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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

Authority as a basis. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. then." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. It is also evident. rightly considered." and "Syntax. there is still much for the grammarian to do. assist the classification of kindred expressions. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Few inflections. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. is worthy of serious study. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. it will at the same time. with its enormous vocabulary. from the question. their forms. The work it will cover. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Making rules is risky." What grammar is. An æsthetic benefit. If. as. if rightly presented. Surely our noble language. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. This will take in the usual divisions. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. A broader view.The province of English grammar is. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). as compared with Latin or Greek. to those who have studied the language historically. Literary English. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Mental training. but this is bad English now. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Coming back. "Analysis. its peculiar and abundant idioms. however. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. so that a small grammar will hold them all. and thus incite his observation. .² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words.

This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Spoken English. . or standard. NOUNS. The Uses of Words. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. and Inflections. not objects. and will are evidently names of a different kind. the nation is free. The plainest name is Arabs. Part III. Part II. Analysis of Sentences. Occasionally. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. then. too.²GIBBON. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. reference will be made to vulgar English. The following pages will cover.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. Vulgar English. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Such words are called nouns. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. The words state. three divisions:² Part I. as they stand for ideas. but. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 1. the words sons and master name objects. by which is meant the free.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. The Parts of Speech. that is. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. which belongs to a people. or Syntax. and may belong to any of those objects. besides this one. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. PART I. In the more simple state of the Arabs. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. submission. from the eighteenth century on.

or a congress. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. animals. Name for any individual of a class. Proper. substance. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. Thus. Besides considering persons. whether person. A noun is a name word. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. etc. the name of each is an individual or proper name. men in groups may be called a crowd. we may think of them in groups. Individual. ATTRIBUTE. and appropriate names to the groups. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or a mob. Collective. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. or idea. possessed by all. (a) 4. We may say. MATERIAL. but Chicago names one city. They properly belong under common nouns. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. 5. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. For instance. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. . Name for a group or collection of objects. Abstract. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Thus. the man here. belonging to one. Common. is from a Latin word which means general. Classes of nouns. or thing. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or a council. as here used. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. This does not imply. place. reducing it to a narrow application. or things. because each group is considered as a unit. representing directly to the mind an object. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. 3. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. a committee. or the man in front of you. (b) Common.Definition. animals. however. 2. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. and things separately. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters.

" "Learning is hard to acquire. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. paint. we may say. moon. conditions. celluloid. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. etc. etc. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. etc. Names of ideas.. soap. ." "a man of understanding. etc. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. or action. but in the words sun. iron." 9. etc. It may. earth. Such are glass. sugar. considered abstractly. however. (3) Geological bodies: mud. Again. and fasten a special name to the object considered. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. but it is taken merely as a name. cloud. 6. 7. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. rice. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). not things. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. dew. or that which shows a thing has been proved. tea. or apart from their natural connection. snow. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. frost. rubber. . If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. etc.Names for things thought of in mass. platinum. clay. The reason is. frost. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. instead of to each individual or separate object. as in calling a city Cincinnati. such as sun. Words naturally of limited application not proper. and so on. but which are not called proper names. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. The quality is still there as much as before. etc. rain. gold. wine. mist. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. sugar. They remain common class names. sand. wheat. "Painting is a fine art. stone. condition. or actions. expressing state. NOTE. When we speak of a wise man. rock. there is no such intention. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. proof means the act of proving. earth. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. world. wheat. we speak of the wisdom of the man. granite. etc. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. potash. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. expressing attributes or qualities.²There are some nouns.

Underived abstract nouns. kingship from king. speech from speak. in the beginning of his life. II. Thus. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. childhood from child. NOTE. 12. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. service from serve. (1) prudence from prudent. the great Puritan awakening. action from act. there is time for such reasonings. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. 10. mastery from master. shadow. 1. They are only the husks of verbs. but are merely names of actions.. the rude drawings of the book. those opinions and feelings. as glad²joy. night. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. They cannot govern a word. by altering its function. energy. theft from thieve. Exercises. and they cannot express action. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. Verbal abstract nouns. the main bearings of this matter. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. stupidity from stupid. as in the expressions. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. joy. thunder. redness from red. a wedding or a festival. five abstract. etc. the well-being of her subjects. etc. lightning. height from high. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks." "a brisk walk.Attribute abstract nouns. etc. is used as a noun. as their name implies. five proper. 273). ease. 272. etc. Caution. "a long run" "a bold move." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. To avoid difficulty. hope. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. winter. the teachings of the High Spirit. the moon caused fearful forebodings. summer. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. (2) peerage from peer. day. Such are beauty. he spread his blessings over the land. The verb. hopeful²hope. her longing for their favor. .

2. pleurisy. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . mathematics? 3. (b) branches of knowledge. as pneumonia. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. typhus. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. diphtheria. as physics. geology. algebra. catarrh. Using a dictionary.

13. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. 15. Nouns change by use. who was its inventor. currants. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. arras. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. a Lavoisier. Guillotin. above. from Calicut. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. but we may say. levant and morocco (leather). a Locke. Material nouns may be used as class names. port (wine). Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Proper names transferred to common use. and lo! a new system. it imposes its classification on other men. from China. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. the word port. from the name of Dr." referring to flat- . the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. but most of them are in the following groups. for example. from a town in France. a Fourier. or to go over to it entirely. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. 14. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. etc. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. We know a number of objects made of iron. in Portugal. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Others of similar character are calico. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. thus. a Bentham.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. a Hutton. from Oporto. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. as a davy.²EMERSON. the guillotine. "The cook made the irons hot. from Damascus. 119).y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from Corinth. damask. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy.

purity. Personification of abstract ideas. Class nouns in use. nor are they common class nouns. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. papers. tins. that the power of art is founded on fact. These are the same in material. or the arts and sciences. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. When it is said that art differs from science. abstract in meaning. candies. coals. 16. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. and only Vice and Misery.²PERCIVAL. be spoken of. are still names of abstract ideas. a rubber for erasing marks. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. to prowl or to moan like night birds. which are made plural. clouds. but differ in strength. on fire. tobaccos. that disposition is the thing to be created. paints. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. not material things. though not confined to verse. 17. are abroad. Traffic has lain down to rest. that is. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. or made plural. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. They are not then pure abstract nouns. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. etc. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. and so on. but on dispositions which require to be created. slates.²CARLYLE. (3) By poetical use. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. and say teas.²BRYANT. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. A halfway class of words. the abstract idea is partly lost.²COLLINS. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. For example. Test this in the following sentences:² .irons. but in case an art or a science.²RUSKIN. This is a poetic usage. as stones. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural.²BYRON. a steel to whet a knife on. smiled. The words preceded by the article a. his eyes. etc. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. Next Anger rushed. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. From all around²Earth and her waters. or used as class nouns.²HAYNE.In lightnings owned his secret stings. clays. mists. oils. Death. or.

however. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.² GOLDSMITH. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. as each repeated pleasure tired. "a family quarrel.²SHAKESPEARE.²SHAKESPEARE.²IRVING.²BURNS. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. meaning a walk in the morning. sir?" and the "No.²EMERSON. as descriptive adjectives are. Every why hath a wherefore. By ellipses. Conjunctions. or from any expression. But ah! those pleasures. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Adjectives. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. sir!" and the "What then. nouns used to modify. etc. were mere terrors of the night. a bill as to tax on the banks.The Solitary can despise. NOTE. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns." "the State Bank Tax bill. All these. 19." which contains a pure adjective. they do not express quality. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. Nouns used as descriptive terms.Let us. make our own so. They are more like the possessive noun. for example. But it is better to consider them as nouns." "a New York bank. Adverbs. When I was young? Ah. Then comes the "Why. they cannot be compared. fear thy blow. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. loves. or describe it.² BURNS. which belongs to another word. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. but is still a noun. a bank in New York. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. the wealthy. and joysWhich I too keenly taste." "a morning walk. And still. if we must have great actions. sir!"²MACAULAY . 18. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.²If the descriptive word be a material noun.

also titles of books are treated as simple nouns."²B. 2. 4. and tell to which class each belongs." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. at the beginning. of course. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. The it. and Then. or a state secret. so. is the word "just. or a faithful domestic. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. . without reference to its function in the sentence. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. why and wherefore.. When.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Caution. 5. in speaking of the principal of a school. but as a figure of speech. 8. in a sentence above. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. There are many of these. FRANKLIN. It is to be remembered. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Power laid his rod aside. however." and another of Dr. Learning. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. 20." or "legal. etc. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Stone walls do not a prison make. Exercise.Nor iron bars a cage. or a criminal. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. NOTE. to such words as become pure nouns by use. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 7. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. 3.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. 6. In the other sentences. is ambiguous. Now. are used. that cobweb of the brain. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. the terms the great. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. When. too. of words rather than of their meaning. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. 1. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.²Dr BLAIR In this definition.²These remarks do not apply. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. but have an adjectival meaning. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. the wealthy.

All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 11. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 12. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 23. GENDER.Fair guests. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. The fleet. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 18. the welcome. 15. Greek.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 17. . he cried. shattered and disabled. female. that waits you here.You seize the flower. There are exceptions even to this general statement. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. in English grammar. What gender means in English. but not so in English. and names of females are usually feminine. 16. the silver moon is gone. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 19. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 20. 21. always feminine. 14. German. 13. returned to Spain. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 22. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. A little weeping would ease my heart. and many other languages. And see. A fool speaks all his mind. for every dropHinders needle and thread. Male beings are. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 21. always masculine. 24. its bloom is shed. 10. The hours glide by. It is founded on sex.9. In Latin.

. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders.When. are named by gender nouns. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. that pattern of a husband. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. "A little child shall lead them. der Tisch (table) is masculine. and neuter nouns. For instance: in Latin.²LAMB. He next stooped down to feel the pig.²gender nouns. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Of animals. those with which man comes in contact often. 24. Neuter nouns. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. in German.² IRVING. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words.. corpus (body) is neuter.. mensa (table) is feminine. Hence: Definition. with its gizzard under its wing. The great difference is.²IRVING.. or which arouse his interest most. or additions to words. Gunpowder . Thus. in other languages gender follows the form. 22. clapping his burnished wings. according to their use." ." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. but are spoken of as neuter. those distinguishing the sex of the object. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. must be divided into two principal classes. All nouns. 23. however. those which do not distinguish sex. if there were any signs of life in it. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Gender nouns. . Some words either gender or neuter nouns. and consequently without sex.. inanimate things are spoken of. then. if of the female sex. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.²masculine and feminine. the name of it is masculine. came to a stand just by the bridge.. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. the word child is neuter in the sentence. No "common gender. das Messer (knife) is neuter. that is. in English. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. the sex being of no consequence. or names of things without life. the name of it is feminine.² I have seenA curious child . according to use. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. hortus (garden) is masculine. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals.

(2) By adding a suffix.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Very few of class I. 29. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. from the masculine fox. for from they said vram. teacher. though both words have lost their original meanings. or the lack of it. These remain in vixen and spinster. is. 28. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. generally to a masculine word. puts a prefix before the masculine man. Native suffixes. woman. Hence vixen is for fyxen. Put in convenient form.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. I. . Gender shown by Prefixes. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. they are neuter words. servant. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. According to the definition. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. do not show the sex to which the persons belong.25. If such words as parent. domestic. ruler. The inflections for gender belong. One feminine. Gender shown by Suffixes. and for the older word fat they said vat. 26. but spinster has now no connection with it. as in wine vat. 27. cousin. Male nouns beings. he-bear²she-bear. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. relative. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. etc. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. For fox they said vox. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things.. the division of words according to sex. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. II. as he-goat²she-goat. only to masculine and feminine nouns. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. of course. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections.

The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as seam-stress. but in most cases it has not. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. 30. Slightly changed and widely used. señorita. donna. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. Low Latin issa). the one most used. gamester. song-str-ess. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. These are attached to foreign words. trickster. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). executrix.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as czarina. Ending of masculine not changed. Unaltered and little used. and are never used for words recognized as English. it has none now in the words huckster. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. as. -ess (French esse. punster.

editor. as. teacher or lady teacher. as was said in the sixteenth century. frendesse. NOTE. or servauntesse. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Thus. to represent persons of either sex.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. Some of them have an interesting history. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. the ending -ess. as. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). 32. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. as in the fourteenth century. Instead of saying doctress." III. from the French -esse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. chairman. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. fosteress. 31. teacheresse. Gender shown by Different Words. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. others have in their origin the same root. neighbor (masculine and feminine). neighboresse. we use the masculine termination. In some of these pairs. etc. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . we use the feminine. wagoness. We frequently use such words as author. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. from Latin imperatricem. Ending -ess less used now than formerly.

the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. gand-ra. from Latin mea domina. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. the old sign of the masculine. Two masculines from feminines. or lauerd in Middle English. Danish gaas. Besides gander and drake. Personification. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). in Old English mere. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Icelandic gás. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Witch is the Old English wicce. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. not immediately connected with witch. Mare. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). etc. written loverd. It is not connected historically with our word duck. 34. Madam is the French ma dame. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Three letters of ened have fallen away.² . 33. Widower.). as in many other words. among others) to be from the same root word. leaving our word drake. became identical. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. widuwa²widuwe. for example. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. lhauerd. but this has long been obsolete. The older forms. though both are ultimately from the same root. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. finally gander. 16). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. The masculine was formed by adding -a. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). had the masculine mearh (horse). probably meaning house dweller).

There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 37. 35. NUMBER. eyen (eyes). In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. Our language has two numbers.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.²KEATS. The first two methods prevailed. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. 39. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural."Now. treen (trees). Definition. . (2) By changing the root vowel. Effect of personification. 38. In nouns.²CAMPBELL. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. I. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. and not by the form of the noun.²COLERIDGE. shoon (shoes). 36. Britannia needs no bulwarks. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of.No towers along the steep. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. the plural. together with the third. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. that is. the engineer speaks so of his engine. in Old English. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. This is not exclusively a poetic use. etc. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he.²singular and plural. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine."²BYRON. (3) By adding -s (or -es). and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. The -en inflection. more than one. for instance.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. But other words were inflected afterwards.Her home is on the deep. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. whenever we adopt a new word.

swine. as. Such are box. etc. heathen.² The foot are fourscore thousand. glass. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.-En inflection imitated by other words. into Frederick town. 41. Brethren has passed through three stages. . Children has passed through the same history. cannon. wight.² "God bless me! so then. Examples of this inflection are. as. 40."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. head. 42. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. and is still found in dialects. salmon.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. Akin to this class are some words. such as deer. finally brethren. turf. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. but they now add the ending -s. Kine is another double plural. or if preceded by the prepositions in. etc. they add -s): also trout. etc.Horse and foot. II. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. sail. ditch. folk. that have the singular and plural alike. originally neuter. pair. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Lee marched over the mountain wall. Other words following the same usage are.²THOREAU. by.²WHITTIER. The words horse and foot. but has now no singular. brace. people. then brothre or brethre. III. after numerals (if not after numerals. lens.The horse are thousands ten. The old plural was brothru. quartz.²Over the mountains winding down. and get settled. borough²formerly had the same inflection. retain the same form for plural meaning. when they mean soldiery.²MACAULAY. after all. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. sheep. Instead of -s. cross. dozen.

the Washingtons. 45. in its widest extent. The lilie on hir stalke grene.. etc. Formerly.²BRYANT. optics. quoth then that ladie milde.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. house²houses.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. half²halves. molasses. So live. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. and the real ending is therefore -s. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. etc. prize²prizes. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. and many branches of learning. Words in -ies. fairies. mathematics. hero²heroes. is both the science and the art of government. Means plural. DANA. 44. e. as. some adding -s. fancies. daisies. Special Lists.g. Proper nouns are regularly singular. physics. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. allies. shelf²shelves. these words ended in -ie. race²races. 43.. chaise²chaises. knife²knives. When such words take a plural ending. etc. politics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). negro²negroes. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. niche²niches. that when thy summons comes. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. Some words are usually singular. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. also news. It served simply as a means of sight. a new syllable is made. 15 and 17). Two words. the Americas.Of maladie the which he hadde endured.²PROF. and go over to other classes (Secs. pains (care).-Es added in certain cases. though this sound combines readily with -s. volcano² volcanoes. means and politics. means: as. they lose their identity. economics. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. and some -es.g. though they are plural in form.² Politics. etc. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. e. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. however. Examples of these are. summons.

²GOLDSMITH. Besides this. Now I read all the politics that come out. if I recollect right.² MACAULAY. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²MOTLEY. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. LAUGHLIN.²GOLDSMITH. . Some words have no corresponding singular. CURTIS. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.Words. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. he pronounced to have been a tongs. With great dexterity these means were now applied. I say. W.²GOLDSMITH. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²BURKE. Politics plural. by those means which we have already mentioned. L. Sometimes. A relic which. riches will accumulate. By these means. 46.²IRVING. by strongly conveying the passions.²G.²J. however. it is furnished with a forceps.

pease (collectively). One plural. 50. riches. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. These make the last part plural. shot²shot (collective balls). brethren (of a society or church). Tell me not. part²parts: (1) divisions. fishes (individuals or kinds). In Early Modern English thank is found. (2) literature. genii (spirits). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection.² I lisped in numbers. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). two plurals.). faculties. two meanings. . genius²geniuses (men of genius). of a periodical. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. (2) care. index²indexes (to books). or epistles. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. 48.²LONGFELLOW. pence (collectively).²POPE..The air. number²numbers: (1) figures. Two classes of compound words. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. for the numbers came. making a double plural. or work in a bellows?²PROF. eaves. as in the lines. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). ways. indices (signs in algebra). fish²fish (collectively).. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. (2) abilities. may add -s. In speaking of coins.. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. Three words were originally singular. as two sixpences. Numbers also means issues. clothes (garments). shots (number of times fired). dice (for gaming). DANA. penny²pennies (separately). carry off chaff.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. 49. (2) revenue duties. or copies. twopence. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. etc. in mournful numbers. (2) poetry. die²dies (stamps for coins. the other unlike it. sixpence.²was it subdued when. trouble.²one corresponding to the singular. pea²peas (separately). etc.

²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. there is some disagreement among English writers. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. for example. Norman.² Then came Mr. The chief member adds -s in the plural. as the Messrs. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. . firman. HOLMES. 51. Ottoman. Two methods in use for names with titles.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. the Drs. but add -s. German. as man singer. The title may be plural. such as talisman. woman singer. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. and Mrs.²DR. Mussulman. Brown. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. As to plurals of names with titles. the Misses Rich. or the name may be pluralized. manservant. Allen. Briggs. 52. Brahman. then Silas Peckham. woman servant. though the latter is often found. and then the three Miss Spinneys.

Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²THE CRITIC. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. or Englished. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²DICKENS. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Domesticated words.²GOLDSMITH. FROM THE GREEK. These are said to be domesticated. They are then said to be naturalized. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. 53. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. and retain their foreign plurals. Du Maurier. y y analysis antithesis . FROM THE LATIN. Exercise. or Anglicized. The Messrs. Others have been adopted. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.²GIBBON.

Words quoted merely as words. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. as. helping to express the idea of place with the word in.. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). cell has another relation. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. also add -s or 's. 54. . Definition. 56. without reference to their meaning. In the sentence.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. they form their plurals in the regular way. Only two case forms." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). figures. and expresses a relation akin to possession." the word felon's modifies cell. etc. Letters." CASE. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. 55. In the general wearing-away of inflections. as. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. figures. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). etc.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words.

. the objective. learning. completing a verb. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 57." (2) As a predicate noun. Nouns.²the nominative. 3. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. may be said to have three cases. excessive grief.²nature. then. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. I.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. Excuses are clothes which. and experience. the enemy of the living.²person. 1.There are now only two case forms of English nouns.²one for the nominative and objective." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. whether inflected or not. they returned to their homes. 4. when asked unawares. 2. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. Uses of the Nominative. 5. and the possessive. 58. three things characterize man. and merit. Three properties belong to wisdom. fate." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Human experience is the great test of truth.

But the flood came howling one day. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. thy wrath can send. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. and meaning calmest. and being equivalent to one verb." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. her first law broken. 4. wounded lies." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. and tell which use each has:² 1. as will be seen in Sec. Conscience. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. They charged. good Heaven. But of all plagues. taking the object enemies. 2. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. how have I frighted thee? II. 3. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. taking the object storm. 59. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. reconciles." (3) Adverbially." Exercise." (4) As the second object. 68. Set a high price on your leisure moments. distance. Uses of the Objective. (in the older stages of the language. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil.Save. save. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. completing the verb. measure. 8. and makest a calm. sword in hand and visor down. and landlord of the inn. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. (5) As the object of a preposition. the word toward which the preposition points. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. they are sands of precious gold. 9. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. . a patriarch of the village. etc. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." "Cowards die many times before their deaths." "Thou makest the storm a calm. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb.6.

²BYRON. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. from day to day. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. as. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. 8. Possession in some sense is the most common.²HAWTHORNE. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 9. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. the Great Stone Face. Uses of the Possessive. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. 6. 61. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. as in these expressions. 10. expressed or understood.² The unwearied sun.5. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. And whirling plate.²SHELLEY. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. tempests that . Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.²ADDISON.e. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.. (3) Subjective possessive. and forfeits paid.And gave the leper to eat and drink. 7.His winter task a pastime made.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. (2) Objective possessive.Does his Creator's power display. as shown in the sentences. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. the most common of all. III. The noblest mind the best contentment has. It is a poetic expression. or in writing yesterday's elegy. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. The possessive case always modifies another word. 60.

and Obj. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. Poss. As said before (Sec. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec.. 62. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. . as schoolboys sometimes write.e. 64. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. growth which several days had developed). only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. Nom. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. the panther which the forest hides). ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. Case Inflection. How the possessive is formed. "George Jones his book. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. in Chaucer. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. Declension or inflection of nouns." "at his beddes syde. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. child NOTE. PLURAL. lady Poss. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. One is the simple form of a word. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 62.winter is likely to have).e. A suggestion. 56). "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses).." "mannes herte [heart]. Nom." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]." etc. 1. making the possessive singular. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. "From every schires ende. and Obj. there are only two case forms." Use of the apostrophe. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. The use of the apostrophe. however. 63. To form the possessive plural. A false theory.

and she walked off from the don's. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. James's. and from a desire to have distinct forms. tailor's bill²THACKERAY." "A postscript is added. Cervantes' satirical work. 65. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. dwelling." Possessive with compound expressions. as by the countess's command. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. but to the ear all may be alike. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.²HOLMES.²DE QUINCEY. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.Though this opinion was untrue.. being understood with it: for example.² LOWELL. as. . The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.²RUSKIN. church. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead."²DE QUINCEY. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. 67. In compound expressions. in the name of the emperor their master. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. for goodness' sake.²CARLYLE. Peter's. Possessive and no noun limited. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. my neighbors. instead of the emperor their master's name. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. the possessive sign is usually last. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²SWIFT. as. Captain Scrapegrace's. containing words in apposition. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. a word with a phrase. 66. etc. Kate saw that. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. know the amount of my income. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. the items of my son's." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.²THACKERAY. I remember him in his cradle at St.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. etc. store. stands up for God's truth one man. though instances are found with both appositional words marked.. some such word as house.

²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us.The double possessive. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. making a double possessive. Emphasis. etc. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. in such a sentence as. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. any.²CARLYLE. we use the phrase of Atterbury. and at the same time by a possessive noun. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. no. each. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. For example. (b) Rewrite the sentence. corresponding to 's. A peculiar form. Both of these are now used side by side.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. If. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. E. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. Blair). The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. 68. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . as one modifier. 1. the sentence might be understood as just explained. sometimes they are used together. HALE.. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.²the introduction which Atterbury made.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. especially when used with this or that. this. (1) When a word is modified by a. the. a double possessive. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. ill-lighted except where she stands. and tell whether each is appositional. or subjective. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. however.²E. (3) It prevents ambiguity. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²FROUDE. the statement clearly means only one thing. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. (See also Sec. 87. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. objective. that. Exercises. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. In most cases. every. 2. Clearness.

I must not see thee Osman's bride. some idioms²the double possessive. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. let him seasonably water the one. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 69. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. day's harbinger. 11. 14. Now the bright morning star. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 9. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 6. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. In parsing. Friend. Jove laughs.² . Nature herself.A weary waste expanding to the skies. with every garland crowned. and destroy the other. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 10. we state. 8. 12. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 4. 15. 7. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 70. therefore. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.3.They say. 5. At lovers' perjuries. Hence. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. in parsing a noun. There Shakespeare's self. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen.Comes dancing from the East. it seemed. 13.

is a common class noun. but is the adverbial objective.²common.(1) The class to which it belongs. 4. In parsing any word. has no governing word. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. a fresh tapster. as to case. if the latter. 71. hence objective case. singular number.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. Exercise. it expresses time. (4) Its office in the sentence. Thief is a common class noun. it denotes only one person. the connection shows a male is meant. 2. The correct method. 3. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. . inflections. NOTE. therefore singular number. it expresses possession or ownership. MODEL FOR PARSING. hence it is objective case. (3) Whether singular or plural number. and limits neckcloth. subject of the verb is understood. determining its case. hence it is a common noun. therefore neuter. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. object of the verb takes. masculine. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. therefore possessive case. it has no sex. 68). The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. and therefore nominative case. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. therefore singular number. therefore masculine gender. etc. it is the object of the preposition by. That in the captain's but a choleric word. gender. hence it is a gender noun. like miller's. proper. which gender. Throat is neuter. it is the name of a male being. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. Neckcloth. and relations. a withered serving man. and number.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. names one thing. and to have it found out by accident. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.

all in one. PRONOUNS. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. (2) Interrogative pronouns. 7. and his daughter. standing for a name. from a necessity for short. and representative words. The need of pronouns. 76). When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession.. Madame de Staël. Definition. Classes of pronouns. definite. or for a person or thing. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. Jarley's back being towards him." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. instead of saying." Again. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. 9. . were natives of Geneva. 73. Now. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. sleep! 6. where the Rhone enters the lake. castle. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. Time makes the worst enemies friends.And hated her for her pride. Mrs. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. 72. He giveth his beloved sleep. For instance. Necker. 8. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. 10. and prison. A few miles from this point. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. financial minister to Louis XVI.²palace... Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. or for a group of persons or things. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. which are used to ask questions about persons or things.5. A pronoun is a reference word. but by a question we say. blessings light on him that first invented . 11.

which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. (2) Second person. 74. representing a person or thing spoken to. and the person or thing talked about. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. or other word or expression. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. I Poss. as nouns have the same form. Three persons of pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. that is. my Plural. Person in grammar. ours . representing the person speaking. they must represent the person talking. From analogy to pronouns." Person of nouns. (3) Third person. 77. pronoun. they are said to have person by agreement. Singular. we our. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. "the distinction of person. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. primarily adjectives. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. 75. (5) Indefinite pronouns. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. mine. even if it had a special form. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. which have forms for person. the person or thing spoken to. which cannot be used as adjectives. (4) Adjective pronouns. words.(3) Relative pronouns. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Nom. 76. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive.. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. which relate or refer to a noun. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. This gives rise to a new term.

feminine h o. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Poss. you your. neuter hit. Third person singular has gender. she her. theirs them Neut. he his him Fem. in the singular. by personification. yours you THIRD PERSON. Singular. a separate form for each gender. SECOND PERSON. Obj. yours you Plural. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. 78.. hers her Plur. Obj. it its it Poss. Nom. namely. . of all Three. masculine h . But the third person has. thou thee ye you you your. Nom. your. Obj. Old forms. Poss. Old Form Common Form. yours Poss. Obj. neuter. thine. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Nom. thy Remarks on These Forms.Obj. Nom. and also for the neuter. Masc. they their. The speaker may be either male or female. or. First and second persons without gender. me us Singular.

The plurals were h .²SHELLEY. it.." As shown above. Two uses of the old singulars. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. two modern uses of thou. (2) In addressing the Deity. etc. even when referring to a single object. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. heora. and sometimes its. their. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. thee. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. thou Shepherd of Israel.:² (1) In elevated style. 79. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). There are. them. etc. 82.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. The form its. which was often sounded with the h silent. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. Second person always plural in ordinary English. This is of comparatively recent growth. however. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. the forms they. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. The consequence is. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. to thy care we commit the helpless. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.²BEECHER.² Oh. We use it with a plural verb always. In spoken English. 81.. . Thou.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. 80. just as we now say. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. as possessive of it.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. in Old English. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. heom. especially in poetry. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. etc. that didst comfort thy people of old. for example.Thou lovest. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. which is a neuter noun. thy. as. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). as in prayers.

Nominative forms. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. when they occur in the predicate position. thy. 58). their. theirs. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. The forms mine. though those named in Sec. to personify objects (Sec. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. ²SHAKESPEARE. her. 34)." the literary language would require he after was. I The Nominative. and sometimes in ordinary speech. him. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.Use of the pronouns in personification. her. have a peculiar use. our. The forms my. 84. thou. I spare thee mine. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. And since thou own'st that praise. we. II. she. Absolute personal pronouns. his. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. In spoken English. . some say. him. her. Old use of mine and thine. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. us. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. he. and has been slave to thousands. 86. me. in such a sentence as. its. them. besides a nominative use. 85. though ye is occasionally used as objective. hers. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. Yet careful speakers avoid this. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. The Possessive. note the following:² 'Twas mine. ye. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. them. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. yours.²LANDOR. 83.²BULWER. and follow the usage of literary English. That is.²COWPER. "I am sure it was him. us. Not a separate class. your. they. Additional nominatives in spoken English. The words I. or. they have a nominative form. thine. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. 84 are always subjects. 'tis his. however. sometimes his and its. for. and not make more classes.

theirs.²ID. hers. we have. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. Long Allen. T. . pluck it out.²CARLYLE. we find. theirs." said Henry Woodstall. or satire.²SWIFT. in that old Edinburgh house of his. Give every man thine ear.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. Besides this. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. Their uses. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. sometimes its. (2) To bring emphasis. F. 87.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.²THACKERAY.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. anger. are really double possessives.²J. ours. yours.²BIBLE.²ID. his. ours. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. The forms hers. thus. "Hold thy peace.² CARLYLE. COOPER. This usage is still preserved in poetry."²SCOTT. (3) To express contempt. thus. Like the noun possessives. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. as in nouns. it tells of good old times.²J. This ancient silver bowl of mine. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. thine. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. for example. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. and with mine. commenting upon a letter of mine. FIELDS. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. but few thy voice. Double and triple possessives. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. If thine eye offend thee. yours.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.²THACKERAY. ²HOLMES.

In such sentences as. but the form is the same as the objective. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. this dative use.²BIBLE. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. for whose benefit." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. III.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. The Objective. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. the thing is done. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. but nominative or objective in use. as it is called. 86: mine stands for my property. 88. In their function. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. as shown in Sec. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. 90. But the first two have a nominative use. and mine in the second has an objective use. his for his property. Both joined in making him a present. was marked by a separate case. Now the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. In pronouns. 20." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. Curse me this people.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. They all handled it. The old dative case. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar." "None but the brave deserves the fair.²ID. mine stands for my praise in the second. "The good alone are great. . 89. Besides this use of the objective. but expresses for whom. or use in a sentence. but not in form. in the first sentence.

²EMERSON. WEBSTER.²CARLYLE. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. has not made its progress. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. as. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. like Chinese skill. thus. 92. Indefinite use of you and your. to stand for the real. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. you sneeze." (3) As a grammatical subject.²D. or that he has not a great deal more. why. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²BULWER. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. Your mere puny stripling. Society. It is a pity that he has so much learning. you must condense there. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. or to the idea.² NEWMAN. The word you.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. and they cry. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. which follows the verb. logical subject.² .² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²IRVING To empty here.²EMERSON. in this century. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. (3) In apposition. 91.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. was passed by with indulgence.²ADDISON. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. as in the sentences. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²BACON.Time is behind them and before them.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. as.²DE QUINCEY. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.

ourselves. For when it dawned. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. And millions in those solitudes. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. and its plural selves. it rained.²BUNYAN.²DE QUINCEY. farms it. There was nothing for it but to return.²ID. himself. 94. A sturdy lad . as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw."²IRVING. yourself.²EMERSON. they dropped their arms. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. It was late and after midnight. I made up my mind to foot it." etc." and there is an end of it. keeps a school. who teams it. themselves. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²BURNS.. Poor Christian was hard put to it. who in turn tries all the professions. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. when they are direct objects. yourselves. Of the two forms in parentheses. itself.²SCOTT. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.. This occurs in poetry. as they are also called. And when I awoke.²IRVING. I set me down and sigh. used in poetry. however. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. peddles it. the second is the old form of the second person. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. For example. . since firstThe flight of years began. have laid them downIn their last sleep.²BRYANT.²HAWTHORNE. They are myself. 93. (thyself).²THOREAU. -selves.²HOLMES. but seldom in prose. as. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. herself. that is." "He bought him a horse.²ANON. (ourself). The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²COLERIDGE. we use such expressions as.It is finger-cold.² Now I lay me down to sleep. "I found me a good book.

as we ourself have been.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.² . Held dead within them till myself shall die. not the possessive forms.²WORDSWORTH.²ID. 96.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. In Middle English the forms meself. as in vulgar English. Use of the reflexives. 95. and build the lofty rhyme. thyself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.. theself. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. after the analogy of myself.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. BROWNING.²E.² TENNYSON. I shrink with pain.. ourselves. Threats to all. The question might arise. with self. NOTE. as. to us.As girls were once. were changed into the possessive myself. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. especially in the speech of rulers.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. Origin of these reflexives. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. etc.² The great globe itself .Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.²MILTON. to every one.²SHAKESPEARE. for example. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. as. B. for example. and the others were formed by analogy with these.²EMERSON.To you yourself. As if it were thyself that's here. shall dissolve. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.

fight it out. which.² THACKERAY. and what. some each of masculine. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. 9. 5. let him lowly confess it.On the light fantastic toe. all conform to it. where the word is one with that it tells of. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. feminine. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. but it is the soonest spoiled. Infancy conforms to nobody. 7. 8. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. is wisdom. To know what is best to do. and one would like to hear counsel on one point.²B. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. One obsolete.²DE QUINCEY. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 3. Come and trip it as we go. Three now in use. 97. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). and how to do it. 10. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. FRANKLIN. father. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. and neuter. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. Years ago.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. 6. 2. . For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. And it grew wondrous cold. 4. Courage. some of them being double possessives.

100. that is. the gold. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. 98. whether. Whose was that gentle voice. Use of who and its forms.There is an old word. . ideas. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. that. The use of who. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. but now obsolete. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. actions. As shown here. that it is not inflected for gender or number. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL.Promised. methought. or case.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. Use of which. Which of you. shall we say. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. 99. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Use of what. number. which is not inflected for gender. referring to things. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. with its possessive and objective. What wouldst thou do. as it always asks about somebody. but for case alone. that it is always singular and neuter. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. it is always third person. having three forms. it is selective. it refers to either persons or things. whispering sweet. These show that what is not inflected for case. used formerly to mean which of two.. not to persons. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. etc.

who is used as objective instead of whom." Or.² "The last of all the Bards was he. or other word or expression. SING. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. it may be shortened into. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. and what are also relative pronouns.101. Function of the relative pronoun. 104. what may be an adverb in some expressions. nominative in the second also. which is nominative in the first sentence. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. pronoun. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun.Who sung of Border chivalry. Thus we may say. The antecedent. AND PLUR. Who. who? Poss. as. subject of doth love. 105. as. SINGULAR Nom.² . especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. 99. "The last of all the Bards was he. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. as they take the place usually of a word already used. for which the pronoun stands." In the latter sentence.²by the use of the words. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. which and what. whose? Obj. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. which. 102. 127). and also in having a conjunctive use. and so to make smoother discourse. It usually precedes the pronoun. in Sec. 103. For instance. AND PLUR. which and what are sometimes adjectives. who evidently refers to Bards. objective in the last. since it is subject of the verb had. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. These bards sang of Border chivalry. being the direct object of the verb shall take. Further treatment of who. which is called the antecedent of the relative.

WHITNEY. 106.² COX. 2.²W. the women whom women approve. 4. For her enchanting son.. but the look which is not of the earth. Who and its forms.Whose flag has braved. 6.. Ye mariners of England. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. D.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.²MILTON.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. that. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. Indefinite relatives. Two kinds.Whom universal nature did lament. . will be discussed further on. The men whom men respect. 108. are the men and women who bless their species. with all its capabilities . The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 5. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 3. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. what.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. They had not their own luster. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. a thousand years. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.²SCOTT. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. is a divine creation.That guard our native seas.²BYRON. in the same sense in which man's nature. which. When the word relative is used.²THACKERAY. 2. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. both his and who have the antecedent priest. The nurse came to us.²PARTON Which and its forms. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²LOWELL In this.²DR JOHNSON. Generally speaking. 4. 107. a simple relative is meant. 3. The origin of language is divine.

no bad type of what often happens in that country. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.. Reader.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The man that hath no music in himself.. 109.²BURKE.²IRVING. 4. ought to be kept in view.²H.²DE QUINCEY.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. The Tree Igdrasil. 2. which it certainly is not.²MARGARET FULLER. stratagems. you will not be angry with me for telling you. 3. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.²GOLDSMITH. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. which prevented him from taking his usual ride... By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Already done is all that he would do. 107. and spoils. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. Who. The judge .. For what he sought below is passed above. 6. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. 110. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.5.. 111.²LAMB 3. (a) This gradation . W. Examples of the relative that:² 1. That.²EMERSON. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. else this description will seem exaggerated. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. BEECHER 5. What..Is fit for treasons.² SHAKESPEARE 2. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. bought up all the pigs that could be had.

5. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. .²IRVING. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. 112.. who. referring to animals. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.. flung its arms around my neck. 107. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Kingsley. the relatives are singular. Witness the following examples:² And you. The robins. Cooper. in 4. and 6. JOHNSON. In 1.²THACKERAY. seemed as much excited as myself. (4) It has two case forms. that man. they are plural. son. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. in 5. 96).whose. Who referring to animals.²SWIFT. Gibbon.²which for the nominative and objective.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. and others. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. (3) It is nearly always third person. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. who is first person. whose wound I had dressed..who. in the third. whose for the possessive. In sentence 4. not persons. 2. Sec. the others are all third person. whose. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. in the second. or ideas. possessive case of which. The little gorilla. and so on.²LOWELL..have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. things. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. My horse. 113.²who. whom. whose is second person. Smollett. in the first sentence. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. whom. a man. Which.. (2) It has three case forms. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. The sentences in Sec. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.. and 3.²DR.²LEIGH HUNT. It has been seen (Sec. p. Examples of whose. Scott.

114. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. 115. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns.² MCMASTER. too. no possessive.² I swept the horizon. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. 116. In the sentences of Sec. animals. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. (2) It has only one case form. second.²SCOTT. and to persecute without pity. Which and its antecedents. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. Burke. which is worse. which is very notable and curious. (3) It is the same form for first."²RUSKIN. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. This often occurs.²BEECHER. So in Matthew Arnold. The last two sentences in Sec.²THACKERAY. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. 109. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution.² And. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. let us enter the church itself.²DE QUINCEY. Men may be ready to fight to the death. the antecedent follows which. thus. and third persons. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Primarily.²RUSKIN. This moribund '61. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. . whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. That.²first. and things. and numerous others. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Kingsley. Sometimes. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which.²SHAKESPEARE. secondly (which made her stare). and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.

(2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. who Poss. it usually follows. plural number. whose Obj. 119. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. for example. The gender.² What I would. that men must needs abide. that he has. that do I. which. what we said?²CARLYLE. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.²BIBLE What fates impose. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. number. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. either of which would be neuter. we can. and person of the relatives who.²SHAKESPEARE. . and is emphatic. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. When expressed. plural number. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. 117. but what I hate.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. The sentences of Sec. third person. 118. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. is always neuter. that do I not. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. as. Who plainly stands for those or the people. What a man does." Since the relatives hold the sentence together." (3) "These people heard him. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. What. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. third person. Nom. consequently is neuter. Sec.²EMERSON. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true." That evidently refers to truths. 109. as in sentence 6. by taking them out. For example.

third person. . in (3). however. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. neuter. "What can't be cured must be endured. Parsing what. 7. then parse the relatives. In the sentence. it is subject of the verb heard.. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. the highest result of all education. so is in the objective case. the simple relative. 3. standing for the people understood. and hence is in the nominative case. 120. after all. subject of heard. and what is the direct object of the verb call. 8. etc. I think they are trying to outwit nature. The whole expression is its subject. is what we call nature. What must be endured? Answer. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. is in the nominative case. but of this. but is singular. above. The relative what is handled differently. The word what. in (1)." Here the subject of is. it is object of uttered. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Exercise. nobler souls with that which they are. As shown by the following sentences. First find the antecedents. in the following sentences:² 1. that takes the case of the truths in (2). we is the subject. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. people is the object of the preposition of. In (2). which is. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 4. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Another way. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time."²EMERSON. Truths in sentence (2). In the same way who. Now. What can't be cured. because it has usually no antecedent.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. Some prefer another method of treatment. is subject of the verb can't be cured. 6. 5.

²you cannot have both. no particular thing. not as direct as the simple relatives. Death is there associated. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. . 6. whatever. Take which you please. and which in the second clause. by meaning and use. whichsoever. 7. 4. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. Only itself can inspire whom it will. whichever. Hence some take what as a double relative. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and parse that in the first clause. They are whoever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. 3. 123. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. So with the other indefinites. or stand on their head. Do what we can. 2.²BURKE. in a new and original way. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. "common souls pay with that [singular. Meaning and use. 2.²BURKE.²MACAULAY. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. that is. 5. less common are whoso. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. and his friend a fool. to everything that. 121. It is no proof of a man's understanding. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. 122. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. summer will have its flies. being referred to." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. whosoever. which. The simple relatives who. whatsoever. whatsoever. that nothing else can stand in their presence. It is clear that in 1. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. or what else soever. object of with] which [singular. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. object of do] they do. List and examples. and in 2. no certain antecedent. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1.

either one that. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. thus.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have.² 1.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. nothing that does not interest us. 124. In early modern English.. But and as. 2.² some particular thing. etc. everything that (or everything which). the conjunctions wherein. upon which. not following the word such. but and as. 417).. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. Sec. but which only wealth could have purchased. for example. by which. Instead of the phrases in which. 120. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Other substitutes. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence.²EMERSON. whereupon. This. Former use of as. for example. 126.²DE QUINCEY. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Two words. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. . are used. as was used just as we use that or which. 125. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. etc. 121. Proof that they have the force of relatives. whereby. and that as after such is equivalent to which. but mean any one whom.As shown in Sec. 4. etc. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. what means anything that. There is nothing but is related to us. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. 121. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.²HAWTHORNE. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. has been my heaviest affliction.

it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun).. would be. which having the antecedent lines. 2. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. if expanded. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. "But what had become of them? They knew not. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. In studying such sentences. "Who stood behind? We knew. 2 (b). it is an indefinite relative). it is an interrogative. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. it is a simple relative. if not. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. Another caution. How to decide. which would indicate that they are not relatives.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide." etc. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. But in 1 (b). showing that who is plainly interrogative. what is interrogative. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which.²WHITTIER. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. Special caution needed here. 127. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. who having the antecedent gentleman. But compare the following in pairs:² 1.²ID. Thus. So in 2 (b). a question is disguised in each sentence. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 1 (b). though the earthwork hid them. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power." Likewise with which in 3 (b). and whether what = that + which (if so. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. In sentences 1 (a). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. no antecedent is expressed. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. . 3. second. and 3 (b). if not. the full expression being.²EMERSON.

OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²HOLMES.²SWIFT. 5. I visited many other apartments. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. In the third.² These are the sounds we feed upon. 3. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. and asks no question. When Goldsmith died. ELIOT. Thus. 129.128. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²FORSTER 6. . or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. whence is the interrogative word. In the first. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. 2.²GOLDSMITH.²CARLYLE. Relative omitted when object. 4. whose has the antecedent you. Put in the relatives who. which has the antecedent hue. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. Exercise. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. but the life of man in England. On the other hand. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. In the second.²G.² THACKERAY. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. which. and Court Calendars. The insect I am now describing lived three years. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.²FLETCHER. the question is asked by the verb. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Examine the following:² 1.

simple relatives. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. Function of adjective pronouns. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. 6. Also in literary English we find the same omission. 5. 3. that. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.² LOWELL.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Examples are. or indefinite relatives:² 1. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. which. 130. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. and comparatively so in poetry. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²SCOTT.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. the house was full.²SHAKESPEARE. which was already proceeding. There was such a crowd went. The nobles looked at each other. Relative omitted when subject.²Id. and what. .²CAMPBELL. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. It is rare in prose. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 2.7. who were to be rulers over whom. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. few. such as this." "one man." Classes of adjective pronouns. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. expressed or understood. which we have seen in such expressions as. in letters of gold.²BRYANT. that. or an argument in a paragraph." in the others. For example. any. or may be the whole of a sentence. and stand for a noun." in the second. Adjectives. "these pranks. 'Truth. and on each is written. not pronouns. In the first use they are adjectives." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. such as each. a word. "each cube. and another to get cool under. etc. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. etc. or they may stand for nouns. all. Primarily they are adjectives.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. etc. . (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. many. or use. in the first. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. none. 132. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence." "Where two men ride on a horse. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. in order to be an adjective pronoun. must not modify any word. 133. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. the former. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. For instance. "The dead are there." that is. but have lost their adjective use.²IRVING. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. "another bank. as some.²EMERSON. necessarily thought of: thus. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. in the second they retain an adjective meaning.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. either.131. but in this function. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. neither. Caution.

accidentally preserved. when the latter was the King of Spain. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. but these were of the best. NOTE. Exercises. and sow wickedness. 3. Some of these are simple pronouns. as seemed good to each. 2. and they have well performed the other. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. They had fewer books.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. or sat.²EMERSON 4. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. but what he fain had seen He could not see. A man inspires affection and honor.²ID. for example. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. because he was not lying in wait for these. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²ID. they that plow iniquity. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. or reclined. .All these he saw. Compound. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Such are a few isolated instances. They have not shunned the one. Their minds accorded into one strain. Even as I have seen.²LOWELL. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Definition and examples. 5. 134. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Simple.² They stood. reap the same.

or melt for others' woe.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. as. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. as it were.²KINGSLEY. The word one has a reflexive form. with the superstitions of his time. They led one another.²EMERSON. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. for example.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.² One reflexive. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²HOLMES. Another opposes him with sound argument. one another. imbued. Definition and examples. we might the more easily discharge them. you quickly come to the end of all. The Soldan.²each other. Men take each other's measure when they react. . There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. ²HAWTHORNE. such as one other. as most were. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. 135. Much might be said on both sides. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.Two are compound pronouns. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. paused over a horoscope. Exercise. another. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. as some of the rangers had gone astray. Some inflected. None shall rule but the humble.²HAWTHORNE.

²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. and somewhat. . The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. anybody. 137. naught. and was indefinite in Old English. Jove laughs. as. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. They indefinite means people in general. they say. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. anyone else. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did.Exercise. etc. something. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Definition and examples. everybody else. and they. also aught.² At lovers' perjuries. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. everything. every one else. but. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. some one. anything. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. etc. somebody else. everybody. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. I tell you what. 136.." It means something. in building of chaises. nobody. as shown in the words everybody's.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. any one (or anyone). what. Every one else stood still at his post. every one (or everyone). Exercise. Now. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. unlike adjective pronouns. nothing. no one. Somebody.²SHAKESPEARE. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. anybody else's. they are never used as adjectives. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.

Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. and of no other. The table was good. Whoever deals with M. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. Exercise. Others did the same thing. 18. Hutchinson tells us of herself. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. For this did God send her a great reward. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 9. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 3. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 2.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 13. All was now ready for action. . A reminder. 10. I first found myself among the mountains. 11. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). but not to quite so enormous an extent.See also "Syntax" (Sec. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 16. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 4. were suffered to depart. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. from my earliest days. O thou that rollest above. 138. in his negotiations. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 12. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. indeed. 17. 14. 8. to which. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 7. 6. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 5. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated.

29. 23. They know not I knew thee. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. variety. 31. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. thou rollest now. 21.19. eat white bread or brown.Destroyer and preserver.Who knew thee too well. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 34.And it would work 'em woe. in all its height. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. hear. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. I who alone am. He sate him down. 25.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Whatever he knows and thinks. 35. oh. behold now the semblance of my being. who take the world easy.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 27. 30. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. And I had done a hellish thing. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 32. And will your mother pity me. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. well-oiled dispositions. 26. hear! 33. that let him communicate. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. and seized a pen.

Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 139. We need to add some words to tell its color. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. Substantives. He knew not what to do.36. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun." The office of an adjective. We are by nature observers. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. 44. heavy or light. Office of Adjectives. He teaches who gives. such as in the expressions "this man. and he learns who receives." "yonder hill. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. and if we are near. if we are at a distance. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. It may have this office alone. 37. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. and so he read. size." etc. Who hears me. becomes mine. position. as. or liquid. that is our permanent state. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. white or red. then. 41." "a hundred men." "some cities. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Again. etc.. As to the kind of words used. the number is limited by adjectives. 40. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. in pointing out an object. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. "one hat. 42. 39. which was no bad step towards my liberation. or with persons. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 38. ADJECTIVES. If a chemist discovers a new substance. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. who understands me. For example. So with any object. so that no other will be mistaken for it. or gaseous. etc. brittle or tough. 45. 43." "that house. . adjectives are used.

To make this clear. to forgive. such as safe. "Heaven-derived power. pointing out particular things.²POPE.² BACON. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. Nouns are not. (4) Pronominal adjectives. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. however. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. With exception of the "and then. Examples are. "an old English manuscript. To err is human. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." ." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. it shows that he weighs men's minds. and their trash. words primarily pronouns.²COLERIDGE. Classes of adjectives." "ice-cold water. such as. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression.140. fair." the "and there. beautiful. Infinitives. 141. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. terrible." "the Roman writer Palladius. remotest. divine." "half-dead traveler." and the still less significant "and so. happy." they constitute all his connections. or how much of a thing. etc." "next-door neighbor." "the Christian pearl of charity. rash." "this life-giving book. 142. (2) Adjectives of quantity. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. used to tell how many things are spoken of. They include relative and interrogative words. Definition. deep." "ivory-handled pistols. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. 143. to describe it or to limit its application." "unlooked-for burden. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. If he be thankful for small benefits. derived from proper nouns.

some. any." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." was is the verb.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. Examples are." "an aged man. and another is drunken." "It came on like the rolling simoom. . 144.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. much." was accomplished is a verb." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Care is needed." "One is hungry. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted.²MACDONALD. sometimes small. For instance: in the sentence. considerable. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. 2.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. but small thoughts have I of sleep. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. 145. 'Tis midnight." "The shattered squares have opened into line.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. having some of each subclass named in Sec. Oxenham. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. 1. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. 143.But ever she looked on Mr." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "trailing clouds. which are either pure participles used to describe." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. and accomplished is an adjective. Exercises. no. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. in studying these last-named words. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by.²COLERIDGE." Caution." "a charming sight. in this. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished.

by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.²THACKERAY.²KINGSLEY. When some. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "In came some five and twenty more. its wake. Exercise. they come under the next division of adjectives.²CARLYLE. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. The demonstrative adjectives are this. as. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Not primarily pronouns. The list. former. the former²the latter. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. How many.²VAUGHAN. An arrow was quivering in each body." "Then we wandered for many days.² Every town had its fair. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. Examples.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. Thus." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." (b) Indefinite numerals." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards." "He had lived by hunting for some months. and with them a few negroes. are used with plural nouns." "a dozen volunteers." Single ones of any number of changes. that. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. those).²ID. instead of modifying them. yonder (or yon). The following sentences present some examples:² . latter. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. no. but I have gained fourscore. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. 146." "I have lost one brother. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. "one blaze of musketry. any. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. (plural these. every village. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound.

148. When we speak of the seventeenth century. Definition. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. tell how many things are meant. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. of equal skill. skill which was at pause. The silver and laughing Xenil.²BANCROFT. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. They are of two kinds. These were thy charms. As has been said.²ID. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. for example.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. WEBSTER. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²RUSKIN. they are changed to adjectives. but. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²GOLDSMITH.² It matters not what rank he has.but all these charms are fled. 147. Exercise.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. skill which was progressive²in the other. Indefinite relative adjectives. The taking of which bark. ²CARLYLE. Modify names of persons or things. These do not.²D. what revenues or garnitures.²KINGSLEY. 149. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. In which evil strait Mr. like the other numerals. I verily believe.²ID."²B.²WORDSWORTH. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. just as the corresponding pronouns do. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Oxenham fought desperately. but in the one case.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. .. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²BULWER. FRANKLIN..

But when the Trojan war comes. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. . In indirect questions. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.²LAMB.² EMERSON. 151.And whichsoever way I turn. proved not altogether displeasing to him.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. and new tormentedAround me. or whether any. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. which is selective among what is known. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. whatever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. New torments I behold.150.²CARLYLE. whichsoever. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. and gaze. it is impossible to determine. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Was there. Adjective what in exclamations. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. as it rather seemed.²IRVING. Whatsoever kind of man he is. As in the pronouns. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. which. the debt to the rich. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.. whichsoever way I move. He was turned before long into all the universe.²RUSKIN. you at least give him full authority over your son.. In direct questions. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. nature will be sure to bear us out in. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. what inquires about things or persons not known. whichever.²AGASSIZ. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Examples of their use are. A lady once remarked.²ID. whatsoever.

we do so by means of their qualities. But this had also another plural. or amount. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. NUMBER. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. gold is heavier than iron. Exercise. This is the old demonstrative. 155. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE.²This. History of this²these and that²those. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. Thus. . The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.²number and comparison. etc. The article that was used with neuter nouns.Adjectives have two inflections. And yet. the making of it right. those).152. weight. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. It is neither relative nor interrogative. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. th s (modern those). it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. When we place two objects side by side. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.² Oh. and those as the plural of that. COMPARISON. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. and when we compare the objects. which was fully inflected in Old English. All these have certain qualities. 153 . Those borrowed from this. alas. or weight. color. etc. of the quality. as. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this.²but not the same degree. In exclamatory expressions. we notice some differences between them as to size.. Meaning of comparison. 154. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. That. or size.

expressing a greater degree of quality. bluest. So with the words sole. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. . Substitute for inflection in comparison. whether they attend their own affair or not. but. red. easy. and many others. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. giant-like. These are called degrees of comparison." Words that cannot be compared. The two forms. 160. and the superlative. great. with less wit. Freedom is a perpetual. 158. easiest. organic. as.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. The comparative is formed by adding -er. but were not common until a century later." "no fewer than a hundred.²THACKERAY. infinite. reddest. for example. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. they are not compared. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. easier. "more matter. to the simple form." "It is a nobler valor. strictly considered. enormous. immemorial.²SEWARD. 157.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. "untamed thought. universal institution. These are properly the only degrees. redder. indomitable. expressing the greatest degree of quality. and the superlative by adding -est. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. though the simple. as. indefatigable. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. bluer. They came into use about the thirteenth century. supreme. whose favorite pupil he was. 156. or amounts in quantity.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. 159. sufficient. Definition. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. blue." "the largest soul. A main difference betwixt men is." "the commonest speech.

²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. The following lists include the majority of them:² . admirablest." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. honestest." "more austere and holy. was most finished. harsh forms are usually avoided. there needed to be a most genuine substance. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. witty. peaceablest.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.²ID. etc. The general rule is. and yet familiar.Which rule. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. though born in no very high degree. finest chiseling. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." said Henry Esmond. Adjectives irregularly compared. easy. I will. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. quiet. "So help me God. as. These are adjectives irregularly compared. mournfulest. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. 162. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. falling on his knees. and patientest fusing. most small.²The Nation. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. indisputablest. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree." "distantest relationships." "more odd.²ID." "sorrowfulest spectacles." "the wonderfulest little shoes." Carlyle uses beautifulest. who. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. 163. and other words are preceded by more and most. strange.² CARLYLE A gentleman. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. madam. polished. which hung behind in the queerest way. These long.

but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. A double comparative. List I. The superlative I form was betst. older Nigher Nearer Later. uppermost LIST III. Good or well Evil. 9. 164. as in Shakespeare. evil was the positive to worse. next Nearest Latest. hindermost Much or many More Farther. [Out] Outer. 3.LIST I. 7. throw away the worser part of it. furthest 10. uttermost Upmost. 5. oldest Nighest.²HAMLET. 6. though from a different root. but takes the place of a positive to better and best.² O. These have no adjective positive:² 1. lesser Elder. 1. [In] Inner Inmost. which has gone out of use. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). which has softened to the modern best. last Hindmost. There was an old comparative bet. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 8. 2. is often used. as in the sentence (14th century). innermost Outmost. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 4.² We have it in a much lesser degree. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. (2) In Old English.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. Worser was once used. lesser. as. further Farthest. outermost Utmost. Hind 2. utter 3. worst. latter Hinder LIST II. least. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. a double comparative. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. (3) Little is used as positive to less. bad. .

(9) Latter and last are the older forms. farthest. meaning the largest part. an old superlative ending. making the modern farther. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. a distinction has grown up between the two series.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. greatest. instead of lenger. First became entirely detached from the series." Its spelling has been micel. are shown in such phrases as. the old forms. The meanings greater. th came into the others. strenger. List II. first. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms.. to England we sailed. Between the two sets as they now stand. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. farrest. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. Since later. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. eldest. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. much.² The more part being of one mind. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. "Many a little makes a mickle. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification.²HAWTHORNE. (5) The forms elder. except the form next.²KINGSLEY. but not in meaning. In imitation of further. for example. next. but originally the comparison was nigh. etc. as long. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. latest. . (10) Hinder is comparative in form. and the superlative nearest. to which is added -ost. The latter. muchel. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. are earlier than older. oldest. further. great. near. ²LAMB. The most part kept a stolid indifference.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. there is scarcely any distinction. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. and refer to time. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. or series. moche.²ID. as. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. came into use. furthest. doubling the inflection. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. is quite common. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. since the m is for -ma. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.²forth. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. etc. strong..

The superlatives show examples again of double inflection." -Most added to other words. being merely descriptive. all may belong to the same noun. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. (Sec. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Decidedly handsome." "far-seeing as the sun.²DE QUINCEY. Her.²H. There. The comparatives are so in form. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. but her after deck was still dry. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. W.²EMERSON. 167.²KINGSLEY. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. and have no comparative force. but they have no adjective positives. Highest and midmost. on the very topmost twig." "the innermost moral soul. or each may modify a different word or group of words.²DE QUINCEY. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. Think what each adjective belongs to. in having no adjective positives. Her bows were deep in the water. but not in their meaning. 168. They have no superlatives. are like the comparative forms in List II.165. List III. BEECHER.²HAWTHORNE. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. 166. ." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. or have no comparative forms. In List II. by the by. The adjectives in List III." "The outer is of the day.²SCOTT." "their utmost exertion. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. the upper light of the world. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence.

It may still be argued. the then and still owners. "the one who was then king. now our queen. For thy stomach's sake. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. Our sometime sister. This.²A. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. 4. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. In the following quotations. Other instances are. deep." in which then is an adverb. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES.For example. solid. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. rich. Bradbury and Evans. instead of saying. By a convenient brevity. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. satisfactory.²NOAH PORTER.²HAWTHORNE. 169.² My then favorite. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²RUSKIN. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. therefore. our new government. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. STEPHENS 5. 2. 3. not decision alone. we may say "the then king. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. H. and broken.²HAWTHORNE. A few improper jests and a volley of good. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. philosophical." making then an adjective. . 7. Exercise. bright. and moral truth." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.²MRS. STOWE. 6.²TRENCH. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. ²TROLLOPE. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. May we not. in this sentence. usual modifies incomparable decision. and heaven-defying oaths. But in this sentence. as.²HOLMES. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.²BIBLE. The seldom use of it." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. round. and thine often infirmities. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. Richard Hooker. deeply black eyes. in prose.

Unfamiliar describes truths. She made no reply. 6. To every Roman citizen he gives. These points out what truths. This gave the young people entire freedom. and very few have number. modifies truths. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. compared by prefixing more and most. In parsing an adjective. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. cannot be compared.What to tell in parsing. I ask nothing of you. 7. positive degree. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. and I waited for none. (2) Its number. if it has number. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 3. frank. plural number. seventy-five drachmas. this. 5. 170. (3) Its degree of comparison. therefore demonstrative. 9. and most astounding were those frightful yells. having a singular. (4) What word or words it modifies. 4. 2. 8. 10. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. the method of parsing is simple. Since adjectives have no gender. person. modifies the word truths. . The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. Exercise. across the plain. with awkward but rapid pace. or case. not inflected for number. therefore descriptive. To every several man. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. if it can be compared. manly way. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. then. MODEL FOR PARSING.

His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 14. 26. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Like most gifted men. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. growing in the most unfavorable position. it rests on reality. 29. yonder oxen in the pasture. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 19. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 22. Two hours elapsed. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 20. 16. To say what good of fashion we can. those dogs in the yard. Their name was the last word upon his lips. I know not what course others may take. and therefore more interesting to us. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Here lay two great roads. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 28. 21. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 31. during which time I waited. is the settlement of our own country. 12. as for armies that were too many by half. the tomahawk fell. 33. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 23. suggests such thoughts as these. 27. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. and dogs. and many poles supported the lower ones. 13. the same love to France would have been nurtured. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 18. . 24. are immutably fishes. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. he won affections with ease. Nearer to our own times. 32. not so much for travelers that were few. oxen. it is so noble a fruit.11. In music especially. With every third step. 25. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable.

with an ordinary little garden. ðat. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. that other. In the sentence. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. 174.34. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. sometimes the tother." "a yelling crowd. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. he is no literary man. Our expressions the one. and a before consonant sounds.²BREWER. In Middle English the became an article. An before vowel sounds. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds." An with consonant sounds. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. th o. just as adjectives do. even when not silent. s o.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. the tother. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. Their origin. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like." "a European. 37. the latter is still preserved in the expression. weary-hearted man was he. the other.²MACAULAY. 172. such as we have been attempting to describe. A hard-struggling. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. a before consonant sounds." the words the and an belong to nouns." "an honor. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . later th . the tither. Examples: "a house. 35. these occurring as the tane. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. for example. Many writers use an before h. were formerly that one. Two relics." "an orange. 171. in vulgar English. 173.²SCOTT. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. ARTICLES. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. that) which was also an article in Old English. An historian. meaning one. or the tane. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. the tother. but the former is used. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. An or a came from the old numeral n. .

²COLERIDGE. or a group or class of things.²This use is noticed when. since it points out a particular individual. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. is referred to. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. The is the definite article. not descriptive. as in the sentence.²THACKERAY. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. An article is a limiting word." the article indicates clearly that a river. as "the Mississippi.. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. which cannot be used alone. An or a is the indefinite article. or any individual of a group or class.²IRVING. a person is introduced by a. To call attention to attributes. Kinds. 179. the older n. or group. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. An and a are different forms of the same word. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY..² Don't you remember how. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. 177.²G.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business.²HEROES OF ASGARD. doubtless. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. Reference to a known object. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. Articles are either definite or indefinite.. or class. Definition. NOTE. on opening a story. 175. BANCROFT. 178. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. and when the word river is omitted. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. When the is prefixed to a proper name. 176. thus. With names of rivers.² ." "the Ohio. The Dakota tribes. An hereditary tenure of these offices. and not a state or other geographical division.

But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. 181. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²EMERSON.² The faint. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. so is the evil. not into a particular virtue.²EMERSON.²KINGSLEY.²G. Half abstract. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. His messages to the provincial authorities. The. the Hume. With adjectives used as nouns.² As she hesitated to pass on. the song sparrow. and the redwing. Common. the gallant. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.The Bacon. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. BANCROFT. Schelling. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. 182. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. the Spinoza. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun.²MOTLEY. With plural of abstract nouns. etc. . as. Caution. The simple rise as by specific levity.²ID.²ID. or a match put between the fingers. but into the region of all the virtues. laid it on the miry spot. 2. One thing for its class. For possessive person pronouns.²SCOTT. If the good is there. Kant. 1. NOTE. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. her. 183.²GIBBON. 180. for example. would speedily extract the required information.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

etc." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. with some word understood. obeyed is a predicate. All these are called transitive verbs. but cannot be predicates. we consider a verb as one word. but fearing is not a predicate. "Put money in thy purse. an article. which means to go over. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. all do not express it in the same way. for example. 204. in (2. to say something to or about some person or thing. Each influences some object.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. from the Latin transire. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. 201. A verb is a word used as a predicate. which may be a person. In each case. as. and. representing something which it influences or controls. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. the word following. an adverb. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. b). to go is no predicate. in (2. lone took what? answer. or an idea. By examining a few verbs. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. in (3. a noun. Of those expressing action.²BULWER . or a material thing. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. can deceive has an object. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. a).In (a). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. The nature of intransitive verbs. a verb. and a preposition unite as a verb." put is the predicate. and not a verb. or the object. the most astute. The nature of the transitive verb. 200: In (1). care. All do not express action: some denote state or condition."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. 202. (can) shame also has an object. in (c). A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. In giving a definition. and shame the most astute. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. c). "Put thou money in thy purse. In the sentence. the most penetrating. In the first. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. in this sentence from Bulwer. in (b). Definition and caution. in (3. endured what? anguish." Examine the sentences in Sec. hence is not a verb. and to receive the action expressed. Hence Definition. taking the staff which always guided her steps. Now. Has takes the object hypocrisy. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. b). a preposition. 203.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

Most excellent stranger. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. for example. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.²SHELLEY. Condition or Supposition. I. as.²FRANKLIN. the writer can make the statement following. the first great founder of the Empire.²MACAULAY.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].²BRYCE. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.²may or may not be true. the second founder. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. and may or may not be regarded true. they were recorded in the Book of Life.² If. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. the representative system ultimately fail. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. If this be the glory of Julius. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. 2). but. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. he will see the need of these ethics. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. popular government must be pronounced impossible. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.²LONGFELLOW.²D.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. . WEBSTER.² Now. as. ²EMERSON. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. or be fulfilled. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. Unreal²cannot be true. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.I could lie down like a tired child. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. 222. Again. in our case. Ideal. 215. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. 221.

might. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me." etc. If he had reason to dislike him. especially be. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. . clear. etc. if he was the man I take him for. since he [Byron] was dead. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.²FRANKLIN. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire... to drink strong beer. Subjunctive of Purpose.. 7. he had better not have written. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. as. do you think. would have sat still with joy and peace. and what kind of condition:² 1.² If these things were true. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 5. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. except. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. if his lot had been mine. 223. melodious. society could not hold together.²N. which cannot be true. P. is used to express purpose. The voice. and sonorous. 8.²CALHOUN. Epaminondas. WILLIS. the clause being introduced by that or lest. though. In the following conditional clauses. that he might be strong to labor. and striven energetically to save Ney. 3. she was regarded as a prodigy. unless.²FRANKLIN. he supposed. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. and should.²SWIFT.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. The subjunctive.²MACAULAY. 2.² CARLYLE.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. thus. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. that we cannot but regret its absence. would you. may. Exercise. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. II.²EMERSON. 4. ²LOWELL.. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.²BAYNE. but when the verb precedes the subject. if he speak to you. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. is of similar physiognomy. But in no case could it be justified.² It was necessary. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. I told him. NOTE. 6.

226.²WORDSWORTH. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.²DE QUINCEY.²MOORE. WEBSTER. within its fairy bowers. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. Expressing a Wish.. 225. VII.²SOUTHEY. IV.²D. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. In Temporal Clauses. After a verb of wishing. I've wished that little isle had wings.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.Thou go not.Were wafted off to seas unknown. 224. none of us could say. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. Let it rise. In a Noun Clause.That vain it were her eyes to close. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. VI. V. the answer being regarded as doubtful.. Rise up. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²COLERIDGE. like the Latin. like the quarry-slave at night. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. To tell of what had passed. 227. In Indirect Questions.²BRYANT. I would it were! ²EMERSON. .I have been the more particular.. Ask the great man if there be none greater. till it meet the sun in his coming. III. The English subjunctive.And we.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.. So live. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²CARLYLE. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Subjunctive of Result.²ID.

The first merit.²DE QUINCEY. (b) Adjective.² DICKENS. Come. which may be (a) Pronoun. of cash..²THOREAU. in its various uses as subject. I have no thought what men they be. we'll turn aside. Whatever betide. in apposition. That hunger of applause.Subject. After verbs of commanding. 228. Object. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²COLERIDGE.²CARLYLE. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. See that there be no traitors in your camp. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. Complement.² Be the matter how it may.And see the Braes of Yarrow. is. that everything be in its place.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²TENNYSON.²SCOTT. Some might lament that I were cold. etc. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. 229.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. tell me all that thou hast seen. Concessive Clauses. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.And look thou tell me true. object. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. is the ultimate fact of man's life. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²COLERIDGE.²SHELLEY. or whatsoever victual it may be. The noun clause. VIII.²WORDSWORTH. often contains a subjunctive. . The essence of originality is not that it be new. for example. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.

the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. (1) Command. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. Definition.²BRYANT.²SHELLEY. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. 231. entreaties. ADAMS. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. (2) Entreaty. Honor all men. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. we had found [should have found] a poem here.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. fear none. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. since commands are directed to a person addressed. . Q. In spoken English.The spirit he loves remains. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.²J. Usually second person. a concession. (3) Request. love all men. or requests. It must be remembered.² CARLYLE.²CHANNING. though. Oh. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. 232. and condition contrary to fact. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. to express a wish. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. 230. At the present day.(c) Adverb. point to their immortal works. however. for example. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used.

The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Break we our watch up. "The Devil take the goose.And."²DICKENS Tell me." Exercises on the Moods.One glance at their array! 5. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. there will her heart and her prayers be. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. to you implied in it. child of earth!While each performs his part. etc. noble earl. Whatever inconvenience ensue. 7. but I + you. 6. lest we rust in ease. Mark thou this difference. "Come along with me.²CAMPBELL. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Quoth she. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.. etc. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Part we in friendship from your land. Oh.²SHAKESPEARE.And God forget the stranger!" . request. 3. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. or I + they.. 8. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. nothing is to be preferred before justice. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. receive my hand. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.²SCOTT. we may use the imperative with we in a command."Hush! mother. 2." whispered Kit.

is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. she ought to have it. Think not that I speak for your sakes.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Marshall.Except. and opinion displace opinion." 25.That they might answer him. "tell me where I may find my poor. how he may do his work. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. Well.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. That sheaf of darts. Though he were dumb. 20. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. whether he do it right or wrong. 14. my dear madam. 26. it would speak. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Forget thyself to marble. or do it at all. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. "Oh. He. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Though abyss open under abyss. From the moss violets and jonquils peep." continued Old Morgan. but repentant child. That a man parade his doubt. will it not fall unbound. "Mr. 11. 13.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls." 16. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 21. let him live where else he like.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. ruined. 19. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.9. 23. then.High up in silver spikes! 22. 18. . 10. in what pomps and prosperities he like. He is. as though an instrument." cried he. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. no literary man.

The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. will. past. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. "I go away tomorrow. and the future tense. TENSE." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. past perfect. and future. Tenses in English. kind. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages.²the present tense. Definition. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. such as Latin and Greek. "It is not in man that walketh. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. such as be. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. as. also. as will be shown later on. in the third person singular. in the conjugations. five in the imperative. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. or agree with it. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. which represented present and future time. Old English had only two tenses. and the past tense. Siddons. showing more exactly the time of the action or being." .27. 235. "Thou walkedst. The tenses in detail. When the older pronoun thou was in use. 28.²nothing could exceed the amiable. whatever she did. 234. have. past." present. shall. or whether it were as one member of a general party. to direct his steps. as." "If he comes. a form ending in -eth. 233. tell him to wait. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. called auxiliaries. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. as the classical languages have. and future perfect tenses. Meantime. Tense means time. or future time. by means of the present. PERSON AND NUMBER. "Thou walkest.² present. five in the subjunctive. the past." past.

Singular 1. You (thou) be 3. chosen (old. I were 2. walk has walk.²choose. walked. [He] were [They] were . moods. and numbers. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. choosing. tenses. CONJUGATION. The verb be has more forms. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. "He walks. Indicative Mood. walkedst. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2.²am. You are 2. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. chooses. 237. singular number. Definition. is. 236. mood.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. etc. but in English. PRESENT TENSE. as. This is the third person. for example. In classical languages. since it is composed of several different roots. Singular 1. chosest). etc. been. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb." and this only in the present tense indicative. [He] is [They] are 3. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. Singular 1. were. choosest. PRESENT TENSE. persons. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. walks. tense. 238. Singular 1. chooseth. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Such verbs as choose have five. are. I be 2. walketh. wert) 3. chose. Few forms. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. walking. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax.

If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.His infancy was nurtured.²THACKERAY. The light that never was on sea and land. to express intention. -en.²SHELLEY.²GOLDSMITH.²ID. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. thus.Imperative Mood. (2) As auxiliary verbs. in four ways. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. (2) was. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.. were.²BURKE .² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²WORDSWORTH.²SCOTT. (d) With the infinitive. obligation. Instead of the plural are. is. as. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. same as the German sind. to form the passive voice. for example. (b) With the past participle in -ed. etc. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. condition. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. etc..² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. Remarks on the verb be. (3) be. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. though it is usually a dialect form. 240. which was now become an occasional banquet. 239. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.

[He] choose [They] choose 3. Machinery of a verb in the voices. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. Singular. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. You chose Plural. 1. We chose You chose 3. "I had gone" (past perfect). We chose You chose 3." "He will choose. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. I choose 2. 1. Singular. as. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. You choose Plural. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). (2). and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. tenses. You chose Plural. 242. as. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. Indicative Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. had. PRESENT TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. PRESENT TENSE. I choose 2. You choose Plural. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 1. future perfect. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 1. Singular." (2) Present perfect.241. I chose 2. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Singular. "I have gone" (present perfect). In addition to the above inflected forms. by placing have. past perfect. I chose 2. etc. 240. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. "I shall be. . tenses.

" "You are chosen. Past definite. [If. " " " " " " " he be choosing.) Choose. Past perfect definite. He has been choosing. Present perfect. "I was chosen. He was choosing.] he choose. as." (4) The passive forms." 243. He chose. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. as. of each tense. Past. lest. "I am running. He will have been choosing. Present definite. Subjunctive Mood. he chose (or were to choose). singular number. will be given. Present. Past perfect. though. He had chosen. Indicative Mood. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present definite. Same as indicative. Present. Future definite. he have chosen. " Be choosing. . He had been choosing. Past. Only the third person. He will he choosing. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present perfect. He has chosen. Present perfect definite." "They had been running. Future perfect definite. Present definite. he have been choosing. Future. Present perfect definite. Past definite. ACTIVE VOICE. Future perfect. He will have chosen. Past perfect. etc. he were choosing (or were to be choosing).(3) The definite form of each tense. Same as indicative. He will choose. He chooses. (2d per. He is choosing. Imperative Mood. Past perfect definite. Present.

NOTE. Exercises should be given. Present perfect definite. He was being chosen. Future definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Past.] he be chosen. Present definite. He has been chosen. He is being chosen. None. Past definite. Past definite. Present perfect. None. "He does strike. Present. (2d per. Past." [Note to Teacher.. None. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. None. Present definite. Imperative Mood. None. Present tense.) Be chosen. Future. 262). Also. He is chosen. None. though. he had been chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. etc." "He did strike. however. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Indicative Mood. He will be chosen. Past Perfect. he were being chosen. . if learned at all. Present perfect. as. in affirmative sentences. He had been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Past perfect definite. they will be discussed later (Sec. he have been chosen. lest. Present. He was chosen.] [If. He will have been chosen. Subjunctive Mood. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Future perfect definite. Present perfect definite. but verbals. Future perfect. " " " " " " " None.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs.

catch. drive. but adds no ending. drove. According to form.[adj. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. slept. NOTE. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . verbs are strong or weak. laid. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. bit blown broken chidden. beg. sleep. Some of these also have weak forms. ran. Past Tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. begged. Definition. run. caught. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. which are in parentheses Present Tense. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. 244. Kinds. bounden] bitten. as. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. and may or may not change the vowel: as. 245. bid bound. lay.

drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .

trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.

The form clomb is not used in prose. as. clave or clove. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. but is much used in vulgar English." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. Not a cock crew. and sometimes occurs in poetry. instead of ate and eaten. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²IRVING. and the latter. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. as (from Holmes). instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).²MILTON. cleft. as. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). TAYLOR.²cleave. especially in that of an earlier period. Crew is seldom found in present-day English." "the cloven hoof. .² We had each drank three times at the well.² Thou hast clomb aloft.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. 246.²COLERIDGE.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. ²THACKERAY.²as (from Shakespeare). Historically." "a sunken snag. borne is also a passive." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²one meaning to adhere or cling. only one set remains certain. Sometimes in literary English.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. and another (born) for the passive. cloven. cleave. the other. and." In this confusion of usage. When it means to carry or to endure. for example. "his bounden duty. Our cock. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. cleaved. now told us it was time for repose." "a drunken wretch.²GOLDSMITH. to split.²TENNYSON. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²B. which always crew at eleven.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. The former used to be cleave. probably to avoid confusion with this."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. as. cleft (to split). cleaved. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. "stricken with paralysis. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. nor a dog barked. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.

maiden. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.²BYRON. found. 4.²TENNYSON. gave. 10. Break.²WORDSWORTH. 3. . (a) From the table (Sec. shore is rare. for example. and grasping at his sword. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. shook. as. Fall.² We had all got safe on shore. begun. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Fling. flung.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. which is seldom used except in poetry. fallen. Begin. Usually shear is a weak verb. 8. 5. as "a shorn lamb." but not much as a participle. drove.The form gotten is little used. given. Throw.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. even in poetry.²DE FOE. thrown.² If. 7. for example. broke."²KINGSLEY. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. froze. 2. He sate him down. Give. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. found. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Freeze. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Find. 9. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Drive. began. The butler was hanged. flung. driven." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. Exercises. We usually say. Shake. shaken. 245). broken. This heard Geraint. One example out of many is. 6. frozen. threw. fell.²BIBLE.²SCOTT. and seized a pen.

Have we valuable territories and important posts. but came through analogy with should and would. HAMILTON. must have been an ocular deception. The l in could did not belong there originally. Indicative Use: Permission. 249. or. according to the infinitive used. 251. "far off his coming shines. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.. (See also Sec. for full drill on the forms."²WINIER. 250. purpose. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive.²PAINE.. of course.. Can is used in the indicative only.²SCOTT. Must is historically a past-tense form. "So mote it be.[To the Teacher. etc. .which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. 223. Subjunctive use.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. which survives in the sentence. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. PRESENT. 220. there is one general principle. Like must.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. from the obsolete verb motan. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. They are as follows:² PRESENT. ability." Must is present or past tense. Could may be subjunctive. 247.. PAST. it is used only in the indicative mood.²CHANNING This. as it has two meanings. It is indicative when it expresses permission.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. as it sometimes does.²HAWTHORNE. His superiority none might question. as. or when it expresses wish. as in Sec.²CHANNING. etc. The same remarks apply to ought. Ability. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. PAST..

shall and should are used. especially in the United States. shall and should are used. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. Second and third persons. as. She rejects his suit with scorn.Nay. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.² (a) To express authority. my lad. she should ride like a queen. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. WEBSTER. to use will and would.² Futurity and questions²first person. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. 252. C. BROCKDEN BROWN.e. (b) In questions asking for orders. The following are examples:² Never mind. to the neglect of shall and should. as. "I think I will go.²L.. for example. ." Uses of shall and should. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. yea.² The time will come full soon. he said.²MACAULAY.²LONGFELLOW. promise.²COOPER.² With respect to novels. The sea shall crush thee.²BULWER.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. I shall be gone. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. not plod along like apeasant. in the form of command.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. future action).²IRVING. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. (b) In indirect quotations.²THAXTER. while ought always has to. as. with pronouns of the first person. and corn to hoe. or confident prediction. Shall and Will. what shall I say?²N. They shall have venison to eat. She should not walk. MOULTON.

(3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. with the conviction that he should win in the end. for example.²H.² I will go myself now. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.²CABLE. time. Disguising a command. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.that I would do him justice. was to be expected.²ROGERS. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. JR. as the sole inventor. for example. JAMES.²BYRON. etc. purpose.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²SCOTT. LARNED. First. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. second and third persons. or a promise. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²WINTER. and will not return until all is finished. BROWN. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. and is equivalent to ought. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. will and would are used to express determination as to the future..² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. B. as.²WORDSWORTH. And promised. I never was what I should be. .²A. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²WORDSWORTH.²SWIFT. 253.²WORDSWORTH. thus.²C..

would is used to express a wish. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.² Thou wilt take the skiff. will and would are used to express simple futurity. so you will. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). as if it were merely expected action. for example. BROWN.. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. when thou wast born. To be sure. action merely expected to occur.²BURKE. In this stately chair would he sit. 254. for example.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. will is used to express command. This puts the order more mildly. for punishment or intimidation.²BANCROFT.² Subject I omitted: often so.²LANDOR. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. through storms their brothers are afraid of. PASSIVE VOICE. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. Thine was a dangerous gift.. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. etc.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. AND THIRD PERSONS. will and would often denote an action as customary. and mark on the grounds the works.²the original meaning of the word will. SECOND.. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. When I am in town. Roland. They will go to Sunday schools. Mere futurity.²War Records. as.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. The gift of Beauty. as.²SCOTT. without regard to future time. . but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. (4) With FIRST.. Would thou hadst it not.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.²SCOTT. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. and two of my people. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.² DICKENS..²IRVING. B.

Thou shalt have a suit. 252 and 253. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 1. yet only seem. You will choose. 2. Plural. We will choose. You will be chosen. [They] shall choose. . Plural. 2. 2. We shall choose. I shall choose. We shall be chosen." answered Herbert stubbornly. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. Thou art what I would be. 3. [They] will choose. 1. [They] shall be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences. You will choose. He informed us. and justify the use of shall and will.Singular. Singular. Exercises on Shall and Will. 6. 1. I will be chosen. [He] will choose. etc. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. You shall be chosen. I will choose. [He] will be chosen. "I shall not run. [He] shall choose. You shall choose. PASSIVE VOICE. 2. 1. 2. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. You shall be chosen. 2. 1. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. Plural. (a) From Secs. and that of the newest cut.:² ACTIVE VOICE. I shall be chosen. [They] will be chosen. 3. Singular. 3. You shall choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 4. Plural. promise. 3. Singular. 3. We will be chosen. You will be chosen. 3. To express determination. 5.

12. Past Tense.²ID." 14. then. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. set. "I am a wayfarer. No. 10. 256. put. Irregular Weak Verbs.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. was -de or -te. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. 9. my son.²CHAUCER. Without having attended to this. put. put. Of smale houndes hadde she. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. set. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Lucy stood still. as. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 13. bereaved besought . are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. WEAK VERBS. 257. The beast made a sluggish movement. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes.²Class I. The old ending to verbs of Class II. and have no change of vowel. and I have nothing to say. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. But the rest. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. need some attention and explanation. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. bereave beseech bereft. bereave besought Past Participle. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this." the stranger said. very anxious. which may be called irregular weak verbs.7. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. This ending has now dropped off. 11. Present Tense. as if he would have more of the enchantment. or mylk and wastel breed. bereft. 255. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.

pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Cases when to is omitted. [To] choose. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. they have an indefinite. an imperfect. 9. try clemency. Perfect definite. Imperfect. have no tense. Perfect. a perfect. to was used before the infinitive generally. 10. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 8.. 7. [To] be choosing.²the creature warring against the creating power. I returned to reflection on my situation. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. 266. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Infinitives. and a perfect definite form. like participles. 267. formed a kind of bedstead. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). as in the Old English. when inflections became fewer. [To] have been choosing. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. To with the infinitive. and when passive. Indefinite. Nothing of the kind having been done. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. Indefinite. In Sec. [To] be chosen. [To] have been chosen. 268. When active. INFINITIVES. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. But later. ACTIVE VOICE. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. [To] have chosen.. to express action unconnected with a subject. expressing purpose. will (with should and would). Perfect. an indefinite and a perfect form.6.. Three saplings. PASSIVE VOICE. .

as. 269. feel.²IRVING. 272. it is often preceded by the definite article." (4) In exclamations. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. "She ask my pardon." etc. negative. 271.²E. see. learn [doth learn is one verb. 270. poor woman!" cried Charles. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. E. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. under "Analysis. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE." Examples are.²COOPER. it has several attributes of a noun. and corn to hoe. too. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. "a house to let. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. and emphatic forms of the present and past. While the gerund expresses action.). watch. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. liberal woman. They shall have venison to eat. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. "He will choose. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. GERUNDS. can (could).²DE QUINCEY. as in the expression.²HOWELLS. and like a noun in use. also in the imperative. HALE. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. hear. as the credulous imagine. bid (command). make. sometimes need (as." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. do (as. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. as. The gerund is like the participle in form.²GOLDSMITH.(2) After the verbs may (might). please..² She was a kind. must. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. or the object of a verb or a preposition." "I shall have chosen. also let.²it may be governed as a noun. .²MACAULAY. it may be the subject of a verb. But there was nothing to do. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. as. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.²TENNYSON. "I do go" etc.² What! doth she.

brilliant. after examining the nest. b). Then how pleasing is it. (6) Verbal nouns." "Certainly dueling is bad. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. and wonderful store of learning! ." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Exercise." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. five infinitives. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Sec." Exercise. which express action and also modify. to see the returning hope of the parents." also (2. may govern and be governed. but cannot govern. when. making the definite tenses. on your leaving the spot. (3) Participial adjectives. and has been put down." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. and five gerunds. What a vast. (5) Gerunds. II)." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which express action. which have lost all verbal force. Words in -ing are of six kinds. (2) Pure participles. but do not assert. (4) Pure adjectives. 4.²Find sentences containing five participles. which name an action or state. according to use as well as meaning. 2.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. above. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. 273. which express action.

A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 275. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. I. (3) Mood.²active or passive. 9.²strong or weak. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. you must.²transitive or intransitive. like Sir Walter Scott. round which is an iron railing. What is dreaming? 8. much corroded. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating.²indicative. giving principal parts.²which of the tenses given in Sec. but. (b) as to use. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. (4) Tense. 15. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. Caution. 12. 13. 6. he gave out sentence by sentence. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. . 11. Thackeray did not.5. bearing her national emblem. (2) Voice. 10. 7. 14. or imperative. by object lessons. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. The only means of ascending was by my hands. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. He spread his blessings all over the land. write twenty pages without stopping. slowly. In parsing verbs. 16. (5) Person and number. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 234. subjunctive. dictating from his chair. VERBS. give reality to your teaching.

or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. (3) Gerund. intransitive. VERBALS. call should a weak verb. Parse the verbs. would.. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. (1) Participle. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. active. and ends in -s. If a participial adjective. etc. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. . Exercise. indicative (as it means could). call might a weak verb. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. definite. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. (b) whether active or passive. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. You are gathered to your fathers. 2." Sometimes it does. 273). might. VERB PHRASES. has the subject government. The government might have been strong and prosperous. we must beware of the rule.276. In 2. and parting day linger and play on its summit. indicative. (c) to what word it belongs. Let it rise! let it rise. 4. verbals. perfect. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. III. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Take these examples:² 1. past tense. can. (b) whether indefinite. 2. 278. 3. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. 277. II. followed by a pure infinitive without to. see Sec. therefore active. and should always be analyzed as phrases. may. In such sentences as 1. intransitive. imperfect. 235. It has been intimated in Sec. etc. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. and not taken as single verbs. usually it does not. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. till it meet the sun in his coming. no sin nor sorrow. But unless the verb is present. 278(2). then parse it as an adjective. could. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (a) From what verb derived. has for its subject Lee. perfect. in the world. (2) Infinitive. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. give points (a) and (b). (b) its use (Sec. past tense. must. Especially frequent are those made up of should. The verb be has more forms than other verbs.

24. he thought only of her. morning is not a new issuing of light. 16. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. a new waking up of all that has life. 22. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. as usual. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 17. and wondered if she were yet awake. Right graciously he smiled on us." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. a sweet good will. 10. 13.Henceforth in me instill. He passed across the room to the washstand. . as the Hindoos say. as rolled from wing to wing. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.5. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. a deafening shout. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. So. With them. a new bursting forth of the sun. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 18. 8. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 23. leaving me upon the bed. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 11.O God. see that it is in good condition. 15. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 21. 9. 14. Whatever ground you sow or plant. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 6. In going for water. However that be. 19. 20. When he arose in the morning. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. The soul having been often born. from a sort of temporary death. or. Such a boy could not whistle or dance.Down all the line. 12.

and men of leisure and cultivation. because. they are more himself than he is.25." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 29. and so on.²EMERSON. and live ere life be spent. Nor was it altogether nothing. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Oh. or manner: as. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. To the almost terror of the persons present."²DE QUINCEY. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. . 27. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. for example. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].²CARLYLE. ADVERBS. Is it only poets. place. And now wend we to yonder fountain. "William's private life was severely pure. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. Adverbs modify.²THACKERAY. as.²time." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.²SHELLEY. to speak truly. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. 26.Feast while we may. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree." An adjective or an adverb. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. for the hour of rest is at hand." "He was absolute. thou sayest. When action is expressed.² The young man reveres men of genius. who live with nature?²ID. to consent." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. 279. Better it were. The word adverb means joined to a verb. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. A verb. and limit adjectives or adverbs.

Definition. A clause or sentence. Surely happiness is reflective.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. perhaps. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead.² LOWELL. and that. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. has induced some of us to attend it. before.² FRANKLIN. NOTE. Thus considered. like the light of heaven. but still with a rich bloom to it. as now. or a word group used as such. ever. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. then. We are offered six months' credit.²TROLLOPE. not simply the forms used in predication. 280. hitherto. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. lately. Make music to the lonely ear. while those in Sec. as shown in the sentences. but some verb understood. It may also modify a sentence. . B. etc. is a modifying word. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. not the noun. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. thus.²These last differ from the words in Sec. but really modifying. ALDRICH. to-day. (2) according to their use in the sentence.²LEIGH HUNT.²THOREAU. NOTE.²T.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. all wet and glossy. 281. and half awfully. A phrase. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. 169. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. there are six classes:² (1) Time. 282. ²IRVING. as. being adverbs naturally and fitly. which may qualify an action word or a statement.He was incidentally news dealer.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. I draw forth the fruit. An adverb. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.²BYRON. for example. 169 are felt to be elliptical. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.

which gained him such universal popularity. whencesoever. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.thence. (see also Sec. slightly. very. I was. the more evidently they love liberty. as hither. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. etc.(2) Place. possibly. maybe. two by two. So also in Grote.. (6) Assertion. Thackeray.²R. This long's the text. just. and not infrequently are found in literary English.²IRVING. as perhaps. etc.²BURKE. LOUIS STEVENSON.²DE QUINCEY..] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.. (5) Degree.²BROWNING. slowly. too. partly. while so precedes only the adjective usually. telling how many times: once.²LECKY. etc. that these adverbs form a very large class. The more they multiply. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. probably. much. as hence. 283). whithersoever. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. twice. White. telling how anything is done.. surely. greatly.whither. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. (3) Manner. (4) Number. not.where. etc.was for this once of her opinion. the more perfect will be their obedience. the more friends you will have.²SHAKESPEARE.yonder. and others. as well. or how far he believes it to be true.near. [Sidenote The status of such. . Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. bravely. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. beautifully. better.whence. etc. above. 283. as here. thus. as little.² The master. for example. singly. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. especially the comparative of these words. at least. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. Motley. Emerson. etc.thither.there.. enough. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. telling how much.²HAWTHORNE. Meekness.

284. Interrogative. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Mighty.²FIELDING." "He spoke positively [manner]." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. and art but a fool. and other writers. Neville. Some adverbs."²SCOTT. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples." "I have seen you before [time]. have the additional function of asking a question. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Burke. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Beau Fielding. Aldrich. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H." said the king. Such are most of those given already in Sec. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise.²HAWTHORNE. Hard blows and hard money.² You are mighty courteous. Emerson. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.² "Mighty well. for example.²"He walked too far [place]. A pretty large experience. B. "Peace. Again.²THACKERAY. 286. . STOWE. 285. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.²BAYNE.²GOLDSMITH." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Kingsley. for example." "That were far better [degree]." "The house. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Franklin. Dickens.² KINGSLEY. a mighty fine gentleman.²BULWER. besides modifying. Direct questions.Pretty. Pretty is also used by Prescott.²THACKERAY. De Quincey. Defoe. and its lawn before [place]. 282. Notice meanings. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Simple. Holmes.

Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. CLAY.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. When did this humane custom begin?²H. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (2) Place.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. WEBSTER.²BYRON. (5) Reason. they smiled. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. I know not why.²BYRON (3) Manner.²BULWER. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. (4) Degree.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.²D. I do not remember when I was taught to read. (2) Place. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.²POE. (4) Degree. 287. . I will not ask where thou liest low. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. for example. I hearkened. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.

. higher.²EMERSON. highest. Only that we may wiselier see. but the whole clause. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. use.. irregularly compared. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.²TENNYSON. The following. have the same inflection as adjectives." Exercise. when. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. sooner. Tell what each word in ly modifies. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. 288. when does not express time and modify. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. 290.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Form vs. Then must she keep it safelier. soon. only occasionally having -er and -est.²BYRON. .eyes. Exercise. Many adverbs are compared. Many adjectives have the same ending. just as adjectives do. furthest (rathe. high. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Its strings boldlier swept. see Sec. further farthest. and. as. well much little far late Comparative.But in reality.²COLERIDGE. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. For further discussion.²SHAKESPEARE. Superlative. not an adverb. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. soonest. when compared. representing four classes. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.) rather 289. obs. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.

Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. hardly.²CHAUCER.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. But he must do his errand right. Special use of there. nearly.² EMERSON. hard. 3. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. 8. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. There are eyes. even. to be sure. And all about. .² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]." Compare these:² 1. instead of being used adverbially. that in Old and Middle English. mostly. kindly and good-natured in secret. evenly. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. as. more courtly in their manners. He is inexpressibly mean. near. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. quick-flashing eye. With his proud. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.²WORDSWORTH. etc. Such are most.²ID. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. 291. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.1. 4. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.²THACKERAY. The reason is. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. if it has the verb be. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. curiously jolly. many words without -ly have the same form.²IRVING. Frequently the word there. 5. 292. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. but with a different meaning. Again. 6. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt.And his mien of kingly state. 7.²TENNYSON. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. merely introduces a sentence. Not near so black as he was painted. 2. 2. whether adverbs or adjectives. or down the leaves laughed through.

Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. . at the regular wine-shop. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. (2) Degree of comparison. and always. 16. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. The higher we rise in the scale of being. if the word is compared. 12. 4. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 9. Thither we went. For the impracticable. according to meaning and also use. but from my fall? 6. It is the Cross that is first seen. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 15. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. but continually shifted. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 17. 18. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 3. 2. 7. the Madonna is in great glory. 5. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. Exercise. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. and sate down on the steps of a house. burning in the center of the temple. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. But a few steps farther on. In parsing adverbs. is always politically unwise. 10. however theoretically enticing. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. give² (1) The class. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 11. 293.

But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. Clauses." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. CONJUNCTIONS.19. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. connecting words. Definition. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. sentences. or sentence groups. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. then. but the student will readily find them. nor." Sentences. Unlike adverbs." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. 294. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. 22. 21. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. upon which the sun now shone forth. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. . etc. but side by side within the American Union. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. 295. 20." Paragraphs. however. therefore. word groups. It was pretty bad after that. hence. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. But now the wind rose again. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. A conjunction is a linking word. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence.

in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. (2) ADVERSATIVE... . Correlatives.or. as but. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. etc. Causal.. (3) CAUSAL... either. or the sea rolls its waves. (2) Subordinate. Your letter. the butter too. whether. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. joining words. of the same rank.. serves but to show their ignorance. hence. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. still. and.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. also. the bread was spent. The chief ones are. but is emperor in his own right. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.and...nor.. usually between two things. not only. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. introducing a reason or cause. The assertion. as. while. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.Classes of conjunctions.." Nevertheless. had its weight. both. etc.. 298. Alternative. nor.. only.or. however. as and. therefore.. yet. likewise..nor. whether. Some go in threes. either... however. expressing a choice.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. (4) ALTERNATIVE. word groups.. as well as. whether.. They are or. either.. neither. moreover. Adversative. nor. neither. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. the window being open. While the earth bears a plant. as well as the room door.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.but. 297. 296. answering to each other in the same sentence. Nor mark'd they less. else..or whether. "Howbeit.or. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. etc. then. and not man corn. as. for. not only. Some of these go in pairs. neither.or.but (or but also)..

²J. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. etc. that.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. nor echo. as. now.²WILSON. (3) MANNER: how. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. so that.²PAULDING. (2) TIME: when. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. ere. as.²IRVING. in case.. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. Neither the place in which he found himself. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. since. (6) PURPOSE: that. unless. as. whence. whereas. provided. howsoever. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. whithersoever.. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. etc. It is. whether. especially that after so. object. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. etc. 299. in order that. however. He is not only bold and vociferous. in apposition. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. there will the heart be also.. nor creeping thing. whenever. . nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. provided that. nor wing of bird. ²ALLSTON. on condition that. so.. etc.²COOPER. etc.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. nor green leaf.²BIBLE. while. so that. so.as.²BURKE. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. since. before. sometimes if. lest. so. Time. even if.²DE QUINCEY. Where the treasure is. wherever. (7) RESULT: that. QUINCY. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. except. though. whereto. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. after. although. seeing. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. until. whither.

² H.²COLERIDGE. As a soldier.²AMES.²CARLYLE Events proceed. but not so long but I held it out. Comparison. .² WORDSWORTH.²AMES.So I behold them not.²AMES. I was again covered with water. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Concession. Substantive. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Result.²CAMPBELL.²BYRON.² EMERSON. Let the world go how it will. a thousand bodies. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²EMERSON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. H. Manner. not as they were expected or intended.²IRVING. Now he is dead.²EMERSON.That vain it were her eyes to close.² HAWTHORNE. reason. We wish for a thousand heads. Purpose. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Then Denmark blest our chief. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²DEFOE.²EMERSON. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²BURKE.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. JACKSON.That he gave her wounds repose. Condition. Cause. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.

she faintly pressed her hand. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 10. No one had yet caught his character. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 14. since. her real merit is known at home. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 5. hold a subordinate rank. 9. 4. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. The moth fly. 7. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. And they lived happily forever after. that. 2. etc. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. Crept under the leaf. . 3. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. While a faction is a minority. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. Besides. In what point of view. 13. and hid her there. while. He was brought up for the church. the lady called her servant.²RUSKIN. And then recovering. As will have been noticed. some words²for example. After he was gone. 15. the wisest. Exercises. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. it will remain harmless. They.Let us see whether the greatest. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. While patriotism glowed in his heart. as. 6. 300.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 12. then. as he shot in air. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. however.

² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. the expression would be. "We meet. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. So silently we seemed to speak.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. SPECIAL REMARKS.²IRVING. etc. 303.Clouded. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. As for as if. and be a bud again. 304. as is often equivalent to as if. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. 302. Consequently. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. they connect. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. .16.²BYRON.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.. none of the lashings having given way. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. In parsing conjunctions. word groups. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.So slowly moved about. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. for example." as. 301. in this case.. (2) What words. In Emerson's sentence. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. expressing degree if taken separately. As if. If analyzed. and part as though we parted not. even as they would weep." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. In poetry. As though. GREELEY. as is shown by the use of as though..²EMILY BRONTE.As though a rose should shut. His voice . and the frame will suit the picture. thus. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.²HOOD.

and very seldom?" 8. in 3. or in the forest. so means therefore. and its clause depends on the other. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. as beside his own chimneys. and. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. 4. When the gods come among men. but of the natural. they are not known. are regularly of one particular class. All the postulates of elfin annals.²I find them true in Concord. 11. 10. He dismisses without notice his thought. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. so they be each honest and natural in their hour.Caution." said his wife to Martin Luther. In classifying them. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. because it is his. compare the sentences. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. and associates as happily. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word.² 1. so it be faithfully imparted. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. 6. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted.²EMERSON 3. because. the Sphinx was slain..²that the fairies do not like to be named.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. If he could solve the riddle. when. he is also the correlative of nature. Some conjunctions. 2. 3. 13. He is the compend of time.²is subordinate of condition. so they paddled on. so means provided. 5. and its clause is independent. It may be safely trusted. that it might testify of that particular ray. so that expresses result. 12. he sleeps as warm.²DEFOE 2. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. At sea. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. . There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. others belong to several classes. 9. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. Exercise. dines with as good an appetite. and the like. so that I could not stir abroad. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. or in the snow. "Doctor. such as nor. etc. 7. in 2. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. It continued raining. For example.

PREPOSITIONS. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. the whole conditions are changed. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 27.. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 15. There was no iron to be seen. It may be so in the majority of cases. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. Now you have the whip in your hand. 26. For. 24. 305.14. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 30. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. I rejoice to stand here no longer. I speak. 22. save it were sinful like herself. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 25. therefore. It is clear. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. Still. And whether consciously or not. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. . 20. in many a heart. you must be. won't you lay on? 17. in this they agree. however. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 28. 19. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. she might have the family countenance. that both were wayward. 16. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. enthroned. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. whose names I omit. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 18. when it was presented to them. 21. of good novels only. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 29. 23. Goodness must have some edge to it.²else it is none.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. ²PARTON.²EVERETT. etc. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at peace. STODDARD. etc. at work. D. (2) Time. Helena.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. (4) Measure of excess. by the blessed memory of the departed. She saw the boat headed for her. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at war. Like at.² (1) The general meaning of place. by the wrecks of time.²ALDRICH.²R.²DE QUINCEY. the first port made by the ship. at any rate. by means near or close to. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. . They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. at one. For.²SWIFT. at least. At St. by the ruins of nations.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. by many a million of acres. By my faith.²M. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. At that time [the earth] was richer. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at the best. 320.²ID. at rest. H. at naught.²WARNER. at once. he stopped.²COOPER. CONWAY. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside.²B. at the worst. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. 321. Exercise. at play. Exercise.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. as.. TAYLOR The angel came by night. By. at most. at all. at first. at length. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. expressing the degree of difference. Richard was standing by the window. at random. (3) Agency or means.

meaning with regard to.²HOOD. reason.²ID. ate her child. Still.²E. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. they are now for us.²STODDARD. for the benefit of. (5) Reference. for famine. The twilight being. . he repented of his folly. (6) Like as. HALE This is very common with as²as for me." answered Master Brackett. had a forest of poor relations.²HOLMES. He and they were for immediate attack. cause. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. (9) Motive. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. There are gains for all our losses. for all slips of hers. For him. BANCROFT. H.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. "thou hast counseled wisely. "For a fool. (3) Duration of time.²W. considering that etc.. etc. the Colonna motto would fit you best. etc. or extent of space. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. (7) Concession.²LAMB.One of Eve's family."²SCOTT By my faith. as being.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. meaning although.²PARKMAN. E. as to. poor fellow. meaning in the character of. incitement to action. a person or thing." said the Lady of Lochleven.²EMERSON. But the Colonel. for all his title. An Arab woman. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. etc. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. or in spite of.. in behalf of. (4) Substitution or exchange. but a few sunsets since. if your worship can accomplish that.(2) In favor of. "Nay.²IRVING. L.²PARKMAN. and leaped for joy.²H. respecting. For the rest. GARRISON.² RUSKIN.

²Find sentences with three meanings of from.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. Like boys escaped from school. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. Exercise. nay.²HIGGINSON. The young cavaliers. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. (3) Time. 322. A distrustful. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. (2) Origin. Of. It was from no fault of Nolan's. ceased to be merciful. H.²DRYDEN. cause. The original meaning of of was separation or source. if not a desperate man.²HUME. The From Relation. (4) Motive. From harmony.²H. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Exercise.²HALE. The general idea in from is separation or source. .²HUXLEY. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²ID. From. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. or reason.²MILTON. (1) Origin or source. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²BANCROFT. 323. like from. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. more. The king holds his authority of the people. from a desire of seeming valiant.

etc. expressing a part of a number or quantity. motive. (b) After some adjectives.. as north of. HALE. deprive. wide of.²clear of.²BAYARD TAYLOR. such as ease.²LEW WALLACE. disarm. purge. acquitted them of. and grass. "I am glad of that. etc.²ALDRICH. Of the Forty. ²GAVARRE. Sandals. that Cromwell once ruled England. clear. or breastpin of native gold. he had raised a little Gothic chapel.²BANCROFT. out of the most unpromising materials.²DICKENS II. etc. Asked no odds of. of his own knowledge. (c) After nouns expressing lack. rob. White shirt with diamond studs.²SCOTT Who formed. rid. beg. there were only twenty-one members present.² HUXLEY. especially out of. ask. south of. The hills were bare of trees. demand. bound with thongs of boar's hide.²BOSWELL. (5) Expressing agency. reason. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. bare of. A singular want of all human relation.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. cure. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. free of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. More than one altar was richer of his vows. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²ID.²PARKMAN.²HIGGINSON. free. (d) With words expressing distance. You cannot make a boy know. He is away of his own free will. weeds. etc. (3) With expressions of material. relieve. deprivation. . the finest army that Europe had yet seen. divest. ²PARTON. The author died of a fit of apoplexy.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. (6) Partitive. Other Relations expressed by Of. E. etc. Back of that tree."²E.

Not even woman's love. Such a book as that of Job.²HALLECK.²W. standing. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. E. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is..²BANCROFT. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. . See also Sec. Besides the phrases of old. 309.He washed out some of the dirt.²PRESCOTT. of is used in the sense of during. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. The fair city of Mexico. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. for the possessive.²ALDRICH. ²IRVING. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (10) Of reference.²BANCROFT. could give shelter from his contumely.²FROUDE. with regard to. when the first is descriptive of the second. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. (7) Possessive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. (8) Appositional. concerning. The nation of Lilliput. and the dignity of a queen.²ID. etc.²BANCROFT. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. with its object.²COOPER.²LOWELL. equal to about. CHANNING. of late. (b) Noun and gerund. being equivalent to an infinitive.²LAMB.²SWIFT.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. (c) Two nouns. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. Idiomatic use with verbs. of a sudden. (9) Of time.

Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²MRS.²Find sentences with six uses of of.²EMERSON. on view. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. Upon. on a sudden. etc.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. approve. 325. on trial. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. repent. concerning. It also accompanies the verbs tire. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.²PARKMAN. Exercise. allow. complain. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. on the wing. (3) Reference. .²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. consist. equal to about.²BRYANT. avail (one's self).Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. Exercise.²DE QUINCEY. On. On my life. Upon is seldom used to express time. and not a day more. accept. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. 324. The general meaning of on is position or direction. on high. ²BANCROFT. on the alert. (4) In adjurations.²PARKMAN. without adding to their meaning. on board.²ALDRICH. disapprove. you are eighteen. permit. Upon my reputation and credit. (2) Time. and others. SIGOURNEY. To. etc. (b) With motion. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. such as admit. Cannon were heard close on the left. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²PARKMAN.

His brother had died. We cook the dish to our own appetite.Come to the bridal chamber. .²BULWER. Revolutions.²HALE.²BRYANT. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. Exercise.to be written over. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²PARTON.. Nor..²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²LANG. to my taste. (b) Referring to time.²B. unmasked. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. gay Comedy appears. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. 326..²BENTON To our great delight.²often to the loss of vigor. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. Death!²HALLECK. (5) Equivalent to according to. had ceased to be.²PARKMAN. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. it may be genuine poetry. To the few. mid meant in company with. does the mere music. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. He usually gave his draft to an aid. 268). But when.²GOLDSMITH. to him.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. whose influence is felt to this hour. With.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. (2) Expressing result. In Old English.²IRVING. interest..

With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²COOPER.²CHANNING. "poetry is not a pursuit. (5) Opposition.²WALLACE (7) Time. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. 327. She seemed pleased with the accident. with all his boldness.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²E. but a pleasure"?²LANG. (4) Estimation. but with you. (3) Cause. or with the haunch of our near leader. as with you. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. (2) Instrumentality. HALE. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. opinion.The advance. reason. I think.²HOWELLS. Either with the swingle-bar. felt it unsafe to trifle further. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. first of all. Exercise. to find the object of the preposition. in spite of. E.²SCOTT. It seemed a supreme moment with him. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. he gave millions to the sword. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²HOWELLS. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. Messala. it is necessary. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. He expired with these words.²ALDRICH.²COLERIDGE. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. had already reached the defile.²DE QUINCEY.²LANG. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. With all his sensibility.²DE QUINCEY. transmitted from the beginning. motive. with Heyward at its head. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. .²EMERSON. He was wild with delight about Texas.²HALE.

I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I speak these things from a love of justice. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. Exercises. To our general surprise.²SWIFT 2. The guns were cleared of their lumber. or was. (4) from the beginning. which. before the dwarf left the queen. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. (2) on which. of from. In (2). (3) without a country. 2. the phrase answers the question where. I heard a noise just over my head. beginning. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. Be that as it will. and knocked me down flat on my face. The object of on board is ships. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. 4. the malicious rogue. by which a dozen apples. but I received no other hurt. telling what man. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I called out several times. In (1). In (3). I felt my box raised very high in the air. .²ID. Whereupon. because I had given the provocation. without a country modifies man. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. shook it directly over my head. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. 5. came tumbling about my ears. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. like the clapping of wings. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. he followed us one day into those gardens. 3. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. of without. And so on. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. of on. we met the defaulter here. hence we say. country. but all to no purpose. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. I looked towards my windows. I remember.

22. 21. 26. 23. 18. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 7. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. grasping at the child. For my part. 10. 9. 12. His breeches were of black silk. 13. 27. The mother sank and fell. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 25. after a restful morning. 15. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. he favored the world with his opinions. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 29. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. The savage army was in war-paint. 20. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage.He spurred his courser on. 8. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 11. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. With all his learning. 24. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine.Without stop or stay. in town. On all subjects known to man. when. to one dark and gloomy. in this respect. plumed for battle. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 19. 17.6. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 14. . The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 16. I like to see the passing.

²WEBSTER.²STOCKTON. that you might behold this joyous day. (2) As an adjective pronoun. and not according to form. A few are discussed below. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²WEBSTER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. 328. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. That night was a memorable one. That is what I understand by scientific education. He will raise the price. 329. (c) Substantive conjunction. . not merely by the amount of the tax.30.²HUXLEY. WHAT. And now it is like an angel's song. (1) Relative pronoun. (a) Indefinite relative. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (3) As a relative pronoun. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. We wish that labor may look up here.²BEECHER. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. 330.² JOHNSON.²WEBSTER.²COLERIDGE.That makes the heavens be mute. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (4) As an adverb of degree. THAT. That was a dreadful mistake. (b) Of result.

(b) Indirect question..but. What..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (8) Conjunction.. it rests on reality.. he knows what good people are to be found there. and silent all!²BYRON. (7) Adverb of degree.Those shadowy recollections. but the result of calculation. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.²WEBSTER. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. What..it is impossible to determine. partly.²WORDSWORTH. Cox. (9) As an exclamation. . To say what good of fashion we can. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.²THACKERAY. 331. (b) Indirect question.²ID.. BUT. If he has [been in America]. "I'll tell you what. (b) Copulative.²EMERSON. silent still.²EMERSON..²ID. At what rate these materials would be distributed. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.S..these sounds are only to be heard. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying..²S. to see what might be hidden. after not only. What with the Maltese goats. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.in Pera. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage." (4) Relative adjective. nearly equivalent to partly.Which be they what they may. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (6) Exclamatory adjective. or not only. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.... (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.

(c) Of degree. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. I shall see but little of it. towards order.²CARLYLE. not. . 332.. meaning otherwise . Who knows but... like the dog.. meaning except. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. sometimes same. As orphans yearn on to their mothers..²IRVING.²IRVING. meaning only. (2) Relative pronoun. (5) Adverb. (b) Substantive. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²SCOTT. not. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.. at all moments. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. or who . There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. (4) Relative pronoun. (b) Of manner.²MRS BROWNING. on all sides. Doing duty as a guard.. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. not.²HAWTHORNE.²LAMB. To lead but one measure. after a negative.²FRANKLIN.²IRVING.He yearned to our patriot bands.Then arose not only tears.. but piercing cries. (d) Of reason. equivalent to that . Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (e) Introducing an appositive word. than. AS. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. stands for that .²SHELLEY. after such. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²EMERSON. (3) Preposition. ²CARLYLE.

like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. Stirring it vigorously. I do with my friends as I do with my books. 333.²HAWTHORNE.² A timid. There is no statue like this living man. If the verb is expressed.²LONGFELLOW. like him awhile ago. Through which they put their heads.²MAYHEW. This follows a verb or a verbal. indeed. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. ²PARKMAN. but this is not considered good usage: for example. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. like a cook beating eggs. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. this. Give Ruskin space enough. Note the difference between these two uses. . like summer ocean's. No Emperor.LIKE. Introduces a clause. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²ALDRICH. and as or as if takes its place.² HAWTHORNE.²LAMB. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. like drops out. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²CASS. They look.²ALDRICH.²SHAKESPEARE.²EMERSON. That face.²HIGGINSON. In each case. and is followed by a dative-objective.-SCOTT. nervous child. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like Martin was.²DARWIN. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. staring like a bewildered man. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. but its verb is omitted.²EMERSON. In this second use. and was clearly an adjective. NOTE. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. (1) An adjective.²HALLECK.

336. as. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Definition. 335. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Some of these are imitative sounds." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." PART II.²in determining case. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. subject and predicate. in separating them into their component parts. Definition. entering into the structure of a sentence. but it still retains its identity as noun. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. etc. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. pronoun.INTERJECTIONS. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. tut! buzz! etc. Value of analysis.: for example. What analysis is. . that is. clauses introduced by conjunctions..²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. that is. 334. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. verb. etc. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed.

let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. 337. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. question. "Old year.²a subject and a predicate. Definition: Predicate. Every sentence must contain two parts.Kinds of sentences as to form. but the sentence would still be declarative. or command: for example. . sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. which puts the thought in a question. Examples of these three kinds are. not according to the form in which a thought is put. hence. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. "Hath he not always treasures. (3) Imperative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. declarative. But now all is to be changed. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division." 340. interrogative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. 339. which expresses command. you must not die!" interrogative. This is the most common one. always friends?" imperative. (2) Interrogative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. old man?" "Be thou familiar. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. according to form. "Come to the bridal chamber." "What wouldst thou do. or imperative. entreaty. A rare old plant is the ivy green. but according to how many statements there are. Definition. 338. Division according to number of statements. but by no means vulgar. 2. or request.

Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. a rare old plant. and the real subject is the latter. or ye) is in most cases omitted. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. or an interrogative pronoun. on the other hand. In analyzing such sentences. Listen. . all.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. we say all is the subject of the sentence. always reduce them to the order of a statement. 4." Exercise. Consequently. and is to be supplied. "[You] behold her single in the field. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. the subject is frequently after the verb. Thus.²What is the ivy green? Answer. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. Slavery they can have anywhere. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. adjective. But if we try this with the second sentence. not of a rare old plant. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. and our definition must be the following. to suit all cases:² Subject. thou. we have some trouble. 2. the subject (you. 5. In the interrogative sentence. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. to an ignorant man. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 8.²What is to be changed? Answer. The last of all the Bards was he. 341. especially in poetry. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. 3. or adverb that asks about the subject. but about the ivy green. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 7. 6. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. as.

or second object. and means summoned. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. but of call chief." Complement: 344. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. Of a transitive verb. "Ye call me chief. (2) The predicate. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (5) Modifiers. The subject and predicate have been discussed.²transitive and intransitive. for example. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object.10. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. The transitive verb often requires. direct. (3) The object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. (6) Independent elements." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. . 342. but it is a true complement. "She seldom saw her course at a glance." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). Indirect object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. 343." indirect. just as if to say. Direct Object. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. "Ye honor me. (4) The complements. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. and me here is not the object simply of call. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. but chief belongs to the verb. in addition to the object. and by object we mean the direct object.

See sentence 19. and barring the door. he was now getting old. Phrases. taste. become. feel." 345. 347. An intransitive verb. Thom of the Gills. above sixty. appear. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. A phrase is a group of words. Complement of an intransitive verb." (3) INFINITIVE." Things used as Subject." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. as. 351. seem." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. as in the sentence. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." (2) PARTICIPIAL. but used as a single modifier. sir!' rang out in response. "A cheery. or." Also an expression used as a noun.. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as." "He was termed Thomas. 'Ay." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. in the original Opium Confessions. 346. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. and. 364. 355. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. ay. introduced by a preposition: for example. in the popular judgment. and of massive weight. more familiarly. to the completion of this man of the world. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. not containing a verb. in exercise following Sec. for instance." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." All these complete intransitive verbs." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . I mentioned a case of that nature. especially the forms of be. as in drowning. As to form." "The good man. "Brow and head were round. 352. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. etc.

"'By God. but they will be given in detail here. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." The for did not belong there originally. ." Things used as Complement. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." etc." "There are asking eyes. but the real or logical subject is to print. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. prowling eyes.²the infinitive phrase. (4) After "there introductory." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. from their lips. and by Saint George!' said the King." Things used as Direct Object. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. my deficiency." "Never. for which see Sec. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). "Therein has been. or their religion from their sect. asserting eyes. was heard one syllable to justify." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. Disguised infinitive subject. (2) In interrogative sentences. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.²the talent of starting the game." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." In this sentence." "The dead are there." 348.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. etc. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. but obscures the real subject. 341. and ever will be. I saw the quick and the dead. or the thundering of organs. 349.

These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." Modifiers." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. As complement of a transitive verb. they are adjuncts of the object. complements of the predicate. or the equivalent of the noun." . the object is made the subject by being passive." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. the shepherd girl.350. (3) Infinitive. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. 351." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. at the same time. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." "Serving others is serving us. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (4) Participle. and whenever the complement is a noun." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. Modifiers of Subject.²heads or tails." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. and." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. Object." "I hear the echoes throng. or Complement. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. I. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.²completing the predicate." "She asked her father's permission.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Like all the complements in this list." In this last sentence. and explaining or modifying the subject. and the words italicized are still complements. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. doubtless." "Their tempers. Of a transitive verb. As complement of an intransitive verb.

²In each sentence in Sec. the verb being omitted. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. I have seasoned for thee." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. the prisoner at the bar. or complement is modified." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. unforgiving. 352." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. tell whether the subject. II. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. "He died like a God. Modifiers of the Predicate. or . and leading him from star to star. 357-363." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. was the scene from King John. Retained with passive. no sociable angel. 351. see further Secs." Exercise." In such a sentence as." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. austere. and modify the predicate in the same way. but it is really a contracted clause. but noble teachers. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. given at the request of a Dutch lady. Since the predicate is always a verb." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. was now called upon for his defense.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (For participial and infinitive phrases." "In the twinkling of an eye. not with nature.²proud. but with other men." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. Tells how. this young idolater." "Him. object." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." "Give them not only noble teachings.

His books have no melody." Exercises. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. To the men of this world." (6) Adverbial objective. and the direct object is retained: for example. predicate. and as many to oppose it. Why does the horizon hold me fast. negative. (b) Pick out the subject. and other measures of precaution. in this center? 4. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. Fashion does not often caress the great. 6. 2. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. 8. no humor. after dinner. etc. (a) Pick out subject." "One way lies hope. but the children of the great. the indirect object is retained. 3. gives wonderful animation. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. They do not wish to be lovely. 2. and (direct) object:² 1. On the voyage to Egypt. and. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. to the animal strength and spirits. and complement: y y y y y y y 1." "All such knowledge should be given her. 6. or how long. but to be loved. no relief to the dead prosaic level. in regard to particulars. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. a sort of personality to the whole writing." subject of passive verb and direct object retained." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. This. with my joy and grief. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. 4.When the verb is changed from active to passive. I took. 3. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. . 5. But anger drives a man to say anything. predicate. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. Evil. according to old philosophers. 7. is good in the making. 7. no emotion." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 5. how far. he liked.. These answer the question when.

after their long confinement to a ship. must visit again the home of her childhood. etc. 4. That night. downwards. I felt myself. then. 6.y 8. 2. at length the warrior lady. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 2. I promised her protection against all ghosts. upwards.. a room seventeen feet by twelve. I gave him an address to my friend.²the river Meuse. Not compound sentences. that was thy portion in life. y y y y Compound Subject. A river formed the boundary. to the right and to the left. Their intention was to have a gay. burthened with the anxieties of a man. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. happy dinner. then. 5. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. six children sat by a peat fire. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Paint me. 4. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. this imperial rider. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. To suffer and to do. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. for the first time. viz. expecting the return of their parents. this dragoon so lovely. 5. at the chief hotel. the blooming cornet. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. . Unhorse me. Yes. Not the less I owe thee justice. 2. 4. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. in little peaceful Easedale. 3. the attorney. and a member of the world. In one feature. Compound Predicate. this nun so martial. 3. 3.The cry of battle rises along their changing line.

"The company broke up. hurry. Larger view of a sentence. above: thus. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. Bishop. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. The exclamatory expression. then the grammatical subject and predicate. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. exposes. 354." "Ye crags and peaks. and returned to the more important concerns of the election." And so with complements. in the sentence. forming a sentence: "Oh. and. Examples of compound subjects are. however." "He shook his head. the object." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. several modifiers. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. same as (1)." Sentences with compound predicates are. turned his steps homeward." "The name of the child. the simple subject is situation. hurry. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. etc. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. my brave young man!" .²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. the air of the mother. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. etc. that is. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. the verb). "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. and its object or complement. together with all its modifiers. but it is to be noticed that. "Ah. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." "Voyages and travels I would also have. complements.353. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. I'm with you once again. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. etc. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. together with its modifiers. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. the predicate. may be the person or thing addressed. Of this. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. 355. shouldered the rusty firelock." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are.. Independent Elements of the Sentence. the tone of her voice. and the rest is the logical predicate. ulcer. For example. in all such sentences as we quote below. modifiers. they are not a necessary part.

(1) Adjectival. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. to the best of my remembrance. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. 355. prepositional phrases may be. how you're winking!" "Now. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. moreover. then. etc. 352. he somehow lived along. see Sec. 356. now. These need close watching. that have an office in the sentence. this story runs thus.. grandma. nevertheless. modifying a noun. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. The words well. . her noticing even this is creditable. 350. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. therefore. etc. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. he closed his literary toils at dinner. let him perish. modifying the predicate. object. pronoun." Another caution. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. and so on. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. or complement (see Sec.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. y (2) The adverbial use." (3) Independent. the company broke up. six quill-driving gentlemen." "At all events. such as perhaps." "Well. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. instances of which were seen in Sec. undoubtedly. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." "Truth to say." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. really. generally speaking. "Oh. yes! everybody knew them. 4). he was a conscientious man." (5) Participial phrase: "But. 351. truly." (2) Adverbial. There are some adverbs. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. In their use. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow.. such as however. already noticed. and some conjunctions. 357." (6) Single words: as." "Why. 6). 4). or word used as a noun: for example. besides. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. see Sec. (b) As a modifier of subject. 3. why." "No. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify.

" "He would instruct her in the white man's religion." "There. thus.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. Wilt thou." In this sentence. The verbal use. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.seem.can (could). INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . etc. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. or as nearly so as the student will require. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. and teach her how to be happy and good. ought." (b) With the forms of be. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. etc. I. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. but having no other office than a verbal one. he should not have known them at all. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.: as in the sentences.]. "The letter of introduction. y (a) With may (might). both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. being equivalent to a future with obligation.should.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. 358. 355. containing no matters of business. therefore. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. modifying was speedily run through." etc. my dear. and they will be presented here in full. This case excepted. necessity. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. (5). was speedily run through. "Because I was. See Sec.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. but require somewhat closer attention. and hence is adverbial.would. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb." (c) With the definite forms of go. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15.

explanatory of a noun preceding: as. etc. to look means that he might look. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose.²both purpose clauses.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. the Scotch fighting all the battles. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. Don Guzman. 361 are used adverbially. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). result. ." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. 362. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. IV. III. hang the idiot. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. notice the following:² In (1)." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. The adverbial use. 5)." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). to hear McOrator after dinner." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. 351. was to have the foe's life at their mercy." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." "To say what good of fashion we can." "To teach is to learn. II." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. The adjectival use. 361." 360. already examined. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. above. "But there was no time to be lost. The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "Are you mad. object. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you.: for example. to please is equivalent to that he may please. and the eyes to fill?" 359. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." "He insisted on his right to forget her.. (4) In apposition. modifying a noun that may be a subject. etc. complement. To test this. The substantive use.

" (See also Sec. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 364. to find shows the result of the return. In (3). In analyzing simple sentences. not in a book. (2) The object of the verb (Sec.²both expressing condition. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. 351). If it is an incomplete verb. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 268. etc. equivalent to that you betray. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. savage and serene in one hour. In (5). (3). 349). to hear means if you should hear. which is of two kinds. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. must be in a life. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. V. 355).. object. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity.In (2). . I will try to keep the balance true. Our life is March weather. and to betray and to bring express the reason. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. The independent use.. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. give² (1) The predicate. 347). 352). as in Sec. 351). 355. In (4). 4. give the complement (Secs. etc. etc. 351). (7) Independent elements (Sec. 3. 363. to part means because I part. 2. (5) The subject (Sec.

a graceful dancer. and to the purpose. just on the edge of destruction. It is easy to sugar to be sweet.Burnt green and blue and white. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. We are always in peril. 12. with eager energy.He sat in the shower. 7. an accomplished scholar. 5. good and amiable otherwise. 17. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 16. and spared nothing. two stricken hours. 11. 13.The old crow of Cairo.²to preserve her throne. 10.4. through toys and atoms. To be hurried away by every event. 8. 20. 24. nor troops. 18. He risked everything. 6. is to have no political system at all. The whole figure and air. nor himself. 19. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. You may ramble a whole day together. might be called flabby and irresolute. 14. The water. nor generals. through evil agents. like a witch's oils. The word conscience has become almost confined. and every moment discover something new. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. the carrion crow. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 9. 22. His opinion is always original. a good shot. To these gifts of nature. to restore civil and religious order. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. and only to be saved by invention and courage. always in a bad plight. Old Adam. to keep England out of war. 15. a skilled musician. Through the years and the centuries. 21. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. nor money. in popular use. neither ammunition. . to the moral sphere. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. Her aims were simple and obvious. 23. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. I have heard Coleridge talk.

secluded. 27. or perhaps one virtue. and in my own garden. an elderly man. 40. Fair name might he have handed down. in less heroic and poetic form. Now. 30. The cry. and the why. Upon this shore stood. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. the prime minister of Spain. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. and no provisions but wild berries. it would not have been filial or ladylike. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Supposing this computation to be correct. 34. Of the same grandeur. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. in this world.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. haply. 31. had but one foible. 41. I hate him and myself. and. the same Condé Olivarez.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. the present capital of New England. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 33. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. This amiable relative. proud foe. 32. upon my own ground. 39. 35. Few in number. In the Acadian land. 26. in front of all this mighty crowd. the ship was in an uproar. ready to receive her. to be a reproach to such goodness.25. The villain. 37. 29. But yield. 36. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 38. Must we in all things look for the how. time-honored. Oxford.Distant. to bid you leave the place now and forever. I dare this. and the wherefore? . timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. She had made a two days' march. still. baggage far in the rear.

the pride and beauty of the grove. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. though often treated as phrases. 333). the expressions of manner introduced by like. as. as would be the connective instead of like. but. are really contracted clauses." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. 365. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence.² "She is like some tender tree. however. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. 366. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. As shown in Part I." This must.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. 367.From her own loved island of sorrow." Sentences with like. thus. The simple sentence the basis. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. Words left out after than or as. . to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom." To show that these words are really omitted. COMPLEX SENTENCES. made merely for convenience and smoothness. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. if they were expanded." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. (Sec. which is the unit of speech.

Definition. modifiers. which are so united that one member is the main one.. object.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. object. and the last. that is. 369. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. logically depends on suffering. A clause is a division of a sentence. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.²the other members subordinate to it.. containing a verb with its subject. as in this sentence. and the next one. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. that . we are aware. then we recognize this as the main statement. main. or dependent on it. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. . the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. and modifier.²the backbone. A principal. complements. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. etc. CLAUSES. is taken in. each clause has its subject. predicate. Independent clause. how great .²the dependent or subordinate clauses. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. 370. Hence the following definition:² Definition. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind..Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. complement. 371. or it may be applied to the others. 368. murmur.. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. suffering.

Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. attention is called to them here. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. or adverbs. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." (4) Apposition. for a time. Kinds. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. so the object clause is retained.. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. 5). for a hundred years. night or day. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things." (2) Object of a verb. etc. 352. infinitive. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. ADJECTIVE.. and ADVERB clauses. with a noun clause in apposition with it. verbal. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. over which the torrent came tumbling. But since they are complex in form.. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. impertinences. 'I know that he can toil terribly." "I was told that the house had not been shut.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.. pronoun. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. (a) Ordinary apposition. Noun Clauses.." 374. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. (b) that are ..." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. We ourselves are getting . 372. for example. adjectives. 373. thus." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. impertinences²would be grammatical. put an end to my fancies. for example.Dependent clause.' is an electric touch. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. As to their office in the sentence." Just as the object noun. . and it is . and the whole clause is not. but logically the sentence is. clauses are divided into NOUN.

Examples of adjective clauses. wherein. whereby. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. as. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. that all safe legislation must be based. he would repent it. etc. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. whence. 8. 3. whether he should choose one or not. that he was a scheming impostor. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. 10. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. But the fact is." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. how it changed from shape to shape.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. 375. 7. Such a man is what we call an original man. where. 2. Frequently there is no connecting word. What history it had. but. Other examples of this construction are. Adjective Clauses. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. which. . that. a relative pronoun being understood. that. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. of a nation. whither. As the office of an adjective is to modify. 5. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 4. or equivalent of a noun.² "It is on the understanding. he could know nothing. The reply of Socrates." Exercise. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. a falsehood incarnate. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. still remains reasonable. Except by what he could see for himself. in the sentence. sometimes by the conjunctions when. no man will ever know. and not on the sentiment. 6. I was napping. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 9.

" "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. which could not be a prison whilst he was there.. 3. object. Adverbial Clauses. whether subject. . or that essence we were looking for. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. No man is reason or illumination. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. I walked home with Calhoun. which Rowena tasted. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 1. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. i. all is vacancy. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 6. 8. the champions advanced through the lists. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character.e. Pick out the adjective clauses." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. etc. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 11. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 9. 7. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause." Exercise.376. 5. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. which formed the center of the mansion. 4. 2. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. he begins to help us more as an effect. and tell what each one modifies." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 10.

Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. adverbs. to make up our shortcomings. with examples.: "But still. but they require careful study." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. he goes away as if nothing had happened.." "After leaving the whole party under the table. 378.377. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. and what it modifies:² ." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. since he was too great to care to be original." (9) CONCESSION. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. Exercise. Joanna is better. the wider is the horizon of their thought. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. and will be given in detail." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." "He went several times to England. an adjective.² whoever. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. introduced by indefinite relatives. whatever. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. the milestones are grave-stones. etc. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and adverbial conjunctions. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. a verbal." "Who cares for that." These mean no matter how good." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." (3) REASON. however good she may be as a witness." (7) RESULT. etc. expressing the degree in which the horizon. or an adverb." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. shaping our actions. that we should try." "When he was come up to Christian. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. it takes precedence of everything else. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. etc." "The right conclusion is. tell what kind each is. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. so far as we can. no matter what remains." (5) DEGREE." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. is wider. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." "The broader their education is. however." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself.

as they sometimes did. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. object. then treat noun clauses as nouns. with shrill." 2. howling and whistling. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. find the principal subject and principal predicate. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. snatching up stones to fling at them. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. For example.1. 380. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. 379. and twirling weathercocks. so as to picture the parts and their relations. incoherent exclamations. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. we are a little disappointed. banging about doors and windows. If the children gathered about her. when the wind was unruly." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. etc. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. of which clause Odin is the subject. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. predicate. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . its object is that Odin was a reality. 3. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. in the sentence. to tell the truth. on a dark wintry night. they might perhaps say of their visitors. 'Well. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. and modifiers. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter.

364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 2. 380). That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. Exercises. . d. 364. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (1) Find the principal clause. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. as seen in the "map" (Sec. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 3.. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381.. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.

8. 14.4. 20. Next came a wretched Dominican. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. Had they been better chemists. who would yield to it least. 16. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. as for armies that were too many by half. This is she. of a light hazel. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. the flower should revive for us. The night proved unusually dark. 19. But now that she has become an establishment. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 9. 17. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 21. 13. . the mixed result. that. 5. I like that representation they have of the tree. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. whom I choose. the shepherd girl. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. for yours. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. And those will often pity that weakness most. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. or whether any. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. He was what our country people call an old one. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. bishop. could not have been effected. 18. 7. which. Whether she said the word is uncertain. namely. that pressed her with an objection. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 11. not so much for travelers that were few. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. Now. 10. 22. Here lay two great roads. if applied to the Bible. The deep eyes. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 23. 6. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 24. M. 12. had we been worse. counselor that had none for herself. 15. dying for them.

. 27. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. and stamped with his right number. if continuously extended.² Definition. speed. 28. 382. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. 2. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will.25. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. and what content I can find in conversing with each. would easily reach. 6. Hence the definition. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. and not from his heart. 5. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. is to speak and write sincerely. 26. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. we cannot adequately say. or commands. "No book. and temper. How formed. though we may repeat the words never so often. 7. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. It makes no difference how many friends I have. "was ever written down by any but itself. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. (b) First analyze. 3. if there be one to whom I am not equal. but above it. 30." 4. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 380. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days.²which will not be disposed of. That which we do not believe. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. COMPOUND SENTENCES. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. These things we are forced to say." said Bentley. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. then map out as in Sec. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. that it was no more than his daily walk. questions. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 383. the following complex sentences:² 1.

The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. others sometimes coördinate. in (3). he is twice a man. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. yet. nor does he know until he has tried. as in Sec. however. for. the semicolons cut apart the independent members.. or but." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. tell which are compound. Connectives. . which are simple statements. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. nor. Some of these are now conjunctions. he soliloquizes. Study the thought. a simple member. while (whilst). But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. the semicolon separates the first. the waving grass. Exercise. and it shall be the universal sense. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. and connects the first and second complex members. "Only the star dazzles. Speak your latent conviction. the planet has a faint. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite." 384. a complex member. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. and not the form of the connective. moon-like ray" (adversative). he walks with arms akimbo. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. 297). etc. 383 (1). etc. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. Another example is. and nor the second and third complex members. if there are any. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. he dilates. Thus in (1). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. now adverbs or prepositions. as but. The coördinate conjunctions and. Of the following illustrative sentences. The division into members will be easier. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). from the second. whereas." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. 385. in (2). 386.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. and which complex:² 1.

but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 3. I can yet love. and not by what each is.2. 4. unobtrusive boy. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. you have gained something else. 10. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. and as yet very early in the morning. However some may think him wanting in zeal. he grew up to be a mild. nay. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 7. yield to them heart and life. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 13. 381. All loss. I can still receive. for example. 8. is particular. . 11. passed in that time. or. Love. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 12. 4. all pain. In this manner. 387. Whilst the world is thus dual. 14. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 5. 2. The gain is apparent. however. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. quiet. so is every one of its parts. and for everything you gain. Man does not stand in awe of man. the tax is certain. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. and thou shalt be loved. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 6. 364. you lose something. 9. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. Exercise. to find a pot of buried gold. that it was Easter Sunday. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. (i) Separate it into its main members. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 3. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. from a happy yet often pensive child. For everything you have missed.

but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 6. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. They will shuffle and crow.5." 13. and they will be true to you. whilst frankness invites frankness. "as nigh the scythe as you can. Come into port greatly. or sail with God the seas. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 8. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Trust men. or we read books. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and the peace of society is often kept. We see the noble afar off. and they will show themselves great. only that they may brag and conquer there. if you rip up his claims. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 19. When you have chosen your part. modesty. "the iron is white. 20. why should we intrude? 10. one is afraid." says the smith. let them mount and expand. give those merits room. crook and hide. as children. Whatever he knows and thinks." says the haymaker. and not a thought has enriched either party. is as thin and timid as any. 21. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. abide by it." "keep the rake. puts the parties on a convenient footing. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 15. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. feign to confess here. Stand aside. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. 18. or hope. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. and not an emotion of bravery. 9. because. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and they repel us. or we pursue persons. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. 7. and the other dares not. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. We go to Europe. and he learns who receives. that let him communicate. and the cart as nigh the rake. 11. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. "Strike. 17. treat them greatly. 14. and makes their business a friendship. or men will never know and honor him aright. 16. . He teaches who gives.

Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. By way of introduction. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Ground covered by syntax. it ends in headache. pronoun and antecedent. they die young. 24. So does culture with us. 25. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. adjective and noun. INTRODUCTORY. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. 390. they lose themselves in the crowd. if they live. and dodge the account. We see young men who owe us a new world. 380. but go about your business anywhere. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Do not craze yourself with thinking. 388. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. 23.²agreement and government. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. it never was known to fall into the rear. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. the department of syntax will be a small affair. but its leading characteristic is. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. PART III. so readily and lavishly they promise. but they never acquit the debt.22. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. verb and subject. or. Following the Latin method. Essential point in English syntax. SYNTAX.

Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points." In this there is a possessive form. then. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. distinct forms would be used. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). "None remained but he. and it would not matter which one stood first. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. sometimes verb and subject.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. the order being inverted. In Latin. and added to it the preposition of. "The savage here the settler slew. This is not logical.² First. Also in the sentence. Why study syntax? 391. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Savage may be the subject. but are not now. both forms will be given in the following pages. 392. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. 393. following the regular order of subject." is ambiguous. some of which conform to classical grammar. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. In some cases. For example. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. When usage varies as to a given construction. and nothing but important points will be considered. . therefore. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. pronoun and antecedent. The basis of syntax." that is. or settler may be the subject. or when they exist side by side in good usage. Second. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. As an illustration of the last remark. There is. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. take the sentence. good English. Some rules not rigid. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. as to study inflected forms. authorities²that is. and imitate it. the sentence. etc. and whose judgment." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. also expressing a possessive relation. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. or the same writer will use both indifferently.

²ID.²THACKERAY. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. and Paul's. 394. as. PRONOUNS. and Peter's. for example." Juletta tells. and Peterborough's. Woman.²MCCULLOCH. Mill's and Mr.²RUSKIN.²EMERSON. Putting Mr. 397.²BYRON. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. the shore of Galilee.²MACAULAY. or indicate joint ownership or possession. .² He lands us on a grassy stage. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. and Harley's.² Live your king and country's best support. 395. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.NOUNS. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. the antechamber of the High Priest. Bentham's principles together. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. and Pope's. etc. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. but imply separate possession or ownership. 408). Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²ROWE. Separate possession. He kept Bolingbroke's. sense and nature's easy fool. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²MILTON. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Joint possession. 396.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Use of the possessive. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage.

²POPE. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. there are two general rules that require attention. No mightier than thyself or me. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. This should be "as she. thus.) "The young Harper. General rules. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. 398.²WHITCHER. together with the relative who.²BYRON. and should be the nominative form. Not to render up my soul to such as thee." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. whom is the complement after the verb am. . the last expression has the support of many good writers. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. Still. sanctioned. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.²SHAKESPEARE. 399.²THACKERAY. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. for example. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. Some of the violations are universally condemned. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. others are generally. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). Since most of the personal pronouns. Bedott Papers.²SOUTHEY. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. who. as." 400. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. I. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.²TROLLOPE. if not universally. But he must be a stronger than thee. the real thought being forgotten. Objective for the nominative.

as.²THACKERAY. they are yet holier than we. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.² One I remember especially. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. and the other forms of the verb be. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. on the other hand. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.²SCOTT."²WINTHROP. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. One exception is to be noted. A safe rule. the objective form is regularly found. The usage is too common to need further examples.²PARTON. "Than whom. is. are." 401.²LONGFELLOW.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant.²RUSKIN." There is no special reason for this. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²FIELDING. The camp of Richard of England.²COLERIDGE. namely. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.²MACAULAY. . BLACK. unless a special.² For there was little doubt that it was he.²KINGSLEY. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. but such is the fact. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. Patrick the Porter. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. But still it is not she. it will not be me. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. In spoken English. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. "If there is any one embarrassed. "Who's there?"²"Me. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. for example."²KINGSLEY."²WM. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. both in England and America.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.

the object of to). (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. verbal. 9. It is not me you are in love with. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it.Exercise. . as. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. If there ever was a rogue in the world. you or me. it is me.²MILTON. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 404. verbals. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 10. as. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 7. now. Whom they were I really cannot specify. 3. You know whom it is that you thus charge. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. "Ask the murderer. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. Truth is mightier than us all. 11. and prepositions. 2." 6." the word being in apposition with murderer). or us). as this from Shakespeare. or preposition which governs it. but not he" (he should be him. I speak not to" (he should be him.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. as. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. Nominative for the objective. or this. 403. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 8. used after verbs.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. object of saw). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Me in exclamations. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 5. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 4. (3) By forgetting the construction.

Nature. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Exercise. I arraign. as. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²BYRON. as well as the objective. for example.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²GOLDSMITH. None. 405. but he. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. 406. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. etc.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.²KINGSLEY. changed in all save thee.²BYRON.²KINGSLEY. Exception 2. who interrogative. all but he. save thou and thine. 2. as. We regularly say. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. partial Nature. for they say there are none such in the world.² All were knocked down but us two. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Let you and I look at these. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²STEELE. and is usually avoided.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.Shall be left upon the morn. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. "Who were they talking to?" etc.Exception 1. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. "Who did you see?" or. Who have we here?²ID. Thou. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.²KINGSLEY. I've sworn. . Thy shores are empires. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.

11.²possessive. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. with Jortin and Thirlby." 4. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 9. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²MACAULAY. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Markland. BROWN. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 8.3. They crowned him long ago. Bartholomew. This usage is not frequent. As antecedent of a relative. 12. Preceding a gerund. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.²THACKERAY. or objective? . 5. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 7. B. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 6.²DE QUINCEY. 10. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²RUSKIN. 407.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²C. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. who. and they know that as well as me. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.Ye I salute. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St.²SCOTT. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. POSSESSIVE FORMS. II.

² SCOTT. Objective. as he turned away from his wife. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. But in common use there is no such distinction.²MACAULAY. Possessive. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. Why both are found. . [who was] studying law. both are gerunds. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle." That is.² CARLYLE.² THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.² IRVING. and asked why it was not made. and the meaning is. The last incident which I recollect. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.²DE QUINCEY. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. etc. and that in the second. studying is a gerund.408. sometimes it has the objective. object of heard of. In the examples quoted. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. The use of the objective is older. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.²RUSKIN. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. that the bitterness of death was past. Both types of sentences are found.²BREWER. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.²DICKENS. We heard of Brown. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. Here I state them only in brief.

²when the antecedent.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.² BRYANT. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. Everybody had his own life to think of. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. or is a distributive word. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²RUSKIN. if the antecedent is neuter. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. and gender.²DE QUINCEY. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²THOREAU.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. and ought to agree with them in person. number. where there were examinations.²CABLE. taking in each of many persons.²HOLMES. Examples of these constructions are. Watch for the real antecedent. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²DE QUINCEY. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. BROCKDEN BROWN.²C. If any one did not know it.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²AUDUBON. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. In such a case as the last three sentences. preceded by a distributive. 409.²HUXLEY. it was his own fault.²DEFOE.²THACKERAY. 410. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²EMERSON III. the pronoun will be neuter singular. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. . in one person. The pale realms of shade. Every city threw open its gates.

²RUSKIN. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²PALEY. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. let them break it off. Struggling for life. as anybody in their senses would have done. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²DEFOE.²ID. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²AUSTEN.² Not the feeblest grandame. If the part deserve any comment. Whosoever hath any gold. and giving them means of being so. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²HUXLEY. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²BYRON. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.²PAULDING. This is not considered the best usage. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. By using the plural pronoun. 411.²FIELDING. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Every one must judge of their own feelings. not a mowing idiot. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²ID.²SCOTT. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. . Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. The sun. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²BIBLE. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²PALGRAVE. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. for example. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. till they have lost him.²THACKERAY.²EMERSON.

the definite relatives who. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. no one could take upon them to say. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. according to the practice of every modern writer. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. 1. 413.² SHERIDAN.²In the above sentences. ." This means." It defines beggar. In the following examples. What these terms mean. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. in each instance:² Who. when coördinating. or unrestrictive. when restrictive.²ADDISON. 2. and does not add a new statement. that being considered already clear. tell whether who. 412. It adds a new statement to what precedes. unless both genders are implied.²HAWTHORNE. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. I. Exercise. "I gave it to the beggar. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. which. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. but. and he went away. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. but. A relative. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. etc. as. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. and that are restrictive or not.Where she was gone. Exercise. That is in most cases restrictive. because. As to their conjunctive use. is equivalent to a conjunction (and." A relative. and that always restrictive.²ID. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. or what was become of her. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. which. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.) and a personal pronoun. who went away.

That. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. We say I. they. she agreed to join the party. long arms and legs. because of its antecedent. 9. these or that which. BEECHER 5.²DE QUINCEY. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. down. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.² IRVING. and over England are saying. 8. and it is called logic. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. Yet how many are there who up. 414. 12. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. etc. 11. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. 7. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. On hearing their plan. you. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. 14. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. So different from the wild.² MOTLEY. he. that were often vicious. 6. which was to go over the Cordilleras. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.. For example. it makes the verb third person singular. in the sentence. With narrow shoulders.² NEWMAN. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.² CARLYLE.²ID. Hare has printed. Which.²HOLMES. as that does not vary for person or number. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. who. etc. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. which Mr.²H. However. W. A grizzly-looking man appeared. The rule.3.²THOREAU. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. 10.²DE QUINCEY. The general rule is. 13. II. etc.²ADDISON.²ID. . 4. In what sense true. but." that is invariable as to person and number. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.

This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. A disputed point. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. Franklin..²ADDISON..²M. in winning a battle. . A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.. [plural] that who.²SCOTT.²HOWELLS. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. "one of the finest books that has been published..²MACAULAY. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. etc.²LECKY. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived." or. with one as the principal word.. or which . Singular. others regard books as the antecedent.²ADDISON. who rarely speak at all. etc. MORSE. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²LOWELL. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. He is one of those that deserve very well. but speaks of him as that sort. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. JR. when he derided the shams of society.²J.²BOWLES." One of . but myself. "one of the finest books that have been published. T. ARNOLD. Let us be of good cheer. and write the verb in the plural. the true antecedent.²HOLMES.²whether we should say. The fiery youth . The latter is rather more frequent.. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. French literature of the eighteenth century. [singular or plural. but the former has good authority. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²LOWELL.] Both constructions are frequently found. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. 415. and in improving a victory.

I could see nothing except the sky. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.²EMERSON. whence.²CARLYLE.²BURNS.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise. 416. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. when the relative word is a pronoun. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²SCOTT.A rare Roundabout performance. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. But I by backward steps would move."²DICKENS.In that same state I came. that is. or where] he died.² RUSKIN.²ADDISON. and see if the sentence is made clearer.And. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²IRVING. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. III. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²DEFOE. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²SWIFT. IV. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²ID. and such like: as. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. when this dust falls to the urn.²VAUGHAN. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. The same day I went aboard we set sail.² THACKERAY." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²In the above sentences. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. object of a preposition understood. where." "India is the place [in which.²EMERSON. 417.² . return. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.

² MACAULAY. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. They believe the same of all the works of art. she passed the lamp over her face and person. if I had resolved to go on with. and working in the same spirit. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. CHURCH.He considered. Anacoluthic use of which. The regular construction. looking-glasses.²FRANKLIN.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. . For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. That. but we find the relative who. Mr.² THACKERAY.me as his apprentice. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles.²R. boats. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. W. which. for example. but which is usually carefully avoided.² Which. as is not used. I might as well have staid at home.. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. V. ²GOLDSMITH.² BURKE. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. or that. he. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²ADDISON. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. as of knives. Caution. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. was a discoverer.. 418. with Turner. Which.²SCOTT. etc.²WORDSWORTH. if same is followed by a complete clause. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. but.²SWIFT.

This was a gentleman. he said that all submission was now too late. .We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. now thrown upon their." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.²SHAKESPEARE. but. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. or leave out both connective and relative. That is. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. etc. who are now thrown. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. or. As the sentences stand.²which if they once heard. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. 3.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²HAWTHORNE. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. Express both relatives. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.. (1) "Among those who are poor.She'd come again." etc. (2) "Among the poorer sort." etc..²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. Exercise.²DE QUINCEY. (3) "Among the poorer sort.²THACKERAY. And who. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. But who. le Conte. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. once a great favorite of M. or omit the conjunction. which when Mr. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. etc. Exercise.²GOLDSMITH. 2. 4. Thornhill had read. and who are now.²RUSKIN. and which. 419. 1." etc. but none is expressed.²SCOTT. He delivered the letter.² Direction for rewriting. and this be placed in the proper clause. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. After this came Elizabeth herself. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.

I shall have complete copies. Exercise. 1. "A mockery. and repeat this for any further reference.²DE QUINCEY. who. indeed.. Or which. which the Scotch had learned. 13. 7. 10. then. 9. Akin to the above is another fault. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. . but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. and to whom no door is closed. 11. and which may even be heard a mile off. the French. etc. Dr. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. English by name.. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. I saw upon the left a scene far different." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. 6. as a false and astucious mark. and which has never been described. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.²SCOTT. Or who. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. either from imitation of their frequent allies. like that spoken in the towns.. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. But which. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. and which.²DE QUINCEY.²HAWTHORNE. etc. 12.²IRVING. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. And which.5. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.²SCOTT.² MOTLEY. That . "What knight so craven.²PEARSON. 420. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . one of signal interest. 8. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity.

and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 7..²DEFOE. which. what. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 9. 8. I give to such men as do not belong to me. that.. which.²DE QUINCEY.²HALLAM. I grudge the dollar. CHANNING. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.²W.²EMERSON. and whose examples and principles we inherit. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 10. He flung into literature. The Tree Igdrasil. That . 4. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. and to whom I do not belong.2.²W. but which. 15. 5. In my native town of Salem. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.²BEECHER..²SCOTT..²HAWTHORNE.²SCOTT That which .. such as they have very probably been bred to.²EMERSON. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. but which is perhaps not so different from it.. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. SIMMS.. E. He. half a century ago. at the head of what. It rose into a thrilling passion. in his Mephistopheles..²HOLMES. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. whom. in his present condition.. that .. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus..²HOWELLS. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. Such as . now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 13. G. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. . I recommend some honest manual calling. the dime.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. Such as . 12. 11. 6. 3. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. was hung in air. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. was a bustling wharf. the cent. Which . 14.

Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.²HAWTHORNE.²GOLDSMITH. We call ourselves a rich nation. Distributives either and neither.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. in which case any should be used instead.²EMERSON. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. whether or not the two are equivalent. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. one another. always at war with one another.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. .²RUSKIN. as. Assume that no one is in want of either.²DICKENS. 422. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. as it were. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. that not all combined.² HAWTHORNE. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. England was then divided between kings and Druids. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²RUSKIN. By their original meaning.²ID. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. for example. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. and in want of his gold²or his corn. Each other. 421.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.² Some one must be poor.²MACAULAY. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. as. Use of any. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.

as.²FRANKLIN. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. when any of them are so good as to visit me. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. as. usually plural.. even in Bettine. that I know of. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.. if ever man was. etc. which is plural as often as singular. then in Plutarch. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. afterwards in Goethe. as none of the French philosophers were. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²BURKE. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. None usually plural. whilst I still cherish their genius.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. 423. then in Plotinus. any of his friends had died. in the prose of the present day. at one time in Bacon. In earlier Modern English. for him have I offended. let him ask of God. Do you think. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. The adjective pronoun none is.²PROF.²THACKERAY. Caution.² If any. speak.²EMERSON.² EMERSON. during his stay at Yuste.²SHAKESPEARE.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²STIRLING. before that. None of Nature's powers do better service. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²CARLYLE. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. Any usually plural. If any of you lack wisdom.. in Shakespeare.² In earnest. any was often singular. Examples of its use are.²SCOTT. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. I beseech you.²BEECHER Whenever.²BIBLE. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. Do you think. . although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. and is isolated. 424.

that all was lost..² Singular.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²McMASTER. or somebody else's? 426. any one else. saving Naaman the Syrian. and Ford has nobody's else. for example.²THOREAU.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. etc.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²SCOTT Like the use of any. etc. and less rarely in poetry. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. The compounds somebody else. the plural.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. etc.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.² None of them was cleansed.. as. Somebody's else. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.² PEARSON. The light troops thought . but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. and all was lost on the other. etc.²NAPIER Plural. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. are treated as units. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. when it means all persons: for example. nobody else. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. 425. which is used absolutely. When all were gone. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. fixing his eyes on the mace.

²THACKERAY..²RUSKIN. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS." "those kind of trees. the adjectives plural.² Saturday Review. STOWE.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. or those sort of people.² These kind of knaves I know. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. His hair. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. These sort. 427. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.curled once all over it in long tendrils. ELIOT. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. or some other such great man as a bishop.²SWEET. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. unlike anybody else's in the world. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. London. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. for example. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. etc. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²in such as "these sort of books.²MULOCH. P."²MRS. ADJECTIVES.²G.. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²RUSKIN. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. Whitefield or Wesley. .²DICKENS. all manner of. "Ye see. WILLIS." the nouns being singular. Again. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²N. etc." "all manner of men.²AUSTEN.² FIELDING.SYDNEY SMITH. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²SHERIDAN.

But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. when the necessary dispositions concur. Later form. 428.The library was open. In Old and Middle English. as. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. Should we say. or the nouns to the plural. more alarming than a total silence. . "This kind of rules are the best. in spoken English. This the modern expression reverses." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). with all manner of amusing books. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. such as. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. to express a higher degree of quality. made to agree with it. which accounts for the construction. According to the approved usage of Modern English. the victor or the vanquished. "This sort of trees should be planted. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Consequently we have a confused expression.²RUSKIN." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. or one object with a class of objects. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. gradually displacing the old. Burke's sentence. and the adjective is. The result. Use of the comparative degree. Of two such lessons. At the source.² PRESCOTT. History of this construction. "These kind of trees are best." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.² Which is the better able to defend himself. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. for example. and in this way may take a plural verb." A question. they said.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. not "all kinds of wild animals.

Exercise.²SCOTT.²TROLLOPE.²CARLYLE. by almost the breadth of my nail. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 430. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. Even Dodd himself.²MACAULAY.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.² THACKERAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 6. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. .²THACKERAY. To the man who plays well. would not have had the face. 2. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. Superlative with two objects. Gary. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²SWIFT. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. if not."²ID. I am concerned to see that Mr. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. 429. has sanctioned. the highest stakes are paid. than any of his court.A braver ne'er to battle rode. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²WIRT.²MACAULAY.²LOWELL. Use of the superlative degree. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. He is taller. 5. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. Other after the comparative form. etc. 3. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Henry.²HAWTHORNE.²HUXLEY. 4.

"²BULWER."²GOLDSMITH. 1611.²Bible. Rip was one of those . though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. more particularly the last of them. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. who eat white bread or brown.²IRVING.²BEN JONSON.. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. These two properties seem essential to wit. I should say that one has the best cause. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²SCOTT. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²GOLDSMITH. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. ha. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²DR BLAIR. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. 431. Examples from Shakespeare are.²RUSKIN. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. . "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²J. Mary.²ADDISON. and differ only in form. OLIPHANT.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense."²HAWTHORNE. not a bit of high life among them.²TEMPEST. The eldest. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. and the other contains the best men. whichever can be got easiest.²EMERSON. In all disputes between States. "Ha. Double comparative and superlative. Come you more nearer. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome..²MRS. CÆSAR. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²HAMLET. The following examples are used purposely. Also from the same period.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.

The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.²RUSKIN. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. not only so in popular speech.²LAMB. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. jar upon us constantly. but in literary English. . ²COWPER. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.² SMOLLETT. 433. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.²PRESCOTT. etc. The merit of the Barb. The meaning intended is the same. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²DE QUINCEY. and conceit in the last. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²RUSKIN. Definite article. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. Three first.²GIBBON.²GIBBON. the Spanish.² With a singular noun. For Carlyle. Instances of both are given below. These are the three first needs of civilized life. and Secretary Walsingham also. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. etc. As to these two expressions.²ADDISON. The delay in the first three lines. The first five had specific names.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. ARTICLES. First three. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. Examples of this construction are.²KINGSLEY. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.

with a singular noun. as.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. . of the higher and middling orders. were placed at a very tender age. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.²NEWMAN.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. however. the hour of parting came. the thought and the word.² RUSKIN. The flowers. The lofty. and the presents. Here the youth of both sexes. Frequently. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. Origin of the Aryans.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . 433. With a plural noun.² MACAULAY. but is used with one only. distinct. to distinguish clearly. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²TENNYSON.²MACAULAY.. and flexible language. 435. or to emphasize the meaning. of the eighteenth century.²TAYLOR. melodious.²SCOTT. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. I think.²PRESCOTT. as in Sec.. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. No. Meaning same as in Sec. He is master of the two-fold Logos. 434.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. 1508. 433. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. Indefinite article. having been arranged.²CARLYLE. as. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.²THE NATION.²ID. The not repeated. but inseparable from each other. One object and several modifiers. with a plural noun. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²THACKERAY. the greatest poems.

436.²DICKENS. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²JOHNSON.²BULWER. 437.²S.²B.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. one noun is expressed. a tyrant. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²MACAULAY. like the definite article. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. to limit two or more modified nouns. a collegian. and inexhausted vein. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. only one of which is expressed. or clearness to each of several nouns.² BURKE. a murderer. a round and a square one alternately. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. rich. In the sentences of Secs. interest." and "a red and a white geranium. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. 438. as.An early." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.² MACAULAY. Examples of this use are. . the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. JONSON. as in the first three of Sec. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²DRYDEN. COLERIDGE.²MACAULAY.²BEECHER. One article with several adjectives. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. For rhetorical effect. T. But in the following sentences. 435. and a usurper. He saw him in his mind's eye. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. The indefinite article is used. 436). a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²THACKERAY.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 433 and 436.

439. ELIOT. all that academies can give. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. In English.²The Nation.²G. He sees that it is better to live in peace. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. without academies. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. then.²GIBBON. This was spoken of in Part I. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. like some others in this series. or the great intellectual life of our nation. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.²W. for example. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²COOPER. Singulars connected by or or nor. .²FROUDE. Another writer might. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. 276. Collective noun of singular meaning.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. Such.VERBS. 440. as.²M. Sec. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²CARLYLE This usage. was the earliest American land. ARNOLD. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. A broad and loose rule. and the following illustrations prove it.²AGASSIZ. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.. Singular verb. as. has got already. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.

²GOLDSMITH. Between ourselves. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.² The unbought grace of life.² In a word.²WHITTIER. but considered as meaning about the same thing. that of a large town. seems at the moment unpaid loss. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. A fever.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. as. nor John. and every four hours. Q.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²GIBBON. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²EMERSON . all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.² Politics is the only field now open for me. and other singulars of plural form. No. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. or as making up one general idea.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. a cruel disappointment. or considered as appositional. the cheap defense of nations.² GOLDSMITH. but each one emphatic. a loss of wealth.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. for example. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. ADAMS. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.Jesus is not dead.²CRITIC. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. as. nor Paul. a mutilation. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. nor Mahomet.²DE QUINCEY.²BURKE. ²EMERSON. is gone. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. Plural form and singular meaning. for example. a loss of friends. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²J. other names.

and such like adjectives. Plural verb.² Asia. The Epic. in a judge.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. 441.²NEWMAN. and greaves. Then comes the "Why.²PRESCOTT. as. sir!"²MACAULAY.²HAWTHORNE. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor.The author. no spent ball. sir?" and the "No. the wit. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.² There is a right and a wrong in them. no matter if the second is plural). is a man of wit. many a.²PRESCOTT. To receive presents or a bribe. was like to crack. does not take the place of the man. every boor.²SCOTT. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. as well as sides.²ID. Every sound. the ruin.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. an impassioned countenance. as well as the newest. as. Subjects after the verb. For wide is heard the thundering fray. was punished. sir!" and the "What then.²EMERSON. was listened to for five hours. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²RUSKIN. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. an agitated gesture. The oldest. a gorget.²BUTLER.²ID.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. Here is no ruin. the fine gentleman. with death. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. thus. Every fop. was dazzled. Every week.The rout. every echo. Her back. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. a cuirass.²LONGFELLOW. nay. no. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²MACAULAY. wineBegins to stir itself. as well as the Drama. the dismay.²M ARNOLD. no discontinuity. every valet. almost every day.²MACAULAY. as well as Europe. the partisan. each. There is a moving tone of voice.² .

b).These bits of wood were covered on every square.²FRANKLIN. and its history are alike a mystery to us. of whom there were a number. a green pasture. TAYLOR. 440 (5. Conjunction omitted.²DE QUINCEY. making up a plural subject. All our household are at rest. for example. His clothes. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²THOREAU. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.² A multitude go mad about it. A shady grove.²B. but the verb is plural. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²FROUDE.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²COLERIDGE.²SWIFT. .² One or two of these perhaps survive.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. The travelers. the Duke of Berri. The Dauphin. a stream of fresh water. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. its date.²SCOTT. shirt.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE But its authorship. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. are sufficient to attract a colony. A party of workmen were removing the horses. far away thy children leave the land. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²ADDISON. as with a subject of plural form.²FROUDE. as. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. Far.² GIBBON.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²GIBBON. as in Sec.²GOLDSMITH. The conjunction may be omitted. were men of insignificant characters. Philip of Anjou. as.

. Not Altamont.). Pattison or I have said. for example.²SMOLLETT. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Second or third and first person in the subject. of different persons.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. ARNOLD. nor has she"). the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. 444. You and I are tolerably modest people. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. If there is only one person in the subject. Ah. but thou. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. nor should I. 442.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²D." etc. his blood dost shed. that is.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision." or. Not I. we never talk politics.²ROWE. 443. "He or I can go. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²RUSKIN. Exceptional examples.But notice the construction of this.²M. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. hadst been my lord.²WHITTIER.²BYRON. You and I are farmers.²THACKERAY. "I have never said so.²LOWELL. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. the subject being really equivalent to we. as.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY. Nothing which Mr. the verb takes the construction of the first person.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. WEBSTER. "You would not be wiser. General usage. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. When the subjects. This construction is at the best a little awkward." "She or you may be sure. but thou.

2. 9. as we would hope.That neither of their intellects are vast. 440-444):² 1. 3. Exercise. in my opinion. 12. How each of these professions are crowded. 6.²SCOTT. Neither of them. which it is proper to mention. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. In a word. Both death and I am found eternal.²ID.²perhaps the devil. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²ADDISON. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .Her course to intercept.²G. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 446.²BYRON. nor tree. 7.²SMOLLETT. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. BANCROFT. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Also in verbals. The following illustrate exceptional usage. nor bush are there. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.² TROLLOPE.²THACKERAY. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²EMERSON.²ADDISON. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.²BURKE.²and. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. 5.²MILTON. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. In this sentence from Defoe. 10.445. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 4. as illustrated above (Secs. In the following sentence. Nor wood. 8. 11.

as. It should be remarked.²MACAULAY. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²FRANKLIN 6.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.² PALGRAVE 5. 3. however. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. to have seen should be changed to to see. 448." . W. Two samples of indirect discourse. Indirect discourse means reported speech. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. Of course.. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. Direct discourse²that is. on my return.²IRVING. Definitions. The present rule is recent. Exercise. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . I gave one quarter to Ann.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. if not.²THACKERAY. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²R.²KINGSLEY. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. change them to a better form:² 1. CHURCH. to have divided with her whatever might remain. 447. meaning. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. for exact connection.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers..²DE QUINCEY 2. 4.

Direct. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. 1. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid." etc. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. under interrogative pronouns. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.. or regular interrogatives. "Oh. will. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. interrogative adverbs. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. His exact words were. 449.. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. The substance of his lamentation was. have. Direct." Indirect.. Oh." etc. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. She thought to herself. 2. and the indirect question by whether or if. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Summary of the expressions. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. introductory verb is in the past tense. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. "I cannot oblige you . (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. . etc.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Sebastian's. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form.. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Her prudence whispered eternally. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. This includes the auxiliaries be.

Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. the sound of their balls. handed down from his ancestor the historian. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. 450. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. The trouble is. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. my first observation will be found nearly true. the first discoverer of the river and country. .Exercise. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. PARTICIPLES.²B. with his crew of the Half-moon.²ADDISON. if this were expanded into a verb. in the sentences first quoted.²GOLDSMITH. VERBALS. Careless use of the participial phrase. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected.²ID. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. Notice this. and that he himself had heard. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. like distant peals of thunder.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. he assured me that nothing was more easy. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. one summer afternoon. FRANKLIN.

" etc. and often. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. purposely or not. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. It is a solemn. This is the more common arrangement.²ID.² HERBERT SPENCER..' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. the first sentence would be. . my first collection was. Adverb between to and the infinitive. then. avoid it." Exercise. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . 451. if a strike is to succeed. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. leaving the principal statement as it is.. 2. In the following citations. INFINITIVES. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. 3. There are.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. either "As I was pleased.. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.²LAUGHLIN. while defended or excused by others..Correction. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. Standard writers often use it. . Exercise.. universal assertion. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. For example.²RUSKIN. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.²SCOTT. many things to be carefully considered.

and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. when such adverbs as only. 5. is to be very cautiously admitted. The spirits.²RUSKIN. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. 13. Now.. The rigid rule in such a case would be. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. but they are often removed from the exact position. and earthenware.. therefore. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 452. are used.²GOLDSMITH.²TROLLOPE.4. etc. if they modify single words. this kind of grandeur. A little sketch of his. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. 12. Exercise. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. which consists in multitude. BLAIR. but it is placed before the infinitive. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. etc. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. ADVERBS. 11. Position of only.²SCOTT. even. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.² ADDISON. china. even. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²The Nation. 1533. 9.²DR. but cannot misunderstand the thought. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.²BURKE. 10. etc.² MACAULAY. 8." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. 7. I wish the reader to clearly understand. from Irving. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. In works of art. 6. No.²ID.

He shouted in those clear. 3. My master.²HIGGINSON. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 15. 16. 453. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²MRS. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²EMERSON. to avoid a crowd. Irving could only live very modestly. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. . 17. GROTE. In relating these and the following laws. 6. P. might not marry. 13.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. The old usage. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. whence he was never destined to return. 7. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 8. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. He could only afford to keep one old horse. WILLIS. 10. During the whole course of his administration.²N. ²ASCHAM. 2.²SWIFT. for example. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²ID.²COOPER.²THACKERAY. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 14. were he never so old of yeares.²MACAULAY.1.²RUSKIN.²ID. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. No sonne. In Old and Middle English.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 4.²ID. 11. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.² THACKERAY. 12.²PALGRAVE.²SYDNEY SMITH. His last journey to Cannes.²MOTLEY.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 9. 5.²CHAUCER.

5. 7. nor never shall. . Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. But. Not only could man not acquire such information. and is still kept in vulgar English. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. In the execution of this task. There weren't no pies to equal hers. Exercise. Regular law of negative in modern English. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. under the influence of Latin syntax. in Ole Virginia. etc. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. but ought not to labor after it."²MRS. if two negatives are found together. when one of the negatives is a connective."²four negatives. uncommon.²LOWELL.²DEFOE. one of the negatives is often a prefix. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. who hadn't been to school for nothing.²DE QUINCEY. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. 2.² HAMILTON. Therefore. 4. However. The prosperity of no empire.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. however. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. STOWE. STOWE. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. 3. as infrequent.²BURKE.²HOLMES. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.²GROTE.²MRS.²BAYNE. ²PAGE. neither. is not common. as. In the latter case. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. denying each other. This. 6. I did not act so hastily.²HAWTHORNE. nor the grandeur of no king. Exceptional use. I never did see him again. and why:² 1. can so agreeably affect. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. the usual way of regarding the question now is. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house.

.. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. not only to the success of their common cause.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. not or is the proper correlative of neither. In these examples it will be noticed that nor."²SCOTT. or to reply to it.. "well worthy to confer honor.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. 454.²PRESCOTT.8.. or. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.. as well as of the pronoun. especially both . "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. Choice and proper position of correlatives." Besides neither ." said the King. the first should also.. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. either . nor. the first ought to be placed before a verb.. but to their own safety. if the second precedes a phrase." may be changed to "This loose . misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. or. or to reply to it. And who. Correction.. neither . either... Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. as the use of the conjunction.²SCOTT. but. Things to be watched.. 455." both of the above requirements are violated.... if the last precedes a verb. The sentences given in Secs. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.²LOWELL. even neither . The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. and. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . should be scrutinized. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. not merely . The sentence. CONJUNCTIONS.. there we were. and which. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. or with advantage. In the sentence." . nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. "A weapon. not only . as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. nor is often changed to not²either . but (also).

5. as. 8. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 456.²MACAULAY. or the negative relative but. murder. Try and for try to. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. O. as. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. but. etc. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. and chop up their own kin. 4. 2.²ID. They will. substitute that. Try and avoid the pronoun.Exercise.²BAIN. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. nor the disgrace of assailing him. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 457. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 7. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²THACKERAY. but grown-up persons.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.²GOLDSMITH.²FRANKLIN. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. but. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. Some exceptions.²S. but they will outrage. too.²GIBBON. Now. JEWETT. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. not merely interest children. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 3. But what. and I don't know but what he was right.² ADDISON. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. . or but that. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. 6. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. In the following sentences. Exercise.

Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. no separation or division by twos being implied. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. PREPOSITIONS.²BURKE.² SWIFT. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Between and among. see Sec. 6. 458. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.²ADDISON. 5.²EMERSON. as already seen in Sec.²SCOTT. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Between is used most often with two things only. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. 4. 305. . 313. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.²ADDISON. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.²EMERSON.²TROLLOPE. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.2. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. 459. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.² BULWER. 3. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.

and Stewart. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Two groups or one and a group. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. and another to convey a different meaning. etc.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Kant. Comply with. Such are absolve. involve. List I. and philosophers like Locke. Dissent from. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. by custom. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. confer. 460. . between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. LIST I.²KINGSLEY. 461. and Coleridge. Bestow on (upon). Affinity between. correspond.: Words with particular prepositions. Dependent on (upon). Derogatory to. ²EMERSON. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Different from. Acquit of. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Conversant with. Mackintosh. a soldier of the Cross. averse. Such are derogatory. Conform to. Paley. as. Accord with. Abhorrent to. different.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Averse to. Some of them have. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT.²RUSKIN What have I. as. or one object and a group.²between philosophers like Spinoza.

). as. as." also of persons. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Correspond to (a thing). Independent of. LIST II. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Agree to (a proposal). and sometimes creeps into standard books. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Change for (a thing).y y y Deprive of. Confer with (talk with). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. 463.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. LIST III.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. as. A taste for (art. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. but it is not good usage." List III. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. . A taste of (food)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Change to (become). Confide in (trust in). 462. as meaning to be in keeping with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Differ from (note below). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Reconcile to (note below). Confer on (upon) (give to). in the sense of making friends with. etc. Reconcile with (note below). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Correspond with (write to). Change with (a person). List II. Differ with (note below). Involve in. Confide to (intrust to).

²BOSWELL." etc. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²MACAULAY.²SHAKESPEARE. Expect of.²BURNETT. ." (because of). "Die for. and ill treatment.²POPE. Who. died for love of the fair Marcella. simply from old age. die with. die of. "Die by.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²GOLDSMITH. ELIOT." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger." "die from. No one died from want at Longfeld. part with. It would take me long to die of hunger. She died of hard work. One of them said he would die for her. privation." She would have been ready to die with shame. If I meet with any of 'em. It is a man of quality who dies for her. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. die for. as Cervantes informs us.²GOLDSMITH.:² "Die of. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. Part from. People do not die of trifling little colds.²FIELDING. die from. "Die from. He died at last without disease. Illustrations of "die of. I am positively dying with hunger." (material cause." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. ²ATHENÆUM.²ADDISON. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²BULWER. expect from." (in behalf of).²G. ELIOT.²SCOTT. "Die for. they shall die by this hand. ²THACKERAY.²G. "Die with.y y y Die by. instrument).

either of or in is used indifferently. I can part with my children for their good.²MACAULAY. which he would by no means part from. With words implying behavior or disposition. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²G." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²POE. 465. That is more than I expected of you.²MACAULAY. Illustrations of "expect of. I part with all that grew so near my heart. Kind in you. ELIOT. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²DICKENS.²G.²SCOTT." "part from:"² "Part with. Illustrations of "part with.²WALLER. ELIOT. I have long expected something remarkable from you. "Part from.²TROLLOPE.²BULWER. kind of you. 464. 466. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. "Expect from.²BULWER.²WALPOLE." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general." She will expect more attention from you.²G. and hated to part with them. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. Of Doctor P.²MARRYAT.²AUSTEN. as shown in the following quotations:² Of." "expect from:"² "Expect of. I have just seen her. His precious bag. just parted from her. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. . ELIOT. as my friend." To part from you would be misery. nothing better was to be expected.²SHAW. It was a little bad of you.

or that they are any way dependent on each other. the vast abyss. Hampden. This narrative. 15. nor green. .²CARLYLE. or which we are most imperatively required to do. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. raging storms. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. In the friction between an employer and workman. 3. with seraphims. 1.²TENNYSON. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.²BULWER. nor blue. 4. The noise of vast cataracts. thrown it over Amyas's head. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 9. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 5. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. nor yellow. 7. 14. Thou tread'st. 8. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. Very natural in Mr. or artillery. nor of a pale red.He did not think it handsome of you.²DICKENS. In. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief.²BULWER. but which the story renders necessary. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 10. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. tedious perhaps. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. But this is idle of you. thunder. 13. it is commonly said that his profits are high. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. and ran up the alley.²BEACONSFIELD. 6. 11.

20. 18. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. were down with raging fever. and most of us do know. 32. 411. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. (Sec. but in the price paid to them. triangles. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant.) 34. and other angular figures. 31. 35. and almost as good as a pony. 21. 36. 23. 27. 19. 33.I would wish me only he. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach.And were I anything but what I am. You have seen Cassio and she together. When the glass or liquor are transparent. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. Squares. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. or how beautiful it is. 26. 24. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. The effect of proportion and fitness. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 28. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. Every one of these letters are in my name. That night every man of the boat's crew. 16. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. save Amyas. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. the acquiescence of the understanding. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. But every man may know. 38. 29. 37. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. what is a just and unjust act. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. produce approbation. 22. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. . but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. you or me. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 25. 17. Friday. 30.

Adjectives. Abstract with Active Address. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. from about 1500 to the present time. pronouns. nouns. voice. INDEX. from nominative clauses. article. 91. 102. . THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 89. numeral. 107. 310. 260. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 133. of. 47. 40. He had four children. 124. adjectives. 116. 90. 47. of. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 92. 119. of. 98. origin of. 20. syntax uses Absolute. 124. demonstrative. adverbs used complements. (3) Modern English. 239. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. nominative. (2) Middle English. of. 25. of.000 between them.39. as. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. as comparison definition demonstrative. A.

of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 323. antecedent. between of. 103. 97. of. of. adjectives. 48. 325. of. adjectives. 303. 239. of. predicate. quality. antecedent. 302. clauses. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. of. parse. sentence. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. Agreement. 106. 190.from function how in not of of ordinal. 101. 183. 195. conjunctions. 207. of. Against. 114. 262. 109. quantity. adjectives. infinitive. 328. 104. 207. 148. 275. 242. 42. and 185. 190. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. nouns. plural pronominal. 115. . form as as they to in as uses uses of. from to of. 116. modify. 303. 287. 99. 316. Alms. 194. with with with subject. compared. 27. as nouns. 27. 291. nouns. 325. 184. 194. 191. to used of. conjunction. of. objective. parse. 187. 116.

79. 240. 74. adjective. 51. as uses verbs. of of of And Antecedent. 101. agreement personal as pronoun. in in. it. sentences. to of. Are. derivation in definite. See with definition complex compound simple who. 208. 252. and. Anacoluthon Analysis. which. of. of.Among. uses As At. 309. parse. 295. definition how indefinite. of. syntax As. 271. Agreement. syntax. 300. 67. 67. of and pronoun of. 225. 148. Auxiliary if. 49. 90. which. sentences. 120. 331. words between. which. 264. of. 207. An. 287. 127. . 296. 120. sentences. same. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. definition of of of Any. 47. 275. possessive. 294. 150. Arrangement Articles. pronouns. after of. 124. 84. See 74. though. 231. 198. of. A.

uses of. of pronouns. 54. of pronouns. 279. 278. 278. of nouns. But. Among. 64. Case. Bridegroom. possessive. 330. 111. 49. 260. comparison conjugation of. objective. 195.Bad. 46. Between. 262. 110. 224. plurals of. uses Better. of nouns. . 62. 47. Children. with But By. of. 110. forms. definition could. Clause. 262. of. uses nominative of. of. 48. double possessive. of pronouns. 210. adjective. clauses of. in Old and Modern English. Case. syntax of. 283. 279. of what. Cause. 39. 66. 45. 46. 194. 37. 150. of pronouns. number of. 63. 84. Can. Brethren. conjunctions Cherub. Be. 39. adverb. best. of nouns. pronoun. 149. of nouns. See of. nominative. 161.

Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. of. 53. nouns. definition degrees irregular. 189. 110. proper. 23. of. 257. of. 239. 108. verb. 244. 305. 268. subject. clothes. 43. Clomb. 307. . 43. 108. and sentence. 263. of. analysis of. of. of. 158. 18. 111. defective. Cleave. in analysis. double. nouns. 113. plural of.definition kinds noun. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. superlative. 24. and forms of. 257. Cloths. adjectives. adverbs. predicate. 315. 107. sentence. 18. 12. English. 248. 307. material. infinitive. of. 258. 157. predicate of and from from of. 257. nouns. 312. 271. 264.

66. verbs. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. . conjunction. pronoun. 255. sentences. replaced by objective. conjunctions. 73. 269. 263. pronouns. of of Conjunctions. 193. 207. 194. and clause. 195. 149. in Old vs. conjunctions. of. 194. analysis. Agreement. 143. 194. of. Dative Declarative Declension of case. definition how subordinate. 138. 231. 151. subjunctive. to of. other other parts of speech. parse. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. correlative. See analysis clauses. adverbs. 149. same words. sentences. See English. pronoun. interrogative pronouns. 196.with Concord. 199. coördinate. 139. Can. 188. 328. 289. Conjunctions. 195. sentence. definition be. See in subjunctive.

of personal relative verbs. Comparison. of. nouns. 242. of. 99. 35. comparative. See 148. 152. 287. 51. with. 288. 90. article. . 303. use of dies. See adjectives. Case. 333. duck. Comparative. 300. discourse. pronouns. Subordinate clause. adverbs See adjectives. of. vs. 185. verb. 102. 320. possessive. of. 43. from. pronouns. 160. Degrees. tenses. See See 48.Declension. Articles. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. indirect. with of. passive adjectives. 80. for. 315. 26. nouns. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 91. 102. 60. pronouns. pronouns. by. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. clause. object. 242.

62. 234. feminine plural English. Either. older. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 51. 33. 92. complement. . adjective. literary. 299. of. 90. of. predicate. 287. adjective. pronoun. ending. 240. possessive suffix. 40. 42. of. original. 300. 102. syntax Each Eat Eaves. object. plural. 194. error in sentence. 112. 39. Each. in 'Em. 110. 255. 90. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. another. the of sentence. -En. 328. vulgar. drunk. other. added suffix. pronouns. to suffix. conjunction. 32. of. 257. 158. 158. Empress. spoken. pronoun. 34. 241. of subject. 33. 38. 92.Drank. 12. suffix. 287. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. of. of. 92. one ( t). Elements Ellipsis. 280.

of. as of from compared marking. 36. pronoun. adjective. 112. Feminine. 29. etc. other languages. 152. 30. expect gone. two. 235. two a further. fishes. the. 30. definition distinguished in English. 238.Every. Gender. 287. uses Foreign Former. 102. Future Future tense. nouns. 212. used of. gender. First. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. First Fish. 91. 148. For. 152. of. 147. 308. 212. 45." 31.. 112. Farther. with infinitive. 319. uses redundant. as a noun. 126. 211. 110. . 334. 102. perfect. See Gander. from. 189. etc. first. 48. modes "common goose. 103. have adjective. 43. Further. 32. object. From. with in sex. few. 30. plurals. to of. Few. of..

she. 13. He. on. 275. and case verbal with. Gerund. . 9. an better. it. 35. pronouns. rather. Got. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. from participle of. 145. had hung. 61. 43. noun. 231. 144. 120. adjective. 80. 101. personal relative geniuses. first sentence. 159. 60. 176. 173. distinguished syntax. for before. Grammar. kinds of. possessive pronouns. of. of. 12. 36. definition basis of. Government. 175. forms in Girl.of of Genii. 60. 159. 285. participle. 10. its. pronoun. 177. I. His Husband. 12. 61. definition divisions opinions province H. of. person. Had Hanged. of.

with of. adjectives. uses discourse. pronouns. questions. 110. See Articles. of. your. 319. mood. a object. indirect of. 73. 245. 131.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 188. Questions. 153. adjectives. 283. 67. 105. 93. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 320. indices. questions. 257. See you. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. of. 231. . 227. of clause. in compared syntax. 72. 233. use article. 43. words. elements. of. pronoun. meaning. 131. Direct object. of. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 323. transitive. sentence. 248. 85. summary See passive mood. 176. 178. 276. 136. adverbs. verbs.

Lie. Kind. of. lie. lord. syntax the. 67." history etc. 102. subject form. 281. a vs. these double kind.. 113. 36. It. 113. predicate. Lady. uses Literary Little. 91. English. 245.. was uses me. 36. etc. Less. adjective. syntax. lesser. 303. See Madam. 36. Lay. 110.adverbs. 189. and See words in. Lady. latest. Kine. 126. 227. plural. Logic Logical Lord. 276. of. in little. 226. Lay. 61. 170. "It Its. . 190. -Ly. 12. Like. 63. pronoun. King. 39. Latter. Last. queen. of. 110. of.

construction as of adverb. 64. . 126. imperative. May. 137-144. 185. of. Mighty Mine. of. 187. 114. 328. 41. of. 325. position adverb. 102. 34. Master. etc. Negative. of. 287. 112. 195. of. 189. of. subjunctive. 160. 36. Enlargement. nigh. 110. Neither. 256. sentences. comparison Near. 194. 188. out of. syntax conjunction. -Most. 112. Mood. mistress. mine.Manner. Must. 135. of. conjunctions Many. double. 161.. Means. 326. 110. in adverbs comparison a. syntax nearer. See definition 136. 189. 137. 110. adjective. 265. Modifier. might. 144. of. Much. superlatives. Modifiers. 112. 113. Many Mapping Mare. indicative.

gender nouns. and figures. None. 30. 41. 38-41. syntax Neuter or two News. 29. to use. 301. 46. become neuter. 17 19. Nor. kinds 90. clause. of. half abstract. of. 21. nouns. 19. now plural. 126. etc. foreign. of. 25. abstract. nouns. of. 27. of. number once other plural. proper. 246. common. of. 38. abstract. 26. 92. 125. letters as 24. 46. etc. of of of of of a.pronoun. formed. 32. syntax in gender nouns. 30. class used singular. parse. 20. definition according of. definition descriptive. material. 41. words how compound. Case. 17. 18. . in. 300. used as. gender how kinds material. 41 43. 42. analysis. 45. 124. to of. 328. 25. 17. 258. See 194. become become formation case collective. No Nominative. 30. Not Noun Nouns. of. 56.

singular. 48. plural form. of. of different possessive definite of. See verb. 195. singular. 102. personal. adverbial. 279. English. plural no two singular construction. with case. pronouns. common. indefinite. 41. Preposition. 39. 148. or plural. 92. 285. 66. preposition. form. 196. 48. meaning. 42 44. of. 48. 101. meanings. passive adverbial. of. .. 242. verbs. 282. 42. 235. 121. become syntax use with with with Nouns. Numeral Object. 281. spoken of instead nouns. in article. 278. pronouns. with with with Now Number. 41. 242. article. of. 48. of. 48. 60. dative. 41. 18. 101. 278. 124. See in in in Numeral distributive. in nouns. adjectives. and analysis. nominative. definite. indirect. 106. 43. 240. conjunction. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. etc. 23.of same two with proper. Nouns. plural. 42. adjectives. as forms titles. of.

161. inverted. definite relative uses of. of. 115. 91. conjunctions. 325 275. 87. articles. with (the). of. 101. for. Elder. ours. position Order. 64. part analysis. Ourself. Pains. Our. 117. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 306. Each adjective. 194. pronoun. 216. 199. 94. nouns. treatment comparatives. a in adjectives. 233. . another. 69. of of of of of models adjectives. 103. 56. 93 other. 279. of syntax. 293. 38. Oxen. 103. 191. as of. of. Parsing. 237. 41. as other. 127. See pronoun. 56. Older. One. conjunction. 213. adverb. See the as of. 116. uses numeral pronoun. adjective. Ordinal Other Ought. Omission On.syntax Of. adverbs. of upon.

agreement of verb nouns. 70. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 27. of. 247. of. 63.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 181. article 150. 80. pease. 59. pronouns. pronoun. verbals. verbs. predicate use of. 134. 56. possessive and of. 95. phrase. phrases. 172. in. 173. 148. 59. 281. of. . Pence. 43. 100. of. parsed. antecedent. verb idioms it from. speech. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 28. absolute with of. nominative. Person. used as voice. 59. from definition other of. not is. them. included various. 62. 61. 64. 174. or of. 179. relatives. and subject in. 219. of. 322. of. 287. 180. 56. 335. 177. 62. with. 69. of. 119. pronouns. verbs. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 43. 317. part adjective. -ing words. 172. reflexive. pennies.

Personal subjective. 236. appositional. omitted. 195. . of. 281. Place. singular degree. of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 61. See 60. 235. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 50. 49. objects. 188. 53. pronoun. complete. 37. 25. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 241. 285. 232. participial. Positive Possessive. adjectives. 248. double. 245. antecedent of of pronouns. of. 236. singular. 41. 303. pronouns. Personification. 303. adverbs of. 278. 64. noun nouns. nouns. prepositional. of. syntax of of Politics. 51. it. in of. as double. 247. 245. Nouns. kinds infinitive. 54. 52. vs. 's. of. plural. 63. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 206. nouns. 106. nouns. of nouns.objective syntax table triple uses of. relative. 60. 247. Comparison. 278. of. 281. pronoun. of Phrase. 67. English. of. or See of of See 185. of. 53. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. simple. spoken of.

of. 282. interrogative. 206. singular usually other. of. after but. of. for predicate nominative. 283. as antecedent of relative. forms of. each either. interrogative. objective. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 195. 207. 281. plural. case. as 54. of. and form form form form of. 303. 208. 287. 89. 72. plural. 302. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 58. somebody definition how indefinite. usually to as than. . future. 280. 332. 147. 205. and one with else's. 203. by parts of of. 104. by with shown certain of. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 299. 95. objective. 132. neither. all. 331. as.Prefixes. 279. 187. 300. Prepositions. 284. 129. 219. adverb. 59. 64. speech. 186. case. Pronouns. parse. 105. 333. verbs. of. 300. adjective. none. 203. 285. 301. plural. of. of. expressed as other of. 58. what. 32. possessive nominative to of. meaning. 283. 105. 202. words. by. who personal. in exclamations. with tense certain. exclamatory. parse. same used as adjectives. another. any. 93.

105. 195. of. questions. 74. 74. Nouns. 74. 80. 289. in. discourse. 69. of. 286. unrestrictive. of. Questions. 85. which. 293. 87. 87. 84. pronouns. Direct same and different. to of. which after same. or of. 279. personal pronoun. of. See of. Quotations. pronominal pronouns indirect. from and interrogative. 295. 296. and antecedent. 69. nouns. 293. 289. of. 188. pronoun. 99. in. conjunctions Quality. with who. 68. that. adverbs in. indirect. who. parse. 83. and relatives. 291. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. of. in. use of history formed.possessive relative. 101. of. 295. 263. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 85. indirect compound. 142. Rank. of. and which. agreement anacoluthon and as. of. 189. with with gerund. same antecedent. . clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 58. use in as. Rather. Quantity. 297.

will. 40.syntax use Result. 159. sentence. 29. 231. ending. 'S. conjunction. of. clauses of. 196. 289. 263. 162. 42. 196. S. pronoun. object. 159. in of. 231. 26 271. simple. would. 319. and should. which. plural possessive as. reflexive analysis of compound. 195. 74. Sex Shall. suffix. elliptical. gender. 43. of of of complex Sentences. effect. 294. Seeing. of. 255. of sit. 69. that. definition . conjunctions Retained Riches. 51. 259. forms shots. of. complex. Shot. simple of. 242. who. Self Sentences. See Sentences. 170. in form. Shear. of. Simple in sate. kinds Sequence Set. Same Sat. 252. tenses.

270. Split Spoken -Ster. of. logical. adverb. 303. -en. 38. in Middle English. 32. 257. 126. Spelling Spinster. English. See -En. . 257. Somebody Sort. other Such Such Suffix -s. -es. as. 144. names as a. English. 186. for. 245. sort. in feminine suffix. distinguish. 257. 240. literary clause. 258. 245. used mood. definition how kinds noun. 260. of. 262. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 33. of. 257. of. 36. English. 169. 323. 237. 137. adverb. these number. 12. phonetic in infinitive. vs. 38. verbs. of.Singular Sir. of. to of. disuse in spoken complete. 303. English. Modern use becoming else's. definition 67. 233. 144. of. 138. etc. Subject.. 258. 258. 33.

that uses That. when as of. adjectives. 107. Kind. of. two basis not same definition definite. "the then foreign. degree. 106." introductory. 116. syntax of. than of. me. of. There These kind. 147. king.. 88. 147. 147. meaning. 148. See etc.. 275. 61. this. subject. of languages. objects. 108. 280. English. which. they.Suffixes. . 109. of . 275. classical of. of. and and of. 33. in double. 189. 307. 123. coördinating. 319. 289. meaning made up in Old of. 297. in Modern number sequence table Than That. in comparison. 119. 277. article. Tenses. of. plural as adverb. 290. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. of.. 222. object. not suggesting adjectives. 309. 306. definition in English Tense. English. omission whom. Then. auxiliaries. 120. as history The. 106. 306. restrictive. 191. as history syntax Their. 87. 152. of. as adverbs. of. form. when relative. adverbs. of. 186. 186.

how infinitive. Try Two Under. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 114. in omitted uses T'other. parse. 175. infinitive. etc. of. 114. Upper. uttermost. 61. -Trix. 172. 181. 207. Time. analysis. 173. 128. kinds participle. uses of. Upon. conjunctions prepositions To. 175. Thou. of. thee. verbs. See On. 119. feminine and. Utter. preposition. thy. . in of. tother. 308. phrases. 180. used. gerund. See That. 330. 114. of. certain as the before with of. 176. exclamations. 188. uses history of. 217. 21. 322. of. other noun. adverbs those. 172. 247. 20. carelessly uses syntax this. 185. words. -ing 111. 33. suffix. try two. first. 323. first adjective. 195. 248. to.. of. from cleft to 174. 175. 322. of. of.These. infinitive.

242. 312-316. 151. of English. table of irregular. 317. but uses what. 33. 147. Vixen. phonetic. 159. 129. active. 169. agreement of. retained object with passive. formed by. verbs.Verbs. mood of. 154. 148. 236. 157. 155. in indirect discourse. table of. with subject in number. change. conjugation of. 131. passive. 154. 169. definition of. past tense formed nominative. 312. weak. tense of. passive form. 135. Vocative in Voice. in person. transitive and intransitive. 330. 319. strong. . 167. of. 133. becoming irregular. 223. person and number of. regular. voice of. 39. 150. 130. 154. What. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. of incomplete predication. definition of. 47. of. definition of. analysis. made transitive. spelling of. active meaning. defective. 148. 167. syntax of. 320. 134. intransitive. 12. 160. 245. sequence of. 179. how to parse. verbs by. remarks on certain. 133. 149. auxiliary.

a.. 85. Y. would. 72. Woman. 105. 85. Who. 104. uses See Shall. conjunction. wizard. Wife. in in indefinite objective. 194. 37. spoken in of. 78. Will. relative. Yes ending analysis. 126. 105. Words in Worse. 75. 36. . 218. of. relative. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. With. Whether. whereto. in -ly. 296. in. animals. 111. 299. 85. referring syntax Widower. 79. pronoun. Witch. English. 246. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 32. 83. 190. 72. 178. 295-299. 40. questions. etc. of. questions. 36. 73. interrogative Which. 77. antecedent adjective. worser.what Whereby. questions. pronoun. 72. plural of in nouns -ing. relative indirect relative. direct of. 75. questions. 83.

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