute. Now. Has takes the object hypocrisy. the most penetrating. lone took what? answer. in this sentence from Bulwer. c). and a preposition unite as a verb. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. or a material thing. the word following. representing something which it influences or controls.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. If this be the glory of Julius. 215. the first great founder of the Empire. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. Most excellent stranger. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. Condition or Supposition. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. 222.² If. 221. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.²BRYCE.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].I could lie down like a tired child. the writer can make the statement following. but. Again.²MACAULAY.²D. ²EMERSON. the second founder. for example. 2). . WEBSTER.²SHELLEY. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. they were recorded in the Book of Life. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. Ideal. in our case. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec.²FRANKLIN. I. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.²may or may not be true. as.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. or be fulfilled. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. popular government must be pronounced impossible. he will see the need of these ethics. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.²LONGFELLOW.² Now. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. as. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. and may or may not be regarded true. the representative system ultimately fail. Unreal²cannot be true.

7. 223. is used to express purpose. In the following conditional clauses. 8. melodious.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. II. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. clear. WILLIS.²EMERSON. Subjunctive of Purpose. and sonorous. NOTE. would have sat still with joy and peace. The subjunctive. 6. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. and striven energetically to save Ney. I told him. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. but when the verb precedes the subject. is of similar physiognomy. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. to drink strong beer. since he [Byron] was dead.. would you. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. if his lot had been mine. if he was the man I take him for.. The voice. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. thus. society could not hold together. as." etc. etc. . which cannot be true. 5. though. if he speak to you.² CARLYLE. do you think. P. he supposed.²SWIFT. 2. especially be..² If these things were true..²FRANKLIN.²N. If he had reason to dislike him. except.²BAYNE. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. ²LOWELL. Epaminondas.² It was necessary. that he might be strong to labor. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. Exercise. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. unless. that we cannot but regret its absence. may. 3.²CALHOUN. 4. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. she was regarded as a prodigy. he had better not have written. But in no case could it be justified. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created.²MACAULAY. might. the clause being introduced by that or lest. and should.²FRANKLIN. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. and what kind of condition:² 1.

The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. IV. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. Rise up. After a verb of wishing.That vain it were her eyes to close.²ID. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. WEBSTER.²CARLYLE. To tell of what had passed. like the Latin.²DE QUINCEY.. V.²COLERIDGE.And we. Expressing a Wish.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. 227.²BRYANT. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²SOUTHEY.. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. In Temporal Clauses. like the quarry-slave at night. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²D. 224. within its fairy bowers. I've wished that little isle had wings. In Indirect Questions. till it meet the sun in his coming. Let it rise. The English subjunctive.Thou go not.Were wafted off to seas unknown. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.²WORDSWORTH.²MOORE. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. none of us could say. I would it were! ²EMERSON. 226. VI. the answer being regarded as doubtful. III. In a Noun Clause.. So live. . VII.. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. 225. Subjunctive of Result.I have been the more particular. Ask the great man if there be none greater.

Object. object.²SHELLEY.² DICKENS. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. that everything be in its place. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.Subject. After verbs of commanding. which may be (a) Pronoun. Whatever betide.. etc. VIII. Concessive Clauses. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. The first merit. I have no thought what men they be.²COLERIDGE.²THOREAU. 228. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²SCOTT. in its various uses as subject.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. we'll turn aside. in apposition. That hunger of applause. often contains a subjunctive. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²COLERIDGE. .²DE QUINCEY.²WORDSWORTH. See that there be no traitors in your camp. The essence of originality is not that it be new. Come. Some might lament that I were cold. is the ultimate fact of man's life. or whatsoever victual it may be.²CARLYLE. The noun clause. Complement. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. (b) Adjective.And see the Braes of Yarrow. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.And look thou tell me true. of cash. tell me all that thou hast seen.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. for example.² Be the matter how it may. is. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²TENNYSON. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. 229.

Usually second person. fear none.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. for example. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. entreaties. we had found [should have found] a poem here. point to their immortal works. Oh.²BRYANT. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. and condition contrary to fact. At the present day. however. In spoken English. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative.The spirit he loves remains. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Q. ADAMS. (1) Command.²J.²CHANNING. to express a wish. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Honor all men. a concession.(c) Adverb.² CARLYLE. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. since commands are directed to a person addressed. (3) Request. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. Definition. 231. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. (2) Entreaty. 230. though. . Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. or requests.²SHELLEY. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. It must be remembered. IMPERATIVE MOOD. love all men. 232.

etc. 7. or I + they. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Part we in friendship from your land.And God forget the stranger!" . This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Quoth she. "Come along with me. lest we rust in ease. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 3."Hush! mother. receive my hand. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. but I + you. to you implied in it.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. 6. Mark thou this difference. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Whatever inconvenience ensue. noble earl. Break we our watch up." whispered Kit. 2.²CAMPBELL. Oh. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.And. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. nothing is to be preferred before justice. etc. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. there will her heart and her prayers be.²SCOTT." Exercises on the Moods.One glance at their array! 5.. "The Devil take the goose. Sometimes with first person in the plural."²DICKENS Tell me. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. child of earth!While each performs his part. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.. request.²SHAKESPEARE. 8.

then. Marshall. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. Think not that I speak for your sakes. my dear madam. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. He is.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. will it not fall unbound. as though an instrument. 11.Except. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. she ought to have it. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls." continued Old Morgan. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause.9. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 20. Though abyss open under abyss. no literary man. That a man parade his doubt. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. Well. 26. how he may do his work. but repentant child. it would speak. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. ruined. 13. 19. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. "Oh. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Forget thyself to marble.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. and opinion displace opinion. 18." 16. He. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.High up in silver spikes! 22. whether he do it right or wrong. That sheaf of darts." cried he. let him live where else he like. "Mr. or do it at all. "tell me where I may find my poor. 14. . 21." 25. 23.That they might answer him. Though he were dumb. 10. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.

27. as the classical languages have. called auxiliaries. such as be. as. and the future tense." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. TENSE. PERSON AND NUMBER. Tense means time. which represented present and future time. "It is not in man that walketh. five in the subjunctive. as. Definition. Siddons.² present. a form ending in -eth. "Thou walkedst. and future perfect tenses." past. kind. by means of the present. Old English had only two tenses. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. to direct his steps. in the third person singular. When the older pronoun thou was in use. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person.²nothing could exceed the amiable.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. "I go away tomorrow. or whether it were as one member of a general party. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. past perfect. shall. past. tell him to wait. 235. "Thou walkest." present. the past." "If he comes. Meantime. 234. whatever she did." . and the past tense. 28. will. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. such as Latin and Greek. in the conjugations.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. or agree with it. have. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. five in the imperative. 233. also. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no.²the present tense. The tenses in detail. Tenses in English. and future. past. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. or future time. as will be shown later on.

Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms." and this only in the present tense indicative. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. In classical languages. I be 2. tenses. been. Singular 1. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. etc. chooseth. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE.²am. "He walks. were. You are 2. Definition. Singular 1. Indicative Mood. etc. as. I were 2. is. Few forms. mood. CONJUGATION. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. moods. are. walking. PRESENT TENSE.²choose. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. persons. choosest. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walked. [He] were [They] were . tense. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. 236. chose. [He] is [They] are 3. walketh. You (thou) be 3. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. This is the third person. The verb be has more forms. Singular 1. PRESENT TENSE. 238. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. but in English. since it is composed of several different roots. walks. chosest). walkedst. chosen (old. for example. Singular 1. Such verbs as choose have five. singular number. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. walk has walk. 237. chooses. and numbers. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. choosing. wert) 3.

in four ways. 239.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. thus. 240. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. to express intention. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. for example. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. (2) was. as.Imperative Mood. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.. (d) With the infinitive. Instead of the plural are. obligation. is.²THACKERAY. etc. The light that never was on sea and land. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. -en. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.²BURKE . same as the German sind. (b) With the past participle in -ed. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²GOLDSMITH. (3) be. which was now become an occasional banquet.²WORDSWORTH..²SCOTT.²ID.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.His infancy was nurtured. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. to form the passive voice. were. though it is usually a dialect form.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²SHELLEY. condition. Remarks on the verb be.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. etc. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.

as. 1. 242. 1. We chose You chose 3. "I had gone" (past perfect). FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 240. Indicative Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You chose Plural. We chose You chose 3. You choose Plural. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. Singular. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. You chose Plural. "I have gone" (present perfect). [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. etc. I chose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. 1. In addition to the above inflected forms. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. . Singular. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. Machinery of a verb in the voices. tenses. Singular.241. "I shall be. I chose 2. past perfect. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. future perfect. Singular." "He will choose. as. (2). [He] choose [They] choose 3. by placing have. PRESENT TENSE. You choose Plural. I choose 2. PRESENT TENSE. had. tenses. [He] chooses [They] choose 3." (2) Present perfect. I choose 2. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. 1. "I shall have gone" (future perfect).

Past definite. [If. Same as indicative. He has been choosing. Past perfect. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Past perfect definite. Future definite. Present perfect definite. He was choosing. Only the third person. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Past. Present perfect. (2d per. will be given. "I was chosen. Future. " Be choosing. Past perfect. He will have chosen. Present definite.) Choose. Future perfect. Subjunctive Mood.] he choose." "They had been running. He has chosen. Indicative Mood. of each tense. as. Present perfect definite." 243. Past. Present perfect. He had chosen. He chooses. He will have been choosing. He will choose. ACTIVE VOICE. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Imperative Mood. lest." "You are chosen. Present. "I am running. Future perfect definite. He had been choosing. Present definite. as. Present definite. Same as indicative. Past definite. though. Present. he have been choosing. He is choosing. he have chosen." (4) The passive forms. singular number. He chose.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present. He will he choosing. Past perfect definite. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). . he chose (or were to choose). etc.

he have been chosen. if learned at all. Past perfect. however. Past perfect definite. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Imperative Mood. in affirmative sentences. Present definite. " " " " " " " None. they will be discussed later (Sec. He is being chosen. None." "He did strike. Also. . Present definite. Present tense. He will have been chosen.²This table is not to be learned now.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs." [Note to Teacher.NOTE.] [If. He was chosen. Exercises should be given. as. Past. lest.] he be chosen. None. Indicative Mood. Future perfect.. He will be chosen. "He does strike. He was being chosen. Present perfect definite. 262). None. None. (2d per. Future. but verbals. Present. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Present perfect definite. Past Perfect. Future perfect definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He has been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Present perfect. Future definite. Past perfect definite. Present. He had been chosen. Past definite. though. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect.) Be chosen. Past definite. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). None. Past. He is chosen. None. he had been chosen. etc. he were being chosen.

begged. Some of these also have weak forms. beg. which are in parentheses Present Tense. drove. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. slept. According to form.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form.[adj. Past Tense. run. catch. Kinds. 245. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. bid bound. NOTE. bit blown broken chidden. but adds no ending. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . and may or may not change the vowel: as. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. 244. verbs are strong or weak. sleep. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. Definition. bounden] bitten. ran. laid. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. as. drive. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. lay. caught.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten.

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound .

instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. as. cleaved. instead of ate and eaten." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. especially in that of an earlier period. TAYLOR.²MILTON. but is much used in vulgar English. 246.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. ²THACKERAY.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). as. and another (born) for the passive. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings." "the cloven hoof. cleft (to split)." "a drunken wretch.²COLERIDGE. the other.²GOLDSMITH. "his bounden duty. as (from Holmes). cleft. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. Sometimes in literary English. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.² We had each drank three times at the well. But drunk is very much used as an adjective."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove." In this confusion of usage. and the latter. .²one meaning to adhere or cling. cleaved. probably to avoid confusion with this. to split. borne is also a passive. "stricken with paralysis. cloven. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.²as (from Shakespeare). only one set remains certain. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." "a sunken snag. Our cock.²B. The former used to be cleave. When it means to carry or to endure. Not a cock crew. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. clave or clove. for example. The form clomb is not used in prose.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. and sometimes occurs in poetry. and. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.² Thou hast clomb aloft. now told us it was time for repose. as." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. which always crew at eleven.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. cleave.²cleave.²IRVING. nor a dog barked. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. Historically.²TENNYSON. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.

thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. as "a shorn lamb. 6. 10. even in poetry.The form gotten is little used. broke.²SCOTT. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. We usually say. found. 245). Fall. 2. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. 5. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. thrown. driven.²BIBLE. 8. gave. Drive. flung. shaken. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. given. for example. and seized a pen. drove. Find.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. Throw.²BYRON. froze. which is seldom used except in poetry."²KINGSLEY. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. begun. for example. 9. Fling. 4. flung. began. This heard Geraint. found. One example out of many is. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. 3. Usually shear is a weak verb. Begin. . 7. He sate him down." but not much as a participle.²TENNYSON. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Freeze.²DE FOE. The butler was hanged. Shake. fell. fallen. and grasping at his sword. shook.² We had all got safe on shore. shore is rare. broken. Break. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. threw. as. Give.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.²WORDSWORTH. (a) From the table (Sec. Exercises. frozen. maiden. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting.² If.

it is used only in the indicative mood.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE."²WINIER. as. They are as follows:² PRESENT.. HAMILTON. must have been an ocular deception. The l in could did not belong there originally. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. His superiority none might question. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. 249." Must is present or past tense. 251. 223. Indicative Use: Permission. or when it expresses wish. ability.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. or. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. of course. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged...²CHANNING. which survives in the sentence. but came through analogy with should and would. PRESENT.²CHANNING This. PAST. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. PAST. "So mote it be. Like must. for full drill on the forms. Subjunctive use.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. Have we valuable territories and important posts. Can is used in the indicative only.²SCOTT. 220. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. 247. 250. there is one general principle.²PAINE.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. from the obsolete verb motan. . as it has two meanings. as in Sec. as it sometimes does. (See also Sec. Ability. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive.. It is indicative when it expresses permission.. The same remarks apply to ought. etc. etc. Must is historically a past-tense form. "far off his coming shines. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248.[To the Teacher. according to the infinitive used. Could may be subjunctive.²HAWTHORNE. purpose.

(a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. or confident prediction. She should not walk.²IRVING. my lad. shall and should are used. shall and should are used.²MACAULAY. . in the form of command. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. as. The following are examples:² Never mind. "I think I will go. not plod along like apeasant. to use will and would. future action). She rejects his suit with scorn.²THAXTER. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.Nay. for example. to the neglect of shall and should. as. and corn to hoe.²LONGFELLOW. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. They shall have venison to eat. WEBSTER. promise. 252. while ought always has to. C. she should ride like a queen. yea. I shall be gone. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. The sea shall crush thee. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. BROCKDEN BROWN. what shall I say?²N. (b) In questions asking for orders. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. Shall and Will.. as. MOULTON.²BULWER.² With respect to novels.² The time will come full soon.² (a) To express authority. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.² Futurity and questions²first person. (b) In indirect quotations.²COOPER. he said.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you." Uses of shall and should.²L. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. Second and third persons.e.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. with pronouns of the first person. especially in the United States. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i.

. time. Disguising a command.²WINTER.²C. (c) With direct questions of the second person. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. as. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²H. And promised.. purpose. and is equivalent to ought. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. with the conviction that he should win in the end. First. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²SWIFT. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. JR.²CABLE.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²WORDSWORTH.²WORDSWORTH. . will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²SCOTT. was to be expected. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. second and third persons. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.² I will go myself now. B.that I would do him justice. 253. JAMES.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.²A. for example. and will not return until all is finished. thus. or a promise.²BYRON. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. BROWN. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. etc. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. as the sole inventor. LARNED.²WORDSWORTH.²ROGERS. for example. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. I never was what I should be..

action merely expected to occur.²SCOTT. SECOND.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. for example. so you will. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. BROWN.²SCOTT. for punishment or intimidation. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. as if it were merely expected action..²War Records.² DICKENS. In this stately chair would he sit. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. when thou wast born..² Subject I omitted: often so.²BANCROFT. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).² Thou wilt take the skiff. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. To be sure..²IRVING. .² All this will sound wild and chimerical. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. Roland. PASSIVE VOICE. through storms their brothers are afraid of. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. and mark on the grounds the works. This puts the order more mildly.²the original meaning of the word will.. The gift of Beauty. as. Mere futurity. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²LANDOR. Thine was a dangerous gift. will is used to express command. will and would are used to express simple futurity. for example. AND THIRD PERSONS.. 254.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. (4) With FIRST. When I am in town. They will go to Sunday schools. Would thou hadst it not. would is used to express a wish. etc.²BURKE. B. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. will and would often denote an action as customary. and two of my people. as. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. without regard to future time. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.

You will be chosen. Plural. 5. . I will choose. 3. [They] shall choose. Plural. 2. You shall be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. I shall be chosen. etc. Singular. 2. To express determination. Plural." answered Herbert stubbornly. 1. We shall choose. promise. You shall choose. Singular. 3. 2. You shall choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. "I shall not run. [He] will be chosen. 3. He informed us. (a) From Secs. I will be chosen. and justify the use of shall and will. [He] will choose. 2. I shall choose. You will choose. 3. You will choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 2. 3. [They] will choose. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. yet only seem.:² ACTIVE VOICE. Thou art what I would be. [They] shall be chosen. We will choose. 2. 1. Singular. 1. 1. and that of the newest cut.Singular. 3. 1. Exercises on Shall and Will. PASSIVE VOICE. You will be chosen. 6. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 252 and 253. We will be chosen. 4. Thou shalt have a suit. (b) Examine the following sentences. [He] shall choose. We shall be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. Plural. You shall be chosen. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. [They] will be chosen.

and wondering whether she should see anything alive.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. bereaved besought . that sche fedde With rosted flessh. put. set. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. Past Tense. as. put. But the rest.²CHAUCER. The beast made a sluggish movement." the stranger said. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²ID. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class I. Lucy stood still. need some attention and explanation. WEAK VERBS. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. This ending has now dropped off. stirred her slightly with his muzzle.7. and I have nothing to say. Of smale houndes hadde she." 14. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. bereave besought Past Participle. set. bereave beseech bereft. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 9. 10. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. as if he would have more of the enchantment. 255. and have no change of vowel. bereft. No. or mylk and wastel breed. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Without having attended to this. 12. very anxious. my son. Present Tense. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. was -de or -te. put. 257. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 11. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 256. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. 13.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. "I am a wayfarer. then.

hid kept knelt laid leaned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. leant leaped. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

[To] be chosen. will (with should and would).. When active. [To] have chosen. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Infinitives. like participles. an indefinite and a perfect form. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. 9. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. [To] be choosing. . and a perfect definite form. Indefinite.. To with the infinitive.6. Perfect. Three saplings. [To] have been chosen. an imperfect. formed a kind of bedstead. expressing purpose. But later. when inflections became fewer. Imperfect. 268. [To] have been choosing. INFINITIVES. 8. PASSIVE VOICE. ACTIVE VOICE. to express action unconnected with a subject. In Sec. Indefinite. Perfect. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. and when passive. 10. 7. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. have no tense. they have an indefinite. I returned to reflection on my situation. Nothing of the kind having been done.. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Cases when to is omitted. try clemency. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. 266. as in the Old English. to was used before the infinitive generally. [To] choose. a perfect.²the creature warring against the creating power. 267. Perfect definite.

it has several attributes of a noun. "She ask my pardon. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²DE QUINCEY. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. bid (command). HALE. make. 269." Examples are. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). can (could). The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. please. GERUNDS. 271.(2) After the verbs may (might).²TENNYSON.²GOLDSMITH. as.² What! doth she. as in the expression." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. see.²it may be governed as a noun.). also let. hear. and corn to hoe. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. liberal woman. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. .²IRVING.²COOPER. or the object of a verb or a preposition. E. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.²E. 272. it is often preceded by the definite article. must." (4) In exclamations. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. too. negative. as. feel. also in the imperative. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. They shall have venison to eat. it may be the subject of a verb. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. under "Analysis. "He will choose. But there was nothing to do. The gerund is like the participle in form. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. "a house to let. and like a noun in use. poor woman!" cried Charles. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. as. watch. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. as the credulous imagine." etc. sometimes need (as.. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. and emphatic forms of the present and past. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. While the gerund expresses action. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. 270.²HOWELLS." "I shall have chosen. learn [doth learn is one verb. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. "I do go" etc.²MACAULAY. do (as.² She was a kind.

(2) Pure participles. Exercise. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. to see the returning hope of the parents. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. (5) Gerunds. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. but do not assert. brilliant." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (3) Participial adjectives. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. What a vast." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. and five gerunds.²Find sentences containing five participles. on your leaving the spot. which have lost all verbal force. (4) Pure adjectives. making the definite tenses. Then how pleasing is it. 2. and wonderful store of learning! . 4. and has been put down. b)." also (2." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. may govern and be governed. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. (6) Verbal nouns. which express action. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. which express action and also modify. which name an action or state. five infinitives. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. II). in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. when. Words in -ing are of six kinds. but cannot govern. which express action. after examining the nest." Exercise. Sec. according to use as well as meaning. above." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." "Certainly dueling is bad. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. 273.

slowly. 7. 6.²strong or weak. much corroded. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 275. I. bearing her national emblem.5. 12. 234. (4) Tense. give reality to your teaching. but. giving principal parts.²transitive or intransitive. 10. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. In parsing verbs. 16. Caution. round which is an iron railing. dictating from his chair. 9. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 14. I suppose I was dreaming about it.²active or passive. VERBS. like Sir Walter Scott. or imperative.²which of the tenses given in Sec. . Thackeray did not. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking.²indicative. He spread his blessings all over the land. he gave out sentence by sentence. (5) Person and number. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. by object lessons. The only means of ascending was by my hands. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. What is dreaming? 8. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. (b) as to use. subjunctive. (3) Mood. write twenty pages without stopping. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. (2) Voice. you must. 13. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 15. 11.

Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. (a) From what verb derived. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. no sin nor sorrow. 3. may. (1) Participle. might. Parse the verbs. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. and not taken as single verbs. VERB PHRASES. Let it rise! let it rise. give points (a) and (b). (c) to what word it belongs." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. we must beware of the rule. intransitive. (3) Gerund. and ends in -s. In such sentences as 1. 235. You are gathered to your fathers. If a participial adjective. then parse it as an adjective. II. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (b) its use (Sec. followed by a pure infinitive without to. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive." Sometimes it does. VERBALS. could. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. (2) Infinitive. see Sec. . Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. perfect. would. 278. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. and should always be analyzed as phrases. 4. must. can. etc. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. active. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived.276. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. 2. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. has the subject government. Take these examples:² 1. Exercise. has for its subject Lee. 273). 2. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. past tense. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. 278(2). It has been intimated in Sec. and parting day linger and play on its summit. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. perfect. III. (b) whether active or passive. etc. call should a weak verb. call might a weak verb. (b) whether indefinite. intransitive. The government might have been strong and prosperous. In 2.. 277. usually it does not. But unless the verb is present. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. in the world. till it meet the sun in his coming. definite. imperfect. indicative. past tense. Especially frequent are those made up of should. indicative (as it means could). therefore active. verbals.

O God. He passed across the room to the washstand. 14. a sweet good will. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. With them. So. 23. a new bursting forth of the sun. 6. as rolled from wing to wing. In going for water. 11. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 15.Down all the line. 17. from a sort of temporary death. The soul having been often born.5. 10. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. When he arose in the morning. 24. . and wondered if she were yet awake. a deafening shout. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 16. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. as usual. a new waking up of all that has life. Right graciously he smiled on us. 8. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. see that it is in good condition. 9. or.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 20. 12. 19. However that be. 18. 21. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. leaving me upon the bed. morning is not a new issuing of light. 13. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. Whatever ground you sow or plant." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge.Henceforth in me instill. he thought only of her. 22. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. as the Hindoos say.

" An adjective or an adverb. who live with nature?²ID. or manner: as. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. and so on. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. To the almost terror of the persons present.²SHELLEY. And now wend we to yonder fountain. for example.²CARLYLE. place." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.² The young man reveres men of genius. Oh. as. 27.²THACKERAY. and limit adjectives or adverbs." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. thou sayest.²EMERSON. . for the hour of rest is at hand."²DE QUINCEY. 29.Feast while we may. 26. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree.²time. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Adverbs modify. and men of leisure and cultivation." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. A verb. Is it only poets. Nor was it altogether nothing. The word adverb means joined to a verb. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun." "He was absolute. because. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.25. 279. ADVERBS. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. they are more himself than he is. Better it were. to consent. When action is expressed. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. to speak truly. and live ere life be spent. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. "William's private life was severely pure. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.

all wet and glossy. 280.He was incidentally news dealer. Surely happiness is reflective. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. then. thus. which may qualify an action word or a statement. has induced some of us to attend it. is a modifying word. like the light of heaven. but still with a rich bloom to it. I draw forth the fruit. or a word group used as such. ever. A phrase. not simply the forms used in predication. not the noun. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.² LOWELL.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. there are six classes:² (1) Time. 282. hitherto. 169 are felt to be elliptical. etc. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead.²LEIGH HUNT.²T. for example. It may also modify a sentence. before. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. B. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. perhaps.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. but some verb understood. as.²BYRON. 281.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. ALDRICH. and half awfully. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. to-day.²These last differ from the words in Sec. ²IRVING. NOTE. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. while those in Sec. We are offered six months' credit.²THOREAU. NOTE. (2) according to their use in the sentence. Make music to the lonely ear. as shown in the sentences.² FRANKLIN. . and that. Thus considered. An adverb.²TROLLOPE. being adverbs naturally and fitly. as now. 169. Definition. lately. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. A clause or sentence. but really modifying.

not. etc. that these adverbs form a very large class. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. LOUIS STEVENSON. beautifully.yonder. (5) Degree. surely.where. while so precedes only the adjective usually.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. and others.whither.thence. So also in Grote. slowly.²R. just. (3) Manner.. the more friends you will have. two by two. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. above. especially the comparative of these words.whence. for example. etc.²HAWTHORNE. Motley. bravely. as hence. as here..²DE QUINCEY.²LECKY. maybe.(2) Place. partly. as perhaps..thither. etc. as well. better. [Sidenote The status of such. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. etc. etc. This long's the text. greatly. twice. Thackeray. whencesoever.there. telling how much. Emerson. . too. much. (4) Number.²SHAKESPEARE. probably. the more perfect will be their obedience. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.²BURKE. as little. The more they multiply. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. enough. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. and not infrequently are found in literary English. (6) Assertion.. possibly.²BROWNING. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH..² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. slightly. very. 283).² The master. White. Meekness. as hither. singly.near.which gained him such universal popularity. I was. telling how many times: once. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.was for this once of her opinion. telling how anything is done. or how far he believes it to be true. 283. (see also Sec.²IRVING. at least. the more evidently they love liberty. whithersoever. thus. etc.

²"He walked too far [place]." "He spoke positively [manner]. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. 285.²HAWTHORNE. 286. Direct questions." "That is positively untrue [assertion].² You are mighty courteous. Dickens. Notice meanings." "I have seen you before [time]. Aldrich. B. Holmes." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. and art but a fool. Simple. Interrogative. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. for example. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Hard blows and hard money.²THACKERAY.²BAYNE. . and other writers.² KINGSLEY. "Peace. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived." said the king. besides modifying. Burke.² "Mighty well. Again. Beau Fielding. Some adverbs.²GOLDSMITH. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. A pretty large experience. for example. STOWE. and its lawn before [place].Pretty.²BULWER. De Quincey. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Mighty." "That were far better [degree]. 282." "The house."²SCOTT. Defoe. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Franklin. Emerson. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Neville. Kingsley. a mighty fine gentleman. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.²FIELDING. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. have the additional function of asking a question. 284.²THACKERAY. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.

they smiled. CLAY. .²D. When did this humane custom begin?²H. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. (2) Place. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (2) Place. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. I hearkened. (4) Degree. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. WEBSTER. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²BYRON (3) Manner. I do not remember when I was taught to read. I know not why.²POE.²BULWER.²BYRON. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. 287. for example. (4) Degree. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. I will not ask where thou liest low. (5) Reason. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.

For further discussion. when does not express time and modify. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. use. just as adjectives do. only occasionally having -er and -est. see Sec. not an adverb. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Many adverbs are compared. Only that we may wiselier see. Its strings boldlier swept.²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE..eyes.) rather 289. higher. The following. further farthest.²TENNYSON. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. Many adjectives have the same ending. high. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. well much little far late Comparative. and. when. soon. 290. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. . are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Superlative. soonest.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Then must she keep it safelier. 288. furthest (rathe. irregularly compared. as. sooner. have the same inflection as adjectives." Exercise. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. obs. Exercise.²COLERIDGE.²BYRON. highest. but the whole clause. representing four classes.But in reality. when compared. Form vs. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.

as. hard.And his mien of kingly state. With his proud. 7. 3. . quick-flashing eye.²THACKERAY. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 2. He is inexpressibly mean. near. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.²IRVING. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. Again. instead of being used adverbially. merely introduces a sentence. 4. Such are most. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. more courtly in their manners. to be sure. mostly. many words without -ly have the same form.1. kindly and good-natured in secret. 6. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. curiously jolly. 2. or down the leaves laughed through. hardly. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. if it has the verb be. Not near so black as he was painted. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. And all about. etc. whether adverbs or adjectives. that in Old and Middle English. evenly.²ID. Special use of there. Frequently the word there. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.²CHAUCER. But he must do his errand right.² EMERSON. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt.²TENNYSON. even." Compare these:² 1.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. 8. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. 291. There are eyes. 5. The reason is. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate.²WORDSWORTH. but with a different meaning. nearly. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 292.

Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 16. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. In parsing adverbs. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. however theoretically enticing. 4. but continually shifted. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. (2) Degree of comparison. The higher we rise in the scale of being. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 9. But a few steps farther on. give² (1) The class. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 18. Exercise. 15. 2. and always. It is the Cross that is first seen. but from my fall? 6. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. At these carousals Alexander drank deep.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. is always politically unwise. if the word is compared. 7. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. . (3) What word or word group it modifies. 5. 293. For the impracticable. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. the Madonna is in great glory. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 12. according to meaning and also use. 11. at the regular wine-shop. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 10. and sate down on the steps of a house. burning in the center of the temple. Thither we went. 17. 3.

and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. sentences. or sentence groups. but side by side within the American Union.19. but the student will readily find them. But now the wind rose again. word groups. . (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. then. 294. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. and the stern drifted in toward the bank." Paragraphs. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. A conjunction is a linking word. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Definition. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. connecting words." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Unlike adverbs. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. Clauses. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. 20. 22. hence." Sentences. 295." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. however. therefore. upon which the sun now shone forth. 21. It was pretty bad after that. etc. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. nor. CONJUNCTIONS. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting.

. expressing a choice. the bread was spent. therefore. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man... word groups. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.but. only.but (or but also). nor. (2) Subordinate. Some of these go in pairs. as but. 297. (2) ADVERSATIVE. etc. 298... where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. whether. neither. of the same rank.. moreover.. but is emperor in his own right.or. whether. either...or. Correlatives. as... The assertion. The chief ones are.. Nor mark'd they less. Alternative.or.or. still. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. (3) CAUSAL. usually between two things. while. then. introducing a reason or cause. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.Classes of conjunctions. not only...nor. else. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. (4) ALTERNATIVE. as well as the room door.. They are or. and. either..or whether." Nevertheless. as well as. answering to each other in the same sentence. and not man corn... 296. likewise. Your letter.. either. Causal. not only. both. hence.and.. as. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. . etc. While the earth bears a plant. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. serves but to show their ignorance. however. nor. or the sea rolls its waves.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. as and. the butter too.nor. neither. neither. had its weight. joining words. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. the window being open. yet. Adversative. etc. "Howbeit. however. Some go in threes.. also. whether. for.

so that. whenever. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. whereas. etc.²DE QUINCEY. so.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. provided that. etc. so. now. as.. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. (2) TIME: when. or whether such a body is moved along my hand.²COOPER. He is not only bold and vociferous. provided. etc. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that... (5) COMPARISON: than and as. 299. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. (3) MANNER: how. before. however. although. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. though. object. in apposition. etc. howsoever. nor creeping thing. nor green (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. (7) RESULT: that. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. after.²BIBLE.²BURKE. whithersoever.²IRVING. in case. (6) PURPOSE: that.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. ere. whether. as. ²ALLSTON. Where the treasure is. lest. seeing. as.²J. nor echo. whither. nor wing of bird. while.²PAULDING.. Time. unless. whence. so. etc. even if. except. until. Neither the place in which he found himself. It is. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me.²WILSON. on condition that. . To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. especially that after so. wherever. since. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. whereto. in order that. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. QUINCY. since. that. so that. there will the heart be also. sometimes if.

A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²BURKE.That vain it were her eyes to close. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Condition.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.² H. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²AMES. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Result.So I behold them not. . Sparing neither whip nor spur. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. As a soldier.²BYRON.²AMES.²EMERSON. Comparison. Let the world go how it will.²AMES.That he gave her wounds repose. but not so long but I held it out. Concession. H.²COLERIDGE. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. JACKSON. not as they were expected or intended. Manner. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. reason. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²DEFOE. I was again covered with water.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE Events proceed. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Cause.² WORDSWORTH.²EMERSON. We wish for a thousand heads. Substantive. Now he is dead. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Purpose.² HAWTHORNE. Then Denmark blest our chief.²CAMPBELL. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. a thousand bodies.² EMERSON.²IRVING.

Besides. 10. 5. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 2. 13. as. since. 3. 14. while. she faintly pressed her hand. that. as he shot in air.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. it will remain harmless.²RUSKIN. however. . is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. her real merit is known at home. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 12. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 9. He was brought up for the church.Let us see whether the greatest. No one had yet caught his character. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. In what point of view. Exercises. After he was gone. some words²for example. the lady called her servant. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 4. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. And they lived happily forever after. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. etc. hold a subordinate rank. 300. And then recovering. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. The moth fly. 7. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. They. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. As will have been noticed. While a faction is a minority. then. While patriotism glowed in his heart. and hid her there. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. Crept under the leaf. the wisest. 15. 6.

The raft and the money had been thrown near her. . only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. In Emerson's sentence. for example. and part as though we parted not. they connect.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. etc. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.²HOOD. in this case. word groups.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.²EMILY BRONTE. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. thus.. SPECIAL REMARKS. As if. and be a bud again.16. "We meet. Consequently.²IRVING. as is often equivalent to as if. As for as if. As though. 302.As though a rose should shut.Clouded. and the frame will suit the picture." as. (2) What words. In poetry.So slowly moved about.. If analyzed. His voice .. as is shown by the use of as though. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. 303. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. 301. 304. the expression would be.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. even as they would weep. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. none of the lashings having given way. In parsing conjunctions. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. expressing degree if taken separately. GREELEY.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²BYRON. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. So silently we seemed to speak.

It continued raining. because. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. the Sphinx was slain. he sleeps as warm. and its clause depends on the other. when. so that I could not stir abroad. compare the sentences. and its clause is independent. as beside his own chimneys. are regularly of one particular class. "Doctor.² 1.Caution. in 3. 4." said his wife to Martin Luther. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. He dismisses without notice his thought. Some conjunctions. so it be faithfully imparted. He is the compend of time. they are not known. or in the forest. It may be safely trusted.²I find them true in Concord. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. so they be each honest and natural in their hour.²is subordinate of condition. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. so they paddled on. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. so means provided. that it might testify of that particular ray. etc.²EMERSON 3. 10. so means therefore. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. and associates as happily. 2. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. When the gods come among men. 11. 6. such as nor. so that expresses result.²that the fairies do not like to be named. because it is his. In classifying them. All the postulates of elfin annals. For example. 12. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. he is also the correlative of nature. 13. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries..²DEFOE 2. 9. 5. If he could solve the riddle. and the like. 7.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. and very seldom?" 8. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. or in the snow. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. others belong to several classes. in 2. and. At sea. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. 3. . The eye was placed where one ray should fall. dines with as good an appetite. but of the natural. Exercise.

but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. It is clear. whose names I omit. 15.14.. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 21. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 25. For. 18. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 305. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him.²else it is none. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 22. And whether consciously or not. Still. 16. PREPOSITIONS. that both were wayward. she might have the family countenance. . Now you have the whip in your hand. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. There was no iron to be seen. 29. 26. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 19. the whole conditions are changed. in many a heart. 20. 27. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 23. 28. 24. I rejoice to stand here no longer. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 30. of good novels only. save it were sinful like herself. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. you must be. It may be so in the majority of cases. in this they agree. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. I speak. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. Goodness must have some edge to it. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. however. won't you lay on? 17. therefore. when it was presented to them. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. enthroned.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at peace. D. by many a million of acres. H. At St. . at all.²WARNER. (4) Measure of excess. at first.² (1) The general meaning of place. he stopped.²R. 320. at least.. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at random. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. TAYLOR The angel came by night. by the wrecks of time. At that time [the earth] was richer. STODDARD. by means near or close to. by the ruins of nations.²DE QUINCEY. at rest. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at the best. at any rate. at naught. at play. CONWAY. Richard was standing by the window. at once. Exercise. By my faith. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at the worst. Like at. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at one.²COOPER. etc. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at length. at most. She saw the boat headed for her.²ID. at war.²ALDRICH. expressing the degree of difference. (2) Time. Exercise. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. the first port made by the ship. at work.²M. etc.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²SWIFT.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. 321. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. (3) Agency or means. as. ²PARTON.²B. by the blessed memory of the departed. By.²EVERETT. For. Helena.

He and they were for immediate attack. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. for all slips of hers. E.²PARKMAN.²E. respecting. (9) Motive. the Colonna motto would fit you best. ate her child. if your worship can accomplish that. An Arab woman. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. poor fellow. etc.²LAMB. (6) Like as. etc. There are gains for all our losses. cause. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. For him. for famine. "thou hast counseled wisely.²IRVING. reason. GARRISON.²PARKMAN. as to. . But the Colonel. or extent of space. (3) Duration of time. "For a fool. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. incitement to action. as being. he repented of his folly. meaning in the character of.²W.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. a person or thing. for the benefit of. for all his title. The twilight being. or in spite of. and leaped for joy."²SCOTT By my faith. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. (5) Reference.²HOLMES.(2) In favor of. BANCROFT." said the Lady of Lochleven.²H. they are now for us. had a forest of poor relations. For the rest. H.One of Eve's family.²EMERSON. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. etc. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²ID. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. "Nay. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE." answered Master Brackett. but a few sunsets since.²HOOD. (4) Substitution or exchange. in behalf of.. (7) Concession. meaning with regard to. considering that etc.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. Still..²STODDARD. L. meaning although.² RUSKIN.

²HUME.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²MILTON. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Exercise.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. or reason. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. (3) Time.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. ceased to be merciful. .²HIGGINSON. Like boys escaped from school. more. The king holds his authority of the people. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. cause. nay. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The From Relation. from a desire of seeming valiant. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. (2) Origin. (1) Origin or source. if not a desperate man.²DRYDEN.²H. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. H. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²HALE. 322. like from. The general idea in from is separation or source.²HUXLEY. Exercise. From harmony. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²BANCROFT. A distrustful. From. 323. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Of. The original meaning of of was separation or source. (4) Motive.²ID. The young cavaliers. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.

. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. rid. purge. divest. motive. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. wide of. bare of. You cannot make a boy know.²PARKMAN.²ALDRICH. relieve. Sandals. that Cromwell once ruled England. etc. clear. ²GAVARRE. The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²LEW WALLACE. out of the most unpromising materials. ²PARTON. deprive. A singular want of all human relation.²clear of.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. cure. bound with thongs of boar's hide.²BANCROFT. Other Relations expressed by Of. of his own knowledge. such as ease.²SCOTT Who formed. or breastpin of native gold. (3) With expressions of material. acquitted them of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. Asked no odds of. The hills were bare of trees. and grass. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. weeds. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. free of. free. ask. there were only twenty-one members present. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. expressing a part of a number or quantity.²HIGGINSON. as north of. south of.²BAYARD TAYLOR.²DICKENS II. demand. E. etc."²E. Back of that tree. rob. "I am glad of that.²ID.²BOSWELL. .² HUXLEY. beg. especially out of. etc. (d) With words expressing distance. deprivation. etc. disarm. (b) After some adjectives.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. (6) Partitive. More than one altar was richer of his vows. HALE. (c) After nouns expressing lack. reason. White shirt with diamond studs. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. etc. Of the Forty. (5) Expressing agency. He is away of his own free will.

²HALLECK.²ALDRICH.²PRESCOTT. E. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. See also Sec. Such a book as that of Job. standing. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.He washed out some of the dirt. of is used in the sense of during. 309. (7) Possessive. (c) Two nouns. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²LOWELL. of late.²LAMB. ²IRVING. (8) Appositional. The fair city of Mexico. being equivalent to an infinitive. . And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. equal to about.²BANCROFT. CHANNING. (10) Of reference. (9) Of time. The nation of Lilliput. concerning.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. for the possessive. Not even woman's love.²BANCROFT. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²SWIFT. could give shelter from his contumely.²W. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. and the dignity of a queen. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. with regard to.²FROUDE. when the first is descriptive of the second. etc. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. (b) Noun and gerund. of a sudden.²ID..²COOPER. with its object.²BANCROFT. Idiomatic use with verbs. Besides the phrases of old.

on trial. disapprove.²DE QUINCEY. 324. such as admit.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. Cannon were heard close on the left. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.²EMERSON. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. (2) Time. equal to about. (b) With motion. Upon is seldom used to express time. (3) Reference. SIGOURNEY. ²BANCROFT. and not a day more. approve. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. 325. allow. on the alert. on view. and others. etc. on high.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. avail (one's self). etc. Exercise. Exercise. On. accept.²ALDRICH. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. The general meaning of on is position or direction. (4) In adjurations. consist. Upon my reputation and credit. Upon. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. on the wing. On my life. It also accompanies the verbs tire. you are eighteen. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. concerning.²PARKMAN. on board. complain. repent.²PARKMAN. without adding to their meaning.²Find sentences with six uses of of. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.²MRS. permit. . on a sudden.²PARKMAN.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. To. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats.²BRYANT.

²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²BRYANT. To the few.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with... (2) Expressing result. to my taste. 268).²PARKMAN.²HALE.²BENTON To our great delight.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. He usually gave his draft to an aid.Come to the bridal chamber. had ceased to be. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. does the mere music.²PARTON.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. .. His brother had died. Nor. to him. But be written over.²GOLDSMITH. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Exercise. 326. With.. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²B. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. mid meant in company with.²BULWER. it may be genuine poetry. Death!²HALLECK. unmasked. Revolutions. In Old English. (5) Equivalent to according to. whose influence is felt to this hour. (b) Referring to time. gay Comedy appears. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.²IRVING. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. interest.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²LANG.²often to the loss of vigor.

²COLERIDGE. with all his boldness. (5) Opposition.The advance.²HALE. Messala. felt it unsafe to trifle further. . The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. had already reached the defile. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. opinion. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. to find the object of the preposition. It seemed a supreme moment with him. or with the haunch of our near leader.²WALLACE (7) Time. he gave millions to the sword. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²HOWELLS.²DE QUINCEY. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. as with you. She seemed pleased with the accident. in spite of.²ALDRICH. He was wild with delight about Texas. it is necessary.²HOWELLS.²Find sentences with four uses of with. Exercise. With all his sensibility. motive. but with you. Either with the swingle-bar.²DE QUINCEY.²E. but a pleasure"?²LANG. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. I think. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. E.²CHANNING. reason. (2) Instrumentality. HALE.²EMERSON. with Heyward at its head. "poetry is not a pursuit. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.²COOPER. 327. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²LANG.²SCOTT. (4) Estimation. He expired with these words. first of all. (3) Cause. transmitted from the beginning.

and then borne forward with prodigious speed. In (2). Whereupon. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. The object of on board is ships. I speak these things from a love of justice. In (1). I remember. of without. shook it directly over my head. Exercises. hence we say. of on. came tumbling about my ears. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. I called out several times. The guns were cleared of their lumber. the malicious rogue. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. beginning. country.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. which. I heard a noise just over my head.²ID. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. 4. and knocked me down flat on my face. but I received no other hurt. he followed us one day into those gardens. I felt my box raised very high in the air. because I had given the provocation. (4) from the beginning. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. 3. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. . To our general surprise. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. And so on. by which a dozen apples. of from. like the clapping of wings. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. or was. 2. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. (2) on which. I looked towards my windows. Be that as it will.²SWIFT 2. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. the phrase answers the question where. but all to no purpose. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. we met the defaulter here. telling what man. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. 5. In (3). on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. before the dwarf left the queen. (3) without a country. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. without a country modifies man.

12. grasping at the child. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 9. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. The mother sank and fell. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 17. to one dark and gloomy. plumed for battle. On all subjects known to man. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 15. in this respect. 20. 14. With all his learning. 22. 29. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. in town. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 16. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. He locked his door from mere force of habit. when. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. he favored the world with his opinions. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 21. 18. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. The savage army was in war-paint. 26. I like to see the passing. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 27. 13. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 24. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 10. . On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure.Without stop or stay. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 19. 25. 11. 23. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 8. His breeches were of black silk. after a restful morning.He spurred his courser on.6. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 7. For my part.

That night was a memorable one.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (1) Relative pronoun.That makes the heavens be mute. (c) Substantive conjunction. (a) Indefinite relative.²COLERIDGE. that you might behold this joyous day. He will raise the price. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. 330. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. and not according to form. THAT.30.²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun.² JOHNSON. 329.²WEBSTER. 328.²HUXLEY.²BEECHER. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (4) As an adverb of degree.²STOCKTON.²WEBSTER. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. A few are discussed below. We wish that labor may look up here. not merely by the amount of the tax. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That is what I understand by scientific education. That was a dreadful mistake. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (b) Of result. . and be proud in the midst of its toil. WHAT. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. And now it is like an angel's song.

it is impossible to determine. (6) Exclamatory adjective. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²S. or not only..²ID. he knows what good people are to be found there. "I'll tell you what. (b) Copulative." (4) Relative adjective. At what rate these materials would be distributed.. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. What. nearly equivalent to partly. it rests on reality. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (b) Indirect question. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. What with the Maltese goats. 331. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.²WEBSTER.²EMERSON... but the result of calculation.²EMERSON. Cox.Are yet the fountain light of all our day.²WORDSWORTH... (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. silent still.S. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. (8) Conjunction. to see what might be hidden. What.²THACKERAY..Which be they what they may.these sounds are only to be heard.Those shadowy recollections. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.. If he has [been in America]. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. after not only. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?² Pera. (7) Adverb of degree.. BUT. (9) As an exclamation.²ID. To say what good of fashion we can. partly.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (b) Indirect question. . and silent all!²BYRON. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.

not. To lead but one measure.. Doing duty as a guard.²CARLYLE. not. ²CARLYLE. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (d) Of reason.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. Who knows but..²EMERSON.. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.. at all moments. . His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²IRVING. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. after a negative. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. towards order. (e) Introducing an appositive word.He yearned to our patriot bands.²MRS BROWNING. equivalent to that .. after such. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (b) Substantive. meaning only. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²HAWTHORNE. meaning except. or who . on all sides. (4) Relative pronoun. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. (2) Relative pronoun. I shall see but little of it. but piercing cries. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. not. (3) Preposition. AS..²FRANKLIN. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU..²SHELLEY.²IRVING.²IRVING.²LAMB. sometimes same. meaning otherwise . (c) Of degree. like the dog.²SCOTT. (b) Of manner. (5) Adverb. 332.Then arose not only tears. than. stands for that .

liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. but this is not considered good usage: for example. this. NOTE.²MAYHEW. like Martin was. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. like a cook beating eggs. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. Stirring it vigorously. but its verb is omitted. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²DARWIN. and is followed by a dative-objective. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²CASS. That face. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²HIGGINSON. like summer ocean's. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. Introduces a clause. . ²PARKMAN. like him awhile ago. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. No Emperor. and as or as if takes its place.-SCOTT.²LAMB. They look. Note the difference between these two uses. 333. This follows a verb or a verbal. Give Ruskin space enough.²ALDRICH. If the verb is expressed.² A timid.²ALDRICH. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.² HAWTHORNE. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. staring like a bewildered man. In this second use. I do with my friends as I do with my books. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.LIKE. In each case.²HALLECK. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. Through which they put their heads. like drops out.²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²LONGFELLOW. and was clearly an adjective. nervous child. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. There is no statue like this living man. (1) An adjective. indeed.²SHAKESPEARE.²EMERSON.

Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. tut! buzz! etc. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. in separating them into their component parts." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. entering into the structure of a sentence." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. subject and predicate. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. verb.: for example. What analysis is. clauses introduced by conjunctions. but it still retains its identity as noun. Definition. 336. Definition. that is." PART II.²in determining case. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. 334. Value of analysis. etc. . "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun].INTERJECTIONS. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. 335. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. pronoun. as.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech.. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. that is. etc. Some of these are imitative sounds.

" "What wouldst thou do. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. which puts the thought in a question. 338. (3) Imperative. Division according to number of statements. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. "Old year. 339. "Hath he not always treasures. This is the most common one. . or imperative. but according to how many statements there are. always friends?" imperative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. A rare old plant is the ivy green. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. or command: for example. according to form. hence. not according to the form in which a thought is put. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. entreaty.²a subject and a predicate. Examples of these three kinds are. you must not die!" interrogative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. question. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. old man?" "Be thou familiar. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. SIMPLE SENTENCES. "The quality of mercy is not strained. but the sentence would still be declarative. But now all is to be changed. which expresses command. but by no means vulgar. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. declarative. interrogative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. Every sentence must contain two parts. "Come to the bridal chamber. Definition: Predicate. (2) Interrogative." 340.Kinds of sentences as to form. or request. Definition. 2. 337.

341.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Consequently. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. 2. we have some trouble. thou. In the interrogative sentence. the subject (you. 5. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. The last of all the Bards was he. a rare old plant. we say all is the subject of the sentence. not of a rare old plant. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. to suit all cases:² Subject. In analyzing such sentences. as. 3. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. adjective. 7. and is to be supplied.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 8. but about the ivy green. 4. always reduce them to the order of a statement. or ye) is in most cases omitted. especially in poetry. Slavery they can have anywhere. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Listen. the subject is frequently after the verb. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. and our definition must be the following. or an interrogative pronoun. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. "[You] behold her single in the field.²What is the ivy green? Answer. on the other hand. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. .²What is to be changed? Answer. But if we try this with the second sentence. and the real subject is the latter. 6. or adverb that asks about the subject. to an ignorant man." Exercise. Thus. all. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.

(3) The object. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. . (2) The predicate.²transitive and intransitive. "Ye call me chief. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. Direct Object. direct. for example. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. in addition to the object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. "She seldom saw her course at a glance." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. and by object we mean the direct object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. The subject and predicate have been discussed. and me here is not the object simply of call. or second object. 343. but chief belongs to the verb. just as if to say.10. "Ye honor me. (5) Modifiers. but it is a true complement. Indirect object. The transitive verb often requires. but of call chief. (4) The complements." indirect. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. 342. (6) Independent elements. Of a transitive verb. and means summoned." Complement: 344. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb.

she sat down to undress the two youngest children. and barring the door. and. especially the forms of be. to the completion of this man of the world. sir!' rang out in response. as in the sentence. 364. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. more familiarly. in the original Opium Confessions. seem." All these complete intransitive verbs. As to form. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. as." "He was termed Thomas. ay. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. 355. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. and of massive weight. in the popular judgment. Complement of an intransitive verb." (3) INFINITIVE. for instance. or." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." 345." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. "A cheery. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. 347. etc." Also an expression used as a noun. See sentence 19. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. Thom of the Gills. in exercise following Sec. "Brow and head were round. but used as a single modifier." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. feel. taste. 351.. An intransitive verb. become. above sixty." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." Things used as Subject. introduced by a preposition: for example. 'Ay. A phrase is a group of words. appear. Phrases." "The good man. he was now getting old. 352. I mentioned a case of that nature." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. not containing a verb. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. as in drowning. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . 346." (2) PARTICIPIAL.

though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. asserting eyes." Things used as Complement. was heard one syllable to justify.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. prowling eyes." "There are asking eyes. but the real or logical subject is to print. 349. I saw the quick and the dead. from their lips. my deficiency. but obscures the real subject. or the thundering of organs." The for did not belong there originally. and ever will be." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. for which see Sec. Disguised infinitive subject. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. (4) After "there introductory. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. etc. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject.²the talent of starting the game." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). (2) In interrogative sentences. or their religion from their sect. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." "The dead are there." 348. and by Saint George!' said the King." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. "'By God." etc.²the infinitive phrase." "Never." In this sentence. . 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. "Therein has been. but they will be given in detail here. 341." Things used as Direct Object. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject.

doubtless. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. the object is made the subject by being passive.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. the shepherd girl." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office.²heads or tails. Like all the complements in this list." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." "She asked her father's permission. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. they are adjuncts of the object. Of a transitive verb. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." Modifiers. and the words italicized are still complements. As complement of an intransitive verb." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and explaining or modifying the subject." "I hear the echoes throng. As complement of a transitive verb." "Their tempers. I." "Serving others is serving us." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (4) Participle. or the equivalent of the noun." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. 351.²completing the predicate. (3) Infinitive. complements of the predicate. Object." ." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. at the same time. Modifiers of Subject." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. and whenever the complement is a noun. and. or Complement. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." In this last sentence.350. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation.

" "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation.²proud." "In the twinkling of an eye. no sociable angel." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. this young idolater." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. and modify the predicate in the same way. Tells how." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. but with other men. was now called upon for his defense. 352. 357-363. given at the request of a Dutch lady." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." "Give them not only noble teachings. and leading him from star to star." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies.²In each sentence in Sec. but noble teachers. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. tell whether the subject. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. not with nature. see further Secs. Since the predicate is always a verb. Modifiers of the Predicate. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. "He died like a God." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. or . unforgiving. was the scene from King John. Retained with passive. object. the prisoner at the bar. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. or complement is modified. II. I have seasoned for thee." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." In such a sentence as. austere." (For participial and infinitive phrases. but it is really a contracted clause." "Him." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." Exercise. the verb being omitted. 351.

3. 4. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. They do not wish to be lovely. to the animal strength and spirits. no emotion. 2. and (direct) object:² 1. predicate. or how long. after dinner. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 3. 5. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. These answer the question when. gives wonderful animation." "One way lies hope. 8. predicate. according to old philosophers." (6) Adverbial objective. etc. with my joy and grief. a sort of personality to the whole writing. how far. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 5. 2. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. On the voyage to Egypt." "All such knowledge should be given her. and the direct object is retained: for example. no humor. . But anger drives a man to say anything. (a) Pick out subject. (b) Pick out the subject. Fashion does not often caress the great. but the children of the great. in this center? 4.When the verb is changed from active to passive. His books have no melody. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 6. and as many to oppose it." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 7. in regard to particulars. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. Evil. 7. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. but to be loved. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour.. I took. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. is good in the making. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. and other measures of precaution. 6. the indirect object is retained." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. To the men of this world." Exercises. he liked. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. negative. This. and.

Not compound sentences. Paint me. happy dinner. 6. Yes. 2. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. burthened with the anxieties of a man. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. this dragoon so lovely. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. Unhorse me. the attorney. I promised her protection against all ghosts. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Compound Predicate. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 2. etc. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. viz. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 3. 4. this imperial rider. 5. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. for the first time. must visit again the home of her childhood. 3. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. downwards. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. and a member of the world. at length the warrior lady.. I gave him an address to my friend. 3. . to the right and to the left. 4. in little peaceful Easedale. that was thy portion in life. then. Not the less I owe thee justice. expecting the return of their parents. the blooming cornet. a room seventeen feet by twelve. at the chief hotel. To suffer and to do. this nun so martial.²the river Meuse. I felt myself. 4. after their long confinement to a ship. 2. In one feature. Their intention was to have a gay. upwards.y 8.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. six children sat by a peat fire. That night. then. A river formed the boundary. 5. y y y y Compound Subject.

Larger view of a sentence. the tone of her voice. Bishop." "Voyages and travels I would also have." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. modifiers. exposes. "Ah. the verb). The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. For example. hurry. but it is to be noticed that. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. I'm with you once again. several modifiers. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject." "The name of the child. above: thus. that is. my brave young man!" . the simple subject is situation. Independent Elements of the Sentence. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The exclamatory expression. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. etc." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. hurry. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. shouldered the rusty firelock. together with its modifiers. the object. forming a sentence: "Oh. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. and its object or complement. turned his steps homeward. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. and. they are not a necessary part. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. may be the person or thing addressed. the air of the mother." Sentences with compound predicates are. Of this. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. "The company broke up. and the rest is the logical predicate.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. in the sentence.. in all such sentences as we quote below. ulcer. 354. same as (1). however. the predicate." And so with complements. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. etc.353." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. then the grammatical subject and predicate. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. 355." "He shook his head. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. together with all its modifiers. Examples of compound subjects are." "Ye crags and peaks. etc. complements.

such as however. already noticed. or word used as a noun: for example." "Why. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. "Oh." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. 4). why. (1) Adjectival. he was a conscientious man. moreover. he closed his literary toils at dinner. such as perhaps. 6)." Another caution. then. modifying the predicate. There are some adverbs. he somehow lived along. 355." "Well. now. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. her noticing even this is creditable." "At all events. grandma." (5) Participial phrase: "But. 356." "No. 357. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. y (2) The adverbial use. therefore. this story runs thus. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use." (2) Adverbial. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. etc. to the best of my remembrance. or complement (see Sec. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. and so on. The words well. 351. the company broke up. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. yes! everybody knew them. six quill-driving gentlemen. how you're winking!" "Now. In their use. that have an office in the sentence. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 350. etc." (6) Single words: as." (3) Independent. and some conjunctions. see Sec. really. modifying a noun. (b) As a modifier of subject. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. 352. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. 4).. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." "Truth to say. generally speaking." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. besides.. prepositional phrases may be. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. instances of which were seen in Sec. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. see Sec. let him perish. truly. . nevertheless. undoubtedly. 3. object. These need close watching. pronoun.

I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec." "There. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. "The letter of introduction. (5). The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. but having no other office than a verbal one. y (a) With may (might).would. he should not have known them at all. See Sec.can (could)." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. necessity. etc. modifying was speedily run through." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. This case excepted." etc." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. 358. ought." In this sentence.: as in the sentences. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every .000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. (1) Completing an incomplete verb.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. therefore. or as nearly so as the student will require. was speedily run through. thus.seem. The verbal use.should. being equivalent to a future with obligation." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. and hence is adverbial.]. and they will be presented here in full. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. and teach her how to be happy and good. 355.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. "Because I was. my dear." (b) With the forms of be. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. containing no matters of business. Wilt thou. but require somewhat closer attention. I." (c) With the definite forms of go. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. etc. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts.

above. The adjectival use. to look means that he might look. "But there was no time to be lost. III. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. The adverbial use." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. (4) In apposition." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). etc. hang the idiot. to hear McOrator after dinner. notice the following:² In (1). which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. already examined. result. Don Guzman. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. 351. To test this." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. IV." "To say what good of fashion we can. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. . modifying a noun that may be a subject." "To teach is to learn. The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. object." 360. complement..²both purpose clauses. 361. the Scotch fighting all the battles." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). to please is equivalent to that he may please. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. etc. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." "Are you mad." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. 362." "He insisted on his right to forget her. 5). but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive).: for example. and the eyes to fill?" 359. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. 361 are used adverbially. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. The substantive use. II. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. explanatory of a noun preceding: as.

) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. 268. (5) The subject (Sec. 3. object. 352). If it is an incomplete verb. (7) Independent elements (Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 347). 355). . give² (1) The predicate.²both expressing condition.. In (5).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. as in Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. etc. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 351). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. In (4). 349).In (2). and to betray and to bring express the reason." (See also Sec. 363." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. The independent use. equivalent to that you betray. and to say is equivalent to if we say. not in a book. In (3). 364. give the complement (Secs. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. (3). 4. 355. V. which is of two kinds. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. I will try to keep the balance true. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. Our life is March weather. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. to hear means if you should hear. etc. to part means because I part. etc. 351). must be in a life. to find shows the result of the return. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 2. 351). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. savage and serene in one hour.. In analyzing simple sentences.

Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. two stricken hours. 17. 23. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune.²to preserve her throne. To these gifts of nature.Burnt green and blue and white. I have heard Coleridge talk. 12. 13. good and amiable otherwise. always in a bad plight. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. nor himself. to the moral sphere. 20. The water. the carrion crow. You may ramble a whole day together.He sat in the shower. 7. Old Adam. 24. through toys and atoms. to keep England out of war. a skilled musician. Her aims were simple and obvious. 5. The whole figure and air. and every moment discover something new. The word conscience has become almost confined. in popular use. through evil agents. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. and to the purpose. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 14. He risked everything. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. with eager energy. 9. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 18. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. an accomplished scholar. 21. to restore civil and religious order. might be called flabby and irresolute. is to have no political system at all. 16. a good shot. nor money.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. It is easy to sugar to be sweet.4. Through the years and the centuries. a graceful dancer. nor generals.The old crow of Cairo. like a witch's oils. . To be hurried away by every event. 8. neither ammunition. 22. 6. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 19. 10. His opinion is always original. 15. and spared nothing. just on the edge of destruction. We are always in peril. nor troops. 11.

to be a reproach to such goodness. it would not have been filial or ladylike. baggage far in the rear. still. in less heroic and poetic form. the present capital of New England. The cry.Effacing many a stain of former crime. the ship was in an uproar. and in my own garden. 37. the same Condé Olivarez. had but one foible. 33. haply. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 27. on the shores of the Basin of Minas.25. in front of all this mighty crowd. 26. proud foe. 36.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. and the wherefore? . Few in number. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 40. 38. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. She had made a two days' march. I dare this. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. I hate him and myself. 35. This amiable relative. But yield. 39. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. In the Acadian land. and no provisions but wild berries. 32.Distant. in this world. time-honored. Supposing this computation to be correct. and. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 31. Fair name might he have handed down. Now. Oxford. Must we in all things look for the how. 30. Of the same grandeur. ready to receive her. 29. or perhaps one virtue. Upon this shore stood. 34. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 41. The villain. an elderly man. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. and the why. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. the prime minister of Spain. to bid you leave the place now and forever. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. upon my own ground. secluded. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history.

" Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. the pride and beauty of the grove." To show that these words are really omitted. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. (Sec. if they were expanded." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. the expressions of manner introduced by like. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. . Some sentences look like simple ones in form. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence.CONTRACTED SENTENCES." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. 365. As shown in Part I. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. 367.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 366. as would be the connective instead of like. which is the unit of speech. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine].From her own loved island of sorrow.² "She is like some tender tree. though often treated as phrases. as. COMPLEX SENTENCES. but." This must." Sentences with like. The simple sentence the basis. however. made merely for convenience and smoothness. thus. Words left out after than or as. are really contracted clauses. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. 333).

²the backbone.. logically depends on suffering.²the other members subordinate to it. etc. containing a verb with its subject. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.. and the last. as in this sentence. we are aware. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. complements. object. CLAUSES.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. 369.. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. A principal. complement. Independent clause. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. and the next one.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. modifiers. 371.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. which are so united that one member is the main one. how great . murmur. Hence the following definition:² Definition. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. then we recognize this as the main statement. or it may be applied to the others. Definition. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. A clause is a division of a sentence. that . or dependent on it. 370.. suffering. each clause has its subject. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. object. predicate. 368. is taken in. . main. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. and modifier." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). that is. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence.

impertinences²would be grammatical. Noun Clauses. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. etc. and ADVERB clauses. and it is . that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. so the object clause is retained. with a noun clause in apposition with it.Dependent clause. But since they are complex in form. clauses are divided into NOUN. 'I know that he can toil terribly. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. adjectives." Just as the object noun." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." 374. and the whole clause is not.. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.. (b) that are . over which the torrent came tumbling. but logically the sentence is. infinitive." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. for example. 372.' is an electric touch.. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. or adverbs. ADJECTIVE. for a time. attention is called to them here. pronoun. for example. impertinences.. put an end to my fancies." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. is retained after a passive verb (Sec." (4) Apposition. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. As to their office in the sentence.. verbal." (2) Object of a verb. We ourselves are getting . 352. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. for a hundred years. night or day. Kinds. thus. 5). Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject.. . explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." "I was told that the house had not been shut. 373. (a) Ordinary apposition.

which. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 7. that all safe legislation must be based. where. still remains reasonable. 6. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. Frequently there is no connecting word. but. whither." Exercise. 4. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. Other examples of this construction are. in the sentence. no man will ever know. . I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Examples of adjective clauses. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Except by what he could see for himself. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. as. he could know nothing. whence. Adjective Clauses. wherein. or equivalent of a noun. What history it had. whether he should choose one or not. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. a falsehood incarnate." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 2. how it changed from shape to shape. Such a man is what we call an original man. and not on the sentiment. But the fact is. sometimes by the conjunctions when. 375. 5. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. etc. whereby. a relative pronoun being understood. he would repent it. I was napping.² "It is on the understanding. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. that he was a scheming impostor. 3. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. of a nation. 9. that. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. that. 10. The reply of Socrates. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 8.

In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 10. 8. 7. 4. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. or that essence we were looking for. he begins to help us more as an effect. the champions advanced through the lists. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups.e. all is vacancy." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 3. 2. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. etc. 11." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. Pick out the adjective clauses. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause.. and tell what each one modifies. 9. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. which formed the center of the mansion. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. Adverbial Clauses. object. i. I walked home with Calhoun. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 5." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. whether subject. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." Exercise. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities.376. 6. No man is reason or illumination. ." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 1. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. which Rowena tasted.

adverbs." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. a verbal." "When he was come up to Christian." (9) CONCESSION. to make up our shortcomings." "After leaving the whole party under the table. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. shaping our actions. Exercise.377. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. etc." These mean no matter how good." "Who cares for that. Joanna is better. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. the milestones are grave-stones. with examples. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." "He went several times to England.: "But still. the wider is the horizon of their thought." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. no matter what remains." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. 378.² whoever. and will be given in detail." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. is wider. he goes away as if nothing had happened. however good she may be as a witness. and adverbial conjunctions." (7) RESULT. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. expressing the degree in which the horizon. an adjective. but they require careful study. tell what kind each is. etc." "The broader their education is. however." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. and what it modifies:² ." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." "The right conclusion is. or an adverb. introduced by indefinite relatives. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. it takes precedence of everything else." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. whatever. that we should try. etc. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. since he was too great to care to be original. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions.. so far as we can." (3) REASON." (5) DEGREE. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb.

1. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. If the children gathered about her. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. find the principal subject and principal predicate. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. 379. 380. on a dark wintry night. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. to tell the truth. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. and communicated itself to a thousand objects.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. incoherent exclamations. in the sentence. its object is that Odin was a reality. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. 'Well. when the wind was unruly. object." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. howling and whistling. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. of which clause Odin is the subject. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. as they sometimes did. so as to picture the parts and their relations. they might perhaps say of their visitors. with shrill. snatching up stones to fling at them. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. 3. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. etc. and modifiers. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. banging about doors and windows. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. then treat noun clauses as nouns. predicate. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. we are a little disappointed. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. and twirling weathercocks. For example." 2.

d. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. . 2.. 380). (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.. 364. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (1) Find the principal clause. 364. Exercises. 3. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. Take the place and attitude which belong to you.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. as seen in the "map" (Sec.

or whether any. 8. for yours. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. which. This is she. not so much for travelers that were few. 15. that. that pressed her with an objection. dying for them. 7. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. could not have been effected. I like that representation they have of the tree. counselor that had none for herself. namely. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe.4. 5. But now that she has become an establishment. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. Had they been better chemists. He was what our country people call an old one. bishop. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 19. the flower should revive for us. 16. Whether she said the word is uncertain. M. of a light hazel. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 9. had we been worse. 23. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. Next came a wretched Dominican. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 13. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. And those will often pity that weakness most. the mixed result. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 14. 17. whom I choose. who would yield to it least. 21. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. . 18. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 20. Now. as for armies that were too many by half. if applied to the Bible. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 10. The deep eyes. 12. 24. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. Here lay two great roads. the shepherd girl. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 22. 6. The night proved unusually dark. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 11.

if continuously extended. These things we are forced to say. we cannot adequately say. 380. How formed. 6. 383. 26." said Bentley. COMPOUND SENTENCES. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion." 4. . 5. but above it. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 382. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 28. speed. 7. though we may repeat the words never so often. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. questions. 2. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. would easily reach.²which will not be disposed of. It makes no difference how many friends I have. that it was no more than his daily walk. or commands. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia.25.² Definition. 27. and not from his heart. and temper. That which we do not believe. (b) First analyze. 30. then map out as in Sec. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 3. and what content I can find in conversing with each. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. is to speak and write sincerely. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. and stamped with his right number. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. "No book. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. the following complex sentences:² 1. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. "was ever written down by any but itself. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. Hence the definition.

now adverbs or prepositions. as but. Of the following illustrative sentences. and it shall be the universal sense. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. however. while (whilst). in (3). and which complex:² 1. and nor the second and third complex members. Connectives. the waving grass.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. etc. and connects the first and second complex members. a simple member. nor does he know until he has tried. etc. The coördinate conjunctions and. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. in (2). which are simple statements. he soliloquizes. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. 385. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. he dilates. a complex member. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. or but. 386. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples.. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. he is twice a man. The division into members will be easier. as in Sec. yet. tell which are compound. nor. from the second. . and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). and not the form of the connective. 383 (1). if there are any." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. for. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. "Only the star dazzles. the semicolon separates the first. Thus in (1). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. he walks with arms akimbo. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. 297). From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. the planet has a faint. Exercise. Speak your latent conviction. Study the thought. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. Some of these are now conjunctions." 384. moon-like ray" (adversative). others sometimes coördinate. Another example is. whereas.

(2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. Whilst the world is thus dual. 9. All loss. unobtrusive boy. and for everything you gain. 7. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 3. and not by what each is. to find a pot of buried gold. 8. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 13. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 4. and thou shalt be loved. that it was Easter Sunday. Love. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 364. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 10. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. is particular. however. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. I can yet love. he grew up to be a mild. 2. nay. For everything you have missed. so is every one of its parts. 6. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. In this manner. 11. 5. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. quiet. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. or. (i) Separate it into its main members. the tax is certain. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. Exercise. you lose something. all pain. 387. 14. passed in that time. However some may think him wanting in zeal. from a happy yet often pensive child. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. Man does not stand in awe of man. . I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 381. 12. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec.2. 4. for example. I can still receive. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. The gain is apparent. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. yield to them heart and life. and as yet very early in the morning. you have gained something else. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 3.

They will shuffle and crow. or hope. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. modesty." says the smith. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. whilst frankness invites frankness. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. treat them greatly. 6. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and the cart as nigh the rake. 8. Trust men. and the other dares not. We go to Europe. crook and hide. 11. or we read books. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12." "keep the rake. We see the noble afar off. He teaches who gives. let them mount and expand. only that they may brag and conquer there. 19. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. . which always make the Actual ridiculous. why should we intrude? 10. or sail with God the seas. and not an emotion of bravery.5. is as thin and timid as any. When you have chosen your part. and you are without effort impelled to truth. 9. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. feign to confess here." says the haymaker." 13. and makes their business a friendship. abide by it. and they will show themselves great. and the peace of society is often kept. "Strike. 7. and they repel us. Come into port greatly. that let him communicate. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. 15. 14. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. puts the parties on a convenient footing. if you rip up his claims. "the iron is white. and each shows only what lies at its focus. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. 21. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and not a thought has enriched either party. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. or men will never know and honor him aright. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. 20. 17. give those merits room. one is afraid. Whatever he knows and thinks. or we pursue persons. 16. because. and he learns who receives. as children. and they will be true to you. 18. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Stand aside.

Do not craze yourself with thinking. but they never acquit the debt. So does culture with us. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Following the Latin method. We see young men who owe us a new world. but go about your business anywhere. PART III. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. 24. but its leading characteristic is. 25. or. INTRODUCTORY. they lose themselves in the crowd. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. 23. Essential point in English syntax. 390. adjective and noun. Ground covered by syntax. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. 388. 380. By way of introduction. it ends in headache. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . they die young. the department of syntax will be a small affair. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. SYNTAX. so readily and lavishly they promise. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence.²agreement and government. it never was known to fall into the rear. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. verb and subject. and dodge the account. if they live. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. pronoun and antecedent.22.

a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. or when they exist side by side in good usage." is ambiguous. "None remained but he. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. the order being inverted. as to study inflected forms. and added to it the preposition of. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language)." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. 393. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. pronoun and antecedent. For example. good English. The basis of syntax. Also in the sentence. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. both forms will be given in the following pages. and nothing but important points will be considered. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. In some cases." In this there is a possessive form. etc. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. then. and whose judgment. sometimes verb and subject. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. or the same writer will use both indifferently. Savage may be the subject. and imitate it. There is. but are not now. 392. and it would not matter which one stood first. also expressing a possessive relation. .form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. This is not logical. distinct forms would be used. When usage varies as to a given construction. authorities²that is. therefore. Second. Some rules not rigid. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words." that is. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. In Latin. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. some of which conform to classical grammar. As an illustration of the last remark. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. or settler may be the subject. "The savage here the settler slew. the sentence. take the sentence. following the regular order of subject.² First. Why study syntax? 391.

. and Peterborough's. He kept Bolingbroke's. 408).² He lands us on a grassy stage.²THACKERAY." Juletta tells. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. for example. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. the possessive sign is used with each noun. ²ID. Separate possession. 396. sense and nature's easy fool. and Peter's. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Mill's and Mr. Use of the possessive. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. PRONOUNS. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. but imply separate possession or ownership. as. and Harley's. etc. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage.²EMERSON. 394. Putting Mr. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. 397.²MCCULLOCH.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. the shore of Galilee.²BYRON.²ROWE.NOUNS. the antechamber of the High Priest. Woman. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. and Paul's. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.² Live your king and country's best support.²RUSKIN. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. 395.²MACAULAY. Bentham's principles together. and Pope's.²MILTON. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Joint possession.

as. who. the last expression has the support of many good writers.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. But he must be a stronger than thee. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²SOUTHEY.) "The young Harper. and should be the nominative form. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. whom is the complement after the verb am." 400. the real thought being forgotten. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Since most of the personal pronouns.²THACKERAY. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. . as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.²SHAKESPEARE. 399. thus. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.²TROLLOPE. Objective for the nominative.²BYRON. Some of the violations are universally condemned.²WHITCHER.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. for example. General rules. No mightier than thyself or me. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. if not universally.²POPE. together with the relative who. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. I. This should be "as she. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. others are generally. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). sanctioned. Bedott Papers. Still. there are two general rules that require attention." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. 398.

In spoken English. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. are.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²MACAULAY. and the other forms of the verb be. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. but such is the fact. they are yet holier than we. for example. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who."²WINTHROP.²FIELDING. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²SCOTT. the objective form is regularly found.²THACKERAY.²LONGFELLOW. as. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²COLERIDGE. "Who's there?"²"Me. One exception is to be noted. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. on the other hand. is. both in England and America. Patrick the Porter. The usage is too common to need further examples.² For there was little doubt that it was he."²WM. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage."²KINGSLEY. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.² One I remember especially." 401. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²PARTON. unless a special. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. "Than whom. namely. BLACK. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. "If there is any one embarrassed. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. . A safe rule." There is no special reason for this. But still it is not she.²KINGSLEY. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²RUSKIN. it will not be me. The camp of Richard of England. And it was heThat made the ship to go.

as.Exercise. used after verbs. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. 11. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. you or me. but not he" (he should be him. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. I speak not to" (he should be him.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. as. object of saw). "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 9. 404. 403.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. Truth is mightier than us all. 5." the word being in apposition with murderer). "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. or us). 2. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. Nominative for the objective. 7. verbals. If there ever was a rogue in the world. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. verbal. or preposition which governs it. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. as this from Shakespeare. Whom they were I really cannot specify. 4. it is me. Me in exclamations. now. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. as." 6. or this. "Ask the murderer. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. the object of to). "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 3. . It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. (3) By forgetting the construction. 8. 10. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. and prepositions. It is not me you are in love with.²MILTON. You know whom it is that you thus charge.

Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. as. for they say there are none such in the world. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²BYRON. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who.²STEELE.² All were knocked down but us two. changed in all save thee. for example. None.²KINGSLEY. Exercise. save thou and thine. as well as the objective. and is usually avoided. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. Thy shores are empires. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. 405.Exception 1. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. "Who were they talking to?" etc. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Nature. . partial Nature. 406. Thou. I arraign. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. who interrogative. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.Shall be left upon the morn. but he.²KINGSLEY.²BYRON. Exception 2. 2. Let you and I look at these. "Who did you see?" or. all but he. after the preposition but (sometimes save). etc.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Who have we here?²ID. as.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. I've sworn. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form.²GOLDSMITH.²KINGSLEY. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. We regularly say.

²possessive. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. Bartholomew. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 5.²DE QUINCEY. Markland.²MACAULAY.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 8. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. This usage is not frequent. POSSESSIVE FORMS. and they know that as well as me. with Jortin and Thirlby. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. II.²RUSKIN.3. 407. who. BROWN.²SCOTT. B.²THACKERAY. They crowned him long ago." 4. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 9. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 11. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 10. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. As antecedent of a relative. 7. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. or objective? . Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 12. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²C. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.Ye I salute. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 6. Preceding a gerund.

²MACAULAY. But in common use there is no such distinction. etc. Both types of sentences are found." That is. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.408. We heard of Brown. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. that the bitterness of death was past. The last incident which I recollect. In the examples quoted. both are gerunds. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²BREWER. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and asked why it was not made. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. Why both are found. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. and that in the second. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. studying is a gerund. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. . in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.²DICKENS. Possessive. Objective.²RUSKIN. sometimes it has the objective.² THACKERAY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.² IRVING. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. and the meaning is. object of heard of. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.² CARLYLE. as he turned away from his wife. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. [who was] studying law. The use of the objective is older. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.² SCOTT. Here I state them only in brief.

it was his own fault. or is a distributive word.²HUXLEY. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²C. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²AUDUBON. preceded by a distributive. The pale realms of shade.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²RUSKIN.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²when the antecedent.²EMERSON III. BROCKDEN BROWN.² BRYANT. taking in each of many persons.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²THOREAU.²DEFOE. If any one did not know it.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. Examples of these constructions are. Watch for the real antecedent. 409.²THACKERAY.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. In such a case as the last three sentences.²HOLMES.²DE QUINCEY. in one person. Everybody had his own life to think of. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. where there were examinations. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. 410. if the antecedent is neuter. number. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. . and ought to agree with them in person. Every city threw open its gates. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²DE QUINCEY. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²CABLE. and gender.

Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²ID.²FIELDING.²EMERSON. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. till they have lost him. Struggling for life. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²BYRON. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²BIBLE. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²ID.²RUSKIN. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. . each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. let them break it off.²DEFOE. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. This is not considered the best usage. Whosoever hath any gold.Avoided: By using both pronouns. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²PAULDING.² Not the feeblest grandame. If the part deserve any comment.²PALEY.²SCOTT. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²HUXLEY. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²THACKERAY.²PALGRAVE. 411. for example. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. and giving them means of being so. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. The sun. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²AUSTEN. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. not a mowing idiot.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. as anybody in their senses would have done. By using the plural pronoun.

that being considered already clear.²ID. which. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.² SHERIDAN. 412.²In the above sentences. and he went away. As to their conjunctive use.) and a personal pronoun. etc. In the following examples. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. but. Exercise. 2. unless both genders are implied. as. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one].²HAWTHORNE. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. and that are restrictive or not. It adds a new statement to what precedes. or unrestrictive. because." It defines beggar. 1. and that always restrictive. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. when restrictive. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES." This means. 413. the definite relatives who. tell whether who. That is in most cases restrictive. when coördinating.²ADDISON. . no one could take upon them to say. or what was become of her. I. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.Where she was gone. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. A relative. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. and does not add a new statement. Exercise. but." A relative. "I gave it to the beggar. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. according to the practice of every modern writer. which. in each instance:² Who. What these terms mean. who went away. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide.

because of its antecedent.² MOTLEY. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. The rule. For example. So different from the wild. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. in the sentence.²DE QUINCEY. etc. 414. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first." that is invariable as to person and number. 13. On hearing their plan. she agreed to join the party. 10. . long arms and legs.²THOREAU. We say I. these or that which. 12. However. etc. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. In what sense true.²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY. 7.²ID. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. 14. That. 9. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.² NEWMAN.²HOLMES. down. he. and over England are saying. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. BEECHER 5.²H. that were often vicious. it makes the verb third person singular. and it is called logic. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. The general rule is. With narrow shoulders.² CARLYLE. W. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. II. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. they. which Mr. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand.² IRVING.. Yet how many are there who up. as that does not vary for person or number. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. which was to go over the Cordilleras. Hare has printed. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.3. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. 11. 4. you. 8. etc. who. A grizzly-looking man appeared.²ID. 6. Which. but.

"one of the finest books that have been published. when he derided the shams of society.²LOWELL. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.²whether we should say.. A disputed point. ARNOLD. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. who rarely speak at all. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY..²J.] Both constructions are frequently found. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²LECKY..²MACAULAY. [singular or plural. the true antecedent. MORSE.. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. "one of the finest books that has been published. or which . with one as the principal word. 415. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed." One of .. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. The latter is rather more frequent. Franklin.²SCOTT. etc. others regard books as the antecedent. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²M.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.²ADDISON.²LOWELL. but speaks of him as that sort. JR. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. but the former has good authority.²ADDISON. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. Singular. etc.²BOWLES. Let us be of good cheer. and in improving a victory. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. The fiery youth .²HOLMES. He is one of those that deserve very well. in winning a battle.. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. . [plural] that who." or. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. and write the verb in the plural. French literature of the eighteenth century. T. but myself.²HOWELLS.

²IRVING. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²EMERSON. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. 416. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed." "India is the place [in which. object of a preposition understood.²DEFOE. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²EMERSON.In that same state I came. III. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.²BURNS. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. But I by backward steps would move. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. when this dust falls to the urn. that is. where. and see if the sentence is made clearer. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.² . whence.²CARLYLE.And. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. Exercise. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²ID. and such like: as. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²SWIFT. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. or where] he died.²In the above sentences.²GOLDSMITH. 417. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²VAUGHAN.² THACKERAY. I could see nothing except the sky.A rare Roundabout performance. when the relative word is a pronoun.²SCOTT. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²ADDISON."²DICKENS. IV. return.² RUSKIN. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.

The regular construction. was a discoverer. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. V. which. as is not as his apprentice. Which. etc. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.²R. looking-glasses. if same is followed by a complete clause.²ADDISON. W. Caution. They believe the same of all the works of art. but which is usually carefully avoided.²FRANKLIN..² THACKERAY. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. but. he. or that.²WORDSWORTH. Anacoluthic use of which.² BURKE. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. . for example. but we find the relative who. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.²SWIFT.²SCOTT. she passed the lamp over her face and person. with Turner. That.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest.² Which. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. if I had resolved to go on with. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. as of knives. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Mr. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. 418. I might as well have staid at home. and working in the same spirit. boats.² MACAULAY. CHURCH. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.He considered. ²GOLDSMITH.. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.

² Direction for rewriting. As the sentences stand. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. And who. who are now thrown." etc. which when Mr. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. and this be placed in the proper clause. This was a gentleman.²DE QUINCEY. . and who are now thrown upon their compassion.. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. (2) "Among the poorer sort. and who are now. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.." etc. or leave out both connective and relative. 4.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. That is. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them." etc. (1) "Among those who are poor.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. but none is expressed.²THACKERAY. After this came Elizabeth herself.She'd come again. 419.²RUSKIN. or. Exercise. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. 2.²SHAKESPEARE. Exercise. and which. Thornhill had read. now thrown upon their. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.²GOLDSMITH. But who. he said that all submission was now too late.²SCOTT. but. etc. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²HAWTHORNE. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. He delivered the letter. or omit the conjunction. once a great favorite of M.²which if they once heard. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. 1. 3. le Conte. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. Express both relatives.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.. etc. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.

9. which the Scotch had learned. one of signal interest. as a false and astucious mark. 10. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. either from imitation of their frequent allies. and which may even be heard a mile off. indeed. and which has never been described.5. English by name. I saw upon the left a scene far different.²DE QUINCEY. Or who. like that spoken in the towns. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 420. But which. Akin to the above is another fault. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. the French. "What knight so craven. Or which. etc. Dr. and to whom no door is closed. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. That .²HAWTHORNE. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. I shall have complete copies. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. 11. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. etc.²IRVING.. 7... 13. and repeat this for any further reference. Exercise. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony..²SCOTT. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. 12. And which. 1.² MOTLEY. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.²DE QUINCEY. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 6. "A mockery. and which.²SCOTT." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian.²PEARSON. . then. who. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. 8.

that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and whose examples and principles we inherit. G. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.²W.. Which .²SCOTT That which . 10.²W. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours....²DE QUINCEY. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.²BEECHER. was a bustling wharf. E. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus..²HALLAM.... 15.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. the cent. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. half a century ago. 8.²HAWTHORNE. In my native town of Salem. 9. 14. which. in his Mephistopheles. That .²SCOTT. 11. which. It rose into a thrilling passion. that . the dime. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. I give to such men as do not belong to me. .2. I recommend some honest manual calling. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. what. 7. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. 5. 3. 6.. was hung in air.²HOLMES. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. I grudge the dollar. that. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. but which. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. The Tree Igdrasil.. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. at the head of what. in his present condition. 13. and to whom I do not belong. such as they have very probably been bred to. 4. Such as .. He. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. CHANNING. 12. Such as . Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. whom.²EMERSON. but which is perhaps not so different from it. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. He flung into literature. SIMMS.²DEFOE.²EMERSON.²HOWELLS.

The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. Each other. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. We call ourselves a rich nation. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²GOLDSMITH. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. Distributives either and neither. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.²HAWTHORNE.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. 421. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Use of any.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. By their original meaning. in which case any should be used instead. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. as. 422.² Some one must be poor. one another. for example. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. that not all combined. as. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. . The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²MACAULAY.²RUSKIN. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. whether or not the two are equivalent.²RUSKIN. Assume that no one is in want of either. as it were. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. England was then divided between kings and Druids. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.² HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. and in want of his gold²or his corn. always at war with one another.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²ID.²DICKENS.

then in Plotinus. Examples of its use are. . 424.. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BEECHER Whenever.²CARLYLE. speak. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. In earlier Modern English.²EMERSON. Do you think. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. Any usually plural. when any of them are so good as to visit me.² In earnest. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²PROF.²BIBLE.²SCOTT. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. None of Nature's powers do better service. as. 423.² If any.²THACKERAY.. I beseech you. if ever man was. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. any was often singular. at one time in Bacon.. afterwards in Goethe. even in Bettine. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. that I know of. in the prose of the present day.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .² EMERSON. usually plural. as.²FRANKLIN. for him have I offended. Caution.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. in Shakespeare. Do you think. which is plural as often as singular. If any of you lack wisdom.²STIRLING.²SHAKESPEARE. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. whilst I still cherish their genius. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. during his stay at Yuste. before that. The adjective pronoun none is. let him ask of God. and is isolated. etc. then in Plutarch. None usually plural. as none of the French philosophers were. any of his friends had died. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²BURKE.

²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. nobody else. When all were gone. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. as.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. 425. which is used absolutely.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and less rarely in poetry. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. The light troops thought .²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. the plural. and Ford has nobody's else. etc. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . for example. etc.²NAPIER Plural.. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. any one else. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. fixing his eyes on the mace. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. are treated as units. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. The compounds somebody else. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. Somebody's else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. etc.. when it means all persons: for example..² None of them was cleansed.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²THOREAU.² Singular. or somebody else's? 426.²McMASTER. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. that all was lost.² PEARSON. etc. saving Naaman the Syrian. and all was lost on the other.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.

my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. or some other such great man as a bishop." "all manner of men. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences... I hoped we had done with those sort of things. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²RUSKIN. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. the adjectives plural. ELIOT.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. WILLIS. His hair." the nouns being singular. . etc. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²RUSKIN.²AUSTEN. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. "Ye see.² Saturday Review. STOWE. These sort. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²G.²in such as "these sort of books." "those kind of trees. London. unlike anybody else's in the world. etc. P. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. or those sort of people. 427. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. for example. ADJECTIVES. Again. Whitefield or Wesley.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²SHERIDAN.²N.SYDNEY SMITH.²MULOCH. all manner of.² These kind of knaves I know.²DICKENS. A suit of clothes like somebody else's."²MRS.²THACKERAY. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).² FIELDING.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²SWEET.

each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. with all manner of amusing books.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. Use of the comparative degree. in spoken English.²RUSKIN. for example. not "all kinds of wild animals. Should we say. 428. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. made to agree with it. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. the victor or the vanquished." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. "This sort of trees should be planted. . Of two such lessons. Later form." A question. which accounts for the construction. Consequently we have a confused expression.The library was open. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. This the modern expression reverses. In Old and Middle English.² Which is the better able to defend himself. to express a higher degree of quality. Burke's sentence. they said. and in this way may take a plural verb." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. when the necessary dispositions concur. gradually displacing the old." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind)." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. "These kind of trees are best. or one object with a class of objects. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY.² PRESCOTT. and the adjective is. more alarming than a total silence. "This kind of rules are the best. The result. According to the approved usage of Modern English. At the source. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. or the nouns to the plural. as. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. History of this construction. such as. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.

I am concerned to see that Mr.²MACAULAY. by almost the breadth of my nail. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.² THACKERAY. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Gary.²MACAULAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. than any of his court. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²HUXLEY. He is taller.²WIRT. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²TROLLOPE. Henry. 2.²HAWTHORNE. would not have had the face. 5. etc. 4. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Use of the superlative degree. 6. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. Other after the comparative form. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²SWIFT. 3. has sanctioned. . Superlative with two objects.²SCOTT. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²LOWELL.²THACKERAY. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. 429. To the man who plays well. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.A braver ne'er to battle rode. the highest stakes are paid. Exercise. 430. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. if not."²ID. Even Dodd himself. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²CARLYLE. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.

. Double comparative and superlative.²IRVING.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. CÆSAR. I should say that one has the best cause. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Come you more nearer. Mary. Examples from Shakespeare are. more particularly the last of them. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²EMERSON. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. The eldest. The following examples are used purposely. These two properties seem essential to wit. and differ only in form. In all disputes between States. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. 431. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. OLIPHANT.²SCOTT."²HAWTHORNE. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. who eat white bread or brown. ha. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.."²GOLDSMITH. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. 1611.²MRS. whichever can be got easiest..²HAMLET. "Ha. Nor that I am more better than Prospero."²BULWER. and the other contains the best men.²TEMPEST.²ADDISON. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²J. not a bit of high life among them.²BEN JONSON. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²GOLDSMITH. Also from the same period. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²Bible.²DR BLAIR. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. Rip was one of those .²RUSKIN.

and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. For Carlyle.² SMOLLETT. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. jar upon us constantly. ²COWPER.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. the Spanish. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²GIBBON. As to these two expressions. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. 433. Definite article.²RUSKIN. The delay in the first three lines.²LAMB. First three. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.²PRESCOTT. The meaning intended is the same. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²GIBBON. etc. . we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The merit of the Barb.²DE QUINCEY. and Secretary Walsingham also.²ADDISON. Three first. Instances of both are given below. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. but in literary English.²KINGSLEY.²RUSKIN. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. etc.² With a singular noun. Examples of this construction are. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The first five had specific names. not only so in popular speech. and conceit in the last. ARTICLES. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.

²PRESCOTT. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. to distinguish clearly.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.²TAYLOR. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. the hour of parting came. 1508.²NEWMAN.²MACAULAY. however.²ID. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. He is master of the two-fold Logos. of the eighteenth century. but is used with one only. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.²CARLYLE. One object and several modifiers.²THACKERAY.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. 435. 434. I think. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.² MACAULAY. and flexible language. melodious. were placed at a very tender age. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. as. No. 433. having been arranged. with a plural noun. Indefinite article.²TENNYSON. With a plural noun. as in Sec. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. but inseparable from each other. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²THE NATION.²SCOTT. distinct. The lofty. The not repeated. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE..² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. 433.. Origin of the Aryans. Frequently. as. the greatest poems. Here the youth of both sexes. the thought and the word. .² RUSKIN. and the presents. or to emphasize the meaning. The flowers. with a singular noun.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. of the higher and middling orders. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . Meaning same as in Sec.

The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.²DRYDEN.²BEECHER.²B. or clearness to each of several nouns. .² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²BULWER. 438. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. like the definite article. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. one noun is expressed.²MACAULAY.²S. But in the following sentences. as in the first three of Sec. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. Examples of this use are. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.²DICKENS. a round and a square one alternately.436. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. a tyrant. 436). and inexhausted vein. a collegian. COLERIDGE. In the sentences of Secs. only one of which is expressed. The indefinite article (compare Sec." and "a red and a white geranium.² MACAULAY. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. a murderer. For rhetorical effect.²JOHNSON. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²THACKERAY. 437. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. The indefinite article is used. 433 and 436.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.² BURKE. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. and a usurper. rich. interest. JONSON. He saw him in his mind's eye. 435. to limit two or more modified nouns. One article with several adjectives. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²MACAULAY." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. T. as.An early.

276.²COOPER. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.²AGASSIZ. like some others in this series. ELIOT. Such. Sec.²G. He sees that it is better to live in peace. ARNOLD.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Singulars connected by or or nor. without academies.²The Nation. Another writer might. Collective noun of singular meaning. then. . has got already. This was spoken of in Part I.VERBS. was the earliest American land. 439. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²FROUDE. or the great intellectual life of our nation. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. 440. as.. Singular verb. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²CARLYLE This usage. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. In English.²W.²M. and the following illustrations prove it. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. for example. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. A broad and loose rule. as.²GIBBON. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. all that academies can give.

Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²BURKE.²GOLDSMITH. as.² The unbought grace of life.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. a loss of friends. nor Mahomet.²EMERSON . a loss of wealth. A fever. for example. seems at the moment unpaid loss. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. ADAMS. that of a large town.²WHITTIER. as. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. nor John.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²CRITIC. the cheap defense of nations.² In a word. a cruel disappointment.² GOLDSMITH. but considered as meaning about the same thing. a mutilation. or considered as appositional. nor Paul.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. and other singulars of plural form. is gone.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. No. Q. Plural form and singular meaning. ²EMERSON.² Politics is the only field now open for me. and every four hours. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. but each one emphatic. for example.²J. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.Jesus is not dead. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. or as making up one general idea. (4) When the subject is plural in form. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. other names.²GIBBON. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. Between ourselves.²DE QUINCEY.

Her back.²PRESCOTT. and such like adjectives. the ruin.² Asia. There is a moving tone of voice. with death. Subjects after the verb. no matter if the second is plural).²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. in a judge. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. no discontinuity. Then comes the "Why. almost every day. the wit.²NEWMAN.²LONGFELLOW.²HAWTHORNE. For wide is heard the thundering fray.The rout.² . Here is no ruin.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. wineBegins to stir itself. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.The author. every valet. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. was like to crack. as well as sides. many a. as well as the newest.²M ARNOLD. an impassioned countenance. Every fop. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. the fine gentleman. no spent ball. sir?" and the "No. an agitated gesture. was dazzled. Every sound. sir!" and the "What then.²BUTLER. the partisan.²MACAULAY. To receive presents or a bribe. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. a cuirass. every boor.²ID. thus. 441.²SCOTT. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. Plural verb. The Epic. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. as. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. the dismay. Every week.²RUSKIN. nay. as well as the Drama. was listened to for five hours.²ID. was punished. each.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. every echo.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. sir!"²MACAULAY. does not take the place of the man. and greaves.²EMERSON. no. as. is a man of wit. The oldest. as well as Europe. a gorget.

A shady grove. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²EMERSON. The conjunction may be omitted.²FROUDE.²FROUDE. for example. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. of whom there were a number. are sufficient to attract a colony.²COLERIDGE.² A multitude go mad about it. a stream of fresh water. TAYLOR.²SCOTT.²SWIFT. . as. The Dauphin. His clothes. All our household are at rest. Philip of Anjou. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. b). as. were men of insignificant characters. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²DE QUINCEY. The travelers.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. its date. the Duke of Berri. Far. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²GOLDSMITH.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.² One or two of these perhaps survive. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²GIBBON.²CARLYLE But its authorship.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. a green pasture. but the verb is plural. 440 (5.²B.²FRANKLIN. shirt. far away thy children leave the land. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²ADDISON. making up a plural subject.²THOREAU. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.These bits of wood were covered on every square.² GIBBON. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. Conjunction omitted. as in Sec. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. as with a subject of plural form.

When the subjects. nor should I. ARNOLD.²THACKERAY. for example. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²WHITTIER. Ah. but thou.But notice the construction of this. Not Altamont. Second or third and first person in the subject.²M." etc. hadst been my lord. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Nothing which Mr. his blood dost shed. that is. Pattison or I have said. Exceptional examples. "I have never said so. as. WEBSTER.²RUSKIN.²D. Not I. 442.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.).²BYRON. but thou. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.²ROWE. we never talk politics. General usage. nor has she").² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. the subject being really equivalent to we. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. of different persons.²DE QUINCEY.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²LOWELL. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. You and I are farmers." "She or you may be sure. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. "You would not be wiser. If there is only one person in the subject. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now." or. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²THACKERAY. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²SMOLLETT. 444. . You and I are tolerably modest people. "He or I can go. This construction is at the best a little awkward. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. 443.

446. as we would hope.² TROLLOPE. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. In this sentence from Defoe. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²BURKE. In the following sentence. How each of these professions are crowded. 3. 4. as illustrated above (Secs. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²THACKERAY. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²and.²G. 2.²MILTON.²SCOTT. nor bush are there. In a word.²perhaps the devil. Nor wood. 440-444):² 1. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 5.²ADDISON. in my opinion. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²BYRON. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. Both death and I am found eternal. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²EMERSON. 7. BANCROFT. nor tree. Exercise. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Also in verbals. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²ADDISON.That neither of their intellects are vast. 11. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 12. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 6. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). 8. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. which it is proper to mention. 9.²ID. Neither of them.Her course to intercept. 10." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze.445. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.²SMOLLETT.

²R. 448. I gave one quarter to Ann.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. to have divided with her whatever might remain. however. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. for exact connection. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece." . Exercise. Direct discourse²that is. 447. meaning. The present rule is recent.² PALGRAVE 5.²THACKERAY. Two samples of indirect discourse.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. CHURCH. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. But I found I wanted a stock of words. if not.²DE QUINCEY 2. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. as. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . W. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. to have seen should be changed to to see.²KINGSLEY. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Of course. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²FRANKLIN 6. 4. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²MACAULAY. Definitions.. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. on my return. 3.²IRVING. change them to a better form:² 1.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.. It should be remarked. Indirect discourse means reported speech.

Oh. 1. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. Her prudence whispered eternally. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. and the indirect question by whether or if. Summary of the expressions. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. The substance of his lamentation was. Direct. . 2. "Oh.. etc. Direct. have. His exact words were. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. introductory verb is in the past tense. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect." Indirect. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. not attempting to follow the entire quotation.. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. 449. "I cannot oblige you . Sebastian's.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat.. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. She thought to herself. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that." etc. This includes the auxiliaries be. will.. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. interrogative adverbs. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. under interrogative pronouns." etc. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. or regular interrogatives.

and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. handed down from his ancestor the historian." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise.²ADDISON. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Notice this.²ID. if this were expanded into a verb.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. one summer afternoon.²B. he assured me that nothing was more easy. in the sentences first quoted. . PARTICIPLES. my first observation will be found nearly true.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. the first discoverer of the river and country. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.Exercise. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. the sound of their balls. The trouble is.²GOLDSMITH. like distant peals of thunder. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. with his crew of the Half-moon." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. 450. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. FRANKLIN. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. Careless use of the participial phrase. VERBALS. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. and that he himself had heard.

There are. For example..²ID." etc. . Standard writers often use it...²LAUGHLIN. INFINITIVES. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. the first sentence would be." Exercise.. In the following citations. either "As I was pleased. Exercise. then. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. many things to be carefully considered.² HERBERT SPENCER. universal assertion. 3. 451. leaving the principal statement as it is. while defended or excused by others. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.²RUSKIN. It is a solemn. and often. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. 2.. avoid it.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. if a strike is to succeed. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. purposely or not. my first collection was.²SCOTT. This is the more common arrangement. . yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.Correction. Adverb between to and the infinitive.

Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. this kind of grandeur. 8. and earthenware. but they are often removed from the exact position. 6. etc. 452.. The spirits. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 7.²RUSKIN.." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. etc. which consists in multitude. but it is placed before the infinitive. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. Position of only. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.² MACAULAY. therefore. 13. are used. even. The rigid rule in such a case would be. 1533.4. A little sketch of his. etc. Now. 5. BLAIR. ADVERBS. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. even. No. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. but cannot misunderstand the thought.²SCOTT.²The Nation.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.² ADDISON. Exercise. from Irving. if they modify single words. is to be very cautiously admitted.²TROLLOPE. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen.²ID. china. In works of art. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. 10. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. I wish the reader to clearly understand.²BURKE.²GOLDSMITH. when such adverbs as only. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 12.²DR. 11. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 9.

² THACKERAY. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 13. Irving could only live very modestly. to avoid a crowd.²ID. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²PALGRAVE.1. 4.²N. 16. WILLIS.²SWIFT. In Old and Middle English.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 15.²ID. 453. 17. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 8. 2. My master. 6.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²ID. ²ASCHAM. 5. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. He shouted in those clear.²CHAUCER. 11. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 10. In relating these and the following laws. .²MACAULAY. 7. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²RUSKIN. whence he was never destined to return. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. No sonne.²EMERSON. His last journey to Cannes. might not marry.²THACKERAY. 14. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. During the whole course of his administration. P. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. were he never so old of yeares. 3. 9. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²COOPER. He could only afford to keep one old horse. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 12.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²SYDNEY SMITH. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. GROTE. for example.²MOTLEY.²HIGGINSON. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²MRS. The old usage.

when one of the negatives is a connective. Not only could man not acquire such information. who hadn't been to school for nothing. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.² HAMILTON. denying each other. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. .²BAYNE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. This. as infrequent. is not common. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.²MRS."²MRS.²GROTE. The prosperity of no empire.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. In the execution of this task. 2. Exercise. There weren't no pies to equal hers. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. the usual way of regarding the question now is. one of the negatives is often a prefix.²DEFOE. in Ole Virginia. 7.²HOLMES. however. nor the grandeur of no king.²LOWELL. STOWE. 4. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. under the influence of Latin syntax. and is still kept in vulgar English. as.²BURKE. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect."²four negatives. neither. if two negatives are found together. and why:² 1. But. In the latter case. 6.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. ²PAGE. etc. nor never shall.²HAWTHORNE. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. but ought not to labor after it. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. Therefore. Exceptional use. STOWE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. I did not act so hastily. 5. However. uncommon. can so agreeably affect.²DE QUINCEY. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. I never did see him again. 3. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. Regular law of negative in modern English.

nor. "A weapon.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. In the sentence. Correction. as the use of the conjunction. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. not merely . but to their own safety.. The sentence. should be scrutinized. the first ought to be placed before a verb." both of the above requirements are violated. either . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. "well worthy to confer honor. and.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. nor is often changed to not²either . or with advantage. even neither . And who. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. or to reply to it.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. if the second precedes a phrase. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. neither . but (also). Choice and proper position of correlatives. if the last precedes a verb.²LOWELL. but. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. especially both . the first should also. and which.."²SCOTT. not or is the proper correlative of neither. or to reply to it. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. CONJUNCTIONS. there we were. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals." . or.. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. The sentences given in Secs. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.." said the King. as well as of the pronoun... not only . 455.8.. or. 454." may be changed to "This loose . a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind... Things to be watched.²PRESCOTT. either.." Besides neither .²SCOTT. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. not only to the success of their common cause.

but. or the negative relative but. or but that for the words but what:² 1. JEWETT. not merely interest children.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. 8.²S. They will.²FRANKLIN. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. 3.²GOLDSMITH.²ID. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Some exceptions. O. Now. etc. 5.²RUSKIN. In the following sentences. and I don't know but what he was right. murder. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²MACAULAY. 2. 4. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. too. as. or but that. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. Correct the following sentences:² 1. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.Exercise. as. 457. but.²BAIN.²THACKERAY. 6. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. nor the disgrace of assailing him. Try and avoid the pronoun. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²THACKERAY. 7. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. but they will outrage. Try and for try to. Exercise. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. but grown-up persons.² ADDISON.²GIBBON. 456. substitute that. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. But what. and chop up their own kin. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. . I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son.

but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.2. PREPOSITIONS. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²ADDISON.²EMERSON. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. . 458. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.²BURKE. as already seen in Sec. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. no separation or division by twos being implied. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies.²EMERSON. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.²SCOTT. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²TROLLOPE.²ADDISON. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 305. 313. 3. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 5. Between is used most often with two things only. 4. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. see Sec. 459. 6. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.² BULWER. Between and among.² SWIFT. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.

etc. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Kant. 461.²KINGSLEY. or one object and a group. . and philosophers like Locke. Such are absolve. 460. and another to convey a different meaning. Conform to. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.²RUSKIN What have I. LIST I. Affinity between. List I. Two groups or one and a group. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Acquit of. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Bestow on (upon). Accord with. Derogatory to.²between philosophers like Spinoza. by custom. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Different from.: Words with particular prepositions. Dependent on (upon). confer. Such are derogatory. averse. correspond. Dissent from. Conversant with. Abhorrent to. ²EMERSON.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Paley. Some of them have. Averse to. as. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. and Coleridge. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Comply with. a soldier of the Cross. and Stewart.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. different. as. Mackintosh. involve.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope.

Independent of. . y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Confide to (intrust to). Agree to (a proposal). Correspond with (write to). in the sense of making friends with. as. Correspond to (a thing). A taste of (food). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Differ with (note below). "The king is reconciled to his minister. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). but it is not good usage. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Reconcile with (note below). A taste for (art.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Confide in (trust in). and sometimes creeps into standard books." List III. Confer with (talk with). List II. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Change to (become). as.). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Reconcile to (note below). 462. Differ from (note below). LIST III.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Confer on (upon) (give to). Involve in. 463. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. as meaning to be in keeping with. etc. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Change with (a person). LIST II." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. as.y y y Deprive of." also of persons. Change for (a thing).

" She would have been ready to die with shame.²MACAULAY. . Expect of.y y y Die by. simply from old age. "Die by.²SHAKESPEARE. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²GOLDSMITH. Part from. ²ATHENÆUM. "Die for.²POPE. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²MACAULAY. If I meet with any of 'em. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²MACAULAY. die for. ELIOT." "die from.²ADDISON. He died at last without disease. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. Illustrations of "die of. She died of hard work. die of." (material cause." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger." (because of). they shall die by this hand. privation.²BURNETT." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. It would take me long to die of hunger.²BULWER. "Die for. as Cervantes informs us.²BOSWELL.²GOLDSMITH.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. I am positively dying with hunger. ELIOT. "Die from. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. died for love of the fair Marcella. instrument).²SCOTT. die with. No one died from want at Longfeld. and ill treatment. ²THACKERAY.²FIELDING. die from. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. People do not die of trifling little colds. One of them said he would die for her." etc. part with." (in behalf of). Who.²G.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. "Die with.²G.:² "Die of. expect from.

²POE." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH." "part from:"² "Part with. 464.²SHAW.²G. ELIOT. With words implying behavior or disposition. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. I have long expected something remarkable from you. His precious bag. "Part from. That is more than I expected of you. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. which he would by no means part from. Of Doctor P. It was a little bad of you. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²MACAULAY. I part with all that grew so near my heart. ELIOT.²G.²AUSTEN.²MARRYAT.²BULWER." "expect from:"² "Expect of." To part from you would be misery. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. just parted from her. I can part with my children for their good. 466. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²BULWER. Illustrations of "part with. ELIOT.²DICKENS. 465. Illustrations of "expect of. as my friend. nothing better was to be expected." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²G.²WALPOLE. "Expect from. and hated to part with them.²SCOTT. . Kind in you. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²TROLLOPE." She will expect more attention from you. I have just seen her. either of or in is used indifferently. kind of you.²MACAULAY.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²WALLER.

8. This narrative. 10. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. or which we are most imperatively required to do. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. nor of a pale red. the vast abyss. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 15.²DICKENS. In.²BULWER. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 6. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. But this is idle of you. with seraphims. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. 13.²TENNYSON. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief.²BULWER. thunder.He did not think it handsome of you. and ran up the alley. but which the story renders necessary. tedious perhaps. raging storms.²BEACONSFIELD. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. nor yellow. or artillery. nor green. The noise of vast cataracts.²CARLYLE. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. In the friction between an employer and workman. or that they are any way dependent on each other. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. nor blue. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 5. . It will be anything but shrewd in you. 14. Hampden. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. it is commonly said that his profits are high. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 11. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. Very natural in Mr. Thou tread'st. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 3. 9. 7. thrown it over Amyas's head. 1. 4. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing.

35. 32. triangles. 16.And were I anything but what I am. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 37. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. but in the price paid to them. what is a just and unjust act. 36. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles.) 34.I would wish me only he. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. save Amyas. 411. Every one of these letters are in my name. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. Squares. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. the acquiescence of the understanding. 25. and most of us do know. (Sec. 38. 27. That night every man of the boat's crew. 23. 24. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. and other angular figures. produce approbation. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. The effect of proportion and fitness. When the glass or liquor are transparent. and almost as good as a pony. 20. 33. 18. or how beautiful it is. 31. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 21. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. were down with raging fever. 30. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. you or me. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 22. . Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 28. 26. You have seen Cassio and she together. 19. 17. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. But every man may know. 29. Friday.

voice. article. 102. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 90. A.000 between them. 89. of. INDEX. 124. syntax uses Absolute. of. Adjectives. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 116. . 25. 92. (2) Middle English. 119. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 20. 98. adjectives. from nominative clauses. of. of. Abstract with Active Address. 239. 107. of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. demonstrative. 133. He had four children. as comparison definition demonstrative. 260. 40. 47. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 310. numeral. 124. adverbs used complements. as.39. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. (3) Modern English. from about 1500 to the present time. 47. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 91. pronouns. nouns. nominative. origin of.

nouns. of. conjunction. 323. of. from to of. 207. of. 116. as nouns. 97. quantity. 287. quality. parse. predicate. 191. 103. sentence. 99. nouns. 262. 116. 115. objective. 303. 27. 242.from function how in not of of ordinal. 148. parse. . 114. Against. clauses. antecedent. 303. conjunctions. 187. modify. 275. 104. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. Agreement. of. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 42. of. 291. 194. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. adjectives. 27. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 207. to used of. of. between of. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 183. 316. 109. 190. plural pronominal. and 185. Alms. 325. 184. adjectives. 101. with with with subject. 190. compared. 48. infinitive. 239. of. 194. 325. 195. 302. antecedent. 328. adjectives. 106.

to of. 120. definition how indefinite. See 74. sentences. 225. sentences. Anacoluthon Analysis. syntax As. 275. 287. syntax. An. 208. which. 84. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 240. definition of of of Any. adjective. 252. agreement personal as pronoun. 300. 295. 271. 231. Arrangement Articles. uses As At. 90. 101. 296. 67. Are. which. words between. pronouns. A. possessive. 49. of. same. 120. which. 47. Agreement. derivation in definite. sentences. of. 74. . in in. 150. 124. parse.Among. Auxiliary if. 331. and. of. 264. 198. 309. of. as uses verbs. 294. 207. 79. after of. of of of And Antecedent. of. See with definition complex compound simple who. 127. 67. it. of and pronoun of. 51. 148. though.

uses nominative of. of nouns. Children. 283. number of. 48.Bad. conjunctions Cherub. Between. clauses of. 262. 262. of. 66. Clause. of nouns. objective. 45. Can. adverb. adjective. 54. . with But By. 37. possessive. 330. 161. of pronouns. Cause. Bridegroom. 64. 194. of pronouns. 110. 46. of pronouns. of what. nominative. 149. in Old and Modern English. 49. syntax of. 260. 111. 47. 63. of. pronoun. Brethren. comparison conjugation of. See of. 150. 279. definition could. 39. 279. of nouns. 210. Be. Case. 62. 39. uses Better. of pronouns. double possessive. best. forms. 195. uses of. Among. 46. plurals of. 84. Case. 278. But. 110. of nouns. 278. 224. of.

305. 12. proper. 18. 110. Cleave. 189. of. 264. analysis of. 18. English. infinitive. 312. 53. nouns. verb. 315. 239. . 108. adverbs. nouns. of. of. 158. double. clothes. 268. sentence. 157. 248. of. 23. 244. 257. subject. of. of. 271. nouns. predicate. 113. defective. predicate of and from from of. 307. of. Clomb. definition degrees irregular. of. superlative. 43. and sentence. 257. 257. and forms of.definition kinds noun. 108. 263. plural of. Cloths. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 43. of. in analysis. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 111. 307. 258. adjectives. 107. 24. material.

195. of of Conjunctions. 188. 269. to of. 207. in Old vs. 194. 149. 328. 139. 194. 194. conjunctions. subjunctive. of. other other parts of speech. 193. correlative. analysis. Conjunctions. same words. 143. and clause. 196. 263. conjunction. 199. Can. See analysis clauses. of. replaced by objective. See English. Dative Declarative Declension of case. sentence. adverbs. 231. conjunctions. pronouns. pronoun. definition how subordinate. 151. interrogative pronouns. coördinate. 66. . 149. 195. verbs. 138. sentences. See in subjunctive. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. sentences. definition be. 73. Agreement. restrictive use of See relative Relative of.with Concord. parse. pronoun. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 255. 289.

with of.Declension. 300. pronouns. 91. of. vs. with. Articles. 102. See See 48. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 242. by. . comparative. Case. object. tenses. 60. clause. of. of personal relative verbs. use of dies. 99. nouns. 102. Comparative. 43. nouns. 288. 303. 160. 315. discourse. 152. indirect. for. pronouns. 26. pronouns. pronouns. 287. verb. article. of. See 148. duck. possessive. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 242. of. 333. 35. 185. passive adjectives. 80. Degrees. adverbs See adjectives. 320. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 90. Comparison. See adjectives. 51. Subordinate clause. from.

another. Elements Ellipsis. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. of. 33. 33. 240. pronoun. 328. 257. suffix. ending. 280. 12. 38.Drank. 300. conjunction. Empress. complement. . of. 34. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 90. other. Either. spoken. predicate. adjective. Each. of. the of sentence. 112. drunk. 92. pronoun. of. of. 62. of. original. 40. 42. added suffix. 299. vulgar. 287. error in sentence. 51. 92. 110. 234. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 194. 90. literary. 32. 158. to suffix. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 158. 241. adjective. 102. older. 255. one ( t). 287. feminine plural English. object. possessive suffix. in 'Em. 92. of subject. 39. pronouns. -En. plural.

of. used of. etc. Future Future tense. 189. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther.. 48. 103. first. from. plurals. two. nouns. 148. perfect. 30. 212. expect gone. 30. as of from compared marking. 287. 334. have adjective. other languages. 102. object. of. From. See Gander. pronoun. definition distinguished in English. with infinitive. 30. 102. gender." 31. Gender. adjective. few. 319. modes "common goose. 45. For. 152. Few. 91. 36. as a noun. Feminine. First. etc. . 112. 238. the. 211. First Fish. two a further. 152. Farther. with in sex. 32.. 235. Further. 308. fishes. 112. of. 212. 43. 29. to of. 110. 126. uses Foreign Former.Every. uses redundant. 147.

possessive pronouns.of of Genii. definition divisions opinions province H. 12. of. I. 35. forms in Girl. 275. 177. from participle of. 159. He. 173. 144. it. adjective. 13. 61. 10. Grammar. person. 43. . for before. personal relative geniuses. 145. 101. rather. 120. 61. 12. definition basis of. 60. on. 36. Had Hanged. pronoun. its. 285. 80. Got. participle. Gerund. distinguished syntax. first sentence. of. of. noun. 60. 175. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 231. kinds of. pronouns. had hung. Government. His Husband. 9. 176. and case verbal with. of. an better. 159. she.

of. 257. 93. 178. use article. 153. meaning. sentence. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. See you. 73. 131. 283. 323. 110. in compared syntax. mood. 188. questions. transitive. 85. verbs. of clause. 67. Direct object. elements.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 43. adverbs. 319. Questions. 176. 105. questions. indirect of. pronouns. of. of. adjectives. 245. 248. uses discourse. a object. words. pronoun. 136. . 231. 72. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 233. 227. adjectives. your. 276. See Articles. indices. with of. of. summary See passive mood. 131. 320.

of. plural. Last. 227. 91. lesser." history etc. Lay. 190. was uses me. uses Literary Little. syntax the. It. "It Its. English. 36. See Madam. predicate. these double kind. lord. lie. in little. etc. 102. 276. 113. Lie. Like. a vs. Lady. 245. 63. 110. King. 67. 281. Logic Logical Lord.. Kind. of. Latter. 36. 36. 61. syntax. pronoun.adverbs. 226. 39. subject form. 12. Kine. Less. 126. of.. . 189. Lay. 303. 170. of. -Ly. 110. latest. and See words in. Lady. 113. queen. adjective.

Modifier. 137-144. 328. out of.. adjective. 36. indicative. imperative. 160. position adverb. of. 112. 110. 126. 161. syntax nearer. subjunctive. 188. 287. 137. 326. Means. 135. 114. 325. Mood. Much. 34. Modifiers. Many Mapping Mare. of. mine. 144.Manner. Negative. 112. Neither. 41. Mighty Mine. of. sentences. 195. 194. See definition 136. 113. might. -Most. . of. of. of. in adverbs comparison a. superlatives. 64. syntax conjunction. 189. conjunctions Many. comparison Near. 265. Must. Enlargement. 256. May. mistress. of. Master. double. 185. of. construction as of adverb. 110. 102. 110. 112. nigh. etc. 189. 187.

20. 17 19. 92. etc. and figures. Not Noun Nouns. 30. 246. 56. 300. 46. See 194. parse. now plural. become become formation case collective. 328. 25. 30. 19. 41. 17. of. of of of of of a. 17. gender how kinds material. half abstract. definition descriptive. 29. 18. in. etc. Case. 41. 26. foreign. 27.pronoun. Nor. nouns. 30. nouns. 124. of. of. 125. 45. become neuter. material. number once other plural. formed. No Nominative. class used singular. common. abstract. . of. of. syntax Neuter or two News. syntax in gender nouns. analysis. kinds 90. 258. words how compound. 126. used as. 42. 38-41. letters as 24. of. 38. abstract. None. 41 43. 46. clause. 301. to of. of. 25. 32. proper. gender nouns. definition according of. to use. 21.

41. or plural. of. See in in in Numeral distributive. 195. English. of. 48. with with with Now Number. 42. adjectives. definite. 48. verbs. 121. adjectives. adverbial. and analysis. 242. preposition. 240. 39. as forms titles. of different possessive definite of. 18. conjunction. singular. indefinite. 235. 66. 48. 102. of. 278. 41. 92. of. 278. in article. 148. 42 44. pronouns. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 282. form. 60. nominative. 101. 124. meanings. meaning.. 279. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. passive adverbial. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. etc. . 23. singular. of. plural form. plural. Preposition. 41. 43.of same two with proper. article. pronouns. 281. See verb. 48. of. plural no two singular construction. 101. dative. 285. 48. spoken of instead nouns. with case. 196. Numeral Object. in nouns. 42. 106. personal. common. indirect. Nouns. 242.

syntax Of. 94. 56. of syntax. 191. 56. adverbs. Each adjective. of of of of of models adjectives. 127. See the as of. 237. of. 117. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 101. 161. 325 275. Ourself. 87. 293. 116. 194. Pains. 103. 233. adverb. a in adjectives. 213. uses numeral pronoun. See pronoun. of. Oxen. as other. Parsing. nouns. Ordinal Other Ought. articles. 103. Older. Elder. 306. with (the). conjunction. Our. 279. conjunctions. inverted. position Order. part analysis. treatment comparatives. 41. 93 other. ours. another. as of. for. adjective. 38. 199. 216. definite relative uses of. 115. 69. . 91. of upon. One. of. pronoun. 64. Omission On.

in. pronouns. 119. 177. pronoun. Person. antecedent. relatives.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. pease. 63. 317. 62. parsed. 56. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 174. 100. of. verbs. them. verbals. 70. 335. 80. 179. 61. 59. 287. -ing words. pronouns. 59. agreement of verb nouns. 56. part adjective. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. of. of. 322. 64. or of. speech. 148. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 69. reflexive. 219. 43. Pence. 134. of. 28. included various. 62. article 150. of. . and subject in. phrases. with. 181. not is. from definition other of. 180. 247. 172. 27. verb idioms it from. possessive and of. 281. predicate use of. absolute with of. 59. 173. of. used as voice. verbs. 172. nominative. of. 95. pennies. phrase. 43.

of. prepositional. 188. adjectives. plural. simple. 54. conjunctions prepositions Plural. singular degree.objective syntax table triple uses of. 245. of. 195. of. objects. participial. it. pronoun. Comparison. of. 50. nouns. relative. as double. 25. . 245. 49. syntax of of Politics. 247. 63. spoken of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 248. noun nouns. antecedent of of pronouns. 53. 247. 278. 's. 53. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 41. 235. 64. of. pronouns. adverbs of. 281. nouns. 61. Personification. See 60. 232. 37. English. 106. 51. pronoun. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. nouns. appositional. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 303. Nouns. 236. complete. or See of of See 185. Personal subjective. of. of. in of. 206. 52. 241. Place. of Phrase. of nouns. Positive Possessive. 67. 303. vs. double. 60. 285. singular. of. 236. omitted. kinds infinitive. 281. 278.

301. parse. interrogative. 302. same used as adjectives. 64. 219. any. 299. singular usually other. 282. case. 58. 208. 203. as antecedent of relative. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 300. 332. usually to as than. 283.Prefixes. 32. . 104. 303. 281. expressed as other of. verbs. 300. who personal. 187. and one with else's. for predicate nominative. 105. 59. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. of. of. 203. plural. what. with tense certain. 206. plural. possessive nominative to of. 331. 284. 93. 195. by with shown certain of. 207. speech. all. and form form form form of. interrogative. 333. 287. by parts of of. 105. adverb. future. 283. of. of. after but. parse. of. words. meaning. objective. another. by. exclamatory. 205. case. neither. none. Pronouns. 129. of. 186. 147. as. plural. 202. in exclamations. of. as 54. Prepositions. 89. 279. somebody definition how indefinite. 72. each either. 58. adjective. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. objective. 280. 132. 95. 285. forms of.

clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. pronouns.possessive relative. Direct same and different. of. 289. Quantity. 295. 74. of. 85. 80. to of. 74. of. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. same antecedent. 68. pronoun. 263. conjunctions Quality. Nouns. 195. 296. in. discourse. 188. parse. Rather. which. 295. 286. 83. and which. 69. indirect compound. of. adverbs in. use in as. or of. Rank. Quotations. See of. and antecedent. 142. with who. 189. that. 101. of. 69. of. 297. questions. use of history formed. 87. Questions. 74. pronominal pronouns indirect. in. 85. 99. 279. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. who. and relatives. 87. 291. personal pronoun. with with gerund. which after same. 84. . of. 289. 105. 58. 293. of. nouns. unrestrictive. indirect. in. agreement anacoluthon and as. from and interrogative. of. 293.

conjunction. plural possessive as. simple. complex. Shear. of. who. gender. 242. See Sentences. simple of. Shot. S. 255.syntax use Result. 259. ending. 196. Self Sentences. 159. object. of sit. 263. Seeing. 252. 162. that. definition . in of. 289. 'S. 170. 195. 40. 29. forms shots. 159. 42. Sex Shall. 294. and should. 43. 74. 196. will. Simple in sate. which. clauses of. 319. pronoun. effect. conjunctions Retained Riches. Same Sat. of of of complex Sentences. sentence. 51. elliptical. in form. of. suffix. tenses. would. reflexive analysis of compound. 231. 231. kinds Sequence Set. of. 26 271. of. 69.

of. Split Spoken -Ster. 186. 257.. 257. English. 245. 258. Somebody Sort. in feminine suffix. verbs. these number. See -En. of. of. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. disuse in spoken complete. 33. Spelling Spinster. literary clause. 257. 237. definition how kinds noun. 323. distinguish. Subject. 303. adverb. to of. English. other Such Such Suffix -s. adverb. 36. -es. in Middle English. 137. logical. 240. for. 144. of. -en. 12. 126. vs. 169. Modern use becoming else's. 38.Singular Sir. 33. 144. of. used mood. sort. 258. 138. English. etc. 245. 258. phonetic in infinitive. English. . 38. 270. 257. 262. 32. as. 260. definition 67. names as a. of. of. 233. 303.

when as of. 275. that uses That. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. they. me. auxiliaries. of. adverbs. king. 290. object. 191. 123. Kind. classical of. degree. of. 186. 108. of. 280. 289. than of. 147.. two basis not same definition definite. Tenses. syntax of. of. of. 277. 222. 147. restrictive. 106. as history The. 116. in double. in comparison. article. meaning. 319. English. of. coördinating. 186. 309. "the then foreign. 152. There These kind. 33. adjectives. of . 119. as history syntax Their. 120. plural as adverb. in Modern number sequence table Than That. subject. 297.. 189. definition in English Tense. of. ." introductory. and and of. 107. as adverbs. omission whom. this. 88. 306. 306. 307. of. Then. of languages. 106. English. not suggesting adjectives. 275. when relative.. 147. objects. meaning made up in Old of. 109. 148. which.Suffixes. form. See etc. 61. 87.

Try Two Under. 322. 114. conjunctions prepositions To. 33. of. certain as the before with of. of. Thou. from cleft to 174. first adjective. 180. used. analysis. 173. uses history of. verbs. 128. tother. 308. 248. try two. thee. 323. 172. of. . Utter. Upon. parse. exclamations. 185. 330. etc. in of. phrases. 114. of. Time. 175. 247. -Trix. See On. 176. 188. 61. See That. carelessly uses syntax this. how infinitive. 114. -ing 111. infinitive. 21. uttermost. kinds participle. Upper.These. 175.. feminine and. of. of. of. infinitive. in omitted uses T'other. 207. 322. 172. 175. preposition. 195. words. 181. thy. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. gerund. 217. uses of. 20. adverbs those. other noun. suffix. 119. first. to.

spelling of. 312-316. 133. table of irregular. 317. 169. but uses what. 155. 135. auxiliary. sequence of. 12. definition of. 129. 169. voice of. 148. syntax of. 320. 179. becoming irregular. past tense formed nominative. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. formed by. 150. passive form. 154. mood of. 151. retained object with passive. transitive and intransitive. What. 134. Vocative in Voice. 167. 245. Vixen.Verbs. 149. 167. intransitive. change. 312. with subject in number. 39. definition of. verbs. conjugation of. in person. 242. agreement of. of English. how to parse. strong. of incomplete predication. analysis. regular. 223. 131. 157. 154. definition of. of. table of. 330. phonetic. verbs by. 148. 133. 130. active meaning. remarks on certain. weak. 154. 160. 47. 33. of. . 236. made transitive. defective. 159. in indirect discourse. active. person and number of. 147. 319. passive. tense of.

pronoun. 105. questions. Words in Worse. of. animals. 194. 77. Who. of. 126. Woman. whereto. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. pronoun. a. 246. antecedent adjective.what Whereby. 104. 83. 111. worser. Y. 75. 218. interrogative Which. 85. in. 79. Whether. 40. relative. Wife. 85. 75. would. 296. conjunction. 37. in -ly. Yes ending analysis. 36. . 73. 178. 299. 190. relative indirect relative. questions. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. With. uses See Shall. relative. spoken in of. plural of in nouns -ing. etc. in in indefinite objective. 72. questions. 295-299. 105. 36. referring syntax Widower. questions. English. 72. direct of. 78. Will. 85. 32. 72.. wizard. Witch. 83.

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