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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. its peculiar and abundant idioms. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Few inflections. Making rules is risky. "Analysis. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. however. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. Surely our noble language. so that a small grammar will hold them all. it will at the same time. If. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present." and "Syntax. with its enormous vocabulary. assist the classification of kindred expressions. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. Authority as a basis. It is also evident. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. as. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. but this is bad English now. Mental training. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. Coming back. This will take in the usual divisions. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. their forms. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. to those who have studied the language historically. there is still much for the grammarian to do. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar").The province of English grammar is." What grammar is. Literary English. from the question. then.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). An æsthetic benefit. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. The work it will cover. as compared with Latin or Greek. rightly considered. is worthy of serious study. . if rightly presented. and their uses and relations in the sentence. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. and thus incite his observation. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. A broader view. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections).

submission. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. In the more simple state of the Arabs. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. not objects.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. The words state. and may belong to any of those objects.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. reference will be made to vulgar English. too. by which is meant the free. as they stand for ideas. Part II. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Analysis of Sentences. PART I. The following pages will cover. but. and the word nation stands for a whole group.²GIBBON. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. or Syntax. The plainest name is Arabs. Occasionally. three divisions:² Part I. that is. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. then. Vulgar English. The Parts of Speech. NOUNS. or standard. Part III. from the eighteenth century on. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. and will are evidently names of a different kind. the nation is free. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. which belongs to a people. besides this one. Spoken English. the words sons and master name objects. The Uses of Words. but now undoubtedly bad grammar.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. and Inflections. 1. Such words are called nouns. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. .

King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. We may say. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. belonging to one. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Thus. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Proper. Abstract. Thus. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. This does not imply. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. and appropriate names to the groups. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. but Chicago names one city. Name for any individual of a class. Name for a group or collection of objects. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. substance. is from a Latin word which means general. animals. Collective. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. A noun is a name word. Classes of nouns.Definition. or thing. the name of each is an individual or proper name. or things. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. whether person. a committee. reducing it to a narrow application. possessed by all. or the man in front of you. (b) Common. 5. animals. or a council. etc. 3. Besides considering persons. place. men in groups may be called a crowd. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. They properly belong under common nouns. 2. Individual. we may think of them in groups. For instance. the man here. or idea. because each group is considered as a unit. or a mob. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. or a congress. however. and things separately. (a) 4. ATTRIBUTE. as here used. . These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. representing directly to the mind an object. Common. MATERIAL. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii.

there is no such intention. rock.²There are some nouns. paint. (3) Geological bodies: mud. celluloid. Words naturally of limited application not proper. etc. rice. expressing state. but it is taken merely as a name. we may say. etc. earth. frost. gold. instead of to each individual or separate object. wine. frost. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. etc. dew. soap. moon. condition. earth. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. not things. The quality is still there as much as before. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. snow. iron. proof means the act of proving. or that which shows a thing has been proved." "Learning is hard to acquire.Names for things thought of in mass. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). sand. however.. and fasten a special name to the object considered. etc. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. Such are glass. They remain common class names. 7. conditions. and so on. or actions. we speak of the wisdom of the man. mist. such as sun. tea. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. When we speak of a wise man. Again. platinum. cloud. "Painting is a fine art. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. . for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. expressing attributes or qualities. clay. sugar. granite." "a man of understanding. etc. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. NOTE. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. rain. ." 9. as in calling a city Cincinnati. wheat. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. 6. but in the words sun. Names of ideas. or apart from their natural connection. or action. The reason is. wheat. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. considered abstractly. world. stone. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. etc. It may. potash. but which are not called proper names. rubber. etc. sugar.

shadow. stupidity from stupid. as in the expressions. theft from thieve.Attribute abstract nouns. those opinions and feelings. II. the rude drawings of the book. 12. in the beginning of his life. 1. etc. service from serve. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. the teachings of the High Spirit. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. there is time for such reasonings. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. hopeful²hope. the moon caused fearful forebodings. speech from speak." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. five abstract. action from act. but are merely names of actions. five proper. childhood from child. etc. day. winter. he spread his blessings over the land. her longing for their favor. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. Caution. 272. Exercises. etc. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. Underived abstract nouns. a wedding or a festival. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words." "a brisk walk. thunder. . feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. 10. as glad²joy. ease. by altering its function. kingship from king. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. hope. NOTE. To avoid difficulty. Such are beauty. height from high. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. Thus. (1) prudence from prudent. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. (2) peerage from peer. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. etc. They cannot govern a word.. and they cannot express action. "a long run" "a bold move. The verb. joy. summer. the great Puritan awakening. as their name implies. the well-being of her subjects. 273). but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. is used as a noun. the main bearings of this matter. Verbal abstract nouns. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. energy. mastery from master. redness from red. lightning. They are only the husks of verbs. night.

2. algebra. (b) branches of knowledge. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as pneumonia. geology. mathematics? 3. as physics. typhus. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. diphtheria. pleurisy. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. catarrh. Using a dictionary.

a Hutton. from Calicut. 14. Material nouns may be used as class names. Nouns change by use. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. a Fourier. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Others of similar character are calico. Proper names transferred to common use. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. the guillotine. above. a Bentham.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. 13." referring to flat- . from the name of Dr. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. 119). one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. We know a number of objects made of iron. from China. a Locke. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. 15. or to go over to it entirely. currants. but we may say. who was its inventor. Guillotin. damask. it imposes its classification on other men. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. and lo! a new system. "The cook made the irons hot. as a davy. from Corinth. arras. levant and morocco (leather). for example. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. from Damascus. from Oporto. port (wine). Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. from a town in France. thus. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. in Portugal. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. the word port. a Lavoisier. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. but most of them are in the following groups. Sodom was famous for wickedness. etc. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power.²EMERSON. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class.

but differ in strength. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. tobaccos. abstract in meaning. which are made plural. These are the same in material. smiled. his eyes. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science.²PERCIVAL. or.irons. A halfway class of words. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. and say teas. though not confined to verse. that disposition is the thing to be created. Class nouns in use. or the arts and sciences. etc. Death. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. When it is said that art differs from science. Personification of abstract ideas. the abstract idea is partly lost. candies.²CARLYLE. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice.²BYRON. From all around²Earth and her waters. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. (3) By poetical use. and only Vice and Misery. are still names of abstract ideas. to prowl or to moan like night birds. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. 16. clouds. as stones. not material things. clays. coals. that is. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.²BRYANT. Next Anger rushed. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Traffic has lain down to rest.²HAYNE. a steel to whet a knife on. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. are abroad. nor are they common class nouns. They are not then pure abstract nouns. mists. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. etc. or used as class nouns. slates. be spoken of. but on dispositions which require to be created. on fire.²COLLINS. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. oils. a rubber for erasing marks. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural.²RUSKIN. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. paints. The words preceded by the article a. purity. and so on. 17. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. or made plural.In lightnings owned his secret stings. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. but in case an art or a science. that the power of art is founded on fact. tins. For example. papers. This is a poetic usage. Test this in the following sentences:² .

(1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. They are more like the possessive noun. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. were mere terrors of the night. 18. as each repeated pleasure tired. they cannot be compared. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. And still. But ah! those pleasures. When I was young? Ah. 19." "the State Bank Tax bill. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. Then comes the "Why. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. the wealthy. or describe it.²EMERSON. but is still a noun. etc. meaning a walk in the morning. if we must have great actions. All these. Nouns used as descriptive terms.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. fear thy blow.The Solitary can despise. they do not express quality. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. nouns used to modify. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.²BURNS. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. a bill as to tax on the banks." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. By ellipses. "a family quarrel. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. Every why hath a wherefore. loves." "a New York bank. But it is better to consider them as nouns.² GOLDSMITH. Conjunctions. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. a bank in New York. or from any expression.² BURNS. which belongs to another word. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech.²IRVING.²SHAKESPEARE. NOTE. sir!"²MACAULAY . however. make our own so. as descriptive adjectives are. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. sir!" and the "What then. sir?" and the "No. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns." which contains a pure adjective. for example." "a morning walk.Let us.²SHAKESPEARE. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Adverbs. Adjectives.

Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. however. but have an adjectival meaning. 6. whether it mean the sun or the cold. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. and tell to which class each belongs. at the beginning."²B. Now. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. or a state secret. Stone walls do not a prison make. but as a figure of speech. without reference to its function in the sentence. It is to be remembered. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. 4. are spoken of as if pure nouns.²These remarks do not apply. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. and Then. or a faithful domestic. to such words as become pure nouns by use." or "legal. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. are used. When. The it. . they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. the wealthy. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. etc. 20. Caution. the terms the great. in speaking of the principal of a school. FRANKLIN. 7. 1. of words rather than of their meaning. 5. Power laid his rod aside. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. of course." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. is ambiguous.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. why and wherefore.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. in a sentence above. NOTE. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.. that cobweb of the brain. In the other sentences." and another of Dr. When.Nor iron bars a cage. Exercise. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. so. 8. 3. too. Learning. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. There are many of these. 2. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. is the word "just. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. or a criminal. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words.

but not so in English. always masculine. always feminine. 21. What gender means in English. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. It is founded on sex. and many other languages. The hours glide by. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 14. 11. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy.Fair guests. returned to Spain. A fool speaks all his mind. In Latin. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. German. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 19. The fleet. 16. 21. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. in English grammar. 24. the silver moon is gone. 10. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 23. But pleasures are like poppies spread. that waits you here. 20. and names of females are usually feminine. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. for every dropHinders needle and thread. A little weeping would ease my heart. female. 15. GENDER. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 18.You seize the flower.9. Greek. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. Male beings are. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. the welcome. 22. And see. 13. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 17. shattered and disabled. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. its bloom is shed.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. he cried. 12. .

For instance: in Latin.² I have seenA curious child .. then. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.²gender nouns. in English. Hence: Definition. came to a stand just by the bridge. der Tisch (table) is masculine. The great difference is. the word child is neuter in the sentence.When. "A little child shall lead them. if of the female sex.. the name of it is feminine. clapping his burnished wings. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex.. must be divided into two principal classes. Gunpowder . Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. Thus. those with which man comes in contact often. if there were any signs of life in it. with its gizzard under its wing. Neuter nouns. 22. inanimate things are spoken of." .² IRVING. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. He next stooped down to feel the pig. mensa (table) is feminine. that pattern of a husband. No "common gender. hortus (garden) is masculine. or which arouse his interest most. that is. according to their use. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. according to use. in other languages gender follows the form. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.. Of animals. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID.²masculine and feminine. the name of it is masculine. in German. but are spoken of as neuter. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. 23." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. All nouns. those distinguishing the sex of the object. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Gender nouns. or additions to words. and consequently without sex.. corpus (body) is neuter. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. are named by gender nouns. and neuter nouns.²IRVING. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. . or names of things without life. 24..²LAMB. those which do not distinguish sex. das Messer (knife) is neuter. the sex being of no consequence. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. however.

servant.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. he-bear²she-bear. These remain in vixen and spinster. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. is. Gender shown by Suffixes. If such words as parent. 28. For fox they said vox. II. ruler. and for the older word fat they said vat. of course. the division of words according to sex. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. generally to a masculine word. Hence vixen is for fyxen. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. but spinster has now no connection with it. Very few of class I. domestic. for from they said vram. One feminine. Gender shown by Prefixes. etc. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. 27. or the lack of it. puts a prefix before the masculine man. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. they are neuter words. cousin. as he-goat²she-goat. Male nouns beings. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman.. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. woman. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. teacher. relative. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Put in convenient form. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. The inflections for gender belong. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. from the masculine fox. . (2) By adding a suffix. though both words have lost their original meanings. Native suffixes. 29. According to the definition. (3) By using a different word for each gender. 26. as in wine vat.25. I.

Slightly changed and widely used. as. gamester.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). song-str-ess. 30. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. the one most used. but in most cases it has not. and are never used for words recognized as English. punster. These are attached to foreign words. Low Latin issa). The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. as seam-stress. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. trickster. as czarina. -ess (French esse. señorita. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as. donna. Unaltered and little used.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. it has none now in the words huckster. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. Ending of masculine not changed. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . executrix.

Gender shown by Different Words. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Thus. frendesse. the ending -ess. as. 31. from the French -esse. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Some of them have an interesting history. fosteress. others have in their origin the same root. wagoness. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. etc. neighbor (masculine and feminine). we use the feminine. teacher or lady teacher.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. 32. to represent persons of either sex. In some of these pairs. or servauntesse. teacheresse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. neighboresse. chairman. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. Ending -ess less used now than formerly." III. as in the fourteenth century. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. from Latin imperatricem.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. NOTE. Instead of saying doctress. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. editor. we use the masculine termination. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. as.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). as was said in the sixteenth century. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. We frequently use such words as author.

as in many other words. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. 16). and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. from Latin mea domina. leaving our word drake.² . 34. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). The older forms. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Danish gaas. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Two masculines from feminines. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Widower. not immediately connected with witch. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Icelandic gás. Madam is the French ma dame. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). but this has long been obsolete. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex.). became identical. gand-ra. though both are ultimately from the same root. for example. written loverd. in Old English mere. 33. Mare. or lauerd in Middle English. probably meaning house dweller). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Witch is the Old English wicce. Three letters of ened have fallen away. the old sign of the masculine. etc. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). lhauerd. Personification. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Besides gander and drake. among others) to be from the same root word. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). widuwa²widuwe. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. finally gander. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. had the masculine mearh (horse).

²CAMPBELL."²BYRON.Her home is on the deep. in Old English. the engineer speaks so of his engine. for instance. eyen (eyes). number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. and not by the form of the noun. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.²singular and plural. Our language has two numbers. 35. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. In nouns. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. shoon (shoes)."Now. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. 37. that is.No towers along the steep. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. the plural. Definition. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Britannia needs no bulwarks. treen (trees). But other words were inflected afterwards.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. (2) By changing the root vowel. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. I. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. . The -en inflection. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. (3) By adding -s (or -es). 39. together with the third. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. This is not exclusively a poetic use. NUMBER.²KEATS. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. whenever we adopt a new word.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. etc. 36. Effect of personification. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.²COLERIDGE. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. The first two methods prevailed. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. more than one. 38.

Horse and foot. . that have the singular and plural alike. ditch. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. pair.²MACAULAY. sheep. then brothre or brethre. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. by. swine. Brethren has passed through three stages. or if preceded by the prepositions in. but they now add the ending -s.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. glass. after numerals (if not after numerals. heathen. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Such are box. originally neuter. and get settled. The words horse and foot. etc.-En inflection imitated by other words.²Over the mountains winding down. such as deer. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. etc.²WHITTIER. II. but has now no singular. they add -s): also trout. 41. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. retain the same form for plural meaning. when they mean soldiery. as. III. quartz. salmon.² "God bless me! so then. people. folk.²THOREAU.² The foot are fourscore thousand. The old plural was brothru. lens. finally brethren. dozen. as. Kine is another double plural. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. into Frederick town. cannon. Examples of this inflection are.The horse are thousands ten. turf. wight. etc. and is still found in dialects. head. Instead of -s. Children has passed through the same history."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. Akin to this class are some words. 42. Other words following the same usage are. sail. brace. cross. after all. 40. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. Lee marched over the mountain wall.

negro²negroes.² Politics.Of maladie the which he hadde endured.. though they are plural in form. economics.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. and go over to other classes (Secs. means and politics. race²races. politics. DANA. chaise²chaises. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. physics. shelf²shelves.-Es added in certain cases. also news. etc. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. means: as. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . is both the science and the art of government. and some -es.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. So live.g. the Americas. It served simply as a means of sight. quoth then that ladie milde. pains (care). daisies. as. in its widest extent. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. Some words are usually singular. house²houses.²PROF. optics. that when thy summons comes. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Words in -ies. Proper nouns are regularly singular. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. When such words take a plural ending. e. prize²prizes. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. half²halves. Examples of these are. etc. molasses. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. fancies. Formerly. allies. fairies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. a new syllable is made. though this sound combines readily with -s. knife²knives. and many branches of learning. some adding -s. etc. summons. they lose their identity. the Washingtons. volcano² volcanoes. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). these words ended in -ie. 44. 45. 15 and 17). Special Lists..g. mathematics. Means plural. The lilie on hir stalke grene. niche²niches. however. Two words. etc. 43. hero²heroes. and the real ending is therefore -s. e.²BRYANT.

Politics plural. Some words have no corresponding singular. By these means. however. Sometimes. 46.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right. by strongly conveying the passions. it is furnished with a forceps. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Besides this.²BURKE. W.²G.²MOTLEY. I say. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. . he pronounced to have been a tongs.²J.²IRVING. A relic which.²GOLDSMITH. by those means which we have already mentioned.² MACAULAY. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.Words. riches will accumulate. Now I read all the politics that come out. L. LAUGHLIN.²GOLDSMITH. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. CURTIS. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. With great dexterity these means were now applied.

genii (spirits). shot²shot (collective balls). or work in a bellows?²PROF. Two classes of compound words. DANA. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. etc. twopence. pence (collectively). may add -s. 48. ways. (2) poetry. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). Tell me not.. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. (2) abilities. Numbers also means issues. These make the last part plural.² I lisped in numbers. In Early Modern English thank is found. as in the lines. index²indexes (to books). two meanings. two plurals. fish²fish (collectively). (2) care.The air. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. of a periodical.²POPE.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. (2) literature. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. carry off chaff. Three words were originally singular. penny²pennies (separately). eaves. fishes (individuals or kinds). 49. riches. the other unlike it. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. genius²geniuses (men of genius). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. for the numbers came. 50. shots (number of times fired).²LONGFELLOW. die²dies (stamps for coins. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. pea²peas (separately). or epistles. brethren (of a society or church).²one corresponding to the singular. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. sixpence. etc. One plural. . part²parts: (1) divisions. faculties.²was it subdued when. in mournful numbers.). making a double plural. (2) revenue duties.. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). clothes (garments). In speaking of coins. or copies. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. dice (for gaming). number²numbers: (1) figures.. trouble. indices (signs in algebra). as two sixpences. pease (collectively).

woman singer. German. and then the three Miss Spinneys. as man singer. but add -s. Brown. such as talisman. Briggs. Mussulman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. 51. Two methods in use for names with titles. woman servant.² Then came Mr. Ottoman. HOLMES. The title may be plural. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. manservant. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. though the latter is often found.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group.²DR. Allen. Norman. the Misses Rich. and Mrs. then Silas Peckham. as the Messrs. there is some disagreement among English writers. . for example. Brahman. 52. The chief member adds -s in the plural. or the name may be pluralized. firman. As to plurals of names with titles. the Drs.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one.

Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²THE CRITIC. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Domesticated words. The domesticated words may retain the original plural.²DICKENS. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. FROM THE LATIN. or Englished. y y analysis antithesis . 53.²GIBBON. These are said to be domesticated. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Exercise. Du Maurier. and retain their foreign plurals. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. They are then said to be naturalized. FROM THE GREEK. Others have been adopted. The Messrs. or Anglicized. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²GOLDSMITH.

When the foreign words are fully naturalized. In the sentence." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). helping to express the idea of place with the word in. without reference to their meaning. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. as. Letters. they form their plurals in the regular way. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s)." the word felon's modifies cell. cell has another relation. Only two case forms. figures.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. 56. Words quoted merely as words. etc. also add -s or 's. as.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. 55. In the general wearing-away of inflections. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. etc. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced.. and expresses a relation akin to possession. 54." CASE. ." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). Definition. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.

must be understood for purposes of analysis. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. may be said to have three cases. whether inflected or not. . 1. they returned to their homes.There are now only two case forms of English nouns." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. and experience.²nature." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. and the possessive. I. 58. 5. Nouns. learning. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. when asked unawares. fate." (2) As a predicate noun. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 2. 3. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²one for the nominative and objective. 57. Excuses are clothes which. three things characterize man. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. and merit.²person. excessive grief. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. the enemy of the living.²the nominative. Three properties belong to wisdom. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. then. Human experience is the great test of truth. Uses of the Nominative. 4. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. completing a verb. the objective.

59. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. Set a high price on your leisure moments. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect." (3) Adverbially. taking the object enemies. reconciles. But the flood came howling one day. They charged. and makest a calm." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. good Heaven. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. a patriarch of the village. the word toward which the preposition points. 9." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. 2. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 68. and being equivalent to one verb. and meaning calmest. 3. etc. her first law broken. as will be seen in Sec. distance. wounded lies. measure. Conscience.6. Uses of the Objective. . oh save me from the candid friend! 7. how have I frighted thee? II." "Thou makest the storm a calm. (in the older stages of the language. completing the verb. thy wrath can send. (5) As the object of a preposition. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. sword in hand and visor down. save. and landlord of the inn. they are sands of precious gold. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. and tell which use each has:² 1. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." (4) As the second object. 8. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. But of all plagues.Save. taking the object storm. 4. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil." Exercise.

as. or in writing yesterday's elegy.5.His winter task a pastime made. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. as shown in the sentences.And gave the leper to eat and drink.²BYRON.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.e. (2) Objective possessive. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. 7. tempests that . He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. expressed or understood. from day to day. The noblest mind the best contentment has. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. 6.²ADDISON. III.Does his Creator's power display.²HAWTHORNE. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. Uses of the Possessive.²SHELLEY. as in these expressions. It is a poetic expression. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 10. the most common of all.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. and forfeits paid. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. 8. (3) Subjective possessive. 61. the Great Stone Face.² The unwearied sun. Possession in some sense is the most common. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. 60. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. And whirling plate. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. The possessive case always modifies another word. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. 9.

and Obj. PLURAL. in Chaucer." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. 1. "From every schires ende. . ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. 62. To form the possessive plural. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. 56).e. How the possessive is formed. there are only two case forms.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. Declension or inflection of nouns. however. The use of the apostrophe. Nom. A suggestion. 62. the panther which the forest hides). "George Jones his book. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 63." "at his beddes syde. Nom. making the possessive singular. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. A false theory. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR." etc." Use of the apostrophe.winter is likely to have).e. Case Inflection. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example.. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. growth which several days had developed). "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "mannes herte [heart]. Poss. child NOTE. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. lady Poss. as schoolboys sometimes write. and Obj. One is the simple form of a word. As said before (Sec. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. 64.. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his.

" "A postscript is added. 65. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. the possessive sign is usually last. a word with a phrase.²SWIFT. Possessive and no noun limited. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. as by the countess's command. instead of the emperor their master's name. In compound expressions. dwelling. 67."²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. I remember him in his cradle at St. . the items of my son's. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. and from a desire to have distinct forms. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. know the amount of my income. 66. stands up for God's truth one man. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. containing words in apposition.Though this opinion was untrue.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves." Possessive with compound expressions. Cervantes' satirical work. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. Kate saw that. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.. etc.²HOLMES. as. some such word as house. James's. as.²CARLYLE. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. Captain Scrapegrace's. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. being understood with it: for example. church. Peter's.. but to the ear all may be alike. etc. for goodness' sake.²THACKERAY. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. my neighbors. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. in the name of the emperor their master." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.² LOWELL. store. and she walked off from the don's. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.

(See also Sec.²E. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. ill-lighted except where she stands. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. 87.²CARLYLE. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . sometimes they are used together. each. and at the same time by a possessive noun. A peculiar form. If. any. this. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. (3) It prevents ambiguity. Emphasis. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. Exercises. as one modifier. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. a double possessive. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. Both of these are now used side by side. however. Clearness.The double possessive. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. In most cases. (1) When a word is modified by a. For example. especially when used with this or that.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. 68. objective. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. in such a sentence as. no. E. (b) Rewrite the sentence. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. the statement clearly means only one thing. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. etc. the sentence might be understood as just explained. the. corresponding to 's. that. Blair). 1. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. we use the phrase of Atterbury.. HALE. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. or subjective. making a double possessive.²FROUDE. 2.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us.²the introduction which Atterbury made. every. and tell whether each is appositional. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. and I used to like whatever they bade me like.

Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 8. 7. 5.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 13. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. In parsing. 10. we state. At lovers' perjuries. Hence. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Jove laughs. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 11. it seemed. with every garland crowned. 14. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. let him seasonably water the one. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.They say. Nature herself. 70. 15.3. 69. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Friend. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.Comes dancing from the East. Now the bright morning star. day's harbinger. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 12. 4. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. therefore.² .Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. There Shakespeare's self. 9. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. and destroy the other. 6. some idioms²the double possessive. in parsing a noun. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip.

²common. if the latter. which gender. subject of the verb is understood. object of the verb takes. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. and limits neckcloth. The correct method. and relations. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. . That in the captain's but a choleric word. (4) Its office in the sentence. it is the object of the preposition by. like miller's. etc. hence it is a gender noun. inflections. it denotes only one person. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. (3) Whether singular or plural number. it expresses possession or ownership. masculine. a fresh tapster. a withered serving man. 4. NOTE. determining its case. and to have it found out by accident. hence it is objective case. 2. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. MODEL FOR PARSING. it is the name of a male being. therefore singular number. has no governing word. but is the adverbial objective. Throat is neuter. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. singular number. proper. 71. it expresses time. as to case. 3. the connection shows a male is meant. Neckcloth. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. therefore neuter. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. names one thing. it has no sex. In parsing any word.(1) The class to which it belongs. therefore masculine gender. and number. and therefore nominative case. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. Thief is a common class noun. hence objective case. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. hence it is a common noun. therefore possessive case. 68). Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. is a common class noun. gender. Exercise. therefore singular number.

When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession.And hated her for her pride. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. were natives of Geneva.²palace. 9. 10. Madame de Staël. A few miles from this point. Now. . from a necessity for short. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. and prison. The need of pronouns. For instance. standing for a name. He giveth his beloved sleep. Classes of pronouns. castle. Jarley's back being towards him. Definition. 72. PRONOUNS... instead of saying. and his daughter." Again. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious.. definite. where the Rhone enters the lake. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. financial minister to Louis XVI. and representative words. Necker. (2) Interrogative pronouns. 8. 73. 11." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 7. Mrs. or for a person or thing. A pronoun is a reference word. sleep! 6.5. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. all in one. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. Time makes the worst enemies friends. but by a question we say. or for a group of persons or things. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. blessings light on him that first invented . 76).

which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. mine. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. representing a person or thing spoken to. we our. pronoun. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. primarily adjectives. standing for a person or thing spoken of." Person of nouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Three persons of pronouns. words. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which have forms for person. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Person in grammar. 74. (4) Adjective pronouns. (2) Second person. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. ours . It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. or other word or expression. they must represent the person talking. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. Singular..(3) Relative pronouns. even if it had a special form. (3) Third person. Nom. I Poss. 75. my Plural. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. representing the person speaking. (5) Indefinite pronouns. 76. the person or thing spoken to. "the distinction of person. which cannot be used as adjectives. This gives rise to a new term. they are said to have person by agreement. 77. that is. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. and the person or thing talked about. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. which relate or refer to a noun. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. From analogy to pronouns. as nouns have the same form.

Nom.Obj. Nom. thou thee ye you you your. feminine h o. Poss. Nom. hers her Plur. he his him Fem. it its it Poss. Obj. you your.. a separate form for each gender. of all Three. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. me us Singular. she her. Obj. so also with the person or thing spoken to. and also for the neuter. Obj. Masc. Obj. SECOND PERSON. . Old forms. neuter hit. 78. Old Form Common Form. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. in the singular. Poss. theirs them Neut. Nom. yours you THIRD PERSON. yours Poss. yours you Plural. by personification. your. masculine h . First and second persons without gender. The speaker may be either male or female. or. neuter. Singular. But the third person has. Third person singular has gender. thine. thy Remarks on These Forms. namely. they their.

etc. the forms they. for example. The form its. . the Old English objective was hem (or heom). The consequence is. as. The plurals were h . thy." As shown above.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be.. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.² Oh.:² (1) In elevated style. Thou. which was often sounded with the h silent. which is a neuter noun. especially in poetry. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. We use it with a plural verb always. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. In spoken English. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. however. just as we now say.²BEECHER. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. as possessive of it. thee. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. Second person always plural in ordinary English. two modern uses of thou. etc. It is worth while to consider the possessive its.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. and sometimes its. heora. The old form was his (from the nominative hit).²SHELLEY. 79. This is of comparatively recent growth.Thou lovest. 80. 81. 82.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. even when referring to a single object. (2) In addressing the Deity.. it. etc. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. heom. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. to thy care we commit the helpless. in Old English. There are. their. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. thou Shepherd of Israel. that didst comfort thy people of old. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. Two uses of the old singulars. them. as in prayers.

and follow the usage of literary English. 58). My arm better than theirs can ward it off. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Not a separate class. Nominative forms. us. we. her. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. have a peculiar use. his. I The Nominative. The forms mine. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. yours. Old use of mine and thine. "I am sure it was him. 83. sometimes his and its. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. when they occur in the predicate position. ²SHAKESPEARE. her. thine. Absolute personal pronouns. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. besides a nominative use. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. in such a sentence as.²BULWER. your. note the following:² 'Twas mine. And since thou own'st that praise. however. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. . Thine are the city and the people of Granada. its. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. though ye is occasionally used as objective. him. ye. him. their. she. me." the literary language would require he after was. our. 84 are always subjects. 84. hers. The words I. That is. though those named in Sec. 'tis his. or.²COWPER. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. The forms my. some say. them. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. them. and has been slave to thousands. and sometimes in ordinary speech. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. 86. they have a nominative form. In spoken English. The Possessive.²LANDOR. Yet careful speakers avoid this. Additional nominatives in spoken English. theirs. I spare thee mine.Use of the pronouns in personification. thy. and not make more classes. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. II. 85. us. 34). her. for. thou. he. to personify objects (Sec. they. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English.

thus. yours. (2) To bring emphasis. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. pluck it out. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.²ID.²THACKERAY. ours. we find. F. but few thy voice.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.²J. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. yours. Like the noun possessives. anger. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²THACKERAY. it tells of good old times. Besides this. Give every man thine ear. FIELDS. If thine eye offend thee. sometimes its.² CARLYLE.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. ours. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.²CARLYLE. thus. The forms hers. commenting upon a letter of mine. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. (4) To make a noun less limited in application." said Henry Woodstall. Their uses. for example. Long Allen. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee.²ID. 87. we have. (3) To express contempt. his. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. T. are really double possessives. and with mine. . This usage is still preserved in poetry. theirs. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²BIBLE. Double and triple possessives. in that old Edinburgh house of his."²SCOTT. as in nouns. ²HOLMES. theirs. or satire. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. hers.²SWIFT. COOPER. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. thine. "Hold thy peace.²J.

but nominative or objective in use. . Besides this use of the objective. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it." "None but the brave deserves the fair. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. In their function. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. as shown in Sec. his for his property." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. III. 86: mine stands for my property.²ID. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. But the first two have a nominative use. In Old English there was one case which survives in use.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. They all handled it. Now the objective. 90." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. In such sentences as. this dative use.²BIBLE. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. was marked by a separate case. in the first sentence. mine stands for my praise in the second. "The good alone are great. 20. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. but not in form.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. 88. In pronouns. The Objective. and mine in the second has an objective use. as it is called. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. or use in a sentence.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. The old dative case. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. Curse me this people. Both joined in making him a present. but expresses for whom. the thing is done. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. but the form is the same as the objective. 89. for whose benefit.

as. you sneeze. in this century. as in the sentences. like Chinese skill. Society. logical subject. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.² NEWMAN.²BACON. 91.²BULWER. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²CARLYLE.²EMERSON.²IRVING To empty here.²DE QUINCEY. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. as. has not made its progress. It is a pity that he has so much learning. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. you must condense there. or to the idea. (3) In apposition. WEBSTER." (3) As a grammatical subject. Your mere puny stripling. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. thus. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²ADDISON. 92. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. to stand for the real. ²EMERSON.²D. The word you. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. Indefinite use of you and your.Time is behind them and before them. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. was passed by with indulgence. or that he has not a great deal more.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. which follows the verb. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. why. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.² . (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. and they cry. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.

who in turn tries all the professions. .²ANON." "He bought him a horse. For when it dawned. 93. when they are direct objects. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. And when I awoke." etc.² Now I lay me down to sleep. have laid them downIn their last sleep. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined."²IRVING.²THOREAU.²BRYANT. since firstThe flight of years began. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. we use such expressions as. I made up my mind to foot it.²SCOTT. herself. For example. themselves.. A sturdy lad . Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. Poor Christian was hard put to it. farms it. it rained. And millions in those solitudes. ourselves. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²HAWTHORNE. the second is the old form of the second person. itself. yourselves. who teams it. but seldom in prose. 94. I set me down and sigh. keeps a school.²HOLMES. -selves. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. however. (thyself). The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. used in poetry. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. and its plural selves.It is finger-cold." and there is an end of it.²EMERSON.²ID. Of the two forms in parentheses. as. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. This occurs in poetry. They are myself. It was late and after midnight. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (ourself)..²COLERIDGE. as they are also called.²IRVING. There was nothing for it but to return. yourself. peddles it.²BUNYAN. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. they dropped their arms. "I found me a good book.²BURNS. himself. that is.²DE QUINCEY.

as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. as. were changed into the possessive myself. after the analogy of myself. Use of the reflexives. As if it were thyself that's here.²WORDSWORTH. Origin of these reflexives.² TENNYSON. I shrink with pain. B.² . thyself.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. with self.²MILTON. 96.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.To you yourself. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. especially in the speech of rulers.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. ourselves.. and build the lofty rhyme.²ID. for example. etc. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.²EMERSON. 95.²E. as in vulgar English. for example. Held dead within them till myself shall die. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. shall dissolve. In Middle English the forms meself. to us. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. theself.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. NOTE. and the others were formed by analogy with these. as we ourself have been. BROWNING.As girls were once. as. The question might arise.² The great globe itself . Threats to all. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. to every one.. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. not the possessive forms.

On the light fantastic toe. and how to do it. Come and trip it as we go. . some of them being double possessives. One obsolete. Three now in use. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. which. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. but it is the soonest spoiled. and what.²B. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. FRANKLIN. Biscuit is about the best thing I know.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. Courage. To know what is best to do. 9. And it grew wondrous cold. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. 6. is wisdom. feminine. let him lowly confess it. Infancy conforms to nobody. 4. 97. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 2.²DE QUINCEY. and neuter. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 3. fight it out. some each of masculine. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 8. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). father. where the word is one with that it tells of. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. 10.² THACKERAY. Years ago. all conform to it. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 7. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 5.

having three forms. Use of which. it refers to either persons or things. These show that what is not inflected for case. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. it is selective. shall we say. but for case alone.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. whispering sweet. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. number. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. As shown here. actions. but now obsolete. etc. or case. that it is always singular and neuter. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Whose was that gentle voice.There is an old word. with its possessive and objective. methought. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. The use of who. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. that it is not inflected for gender or number. What wouldst thou do. 100. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. whether. which is not inflected for gender. Use of who and its forms. ideas. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. referring to things..Promised. not to persons. it is always third person. . picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. used formerly to mean which of two. Use of what. that is. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. as it always asks about somebody. 99. 98. the gold. Which of you. that. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer.

" In the latter sentence.101. It usually precedes the pronoun. 127). which. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. being the direct object of the verb shall take. which and what. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. which is called the antecedent of the relative. "The last of all the Bards was he. AND PLUR. 105. These bards sang of Border chivalry. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. pronoun.² . Who. for which the pronoun stands. subject of doth love. SING. it may be shortened into. which is nominative in the first sentence.²by the use of the words. nominative in the second also. since it is subject of the verb had. Further treatment of who. and also in having a conjunctive use. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. as. and so to make smoother discourse. For instance. 104. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent.² "The last of all the Bards was he. who evidently refers to Bards. AND PLUR. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. who is used as objective instead of whom. as. what may be an adverb in some expressions. Function of the relative pronoun. and what are also relative pronouns. 102. Thus we may say. 103. whose? Obj. which and what are sometimes adjectives. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. in Sec. SINGULAR Nom. The antecedent.Who sung of Border chivalry. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. who? Poss. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. 99." Or. or other word or expression. as they take the place usually of a word already used. objective in the last.

²W. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. Who and its forms. the women whom women approve. 3.. Generally speaking.²SCOTT.²DR JOHNSON. that.²THACKERAY. what.Whose flag has braved. with all its capabilities . 108.²MILTON.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. a simple relative is meant. 107. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. The men whom men respect. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. For her enchanting son.²LOWELL In this. D. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 3. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. 106.. The origin of language is divine. They had not their own luster. .That guard our native seas. 4. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. in the same sense in which man's nature. are the men and women who bless their species. The nurse came to us. 5.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. WHITNEY.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 4. Indefinite relatives. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. is a divine creation. 2. 2. 6. which. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.Whom universal nature did lament. When the word relative is used. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.²BYRON. Two kinds. both his and who have the antecedent priest.²PARTON Which and its forms. will be discussed further on. Ye mariners of England.² COX. but the look which is not of the earth. a thousand years..

Reader. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²DE QUINCEY. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. Who. 2.²H. 6.²EMERSON.. 110. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. stratagems. and spoils.²LAMB 3.. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.²BURKE. Already done is all that he would do. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.. BEECHER 5. (a) This gradation . What. For what he sought below is passed above..²MARGARET FULLER.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²GOLDSMITH. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. The Tree Igdrasil.5. else this description will seem exaggerated.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. W. The man that hath no music in himself.²IRVING.. 107..] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. ought to be kept in view. which it certainly is not. The judge . no bad type of what often happens in that country. bought up all the pigs that could be had. 111. 109. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. Examples of the relative that:² 1. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. you will not be angry with me for telling you. 4. 3.² SHAKESPEARE 2. That. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .Is fit for treasons.

The robins. Sec. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. In 1. Witness the following examples:² And you.²DR. and so on. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. 107.²IRVING.. Gibbon.²LEIGH HUNT.whose.²who. who. 112. It has been seen (Sec. who is first person. things. Kingsley. whose for the possessive.who.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. 113.. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. in the third. in 4. (3) It is nearly always third person. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.²SWIFT. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. whose wound I had dressed. referring to animals. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature.²LOWELL. . whose. 96). Which. seemed as much excited as myself. The little gorilla. The sentences in Sec. or ideas.. 2. not persons. son. whose is second person. 5. they are plural. and 3. in 5. Examples of whose. Cooper. and 6. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. (2) It has three case forms. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. In sentence 4. in the second. Who referring to animals. possessive case of which. flung its arms around my neck. the relatives are singular..(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. whom.²which for the nominative and objective. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.. Smollett. a man. whom. and others. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. Scott. p. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].²THACKERAY. that man. in the first sentence. (4) It has two case forms. JOHNSON. My horse.. the others are all third person.

in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent."²RUSKIN. and third persons.²first.²SHAKESPEARE. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. Kingsley. Men may be ready to fight to the death.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Burke. which is very notable and curious. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example.²SCOTT. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. .² I swept the horizon. This moribund '61. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. secondly (which made her stare). too. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.² MCMASTER.²RUSKIN. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Which and its antecedents. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. 109. In the sentences of Sec. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. and things. That. animals. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.² And. (2) It has only one case form. (3) It is the same form for first. second.²THACKERAY. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. This often occurs. no possessive. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. which is worse. and numerous others. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. The last two sentences in Sec. let us enter the church itself. 115. Sometimes. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns.114. thus. So in Matthew Arnold. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.²BEECHER. 116. Primarily. the antecedent follows which. and to persecute without pity. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²DE QUINCEY.

and person of the relatives who. . is always neuter. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. but what I hate. as in sentence 6. that do I not. who Poss." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 117.² What I would. third person. When expressed. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. Sec. that he has. we can. 109. that do I." That evidently refers to truths.²SHAKESPEARE. 118. and is emphatic. what we said?²CARLYLE. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. as. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. for example." (3) "These people heard him. consequently is neuter. that men must needs abide. whose Obj. What. plural number. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. either of which would be neuter. What a man does. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. number.²BIBLE What fates impose. plural number. 119. third person. it usually follows. The gender. Nom.²EMERSON." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. by taking them out. The sentences of Sec. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. which. For example.

We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. and what is the direct object of the verb call. is subject of wrought upon and molded. but is singular. is subject of the verb can't be cured. is in the nominative case. Exercise. and hence is in the nominative case. because it has usually no antecedent. it is subject of the verb heard. Truths in sentence (2). in (1)." Here the subject of is. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. 7. What must be endured? Answer. Parsing what. 5. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. In (2). third person. who is sure to be cunninger than they. after all. 4. The whole expression is its subject. which is. people is the object of the preposition of. in (3). The word what. Some prefer another method of treatment. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. we is the subject. etc. the simple relative. Another way. The relative what is handled differently. 120. is what we call nature. In the sentence. 3. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. however. standing for the people understood. subject of heard. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. in the following sentences:² 1. 8. nobler souls with that which they are. it is object of uttered. then parse the relatives. the highest result of all education. but of this."²EMERSON.. neuter. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Now. above. As shown by the following sentences. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. What can't be cured. that takes the case of the truths in (2). 6. In the same way who. so is in the objective case. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. I think they are trying to outwit nature. . Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. First find the antecedents. "What can't be cured must be endured. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case.

no certain antecedent. The simple relatives who. whichever. to everything that. Death is there associated. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. by meaning and use. whatsoever. . that nothing else can stand in their presence. 5. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. whichsoever. List and examples. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. It is no proof of a man's understanding. that is.²you cannot have both. object of do] they do. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror.²BURKE. whatever is equivalent to all things which. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. object of with] which [singular. 7. which. 6. not as direct as the simple relatives. 121. in a new and original way. or what else soever. and which in the second clause. 2. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and parse that in the first clause. Hence some take what as a double relative. They are whoever. whatever. 2. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 3. "common souls pay with that [singular. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. whatsoever. So with the other indefinites. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. It is clear that in 1. and his friend a fool. Meaning and use. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. and in 2. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. or stand on their head." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. 123.²MACAULAY. less common are whoso. 122. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Do what we can. whosoever. no particular thing. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. Take which you please. summer will have its flies. 4.²BURKE. being referred to.

. 121. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. 125. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Two words. are used. There is nothing but is related to us. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 417).²DE QUINCEY. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. whereupon. what means anything that. 126. But and as.As shown in Sec. by which.² 1. etc. This. but and as. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have.² some particular thing. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. for example. Other substitutes. Former use of as.²EMERSON. . Proof that they have the force of relatives. 120. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. etc. 2. nothing that does not interest us. as was used just as we use that or which. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. but which only wealth could have purchased.²HAWTHORNE.. not following the word such. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 121. etc. Sec. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. thus. upon which. 4. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. In early modern English. everything that (or everything which). Instead of the phrases in which. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. for example. and that as after such is equivalent to which. either one that. 124. whereby. the conjunctions wherein. but mean any one whom. has been my heaviest affliction.

A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. 3. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. So in 2 (b). a question is disguised in each sentence. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by.²WHITTIER. it is a simple relative. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. and 3 (b). 1 (b). 127. "But what had become of them? They knew not. it is an interrogative. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. if not. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. which having the antecedent lines.²EMERSON. In sentences 1 (a). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. showing that who is plainly interrogative. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. the full expression being. 2. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun.²ID. Thus. Special caution needed here. if expanded. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. How to decide. second. "Who stood behind? We knew. what is interrogative. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. who having the antecedent gentleman." Likewise with which in 3 (b). In studying such sentences. if not. But in 1 (b). Another caution. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. would be. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized." etc. though the earthwork hid them. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. it is an indefinite relative). . which would indicate that they are not relatives.. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. 2 (b). no antecedent is expressed. and whether what = that + which (if so.

Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.²FORSTER 6. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3.²HOLMES. which. Put in the relatives who. 5. ELIOT. Relative omitted when object. The insect I am now describing lived three years. . The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. the question is asked by the verb. which has the antecedent hue. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. When Goldsmith died. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Thus.²G.²CARLYLE. and Court Calendars. On the other hand. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. Exercise. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Examine the following:² 1.² THACKERAY. In the first. whence is the interrogative word. I visited many other apartments.²GOLDSMITH. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²FLETCHER. but the life of man in England. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.128. 129. whose has the antecedent you. In the third. 3.²SWIFT. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. 2. In the second.² These are the sounds we feed upon. 4. and asks no question. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr.

. 2. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE. which was already proceeding. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. the house was full. that. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. 5. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. or indefinite relatives:² 1. and what. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²SCOTT. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. 6. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. who were to be rulers over whom. It is rare in prose. There was such a crowd went. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.²Id.² The silent truth that it was she was superior.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. Relative omitted when subject. 130. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.7. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. Also in literary English we find the same omission. Function of adjective pronouns.Ne'er looks upon the sun. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. which. simple relatives. Examples are. The nobles looked at each other. 3. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. and comparatively so in poetry. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.² LOWELL.²CAMPBELL.

or an argument in a paragraph. as some. or use. a word. "each cube. but have lost their adjective use. and stand for a noun. . any. In the first use they are adjectives. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. in order to be an adjective pronoun. but in this function. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. in letters of gold." Classes of adjective pronouns." in the second. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. or they may stand for nouns.²IRVING. necessarily thought of: thus.²BRYANT.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. that. and on each is written. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. all." that is. must not modify any word. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. "another bank.131. few. 132. many. For instance. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. either. the former. neither.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "these pranks. not pronouns. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. "The dead are there. etc. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence.²EMERSON.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon." in the others. Adjectives. For example. Primarily they are adjectives. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. expressed or understood. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. in the first. etc. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. 133. 'Truth. which we have seen in such expressions as. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. Caution. and another to get cool under. none." "one man. such as this. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. etc. or may be the whole of a sentence. such as each. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence." "Where two men ride on a horse.

5.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. or sat. or reclined.²LOWELL. when the latter was the King of Spain. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Simple. because he was not lying in wait for these. Definition and examples. Their minds accorded into one strain. Even as I have seen. reap the same. Compound. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. and they have well performed the other. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²EMERSON 4. They have not shunned the one.All these he saw. 3.²ID. for example. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. as seemed good to each. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and sow wickedness. They had fewer books. 134. accidentally preserved. NOTE. 2. they that plow iniquity. A man inspires affection and honor. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. . but these were of the best. Some of these are simple pronouns. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.²ID. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.² They stood. Such are a few isolated instances. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Exercises.

If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Definition and examples. ²HAWTHORNE. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. we might the more easily discharge them. for example.² One reflexive. They led one another. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. None shall rule but the humble. as. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. Much might be said on both sides.Two are compound pronouns. Some inflected. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. with the superstitions of his time.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. Exercise.²HOLMES. The Soldan.²each other. Another opposes him with sound argument. such as one other. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. . 'Tis of no importance how large his house.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.²KINGSLEY. paused over a horoscope. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²HAWTHORNE. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. one another. imbued. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. The word one has a reflexive form. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. another. as some of the rangers had gone astray. or melt for others' woe.²EMERSON. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. 135. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. as it were. Men take each other's measure when they react. as most were. you quickly come to the end of all.

anything. as shown in the words everybody's. they are never used as adjectives. anybody. what. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. somebody else. They indefinite means people in general. Definition and examples.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. also aught. Now.²SHAKESPEARE. any one (or anyone). Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences." It means something. everything. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. everybody else.. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. . as. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. I tell you what.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. some one. and they. nothing.Exercise. nobody. in building of chaises. unlike adjective pronouns. everybody. every one else. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. no one. but. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Exercise. Every one else stood still at his post. and was indefinite in Old English. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. anybody else's. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered.² At lovers' perjuries. etc. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Jove laughs. Somebody. 136. something. 137. they say. anyone else. every one (or everyone). and somewhat. etc. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. naught. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.

Our readers probably remember what Mrs. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. For this did God send her a great reward. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. Whoever deals with M. 13. Exercise. Hutchinson tells us of herself. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 6. indeed. A reminder. I first found myself among the mountains. 11. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Others did the same thing. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 8. 2. 16. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 7. 9. in his negotiations. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. . 3. were suffered to depart. and of no other. 17. from my earliest days. O thou that rollest above. The table was good. 14. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 10. 5. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 12. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 4. to which. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 18. All was now ready for action.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 138.See also "Syntax" (Sec. but not to quite so enormous an extent. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated.

And it would work 'em woe. hear! 33.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 23.Who knew thee too well. well-oiled dispositions. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. He sate him down. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 25. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. I who alone am. behold now the semblance of my being. 21. 34. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. And will your mother pity me. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. hear. 32. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 26. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . in all its height. variety. Whatever he knows and thinks. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 31. 29. that let him communicate. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. who take the world easy.Destroyer and preserver. eat white bread or brown. They know not I knew thee. 35. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. oh.19. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. thou rollest now. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 27. 30. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. And I had done a hellish thing. and seized a pen.

we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present." "yonder hill. in pointing out an object. 40. "one hat. position. white or red. 139.36. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. adjectives are used. brittle or tough. and so he read. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. and he learns who receives. etc. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master." The office of an adjective. so that no other will be mistaken for it. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. We need to add some words to tell its color. if we wish to speak of a friend's house." etc. or liquid. If a chemist discovers a new substance." "that house. He knew not what to do. the number is limited by adjectives. or gaseous. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. So with any object. He teaches who gives.. Again. It may have this office alone. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. 45. . and if we are near. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. heavy or light. etc. then. or with persons. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. 41. size. As to the kind of words used. such as in the expressions "this man. if we are at a distance. which was no bad step towards my liberation. For example. that is our permanent state. Office of Adjectives. becomes mine. as. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. who understands me. Substantives." "some cities. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep." "a hundred men. 38. ADJECTIVES. We are by nature observers. 42. 37. 39. 44. Who hears me. 43.

Nouns are not. "Heaven-derived power." and the still less significant "and so. etc. 141. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "half-dead traveler. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." "unlooked-for burden. Definition. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. terrible. deep. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." "the Roman writer Palladius. happy. Examples are. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. beautiful.²POPE. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun.140. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. however. to forgive. such as safe. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. To err is human. to describe it or to limit its application. They include relative and interrogative words. derived from proper nouns. 143.²COLERIDGE. (2) Adjectives of quantity. If he be thankful for small benefits. fair." the "and there. divine. 142. (4) Pronominal adjectives." . it shows that he weighs men's minds." "this life-giving book." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." they constitute all his connections.² BACON." "the Christian pearl of charity." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. and their trash. "an old English manuscript. or how much of a thing." "next-door neighbor. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. To make this clear. remotest." "ice-cold water. Classes of adjectives." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. words primarily pronouns. With exception of the "and then. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. rash. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. pointing out particular things." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "ivory-handled pistols. such as. Infinitives.

joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. and another is drunken. Care is needed. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. 143." "It came on like the rolling simoom.²MACDONALD. 145." was is the verb. Exercises." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." "One is hungry. and accomplished is an adjective. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 144. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. much. Oxenham. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by.But ever she looked on Mr.²COLERIDGE. but small thoughts have I of sleep. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished." "a charming sight. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "an aged man. having some of each subclass named in Sec.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "The shattered squares have opened into line. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "trailing clouds.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. 2. ." Caution. any. 1. For instance: in the sentence.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. 'Tis midnight. no. sometimes small." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. considerable. in this. in studying these last-named words. Examples are." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. some." was accomplished is a verb. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. which are either pure participles used to describe. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing.

How many." "I have lost one brother.²THACKERAY. its wake. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. as. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. (plural these. are used with plural nouns. every village. and with them a few negroes. instead of modifying them. An arrow was quivering in each body." "a dozen volunteers. 146. "one blaze of musketry.²KINGSLEY.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head." "Then we wandered for many days. Thus. Not primarily pronouns. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. The list.²ID. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives." Single ones of any number of changes. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." (b) Indefinite numerals. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. but I have gained fourscore. they come under the next division of adjectives. former. When some. no. the former²the latter. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. that. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening.²CARLYLE. Examples. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER." "In came some five and twenty more.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. any.²VAUGHAN." "He had lived by hunting for some months." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. those).² Every town had its fair. latter. Exercise. The following sentences present some examples:² . yonder (or yon). for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. The demonstrative adjectives are this.

²GOLDSMITH. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. These were thy charms. . As has been said. FRANKLIN. 148. The silver and laughing Xenil. Exercise. 147. The taking of which bark. In which evil strait Mr. but in the one case. These do not. of equal skill. what revenues or garnitures. 149. just as the corresponding pronouns do. Indefinite relative adjectives. skill which was progressive²in the other.. but.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. I verily believe.²RUSKIN. like the other numerals. skill which was at pause. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. ²CARLYLE. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²WORDSWORTH. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.but all these charms are fled.²ID. WEBSTER. they are changed to adjectives.²BULWER. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. Definition.. tell how many things are meant. They are of two kinds."²B.² It matters not what rank he has. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. When we speak of the seventeenth century. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. Oxenham fought desperately. for example.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.²KINGSLEY. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²ID.²D. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. Modify names of persons or things.²BANCROFT.

And whichsoever way I turn. or whether any. whichsoever way I move. it is impossible to determine.150.²AGASSIZ. whatsoever. Was there. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE. and gaze. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.. Whatsoever kind of man he is. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. whichever. proved not altogether displeasing to him. He was turned before long into all the universe. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. and new tormentedAround me. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Adjective what in exclamations. In direct questions. Examples of their use are. In indirect questions. 151. you at least give him full authority over your son. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. As in the pronouns. A lady once remarked. which is selective among what is known. whichsoever. which.² EMERSON.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.²IRVING. New torments I behold. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. nature will be sure to bear us out in. as it rather seemed. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. what inquires about things or persons not known.. But when the Trojan war comes. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.²ID. .²LAMB.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).²RUSKIN. whatever.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. the debt to the rich.

But this had also another plural. .²number and comparison. And yet. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. as. or amount. weight. etc. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. Those borrowed from this. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.²but not the same degree. NUMBER. 155. which was fully inflected in Old English. COMPARISON. or size. etc.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. It is neither relative nor interrogative. of the quality. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. In exclamatory expressions. we notice some differences between them as to size. The article that was used with neuter nouns.² Oh. alas. Thus..152. color. 153 . The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. Exercise. gold is heavier than iron.²This. we do so by means of their qualities. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. When we place two objects side by side. Meaning of comparison. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. and those as the plural of that. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. those). what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. the making of it right. That. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. This is the old demonstrative.Adjectives have two inflections.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. th s (modern those). and when we compare the objects. 154. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. History of this²these and that²those. or weight. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. All these have certain qualities.

So with the words sole. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. 157. whose favorite pupil he was. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. blue. strictly considered. supreme. They came into use about the thirteenth century. easiest. 160. 156. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. though the simple. and many others." Words that cannot be compared. . organic. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. 158. and the superlative by adding -est. indomitable. "more matter. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. These are called degrees of comparison. or amounts in quantity. Definition. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. immemorial. "untamed thought." "no fewer than a hundred. bluer. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. as. The two forms." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. with less wit. but were not common until a century later. The comparative is formed by adding -er. enormous. giant-like. red. expressing the greatest degree of quality. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality." "the commonest speech." "It is a nobler valor. easier. to the simple form. expressing a greater degree of quality. whether they attend their own affair or not." "the largest soul. reddest. universal institution. bluest. Freedom is a perpetual.²SEWARD. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. indefatigable. These are properly the only degrees. sufficient. for example. and the superlative. great. 159. infinite. A main difference betwixt men is. Substitute for inflection in comparison. they are not compared. redder.²THACKERAY. as.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. easy. but.

² CARLYLE A gentleman. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. These long. easy. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. indisputablest. admirablest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est." Carlyle uses beautifulest. witty. etc. Adjectives irregularly compared. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree.Which rule. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. These are adjectives irregularly compared. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. who. polished. finest chiseling. most small. "So help me God. 162. as. and other words are preceded by more and most. was most finished. honestest.²ID." "sorrowfulest spectacles.²ID.²The Nation." "more odd. peaceablest." "distantest relationships. mournfulest." "the wonderfulest little shoes. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. 163." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. there needed to be a most genuine substance. though born in no very high degree. which hung behind in the queerest way. and patientest fusing. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. falling on his knees." "more austere and holy." said Henry Esmond. madam. I will. and yet familiar. strange. The general rule is. harsh forms are usually avoided.² -er and -est or more and most? 161.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. quiet. The following lists include the majority of them:² . but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain.

164. as.²HAMLET. These have no adjective positive:² 1. worst. is often used. . 4. last Hindmost. as in Shakespeare. latter Hinder LIST II. lesser. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. lesser Elder. further Farthest. bad. There was an old comparative bet. which has softened to the modern best. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. uppermost LIST III. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. Worser was once used. older Nigher Nearer Later. The superlative I form was betst. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 7. [In] Inner Inmost. least. 6. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. which has gone out of use. throw away the worser part of it. a double comparative. outermost Utmost. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. 1. A double comparative. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. Good or well Evil. Hind 2. evil was the positive to worse.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. furthest 10. (2) In Old English. 2. innermost Outmost.² We have it in a much lesser degree. though from a different root. 9.² O. as in the sentence (14th century). hindermost Much or many More Farther.LIST I. oldest Nighest. uttermost Upmost. utter 3. 3. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 5. [Out] Outer. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). List I. 8. next Nearest Latest.

and the superlative nearest. instead of lenger. farrest. the old forms. oldest. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. near.²HAWTHORNE. came into use. to England we sailed. strenger. and refer to time. but originally the comparison was nigh. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. moche. for example. The latter. greatest.. next. but not in meaning. meaning the largest part. a distinction has grown up between the two series.. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. .² The more part being of one mind. latest. The most part kept a stolid indifference. great. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. List II. Since later. In imitation of further. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. ²LAMB. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far.²ID. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. eldest. "Many a little makes a mickle. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. Between the two sets as they now stand. furthest.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. etc. much. as long. is quite common. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. except the form next. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form.²forth. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. first. farthest. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. or series. (5) The forms elder. The meanings greater. th came into the others. First became entirely detached from the series. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. strong. etc. muchel. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. are earlier than older. making the modern farther.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. since the m is for -ma. to which is added -ost. as. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. doubling the inflection. there is scarcely any distinction. are shown in such phrases as. latter and last are used in speaking of succession.²KINGSLEY. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. an old superlative ending." Its spelling has been micel. further.

167. Decidedly handsome. The adjectives in List III. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. BEECHER.²HAWTHORNE. (Sec. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. Think what each adjective belongs to. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN.²SCOTT.²H.²EMERSON. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. 168.165. on the very topmost twig. are like the comparative forms in List II. There. in having no adjective positives." "their utmost exertion." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing." -Most added to other words. . all may belong to the same noun.²DE QUINCEY. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove." "the innermost moral soul. They have no superlatives. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. being merely descriptive. Highest and midmost. but not in their meaning. but her after deck was still dry." "far-seeing as the sun. but they have no adjective positives. Her bows were deep in the water. W. Her. and have no comparative force. The comparatives are so in form.²DE QUINCEY. was descried The royal banner floating wide. by the by. List III. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. or have no comparative forms. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection." "The outer is of the day. In List II. 166. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²KINGSLEY. the upper light of the world.

It may still be argued. 6. Other instances are.²HOLMES. in this sentence.²MRS.²TRENCH. deeply black eyes. Bradbury and Evans. The seldom use of it.²HAWTHORNE.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. rich. instead of saying. 3. For thy stomach's sake.For example. ²TROLLOPE. as. But in this sentence." in which then is an adverb. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. Exercise. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. satisfactory. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. May we not. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 2. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. STOWE. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. philosophical. 7. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. therefore. . H. Richard Hooker. By a convenient brevity. and thine often infirmities. deep. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. "the one who was then king. solid. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. A few improper jests and a volley of good. and moral truth. usual modifies incomparable decision. round. now our queen. 4.² My then favorite. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.²HAWTHORNE. 169. Whenever that look appeared in her wild." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.²BIBLE. bright. In the following quotations. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. the then and still owners.²A. This. Our sometime sister.²RUSKIN. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. STEPHENS 5.²NOAH PORTER. and heaven-defying oaths. our new government. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. and broken." making then an adjective. we may say "the then king. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. not decision alone. in prose.

5. seventy-five drachmas. and most astounding were those frightful yells. or case. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. cannot be compared. therefore descriptive. 2. (2) Its number. person. then. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. this. Since adjectives have no gender. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. 7. 10. Unfamiliar describes truths. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. modifies the word truths. frank. across the plain. This gave the young people entire freedom. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. if it can be compared. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. To every several man. She made no reply.What to tell in parsing. not inflected for number. modifies truths. I ask nothing of you. and I waited for none. 8. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. To every Roman citizen he gives. manly way. therefore demonstrative. with awkward but rapid pace. 3. compared by prefixing more and most. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. positive degree. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. (3) Its degree of comparison. 6. MODEL FOR PARSING. if it has number. 170. the method of parsing is simple. . I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. In parsing an adjective. 9. Exercise. 4. and very few have number. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. having a singular. These points out what truths. plural number. (4) What word or words it modifies.

12. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. those dogs in the yard. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Here lay two great roads. it rests on reality. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. I know not what course others may take. oxen. is the settlement of our own country. are immutably fishes. not so much for travelers that were few. 25. 14. 22. In music especially. and therefore more interesting to us. Their name was the last word upon his lips. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 27. 21. he won affections with ease. 20. the same love to France would have been nurtured. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. it is so noble a fruit. and dogs. 19. With every third step. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. during which time I waited. 33. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17.11. Nearer to our own times. as for armies that were too many by half. yonder oxen in the pasture. and many poles supported the lower ones. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 32. 23. 24. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. . you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. the tomahawk fell. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 31. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 29. To say what good of fashion we can. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 18. suggests such thoughts as these. 13. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. growing in the most unfavorable position. 26. 28. Like most gifted men. Two hours elapsed. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 16. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen.

Two relics. that) which was also an article in Old English. th o. even when not silent. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. he is no literary man. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. were formerly that one.²SCOTT. weary-hearted man was he. later th . the tother. meaning one. In the sentence. Our expressions the one. sometimes the tother. the latter is still preserved in the expression. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. in vulgar English. Their origin.²BREWER. these occurring as the tane. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. In Middle English the became an article. just as adjectives do. 171.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. A hard-struggling. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . or the tane. An historian. 174. but the former is used." "an honor. for example. 35.34." "a yelling crowd. the other." the words the and an belong to nouns. 173. ARTICLES. the tother. 37. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. 172. An before vowel sounds. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. Examples: "a house. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. s o. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. and a before consonant sounds." "a European. ðat.²MACAULAY. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. An or a came from the old numeral n. a before consonant sounds. Many writers use an before h. the tither. that other. such as we have been attempting to describe. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. with an ordinary little garden." "an orange. ." An with consonant sounds.

. Kinds. When the is prefixed to a proper name. not descriptive. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon." "the Ohio. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. An hereditary tenure of these offices. on opening a story.²THACKERAY. as in the sentence. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.² Don't you remember how. the older n. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. To call attention to attributes. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.. or group. 176. or any individual of a group or class.²G. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. The is the definite article.²HEROES OF ASGARD. a person is introduced by a. since it points out a particular individual. NOTE. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²IRVING.² . No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.²COLERIDGE. and when the word river is omitted. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. 177. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. 179. An or a is the indefinite article. 175. or class. Reference to a known object. BANCROFT. and not a state or other geographical division. 178. is referred to. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY." the article indicates clearly that a river. or a group or class of things. doubtless. as "the Mississippi.. An article is a limiting word. thus. With names of rivers.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business.²This use is noticed when. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. The Dakota tribes. Articles are either definite or indefinite. which cannot be used alone. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. Definition. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. An and a are different forms of the same word.

laid it on the miry spot. the song sparrow. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. the gallant. With adjectives used as nouns. would speedily extract the required information. NOTE. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. One thing for its class. BANCROFT. not into a particular virtue. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons.²GIBBON. The simple rise as by specific levity.²ID. His messages to the provincial authorities. or a match put between the fingers. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²EMERSON. the Hume. as. etc. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.²ID. 2. With plural of abstract nouns.² The faint. 1. 180. For possessive person pronouns. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. Schelling. Common. 182.²SCOTT. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.The Bacon. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. Caution. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. 183.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.²EMERSON. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. her.²MOTLEY. Kant. If the good is there.² As she hesitated to pass on. The. the Spinoza. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. and the redwing. Half abstract. for example. . so is the evil.²KINGSLEY. 181. but into the region of all the virtues. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²G.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

"²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. Now. a verb. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. Each influences some object. All these are called transitive verbs." Examine the sentences in Sec. but cannot be predicates. 202. to go is no predicate. in (2. c). In the sentence. a). it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. or the object. for example. and to receive the action expressed. Has takes the object hypocrisy.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. hence is not a verb. the word following. 204. "Put money in thy purse. "Put thou money in thy purse. the most astute. in (2. (can) shame also has an object. 203. taking the staff which always guided her steps. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. which means to go over. and a preposition unite as a verb. 200: In (1). lone took what? answer. we consider a verb as one word. all do not express it in the same way. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. All do not express action: some denote state or condition." put is the predicate. in this sentence from Bulwer. representing something which it influences or controls. an article. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. which may be a person. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. the most penetrating. as. in (c). in (3. b). A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. in (b). and not a verb. from the Latin transire. Definition and caution. The nature of intransitive verbs. to say something to or about some person or thing. but fearing is not a predicate. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. or a material thing. an adverb. with some word understood. a noun.²BULWER . In each case. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought.In (a). The nature of the transitive verb. and shame the most astute. in (3. In the first." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. endured what? anguish. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. can deceive has an object. or an idea. a preposition. b). care. 201. Hence Definition. In giving a definition. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. A verb is a word used as a predicate. obeyed is a predicate. By examining a few verbs. etc. and. Of those expressing action.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. Ideal. WEBSTER.I could lie down like a tired child. and may or may not be regarded true. Unreal²cannot be true. 2). If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. I. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. he will see the need of these ethics.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. popular government must be pronounced impossible.²BRYCE. they were recorded in the Book of Life. If this be the glory of Julius. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. Most excellent stranger. ²EMERSON. as.²LONGFELLOW.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. Again.²D. the first great founder of the Empire. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.² Now.²may or may not be true. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.²SHELLEY.² If. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. 215. in our case.²MACAULAY. the writer can make the statement following. but. or be fulfilled. for example. 221.²FRANKLIN. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. the second founder. the representative system ultimately fail. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 222. Condition or Supposition. as. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.

if his lot had been mine. 2. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. I told him. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. to drink strong beer. 4. thus. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. would have sat still with joy and peace. Epaminondas. WILLIS. which cannot be true. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. and sonorous. But in no case could it be justified. P. is of similar physiognomy. he had better not have written. .²FRANKLIN.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.. The subjunctive. 223. might. Subjunctive of Purpose. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. she was regarded as a prodigy..²EMERSON. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 3. 7. is used to express purpose. 5. II. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.² It was necessary. except. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. melodious. that we cannot but regret its absence. if he was the man I take him for. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.. would you. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. and what kind of condition:² 1. especially be. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. clear.²BAYNE. Exercise.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. he supposed. and striven energetically to save Ney. and should..²CALHOUN. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 8. NOTE. ²LOWELL. though. In the following conditional clauses. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. may. 6.²N.² CARLYLE. since he [Byron] was dead. society could not hold together. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. but when the verb precedes the subject. do you think." etc. If he had reason to dislike him. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. that he might be strong to labor.²SWIFT. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. if he speak to you.²MACAULAY.²FRANKLIN. etc. as. The voice. unless.² If these things were true.

226.Thou go not. VII.Were wafted off to seas unknown.²SOUTHEY. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. I would it were! ²EMERSON.²ID. Ask the great man if there be none greater. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²COLERIDGE.²CARLYLE.I have been the more particular.. III. Subjunctive of Result. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. IV. I've wished that little isle had wings. In Indirect Questions.²DE QUINCEY. To tell of what had passed. So live. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. Rise up. In Temporal Clauses. .²MOORE. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. till it meet the sun in his coming. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.²D.²WORDSWORTH. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. V.. 227. 225.And we. 224. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.That vain it were her eyes to close. The English subjunctive. VI. WEBSTER.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. like the quarry-slave at night. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.. like the Latin. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²BRYANT. within its fairy bowers. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. After a verb of wishing. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. In a Noun Clause. Expressing a Wish.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. none of us could say. Let it rise.

²TENNYSON. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.And see the Braes of Yarrow. Object. which may be (a) Pronoun. we'll turn aside.²DE QUINCEY. .² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. Whatever betide.²COLERIDGE. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. 229. See that there be no traitors in your camp. After verbs of commanding. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. etc.²WORDSWORTH. 228. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.Subject. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.And look thou tell me true. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.² DICKENS.²COLERIDGE.²SHELLEY. The noun clause. in apposition. tell me all that thou hast seen.²CARLYLE. or whatsoever victual it may be. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. That hunger of applause. in its various uses as subject. is. for example. Concessive Clauses..² Be the matter how it may. The essence of originality is not that it be new. I have no thought what men they be. of cash.²SCOTT. The first merit. VIII. that everything be in its place. is the ultimate fact of man's life. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. (b) Adjective. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. Some might lament that I were cold. Come.²THOREAU. often contains a subjunctive. object.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Complement.

fear none. IMPERATIVE MOOD. (3) Request. entreaties. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Usually second person. 230. Oh. a concession. however.(c) Adverb. ADAMS. since commands are directed to a person addressed. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. . The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Honor all men. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. In spoken English. 232.²CHANNING. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. to express a wish.²SHELLEY. Q. though.²J. or requests. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. for example. Definition. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative.²BRYANT.² CARLYLE.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. we had found [should have found] a poem here. point to their immortal works. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood.The spirit he loves remains. (1) Command. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. love all men. (2) Entreaty. It must be remembered. At the present day. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. and condition contrary to fact. 231. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.

we may use the imperative with we in a command. etc. receive my hand. Sometimes with first person in the plural. 7. lest we rust in ease.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. to you implied in it. etc. there will her heart and her prayers be." Exercises on the Moods. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.One glance at their array! 5.²CAMPBELL. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life..²SHAKESPEARE. 6. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. noble earl. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. nothing is to be preferred before justice.And. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. or I + they. Quoth she. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. 3. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Whatever inconvenience ensue. child of earth!While each performs his part. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. 8. Break we our watch up. Oh.And God forget the stranger!" . and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. but I + you."²DICKENS Tell me. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4." whispered Kit. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. 2."Hush! mother. Part we in friendship from your land. Mark thou this difference.²SCOTT. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. "The Devil take the goose." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. request.. "Come along with me.

11." 25.9. in what pomps and prosperities he like." continued Old Morgan. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 10. That a man parade his doubt. whether he do it right or wrong. but repentant child.That they might answer him. 19. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. Marshall. it would speak. Forget thyself to marble. 20. "Mr. Well. ruined. He is. Though abyss open under abyss. how he may do his work. "Oh. 23. then. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of." 16. 14. no literary man. let him live where else he like. my dear madam. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.Except. 21.High up in silver spikes! 22. 26. Think not that I speak for your sakes. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. 18. will it not fall unbound. Though he were dumb. "tell me where I may find my poor. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. or do it at all. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. He. she ought to have it. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 13. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner." cried he. . alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. as though an instrument. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. That sheaf of darts.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. and opinion displace opinion.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.

(b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. as. Siddons." past. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.27. a form ending in -eth. PERSON AND NUMBER. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. The tenses in detail. and the past tense. such as Latin and Greek. kind. "Thou walkest. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. past. whatever she did. called auxiliaries. as. Old English had only two tenses. as will be shown later on.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. the past. past perfect.² present." "If he comes. 233. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. Meantime. or future time. also." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. as the classical languages have. and the future tense. Tense means time. or agree with it. tell him to wait. in the third person singular. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. have. 234. Definition. When the older pronoun thou was in use." . "I go away tomorrow. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. Tenses in English. and future. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. or whether it were as one member of a general party. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. in the conjugations. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. "Thou walkedst. will.²nothing could exceed the amiable. past. 28. 235. to direct his steps." present. which represented present and future time. shall. "It is not in man that walketh.²the present tense. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and future perfect tenses. TENSE. by means of the present. five in the subjunctive.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. such as be. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. five in the imperative.

walks. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. Singular 1. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. tenses. You (thou) be 3. were. I be 2. chooses. choosest. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. walking. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb.²choose. Few forms. persons. chooseth. mood. Definition. CONJUGATION. but in English. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. singular number. Singular 1. and numbers. walkedst. PRESENT TENSE." and this only in the present tense indicative. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. for example. walketh. choosing.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. In classical languages. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. Indicative Mood. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3.²am. Singular 1. is. Such verbs as choose have five. This is the third person. "He walks. 236. Singular 1. etc. [He] were [They] were . chose. I were 2. walk has walk. moods. tense. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. 237. wert) 3. PRESENT TENSE. You are 2. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. chosen (old. [He] is [They] are 3. The verb be has more forms. 238. walked. as. chosest). etc. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. been. since it is composed of several different roots. are.

239. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. The light that never was on sea and land. etc. (2) was. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. for example. which was now become an occasional banquet. (b) With the past participle in -ed. 240. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. same as the German sind. Instead of the plural are. is. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.His infancy was nurtured. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. Remarks on the verb be. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²ID. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. condition.. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²SCOTT. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.²THACKERAY. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. as. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.Imperative Mood. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. to express intention. were. thus. (d) With the infinitive. though it is usually a dialect form.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. -en.²WORDSWORTH. etc. to form the passive voice. in four ways.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. obligation.²GOLDSMITH.²SHELLEY.. (3) be. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²BURKE .²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.

past perfect. . "I have gone" (present perfect). future perfect. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. (2). I chose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. PRESENT TENSE. Singular." (2) Present perfect. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I choose 2. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. 1. tenses. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. as. "I shall be. You choose Plural. "I had gone" (past perfect). 240. 1. [He] choose [They] choose 3. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. Singular. etc." "He will choose. I choose 2. 1. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. We chose You chose 3. as. You choose Plural. You chose Plural. We chose You chose 3. I chose 2. 242. 1. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. PRESENT TENSE. had. Singular. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. You chose Plural. by placing have. In addition to the above inflected forms. [He] chooses [They] choose 3.241. tenses. Singular. Indicative Mood. Machinery of a verb in the voices. We choose You choose PAST TENSE.

He was choosing. He chooses. Past definite. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. (2d per. Present. Indicative Mood. [If. He will have been choosing. lest. Present perfect. Future. Future definite. Past perfect definite. . He has chosen. "I was chosen." "They had been running. etc. Past perfect. "I am running. Same as indicative. Subjunctive Mood." (4) The passive forms." "You are chosen." 243. Past. Present definite. of each tense. ACTIVE VOICE. Present definite. Present perfect definite.) Choose. he chose (or were to choose). Present perfect definite. Future perfect. singular number. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Same as indicative. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He will choose. though.] he choose. Future perfect definite. as. will be given. Past definite. " Be choosing. Only the third person. he have been choosing. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past perfect definite. He had chosen. Present. He is choosing. He will he choosing. Present definite. as. he have chosen. He chose. Imperative Mood. Past perfect. He has been choosing. Present.(3) The definite form of each tense. He will have chosen. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present perfect. He had been choosing. Past.

Imperative Mood. Past Perfect. He has been chosen. Past perfect definite. but verbals. Present perfect definite. "He does strike. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He had been chosen. None. He was being chosen. Present definite. PASSIVE VOICE.] he be chosen. Past perfect.] [If. Future. if learned at all. in affirmative sentences." [Note to Teacher. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Present definite. None. Past perfect definite. None. he have been chosen. 262). Present perfect. etc. Past definite. Present perfect definite.) Be chosen. (2d per. None. he were being chosen. Past.. as. Present perfect. He is being chosen. He will have been chosen. though." "He did strike. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature.NOTE. he had been chosen. " " " " " " " None. . He was chosen. He will be chosen. Present. None. Indicative Mood. lest. He is chosen. Exercises should be given. Future perfect definite. Also.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Subjunctive Mood. Future perfect. Future definite. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). they will be discussed later (Sec. however. Past definite. None. Past. Present tense. Present.²This table is not to be learned now.

Some of these also have weak forms. bounden] bitten. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. beg. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. Kinds. 245. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) .[adj. drive. which are in parentheses Present Tense. Definition. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. catch. bid bound. ran. but adds no ending. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. 244. sleep. Past Tense. caught. slept. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. laid. and may or may not change the vowel: as. begged. verbs are strong or weak. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. lay. NOTE. as. According to form. drove. bit blown broken chidden. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. run.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten.

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang.

"²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. instead of ate and eaten. clave or clove. "his bounden duty. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. Crew is seldom found in present-day English." "a drunken wretch. cleft (to split).²IRVING. and another (born) for the passive. as. Sometimes in literary English. cleaved. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. When it means to carry or to endure. and sometimes occurs in poetry.²TENNYSON.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. borne is also a passive. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.² Thou hast clomb aloft. especially in that of an earlier period.²one meaning to adhere or cling. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²GOLDSMITH. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. probably to avoid confusion with this.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. only one set remains certain. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. to split." In this confusion of usage. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). but is much used in vulgar English.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.²as (from Shakespeare). nor a dog barked. now told us it was time for repose. as (from Holmes). .²B.²cleave. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). cleaved." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. cloven. ²THACKERAY. which always crew at eleven. as. Our cock. cleave.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. Not a cock crew. The former used to be cleave. The form clomb is not used in prose. cleft. 246." "the cloven hoof. for example. and. Historically. the other.²MILTON. as.² We had each drank three times at the well. TAYLOR. "stricken with paralysis." "a sunken snag. and the latter.²COLERIDGE.

maiden. for example. found. for example. 10. fallen. 5.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. Freeze. as "a shorn lamb. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective."²KINGSLEY.²TENNYSON. driven. thrown. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. 8. The butler was hanged. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.² We had all got safe on shore. flung.²BYRON. 4. 7. 9.² If.²DE FOE. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. He sate him down. which is seldom used except in poetry. Exercises. (a) From the table (Sec.²WORDSWORTH. Fall. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Usually shear is a weak verb. Throw." but not much as a participle. Drive. . Begin. broke. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. drove. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Give.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. shaken. shore is rare. broken. shook. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. 2. frozen. and grasping at his sword. 3. gave. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. Shake.The form gotten is little used. 245). Break. One example out of many is. Find.²SCOTT. flung. fell. This heard Geraint. and seized a pen. given. began. 6. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. We usually say. as. Fling. even in poetry. froze.²BIBLE. begun. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. found. threw.

etc. "far off his coming shines.. but came through analogy with should and would. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. PRESENT. HAMILTON. . They are as follows:² PRESENT.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. which survives in the sentence."²WINIER. It is indicative when it expresses permission. Like must. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged.. 250. from the obsolete verb motan. 251. 249. The same remarks apply to ought. purpose. must have been an ocular deception.[To the Teacher. Have we valuable territories and important posts. Must is historically a past-tense form. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. 247. of course.²CHANNING. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. as it sometimes does.. etc. (See also Sec. as it has two meanings." Must is present or past tense.. Indicative Use: Permission. Subjunctive use. 223. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. it is used only in the indicative mood. as. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. Could may be subjunctive. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. Can is used in the indicative only. according to the infinitive used. His superiority none might question. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. 220. for full drill on the forms. or when it expresses wish. "So mote it be. PAST.²CHANNING This. The l in could did not belong there originally. ability. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. Ability.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.²HAWTHORNE. PAST..²PAINE.²SCOTT. there is one general principle. as in Sec. or.

shall and should are used.²LONGFELLOW. or confident prediction. WEBSTER. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. Second and third persons. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. as. I shall be gone.e.²THAXTER. BROCKDEN BROWN.² The time will come full soon. The following are examples:² Never mind. yea.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. he said. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. promise. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. and corn to hoe. especially in the United States. while ought always has to.Nay. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. she should ride like a queen.²L. C. shall and should are used. "I think I will go. MOULTON. She rejects his suit with scorn." Uses of shall and should. with pronouns of the first person. my lad. future action). whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.²MACAULAY. (b) In indirect quotations. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. to use will and would.²COOPER. as. as. not plod along like apeasant. in the form of command. what shall I say?²N. The sea shall crush thee. 252. for example. . She should not walk.²BULWER.² With respect to novels. They shall have venison to eat. Shall and Will.²IRVING. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.² Futurity and questions²first person. to the neglect of shall and should.² (a) To express authority. (b) In questions asking for orders.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.

second and third persons. etc. or a promise.²WORDSWORTH.²H.²WINTER. JAMES.²A. thus. I never was what I should be. and is equivalent to ought. purpose.that I would do him justice. JR.²WORDSWORTH. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. 253. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. .² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. And promised. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. as the sole inventor.²ROGERS. for example. LARNED. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²CABLE. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.²SCOTT.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. Disguising a command.²WORDSWORTH. and will not return until all is finished. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS... for example. as. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.² I will go myself now. time. was to be expected.. First. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²BYRON.²SWIFT. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. B.²C. BROWN. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. with the conviction that he should win in the end. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.

BROWN. for example. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. Roland. for example. This puts the order more mildly.²SCOTT. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. when thou wast born. and mark on the grounds the works. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. . (5) With the THIRD PERSON.² Thou wilt take the skiff. They will go to Sunday schools. and two of my people. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.² DICKENS. as. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. B. (4) With FIRST.²BANCROFT. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. SECOND.²LANDOR. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. without regard to future time.. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. AND THIRD PERSONS. In this stately chair would he sit. as. as if it were merely expected action.² Subject I omitted: often so. Would thou hadst it not. through storms their brothers are afraid of. To be sure. The gift of Beauty..² All this will sound wild and chimerical. PASSIVE VOICE.²the original meaning of the word will. will and would often denote an action as customary. will is used to express command. Thine was a dangerous gift.²IRVING. Mere futurity.. action merely expected to occur. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.²War Records. When I am in town.. etc..²BURKE..²SCOTT. for punishment or intimidation. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. will and would are used to express simple futurity. would is used to express a wish. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. so you will. 254.

We shall choose. [He] will choose. 3. 1. [They] will choose. 5. You will choose. Thou art what I would be. You shall be chosen. [They] will be chosen. You shall choose. You shall be chosen. 2. 3. You will be chosen. We shall be chosen. 2. Thou shalt have a suit. 6. (b) Examine the following sentences. promise. PASSIVE VOICE. 2. 1. 2. etc. and justify the use of shall and will.:² ACTIVE VOICE. We will choose. 3. We will be chosen. 2. . Exercises on Shall and Will. I will be chosen. [He] will be chosen. I shall choose. (a) From Secs. I shall be chosen. 3. You will choose. 252 and 253. and that of the newest cut. 1." answered Herbert stubbornly. 1. Plural. Plural. Plural. Singular. "I shall not run. To express determination. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 1. Singular.Singular. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 3. I will choose. yet only seem. Singular. [They] shall be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. You shall choose. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. [He] shall choose. Plural. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. He informed us. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 4. You will be chosen. 3. [They] shall choose. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you.

Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Lucy stood still. bereaved besought . and I have nothing to say. set. Without having attended to this. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. set. This ending has now dropped off. 257." 14. bereave beseech bereft. WEAK VERBS. 9. my son. Of smale houndes hadde she. was -de or -te.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 10. 256. need some attention and explanation. as. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. 255. which may be called irregular weak verbs. put. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.7. Irregular Weak Verbs. "I am a wayfarer.²Class I. The old ending to verbs of Class II.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. or mylk and wastel breed. 12. then. put. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. very anxious." the stranger said. 11. The beast made a sluggish movement. bereft.²CHAUCER. But the rest.²ID. 13. bereave besought Past Participle. Past Tense. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. put. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. No. Present Tense. as if he would have more of the enchantment. and have no change of vowel. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle.

burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. spelt spilt staid. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). have no tense. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. [To] choose. a perfect. when inflections became fewer. Perfect. In Sec. as in the Old English. PASSIVE VOICE.²the creature warring against the creating power. they have an indefinite. 268. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. But later. Cases when to is omitted. an indefinite and a perfect form. I returned to reflection on my situation. to was used before the infinitive generally. expressing purpose. [To] have chosen. Infinitives. formed a kind of bedstead. an imperfect. Indefinite. Nothing of the kind having been done. 10. try clemency. [To] be chosen. 7. 266. will (with should and would). 9. [To] have been choosing.. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. ACTIVE VOICE. and when passive. 267.. [To] have been chosen. INFINITIVES. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Perfect definite. and a perfect definite form. to express action unconnected with a subject. Perfect. Imperfect. like participles. Indefinite. When active. [To] be choosing. 8. To with the infinitive.6. .. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. Three saplings. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect.

Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. and emphatic forms of the present and past.²IRVING. negative. and corn to hoe. as the credulous imagine. hear. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. also in the imperative. They shall have venison to eat." "I shall have chosen. poor woman!" cried Charles. While the gerund expresses action. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²HOWELLS. bid (command). Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. 272. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.² What! doth she. as.²COOPER. or the object of a verb or a preposition. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. watch. The gerund is like the participle in form. "I do go" etc. do (as. and like a noun in use.(2) After the verbs may (might). sometimes need (as. it is often preceded by the definite article. "He will choose.²GOLDSMITH. too. must. make. please. can (could). liberal woman. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. as. HALE." Examples are.). rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent." (4) In exclamations.²E. "She ask my pardon. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER.²it may be governed as a noun. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). . see. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. 270." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. E. learn [doth learn is one verb.. it may be the subject of a verb. But there was nothing to do.²DE QUINCEY. under "Analysis. as. 269. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.² She was a kind.²TENNYSON. 271. GERUNDS. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. as in the expression. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. feel. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay.²MACAULAY. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT." etc. it has several attributes of a noun. also let. "a house to let.

may govern and be governed. when. (2) Pure participles." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. II).Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. which name an action or state. and has been put down. (3) Participial adjectives. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Words in -ing are of six kinds. b). which have lost all verbal force. making the definite tenses. five infinitives." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. Exercise." Exercise. (6) Verbal nouns. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. and five gerunds. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. 2." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. 4. according to use as well as meaning. which express action. which express action and also modify." also (2. and wonderful store of learning! . Then how pleasing is it. above. to see the returning hope of the parents." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature.²Find sentences containing five participles. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. (5) Gerunds. which express action. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. What a vast. (4) Pure adjectives. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. brilliant. but do not assert. but cannot govern. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. Sec. 273." "Certainly dueling is bad. after examining the nest. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. on your leaving the spot.

like Sir Walter Scott.²active or passive. What is dreaming? 8. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 6. giving principal parts. 16. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. much corroded. VERBS.²strong or weak. 7. I. subjunctive. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 12. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. slowly. bearing her national emblem. (4) Tense. give reality to your teaching.5. by object lessons. you must. but. . 234. 275. dictating from his chair. (b) as to use. I suppose I was dreaming about it. The only means of ascending was by my hands. or imperative. 13. he gave out sentence by sentence. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating.²which of the tenses given in Sec. Caution. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 15. In parsing verbs. 9.²transitive or intransitive. He spread his blessings all over the land.²indicative. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. Thackeray did not. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. (3) Mood. 14. write twenty pages without stopping. round which is an iron railing. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 11. 10. (5) Person and number. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. (2) Voice.

The government might have been strong and prosperous. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. (b) whether indefinite. would. (3) Gerund. must. could. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. (b) its use (Sec. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. VERB PHRASES. and should always be analyzed as phrases. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. past tense. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. (b) whether active or passive." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. and parting day linger and play on its summit. may.. 278(2). see Sec. In such sentences as 1. indicative. But unless the verb is present. and not taken as single verbs. VERBALS. If a participial adjective. then parse it as an adjective. 2. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. we must beware of the rule. has for its subject Lee. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. (a) From what verb derived. in the world. and ends in -s. might. usually it does not. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. therefore active. 3. no sin nor sorrow. Exercise. imperfect. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. followed by a pure infinitive without to. past tense. 4. can.276. verbals. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. perfect. In 2. III. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. Let it rise! let it rise. 277. till it meet the sun in his coming. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. It has been intimated in Sec. intransitive. etc. Parse the verbs. Take these examples:² 1. Especially frequent are those made up of should. 235. intransitive. call should a weak verb. perfect. II. has the subject government. (1) Participle. active. ." Sometimes it does. 2. give points (a) and (b). indicative (as it means could). and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. 278. definite. 273). You are gathered to your fathers. etc. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. call might a weak verb. (c) to what word it belongs. (2) Infinitive.

5. He passed across the room to the washstand. 12. leaving me upon the bed. a sweet good will. 15. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 24.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 6. 17. . 18. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. as the Hindoos say. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. Whatever ground you sow or plant.O God. 23. 9.Down all the line. 22. as rolled from wing to wing. 14. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births.Henceforth in me instill. as usual. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. With them. see that it is in good condition. However that be. 19. 11. 16. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. or. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 21. and wondered if she were yet awake." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. When he arose in the morning. 10. from a sort of temporary death. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. morning is not a new issuing of light. The soul having been often born. 8. So. 13. a new bursting forth of the sun. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. a new waking up of all that has life. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 20. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. a deafening shout. In going for water. he thought only of her. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. Right graciously he smiled on us.

and limit adjectives or adverbs. who live with nature?²ID." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. thou sayest. to consent.Feast while we may. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.² The young man reveres men of genius. And now wend we to yonder fountain. place. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree.²time.²EMERSON. and men of leisure and cultivation." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. 27."²DE QUINCEY. for the hour of rest is at hand. 279. Nor was it altogether nothing.25." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly.²CARLYLE. as. A verb. To the almost terror of the persons present. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. because. When action is expressed. and so on. to speak truly.²THACKERAY." "He was absolute. they are more himself than he is. The word adverb means joined to a verb. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. 29. Better it were. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. or manner: as.²SHELLEY. 26. Adverbs modify. for example." An adjective or an adverb. . Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. Oh. and live ere life be spent. ADVERBS. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. "William's private life was severely pure. Is it only poets.

not the noun.²LEIGH HUNT.² LOWELL. I draw forth the fruit. ALDRICH.²THOREAU. 169. which may qualify an action word or a statement. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. Make music to the lonely ear. hitherto. like the light of heaven. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. all wet and glossy. We are offered six months' credit. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. before. (2) according to their use in the sentence.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. to-day. B. ²IRVING. and that. being adverbs naturally and fitly. or a word group used as such. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. there are six classes:² (1) Time. perhaps. ever. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. 281. Definition.²TROLLOPE. 280. An adverb. A phrase.² FRANKLIN. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. but some verb understood. Surely happiness is reflective. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. It may also modify a sentence. as shown in the sentences. Thus considered. lately. as now. 169 are felt to be elliptical. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. and half awfully. NOTE.He was incidentally news dealer. while those in Sec.²BYRON.²T. thus. then. for example. has induced some of us to attend it. but really modifying.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time.²These last differ from the words in Sec. NOTE. as.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. not simply the forms used in predication. . 282. is a modifying word. but still with a rich bloom to it. A clause or sentence. etc.

partly. Meekness. as here. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. etc. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Thackeray. and others.² The master. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.there. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. etc. maybe. two by two. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. too. twice. and not infrequently are found in literary English. at least.²SHAKESPEARE. not.²LECKY.. above..²BROWNING.. the more friends you will have. (see also Sec. The more they multiply.where.. White. while so precedes only the adjective usually.yonder.which gained him such universal popularity. possibly. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. Emerson. telling how much. as hence. much. as well.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.was for this once of her opinion. very.²DE QUINCEY. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. (3) Manner. surely. especially the comparative of these words. beautifully. thus. better. telling how many times: once. whencesoever. as hither.(2) Place. 283.²BURKE. . as little. as perhaps. (4) Number. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. etc. etc. for example.²HAWTHORNE. 283). This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. greatly.²R. LOUIS STEVENSON. (5) Degree. etc. probably. the more evidently they love liberty.whence. (6) Assertion. This long's the text. enough. telling how anything is done. singly..thence. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. that these adverbs form a very large class. just.²IRVING. slightly. bravely.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. the more perfect will be their obedience.thither.whither. So also in Grote. slowly. etc. whithersoever. I was. or how far he believes it to be true.near. Motley. [Sidenote The status of such.

besides modifying. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. for example. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples." "The house. B.² You are mighty courteous. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Some adverbs. have the additional function of asking a question.² "Mighty well. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Franklin.²"He walked too far [place]. 285. Notice meanings. Mighty. Simple. for example. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Kingsley.²BULWER. Holmes. and its lawn before [place]." "He spoke positively [manner]. Burke. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.²HAWTHORNE. De Quincey. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. A pretty large experience. and other writers. Direct questions. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived.²THACKERAY. Aldrich." "I have seen you before [time]." "That is positively untrue [assertion]." said the king.² KINGSLEY. Dickens. Hard blows and hard money.²FIELDING.²GOLDSMITH. Defoe. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.Pretty. and art but a fool. Neville.²BAYNE. Beau Fielding. STOWE." "That were far better [degree]. . 284. Such are most of those given already in Sec. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.²THACKERAY. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. 286. "Peace." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. 282. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister."²SCOTT. Again. Interrogative. Emerson. a mighty fine gentleman.

I know not why. I will not ask where thou liest low. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. .²D. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.²BULWER. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. (5) Reason. (2) Place.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.²BYRON. WEBSTER. they smiled.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. (4) Degree. for example. When did this humane custom begin?²H.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. I hearkened.²POE. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²BYRON (3) Manner. CLAY. 287. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (4) Degree. (2) Place. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.

as. Only that we may wiselier see.eyes.. obs. irregularly compared.²COLERIDGE. well much little far late Comparative.²BYRON. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.²EMERSON.²TENNYSON. use. soonest.) rather 289. when. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 290. Exercise. when compared." Exercise. but the whole clause. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. For further discussion. representing four classes. high. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. see Sec. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. soon. Form vs. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. not an adverb. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. . Then must she keep it safelier.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. just as adjectives do. higher. 288. The following. Its strings boldlier swept. further farthest. and. furthest (rathe. Superlative. highest. sooner.. have the same inflection as adjectives. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.²SHAKESPEARE. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Many adverbs are compared. only occasionally having -er and -est. Many adjectives have the same ending. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.But in reality. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. when does not express time and modify.

evenly.²ID.²TENNYSON.²IRVING. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 8. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 3. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. that in Old and Middle English. kindly and good-natured in secret. near. instead of being used adverbially. And all about. but with a different meaning.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face." Compare these:² 1.1. or down the leaves laughed through. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.And his mien of kingly state. . O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. hard. merely introduces a sentence. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. 2. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. 4. mostly. even. Again. more courtly in their manners. Frequently the word there. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 2. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. hardly. etc. 7. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. if it has the verb be. Not near so black as he was painted. to be sure. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. The reason is. whether adverbs or adjectives. quick-flashing eye.² EMERSON. 291.²THACKERAY. There are eyes. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. With his proud.²WORDSWORTH. nearly. curiously jolly. 5.²CHAUCER. 292. But he must do his errand right. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. many words without -ly have the same form. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. Such are most. as. Special use of there. He is inexpressibly mean. 6.

11. the Madonna is in great glory. 5. give² (1) The class. if the word is compared. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. burning in the center of the temple. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. In parsing adverbs. 9. but from my fall? 6. 16. Thither we went. is always politically unwise. It is the Cross that is first seen. (2) Degree of comparison.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 18. and always. Exercise. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 10. 17. (3) What word or word group it modifies. But a few steps farther on. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 293. and sate down on the steps of a house. 15. according to meaning and also use. 4. but continually shifted. 12. 7. at the regular wine-shop. . He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 3. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 2. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. For the impracticable. however theoretically enticing. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8.

A conjunction is a linking word. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. upon which the sun now shone forth. 21. nor. 294. Unlike adverbs. Definition. then. therefore. Clauses. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. CONJUNCTIONS. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. or sentence groups. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. It was pretty bad after that. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. hence. but the student will readily find them. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases." Paragraphs. etc. sentences. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. should be omnipotent for evil? 24.19. 22. word groups. . but side by side within the American Union. 20. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. But now the wind rose again." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. however. connecting words." Sentences. 295.

the window being open.Classes of conjunctions. the bread was spent. nor.or... as well as the room door. whether." Nevertheless.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. joining words. then. (3) CAUSAL. or the sea rolls its waves. as and. etc. Some of these go in pairs. either. however. nor.and. had its weight. 296. etc. hence. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.. as but. whether..but (or but also). Adversative. the butter too. whether. else. not only. of the same rank.. (2) Subordinate. Your letter. The assertion. not only. also. and. while. yet. word groups. "Howbeit.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. expressing a choice. both. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. for. still. however... but is emperor in his own right. They are or. and not man corn. serves but to show their ignorance.or. (2) ADVERSATIVE. usually between two things. neither. neither..nor. (4) ALTERNATIVE. either. moreover.nor... 297. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. . answering to each other in the same sentence. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. as well as.. either. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. Alternative. likewise. 298..but. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.. Correlatives. Causal. neither.... etc. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS..or.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.. therefore. While the earth bears a plant. introducing a reason or cause. only.. as. as.or. Some go in threes. The chief ones are...or whether. Nor mark'd they less.

whether. nor echo. etc. Where the treasure is. in order that. whithersoever. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. so. until. (7) RESULT: that. He is not only bold and vociferous. so. especially that after so. Neither the place in which he found himself. etc.²PAULDING. while. QUINCY. whereas. there will the heart be also.²DE QUINCEY. (2) TIME: when. as. on condition that. howsoever. so that. unless. whence. ere.²COOPER. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. although. except. as. (3) MANNER: how. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. however. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. after. so that. object. nor wing of bird. etc. in case. even if. that. etc. seeing. since. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.as.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.²J. nor creeping thing. now.. . To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. lest.. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. in apposition. provided that. sometimes if. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. (6) PURPOSE: that.²BIBLE. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body.²IRVING. whenever. Time.. though. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. whereto. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. 299. etc. provided. whither. before. so. wherever.²BURKE. nor green leaf. It is. ²ALLSTON.²WILSON.. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. since. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. as.

reason. not as they were expected or intended.²AMES. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.That he gave her wounds repose.That vain it were her eyes to close. I was again covered with water. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²CAMPBELL.²EMERSON. a thousand bodies. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Purpose. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.² HAWTHORNE. JACKSON.²BURKE. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Substantive.²IRVING. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Condition.²EMERSON. H.²DEFOE. Result. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Now he is dead. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²AMES. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.² EMERSON.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²BYRON. Comparison. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²AMES. Then Denmark blest our chief. As a soldier. Let the world go how it will. We wish for a thousand heads.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²COLERIDGE. Concession. .² H. but not so long but I held it out. Cause.² WORDSWORTH.²EMERSON. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.So I behold them not. Manner.

In what point of view. as he shot in air. As will have been noticed. as. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. And then recovering.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 4. 5. 3. 6. 13. Exercises. and hid her there. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. since. 7. however. it will remain harmless. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. hold a subordinate rank.²RUSKIN. After he was gone. while. she faintly pressed her hand. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. then. 300. that. Crept under the leaf. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 2. 10. They. etc. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. some words²for example. . Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 14. The moth fly.Let us see whether the greatest. 12. While a faction is a minority. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. No one had yet caught his character. He was brought up for the church. 9. And they lived happily forever after. While patriotism glowed in his heart. the lady called her servant. Besides. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. her real merit is known at home. the wisest. 15. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8.

Consequently.. even as they would weep. GREELEY. none of the lashings having given way. in this case. and part as though we parted not. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. 304. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.²HOOD. thus. 303.²EMILY BRONTE. "We meet. expressing degree if taken separately. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. and be a bud again.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.So slowly moved about. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. word groups.16.As though a rose should shut. (2) What words. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. As if. the expression would be. they connect.. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. In Emerson's sentence. 301. 302. As though." as. SPECIAL REMARKS. As for as if. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.Clouded.." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. as is shown by the use of as though. If analyzed. So silently we seemed to speak. In parsing conjunctions. In poetry.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. and the frame will suit the picture.²BYRON. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. for example. . as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. etc. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.²IRVING. as is often equivalent to as if. His voice .

²DEFOE 2. 6. In classifying them.²is subordinate of condition. etc. and its clause depends on the other. 12. If he could solve the riddle. so that expresses result. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. 7. and very seldom?" 8. as beside his own chimneys. At sea. dines with as good an appetite. Some conjunctions. the Sphinx was slain.²I find them true in Concord. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. he sleeps as warm. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. It may be safely trusted." said his wife to Martin Luther. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. so means provided.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. but of the natural.² 1. Exercise. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery.. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. It continued raining. and its clause is independent. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. are regularly of one particular class. he is also the correlative of nature. For example. that it might testify of that particular ray. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries.²EMERSON 3. All the postulates of elfin annals. or in the snow. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. When the gods come among men. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. compare the sentences. so means therefore. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.Caution. such as nor. they are not known.²that the fairies do not like to be named. . 5. so it be faithfully imparted. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. 11. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. and the like. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. "Doctor. He is the compend of time. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. or in the forest. in 2. when. because it is his. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. others belong to several classes. and. 3. 13. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. in 3. 2. and associates as happily. He dismisses without notice his thought. 9. 10. so that I could not stir abroad. because. so they paddled on. 4.

for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. of good novels only. 29.14. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 18. It is clear. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. . 19. you must be. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 15. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 26. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. when it was presented to them.. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 16. whose names I omit. I rejoice to stand here no longer. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 21. enthroned. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. There was no iron to be seen. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I speak. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 24. in many a heart. 28. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. PREPOSITIONS. For. won't you lay on? 17. Still. 25. 20. however.²else it is none. 23. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. the whole conditions are changed. 305. Now you have the whip in your hand. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 27. that both were wayward. 30. Goodness must have some edge to it. And whether consciously or not. 22. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. therefore. in this they agree. save it were sinful like herself. It may be so in the majority of cases. she might have the family countenance.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. 321. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. Helena.²SWIFT. at most. by the ruins of nations.²B. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. By my faith. CONWAY. 320. At St. . (4) Measure of excess. by the wrecks of time. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at work. D. By. (3) Agency or means. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. by many a million of acres. at play.²M. at length. at random. at peace.²ID. by means near or close to. Exercise. at one. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at first. at once. the first port made by the ship. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. H.²WARNER.²EVERETT. expressing the degree of difference.² (1) The general meaning of place. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at the worst. For. Exercise.²R. Richard was standing by the window. at all. She saw the boat headed for her. by the blessed memory of the departed. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at least. (2) Time. at war.²COOPER. etc. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at any rate.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. At that time [the earth] was richer. etc. at the best.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at naught. at rest. as. Like at. TAYLOR The angel came by night. STODDARD.²ALDRICH.²DE QUINCEY. ²PARTON. he stopped. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.

An Arab woman. if your worship can accomplish that. cause. had a forest of poor relations. BANCROFT.²H. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²PARKMAN. the Colonna motto would fit you best. reason. (6) Like as. (5) Reference. "Nay.²IRVING. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²PARKMAN.²HOOD. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. etc. he repented of his folly. (7) Concession. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. L.²HOLMES. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. meaning with regard to. but a few sunsets since. or extent of space. and leaped for joy.²W. in behalf of. incitement to action. For the rest.One of Eve's family. E. For him. or in spite of. (4) Substitution or exchange.²STODDARD.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.(2) In favor of. But the Colonel. . as being. (9) Motive. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. "For a fool."²SCOTT By my faith.. considering that etc. a person or thing.² RUSKIN. etc. Still. for all his title.²E.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²ID. they are now for us. meaning although. respecting. as to. (3) Duration of time. There are gains for all our losses. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. etc. He and they were for immediate attack. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. GARRISON." answered Master Brackett. The twilight being.. for famine. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. meaning in the character of. for the benefit of.²EMERSON. H. poor fellow. "thou hast counseled wisely." said the Lady of Lochleven. for all slips of hers. ate her child.²LAMB.

(1) Origin or source. From harmony. if not a desperate man. . H. cause. (4) Motive. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The general idea in from is separation or source.²HUXLEY.²BANCROFT. From. or reason. more. ceased to be merciful.²HUME.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²ID. (3) Time.²HIGGINSON. (2) Origin. 322. 323. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²HALE.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. A distrustful.²MILTON. nay. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Exercise. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. like from. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²DRYDEN. The From Relation. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. from a desire of seeming valiant. The king holds his authority of the people.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. Exercise. The young cavaliers. Like boys escaped from school. Of. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²H.

etc. deprivation.²SCOTT Who formed. (5) Expressing agency. out of the most unpromising materials.²ALDRICH. bare of. ²GAVARRE. (b) After some adjectives. free of. Sandals.² HUXLEY. divest. (3) With expressions of material. reason. (6) Partitive. He is away of his own free will. etc. . rid. etc. demand. especially out of.²BAYARD TAYLOR. of his own knowledge. relieve. White shirt with diamond studs. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. Asked no odds of. ²PARTON. Back of that tree. You cannot make a boy know. (d) With words expressing distance. "Good for him!" cried Nolan.²DICKENS II. expressing a part of a number or quantity. etc. deprive.²LEW WALLACE.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. disarm. purge.²BANCROFT. acquitted them of."²E. cure. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. as north of. Other Relations expressed by Of. "I am glad of that. The hills were bare of trees. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²BOSWELL.²HIGGINSON. bound with thongs of boar's hide. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. A singular want of all human relation. clear. Of the Forty.²PARKMAN. there were only twenty-one members present. such as ease. ask. free. motive. beg. E. The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²ID. south of. and grass. or breastpin of native gold.. that Cromwell once ruled England. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. wide of. (c) After nouns expressing lack. weeds. rob. etc.²clear of.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. HALE. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. More than one altar was richer of his vows.

²FROUDE. with regard to.. concerning. Besides the phrases of old. The nation of Lilliput. E. Not even woman's love.²SWIFT. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²COOPER. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. standing.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. The fair city of Mexico.²ID.²HALLECK. (c) Two nouns. could give shelter from his contumely. of is used in the sense of during.²ALDRICH. CHANNING.²BANCROFT. etc. of late. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. of a sudden. (b) Noun and gerund. See also Sec. when the first is descriptive of the second.²LAMB. . (10) Of reference.²BANCROFT. (9) Of time. being equivalent to an infinitive. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. equal to about.He washed out some of the dirt. 309. ²IRVING.²LOWELL. (7) Possessive.²BANCROFT. and the dignity of a queen. with its object. Idiomatic use with verbs. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. for the possessive. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Such a book as that of Job. (8) Appositional.²PRESCOTT.²W.

on trial. consist. on the wing. Upon. on the alert. on high. On. (b) With motion.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.²EMERSON.²PARKMAN. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²Find sentences with six uses of of. On my life. repent. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. avail (one's self). Exercise. (3) Reference. complain. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²ALDRICH. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. 325. 324. . on a sudden. and not a day more. Upon my reputation and credit. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. on board. SIGOURNEY. Exercise. approve. without adding to their meaning. Cannon were heard close on the left. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. you are eighteen.²MRS. such as admit. equal to about. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. It also accompanies the verbs tire. disapprove. allow. concerning. on view.²BRYANT.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire.²PARKMAN. Upon is seldom used to express time. To. (4) In adjurations. (2) Time. and others. etc. The general meaning of on is position or direction. ²BANCROFT. accept. permit. etc.²DE QUINCEY.²PARKMAN.

. 326. to my taste. .²B. it may be genuine poetry. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. (b) Referring to time. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Death!²HALLECK.²LANG.. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. had ceased to be.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. Exercise.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. whose influence is felt to this hour. interest. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. gay Comedy appears. mid meant in company with.to be written over. In Old English.²BENTON To our great delight. to him.²PARTON. But when.²BULWER.Come to the bridal chamber. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. (2) Expressing result.²GOLDSMITH.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²IRVING. 268). while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Revolutions. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. With. Nor.²often to the loss of vigor.²PARKMAN. unmasked.²HALE.. His brother had died.²BRYANT.. (5) Equivalent to according to. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. We cook the dish to our own appetite. He usually gave his draft to an aid. To the few.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. does the mere music.

HALE. Messala.²COOPER.²HOWELLS.²COLERIDGE. Exercise. as with you.²ALDRICH. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. "poetry is not a pursuit. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²HOWELLS. it is necessary. or with the haunch of our near leader. first of all. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²LANG. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²E. to find the object of the preposition. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. 327.²EMERSON. he gave millions to the sword.²SCOTT. opinion. I think. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. motive. transmitted from the beginning. It seemed a supreme moment with him. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. but with you.²CHANNING. She seemed pleased with the accident. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²HALE.²Find sentences with four uses of with. had already reached the defile. in spite of. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²DE QUINCEY. with all his boldness.The advance. (4) Estimation. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. He expired with these words. (3) Cause. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. with Heyward at its head. reason. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²DE QUINCEY. He was wild with delight about Texas. (2) Instrumentality.²WALLACE (7) Time. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. E. . Either with the swingle-bar. (5) Opposition. With all his sensibility.

or was. beginning. because I had given the provocation. of on. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. and then borne forward with prodigious speed.²SWIFT 2. we met the defaulter here. In (2). 2. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. country. I called out several times. like the clapping of wings. I heard a noise just over my head. hence we say. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. I remember. . but I received no other hurt. The object of on board is ships. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. the phrase answers the question where. and knocked me down flat on my face. but all to no purpose. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. (4) from the beginning. came tumbling about my ears. he followed us one day into those gardens. 3. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. (3) without a country. In (3).The phrases are (1) on board the ships. And so on. To our general surprise. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. Exercises. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. telling what man. I felt my box raised very high in the air. The guns were cleared of their lumber. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. of from. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. (2) on which. 4. of without. the malicious rogue. I speak these things from a love of justice. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire.²ID. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. without a country modifies man. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. 5. In (1). Be that as it will. by which a dozen apples. shook it directly over my head. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. which. Whereupon. I looked towards my windows. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. before the dwarf left the queen.

9. 11. 24. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. I like to see the passing. 10. in town. 29. when. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 21. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 25. plumed for battle. 14. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. Carteret was far from being a pedant. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. His breeches were of black silk. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 20. The savage army was in war-paint. 18. On all subjects known to man. to one dark and gloomy. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold.6. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. The mother sank and fell. 16. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 23. 15. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. With all his learning. 27. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 26. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 22.He spurred his courser on. 17. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 19. For my part. in this respect.Without stop or stay. 7. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 8. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. grasping at the child. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. . he favored the world with his opinions. 12. 13. after a restful morning.

WHAT. That night was a memorable one. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. THAT. (3) As a relative pronoun. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.² JOHNSON. And now it is like an angel's song. . and be proud in the midst of its toil.²WEBSTER. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. That is what I understand by scientific education.²WEBSTER. (1) Relative pronoun. He will raise the price. (b) Of result. We wish that labor may look up here. and not according to form. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²HUXLEY. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 329. not merely by the amount of the tax. 330.²STOCKTON.That makes the heavens be mute. (a) Indefinite relative.30. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. that you might behold this joyous day.²WEBSTER. That was a dreadful mistake. (c) Substantive conjunction. (4) As an adverb of degree.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²BEECHER. 328.²COLERIDGE. (2) As an adjective pronoun. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. A few are discussed below.

But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. it rests on reality.. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. "I'll tell you what.. partly. nearly equivalent to partly. or not only.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.." (4) Relative adjective. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. after not only. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. At what rate these materials would be distributed. What.²EMERSON.²THACKERAY.Which be they what they may.these sounds are only to be heard. BUT. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. If he has [been in America].Are yet the fountain light of all our day. What.it is impossible to determine.²EMERSON. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.. (b) Indirect question. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. Cox.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.²ID. silent still.²WORDSWORTH. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.. (7) Adverb of degree. (8) Conjunction. 331.in Pera. (9) As an exclamation. but the result of calculation. he knows what good people are to be found there..²S.S. and silent all!²BYRON..but. What with the Maltese goats.. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²ID...²WEBSTER. (b) Copulative. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. To say what good of fashion we can. (b) Indirect question. .Those shadowy recollections. to see what might be hidden. (6) Exclamatory adjective.

equivalent to that . like the dog.He yearned to our patriot bands. .. not.²CARLYLE. AS. 332... (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. at all moments.²IRVING. Doing duty as a guard.. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. on all sides. ²CARLYLE.²EMERSON.²MRS BROWNING. stands for that . towards order. after such. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.. meaning otherwise . (4) Relative pronoun. after a negative. (b) Substantive. or who .²SHELLEY. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. To lead but one measure. (b) Of manner.²IRVING. I shall see but little of it. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. meaning except. (d) Of reason. (c) Of degree. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. meaning only. but piercing cries.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE.. sometimes same. Who knows but.²FRANKLIN. not.²LAMB. (5) Adverb. not.²IRVING. (2) Relative pronoun. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. (3) Preposition. than. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (e) Introducing an appositive word.Then arose not only tears..

²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²HIGGINSON.²MAYHEW. Note the difference between these two uses.²LAMB. Stirring it vigorously. I do with my friends as I do with my books. like drops out. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.-SCOTT.LIKE. like Martin was. like a cook beating eggs.²CASS.²HAWTHORNE. That face. If the verb is expressed. Through which they put their heads. This follows a verb or a verbal. 333. No Emperor. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²ALDRICH. this. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²LONGFELLOW. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²SHAKESPEARE. NOTE. nervous child. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. In this second use. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. (1) An adjective. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. and was clearly an adjective.²ALDRICH. staring like a bewildered man. . and as or as if takes its place.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. but this is not considered good usage: for example. and is followed by a dative-objective. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²DARWIN. indeed. like summer ocean's. Give Ruskin space enough. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²HALLECK. They look. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. but its verb is omitted.²EMERSON. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. ²PARKMAN. There is no statue like this living man. like him awhile ago. In each case. Introduces a clause.² A timid.

. that is. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. Definition. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion.²in determining case. as. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. 336. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. in separating them into their component parts. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. etc. verb. that is.: for example." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Value of analysis." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. tut! buzz! etc. Definition. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. 335. subject and predicate. 334. etc. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. pronoun. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].. entering into the structure of a sentence.INTERJECTIONS. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Some of these are imitative sounds. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." PART II. but it still retains its identity as noun.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. What analysis is. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell.

hence. This is the most common one. according to form. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. or command: for example. which puts the thought in a question. Division according to number of statements. declarative. you must not die!" interrogative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. entreaty. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. "Old year. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. interrogative. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. question. But now all is to be changed. but the sentence would still be declarative. Definition: Predicate. 337. (3) Imperative. "Hath he not always treasures. but according to how many statements there are. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. but by no means vulgar. Every sentence must contain two parts. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject.²a subject and a predicate. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. not according to the form in which a thought is put. which expresses command. always friends?" imperative.Kinds of sentences as to form. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. . 2. "The quality of mercy is not strained." "What wouldst thou do. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Examples of these three kinds are. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. (2) Interrogative. 338. old man?" "Be thou familiar. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. Definition. "Come to the bridal chamber. or request. 339. or imperative." 340. A rare old plant is the ivy green. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement.

Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. to an ignorant man. and the real subject is the latter. 7. especially in poetry. all." Exercise. the subject is frequently after the verb. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. or adverb that asks about the subject. to suit all cases:² Subject. 2. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence.²What is to be changed? Answer. Consequently. Thus. Slavery they can have anywhere. But if we try this with the second sentence. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. not of a rare old plant. The last of all the Bards was he. and is to be supplied.²What is the ivy green? Answer. adjective. 6. we say all is the subject of the sentence. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 4. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Listen. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. on the other hand. In analyzing such sentences. 5. the subject (you. as. "[You] behold her single in the field. 3.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 341. and our definition must be the following. thou. but about the ivy green. 8. or an interrogative pronoun. a rare old plant. or ye) is in most cases omitted. we have some trouble. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. always reduce them to the order of a statement.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. . But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. In the interrogative sentence. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves.

342. 343. (2) The predicate. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. or second object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. just as if to say. Of a transitive verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. The transitive verb often requires. and me here is not the object simply of call. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. . direct. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. and by object we mean the direct object. (4) The complements. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.10. but of call chief.²transitive and intransitive. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Indirect object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. Direct Object. "Ye honor me. for example. (6) Independent elements. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. The subject and predicate have been discussed. but chief belongs to the verb. (5) Modifiers. in addition to the object. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds." indirect." Complement: 344. "Ye call me chief. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. and means summoned." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. (3) The object. but it is a true complement.

in the original Opium Confessions. seem." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . Phrases. Complement of an intransitive verb. for instance. 347. As to form. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. "Brow and head were round. he was now getting old. appear. "A cheery. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. I mentioned a case of that nature." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. in the popular judgment." "The good man. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. taste. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. not containing a verb. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." All these complete intransitive verbs. 364. and of massive weight. See sentence 19." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. as in drowning." Things used as Subject. especially the forms of be." 345." Also an expression used as a noun." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." (2) PARTICIPIAL. etc. An intransitive verb. and. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. feel. A phrase is a group of words. Thom of the Gills. 346. but used as a single modifier. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. 352. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. 'Ay. 351. ay. above sixty." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. as. more familiarly. become.. or. in exercise following Sec. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. 355. as in the sentence. introduced by a preposition: for example. sir!' rang out in response. and barring the door. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary." (3) INFINITIVE. to the completion of this man of the world." "He was termed Thomas.

was heard one syllable to justify." 348." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." Things used as Direct Object. prowling eyes. or the thundering of organs." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. Disguised infinitive subject. or their religion from their sect." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects.²the talent of starting the game. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." The for did not belong there originally. asserting eyes." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. "Therein has been. "'By God. from their lips. etc." In this sentence. but they will be given in detail here.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. (4) After "there introductory. 341. 349. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation.²the infinitive phrase." Things used as Complement. but obscures the real subject." "Never." "The dead are there. . and by Saint George!' said the King. but the real or logical subject is to print. and ever will be." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. my deficiency. (2) In interrogative sentences. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. I saw the quick and the dead. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." etc. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." "There are asking eyes. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. for which see Sec.

or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. and. 351." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. and whenever the complement is a noun." "She asked her father's permission. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. doubtless." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. or the equivalent of the noun. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." "Their tempers. Like all the complements in this list. and the words italicized are still complements." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken.²completing the predicate. complements of the predicate. they are adjuncts of the object." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." (4) Participle. As complement of a transitive verb. the shepherd girl. and explaining or modifying the subject." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale.350." "I hear the echoes throng. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. or Complement." Modifiers. Of a transitive verb. I. As complement of an intransitive verb. Object." . (3) Infinitive." In this last sentence. Modifiers of Subject.²heads or tails. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. at the same time.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." "Serving others is serving us.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. the object is made the subject by being passive.

at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. the prisoner at the bar." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." (For participial and infinitive phrases. tell whether the subject." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." "Him." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." In such a sentence as. or . Retained with passive. I have seasoned for thee. but noble teachers.²proud. but it is really a contracted clause. given at the request of a Dutch lady. object.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. "He died like a God." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation.²In each sentence in Sec. II. Since the predicate is always a verb. 357-363. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. or complement is modified. Tells how. 352." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. this young idolater. was the scene from King John." Exercise." "In the twinkling of an eye. and modify the predicate in the same way. austere." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. no sociable angel. and leading him from star to star." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. see further Secs." "Give them not only noble teachings." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. but with other men. the verb being omitted. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. was now called upon for his defense. Modifiers of the Predicate. not with nature.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. unforgiving. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. 351. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down.

but the children of the great. 6. in regard to particulars. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 6. etc. These answer the question when. 5." (6) Adverbial objective. no humor. is good in the making. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. (b) Pick out the subject. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. gives wonderful animation. 7. I took. and the direct object is retained: for example." Exercises. with my joy and grief. and as many to oppose it. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. and other measures of precaution. 2. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. no relief to the dead prosaic level." "One way lies hope. predicate. Evil. But anger drives a man to say anything. . or how long. and. Why does the horizon hold me fast. to the animal strength and spirits.When the verb is changed from active to passive. 3. according to old philosophers. he liked. predicate. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. but to be loved. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. To the men of this world. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. 8." "All such knowledge should be given her. in this center? 4. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. and (direct) object:² 1. 2. a sort of personality to the whole writing. 3. the indirect object is retained. negative. They do not wish to be lovely. His books have no melody. On the voyage to Egypt. after dinner. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. (a) Pick out subject.. 4. how far. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 7." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. 5. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. This. no emotion. Fashion does not often caress the great.

this imperial rider. 4. for the first time. after their long confinement to a ship. 2. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. to the right and to the left. Not the less I owe thee justice. 6. 5. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. viz. a room seventeen feet by twelve. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. Unhorse me.²the river Meuse. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. in little peaceful Easedale. In one feature. 3. 3. at length the warrior lady. happy dinner. That night.. burthened with the anxieties of a man. etc. the attorney. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. 2. must visit again the home of her childhood. Not compound sentences. upwards. 4. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 3. the present Archbishop of Dublin. then. then. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. To suffer and to do. the blooming cornet. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. at the chief hotel. . I gave him an address to my friend. Paint me. y y y y Compound Subject. downwards. Their intention was to have a gay. 4. 5. six children sat by a peat fire. and a member of the world. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. expecting the return of their parents. Yes. Compound Predicate. I felt myself.y 8. that was thy portion in life. this dragoon so lovely. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 2. this nun so martial. A river formed the boundary.

shouldered the rusty firelock. that is.353. Examples of compound subjects are. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. the predicate. etc. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. forming a sentence: "Oh." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. together with its modifiers." "Voyages and travels I would also have. the object. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. and its object or complement. modifiers. 354. Larger view of a sentence. in all such sentences as we quote below. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. exposes. and the rest is the logical predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. two or more subjects of the same predicate. ulcer. "The company broke up. may be the person or thing addressed. but it is to be noticed that. same as (1). then the grammatical subject and predicate." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. etc. For example. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." And so with complements. and. The exclamatory expression. "Ah. I'm with you once again. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject." "The name of the child. however. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. the verb). The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. above: thus. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. several modifiers. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. Bishop. 355. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. in the sentence. hurry. hurry. Of this. together with all its modifiers. they are not a necessary part. complements. the tone of her voice. my brave young man!" .²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. the air of the mother." Sentences with compound predicates are. etc. the simple subject is situation. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. Independent Elements of the Sentence." "Ye crags and peaks. turned his steps homeward." "He shook his head..

355." "No. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. he closed his literary toils at dinner." (3) Independent. 350. instances of which were seen in Sec. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. grandma. or word used as a noun: for example. generally speaking. he was a conscientious man. really. In their use. 4). he somehow lived along. or complement (see Sec. nevertheless. truly. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. y (2) The adverbial use. already noticed. six quill-driving gentlemen. 352. yes! everybody knew them. such as however. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. pronoun. There are some adverbs. such as perhaps. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 4). . PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. see Sec. how you're winking!" "Now. 351." (5) Participial phrase: "But. why. object. The words well. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. 3. and so on. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above.. now. etc." Another caution. 6)." "Well." (2) Adverbial. undoubtedly. and some conjunctions. etc. that have an office in the sentence. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. this story runs thus. moreover. therefore. modifying a noun. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. 356." (6) Single words: as." "At all events. then. see Sec. "Oh." "Why.. her noticing even this is creditable. let him perish. besides. modifying the predicate. These need close watching." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." "Truth to say." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. the company broke up. to the best of my remembrance. (b) As a modifier of subject. prepositional phrases may be." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. (1) Adjectival.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. 357. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as.

I. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. but having no other office than a verbal one. being equivalent to a future with obligation. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. modifying was speedily run through. etc. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. 358. ought. and hence is adverbial. was speedily run through. he should not have known them at all.]. therefore. and they will be presented here in full. but require somewhat closer attention.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.: as in the sentences. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." etc. necessity." (c) With the definite forms of go. The verbal use. y (a) With may (might). This case excepted." "There. "Because I was. etc. and teach her how to be happy and good. (5). INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES.would. containing no matters of business." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. 355." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." (b) With the forms of be. Wilt thou. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. See Sec. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar." In this sentence.should. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. or as nearly so as the student will require.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. thus. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec.can (could). Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. "The letter of introduction. my dear.seem.

may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. The adjectival use. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. already examined." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. II. and the eyes to fill?" 359. III.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." "He insisted on his right to forget her. hang the idiot." "To teach is to learn. notice the following:² In (1). to look means that he might look." 360. IV.²both purpose clauses." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. to please is equivalent to that he may please. object. . "But there was no time to be lost. 351. modifying a noun that may be a subject." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. 361 are used adverbially. etc. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry.: for example." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor.. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. to hear McOrator after dinner. Don Guzman. above. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. The substantive use. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. etc." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." "To say what good of fashion we can. 361. the Scotch fighting all the battles. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. result. The adverbial use." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. 362. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. (4) In apposition. complement. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. To test this." "Are you mad. 5).

This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have." (See also Sec. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. and to betray and to bring express the reason.. 352). 2. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. to find shows the result of the return. 364. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 3. give² (1) The predicate. 351). (3). In (4). equivalent to that you betray. 355). 351)." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. In (5). (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. must be in a life. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. as in Sec. 349). 363. (7) Independent elements (Sec. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 347). V. savage and serene in one hour. 355. . Our life is March weather. give the complement (Secs. etc. to hear means if you should hear. 268. If it is an incomplete verb.. (5) The subject (Sec. I will try to keep the balance true.In (2).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. object. to part means because I part. etc. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. etc. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree.²both expressing condition. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. 4. In (3). In analyzing simple sentences. not in a book. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 351). which is of two kinds. The independent use. and to say is equivalent to if we say.

9. To these gifts of nature. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. through evil agents. 16. 15. an accomplished scholar.4. 23. nor generals. a graceful dancer. The word conscience has become almost confined. always in a bad plight. Through the years and the centuries. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. with eager energy. 11.Burnt green and blue and white. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. The whole figure and air. and every moment discover something new. 21. 8. two stricken hours.He sat in the shower. a good shot.The old crow of Cairo. nor himself. 24. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. We are always in peril. the carrion crow. just on the edge of destruction. 7. nor money. I have heard Coleridge talk. 19. 13. 17. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. The water. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. good and amiable otherwise. 18. to restore civil and religious order. 12. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. a skilled musician. Old Adam. to keep England out of war. 10. and to the purpose. 6. and spared nothing. Her aims were simple and obvious. 5. His opinion is always original. 22. nor troops. is to have no political system at all. You may ramble a whole day together. in popular use. . 14. through toys and atoms. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men.²to preserve her throne. To be hurried away by every event. He risked everything. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. might be called flabby and irresolute. and only to be saved by invention and courage. like a witch's oils. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. neither ammunition. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 20. to the moral sphere.

and the why. 39. Now. the ship was in an uproar. in this world. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. the prime minister of Spain. and no provisions but wild berries. upon my own ground. the same Condé Olivarez. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 40. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Upon this shore stood. proud foe. In the Acadian land. or perhaps one virtue. Few in number. and. and in my own garden. Must we in all things look for the how. The cry. secluded. in front of all this mighty crowd. Fair name might he have handed down. Oxford. I hate him and myself.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. time-honored.Distant. 37. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. baggage far in the rear. and the wherefore? . timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 30. But yield. haply. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 29. the present capital of New England. 27. The villain. an elderly man. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. ready to receive her. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. to bid you leave the place now and forever. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 41. 32. Supposing this computation to be correct. in less heroic and poetic form. 35. 34. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches.25. had but one foible. 33. Of the same grandeur. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 26. 31. 38. 36. still. She had made a two days' march. it would not have been filial or ladylike. to be a reproach to such goodness. This amiable relative. I dare this.

" Sentences with like.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. As shown in Part I. which is the unit of speech. if they were expanded. thus. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. but." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. though often treated as phrases. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. The simple sentence the basis. 367." This must. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. Words left out after than or as. (Sec. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. the expressions of manner introduced by like. the pride and beauty of the grove. 366. as. 365. however.² "She is like some tender tree. as would be the connective instead of like." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.From her own loved island of sorrow. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." To show that these words are really omitted. made merely for convenience and smoothness." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. are really contracted clauses." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. . 333).

A principal. or dependent on it. that is. and modifier." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. Definition. Hence the following definition:² Definition. and the next one. each clause has its subject.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. complement. A clause is a division of a sentence.. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). predicate.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. that . CLAUSES..²the backbone. logically depends on suffering. object. 371. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. or it may be applied to the others. we are aware. modifiers. containing a verb with its subject. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. suffering. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. 369. 370. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement.. object.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.. and the last. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. complements. main. etc. is taken in. as in this sentence. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. how great . 368. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.²the other members subordinate to it. which are so united that one member is the main one. murmur. Independent clause.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. . But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject.

373. clauses are divided into NOUN." Just as the object noun. attention is called to them here. impertinences." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. so the object clause is retained." 374. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." "I was told that the house had not been shut. 352.. and it is . ADJECTIVE. As to their office in the sentence. 5). 'I know that he can toil terribly. and the whole clause is not.." (2) Object of a verb.. Kinds.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex.. infinitive.Dependent clause." (4) Apposition. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. But since they are complex in form. Noun Clauses. for example. but logically the sentence is. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. for a time. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. thus. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.. for example. for a hundred years. (a) Ordinary apposition. etc. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. adjectives. We ourselves are getting .." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. verbal. ." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.' is an electric touch. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. and ADVERB clauses." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. with a noun clause in apposition with it. night or day. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. impertinences²would be grammatical. put an end to my fancies. pronoun. over which the torrent came tumbling." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.. or adverbs. (b) that are . 372.

that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Adjective Clauses. he would repent it. 10. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. whither. in the sentence.² "It is on the understanding. Such a man is what we call an original man. he could know nothing. Other examples of this construction are. I was napping. whereby. how it changed from shape to shape. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. or equivalent of a noun. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 6. . but. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 8. which. 4. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. 9. 3. as. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. that he was a scheming impostor. whence. that. 2. But the fact is. whether he should choose one or not. that all safe legislation must be based. no man will ever know. a falsehood incarnate. wherein. 375. As the office of an adjective is to modify. of a nation. Except by what he could see for himself. sometimes by the conjunctions when. 5. 7. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. The reply of Socrates. etc. Examples of adjective clauses. What history it had.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. and not on the sentiment. Frequently there is no connecting word. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. that. where. a relative pronoun being understood. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife." Exercise. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. still remains reasonable.

Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. which could not be a prison whilst he was there.e.. 9. 1." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 11. 5. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Adverbial Clauses. object. Pick out the adjective clauses. 4. which formed the center of the mansion." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. and tell what each one modifies. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character.376. which Rowena tasted. I walked home with Calhoun. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. . In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. 7." Exercise. 6. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. whether subject. the champions advanced through the lists. 2. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. 8. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. i. he begins to help us more as an effect." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. etc. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. or that essence we were looking for. 3." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 10. No man is reason or illumination. all is vacancy.

it takes precedence of everything else. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study.: "But still. tell what kind each is. etc. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. and what it modifies:² . the milestones are grave-stones. etc. however. an adjective. no matter what remains. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. whatever." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. and adverbial conjunctions." (9) CONCESSION. but they require careful study." "He went several times to England. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." (5) DEGREE.377." These mean no matter how good." "After leaving the whole party under the table. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. Exercise." "Who cares for that. the wider is the horizon of their thought. with examples. since he was too great to care to be original. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences.² whoever. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. and will be given in detail. a verbal. expressing the degree in which the horizon." (7) RESULT. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. shaping our actions. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." (3) REASON. however good she may be as a witness. adverbs. he goes away as if nothing had happened. etc." "The right conclusion is. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. or an adverb. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. so far as we can." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." "The broader their education is. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. to make up our shortcomings. 378. Joanna is better. that we should try. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. is wider." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church.." "When he was come up to Christian." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. introduced by indefinite relatives.

'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. 3. when the wind was unruly. If the children gathered about her. then treat noun clauses as nouns. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. so as to picture the parts and their relations. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. incoherent exclamations. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. etc. predicate.1. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves." 2. we are a little disappointed. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. as they sometimes did. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. For example. howling and whistling. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. 380. and modifiers. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. and twirling weathercocks. its object is that Odin was a reality. object. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. with shrill. snatching up stones to fling at them. 379. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. 'Well. banging about doors and windows. in the sentence. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. to tell the truth. find the principal subject and principal predicate. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. of which clause Odin is the subject. on a dark wintry night. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. they might perhaps say of their visitors. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence.

2. . 380). as seen in the "map" (Sec. 364. d. 364. 3. (1) Find the principal clause. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. Exercises. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec.. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381.. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.

so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 6. 14. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 12. 7. or whether any. had we been worse. not so much for travelers that were few. 11. But now that she has become an establishment. 8. namely. which. could not have been effected. . 13. 22. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. This is she. He was what our country people call an old one. M. 15. the flower should revive for us. who would yield to it least. 24. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 19. 9. Here lay two great roads. The deep eyes. that. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. And those will often pity that weakness most. the mixed result. I like that representation they have of the tree. Whether she said the word is uncertain. Next came a wretched Dominican. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. bishop. dying for them. for yours. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man.4. whom I choose. Had they been better chemists. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 18. of a light hazel. 20. 10. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 23. 17. The night proved unusually dark. the shepherd girl. as for armies that were too many by half. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. Now. 21. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. that pressed her with an objection. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 16. 5. counselor that had none for herself. if applied to the Bible.

How formed. 26. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 2. 7. 3. 383." said Bentley. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. though we may repeat the words never so often. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 27. but above it. if continuously extended. "No book. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. speed. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. and what content I can find in conversing with each. the following complex sentences:² 1. "was ever written down by any but itself. then map out as in Sec. COMPOUND SENTENCES. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia.25. is to speak and write sincerely. Hence the definition. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. and not from his heart. questions.²which will not be disposed of.² Definition. It makes no difference how many friends I have. That which we do not believe. would easily reach. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 380." 4. . In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. we cannot adequately say. These things we are forced to say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 28. if there be one to whom I am not equal. (b) First analyze. and temper. or commands. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. 382. 5. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. that it was no more than his daily walk. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 6. and stamped with his right number. 30. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. While the complex sentence has only one main clause.

and connects the first and second complex members. the waving grass. tell which are compound. he walks with arms akimbo. he dilates. in (2). for." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. moon-like ray" (adversative). "Only the star dazzles. a simple member. nor does he know until he has tried. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. Of the following illustrative sentences. the planet has a faint. others sometimes coördinate. Connectives. yet. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. as but. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. . he is twice a man. 386. Thus in (1). in (3). while (whilst). Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Some of these are now conjunctions." 384. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. the semicolon separates the first. 297). and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. as in Sec. if there are any. from the second. 383 (1). The division into members will be easier. and it shall be the universal sense. nor. and which complex:² 1. which are simple statements. Study the thought. whereas. Exercise. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Another example is. etc. etc. and not the form of the connective. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. 385. and nor the second and third complex members. or but." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. The coördinate conjunctions and. however.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. now adverbs or prepositions. Speak your latent conviction.. a complex member. he soliloquizes.

364. 13. you lose something. and as yet very early in the morning. Man does not stand in awe of man. however. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 5. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 7. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. In this manner. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 12. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. that it was Easter Sunday. 2. 11. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. he grew up to be a mild.2. Exercise. quiet. and thou shalt be loved. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. However some may think him wanting in zeal. . Love. yield to them heart and life. 387. 8. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. is particular. and for everything you gain. to find a pot of buried gold. 4. and not by what each is. 14. I can yet love. 10. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. For everything you have missed. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. The gain is apparent. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. for example. 6. 4. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 3. the tax is certain. (i) Separate it into its main members. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 3. 381. all pain. from a happy yet often pensive child. Whilst the world is thus dual. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 9. unobtrusive boy. so is every one of its parts. nay. you have gained something else. All loss. or. passed in that time. I can still receive.

21. let them mount and expand. that let him communicate. Trust men. is as thin and timid as any. 15. crook and hide. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. or hope. . 16. 14. and the other dares not. "as nigh the scythe as you can. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. modesty. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. and he learns who receives. Come into port greatly. 20. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue." "keep the rake. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. or we pursue persons. and makes their business a friendship. 9. why should we intrude? 10. one is afraid." 13. and not an emotion of bravery. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. When you have chosen your part. whilst frankness invites frankness. and each shows only what lies at its focus. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow." says the smith. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world." says the haymaker. 18. because. and they repel us. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. Stand aside. as children. 19. 17. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and the cart as nigh the rake. and they will show themselves great. or sail with God the seas. 7. only that they may brag and conquer there. We see the noble afar off. puts the parties on a convenient footing. if you rip up his claims. "the iron is white. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. treat them greatly. abide by it. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. which always make the Actual ridiculous. We go to Europe. "Strike. feign to confess here. He teaches who gives. They will shuffle and crow. 11. and not a thought has enriched either party. and they will be true to you. and the peace of society is often kept. 8. give those merits room. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. or men will never know and honor him aright. or we read books. Whatever he knows and thinks. and you are without effort impelled to truth. 6.5.

380. they lose themselves in the crowd.²agreement and government. so readily and lavishly they promise. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. SYNTAX. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. but its leading characteristic is. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. adjective and noun. they die young. We see young men who owe us a new world. By way of introduction. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Do not craze yourself with thinking. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . it ends in headache. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Ground covered by syntax. but go about your business anywhere. verb and subject. Essential point in English syntax. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. and dodge the account. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads.22. if they live. So does culture with us. Following the Latin method. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. it never was known to fall into the rear. 24. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. 388. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. but they never acquit the debt. 25. 390. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. 23. or. the department of syntax will be a small affair. INTRODUCTORY. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. pronoun and antecedent. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. PART III.

There is. Why study syntax? 391. then." In this there is a possessive form. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. and imitate it." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. When usage varies as to a given construction. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. pronoun and antecedent. as to study inflected forms. This is not logical. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. or the same writer will use both indifferently. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. good English. 393. "None remained but he. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. distinct forms would be used. . take the sentence. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. sometimes verb and subject. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. but are not now. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. Second. etc." is ambiguous. In Latin. authorities²that is. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. As an illustration of the last remark. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and it would not matter which one stood first. both forms will be given in the following pages. the sentence. 392. and added to it the preposition of. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. following the regular order of subject. or settler may be the subject. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. therefore. The basis of syntax. also expressing a possessive relation. and whose judgment. Savage may be the subject. For example. In some cases. or when they exist side by side in good usage. some of which conform to classical grammar.² First. Also in the sentence. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and nothing but important points will be considered. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. the order being inverted. "The savage here the settler slew. Some rules not rigid." that is.

394. 395.²MILTON. Mill's and Mr. Use of the possessive.²MCCULLOCH. He kept Bolingbroke's. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. Separate possession. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays." Juletta tells. sense and nature's easy fool. PRONOUNS. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. ²ID. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. but imply separate possession or ownership. as. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Joint possession. 397.²ROWE. the possessive sign is used with each noun. and Paul's. etc. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.² He lands us on a grassy stage. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²MACAULAY. Putting Mr.² Live your king and country's best support. Woman.²BYRON.²THACKERAY. and Harley's. and Peterborough's. the antechamber of the High Priest. Bentham's principles together. the shore of Galilee. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. . Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. 396. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage.NOUNS. and Peter's. for example. 408).²RUSKIN. and Pope's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²EMERSON. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.

the last expression has the support of many good writers. But he must be a stronger than thee. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. the real thought being forgotten. This should be "as she. thus. Still.) "The young Harper. others are generally.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. General rules. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. there are two general rules that require attention. 399. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. I. Some of the violations are universally condemned. together with the relative who. as.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. who." 400. Objective for the nominative. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. . as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.²THACKERAY.²TROLLOPE.²WHITCHER.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. and should be the nominative form. Bedott Papers. No mightier than thyself or me. Since most of the personal pronouns.²SOUTHEY. 398. if not universally. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²BYRON. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.²SHAKESPEARE. for example. sanctioned. whom is the complement after the verb am.²POPE. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.

It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. One exception is to be noted.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. it will not be me.²COLERIDGE. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²FIELDING. "If there is any one embarrassed.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. they are yet holier than we." 401.²SCOTT. as. But still it is not she. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. BLACK. on the other hand. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who."²WM. are.²THACKERAY. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²LONGFELLOW. . and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. unless a special."²KINGSLEY.²RUSKIN. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. and the other forms of the verb be. "Who's there?"²"Me. is. The usage is too common to need further examples. for example. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. "Than whom. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her." There is no special reason for this. the objective form is regularly found. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. Patrick the Porter.²KINGSLEY. In spoken English.²PARTON. both in England and America.² One I remember especially. The camp of Richard of England. namely."²WINTHROP. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. but such is the fact.² For there was little doubt that it was he.²MACAULAY. A safe rule.

as this from Shakespeare. or this. and prepositions. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. Nominative for the objective. 9. 4. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Me in exclamations. now. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn.²MILTON. "Ask the murderer. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 7.Exercise. Whom they were I really cannot specify. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. verbals. 10. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. I speak not to" (he should be him." 6. object of saw). . "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 403. verbal. 2. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. as. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. it is me. or us). If there ever was a rogue in the world." the word being in apposition with murderer). The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 5.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. 8. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. 3. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. used after verbs. It is not me you are in love with. the object of to). Truth is mightier than us all. 11. as. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. you or me. but not he" (he should be him. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 404. as. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. or preposition which governs it. (3) By forgetting the construction. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. You know whom it is that you thus charge.

Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. for they say there are none such in the world.² All were knocked down but us two.²KINGSLEY. 405. I arraign. but he. as. all but he. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Let you and I look at these. as. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. We regularly say.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²KINGSLEY.²BYRON.²STEELE. Nature. Thou. who interrogative.Exception 1. for example. save thou and thine. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.²BYRON. after the preposition but (sometimes save). partial Nature.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. 2. Exception 2. Who have we here?²ID.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. etc. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.²KINGSLEY. Exercise. changed in all save thee. . The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. and is usually avoided. as well as the objective.Shall be left upon the morn. "Who did you see?" or. "Who were they talking to?" etc. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²GOLDSMITH. Thy shores are empires. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. 406. I've sworn. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. None.

He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 12. 407." 4.²DE QUINCEY. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. This usage is not frequent. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. with Jortin and Thirlby. 5. or objective? . Preceding a gerund. Markland. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. who.²possessive.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. and they know that as well as me. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 9. 10. POSSESSIVE FORMS. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. They are coming for a visit to she and I.²THACKERAY. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. B. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.3.²MACAULAY.²RUSKIN.²SCOTT. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 8. 6.²C. II. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. As antecedent of a relative. BROWN. Bartholomew. 11. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach.Ye I salute. They crowned him long ago. 7.

² IRVING. . But in common use there is no such distinction. that the bitterness of death was past. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. as he turned away from his wife.²MACAULAY. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. The last incident which I recollect. In the examples quoted." That is. both are gerunds. Both types of sentences are found. and the meaning is. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. object of heard of. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. sometimes it has the objective.² THACKERAY. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind.²DE QUINCEY.² CARLYLE. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and asked why it was not made. studying is a gerund. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.²RUSKIN.²DICKENS. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.²BREWER. The use of the objective is older. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. Why both are found. Possessive. and that in the second." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.² SCOTT. etc. [who was] studying law.²CARLYLE.408. Objective. We heard of Brown. Here I state them only in brief.

and ought to agree with them in person.²C.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. 410. Examples of these constructions are.²AUDUBON. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²DEFOE. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²HUXLEY. . Everybody had his own life to think of. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²RUSKIN. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. in one person. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. taking in each of many persons. The pale realms of shade. 409.²when the antecedent.²DE QUINCEY. preceded by a distributive. number. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. If any one did not know it.²HOLMES. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²DE QUINCEY. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. Watch for the real antecedent. where there were examinations. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²CABLE.²EMERSON III.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. Every city threw open its gates. if the antecedent is neuter. it was his own fault.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. or is a distributive word. In such a case as the last three sentences. and gender. BROCKDEN BROWN.² BRYANT.²THOREAU.²THACKERAY.

Whosoever hath any gold.²ID. for example. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²PAULDING. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. till they have lost him. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.Avoided: By using both pronouns. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²RUSKIN. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. .²SCOTT.²FIELDING. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²BIBLE. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²DEFOE. let them break it off.²HUXLEY. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.² Not the feeblest grandame. The sun.²BYRON. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Every one must judge of their own feelings. This is not considered the best usage. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Struggling for life.²PALEY. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²EMERSON. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. and giving them means of being so. By using the plural pronoun. If the part deserve any comment. as anybody in their senses would have done. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²PALGRAVE.²AUSTEN. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. 411. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. not a mowing idiot.²THACKERAY. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²ID.

In the following examples. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. 2. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. What these terms mean." A relative. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.²ADDISON.Where she was gone. It adds a new statement to what precedes. no one could take upon them to say.²In the above sentences." It defines beggar. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. 412. but. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. and he went away. according to the practice of every modern writer. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word.² SHERIDAN. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. or unrestrictive. or what was become of her. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. but. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. "I gave it to the beggar. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. because. unless both genders are implied.²HAWTHORNE. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. when restrictive. which.²ID. in each instance:² Who. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent.) and a personal pronoun. etc. tell whether who. when coördinating." This means. and does not add a new statement. Exercise. who went away. Exercise. the definite relatives who. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. which. . Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. A relative. and that always restrictive. as. I. 413. As to their conjunctive use. that being considered already clear. 1. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. That is in most cases restrictive. and that are restrictive or not.

hard-mouthed horses at Westport. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public.. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. The rule. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him." that is invariable as to person and number. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. in the sentence. Which. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 8. they. as that does not vary for person or number.² CARLYLE. BEECHER 5.² NEWMAN. With narrow shoulders.3.²ID. The general rule is. that were often vicious. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. down. 13.²ID. etc. he. which Mr. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. these or that which. 9. because of its antecedent. 10. We say I. 6.²THOREAU. Yet how many are there who up. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.² IRVING. it makes the verb third person singular. etc.²H. II. and over England are saying. who. 12. 11. but. .²HOLMES. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²DE QUINCEY. 4. However. 14. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 7. That. For example. which was to go over the Cordilleras. In what sense true.² MOTLEY.²DE QUINCEY. 414. and it is called logic. long arms and legs. On hearing their plan. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. she agreed to join the party. etc. A grizzly-looking man appeared.²ADDISON. you. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. Hare has printed. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. W. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. So different from the wild.

The fiery youth . A disputed point. "one of the finest books that has been published. 415.." One of .²M. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.²LECKY..²whether we should say. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. who rarely speak at all.] Both constructions are frequently found.. ARNOLD. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. and write the verb in the plural.²MACAULAY.. French literature of the eighteenth century. and in improving a victory. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. but speaks of him as that sort. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. Let us be of good cheer. with one as the principal word. Singular. Franklin. "one of the finest books that have been published. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²HOLMES..²BOWLES. others regard books as the antecedent. . The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²HOWELLS. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal..²ADDISON. [singular or plural. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.. or which . MORSE. JR. He is one of those that deserve very well.²J. the true antecedent. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²ADDISON. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. etc. The latter is rather more frequent. but the former has good authority. but myself. etc. [plural] that who. when he derided the shams of society.²LOWELL. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. T.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.²LOWELL. in winning a battle." or. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²SCOTT.

²EMERSON.² RUSKIN.²VAUGHAN. that is. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. return.² . and such like: as.²BURNS.²ID."²DICKENS. 417.A rare Roundabout performance.In that same state I came.²In the above sentences. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. But I by backward steps would move. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. 416. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. or where] he died. when this dust falls to the urn. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. and see if the sentence is made clearer. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²SWIFT. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.² THACKERAY. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire." "India is the place [in which.²DEFOE. IV.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. when the relative word is a pronoun. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²SCOTT. object of a preposition understood. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²GOLDSMITH. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. I could see nothing except the sky.²ADDISON. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE. Exercise. where. III.²IRVING. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. whence.And. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.

as is not used. as of knives.² Which. They believe the same of all the works of art.²FRANKLIN. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²WORDSWORTH. Caution. she passed the lamp over her face and person. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. Which..me as his apprentice. but.² MACAULAY. That.²R. I might as well have staid at home. The regular construction. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.²SWIFT. or that. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.² BURKE. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. ²GOLDSMITH. CHURCH. .²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.He considered. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. if I had resolved to go on with. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. if same is followed by a complete clause. V. he. W. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. looking-glasses. but we find the relative who. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. and working in the same spirit. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. with Turner. Mr.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. boats.. which. was a discoverer. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. for example. but which is usually carefully avoided. etc. Anacoluthic use of which. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. 418. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.² THACKERAY.

After this came Elizabeth herself. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. or leave out both connective and relative.² Direction for rewriting. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. 2." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. but none is expressed. or. and this be placed in the proper clause.²GOLDSMITH. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. Exercise. (3) "Among the poorer sort. That is. which when Mr. (1) "Among those who are poor.. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. and which.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.²RUSKIN. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. But who. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²SHAKESPEARE. 419. and who are now." etc.²which if they once heard. Express both relatives. Exercise. who are now thrown. le Conte. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. but.²HAWTHORNE.. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. once a great favorite of M. etc. 4. etc. he said that all submission was now too late. This was a gentleman. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. (2) "Among the poorer sort. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.She'd come again. As the sentences stand. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. . 1. or omit the conjunction. now thrown upon their. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort." etc." etc.²SCOTT. 3. He delivered the letter. And who. Thornhill had read.

"What knight so craven. who. and to whom no door is closed. 420. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.. like that spoken in the towns. then. 11. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²PEARSON.5.. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. 10. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. But which. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy.. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.² MOTLEY. as a false and astucious mark. 6. Exercise.²DE QUINCEY.²HAWTHORNE. 9. . etc. etc. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. 8. I shall have complete copies. 1. either from imitation of their frequent allies. and which. indeed. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Or who.²SCOTT. And which. which the Scotch had learned. 13. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. Or which. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. 7. the French." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. I saw upon the left a scene far different. That . Dr. Akin to the above is another fault. 12. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.²IRVING. and repeat this for any further reference. English by name. and which has never been described. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. and which may even be heard a mile off.²DE QUINCEY. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .²SCOTT. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.. "A mockery. one of signal interest. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character.

but which..2.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. I give to such men as do not belong to me. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²EMERSON. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. G. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. In my native town of Salem. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.. and whose examples and principles we inherit. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. was a bustling wharf.. 3.. and to whom I do not belong.²SCOTT That which . that . such as they have very probably been bred to. The Tree Igdrasil. Such as . 10. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 4. I grudge the dollar. what. 11..²EMERSON. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. which. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. in his Mephistopheles. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear...²W.. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. That . 14. 9. half a century ago.²DE QUINCEY. E. 8.. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 5.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. at the head of what. the dime.²BEECHER. He. that. 6. 12. SIMMS.²HOWELLS. It rose into a thrilling passion. in his present condition. but which is perhaps not so different from it.. CHANNING. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 13.²DEFOE.. Such as . the cent.. Which .²HOLMES. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. .²W. I recommend some honest manual calling.²HALLAM. was hung in air. He flung into literature. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. which. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. whom. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. 7. 15. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.

Assume that no one is in want of either. always at war with one another. for example. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. one another. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. that not all combined.²RUSKIN. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. By their original meaning. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. Distributives either and neither.²DICKENS. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.²HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.²MACAULAY. Use of any.²RUSKIN. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²GOLDSMITH. Each other. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²EMERSON. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. as.²ID.² HAWTHORNE. 421. .² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. We call ourselves a rich nation. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. in which case any should be used instead. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. 422. as.² Some one must be poor. as it were. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. whether or not the two are equivalent.

But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. in the prose of the present day. None usually plural. I beseech you. before that. 424. then in Plutarch.² EMERSON.²BIBLE. for him have I offended. afterwards in Goethe. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. as none of the French philosophers were.²CARLYLE. If any of you lack wisdom. speak. as. let him ask of God. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. Examples of its use are. then in Plotinus. even in Bettine.²THACKERAY. if ever man was.²SHAKESPEARE.²FRANKLIN. Do you think.²EMERSON.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. whilst I still cherish their genius. None of Nature's powers do better service. at one time in Bacon.² In earnest. and is isolated. which is plural as often as singular.. . when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. In earlier Modern English. etc... during his stay at Yuste.² If any. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. Any usually plural. that I know of.²BEECHER Whenever. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. any was often singular. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. any of his friends had died.²PROF. in Shakespeare. usually plural.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²STIRLING.²BURKE. The adjective pronoun none is. when any of them are so good as to visit me. 423.²SCOTT. Do you think. as. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. Caution. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.

but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. When all were gone.²McMASTER. etc. etc. as.. 425. for example.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and Ford has nobody's else. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.. any one else. are treated as units. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. The light troops thought . the plural. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. and less rarely in poetry.²NAPIER Plural. saving Naaman the Syrian.² Singular. fixing his eyes on the mace.² PEARSON. Somebody's else. nobody else. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²SCOTT Like the use of any. etc. when it means all persons: for example. or somebody else's? 426. which is used absolutely. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. etc. and all was lost on the other.²THOREAU. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.² None of them was cleansed. The compounds somebody else. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. that all was lost.

"Ye see.²DICKENS.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. P. ELIOT.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²N. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. STOWE. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²SWEET. His hair. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.SYDNEY SMITH. etc. Again. Whitefield or Wesley. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. unlike anybody else's in the world.²AUSTEN. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. WILLIS.²in such as "these sort of books." the nouns being singular. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes." "all manner of men.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²RUSKIN. or some other such great man as a bishop. the adjectives plural. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. all manner of.²G. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.² Saturday Review.²MULOCH. 427.² These kind of knaves I know. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.² FIELDING. or those sort of people.²RUSKIN. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. for example. A suit of clothes like somebody else's."²MRS.²THACKERAY. These sort." "those kind of trees. London. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. .²SHERIDAN. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.. etc. ADJECTIVES.

"These kind of trees are best. when the necessary dispositions concur. more alarming than a total silence. This the modern expression reverses. such as. ." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. which accounts for the construction.² Which is the better able to defend himself. In Old and Middle English. "This kind of rules are the best. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. in spoken English. and the adjective is. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. not "all kinds of wild animals." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. Should we say. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. At the source. History of this construction. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. 428. Consequently we have a confused expression. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. Use of the comparative degree. The result. or one object with a class of objects. or the nouns to the plural. with all manner of amusing books. "This sort of trees should be planted. Burke's sentence. Of two such lessons. they said.² PRESCOTT. the victor or the vanquished. for example. and in this way may take a plural verb.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. as. made to agree with it. to express a higher degree of quality. Later form.²RUSKIN. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. According to the approved usage of Modern English. gradually displacing the old." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS.The library was open." A question." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.

Compare the first three sentences in Sec. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 430. Other after the comparative form.²SCOTT. I am concerned to see that Mr.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Gary.²THACKERAY.²HUXLEY. To the man who plays well. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things."²ID. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. 5. would not have had the face.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn.²CARLYLE. 3. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 4. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. etc. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. . it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²LOWELL.²MACAULAY. than any of his court. 429. Henry. the highest stakes are paid. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.² THACKERAY. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. Even Dodd himself. 6. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²WIRT. He is taller. Exercise. Use of the superlative degree. has sanctioned. if not. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 2.²MACAULAY. Superlative with two objects. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²SWIFT.²HAWTHORNE.²TROLLOPE. by almost the breadth of my nail.

²ADDISON. "Ha.²EMERSON. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²SCOTT.²J. . 1611. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.. and differ only in form. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians."²HAWTHORNE. 431. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Also from the same period.²IRVING. whichever can be got easiest. OLIPHANT. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. The eldest. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature."²GOLDSMITH. more particularly the last of them. who eat white bread or brown. Rip was one of those ."²BULWER. Examples from Shakespeare are.²DR BLAIR.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. and the other contains the best men. CÆSAR..²HAMLET. The following examples are used purposely. In all disputes between States. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²MRS. ha. Mary.²TEMPEST. These two properties seem essential to wit. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. not a bit of high life among them.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²GOLDSMITH. Come you more nearer. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²Bible. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. I should say that one has the best cause.²RUSKIN.²BEN JONSON. Double comparative and superlative.

and Secretary Walsingham also. Examples of this construction are. 433.²GIBBON. . He has already finished the three first sticks of it. As to these two expressions. etc. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²PRESCOTT. These are the three first needs of civilized life. First three. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. jar upon us constantly. but in literary English. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.² SMOLLETT. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²RUSKIN. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. For Carlyle.² With a singular noun. and conceit in the last.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. ARTICLES. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. The meaning intended is the same. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. Three first. The first five had specific names. The merit of the Barb. etc.²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY.²KINGSLEY. Definite article. The delay in the first three lines. the Spanish. ²COWPER. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.²RUSKIN.²GIBBON. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²LAMB. Instances of both are given below. not only so in popular speech.

²MACAULAY. but inseparable from each other.²SCOTT.²ID. Here the youth of both sexes. with a plural noun.. but is used with one only.²THE NATION.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. of the eighteenth century. Meaning same as in Sec. having been arranged. as. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. No. He is master of the two-fold Logos.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. the hour of parting came. 434. the greatest poems. I think. and flexible language. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. .²TAYLOR.²PRESCOTT. Origin of the Aryans.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. however. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.² MACAULAY. 433.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. or to emphasize the meaning. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. of the higher and middling orders. with a singular noun. melodious. The lofty. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. Frequently. 433. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . Indefinite article. the thought and the word. were placed at a very tender age..²TENNYSON.²THACKERAY.²NEWMAN. distinct. to distinguish clearly. One object and several modifiers. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. and the presents. 1508. as. The flowers. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.²CARLYLE.² RUSKIN. With a plural noun. as in Sec. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. 435. The not repeated. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.

like the definite article." and "a red and a white geranium. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. 433 and 436. For rhetorical effect. as. But in the following sentences.²DRYDEN. 436). a collegian. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²B. Examples of this use are. One article with several adjectives. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²BULWER. and a usurper. to limit two or more modified nouns.²THACKERAY." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. In the sentences of Secs.²MACAULAY. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. interest. or clearness to each of several nouns. He saw him in his mind's eye. a round and a square one alternately. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. only one of which is expressed. a tyrant. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.²BEECHER. a murderer.²DICKENS. The indefinite article (compare Sec. The indefinite article is used.² BURKE. one noun is expressed. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. .²MACAULAY. rich. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. 438. T. JONSON. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.² MACAULAY. and inexhausted vein.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²JOHNSON. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.436. 437. COLERIDGE. as in the first three of Sec.An early. 435.²S.

²AGASSIZ.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Another writer might.²The Nation. Singular verb. 439. has got already.²G.²FROUDE.²CARLYLE This usage. A broad and loose rule. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²GIBBON. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Such. . all that academies can give. Sec. ARNOLD. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. then. as. 440..²COOPER. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. like some others in this series. Collective noun of singular meaning. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. In English. and the following illustrations prove it. without academies.²M. or the great intellectual life of our nation. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. Singulars connected by or or nor. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. 276.²W. He sees that it is better to live in peace. was the earliest American land. ELIOT. This was spoken of in Part I. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.VERBS. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. for example. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. as. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.

or considered as appositional. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. a loss of wealth. but considered as meaning about the same thing. a cruel disappointment.²J. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. Q. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.Jesus is not dead. other names. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. seems at the moment unpaid loss. (4) When the subject is plural in form.² In a word. a loss of friends.² Politics is the only field now open for me. ²EMERSON. and other singulars of plural form.²WHITTIER. for example.²BURKE. as. ADAMS. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²CRITIC. nor Paul. Plural form and singular meaning. nor John. No. A fever. and every four hours.²DE QUINCEY. Between ourselves. the cheap defense of nations. nor Mahomet. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²EMERSON .² GOLDSMITH. is gone. for example.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²GOLDSMITH. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. or as making up one general idea. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. as. that of a large town.²GIBBON. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.² The unbought grace of life. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. but each one emphatic. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. a mutilation.

² Asia.²M ARNOLD. does not take the place of the man. with death. Every sound. as well as Europe. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. almost every day. each. every boor. To receive presents or a bribe. sir?" and the "No. and greaves.²ID.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²PRESCOTT. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²LONGFELLOW.²EMERSON. the fine gentleman. as well as the Drama. 441. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. thus. no matter if the second is plural).²BUTLER. is a man of wit.²ID. Then comes the "Why.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. no discontinuity.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. every valet.The author. as well as the newest. Every week.² . as. in a judge. the ruin. There is a moving tone of voice. no spent ball.²NEWMAN. a cuirass. Her back.² There is a right and a wrong in them. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. Plural verb. and such like adjectives. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²MACAULAY. The oldest. was listened to for five hours. For wide is heard the thundering fray. was punished. was like to crack. was dazzled. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. wineBegins to stir itself. no. an agitated gesture. an impassioned countenance. Subjects after the verb. a gorget. as. every echo. the wit. The Epic.²PRESCOTT. sir!" and the "What then. nay. sir!"²MACAULAY. Every fop. many a. the partisan.²SCOTT.²RUSKIN.²HAWTHORNE.²MACAULAY. as well as sides. the dismay. Here is no ruin.The rout. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.

Far.²SCOTT. 440 (5.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²FROUDE. the Duke of Berri.²FROUDE. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. for example. a stream of fresh water.²EMERSON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²B. far away thy children leave the land. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.² A multitude go mad about it.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²FRANKLIN. were men of insignificant characters. as.²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY. as.²ADDISON.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. and its history are alike a mystery to us.² GIBBON. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. A party of workmen were removing the horses. The conjunction may be omitted. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²THOREAU. of whom there were a number. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. Philip of Anjou. His clothes. making up a plural subject. Conjunction omitted. TAYLOR. The travelers. A shady grove. a green pasture.²COLERIDGE.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. are sufficient to attract a colony. shirt. but the verb is plural.²GIBBON. its date.²CARLYLE But its authorship. The Dauphin. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.These bits of wood were covered on every square. All our household are at rest.²SWIFT. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.² One or two of these perhaps survive. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. as with a subject of plural form. as in Sec. b). .

²WHITTIER. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. ARNOLD. nor should I. but thou. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. as. . in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. his blood dost shed. WEBSTER. but thou. 442. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Not I.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. for example.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. "He or I can go. You and I are farmers. the subject being really equivalent to we. When the subjects. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²LOWELL.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.²BYRON. Nothing which Mr. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. "You would not be wiser.But notice the construction of this. Second or third and first person in the subject.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. that is." etc. General usage. Ah.). the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. of different persons.²THACKERAY. we never talk politics. "I have never said so. Pattison or I have said.²RUSKIN.²ROWE." or.²D. 443.²DE QUINCEY." "She or you may be sure. If there is only one person in the subject. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²SMOLLETT. hadst been my lord. Exceptional examples. 444. the verb takes the construction of the first person. nor has she").²GOLDSMITH. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Not Altamont. You and I are tolerably modest people.²M.

How each of these professions are crowded.²ADDISON. 3. Exercise.²ADDISON.²BURKE. in my opinion.²BYRON. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²G. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Neither of them. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. 446. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). In the following sentence. 4. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²and. 2.²SCOTT.²perhaps the devil. 11. 440-444):² 1. as we would hope. In this sentence from Defoe. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. Neither of their counselors were to be present.That neither of their intellects are vast. 7.445. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. Also in verbals. Both death and I am found eternal. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²ID. 5. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 6. Nor wood. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 9. nor bush are there.² TROLLOPE. nor tree.²SMOLLETT. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.²EMERSON. BANCROFT. In a word. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²THACKERAY. 10." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 12. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. as illustrated above (Secs. 8.²MILTON.Her course to intercept. which it is proper to mention.

447.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²MACAULAY. Exercise. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . The present rule is recent.²DE QUINCEY 2. Indirect discourse means reported speech. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²IRVING. for exact connection.² PALGRAVE 5.²THACKERAY. Of course.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. 4. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Direct discourse²that is. CHURCH.²KINGSLEY. to have seen should be changed to to see. W. to have divided with her whatever might remain. on my return." . I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.²FRANKLIN 6. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. as. I gave one quarter to Ann. 448.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. It should be remarked. Definitions. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. however. meaning. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. change them to a better form:² 1. if not. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. 3.²R. Two samples of indirect discourse.

but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Oh. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. 2. or regular interrogatives. etc." etc. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. 1. 449. Her prudence whispered eternally. Direct. will. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. ... Direct. "Oh.. This includes the auxiliaries be. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. and the indirect question by whether or if. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person." Indirect. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. interrogative adverbs. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. have. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. She thought to herself. His exact words were.. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Summary of the expressions. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. under interrogative pronouns." etc. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. "I cannot oblige you . Sebastian's. introductory verb is in the past tense. The substance of his lamentation was.

if this were expanded into a verb. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. handed down from his ancestor the historian. the first discoverer of the river and country. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. and that he himself had heard.²ID. being the course which his confessor had enjoined.²ADDISON. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. VERBALS.²B. ." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Careless use of the participial phrase.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. the sound of their balls. The trouble is. PARTICIPLES. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. one summer afternoon.²GOLDSMITH. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Notice this. like distant peals of thunder. my first observation will be found nearly true. in the sentences first quoted. 450. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. FRANKLIN. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land.Exercise. with his crew of the Half-moon. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.

²ID.. 3.² HERBERT SPENCER. leaving the principal statement as it is.Correction. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress.. Adverb between to and the infinitive." etc. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . avoid it.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. It is a solemn. if a strike is to succeed. This is the more common arrangement.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. . see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. and often. universal assertion. 451. Standard writers often use it. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. while defended or excused by others. 2.. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. There are. . the first sentence would be.²RUSKIN. either "As I was pleased. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage..." Exercise. In the following citations. For example. then.²LAUGHLIN.²SCOTT. many things to be carefully considered. my first collection was. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. purposely or not.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. INFINITIVES.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. Exercise. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.

That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. 6. 5. BLAIR.²ID.. etc. 13.²DR. etc. Now. 11. 8.² ADDISON.² MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. The spirits. but they are often removed from the exact position. 9. ADVERBS. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. even. Position of only.²SCOTT. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²BURKE. if they modify single words. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. is to be very cautiously admitted. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. 10. 12..4. 1533. The rigid rule in such a case would be. are used. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. No. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen.²RUSKIN. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. which consists in multitude. when such adverbs as only. this kind of grandeur." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. 7.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. and earthenware. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . therefore. Exercise. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. but cannot misunderstand the thought. 452. I wish the reader to clearly understand. even. etc. china. from Irving.²TROLLOPE. but it is placed before the infinitive. A little sketch of his. In works of art.²The Nation.

In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²PALGRAVE. . During the whole course of his administration.²EMERSON. were he never so old of yeares. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²MRS. 2. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. He shouted in those clear. 14.1.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 9.²HIGGINSON. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 11. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.² THACKERAY. 7.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²CHAUCER. In relating these and the following laws. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. Irving could only live very modestly. 3. whence he was never destined to return.²SWIFT.²ID. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. ²ASCHAM. 4. 6.²THACKERAY. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 13.²RUSKIN. GROTE. 17. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²ID.²SYDNEY SMITH. His last journey to Cannes. 15. WILLIS. 453.²MOTLEY. 10. In Old and Middle English. P. 16. 12.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. to avoid a crowd. for example. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. The old usage. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. might not marry.²ID.²MACAULAY.²N. My master. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. No sonne. 5. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²COOPER. 8.

when one of the negatives is a connective. one of the negatives is often a prefix. In the latter case. However.² HAMILTON. 4.²DE QUINCEY. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. nor never shall. 2.²BURKE.²HOLMES. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way."²MRS. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. .² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. STOWE. nor the grandeur of no king. as. if two negatives are found together.²LOWELL. uncommon. in Ole Virginia. under the influence of Latin syntax. and is still kept in vulgar English. as infrequent.²DEFOE.²GROTE. ²PAGE."²four negatives. 5.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. but ought not to labor after it. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. 3. There weren't no pies to equal hers. Therefore.²HAWTHORNE. 7. denying each other. neither. etc. who hadn't been to school for nothing. can so agreeably affect. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. Not only could man not acquire such information. Regular law of negative in modern English. however. The prosperity of no empire. 6. I did not act so hastily. This. In the execution of this task. But. the usual way of regarding the question now is. STOWE. Exercise.²MRS. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. is not common. Exceptional use. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. I never did see him again. and why:² 1.²BAYNE.

"I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. should be scrutinized. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. but. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical."²SCOTT... The sentences given in Secs. or to reply to it. And who.²PRESCOTT. Choice and proper position of correlatives. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. not only to the success of their common cause. if the second precedes a phrase." Besides neither . A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives..²LOWELL. either . or. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.... but to their own safety. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.8." said the King. The sentence.²SCOTT. 454. as the use of the conjunction. and which..²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. or with advantage.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. nor. Correction. but (also). even neither . Things to be watched.. especially both . CONJUNCTIONS. neither .. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. as well as of the pronoun. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.... 455. either." may be changed to "This loose . and.. not only . if the last precedes a verb.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . In the sentence. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. or to reply to it." both of the above requirements are violated. not merely .." . Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.. or. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. the first should also. "A weapon. "well worthy to confer honor.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. nor is often changed to not²either . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. there we were.

"He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. But what. or but that. too.²ID.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. They will. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. but. 4.²RUSKIN. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. and I don't know but what he was right. or but that for the words but what:² 1." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to.²MACAULAY. JEWETT. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. not merely interest children. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. etc. substitute that. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. 457. or the negative relative but. 7. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 2.² ADDISON.²FRANKLIN. as.²BAIN. but they will outrage.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 3. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. 456. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. Try and for try to. Now. murder. Try and avoid the pronoun.²GIBBON. and chop up their own kin. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 8.Exercise. nor the disgrace of assailing him. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. 6. 5.²S. O. but grown-up persons.²THACKERAY. Some exceptions. . but.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. In the following sentences. as. Exercise.

Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²ADDISON. 305.²EMERSON. no separation or division by twos being implied. 5. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. PREPOSITIONS. 458. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. see Sec. 3. 313. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²SCOTT. Between and among.²ADDISON. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²EMERSON. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 4. 459.² SWIFT. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.² BULWER. Between is used most often with two things only.²BURKE.2. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). . as already seen in Sec.²TROLLOPE. 6. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.

Some of them have. and Stewart. as. correspond. Accord with. different. Derogatory to. and philosophers like Locke. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Conversant with. 460. Such are absolve. Bestow on (upon). a soldier of the Cross. Such are derogatory. Different from. Dissent from. Two groups or one and a group. Comply with. Averse to. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. List I. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. ²EMERSON. or one object and a group.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Paley. . Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Kant. Abhorrent to. as. Conform to. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. LIST I. and another to convey a different meaning. by custom. Mackintosh. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. and Coleridge. averse. Dependent on (upon).²KINGSLEY.²RUSKIN What have I. 461. confer. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.: Words with particular prepositions. involve.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Acquit of. Affinity between. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. etc.

Confide to (intrust to). Agree to (a proposal). Involve in. as. 463. Change with (a person). Differ from (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with. as. Change to (become).). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Change for (a thing). Confide in (trust in). List II. in the sense of making friends with. . A taste for (art. but it is not good usage. LIST II. 462. Independent of. Differ with (note below). Confer with (talk with). and sometimes creeps into standard books. Correspond to (a thing).y y y Deprive of. Confer on (upon) (give to).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Reconcile with (note below). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Correspond with (write to). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "The king is reconciled to his minister. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). as." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. A taste of (food). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons." List III. Disappointed in (a thing obtained)." also of persons. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. etc. Reconcile to (note below). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. LIST III.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things.

People do not die of trifling little colds. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." (because of).:² "Die of.²MACAULAY. died for love of the fair Marcella. If I meet with any of 'em.²SCOTT. die with. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²G. Who.²G.²FIELDING. "Die from. .²GOLDSMITH. It would take me long to die of hunger.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. He died at last without disease. Illustrations of "die of. and ill treatment. Expect of. they shall die by this hand. as Cervantes informs us. ELIOT.²GOLDSMITH.²MACAULAY. expect from." (in behalf of). "Die for.²SHAKESPEARE.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. Part from. "Die for. ELIOT." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. One of them said he would die for her. die for.y y y Die by. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²BOSWELL. simply from old age.²BULWER.²ADDISON. No one died from want at Longfeld.²MACAULAY. "Die by." etc. Take thought and die for Cæsar. "Die with. part with." (material cause. die of. She died of hard work. ²THACKERAY.²BURNETT. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire." "die from. I am positively dying with hunger. ²ATHENÆUM. privation. die from. instrument)." The author died of a fit of apoplexy." She would have been ready to die with shame.²POPE.

His precious bag. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. just parted from her.²G.²WALLER. "Expect from.²BULWER.²SHAW. and hated to part with them.²AUSTEN." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²WALPOLE. It was a little bad of you. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. which he would by no means part from.²G. kind of you. either of or in is used indifferently.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²BULWER. ELIOT. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. ELIOT. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. 466. 464. "Part from. nothing better was to be expected. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²SCOTT. I part with all that grew so near my heart. . I have long expected something remarkable from you. ELIOT.²POE.²G.²MACAULAY. Illustrations of "part with. Illustrations of "expect of. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. as shown in the following quotations:² Of." She will expect more attention from you." To part from you would be misery.²MACAULAY.²MARRYAT." "part from:"² "Part with. as my friend. I can part with my children for their good. With words implying behavior or disposition. 465. I have just seen her." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. Kind in you.²TROLLOPE. Of Doctor P." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²DICKENS. That is more than I expected of you.

raging storms. nor of a pale red. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. In the friction between an employer and workman. 14. Very natural in Mr. nor green. and ran up the alley. Thou tread'st. thunder. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. or artillery. 1. 8. 4. In. 15. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.²BULWER. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. tedious perhaps.²BULWER. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 9. 5. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 10. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking.²DICKENS. 13. nor blue. 3. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief.He did not think it handsome of you.²TENNYSON. the vast abyss. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame.²BEACONSFIELD. .²CARLYLE. The noise of vast cataracts. 6. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. thrown it over Amyas's head. or which we are most imperatively required to do. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. but which the story renders necessary. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. it is commonly said that his profits are high. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. Hampden. 11. But this is idle of you. nor yellow. or that they are any way dependent on each other. with seraphims. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. 7. This narrative.

Squares. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. That night every man of the boat's crew. but in the price paid to them. and most of us do know. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 38. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 18. 23. 32. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled.And were I anything but what I am. 35. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. what is a just and unjust act. 21. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling.I would wish me only he. produce approbation. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 30. 22.) 34. 37. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. triangles. save Amyas. 33. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 25. 36. Friday. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. and other angular figures. (Sec. But every man may know. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 26. 28. 19. 16. 17. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. the acquiescence of the understanding. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. or how beautiful it is. 27. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. You have seen Cassio and she together. When the glass or liquor are transparent. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 24. Every one of these letters are in my name. The effect of proportion and fitness. 20. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 411. you or me. and almost as good as a pony. 29. were down with raging fever. 31. . but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves.

Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. as. adjectives. voice. Abstract with Active Address. pronouns. 89. origin of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 40. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. INDEX. 102.39. Adjectives. nouns. as comparison definition demonstrative. 260. . 92. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy.000 between them. 98. 124. 107. of. adverbs used complements. (3) Modern English. demonstrative. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. A. 133. 310. 25. of. syntax uses Absolute. 239. numeral. of. of. He had four children. 116. from about 1500 to the present time. nominative. 91. 47. from nominative clauses. 119. 20. of. 90. 47. 124. article. (2) Middle English.

as nouns. quality. 190. of. of. Alms. between of. from to of.from function how in not of of ordinal. of. 275. with with with subject. 323. Agreement. of. 242. 106. nouns. 195. 116. 97. adjectives. 303. plural pronominal. objective. parse. 287. clauses. nouns. 190. compared. modify. 303. of. 101. 191. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 262. 239. . 109. Against. 114. conjunctions. form as as they to in as uses uses of. and 185. predicate. 194. parse. 48. quantity. 302. 115. 116. 104. 328. 148. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. conjunction. 27. to used of. of. 325. antecedent. 183. adjectives. 291. 325. infinitive. 42. 99. 194. adjectives. sentence. 207. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 187. 184. 103. antecedent. of. 207. 27. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 316.

101. 275. 79. 124. Auxiliary if. 74. 231. derivation in definite. See 74. as uses verbs. though. uses As At. parse. An. Anacoluthon Analysis. A. words between. 207. and. 208. 295. 67. 120. in in. possessive. same. which.Among. syntax. 198. 309. 287. 120. 294. 271. Are. 67. pronouns. of. 51. definition of of of Any. 300. 49. to of. 331. 252. See with definition complex compound simple who. 84. 148. 240. it. 47. which. Agreement. agreement personal as pronoun. of. of. sentences. sentences. syntax As. adjective. of of of And Antecedent. of. 225. 90. 264. . as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 127. definition how indefinite. of. after of. which. sentences. 150. Arrangement Articles. of and pronoun of. 296.

adjective. in Old and Modern English. 54. of pronouns. 45. forms. 278. plurals of. of. 262. of pronouns. conjunctions Cherub. Children. pronoun. Among. comparison conjugation of. uses nominative of. of what. of nouns. 195. 49. of nouns. with But By. 224. 39. Case. 161. 283. nominative. 37. possessive. . of pronouns. 64. 279. 84. Case. best. 48. number of. double possessive.Bad. 150. 111. uses Better. 278. 260. 149. of. Bridegroom. 279. of nouns. 194. Be. Between. Brethren. clauses of. 110. 47. 39. 63. But. Clause. Can. 262. objective. of nouns. 330. 110. uses of. of pronouns. 62. definition could. 210. 66. syntax of. Cause. adverb. 46. 46. See of. of.

189. nouns. 257. 108. Cloths. 305. clothes. English. 43. 307. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. material. 18. of. and forms of. 113. of. double. 315. adjectives. 258.definition kinds noun. 111. 307. subject. 18. of. sentence. 43. of. superlative. defective. of. 12. nouns. 110. 263. 268. of. 108. predicate of and from from of. 312. 248. of. 271. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. Clomb. in analysis. analysis of. and sentence. 107. . 264. 157. verb. plural of. 23. 158. proper. 239. 53. Cleave. 24. 244. definition degrees irregular. adverbs. 257. nouns. predicate. infinitive. of. of. 257.

Conjunctions. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 139. 188. 195. of. 199. 195.with Concord. sentence. replaced by objective. coördinate. See analysis clauses. pronouns. analysis. 289. same words. of of Conjunctions. to of. 196. See English. 151. 193. . See in subjunctive. conjunctions. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. adverbs. sentences. verbs. conjunctions. of. definition how subordinate. Dative Declarative Declension of case. definition be. and clause. 138. 255. parse. other other parts of speech. 194. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. subjunctive. 269. in Old vs. 66. interrogative pronouns. pronoun. 207. Can. 263. 231. conjunction. 143. 194. 194. pronoun. 149. correlative. Agreement. 149. 73. sentences. 328.

Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. Comparative. pronouns. 102. of. nouns. with of. with. discourse. 315. from. Comparison. 43. possessive. 320. . 242. article. Articles. pronouns. Case. 26. of personal relative verbs. 60. 102. passive adjectives. of. for. 303. use of dies. Subordinate clause. vs. verb. 333. of. of. 91. See See 48. 287. duck. 35. See adjectives. 300. comparative. nouns. 242. by. 99. 51. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 152. tenses. 80. object. Degrees. 90. 160. pronouns.Declension. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. indirect. See 148. adverbs See adjectives. 185. clause. 288. pronouns.

periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. literary. error in sentence. 287. 42. 90. predicate. 39. 38. 257. 287. adjective. other. . spoken. 90. 40. conjunction. 328. 92. 92. of subject. one ( t). drunk. of. the of sentence. Either. feminine plural English. of. 194. another. 280. of. 92. vulgar. 234. 158. 51. of. 300. Empress. 255. 34. of. complement. pronoun. Elements Ellipsis. older. suffix. ending.Drank. pronoun. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. adjective. 33. 240. in 'Em. 241. 112. added suffix. 110. 158. 33. to suffix. -En. of. 32. possessive suffix. original. syntax Each Eat Eaves. Each. 62. object. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. plural. pronouns. 102. 299. 12.

48. to of. have adjective. 30. from. 45. 110. 319. 211. uses Foreign Former. 36. Feminine. From. of. 102. as a noun. nouns. 103. . 43. expect gone. few. the. first. For. Further. object. two a further. Few.Every. gender. See Gander. 235.. 308. 147. First. 32. 334. with infinitive. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 152. 287. 102. 112. definition distinguished in English. 212. other languages.. 91. etc. of. pronoun. adjective. as of from compared marking. 212." 31. modes "common goose. Farther. fishes. perfect. 152. Gender. 126. of. 189. used of. First Fish. plurals. two. 148. with in sex. 30. Future Future tense. uses redundant. 238. 112. etc. 29. 30.

participle. 275. personal relative geniuses. 173. of. 101. 159. 12. 60. Gerund. 145. had hung. 61. definition basis of. from participle of. pronouns. 60. 13. 9. an better. for before. 144. He. 231. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 159. adjective. and case verbal with. person. His Husband. it. of. noun. definition divisions opinions province H. 61. its. I. Government. Grammar. of. 175. 120. 12. pronoun. of. she. forms in Girl. 10. first sentence. 80. kinds of. possessive pronouns. on. 36. 176. 35. .of of Genii. distinguished syntax. 285. 177. Had Hanged. 43. Got. rather.

283. 105. Questions. adverbs. 131. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. a object. 110. words. adjectives. with of. 245. 72. summary See passive mood. uses discourse.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 231. of clause. 73. pronoun. 178. adjectives. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 176. sentence. 319. in compared syntax. . meaning. verbs. of. mood. 227. 320. questions. 276. of. 248. pronouns. indices. See you. of. of. 43. 67. 131. Direct object. indirect of. 85. 323. use article. 188. 153. 233. 257. 93. your. See Articles. elements. 136. transitive. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. questions.

-Ly.. 39.adverbs. a vs. . Lady. and See words in. 113. syntax the. 61. subject form. plural. 110. Latter. etc. uses Literary Little. 227. Lie.. See Madam. pronoun. Like. lie. lesser. Kind. 226. 63. in little. Lay. was uses me. 245. 126. predicate. It. 276. 113. Lady. English. Logic Logical Lord." history etc. 170. of. 12. of. 110. "It Its. 91. syntax. latest. King. 36. Last. 189. 281. 67. queen. of. 102. Less. Lay. Kine. 36. adjective. of. lord. 303. 190. these double kind. 36.

of. 189. -Most. of. 113. 187. 161. superlatives. 64. mistress. Negative. 195. adjective. of. nigh. double.Manner. might. indicative. 110. sentences. 189. of. position adverb. See definition 136. 160. 256. syntax conjunction. 112. etc. mine. 188. out of. 185. 265. syntax nearer. Modifier. . 112. Modifiers. 326. comparison Near. 144. imperative. Must. 126.. 41. in adverbs comparison a. Much. Mood. 110. 287. Many Mapping Mare. of. Master. 36. 102. of. 114. of. subjunctive. 194. May. 328. 325. Enlargement. construction as of adverb. 112. 137. Mighty Mine. 110. of. 34. Neither. conjunctions Many. Means. 135. 137-144.

become become formation case collective. 92. 258. formed. 17. syntax in gender nouns. 301. kinds 90. 125. gender how kinds material. 246. material. 300. etc. 328. 46. 46. Nor. parse. 19. 17. of. analysis. to use. of. 20. abstract. See 194. 56. in. half abstract. nouns. of. nouns. 41. letters as 24. become neuter. 26. 32. abstract. clause. number once other plural. 42. of. 30. of. now plural. 38-41. . No Nominative. 18. definition according of. to of. words how compound. 41. Case. proper. 45. gender nouns. 21. Not Noun Nouns. syntax Neuter or two News. 29. class used singular. 25. None. 30. 126. 25. 38. 124. definition descriptive. of. common. 30. foreign. and figures. 41 43. etc. used as. of. 27.pronoun. of of of of of a. 17 19.

101. singular. in nouns. personal. 48. See in in in Numeral distributive. 48. 282. 48. of. 41. indirect. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. dative. 124. . in article.of same two with proper. plural. of. passive adverbial. 285. article. English. 106. 48. Numeral Object. of. 278. meaning. See verb. pronouns. singular. 195. 242. meanings. 121. 102. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. Nouns. form. 48. with with with Now Number. common. conjunction. 41. verbs. of. 18. as forms titles. plural no two singular construction. 92. adjectives. 43. 42. 278. adverbial. 39.. 240. indefinite. plural form. 42. of. 41. 281. Preposition. 66. adjectives. of. pronouns. nominative. preposition. or plural. 235. 60. spoken of instead nouns. etc. 42 44. of different possessive definite of. 101. 148. 279. and analysis. with case. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 242. 23. 196. definite.

a in adjectives. Oxen. One. ours.syntax Of. 103. part analysis. 56. 117. . 306. of syntax. 41. as other. of. Each adjective. 56. 199. 115. of. pronoun. nouns. 116. 194. definite relative uses of. 93 other. another. 293. of. Older. as of. Omission On. 38. See the as of. treatment comparatives. 127. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Our. adjective. conjunction. inverted. of upon. 325 275. Elder. articles. 69. adverbs. 101. Parsing. with (the). 233. conjunctions. 237. 64. position Order. Ordinal Other Ought. 87. uses numeral pronoun. See pronoun. of of of of of models adjectives. 216. Pains. adverb. 94. 191. 103. 279. 213. for. 161. Ourself. 91.

verbals. of. verbs. 180. used as voice. 317. 80. 174. phrases. 219. article 150. 43. possessive and of. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 172. in. 100. nominative. 179. 172. of. -ing words. of. 322. 95. 134. verb idioms it from. parsed. 281. of. 59. 181. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. relatives. pronoun. 335. 119. 62. of. pease. 287. pennies. verbs. 61. of. and subject in. 173. agreement of verb nouns. not is. 27. with.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. them. 247. . from definition other of. 43. 56. phrase. Person. antecedent. Pence. 177. pronouns. 63. 70. of. pronouns. 56. 148. 59. speech. or of. predicate use of. 64. 28. reflexive. absolute with of. 69. included various. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 62. part adjective. 59.

pronoun. 63. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. singular. 236. of Phrase. noun nouns. in of. adverbs of. 41. 188. 67. appositional. English. 248. 106. nouns. 247. nouns. or See of of See 185. Comparison. 49. 303. 241. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. pronouns. 60. simple. 's. omitted. participial. 37. adjectives. 53. 281. of. plural. 232. of. 303. of. 50. Nouns. See 60. kinds infinitive. 53. complete. pronoun. 245. of nouns. nouns. Place. as double. objects. 52. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 195. of. it. relative. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. Personal subjective. of. of. 285.objective syntax table triple uses of. 25. 278. vs. syntax of of Politics. 206. prepositional. . of. 247. 278. 61. 281. 54. double. singular degree. 51. 236. antecedent of of pronouns. of. 235. 64. Positive Possessive. spoken of. 245. Personification.

132. 64. 104. 285. 129. same used as adjectives. neither. speech. 195. words. 302. parse. somebody definition how indefinite. by parts of of. of. possessive nominative to of. 208. with tense certain. usually to as than. 280. 301. 105. future. expressed as other of. in exclamations. 331. plural. of. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 206. 281. each either. of. 282. 287. 205. adverb. 89. 186. for predicate nominative. case. after but. meaning. 32. all. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 187.Prefixes. of. case. 283. 203. and one with else's. 332. Prepositions. exclamatory. what. by. parse. 203. 283. 207. of. 72. Pronouns. interrogative. 219. as 54. adjective. 300. 279. as. any. 300. of. none. 93. forms of. . by with shown certain of. plural. verbs. and form form form form of. another. singular usually other. 333. 299. objective. 202. plural. 58. 59. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 284. 105. as antecedent of relative. who personal. objective. 147. 58. interrogative. 303. 95. of.

101. 289. adverbs in. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. same antecedent. to of. and relatives.possessive relative. Questions. of. and which. 295. agreement anacoluthon and as. conjunctions Quality. discourse. 84. who. of. use of history formed. . of. or of. Quantity. 74. 293. 105. 83. and antecedent. parse. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. pronominal pronouns indirect. 293. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 85. 289. with who. indirect compound. 291. 295. See of. 74. of. pronoun. 297. 188. with with gerund. 189. of. 87. 279. 286. of. of. 85. unrestrictive. use in as. 69. Direct same and different. Quotations. from and interrogative. Rank. nouns. Nouns. personal pronoun. indirect. of. 142. 58. in. of. 69. 99. questions. in. 74. which after same. Rather. 68. 87. that. 263. in. 195. which. 80. 296. pronouns.

definition . of. effect. suffix. 74. 319. 42. of. 170. 263. of. forms shots. pronoun. 26 271. Self Sentences. conjunction. that. 40. 43.syntax use Result. 289. plural possessive as. 242. 69. tenses. 196. who. Simple in sate. which. 162. simple of. clauses of. of. ending. Shot. 252. 294. 159. simple. 231. Shear. See Sentences. in form. 196. complex. in of. 259. gender. 195. Sex Shall. Seeing. S. sentence. 29. object. conjunctions Retained Riches. elliptical. 231. kinds Sequence Set. Same Sat. 159. reflexive analysis of compound. of of of complex Sentences. will. 'S. and should. of sit. 255. would. 51.

sort. to of. English. adverb. 169. definition how kinds noun. 257. 323. definition 67. names as a. 186. See -En. adverb. of. Modern use becoming else's. 144. 138.. 36. etc. 32. -en. 258. English. logical. other Such Such Suffix -s. of. 137. 126. 258. 12. as. Subject. 245. 257. of. 33. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 240. Spelling Spinster. 233. English. in Middle English. 257. 258. 33. these number. verbs. of. English. disuse in spoken complete. 270. distinguish. vs. 262. of. phonetic in infinitive. in feminine suffix. of. for. used mood. of. 303.Singular Sir. Somebody Sort. 245. 237. -es. 260. literary clause. Split Spoken -Ster. . 38. 303. 38. 257. 144.

61. objects. 120. adverbs. 147. 123. in double. 119. 306. form.. article. meaning. . English. 147. as adverbs. of." introductory. omission whom. of. of. 280. 152. of. in comparison. when as of. plural as adverb. 87. syntax of. 106. 186. 116. than of. Tenses. 109. 88. restrictive. of. classical of. 186.. of . 289. 189. that uses That. they. 290. king. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 275. 33. definition in English Tense. "the then foreign. as history syntax Their. of. 297. Kind. and and of. Then. 277. 108. 306. There These kind. two basis not same definition definite. 148. 319.. when relative. 191. this. English. of. which. degree. 106. me. in Modern number sequence table Than That. meaning made up in Old of. auxiliaries. adjectives. 222. See etc. of languages. coördinating. as history The.Suffixes. 107. not suggesting adjectives. 275. 307. 309. object. subject. of. 147.

217. words. exclamations. kinds participle. of. 207. gerund. 330. thee. carelessly uses syntax this. 176. preposition. certain as the before with of. 323. of. used. 20. etc. 128. 195. 175. . 308. Time. 173. of. 114. first adjective. adverbs those. thy. 248. See That. of. parse. Upon. uses of. phrases. analysis. 33. Upper. infinitive. uttermost. 175. 185. in omitted uses T'other. 114. 21. of. -ing 111. 322. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. in of. suffix. how infinitive.These. tother. uses history of. See On. Utter. verbs. first. 172. 181.. 172. try two. conjunctions prepositions To. feminine and. infinitive. from cleft to 174. of. 322. 188. Thou. Try Two Under. 114. -Trix. 175. of. other noun. to. 247. 119. 61. 180.

verbs by. 33. intransitive. analysis. 133. of. 167. 159. . 312. becoming irregular. 179. with subject in number. mood of. remarks on certain. 317. 133. 320. table of. how to parse. weak. 169. strong. 167. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. of incomplete predication. definition of. 157. change. tense of. 129. in indirect discourse. 154. 147. defective. 148. 154. auxiliary. passive form. made transitive. past tense formed nominative. passive. 135. 149. formed by. syntax of. 47. Vixen. of English. 330. 160. 134. 169. conjugation of. definition of. sequence of. person and number of. but uses what. Vocative in Voice. 312-316. table of irregular. 130. definition of.Verbs. voice of. 245. 242. 150. 236. 155. 12. What. 131. 154. 148. 223. of. phonetic. retained object with passive. agreement of. transitive and intransitive. in person. 151. regular. 39. spelling of. verbs. active. active meaning. 319.

296. 111. Will. 78. wizard. of. 299. 190. 32. 105. 79. conjunction. pronoun. 83. in in indefinite objective. 105. would. of. questions. a. 126. 218. Words in Worse. 75. 85. 246. animals. 104. Witch.. 77. 73. etc. questions. 75. 72. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. direct of. Who. Woman. questions. English. questions. spoken in of.what Whereby. pronoun. relative indirect relative. referring syntax Widower. 85. Y. 37. . interrogative Which. worser. in. 40. plural of in nouns -ing. 36. 72. 72. 178. uses See Shall. Wife. 194. Yes ending analysis. whereto. relative. relative. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 36. 85. Whether. With. antecedent adjective. 83. 295-299. in -ly.

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