roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

Few inflections. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. Mental training. from the question. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. is worthy of serious study. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. its peculiar and abundant idioms. It is also evident. Making rules is risky. as compared with Latin or Greek. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). so that a small grammar will hold them all. and their uses and relations in the sentence. If. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Literary English. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. The work it will cover. their forms." What grammar is." and "Syntax. to those who have studied the language historically. An æsthetic benefit. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). A broader view. This will take in the usual divisions. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. as.The province of English grammar is. there is still much for the grammarian to do. rightly considered. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. . Coming back. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. with its enormous vocabulary. and thus incite his observation. it will at the same time. however. then. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. if rightly presented. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Authority as a basis. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Surely our noble language. "Analysis." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. but this is bad English now. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words.

which belongs to a people. NOUNS. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master.²GIBBON. and Inflections. The plainest name is Arabs. Part II. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. and may belong to any of those objects. as they stand for ideas. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Occasionally. Vulgar English. by which is meant the free. Such words are called nouns. or standard. too. PART I.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. that is. . since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. then. Analysis of Sentences. and will are evidently names of a different kind. the words sons and master name objects. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. Spoken English. 1. but. The following pages will cover. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. submission. Part III. besides this one. The Uses of Words. or Syntax.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. from the eighteenth century on. The words state. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. reference will be made to vulgar English. not objects. In the more simple state of the Arabs. the nation is free. The Parts of Speech. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. three divisions:² Part I.

animals. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. because each group is considered as a unit. or thing. the man here. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. MATERIAL. men in groups may be called a crowd. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. 5. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. A noun is a name word. 3. place. substance. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. belonging to one. Name for a group or collection of objects. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. representing directly to the mind an object.Definition. the name of each is an individual or proper name. animals. or things. They properly belong under common nouns. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Abstract. Proper. possessed by all. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Name for any individual of a class. however. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. a committee. We may say. or the man in front of you. Individual. (b) Common. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. or a congress. and appropriate names to the groups. Thus. but Chicago names one city. as here used. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. or idea. This does not imply. we may think of them in groups. Thus. 2. whether person. or a council. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. Besides considering persons. . For instance. is from a Latin word which means general. and things separately. Classes of nouns. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. Common. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. or a mob. reducing it to a narrow application. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. (a) 4. ATTRIBUTE. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. etc. Collective.

Names of ideas. frost. but in the words sun. etc. dew. rubber. sugar. rain.. . not things. Words naturally of limited application not proper.Names for things thought of in mass. condition. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. as in calling a city Cincinnati. Again. tea. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. we may say. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. celluloid. The quality is still there as much as before. (3) Geological bodies: mud. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. gold. etc. considered abstractly. cloud. platinum. They remain common class names. sand. etc. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. or actions. etc. etc. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. and so on. we speak of the wisdom of the man. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. earth. . expressing state. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. however. frost. earth. such as sun. 6. clay. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. When we speak of a wise man. mist." "a man of understanding. proof means the act of proving. iron. etc. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. and fasten a special name to the object considered. or apart from their natural connection. stone.²There are some nouns. (2) VERBAL NOUNS." "Learning is hard to acquire. but which are not called proper names. or that which shows a thing has been proved. conditions. there is no such intention. etc. or action. potash. granite. wheat. moon. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. world. etc. paint. "Painting is a fine art. rice. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. 7. rock. but it is taken merely as a name. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). It may. snow. wine. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. sugar. The reason is. soap. expressing attributes or qualities. instead of to each individual or separate object. Such are glass. wheat. NOTE." 9.

masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. etc. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. is used as a noun. Caution. by altering its function.. day. To avoid difficulty. in the beginning of his life. kingship from king." "a brisk walk. height from high. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. (1) prudence from prudent. 272. ease. the main bearings of this matter. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. thunder. theft from thieve. 12.Attribute abstract nouns. speech from speak. the moon caused fearful forebodings. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. as their name implies. as in the expressions. hope. winter. joy. childhood from child. Such are beauty. there is time for such reasonings. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. as glad²joy. . night. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. stupidity from stupid. the great Puritan awakening. The verb. 10. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. Underived abstract nouns. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. service from serve. the rude drawings of the book. the well-being of her subjects. hopeful²hope. five proper. a wedding or a festival. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. those opinions and feelings. Exercises. action from act. he spread his blessings over the land. "a long run" "a bold move. summer. etc. NOTE. energy. They cannot govern a word. 1. II. shadow. redness from red. but are merely names of actions. five abstract. mastery from master. They are only the husks of verbs.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. etc. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. lightning. Verbal abstract nouns." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. etc. her longing for their favor. (2) peerage from peer. 273). Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. Thus. and they cannot express action. the teachings of the High Spirit.

typhus. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. Using a dictionary. catarrh. geology. pleurisy.2. mathematics? 3. algebra. diphtheria. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as pneumonia. (b) branches of knowledge. as physics.

By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. etc. port (wine). but most of them are in the following groups. the word port. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. from China. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. "The cook made the irons hot. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. but we may say." referring to flat- . 119). who was its inventor. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. arras. the guillotine. 13. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. a Lavoisier. 15. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. damask. 14. from Calicut. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Nouns change by use. for example. a Fourier. Material nouns may be used as class names. from the name of Dr. We know a number of objects made of iron. or to go over to it entirely.²EMERSON. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. a Hutton. thus. a Locke. it imposes its classification on other men. Proper names transferred to common use. levant and morocco (leather). If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Others of similar character are calico. Guillotin.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Sodom was famous for wickedness. currants. a Bentham. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. as a davy. and lo! a new system. above. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. from a town in France. in Portugal. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from Damascus. from Corinth. from Oporto.

the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. or made plural. and say teas. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. They are not then pure abstract nouns. Death. or used as class nouns. which are made plural. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. as stones. This is a poetic usage. (3) By poetical use. From all around²Earth and her waters. These are the same in material.²BRYANT. For example. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. clouds. and so on. The words preceded by the article a. the abstract idea is partly lost. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. are still names of abstract ideas. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. Next Anger rushed.²PERCIVAL.²COLLINS. clays. and only Vice and Misery.²HAYNE. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. nor are they common class nouns.²BYRON. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. etc. tins. 17. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. are abroad.²RUSKIN.In lightnings owned his secret stings. that the power of art is founded on fact. candies. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Traffic has lain down to rest. to prowl or to moan like night birds. A halfway class of words. mists. Personification of abstract ideas. abstract in meaning. smiled. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. Test this in the following sentences:² . oils.irons. but differ in strength. a steel to whet a knife on. but on dispositions which require to be created. etc. purity. a rubber for erasing marks. Class nouns in use. or. be spoken of. that disposition is the thing to be created. his eyes. coals. paints. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. on fire. or the arts and sciences. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. not material things. 16. tobaccos. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. though not confined to verse. but in case an art or a science. papers.²CARLYLE. When it is said that art differs from science. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. that is. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. slates.

NOTE. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. All these. sir?" and the "No. as descriptive adjectives are. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. They are more like the possessive noun. But ah! those pleasures. for example. or from any expression.²SHAKESPEARE. were mere terrors of the night." "a New York bank.² BURNS. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. etc. they cannot be compared. When I was young? Ah. a bill as to tax on the banks. Then comes the "Why. however. nouns used to modify. a bank in New York." "the State Bank Tax bill. "a family quarrel. Adverbs. Every why hath a wherefore. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. fear thy blow. By ellipses. make our own so. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. if we must have great actions. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. but is still a noun.²BURNS. loves. they do not express quality. sir!"²MACAULAY ." which contains a pure adjective. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. sir!" and the "What then. the wealthy.² GOLDSMITH. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.²EMERSON. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. 19.²SHAKESPEARE. 18. or describe it. meaning a walk in the morning. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. as each repeated pleasure tired. Adjectives. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.²IRVING.Let us.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Conjunctions. And still. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. Nouns used as descriptive terms. But it is better to consider them as nouns. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question." "a morning walk. which belongs to another word.The Solitary can despise. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning.

1.. It is to be remembered. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. but as a figure of speech. Caution. 3. 6. Exercise. are spoken of as if pure nouns. but have an adjectival meaning. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. etc. 8. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. Stone walls do not a prison make. There are many of these. FRANKLIN. in speaking of the principal of a school. at the beginning.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. 2. so. Now. or a faithful domestic. is the word "just.Nor iron bars a cage.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. the terms the great. too. Learning. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. NOTE. however. Power laid his rod aside. When. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another." or "legal. 5." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. 7. 20." and another of Dr. are used. that cobweb of the brain.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. and Then. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. and tell to which class each belongs. When. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. or a criminal. The it. . The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. In the other sentences. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. or a state secret. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. of words rather than of their meaning. the wealthy. without reference to its function in the sentence."²B.²These remarks do not apply. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. is ambiguous. in a sentence above. why and wherefore. of course. 4.

some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. female. 22. . Male beings are.Fair guests. 20. he cried. 21. 15. 17. shattered and disabled. the silver moon is gone. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. for every dropHinders needle and thread. Greek. and names of females are usually feminine.You seize the flower. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 24. In Latin. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. A little weeping would ease my heart. in English grammar. that waits you here. 21. It is founded on sex. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 14. 13. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. The hours glide by. What gender means in English. 12.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. always masculine. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. GENDER. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 11. 18.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. The fleet. 23. the welcome. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 16.9. A fool speaks all his mind. 10. And see. German. but not so in English. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 19. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. and many other languages. its bloom is shed. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. returned to Spain. always feminine.

Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. and neuter nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. but are spoken of as neuter. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. and consequently without sex. clapping his burnished wings. came to a stand just by the bridge. or names of things without life. For instance: in Latin. . the sex being of no consequence. in German. inanimate things are spoken of. Gunpowder . Of animals.²masculine and feminine.²IRVING. the name of it is feminine. or additions to words. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words.. those with which man comes in contact often.. Gender nouns. corpus (body) is neuter. The great difference is. 23. Hence: Definition. mensa (table) is feminine. those distinguishing the sex of the object. He next stooped down to feel the pig." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. that pattern of a husband. All nouns. if of the female sex. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. if there were any signs of life in it. hortus (garden) is masculine. in English. in other languages gender follows the form. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. are named by gender nouns. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.²LAMB. der Tisch (table) is masculine. with its gizzard under its wing. must be divided into two principal classes..When.² IRVING. however. then.²gender nouns. according to their use." . Thus. those which do not distinguish sex. the word child is neuter in the sentence. the name of it is masculine.. 22. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. das Messer (knife) is neuter.² I have seenA curious child . die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. No "common gender.. that is. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.. Neuter nouns. 24. "A little child shall lead them. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. or which arouse his interest most. according to use. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID.

there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Very few of class I. servant. Gender shown by Suffixes. Put in convenient form. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. One feminine. of course. cousin. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. woman. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. domestic. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns.. These remain in vixen and spinster. but spinster has now no connection with it. puts a prefix before the masculine man. or the lack of it. Male nouns beings. as he-goat²she-goat. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. ruler. as in wine vat. 27. (2) By adding a suffix. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. Gender shown by Prefixes. Hence vixen is for fyxen. for from they said vram. According to the definition. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. 28. If such words as parent.25. 26. For fox they said vox. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. I. II. from the masculine fox. is. The inflections for gender belong. Native suffixes. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. the division of words according to sex. he-bear²she-bear. though both words have lost their original meanings. teacher.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. they are neuter words. generally to a masculine word. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. 29. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. relative. and for the older word fat they said vat. etc. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. .

executrix. song-str-ess. These are attached to foreign words. trickster. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . Low Latin issa). the one most used. 30. punster. and are never used for words recognized as English. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). (1) Those belonging to borrowed words.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. donna. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. Ending of masculine not changed. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Unaltered and little used. Slightly changed and widely used.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as seam-stress. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. as czarina. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. it has none now in the words huckster. -ess (French esse. gamester. as. as. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. señorita. but in most cases it has not.

In some of these pairs. others have in their origin the same root. Some of them have an interesting history. Thus. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . 32. as in the fourteenth century. NOTE. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Instead of saying doctress. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. from Latin imperatricem. editor. We frequently use such words as author. teacheresse. teacher or lady teacher. 31.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Gender shown by Different Words. the ending -ess. as. as was said in the sixteenth century. fosteress. neighbor (masculine and feminine). the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words." III. or servauntesse. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. frendesse. chairman. we use the masculine termination. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. as. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. from the French -esse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. neighboresse. etc.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. to represent persons of either sex. wagoness. we use the feminine.

Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). though both are ultimately from the same root. as in many other words.² . in Old English mere. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Mare. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. or lauerd in Middle English. finally gander. not immediately connected with witch. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Danish gaas. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Three letters of ened have fallen away.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Madam is the French ma dame. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Personification. The masculine was formed by adding -a. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Two masculines from feminines. 16). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. The older forms. Besides gander and drake. among others) to be from the same root word. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. from Latin mea domina. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Icelandic gás. leaving our word drake. Witch is the Old English wicce. written loverd. 34. for example. probably meaning house dweller). material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. the old sign of the masculine. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. had the masculine mearh (horse). but this has long been obsolete. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). widuwa²widuwe. Widower. 33. gand-ra. etc. lhauerd. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man).). became identical.

the plural.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. that is. Britannia needs no bulwarks. the engineer speaks so of his engine. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. together with the third. . for instance. whenever we adopt a new word. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. In nouns. 38. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. shoon (shoes).²CAMPBELL. 36. Definition. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.²KEATS. Effect of personification.²singular and plural. (2) By changing the root vowel. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. in Old English. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. NUMBER.Her home is on the deep.²COLERIDGE. The first two methods prevailed. treen (trees). eyen (eyes). The -en inflection.No towers along the steep. and not by the form of the noun. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. (3) By adding -s (or -es). 35."²BYRON. 39."Now. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. But other words were inflected afterwards. more than one. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. This is not exclusively a poetic use. I. 37. Our language has two numbers. etc.

Kine is another double plural. . etc.²THOREAU.-En inflection imitated by other words. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like.²WHITTIER. then brothre or brethre. originally neuter. glass. Examples of this inflection are. but has now no singular. III. Such are box. sail. by.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. swine."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. wight. Akin to this class are some words. after all. and is still found in dialects. but they now add the ending -s. borough²formerly had the same inflection. etc.The horse are thousands ten. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. sheep.² "God bless me! so then. retain the same form for plural meaning. Instead of -s. The old plural was brothru. finally brethren.²Over the mountains winding down. Lee marched over the mountain wall. when they mean soldiery.² The foot are fourscore thousand. The words horse and foot. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. head. folk. Other words following the same usage are. after numerals (if not after numerals. as.Horse and foot. etc. Children has passed through the same history. and get settled. quartz. brace. dozen. 41. II. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. ditch. salmon. Brethren has passed through three stages. as. into Frederick town. cannon. 40. turf. such as deer. pair. 42.²MACAULAY. or if preceded by the prepositions in. lens. heathen. they add -s): also trout. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. that have the singular and plural alike. people. cross.

may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . and many branches of learning. race²races. optics. Means plural. house²houses. these words ended in -ie. in its widest extent. prize²prizes. quoth then that ladie milde. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. volcano² volcanoes.. and some -es. that when thy summons comes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. the Washingtons. Special Lists. some adding -s. 44. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Words in -ies. daisies. etc. fancies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. Proper nouns are regularly singular. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). shelf²shelves. It served simply as a means of sight. a new syllable is made. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. e. 45. knife²knives. Examples of these are. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. they lose their identity. etc. 43. the Americas. e. summons. is both the science and the art of government. half²halves. DANA. physics.²BRYANT. Some words are usually singular. politics. hero²heroes. The lilie on hir stalke grene. Two words. however. fairies.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form.² Politics.-Es added in certain cases. So live.²PROF. means: as. and the real ending is therefore -s. negro²negroes.. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. molasses. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. chaise²chaises. also news. When such words take a plural ending. 15 and 17).g. niche²niches.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. allies.g. though they are plural in form. etc. and go over to other classes (Secs. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. as. economics. Formerly. though this sound combines readily with -s. means and politics. pains (care). mathematics. etc.

W. Now I read all the politics that come out. by those means which we have already mentioned. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²MOTLEY. however. .²GOLDSMITH. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. it is furnished with a forceps. Some words have no corresponding singular. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. riches will accumulate.²G. CURTIS. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²IRVING. Sometimes. Besides this. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²GOLDSMITH. by strongly conveying the passions.²GOLDSMITH.²J. A relic which. Politics plural. I say. LAUGHLIN. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²BURKE.² MACAULAY. 46. if I recollect right. L.Words. By these means. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.

These make the last part plural. shot²shot (collective balls). eaves. genii (spirits). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. riches. number²numbers: (1) figures.²LONGFELLOW. in mournful numbers. In Early Modern English thank is found. Three words were originally singular. making a double plural. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. the other unlike it. fishes (individuals or kinds). two plurals. brethren (of a society or church). cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth).. die²dies (stamps for coins. dice (for gaming). part²parts: (1) divisions.. genius²geniuses (men of genius). as in the lines. (2) literature. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering.²was it subdued when. (2) revenue duties. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. (2) care. or copies.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. (2) abilities. . but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. One plural. 48. etc. trouble. penny²pennies (separately). pease (collectively). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). indices (signs in algebra). of a periodical. or work in a bellows?²PROF. pea²peas (separately). for the numbers came. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. (2) poetry. Tell me not. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. 49. etc. pence (collectively). as two sixpences. index²indexes (to books). In speaking of coins. DANA. 50. ways.The air.² I lisped in numbers.²POPE. or epistles. sixpence. carry off chaff. shots (number of times fired). fish²fish (collectively). Numbers also means issues.²one corresponding to the singular. clothes (garments). two meanings. twopence.. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. faculties. Two classes of compound words. may add -s.). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.

as man singer. and then the three Miss Spinneys. but add -s. then Silas Peckham. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. woman servant. Allen. Brown. Briggs. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. such as talisman. 52. HOLMES. Norman. or the name may be pluralized.²DR. As to plurals of names with titles. 51. though the latter is often found. manservant. German.² Then came Mr. and Mrs. Mussulman. the Misses Rich. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. the Drs. Ottoman. Brahman. for example. firman. The chief member adds -s in the plural.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. there is some disagreement among English writers. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. as the Messrs. The title may be plural. woman singer. Two methods in use for names with titles. .

They are then said to be naturalized. FROM THE GREEK. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Messrs. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Exercise.²DICKENS. Du Maurier. FROM THE LATIN. Others have been adopted. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. y y analysis antithesis .²GIBBON. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Domesticated words. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. These are said to be domesticated. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. or Englished.²THE CRITIC. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.²GOLDSMITH. 53. and retain their foreign plurals. or Anglicized.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.

Only two case forms." the word felon's modifies cell. as.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. figures. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. as. they form their plurals in the regular way." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s)." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). Letters. cell has another relation. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. without reference to their meaning. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). etc. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. 54. etc. In the sentence. 56. Words quoted merely as words. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. . also add -s or 's." CASE. Definition.. and expresses a relation akin to possession. 55. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. In the general wearing-away of inflections. figures.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words.

fate." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Three properties belong to wisdom. excessive grief. . I. 58. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 4. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. when asked unawares. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Excuses are clothes which. Uses of the Nominative. the objective." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. 3. 57. 5." (2) As a predicate noun. they returned to their homes. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. learning. three things characterize man. Nouns." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. must be understood for purposes of analysis.²the nominative.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Human experience is the great test of truth. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. the enemy of the living. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.²nature. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case.²one for the nominative and objective. and merit. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 2. then.²person. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. and the possessive. whether inflected or not. and experience. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. completing a verb. may be said to have three cases. 1.

taking the object enemies." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. They charged. completing the verb. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. taking the object storm. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. and landlord of the inn. 2. . the word toward which the preposition points. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. her first law broken. and makest a calm. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. thy wrath can send." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. (5) As the object of a preposition. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." Exercise. etc. reconciles. measure. and tell which use each has:² 1. Conscience. 4. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. But of all plagues. 59. as will be seen in Sec. 9.Save. a patriarch of the village. distance. sword in hand and visor down. Tender men sometimes have strong wills." (4) As the second object. 3. Uses of the Objective." (3) Adverbially. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. Set a high price on your leisure moments. wounded lies. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. save. But the flood came howling one day. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. good Heaven. and being equivalent to one verb. and meaning calmest. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. they are sands of precious gold. how have I frighted thee? II.6. 68. (in the older stages of the language." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 8.

for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. as in these expressions.His winter task a pastime made.²BYRON. Possession in some sense is the most common. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 7.² The unwearied sun. as. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. as shown in the sentences.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. the Great Stone Face. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.And gave the leper to eat and drink. It is a poetic expression. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. 10. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. The possessive case always modifies another word. the most common of all. 6. (2) Objective possessive. and forfeits paid. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.²ADDISON. And whirling plate. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. or in writing yesterday's elegy. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.e.5. (3) Subjective possessive. expressed or understood. 61. tempests that . The noblest mind the best contentment has.Does his Creator's power display. 60. 8. from day to day. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.²HAWTHORNE. Uses of the Possessive. III..²SHELLEY. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 9. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.

the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. growth which several days had developed). in Chaucer." Use of the apostrophe." etc. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. and Obj. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. To form the possessive plural. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). "George Jones his book. making the possessive singular. Case Inflection." "at his beddes syde.e. Poss. 62. the panther which the forest hides). child NOTE. A false theory. 63. and Obj." "mannes herte [heart]. as schoolboys sometimes write.e. How the possessive is formed. One is the simple form of a word. however. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. The use of the apostrophe. lady Poss. Nom. A suggestion. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. 62. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. 1. 56)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. PLURAL. . Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. 64. Declension or inflection of nouns. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. there are only two case forms.. Nom. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. As said before (Sec. "From every schires ende.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec.winter is likely to have).. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.

²SWIFT. and from a desire to have distinct forms.. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. containing words in apposition. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. for goodness' sake.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Kate saw that. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead.²DE QUINCEY.²HOLMES. as by the countess's command.Though this opinion was untrue. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. etc. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost." "A postscript is added. a word with a phrase.²RUSKIN. but to the ear all may be alike. church. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. Peter's. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. my neighbors. as.² LOWELL. 66. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. Possessive and no noun limited. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. some such word as house. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. the possessive sign is usually last. In compound expressions. as. Captain Scrapegrace's. and she walked off from the don's. being understood with it: for example." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. 65. I remember him in his cradle at St. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. Cervantes' satirical work. know the amount of my income. ." Possessive with compound expressions. James's.²THACKERAY. dwelling. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. in the name of the emperor their master. 67. the items of my son's."²DE QUINCEY. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. etc. store. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. instead of the emperor their master's name. stands up for God's truth one man.²CARLYLE.

Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . as one modifier. and at the same time by a possessive noun. ill-lighted except where she stands. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. (1) When a word is modified by a. 68. Blair). that. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. sometimes they are used together. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. making a double possessive. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. 1.. or subjective. every.²the introduction which Atterbury made. each. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. the. For example. etc. this.²FROUDE. HALE. we use the phrase of Atterbury. the sentence might be understood as just explained. in such a sentence as.²E. In most cases. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. Exercises.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. A peculiar form. any. E. 87.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony.²CARLYLE. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. objective. a double possessive. Both of these are now used side by side. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. however.The double possessive. (3) It prevents ambiguity. Emphasis. 2. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. corresponding to 's.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. and tell whether each is appositional. (See also Sec. the statement clearly means only one thing. Clearness. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. (b) Rewrite the sentence. no. If. especially when used with this or that.

A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.Comes dancing from the East. 7. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. therefore. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 69. let him seasonably water the one. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 15. Now the bright morning star. 10. we state. 12. day's harbinger. it seemed. 9. 5. Friend. There Shakespeare's self. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 14.² . Hence. in parsing a noun. with every garland crowned. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 6. Nature herself. Jove laughs. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. some idioms²the double possessive. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 8. At lovers' perjuries.3. 70. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son.They say.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 4. In parsing. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. I must not see thee Osman's bride. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 13. and destroy the other. 11.

the connection shows a male is meant. but is the adverbial objective. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. therefore singular number. names one thing. it is the name of a male being. and limits neckcloth. (4) Its office in the sentence. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. 68). hence it is objective case. Neckcloth. if the latter. The correct method.(1) The class to which it belongs. 3. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Throat is neuter. therefore masculine gender. it expresses possession or ownership. like miller's. gender. (3) Whether singular or plural number. it denotes only one person. masculine. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. MODEL FOR PARSING. inflections. hence it is a common noun. etc. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 2. In parsing any word. determining its case. therefore possessive case. therefore neuter. 4. and number. it expresses time. a withered serving man. subject of the verb is understood. a fresh tapster. and relations. therefore singular number. singular number. and therefore nominative case. 71. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. proper. has no governing word. hence it is a gender noun. it has no sex. and to have it found out by accident.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. object of the verb takes. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. hence objective case. That in the captain's but a choleric word. Exercise.²common. as to case. NOTE. . Thief is a common class noun. it is the object of the preposition by. which gender. is a common class noun.

Mrs.5. or for a person or thing. (2) Interrogative pronouns. definite. where the Rhone enters the lake. A few miles from this point. 7. For instance. or for a group of persons or things. and representative words. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. from a necessity for short. Necker." Again. instead of saying. A pronoun is a reference word. castle. connected with the shore by a drawbridge.. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. 10. all in one. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. Definition. standing for a name. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. but by a question we say. Now. Classes of pronouns. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. 72. . and his daughter. financial minister to Louis XVI. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. 76). The need of pronouns. and prison.. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. sleep! 6. were natives of Geneva. He giveth his beloved sleep. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. 9. Madame de Staël.²palace. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. 73.." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. which distinguish person by their form (Sec.And hated her for her pride. Time makes the worst enemies friends. blessings light on him that first invented . PRONOUNS. 8. 11. Jarley's back being towards him. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious.

that is. pronoun. (2) Second person. they are said to have person by agreement." Person of nouns. Three persons of pronouns. 75. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. which have forms for person. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON.. From analogy to pronouns. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. we our. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. (4) Adjective pronouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Singular. words. mine. even if it had a special form. representing a person or thing spoken to. 77. Nom. which cannot be used as adjectives. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. primarily adjectives. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. "the distinction of person. as nouns have the same form. Person in grammar. the person or thing spoken to. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. representing the person speaking. I Poss. This gives rise to a new term. my Plural. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.(3) Relative pronouns. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. 74. standing for a person or thing spoken of. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. which relate or refer to a noun. (3) Third person. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. 76. and the person or thing talked about. or other word or expression. they must represent the person talking. ours .

Nom. namely. it its it Poss. . he his him Fem. Nom. you your. Old forms. Obj. Obj. Masc. of all Three. Obj. Third person singular has gender.. your. thou thee ye you you your. 78. yours you Plural. Poss. SECOND PERSON. thy Remarks on These Forms. yours you THIRD PERSON. hers her Plur. theirs them Neut. Old Form Common Form. or. Obj. But the third person has. Nom. a separate form for each gender. they their.Obj. Poss. First and second persons without gender. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. yours Poss. in the singular. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. feminine h o. me us Singular. and also for the neuter. neuter. Nom. so also with the person or thing spoken to. she her. masculine h . thine. The speaker may be either male or female. by personification. Singular. neuter hit.

thy.²BEECHER. as. . are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The form its. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. Second person always plural in ordinary English.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. for example." As shown above. the Old English objective was hem (or heom).. them. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). but make the plural you do duty for the singular.:² (1) In elevated style. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. thou Shepherd of Israel. This is of comparatively recent growth. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. 79. thee.²SHELLEY. The consequence is. (2) In addressing the Deity.. 81. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. as possessive of it. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. etc. We use it with a plural verb always. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. The plurals were h . which was often sounded with the h silent. especially in poetry. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. Thou. In spoken English. their. however. it. the forms they. heom. to thy care we commit the helpless. There are. etc. that didst comfort thy people of old. just as we now say.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. even when referring to a single object. 82. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. Two uses of the old singulars. which is a neuter noun. as in prayers. perhaps being from the English demonstrative.Thou lovest. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children.² Oh. 80. two modern uses of thou. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. etc. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. and sometimes its. heora. in Old English.

us. to personify objects (Sec. Old use of mine and thine. me. have a peculiar use. 'tis his. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. your. ²SHAKESPEARE. The forms my. theirs. sometimes his and its. The forms mine. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. Absolute personal pronouns. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. Additional nominatives in spoken English. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. some say. 83. besides a nominative use. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. her.²BULWER. And since thou own'st that praise. and has been slave to thousands. . we. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. yours. for. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. in such a sentence as. her. I spare thee mine. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. them. 86. 58). she. II. The words I. Not a separate class.²LANDOR. ye. I The Nominative. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns.²COWPER." the literary language would require he after was. though ye is occasionally used as objective.Use of the pronouns in personification. him. "I am sure it was him. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. note the following:² 'Twas mine. he. him. us. thou. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. and not make more classes. The Possessive. 84 are always subjects. they have a nominative form. or. In spoken English. 85. and sometimes in ordinary speech. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. and follow the usage of literary English. thine. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. Nominative forms. his. our. hers. 34). them. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. its. thy. her. their. they. however. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. though those named in Sec. Yet careful speakers avoid this. 84. when they occur in the predicate position. That is.

²HOLMES. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. we have. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. thus. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²SWIFT. Besides this. pluck it out. "Hold thy peace.²ID. Like the noun possessives. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. COOPER. it tells of good old times. as in nouns. Give every man thine ear. T. ours." said Henry Woodstall. we find.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. sometimes its. but few thy voice.²J. thus.²BIBLE. ours. (2) To bring emphasis.² CARLYLE. This ancient silver bowl of mine.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master."²SCOTT. thine.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. anger. 87. F. for example. . theirs. are really double possessives. yours. theirs. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.²CARLYLE.²THACKERAY. FIELDS. Their uses. If thine eye offend thee.²ID. yours. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. commenting upon a letter of mine. Long Allen. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes.²THACKERAY. and with mine. or satire. (3) To express contempt. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. in that old Edinburgh house of his. Double and triple possessives. hers. his. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. The forms hers.²J.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. This usage is still preserved in poetry.

Besides this use of the objective. for whose benefit. 86: mine stands for my property. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. 89. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. mine stands for my praise in the second. but not in form. this dative use. In their function. But the first two have a nominative use. Both joined in making him a present. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. The Objective. They all handled it. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. but the form is the same as the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. as it is called." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. or use in a sentence. Now the objective. and mine in the second has an objective use. "The good alone are great. . Curse me this people. 90.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. In such sentences as.²ID." "None but the brave deserves the fair. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. was marked by a separate case.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. III. the thing is done. his for his property. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. as shown in Sec. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. 20.²BIBLE. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. The old dative case. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. in the first sentence. 88. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. but expresses for whom. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. but nominative or objective in use. In pronouns.

and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. was passed by with indulgence. as. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. has not made its progress. in this century.²DE QUINCEY. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. Society. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.²ADDISON. The word you. Indefinite use of you and your.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. ²EMERSON.²IRVING To empty here. like Chinese skill.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. why. It is a pity that he has so much learning. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. you must condense there.²BACON. as in the sentences.² NEWMAN. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature." (3) As a grammatical subject.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. or that he has not a great deal more.Time is behind them and before them. as. which follows the verb. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²CARLYLE. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. thus. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. you sneeze. Your mere puny stripling. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. or to the idea.²D. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. (3) In apposition. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.² .²EMERSON. to stand for the real. 92. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. and they cry. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²BULWER. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. logical subject. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. 91. WEBSTER. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.

This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. (ourself). as they are also called. 93. keeps a school. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. "I found me a good book. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. yourself. have laid them downIn their last sleep. since firstThe flight of years began. when they are direct objects. we use such expressions as.²ID.²IRVING. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. as. peddles it. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. For example. yourselves.²DE QUINCEY.It is finger-cold. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively..²ANON. itself.²HOLMES.²COLERIDGE. They are myself. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²BRYANT." "He bought him a horse.²EMERSON. Of the two forms in parentheses. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.²BURNS.²BUNYAN. I made up my mind to foot it. himself. themselves. they dropped their arms.. used in poetry. It was late and after midnight."²IRVING. (thyself)." etc. . farms it. A sturdy lad . the second is the old form of the second person. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² Now I lay me down to sleep. that is. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. but seldom in prose. -selves. This occurs in poetry. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. I set me down and sigh. and its plural selves. There was nothing for it but to return. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. Poor Christian was hard put to it. however. And millions in those solitudes.²THOREAU.²SCOTT." and there is an end of it. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. ourselves. 94. who in turn tries all the professions. it rained. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. For when it dawned. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. herself. And when I awoke. who teams it.²HAWTHORNE.

As girls were once.² . after the analogy of myself. I shrink with pain.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. 95. not the possessive forms. Use of the reflexives.²EMERSON.²WORDSWORTH. The question might arise.² The great globe itself .² TENNYSON. for example.²SHAKESPEARE.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. as we ourself have been. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. etc. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. were changed into the possessive myself. with self.. 96.²MILTON. shall dissolve. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. ourselves. thyself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. Held dead within them till myself shall die. Threats to all.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. BROWNING. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. Origin of these reflexives. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. and the others were formed by analogy with these. as. NOTE. for example. theself. As if it were thyself that's here. as in vulgar English.²E. In Middle English the forms meself. especially in the speech of rulers.²ID. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. and build the lofty rhyme.To you yourself. as. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. to every one. B. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. to us.. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.

fight it out. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Three now in use. some of them being double possessives. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. is wisdom. FRANKLIN. feminine. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). let him lowly confess it. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. some each of masculine. all conform to it. Courage.² THACKERAY. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. . Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. Years ago.On the light fantastic toe. 97. 4. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. and neuter. and how to do it. and what. 8. Infancy conforms to nobody. which. but it is the soonest spoiled.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 5.²B. One obsolete. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. And it grew wondrous cold. To know what is best to do. 9.²DE QUINCEY. 3. 10. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. 2. where the word is one with that it tells of. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 7. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 6. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Come and trip it as we go. father.

100. as it always asks about somebody.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. These show that what is not inflected for case. Use of who and its forms. shall we say. used formerly to mean which of two. or case. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. number. 98. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. it is always third person.There is an old word. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. referring to things. What wouldst thou do. which is not inflected for gender. that it is always singular and neuter. Use of which. 99. Use of what. whispering sweet. but for case alone. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Which of you. As shown here. that it is not inflected for gender or number.. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY.Promised. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. The use of who. that. but now obsolete. etc. . doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. whether. that is. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. not to persons. with its possessive and objective. it refers to either persons or things. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. ideas. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. it is selective. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. having three forms. methought. the gold. actions. Whose was that gentle voice. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY.

AND PLUR. Further treatment of who. "The last of all the Bards was he. as. as they take the place usually of a word already used. it may be shortened into. which is nominative in the first sentence.² . which and what are sometimes adjectives. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. 127). who is used as objective instead of whom. SINGULAR Nom. It usually precedes the pronoun. 105. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. whose? Obj. SING. AND PLUR.101. and so to make smoother discourse. Who. as." In the latter sentence. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. For instance. who evidently refers to Bards. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. 104. what may be an adverb in some expressions. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English.² "The last of all the Bards was he. since it is subject of the verb had. Function of the relative pronoun.Who sung of Border chivalry. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. 99. who? Poss. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. being the direct object of the verb shall take. which and what." Or.²by the use of the words. pronoun. subject of doth love. in Sec. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. 102. The antecedent. which is called the antecedent of the relative. or other word or expression. These bards sang of Border chivalry. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. 103. Thus we may say. nominative in the second also. for which the pronoun stands. and what are also relative pronouns. objective in the last. which. and also in having a conjunctive use. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word.

106. 107. which. 4.. 5. Who and its forms. D. 2. is a divine creation. a thousand years.²BYRON. 2.. will be discussed further on.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.Whom universal nature did lament. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. a simple relative is meant. but the look which is not of the earth. Generally speaking.That guard our native seas. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.²W.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. They had not their own luster. 6. The nurse came to us. in the same sense in which man's nature.²DR JOHNSON.²SCOTT. both his and who have the antecedent priest. WHITNEY. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. . what. are the men and women who bless their species. The origin of language is divine.²PARTON Which and its forms. Indefinite relatives.² COX. Two kinds. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. The men whom men respect. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.Whose flag has braved.²THACKERAY. Ye mariners of England.²MILTON. 4. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. When the word relative is used.. 108. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 3.²LOWELL In this. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. that. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. 3. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. the women whom women approve. For her enchanting son. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. with all its capabilities .

²DE QUINCEY.. 3..²LAMB 3. That.5. What.²BURKE. ought to be kept in view. (a) This gradation . The Tree Igdrasil. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.. which it certainly is not. The man that hath no music in himself. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 111. 107. 110.. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. For what he sought below is passed above. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Already done is all that he would do.. 2. Who. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. and spoils. W.²IRVING.²H.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. 6.²EMERSON. The judge . that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. 4. else this description will seem exaggerated.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Reader.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.Is fit for treasons. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. 109.²GOLDSMITH. stratagems. Examples of the relative that:² 1. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. BEECHER 5. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. bought up all the pigs that could be had.² SHAKESPEARE 2. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .²MARGARET FULLER. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. no bad type of what often happens in that country. you will not be angry with me for telling you..

the relatives are singular. The sentences in Sec. son. Examples of whose. and others.. in 4. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. whom. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. who is first person.²THACKERAY. in the first sentence. 5. p. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. The little gorilla. JOHNSON. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. 96)..have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. flung its arms around my neck. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. in the second. Gibbon. . In sentence 4. or ideas. a man. whose is second person. in 5. (4) It has two case forms. the others are all third person. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Witness the following examples:² And you. The robins. and 6. whom. whose for the possessive. whose wound I had dressed. 107. things. whose. 112. Kingsley.whose. Smollett.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²IRVING. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. (3) It is nearly always third person. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. (2) It has three case forms. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.who.. In 1. who. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. possessive case of which. 113.²who. and so on. they are plural.²SWIFT. Sec. and 3. Scott. seemed as much excited as myself. that man. in the third.²LEIGH HUNT.²DR..²LOWELL. My horse. referring to animals. Who referring to animals. Cooper. It has been seen (Sec. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. Which.²which for the nominative and objective. not persons. 2..

saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. Sometimes. no possessive."²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. Primarily.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Men may be ready to fight to the death.² I swept the horizon. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.²DE QUINCEY. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.²SCOTT. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. The last two sentences in Sec.² MCMASTER. . and to persecute without pity. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. 116. the antecedent follows which.² And.²RUSKIN. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. 109. 115. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. So in Matthew Arnold. too. This often occurs. which is worse.²first. In the sentences of Sec.²SHAKESPEARE. secondly (which made her stare). whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.114. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. Which and its antecedents. and numerous others.²BEECHER. second. (2) It has only one case form. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. let us enter the church itself. Burke. and things. thus. animals. and third persons. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. which is very notable and curious. (3) It is the same form for first. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. That. Kingsley. This moribund '61. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.

For example. . but what I hate.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. 119. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. for example. consequently is neuter. The sentences of Sec. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Nom. number. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. 118. we can." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. as in sentence 6. third person. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. and is emphatic. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. is always neuter. When expressed.²EMERSON. who Poss. which. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths." That evidently refers to truths. Who plainly stands for those or the people. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. plural number. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. either of which would be neuter. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. 117. What. that do I not." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people.²BIBLE What fates impose. plural number. Sec. The gender. that do I. by taking them out. that he has. what we said?²CARLYLE. What a man does. it usually follows." (3) "These people heard him. 109. that men must needs abide. whose Obj.²SHAKESPEARE. third person.² What I would. as. and person of the relatives who.

Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. What can't be cured. the highest result of all education. 5. Some prefer another method of treatment. is subject of the verb can't be cured. . because it has usually no antecedent. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. etc. in (1). As shown by the following sentences. 120. The whole expression is its subject. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Exercise. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 7. I think they are trying to outwit nature. The word what. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. In (2). not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. and what is the direct object of the verb call. we is the subject. but is singular. subject of heard. the simple relative. it is subject of the verb heard. third person. In the sentence. it is object of uttered. First find the antecedents. neuter. which is.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. 8. standing for the people understood. but of this. in (3). Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 6. after all. Another way. Truths in sentence (2). Parsing what. Now. however." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking."²EMERSON. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. The relative what is handled differently. that takes the case of the truths in (2). who is sure to be cunninger than they. people is the object of the preposition of. is in the nominative case. is what we call nature. 4. above. What must be endured? Answer. and hence is in the nominative case. "What can't be cured must be endured. In the same way who. then parse the relatives. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. nobler souls with that which they are. 3. so is in the objective case.. in the following sentences:² 1." Here the subject of is.

whichever. "common souls pay with that [singular. being referred to. or what else soever. 2. and which in the second clause. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are.²BURKE. whatsoever. It is no proof of a man's understanding. object of with] which [singular. no particular thing. whatever is equivalent to all things which. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. List and examples. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. Meaning and use. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. 5. to everything that. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. Hence some take what as a double relative. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. Take which you please. and parse that in the first clause. 2. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. 3. . summer will have its flies. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. by meaning and use. Only itself can inspire whom it will." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. no certain antecedent. The simple relatives who. 122. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. that nothing else can stand in their presence. that is. They are whoever. which. 123. not as direct as the simple relatives. whatever. 7. Do what we can. and his friend a fool.²MACAULAY. whosoever. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor.²BURKE. 121. whichsoever. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives.²you cannot have both. Death is there associated. and in 2. 6. less common are whoso. whatsoever. in a new and original way. or stand on their head. It is clear that in 1. 4. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. So with the other indefinites. object of do] they do.

But and as.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. Two words.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore.. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 126.²DE QUINCEY. 121. Sec. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. has been my heaviest affliction. whereby. 120. etc. etc. 121. etc. what means anything that. and that as after such is equivalent to which. but and as. are used. Instead of the phrases in which. either one that. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.. thus. for example. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. In early modern English. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. by which.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. upon which. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. everything that (or everything which). Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.² some particular thing. not following the word such.²EMERSON. 4. 125. whereupon. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.² 1. as was used just as we use that or which. 2.²HAWTHORNE. Former use of as. but which only wealth could have purchased. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. There is nothing but is related to us. Proof that they have the force of relatives. for example. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. but mean any one whom. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. the conjunctions wherein. This. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. 124.As shown in Sec. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. . Other substitutes. nothing that does not interest us. 417).

(b) But what had become of them they knew not. Special caution needed here. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. In sentences 1 (a). 3. who having the antecedent gentleman. though the earthwork hid them. In studying such sentences. Thus. 127.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. it is an indefinite relative). it is a simple relative. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 2 (b). no antecedent is expressed. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak.²EMERSON. what is interrogative. .. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. 1 (b). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. it is an interrogative. which would indicate that they are not relatives. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent.²ID. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. if not. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). showing that who is plainly interrogative. But in 1 (b). if expanded. "But what had become of them? They knew not. So in 2 (b). 2. Another caution. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. which having the antecedent lines.²WHITTIER. if not. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. would be. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. a question is disguised in each sentence. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. second." etc. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. and whether what = that + which (if so. the full expression being. "Who stood behind? We knew. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. How to decide." Likewise with which in 3 (b). and 3 (b).

The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. whose has the antecedent you. Examine the following:² 1. Put in the relatives who. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. 5. ELIOT. The insect I am now describing lived three years. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. which. Relative omitted when object. 129. Thus. On the other hand. In the second. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. 3. Exercise. but the life of man in England. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.² THACKERAY.128. In the third. In the first.²SWIFT. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²FLETCHER. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. When Goldsmith died.²G. and asks no question. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of.² These are the sounds we feed upon.²GOLDSMITH. which has the antecedent hue. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 2. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. and Court Calendars.²CARLYLE. . or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. the question is asked by the verb.²FORSTER 6. I visited many other apartments. 4. whence is the interrogative word. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.²HOLMES.

and comparatively so in poetry. 130. 2. . The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. simple relatives. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. There was such a crowd went. Also in literary English we find the same omission.²CAMPBELL.²SCOTT. or indefinite relatives:² 1. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. 6. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. Function of adjective pronouns.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. which was already proceeding.² LOWELL. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. The nobles looked at each other. and what. the house was full. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.7.²SHAKESPEARE.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Examples are.²Id. who were to be rulers over whom. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. 3. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. It is rare in prose. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. Relative omitted when subject. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. which. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. 5. that.

The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. a word. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. "The dead are there. none. Caution. all. Primarily they are adjectives. but in this function. in order to be an adjective pronoun. 'Truth. "each cube. or they may stand for nouns." in the second. etc. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. as some. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.²IRVING. any. necessarily thought of: thus. but have lost their adjective use. etc. or use. "these pranks. etc. ." in the others. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. and another to get cool under. "another bank. and on each is written. neither.131. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples." "one man. not pronouns. must not modify any word. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. such as each. or may be the whole of a sentence. that. In the first use they are adjectives. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. the former. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns.²BRYANT. 132.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. or an argument in a paragraph. For example. such as this. few. which we have seen in such expressions as. expressed or understood. 133. either. For instance. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. and stand for a noun. in the first.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these.²EMERSON. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. many. Adjectives. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. in letters of gold." "Where two men ride on a horse." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." Classes of adjective pronouns." that is.

They have not shunned the one. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. and sow wickedness. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. or sat. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Their minds accorded into one strain. Compound. as seemed good to each. accidentally preserved. A man inspires affection and honor. 134. 2.²ID.²ID. and they have well performed the other. or reclined. because he was not lying in wait for these. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. . and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²EMERSON 4. Such are a few isolated instances.All these he saw. reap the same.²LOWELL. Even as I have seen. but these were of the best.² They stood. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Some of these are simple pronouns. but what he fain had seen He could not see. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. They had fewer books. Simple. they that plow iniquity. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. NOTE. Definition and examples. Exercises. for example. when the latter was the King of Spain. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. 3. 5.

²HAWTHORNE. . More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. paused over a horoscope. we might the more easily discharge them. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.Two are compound pronouns. as. imbued. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. another.²each other.²KINGSLEY. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.² One reflexive.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. such as one other. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. with the superstitions of his time. Another opposes him with sound argument. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns.²HOLMES. 135. Exercise. as most were. as some of the rangers had gone astray. Much might be said on both sides. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. or melt for others' woe. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Men take each other's measure when they react. Some inflected. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. None shall rule but the humble. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. you quickly come to the end of all.²EMERSON. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. for example.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. as it were. Definition and examples. The word one has a reflexive form. one another. The Soldan.²HAWTHORNE. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. They led one another.

unlike adjective pronouns. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. somebody else.²SHAKESPEARE. every one (or everyone). they are never used as adjectives. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. I tell you what. anyone else. some one. Jove laughs. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. everybody else. etc.. every one else. Every one else stood still at his post. everything. .There is always somewhere a weakest spot. 136. and was indefinite in Old English. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Definition and examples. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.Exercise. as shown in the words everybody's. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. in building of chaises. etc. no one.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Somebody. any one (or anyone). anybody. they say. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. what. and they. as. everybody.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. naught. nothing. anybody else's. something. 137." It means something. anything. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. nobody. Exercise.² At lovers' perjuries. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Now. also aught. and somewhat. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. They indefinite means people in general. but.

138. O thou that rollest above. indeed. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 14. 2. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Whoever deals with M. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 10. and of no other. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 9. 8. The table was good. 16. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 4. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 12. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. A reminder. were suffered to depart. . de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. from my earliest days. Hutchinson tells us of herself. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 5. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. to which. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 6. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. in his negotiations. 3. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 7. 18.²a feature of natural scenery for which. I first found myself among the mountains. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 13. Others did the same thing. 11. For this did God send her a great reward.See also "Syntax" (Sec. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. Exercise. 17. All was now ready for action.

who take the world easy.And it would work 'em woe. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. that let him communicate.Who knew thee too well. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. variety. and seized a pen. 29. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. oh. 21. 25. 35. behold now the semblance of my being. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. And I had done a hellish thing. I who alone am.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. hear.By the old Hall which may be mine no more.19. well-oiled dispositions. 34. And will your mother pity me. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. Whatever he knows and thinks. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. in all its height. thou rollest now. 31. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 32. They know not I knew thee. He sate him down. 27. eat white bread or brown. 30. 26. hear! 33. 23.Destroyer and preserver. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . I did remind thee of our own dear Lake.

we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. such as in the expressions "this man. 44. brittle or tough. which was no bad step towards my liberation. or with persons. Substantives. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep." "some cities. 43. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. that is our permanent state. in pointing out an object. position. then. If a chemist discovers a new substance." The office of an adjective. or gaseous. Again. size.. the number is limited by adjectives. We are by nature observers. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. . and if we are near. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 40. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid.36. So with any object. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. It may have this office alone. He teaches who gives. He knew not what to do. "one hat. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. 42." "yonder hill." etc. if we are at a distance. 45. 39. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. For example. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. becomes mine. as. We need to add some words to tell its color. 41. etc. 37. so that no other will be mistaken for it. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Who hears me. adjectives are used. and he learns who receives." "a hundred men. white or red. and so he read. etc. 139. heavy or light. 38. As to the kind of words used. who understands me. ADJECTIVES. or liquid." "that house. Office of Adjectives.

" "ivory-handled pistols." "this life-giving book. beautiful." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. however. such as.² BACON. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. Infinitives. Classes of adjectives. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. fair. rash. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "the Christian pearl of charity. or how much of a thing. such as safe. To make this clear." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White." . 143. 141. pointing out particular things.²POPE. If he be thankful for small benefits. derived from proper nouns. They include relative and interrogative words." "half-dead traveler." "ice-cold water. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. Nouns are not. With exception of the "and then." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. to describe it or to limit its application. Definition. To err is human." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." and the still less significant "and so. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. terrible. used to tell how many things are spoken of. to forgive. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. happy. it shows that he weighs men's minds. words primarily pronouns." they constitute all his connections." the "and there." "unlooked-for burden. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." "next-door neighbor. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. (4) Pronominal adjectives. Examples are. (2) Adjectives of quantity. deep.²COLERIDGE. remotest. and their trash. "Heaven-derived power. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. "an old English manuscript. divine. etc. 142." "the Roman writer Palladius. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun.140.

'Tis midnight." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. some.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.²COLERIDGE. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." was is the verb. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "It came on like the rolling simoom. no. For instance: in the sentence." Caution. Care is needed. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. 143. any. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of.²MACDONALD. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." was accomplished is a verb." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. much. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. and another is drunken. Oxenham. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." "trailing clouds." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "a charming sight." "One is hungry. 1." "an aged man. 144. Exercises. and accomplished is an adjective. Examples are.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. 2." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds.But ever she looked on Mr. 145. which are either pure participles used to describe. sometimes small." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. in studying these last-named words." "The shattered squares have opened into line. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. in this. having some of each subclass named in Sec. . considerable.

² Every town had its fair. How many. (plural these.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. former. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.²ID. Thus. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Not primarily pronouns. latter. are used with plural nouns." "Then we wandered for many days. they come under the next division of adjectives." "He had lived by hunting for some months. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. those)." "I have lost one brother. its wake. that. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. no.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²VAUGHAN. When some." Single ones of any number of changes. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. instead of modifying them. the former²the latter. Examples. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. Exercise.²KINGSLEY. and with them a few negroes. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. "one blaze of musketry. The list. 146." (b) Indefinite numerals.²THACKERAY. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. any. The following sentences present some examples:² ." "In came some five and twenty more. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. The demonstrative adjectives are this. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals.²CARLYLE. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity." "a dozen volunteers. but I have gained fourscore. An arrow was quivering in each body. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. yonder (or yon). as. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. every village. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS.

was the ruin of every mother's son of us."²B. 149. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. for example.²BANCROFT. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. skill which was at pause. skill which was progressive²in the other. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. ²CARLYLE. they are changed to adjectives.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. Definition.²D. The silver and laughing Xenil. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. 148. what revenues or garnitures.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. like the other numerals. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. These do not. Indefinite relative adjectives. of equal skill. Modify names of persons or things.²BULWER. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. .²ID. tell how many things are meant. WEBSTER. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²RUSKIN. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.² It matters not what rank he has.. FRANKLIN.²WORDSWORTH. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²ID. but in the one case. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. Exercise. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Oxenham fought desperately..²KINGSLEY. The taking of which bark. When we speak of the seventeenth century. They are of two kinds. In which evil strait Mr.but all these charms are fled. but.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²GOLDSMITH.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. These were thy charms. 147. I verily believe. As has been said.

Was there. Adjective what in exclamations. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.²ID.²IRVING. whatsoever.. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.²RUSKIN. it is impossible to determine. As in the pronouns. as it rather seemed. He was turned before long into all the universe. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. and new tormentedAround me. proved not altogether displeasing to him. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). But when the Trojan war comes. the debt to the rich.²CARLYLE. or whether any. In indirect questions. and gaze. In direct questions. Examples of their use are. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. A lady once remarked. which. nature will be sure to bear us out in. whichsoever..looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whatever.150. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. . Whatsoever kind of man he is. which is selective among what is known. whichever. what inquires about things or persons not known. 151. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.²AGASSIZ.And whichsoever way I turn.² EMERSON. New torments I behold. whichsoever way I move. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. you at least give him full authority over your son.²LAMB.

History of this²these and that²those.Adjectives have two inflections. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. which was fully inflected in Old English.152. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. The article that was used with neuter nouns. Those borrowed from this. This is the old demonstrative. alas. of the quality.² Oh. the making of it right. It is neither relative nor interrogative. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE.²number and comparison. th s (modern those). etc. In exclamatory expressions. NUMBER.. those).²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. COMPARISON. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. as. When we place two objects side by side. Meaning of comparison. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. .²but not the same degree. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. 154. or weight. and those as the plural of that. And yet. That. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. we notice some differences between them as to size.²This. Exercise. or size. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. Thus. 155. weight. or amount. All these have certain qualities. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. etc. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. and when we compare the objects. we do so by means of their qualities. color. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. 153 . The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. gold is heavier than iron. But this had also another plural. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.

but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. expressing the greatest degree of quality. easier. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most.²SEWARD. or amounts in quantity. "more matter. but were not common until a century later. reddest. and the superlative by adding -est. indefatigable. So with the words sole. redder. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. supreme. they are not compared. easiest. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality." "no fewer than a hundred.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality." Words that cannot be compared. as. 157. immemorial.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. "untamed thought." "It is a nobler valor.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. for example. The two forms. 156. 159. easy. 158. Freedom is a perpetual. bluer. organic. red. blue. Substitute for inflection in comparison. whose favorite pupil he was. A main difference betwixt men is. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree." "the largest soul. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. and the superlative. expressing a greater degree of quality. but. great. enormous. universal institution. with less wit. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. . indomitable. to the simple form. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. sufficient. bluest." "the commonest speech. They came into use about the thirteenth century. Definition.²THACKERAY. 160. though the simple. and many others. giant-like. infinite. as. whether they attend their own affair or not. The comparative is formed by adding -er. These are properly the only degrees. strictly considered. These are called degrees of comparison.

²The Nation. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. honestest. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by." "distantest relationships. indisputablest." "the wonderfulest little shoes. The general rule is. and patientest fusing. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. "So help me God.²ID. strange. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. finest chiseling. I will.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. though born in no very high degree. which hung behind in the queerest way. 163. was most finished. who. Adjectives irregularly compared. as. harsh forms are usually avoided. witty.² -er and -est or more and most? 161." "sorrowfulest spectacles." "more odd.Which rule. easy. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.² CARLYLE A gentleman. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. These are adjectives irregularly compared. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. 162. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est." "more austere and holy. polished." said Henry Esmond. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. mournfulest. etc. and yet familiar. quiet.²ID. peaceablest. madam." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. falling on his knees. and other words are preceded by more and most. admirablest. These long. there needed to be a most genuine substance. The following lists include the majority of them:² .² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain." Carlyle uses beautifulest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. most small." From Ruskin: "The sharpest.

Worser was once used. lesser Elder. 5. oldest Nighest. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest.² We have it in a much lesser degree. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. lesser. older Nigher Nearer Later. next Nearest Latest. worst. latter Hinder LIST II.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. though from a different root. as. is often used. throw away the worser part of it. least. A double comparative.²HAMLET. bad. 7. (2) In Old English. evil was the positive to worse. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. further Farthest. 3. a double comparative. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 6. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.LIST I. hindermost Much or many More Farther. There was an old comparative bet. . [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost).² O. 9. uppermost LIST III. Hind 2. 8. [In] Inner Inmost. Good or well Evil. The superlative I form was betst. innermost Outmost. furthest 10. (3) Little is used as positive to less. List I. which has gone out of use. last Hindmost. as in the sentence (14th century). 164. utter 3. as in Shakespeare. These have no adjective positive:² 1. uttermost Upmost. 2. which has softened to the modern best. 4. 1. [Out] Outer. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. outermost Utmost.

"Many a little makes a mickle.. but originally the comparison was nigh.²ID. muchel. as. farrest. except the form next. as long. and the superlative nearest. to England we sailed. first. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. strenger. an old superlative ending. moche.²KINGSLEY. a distinction has grown up between the two series. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. since the m is for -ma. is quite common. Since later. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. The latter. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.²forth. came into use. th came into the others. The most part kept a stolid indifference. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. eldest. but not in meaning. (5) The forms elder. strong. and refer to time. instead of lenger. to which is added -ost. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. etc. furthest. great. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. meaning the largest part. Between the two sets as they now stand. List II. The meanings greater. . latest. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. are earlier than older. there is scarcely any distinction. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. near. much. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. oldest. or series. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. the old forms. greatest. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. First became entirely detached from the series. doubling the inflection. are shown in such phrases as. making the modern farther. etc.. further. for example.²HAWTHORNE." Its spelling has been micel. ²LAMB.² The more part being of one mind. In imitation of further. next. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. farthest.

²DE QUINCEY. 168. was descried The royal banner floating wide. 167.165. the upper light of the world. all may belong to the same noun. but her after deck was still dry. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. (Sec. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. In List II. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. The adjectives in List III. BEECHER. 166." -Most added to other words." "far-seeing as the sun. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Decidedly handsome. . on the very topmost twig. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "their utmost exertion.²HAWTHORNE. Think what each adjective belongs to." "the innermost moral soul. List III. There. Her bows were deep in the water. by the by. Her. and have no comparative force. in having no adjective positives. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Highest and midmost." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing.²KINGSLEY. W. but they have no adjective positives. being merely descriptive. but not in their meaning. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence.²H. The comparatives are so in form." "The outer is of the day. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.²SCOTT. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. or have no comparative forms. They have no superlatives.²EMERSON." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. are like the comparative forms in List II.²DE QUINCEY.

² My then favorite. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank.²NOAH PORTER. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. bright. . and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. in prose. usual modifies incomparable decision. For thy stomach's sake. in this sentence. STEPHENS 5. 3. our new government.For example. In the following quotations. deeply black eyes. Our sometime sister. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. the then and still owners." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.²HAWTHORNE. It may still be argued. deep. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. "the one who was then king. round. Richard Hooker. instead of saying. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. 169. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart." in which then is an adverb. Bradbury and Evans. now our queen. rich. and thine often infirmities. H. Exercise. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. 6. we may say "the then king. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. solid. A few improper jests and a volley of good. 4. satisfactory.²RUSKIN.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. STOWE.²MRS. This. By a convenient brevity. 7. philosophical." making then an adjective. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. therefore. But in this sentence. not decision alone. as. Other instances are.²HAWTHORNE. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. May we not. and broken. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²TRENCH. The seldom use of it. and moral truth. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.²A. 2.²HOLMES. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet.²BIBLE. and heaven-defying oaths. ²TROLLOPE.

with awkward but rapid pace. To every Roman citizen he gives. this. 6. or case.What to tell in parsing. 7. plural number. This gave the young people entire freedom. and most astounding were those frightful yells. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. 9. not inflected for number. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. MODEL FOR PARSING. compared by prefixing more and most. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. positive degree. 8. then. if it can be compared. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. therefore descriptive. 2. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. Exercise. modifies truths. and I waited for none. 170. These points out what truths. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. 10. To every several man. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. Unfamiliar describes truths. the method of parsing is simple. manly way. frank. seventy-five drachmas. . (4) What word or words it modifies. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. 5. if it has number. She made no reply. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. across the plain. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. and very few have number. Since adjectives have no gender. I ask nothing of you. (3) Its degree of comparison. modifies the word truths. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. cannot be compared. (2) Its number. 4. having a singular. In parsing an adjective. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. therefore demonstrative. 3. person.

during which time I waited. and many poles supported the lower ones. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. suggests such thoughts as these.11. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. oxen. . His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 18. 21. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 28. 31. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 22. 29. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 13. not so much for travelers that were few. growing in the most unfavorable position. 26. are immutably fishes. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 16. and dogs. as for armies that were too many by half. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. he won affections with ease. In music especially. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. the tomahawk fell. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 32. Like most gifted men. 24. Here lay two great roads. With every third step. I know not what course others may take. it rests on reality. Nearer to our own times. 23. 12. is the settlement of our own country. yonder oxen in the pasture. 19. Two hours elapsed. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. and therefore more interesting to us. To say what good of fashion we can. 33. 14. 27. it is so noble a fruit. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. those dogs in the yard. 25. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 20.

but the former is used. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. for example. Examples: "a house. Their origin. just as adjectives do. Many writers use an before h. 173.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. An before vowel sounds. th o. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. In the sentence. even when not silent. 171.34. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. the tother. the tither. ðat." An with consonant sounds. the other. in vulgar English. 37. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. In Middle English the became an article. sometimes the tother. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. 35. that other. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. weary-hearted man was he." "a yelling crowd. 172. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . he is no literary man. a before consonant sounds. Our expressions the one. these occurring as the tane. 174. that) which was also an article in Old English. and a before consonant sounds. such as we have been attempting to describe. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. A hard-struggling. s o. or the tane." the words the and an belong to nouns. Two relics. ARTICLES. the tother. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. with an ordinary little garden. An or a came from the old numeral n. later th .²BREWER. were formerly that one.²SCOTT. .²MACAULAY." "an orange. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. An historian." "an honor. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. meaning one. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized." "a European. the latter is still preserved in the expression.

as "the Mississippi. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. Articles are either definite or indefinite. 176.. or class. thus. since it points out a particular individual." "the Ohio. Definition.²IRVING. 178.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. or a group or class of things. When the is prefixed to a proper name. which cannot be used alone. and not a state or other geographical division. BANCROFT. 177. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. on opening a story. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.²HEROES OF ASGARD. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. doubtless. With names of rivers. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. the older n." the article indicates clearly that a river. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. not descriptive. An or a is the indefinite article. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. An article is a limiting word. or group.²G. NOTE.² Don't you remember how.² . and when the word river is omitted. as in the sentence. 175. The Dakota tribes.²COLERIDGE. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. Kinds. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. Reference to a known object.. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. An hereditary tenure of these offices. The is the definite article..²THACKERAY. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. a person is introduced by a.²This use is noticed when. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. To call attention to attributes. 179. is referred to. An and a are different forms of the same word.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. or any individual of a group or class. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.

silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. etc. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU.The Bacon. 183. For possessive person pronouns. so is the evil. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. Common. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²EMERSON. 181. 1. laid it on the miry spot.²G. His messages to the provincial authorities. would speedily extract the required information. and the redwing.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. BANCROFT. Caution. One thing for its class. not into a particular virtue. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²ID. the Spinoza. With adjectives used as nouns. If the good is there. as.² The faint. 2. 180. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. The. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²ID.² As she hesitated to pass on.²KINGSLEY. Schelling. the Hume. . The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. the gallant. 182.²SCOTT. Half abstract. the song sparrow. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. but into the region of all the virtues. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. The simple rise as by specific levity. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. With plural of abstract nouns. her.²GIBBON. for example. or a match put between the fingers. Kant.²EMERSON.²MOTLEY. NOTE.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

are united with verbs as one verb phrase. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. hence is not a verb. in (2. which means to go over. 200: In (1). is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. in (3." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. to say something to or about some person or thing. we consider a verb as one word. an adverb. but fearing is not a predicate. 204. in (2."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. obeyed is a predicate. with some word understood. in (b). In the sentence. a verb. Now. care. In giving a definition. 203. etc. from the Latin transire. 202. Each influences some object. an article. all do not express it in the same way. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. In the first.²BULWER . Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. the most penetrating. which may be a person. can deceive has an object. Has takes the object hypocrisy. and not a verb. for example. b). to go is no predicate. b)." put is the predicate. but cannot be predicates.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured." Examine the sentences in Sec. in (c). in this sentence from Bulwer. All these are called transitive verbs. By examining a few verbs. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. a noun. as. and shame the most astute. a). The nature of the transitive verb.In (a). A verb is a word used as a predicate. a preposition. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. endured what? anguish. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and a preposition unite as a verb. The nature of intransitive verbs. in (3. or the object. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. the word following. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. or a material thing. or an idea. taking the staff which always guided her steps. lone took what? answer. "Put money in thy purse. In each case. the most astute. "Put thou money in thy purse. representing something which it influences or controls. (can) shame also has an object. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. Definition and caution. Hence Definition. c). it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. 201. Of those expressing action. and to receive the action expressed. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. and.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

he will see the need of these ethics. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. but. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. WEBSTER.²may or may not be true. and may or may not be regarded true. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. the first great founder of the Empire. 222.²LONGFELLOW. . The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. for example.I could lie down like a tired child.²BRYCE. popular government must be pronounced impossible.²D. the writer can make the statement following. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].² If. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. they were recorded in the Book of Life. Condition or Supposition. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. Again. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. the second founder. Ideal. ²EMERSON. Unreal²cannot be true. in our case. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. I.²FRANKLIN. 215. 221.² Now.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.²SHELLEY.²MACAULAY. the representative system ultimately fail.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. Most excellent stranger. as. as. or be fulfilled. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. If this be the glory of Julius. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. 2). might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.

to drink strong beer.²CALHOUN. would you. if he was the man I take him for. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. and striven energetically to save Ney.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. Epaminondas. II. she was regarded as a prodigy. and should. If he had reason to dislike him. I told him. he had better not have written. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. but when the verb precedes the subject.²EMERSON. 4. he supposed.. P. and what kind of condition:² 1. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. etc. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. that we cannot but regret its absence. which cannot be true. do you think. is used to express purpose. 5. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. that he might be strong to labor. as. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. would have sat still with joy and peace. may.. The subjunctive. 223. if he speak to you.. 2.²MACAULAY. ²LOWELL. clear.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. But in no case could it be justified.²FRANKLIN. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. 6. since he [Byron] was dead. and sonorous.² It was necessary. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. WILLIS. Exercise. 8. NOTE. unless. society could not hold together. especially be. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors." etc. though. the clause being introduced by that or lest. The voice. 7. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. thus.²FRANKLIN. . Subjunctive of Purpose. melodious. might. except. if his lot had been mine..² CARLYLE. In the following conditional clauses.² If these things were true.²SWIFT. 3.²BAYNE. is of similar physiognomy.²N.

So live. like the Latin. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. Subjunctive of Result. none of us could say.. Expressing a Wish. V. WEBSTER. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. I would it were! ²EMERSON. within its fairy bowers.²WORDSWORTH. Ask the great man if there be none greater.Were wafted off to seas unknown. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. 227. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.I have been the more particular. After a verb of wishing.²BRYANT. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. To tell of what had passed.. 226.Thou go not. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. 225. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. VI. Rise up. till it meet the sun in his coming. In Indirect Questions. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. VII. III.That vain it were her eyes to close.And we.²ID.²CARLYLE. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. The English subjunctive.²SOUTHEY. In a Noun Clause. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.²COLERIDGE. like the quarry-slave at night. In Temporal Clauses.²DE QUINCEY.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. the answer being regarded as doubtful. 224. IV. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.. I've wished that little isle had wings. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. .²D. Let it rise.²MOORE.

² Be the matter how it may. I have no thought what men they be. which may be (a) Pronoun. for example. Object. etc. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. The noun clause. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.²COLERIDGE. Whatever betide. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. The essence of originality is not that it be new. that everything be in its place. in its various uses as subject. Complement..²SHELLEY. is. Some might lament that I were cold. is the ultimate fact of man's life.And look thou tell me true. often contains a subjunctive. object. or whatsoever victual it may be.²CARLYLE. 228. tell me all that thou hast seen. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. 229. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. Concessive Clauses. Come. VIII. in apposition. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²COLERIDGE.²WORDSWORTH.²SCOTT. we'll turn aside. of cash.And see the Braes of Yarrow. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. After verbs of commanding. That hunger of applause. The first merit.Subject.²THOREAU. (b) Adjective.² DICKENS.²DE QUINCEY. .²TENNYSON.

² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. . Q. point to their immortal works.²BRYANT. At the present day. a concession. 231. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Oh. ADAMS. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream.² CARLYLE. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. It must be remembered. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. for example. (2) Entreaty. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Definition. however. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. IMPERATIVE MOOD. entreaties. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. to express a wish. 232. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.²SHELLEY. since commands are directed to a person addressed. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. and condition contrary to fact.²CHANNING.²J.The spirit he loves remains. In spoken English. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.(c) Adverb. (1) Command. or requests. (3) Request. 230. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. fear none. love all men. Honor all men. Usually second person. though.

child of earth!While each performs his part. nothing is to be preferred before justice. 8."²DICKENS Tell me. request."Hush! mother. "Come along with me.²SHAKESPEARE. or I + they. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.²SCOTT. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. 6. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Whatever inconvenience ensue. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. we may use the imperative with we in a command. 7." Exercises on the Moods.One glance at their array! 5. Quoth she. etc." whispered Kit. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. etc. Mark thou this difference. 3. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. receive my hand." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Break we our watch up. Oh. Part we in friendship from your land. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. to you implied in it..Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Sometimes with first person in the plural. noble earl. "The Devil take the goose. lest we rust in ease.²CAMPBELL. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.And.. but I + you. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. there will her heart and her prayers be. 2. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.And God forget the stranger!" .

"tell me where I may find my poor. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. Forget thyself to marble. 20." continued Old Morgan. or do it at all. "Mr. 10. and opinion displace opinion.High up in silver spikes! 22. "Oh. 14.That they might answer him. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 19.Except. Though he were dumb.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. 18." 16. He is. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. From the moss violets and jonquils peep." 25. Well. no literary man. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. That a man parade his doubt. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar.9. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. she ought to have it. how he may do his work. Marshall. then. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. That sheaf of darts. 11. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. but repentant child. let him live where else he like. it would speak. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. in what pomps and prosperities he like. He.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. will it not fall unbound. as though an instrument. 23. Though abyss open under abyss. 21.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 13. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 26. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. whether he do it right or wrong." cried he. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. ruined. my dear madam. .

²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. whatever she did.27.²nothing could exceed the amiable. as will be shown later on. When the older pronoun thou was in use. will. Siddons. "I go away tomorrow. Definition. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. also. 235. past perfect. "Thou walkest. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. as. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages.² present. have. 233. the past. a form ending in -eth. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and the past tense. The tenses in detail." . called auxiliaries. Tenses in English. past. Old English had only two tenses. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. kind. which represented present and future time. or whether it were as one member of a general party.²the present tense. in the third person singular. as. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs." "If he comes. or agree with it. tell him to wait. Meantime. and future." past. Tense means time. past. such as Latin and Greek. "Thou walkedst. by means of the present. PERSON AND NUMBER. "It is not in man that walketh. as the classical languages have." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions." present. 234. 28. five in the imperative. TENSE. and future perfect tenses. to direct his steps. and the future tense. five in the subjunctive. such as be. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. in the conjugations. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. shall. or future time. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no.

were. walking. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. [He] were [They] were . chose. Such verbs as choose have five. walk has walk. chooses. Singular 1. [He] is [They] are 3. Few forms. mood. is. You (thou) be 3. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. wert) 3. tense. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. The verb be has more forms. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. chooseth. Singular 1. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. moods. as. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. persons. Indicative Mood. CONJUGATION. etc.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Definition. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. "He walks. In classical languages. but in English. 236. been. walked. Singular 1. tenses. walks. since it is composed of several different roots. chosest).²am. This is the third person. I were 2. are. etc. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. You are 2." and this only in the present tense indicative. Singular 1. walketh. I be 2. PRESENT TENSE. singular number. PRESENT TENSE. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. for example. walkedst.²choose. and numbers. choosest. choosing. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. 237. chosen (old. 238.

Remarks on the verb be.²GOLDSMITH. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. (2) As auxiliary verbs. (2) was. though it is usually a dialect form.Imperative Mood.²WORDSWORTH. Instead of the plural are.His infancy was nurtured. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon... If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. The light that never was on sea and land. same as the German sind. 240. for example. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. as. in four ways. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. (d) With the infinitive.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. obligation. 239.²BURKE . is. thus.²THACKERAY. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²SHELLEY. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. to express intention.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. -en. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. were. (3) be. which was now become an occasional banquet.²SCOTT. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²ID. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. etc. condition. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. etc. to form the passive voice. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.

You chose Plural. future perfect. PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. Machinery of a verb in the voices. "I have gone" (present perfect). 242. 1. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). tenses. etc. there are many periphrastic or compound forms." "He will choose. Singular. . We chose You chose 3. Singular.241. tenses. We chose You chose 3. (2). by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. I chose 2. I choose 2." (2) Present perfect. Singular. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. You choose Plural. past perfect. 1. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. I chose 2. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Singular. In addition to the above inflected forms. 1. Indicative Mood. I choose 2. "I had gone" (past perfect). INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. "I shall be. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. You choose Plural. 240. as. You chose Plural. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. [He] choose [They] choose 3. 1. as. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. had. by placing have. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood.

Past perfect. He had been choosing. [If. He has been choosing. He had chosen.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present definite. Imperative Mood. Present perfect. "I was chosen. Past perfect definite. (2d per. Present. Past perfect definite. He will have been choosing. Present. Same as indicative.) Choose. Present perfect. He will have chosen. Future perfect. Past perfect. will be given. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past definite. Only the third person. as. Present. Present definite." (4) The passive forms.] he choose. Present perfect definite. " Be choosing. He is choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Future perfect definite. of each tense. he have been choosing. Present definite. "I am running. Present perfect definite. Future definite. singular number. Indicative Mood. Past. lest. He chose. Future. Past. " " " " " " " he be choosing. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. . Same as indicative. Subjunctive Mood. he have chosen. as. He has chosen." 243. though. Past definite. He chooses. etc. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He was choosing. He will he choosing. He will choose. he chose (or were to choose)." "They had been running." "You are chosen.

He was being chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. He is chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec. Present perfect. Future perfect. Past Perfect. Imperative Mood.NOTE. however. None. Future.) Be chosen. Present tense. Also. Past perfect definite. He was chosen. None. but verbals. "He does strike. Exercises should be given. Past perfect. He will have been chosen. None. Present. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Past definite. Future perfect definite. Present definite. he have been chosen. Subjunctive Mood. He had been chosen. Present perfect definite. as. . (2d per. Present perfect definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. etc. He has been chosen.] he be chosen.] [If.. Past. None. though. if learned at all." "He did strike. Present. he had been chosen. He will be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. None. Present definite. He is being chosen. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). lest. he were being chosen." [Note to Teacher. Indicative Mood. Past. Present perfect. 262). in affirmative sentences. None. Future definite. Past perfect definite.²This table is not to be learned now. Past definite. " " " " " " " None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form.

Past Tense. sleep. Kinds. slept. and may or may not change the vowel: as. caught. bounden] bitten. bit blown broken chidden. but adds no ending. drove. beg.[adj. ran. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . which are in parentheses Present Tense. bid bound. drive. Definition.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. 244. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. lay. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. catch. NOTE. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. According to form. verbs are strong or weak. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. run. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. as. Some of these also have weak forms. begged. 245. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. laid.

drank[adj. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drunken] driven eaten.

stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound .sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

now told us it was time for repose. ." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. the other. to split. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.²one meaning to adhere or cling." "the cloven hoof. and another (born) for the passive. as. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. only one set remains certain. clave or clove. cleft (to split). it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²IRVING. as (from Holmes).²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. nor a dog barked. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. for example. and sometimes occurs in poetry. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. probably to avoid confusion with this.²TENNYSON. TAYLOR. cleaved." "a drunken wretch." "a sunken snag. instead of ate and eaten. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. 246.²MILTON. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.² We had each drank three times at the well. and. cloven. Sometimes in literary English.²B. "his bounden duty. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.²COLERIDGE." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. as. cleave." In this confusion of usage.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. When it means to carry or to endure.²cleave. especially in that of an earlier period. The form clomb is not used in prose. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. which always crew at eleven. borne is also a passive.²as (from Shakespeare). but is much used in vulgar English. The former used to be cleave. "stricken with paralysis. cleaved."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²GOLDSMITH. Historically. Not a cock crew.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. and the latter.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Our cock. cleft. as.² Thou hast clomb aloft. ²THACKERAY.

²DE FOE. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs." but not much as a participle.²SCOTT. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 245)." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. 7. Fall. which is seldom used except in poetry.²TENNYSON. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. The butler was hanged. found. and grasping at his sword. given.² If. for example. flung. He sate him down. 5. frozen. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. begun. fell.²BYRON. Exercises."²KINGSLEY. Fling. froze. maiden. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.²WORDSWORTH. (a) From the table (Sec. This heard Geraint. 10. We usually say.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. Break. as. found. Drive. Shake. Freeze. broke. and seized a pen. flung. shook. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. shore is rare. 9. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. drove. Find. fallen. 3. gave.²BIBLE.The form gotten is little used. for example. 4. driven. even in poetry.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. 8. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. thrown. Usually shear is a weak verb. began. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense.² We had all got safe on shore. . threw. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Begin. broken. 2. One example out of many is. 6. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Give. as "a shorn lamb. Throw. shaken. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1.

All must concede to him a sublime power of action. according to the infinitive used."²WINIER. Could may be subjunctive.. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. ability. 250.. from the obsolete verb motan. 249. or when it expresses wish. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. 247. Indicative Use: Permission.²HAWTHORNE. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. etc. Have we valuable territories and important posts. of course.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. Must is historically a past-tense form. as it sometimes does. PRESENT. it is used only in the indicative mood. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. etc.²SCOTT. . must have been an ocular deception. there is one general principle. HAMILTON.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. for full drill on the forms. The l in could did not belong there originally..[To the Teacher.²PAINE. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. which survives in the sentence. It is indicative when it expresses permission. or. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. (See also Sec. Subjunctive use. as in Sec. Can is used in the indicative only. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. The same remarks apply to ought." Must is present or past tense. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. "far off his coming shines. "So mote it be. purpose. PAST. Ability. as it has two meanings. 251. as. 223.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 220.²CHANNING. but came through analogy with should and would..²CHANNING This.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. PAST. Like must.. His superiority none might question.

to use will and would.² Futurity and questions²first person. Shall and Will. with pronouns of the first person. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. yea.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON.e. . promise. future action). The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. They shall have venison to eat.Nay.² With respect to novels. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject." Uses of shall and should. The sea shall crush thee. to the neglect of shall and should. She should not walk. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. 252. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. (b) In indirect quotations. I shall be gone. as. as. WEBSTER. shall and should are used.²LONGFELLOW.²IRVING. (b) In questions asking for orders. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. what shall I say?²N.²THAXTER. and corn to hoe. She rejects his suit with scorn.²BULWER. "I think I will go. while ought always has to. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. MOULTON. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.²MACAULAY.²L. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. she should ride like a queen. shall and should are used.² (a) To express authority. or confident prediction.²COOPER. especially in the United States.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. in the form of command. my lad. not plod along like apeasant. Second and third persons.² The time will come full soon. as. C. The following are examples:² Never mind. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.. for example. he said. BROCKDEN BROWN.

²A.²ROGERS. JAMES. LARNED.that I would do him justice.²WORDSWORTH. And promised. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²C.²WORDSWORTH. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²H.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. I never was what I should be. JR.²BYRON. and is equivalent to ought. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. BROWN.²SCOTT. as. . second and third persons.² I will go myself now.²CABLE. thus.²WINTER. was to be expected. for example.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²SWIFT.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. First. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. Disguising a command.. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. or a promise.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. time.²WORDSWORTH. 253. etc.. (c) With direct questions of the second person. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. B. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. for example. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. as the sole inventor. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. purpose. and will not return until all is finished. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.. with the conviction that he should win in the end. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.

²BURKE. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. . Roland.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. PASSIVE VOICE. 254.²the original meaning of the word will. In this stately chair would he sit.. Thine was a dangerous gift. as.² Subject I omitted: often so.²BANCROFT.. (4) With FIRST. as. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. will and would often denote an action as customary. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. as if it were merely expected action.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. for example.²War Records. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. without regard to future time.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. When I am in town. They will go to Sunday schools.² DICKENS. BROWN.. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. and two of my people. will is used to express command. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. so you will. will and would are used to express simple futurity. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.. for punishment or intimidation. Mere futurity. AND THIRD PERSONS. The gift of Beauty. To be sure. This puts the order more mildly..²SCOTT. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. for example. etc.. and mark on the grounds the works. B. when thou wast born. would is used to express a wish.²IRVING. action merely expected to occur. SECOND.² Thou wilt take the skiff.²LANDOR. through storms their brothers are afraid of.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²SCOTT. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). Would thou hadst it not. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.

3. 3. (b) Examine the following sentences. We shall choose. 2. I will be chosen. 252 and 253. 2. 1. I shall choose. You shall be chosen. I shall be chosen. You shall be chosen. 1. 3. Singular. We will be chosen." answered Herbert stubbornly. etc. 6. [He] will be chosen. and that of the newest cut.Singular. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. 2.:² ACTIVE VOICE. You will choose. [They] shall choose. [They] will choose. Thou shalt have a suit. 3. [He] will choose. Thou art what I would be. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. I will choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 2. "I shall not run. 4. 3. We shall be chosen. You will be chosen. Singular. 5. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. You shall choose. You shall choose. PASSIVE VOICE. You will be chosen. We will choose. . You will choose. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. Plural. Plural. [They] will be chosen. Plural. Exercises on Shall and Will. Singular. He informed us. [He] shall choose. 1. (a) From Secs. [They] shall be chosen. 3. and justify the use of shall and will. Plural. 2. 1. promise. 1. [He] shall be chosen. yet only seem. To express determination.

bereaved besought .²Class I. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. and have no change of vowel. set.²CHAUCER. bereft. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. 256. This ending has now dropped off. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 12. 13. But the rest." the stranger said. 9. 255. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. need some attention and explanation. set. The old ending to verbs of Class II. which may be called irregular weak verbs. bereave besought Past Participle. 257. that sche fedde With rosted flessh.7. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. The beast made a sluggish movement. or mylk and wastel breed. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. then. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. bereave beseech bereft. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. "I am a wayfarer. Of smale houndes hadde she. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. very anxious. Lucy stood still. as. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 10. WEAK VERBS. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Past Tense. No. was -de or -te. my son. put.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. 11. Without having attended to this. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²ID. Present Tense. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. Irregular Weak Verbs. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. and I have nothing to say." 14. as if he would have more of the enchantment.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. put. put.

stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. hid kept knelt laid leaned. spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends.6. Nothing of the kind having been done. and a perfect definite form.. PASSIVE VOICE. Perfect. 268. In Sec. Cases when to is omitted. like participles. an imperfect.. Indefinite. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. will (with should and would). 7. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. [To] choose. 266. a perfect. [To] have been chosen. formed a kind of bedstead. ACTIVE VOICE.²the creature warring against the creating power. Three saplings. . try clemency. expressing purpose. [To] have been choosing. But later. To with the infinitive. [To] be choosing. Indefinite. they have an indefinite. as in the Old English. 10. have no tense.. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). [To] have chosen. Infinitives. to was used before the infinitive generally. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [To] be chosen. Perfect definite. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. I returned to reflection on my situation. 267. Imperfect. to express action unconnected with a subject. an indefinite and a perfect form. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. INFINITIVES. Perfect. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. 8. and when passive. when inflections became fewer. When active. 9.

see. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. 269.²COOPER. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE." "I shall have chosen. But there was nothing to do.). as. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. learn [doth learn is one verb. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. it is often preceded by the definite article. sometimes need (as. "She ask my pardon. make. it has several attributes of a noun. They shall have venison to eat. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. too. feel.²GOLDSMITH. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. as. "I do go" etc. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win.²MACAULAY. must. 272.²IRVING. please. negative. under "Analysis.² What! doth she. 270.²HOWELLS. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. poor woman!" cried Charles. and corn to hoe. "a house to let.." Examples are. liberal woman. or the object of a verb or a preposition. While the gerund expresses action." (4) In exclamations. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. it may be the subject of a verb. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. do (as.² She was a kind." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms.²it may be governed as a noun. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. as in the expression. GERUNDS. and like a noun in use. . She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. "He will choose.²TENNYSON. HALE. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.(2) After the verbs may (might). The gerund is like the participle in form. also let. can (could). E. as the credulous imagine. also in the imperative. watch.²E. as. bid (command). Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. 271. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.²DE QUINCEY." etc. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. hear. and emphatic forms of the present and past.

(6) Verbal nouns.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. and wonderful store of learning! . but cannot govern. five infinitives. Then how pleasing is it. 273. (5) Gerunds." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. which express action." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. making the definite tenses." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. Sec. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. What a vast. which express action." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. and has been put down. (2) Pure participles. brilliant. Words in -ing are of six kinds. to see the returning hope of the parents. 4. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. which express action and also modify." "Certainly dueling is bad.²Find sentences containing five participles. on your leaving the spot." also (2. (3) Participial adjectives. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. II). which have lost all verbal force. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." Exercise." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. when. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. b). 2. (4) Pure adjectives. after examining the nest. above. and five gerunds." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. according to use as well as meaning. may govern and be governed. which name an action or state. but do not assert. Exercise. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action.

subjunctive. 234. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. by object lessons. 16.²indicative. dictating from his chair. much corroded. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. (3) Mood. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 14. In parsing verbs. He spread his blessings all over the land. slowly.²strong or weak.²active or passive. What is dreaming? 8. 7.²which of the tenses given in Sec. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 6. or imperative. like Sir Walter Scott. 9. . but. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. I suppose I was dreaming about it. you must.²transitive or intransitive. 13. 15.5. The only means of ascending was by my hands. write twenty pages without stopping. giving principal parts. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 11. (5) Person and number. I. Thackeray did not. (2) Voice. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. (4) Tense. 275. Caution. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. he gave out sentence by sentence. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. bearing her national emblem. 10. VERBS. 12. (b) as to use. round which is an iron railing. give reality to your teaching.

(c) to what word it belongs." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. . no sin nor sorrow. indicative (as it means could). 2. (3) Gerund. could. Exercise. The government might have been strong and prosperous. (b) whether active or passive. (1) Participle. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 4. imperfect. has for its subject Lee. 235. active. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts." Sometimes it does. see Sec. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. can. past tense. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Especially frequent are those made up of should. 273). must. definite. indicative. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. In such sentences as 1. 277. therefore active. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. we must beware of the rule. (2) Infinitive. let the earliest light of the morning gild it.. Parse the verbs. You are gathered to your fathers. give points (a) and (b). 2. 278(2). and should always be analyzed as phrases. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. If a participial adjective. etc. perfect. and not taken as single verbs. Let it rise! let it rise. In 2. (b) its use (Sec. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. has the subject government. (b) whether indefinite. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. till it meet the sun in his coming. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms.276. intransitive. and parting day linger and play on its summit. usually it does not. 278. would. But unless the verb is present. VERBALS. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. followed by a pure infinitive without to. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. verbals. VERB PHRASES. It has been intimated in Sec. perfect. (a) From what verb derived. might. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. call should a weak verb. past tense. in the world. intransitive. Take these examples:² 1. III. call might a weak verb. may. then parse it as an adjective. II. and ends in -s. etc. 3.

The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 23. 20. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.O God. or. 22. he thought only of her. 24. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. The soul having been often born.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 11. as usual. morning is not a new issuing of light. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill.5. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. leaving me upon the bed. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 19. a new bursting forth of the sun. a sweet good will. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 14. With them. Whatever ground you sow or plant. . see that it is in good condition. from a sort of temporary death. 16. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation.Henceforth in me instill. as rolled from wing to wing. 9. 6." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. So. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. 13. 15.Down all the line. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. a new waking up of all that has life. 12. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 10. as the Hindoos say. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. However that be. 8. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. and wondered if she were yet awake. When he arose in the morning. a deafening shout. In going for water. 21. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 17. Right graciously he smiled on us. He passed across the room to the washstand. 18.

"He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].² The young man reveres men of genius." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. or manner: as. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. for example. Oh. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. And now wend we to yonder fountain. A verb. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun.²SHELLEY. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend.²CARLYLE. they are more himself than he is. Is it only poets. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. thou sayest. When action is expressed. for the hour of rest is at hand. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. as.²EMERSON. 26.25."²DE QUINCEY. to speak truly." "He was absolute.²THACKERAY." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. "William's private life was severely pure.Feast while we may. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. 27." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. To the almost terror of the persons present. ADVERBS. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 29. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. The word adverb means joined to a verb. and men of leisure and cultivation. .²time. Adverbs modify. and limit adjectives or adverbs. place. and so on. 279. to consent." An adjective or an adverb. Nor was it altogether nothing. who live with nature?²ID. and live ere life be spent. because. Better it were. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.

not the noun. all wet and glossy. like the light of heaven. hitherto. Definition. or a word group used as such.²T. I draw forth the fruit. An adverb.²BYRON. 169 are felt to be elliptical. as shown in the sentences.² FRANKLIN. It may also modify a sentence. ALDRICH. 169. to-day. then. is a modifying word. (2) according to their use in the sentence. but really modifying. for example. A clause or sentence. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. there are six classes:² (1) Time. ever.He was incidentally news dealer. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. Surely happiness is reflective. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. etc. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. not simply the forms used in predication. 281. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.²These last differ from the words in Sec.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. before.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. but still with a rich bloom to it. but some verb understood. while those in Sec. NOTE. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.²LEIGH HUNT. lately. Thus considered. as. and half awfully. We are offered six months' credit. NOTE. as now. which may qualify an action word or a statement. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. . A phrase.²THOREAU. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. ²IRVING. and that. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. Make music to the lonely ear. 280. 282.²TROLLOPE. being adverbs naturally and fitly.² LOWELL. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. perhaps. has induced some of us to attend it. B. thus.

²HAWTHORNE. etc.yonder.near. Motley. The more they multiply. etc. especially the comparative of these words. partly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. as little. as perhaps. This long's the text. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. singly. as here.²LECKY. at least.. . thus. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.. two by two. Emerson. (see also Sec.²BROWNING. [Sidenote The status of such. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. telling how many times: once. above.whence.. surely.was for this once of her opinion. (5) Degree. etc. LOUIS STEVENSON. just. the more perfect will be their obedience. for example. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. 283.where. too. as well. much.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.whither.²BURKE. twice. etc. as hence. Meekness.²R.there. very. beautifully. while so precedes only the adjective usually. etc. (6) Assertion. etc.. bravely. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.²IRVING. the more evidently they love liberty. and others. telling how anything is done. slowly. 283).thence. not. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.²DE QUINCEY. possibly. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. White. (4) Number. greatly. Thackeray. whithersoever.which gained him such universal popularity.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations..²SHAKESPEARE. enough. or how far he believes it to be true. better. (3) Manner. maybe. the more friends you will have. as hither. I was. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. telling how much. that these adverbs form a very large class. probably.² The master. slightly.thither. and not infrequently are found in literary English. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. So also in Grote.(2) Place. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. whencesoever.

All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Beau Fielding. A pretty large experience. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister." "That were far better [degree]. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Notice meanings. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. "Peace. for example. a mighty fine gentleman. Mighty. Emerson. and its lawn before [place]. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. . Kingsley.² "Mighty well. Dickens." "That is positively untrue [assertion].²"He walked too far [place]. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²BULWER. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. 282. have the additional function of asking a question. 286. Defoe. 284." "He spoke positively [manner]. Interrogative. Hard blows and hard money. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. 285. It is only occasionally used in literary English." "I have seen you before [time]. and other writers." said the king.²BAYNE. besides modifying.²HAWTHORNE.²THACKERAY. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Again. and art but a fool.²THACKERAY."²SCOTT.²FIELDING.Pretty." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Franklin.² You are mighty courteous." "The house. for example. B. Some adverbs. Holmes.²GOLDSMITH. Burke. STOWE. Neville. Direct questions. Simple. De Quincey. Aldrich.² KINGSLEY. Such are most of those given already in Sec.

CLAY.²BYRON. When did this humane custom begin?²H.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. I know not why. I do not remember when I was taught to read. 287.²POE. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²D. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BYRON (3) Manner. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.²BULWER. for example. I will not ask where thou liest low. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. WEBSTER. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. they smiled. (2) Place. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. . (2) Place. (4) Degree. (5) Reason. I hearkened. (4) Degree. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.

" Exercise. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. soon. when does not express time and modify. but the whole clause.. obs. furthest (rathe. The following. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Many adjectives have the same ending. high. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. see Sec. Exercise.eyes. 290. representing four classes. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.²COLERIDGE.²SHAKESPEARE. when compared. when. 288. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Only that we may wiselier see. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.²TENNYSON. . sooner. as.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. higher. and. use. Tell what each word in ly modifies. irregularly compared. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. only occasionally having -er and -est.But in reality.) rather 289. Many adverbs are compared.. further farthest. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Its strings boldlier swept. Then must she keep it safelier. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. just as adjectives do. have the same inflection as adjectives. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. For further discussion. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. not an adverb.²EMERSON. soonest. well much little far late Comparative.²BYRON. Superlative. Form vs. highest.

² EMERSON. There are eyes. mostly. evenly.²TENNYSON.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. Such are most. if it has the verb be. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. instead of being used adverbially. curiously jolly. hard. nearly. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 291. hardly. .²WORDSWORTH.And his mien of kingly state. Special use of there. quick-flashing eye. that in Old and Middle English. 292. as. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²THACKERAY." Compare these:² 1.²IRVING. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. 5. to be sure. Not near so black as he was painted. The reason is. etc. Again. but with a different meaning. kindly and good-natured in secret. merely introduces a sentence. or down the leaves laughed through.²ID. And all about. 3. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. even. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. But he must do his errand right. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. more courtly in their manners. 4. near. 2. 8. 7. many words without -ly have the same form. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. Frequently the word there. He is inexpressibly mean.²CHAUCER. 6. 2. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. whether adverbs or adjectives. With his proud.1.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly.

but from my fall? 6. burning in the center of the temple.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 11. 9. 293. 7. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. however theoretically enticing. . 17. 2. For the impracticable. The higher we rise in the scale of being. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 3. at the regular wine-shop. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. but continually shifted. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. is always politically unwise. (2) Degree of comparison. and always. 12. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. and sate down on the steps of a house. Exercise. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. the Madonna is in great glory. (3) What word or word group it modifies. It is the Cross that is first seen. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. give² (1) The class. Thither we went. 18. 4. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 16. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 15. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. But a few steps farther on. if the word is compared. In parsing adverbs. according to meaning and also use. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 10. 5. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13.

(4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. Clauses. upon which the sun now shone forth. 20. A conjunction is a linking word. then. 295." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Definition. connecting words. but the student will readily find them." Paragraphs. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. word groups. but side by side within the American Union." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. CONJUNCTIONS. therefore. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. But now the wind rose again. sentences. or sentence groups. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. .19. nor. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air." Sentences. 294. It was pretty bad after that. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. hence. 22. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. 21. however. etc. Unlike adverbs.

. (4) ALTERNATIVE. Your letter. as and. or the sea rolls its waves. else.. Some go in threes. neither. Alternative. only. The chief ones are. and... of the same rank.. both... The assertion. had its weight...but (or but also). as but. 297. While the earth bears a plant. as well as. etc.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. nor.or whether. usually between two things.. (3) CAUSAL. "Howbeit. therefore. .. nor.. whether.. the bread was spent. 298.nor. but is emperor in his own right. hence. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. Correlatives. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. (2) Subordinate. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. likewise. however. still. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Nor mark'd they less.. either. as well as the room door. Causal.nor. Adversative. serves but to show their ignorance. either. for.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. the butter too.. neither. not only..or. whether..Classes of conjunctions. then. yet.. etc.but. introducing a reason or cause. as. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.or. Some of these go in pairs. as. answering to each other in the same sentence. expressing a choice. not only. and not man corn. (2) ADVERSATIVE..and. neither. also. while.. either." Nevertheless. however. whether. the window being open. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. joining words.. 296.or.. word groups. etc. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. moreover.. They are or.or.

. (6) PURPOSE: that. except. etc. that. He is not only bold and vociferous. as. etc. although.²PAULDING. as. in apposition.²J. provided. etc. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. so. nor green leaf. Time. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. lest. so that. after. whithersoever. as. on condition that.. (3) MANNER: how. Neither the place in which he found himself. in order that. whence.²BURKE. nor creeping thing. etc..the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. ere. however. whether. whereto. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. object. while. there will the heart be also. until. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. whither. unless. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where.. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. Where the treasure is. It is. now.²WILSON. sometimes if. whereas. seeing. QUINCY. whenever. nor echo. since. ²ALLSTON. so. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. 299.²COOPER. in case. etc. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. so that. though.. especially that after so. (7) RESULT: that. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. provided that.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. so.²DE QUINCEY. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. even if. (2) TIME: when.²BIBLE. nor wing of bird. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste.²IRVING. wherever. since. howsoever.

That he gave her wounds repose.²EMERSON. reason. Sparing neither whip nor spur. . There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²CAMPBELL. H. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²CARLYLE Events proceed. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²BURKE. Then Denmark blest our chief. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. not as they were expected or intended.² H.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²IRVING.So I behold them not.² EMERSON. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.² HAWTHORNE.² WORDSWORTH. Manner.²AMES. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Comparison. As a soldier.²COLERIDGE.That vain it were her eyes to close. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²AMES. Now he is dead. but not so long but I held it out. Concession. Let the world go how it will. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²AMES. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. JACKSON. I was again covered with water. a thousand bodies. Cause. Condition. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Substantive.²DEFOE. We wish for a thousand heads.²BYRON.²EMERSON. Purpose.²EMERSON. Result.

He was brought up for the church. . After he was gone. some words²for example. 7. They. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 6. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. as he shot in air. hold a subordinate rank. Crept under the leaf.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. etc. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. while. No one had yet caught his character. 12. 13. then. 14. and hid her there. 15. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 3. since. As will have been noticed. the lady called her servant. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. And they lived happily forever after. her real merit is known at home. And then recovering. that. as.²RUSKIN. the wisest. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. 300. 10. While a faction is a minority. she faintly pressed her hand. 5. Exercises. The moth fly. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. however. 2. In what point of view.Let us see whether the greatest. Besides. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 4. it will remain harmless. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 9. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs.

304. for example. in this case.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. etc. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong..²HOOD. none of the lashings having given way. they connect. His voice .²BYRON.So slowly moved about.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.. 302." as.16. As though. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. 301. SPECIAL REMARKS. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. If analyzed. and part as though we parted not. thus.Clouded. as is often equivalent to as if.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²EMILY BRONTE. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. In Emerson's sentence. In parsing conjunctions. even as they would weep. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. So silently we seemed to speak. as is shown by the use of as though.. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. word groups. 303.As though a rose should shut. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. In poetry. and the frame will suit the picture. and be a bud again. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. . sounded as though it came out of a barrel. As if. "We meet. expressing degree if taken separately. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. As for as if. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. Consequently. GREELEY." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.²IRVING. the expression would be. (2) What words.

Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. and the like. and very seldom?" 8. are regularly of one particular class. etc. If he could solve the riddle. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason.² 1. so means provided. so they paddled on. the Sphinx was slain. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. he sleeps as warm. in 2." said his wife to Martin Luther. He dismisses without notice his thought. 13.. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. or in the snow. so that I could not stir abroad. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. so means therefore. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. 3. he is also the correlative of nature. and associates as happily. Some conjunctions. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. so that expresses result. He is the compend of time. or in the forest. All the postulates of elfin annals. In classifying them. 9. dines with as good an appetite. others belong to several classes. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.²is subordinate of condition. For example. It continued raining. "Doctor. in 3. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. as beside his own chimneys.²EMERSON 3. 6.²DEFOE 2.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. they are not known. that it might testify of that particular ray. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. When the gods come among men. 2. and its clause depends on the other. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. It may be safely trusted. and. such as nor. 11.²that the fairies do not like to be named. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. but of the natural. when. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. because it is his. compare the sentences.Caution. because. so it be faithfully imparted. 12. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. and its clause is independent. 10. 7. 4. 5. At sea. . Exercise.²I find them true in Concord.

22. 21. 20. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. I speak. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. in many a heart. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 29. you must be. Still. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. that both were wayward. in this they agree. There was no iron to be seen. whose names I omit. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. of good novels only. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 305. 16. . For. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 24. therefore.. 25. 26. 18. when it was presented to them. Goodness must have some edge to it. however. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. It may be so in the majority of cases. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. And whether consciously or not. she might have the family countenance. PREPOSITIONS. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more.²else it is none. I rejoice to stand here no longer. enthroned. save it were sinful like herself. 23. 19. Now you have the whip in your hand. 28. 15. It is clear. 30. won't you lay on? 17. seeing that it behooves me to hasten.14. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. the whole conditions are changed. 27. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

etc. at once. at war. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. She saw the boat headed for her. At that time [the earth] was richer. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at any rate. at one. . 321. at play. STODDARD.²SWIFT. H. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at random. at most.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at naught. at first. 320.²EVERETT. Exercise. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. etc. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²R. at the worst. by the blessed memory of the departed. at least.² (1) The general meaning of place. (4) Measure of excess. Exercise. by the wrecks of time. expressing the degree of difference. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²M. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at rest. as.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at work. at peace. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.²DE QUINCEY. CONWAY. by means near or close to. TAYLOR The angel came by night.²ID. ²PARTON. Richard was standing by the window. (2) Time. he stopped. By.²ALDRICH. by many a million of acres.²COOPER. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at the best. At St. by the ruins of nations. Like at. Helena.. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail.²Find sentences with three different uses of at.²B. By my faith. the first port made by the ship. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. D. at all. For. (3) Agency or means.²WARNER. at length.

respecting. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. Still.²HOLMES. etc. H.²E.²W. For the rest. meaning in the character of. etc.² RUSKIN." answered Master Brackett. But the Colonel. and leaped for joy. An Arab woman. considering that etc. but a few sunsets since. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. E. for all his title. He and they were for immediate attack. (7) Concession. as being. cause.²LAMB. they are now for us.. For him..²STODDARD. he repented of his folly.²ID. (6) Like as." said the Lady of Lochleven.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. incitement to action.²IRVING. the Colonna motto would fit you best.²EMERSON. or extent of space. GARRISON. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. if your worship can accomplish that. "thou hast counseled wisely. The twilight being. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.²PARKMAN. meaning although.One of Eve's family. etc. "For a fool. .²H. for the benefit of. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²PARKMAN. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. in behalf of.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. for all slips of hers. (3) Duration of time."²SCOTT By my faith. There are gains for all our losses. a person or thing. for famine. BANCROFT. poor fellow. (4) Substitution or exchange. or in spite of.²HOOD. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. ate her child. meaning with regard to. as to. (5) Reference. reason.(2) In favor of. "Nay. had a forest of poor relations. L. (9) Motive.

The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²HUXLEY.²HUME. Of. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. The young cavaliers. 323.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. From. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²HALE. 322. The general idea in from is separation or source. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. Exercise. .²BANCROFT. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²H. ceased to be merciful. cause. more.²DRYDEN. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. It was from no fault of Nolan's. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. (3) Time.²HIGGINSON. The king holds his authority of the people.²MILTON. Like boys escaped from school. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. nay. From harmony. A distrustful. or reason. (1) Origin or source. The From Relation.²ID. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. like from. if not a desperate man. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. (2) Origin. from a desire of seeming valiant. (4) Motive. Exercise. H.

etc. that Cromwell once ruled England. of his own knowledge.²ID. E. HALE.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.²BAYARD TAYLOR. clear. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. (b) After some adjectives. rid. Asked no odds of. Sandals.²SCOTT Who formed. rob. purge. etc. south of.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. such as ease.² HUXLEY. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. Other Relations expressed by Of.²BANCROFT.²DICKENS II. White shirt with diamond studs. divest. A singular want of all human relation. reason. bound with thongs of boar's hide.²ALDRICH. ²GAVARRE. and grass. or breastpin of native gold. etc. disarm.²LEW WALLACE. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. (6) Partitive. etc. (c) After nouns expressing lack. ²PARTON.²clear of.."²E. especially out of. motive. wide of. free of. ask. expressing a part of a number or quantity. . out of the most unpromising materials. free. You cannot make a boy know.²BOSWELL. The hills were bare of trees. deprivation. bare of. (3) With expressions of material. Back of that tree. deprive. etc. as north of. He is away of his own free will. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. relieve. Of the Forty. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. there were only twenty-one members present. cure. "I am glad of that. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. beg. (5) Expressing agency. More than one altar was richer of his vows. (d) With words expressing distance.²PARKMAN. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²HIGGINSON. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. demand. acquitted them of. weeds.

²W. etc.²BANCROFT. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²SWIFT. (10) Of reference.²LOWELL. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. (c) Two nouns. CHANNING. The nation of Lilliput. and the dignity of a queen. with regard to. with its object.²ALDRICH. (8) Appositional.. could give shelter from his contumely.²PRESCOTT. concerning. . Not even woman's love. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²LAMB. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.He washed out some of the dirt. Such a book as that of Job.²HALLECK. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. equal to about.²BANCROFT.²BANCROFT. (7) Possessive. being equivalent to an infinitive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. Idiomatic use with verbs.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. Besides the phrases of old. of late.²COOPER.²FROUDE. The fair city of Mexico. standing. E. (9) Of time. See also Sec.²ID. when the first is descriptive of the second. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. of is used in the sense of during. for the possessive. ²IRVING. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. of a sudden. (b) Noun and gerund. 309.

and others. 324. Exercise. concerning. repent. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. Upon. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. (4) In adjurations. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. On my life. Upon my reputation and credit. on view. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²PARKMAN. disapprove. Cannon were heard close on the left. and not a day more.²EMERSON. on the alert. on trial. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. accept.²ALDRICH. ²BANCROFT.²BRYANT. complain. allow.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. avail (one's self). 325.²DE QUINCEY. Upon is seldom used to express time.²Find sentences with six uses of of. Exercise. without adding to their meaning. you are eighteen. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. It also accompanies the verbs tire. (b) With motion. such as admit. equal to about.²PARKMAN. On. on the wing. (2) Time. on high.²PARKMAN. etc. (3) Reference. on board. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. consist. approve.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. The general meaning of on is position or direction. . on a sudden. etc.²MRS. To.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. SIGOURNEY. permit.

and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Death!²HALLECK. to my taste. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²Find sentences containing three uses of to..²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²GOLDSMITH. unmasked. But when. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison..Come to the bridal chamber. it may be genuine poetry. had ceased to be. 268). (b) Referring to time.²PARTON. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. We cook the dish to our own appetite. Revolutions.²BENTON To our great delight. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²BULWER. whose influence is felt to this hour. .'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²often to the loss of vigor. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. gay Comedy appears.²PARKMAN. to him. In Old English.. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. He usually gave his draft to an aid. Exercise. With.²IRVING. Nor. To the few. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. mid meant in company with.²HALE. (2) Expressing result.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²BRYANT. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.. (5) Equivalent to according to. interest. 326. His brother had died.²LANG.²B. does the mere be written over.

or with the haunch of our near leader.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. with Heyward at its head. motive.The advance. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. but a pleasure"?²LANG. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. as with you. "poetry is not a pursuit. (4) Estimation. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. . (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. It seemed a supreme moment with him. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²CHANNING. (5) Opposition. first of all. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. to find the object of the preposition. transmitted from the beginning. He expired with these words. with all his boldness. Either with the swingle-bar. it is necessary. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. he gave millions to the sword. in spite of. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²COLERIDGE. but with you. He was wild with delight about Texas.²HOWELLS. (3) Cause. reason. She seemed pleased with the accident. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.²DE QUINCEY. had already reached the defile.²COOPER.²HALE.²Find sentences with four uses of with. HALE.²ALDRICH. Messala.²HOWELLS. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²LANG. (2) Instrumentality. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. With all his sensibility. I think. opinion.²WALLACE (7) Time. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. 327. E. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²SCOTT. Exercise.²E.

because I had given the provocation. I felt my box raised very high in the air. we met the defaulter here. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. of from. 4. telling what man. hence we say. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. and knocked me down flat on my face. but I received no other hurt. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. To our general surprise. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. the malicious rogue. by which a dozen apples. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. of without. but all to no purpose. beginning. which. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. or was. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. the phrase answers the question where. Be that as it will. without a country modifies man. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. The object of on board is ships. of on. country. 3. like the clapping of wings. I heard a noise just over my head. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. 2. I speak these things from a love of justice. before the dwarf left the queen.²SWIFT 2. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky.²ID. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. I remember. came tumbling about my ears. And so on. 5. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. I called out several times. In (3). In (2). (3) without a country. . Exercises. The guns were cleared of their lumber. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. shook it directly over my head. In (1). which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. he followed us one day into those gardens. (4) from the beginning. Whereupon. (2) on which. I looked towards my windows.

12. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 22. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. he favored the world with his opinions. His breeches were of black silk. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. With all his learning. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 19. 11. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 16. . A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. For my part.He spurred his courser on. grasping at the child. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 26. when. 14. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 10. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. He locked his door from mere force of habit. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 21. 27. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 20.6. Carteret was far from being a pedant. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 9.Without stop or stay. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. in town. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 8. in this respect. to one dark and gloomy. 15. after a restful morning. 18. 23. 24. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 25. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. On all subjects known to man. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 13. I like to see the passing. 17. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 29. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 7. plumed for battle. The mother sank and fell. The savage army was in war-paint.

that you might behold this joyous day. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. That was a dreadful mistake. (4) As an adverb of degree. We wish that labor may look up here. THAT.That makes the heavens be mute. WHAT.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.²HUXLEY. He will raise the price.²COLERIDGE. (2) As an adjective pronoun. and not according to form. (3) As a relative pronoun.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (b) Of result. 329.30. (c) Substantive conjunction.² JOHNSON. And now it is like an angel's song. (1) Relative pronoun.²BEECHER. not merely by the amount of the tax. 328. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. 330. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That night was a memorable one. (a) Indefinite relative. A few are discussed below.²STOCKTON. That is what I understand by scientific education. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. . That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.

To say what good of fashion we can. or not only.²WORDSWORTH.²EMERSON.²WEBSTER.but. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. (6) Exclamatory adjective. partly. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. after not only..Which be they what they may.. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question..²THACKERAY.. to see what might be hidden. nearly equivalent to partly. "I'll tell you what. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (7) Adverb of degree. But woe to what thing or person stood in the is impossible to determine. At what rate these materials would be distributed. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.. (b) Indirect question. (b) Copulative. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.²ID. and silent all!²BYRON. ..²ID.Those shadowy recollections. he knows what good people are to be found there.. BUT.these sounds are only to be heard. (b) Indirect question.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. What with the Maltese goats. What. silent still.S. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.. it rests on reality. What... If he has [been in America]. Pera. (8) Conjunction. (9) As an exclamation.. Cox. but the result of calculation. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.²S. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative." (4) Relative adjective. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²EMERSON.

like the dog. (c) Of degree. 332.He yearned to our patriot bands. towards order. Who knows but. (4) Relative pronoun. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (3) Preposition. (b) Substantive. I shall see but little of it.. but piercing cries.²MRS BROWNING.²SHELLEY. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (b) Of manner. meaning except. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. after such.. Doing duty as a guard. ²CARLYLE. not. . (e) Introducing an appositive word. meaning otherwise .. on all sides.²FRANKLIN. (d) Of reason. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. To lead but one measure.²EMERSON. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. equivalent to that .²CARLYLE..Then arose not only tears. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time... Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. meaning only. not. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. sometimes same. or who . Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. (5) Adverb.²IRVING. (2) Relative pronoun.. than. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. not.²IRVING. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.. at all moments. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING. after a negative. stands for that . AS.²LAMB.

but this is not considered good usage: for example.²SHAKESPEARE.²HIGGINSON.²ALDRICH. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. Introduces a clause. like drops out. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.² HAWTHORNE. like summer ocean's.²LAMB. and as or as if takes its place. NOTE.²HAWTHORNE.² A timid. but its verb is omitted. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. like him awhile ago. 333. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.-SCOTT. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²HALLECK. This follows a verb or a verbal. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. . Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. ²PARKMAN. If the verb is expressed. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like a cook beating eggs. like Martin was. Note the difference between these two uses. staring like a bewildered man. this.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²EMERSON.²ALDRICH.²DARWIN.²CASS.²MAYHEW. and is followed by a dative-objective. I do with my friends as I do with my books. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. In this second use. and was clearly an adjective. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. Stirring it vigorously. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.LIKE. In each case. (1) An adjective. That face. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²EMERSON. No Emperor. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. They look. nervous child. indeed. Through which they put their heads. Give Ruskin space enough. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²LONGFELLOW. There is no statue like this living man.

What analysis is. etc.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax.INTERJECTIONS.. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. that is. 335. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Some of these are imitative sounds. clauses introduced by conjunctions. subject and predicate. 336. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. ." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech.²in determining case. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. that is. in separating them into their component parts. Definition." PART II. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. tut! buzz! etc. etc. entering into the structure of a sentence.: for example. pronoun. as. Definition. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. 334. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. verb. but it still retains its identity as noun. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. Value of analysis.

This is the most common one. 339.Kinds of sentences as to form. "The quality of mercy is not strained. or command: for example. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. (2) Interrogative. according to form. Division according to number of statements. A rare old plant is the ivy green. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. (3) Imperative. question. "Old year. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. not according to the form in which a thought is put." 340." "What wouldst thou do. but according to how many statements there are. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. But now all is to be changed. but by no means vulgar. 337. 338. 2. hence. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. entreaty. . "Come to the bridal chamber. interrogative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. "Hath he not always treasures.²a subject and a predicate. which expresses command. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. old man?" "Be thou familiar. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. SIMPLE SENTENCES. or request. which puts the thought in a question. Definition: Predicate. Definition. but the sentence would still be declarative. Every sentence must contain two parts. declarative. Examples of these three kinds are. or imperative. always friends?" imperative. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. you must not die!" interrogative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named.

we have some trouble. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. and our definition must be the following. to an ignorant man. as. not of a rare old plant. . 5. or ye) is in most cases omitted. and is to be supplied.²What is the ivy green? Answer. to suit all cases:² Subject. and the real subject is the latter. a rare old plant. In the interrogative sentence. thou. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. the subject is frequently after the verb. always reduce them to the order of a statement." Exercise. In analyzing such sentences. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 4. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions.²What is to be changed? Answer. Consequently. 6. "[You] behold her single in the field. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. The last of all the Bards was he. Slavery they can have anywhere. on the other hand. 341. the subject (you. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. especially in poetry.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 7. adjective. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. but about the ivy green. or an interrogative pronoun. 2. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. But if we try this with the second sentence.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 8. all. or adverb that asks about the subject. Thus. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. Listen. 3.

(2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. in addition to the object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject." Complement: 344. direct. "Ye honor me. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (4) The complements. (5) Modifiers. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. and means summoned. "Ye call me chief.10. but chief belongs to the verb. "She seldom saw her course at a glance.²transitive and intransitive. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. The transitive verb often requires. just as if to say. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. The subject and predicate have been discussed. but of call chief. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. 343. Direct Object. Indirect object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. or second object. (3) The object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. . and by object we mean the direct object. Of a transitive verb. (6) Independent elements. but it is a true complement. 342. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions." indirect. (2) The predicate. for example. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. and me here is not the object simply of call." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object.

Thom of the Gills. in the popular judgment. 346." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. etc. 364. As to form. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. for instance. and of massive weight. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. as in the sentence.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. and barring the door. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. as. feel." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." "The good man. more familiarly. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. to the completion of this man of the world. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. in the original Opium Confessions. I mentioned a case of that nature." Things used as Subject. Complement of an intransitive verb. introduced by a preposition: for example. and. he was now getting old. Phrases. especially the forms of be. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. seem." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" ." "He was termed Thomas. "Brow and head were round. or. sir!' rang out in response." All these complete intransitive verbs. 355. "A cheery. become. 352. See sentence 19. 351." (3) INFINITIVE. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." 345. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. not containing a verb." Also an expression used as a noun. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 347. in exercise following Sec. but used as a single modifier. A phrase is a group of words." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. 'Ay.." (2) PARTICIPIAL. ay. appear. An intransitive verb. as in drowning. taste." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. above sixty.

" (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. etc." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." 348." The for did not belong there originally." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." "The dead are there. 349. and ever will be. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. or the thundering of organs. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." In this sentence. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. but obscures the real subject. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. . "'By God. asserting eyes." "Never. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. prowling eyes. but the real or logical subject is to print. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. but they will be given in detail here." "There are asking eyes.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. Disguised infinitive subject. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). "Therein has been. 341." Things used as Complement. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. or their religion from their sect.²the infinitive phrase.²the talent of starting the game. my deficiency. (4) After "there introductory. was heard one syllable to justify." etc." Things used as Direct Object. (2) In interrogative sentences. from their lips." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. and by Saint George!' said the King. I saw the quick and the dead. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. for which see Sec." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral.

and explaining or modifying the subject. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." Modifiers. Of a transitive verb. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. the object is made the subject by being passive." (4) Participle. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object.²heads or tails. or the equivalent of the noun. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. I." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." "She asked her father's permission." "Their tempers. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. Object.²completing the predicate.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. the shepherd girl. doubtless. Like all the complements in this list." In this last sentence. and the words italicized are still complements. and whenever the complement is a noun.350." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." "Serving others is serving us." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. As complement of an intransitive verb. at the same time." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. or Complement." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. As complement of a transitive verb." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." "I hear the echoes throng. they are adjuncts of the object." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. 351. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. Modifiers of Subject. and." . (3) Infinitive. complements of the predicate.

(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. but noble teachers. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." "Him. this young idolater. the verb being omitted. and modify the predicate in the same way. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. given at the request of a Dutch lady. Retained with passive. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. but with other men. the prisoner at the bar." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Since the predicate is always a verb." "In the twinkling of an eye. not with nature." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but it is really a contracted clause. II. object." (For participial and infinitive phrases. I have seasoned for thee. unforgiving." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. "He died like a God. Tells how. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. or complement is modified. and leading him from star to star. austere. see further Secs. 357-363." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. 352. 351. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon.²proud. tell whether the subject." "Give them not only noble teachings. Modifiers of the Predicate." In such a sentence as. no sociable angel. or ." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.²In each sentence in Sec." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." Exercise." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. was now called upon for his defense." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. was the scene from King John." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation.

A merciless oppressor hast thou been. 8. 3. and complement: y y y y y y y 1.When the verb is changed from active to passive. . 7. and as many to oppose it. But anger drives a man to say anything. is good in the making. They do not wish to be lovely. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. This. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. in this center? 4. no emotion. after dinner. he liked. Why does the horizon hold me fast.." Exercises. and. 3. 6. how far. Evil. 5. according to old philosophers. no humor. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. but to be loved. 7. 2." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. or how long. Fashion does not often caress the great. (b) Pick out the subject." "One way lies hope." (6) Adverbial objective. (a) Pick out subject. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. These answer the question when. etc. and other measures of precaution. no relief to the dead prosaic level. gives wonderful animation. in regard to particulars. a sort of personality to the whole writing. 5. 6. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. I took. To the men of this world. and the direct object is retained: for example. predicate. to the animal strength and spirits. negative. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. but the children of the great. predicate." "All such knowledge should be given her. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 4. His books have no melody. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. and (direct) object:² 1. with my joy and grief. 2. the indirect object is retained. On the voyage to Egypt.

that was thy portion in life. Yes. Compound Predicate. 3. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. a room seventeen feet by twelve. That night.²the river Meuse. To suffer and to do. Unhorse me. at length the warrior lady. etc. 5. y y y y Compound Subject.. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. 4. after their long confinement to a ship. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 4. for the first time. in little peaceful Easedale. upwards. downwards. this nun so martial. expecting the return of their parents. six children sat by a peat fire. then. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. . the present Archbishop of Dublin. at the chief hotel. Paint me. then. the attorney. this dragoon so lovely. I gave him an address to my friend. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. must visit again the home of her childhood. and a member of the world. Their intention was to have a gay. 5. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 6. 3. 2. 3. A river formed the boundary. 4. to the right and to the left. In one feature. this imperial rider. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1.y 8. viz.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. happy dinner. the blooming cornet. I felt myself. 2. Not the less I owe thee justice. 2. I promised her protection against all ghosts. Not compound sentences.

etc." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. together with its modifiers. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. The exclamatory expression. For example. 355." "Voyages and travels I would also have. complements." "The name of the child. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. Bishop. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. hurry." And so with complements. in all such sentences as we quote below. in the sentence.353. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. 354. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. above: thus. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. the tone of her voice. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. they are not a necessary part. Independent Elements of the Sentence. two or more subjects of the same predicate. that is. Of this. the air of the mother. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. Larger view of a sentence. but it is to be noticed that. my brave young man!" . I'm with you once again. shouldered the rusty firelock. however. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. and the rest is the logical predicate. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. etc. and." "Ye crags and peaks. forming a sentence: "Oh. exposes. may be the person or thing addressed." "He shook his head. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. same as (1). lurking far down in the depths of human nature." Sentences with compound predicates are. Examples of compound subjects are. turned his steps homeward. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. hurry. then the grammatical subject and predicate." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. and its object or complement. ulcer. the object. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. several modifiers.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. the simple subject is situation. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. together with all its modifiers.. "The company broke up. "Ah. the verb). the predicate. etc. modifiers.

357. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. 351.. modifying the predicate. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. he somehow lived along. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." (6) Single words: as. etc." "No. let him perish. (b) As a modifier of subject. 6). nevertheless. her noticing even this is creditable." "Why. already noticed. therefore." (5) Participial phrase: "But." "At all events." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife." "Well. or complement (see Sec." (2) Adverbial. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. object. he was a conscientious man. moreover. yes! everybody knew them. the company broke up. 350. y (2) The adverbial use.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. . how you're winking!" "Now. to the best of my remembrance. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes." Another caution. see Sec. besides. such as however. These need close watching. six quill-driving gentlemen.. undoubtedly. or word used as a noun: for example. truly. see Sec. really. that have an office in the sentence. 3. grandma. such as perhaps. 355. he closed his literary toils at dinner. 4). prepositional phrases may be. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. (1) Adjectival. 356." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon." "Truth to say. and so on. In their use. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. "Oh. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. There are some adverbs. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. now. 352. The words well. etc. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion." (3) Independent. 4). this story runs thus. instances of which were seen in Sec. and some conjunctions. why. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. modifying a noun. then. generally speaking. pronoun.

358.: as in the sentences." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. "Because I was." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every ." "There. thus. was speedily run through. I.can (could). therefore." etc. See Sec. but require somewhat closer attention. and teach her how to be happy and good. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason." In this sentence. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. etc.seem. etc. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. and they will be presented here in full. necessity. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. being equivalent to a future with obligation. ought. and hence is adverbial. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." (c) With the definite forms of go. 355. (5). or as nearly so as the student will require. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.would." (b) With the forms of be. Wilt thou. modifying was speedily run through. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. "The letter of introduction. containing no matters of business.should. The verbal use. This case excepted. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. he should not have known them at all. my dear. but having no other office than a verbal one. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. y (a) With may (might)." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.]. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts.

The fact that the infinitives in Sec. hang the idiot. already examined." (5) Condition: "You would fancy.: for example. above. notice the following:² In (1).. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. The adjectival use. 361 are used adverbially. result." "He insisted on his right to forget her." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. the Scotch fighting all the battles. object. Don Guzman. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "Are you mad." 360. complement. "But there was no time to be lost. to look means that he might look. The substantive use. ." "To teach is to learn. modifying a noun that may be a subject. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. 361. To test this. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. 5)." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. etc. IV. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. The adverbial use. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). III." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. 362." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. etc. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. to hear McOrator after dinner." "To say what good of fashion we can. to please is equivalent to that he may please. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. 351." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. (4) In apposition." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them.²both purpose clauses. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. and the eyes to fill?" 359. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. II.

This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. (5) The subject (Sec. 268. object. Our life is March weather. etc." (See also Sec. give² (1) The predicate. (7) Independent elements (Sec. In (3). 364. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 352). 363. to find shows the result of the return. 351). to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. to hear means if you should hear. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers.²both expressing condition. not in a book. and to betray and to bring express the reason. In analyzing simple sentences. 355. 2. etc.. which is of two kinds. to part means because I part. 349). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. In (4). . and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. In (5). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 355). V. savage and serene in one hour. give the complement (Secs.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. If it is an incomplete verb.In (2). The independent use." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. equivalent to that you betray. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 351). etc. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these.. 4. as in Sec. 3. I will try to keep the balance true. 347).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 351). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. must be in a life. (3).

nor generals. 20. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 17. 14. a good shot. The word conscience has become almost confined. the carrion crow. in popular use. two stricken hours. You may ramble a whole day together. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. I have heard Coleridge talk. He risked everything. 6. a graceful dancer. and to the purpose. through toys and atoms. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman.4. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 22. nor himself. always in a bad plight.The old crow of Cairo. with eager energy. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. His opinion is always original. and every moment discover something new. 24. . 12. 7. nor money. to the moral sphere. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. nor troops. good and amiable otherwise. To these gifts of nature. and spared nothing. an accomplished scholar. The whole figure and air. just on the edge of destruction. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. might be called flabby and irresolute. through evil agents. 5. Her aims were simple and obvious. 18.Burnt green and blue and white. 15. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. a skilled musician. 21. 13. The water.²to preserve her throne. to restore civil and religious order. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. neither ammunition. 9. 10. To be hurried away by every event. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. like a witch's oils. 23. Through the years and the centuries. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. We are always in peril. 11. 19. is to have no political system at all. 8. to keep England out of war.He sat in the shower. 16. and only to be saved by invention and courage. Old Adam.

35. This amiable relative. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. in front of all this mighty crowd.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Few in number. and no provisions but wild berries. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. or perhaps one virtue. 30. Upon this shore stood. Fair name might he have handed down. baggage far in the rear. 26. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. The cry. She had made a two days' march. haply. still. Now. The villain. 40. I hate him and myself. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. But yield. and in my own garden. proud foe. Must we in all things look for the how. time-honored. an elderly man. in less heroic and poetic form. 33. upon my own ground. had but one foible. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. the present capital of New England. 31. 37. 36. 41. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. the same Condé Olivarez. and the why. 27. it would not have been filial or ladylike.Distant. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground.Effacing many a stain of former crime. in this world. the prime minister of Spain. the ship was in an uproar. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. to be a reproach to such goodness. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. Oxford. I dare this. and. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. secluded. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. In the Acadian land. 29.25. ready to receive her. 39. to bid you leave the place now and forever. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. and the wherefore? . Of the same grandeur. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 38. 34. Supposing this computation to be correct. 32.

to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. As shown in Part I. though often treated as phrases. however. 367. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. are really contracted clauses. .² "They'll shine o'er her sleep.² "She is like some tender tree. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. made merely for convenience and smoothness. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. 365." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. thus. (Sec. which is the unit of speech." This must." Sentences with like.From her own loved island of sorrow. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. as would be the connective instead of like. 333)." To show that these words are really omitted. the expressions of manner introduced by like. the pride and beauty of the grove. if they were expanded. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. COMPLEX SENTENCES. The simple sentence the basis. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. as. 366.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. but. Words left out after than or as.

² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. predicate. suffering. that . drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. or it may be applied to the others. and modifier. 370.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. and the next one. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.. we are aware. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. complement.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. or dependent on it.²the other members subordinate to it.. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. modifiers." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. 369. murmur.²the backbone. Definition. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). containing a verb with its subject. CLAUSES.. Hence the following definition:² Definition. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. A principal. each clause has its subject. complements. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. object. which are so united that one member is the main one. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. . A clause is a division of a sentence. is taken in. logically depends on suffering. how great . 371.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. as in this sentence. 368.. that is. etc. and the last. main. Independent clause. then we recognize this as the main statement. object. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.

impertinences. for a time. . for example." (2) Object of a verb." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. Kinds. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall.." (4) Apposition. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. for a hundred years. verbal." 374.' is an electric touch. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are.. 5). We ourselves are getting .. or adverbs. As to their office in the sentence. 352. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. 373. pronoun. (b) that are ." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. 372. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. and ADVERB clauses. But since they are complex in form. night or day. etc. and the whole clause is not. Noun Clauses. put an end to my fancies... adjectives. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex.Dependent clause." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. so the object clause is retained." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. impertinences²would be grammatical. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. but logically the sentence is. 'I know that he can toil terribly. attention is called to them here. and it is . with a noun clause in apposition with it. infinitive. thus. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. (a) Ordinary apposition. is retained after a passive verb (Sec.. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. over which the torrent came tumbling. for example." Just as the object noun." "I was told that the house had not been shut.. ADJECTIVE. clauses are divided into NOUN. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.

It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. Such a man is what we call an original man. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. that. or equivalent of a noun. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 6. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 2. whither.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. a falsehood incarnate. 7. whether he should choose one or not. The reply of Socrates. But the fact is. 4. etc. 8. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. sometimes by the conjunctions when." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 5. 375. 3." Exercise. What history it had. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. wherein. that all safe legislation must be based. Other examples of this construction are. of a nation. as. Examples of adjective clauses. and not on the sentiment. which. he would repent it. Adjective Clauses. no man will ever know. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. how it changed from shape to shape. where. a relative pronoun being understood. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. whereby. . The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. in the sentence. Frequently there is no connecting word. Except by what he could see for himself. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife.² "It is on the understanding. that he was a scheming impostor. he could know nothing. still remains reasonable. 10. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. but. I was napping. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. whence. 9. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. that.

" "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. 6. i. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. 11. and tell what each one modifies. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. which Rowena tasted. 4." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. all is vacancy." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 1.e. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character." Exercise. object." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. Adverbial Clauses. the champions advanced through the lists. 3. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. etc. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. Pick out the adjective clauses. 9. 7. I walked home with Calhoun. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. he begins to help us more as an effect. which formed the center of the mansion." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. whether subject. 10." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. No man is reason or illumination. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. or that essence we were looking for. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. 8. 5. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. . that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture.376. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 2.

so far as we can." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." (5) DEGREE. however good she may be as a witness." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." (7) RESULT." "The right conclusion is. expressing the degree in which the horizon. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. that we should try. 378. however. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. tell what kind each is. a verbal. and will be given in detail. etc." These mean no matter how good. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. no matter what remains." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. to make up our shortcomings. but they require careful study." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. and what it modifies:² . the wider is the horizon of their thought. it takes precedence of everything else. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. introduced by indefinite relatives." "When he was come up to Christian. or an adverb. Exercise." (9) CONCESSION. the milestones are grave-stones. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. adverbs. an adjective.377. whatever. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. with examples." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "After leaving the whole party under the table. since he was too great to care to be original. etc.: "But still. Joanna is better. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. etc." "The broader their education is. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. is wider.² whoever." "Who cares for that." (3) REASON." "He went several times to England.. shaping our actions. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. and adverbial conjunctions. he goes away as if nothing had happened." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future.

1." 2. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. 3. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. so as to picture the parts and their relations. and modifiers. object. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. etc. then treat noun clauses as nouns. when the wind was unruly. on a dark wintry night.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. find the principal subject and principal predicate. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. we are a little disappointed." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. they might perhaps say of their visitors. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. incoherent exclamations. with shrill. howling and whistling. For example. 'Well. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. If the children gathered about her. 379. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. predicate. in the sentence. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. banging about doors and windows. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. and twirling weathercocks. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. to tell the truth. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. 380. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. snatching up stones to fling at them. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. of which clause Odin is the subject. its object is that Odin was a reality. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. as they sometimes did.

Take the place and attitude which belong to you. Exercises. d.. 2. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 364. 3. 380). (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. (1) Find the principal clause. 364. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . as seen in the "map" (Sec. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. . (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.

She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 11. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. Whether she said the word is uncertain. could not have been effected. if applied to the Bible. 9. 6. of a light hazel. I like that representation they have of the tree. This is she. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. Here lay two great roads. 8. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. Had they been better chemists. that pressed her with an objection. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 14. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 24. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. the flower should revive for us. 16. who would yield to it least. as for armies that were too many by half. But now that she has become an establishment. The night proved unusually dark. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. that. 13. 22. 5. . Now. which. The deep eyes. counselor that had none for herself. M. Next came a wretched Dominican. 17. or whether any. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. bishop. 15. 19.4. 23. 7. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. whom I choose. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. not so much for travelers that were few. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 12. dying for them. the mixed result. had we been worse. namely. He was what our country people call an old one. And those will often pity that weakness most. 10. 21. the shepherd girl. 20. 18. for yours. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold.

380. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. would easily reach. then map out as in Sec. and temper. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia.25. (b) First analyze. How formed. 26. the following complex sentences:² 1. Hence the definition. 28. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 382." 4. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days.² Definition. "No book. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. That which we do not believe. that it was no more than his daily walk. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 3. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. 5. 7. 30. or commands. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 383. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. speed. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. COMPOUND SENTENCES.²which will not be disposed of. 6. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. if continuously extended. and what content I can find in conversing with each. though we may repeat the words never so often. These things we are forced to say. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. "was ever written down by any but itself. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. but above it. 2. . The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 27. and not from his heart. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. and stamped with his right number." said Bentley. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. we cannot adequately say. is to speak and write sincerely. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. questions.

" (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. tell which are compound. which are simple statements. he walks with arms akimbo. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. Exercise. and nor the second and third complex members. Some of these are now conjunctions. The coördinate conjunctions and. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. The division into members will be easier. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. from the second. 385. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. nor does he know until he has tried. or but.. the semicolon separates the first. and connects the first and second complex members. and which complex:² 1. a simple member. he is twice a man. as in Sec. sometimes subordinate conjunctions." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. a complex member. Speak your latent conviction. the planet has a faint. 297). The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. and it shall be the universal sense. while (whilst). 383 (1). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. in (2). now adverbs or prepositions. in (3). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. others sometimes coördinate.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. 386. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. . From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done." 384. if there are any. Study the thought. as but. he dilates. the waving grass. whereas. yet. "Only the star dazzles. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. however. Of the following illustrative sentences. etc. Thus in (1). moon-like ray" (adversative). and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). he soliloquizes. and not the form of the connective. Connectives. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. nor. Another example is. etc. for.

from a happy yet often pensive child. and not by what each is. 2. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 364. All loss. 12. 3. that it was Easter Sunday. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 11. so is every one of its parts. In this manner. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. and thou shalt be loved. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. Whilst the world is thus dual. 6. is particular. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. Man does not stand in awe of man. and as yet very early in the morning. the tax is certain. I can still receive. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 13. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 9. I can yet love. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. unobtrusive boy. yield to them heart and life. he grew up to be a mild. for example. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. Love. or. and for everything you gain. 4. 14. nay. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 8. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 7. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. you lose something. quiet. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 5. Exercise. you have gained something else. to find a pot of buried gold. However some may think him wanting in zeal. The gain is apparent. 381. (i) Separate it into its main members. . 10.2. 4. all pain. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 387. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 3. For everything you have missed. however. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. passed in that time.

" says the haymaker. or we pursue persons." says the smith. 6. or sail with God the seas. He teaches who gives. "the iron is white. and they will be true to you. as children. if you rip up his claims. 19.5. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and the peace of society is often kept. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 18. 8. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. or we read books. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 14. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. or hope. and the cart as nigh the rake. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. let them mount and expand. They will shuffle and crow. . and he learns who receives. Stand aside. abide by it. 9. Whatever he knows and thinks." 13. 17. 7. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and they repel us. and each shows only what lies at its focus. modesty. treat them greatly. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. "Strike. which always make the Actual ridiculous. or men will never know and honor him aright. Trust men. one is afraid. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. because. "as nigh the scythe as you can. is as thin and timid as any. We see the noble afar off. and not an emotion of bravery. that let him communicate. crook and hide. whilst frankness invites frankness. why should we intrude? 10. When you have chosen your part. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. only that they may brag and conquer there. puts the parties on a convenient footing. Come into port greatly. 21. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and not a thought has enriched either party. give those merits room. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. 16. and makes their business a friendship. We go to Europe. 15." "keep the rake. and the other dares not. feign to confess here. and they will show themselves great. 11. 20.

PART III. So does culture with us. adjective and noun. Do not craze yourself with thinking. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. if they live. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Essential point in English syntax. they lose themselves in the crowd. 388.²agreement and government. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. We see young men who owe us a new world. 24. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. 23. 390. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Following the Latin method. but its leading characteristic is. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. but they never acquit the debt. pronoun and antecedent. Ground covered by syntax. verb and subject. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. and dodge the account. INTRODUCTORY. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. it ends in headache. By way of introduction. 380. SYNTAX. they die young.22. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 25. or. but go about your business anywhere. so readily and lavishly they promise. it never was known to fall into the rear.

Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. distinct forms would be used.² First. pronoun and antecedent. following the regular order of subject. or settler may be the subject. Second. Why study syntax? 391." is ambiguous. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. As an illustration of the last remark. sometimes verb and subject. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. Some rules not rigid. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. take the sentence." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. This is not logical. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. the sentence. good English. "The savage here the settler slew. therefore. In some cases. There is. and it would not matter which one stood first. . Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. the order being inverted. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. Savage may be the subject. authorities²that is. also expressing a possessive relation. both forms will be given in the following pages. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. or when they exist side by side in good usage. etc. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). and imitate it. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. In Latin. and whose judgment. or the same writer will use both indifferently. Also in the sentence. When usage varies as to a given construction. then." In this there is a possessive form. some of which conform to classical grammar. but are not now." that is. and added to it the preposition of. and nothing but important points will be considered. 392. For example. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. The basis of syntax. 393. "None remained but he. as to study inflected forms.

²ID. PRONOUNS. . the antechamber of the High Priest. 396. and Paul's.²MCCULLOCH. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. 408). Oliver and Boyd's printing office. etc. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²BYRON.²ROWE. 395. He kept Bolingbroke's.²MILTON. 397." Juletta tells. Mill's and Mr. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.² He lands us on a grassy stage.² Live your king and country's best support. and Peterborough's. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. and Harley's.²THACKERAY. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. the shore of Galilee. Joint possession. Separate possession. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.²RUSKIN.²EMERSON. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Putting Mr. but imply separate possession or ownership. Bentham's principles together. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Woman. and Pope's.²MACAULAY. as. 394. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.NOUNS.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. the possessive sign is used with each noun. sense and nature's easy fool. for example. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. and Peter's. Use of the possessive. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.

²SOUTHEY. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. Still. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. who.²THACKERAY." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. whom is the complement after the verb am. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. No mightier than thyself or me. together with the relative who. . It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. Since most of the personal pronouns.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Objective for the nominative. and should be the nominative form. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.²SHAKESPEARE. others are generally. thus. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. for example. I. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.²BYRON. sanctioned.²WHITCHER.²TROLLOPE. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. as. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. General rules. there are two general rules that require attention.) "The young Harper. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. Some of the violations are universally condemned. But he must be a stronger than thee. Bedott Papers. 398." 400.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. if not universally. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. This should be "as she. the last expression has the support of many good writers. the real thought being forgotten.²POPE. 399.

the objective form is regularly found. both in England and America.²THACKERAY. "Than whom. But still it is not she. is. as. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. and the other forms of the verb be. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.² One I remember especially. .²RUSKIN." 401.² For there was little doubt that it was he. are. In spoken English. for example. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON."²WINTHROP. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. namely.²LONGFELLOW. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. it will not be me. One exception is to be noted. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. they are yet holier than we. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²PARTON.²SCOTT. on the other hand. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.²KINGSLEY.²COLERIDGE. but such is the fact.²FIELDING. unless a special. "Who's there?"²"Me. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee."²KINGSLEY. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. "If there is any one embarrassed. BLACK. The camp of Richard of England. The usage is too common to need further examples. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. Patrick the Porter. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. A safe rule.²MACAULAY." There is no special reason for this."²WM. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.

It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. Me in exclamations. or us). or preposition which governs it. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 404. as this from Shakespeare. and prepositions. Truth is mightier than us all. "Ask the murderer. verbal. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. (3) By forgetting the construction. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 4. the object of to). 5. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. Nominative for the objective. now. as. or this. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 2. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences.Exercise. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 11. but not he" (he should be him. I speak not to" (he should be him. 7. you or me. You know whom it is that you thus charge. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 9. as. 3. It is not me you are in love with. 403. as. used after verbs.²MILTON. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. 8. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID." the word being in apposition with murderer). he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. . verbals. 10. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. Whom they were I really cannot specify." 6. object of saw). giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. it is me.

²BYRON.²GOLDSMITH. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. after the preposition but (sometimes save). all but he. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²KINGSLEY. for example. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. . Exception 2. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. 406. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. We regularly say.²KINGSLEY. save thou and thine. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²STEELE. changed in all save thee. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Who have we here?²ID.Exception 1. Thou. "Who did you see?" or. partial Nature. who interrogative.Shall be left upon the morn. for they say there are none such in the world. but he. as well as the objective.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²KINGSLEY. Thy shores are empires.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. I arraign. I've sworn. Let you and I look at these. None. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. and is usually avoided. as. 405. Nature. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²BYRON. etc. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.² All were knocked down but us two. Exercise. 2. as.

²THACKERAY. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.²SCOTT. They crowned him long ago. 10.²DE QUINCEY.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²C. This usage is not frequent. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.Ye I salute. with Jortin and Thirlby. II. 5. or objective? .²RUSKIN. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. Preceding a gerund. 407. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. As antecedent of a relative. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. Markland. BROWN.²possessive. 7. Bartholomew. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. 6. 12. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. and they know that as well as me. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.3. 11. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven." 4. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²MACAULAY. who. B. 9. 8. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.

408. sometimes it has the objective. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. Here I state them only in brief.² CARLYLE. Why both are found. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. and the meaning is. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. We heard of Brown. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. Objective. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. In the examples quoted. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. But in common use there is no such distinction. Both types of sentences are found. both are gerunds.² SCOTT.²RUSKIN. etc. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. [who was] studying law. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. and asked why it was not made.² IRVING.²CARLYLE. that the bitterness of death was past.²DE QUINCEY. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.²MACAULAY. studying is a gerund. The last incident which I recollect. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. as he turned away from his wife." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. object of heard of. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.²DICKENS. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. . The use of the objective is older.²BREWER. and that in the second." That is. Possessive.² THACKERAY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.

²DE QUINCEY. preceded by a distributive. .²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²HUXLEY. it was his own fault. taking in each of many persons.²DEFOE. number. and gender. BROCKDEN BROWN. in one person.²THOREAU.²AUDUBON. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²C. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. Everybody had his own life to think of.²HOLMES.²RUSKIN. and ought to agree with them in person.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²CABLE. if the antecedent is neuter. Watch for the real antecedent. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²EMERSON III. Every city threw open its gates. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.² BRYANT. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²THACKERAY. In such a case as the last three sentences. where there were examinations. 409. If any one did not know it. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. The pale realms of shade. 410. or is a distributive word.²when the antecedent.²DE QUINCEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. Examples of these constructions are. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.

411. Whosoever hath any gold. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.Avoided: By using both pronouns. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²BIBLE. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²EMERSON. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. . for example.²HUXLEY. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. If the part deserve any comment. let them break it off.²AUSTEN.²BYRON.²THACKERAY. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²PAULDING. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. till they have lost him. By using the plural pronoun. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. not a mowing idiot.²ID.²RUSKIN. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.² Not the feeblest grandame. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. and giving them means of being so.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²FIELDING. Struggling for life. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²PALEY.²PALGRAVE. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. The sun. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²SCOTT. This is not considered the best usage.²DEFOE. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²ID. as anybody in their senses would have done. Every one must judge of their own feelings.

and does not add a new statement. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. the definite relatives who. because. tell whether who. 412. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. who went away. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. that being considered already clear. and that may be coördinating or restrictive.²HAWTHORNE. but. Exercise. which. etc. I. when restrictive. or unrestrictive. or what was become of her. unless both genders are implied. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating.²ADDISON. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. which. but. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. "I gave it to the beggar. in each instance:² Who.²ID. As to their conjunctive use. What these terms mean.) and a personal pronoun. as. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. 1. The clause is restricted to the antecedent." It defines beggar. 413. In the following examples. and that are restrictive or not. and he went away. It adds a new statement to what precedes." This means. when coördinating. 2.Where she was gone. A relative. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. and that always restrictive. according to the practice of every modern writer. no one could take upon them to say." A relative.²In the above sentences. . Exercise.² SHERIDAN. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. That is in most cases restrictive.

²ID. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. who. 8. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. II. that were often vicious.²DE QUINCEY. and over England are saying. 414. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. etc. 10. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. which was to go over the Cordilleras. and it is called logic. it makes the verb third person singular. Hare has printed. 6. On hearing their plan. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. That. but.²THOREAU. BEECHER 5. as that does not vary for person or number. you. The rule.²H. With narrow shoulders. However. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. For example.²ADDISON. etc. 13. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.² IRVING.3. Yet how many are there who up. because of its antecedent. We say I. she agreed to join the party.² MOTLEY. The general rule is. 11. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. So different from the wild. they. W. down. long arms and legs. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand.² CARLYLE. 12. these or that which. or it might have gone hard with the tutor.² NEWMAN.²ID. 9.²HOLMES. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. which Mr. Which. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. in the sentence.²DE QUINCEY." that is invariable as to person and number. A grizzly-looking man appeared.. . In what sense true. 14. 7. he. 4. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. etc.

A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.. Franklin.] Both constructions are frequently found..²LECKY. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. He is one of those that deserve very well. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. The latter is rather more frequent. MORSE. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²M. when he derided the shams of society.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.²HOWELLS. Let us be of good cheer. and in improving a victory. but speaks of him as that sort. 415. and write the verb in the plural.. or which . French literature of the eighteenth century.²J.²ADDISON. the true antecedent. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. others regard books as the antecedent. but the former has good authority. "one of the finest books that has been published. etc. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. Singular. A disputed point.. [plural] that who...²HOLMES.. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²MACAULAY. [singular or plural.²LOWELL. "one of the finest books that have been published. T. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. with one as the principal word.²BOWLES. The fiery youth .²SCOTT. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. etc. ARNOLD. in winning a battle. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. ." One of . He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. who rarely speak at all. JR." or.²LOWELL.²whether we should say. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.²ADDISON. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. but myself.

²BURNS." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. when the relative word is a pronoun.² . This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²ID.²GOLDSMITH.² RUSKIN. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. III. and such like: as. The same day I went aboard we set sail. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. I could see nothing except the sky. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²VAUGHAN." "India is the place [in which. Exercise.²SCOTT. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. where.²SWIFT. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. that is. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²In the above sentences."²DICKENS. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. 417.²EMERSON. when this dust falls to the urn. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²ADDISON. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.And. object of a preposition understood. whence. 416. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²IRVING. or where] he died.²EMERSON. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.² THACKERAY. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²DEFOE.A rare Roundabout performance. But I by backward steps would move. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.In that same state I came. IV. return. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²CARLYLE.

V. for example. but we find the relative who.² BURKE. and working in the same spirit. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. as is not used. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. with Turner.. if I had resolved to go on with. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. W.²SCOTT. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. .²FRANKLIN. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as his apprentice.²ADDISON. etc.²WORDSWORTH. That. Which. 418. was a discoverer. she passed the lamp over her face and person. boats.. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. CHURCH. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. if same is followed by a complete clause. looking-glasses. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. he. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.²SWIFT. which.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. as of knives. The regular construction. Anacoluthic use of which.² MACAULAY. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. They believe the same of all the works of art. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. ²GOLDSMITH.² THACKERAY.² Which.²R. or that. I might as well have staid at home. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. but. Mr. Caution.He considered. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. but which is usually carefully avoided. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest.

The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.²RUSKIN. and this be placed in the proper clause. le Conte. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. and who are now.² Direction for rewriting. (3) "Among the poorer sort.²SCOTT. (1) "Among those who are poor.²DE QUINCEY. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. or omit the conjunction. 1. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. 419. He delivered the letter. 2. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors." etc. Express both relatives. This was a gentleman. Exercise. Thornhill had read. and which.. or leave out both connective and relative. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. but none is expressed. But who. 3." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. etc. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.She'd come again. Exercise. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. . That is. now thrown upon their.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch." etc. or.²SHAKESPEARE. And who. 4.. As the sentences stand. which when Mr. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. etc. he said that all submission was now too late.²HAWTHORNE.²THACKERAY. who are now thrown. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. once a great favorite of M. After this came Elizabeth herself.²which if they once heard. but. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion." etc.²GOLDSMITH. (2) "Among the poorer sort. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.

Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 12.²SCOTT. etc. 13. I shall have complete copies. either from imitation of their frequent allies. and which. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING. Exercise. That . but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. who. And which. and which may even be heard a mile off. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian..²SCOTT. indeed.. and repeat this for any further reference. and to whom no door is closed. English by name. "What knight so craven. and which has never been described. Akin to the above is another fault. then. 420. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 10. "A mockery. Or which. I saw upon the left a scene far different. 7. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.²HAWTHORNE. 1. like that spoken in the towns. 11.²DE QUINCEY.5. But which. . He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. the French. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character.. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. one of signal interest. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . Dr. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. 6. 9.² MOTLEY.²PEARSON. 8. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. which the Scotch had learned. as a false and astucious mark. Or who. etc.²DE QUINCEY..

. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. .²HALLAM.²W. but which is perhaps not so different from it. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. that. half a century ago. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. and whose examples and principles we inherit. the cent.²SCOTT. at the head of what. Such as . was hung in air. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours..²HAWTHORNE.²DE QUINCEY. 13. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.. 12.²HOLMES. Which . and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. 8. 3. in his present condition. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. CHANNING. 9.. Such as . was a bustling wharf. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death..²DEFOE.²EMERSON.2. and to whom I do not belong. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. 6. the dime. which. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.²EMERSON. 10. He flung into literature. The Tree Igdrasil. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. 5. That . but which. I give to such men as do not belong to me.. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. SIMMS. in his Mephistopheles. E.²W.. that .²BEECHER..²HOWELLS.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 15. In my native town of Salem. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.²SCOTT That which . I recommend some honest manual calling. 7. what. 11. 14. 4. It rose into a thrilling passion.. I grudge the dollar.. such as they have very probably been bred to. which. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. whom. G. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. He.

In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. We call ourselves a rich nation. 421. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Distributives either and neither.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. England was then divided between kings and Druids. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. in which case any should be used instead. as it were. whether or not the two are equivalent. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. Assume that no one is in want of either.²EMERSON. By their original meaning. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²MACAULAY. Use of any.²HAWTHORNE.² HAWTHORNE. one another. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²ID. . as. always at war with one another. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²DICKENS.²RUSKIN. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²RUSKIN. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. 422. Each other. for example. as.²GOLDSMITH.² Some one must be poor. that not all combined.

² If any. as none of the French philosophers were. in the prose of the present day. If any of you lack wisdom. Do you think.²CARLYLE.²BIBLE. any of his friends had died. usually plural. even in Bettine.² EMERSON. 423. then in Plotinus. that I know of. at one time in Bacon. let him ask of God. before that. Caution.²SHAKESPEARE.² In earnest.²STIRLING. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²EMERSON.²THACKERAY. speak. when any of them are so good as to visit me. as. In earlier Modern English.²SCOTT. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. 424. whilst I still cherish their genius.²FRANKLIN. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. and is isolated. None usually plural.. The adjective pronoun none is. Examples of its use are. I beseech you. None of Nature's powers do better service.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.. in Shakespeare. . although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). then in Plutarch. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²BEECHER Whenever. Do you think. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. afterwards in Goethe. for him have I offended. any was often singular.²PROF. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. etc. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. during his stay at Yuste.. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²BURKE. Any usually plural. if ever man was. which is plural as often as singular. as.

etc. any one else.² PEARSON. When all were gone.²THOREAU. saving Naaman the Syrian. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. that all was lost.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. The light troops thought .²NAPIER Plural..²McMASTER. as. fixing his eyes on the mace. etc. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. 425.² Singular. etc. for example. The compounds somebody else.²SCOTT Like the use of any. are treated as units. and Ford has nobody's else. and all was lost on the other. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. which is used absolutely.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. Somebody's else. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. the plural.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. nobody else. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. or somebody else's? 426.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.. etc.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and less rarely in poetry. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. when it means all persons: for example.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.² None of them was cleansed.

ELIOT."²MRS. etc. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. These sort.²SWEET. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. P. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.² Saturday Review. etc. London.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.. unlike anybody else's in the world.² FIELDING. STOWE. . the adjectives plural.²DICKENS.. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). Again. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.² These kind of knaves I know.²in such as "these sort of books.²RUSKIN. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. WILLIS.²AUSTEN.SYDNEY SMITH." "those kind of trees.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. ADJECTIVES.²RUSKIN." "all manner of men. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.curled once all over it in long tendrils. "Ye see." the nouns being singular. Whitefield or Wesley. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²MULOCH. His hair. all manner of. or those sort of people. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²THACKERAY. or some other such great man as a bishop.²N. for example.²G. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. 427. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²SHERIDAN.

made to agree with it. with all manner of amusing books. more alarming than a total silence. they said. Of two such lessons.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. Consequently we have a confused expression. History of this construction. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. Later form.The library was open.² PRESCOTT. According to the approved usage of Modern English. which accounts for the construction. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. and the adjective is.²RUSKIN." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. "This kind of rules are the best. such as. for example. as. "These kind of trees are best.² Which is the better able to defend himself. and in this way may take a plural verb. the victor or the vanquished. in spoken English. gradually displacing the old." A question. "This sort of trees should be planted. . not "all kinds of wild animals. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. when the necessary dispositions concur. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. or one object with a class of objects. 428. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. to express a higher degree of quality. Should we say. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. Burke's sentence. This the modern expression reverses." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. In Old and Middle English. Use of the comparative degree. At the source. The result. or the nouns to the plural. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY.

Henry. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things."²ID. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. Exercise. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²LOWELL. 5. Use of the superlative degree. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. Gary. 4. 2. 429. 430.A braver ne'er to battle rode. . Other after the comparative form.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. has sanctioned. would not have had the face. 6. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. the highest stakes are paid. by almost the breadth of my nail.²TROLLOPE.²MACAULAY. 3.²WIRT. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. To the man who plays well. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. He is taller.² THACKERAY. Even Dodd himself. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²SWIFT. Superlative with two objects.²CARLYLE.²HUXLEY. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²THACKERAY. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²HAWTHORNE. etc.²SCOTT. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. if not.²MACAULAY. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. I am concerned to see that Mr. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. than any of his court.

and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²J. I should say that one has the best cause. Examples from Shakespeare are. ha.²ADDISON. Come you more nearer. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature..² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. not a bit of high life among them.²MRS. The eldest. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. 1611.²DR BLAIR."²BULWER. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. Mary. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. "Ha.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. and differ only in form. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child."²HAWTHORNE. CÆSAR. The following examples are used purposely. OLIPHANT.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. whichever can be got easiest. Double comparative and superlative. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. Rip was one of those . Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. 431. Also from the same period. more particularly the last of them. who eat white bread or brown."²GOLDSMITH.²EMERSON.²Bible. In all disputes between States. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²RUSKIN.²BEN JONSON. and the other contains the best men. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. These two properties seem essential to wit. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²TEMPEST.²GOLDSMITH.²HAMLET..²IRVING.²SCOTT. .

²GIBBON.² SMOLLETT. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. etc. jar upon us constantly.²LAMB. These are the three first needs of civilized life. As to these two expressions. Three first. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The delay in the first three lines.²PRESCOTT. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. and conceit in the last. and Secretary Walsingham also. . Definite article. First three. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. For Carlyle. but in literary English. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. ARTICLES. Instances of both are given below. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.² With a singular noun. etc. not only so in popular speech. The meaning intended is the same. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY.²KINGSLEY. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.²GIBBON. 433. ²COWPER. The first five had specific names. the Spanish. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The merit of the Barb.²RUSKIN. Examples of this construction are. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²RUSKIN.

²PRESCOTT. of the higher and middling orders. distinct. Here the youth of both sexes.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²ID. of the eighteenth century. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. the greatest poems.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.² RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. . however. 434.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. Origin of the Aryans. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. were placed at a very tender age. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. melodious. 1508.²NEWMAN. He is master of the two-fold Logos. I think. Meaning same as in Sec. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²THACKERAY. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. Frequently.²THE NATION. The lofty. 433. and flexible language. as in Sec. The flowers. 435. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. the thought and the word.²CARLYLE. to distinguish clearly.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. the hour of parting came. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . One object and several modifiers.²TENNYSON. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. Indefinite article.²TAYLOR.. With a plural noun.. having been arranged. with a singular noun. with a plural noun. 433. but inseparable from each other. or to emphasize the meaning.²SCOTT. The not repeated. as. and the presents. No. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. as. but is used with one only.² MACAULAY.

As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²MACAULAY. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. For rhetorical effect.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. a round and a square one alternately. JONSON. But in the following sentences. T.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. .²THACKERAY. The indefinite article is used. In the sentences of Secs.²B. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. The indefinite article (compare Sec.² MACAULAY. rich. a collegian. 437. 435. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²MACAULAY. only one of which is expressed. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²DRYDEN.²BEECHER. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. or clearness to each of several nouns. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.436. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. a murderer. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 438. like the definite article. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. as in the first three of Sec. He saw him in his mind's eye. COLERIDGE. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. a tyrant.² BURKE. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. interest. and a usurper. 436).²DICKENS. Examples of this use are. one noun is expressed.²BULWER.²S. to limit two or more modified nouns.An early. and inexhausted vein.²JOHNSON. 433 and 436. One article with several adjectives. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist." and "a red and a white geranium. as.

Singular verb. or the great intellectual life of our nation. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. 440. ELIOT. Another writer might. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. has got already. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.VERBS. 439.²CARLYLE This usage. all that academies can give. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²AGASSIZ. He sees that it is better to live in peace. Collective noun of singular meaning. A broad and loose rule. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning.²FROUDE.²GIBBON.²The Nation. Such. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. then.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. ARNOLD. This was spoken of in Part I. for example.²W. . CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.²M. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. Singulars connected by or or nor. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. as. as. without academies. like some others in this series.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. Sec. and the following illustrations prove it.²COOPER.²G. 276. was the earliest American land. In English. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.

(b) Not joined by a conjunction. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. for example.²GIBBON. other names.² Politics is the only field now open for me. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. as. is gone. the cheap defense of nations. nor John. Plural form and singular meaning. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. and other singulars of plural form.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. A fever. ADAMS. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. a mutilation. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²DE QUINCEY. as.²BURKE. (4) When the subject is plural in form. or considered as appositional. Q. Between ourselves.² The unbought grace of life.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.²WHITTIER.²EMERSON . or as making up one general idea. nor Mahomet. for example. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. and every four hours.² In a word. that of a large town. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. but considered as meaning about the same thing. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²CRITIC. ²EMERSON.Jesus is not dead.²J. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. a loss of wealth. nor Paul. a loss of friends.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. No. but each one emphatic. a cruel disappointment.²GOLDSMITH.² GOLDSMITH.

to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. For wide is heard the thundering fray. every valet. 441.²HAWTHORNE. almost every day.²ID. thus.²MACAULAY. Here is no ruin.²BUTLER. no. with death. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. Subjects after the verb. as well as the newest. was like to crack. no spent ball. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. is a man of wit. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. as. nay. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. every echo. sir?" and the "No. the ruin. and greaves. Every sound. There is a moving tone of voice. the dismay. each. The oldest. in a judge.²PRESCOTT. no discontinuity.²EMERSON.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.²PRESCOTT. Every week. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. as well as the Drama.²SCOTT. the wit. The Epic. no matter if the second is plural).²ID. was listened to for five hours. a cuirass. To receive presents or a bribe.²M ARNOLD. sir!" and the "What then. Her back.² .²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. many a. Every fop.²MACAULAY.² Asia. a gorget. wineBegins to stir itself.² There is a right and a wrong in them. was dazzled.²NEWMAN. an impassioned countenance. the partisan.The rout. an agitated gesture. as well as sides.The author.²RUSKIN. and such like adjectives. as well as Europe. as. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²LONGFELLOW. the fine gentleman. does not take the place of the man. every boor.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. was punished. Plural verb. Then comes the "Why. sir!"²MACAULAY.

far away thy children leave the land.²SCOTT. the Duke of Berri. a green pasture.² GIBBON.²FRANKLIN.These bits of wood were covered on every square. TAYLOR. as. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²CARLYLE But its authorship. A shady grove.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²FROUDE.²B. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²THOREAU. Philip of Anjou. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. The Dauphin. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. shirt.²ADDISON.² One or two of these perhaps survive. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. a stream of fresh water. of whom there were a number.²SWIFT. The conjunction may be omitted. its date. Far.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. b).²COLERIDGE. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²FROUDE. as with a subject of plural form.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. were men of insignificant characters. as.²GIBBON.²DE QUINCEY. .² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. and its history are alike a mystery to us. making up a plural subject. for example. 440 (5. Conjunction omitted.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. are sufficient to attract a colony. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²EMERSON.²GOLDSMITH. All our household are at rest.² A multitude go mad about it. as in Sec. A party of workmen were removing the horses. The travelers. His clothes. but the verb is plural.

²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. "I have never said so. . Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men." or. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. If there is only one person in the subject.). the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²SMOLLETT.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. as. nor should I.²RUSKIN. You and I are farmers.But notice the construction of this. Pattison or I have said. Nothing which Mr." etc. Ah. Not Altamont. nor has she"). Second or third and first person in the subject.²M. "He or I can go. we never talk politics.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. ARNOLD. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. his blood dost shed.²THACKERAY.²LOWELL. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²WHITTIER. of different persons. the subject being really equivalent to we. for example. This construction is at the best a little awkward. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. General usage. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. the verb takes the construction of the first person. 442. that is. but thou." "She or you may be sure. "You would not be wiser. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²ROWE.²D. When the subjects. Exceptional examples. You and I are tolerably modest people. Not I. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²THACKERAY.²BYRON. but thou. hadst been my lord. 443. 444. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²RUSKIN. WEBSTER.

²ID.²EMERSON.445. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²SMOLLETT. In a word. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 8. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 440-444):² 1. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. as illustrated above (Secs. How each of these professions are crowded. 6. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 3." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²BYRON. in my opinion. In the following sentence. Neither of their counselors were to be present. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²MILTON. BANCROFT.Her course to intercept.²THACKERAY. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²BURKE. 4. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. In this sentence from Defoe. Exercise. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 10. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). as we would hope. 446.²perhaps the devil. Both death and I am found eternal.²ADDISON. nor bush are there. 9. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze.² TROLLOPE. 2. which it is proper to mention.²and. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 5. nor tree. Nor wood.²ADDISON. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²SCOTT. Also in verbals.²G. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. 7. 12. 11. Neither of them.That neither of their intellects are vast.

on my return. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. meaning.² PALGRAVE 5. change them to a better form:² 1. for exact connection. It should be remarked. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again." . I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. 3. 447. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Indirect discourse means reported speech. Exercise. if not.²THACKERAY.²R.²KINGSLEY.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.²IRVING.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. CHURCH. as.²DE QUINCEY 2. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . But I found I wanted a stock of words.. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. 448. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Of course. Definitions. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. 4. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²MACAULAY. Direct discourse²that is.²FRANKLIN 6. however.. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. W. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. I gave one quarter to Ann. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. Two samples of indirect discourse. The present rule is recent. to have divided with her whatever might remain. to have seen should be changed to to see.

but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. "Oh. "I cannot oblige you . Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. 2. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. 1. under interrogative pronouns. . the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Summary of the expressions. or regular interrogatives. and the indirect question by whether or if. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Oh. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main." Indirect.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. The substance of his lamentation was. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. will.. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. His exact words were. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Direct. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. This includes the auxiliaries be. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. She thought to herself. 449.. Her prudence whispered eternally. have. etc. interrogative adverbs. Direct. introductory verb is in the past tense. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.." etc. Sebastian's.." etc. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk.

Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. if this were expanded into a verb. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. my first observation will be found nearly true.²ID. VERBALS. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. the first discoverer of the river and country.²B. and that he himself had heard.²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. The trouble is. one summer afternoon. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. handed down from his ancestor the historian. he assured me that nothing was more easy. in the sentences first quoted. Notice this. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. FRANKLIN. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Careless use of the participial phrase. like distant peals of thunder.²ADDISON. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. . PARTICIPLES. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. with his crew of the Half-moon.Exercise.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. the sound of their balls. 450.

²ID. if a strike is to succeed. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. It is a solemn. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. then. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . INFINITIVES. Exercise." Exercise. This is the more common arrangement. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1." etc. universal assertion.²RUSKIN. the first sentence would be.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. Standard writers often use it. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. while defended or excused by others.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject...Correction. . There are. 451. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. 3. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. either "As I was pleased.²SCOTT.²LAUGHLIN. avoid it. Adverb between to and the infinitive. many things to be carefully considered. my first collection was.. For example. leaving the principal statement as it is. In the following citations. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. purposely or not. . He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. Consequently one of two courses must be taken..² HERBERT SPENCER. 2. and often.

Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. 5. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation.4. 452. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. I wish the reader to clearly understand. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.²ID. No. from Irving. are used.²DR." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.²GOLDSMITH. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. 9. Exercise. china. 12. is to be very cautiously admitted. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. BLAIR. which consists in multitude. but they are often removed from the exact position. if they modify single words. 8. 10. even. The spirits.² MACAULAY.²TROLLOPE. Now. In works of art. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. The rigid rule in such a case would be. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen..²SCOTT. Position of only. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²RUSKIN. ADVERBS. therefore. when such adverbs as only.. 13. this kind of grandeur. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. etc. A little sketch of his. 7. etc. but cannot misunderstand the thought.²The Nation.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.²BURKE. even. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 1533. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. but it is placed before the infinitive. etc. 6. 11. and earthenware.² ADDISON.

²PALGRAVE. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. ²ASCHAM. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.² THACKERAY. .²SWIFT.²HIGGINSON. 4. 6. 7.²CHAUCER.²RUSKIN.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 453. In Old and Middle English. 2. He shouted in those clear. might not marry. In relating these and the following laws. 17. 3. were he never so old of yeares. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 5. During the whole course of his administration. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. P. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²ID.²SYDNEY SMITH. 12.²MRS. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. My master.²N.²ID. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 15.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 10. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²COOPER. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. His last journey to Cannes. 16.²MACAULAY. for example. No sonne. WILLIS. whence he was never destined to return. GROTE. 13.²MOTLEY. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²ID.1. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 8. 9. to avoid a crowd.²EMERSON. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. Irving could only live very modestly. 14. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 11. The old usage. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²THACKERAY.

The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house.²HAWTHORNE. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. Regular law of negative in modern English. and why:² 1. who hadn't been to school for nothing. nor never shall. Therefore. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. denying each other.²MRS. under the influence of Latin syntax. Not only could man not acquire such information. nor the grandeur of no king. 3. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. However. uncommon. when one of the negatives is a connective. 6. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.²BURKE.²DEFOE. But. Exercise. one of the negatives is often a prefix. I did not act so hastily.²BAYNE. In the execution of this task. neither.²DE QUINCEY. as. ²PAGE. can so agreeably affect. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. This. STOWE. etc. in Ole Virginia.²HOLMES. however. the usual way of regarding the question now is. 4. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. STOWE. The prosperity of no empire. 2. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. Exceptional use. There weren't no pies to equal hers.² HAMILTON.²GROTE. as infrequent. and is still kept in vulgar English. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. if two negatives are found together. 5. is not common. 7.²LOWELL. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. but ought not to labor after it."²four negatives. I never did see him again. ."²MRS. In the latter case.

" Besides neither . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. Correction. either.. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. not merely . misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. if the second precedes a phrase.. and which.. the first ought to be placed before a verb... Choice and proper position of correlatives.. either . This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. as the use of the conjunction. and.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. but (also). The sentences given in Secs. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. neither . as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs." . nor is often changed to not²either . The sentence.. if the last precedes a verb... Things to be watched. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives...²LOWELL. the first should also.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. "A weapon. or." may be changed to "This loose ... 455.8. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . nor.. or. especially both .. "well worthy to confer honor. In the sentence.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. not or is the proper correlative of neither.²SCOTT. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is."²SCOTT. there we were. 454." said the King... Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever." both of the above requirements are violated. or to reply to it. should be scrutinized. not only to the success of their common cause. And who. CONJUNCTIONS. or with advantage. but to their own safety.²PRESCOTT. but. or to reply to it. even neither . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. not only . as well as of the pronoun. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.

Try and for try to.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. In the following sentences.²S. not merely interest children. O.²FRANKLIN.²THACKERAY. etc. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 5. Now.Exercise.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. or but that. but.²MACAULAY. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²ID. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. murder. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²BAIN. 7.² ADDISON. Correct the following sentences:² 1. or the negative relative but.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY. Exercise. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. 8. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Try and avoid the pronoun. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. But what. or but that for the words but what:² 1. but. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. JEWETT. 2. They will. but they will outrage. as. 3. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. as. too. and chop up their own kin.²GIBBON. but grown-up persons. and I don't know but what he was right. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Some exceptions. 4. substitute that. . 456. 6. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that.²RUSKIN. 457.

In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. PREPOSITIONS.²SCOTT.²EMERSON. as already seen in Sec. 305. 459. 313. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. Between and among. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.² SWIFT.²ADDISON. no separation or division by twos being implied. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²BURKE. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. 4. 5. see Sec. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.2.² BULWER. Between is used most often with two things only. . but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 6. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²EMERSON. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 458.²TROLLOPE. 3.²ADDISON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.

as. correspond. a soldier of the Cross. Derogatory to. Different from. or one object and a group. averse.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. 460. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Accord with. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. by custom. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Conform to. Such are derogatory. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Some of them have.²RUSKIN What have I.²between philosophers like Spinoza.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope.: Words with particular prepositions. Paley. confer. Abhorrent to. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. . involve. etc. Bestow on (upon). Conversant with. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Dissent from. Averse to. Kant. different. Mackintosh. Acquit of. Two groups or one and a group. LIST I. and Coleridge. List I. ²EMERSON.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.²KINGSLEY. and philosophers like Locke. Such are absolve. and Stewart. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. as. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Dependent on (upon). and another to convey a different meaning. Affinity between. Comply with. 461.

"Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. etc. Reconcile with (note below). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. A taste of (food). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. as meaning to be in keeping with. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Differ with (note below). Confide in (trust in). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Confer on (upon) (give to). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. LIST III.y y y Deprive of. Change to (become)." List III. Change for (a thing). List II. Change with (a person).).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. as. as. but it is not good usage. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Confide to (intrust to). 463. Independent of. LIST II. as. Correspond to (a thing)." also of persons. in the sense of making friends with. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Correspond with (write to). Agree to (a proposal).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. 462. Confer with (talk with). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Involve in. A taste for (art. Reconcile to (note below). . Differ from (note below). "The king is reconciled to his minister.

" She would have been ready to die with shame. "Die for. People do not die of trifling little colds.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. He died at last without disease. died for love of the fair Marcella. as Cervantes informs us." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. privation. instrument). ²THACKERAY. die of.²MACAULAY.:² "Die of. I am positively dying with hunger. part with. simply from old age. "Die from.²ADDISON. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." "die from. If I meet with any of 'em. Take thought and die for Cæsar. Expect of. "Die by. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²BURNETT. and ill treatment." etc. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²GOLDSMITH. "Die with. . ELIOT.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. She died of hard work." (in behalf of).²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. they shall die by this hand.y y y Die by. ELIOT.²G.²GOLDSMITH." (because of).²BOSWELL.²SHAKESPEARE. die with. It would take me long to die of hunger. die from. expect from.²BULWER.²G. It is a man of quality who dies for her." (material cause.²MACAULAY. Illustrations of "die of. Who.²POPE. One of them said he would die for her. ²ATHENÆUM. die for. "Die for.²FIELDING. Part from. No one died from want at Longfeld.

²TROLLOPE.²AUSTEN.²MARRYAT. and hated to part with them." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²BULWER. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²MACAULAY. That is more than I expected of you." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. which he would by no means part from. Illustrations of "expect of. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²DICKENS." She will expect more attention from you. Kind in you. "Expect from. either of or in is used indifferently. I have long expected something remarkable from you. It was a little bad of you. 464. ELIOT. 466. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²G. kind of you. ELIOT.²BULWER. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²G. Of Doctor P.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. How cruel of me!²COLLINS." To part from you would be misery. nothing better was to be expected. 465. With words implying behavior or disposition. I have just seen her.²POE. just parted from her.²WALLER. I can part with my children for their good. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. .²G.²SCOTT. "Part from. ELIOT.²SHAW. as my friend. His precious bag.²MACAULAY. as shown in the following quotations:² Of." "part from:"² "Part with.²WALPOLE. Illustrations of "part with.

1.²DICKENS. Hampden. or which we are most imperatively required to do. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.He did not think it handsome of you. the vast abyss. 15. 3. The noise of vast cataracts. 13. 9. 4. or artillery. thrown it over Amyas's head. 7. 6. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. thunder. and ran up the alley.²CARLYLE. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 5. nor blue. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. Very natural in Mr. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. nor green.²TENNYSON. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. In the friction between an employer and workman. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. tedious perhaps. It will be anything but shrewd in you. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss.²BULWER. 14. with seraphims. raging storms. it is commonly said that his profits are high.²BEACONSFIELD. nor of a pale red. but which the story renders necessary. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. But this is idle of you. Thou tread'st. 10. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. .²BULWER. or that they are any way dependent on each other. In. 11. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 8. This narrative. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. nor yellow. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12.

and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. whom he thinks would be better than a dog.I would wish me only he. 20. you or me. and most of us do know. and other angular figures. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 29. 23. produce approbation. 19. 38. 16. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant.) 34. . Squares. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 33. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 30. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 37. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 35. The effect of proportion and fitness. or how beautiful it is. 31. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 28.And were I anything but what I am. (Sec. 32. what is a just and unjust act. Friday. 411. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. were down with raging fever. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 27. 24. 36. That night every man of the boat's crew. but in the price paid to them. and almost as good as a pony. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. But every man may know. 17. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 18. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. triangles. Every one of these letters are in my name. When the glass or liquor are transparent. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. the acquiescence of the understanding. 21. 25. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. You have seen Cassio and she together. 22. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. save Amyas. 26.

(3) Modern English. pronouns. 102. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 47. 90. 92. 133. 107. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. adverbs used complements. Abstract with Active Address. INDEX. 310. 25. of. adjectives. 239. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 91. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 40. 124. nominative. nouns. of. 47.39. 124. . as.000 between them. demonstrative. Adjectives. 20. 260. numeral. (2) Middle English. origin of. voice. 119. from about 1500 to the present time. of. 98. syntax uses Absolute. article. He had four children. 89. from nominative clauses. 116. A. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy.

323. 184. of. modify. 275. and 185. 262. of. 287. from to of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 104. of. 48. of. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 114. 207. 325. compared. 106. nouns. nouns. antecedent. 97. quantity. objective. infinitive. 291. 302. with with with subject. of. 109. parse. antecedent. 195. adjectives. 42. as nouns. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 190. adjectives. quality. 183. 187. 328. 316.from function how in not of of ordinal. conjunctions. 194. 115. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. . 303. 242. of. sentence. conjunction. between of. 103. 116. adjectives. 99. Alms. 191. plural pronominal. 101. Agreement. 27. predicate. 27. 325. 116. 190. clauses. to used of. of. 194. 303. parse. 207. Against. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 148. 239.

parse. . of. 101. An. Agreement. syntax. in in. See with definition complex compound simple who. 198. as uses verbs. Are. Anacoluthon Analysis. of. 84. of. 295. See 74. 90. 51. adjective. sentences. same. 294. 252. 124. 240. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 120. 74. 300. 296. 150. 120. which. it. 309. 331. 287. 231. 49. of of of And Antecedent. 67. definition of of of Any. though. agreement personal as pronoun. which. of. A. 79. sentences. after of. to of. possessive. 67. of. pronouns. 148. and. 264. definition how indefinite. 207. 47. syntax As. which. 271. uses As At.Among. Arrangement Articles. 127. sentences. words between. 275. 225. Auxiliary if. of and pronoun of. 208. derivation in definite.

of pronouns. 262. forms. 194. number of. 66. nominative. 210. 47. of pronouns. plurals of. adjective. 110. 63. of nouns. 62. 260. Be. of nouns. 150. Cause. of what. conjunctions Cherub. But. 45. of nouns. 110. uses of. 161. of pronouns. 111. 149. 46. 279. 84. best. Brethren. 278. 330. Between. 54. of. comparison conjugation of. in Old and Modern English. Case. double possessive. 224. 48. Bridegroom. Children. clauses of. with But By. 283. 279. definition could. . 37. uses nominative of. 39. 64. Case. Clause. 39. of pronouns. Can. uses Better. pronoun. 49. adverb. possessive.Bad. 195. Among. 278. 46. See of. of. objective. syntax of. of. 262. of nouns.

113. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 189. 244. of. material. 315. of. 307. 108. 53. Cloths. 43. in analysis. 271. 108. verb. adverbs. 257. nouns. and forms of. and sentence. 111. 43. Clomb. predicate of and from from of. 248. proper.definition kinds noun. of. of. 23. of. 110. 24. 312. predicate. double. 157. 18. nouns. analysis of. subject. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 268. definition degrees irregular. sentence. superlative. clothes. defective. 263. 107. 264. adjectives. 12. of. 307. 305. 257. 18. of. 239. of. plural of. 257. infinitive. 158. of. Cleave. nouns. . 258. English.

194. and clause. Can. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 231. See in subjunctive. Dative Declarative Declension of case. subjunctive. replaced by objective. Conjunctions. conjunctions. 139. of. See English. 194. 195. sentences. of of Conjunctions. 151. other other parts of speech. 193. interrogative pronouns. definition be. pronouns. to of. pronoun. 195. sentences. analysis. 207. . 328. 194. 199. 188. 289. adverbs. sentence. 66. 149. 138. conjunction. 263. parse. 255. See analysis clauses. 196. coördinate. 149. in Old vs. same words. conjunctions. pronoun. Agreement.with Concord. definition how subordinate. 73. 143. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. verbs. correlative. of. 269.

of. article. 333. pronouns.Declension. of personal relative verbs. Degrees. Case. from. 102. of. 315. 43. Comparative. 288. possessive. passive adjectives. tenses. 51. Subordinate clause. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. Comparison. 91. 90. 26. 160. See 148. pronouns. of. 242. pronouns. 80. clause. 99. 102. duck. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 152. 303. nouns. See See 48. 35. use of dies. discourse. of. for. nouns. 60. 242. with of. 185. by. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. verb. Articles. adverbs See adjectives. 287. with. 300. See adjectives. 320. vs. pronouns. object. . comparative. indirect.

328. 240. 90. . 12. of. 287. vulgar. 33. 92. of. Empress. ending. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 255. 158. complement. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 51. plural. of. of. suffix. 241. -En. 92. Either. 38. 33. one ( t). to suffix. Each. the of sentence. 92. 287. 32. 110. in 'Em. another. 299. of. 42. 234. drunk. pronoun. 280. literary. Elements Ellipsis. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. pronoun. 62. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 34. original. object. 194. adjective. other. 39. spoken. older. pronouns. added suffix. 40. of. 257. 158. possessive suffix. 90. predicate. adjective. feminine plural English. 102. conjunction. error in sentence. 300. 112.Drank. of subject.

30. For. pronoun. Few. with in sex. See Gander. 319. Further. Gender. 152. uses redundant. 32. 112. 102. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. perfect. 189. 102. first. etc. 148. Farther. have adjective. to of. of. 91. 147. 110. 43. adjective. few. 238. 48. 212. First. two a further. as a noun. 29. 45. fishes. other languages. 30. 152. from. 287. of.. gender. 36. Feminine. nouns." 31. 235. used of. 126. Future Future tense. From. the. 211. 334. 30. of. . with infinitive. 112. two.. expect gone. 308. as of from compared marking. plurals. etc. definition distinguished in English. modes "common goose.Every. uses Foreign Former. 212. 103. object. First Fish.

12. adjective. and case verbal with. 173. 231. His Husband. 60. its. 9. 13. kinds of. 120. Grammar. Had Hanged. noun. 60. from participle of. for before. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. on. 159. 61. possessive pronouns. distinguished syntax. of. 61. 285. 275. 159. Government. rather. 43. of. she. 12. 10. 36. first sentence. of. forms in Girl. it. 145. . 144. 101. He. personal relative geniuses. of. Got. definition basis of. pronoun. I. 35. 177. person. an better.of of Genii. 175. pronouns. 80. participle. had hung. 176. Gerund. definition divisions opinions province H.

pronouns. a object. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 131. your. 231. Questions. adjectives. See you. of clause. in compared syntax. of. 85. uses discourse. 245. indices. elements. 131. Direct object. indirect of. 72. 276. 233. 176.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 110. summary See passive mood. adjectives. 178. words. sentence. questions. 227. meaning. See Articles. with of. of. mood. 43. questions. use article. 67. 153. transitive. 323. of. 93. 320. pronoun. 283. 136. 73. 105. adverbs. verbs. 257. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. . 319. of. 188. 248.

36. predicate. plural. 36. these double kind. was uses me. King. Last. Kine. 303. uses Literary Little. 227. lesser. Kind. adjective. Lady. 226. in little. Lay. of. 91. subject form. Lay. 245.. 67. See Madam. a vs. 189. 113. 110. Like. and See words in. queen. of. 190. 39." history etc. lord. of. lie. English. 126. 276. 36. 102. 63. Lady. 110. syntax. -Ly. "It Its. 170.adverbs. Latter. syntax the. 61. pronoun. 281. 113. latest. 12. etc. Less. Lie. It. .. Logic Logical Lord. of.

might. 144. indicative. Mighty Mine. -Most. position adverb. 110. Negative. of. construction as of adverb. 189. 188. 325. comparison Near. Modifier. syntax conjunction. adjective. etc. 114. 34. Neither. 41. Must. mine. 194. Mood. 110. Modifiers. Master. 256. of. 112. 160. 187. 185. out of. 328. Many Mapping Mare. subjunctive. sentences. 189. Enlargement. superlatives. conjunctions Many. Much. May. double. 195. 137. of. of. 110. of. 287. 112. 113. imperative. of.Manner. 265. 64. mistress. 112. . 161. nigh.. 102. of. syntax nearer. 326. 126. Means. 137-144. See definition 136. 135. in adverbs comparison a. 36. of.

of. 21. gender nouns. 46. of. 27. . nouns. definition descriptive. nouns. etc. 26. 125. 32. 17. common. 29. of. syntax in gender nouns. clause. of. 300. 38-41. 126. to use.pronoun. formed. Case. Not Noun Nouns. 30. foreign. 17. 30. become become formation case collective. 45. parse. 246. letters as 24. of. class used singular. number once other plural. 25. abstract. 17 19. used as. of. kinds 90. 38. See 194. become neuter. words how compound. definition according of. 30. 124. 19. material. syntax Neuter or two News. of. 25. to of. analysis. 20. 301. 41 43. 41. of of of of of a. 18. in. Nor. gender how kinds material. 92. 328. 258. 42. proper. None. etc. 41. 56. No Nominative. abstract. and figures. half abstract. now plural. 46.

passive adverbial. of. 278. in article. become syntax use with with with Nouns. as forms titles. verbs.. indirect. of. See verb. preposition. adverbial. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 41. singular. nominative. article. 48. Numeral Object. form. meaning. of. adjectives. 48. and analysis. 48. 279. 240. 235. indefinite. 66. 124. in nouns. 285. 42. 48. 282. 102. . 148. spoken of instead nouns. etc. definite. 48. See in in in Numeral distributive. plural form. conjunction. Nouns. pronouns. 42. 101. 41. of different possessive definite of. pronouns. 42 44. common.of same two with proper. English. with case. 18. plural no two singular construction. 60. 101. 23. 41. 43. 242. adjectives. 92. of. Preposition. of. 281. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. singular. dative. 106. 39. 121. 195. plural. or plural. 242. with with with Now Number. 278. 196. personal. meanings. of.

indefinite possessive One One as Only. uses numeral pronoun. conjunction. part analysis. 93 other. 161. Pains.syntax Of. 38. Parsing. 116. 101. 293. definite relative uses of. a in adjectives. position Order. 87. of. 279. Ourself. 56. with (the). 94. 127. 56. treatment comparatives. See pronoun. 233. Older. as other. 325 275. Omission On. 91. 115. 237. 306. of. nouns. adjective. Our. for. 199. conjunctions. pronoun. adverb. 191. 117. 41. as of. Elder. 213. Ordinal Other Ought. of. 69. 103. of syntax. See the as of. of upon. One. Oxen. inverted. articles. 216. 64. ours. Each adjective. of of of of of models adjectives. adverbs. 194. 103. another. .

43. 63. verbs. and subject in. 180. of. 95. reflexive. or of. used as voice. 172. 335. 59. 62. included various. of. parsed. 134. 174. 43.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. part adjective. nominative. speech. article 150. 56. 219. 64. pronoun. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. with. absolute with of. pennies. 119. 172. 179. antecedent. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 59. phrase. verb idioms it from. 287. . verbals. 27. 317. them. of. of. -ing words. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 181. 322. 80. verbs. 100. pronouns. phrases. relatives. 28. 62. from definition other of. of. of. Person. 148. possessive and of. pronouns. not is. in. 70. 56. Pence. 69. 281. 173. 177. predicate use of. 61. agreement of verb nouns. 247. pease. of. 59.

281. of. 's. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 49. nouns. English. of. double. of. 247. of. nouns. conjunctions prepositions Plural. simple.objective syntax table triple uses of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. antecedent of of pronouns. 61. of. nouns. singular. complete. 235. in of. vs. 278. See 60. 188. 232. 303. appositional. 248. 206. 53. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 54. 236. spoken of. 50. 247. kinds infinitive. of. 67. adverbs of. 241. or See of of See 185. pronoun. Positive Possessive. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 25. Place. singular degree. of. 281. 195. 37. 285. 303. 53. 63. adjectives. of. 41. pronoun. Personal subjective. plural. omitted. prepositional. participial. 106. of nouns. Comparison. Nouns. of Phrase. 64. 60. pronouns. 245. . 278. 51. noun nouns. 245. Personification. it. relative. 236. as double. objects. syntax of of Politics. 52.

89. none. as. 206. interrogative. by. words. 207. adverb. speech. objective. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. each either. 147. 283. singular usually other. 59. verbs. future. 299. forms of. 105. 132. of. and form form form form of. 300. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. with tense certain. same used as adjectives. 282. of. 186. as antecedent of relative. 332. case. of. plural. of. 287. usually to as than. adjective. 58. expressed as other of. plural. what. 331. and one with else's. of. objective. interrogative. 203. 279. 72. 129. who personal. 302. somebody definition how indefinite. 187. of. case. neither. 105. . by parts of of. Pronouns. plural. as 54. 281. possessive nominative to of. parse. for predicate nominative. 58. 333. 300. 285. of. 93. after but. 301. 280. by with shown certain of. parse. 283. 303. 219. 203. in exclamations. all. 195. 208. 104. meaning. 95. another. 284. exclamatory. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 205. 202. 32. 64.Prefixes. any. Prepositions.

conjunctions Quality. 297. same antecedent. 293. use in as. and relatives. 291. questions. in. agreement anacoluthon and as. 296. or of. 83. 85. 68. 263. 99. 58. 84. 74. nouns. 295. See of. parse. of. of. 188. Quotations. 289. Rank. which after same. 289. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 286. 105. with with gerund. . 69. 142. in. and which. 74. indirect compound. 87. 295. with who. Quantity. pronominal pronouns indirect. 85. of. 87. Direct same and different. of. indirect. 69.possessive relative. pronoun. use of history formed. 293. Questions. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. personal pronoun. Rather. 279. to of. of. 101. 80. discourse. 74. Nouns. of. adverbs in. 189. of. pronouns. 195. of. which. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. who. unrestrictive. and antecedent. from and interrogative. that. in. of.

forms shots. clauses of. simple. 162. Shot. complex. 196. kinds Sequence Set. definition . 231. 40.syntax use Result. 294. Self Sentences. 29. ending. of. in of. which. suffix. Seeing. Simple in sate. gender. that. will. sentence. tenses. simple of. 195. elliptical. in form. 26 271. 170. of. 51. plural possessive as. of of of complex Sentences. 319. 252. 159. 159. object. 43. and should. reflexive analysis of compound. effect. conjunctions Retained Riches. 289. of. 42. S. Shear. See Sentences. of. conjunction. who. would. 74. 69. pronoun. 231. 'S. of sit. 263. 196. 242. Sex Shall. 255. 259. Same Sat.

of. -en. Somebody Sort. 260. 233. phonetic in infinitive.Singular Sir. of. 258. for. definition 67. 257. vs. to of. 237. literary clause. in Middle English. 303. of. in feminine suffix. verbs. 144. Split Spoken -Ster. -es. definition how kinds noun. 38. 12. English. other Such Such Suffix -s. 144. of. 169. of. 240. 257.. 36. 32. 138. English. 270. 126. of. adverb. 137. English. 33. 323. Modern use becoming else's. of. distinguish. disuse in spoken complete. 186. these number. 245. English. 33. 38. etc. 258. as. Spelling Spinster. See -En. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. sort. 258. used mood. adverb. Subject. 245. logical. 303. 257. 257. names as a. . 262.

33.. 147. 147. Then. of. form. 87... Tenses. that uses That. 290. 152. 191. 106. of languages. of. 120. 306. 119. which. as adverbs. 61. than of. 307. 186. See etc. in Modern number sequence table Than That. of. meaning. when as of. in double. of. 275. definition in English Tense. and and of. they. 289. 123. restrictive. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. article. of. object. of. English. of. 189. 277. Kind. as history syntax Their. meaning made up in Old of. as history The. 280. not suggesting adjectives. English. . this. degree. 222. in comparison. 88. syntax of. 186. 116. king. There These kind. of . adjectives. when relative. 297. coördinating. classical of. 109. "the then foreign. 108. 309." introductory. plural as adverb.Suffixes. of. me. 148. subject. adverbs. 319. 147. omission whom. 306. objects. 107. 275. 106. two basis not same definition definite. auxiliaries.

. parse. Upper. of. Upon. other noun. in omitted uses T'other. thy. certain as the before with of. 173. 323. -ing 111. 176. preposition. of. verbs. 247. of. infinitive. 181. 20. 217. 114. used.These. 175. conjunctions prepositions To. of. See That. 188. kinds participle. first adjective. 330. etc. 322. try two. 114. 172. 172. 119. 180. 61. 128. Thou. 114. 308. 207. phrases. 175. 248. 322. in of. uses history of. feminine and. Try Two Under. infinitive. See On.. 21. how infinitive. first. carelessly uses syntax this. 185. -Trix. gerund. suffix. thee. of. 175. exclamations. tother. of. Utter. words. from cleft to 174. of. uttermost. uses of. 33. to. 195. Time. adverbs those. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. analysis.

tense of. 134. 159. how to parse. 154. passive form. of incomplete predication. 130. 245. change. 151. verbs by. 148. 317. 169. regular. 39. conjugation of. in person. 47. 330. 133. voice of.Verbs. phonetic. but uses what. analysis. formed by. made transitive. 320. 135. Vixen. 154. 148. of English. 312-316. active. definition of. person and number of. 157. spelling of. 129. definition of. transitive and intransitive. 312. passive. active meaning. remarks on certain. 133. agreement of. 150. definition of. 131. . table of irregular. 12. retained object with passive. 149. 167. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. weak. 160. 169. 155. intransitive. becoming irregular. sequence of. table of. 236. of. past tense formed nominative. What. verbs. 223. strong. defective. Vocative in Voice. 319. 179. 242. mood of. 154. of. in indirect discourse. 167. syntax of. 33. 147. with subject in number. auxiliary.

questions. would. relative indirect relative. of. 73. plural of in nouns -ing. 295-299. relative. 190. 218. 79. 37. Wife.. . in. direct of. Witch. questions. Yes ending analysis. 105. a. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 246. Whether. of. 85. conjunction. whereto. 83. 72. in -ly. Will. spoken in of. referring syntax Widower. 36. interrogative Which. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose.what Whereby. Who. in in indefinite objective. relative. 299. uses See Shall. 194. 296. Words in Worse. pronoun. 78. wizard. questions. Woman. 75. 105. 104. 178. pronoun. worser. antecedent adjective. Y. 72. 75. 77. 32. 40. 83. questions. 85. 72. animals. 126. English. 111. 36. With. 85. etc.

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