roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

An æsthetic benefit. and thus incite his observation. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. Making rules is risky. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. there is still much for the grammarian to do. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). so that a small grammar will hold them all. as compared with Latin or Greek. assist the classification of kindred expressions.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. it will at the same time." and "Syntax. from the question. its peculiar and abundant idioms. If. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. A broader view. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. as. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections)." What grammar is. Coming back. and their uses and relations in the sentence. if rightly presented. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. This will take in the usual divisions. "Analysis. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. Authority as a basis. Mental training. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. their forms. is worthy of serious study. . however. with its enormous vocabulary. It is also evident. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. Literary English. The work it will cover.The province of English grammar is. to those who have studied the language historically. then. rightly considered. but this is bad English now. Surely our noble language. Few inflections.

The plainest name is Arabs. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. the nation is free. Part II. The Uses of Words. from the eighteenth century on. . PART I. The Parts of Speech. Occasionally. the words sons and master name objects. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Vulgar English. that is. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Such words are called nouns. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. submission. three divisions:² Part I. by which is meant the free.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. besides this one. and Inflections.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. or Syntax. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself.²GIBBON. but. In the more simple state of the Arabs. The words state. reference will be made to vulgar English. Analysis of Sentences. 1. and will are evidently names of a different kind. or standard. too. NOUNS. and may belong to any of those objects. and the word nation stands for a whole group. as they stand for ideas. Part III. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. which belongs to a people. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Spoken English. not objects. The following pages will cover. then.

MATERIAL. Proper. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Name for a group or collection of objects. Abstract. or a congress. possessed by all. substance. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or things. Collective. 5. This does not imply. a committee. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. . but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. Thus. whether person. representing directly to the mind an object. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. etc. or the man in front of you. Thus. or a council. 2. however. men in groups may be called a crowd.Definition. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Besides considering persons. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. we may think of them in groups. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Name for any individual of a class. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. because each group is considered as a unit. or thing. the man here. Individual. They properly belong under common nouns. For instance. belonging to one. or a mob. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. 3. (a) 4. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. and things separately. reducing it to a narrow application. ATTRIBUTE. Classes of nouns. Common. place. animals. (b) Common. but Chicago names one city. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or idea. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. animals. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. A noun is a name word. as here used. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. We may say. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. is from a Latin word which means general. and appropriate names to the groups. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities.

that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. there is no such intention. iron. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. rubber. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. or actions. but in the words sun. celluloid. etc. cloud. . (4) Natural phenomena: rain. such as sun. condition. or action. wine. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. frost." "a man of understanding. frost. stone. 7. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. granite. or that which shows a thing has been proved. They remain common class names. etc. but it is taken merely as a name. gold. etc. etc. we may say. expressing state. rain. snow. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. earth." 9. dew. The quality is still there as much as before. rice. potash. and fasten a special name to the object considered. as in calling a city Cincinnati. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. wheat.." "Learning is hard to acquire. Again. but which are not called proper names. When we speak of a wise man. soap. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. however. proof means the act of proving. wheat. sugar. The reason is. we speak of the wisdom of the man. and so on. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. etc. Words naturally of limited application not proper. It may. mist. rock. "Painting is a fine art. instead of to each individual or separate object. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. world.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. Such are glass. etc. expressing attributes or qualities. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. considered abstractly. not things. 6. clay. moon. etc.²There are some nouns. conditions. sugar. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. paint. or apart from their natural connection. earth. Names of ideas. NOTE. (3) Geological bodies: mud. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. platinum. tea. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. sand. .

childhood from child. etc. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. summer. 273). speech from speak. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting." "a brisk walk. five abstract.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. day. To avoid difficulty. . 12. stupidity from stupid. he spread his blessings over the land." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. mastery from master. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. by altering its function. theft from thieve. They cannot govern a word. Verbal abstract nouns. but are merely names of actions. in the beginning of his life. NOTE. (2) peerage from peer. ease. hope. The verb. as glad²joy. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. redness from red. her longing for their favor. 1. there is time for such reasonings. 272. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. height from high. energy. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. II. Thus. kingship from king. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. thunder. those opinions and feelings. and they cannot express action. etc. shadow. the rude drawings of the book. the teachings of the High Spirit. Such are beauty.. "a long run" "a bold move. as in the expressions. They are only the husks of verbs. action from act. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. is used as a noun. hopeful²hope. winter. joy. service from serve. a wedding or a festival. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. the great Puritan awakening. Underived abstract nouns. five proper. (1) prudence from prudent. 10.Attribute abstract nouns. the main bearings of this matter. etc. the moon caused fearful forebodings. the well-being of her subjects. as their name implies. night. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. Caution. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. etc. lightning. Exercises.

(b) branches of knowledge. typhus. as pneumonia. diphtheria. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . pleurisy. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases.2. catarrh. as physics. mathematics? 3. Using a dictionary. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. geology. algebra.

Proper names transferred to common use. but we may say. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Others of similar character are calico. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. 13. a Lavoisier. from Damascus. Nouns change by use. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. 14.²EMERSON. 15. Sodom was famous for wickedness. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. who was its inventor. a Fourier. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. Guillotin. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. damask.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. arras. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Material nouns may be used as class names. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. thus. and lo! a new system. a Locke. 119). "The cook made the irons hot. etc. port (wine). from a town in France. from the name of Dr. it imposes its classification on other men. from Oporto. from China. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word." referring to flat- . Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. a Bentham. from Corinth. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. from Calicut. the word port. the guillotine. a Hutton. as a davy. or to go over to it entirely. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. but most of them are in the following groups. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. currants.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. for example. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. We know a number of objects made of iron. in Portugal. above. levant and morocco (leather).

Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. 16.²BYRON. and so on. or. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. that disposition is the thing to be created. The words preceded by the article a. Death. be spoken of. or the arts and sciences. abstract in meaning. tobaccos. paints. etc. as stones. to prowl or to moan like night birds. They are not then pure abstract nouns. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Class nouns in use. a steel to whet a knife on. etc. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks.²BRYANT. his eyes. which are made plural. (3) By poetical use. Next Anger rushed. slates. smiled. Traffic has lain down to rest. are abroad. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. a rubber for erasing marks. Test this in the following sentences:² . clays. papers.²COLLINS. oils. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. When it is said that art differs from science.In lightnings owned his secret stings. but on dispositions which require to be created. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance.²CARLYLE. nor are they common class nouns.²RUSKIN. and only Vice and Misery. A halfway class of words. or used as class nouns. clouds. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified.irons. but differ in strength. that is. on fire. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. though not confined to verse. purity. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. or made plural. candies. Personification of abstract ideas. These are the same in material. 17. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. that the power of art is founded on fact. the abstract idea is partly lost. but in case an art or a science. are still names of abstract ideas. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. coals. This is a poetic usage. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural.²HAYNE. and say teas. For example. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. tins.²PERCIVAL. not material things. From all around²Earth and her waters. mists.

They are more like the possessive noun. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. a bank in New York. make our own so. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.²SHAKESPEARE. All these. as descriptive adjectives are. When I was young? Ah. Every why hath a wherefore. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. fear thy blow. they do not express quality.² BURNS." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. Then comes the "Why. a bill as to tax on the banks. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. which belongs to another word. meaning a walk in the morning. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS.Let us.The Solitary can despise. if we must have great actions.² GOLDSMITH. for example. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. they cannot be compared. nouns used to modify. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. were mere terrors of the night. By ellipses." which contains a pure adjective. 18. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. loves. NOTE. 19.²BURNS. Adverbs. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. But ah! those pleasures. however. sir?" and the "No." "the State Bank Tax bill. And still." "a morning walk. or from any expression. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. etc. the wealthy. sir!" and the "What then. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great." "a New York bank.²EMERSON. Nouns used as descriptive terms. but is still a noun. Adjectives. or describe it.²SHAKESPEARE. Conjunctions.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. as each repeated pleasure tired. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. "a family quarrel. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.²IRVING. sir!"²MACAULAY .

When. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. of course. In the other sentences. in a sentence above. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies." and another of Dr.. the terms the great. of words rather than of their meaning. but have an adjectival meaning.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. 20. are used. 2. . that cobweb of the brain. so. 7. 6. and Then. It is to be remembered. and tell to which class each belongs. too. 1.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects.²These remarks do not apply. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Stone walls do not a prison make. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. without reference to its function in the sentence. 5.Nor iron bars a cage. 4. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. the wealthy. or a faithful domestic. Caution. however. The it. etc. Exercise. There are many of these. Power laid his rod aside. 3. at the beginning. to such words as become pure nouns by use. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. When. NOTE." finally to stand?²RUSKIN."²B. are spoken of as if pure nouns. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. or a criminal. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. FRANKLIN. Now. is ambiguous. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. why and wherefore." or "legal. is the word "just. 8. Learning. or a state secret. whether it mean the sun or the cold. in speaking of the principal of a school. but as a figure of speech. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate.

Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 24. A little weeping would ease my heart.9. And see. The fleet. 20. the silver moon is gone. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 21. in English grammar. returned to Spain. Greek. But pleasures are like poppies spread. always masculine. 19. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 17. 21. for every dropHinders needle and thread. he cried. 15.You seize the flower. 23.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. In Latin. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. and many other languages. 16. . What gender means in English. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. shattered and disabled. 18. It is founded on sex. and names of females are usually feminine. 22. 13. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. The hours glide by. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. that waits you here. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. There are exceptions even to this general statement. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 12.Fair guests. A fool speaks all his mind. but not so in English. 10. always feminine. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. female. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. the welcome. 11. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. Male beings are. German. GENDER. 14. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. its bloom is shed. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS.

and neuter nouns. the name of it is masculine. must be divided into two principal classes. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. clapping his burnished wings. however. Gunpowder . Neuter nouns. Gender nouns. that is. 23. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. according to their use. hortus (garden) is masculine. in English. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words.. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals.²LAMB. Hence: Definition. or additions to words. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word." . if of the female sex.²gender nouns. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. All nouns. Of animals. 22. . then. those distinguishing the sex of the object.² IRVING.² I have seenA curious child . Some words either gender or neuter nouns.²masculine and feminine. 24. the name of it is feminine.When.²IRVING. inanimate things are spoken of. das Messer (knife) is neuter. came to a stand just by the bridge. or which arouse his interest most. the sex being of no consequence. that pattern of a husband. are named by gender nouns. but are spoken of as neuter. or names of things without life. with its gizzard under its wing. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. the word child is neuter in the sentence. according to use. in German. and consequently without sex. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. those with which man comes in contact often. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. if there were any signs of life in it.. For instance: in Latin. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. der Tisch (table) is masculine.. corpus (body) is neuter... The great difference is.. Thus. those which do not distinguish sex. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. He next stooped down to feel the pig. No "common gender. in other languages gender follows the form. "A little child shall lead them. mensa (table) is feminine.

These remain in vixen and spinster.25. I. Very few of class I. II. 27. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. teacher. servant. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. 26. as in wine vat. Native suffixes. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. or the lack of it. relative. Male nouns beings. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. 28. puts a prefix before the masculine man. of course. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. the division of words according to sex. ruler. for from they said vram. though both words have lost their original meanings. as he-goat²she-goat. but spinster has now no connection with it. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. is. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Hence vixen is for fyxen. from the masculine fox. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. domestic.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. woman. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. 29. Gender shown by Prefixes. One feminine.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. (3) By using a different word for each gender. generally to a masculine word. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. The inflections for gender belong. Put in convenient form. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. According to the definition. If such words as parent. he-bear²she-bear. Gender shown by Suffixes. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. cousin. (2) By adding a suffix. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. etc. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. they are neuter words. only to masculine and feminine nouns. and for the older word fat they said vat. For fox they said vox.. .

the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . the one most used. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Low Latin issa). it has none now in the words huckster.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Unaltered and little used. executrix. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as. as czarina. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. donna. gamester. 30. as seam-stress. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). song-str-ess. but in most cases it has not. as. Ending of masculine not changed. trickster.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. señorita. punster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. and are never used for words recognized as English.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. -ess (French esse. These are attached to foreign words. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. Slightly changed and widely used.

we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. frendesse. from Latin imperatricem. we use the feminine. wagoness. neighboresse. 32. etc. Instead of saying doctress. editor. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. We frequently use such words as author. Thus. Gender shown by Different Words.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. others have in their origin the same root. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. fosteress. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. chairman.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). the ending -ess. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. Some of them have an interesting history. we use the masculine termination. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. In some of these pairs. NOTE. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. to represent persons of either sex. or servauntesse. teacheresse. as. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse." III. as in the fourteenth century. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . 31. from the French -esse. as was said in the sixteenth century. neighbor (masculine and feminine). as. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. teacher or lady teacher.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely.

Icelandic gás. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). from Latin mea domina. Danish gaas. among others) to be from the same root word. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. The older forms. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Personification. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. written loverd. 33. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Madam is the French ma dame. though both are ultimately from the same root. gand-ra. leaving our word drake. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. had the masculine mearh (horse). etc. 16). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. became identical. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. for example. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. probably meaning house dweller). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Two masculines from feminines. The masculine was formed by adding -a. the old sign of the masculine. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century.² . Three letters of ened have fallen away. Witch is the Old English wicce. widuwa²widuwe. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not.). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Besides gander and drake. not immediately connected with witch. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). but this has long been obsolete. Widower. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. It is not connected historically with our word duck. 34. in Old English mere. finally gander. as in many other words. or lauerd in Middle English. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. lhauerd. Mare.

Definition. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en.²CAMPBELL. 36."Now.Her home is on the deep.²COLERIDGE. 39. eyen (eyes). though it was quite common in Old and Middle English."²BYRON. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England.²singular and plural. Our language has two numbers. 35. The -en inflection. (3) By adding -s (or -es). we make its plural by adding -s or -es. whenever we adopt a new word. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. In nouns. 38. shoon (shoes). I. in Old English.No towers along the steep. Britannia needs no bulwarks. . and not by the form of the noun. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. But other words were inflected afterwards. for instance. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 37. the plural.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. the engineer speaks so of his engine. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. more than one. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. The first two methods prevailed. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. etc. Effect of personification. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en.²KEATS. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. that is. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. This is not exclusively a poetic use. (2) By changing the root vowel.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. together with the third. treen (trees). NUMBER. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.

Lee marched over the mountain wall.²Over the mountains winding down. such as deer. Instead of -s. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. but they now add the ending -s.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. heathen. as. The old plural was brothru. 42. wight. folk.² The foot are fourscore thousand. II.²WHITTIER. by. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. cannon. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. Such are box. people. that have the singular and plural alike.Horse and foot.²MACAULAY. then brothre or brethre.² "God bless me! so then. or if preceded by the prepositions in. . ditch. into Frederick town. swine. Brethren has passed through three stages. etc. 40. quartz. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. etc. they add -s): also trout. glass. sheep. borough²formerly had the same inflection. III.-En inflection imitated by other words. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Children has passed through the same history."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. and get settled. as. and is still found in dialects.²THOREAU. dozen. lens. 41.The horse are thousands ten. etc. turf. head. finally brethren. cross. after all. Kine is another double plural. Other words following the same usage are. salmon. Akin to this class are some words. retain the same form for plural meaning. The words horse and foot. originally neuter. when they mean soldiery. Examples of this inflection are. but has now no singular. sail. after numerals (if not after numerals. pair. brace.

g. Proper nouns are regularly singular. molasses. etc. a new syllable is made. hero²heroes.. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. and many branches of learning. and some -es. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). house²houses. chaise²chaises.² Politics. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. though they are plural in form. The lilie on hir stalke grene. 43. is both the science and the art of government. mathematics. quoth then that ladie milde. Examples of these are. physics.²PROF. they lose their identity. pains (care). -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. however. allies. economics.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. etc.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. niche²niches.g. Words in -ies. Means plural. Two words. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.-Es added in certain cases. Formerly. e. When such words take a plural ending.. some adding -s. e. So live. and the real ending is therefore -s. 45. fancies. the Americas.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . shelf²shelves. prize²prizes. negro²negroes. in its widest extent. and go over to other classes (Secs. means and politics. etc. the Washingtons. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. as. half²halves. though this sound combines readily with -s. means: as. politics. also news. knife²knives. daisies. summons. these words ended in -ie. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. DANA. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. etc. volcano² volcanoes.²BRYANT. Special Lists. 15 and 17). If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. that when thy summons comes. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. 44. race²races. Some words are usually singular. fairies. optics. It served simply as a means of sight.

. LAUGHLIN. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. however. Besides this. I say. L. Politics plural.²G.²MOTLEY. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. by those means which we have already mentioned. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Sometimes. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. CURTIS.²GOLDSMITH. A relic which.²GOLDSMITH. by strongly conveying the passions. it is furnished with a forceps. Some words have no corresponding singular.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right. By these means. 46. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²J.Words. riches will accumulate.²IRVING.²BURKE.² MACAULAY. Now I read all the politics that come out. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. W. he pronounced to have been a tongs.

. dice (for gaming). or epistles. Numbers also means issues. (2) literature. Three words were originally singular. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. as in the lines. fish²fish (collectively). These make the last part plural. In Early Modern English thank is found.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. of a periodical. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. Two classes of compound words. clothes (garments). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. (2) care. Tell me not. eaves. shots (number of times fired). ways. DANA..The air. brethren (of a society or church). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. pease (collectively). (2) revenue duties. etc. riches. genius²geniuses (men of genius). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. number²numbers: (1) figures.. die²dies (stamps for coins. penny²pennies (separately).²was it subdued when.² I lisped in numbers. pence (collectively). index²indexes (to books). fishes (individuals or kinds). two plurals. pea²peas (separately). In speaking of coins. the other unlike it. twopence. carry off chaff.). genii (spirits). sixpence. trouble. for the numbers came.. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. (2) poetry.²LONGFELLOW. etc. faculties. 50. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). One plural. shot²shot (collective balls). may add -s. 48.²one corresponding to the singular. or copies. as two sixpences. or work in a bellows?²PROF. making a double plural. indices (signs in algebra). in mournful numbers.²POPE. two meanings. part²parts: (1) divisions. (2) abilities. 49. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.

the Misses Rich. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. The title may be plural. as man singer. woman servant. for example.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Ottoman. and Mrs.² Then came Mr. Two methods in use for names with titles.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Mussulman. Briggs. manservant. Allen. 51. The chief member adds -s in the plural. as the Messrs. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. Norman. and then the three Miss Spinneys. firman. Brahman. or the name may be pluralized. 52. though the latter is often found. then Silas Peckham. HOLMES. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE.²DR. such as talisman. woman singer. . Brown. there is some disagreement among English writers. German. As to plurals of names with titles. but add -s. the Drs. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.

Domesticated words. 53. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. The Messrs. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. They are then said to be naturalized. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²DICKENS. or Englished. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Exercise. FROM THE LATIN. Others have been adopted.²GIBBON.²GOLDSMITH. or Anglicized. y y analysis antithesis . Du Maurier.²THE CRITIC. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. These are said to be domesticated.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. and retain their foreign plurals. FROM THE GREEK. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.

cell has another relation. etc. . as. etc. Words quoted merely as words. In the general wearing-away of inflections. 56. without reference to their meaning. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. and expresses a relation akin to possession. figures. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s).y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. 54. Letters. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." the word felon's modifies cell. they form their plurals in the regular way. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.. as. also add -s or 's. 55." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s).² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Only two case forms. In the sentence." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)." CASE. Definition. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell.

must be understood for purposes of analysis. and merit. then.²person. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. may be said to have three cases. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Human experience is the great test of truth. whether inflected or not. . the enemy of the living. 3. 4. three things characterize man.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. fate. excessive grief.²the nominative. Excuses are clothes which. and experience. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 58. 57.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Three properties belong to wisdom. and the possessive. when asked unawares. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²one for the nominative and objective." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Uses of the Nominative.²nature." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. the objective. 5." (2) As a predicate noun. they returned to their homes. learning. Nouns. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. I. completing a verb. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. 1. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 2.

(5) As the object of a preposition. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. taking the object enemies." (3) Adverbially. and makest a calm. But the flood came howling one day. 8. save. and landlord of the inn. sword in hand and visor down. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. They charged. distance. Set a high price on your leisure moments. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. 3. wounded lies. completing the verb. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. But of all plagues." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. (in the older stages of the language.Save." "Thou makest the storm a calm." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. good Heaven. etc." Exercise. 9. 4. a patriarch of the village. . measure. the word toward which the preposition points. they are sands of precious gold. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. taking the object storm. Conscience. as will be seen in Sec. and meaning calmest. how have I frighted thee? II. 68." (4) As the second object.6. and being equivalent to one verb. and tell which use each has:² 1." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. reconciles. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 59. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. her first law broken. thy wrath can send. 2. Uses of the Objective. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. oh save me from the candid friend! 7.

tempests that . for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. The possessive case always modifies another word. 10.²SHELLEY. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. It is a poetic expression. the Great Stone Face. 6. (3) Subjective possessive. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. 9. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.² The unwearied sun. III. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. Uses of the Possessive. (2) Objective possessive. from day to day.²ADDISON. The noblest mind the best contentment has. and forfeits paid.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. And whirling plate. as in these expressions. the most common of all. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.And gave the leper to eat and drink. expressed or understood. 7.²HAWTHORNE. as. or in writing yesterday's elegy. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. Possession in some sense is the most common. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.His winter task a pastime made. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.. 8. as shown in the sentences. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. 60.²BYRON. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.Does his Creator's power display. 61.5. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.e. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.

The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. lady Poss. As said before (Sec. 56)." "at his beddes syde. A false theory. "From every schires ende. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. To form the possessive plural. PLURAL. Declension or inflection of nouns." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. and Obj. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i." Use of the apostrophe. child NOTE.winter is likely to have). the panther which the forest hides). there are only two case forms. and Obj. A suggestion. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. The use of the apostrophe. making the possessive singular. "George Jones his book. 64. 62. however. How the possessive is formed. 63. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "mannes herte [heart]. as schoolboys sometimes write. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 1. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. in Chaucer. Nom. . the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. Nom. 62." etc.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. growth which several days had developed). Case Inflection.e..e. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. One is the simple form of a word. Poss.. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.

instead of the emperor their master's name. a word with a phrase." "A postscript is added. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. James's.Though this opinion was untrue. and she walked off from the don's. . I remember him in his cradle at St. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. Cervantes' satirical work. church. containing words in apposition. 67. Kate saw that. Peter's. in the name of the emperor their master. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.²THACKERAY. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. as.²RUSKIN. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. as.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. dwelling.²CARLYLE.. being understood with it: for example." Possessive with compound expressions. 65. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. and from a desire to have distinct forms. etc. my neighbors. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. the possessive sign is usually last. but to the ear all may be alike."²DE QUINCEY. In compound expressions. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. Captain Scrapegrace's. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. some such word as house. etc. 66. as by the countess's command. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.² LOWELL. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. stands up for God's truth one man. store. know the amount of my income.²HOLMES. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. for goodness' sake. the items of my son's. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.²SWIFT." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Possessive and no noun limited.²DE QUINCEY..

1. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. corresponding to 's. the sentence might be understood as just explained. If. this. and at the same time by a possessive noun. a double possessive.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. For example. Emphasis.²FROUDE. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. in such a sentence as. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. Exercises. Both of these are now used side by side. especially when used with this or that. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. sometimes they are used together. any.²CARLYLE.The double possessive. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. 68. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. (b) Rewrite the sentence.²the introduction which Atterbury made. (See also Sec.. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. E. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. A peculiar form. as one modifier. (3) It prevents ambiguity. 87. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. however. (1) When a word is modified by a. ill-lighted except where she stands. or subjective. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. and tell whether each is appositional. no. Clearness. In most cases. etc.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. 2. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. we use the phrase of Atterbury. HALE. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. every. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. Blair). objective. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. making a double possessive. the statement clearly means only one thing. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. each.²E. the. that.

11. 4. 15. 10. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.They say. in parsing a noun. 7. 12. Nature herself. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. Hence. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.Comes dancing from the East. with every garland crowned. we state. 69. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. In parsing. 9. 6. and destroy the other. 5. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. let him seasonably water the one. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Now the bright morning star.² . therefore. Friend. 70. some idioms²the double possessive.A weary waste expanding to the skies. day's harbinger.3. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. I must not see thee Osman's bride. There Shakespeare's self. 14. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. Jove laughs. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 8. 13. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. At lovers' perjuries. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. it seemed.

but is the adverbial objective. (4) Its office in the sentence. 2. and relations. Thief is a common class noun. . 68). it is the name of a male being. hence it is objective case. therefore possessive case. masculine. therefore masculine gender. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.²common. therefore singular number. In parsing any word. hence objective case. it denotes only one person.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. 71. it expresses time. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. is a common class noun. 4. like miller's. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. and number. gender. NOTE. therefore singular number. as to case. determining its case. etc. and limits neckcloth. and to have it found out by accident. Exercise. 3. hence it is a common noun. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. which gender. MODEL FOR PARSING. therefore neuter. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth.(1) The class to which it belongs. a withered serving man. if the latter. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. names one thing. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. singular number. proper. The correct method.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. object of the verb takes. Neckcloth. it is the object of the preposition by. has no governing word. (3) Whether singular or plural number. it has no sex. it expresses possession or ownership. and therefore nominative case. subject of the verb is understood. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. That in the captain's but a choleric word. a fresh tapster. hence it is a gender noun. Throat is neuter. inflections. the connection shows a male is meant.

72. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. 9. standing for a name. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. financial minister to Louis XVI. or for a group of persons or things. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. or for a person or thing. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. 76)." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Definition. Mrs. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Madame de Staël. blessings light on him that first invented . 7.And hated her for her pride.. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Now. Classes of pronouns. Necker. all in one. sleep! 6. definite. A few miles from this point. but by a question we say. 73. 10.²palace. . instead of saying. He giveth his beloved sleep. (2) Interrogative pronouns. from a necessity for short. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns.. where the Rhone enters the lake. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. 8. Jarley's back being towards him.. castle. PRONOUNS. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. The need of pronouns." Again. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. and prison. For instance. and his daughter. were natives of Geneva.5. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. 11. A pronoun is a reference word. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. and representative words.

77. (3) Third person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. representing the person speaking. 75. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. From analogy to pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. I Poss. pronoun." Person of nouns. Person in grammar. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. the person or thing spoken to. (5) Indefinite pronouns. Singular.. they must represent the person talking. representing a person or thing spoken to. which cannot be used as adjectives. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. ours . PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. which have forms for person. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. which relate or refer to a noun. This gives rise to a new term. primarily adjectives. mine. even if it had a special form. as nouns have the same form. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. and the person or thing talked about. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Nom. or other word or expression. they are said to have person by agreement. words.(3) Relative pronouns. 74. (4) Adjective pronouns. that is. Three persons of pronouns. standing for a person or thing spoken of. 76. (2) Second person. "the distinction of person. we our. my Plural.

she her. a separate form for each gender. Nom. it its it Poss.. Old forms. The speaker may be either male or female. Third person singular has gender. . in the singular. thy Remarks on These Forms. you your. masculine h . me us Singular. Old Form Common Form. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. SECOND PERSON. thou thee ye you you your. he his him Fem. they their.Obj. Obj. namely. Nom. and also for the neuter. yours you THIRD PERSON. Masc. But the third person has. Obj. Obj. yours you Plural. or. Poss. Nom. by personification. neuter. First and second persons without gender. neuter hit. feminine h o. Poss. theirs them Neut. thine. 78. Singular. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Obj. so also with the person or thing spoken to. of all Three. your. yours Poss. Nom. hers her Plur.

There are. etc. and sometimes its.²SHELLEY. This is of comparatively recent growth. thy. The form its. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.:² (1) In elevated style.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. 80. in Old English. In spoken English. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. even when referring to a single object. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. especially in poetry." As shown above.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.Thou lovest. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. heom. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. for example. it. Second person always plural in ordinary English. as in prayers. We use it with a plural verb always. to thy care we commit the helpless. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). 81. the forms they. the Old English objective was hem (or heom).The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. their. two modern uses of thou. etc. heora.. that didst comfort thy people of old. which was often sounded with the h silent.² Oh. 82. . Thou. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. as. thou Shepherd of Israel. just as we now say. as possessive of it. thee.. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. them.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. The plurals were h . 79. etc. perhaps being from the English demonstrative.²BEECHER. The consequence is. Two uses of the old singulars. which is a neuter noun. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. however. (2) In addressing the Deity.

her. in such a sentence as. her. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. theirs. thy. ²SHAKESPEARE. The words I. when they occur in the predicate position. thine. your. its. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. for.²BULWER. hers. besides a nominative use. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. That is. I spare thee mine. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns." the literary language would require he after was. Not a separate class. me. yours. them. and sometimes in ordinary speech. he. "I am sure it was him. we. thou. and not make more classes. or. The Possessive. In spoken English. 86. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. note the following:² 'Twas mine. 83.Use of the pronouns in personification. to personify objects (Sec. some say. Absolute personal pronouns. sometimes his and its. . Additional nominatives in spoken English. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. him. Old use of mine and thine. though those named in Sec. Yet careful speakers avoid this. us. I The Nominative. however. and has been slave to thousands. The forms my. though ye is occasionally used as objective. she. him. Thine are the city and the people of Granada.²COWPER. 58). her. II. 84 are always subjects. us. they have a nominative form. and follow the usage of literary English. have a peculiar use.²LANDOR. his. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. 'tis his. they. our. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. ye. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. And since thou own'st that praise. 34). them. Nominative forms. 84. The forms mine. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. their. 85. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns.

thine. thus.²ID. (3) To express contempt.²THACKERAY. "Hold thy peace." said Henry Woodstall. This usage is still preserved in poetry. pluck it out."²SCOTT. ²HOLMES. ours. 87. hers.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.²SWIFT. Besides this. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. Give every man thine ear. but few thy voice. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. ours. for example. theirs. yours. or satire. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. . This ancient silver bowl of mine.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.²J.²CARLYLE. thus.² CARLYLE.²J.²BIBLE. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. commenting upon a letter of mine. Long Allen. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. If thine eye offend thee. (2) To bring emphasis. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. T. in that old Edinburgh house of his. we find. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. FIELDS. F.²ID. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. his. COOPER. are really double possessives.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. we have. The forms hers. Their uses. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. and with mine. Double and triple possessives. theirs. it tells of good old times.²THACKERAY. yours. Like the noun possessives. sometimes its. as in nouns. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. anger.

as shown in Sec." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. The Objective. 88. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. as it is called. 86: mine stands for my property. Curse me this people. The old dative case.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. this dative use. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. In their function. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. for whose benefit." "None but the brave deserves the fair.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. mine stands for my praise in the second.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. Besides this use of the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. was marked by a separate case.²ID.²BIBLE. but nominative or objective in use. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. but the form is the same as the objective. Now the objective.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. III. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In such sentences as. They all handled it. or use in a sentence. but not in form. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. . in the first sentence. Both joined in making him a present. But the first two have a nominative use. the thing is done. In pronouns. his for his property. 20. 90. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. and mine in the second has an objective use. but expresses for whom. 89. "The good alone are great.

²D. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. 92. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. like Chinese skill." (3) As a grammatical subject. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.²DE QUINCEY.²BACON. logical subject. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. was passed by with indulgence.Time is behind them and before them. thus.² NEWMAN. to stand for the real.²EMERSON. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. (3) In apposition. Your mere puny stripling. in this century. you must condense there. why. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. 91. The word you.² . She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. as. It is a pity that he has so much learning.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. and they cry. which follows the verb. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. ²EMERSON. as. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.²CARLYLE. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. as in the sentences.²IRVING To empty here.²ADDISON.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. has not made its progress. Society. WEBSTER. or that he has not a great deal more. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.²BULWER. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. you sneeze. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. Indefinite use of you and your. or to the idea.

himself. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. For example.²HAWTHORNE. Poor Christian was hard put to it. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. farms it. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. however. when they are direct objects. that is. And millions in those solitudes. There was nothing for it but to return. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. who teams it. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. have laid them downIn their last sleep. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. they dropped their arms. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. 94. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. it rained. keeps a school. peddles it. yourself. (thyself)." etc. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. (ourself). as they are also called. the second is the old form of the second person. 93. used in poetry.² Now I lay me down to sleep. I set me down and sigh. but seldom in prose.²DE QUINCEY.²COLERIDGE... REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This occurs in poetry. itself.²BURNS." "He bought him a horse."²IRVING. It was late and after midnight." and there is an end of it. who in turn tries all the professions. ourselves. since firstThe flight of years began. .It is finger-cold. Of the two forms in parentheses.²IRVING. "I found me a good book. herself. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. themselves. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. They are myself. I made up my mind to foot it. and its plural selves. as. we use such expressions as. And when I awoke.²ANON.²BUNYAN.²ID.²SCOTT. yourselves.²BRYANT.²THOREAU. For when it dawned.²EMERSON.²HOLMES. -selves. A sturdy lad .

for example.To you yourself. In Middle English the forms meself. as in vulgar English.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. etc.² The great globe itself . shall dissolve.²MILTON. to us.² . as.²SHAKESPEARE. As if it were thyself that's here. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.² TENNYSON. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. Origin of these reflexives. NOTE. Threats to all.²ID. Use of the reflexives. theself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. The question might arise. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.²WORDSWORTH. ourselves.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.²E. as we ourself have been.. for example. and build the lofty rhyme.As girls were once. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. 96. and the others were formed by analogy with these. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. to every one. B. thyself. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. as.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. were changed into the possessive myself.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. Held dead within them till myself shall die. with self. 95. after the analogy of myself. not the possessive forms.²EMERSON. especially in the speech of rulers. BROWNING. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. I shrink with pain.

and neuter. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. feminine. which. let him lowly confess it. 97. Come and trip it as we go. 7.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. all conform to it. 10. where the word is one with that it tells of. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. . 3.²B. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. father. fight it out. FRANKLIN. Three now in use. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Infancy conforms to nobody. and what. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. and how to do it. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. And it grew wondrous cold. some of them being double possessives. One obsolete. Years ago.² THACKERAY.On the light fantastic toe. 5. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 4. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Courage. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 9. 2.²DE QUINCEY. is wisdom. 8. To know what is best to do. 6. some each of masculine. but it is the soonest spoiled. Biscuit is about the best thing I know.

or case. not to persons. whispering sweet. actions. the gold. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater.Promised. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. but now obsolete.There is an old word. that is. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. it refers to either persons or things. it is always third person. it is selective. What wouldst thou do. as it always asks about somebody. with its possessive and objective. Use of what. that it is always singular and neuter. that it is not inflected for gender or number. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY.. but for case alone. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. . 98. number. These show that what is not inflected for case. which is not inflected for gender. Use of who and its forms. 100. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. shall we say. Which of you. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Whose was that gentle voice. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. that. As shown here. Use of which. having three forms. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. whether. used formerly to mean which of two. ideas. 99. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. etc. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. referring to things.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. The use of who. methought.

objective in the last. which and what are sometimes adjectives. or other word or expression. as. it may be shortened into." In the latter sentence.² . Further treatment of who. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. pronoun. and so to make smoother discourse. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. These bards sang of Border chivalry. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. subject of doth love. AND PLUR. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. which is nominative in the first sentence. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. in Sec. 103. whose? Obj. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. Function of the relative pronoun.²by the use of the words. SING.101. who evidently refers to Bards. who is used as objective instead of whom. 104. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. and what are also relative pronouns. 102. 127). The antecedent. since it is subject of the verb had. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. "The last of all the Bards was he. For instance. nominative in the second also. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. Thus we may say. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. 99. for which the pronoun stands.Who sung of Border chivalry. which is called the antecedent of the relative. as they take the place usually of a word already used. which. Who. which and what. 105. as. and also in having a conjunctive use. being the direct object of the verb shall take. AND PLUR. SINGULAR Nom. It usually precedes the pronoun." Or. who? Poss. what may be an adverb in some expressions.² "The last of all the Bards was he.

Whose flag has braved. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. will be discussed further on. but the look which is not of the earth. The nurse came to us. When the word relative is used.That guard our native seas. 4. The men whom men respect. For her enchanting son. that.²BYRON.. in the same sense in which man's nature. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 4. is a divine creation.²SCOTT. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.²DR JOHNSON. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.. WHITNEY. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. 3.Whom universal nature did lament. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. a simple relative is meant. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 2. 6. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. 107.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. The origin of language is divine.. Indefinite relatives.²THACKERAY. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 3. with all its capabilities . . are the men and women who bless their species.²MILTON.² COX. 5.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.²PARTON Which and its forms. Two kinds. Ye mariners of England.²W.²LOWELL In this. what. 106. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. the women whom women approve. Who and its forms. They had not their own luster. Generally speaking. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. a thousand years. which. 2.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. D. 108.

109.²IRVING.²MARGARET FULLER.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. Reader. BEECHER 5. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.² SHAKESPEARE 2. which it certainly is not. else this description will seem exaggerated.²BURKE. For what he sought below is passed above. you will not be angry with me for telling you. 2. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²GOLDSMITH.. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. The judge . The Tree Igdrasil. That. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. W. ought to be kept in view. stratagems. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable..²LAMB 3.Is fit for treasons.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. bought up all the pigs that could be had. The man that hath no music in himself. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.5. 4. (a) This gradation ... 111.²DE QUINCEY. Examples of the relative that:² 1. 3. 107.. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. and spoils. Already done is all that he would do.²H. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.. 110. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. 6. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .²EMERSON. What. Who..

²which for the nominative and objective. p. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. (4) It has two case forms. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. in the third. seemed as much excited as myself. flung its arms around my neck.. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.. Who referring to animals. whose wound I had dressed. they are plural.²IRVING.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. son. whose for the possessive. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. The robins. 113. whom. In 1. 112. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. (3) It is nearly always third person. The little gorilla. not persons.²THACKERAY. possessive case of which. Kingsley. JOHNSON. and so on. It has been seen (Sec. in the second.²SWIFT..²LOWELL. In sentence 4. a man. My horse.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. Which.whose.²LEIGH HUNT. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Sec. whose is second person. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. 2. or ideas. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. . Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whom. Cooper. Smollett. and 6.who. referring to animals. Scott. in the first sentence. 96). 5.. The sentences in Sec. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Witness the following examples:² And you. the relatives are singular. 107. who. Examples of whose. Gibbon. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. and others. whose. things. in 5. and 3... the others are all third person. that man. (2) It has three case forms.²who. in 4. who is first person.²DR.

saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. the antecedent follows which. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution.²DE QUINCEY. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. Kingsley. secondly (which made her stare). Which and its antecedents. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. and to persecute without pity. Sometimes. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.² MCMASTER.114. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.²SHAKESPEARE. too. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. which is very notable and curious. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent.² And. (3) It is the same form for first. That. Men may be ready to fight to the death. This often occurs.²BEECHER. and third persons. second. no possessive. (2) It has only one case form. This moribund '61. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. The last two sentences in Sec.²first. . In the sentences of Sec. 109. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. which is worse. thus. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. So in Matthew Arnold. and things. let us enter the church itself. 116.² I swept the horizon.²SCOTT. and numerous others. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Burke. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Primarily. animals.²THACKERAY. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. 115."²RUSKIN. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns.²RUSKIN. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.

either of which would be neuter. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. but what I hate. what we said?²CARLYLE. 118. The sentences of Sec. When expressed. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. and is emphatic. For example. we can. What. Sec. that he has. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. What a man does. 117. . Nom. plural number. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. 119. for example. Who plainly stands for those or the people. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. whose Obj. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²SHAKESPEARE." That evidently refers to truths." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths.²EMERSON. is always neuter. third person." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. that do I. as. plural number.² What I would. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. number. 109. which. that do I not. and person of the relatives who. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. by taking them out. consequently is neuter. that men must needs abide. it usually follows." (3) "These people heard him. third person. who Poss.²BIBLE What fates impose. as in sentence 6. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. The gender.

third person. in the following sentences:² 1. is what we call nature. Truths in sentence (2). The whole expression is its subject. 7. As shown by the following sentences. The word what. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change.. it is subject of the verb heard. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. "What can't be cured must be endured.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. In (2). standing for the people understood. 3. but of this. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. nobler souls with that which they are. people is the object of the preposition of. I think they are trying to outwit nature. What can't be cured. which is. it is object of uttered. however." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 4." Here the subject of is. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. because it has usually no antecedent. neuter. subject of heard. the highest result of all education. First find the antecedents. 8. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. in (1)."²EMERSON. 6. but is singular. . then parse the relatives. and what is the direct object of the verb call. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. above. The relative what is handled differently. What must be endured? Answer. Exercise. 5. Parsing what. so is in the objective case. In the sentence. the simple relative. etc. after all. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. that takes the case of the truths in (2). is in the nominative case. In the same way who. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Now. and hence is in the nominative case. in (3). 120. Some prefer another method of treatment. Another way. who is sure to be cunninger than they. we is the subject. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives.

Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. object of do] they do. that nothing else can stand in their presence. and parse that in the first clause. to everything that. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. 3. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities.²BURKE. whichsoever. 122. object of with] which [singular. 6. summer will have its flies. by meaning and use. whatsoever. 121. or what else soever. 4. no particular thing. which. whatsoever. Death is there associated. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 7. being referred to. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. Only itself can inspire whom it will.²MACAULAY. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. whosoever. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 123. So with the other indefinites." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. 5. They are whoever. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. that is. The simple relatives who. "common souls pay with that [singular. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. in a new and original way. or stand on their head.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil.²you cannot have both. Do what we can. . Meaning and use. List and examples. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Hence some take what as a double relative. 2. and which in the second clause. It is no proof of a man's understanding. whichever. no certain antecedent. whatever. 2. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose.²BURKE. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. and his friend a fool. less common are whoso. and in 2. Take which you please. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. not as direct as the simple relatives. It is clear that in 1.

²HAWTHORNE. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 120. 125. etc. 126. but which only wealth could have purchased. by which. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Sec. upon which. whereupon. nothing that does not interest us. but mean any one whom.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 417).²DE QUINCEY.. etc. everything that (or everything which). but and as. Two words. thus. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. for example.. But and as. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.²EMERSON. not following the word such. what means anything that. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. This. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. as was used just as we use that or which. whereby. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. 121.² 1.² some particular thing. 2. either one that. etc. and that as after such is equivalent to which. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. 124. has been my heaviest affliction. Former use of as. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. There is nothing but is related to us. In early modern English. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Instead of the phrases in which. the conjunctions wherein. Proof that they have the force of relatives. 121. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. for example.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. are used. 4.As shown in Sec. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. . Other substitutes.

2. . it is an indefinite relative).. and whether what = that + which (if so. But in 1 (b). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized." etc. would be.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. who having the antecedent gentleman. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. How to decide. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which.²EMERSON. no antecedent is expressed. showing that who is plainly interrogative. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. if not. (b) Well we knew who stood behind." Likewise with which in 3 (b). Another caution. what is interrogative.²ID. 2 (b). though the earthwork hid them.²WHITTIER. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. second. "But what had become of them? They knew not. In sentences 1 (a). a question is disguised in each sentence. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. it is an interrogative. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. which having the antecedent lines. if not. Thus. "Who stood behind? We knew. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. Special caution needed here. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. 3. 127. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. the full expression being. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. and 3 (b). In studying such sentences. it is a simple relative. which would indicate that they are not relatives. So in 2 (b). if expanded. 1 (b).

They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of.²FLETCHER. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. 129. In the first.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise.² THACKERAY. The insect I am now describing lived three years. which. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²FORSTER 6. . or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. whence is the interrogative word. which has the antecedent hue.²CARLYLE. whose has the antecedent you. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 5. 4. but the life of man in England. and asks no question.² These are the sounds we feed upon. 2. I visited many other apartments. and Court Calendars. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²SWIFT. 3. Relative omitted when object. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. On the other hand. In the second. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. Thus.128. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. ELIOT. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. Examine the following:² 1. Put in the relatives who.²HOLMES. the question is asked by the verb. In the third.²G. When Goldsmith died.

Also in literary English we find the same omission. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. Function of adjective pronouns. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. who were to be rulers over whom. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. the house was full.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.²SHAKESPEARE. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 5. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. The nobles looked at each other.² LOWELL. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. 3. which. simple relatives. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Relative omitted when subject. Examples are. which was already proceeding. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. .²CAMPBELL. There was such a crowd went. and comparatively so in poetry. 6. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.Ne'er looks upon the sun.²Id. and what.7. 130.²SCOTT. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. It is rare in prose.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. or indefinite relatives:² 1. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. that. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 2.

one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. in the second they retain an adjective meaning.²IRVING. as some. that. either. necessarily thought of: thus. "The dead are there." in the second. or they may stand for nouns. 132. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. For example. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. such as this. Primarily they are adjectives.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. which we have seen in such expressions as. Adjectives. but have lost their adjective use.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence." "one man. "each cube. the former." in the others. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. expressed or understood. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.131. It must come under the requirement of pronouns.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. etc. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. but in this function. etc. and stand for a noun. in order to be an adjective pronoun. none. In the first use they are adjectives. such as each. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. or an argument in a paragraph. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples.²EMERSON. few. a word. in the first. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. "these pranks. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. Caution. in letters of gold. or may be the whole of a sentence. and on each is written." that is. must not modify any word. and another to get cool under. not pronouns.²BRYANT. 133. neither. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. . but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing." "Where two men ride on a horse. etc. For instance. or use. "another bank. all. any. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS." Classes of adjective pronouns. many." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. 'Truth.

reap the same. Even as I have seen. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.All these he saw. for example. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. 5. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. as seemed good to each. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.²ID. NOTE. when the latter was the King of Spain. or sat. They have not shunned the one.²EMERSON 4. Exercises. 134. but these were of the best. or reclined. accidentally preserved. 2. 3. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Definition and examples. Their minds accorded into one strain. Simple. and they have well performed the other. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. and sow wickedness. Compound.²ID.² They stood.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. they that plow iniquity. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. because he was not lying in wait for these. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Some of these are simple pronouns. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. A man inspires affection and honor. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Such are a few isolated instances. They had fewer books. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²LOWELL.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. .

The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. you quickly come to the end of all.Two are compound pronouns.²each other. Definition and examples.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. They led one another. Another opposes him with sound argument. as. one another. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. Some inflected.²HAWTHORNE. as it were. paused over a horoscope. such as one other. we might the more easily discharge them.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.² One reflexive. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. as most were. ²HAWTHORNE. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. . as some of the rangers had gone astray. with the superstitions of his time. The Soldan. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. The word one has a reflexive form. or melt for others' woe. Much might be said on both sides.²EMERSON. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²HOLMES. another. imbued. 135. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.²KINGSLEY. None shall rule but the humble. for example. Men take each other's measure when they react. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. Exercise.

anybody. every one else.²SHAKESPEARE.. they say.Exercise. everybody else. etc. I tell you what. etc. Somebody. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. somebody else. anything. 136. what. something. Every one else stood still at his post. as. naught. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. no one. anyone else. Definition and examples. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. they are never used as adjectives. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. nobody. also aught. 137. and they. and was indefinite in Old English. unlike adjective pronouns." It means something. but. everybody. some one. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Exercise. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. in building of chaises. everything. Jove laughs. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Now.² At lovers' perjuries. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. nothing. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. as shown in the words everybody's. and somewhat. They indefinite means people in general.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. anybody else's. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. every one (or everyone). INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. any one (or anyone). Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. .

Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 10. Whoever deals with M. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Hutchinson tells us of herself. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 18. and of no other. indeed. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 13. 4. 7. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. but not to quite so enormous an extent. were suffered to depart. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. Others did the same thing. 14.See also "Syntax" (Sec. to which. 5. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. For this did God send her a great reward. 16. 138. 12. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. O thou that rollest above. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 17. 8. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. All was now ready for action. The table was good. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer).²a feature of natural scenery for which. Exercise. A reminder. 11. in his negotiations. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. from my earliest days. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 6. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 9. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. . Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. I first found myself among the mountains. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 2. 3.

Destroyer and preserver.And it would work 'em woe. 26. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. And will your mother pity me. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 23. A smile of hers was like an act of grace.19. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. thou rollest now. hear! 33. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 32.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. I who alone am. 34. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. well-oiled dispositions. 29. eat white bread or brown. variety.Who knew thee too well. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. in all its height. 21. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. And I had done a hellish thing. and seized a pen. He sate him down. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. hear. 35. Whatever he knows and thinks. 25. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. who take the world easy. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 27. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. oh. 31. behold now the semblance of my being. that let him communicate. 30. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . They know not I knew thee. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28.

Substantives. or gaseous. We are by nature observers. 39. white or red. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. in pointing out an object." etc. . if we are at a distance. and if we are near. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. as. 42.." "a hundred men. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 37. becomes mine." The office of an adjective." "yonder hill. who understands me. Who hears me. He knew not what to do." "that house. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit.36. Office of Adjectives. so that no other will be mistaken for it. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. adjectives are used. and so he read. 45. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 41. that is our permanent state. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 38. 43. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. etc. heavy or light. Again. 40. Here I began to howl and scream abominably." "some cities. position. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. then. He teaches who gives. such as in the expressions "this man. 139. or liquid. size. If a chemist discovers a new substance. "one hat. the number is limited by adjectives. brittle or tough. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. It may have this office alone. As to the kind of words used. ADJECTIVES. For example. or with persons. etc. and he learns who receives. We need to add some words to tell its color. So with any object. which was no bad step towards my liberation. 44. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep.

such as safe. To make this clear. 143. remotest. pointing out particular things. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. etc. If he be thankful for small benefits. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives.²POPE.²COLERIDGE. To err is human. it shows that he weighs men's minds. to describe it or to limit its application." they constitute all his connections." "ice-cold water. 141. With exception of the "and then. and their trash. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. deep. Classes of adjectives." "half-dead traveler." "unlooked-for burden. 142. divine. fair. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. beautiful. Definition. however. They include relative and interrogative words." "this life-giving book." . derived from proper nouns. happy. "an old English manuscript." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. "Heaven-derived power. Infinitives. used to tell how many things are spoken of. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. Examples are. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them.140. or how much of a thing." "ivory-handled pistols. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "the Roman writer Palladius. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. terrible." "the Christian pearl of charity. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. Nouns are not. (4) Pronominal adjectives." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. rash." and the still less significant "and so.² BACON." "next-door neighbor. to forgive. (2) Adjectives of quantity. words primarily pronouns." the "and there. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. such as.

1. some. Examples are. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. and accomplished is an adjective. . 'Tis midnight.²COLERIDGE." was accomplished is a verb. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. in studying these last-named words. and another is drunken. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Oxenham.But ever she looked on Mr. which are either pure participles used to describe. 145." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. considerable.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." "trailing clouds. Care is needed." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. no. much. For instance: in the sentence. 143." "The shattered squares have opened into line. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. in this." Caution. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." was is the verb." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." "a charming sight. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. 2. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²MACDONALD. 144. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. Exercises." "One is hungry. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "It came on like the rolling simoom. having some of each subclass named in Sec. sometimes small. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. any." "an aged man.

²ID. An arrow was quivering in each body. those). but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. instead of modifying them. When some. no. Not primarily pronouns." (b) Indefinite numerals. but I have gained fourscore. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. The following sentences present some examples:² . The demonstrative adjectives are this." "I have lost one brother. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.²THACKERAY. 146. How many.²KINGSLEY. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. are used with plural nouns.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. any." "Then we wandered for many days." "a dozen volunteers. The list. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. as. that. (plural these. its wake. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²CARLYLE. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. Thus. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "In came some five and twenty more. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals.² Every town had its fair.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other." Single ones of any number of changes. latter." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Exercise." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. they come under the next division of adjectives. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. the former²the latter. and with them a few negroes. former. every village. yonder (or yon).²VAUGHAN. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "He had lived by hunting for some months. "one blaze of musketry. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. Examples. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.

²WORDSWORTH. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²GOLDSMITH. 147. for example. they are changed to adjectives.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²BANCROFT. As has been said. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. Modify names of persons or things. FRANKLIN. In which evil strait Mr.² It matters not what rank he has. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. The taking of which bark. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²ID.. Oxenham fought desperately. When we speak of the seventeenth century. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. WEBSTER. skill which was at pause. what revenues or garnitures.but all these charms are fled. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. . Indefinite relative adjectives.²KINGSLEY. of equal skill. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course."²B. 148..²ID. 149.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. These do not. but in the one case. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. skill which was progressive²in the other.²RUSKIN. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. ²CARLYLE. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. They are of two kinds. These were thy charms. just as the corresponding pronouns do. but. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. Definition. Exercise. like the other numerals. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. tell how many things are meant.²BULWER. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. I verily believe.²D. The silver and laughing Xenil.

²LAMB. and new tormentedAround me.²AGASSIZ. In direct questions. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. Whatsoever kind of man he is. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.² EMERSON..²RUSKIN. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. nature will be sure to bear us out in. which. whichever. whichsoever way I move. Examples of their use are. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.²ID. as it rather seemed. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Was there. whatever. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.²IRVING. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. 151. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. proved not altogether displeasing to him. the debt to the rich.And whichsoever way I turn. which is selective among what is known. He was turned before long into all the universe. In indirect questions.²CARLYLE. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. But when the Trojan war comes. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).. whatsoever. you at least give him full authority over your son. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. New torments I behold. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. A lady once remarked. Adjective what in exclamations. . and gaze. As in the pronouns. whichsoever. it is impossible to determine. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.150. what inquires about things or persons not known.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. or whether any.

but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. color. NUMBER. 155. This is the old demonstrative. The article that was used with neuter nouns. and those as the plural of that. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. alas. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. . Thus. or weight.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. etc. weight. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. And yet. as. we do so by means of their qualities.² Oh. 153 . what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. History of this²these and that²those.152. That. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. a sapphire is bluer than the sky.²but not the same degree. which was fully inflected in Old English. Meaning of comparison. those). etc.²This. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. we notice some differences between them as to size.Adjectives have two inflections. But this had also another plural. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. It is neither relative nor interrogative. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. In exclamatory expressions. th s (modern those). All these have certain qualities. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. gold is heavier than iron. COMPARISON. Exercise.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. 154. Those borrowed from this. of the quality. or size. the making of it right. or amount. and when we compare the objects. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. When we place two objects side by side..²number and comparison.

whether they attend their own affair or not. and many others. . blue. bluest. but were not common until a century later. redder. Freedom is a perpetual. universal institution. 160. expressing a greater degree of quality. to the simple form.²SEWARD." "the commonest speech. 158. sufficient. easiest. easier. as. they are not compared. with less wit. great. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. infinite. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. as.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. A main difference betwixt men is." "It is a nobler valor." "the largest soul. strictly considered. reddest.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. Definition. though the simple. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. The comparative is formed by adding -er. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. The two forms. They came into use about the thirteenth century. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. "untamed thought. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. So with the words sole. and the superlative. red.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. "more matter. whose favorite pupil he was. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. for example." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. 157. These are called degrees of comparison. but. indomitable." Words that cannot be compared. enormous. organic.²THACKERAY. supreme." "no fewer than a hundred. Substitute for inflection in comparison. easy. immemorial. and the superlative by adding -est. expressing the greatest degree of quality. bluer. 159. giant-like. indefatigable. or amounts in quantity. These are properly the only degrees. 156.

The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. easy. I will. peaceablest. polished." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. and patientest fusing. harsh forms are usually avoided. etc." "sorrowfulest spectacles. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. who. falling on his knees. honestest. there needed to be a most genuine substance. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. and other words are preceded by more and most. The general rule is. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. as. and yet familiar." Carlyle uses beautifulest. "So help me God.Which rule. strange. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. 162.²ID. indisputablest. which hung behind in the queerest way. admirablest." said Henry Esmond. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. though born in no very high degree. Adjectives irregularly compared.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. The following lists include the majority of them:² . 163. mournfulest. witty.²The Nation. quiet. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. finest chiseling. was most finished. most small.²ID." "the wonderfulest little shoes. These are adjectives irregularly compared. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words." "more austere and holy. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain." "distantest relationships. These long." "more odd. madam.² CARLYLE A gentleman.

furthest 10. 4. bad. next Nearest Latest. utter 3. 2. throw away the worser part of it. 8. as. as in the sentence (14th century). but takes the place of a positive to better and best. which has gone out of use.² We have it in a much lesser degree. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. outermost Utmost. Good or well Evil. There was an old comparative bet. uppermost LIST III. which has softened to the modern best. The superlative I form was betst. though from a different root. 9. Hind 2. These have no adjective positive:² 1.² O.LIST I. last Hindmost. innermost Outmost. Worser was once used. 1. . but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. as in Shakespeare. further Farthest. 5. is often used. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. uttermost Upmost. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. [In] Inner Inmost. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 3. [Out] Outer. 6. hindermost Much or many More Farther. A double comparative. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 7. oldest Nighest. evil was the positive to worse. a double comparative. worst. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). latter Hinder LIST II. (3) Little is used as positive to less. older Nigher Nearer Later.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. (2) In Old English. least. lesser. 164. List I.²HAMLET. lesser Elder.

(8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. Since later. the old forms. much. and refer to time. or series.. further. The latter.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. greatest. and was the same word that is found in the proverb.² The more part being of one mind. since the m is for -ma. there is scarcely any distinction.. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. ²LAMB. List II. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. (5) The forms elder. etc. are shown in such phrases as. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional.²forth. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. a distinction has grown up between the two series. but in former times much was used in the sense of large.²HAWTHORNE. oldest. as long. latest. for example. instead of lenger. an old superlative ending.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. making the modern farther.²ID. First became entirely detached from the series. as. came into use. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. first. muchel. is quite common. The most part kept a stolid indifference. great. next. th came into the others. strong. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. except the form next. but originally the comparison was nigh. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. farrest. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. Between the two sets as they now stand. strenger. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. to which is added -ost. eldest. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. . farthest. "Many a little makes a mickle. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. near. etc. In imitation of further. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. are earlier than older. meaning the largest part. but not in meaning." Its spelling has been micel. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. furthest. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. doubling the inflection. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. and the superlative nearest.²KINGSLEY. moche. The meanings greater. to England we sailed.

Think what each adjective belongs to.²EMERSON. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. BEECHER. 167. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Decidedly handsome. or each may modify a different word or group of words. being merely descriptive. Her bows were deep in the water." "far-seeing as the sun. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective." "The outer is of the day.²SCOTT. and have no comparative force. in having no adjective positives. but not in their meaning. or have no comparative forms. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection." -Most added to other words. Highest and midmost. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. The comparatives are so in form. List III. but her after deck was still dry. Her." "the innermost moral soul. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. There. but they have no adjective positives. The adjectives in List III. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING." "their utmost exertion. W. In List II. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. by the by. all may belong to the same noun. 166. (Sec. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. on the very topmost twig. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. the upper light of the world. They have no superlatives. was descried The royal banner floating wide.²KINGSLEY. are like the comparative forms in List II.²DE QUINCEY.165.²H." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. .²HAWTHORNE.²DE QUINCEY. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 168. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.

²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. Our sometime sister. Bradbury and Evans. in prose. ²TROLLOPE." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²BIBLE. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. rich.²HAWTHORNE. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Exercise. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. bright.² My then favorite. H. . and thine often infirmities.²A. The seldom use of it. now our queen. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²HAWTHORNE. Other instances are. 2. It may still be argued.²TRENCH. Richard Hooker. 3. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. therefore. May we not. satisfactory. But in this sentence. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. in this sentence. 169. instead of saying. the then and still owners. philosophical. This. and heaven-defying oaths.²RUSKIN. deep. STOWE. solid.For example. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. 6. and broken. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. usual modifies incomparable decision. STEPHENS 5. and moral truth. not decision alone.²NOAH PORTER. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. deeply black eyes. By a convenient brevity. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²MRS. we may say "the then king. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility." in which then is an adverb. round.²HOLMES. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. "the one who was then king. 4. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. A few improper jests and a volley of good." making then an adjective. For thy stomach's sake. 7. as. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. our new government. In the following quotations.

with awkward but rapid pace. 3. (4) What word or words it modifies. seventy-five drachmas. if it has number. the method of parsing is simple. 2. I ask nothing of you. and most astounding were those frightful yells. plural number. cannot be compared. or case. person. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 10. this. compared by prefixing more and most. modifies truths. modifies the word truths. MODEL FOR PARSING. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. Exercise. 4.What to tell in parsing. 9. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. This gave the young people entire freedom. In parsing an adjective. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 8. therefore demonstrative. To every Roman citizen he gives. and very few have number. 6. Unfamiliar describes truths. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. To every several man. positive degree. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 170. . therefore descriptive. (2) Its number. Since adjectives have no gender. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. if it can be compared. (3) Its degree of comparison. manly way. having a singular. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. then. across the plain. These points out what truths. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. not inflected for number. frank. and I waited for none. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 5. She made no reply. 7.

and hates nothing so much as pretenders. it rests on reality. those dogs in the yard. Two hours elapsed. 23. . 33. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. he won affections with ease. are immutably fishes. 16. 14. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. is the settlement of our own country. With every third step. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 24. 19. 21. 25. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Like most gifted men. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. I know not what course others may take. In music especially. oxen. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. To say what good of fashion we can. the tomahawk fell. growing in the most unfavorable position. it is so noble a fruit. suggests such thoughts as these. 26. 13. Nearer to our own times. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 18. 29. and therefore more interesting to us. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 22. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. during which time I waited. 32. 31. 27. and many poles supported the lower ones. Here lay two great roads. as for armies that were too many by half.11. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. and dogs. 20. 12. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 28. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. yonder oxen in the pasture. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. the same love to France would have been nurtured. not so much for travelers that were few.

Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. and a before consonant sounds. ARTICLES. he is no literary man. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment.34. sometimes the tother. the tother. Our expressions the one. in vulgar English. . "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. ðat.²SCOTT.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. 37. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. later th . these occurring as the tane. and that remained a demonstrative adjective." An with consonant sounds. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s .²BREWER." "an orange. Their origin." "a European. 173. 171. such as we have been attempting to describe. In Middle English the became an article. th o. An before vowel sounds. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. 174. were formerly that one. meaning one. Two relics. the tother." "an honor. In the sentence. Examples: "a house. a before consonant sounds. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. Many writers use an before h. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. s o. the other. for example. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. that) which was also an article in Old English. or the tane. but the former is used." "a yelling crowd. weary-hearted man was he. the latter is still preserved in the expression. 35. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. even when not silent. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. the tither. 172." the words the and an belong to nouns. An historian. A hard-struggling. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. that other.²MACAULAY. with an ordinary little garden. just as adjectives do. An or a came from the old numeral n. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks.

it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me." "the Ohio. An hereditary tenure of these offices. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. The is the definite article.² . and not a state or other geographical division.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. which cannot be used alone. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. the older n.²HEROES OF ASGARD. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. or group. 177. 176. is referred to. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. When the is prefixed to a proper name." the article indicates clearly that a river. 178. since it points out a particular individual. Kinds. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. or any individual of a group or class. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. An article is a limiting word. 175. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. Definition. thus. as "the Mississippi. not descriptive. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. or a group or class of things. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with.²G. Articles are either definite or indefinite. BANCROFT. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.. or class.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. a person is introduced by a..²THACKERAY.² Don't you remember how.²COLERIDGE. doubtless. An and a are different forms of the same word. To call attention to attributes. An or a is the indefinite article. on opening a story. Reference to a known object.²This use is noticed when. With names of rivers. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.. 179. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. as in the sentence.²IRVING. The Dakota tribes. and when the word river is omitted. NOTE.

marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²EMERSON. 1. would speedily extract the required information. NOTE. not into a particular virtue. BANCROFT. the Spinoza. as. 2. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. For possessive person pronouns. but into the region of all the virtues. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. With plural of abstract nouns. Kant. Caution.²ID. 181. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. for example.²ID. and the redwing. One thing for its class. The simple rise as by specific levity. . 180. Half abstract.²G. her. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. so is the evil. The. laid it on the miry spot.²SCOTT.²KINGSLEY. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. If the good is there.The Bacon. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. His messages to the provincial authorities. etc. With adjectives used as nouns. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.² The faint. the Hume. Common. or a match put between the fingers.²MOTLEY.² As she hesitated to pass on. 183.²EMERSON. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²GIBBON.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. the gallant. the song sparrow. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. 182. Schelling. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

or an idea. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. Hence Definition. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. obeyed is a predicate. from the Latin transire. in (3. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. a)." put is the predicate. in (2. and a preposition unite as a verb. with some word understood. In the sentence. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. to say something to or about some person or thing. 202. In each case. in (2. a noun. b). "Put thou money in thy purse. The nature of the transitive verb.In (a). which may be a person. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. a verb. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. Has takes the object hypocrisy. endured what? anguish. but cannot be predicates." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. etc. and. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (3. Definition and caution. in (c). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. an adverb. or the object. and not a verb. and shame the most astute. By examining a few verbs. the word following. in this sentence from Bulwer. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. "Put money in thy purse. hence is not a verb. Each influences some object.²BULWER . lone took what? answer. for example. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. 201. or a material thing. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. the most penetrating. 204. and to receive the action expressed. which means to go over. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. can deceive has an object. taking the staff which always guided her steps. Now. In giving a definition. the most astute. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. The nature of intransitive verbs. Of those expressing action. but fearing is not a predicate. as. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. we consider a verb as one word. c). care. 200: In (1). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. b)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. representing something which it influences or controls. all do not express it in the same way. In the first. a preposition." Examine the sentences in Sec. (can) shame also has an object. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. in (b). All these are called transitive verbs. 203. an article. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. to go is no predicate.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

215.²FRANKLIN. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. 221. the first great founder of the Empire. 222. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. but.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. as. he will see the need of these ethics. for example. the second founder.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.² If. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. or be fulfilled. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. the writer can make the statement following. ²EMERSON. Ideal. 2). Again.I could lie down like a tired child.²may or may not be true. Unreal²cannot be true. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. I. If this be the glory of Julius.²MACAULAY. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. popular government must be pronounced impossible. Most excellent stranger. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. . and may or may not be regarded true. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.²LONGFELLOW. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.²SHELLEY. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. Condition or Supposition. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. in our case. they were recorded in the Book of Life. as.²D.²BRYCE. the representative system ultimately fail. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.² Now. WEBSTER. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.

might.. 8. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. 6. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. The subjunctive. Exercise." etc. unless.. and what kind of condition:² 1.² If these things were true. as. etc. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 3. P. she was regarded as a prodigy. and sonorous. Subjunctive of Purpose.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created.²FRANKLIN. 2. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. But in no case could it be justified. WILLIS.²CALHOUN. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand..²EMERSON.²SWIFT. would have sat still with joy and peace. If he had reason to dislike him.²N. ²LOWELL. if his lot had been mine.²BAYNE. . which cannot be true. if he speak to you. though.² It was necessary. that we cannot but regret its absence.² CARLYLE.²FRANKLIN. I told him.. 4. thus. is used to express purpose. melodious. and should. to drink strong beer. NOTE. if he was the man I take him for. 5.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.²MACAULAY. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. but when the verb precedes the subject. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. Epaminondas. 7. would you. do you think. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. may. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. and striven energetically to save Ney. that he might be strong to labor. is of similar physiognomy. 223. II. since he [Byron] was dead. except. society could not hold together. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. especially be. the clause being introduced by that or lest. he had better not have written. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. clear. The voice. In the following conditional clauses. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. he supposed.

Subjunctive of Result. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. like the Latin.²D. 227.²BRYANT. like the quarry-slave at night. VI. IV.²CARLYLE. In Indirect Questions.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. In Temporal Clauses. Expressing a Wish. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²MOORE.Thou go not. In a Noun Clause. After a verb of wishing.²ID... within its fairy bowers. The English subjunctive. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. V. Ask the great man if there be none greater. I've wished that little isle had wings. 224. none of us could say.²DE QUINCEY. VII.I have been the more particular. To tell of what had passed. I would it were! ²EMERSON. till it meet the sun in his coming. So live.That vain it were her eyes to close. Let it rise. III.And we. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.Were wafted off to seas unknown. 226. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.²SOUTHEY. Rise up. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.. . the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²WORDSWORTH. the answer being regarded as doubtful.. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.²COLERIDGE. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. 225. WEBSTER.

etc.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. or whatsoever victual it may be.Subject.²CARLYLE.²THOREAU. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.² Be the matter how it may. is the ultimate fact of man's life. 228. in apposition. Some might lament that I were cold. The noun clause. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²SHELLEY. I have no thought what men they be. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. is. tell me all that thou hast seen.²WORDSWORTH. Whatever betide. we'll turn aside..²COLERIDGE. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. That hunger of applause. object. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.² DICKENS. The essence of originality is not that it be new. for example. that everything be in its place. Object. See that there be no traitors in your camp. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. of cash. 229. (b) Adjective. After verbs of commanding.And see the Braes of Yarrow. which may be (a) Pronoun.²DE QUINCEY. Come.And look thou tell me true. . This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. The first merit. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.²COLERIDGE. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Complement.²SCOTT. VIII. Concessive Clauses. in its various uses as subject.²TENNYSON. often contains a subjunctive.

. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. to express a wish. 230. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. (1) Command.²SHELLEY. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. At the present day. (3) Request.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were.²BRYANT. ADAMS. and condition contrary to fact. Honor all men. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Oh.²J. Definition.²CHANNING.(c) Adverb.² CARLYLE. since commands are directed to a person addressed. for example. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. It must be remembered. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. IMPERATIVE MOOD. we had found [should have found] a poem here. though. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. 231. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.The spirit he loves remains. Usually second person. Q. (2) Entreaty. point to their immortal works. In spoken English. fear none. however. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. entreaties. or requests. 232. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. love all men. a concession.

Oh. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Quoth she."Hush! mother. noble earl. Part we in friendship from your land. there will her heart and her prayers be." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.One glance at their array! 5. or I + they.And. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. "The Devil take the goose.²SCOTT." Exercises on the Moods. to you implied in it.And God forget the stranger!" . etc. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Whatever inconvenience ensue. 6. but I + you. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 7. etc. we may use the imperative with we in a command. lest we rust in ease. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. nothing is to be preferred before justice. Sometimes with first person in the plural.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. 3.. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.²CAMPBELL. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. request. Break we our watch up. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. 2. Mark thou this difference.. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life."²DICKENS Tell me. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. 8. child of earth!While each performs his part. receive my hand. "Come along with me." whispered Kit.²SHAKESPEARE. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.

Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. it would speak. 13. or do it at all. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. 19." continued Old Morgan. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. Though he were dumb. He is." 16. "tell me where I may find my poor. ruined. let him live where else he like. Think not that I speak for your sakes. in what pomps and prosperities he like. will it not fall unbound. 20. and opinion displace opinion. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. He. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. "Mr. whether he do it right or wrong. That sheaf of darts. how he may do his work. but repentant child.High up in silver spikes! 22. Marshall. then. Well.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. no literary man. 11. 21. .That they might answer him. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. she ought to have it. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar.Except.9. 26. Forget thyself to marble." cried he. 23. my dear madam. Though abyss open under abyss. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12." 25. 14. 10. as though an instrument. That a man parade his doubt. "Oh.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. 18.

Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. kind." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages.²nothing could exceed the amiable. TENSE. and the past tense.² present. a form ending in -eth. Tenses in English. as the classical languages have. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. in the third person singular." past. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. or agree with it. also. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. such as Latin and Greek. as will be shown later on. will. "Thou walkest. The tenses in detail. have. five in the imperative. shall. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. such as be." present. or future time. as. "I go away tomorrow. to direct his steps. which represented present and future time. as. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. and the future tense. the past. Tense means time.²the present tense. Siddons. called auxiliaries.27. Meantime. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect." "If he comes. PERSON AND NUMBER. and future perfect tenses. in the conjugations. and future. Definition. tell him to wait. 28. 233. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. "Thou walkedst. 234. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. past. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. past perfect. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. past. When the older pronoun thou was in use. whatever she did. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. 235. or whether it were as one member of a general party. by means of the present. Old English had only two tenses." . five in the subjunctive. "It is not in man that walketh.

tense. [He] is [They] are 3. chosen (old. You are 2. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. as. been. chooseth. 236. Singular 1. were. chooses. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. but in English.²choose." and this only in the present tense indicative. Singular 1. Such verbs as choose have five. Indicative Mood. since it is composed of several different roots. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. walked. mood. choosing. moods. are. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. In classical languages. chosest). CONJUGATION. is. PRESENT TENSE. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. I be 2. and numbers. The verb be has more forms. walking. for example. wert) 3. Definition. walk has walk. 237. This is the third person.²am. walkedst. PRESENT TENSE. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. choosest. chose. "He walks. Singular 1. singular number. [He] were [They] were . persons. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. walketh. etc. I were 2. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. You (thou) be 3.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Few forms. Singular 1. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. 238. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. tenses. walks. etc.

² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. in four ways.²ID. were. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. though it is usually a dialect form. The light that never was on sea and land.²SHELLEY. (2) was. thus..Imperative Mood.²BURKE . and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. Remarks on the verb be. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. (2) As auxiliary verbs. -en. (b) With the past participle in -ed. which was now become an occasional banquet. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. etc.His infancy was nurtured. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²THACKERAY. for example. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. 239.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. as.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. (3) be.²WORDSWORTH. Instead of the plural are.. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. condition. same as the German sind. (d) With the infinitive.²GOLDSMITH. 240. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. to form the passive voice. obligation.²SCOTT. to express intention. is. etc.

1. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. We chose You chose 3. future perfect. Singular. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. . [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. 1. "I had gone" (past perfect). You choose Plural. etc. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. as. You chose Plural. Singular. In addition to the above inflected forms. I chose 2. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. as. by placing have. [He] choose [They] choose 3. Machinery of a verb in the voices. (2). [He] chooses [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. 1. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. past perfect. tenses. "I have gone" (present perfect). "I shall be. We chose You chose 3. PRESENT TENSE. Singular. You choose Plural. I choose 2. 1. there are many periphrastic or compound forms." (2) Present perfect. 240. had." "He will choose.241. tenses. Singular. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). I choose 2. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. You chose Plural. I chose 2. 242. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. Indicative Mood.

he chose (or were to choose). Present. Present. Present perfect. He will choose. as. [If. Present definite. Present. singular number. Past perfect definite. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs." "They had been running. Present perfect definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Past definite. ACTIVE VOICE. " Be choosing. He was choosing." (4) The passive forms. Imperative Mood. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Present definite. Future definite. Past.) Choose. he have been choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. He will have chosen.] he choose. He chose. He will have been choosing. Past perfect. Future perfect. he have chosen. He chooses. Past perfect definite. Only the third person. Present perfect definite. Indicative Mood. He has been choosing. Past. lest. of each tense. Past perfect. Present definite. He had chosen. as. . etc. He will he choosing. Future perfect definite. "I was chosen. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He has chosen. Same as indicative. Past definite. Subjunctive Mood." 243. He is choosing. Future. "I am running. Same as indicative. Present perfect. though. He had been choosing. will be given. he were choosing (or were to be choosing)." "You are chosen. (2d per.

"He does strike. None. if learned at all.) Be chosen. (2d per. Indicative Mood. Past perfect definite.NOTE. as. Present definite. Present perfect definite. He had been chosen. He will have been chosen. Future.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Past definite. Future perfect definite. though. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Past definite. Present perfect. Present..²This table is not to be learned now. but verbals. Future perfect. Present perfect.] he be chosen. he have been chosen. in affirmative sentences. He is being chosen." [Note to Teacher. He will be chosen.] [If. Imperative Mood. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. he had been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Present perfect definite. however. Present definite. Past. None. Subjunctive Mood. Past perfect. 262). None. He has been chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec. He is chosen. Past perfect definite. None. . Past Perfect. He was being chosen. None. Present tense. etc. Past. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). he were being chosen. Future definite. lest. None. " " " " " " " None. He was chosen. Exercises should be given. Present." "He did strike. Also.

drive. sleep. Kinds. but adds no ending. According to form. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. bit blown broken chidden. which are in parentheses Present Tense. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bounden] bitten. catch. slept. drove. beg. 244. verbs are strong or weak. Some of these also have weak forms.[adj. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. bid bound. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. run. ran. 245. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. begged.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. caught. and may or may not change the vowel: as. NOTE. lay. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Definition. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. laid. as. Past Tense.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate.

sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

²cleave.²one meaning to adhere or cling. clave or clove. which always crew at eleven. Not a cock crew. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. cleaved. TAYLOR. ²THACKERAY. as. .² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. cloven. the other. The form clomb is not used in prose." In this confusion of usage. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. but is much used in vulgar English. especially in that of an earlier period. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.² We had each drank three times at the well.²IRVING. as. and. The former used to be cleave. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. 246.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. Sometimes in literary English. When it means to carry or to endure. "stricken with paralysis." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active." "a drunken wretch. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.²GOLDSMITH. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. How fairy Mab the junkets eat." "the cloven hoof. and another (born) for the passive."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. cleft. borne is also a passive. for example. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.²MILTON.²B." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. "his bounden duty.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. and the latter. and sometimes occurs in poetry. Our cock. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.²as (from Shakespeare). But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²TENNYSON." "a sunken snag. Historically. only one set remains certain. cleave. now told us it was time for repose.²COLERIDGE. cleft (to split). probably to avoid confusion with this. nor a dog barked. as. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). as (from Holmes). to split. instead of ate and eaten.² Thou hast clomb aloft. cleaved.

broke. 4.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.²BYRON.²TENNYSON. and grasping at his sword. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Fling.²BIBLE. for example. gave." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. 5. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang.² If. which is seldom used except in poetry. 7. He sate him down. Shake. Usually shear is a weak verb. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town.² We had all got safe on shore. Find. Give. Fall. given.The form gotten is little used. frozen. We usually say. found. (a) From the table (Sec. This heard Geraint. began. broken.²WORDSWORTH. maiden. found. even in poetry. Exercises. Break. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. 245). Freeze. 2. flung. 9. One example out of many is. shore is rare.²DE FOE. The butler was hanged.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. shaken. as "a shorn lamb.²SCOTT. fell. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Drive. threw. Throw. 8. drove. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. thrown."²KINGSLEY. 6. flung. froze. begun. 10. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. shook. Begin." but not much as a participle. driven. as. and seized a pen. fallen. . for example. 3. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense.

as it has two meanings. The l in could did not belong there originally. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. from the obsolete verb motan. must have been an ocular deception.²SCOTT.²CHANNING This. Can is used in the indicative only. PRESENT. there is one general principle.²HAWTHORNE. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. 249. as it sometimes does. Ability. ability. PAST. according to the infinitive used. or. which survives in the sentence. Indicative Use: Permission. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. 250. His superiority none might question. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. for full drill on the forms. of course."²WINIER. 220. "So mote it be. The same remarks apply to ought. 223. HAMILTON. Could may be subjunctive. 247. as. 251. purpose. etc. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.. (See also Sec.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. Have we valuable territories and important posts.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. PAST. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. Subjunctive use. They are as follows:² PRESENT.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE." Must is present or past tense.[To the Teacher. etc. or when it expresses wish. Like must..²PAINE. it is used only in the indicative mood. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Must is historically a past-tense form. ..²CHANNING. but came through analogy with should and would. It is indicative when it expresses permission. "far off his coming shines.. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. as in Sec..which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A.

It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. MOULTON. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i..Nay.²L. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.e. They shall have venison to eat. in the form of command. as. (b) In indirect quotations.²THAXTER. future action).²BULWER. my lad.²LONGFELLOW. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. She should not walk. I shall be gone." Uses of shall and should. what shall I say?²N. as. C. 252. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. BROCKDEN BROWN. The sea shall crush thee. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. he said. she should ride like a queen.² Futurity and questions²first person. shall and should are used. and corn to hoe. not plod along like apeasant. to the neglect of shall and should.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. while ought always has to. (b) In questions asking for orders. as. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.²MACAULAY.² (a) To express authority.²COOPER. Shall and Will. Second and third persons. especially in the United States. yea. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. with pronouns of the first person. WEBSTER.²IRVING. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. . through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. promise. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. for example. She rejects his suit with scorn. to use will and would.² With respect to novels. "I think I will go. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. The following are examples:² Never mind. or confident prediction.² The time will come full soon. shall and should are used.

(3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.² I will go myself now.²SCOTT. I never was what I should be.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²ROGERS. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. or a promise. was to be expected..²CABLE.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²WORDSWORTH. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.²SWIFT. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²BYRON. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. BROWN.. and will not return until all is finished. 253.that I would do him justice. JAMES. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. and is equivalent to ought. And promised. with the conviction that he should win in the end. purpose. Disguising a command. as the sole inventor.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. LARNED. etc. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. thus. B. First.. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. for example. .²H.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. as.²WORDSWORTH. time.²WORDSWORTH. JR. for example.²C. second and third persons. (c) With direct questions of the second person. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²WINTER. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²A.

as.² Subject I omitted: often so. would is used to express a wish. will and would often denote an action as customary. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. without regard to future time. PASSIVE VOICE. Mere futurity.²SCOTT. . but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. BROWN. for example.² DICKENS. When I am in town. through storms their brothers are afraid of. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.. and mark on the grounds the works.²IRVING. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. for punishment or intimidation. B. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.. Roland. This puts the order more mildly.²LANDOR.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. etc.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. SECOND.²War Records.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²BURKE. when thou wast born. Thine was a dangerous gift. will is used to express command.. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. for example. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. as if it were merely expected action. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.² Thou wilt take the skiff. (4) With FIRST. and two of my people. Would thou hadst it not. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).²SCOTT.. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.²BANCROFT.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. AND THIRD PERSONS.²the original meaning of the word will. They will go to Sunday schools. In this stately chair would he sit. will and would are used to express simple futurity.. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. as. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.. action merely expected to occur. To be sure. 254. so you will. The gift of Beauty.

[He] shall choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. 2. 1. 1. 2. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Thou art what I would be. etc. Exercises on Shall and Will. . 1.:² ACTIVE VOICE. yet only seem. [He] shall be chosen. 2. [They] shall be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. You will choose. You shall choose. [They] will be chosen. We will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. I will choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. Plural. Singular. You shall be chosen. 1. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. PASSIVE VOICE. 1. 2. He informed us. Plural. 3. (a) From Secs. 3. I shall choose. promise. Singular. You shall choose. We shall choose. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. and that of the newest cut. To express determination. 2. 3. [They] will choose. [He] will be chosen. We shall be chosen. [He] will choose. 5. 252 and 253. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 3. You will be chosen.Singular. 3. I shall be chosen. I will be chosen. [They] shall choose. You will choose. You shall be chosen. 6. 2. We will be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences. Singular. 3. Plural. You will be chosen. Plural. "I shall not run. 4. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten.

7.²Class I.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used].²ID." the stranger said. 13. put. bereaved besought . bereft. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. "I am a wayfarer. which may be called irregular weak verbs. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. Without having attended to this. then. WEAK VERBS. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. The beast made a sluggish movement. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please.²CHAUCER. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. put. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Lucy stood still. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. need some attention and explanation. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Irregular Weak Verbs. was -de or -te. 11. as if he would have more of the enchantment. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. and have no change of vowel. 9. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. set. 12. The old ending to verbs of Class II. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. Present Tense. put. as. 256. Past Tense. bereave beseech bereft. set. 10. But the rest. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. and I have nothing to say. Of smale houndes hadde she." 14. or mylk and wastel breed. my son. This ending has now dropped off. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. 255. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. No. bereave besought Past Participle. 257.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. very anxious.

pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. [To] be choosing. have no tense. [To] have been choosing. Infinitives. they have an indefinite. When active.. Indefinite. Cases when to is omitted. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [To] choose. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. and a perfect definite form. and when passive. 9. ACTIVE VOICE. PASSIVE VOICE. will (with should and would). an indefinite and a perfect form. But later. 8.6. Perfect definite. formed a kind of bedstead. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. [To] have chosen. INFINITIVES. an imperfect.²the creature warring against the creating power. Three saplings. to express action unconnected with a subject. Perfect. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Imperfect. Nothing of the kind having been done. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. I returned to reflection on my situation. to was used before the infinitive generally. 267. 266. In Sec. . [To] be chosen.. Perfect. [To] have been chosen. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). as in the Old English. like participles. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. 268. try clemency. 10. Indefinite. a perfect. To with the infinitive. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. expressing purpose. 7.. when inflections became fewer.

Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win.²COOPER. under "Analysis. GERUNDS. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). "She ask my pardon.).²GOLDSMITH. also in the imperative. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.²TENNYSON.²DE QUINCEY. While the gerund expresses action. "a house to let." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. or the object of a verb or a preposition. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. 272." etc. do (as. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. HALE.²E.²it may be governed as a noun. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. as the credulous imagine.²MACAULAY. learn [doth learn is one verb. and emphatic forms of the present and past. must. But there was nothing to do. poor woman!" cried Charles. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. The gerund is like the participle in form. bid (command). it may be the subject of a verb. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. watch. 271. see. as." Examples are." "I shall have chosen. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. They shall have venison to eat. "I do go" etc. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative." (4) In exclamations. and like a noun in use. E. as in the expression. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. as. hear. too. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. "He will choose. it has several attributes of a noun.² What! doth she. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. liberal woman. please. 269. can (could).²HOWELLS. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. .. negative. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. also let.²IRVING.(2) After the verbs may (might). feel.² She was a kind. sometimes need (as. it is often preceded by the definite article. and corn to hoe. 270. make. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. as.

4. 273." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. II). "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. and wonderful store of learning! . The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. on your leaving the spot.²Find sentences containing five participles. may govern and be governed. (5) Gerunds. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. above. which express action and also modify. which express action." Exercise. to see the returning hope of the parents. but cannot govern. What a vast. (4) Pure adjectives. (3) Participial adjectives. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. Then how pleasing is it. but do not assert. five infinitives." "Certainly dueling is bad. which name an action or state." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. according to use as well as meaning. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. making the definite tenses. Words in -ing are of six kinds. which have lost all verbal force. (2) Pure participles. (6) Verbal nouns. and has been put down. brilliant. after examining the nest. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. 2. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. b). Exercise. which express action. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. Sec. and five gerunds.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use." also (2. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. when.

give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form.²strong or weak. (5) Person and number. (4) Tense. 13. I suppose I was dreaming about it. (2) Voice. . He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 15. you must. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. 7. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 12. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 11. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. The only means of ascending was by my hands. I. slowly. giving principal parts. by object lessons. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. but.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 234. 16. subjunctive. or imperative. In parsing verbs. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. dictating from his chair.5. he gave out sentence by sentence.²transitive or intransitive. 275. He spread his blessings all over the land. (3) Mood. give reality to your teaching. write twenty pages without stopping. like Sir Walter Scott. 9. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. bearing her national emblem. round which is an iron railing. Thackeray did not. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 6. (b) as to use. much corroded. Caution. 14. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature.²active or passive. 10.²indicative. What is dreaming? 8. VERBS.

it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. VERB PHRASES. Let it rise! let it rise. could. (b) whether indefinite. etc. It has been intimated in Sec. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. and ends in -s. (b) whether active or passive. and not taken as single verbs. (3) Gerund. (b) its use (Sec. imperfect. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. past tense. call might a weak verb. in the world. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. verbals. 278. then parse it as an adjective." Sometimes it does. 2." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. In such sentences as 1. might. can. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. You are gathered to your fathers. has for its subject Lee. intransitive. definite. . no sin nor sorrow. would. 278(2). Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. see Sec. (a) From what verb derived. call should a weak verb. intransitive. indicative (as it means could). Take these examples:² 1. Exercise. Especially frequent are those made up of should.. II. past tense. If a participial adjective. and parting day linger and play on its summit. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. active. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. 235. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. (c) to what word it belongs. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. The government might have been strong and prosperous. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. followed by a pure infinitive without to. (2) Infinitive. 3. give points (a) and (b). 277. 273). 4.276. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. 2. But unless the verb is present. III. perfect. till it meet the sun in his coming. usually it does not. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. must. and should always be analyzed as phrases. perfect. In 2. etc. VERBALS. may. indicative. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. (1) Participle. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. therefore active. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. has the subject government. we must beware of the rule. Parse the verbs.

15. Right graciously he smiled on us. as rolled from wing to wing. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 10." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. he thought only of her. 6. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. a deafening shout. 11. 18. 24. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. When he arose in the morning. 17. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. leaving me upon the bed. He passed across the room to the washstand. morning is not a new issuing of light. 8. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. as usual. a new bursting forth of the sun.Henceforth in me instill. In going for water. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. a sweet good will. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 13. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. or. 21. from a sort of temporary death. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 14. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. With them.O God. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 23. Such a boy could not whistle or dance.5. a new waking up of all that has life. 19. However that be. So. The soul having been often born. 20. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. . lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 9. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 12.Down all the line. and wondered if she were yet awake. 22. as the Hindoos say. 16.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. see that it is in good condition.

²CARLYLE."²DE QUINCEY." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. or manner: as. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. thou sayest. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. because. "William's private life was severely pure. Adverbs modify. Oh. to speak truly. and limit adjectives or adverbs." An adjective or an adverb.²EMERSON. for example. who live with nature?²ID. and so on. When action is expressed. 27. A verb." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²time. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 29. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. they are more himself than he is. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.²SHELLEY.²THACKERAY. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. and live ere life be spent. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. ." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly.Feast while we may. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. and men of leisure and cultivation. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. 26.² The young man reveres men of genius. ADVERBS. as. To the almost terror of the persons present. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. place. Better it were. Is it only poets. for the hour of rest is at hand. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. Nor was it altogether nothing. 279." "He was absolute. to consent. And now wend we to yonder fountain. The word adverb means joined to a verb.25.

then. is a modifying word. Definition. perhaps. It may also modify a sentence. lately. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.²These last differ from the words in Sec. I draw forth the fruit. but really modifying. . 169. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. but some verb understood. and half awfully. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. while those in Sec. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. Surely happiness is reflective. ²IRVING. ever.² LOWELL. A clause or sentence. 280. there are six classes:² (1) Time. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. A phrase.² FRANKLIN. Make music to the lonely ear. hitherto. 281. before.He was incidentally news dealer. ALDRICH. NOTE.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. has induced some of us to attend it. or a word group used as such.²BYRON.²TROLLOPE. (2) according to their use in the sentence. but still with a rich bloom to it. 282. not the noun.²T. like the light of heaven. not simply the forms used in predication. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. being adverbs naturally and fitly. We are offered six months' credit. all wet and glossy. Thus considered. for example. as shown in the sentences. which may qualify an action word or a statement.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.²LEIGH HUNT. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. as. B. as now. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. NOTE. and that.²THOREAU. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. etc. to-day. thus.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. An adverb. 169 are felt to be elliptical.

the more perfect will be their obedience.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. much.whither.near. not. (6) Assertion. greatly. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. .²SHAKESPEARE. This long's the text. the more friends you will have. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. Thackeray. maybe. as well. etc.²DE QUINCEY. bravely. thus. etc. while so precedes only the adjective usually.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. as hither.was for this once of her opinion. Motley. (3) Manner.which gained him such universal popularity. for example.² The master. (4) Number.. etc. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. whithersoever. just. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.. as little. 283. telling how much. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.²LECKY. telling how many times: once. or how far he believes it to be true. as hence. 283). (see also Sec. I was. The more they multiply.(2) Place. twice. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. probably.²BURKE. slightly. possibly. and not infrequently are found in literary English.thither. telling how anything is done. too. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.. LOUIS STEVENSON. Meekness.²IRVING. two by two. [Sidenote The status of such. enough.whence... etc.²BROWNING.yonder. very. surely. that these adverbs form a very large class.²R. singly. whencesoever.²HAWTHORNE. above. partly. better. White. (5) Degree.there. etc. especially the comparative of these words. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.thence. Emerson. as perhaps. slowly. at least. beautifully.where. etc. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. So also in Grote. the more evidently they love liberty. as here. and others.

Dickens. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. 282. Such are most of those given already in Sec.²GOLDSMITH. B." said the king.Pretty. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.² You are mighty courteous. and other writers. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. De Quincey. a mighty fine gentleman. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²THACKERAY. Neville. and its lawn before [place]. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Pretty is also used by Prescott. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. for example.²THACKERAY. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. and art but a fool. Burke. Some adverbs. Again. for example. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Kingsley. Holmes.²"He walked too far [place]. . Simple.²HAWTHORNE.²FIELDING. Mighty. Aldrich." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Franklin. Emerson. Notice meanings." "I have seen you before [time]. have the additional function of asking a question."²SCOTT.²BAYNE." "That were far better [degree].² KINGSLEY. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. 284. besides modifying. Hard blows and hard money. Direct questions. Defoe. "Peace. Beau Fielding. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. STOWE." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." "He spoke positively [manner]. 285." "The house.²BULWER.² "Mighty well. A pretty large experience. Interrogative. 286.

Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. (4) Degree. (2) Place. (2) Place. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. they smiled. WEBSTER. I will not ask where thou liest low.²BYRON (3) Manner.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. When did this humane custom begin?²H. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. I hearkened. CLAY.²D. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. for example. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (5) Reason. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. . or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. (4) Degree. I know not why. 287.²POE.²BULWER.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BYRON. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.

Only that we may wiselier see. highest. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. only occasionally having -er and -est. soon. furthest (rathe. Its strings boldlier swept. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.But in reality. not an adverb. when does not express time and modify.²COLERIDGE. Many adverbs are compared. see Sec.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Superlative. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Form vs. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Many adjectives have the same ending. but the whole clause. high. just as adjectives do. have the same inflection as adjectives.) rather 289. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. 290. are often used as adjectives:² Positive.²BYRON. when compared. representing four classes. irregularly compared. . use. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.²TENNYSON..²EMERSON. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. and when has simply the use of a conjunction." Exercise.. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. soonest. as. Exercise. 288. obs. and. when. higher. Then must she keep it safelier. sooner.eyes. For further discussion. The following.²SHAKESPEARE. well much little far late Comparative. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. further farthest.

1. many words without -ly have the same form. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. even.²IRVING. But he must do his errand right. Special use of there. more courtly in their manners. Not near so black as he was painted. if it has the verb be. hard. nearly.²TENNYSON. etc.²CHAUCER. curiously jolly. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. The reason is.²ID.² EMERSON." Compare these:² 1. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. near.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. but with a different meaning. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Such are most. as. There are eyes. kindly and good-natured in secret. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. merely introduces a sentence. 5. 6. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. 2. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. 7. hardly. 8. or down the leaves laughed through. quick-flashing eye. that in Old and Middle English. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly.²THACKERAY.²WORDSWORTH. whether adverbs or adjectives. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. And all about. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 4. With his proud.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. He is inexpressibly mean.And his mien of kingly state. to be sure. . 3. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 291. Again. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. mostly. evenly. instead of being used adverbially. 292. Frequently the word there. 2.

but continually shifted. (3) What word or word group it modifies. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Thither we went. 12. however theoretically enticing. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. and always. The higher we rise in the scale of being. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. (2) Degree of comparison. 10. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. but from my fall? 6. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 7. For the impracticable. It is the Cross that is first seen. the Madonna is in great glory. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. But a few steps farther on. Exercise. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 2. burning in the center of the temple.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 4. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. is always politically unwise. according to meaning and also use. 3. 293. 11. 16. 18. if the word is compared. In parsing adverbs. 9. 15. give² (1) The class. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. . 5. at the regular wine-shop. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 17. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. and sate down on the steps of a house.

(2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. It was pretty bad after that. or sentence groups. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. nor. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. . in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States.19. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. 20. 22. 294. but the student will readily find them. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. sentences. 295. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Definition." Sentences. A conjunction is a linking word. word groups. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. upon which the sun now shone forth. therefore. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. then. but side by side within the American Union. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. 21. however. connecting words. hence. Unlike adverbs. CONJUNCTIONS. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. But now the wind rose again. Clauses. etc." Paragraphs.

the bread was spent.or.. serves but to show their ignorance. still. then. The chief ones are. of the same rank. whether. for.. 298. .. the window being open.. as. likewise. either.. as. had its weight. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. and. either. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. "Howbeit. hence. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative." Nevertheless. both. either.. introducing a reason or cause.. usually between two things. however. (3) CAUSAL.. also. answering to each other in the same sentence. whether. Nor mark'd they less. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.nor. Correlatives. 297. nor.. word groups..but.. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. not only. Causal. nor. as well as...and. Your letter. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.. but is emperor in his own right.. expressing a choice. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. joining words. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.Classes of conjunctions. Alternative. While the earth bears a plant. moreover. etc.. however. They are or. while.or.or. whether. the butter too. neither. neither. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. etc. and not man corn. not only.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.. neither.but (or but also). Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. The assertion. therefore.nor. Some go in threes. as and... Some of these go in pairs.or whether. (2) ADVERSATIVE. etc.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. 296. as but..or. or the sea rolls its waves. only.. yet. as well as the room door. (4) ALTERNATIVE.. Adversative. else. (2) Subordinate.

QUINCY. Where the treasure is. (3) MANNER: how. etc. although..²DE QUINCEY. lest. ere.²WILSON. so. since. whither.²BURKE. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. etc.. as. so. whereto.. even if. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.²J. especially that after so. nor wing of bird. in order that. before. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where.²PAULDING. etc. It is. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. as. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. in case. after. on condition that. ²ALLSTON. whenever. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. now. (7) RESULT: that.²COOPER. that. Time. however. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. except. though. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. sometimes if. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. He is not only bold and vociferous. wherever. (2) TIME: when. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. until. since. while.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. so that.. whence. (6) PURPOSE: that. howsoever. . etc. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. Neither the place in which he found himself. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. there will the heart be also. whether.²BIBLE. provided that. nor creeping thing. nor echo. so that. object. unless. in apposition. as.²IRVING. whereas. provided. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. so. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. etc. nor green leaf. seeing. 299.

I was again covered with water.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²BURKE. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.² EMERSON. Comparison. reason.²CARLYLE Events proceed. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Then Denmark blest our chief.²EMERSON. JACKSON.So I behold them not.²EMERSON. Let the world go how it will.² WORDSWORTH. . So many thoughts moved to and fro. H. Manner. Purpose. a thousand bodies.²AMES. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. As a soldier.²BYRON. but not so long but I held it out.That he gave her wounds repose.²AMES. Substantive.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE.²AMES. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²CAMPBELL. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Cause. Result. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.² HAWTHORNE. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.That vain it were her eyes to close. Condition.²IRVING.²DEFOE. Now he is dead. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Sparing neither whip nor spur. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. not as they were expected or intended.² H. Concession. We wish for a thousand heads. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.

9. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 3. while. And they lived happily forever after. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. While a faction is a minority. . her real merit is known at home. then. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. After he was gone. that. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. some words²for example.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 13. 300. The moth fly. the wisest. since. No one had yet caught his character. They. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. In what point of view. 7. While patriotism glowed in his heart. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. the lady called her servant. 6. 10. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. however. He was brought up for the church. hold a subordinate rank. As will have been noticed. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Crept under the leaf.²RUSKIN. as he shot in air. and hid her there. 12. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. Besides. 14. she faintly pressed her hand. 4. And then recovering. etc.Let us see whether the greatest. it will remain harmless. as. 5. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. Exercises. 15. 2.

word groups. 303. So silently we seemed to speak. As though. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. for example. they connect. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.Clouded.So slowly moved about. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS." as. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.²IRVING. (2) What words. . 301.²HOOD. as is often equivalent to as if. the expression would be. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. and the frame will suit the picture. and part as though we parted not. 302. In poetry. As for as if.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. In Emerson's sentence. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. As if. GREELEY.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. in this case. thus.²EMILY BRONTE. even as they would weep. etc.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out..16. If analyzed. "We meet. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. SPECIAL REMARKS. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.As though a rose should shut. Consequently." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.²BYRON. as is shown by the use of as though. none of the lashings having given way. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. His voice . expressing degree if taken separately.. and be a bud again. 304. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. In parsing conjunctions.

²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. He dismisses without notice his thought. the Sphinx was slain. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. 7. At sea. in 3. He is the compend of time. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. and. compare the sentences. when. or in the forest. or in the snow. All the postulates of elfin annals. 9. such as nor. Exercise. they are not known.²DEFOE 2.²I find them true in Concord. so they paddled on. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. dines with as good an appetite. "Doctor. 3. 4. . so it be faithfully imparted. 13. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. 5. so means therefore. as beside his own chimneys. and its clause is independent. 11. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. others belong to several classes. so that I could not stir abroad. 12. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. When the gods come among men." said his wife to Martin Luther.Caution. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. he sleeps as warm. In classifying them. Some conjunctions. It continued raining. etc. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. so that expresses result.²EMERSON 3. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. 6. and the like. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye.² 1. If he could solve the riddle.²is subordinate of condition. he is also the correlative of nature. are regularly of one particular class. It may be safely trusted. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. because it is his. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. For example. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. in 2. 2. that it might testify of that particular ray.²that the fairies do not like to be named. so means provided.. and very seldom?" 8. because. 10. and its clause depends on the other. but of the natural. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. and associates as happily.

I rejoice to stand here no longer. in this they agree. Goodness must have some edge to it. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. in many a heart. 29. enthroned. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. the whole conditions are changed. 28. 30. when it was presented to them. however. save it were sinful like herself. you must be. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. It may be so in the majority of cases. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. For. There was no iron to be seen. she might have the family countenance. PREPOSITIONS. 18. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. therefore. 22. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. Still. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. that both were wayward. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. won't you lay on? 17. 20. And whether consciously or not. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. of good novels only. I speak. 27. 25.. 19. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 16. 21. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. whose names I omit. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 305.14. . 15.²else it is none. 26. 23. Now you have the whip in your hand. 24. It is clear.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²DE QUINCEY. ²PARTON. he stopped. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. etc. at least. Like at. by the ruins of nations. at naught.²M. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. By my faith.²EVERETT. STODDARD. at rest. 320. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at once. At that time [the earth] was richer. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at peace. Exercise. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at play. at one. (4) Measure of excess. By..²R. At St. at most. at any rate. (3) Agency or means. at first. as. CONWAY.² (1) The general meaning of place. at war.²WARNER. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. D. . She saw the boat headed for her. H. at random. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. (2) Time. by many a million of acres.²SWIFT.²B. at the worst.²ID. Exercise. at all. by means near or close to. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. 321.²ALDRICH. Richard was standing by the window.²COOPER. by the wrecks of time. etc. at the best.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. the first port made by the ship. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Helena. at length.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. by the blessed memory of the departed. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at work. For. expressing the degree of difference.

etc. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²PARKMAN.²STODDARD.²H.²HOOD. "Nay. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. or in spite of. . for all his title. a person or thing. as being. "For a fool.One of Eve's family. had a forest of poor relations. BANCROFT. ate her child. he repented of his folly. (4) Substitution or exchange. cause. An Arab woman. for the benefit of.²E. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland..(2) In favor of. they are now for us. the Colonna motto would fit you best." answered Master Brackett. considering that etc. For him. He and they were for immediate attack. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. for all slips of hers. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²IRVING. but a few sunsets since. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. reason. (5) Reference. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. Still. (9) Motive. or extent of space. (3) Duration of time.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. GARRISON. poor fellow. But the Colonel.²W. as to. respecting. in behalf of. meaning with regard to. incitement to action. For the rest. (7) Concession. etc." said the Lady of Lochleven. if your worship can accomplish that.²EMERSON.²LAMB. There are gains for all our losses. "thou hast counseled wisely. (6) Like as.²HOLMES. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. The twilight being."²SCOTT By my faith. meaning in the character of. E.²ID. etc. meaning although. for famine. and leaped for joy.²PARKMAN.. L. H.² RUSKIN.

from a desire of seeming valiant. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Exercise.²BANCROFT. The original meaning of of was separation or source. cause. (1) Origin or source. Exercise. nay. The young cavaliers. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. like from. ceased to be merciful. A distrustful. or reason. (3) Time.²HALE. .²Find sentences with five meanings of for. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²ID.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive.²HUME. Of. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. more. From.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. The From Relation. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The general idea in from is separation or source. (4) Motive. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. 323.²H. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The king holds his authority of the people. Like boys escaped from school. H.²MILTON. if not a desperate man.²DRYDEN.²HIGGINSON. 322. (2) Origin. From harmony. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²HUXLEY.

free. demand. ²PARTON.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.²ALDRICH.²PARKMAN. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. "I am glad of that. . rid. (3) With expressions of material. HALE. rob. More than one altar was richer of his vows. south of. etc. (6) Partitive. The hills were bare of trees. of his own knowledge. deprivation. and grass. the finest army that Europe had yet seen.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.²BAYARD TAYLOR. bare of. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place.²LEW WALLACE. purge.. Sandals. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. Asked no odds of. A singular want of all human relation. etc. especially out of. etc.²SCOTT Who formed. etc. (b) After some adjectives. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. divest. clear. or breastpin of native gold. beg. cure. bound with thongs of boar's hide.²BANCROFT. Other Relations expressed by Of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. E. as north of. weeds. acquitted them of. motive.²BOSWELL. free of. out of the most unpromising materials. such as ease. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. relieve. there were only twenty-one members present. ask. (5) Expressing agency.² HUXLEY."²E. deprive.²HIGGINSON.²ID. Of the Forty.²clear of. He is away of his own free will. ²GAVARRE. reason. that Cromwell once ruled England. wide of. (c) After nouns expressing lack. White shirt with diamond studs. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Back of that tree. (d) With words expressing distance. You cannot make a boy know. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. etc. disarm.²DICKENS II.

²BANCROFT. See also Sec. (7) Possessive. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. concerning. The fair city of Mexico. Such a book as that of Job. (8) Appositional.²BANCROFT.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. (b) Noun and gerund.²W. with its object. standing. 309. of a sudden. (9) Of time. .²ALDRICH. Idiomatic use with verbs. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. being equivalent to an infinitive. (10) Of reference. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. when the first is descriptive of the second. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²HALLECK. ²IRVING. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.He washed out some of the dirt.²BANCROFT. Besides the phrases of old. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²FROUDE.²COOPER.²SWIFT. of is used in the sense of during. E. could give shelter from his contumely. Not even woman's love. equal to about. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. The nation of Lilliput.²PRESCOTT.. with regard to. etc.²ID. and the dignity of a queen. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²LAMB. of late. CHANNING. for the possessive.²LOWELL. (c) Two nouns. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.

on trial. To. Exercise. avail (one's self). allow. you are eighteen. (4) In adjurations. etc. On my life. repent. Upon is seldom used to express time. approve.²EMERSON. without adding to their meaning. on view. and not a day more.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.²PARKMAN. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²ALDRICH. Upon my reputation and credit. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. (2) Time. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. consist. such as admit. Upon. 324.²MRS. on high.²BRYANT. on the alert. (b) With motion. Cannon were heard close on the left.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. SIGOURNEY. On.²PARKMAN. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. on a sudden. disapprove. . On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. The general meaning of on is position or direction. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. (3) Reference. Exercise.²Find sentences with six uses of of. accept. and others. 325.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. It also accompanies the verbs tire. on the wing. permit. concerning. ²BANCROFT.²PARKMAN. complain. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. on board. equal to about. etc. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.²DE QUINCEY.

TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. does the mere music.²IRVING. unmasked. to him. interest. 326. 268). gay Comedy appears. had ceased to be.²BRYANT. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. With. (2) Expressing result. He usually gave his draft to an aid. (b) Referring to time. Exercise.²often to the loss of be written over. .. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. it may be genuine poetry..of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²LANG. whose influence is felt to this hour.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²HALE. In Old English.Come to the bridal chamber. Revolutions. His brother had died. But when.²BULWER.²PARTON. (5) Equivalent to according to. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²BENTON To our great delight. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²GOLDSMITH. To the few. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec..²PARKMAN.²B. to my taste.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. Death!²HALLECK. Nor. mid meant in company with.

She seemed pleased with the accident. . After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. It seemed a supreme moment with him. He expired with these words.²EMERSON.²WALLACE (7) Time. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²ALDRICH. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²SCOTT.²E. or with the haunch of our near leader. HALE. (2) Instrumentality. transmitted from the beginning. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. motive. to find the object of the preposition. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. opinion. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. (4) Estimation.²DE QUINCEY. E.²COOPER. felt it unsafe to trifle further. with Heyward at its head. reason.²COLERIDGE. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²HALE.²HOWELLS. "poetry is not a pursuit. Exercise. (5) Opposition. he gave millions to the sword. With all his sensibility. (3) Cause. in spite of. He was wild with delight about Texas. 327.²CHANNING. as with you.²DE QUINCEY. Either with the swingle-bar. first of all. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. Messala. it is necessary. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²HOWELLS. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.The advance. I think. with all his boldness. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²LANG. but with you. had already reached the defile.

with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. hence we say. 5. by which a dozen apples. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. or was. In (2). and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. because I had given the provocation. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. the phrase answers the question where. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. (2) on which. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. I looked towards my windows. Exercises. Be that as it will. The object of on board is ships. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. of without. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. which. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. the malicious rogue. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. (4) from the beginning. but all to no purpose. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. of from. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. . And so on. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. like the clapping of wings.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. I speak these things from a love of justice. I remember. came tumbling about my ears.²SWIFT 2. telling what man. but I received no other hurt. and knocked me down flat on my face. country. 3.²ID. I heard a noise just over my head. he followed us one day into those gardens. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. In (1). The guns were cleared of their lumber. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. 2. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. 4. before the dwarf left the queen. Whereupon. shook it directly over my head. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. without a country modifies man. In (3). we met the defaulter here. To our general surprise. (3) without a country. I felt my box raised very high in the air. beginning. of on. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. I called out several times.

The mother sank and fell. 18. 25. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 17. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. For my part. 27. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. when. On all subjects known to man. 23. 24. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 8. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 16. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. to one dark and gloomy. 21. 14. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 26. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 10. after a restful morning. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Carteret was far from being a pedant.6. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. in town. 29. 12. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 22. grasping at the child. plumed for battle. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 7. in this respect. 20. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 19. . With all his learning. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure.He spurred his courser on. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 15. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. His breeches were of black silk. he favored the world with his opinions. I like to see the passing. The savage army was in war-paint. 9.Without stop or stay. 13. He locked his door from mere force of habit. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 11.

That was a dreadful mistake. THAT. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. That night was a memorable one. (3) As a relative pronoun. And now it is like an angel's song. That is what I understand by scientific education.²WEBSTER.²STOCKTON.30.²WEBSTER. (c) Substantive conjunction. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. A few are discussed below. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 328. that you might behold this joyous day.²HUXLEY. 330. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. .²BEECHER. and not according to form. (2) As an adjective pronoun. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²WEBSTER. 329. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. not merely by the amount of the tax.² JOHNSON. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (4) As an adverb of degree.²COLERIDGE. WHAT. He will raise the price. We wish that labor may look up here.That makes the heavens be mute. (1) Relative pronoun. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (b) Of result. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (a) Indefinite relative.

Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. What. (7) Adverb of degree.. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (b) Indirect question. silent still.. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. Cox. What with the Maltese goats. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. "I'll tell you what. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.²THACKERAY. (b) Indirect question. To say what good of fashion we can.Those shadowy recollections.²EMERSON. to see what might be hidden. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. it rests on reality. BUT. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (6) Exclamatory adjective.S. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.²WORDSWORTH... who go tinkling by to their pasturage.. partly. and silent all!²BYRON.. . (9) As an exclamation.. or not only. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²WEBSTER. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (8) Conjunction.Which be they what they may. but the result of is impossible to determine.² Pera.but..²EMERSON... nearly equivalent to partly.²ID. after not only. 331. What. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. If he has [been in America]. he knows what good people are to be found there. (b) Copulative..these sounds are only to be heard..²S. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning." (4) Relative adjective.Are yet the fountain light of all our day.

not. (d) Of reason. not. on all sides. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.. after a negative. towards order. meaning otherwise .²EMERSON. not. (b) Of manner.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. (b) Substantive. than.Then arose not only tears. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. equivalent to that . at all moments. I shall see but little of it. ²CARLYLE.. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.. meaning except. (e) Introducing an appositive word.²SHELLEY. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²IRVING. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. after such. . sometimes same. but piercing cries.. Doing duty as a guard. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²IRVING..²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. Who knows but.²LAMB. To lead but one measure. like the dog. meaning only.²FRANKLIN.²MRS BROWNING.²CARLYLE.²SCOTT. or who . (c) Of degree..He yearned to our patriot bands. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.. (4) Relative pronoun. (3) Preposition. (2) Relative pronoun. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (5) Adverb. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. AS. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. stands for that . 332.

²DARWIN. nervous child. In this second use. I do with my friends as I do with my books. NOTE. .²ALDRICH. 333. this.²MAYHEW. and was clearly an adjective. indeed. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like him awhile ago. They look. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²LONGFELLOW. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. (1) An adjective. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. Through which they put their heads.²EMERSON.²ALDRICH. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.² A timid. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. like a cook beating eggs.²SHAKESPEARE. ²PARKMAN. Give Ruskin space enough. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. This follows a verb or a verbal. like Martin was. and is followed by a dative-objective.² HAWTHORNE. There is no statue like this living man. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²CASS. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²LAMB. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²HAWTHORNE. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. No Emperor. like drops out.-SCOTT. Stirring it vigorously.²EMERSON. In each case.²HIGGINSON. like summer ocean's. That face. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.LIKE. staring like a bewildered man. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. Introduces a clause. but its verb is omitted. and as or as if takes its place. Note the difference between these two uses. If the verb is expressed.²HALLECK.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.

²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. in separating them into their component parts. 336. Definition. subject and predicate. 334. that is." PART II.: for example. pronoun. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. Value of analysis. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. What analysis is. Definition. that is. . 335. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. as. entering into the structure of a sentence. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed.INTERJECTIONS. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. verb. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Some of these are imitative sounds.²in determining case. tut! buzz! etc.." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. but it still retains its identity as noun. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. etc. etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

(3) Imperative. declarative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. or command: for example. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Definition. . In order to get a correct definition of the subject. This is the most common one. which expresses command. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. A rare old plant is the ivy green. (2) Interrogative. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. "Hath he not always treasures. Every sentence must contain two parts. 337. or imperative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. which puts the thought in a question. 339. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. Division according to number of statements. but by no means vulgar. "Come to the bridal chamber. old man?" "Be thou familiar. interrogative. question. but according to how many statements there are. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. hence. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. 338. but the sentence would still be declarative. 2. or request. But now all is to be changed." "What wouldst thou do. "Old year. entreaty. always friends?" imperative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. SIMPLE SENTENCES. not according to the form in which a thought is put. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative." 340. Definition: Predicate.Kinds of sentences as to form. Examples of these three kinds are.²a subject and a predicate. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. you must not die!" interrogative. according to form.

Thus. 7. but about the ivy green. 4. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Consequently.²What is the ivy green? Answer. "[You] behold her single in the field. 2.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. and is to be supplied. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. 3. on the other hand. a rare old plant. the subject is frequently after the verb. 8. to suit all cases:² Subject. 341. In the interrogative sentence. 5. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. or an interrogative pronoun. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. we say all is the subject of the sentence. or ye) is in most cases omitted. Slavery they can have anywhere. adjective. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. and the real subject is the latter. as. Listen. In analyzing such sentences. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order." Exercise. the subject (you. thou. or adverb that asks about the subject. 6. But if we try this with the second sentence. always reduce them to the order of a statement. all.²What is to be changed? Answer. we have some trouble. and our definition must be the following. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. . not of a rare old plant. especially in poetry.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. to an ignorant man. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. The last of all the Bards was he.

direct. but it is a true complement. (5) Modifiers." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). for example. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (2) The predicate." indirect. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Direct Object. The transitive verb often requires. "Ye honor me. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. and means summoned. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. Indirect object. and me here is not the object simply of call. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions.10. "Ye call me chief. or second object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. just as if to say." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. (3) The object." Complement: 344. and by object we mean the direct object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb.²transitive and intransitive. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. but chief belongs to the verb. (6) Independent elements. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. 343. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. Of a transitive verb. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. 342. but of call chief. (4) The complements. in addition to the object. . Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds.

Complement of an intransitive verb. A phrase is a group of words. I mentioned a case of that nature. in exercise following Sec." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. as. and barring the door. and of massive weight. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. more familiarly. "A cheery. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. introduced by a preposition: for example. taste. for instance. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. "Brow and head were round. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." 345.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. sir!' rang out in response. Thom of the Gills. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. ay." "The good man." "He was termed Thomas." Things used as Subject. in the popular judgment." Also an expression used as a noun." (2) PARTICIPIAL. become. in the original Opium Confessions. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. etc. above sixty. but used as a single modifier. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. and. An intransitive verb. as in drowning. especially the forms of be. 'Ay." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. See sentence 19. 364." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. 352. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. not containing a verb. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. or. to the completion of this man of the world." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. 351. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. he was now getting old. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . Phrases. 355. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court.. As to form. as in the sentence. appear. 347. 346." All these complete intransitive verbs. seem. feel." (3) INFINITIVE.

" Things used as Direct Object. asserting eyes. for which see Sec. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). Disguised infinitive subject. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. but obscures the real subject. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." 348. "'By God. prowling eyes. (4) After "there introductory. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. from their lips." etc." "The dead are there. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. "Therein has been." In this sentence. or their religion from their sect." "There are asking eyes." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. etc. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." "Never. but they will be given in detail here.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." Things used as Complement." The for did not belong there originally. my deficiency. 349." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. and by Saint George!' said the King. I saw the quick and the dead. 341. was heard one syllable to justify.²the infinitive phrase. or the thundering of organs." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. . for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. and ever will be." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. (2) In interrogative sentences." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. but the real or logical subject is to print.²the talent of starting the game." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec.

and explaining or modifying the subject. and." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. 351." "She asked her father's permission." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. doubtless. Of a transitive verb. at the same time." In this last sentence. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. Object. (3) Infinitive. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. Like all the complements in this list.350. As complement of an intransitive verb. As complement of a transitive verb. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. complements of the predicate. or Complement.²completing the predicate. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. Modifiers of Subject." "Their tempers. they are adjuncts of the object." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." . These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. I. and whenever the complement is a noun.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." "I hear the echoes throng. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. the shepherd girl. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. the object is made the subject by being passive.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." "Serving others is serving us. and the words italicized are still complements.²heads or tails. or the equivalent of the noun." (4) Participle." Modifiers.

" "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. but noble teachers." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. the verb being omitted.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. the prisoner at the bar. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 357-363." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. II." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written.²proud. 352.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Tells how. was the scene from King John. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. Retained with passive. I have seasoned for thee." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. and modify the predicate in the same way." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. Modifiers of the Predicate." "In the twinkling of an eye." (For participial and infinitive phrases." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.²In each sentence in Sec." "Him. this young idolater. 351. or . unforgiving." "Give them not only noble teachings." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. was now called upon for his defense. tell whether the subject. object. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. and leading him from star to star. but with other men." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. austere. Since the predicate is always a verb. see further Secs." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. no sociable angel." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. not with nature." In such a sentence as. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. or complement is modified. given at the request of a Dutch lady. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." Exercise. but it is really a contracted clause. "He died like a God.

and complement: y y y y y y y 1. Why does the horizon hold me fast. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. 4. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 6. Evil. and other measures of precaution." (6) Adverbial objective. 3. Fashion does not often caress the great. 3. On the voyage to Egypt. This. 2. negative. 7. 8. according to old philosophers. how far. 5. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. after dinner. etc. to the animal strength and spirits. 2. 5. in this center? 4. but to be loved.When the verb is changed from active to passive. I took. but the children of the great. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 6. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. no humor. To the men of this world. or how long." "All such knowledge should be given her. and (direct) object:² 1." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. with my joy and grief. But anger drives a man to say anything. . His books have no melody. predicate." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. the indirect object is retained. is good in the making." Exercises. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. in regard to particulars. predicate. and as many to oppose it. These answer the question when. a sort of personality to the whole writing. 7. gives wonderful animation. They do not wish to be lovely. (b) Pick out the subject.. and the direct object is retained: for example. no emotion. and. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. he liked. (a) Pick out subject." "One way lies hope. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. no relief to the dead prosaic level.

etc. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 4. at length the warrior lady. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. six children sat by a peat fire. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. Yes.y 8. 2. must visit again the home of her childhood.²the river Meuse. Unhorse me. That night. I felt myself. that was thy portion in life. 5. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. I promised her protection against all ghosts. for the first time. in little peaceful Easedale. 4. 5.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. this nun so martial. Their intention was to have a gay. the attorney. upwards. 3. burthened with the anxieties of a man. A river formed the boundary. viz. to the right and to the left. this imperial rider. the blooming cornet. 4. y y y y Compound Subject. Not compound sentences. In one feature. expecting the return of their parents. 2. the present Archbishop of Dublin. . (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. then. then. after their long confinement to a ship. Paint me. 3. Compound Predicate. I gave him an address to my friend. this dragoon so lovely. 3. at the chief hotel. To suffer and to do. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. 6. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. and a member of the world. happy dinner. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1.. 2. downwards. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. a room seventeen feet by twelve. Not the less I owe thee justice.

ulcer. etc. Independent Elements of the Sentence. 355. shouldered the rusty firelock. that is." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. the simple subject is situation. "Ah. the predicate. the object." "He shook his head. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. two or more subjects of the same predicate. however. complements. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. I'm with you once again. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. turned his steps homeward." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated.353. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. exposes. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. etc. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. then the grammatical subject and predicate. same as (1). and its object or complement. together with its modifiers. Bishop. hurry. forming a sentence: "Oh. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. my brave young man!" . the verb).. they are not a necessary part. etc." "The name of the child. Examples of compound subjects are." And so with complements.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. several modifiers." Sentences with compound predicates are. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. modifiers. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. the tone of her voice. together with all its modifiers. in all such sentences as we quote below. and. but it is to be noticed that. may be the person or thing addressed. the air of the mother. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh." "Ye crags and peaks. For example. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. Larger view of a sentence. hurry. above: thus. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. in the sentence. Of this. "The company broke up. 354. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." "Voyages and travels I would also have. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. and the rest is the logical predicate. The exclamatory expression. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is.

limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. he closed his literary toils at dinner. y (2) The adverbial use. generally speaking. moreover. The words well. and some conjunctions. 356. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. besides." (3) Independent." "Truth to say. let him perish. etc. instances of which were seen in Sec. prepositional phrases may be." "Why.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. pronoun. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. undoubtedly. the company broke up. (1) Adjectival." (6) Single words: as. (b) As a modifier of subject. why. 4). grandma. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb." "At all events. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. he somehow lived along. or word used as a noun: for example. and so on." Another caution. he was a conscientious man. 357." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. such as however. There are some adverbs. 350. nevertheless. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. 355. then." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. such as perhaps. 6). yes! everybody knew them.. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. see Sec. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. to the best of my remembrance. In their use. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. or complement (see Sec." "Well." (5) Participial phrase: "But." "No. 3. truly." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 4). 352. object. modifying the predicate. etc. six quill-driving gentlemen. "Oh. already noticed. modifying a noun. therefore. that have an office in the sentence. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. her noticing even this is creditable. how you're winking!" "Now." (2) Adverbial. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow.. now. see Sec. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. These need close watching. . this story runs thus." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. 351. really.

my dear." (c) With the definite forms of go." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. See Sec. and teach her how to be happy and good. but having no other office than a verbal one. etc. containing no matters of business. etc. and hence is adverbial. "Because I was.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years.]. or as nearly so as the student will require. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. he should not have known them at all. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion." (b) With the forms of be. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. 358. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. "The letter of introduction. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. therefore." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. modifying was speedily run through. necessity. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.seem. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.: as in the sentences. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. (5).should. y (a) With may (might). I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." etc. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. thus. but require somewhat closer attention. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec.can (could). This case excepted. was speedily run through. being equivalent to a future with obligation.would. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15." "There. ought. Wilt thou." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . 355. and they will be presented here in full. The verbal use. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. I. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." In this sentence.

361.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). II. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. The adverbial use. "But there was no time to be lost." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. ." "To teach is to learn. already examined." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. result. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." 360. etc. IV. The adjectival use." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. Don Guzman. object. the Scotch fighting all the battles. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). III." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. above. The substantive use. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. 5). "Do they not cause the heart to beat. (4) In apposition. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. to hear McOrator after dinner. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. to please is equivalent to that he may please. hang the idiot." "He insisted on his right to forget her. 362. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. notice the following:² In (1). to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." "Are you mad." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. complement. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. To test this. 361 are used adverbially. to look means that he might look. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. 351. modifying a noun that may be a subject. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. etc." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "To say what good of fashion we can.. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there.: for example.²both purpose clauses. and the eyes to fill?" 359.

355. must be in a life. V..) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. as in Sec.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. object. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 351). 355)." (See also Sec. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. In analyzing simple sentences. which is of two kinds. etc. 347). 4. 268." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. savage and serene in one hour. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. to hear means if you should hear. and to betray and to bring express the reason. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. I will try to keep the balance true. give the complement (Secs. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 351). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 352). equivalent to that you betray. 349). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. In (5). to find shows the result of the return. etc. 3. 363. give² (1) The predicate. 351).²both expressing condition. (3). etc. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. If it is an incomplete verb. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 2. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. In (4). (7) Independent elements (Sec. to part means because I part. (5) The subject (Sec. In (3). 364.In (2). and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. not in a book. The independent use. Our life is March weather.. .

a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. through evil agents. 7.He sat in the shower. and only to be saved by invention and courage. We are always in peril. the carrion crow. 11. a good shot. and every moment discover something new. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. I have heard Coleridge talk. in popular use. a graceful dancer. like a witch's oils. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. and spared nothing. 8. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. The whole figure and air. To be hurried away by every event. a skilled musician. nor generals. nor troops. To these gifts of nature. 6. two stricken hours. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 9. The word conscience has become almost confined. nor himself. . 21. 18. to restore civil and religious order. 23. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 17. good and amiable otherwise. with eager energy. to keep England out of war. 16. just on the edge of destruction. Through the years and the centuries. 20. always in a bad plight. 10. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 13. Her aims were simple and obvious. 24.²to preserve her throne. 15. to the moral sphere.4. 14. an accomplished scholar. 19. You may ramble a whole day together. might be called flabby and irresolute. 12. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. is to have no political system at all. through toys and atoms.²a getting-out of their bodies to think.Burnt green and blue and white.The old crow of Cairo. His opinion is always original. 5. Old Adam. neither ammunition. The water. nor money. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 22. He risked everything. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. and to the purpose. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance.

I hate him and myself. it would not have been filial or ladylike. to bid you leave the place now and forever. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. I dare this. haply. time-honored. proud foe. ready to receive her. 29. and the why. 41. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 40. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28.Distant. 34. and the wherefore? . 37. The cry. upon my own ground. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. the present capital of New England. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. Must we in all things look for the how. had but one foible. the prime minister of Spain. 27. and no provisions but wild berries. baggage far in the rear. The villain. and in my own garden. Oxford. 31. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. 33. 36. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. In the Acadian land. in less heroic and poetic form. Few in number. Upon this shore stood. to be a reproach to such goodness. and. 38. Of the same grandeur. or perhaps one virtue. 30. 35. the ship was in an uproar. an elderly man. in this world. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Fair name might he have handed down. This amiable relative. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Supposing this computation to be correct. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 39.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. in front of all this mighty crowd. Now.25. 26.Effacing many a stain of former crime. still. But yield. She had made a two days' march. the same Condé Olivarez. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. 32. secluded.

² "She is like some tender tree. (Sec. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 366. As shown in Part I. but. the pride and beauty of the grove.From her own loved island of sorrow. as would be the connective instead of like. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. . like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. however. as. The simple sentence the basis. 367. which is the unit of speech." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. are really contracted clauses. Words left out after than or as." To show that these words are really omitted. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. though often treated as phrases. 333). Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. the expressions of manner introduced by like. if they were expanded. COMPLEX SENTENCES." This must." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. made merely for convenience and smoothness." Sentences with like." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. 365. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. thus.

²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. is taken in. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. modifiers. that . This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.²the other members subordinate to it. logically depends on suffering. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause..² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. predicate. suffering. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. or dependent on it. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). which are so united that one member is the main one. then we recognize this as the main statement. object. CLAUSES. or it may be applied to the others. object. A principal. containing a verb with its subject. Hence the following definition:² Definition. each clause has its subject. complement. we are aware. main. 370. A clause is a division of a sentence. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. etc. 369. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. 371. 368. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. complements. that is. Definition. as in this sentence. and modifier. and the next one. murmur." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. . The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence.²the backbone.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. Independent clause.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.. and the last... how great .

. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. and the whole clause is not. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. and it is ." (2) Object of a verb. for example." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are.Dependent clause. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. over which the torrent came tumbling. 373. As to their office in the sentence. night or day. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. infinitive." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. for example. attention is called to them here.." 374. put an end to my fancies." (4) Apposition. thus. 372. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. etc. ADJECTIVE. for a time.. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." Just as the object noun. adjectives.." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. or adverbs.' is an electric touch. 352. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. but logically the sentence is. (b) that are . impertinences²would be grammatical. 5). and ADVERB clauses. verbal. clauses are divided into NOUN. for a hundred years. impertinences. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves." "I was told that the house had not been shut. pronoun. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. Noun Clauses.. 'I know that he can toil terribly. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. But since they are complex in form. Kinds... We ourselves are getting . so the object clause is retained. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. . Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. (a) Ordinary apposition. with a noun clause in apposition with it.

in the sentence. as. but. 8. But the fact is. etc. which. 4. no man will ever know. that he was a scheming impostor. 7. and not on the sentiment. how it changed from shape to shape. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. 6. whether he should choose one or not. sometimes by the conjunctions when. 10. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Examples of adjective clauses. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. a relative pronoun being understood. As the office of an adjective is to modify. The reply of Socrates. whither. 3. Other examples of this construction are. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. Frequently there is no connecting word. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. . he could know nothing. where. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. whence. What history it had. or equivalent of a noun. Such a man is what we call an original man. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. wherein." Exercise. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. still remains reasonable. whereby. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. 9.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. of a nation. Except by what he could see for himself." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. he would repent it. I was napping. that all safe legislation must be based. a falsehood incarnate. that. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 5.² "It is on the understanding. that. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Adjective Clauses. 375. 2.

and tell what each one modifies. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. etc. he begins to help us more as an effect." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. No man is reason or illumination. I walked home with Calhoun. 1. 6. . that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness.. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 8. object.376. the champions advanced through the lists." Exercise. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. whether subject. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 9.e. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 3. 11. i. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 4. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Adverbial Clauses. 2. 5. 10. or that essence we were looking for. Pick out the adjective clauses. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. which Rowena tasted. which formed the center of the mansion. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 7." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. all is vacancy.

or an adverb. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." "He went several times to England. introduced by indefinite relatives. etc." "Who cares for that. is wider." (3) REASON." (7) RESULT. and adverbial conjunctions. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. the wider is the horizon of their thought. that we should try." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. with examples. tell what kind each is.377. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. 378. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. since he was too great to care to be original. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "After leaving the whole party under the table. so far as we can. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. however good she may be as a witness. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. to make up our shortcomings. adverbs. Joanna is better. however. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. the milestones are grave-stones. an adjective." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." (9) CONCESSION." "The right conclusion is.. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. and will be given in detail." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. but they require careful study. etc. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. and what it modifies:² ." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. etc." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. shaping our actions. whatever. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." "When he was come up to Christian.² whoever. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." These mean no matter how good. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. expressing the degree in which the horizon. he goes away as if nothing had happened." (5) DEGREE." "The broader their education is. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. no matter what remains. Exercise. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. it takes precedence of everything else. a verbal.: "But still.

the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. snatching up stones to fling at them." 2. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. to tell the truth. 3. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. If the children gathered about her. predicate. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. find the principal subject and principal predicate. cannot conceive is the principal predicate." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. with shrill. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. as they sometimes did. when the wind was unruly. etc. object. 'Well. banging about doors and windows. on a dark wintry night. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. howling and whistling. For example. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. and twirling weathercocks. 380.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and modifiers. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. so as to picture the parts and their relations. of which clause Odin is the subject. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. then treat noun clauses as nouns. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. in the sentence. its object is that Odin was a reality.1. incoherent exclamations. 379. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. they might perhaps say of their visitors. we are a little disappointed.

True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 364.. (1) Find the principal clause. . 3. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 364. 380). (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 2. Exercises. d. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.

I like that representation they have of the tree. who would yield to it least. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. Now. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 12. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 8. The deep eyes. 13. 14. 23. 6. 20. 21. which. that pressed her with an objection. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. This is she. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 16. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. whom I choose. 18. M. had we been worse. the flower should revive for us. 7. But now that she has become an establishment. Here lay two great roads. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.4. 9. the shepherd girl. for yours. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. or whether any. as for armies that were too many by half. dying for them. could not have been effected. the mixed result. 24. Had they been better chemists. 10. 19. Whether she said the word is uncertain. namely. of a light hazel. 15. 5. 11. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. that. counselor that had none for herself. And those will often pity that weakness most. . She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. bishop. if applied to the Bible. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 22. Next came a wretched Dominican. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. He was what our country people call an old one. 17. The night proved unusually dark. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. not so much for travelers that were few.

² Definition. and stamped with his right number. would easily reach. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. "No book. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements.²which will not be disposed of. COMPOUND SENTENCES. 30. but above it. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 382. questions. 383. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. and what content I can find in conversing with each. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. How formed. though we may repeat the words never so often. 28. It makes no difference how many friends I have. "was ever written down by any but itself. 3. and not from his heart. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. 2. . 27. and temper. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. 7. That which we do not believe. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. if continuously extended. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 26. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 380.25. or commands. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square." said Bentley. that it was no more than his daily walk. (b) First analyze. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. the following complex sentences:² 1. we cannot adequately say. speed. While the complex sentence has only one main clause." 4. 5. is to speak and write sincerely. These things we are forced to say. 6. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. Hence the definition. then map out as in Sec. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia.

from the second. in (2). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. nor does he know until he has tried. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. tell which are compound. etc. a complex member. for. and which complex:² 1. 386. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. in (3). and connects the first and second complex members. as in Sec. Another example is. however. Of the following illustrative sentences. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. Study the thought. or but. 297). Speak your latent conviction. etc. the planet has a faint. and nor the second and third complex members. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. now adverbs or prepositions. sometimes subordinate conjunctions.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Exercise. and not the form of the connective. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. The division into members will be easier. he dilates. moon-like ray" (adversative). But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. nor. yet. he walks with arms akimbo. 383 (1). whereas. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). if there are any. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. while (whilst).. Connectives. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. as but. Thus in (1). ." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. he soliloquizes. others sometimes coördinate. and it shall be the universal sense. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. a simple member." 384. he is twice a man. "Only the star dazzles. the semicolon separates the first. the waving grass. The coördinate conjunctions and. Some of these are now conjunctions. 385. which are simple statements.

of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 7. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. you have gained something else. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. nay. 3. I can yet love. 381. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. (i) Separate it into its main members. for example. yield to them heart and life. however.2. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. and not by what each is. I can still receive. All loss. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. Man does not stand in awe of man. 9. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 14. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 5. and thou shalt be loved. 10. 11. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. Whilst the world is thus dual. 4. 387. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. the tax is certain. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 6. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. Exercise. For everything you have missed. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 13. and for everything you gain. 3. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. he grew up to be a mild. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. from a happy yet often pensive child. all pain. unobtrusive boy. passed in that time. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 4. 8. 12. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. you lose something. Love. is particular. 364. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. or. quiet. In this manner. . I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 2. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. The gain is apparent. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. that it was Easter Sunday. and as yet very early in the morning. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. so is every one of its parts. to find a pot of buried gold.

14. is as thin and timid as any. Stand aside. 9. When you have chosen your part. Trust men. . treat them greatly. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. because. and the peace of society is often kept. and they will be true to you. or hope. 7. 15. 17. and the cart as nigh the rake. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and the other dares not. or we read books. as children. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. modesty. feign to confess here.5. 16. 8. and not an emotion of bravery. or men will never know and honor him aright. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June." 13. "as nigh the scythe as you can. or we pursue persons. why should we intrude? 10. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. which always make the Actual ridiculous. if you rip up his claims. 19." says the smith. 18. and he learns who receives. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. give those merits room. We go to Europe. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 11." says the haymaker. We see the noble afar off. He teaches who gives. 21. crook and hide. and makes their business a friendship. "Strike. Come into port greatly. They will shuffle and crow. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. "the iron is white. 6. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 20. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. one is afraid. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. that let him communicate. only that they may brag and conquer there. whilst frankness invites frankness. and they repel us. and not a thought has enriched either party. abide by it." "keep the rake. and they will show themselves great. Whatever he knows and thinks. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. let them mount and expand. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. or sail with God the seas.

both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. pronoun and antecedent. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . 380. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. but go about your business anywhere. they die young. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 25. So does culture with us. 23. so readily and lavishly they promise. SYNTAX. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. INTRODUCTORY. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. it never was known to fall into the rear. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance.22. or. 390. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Following the Latin method. verb and subject. but they never acquit the debt. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Essential point in English syntax. By way of introduction. Ground covered by syntax. PART III. and dodge the account. if they live. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. but its leading characteristic is. it ends in headache. adjective and noun. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. We see young men who owe us a new world. 388. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement.²agreement and government. they lose themselves in the crowd. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. 24.

therefore. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. following the regular order of subject. also expressing a possessive relation. . Also in the sentence. 393. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. The basis of syntax. "The savage here the settler slew. pronoun and antecedent. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. and imitate it. Some rules not rigid. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). the order being inverted. and added to it the preposition of. some of which conform to classical grammar.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and whose judgment. authorities²that is. but are not now. This is not logical. take the sentence. then. In Latin. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. As an illustration of the last remark. as to study inflected forms. When usage varies as to a given construction. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. There is. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. distinct forms would be used. Why study syntax? 391. good English. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree.² First. Second. sometimes verb and subject. and it would not matter which one stood first. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. and nothing but important points will be considered. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. etc. the sentence. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. In some cases. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. or settler may be the subject. 392." In this there is a possessive form. For example. or when they exist side by side in good usage. both forms will be given in the following pages. "None remained but he. Savage may be the subject." that is. or the same writer will use both indifferently." is ambiguous. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan.

408). Putting Mr. or indicate joint ownership or possession. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²EMERSON. the antechamber of the High Priest. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. but imply separate possession or ownership. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. . Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Separate possession. and Harley's. He kept Bolingbroke's. Bentham's principles together. PRONOUNS." Juletta tells. 396. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Woman. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. etc. ²ID. Use of the possessive.² He lands us on a grassy stage. and Paul's.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY.²MILTON.² Live your king and country's best support. 397.²RUSKIN.NOUNS. as. the shore of Galilee. and Peterborough's. and Peter's. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Joint possession. Mill's and Mr. for example. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²BYRON. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. sense and nature's easy fool. and Pope's. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. 395.²ROWE. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²MCCULLOCH. 394.

have separate forms for nominative and objective use. General rules. for example. 399. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. if not universally. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Some of the violations are universally condemned. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.²BYRON. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. thus.²TROLLOPE." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. who. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. as. whom is the complement after the verb am. the real thought being forgotten." 400. I. Bedott Papers. the last expression has the support of many good writers.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. 398. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²WHITCHER. . This should be "as she.²SOUTHEY.²POPE. and should be the nominative form.²THACKERAY.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Since most of the personal pronouns. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. No mightier than thyself or me. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. others are generally. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Objective for the nominative. sanctioned.²SHAKESPEARE. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). Still.) "The young Harper. together with the relative who. But he must be a stronger than thee. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. there are two general rules that require attention. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.

²COLERIDGE.²FIELDING. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. is. for example. unless a special."²KINGSLEY. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²SCOTT. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. "Who's there?"²"Me. they are yet holier than we."²WINTHROP. . both in England and America."²WM. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. But still it is not she." There is no special reason for this. "If there is any one embarrassed. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. "Than whom. it will not be me. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. The camp of Richard of England. but such is the fact.²MACAULAY. The usage is too common to need further examples. A safe rule." 401.² For there was little doubt that it was he. One exception is to be noted.²THACKERAY. on the other hand. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. In spoken English.²LONGFELLOW. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. and the other forms of the verb be. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. BLACK. Patrick the Porter.²KINGSLEY. And it was heThat made the ship to go. are. namely.²PARTON. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. the objective form is regularly found. as. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.² One I remember especially. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.²RUSKIN.

verbal. 8. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. as. It is not me you are in love with. and prepositions.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 9. You know whom it is that you thus charge. I speak not to" (he should be him. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 5. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. (3) By forgetting the construction. Whom they were I really cannot specify. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. Me in exclamations. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Truth is mightier than us all. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 10. it is me. 11. as. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 404." the word being in apposition with murderer).² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned.²MILTON. object of saw). 7. . giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. used after verbs. or us). 3. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. you or me." 6. as this from Shakespeare. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. as.Exercise. or preposition which governs it. now. verbals. 2. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 4. Nominative for the objective. the object of to). but not he" (he should be him. 403. "Ask the murderer. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. or this. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there.

Let you and I look at these. for they say there are none such in the world. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.Shall be left upon the morn. etc. 406. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. for example. who interrogative. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. as.²STEELE.²GOLDSMITH. Exception 2. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²KINGSLEY. I arraign. changed in all save thee. We regularly say. "Who were they talking to?" etc. as well as the objective. as. "Who did you see?" or. and is usually avoided. partial Nature. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.Exception 1. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. None. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. .² All were knocked down but us two. but he. after the preposition but (sometimes save). I've sworn.²KINGSLEY. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²BYRON. save thou and thine. Nature. all but he. 405. Exercise.²KINGSLEY. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. 2. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. Thy shores are empires. Who have we here?²ID.²BYRON. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Thou.

The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. BROWN. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.²RUSKIN. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 12. and they know that as well as me.²THACKERAY. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 5.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. who. Bartholomew. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea.²C. They crowned him long ago. 10.²DE QUINCEY. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 8. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 6. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. B.²possessive. 9. POSSESSIVE FORMS. This usage is not frequent. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.Ye I salute. or objective? ." 4. II. 407. with Jortin and Thirlby.²SCOTT. 7. 11. As antecedent of a relative. Markland.²MACAULAY. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. Preceding a gerund. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St.3.

² THACKERAY. object of heard of. But in common use there is no such distinction. that the bitterness of death was past. etc. both are gerunds. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.² CARLYLE. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.² SCOTT. studying is a gerund.²MACAULAY. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.²CARLYLE. and that in the second. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.408.²RUSKIN. In the examples quoted. Why both are found." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²BREWER. [who was] studying law. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. and asked why it was not made. and the meaning is. Possessive. sometimes it has the objective. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. We heard of Brown." That is. Here I state them only in brief. Both types of sentences are found. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. The last incident which I recollect. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. as he turned away from his wife. . sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. Objective. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind.²DE QUINCEY.²DICKENS.² IRVING. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. The use of the objective is older.

409. Watch for the real antecedent.²DEFOE. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. the pronoun will be neuter singular. 410. or is a distributive word. where there were examinations.²HUXLEY. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Examples of these constructions are.²when the antecedent. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.² BRYANT.²RUSKIN. . There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²CABLE. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²EMERSON III. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. and gender. and ought to agree with them in person.²C.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. preceded by a distributive. BROCKDEN BROWN.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. If any one did not know it. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. number. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²THOREAU. in one person. taking in each of many persons.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²DE QUINCEY. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²DE QUINCEY. Everybody had his own life to think of. In such a case as the last three sentences. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. if the antecedent is neuter.²THACKERAY. it was his own fault. The pale realms of shade.²HOLMES. Every city threw open its gates.²AUDUBON.

every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²RUSKIN. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²PALEY. let them break it off. Struggling for life. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²SCOTT. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. as anybody in their senses would have done.²BYRON. . It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²FIELDING. Every one must judge of their own feelings.Avoided: By using both pronouns. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. till they have lost him. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²PALGRAVE. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. By using the plural pronoun.²THACKERAY. Whosoever hath any gold.²AUSTEN. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²HUXLEY. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. 411. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. and giving them means of being so. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²ID.²PAULDING. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²DEFOE.²EMERSON.² Not the feeblest grandame. not a mowing idiot. If the part deserve any comment.²BIBLE.²ID. This is not considered the best usage. for example. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. The sun.

who went away. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. the definite relatives who. and that always restrictive." It defines beggar.Where she was gone. The clause is restricted to the antecedent.²ADDISON. 413. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. according to the practice of every modern writer. or unrestrictive. and that are restrictive or not. . but. but. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. which. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. or what was become of her. In the following examples.²HAWTHORNE. no one could take upon them to say. in each instance:² Who. etc. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. unless both genders are implied. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]." A relative. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. That is in most cases restrictive. 1. "I gave it to the beggar.²ID. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. 412. I. What these terms mean. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. As to their conjunctive use. It adds a new statement to what precedes. which. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. when coördinating. and he went away. Exercise. 2. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. that being considered already clear. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. tell whether who. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. and does not add a new statement. A relative. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.² SHERIDAN.²In the above sentences. Exercise. because. when restrictive. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. as.) and a personal pronoun." This means.

This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. W. II.3. We say I. So different from the wild. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. and over England are saying. he. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 11. 7.²ID. in the sentence. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. The general rule is. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. they. that were often vicious.² IRVING. etc. etc. 13.²ADDISON.²HOLMES. 9.² NEWMAN. 4. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. In what sense true. With narrow shoulders. it makes the verb third person singular. long arms and legs. BEECHER 5. 414. The rule. 10. which was to go over the Cordilleras. which Mr. down.. A grizzly-looking man appeared. For example. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. Yet how many are there who up. . that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.²THOREAU. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. 6. 14. 12.²DE QUINCEY. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. she agreed to join the party. and it is called logic. but. Hare has printed.²ID. etc. Which.² CARLYLE.²H. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. these or that which. On hearing their plan." that is invariable as to person and number. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. 8. who. as that does not vary for person or number. That.²DE QUINCEY. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.² MOTLEY. However. you. because of its antecedent. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.

²HOWELLS.. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. Franklin.. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. Let us be of good cheer. "one of the finest books that have been published. others regard books as the antecedent. 415.²LOWELL.²HOLMES. etc. A disputed point. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²LECKY.. etc. but myself.. in winning a battle. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²ADDISON. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²SCOTT.²ADDISON. He is one of those that deserve very well. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²whether we should say. or which . MORSE.²J. The fiery youth . and in improving a victory.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company." or. Singular. JR. T. the true antecedent.. "one of the finest books that has been published. . the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.] Both constructions are frequently found. who rarely speak at all. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. but the former has good authority. French literature of the eighteenth century. and write the verb in the plural. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. The latter is rather more frequent.." One of . when he derided the shams of society. [plural] that who. with one as the principal word. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. ARNOLD. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. but speaks of him as that sort. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. [singular or plural.²MACAULAY.²LOWELL..²BOWLES. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²M.

²EMERSON. and such like: as. return.And.²IRVING.²SCOTT. when this dust falls to the urn. or where] he died. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²CARLYLE. The same day I went aboard we set sail. 417. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²VAUGHAN. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²GOLDSMITH. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. whence.²DEFOE.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. when the relative word is a pronoun. Exercise. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²ADDISON. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going."²DICKENS. III. that is. where.² . The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²BURNS. IV.² THACKERAY. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.A rare Roundabout performance.²EMERSON. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²SWIFT. object of a preposition understood. But I by backward steps would move.²ID." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. I could see nothing except the sky. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.² RUSKIN. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²In the above sentences. 416." "India is the place [in which. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.In that same state I came. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.

Anacoluthic use of which. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²SCOTT.. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.² MACAULAY. ²GOLDSMITH.He considered. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. was a discoverer.²R. That. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. with Turner. 418. but which is usually carefully avoided.²ADDISON. if same is followed by a complete clause. he. They believe the same of all the works of art. she passed the lamp over her face and person. V. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. as is not used. Which. The regular construction. which. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.² Which. . Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. and working in the same spirit. W. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Mr.²WORDSWORTH. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. for example. but. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. boats.² as his apprentice. or that. looking-glasses.²FRANKLIN. but we find the relative who. if I had resolved to go on with. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. I might as well have staid at home.²SWIFT.² THACKERAY. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. as of knives.. CHURCH. etc. Caution. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles.

With an albatross perched on his shoulder." etc.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. 2. 3..²GOLDSMITH. and this be placed in the proper clause. which when Mr. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort.² Direction for rewriting.She'd come again. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and which.²HAWTHORNE. This was a gentleman.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. but. or leave out both connective and relative.. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. etc. He delivered the letter. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²RUSKIN.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. As the sentences stand." etc. (2) "Among the poorer sort.. (1) "Among those who are poor. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. or. or omit the conjunction. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. 419. now thrown upon their. Express both relatives. . Exercise. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. but none is expressed. and who are now. Thornhill had read. who are now thrown. (3) "Among the poorer sort. le Conte. Exercise.²SCOTT. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. But who. 1.²which if they once heard. That is." etc. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. he said that all submission was now too late. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. 4. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. And who. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. once a great favorite of M. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. After this came Elizabeth herself. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.

as a false and astucious mark. 6. And which. I saw upon the left a scene far different. and which has never been described. English by name. indeed. and which." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. I shall have complete copies. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. and to whom no door is closed.. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. 1. Or who. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 9.5.²PEARSON..²SCOTT. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. one of signal interest.²DE QUINCEY. "A mockery. etc. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.²IRVING.. Akin to the above is another fault. the French. 12. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. etc. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. either from imitation of their frequent allies.²SCOTT. Dr. . Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . 8. then. 7. That . "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. 10. 11. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 13.²DE QUINCEY. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.² MOTLEY. Exercise. But which. which the Scotch had learned. Or which. and repeat this for any further reference. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. who. "What knight so craven. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and which may even be heard a mile off.²HAWTHORNE.. 420. like that spoken in the towns.

. It rose into a thrilling passion. 12. at the head of what. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. 10.. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. but which is perhaps not so different from it. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. 11. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. in his present condition.²EMERSON. CHANNING. G.2. half a century ago.²HOWELLS. 9.²HAWTHORNE.²HALLAM. He flung into literature. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. in his Mephistopheles. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.. the dime.. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. SIMMS. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. was hung in air. whom. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. 7.²W.²SCOTT.²EMERSON.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²SCOTT That which . the cent.²DEFOE. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.. that.²HOLMES.. 6. E.. I grudge the dollar.. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. which.. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. and whose examples and principles we inherit. The Tree Igdrasil. was a bustling wharf. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. . 15.²W. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. what. 8.²DE QUINCEY. 13. I recommend some honest manual calling. 14. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 4. Which . that . He. 3. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. Such as . and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 5.²BEECHER. which. such as they have very probably been bred to. Such as . I give to such men as do not belong to me. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. but which. That . and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. and to whom I do not belong. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. In my native town of Salem..

²ID. in which case any should be used instead. one another.²MACAULAY. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. . carrying off each other's cattle and wives. for example.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.²GOLDSMITH. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. always at war with one another. We call ourselves a rich nation.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN. England was then divided between kings and Druids. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²RUSKIN.²DICKENS. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. Assume that no one is in want of either. as. that not all combined.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. 422. Use of any. Each other. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. whether or not the two are equivalent. By their original meaning. as it were.² Some one must be poor. 421. and in want of his gold²or his corn. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. Distributives either and neither. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.²HAWTHORNE. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. as. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.² HAWTHORNE.

Caution. If any of you lack wisdom. and is isolated.² In earnest. if ever man was.²FRANKLIN. I beseech you. at one time in Bacon. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. in Shakespeare. that I know of. any was often singular. for him have I offended. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. during his stay at Yuste. None of Nature's powers do better service.²BEECHER Whenever. Do you think.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . as. any of his friends had died. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. which is plural as often as singular. Do you think.²BIBLE.²EMERSON. when any of them are so good as to visit me. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. in the prose of the present day. Examples of its use are. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²CARLYLE. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.. then in Plutarch. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.² If any. even in Bettine. .² EMERSON. Any usually plural. as. as none of the French philosophers were.²STIRLING. None usually plural. afterwards in Goethe.²PROF.²SHAKESPEARE.²SCOTT. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. 424. let him ask of God.. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. whilst I still cherish their genius. In earlier Modern English.²BURKE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. before that. usually plural. then in Plotinus. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). 423. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.²THACKERAY. etc. The adjective pronoun none is. speak.

Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. and less rarely in poetry. 425. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²SCOTT Like the use of any. and all was lost on the other. the plural. any one else.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. The compounds somebody else. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. saving Naaman the Syrian.²THOREAU. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. etc. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²McMASTER. or somebody else's? 426. etc. Somebody's else.² Singular. and Ford has nobody's else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell..²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. that all was lost.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. as. when it means all persons: for example. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.² None of them was cleansed.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. which is used absolutely.. etc. fixing his eyes on the mace. nobody else. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²NAPIER Plural.² PEARSON. are treated as units.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. for example. The light troops thought . etc. When all were gone..

. unlike anybody else's in the world. Whitefield or Wesley..² FIELDING.² These kind of knaves I know. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. ELIOT.²N. or some other such great man as a bishop.²in such as "these sort of books.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. STOWE. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.²AUSTEN. for example. I hoped we had done with those sort of things." "those kind of trees.²SHERIDAN. WILLIS. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). His hair.²SWEET. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. P.²DICKENS.² Saturday Review.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²RUSKIN. etc. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²RUSKIN.²MULOCH. all manner of.SYDNEY SMITH. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²THACKERAY. These sort. ADJECTIVES. "Ye see. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's." the nouns being singular. Again. London." "all manner of men. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.curled once all over it in long tendrils. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes."²MRS. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. the adjectives plural. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. etc. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. or those sort of people. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.²G. . 427.

gradually displacing the old. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. and in this way may take a plural verb. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. to express a higher degree of quality. they said. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. made to agree with it." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. Consequently we have a confused expression. as. According to the approved usage of Modern English." A question." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. "This kind of rules are the best. "This sort of trees should be planted. 428. Later form. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. "These kind of trees are best. not "all kinds of wild animals. . or the nouns to the plural. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared.² PRESCOTT. The result. Burke's sentence.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. for example. This the modern expression reverses. with all manner of amusing books. such as. or one object with a class of objects. in spoken English. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. Use of the comparative degree. when the necessary dispositions concur. and the adjective is. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. more alarming than a total silence.²RUSKIN. In Old and Middle English. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English.² Which is the better able to defend himself. History of this construction.The library was open. the victor or the vanquished. Should we say. At the source. which accounts for the construction. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. Of two such lessons.

² THACKERAY. I am concerned to see that Mr. Even Dodd himself. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. Superlative with two objects. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. 3.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 6.²LOWELL.²MACAULAY. Gary. Henry. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²MACAULAY. Exercise.²CARLYLE.²SCOTT. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²SWIFT.²THACKERAY. Use of the superlative degree. would not have had the face. has sanctioned. etc. To the man who plays well. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. than any of his court. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Other after the comparative form. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. if not.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 2. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 4. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. . He is taller. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²WIRT. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²TROLLOPE.²HAWTHORNE. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. Compare the first three sentences in Sec."²ID. 429. 5. 430. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. the highest stakes are paid.²HUXLEY. by almost the breadth of my nail. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.

²J.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH.. .²EMERSON. 431. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. I should say that one has the best cause. OLIPHANT."²HAWTHORNE. In all disputes between States. Rip was one of those . and differ only in form. "Ha.²DR BLAIR.²SCOTT. Double comparative and superlative. more particularly the last of them. After the most straitest sect of our religion. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. The following examples are used purposely. who eat white bread or brown."²GOLDSMITH."²BULWER.²HAMLET. 1611.²TEMPEST. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. ha. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.. whichever can be got easiest.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²IRVING. CÆSAR. and the other contains the best men. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. These two properties seem essential to wit.²MRS. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²BEN JONSON. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Mary. not a bit of high life among them. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Examples from Shakespeare are. Come you more nearer.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Also from the same period. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. The eldest. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²Bible. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²ADDISON. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.

ARTICLES. The delay in the first three lines. etc. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. not only so in popular speech.²KINGSLEY.² With a singular noun. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The merit of the Barb. but in literary English.²GIBBON.²DE QUINCEY. .²PRESCOTT. Three first. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.² SMOLLETT. etc. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²RUSKIN. jar upon us constantly. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The first five had specific names. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²RUSKIN. Examples of this construction are. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²LAMB. and conceit in the last.²ADDISON. the Spanish. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²GIBBON. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Definite article. As to these two expressions. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. Instances of both are given below. ²COWPER. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. 433. These are the three first needs of civilized life. First three. The meaning intended is the same. For Carlyle. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. and Secretary Walsingham also.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.

1508.²SCOTT.²CARLYLE.²TENNYSON. but inseparable from each other. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. but is used with one only.²NEWMAN. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. 433. the thought and the word. Frequently. the hour of parting came. distinct. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. One object and several modifiers.² RUSKIN. however. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. Meaning same as in Sec. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. as in Sec. with a singular noun.²THACKERAY. and flexible language. with a plural noun. The flowers. . It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. and the presents. of the higher and middling orders. the greatest poems.²MACAULAY. of the eighteenth century. I think. The not repeated. 435. Indefinite article. Here the youth of both sexes. 434.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. With a plural noun. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. He is master of the two-fold Logos. as. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.² MACAULAY. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. were placed at a very tender age. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone..²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.²PRESCOTT. to distinguish clearly.. melodious.²THE NATION. having been arranged.²ID. Origin of the Aryans. 433. as. The lofty. or to emphasize the meaning. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . No.²TAYLOR.

as. as in the first three of Sec.²S.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. .436. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.²JOHNSON. a collegian. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. interest. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. JONSON. to limit two or more modified nouns. T." and "a red and a white geranium. 437. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. He saw him in his mind's eye. One article with several adjectives.²DICKENS. one noun is expressed. In the sentences of Secs. rich." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.² BURKE. For rhetorical effect. Examples of this use are. and a usurper. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. or clearness to each of several nouns. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. The indefinite article is used. a murderer. But in the following sentences. 435. and inexhausted vein. a round and a square one alternately. only one of which is expressed. 438. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²BEECHER.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²DRYDEN.²THACKERAY. 436).An early.²B. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. a tyrant. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. 433 and 436. COLERIDGE. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. like the definite article.² MACAULAY. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²MACAULAY. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.

VERBS. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. Another writer might. In English. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. has got already. ARNOLD.²AGASSIZ. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. Singular verb. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. all that academies can give. ELIOT. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Such.²CARLYLE This usage. 276.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. . Collective noun of singular meaning.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Singulars connected by or or nor. Sec.²COOPER.²The Nation. was the earliest American land. 439.²FROUDE. like some others in this series. without academies.²W. as. He sees that it is better to live in peace. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.. This was spoken of in Part I. and the following illustrations prove it. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. then.²G. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. 440.²M. A broad and loose rule. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²GIBBON. for example. as. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. or the great intellectual life of our nation.

for example.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. is gone. as. Plural form and singular meaning. other names. A fever. seems at the moment unpaid loss. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. that of a large town. nor John. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²GIBBON.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. and other singulars of plural form. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²GOLDSMITH. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. nor Mahomet. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. nor Paul. but each one emphatic.² GOLDSMITH. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.² In a word. as. ADAMS. or considered as appositional. a loss of wealth. Between ourselves.² Politics is the only field now open for me. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. No. but considered as meaning about the same thing. the cheap defense of nations.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. a cruel disappointment. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. a mutilation.²EMERSON . for example.²BURKE.Jesus is not dead.²CRITIC. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. Q. ²EMERSON.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. a loss of friends. or as making up one general idea.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²J. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. and every four hours. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²WHITTIER.² The unbought grace of life.²DE QUINCEY.

as well as sides. Then comes the "Why. as well as the newest.The author. wineBegins to stir itself. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. was like to crack. was punished. many a. Every sound. as. as well as Europe.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. no discontinuity.The rout. a gorget. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. as. almost every day.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²ID. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. an impassioned countenance.²PRESCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. sir!"²MACAULAY. Her back. 441. was listened to for five hours.²LONGFELLOW. each. the dismay. sir?" and the "No. every valet. sir!" and the "What then. was dazzled. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. and such like adjectives. Every fop.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT. and greaves. the ruin. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. Plural verb.²BUTLER.²M ARNOLD.²RUSKIN. no matter if the second is plural). The oldest.² There is a right and a wrong in them.² .²EMERSON. in a judge. the wit.²ID. an agitated gesture. is a man of wit. Subjects after the verb.²NEWMAN. the partisan. every echo. There is a moving tone of voice.²MACAULAY. To receive presents or a bribe. The Epic. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.² Asia. does not take the place of the man. every boor. no. with death. no spent ball.²MACAULAY. as well as the Drama. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. nay. the fine gentleman. a cuirass. Here is no ruin. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. thus. Every week. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.

as.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²DE QUINCEY. the Duke of Berri. for example.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. as in Sec. The conjunction may be omitted. 440 (5.²COLERIDGE.²SWIFT. a green pasture.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. b). as with a subject of plural form. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²GIBBON. TAYLOR. as.² A multitude go mad about it.²THOREAU. Conjunction omitted.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. and its history are alike a mystery to us.² GIBBON. A shady grove. The travelers. were men of insignificant characters.²FROUDE. Far. far away thy children leave the land.²B.²ADDISON. but the verb is plural. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. A party of workmen were removing the horses. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. of whom there were a number. a stream of fresh water.²EMERSON. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. Philip of Anjou. His clothes.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²GOLDSMITH.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²SCOTT. shirt.²FRANKLIN.² One or two of these perhaps survive. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. its date. making up a plural subject. The Dauphin. . (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²FROUDE. are sufficient to attract a colony. All our household are at rest.

You and I are tolerably modest people. You and I are farmers.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. Not I.But notice the construction of this.²THACKERAY.). Ah." etc. but thou. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Exceptional examples.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now." or. "You would not be wiser." "She or you may be sure. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. Pattison or I have said. nor should I. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²BYRON.²D.²DE QUINCEY.²LOWELL. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. When the subjects.²SMOLLETT. 443. of different persons. for example.²WHITTIER. but thou. Not Altamont. 444.²RUSKIN. his blood dost shed. Second or third and first person in the subject. WEBSTER. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²GOLDSMITH. This construction is at the best a little awkward. .²THACKERAY. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. hadst been my lord. we never talk politics. nor has she").²RUSKIN. General usage. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. 442. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. ARNOLD. "He or I can go.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²ROWE. that is. the subject being really equivalent to we. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. If there is only one person in the subject. as. the verb takes the construction of the first person. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²M. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. "I have never said so. Nothing which Mr.

Her course to intercept.²BURKE.²SMOLLETT. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). as we would hope. 5.²ADDISON.²G." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²EMERSON. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Neither of their counselors were to be present. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. Exercise. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . Also in verbals. Both death and I am found eternal.²THACKERAY. 11.²perhaps the devil.²MILTON. 4.²SCOTT. 9. BANCROFT. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 7. nor bush are there. 2. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 3. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. nor tree. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Nor wood. How each of these professions are crowded. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. 446. which it is proper to mention.445. 8. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 440-444):² 1.² TROLLOPE. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.That neither of their intellects are vast. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²ID.²BYRON. In a word. In this sentence from Defoe. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. The following illustrate exceptional usage. Neither of them. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²and. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. as illustrated above (Secs. In the following sentence. 6. 10.²ADDISON. in my opinion. 12.

I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Definitions. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. for exact connection. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. Two samples of indirect discourse. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²FRANKLIN 6. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. W.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.²KINGSLEY. But I found I wanted a stock of words." .²MACAULAY. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. CHURCH. on my return. It should be remarked. change them to a better form:² 1.²DE QUINCEY 2. however. Of course.² PALGRAVE 5. Indirect discourse means reported speech. as. Direct discourse²that is. 447. The present rule is recent. if not. 3. to have seen should be changed to to see.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. Exercise. meaning.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. 4. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²R.. to have divided with her whatever might remain.²IRVING. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 448. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. I gave one quarter to Ann.²THACKERAY.

the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Oh. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. or regular interrogatives. under interrogative pronouns. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat." Indirect. She thought to herself. have. 449. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St.. This includes the auxiliaries be. Direct. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. 2. etc." etc. The substance of his lamentation was. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. will. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. His exact words were. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. interrogative adverbs." etc. Direct. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat.. and the indirect question by whether or if. 1. "I cannot oblige you . "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Summary of the expressions. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Sebastian's. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. introductory verb is in the past tense. "Oh..(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. . Her prudence whispered eternally. not attempting to follow the entire quotation..

handed down from his ancestor the historian. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²B. my first observation will be found nearly true." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. the sound of their balls. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. he assured me that nothing was more easy. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. Careless use of the participial phrase. if this were expanded into a verb. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. like distant peals of thunder." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. FRANKLIN.²ADDISON. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. 450. The trouble is.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster.Exercise. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. VERBALS. . that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Notice this.²ID. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example.²GOLDSMITH. PARTICIPLES. the first discoverer of the river and country. and that he himself had heard. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. one summer afternoon. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. with his crew of the Half-moon. in the sentences first quoted.

while defended or excused by others. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. Exercise. the first sentence would be. For example.. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.. It is a solemn. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. INFINITIVES. There are..²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.² HERBERT SPENCER. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. purposely or not. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.²RUSKIN.." Exercise.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. In the following citations.. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.²LAUGHLIN. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. and often.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.²ID. 451. . if a strike is to succeed. avoid it. leaving the principal statement as it is. . then. universal assertion. Standard writers often use it.Correction. my first collection was. 3. 2. This is the more common arrangement. Adverb between to and the infinitive. many things to be carefully considered. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .²SCOTT. either "As I was pleased." etc.

A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 1533.² ADDISON. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. BLAIR. if they modify single words. No. Exercise. therefore. Now. but it is placed before the infinitive. 7.²RUSKIN.²TROLLOPE. The rigid rule in such a case would be. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. which consists in multitude. when such adverbs as only. ADVERBS. even. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 6. The spirits. but they are often removed from the exact position. 13. but cannot misunderstand the thought.²ID.²The Nation. from Irving. etc. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.4.² MACAULAY. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.²SCOTT. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. In works of art. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. 12. 11. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. are used. etc. A little sketch of his. 10. 9. 452. is to be very cautiously admitted. etc. china.. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. 8.²BURKE. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. even. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned.²DR. 5. and earthenware. Position of only. I wish the reader to clearly understand. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²GOLDSMITH. this kind of grandeur.

I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 15. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 3. 16. 4.²RUSKIN. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 13.1. 14. were he never so old of yeares.²MACAULAY.²ID. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²THACKERAY. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.² THACKERAY.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. to avoid a crowd. 2.In al his lyf unto no maner wight.²COOPER.²SYDNEY SMITH. might not marry. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. for example. WILLIS. 17. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. He shouted in those clear.²PALGRAVE. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. whence he was never destined to return.²MRS.²HIGGINSON. . Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 10. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²SWIFT. ²ASCHAM. 9. 5. During the whole course of his administration. Irving could only live very modestly.²N.²EMERSON. 11.²ID. GROTE. 12. 8.²MOTLEY. My master. 453. The old usage. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. In relating these and the following laws. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²ID. In Old and Middle English.²CHAUCER. His last journey to Cannes. 7. He could only afford to keep one old horse. P. No sonne. 6.

Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. Therefore. But.²LOWELL. In the latter case.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. and is still kept in vulgar English. There weren't no pies to equal hers."²four negatives. but ought not to labor after it. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. In the execution of this task. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. However.²MRS. nor never shall. nor the grandeur of no king. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. one of the negatives is often a prefix. Regular law of negative in modern English.²BAYNE. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. 5. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. and why:² 1. 3. I never did see him again."²MRS.²BURKE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. is not common. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. the usual way of regarding the question now is. I did not act so hastily. can so agreeably affect. STOWE. as infrequent. . 7. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. 6. neither. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. if two negatives are found together. The prosperity of no empire.²DE QUINCEY. uncommon. ²PAGE.²HAWTHORNE. Not only could man not acquire such information. This. under the influence of Latin syntax. Exercise. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. however. as.²DEFOE. Exceptional use. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. STOWE. 2. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. when one of the negatives is a connective. etc.²HOLMES.²GROTE. denying each other. in Ole Virginia.² HAMILTON. 4.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.

Things to be watched. nor. nor is often changed to not²either .. the first should also. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. if the last precedes a verb. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. either . 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.²PRESCOTT. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. CONJUNCTIONS." . or with advantage.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it..." both of the above requirements are violated.. And who. 455. there we were. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.²SCOTT.." Besides neither .."²SCOTT. The sentence." said the King. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. The sentences given in Secs.²LOWELL. 454.. not or is the proper correlative of neither... or. but (also). The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. either.8.. if the second precedes a phrase. but to their own safety. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever.. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. "A weapon. or to reply to it.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. neither .. not only to the success of their common cause. the first ought to be placed before a verb. Correction. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. especially both . Choice and proper position of correlatives. and which.. not merely . or to reply to it.." may be changed to "This loose . "well worthy to confer honor. In the sentence. or. and... should be scrutinized. as the use of the conjunction. not only .. but. as well as of the pronoun... even neither .

as. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.Exercise. . substitute that. etc. 7. They will. and I don't know but what he was right. too. not merely interest children. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. or the negative relative but. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. but.²GIBBON. 2.²S. but. 457. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 456. 5. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. In the following sentences.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY.² ADDISON.²FRANKLIN. 3.²ID. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. as.²THACKERAY. and chop up their own kin. 4. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Try and for try to. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. JEWETT. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²BAIN. O. but grown-up persons. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. Exercise." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. murder.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. Some exceptions. 8. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. or but that. Try and avoid the pronoun. 6. nor the disgrace of assailing him.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH. but they will outrage. Now. But what. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.

²ADDISON. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. no separation or division by twos being implied. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 305.2. as already seen in Sec. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²SCOTT.²EMERSON. see Sec. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. PREPOSITIONS.²ADDISON.²EMERSON. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 5. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.²TROLLOPE. 4. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Between and among. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²BURKE. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 6. 313. 3. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.² SWIFT. 459.² BULWER. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. . 458. Between is used most often with two things only.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. LIST I. averse. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. . 460. Derogatory to. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Conversant with. 461. Dissent from. Affinity between. Conform to. Bestow on (upon). as. Averse to. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. a soldier of the Cross. confer. Paley. correspond. Kant. Such are absolve. different.²KINGSLEY. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow.²RUSKIN What have I. Different from. Two groups or one and a group. and Coleridge. Accord with. by custom. Some of them have.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. or one object and a group.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Mackintosh. Dependent on (upon). Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. List I. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. as.: Words with particular prepositions. Such are derogatory.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Comply with. and Stewart. ²EMERSON. etc. and philosophers like Locke. and another to convey a different meaning. involve. Abhorrent to. Acquit of.

Correspond with (write to). Change with (a person). Confer with (talk with). Change to (become). Change for (a thing). but it is not good usage." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. LIST III. as meaning to be in keeping with.y y y Deprive of." List III." also of persons. A taste of (food).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Reconcile to (note below). Reconcile with (note below). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England.). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Differ with (note below). as. in the sense of making friends with. as. 463. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. as. A taste for (art. Correspond to (a thing). LIST II. "The king is reconciled to his minister. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. . Independent of. Confide to (intrust to). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). 462. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. and sometimes creeps into standard books. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Confer on (upon) (give to).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Agree to (a proposal). Involve in. etc. Differ from (note below). Confide in (trust in). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). List II.

" etc. One of them said he would die for her. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²G. privation. No one died from want at Longfeld. and ill treatment.²BULWER. It would take me long to die of hunger.²POPE.y y y Die by." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. simply from old age. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²MACAULAY. died for love of the fair Marcella. If I meet with any of 'em.²SCOTT.²FIELDING. . ²ATHENÆUM." She would have been ready to die with shame.²BURNETT. "Die by. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. "Die with." (material cause.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.²BOSWELL. instrument). "Die for. expect from. Illustrations of "die of." (because of).²GOLDSMITH. He died at last without disease. "Die from. die with.²G. I am positively dying with hunger.²SHAKESPEARE. they shall die by this hand. Who. as Cervantes informs us.:² "Die of. die for. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. ELIOT." (in behalf of). Take thought and die for Cæsar. die from. "Die for. ELIOT." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²ADDISON. Expect of. part with. People do not die of trifling little colds. ²THACKERAY. Part from.²MACAULAY. She died of hard work." "die from. die of.

" "part from:"² "Part with. With words implying behavior or disposition." "expect from:"² "Expect of. which he would by no means part from.²MARRYAT. and hated to part with them. Illustrations of "expect of.²AUSTEN. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²DICKENS. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. I have long expected something remarkable from you. ELIOT.²MACAULAY. 466.²G. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. Of Doctor P. kind of you. "Part from. ELIOT." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. "Expect from. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. nothing better was to be expected.²MACAULAY.²POE. as my friend. either of or in is used indifferently. It was a little bad of you.²G.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²BULWER." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. That is more than I expected of you.²SCOTT.²G. ELIOT. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²TROLLOPE. I can part with my children for their good. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. 464. just parted from her. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. 465. I have just seen her.²WALPOLE." She will expect more attention from you.²BULWER.²WALLER. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. Kind in you.²SHAW. Illustrations of "part with. ." To part from you would be misery. His precious bag.

But this is idle of you. nor blue. 3.He did not think it handsome of you. the vast abyss. nor of a pale red. 6. 5. but which the story renders necessary. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. with seraphims. Hampden.²BEACONSFIELD. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 13. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. Very natural in Mr. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction.²BULWER. tedious perhaps. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 14. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. In the friction between an employer and workman.²DICKENS. 10. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. Thou tread'st. 1. 9. The noise of vast cataracts. In. . it is commonly said that his profits are high.²CARLYLE. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. thrown it over Amyas's head. thunder. nor yellow. 11. or that they are any way dependent on each other. or artillery. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 7.²BULWER. 15. This narrative. raging storms. 8. 4. nor green. It will be anything but shrewd in you. and ran up the alley. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me.²TENNYSON.

and almost as good as a pony. 33. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 35. 18.And were I anything but what I am. 32. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 37. 30. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. Friday. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. That night every man of the boat's crew. 31. 28. save Amyas. and other angular figures. but in the price paid to them. 20. 21. Every one of these letters are in my name. Squares. You have seen Cassio and she together. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. what is a just and unjust act. But every man may know. 25.) 34. . 26. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 38. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 19. 24. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. or how beautiful it is. The effect of proportion and fitness. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. were down with raging fever. 17. the acquiescence of the understanding. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. produce approbation. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 27. 29. 22. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 411. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 16. 36. and most of us do know. triangles. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud.I would wish me only he. When the glass or liquor are transparent. you or me. (Sec. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 23.

25. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. (2) Middle English. A. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. pronouns. adverbs used complements. 92. voice. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 119. 260. origin of. Between each was an interval where lay a musket.000 between them. 133. from about 1500 to the present time. 98. 102. adjectives. of. numeral. from nominative clauses. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. 239. 90. of. Abstract with Active Address. of. 40. 47. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. nouns. syntax uses Absolute. (3) Modern English. . INDEX. 124. 310. 91. 116.39. Adjectives. 107. 124. 47. 20. demonstrative. of. He had four children. article. 89. as. nominative. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200.

42. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. of. 328. 190. 207. to used of. 27. 302. parse. 323. 194. antecedent. 207. 183. infinitive. 287. Against. quality. conjunction. parse. 103. modify. of. of. 116. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 101. antecedent. . form as as they to in as uses uses of. 303. nouns. 104. compared. 27. conjunctions. and 185. 106. 242. 303. 239. objective. from to of. 109. 148. 325.from function how in not of of ordinal. adjectives. 194. of. 190. of. adjectives. sentence. Agreement. between of. of. 291. 187. 325. 115. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 116. plural pronominal. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 262. of. with with with subject. adjectives. quantity. 275. 114. 97. 99. 316. 184. predicate. clauses. Alms. 195. 48. as nouns. 191. nouns.

which. 240. sentences. 74. Anacoluthon Analysis. 294. of and pronoun of. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. derivation in definite. words between. which. 148. Arrangement Articles. 207. 90. An. parse. Auxiliary if. sentences. 252. 296. 287. though. of of of And Antecedent. of. sentences. 101. to of. 67. 150. 47. 84. in in. of. 198. Agreement. of. 225. definition of of of Any. 79. 275. as uses verbs. of. after of. adjective. 120. 309. syntax. 51. definition how indefinite. 264. See with definition complex compound simple who. A. 231. same. 300. 124. it. 67. 127. and. 49. pronouns. . 120. 295. which. 271. of. agreement personal as pronoun. See 74.Among. possessive. 208. syntax As. Are. 331. uses As At.

of nouns. adjective. of. 278. clauses of. uses Better. comparison conjugation of. 149. plurals of. 84. 63. 54. of pronouns. 46. number of. Children. 111. uses nominative of. best. 39. double possessive. 210. 150.Bad. 279. Brethren. 37. Between. 45. of pronouns. conjunctions Cherub. 224. possessive. nominative. of what. 62. of nouns. 279. 283. objective. forms. 260. 49. Can. 194. 262. 47. 161. 46. with But By. Cause. of pronouns. of pronouns. Among. 110. 48. . 330. But. of. 64. of. 278. of nouns. definition could. uses of. 195. in Old and Modern English. Bridegroom. Case. 262. Case. adverb. See of. syntax of. Clause. of nouns. 39. Be. 110. 66. pronoun.

English. 107. . of. 110. 268. and sentence. of. sentence. defective. clothes. 157. of. 244.definition kinds noun. material. and forms of. of. 189. 53. 263. 24. of. 12. 264. definition degrees irregular. 258. 108. 257. 307. Clomb. 43. adverbs. 18. 257. of. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 312. superlative. 271. 315. double. adjectives. Cleave. infinitive. 23. Cloths. of. 307. 239. predicate of and from from of. 113. 305. subject. 111. 257. analysis of. 158. nouns. 108. predicate. nouns. of. nouns. proper. 18. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. in analysis. 43. 248. verb. plural of.

sentence. 73. pronouns. 199. of of Conjunctions. 194. 66. conjunctions. 231. sentences. sentences. 149.with Concord. 194. 289. definition how subordinate. See in subjunctive. adverbs. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 139. same words. definition be. 194. . Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. Conjunctions. 195. in Old vs. Agreement. See analysis clauses. 143. See English. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 149. 188. to of. subjunctive. 269. 263. other other parts of speech. conjunction. replaced by objective. 138. of. of. 328. analysis. 193. 207. parse. verbs. coördinate. 151. 195. Can. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 255. pronoun. conjunctions. correlative. interrogative pronouns. 196. and clause. pronoun.

See See 48. 300. of. article. of. 51. passive adjectives. object. pronouns. with. with of. duck. See 148. tenses. vs. 242. 43. 91. Subordinate clause. use of dies. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 80. 315. . 242. 287. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 320. 160. 333. 35. of personal relative verbs. Comparative. of. by. pronouns. Degrees. pronouns. from. Comparison. 288. 26. Articles. Case. adverbs See adjectives. 102. 99. 102. nouns. 303. 90. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. of. 152. discourse. 60. comparative. 185.Declension. verb. indirect. nouns. pronouns. See adjectives. possessive. for. clause.

102. one ( t). in 'Em. Either. 257. complement. 90. literary. another. of. predicate. Each. plural. possessive suffix. 328. 112. 287. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 51. -En. pronouns. of. 255. 92. 300. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 110. 234. suffix. pronoun. 42. 299. of. 32. to suffix. 241. vulgar. of subject. 40. adjective. 92. of. adjective. Empress. older. 39. 33. spoken. 158. drunk. ending. 90. pronoun. 38. added suffix. of. original. conjunction. 194.Drank. 62. . 92. 280. 240. 12. the of sentence. of. 158. feminine plural English. 34. 287. object. syntax Each Eat Eaves. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 33. Elements Ellipsis. error in sentence. other.

have adjective. nouns. . two. adjective. 112. Gender. 126. 308. uses redundant. For. 30. 189. 235. Future Future tense. two a further. as of from compared marking. to of. few. 29. 32. 48. of. 152. 30. 91. 148. First Fish. of. gender. the. 30. plurals. Further. from. 103. 238. Few.. 212. perfect. 36. other languages. pronoun. 43. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther." 31. 45. 147. 334. fishes. expect gone. definition distinguished in English. 102. See Gander. 112. object. 152. with in sex.Every. as a noun. 319. with infinitive. of. uses Foreign Former. Feminine. modes "common goose. 212. etc. 102. etc. First. used of. From. first. Farther.. 287. 110. 211.

35. 145. of. from participle of. participle. possessive pronouns. 176. she. and case verbal with. 285. pronoun. for before. 13. distinguished syntax. adjective. 9. 61. its. it. of. Gerund. 175. 144. I. 36. on. first sentence. 173. 159. Government. 101. 177. Got. definition divisions opinions province H. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 159. Had Hanged. noun.of of Genii. . definition basis of. 61. 231. 43. of. 60. personal relative geniuses. 80. an better. 12. 60. forms in Girl. kinds of. 120. rather. Grammar. of. His Husband. had hung. pronouns. person. He. 12. 275. 10.

summary See passive mood. 43. 233. 67. verbs. 73. 72. of. 231. 85. indirect of.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 283. 323. adjectives. elements. questions. pronouns. Direct object. 176. 153. pronoun. uses discourse. use article. 110. of clause. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. sentence. words. of. adverbs. a object. 131. meaning. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. of. 178. See you. 319. 248. 105. 276. See Articles. with of. 227. transitive. of. 320. 245. . 188. 131. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 136. Questions. indices. in compared syntax. adjectives. your. questions. 93. mood. 257.

English. 113. predicate. Lie.. 189. 226. uses Literary Little. of. Latter. 190. syntax. 91. Lady. 12. "It Its. lesser. of. pronoun. 39. -Ly. 63. 303. 61. 36. 113. of. See Madam. Last. 36. of. Less. latest. 245. a vs. 110. was uses me. Kine. 36. Lay. It. these double kind. in little." history etc. 281.. Like. syntax the. Logic Logical Lord. adjective. 170. 67. plural. Kind. subject form. Lady. 227. lord. 126. 276. . King. 110. lie.adverbs. etc. Lay. queen. and See words in. 102.

Must. 137. of. imperative. Enlargement. 287. of. of. syntax nearer. 135. syntax conjunction. indicative. 126. 325. conjunctions Many. 41. in adverbs comparison a. 328. 34. 112. superlatives. 326. -Most. 102. adjective. of. of. position adverb. mine. Master. 256. of. Neither. etc. 110.Manner. mistress. double. Mood. 110. . May. might. Mighty Mine. of. 194. 189. 160. Much. 189. Modifiers. 36. 114. 185. Modifier. Means. sentences. construction as of adverb.. out of. 188. 64. 113. subjunctive. comparison Near. 265. 161. 187. Many Mapping Mare. 110. 195. Negative. 137-144. of. 144. See definition 136. 112. 112. nigh.

18. clause. gender how kinds material. half abstract. 328. 20. nouns. . 17. Nor. to use. 301. kinds 90. 41. 92. foreign. and figures. of. 246. Case. become become formation case collective. 21. 32. parse. 41 43. words how compound. 42. 45. 25. 38. abstract. 26. letters as 24. 258. etc. 30. formed. proper. of. 29. now plural. in. to of. abstract. of. 46. 38-41. 30. etc. 300. of. used as. nouns. 124. definition according of. material. gender nouns. 46. None. analysis. of. No Nominative. of. Not Noun Nouns. 25. common. syntax Neuter or two News. 41. become neuter.pronoun. of. of of of of of a. 56. 17. number once other plural. See 194. 17 19. syntax in gender nouns. 19. class used singular. 30. 125. 27. definition descriptive. 126.

278. dative. 281. in article. English. 60. of. 42. article. 285. 48. indirect. 39. 101. See in in in Numeral distributive. 101. 235. 42. 66. 121. adjectives. nominative. 41. Preposition. become syntax use with with with Nouns. meaning. See verb. Numeral Object. singular. as forms titles. preposition. 106. 195. singular. passive adverbial. 48. 242. indefinite. 102. 242. . adjectives. 42 44. of. common. 278. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 41. of. with case.. Nouns. 48. plural no two singular construction. verbs. in nouns. 48. conjunction. of. with with with Now Number. 92. pronouns. 279. 196. etc. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 23. of. form. or plural. of. 282. adverbial. 48. 41. meanings. plural. plural form. 43. 124. pronouns. 240. of different possessive definite of. spoken of instead nouns. 148. definite. personal. and analysis. 18.of same two with proper.

116. articles. Pains. Our. See the as of. adverbs. treatment comparatives. 127. ours. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Ordinal Other Ought. One. 216. 194. adjective. 279. another. 103. 161. 93 other. for. Oxen. 115. nouns. 87. 41. Each adjective. . with (the). 56. inverted. 103. 64. of. 191. 91. adverb. of.syntax Of. uses numeral pronoun. position Order. Parsing. as of. 117. 101. 38. 69. 213. 325 275. part analysis. definite relative uses of. Older. of syntax. as other. pronoun. of of of of of models adjectives. Omission On. See pronoun. 233. Elder. conjunctions. Ourself. of. 293. 306. 199. 94. 56. 237. conjunction. of upon. a in adjectives.

179. with. pronoun. 100. 247. of. 173. 62. predicate use of. 56. . nominative. not is. possessive and of. absolute with of. of. 172. 287. 119. used as voice. 59. Pence. 62. 281. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. speech. 172. 63. pennies. 181. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 70. and subject in. 335. antecedent. 95. relatives. 134. reflexive. 177.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 174. agreement of verb nouns. of. verbs. in. Person. 64. 56. of. 148. them. 322. from definition other of. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 61. parsed. 69. phrases. phrase. 59. 80. 27. or of. pronouns. of. article 150. -ing words. 317. of. verb idioms it from. pronouns. part adjective. verbals. included various. 43. 180. 59. pease. verbs. 28. 43. of. 219.

64. prepositional. of Phrase. relative. nouns. 67. spoken of. 25. 37. 235. 49. noun nouns. 248. Comparison. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 278. 245. 278. 63. 232. singular degree. appositional. of. of. syntax of of Politics. nouns. 236.objective syntax table triple uses of. 303. it. antecedent of of pronouns. 54. 236. Place. Personal subjective. 61. Personification. 281. or See of of See 185. complete. nouns. 41. 52. 245. 206. simple. of. 281. of. pronoun. . as double. See 60. objects. of. of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 247. 's. participial. in of. adjectives. 195. pronoun. of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. Positive Possessive. kinds infinitive. 247. of nouns. singular. English. 285. 303. 241. 53. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 53. 51. Nouns. 106. of. omitted. 188. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 50. 60. double. plural. pronouns. adverbs of. vs.

after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 59. same used as adjectives. future. 219. 283. as 54. of. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 303. interrogative. speech. 64. 58. plural. plural. 281. and one with else's. 186. Pronouns. of. usually to as than. neither. for predicate nominative. parse. 105. 300. what. somebody definition how indefinite. 195. 283. as. 299. of. 207. after but. 279. 332. 132. 208. 202. interrogative. 104. Prepositions. 280. . objective. exclamatory. of. by parts of of. words. 105. by with shown certain of. 206. in exclamations. 302. 95. 203. none. verbs. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 333. adjective. 72. forms of. objective. meaning. as antecedent of relative. 89. case. 93. 187. 300. plural. 284. 32. who personal. 129. 205. with tense certain. expressed as other of. adverb. of. 287. any. 301. 203. each either. of. and form form form form of. 282. 58. 331. by. 285.Prefixes. parse. singular usually other. case. of. 147. all. another. possessive nominative to of.

and antecedent. 286. 84. that. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. See of. 85. 74. 188. 289. 87. 293. questions. pronominal pronouns indirect. conjunctions Quality. of. indirect. 80. Direct same and different. 263. 74. and relatives. use of history formed. 85. 105. 289. in. 68. 295. personal pronoun. unrestrictive. 99. of. and which. 293. 69. Quantity. 142. Questions. use in as. of. indirect compound. nouns. 58. adverbs in. of. 279. pronoun. Rather. from and interrogative. which after same. Nouns. 69. parse. Rank. of. of. with who. 101. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. with with gerund. 74. or of. in.possessive relative. pronouns. of. agreement anacoluthon and as. 295. 296. 87. 83. 291. Quotations. of. 297. 189. 195. same antecedent. . which. who. in. of. to of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. discourse.

294. complex. 43. Shear. ending. of sit. 42. 'S. of. of. that. suffix. 195. plural possessive as. simple. gender. 159. forms shots. Shot. 69. 170. 319. in of. conjunction. effect. 231. sentence. Sex Shall. of. Seeing. clauses of. of. tenses. 74. 255. 289. 159. 196. 252. simple of. who. 29.syntax use Result. 263. definition . 196. which. pronoun. and should. Self Sentences. in form. 51. 259. elliptical. of of of complex Sentences. object. 40. 231. conjunctions Retained Riches. will. Simple in sate. kinds Sequence Set. 162. S. reflexive analysis of compound. 242. Same Sat. would. See Sentences. 26 271.

303. logical. 36. verbs. English. distinguish. 257. English. adverb. vs. 303. 258. 137. English. -en. of. 12. 38. 258. adverb. of. definition how kinds noun. phonetic in infinitive. for. disuse in spoken complete. See -En. 144. 245. these number. Spelling Spinster. Somebody Sort. 38. sort. 237. used mood. other Such Such Suffix -s. 245. . Modern use becoming else's. Subject. -es. 32. in feminine suffix. 126. 169. 138. of. 144. Split Spoken -Ster. etc. English.Singular Sir. definition 67. in Middle English. names as a. of. 186. 33. 258. 270. of. 257. 262. 257. 233. to of. 323. of. 33. of. as.. 257. 260. literary clause. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 240.

Kind. of. 33." introductory. Then. auxiliaries. 147. 116. meaning made up in Old of. 297. classical of. of. "the then foreign. me. when relative. 277.. 307. 222. they. two basis not same definition definite. of. 61. of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 275. not suggesting adjectives. 109. 289. 306. of. 309. objects. 186. 119. 147. 106. degree. 106.. in double. 147. 280. 306. article.Suffixes. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 319. 123. omission whom. 88. 148. syntax of. subject. that uses That. and and of. English. of. 107. as adverbs. 290. meaning. There These kind. when as of. 191. coördinating. object. Tenses. definition in English Tense. of. king. 189. as history The. as history syntax Their. of . in comparison. 275. 152. 108. plural as adverb. which. than of. of. 120. See etc. . 186. adjectives. form. adverbs. English.. restrictive. 87. this. of languages.

185. verbs. tother. to. 33. of. uttermost. See On. Thou. how infinitive. infinitive. 188. words. preposition. 308. first adjective. 20. kinds participle. See That. of.These. thee. exclamations. 119. Try Two Under. 114. 176. etc.. 61. in omitted uses T'other. used. other noun. 180. thy. Time. 175. 322. 195. of. infinitive. 172. 181. analysis. 114. 21. Utter. 172. . 128. uses of. of. 248. 330. 322. of. 217. suffix. 114. 247. -Trix. 175. Upon. 207. Upper. 323. parse. gerund. 173. of. phrases. carelessly uses syntax this. feminine and. uses history of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. from cleft to 174. 175. certain as the before with of. of. try two. conjunctions prepositions To. -ing 111. in of. first. adverbs those.

155. 167. passive. 330. What. 150. spelling of. 47. definition of. definition of. Vixen. 131. 167. 223. auxiliary. Vocative in Voice. . Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. conjugation of. 39. but uses what. formed by. 236. past tense formed nominative. in indirect discourse. active. 154. sequence of. becoming irregular. voice of. table of irregular. tense of. 133. defective. person and number of. of. remarks on certain. table of.Verbs. 151. change. strong. with subject in number. 317. 154. how to parse. 157. 148. 160. intransitive. transitive and intransitive. 319. 135. 154. agreement of. 169. 133. weak. 312. verbs. mood of. of. 130. 245. phonetic. made transitive. of incomplete predication. 312-316. verbs by. in person. 134. 149. 129. regular. 320. 33. 148. active meaning. retained object with passive. passive form. 179. 159. 12. 147. of English. analysis. definition of. syntax of. 242. 169.

in in indefinite objective. 36. Will. 75. 77. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. wizard. With. 72. Who. 104. animals. 37. whereto. pronoun. 296. antecedent adjective. questions. questions. uses See Shall. 178. 85. a. in -ly. relative. worser. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. of. relative. 105. 85. . relative indirect relative. questions. etc. of. 36. 73. 32. Whether. Woman. Y. 83. 246. 72. in. English. Witch. 126. 83. Words in Worse. 299. conjunction. referring syntax Widower. 40. spoken in of. direct of. 194. 79. plural of in nouns -ing. 190. 218. 105. would. 111. questions. pronoun. interrogative Which. Yes ending analysis. 75. 295-299. Wife.. 85.what Whereby. 72. 78. Produced by Stephen Schulze and the Distributed Proofreaders Team Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will be ***** This and all associated files of various formats will be found in: http://www. reports. M. unless you receive specific permission. complying with the rules is very easy. Sewell *** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR *** ***** This file should be named 14006-h. set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license. 70.htm or 14006-h. Redistribution is subject to the trademark license. plural. Special rules. yourselves. singular of yonder. 64. W. so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without permission and without paying copyright royalties. apply to copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark. End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of An English Grammar by W. They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks. and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks. You. 103. Yourself. You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works. *** START: FULL LICENSE *** THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free distribution of electronic works.Yon. and yours. Yours. performances and research. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark. by using or distributing this work (or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project Gutenberg"). especially commercial redistribution. Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works. If you do not charge anything for copies of this eBook. Baskervill and J. you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project .

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