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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

"Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). there is still much for the grammarian to do. its peculiar and abundant idioms. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Authority as a basis. This will take in the usual divisions. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. is worthy of serious study. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. assist the classification of kindred expressions. so that a small grammar will hold them all. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. A broader view. and their uses and relations in the sentence. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. to those who have studied the language historically. "Analysis. it will at the same time. An æsthetic benefit. Surely our noble language. as. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Coming back. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. their forms. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Literary English. with its enormous vocabulary. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions." and "Syntax. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. and thus incite his observation. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time.The province of English grammar is. Few inflections." What grammar is. but this is bad English now. Mental training. then. rightly considered. if rightly presented. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. Making rules is risky. It is also evident. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). The work it will cover. as compared with Latin or Greek. however. If. from the question. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. ." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties.

In the more simple state of the Arabs. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. which belongs to a people. the words sons and master name objects. or Syntax. reference will be made to vulgar English.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Spoken English. that is.²GIBBON. The words state. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. by which is meant the free. and the word nation stands for a whole group. as they stand for ideas. Occasionally. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. the nation is free. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. The following pages will cover. submission. The Parts of Speech. and may belong to any of those objects. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. besides this one. Vulgar English. three divisions:² Part I. Such words are called nouns.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. too. 1. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. and will are evidently names of a different kind. or standard. from the eighteenth century on. . then. The Uses of Words. The plainest name is Arabs.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. NOUNS. Part III. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Analysis of Sentences. and Inflections. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. not objects. PART I. but. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Part II.

Proper. as here used. possessed by all. or the man in front of you. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Abstract. Thus. For instance. Thus. whether person. Besides considering persons.Definition. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. They properly belong under common nouns. but Chicago names one city. and things separately. Common. Name for any individual of a class. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. we may think of them in groups. Name for a group or collection of objects. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. a committee. 3. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. belonging to one. We may say. This does not imply. Collective. is from a Latin word which means general. place. because each group is considered as a unit. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. A noun is a name word. ATTRIBUTE. animals. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. however. or idea. the name of each is an individual or proper name. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. animals. representing directly to the mind an object. or a mob. . 5. or a council. Classes of nouns. and appropriate names to the groups. or thing. substance. the man here. Individual. (b) Common. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. etc. (a) 4. or things. MATERIAL. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. reducing it to a narrow application. 2. or a congress. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. men in groups may be called a crowd. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited.

gold. Words naturally of limited application not proper. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. . There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. but it is taken merely as a name.²There are some nouns. moon. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. we may say. or action. earth. They remain common class names. frost. iron. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. celluloid. NOTE. 7.Names for things thought of in mass. proof means the act of proving. earth. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. but in the words sun." "a man of understanding. such as sun. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. world. tea. "Painting is a fine art. (3) Geological bodies: mud. wheat.. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. wine. granite. however. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. not things. or actions. expressing state. Again. but which are not called proper names. etc. mist. . or apart from their natural connection. sugar. rubber. expressing attributes or qualities. wheat. etc. conditions. rice. as in calling a city Cincinnati. etc. etc. instead of to each individual or separate object." 9. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. potash. rain. The reason is. condition. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns." "Learning is hard to acquire. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. sugar. snow. etc. paint. The quality is still there as much as before. stone. etc. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. etc. When we speak of a wise man. or that which shows a thing has been proved. Such are glass. cloud. soap. and so on. clay. 6. there is no such intention. dew. frost. Names of ideas. considered abstractly. platinum. and fasten a special name to the object considered. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). It may. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. we speak of the wisdom of the man. rock. sand.

The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. etc. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning.Attribute abstract nouns. Such are beauty. 272. NOTE. To avoid difficulty. 10. those opinions and feelings. Thus. mastery from master. They cannot govern a word. her longing for their favor. kingship from king. as in the expressions. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. night. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. joy. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. by altering its function. summer. day. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. energy. height from high. 1. They are only the husks of verbs. there is time for such reasonings. the great Puritan awakening. in the beginning of his life. (2) peerage from peer. Exercises. the well-being of her subjects. ease. and they cannot express action. the teachings of the High Spirit. winter. speech from speak. thunder. five proper. lightning. Underived abstract nouns. etc." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. stupidity from stupid. etc. etc.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. as their name implies. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. shadow. (1) prudence from prudent. service from serve. the moon caused fearful forebodings. redness from red. . theft from thieve. Caution. the rude drawings of the book. the main bearings of this matter. is used as a noun. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. a wedding or a festival. five abstract. hopeful²hope. childhood from child. action from act. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. as glad²joy. II. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. Verbal abstract nouns. he spread his blessings over the land. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. The verb. but are merely names of actions.. "a long run" "a bold move. 12." "a brisk walk. 273). feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. hope.

catarrh. mathematics? 3. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as physics. as pneumonia. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. pleurisy. Using a dictionary. algebra. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. geology. (b) branches of knowledge.2. diphtheria. typhus.

arras. the word port. but we may say. "The cook made the irons hot. levant and morocco (leather). Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. as a davy. Sodom was famous for wickedness. etc. for example. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. and lo! a new system. it imposes its classification on other men. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. from Corinth. from a town in France. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Nouns change by use. a Hutton. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. 13. from China. a Fourier. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities." referring to flat- . as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. or to go over to it entirely. who was its inventor. the guillotine. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Guillotin.²EMERSON. from Damascus. damask. 119). in Portugal. 14. Material nouns may be used as class names.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. 15. from Oporto. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. but most of them are in the following groups. port (wine). the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. a Lavoisier. from the name of Dr. Proper names transferred to common use. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. We know a number of objects made of iron. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. thus. currants. a Bentham. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. from Calicut. above. Others of similar character are calico. a Locke.

tobaccos. be spoken of. as stones. but in case an art or a science. Next Anger rushed. the abstract idea is partly lost. etc. A halfway class of words. which are made plural. candies. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. Personification of abstract ideas. clays. and so on. and only Vice and Misery. etc. Death. but differ in strength.irons. on fire. (3) By poetical use. The words preceded by the article a. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance.²BYRON. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. tins. abstract in meaning. This is a poetic usage.In lightnings owned his secret stings. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.²HAYNE. a rubber for erasing marks. or used as class nouns. a steel to whet a knife on. that disposition is the thing to be created. coals. oils. 16. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. are still names of abstract ideas. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract.²BRYANT. are abroad. but on dispositions which require to be created. or.²RUSKIN. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. They are not then pure abstract nouns. When it is said that art differs from science. mists.²COLLINS. his eyes. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. smiled. Class nouns in use. slates. though not confined to verse. purity.²PERCIVAL. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. and say teas. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. 17. For example. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. that the power of art is founded on fact. that is. paints. not material things. to prowl or to moan like night birds. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. or made plural. From all around²Earth and her waters. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. clouds.²CARLYLE. or the arts and sciences. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. nor are they common class nouns. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. These are the same in material. Traffic has lain down to rest. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. Test this in the following sentences:² . that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. papers.

they cannot be compared.²EMERSON. if we must have great actions. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. as each repeated pleasure tired. as descriptive adjectives are. Every why hath a wherefore. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. meaning a walk in the morning. But it is better to consider them as nouns. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. And still. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. which belongs to another word. 19. sir!"²MACAULAY .² BURNS. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. Conjunctions.²SHAKESPEARE. nouns used to modify.² GOLDSMITH. were mere terrors of the night. fear thy blow. Then comes the "Why. By ellipses. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. but is still a noun." "a morning walk. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.²BURNS. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. however.The Solitary can despise." which contains a pure adjective. Nouns used as descriptive terms. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns." "a New York bank. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow." "the State Bank Tax bill. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. "a family quarrel. But ah! those pleasures. All these. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. etc. loves. 18. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions.²SHAKESPEARE.Let us. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. the wealthy. NOTE.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. a bill as to tax on the banks. a bank in New York. or from any expression. Adjectives. make our own so. for example. sir!" and the "What then. sir?" and the "No. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. or describe it. Adverbs. they do not express quality. They are more like the possessive noun. When I was young? Ah.²IRVING." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives.

Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. so. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. of words rather than of their meaning.²These remarks do not apply. 1. 5. Power laid his rod aside. or a state secret. Now. The it. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Stone walls do not a prison make. Caution. to such words as become pure nouns by use. 4." or "legal. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. are used. There are many of these. 6. at the beginning. too. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. FRANKLIN.Nor iron bars a cage. the terms the great. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. is ambiguous. and tell to which class each belongs. are spoken of as if pure nouns. When. or a criminal. 7. and Then. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. however. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. why and wherefore. that cobweb of the brain.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. Exercise.. without reference to its function in the sentence. In the other sentences. When. Mather's called "Essays to do Good.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. of course." and another of Dr. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. 8. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. . is the word "just.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Learning. but as a figure of speech. 20." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. etc. whether it mean the sun or the cold. but have an adjectival meaning. It is to be remembered. in speaking of the principal of a school. 3. NOTE. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. the wealthy. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. in a sentence above. or a faithful domestic. 2. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns."²B.

but not so in English. Greek. female. But pleasures are like poppies spread.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 15. the silver moon is gone. the welcome. 11. 21. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. It is founded on sex. GENDER. that waits you here. 12. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Male beings are.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. its bloom is shed. he cried.9.Fair guests. In Latin. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 13. 18. The fleet. for every dropHinders needle and thread. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 10. 24. And see. in English grammar. returned to Spain. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. German. 14. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. The hours glide by. always feminine.You seize the flower. 23. 20. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 22. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. and many other languages. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. A fool speaks all his mind. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. 19. A little weeping would ease my heart. and names of females are usually feminine. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 16. . 21. 17. always masculine. What gender means in English. shattered and disabled. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands.

neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. the name of it is masculine. No "common gender. the name of it is feminine.² I have seenA curious child . according to their use. 23.²LAMB. or which arouse his interest most.. or additions to words. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. in English.. but are spoken of as neuter. if there were any signs of life in it. Hence: Definition. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. clapping his burnished wings. with its gizzard under its wing. . with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. inanimate things are spoken of... Thus. those with which man comes in contact often. however. mensa (table) is feminine. Gender nouns. the sex being of no consequence.² IRVING. He next stooped down to feel the pig. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. are named by gender nouns.²masculine and feminine.. that pattern of a husband. Neuter nouns. that is. For instance: in Latin. All nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. die Gabel (fork) is feminine." . Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. according to use. Gunpowder . then. hortus (garden) is masculine. 22.²IRVING. das Messer (knife) is neuter. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. must be divided into two principal classes. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. "A little child shall lead them. in German. those distinguishing the sex of the object. or names of things without life. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. if of the female sex. those which do not distinguish sex. 24. Of animals. and consequently without sex. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. and neuter nouns. The great difference is.. corpus (body) is neuter. in other languages gender follows the form. came to a stand just by the bridge.²gender nouns.When.

he-bear²she-bear. is. One feminine. from the masculine fox. 29. as he-goat²she-goat. The inflections for gender belong.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. as in wine vat. servant. puts a prefix before the masculine man. 27. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English.. These remain in vixen and spinster. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. but spinster has now no connection with it. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. I.25. etc. cousin. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. woman. II. the division of words according to sex. Put in convenient form. 26. (3) By using a different word for each gender. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. generally to a masculine word. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. (2) By adding a suffix. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Male nouns beings. 28. According to the definition. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. . since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. or the lack of it. ruler. Hence vixen is for fyxen. for from they said vram. they are neuter words. of course. though both words have lost their original meanings. For fox they said vox. Gender shown by Suffixes. Very few of class I. and for the older word fat they said vat. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. domestic. If such words as parent. Native suffixes. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. teacher. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Gender shown by Prefixes. relative.

gamester. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. trickster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. punster. it has none now in the words huckster. -ess (French esse. as.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. Low Latin issa). Slightly changed and widely used.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. donna. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). song-str-ess. as czarina. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as seam-stress. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. executrix. but in most cases it has not. and are never used for words recognized as English. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. the one most used. 30. Unaltered and little used. Ending of masculine not changed. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. as. señorita. These are attached to foreign words. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .

the ending -ess. from Latin imperatricem. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. Gender shown by Different Words. as was said in the sixteenth century. we use the masculine termination. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. chairman.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. NOTE. editor. to represent persons of either sex. In some of these pairs. 31. fosteress. 32. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. or servauntesse. wagoness. Instead of saying doctress. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. as in the fourteenth century." III. teacher or lady teacher. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. others have in their origin the same root. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. frendesse. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. etc. neighbor (masculine and feminine). we use the feminine. as. Thus. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Some of them have an interesting history. as. from the French -esse. neighboresse. We frequently use such words as author. teacheresse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor.

It is not connected historically with our word duck. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). probably meaning house dweller). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. not immediately connected with witch. Besides gander and drake. Danish gaas. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. leaving our word drake.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Two masculines from feminines.). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. in Old English mere. finally gander. had the masculine mearh (horse). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. from Latin mea domina. lhauerd. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). The masculine was formed by adding -a. became identical. etc. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). gand-ra. the old sign of the masculine. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. written loverd. Madam is the French ma dame. Mare. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Personification. among others) to be from the same root word. Witch is the Old English wicce. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. though both are ultimately from the same root. but this has long been obsolete. 34. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. 16). The older forms. 33.² . or lauerd in Middle English. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Icelandic gás. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. widuwa²widuwe. Widower. as in many other words. for example.

²CAMPBELL.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. treen (trees).Her home is on the deep. 38. 39. Our language has two numbers. and not by the form of the noun. In nouns. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. that is. more than one.No towers along the steep. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. for instance. But other words were inflected afterwards. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. the engineer speaks so of his engine. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. This is not exclusively a poetic use.²COLERIDGE.²singular and plural. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. etc. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. Effect of personification. together with the third. ."Now. shoon (shoes). 35. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. The -en inflection.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. eyen (eyes)."²BYRON. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. (2) By changing the root vowel. Definition. 36. NUMBER. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. whenever we adopt a new word. the plural. Britannia needs no bulwarks. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. we make its plural by adding -s or -es.²KEATS. in Old English. The first two methods prevailed. (3) By adding -s (or -es). I. 37.

²THOREAU. dozen. head. 42.² "God bless me! so then.-En inflection imitated by other words. Brethren has passed through three stages. The words horse and foot. 41. . sail. but has now no singular. turf. Akin to this class are some words. that have the singular and plural alike. Such are box. heathen.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. lens. 40. Instead of -s. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. glass. brace. Lee marched over the mountain wall. then brothre or brethre. folk. retain the same form for plural meaning.²Over the mountains winding down. Other words following the same usage are. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. after numerals (if not after numerals. after all. into Frederick town. II.Horse and foot. The old plural was brothru. as. wight. as. etc.The horse are thousands ten. people. salmon. pair. etc. etc. when they mean soldiery. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. or if preceded by the prepositions in. cross. such as deer. and get settled. borough²formerly had the same inflection.²WHITTIER. Children has passed through the same history. and is still found in dialects. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. quartz.²MACAULAY. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. swine. finally brethren. Kine is another double plural. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. they add -s): also trout. ditch. originally neuter. cannon. Examples of this inflection are.² The foot are fourscore thousand. III. but they now add the ending -s."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. by. sheep.

44. Two words. though this sound combines readily with -s. physics. 15 and 17). Means plural. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). quoth then that ladie milde.. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. and the real ending is therefore -s. e. volcano² volcanoes. the Washingtons. however. summons. Special Lists. they lose their identity. though they are plural in form. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. Examples of these are. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. the Americas. some adding -s. 45. and go over to other classes (Secs. So live. and many branches of learning. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . mathematics. When such words take a plural ending. negro²negroes. prize²prizes. etc. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. molasses.²BRYANT.g. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. a new syllable is made. e. economics. half²halves. as. Some words are usually singular. chaise²chaises. etc. in its widest extent. shelf²shelves.-Es added in certain cases. means and politics. DANA. Formerly.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. etc. The lilie on hir stalke grene. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. 43.g. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. that when thy summons comes. and some -es. daisies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. politics. allies. knife²knives.² Politics. Proper nouns are regularly singular. house²houses.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. optics. Words in -ies.. hero²heroes. niche²niches.²PROF. means: as. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. fairies. It served simply as a means of sight. race²races. pains (care). etc. fancies. is both the science and the art of government.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. also news. these words ended in -ie.

By these means.Words. L. however.²MOTLEY.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. Now I read all the politics that come out. Besides this. Politics plural. Some words have no corresponding singular. CURTIS. LAUGHLIN. he pronounced to have been a tongs.² MACAULAY. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²GOLDSMITH. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. riches will accumulate. A relic which. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²J. I say.²GOLDSMITH. .²G. Sometimes. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. 46. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. W. if I recollect right.²IRVING. by those means which we have already mentioned.²BURKE. by strongly conveying the passions. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.

or epistles. shot²shot (collective balls). for the numbers came.²POPE.²one corresponding to the singular.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill.² I lisped in numbers. (2) care.. etc. number²numbers: (1) figures. may add -s. die²dies (stamps for coins. indices (signs in algebra). two meanings. genii (spirits). 50. shots (number of times fired). part²parts: (1) divisions. etc. genius²geniuses (men of genius). fishes (individuals or kinds). the other unlike it. (2) abilities. Three words were originally singular. 48. ways. in mournful numbers. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. or copies. index²indexes (to books). brethren (of a society or church).²LONGFELLOW. DANA. eaves. carry off chaff. One plural. clothes (garments). pence (collectively). faculties. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. trouble.. Two classes of compound words. dice (for gaming). or work in a bellows?²PROF. sixpence. In Early Modern English thank is found. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). making a double plural. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. riches. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. as two sixpences. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. pea²peas (separately).²was it subdued when. These make the last part plural. Numbers also means issues. pease (collectively). In speaking of coins.The air. 49. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. (2) poetry. of a periodical.). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.. as in the lines. (2) revenue duties. (2) literature. . Tell me not. penny²pennies (separately). twopence. fish²fish (collectively). two plurals.

² Then came Mr. Briggs. Two methods in use for names with titles. there is some disagreement among English writers. Allen. though the latter is often found. and then the three Miss Spinneys. 51. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. and Mrs. the Drs. manservant. woman servant. but add -s. woman singer. or the name may be pluralized. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. Brahman. Brown. The title may be plural. for example. As to plurals of names with titles. as man singer. Norman. . 52. the Misses Rich. then Silas Peckham.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Mussulman.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. HOLMES. German. Ottoman. firman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.²DR. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. as the Messrs. such as talisman. The chief member adds -s in the plural.

Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. 53. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. FROM THE LATIN. Others have been adopted. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. They are then said to be naturalized. or Anglicized. Exercise. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. and retain their foreign plurals. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. These are said to be domesticated.²THE CRITIC. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. y y analysis antithesis . or Englished. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²GOLDSMITH.²GIBBON. Domesticated words. The Messrs.²DICKENS. Du Maurier. FROM THE GREEK.

y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. Definition. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). 54. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. figures." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). they form their plurals in the regular way. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. as. . cell has another relation. Words quoted merely as words. etc. as. In the sentence. etc. 55. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence.. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. 56. also add -s or 's. In the general wearing-away of inflections. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. Only two case forms." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). and expresses a relation akin to possession. figures. without reference to their meaning." CASE." the word felon's modifies cell.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Letters.

" (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. must be understood for purposes of analysis. 5. and the possessive. the enemy of the living. I. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. 58. completing a verb. . (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. Excuses are clothes which.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. 1. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.²person. Three properties belong to wisdom. whether inflected or not. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Nouns. excessive grief.²one for the nominative and objective. learning.²nature. they returned to their homes." (2) As a predicate noun. Human experience is the great test of truth. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. may be said to have three cases. 4." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. the objective. 57. Uses of the Nominative. 3." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. and experience.²the nominative. three things characterize man. fate. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. and merit. then. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. when asked unawares. 2.

and being equivalent to one verb. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. 68. taking the object enemies. good Heaven. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. 4. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. (5) As the object of a preposition. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman." "Cowards die many times before their deaths." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. as will be seen in Sec. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. wounded lies. Set a high price on your leisure moments. reconciles. 3. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. completing the verb. a patriarch of the village. save. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. distance. etc. the word toward which the preposition points. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. (in the older stages of the language. measure. . 59." (3) Adverbially. Conscience. her first law broken. and tell which use each has:² 1. how have I frighted thee? II. thy wrath can send. taking the object storm.6.Save. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. 2. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. sword in hand and visor down." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." Exercise." (4) As the second object." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and meaning calmest. they are sands of precious gold. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 8. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. They charged. 9. Uses of the Objective. and landlord of the inn. But the flood came howling one day. But of all plagues. and makest a calm.

61.Does his Creator's power display. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. and forfeits paid. the most common of all.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.And gave the leper to eat and drink. It is a poetic expression. expressed or understood. tempests that . from day to day. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. Possession in some sense is the most common. 9. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.²ADDISON. 10. as shown in the sentences. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.5.² The unwearied sun.His winter task a pastime made.²HAWTHORNE. the Great Stone Face. III. The possessive case always modifies another word. The noblest mind the best contentment has. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. 6. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. as in these expressions. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. as. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. (3) Subjective possessive. or in writing yesterday's elegy.e. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. 60.²BYRON. Uses of the Possessive. 7. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. (2) Objective possessive. And whirling plate. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.²SHELLEY. 8.

Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. and Obj. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. PLURAL. "George Jones his book." "at his beddes syde. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. To form the possessive plural. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. the panther which the forest hides). 62. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe.winter is likely to have). How the possessive is formed." Use of the apostrophe. child NOTE. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. lady Poss. One is the simple form of a word. 64. in Chaucer. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. The use of the apostrophe. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. A suggestion. growth which several days had developed). 1. 63.. As said before (Sec.e. and Obj. Case Inflection. A false theory. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. 62. Declension or inflection of nouns. Nom. Poss." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]." etc.. as schoolboys sometimes write. there are only two case forms. making the possessive singular.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. however. "From every schires ende. .e. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. Nom. 56). "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "mannes herte [heart]. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form.

the items of my son's.Though this opinion was untrue.²HOLMES. containing words in apposition.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. store. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. know the amount of my income. James's.²CARLYLE. as. Peter's. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. in the name of the emperor their master. as. some such word as house. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. a word with a phrase.. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. my neighbors. dwelling. Kate saw that. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.²DE QUINCEY. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience.. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. for goodness' sake. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. and from a desire to have distinct forms.² LOWELL. Possessive and no noun limited. etc."²DE QUINCEY. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. I remember him in his cradle at St. but to the ear all may be alike. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. etc." "A postscript is added. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. and she walked off from the don's.²SWIFT. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. 66." Possessive with compound expressions. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. 65. In compound expressions. Cervantes' satirical work.²RUSKIN. 67. instead of the emperor their master's name. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.²THACKERAY. stands up for God's truth one man. church. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. Captain Scrapegrace's. . The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. being understood with it: for example. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. the possessive sign is usually last. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. as by the countess's command." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.

The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. (1) When a word is modified by a. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. For example. and I used to like whatever they bade me like.. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. that.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. the.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. the statement clearly means only one thing. In most cases. however. and at the same time by a possessive noun. 1.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. If. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. Blair). 87. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. no. 2. 68.²CARLYLE. Emphasis. Both of these are now used side by side. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. and tell whether each is appositional. especially when used with this or that. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. the sentence might be understood as just explained. as one modifier. Clearness. any. each. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Exercises. every. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. in such a sentence as. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.The double possessive. ill-lighted except where she stands. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. sometimes they are used together. or subjective. this.²the introduction which Atterbury made. A peculiar form. E. HALE. corresponding to 's. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. a double possessive. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . (See also Sec. we use the phrase of Atterbury. making a double possessive. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. objective.²E.²FROUDE. (b) Rewrite the sentence. (3) It prevents ambiguity. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. etc.

with every garland crowned. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 4. 5. In parsing. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 9.3. and destroy the other. Jove laughs. At lovers' perjuries. day's harbinger.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen.² . I must not see thee Osman's bride. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Friend. 70. let him seasonably water the one. 69. 12. we state. 13. 15. 7. therefore. 10. There Shakespeare's self. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. Now the bright morning star. some idioms²the double possessive. Hence. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.A weary waste expanding to the skies. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. it seemed.They say. Nature herself. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. in parsing a noun. 8. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 11. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 14. 6. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son.Comes dancing from the East.

and limits neckcloth. it has no sex. 3. which gender. 4. Neckcloth. The correct method. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. it expresses time. therefore possessive case. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. hence objective case. 71.²common. proper. inflections. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. subject of the verb is understood. hence it is a common noun.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. a fresh tapster. but is the adverbial objective. object of the verb takes. it is the object of the preposition by. hence it is objective case. it is the name of a male being.(1) The class to which it belongs. it denotes only one person. In parsing any word. That in the captain's but a choleric word. has no governing word. therefore singular number. Exercise. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. and number. like miller's. it expresses possession or ownership. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. (3) Whether singular or plural number. and to have it found out by accident. therefore masculine gender. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. . the connection shows a male is meant. MODEL FOR PARSING. (4) Its office in the sentence. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. and relations. hence it is a gender noun. Throat is neuter. names one thing. and therefore nominative case. gender. if the latter. 68). the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. therefore singular number. therefore neuter. NOTE. 2. a withered serving man. masculine. Thief is a common class noun. etc. as to case. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. is a common class noun. determining its case. singular number.

connected with the shore by a drawbridge. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. 72. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. 10. Time makes the worst enemies friends. financial minister to Louis XVI. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. blessings light on him that first invented . but by a question we say. Jarley's back being towards him." Again. Definition. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. PRONOUNS. 9. 8. He giveth his beloved sleep. Necker. 7. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. and prison." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. sleep! 6. were natives of Geneva.. Now. Classes of pronouns. and his daughter. instead of saying.And hated her for her pride.5. 73. standing for a name. and representative words. Mrs.. The need of pronouns. A pronoun is a reference word. definite. or for a person or thing. where the Rhone enters the lake. A few miles from this point. (2) Interrogative pronouns. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. Madame de Staël. 76). from a necessity for short. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house..²palace. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. all in one. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. or for a group of persons or things. . which distinguish person by their form (Sec. castle. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. For instance. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. 11.

77. 74. Nom. we our. "the distinction of person. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. as nouns have the same form.. (2) Second person. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. 76. primarily adjectives. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 75. This gives rise to a new term. representing a person or thing spoken to. that is. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. mine. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. or other word or expression. even if it had a special form. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. they must represent the person talking. (4) Adjective pronouns. and the person or thing talked about. they are said to have person by agreement. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. Three persons of pronouns." Person of nouns. ours . but as pronouns when they stand for nouns.(3) Relative pronouns. From analogy to pronouns. I Poss. pronoun. Person in grammar. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. representing the person speaking. which cannot be used as adjectives. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which have forms for person. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. words. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. Singular. which relate or refer to a noun. (3) Third person. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. the person or thing spoken to. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. my Plural. (5) Indefinite pronouns.

she her.. yours you Plural. yours you THIRD PERSON. of all Three. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. feminine h o. Nom. and also for the neuter. Singular. SECOND PERSON. Nom. your. Old forms. Masc. hers her Plur. or. Nom. thine. . thy Remarks on These Forms. The speaker may be either male or female.Obj. masculine h . Obj. theirs them Neut. Obj. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. 78. neuter. in the singular. yours Poss. But the third person has. namely. Poss. a separate form for each gender. you your. Obj. thou thee ye you you your. Third person singular has gender. it its it Poss. by personification. Obj. neuter hit. me us Singular. he his him Fem. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Poss. Old Form Common Form. Nom. First and second persons without gender. they their.

but make the plural you do duty for the singular. Second person always plural in ordinary English. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. 81..Thou lovest. The consequence is.:² (1) In elevated style. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. There are. 82. as. two modern uses of thou. (2) In addressing the Deity. and sometimes its. which was often sounded with the h silent. just as we now say. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. their. We use it with a plural verb always. 79. however. Two uses of the old singulars. Thou. heom.²SHELLEY. them. the forms they.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 80.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. This is of comparatively recent growth. even when referring to a single object." As shown above. it. In spoken English. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). in Old English. etc. etc. The plurals were h .Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. as in prayers. for example. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose.²BEECHER. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. to thy care we commit the helpless. as possessive of it. heora.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). which is a neuter noun. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. thy. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. . perhaps being from the English demonstrative. thee. thou Shepherd of Israel. that didst comfort thy people of old. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time.² Oh. The form its. especially in poetry. etc. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.

58). The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. The forms my. or. . 86. we. Absolute personal pronouns. That is. us. 83. And since thou own'st that praise. 'tis his. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. ye. yours.²BULWER. Yet careful speakers avoid this. The words I. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. ²SHAKESPEARE. his. however. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. its. "I am sure it was him. In spoken English. note the following:² 'Twas mine. for. and follow the usage of literary English." the literary language would require he after was. have a peculiar use. she. 85. besides a nominative use. thine.Use of the pronouns in personification. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. I spare thee mine. he. The Possessive. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. in such a sentence as. and not make more classes. The forms mine. and sometimes in ordinary speech. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. their. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. him. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. I The Nominative. Old use of mine and thine. them. her. when they occur in the predicate position. Not a separate class. II. they have a nominative form. her. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and has been slave to thousands. them.²LANDOR. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. her. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. they. some say. 34). CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. 84. though those named in Sec. though ye is occasionally used as objective.²COWPER. theirs. our. your. thou. Additional nominatives in spoken English. us. sometimes his and its. him. to personify objects (Sec. 84 are always subjects. me. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. thy. hers. Nominative forms.

This ancient silver bowl of mine. Double and triple possessives. COOPER. The forms hers. ours.² CARLYLE. ours. anger. Their uses. Give every man thine ear. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. for example.²ID. it tells of good old times. ²HOLMES. (2) To bring emphasis. commenting upon a letter of mine. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. hers.²THACKERAY."²SCOTT. thus. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. Like the noun possessives. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.²THACKERAY.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. his. 87. Long Allen. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. FIELDS. sometimes its. If thine eye offend thee. in that old Edinburgh house of his. "Hold thy peace.²J.²BIBLE. theirs. . are really double possessives.²CARLYLE. T.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. Besides this. but few thy voice. or satire." said Henry Woodstall. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. theirs. yours. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. we find.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. This usage is still preserved in poetry. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.²J. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.²SWIFT. (3) To express contempt. as in nouns. yours. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. thus. F. and with mine.²ID. we have. thine.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. pluck it out. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.

Now the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²BIBLE. this dative use. for whose benefit. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. Both joined in making him a present. . and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. But the first two have a nominative use." "None but the brave deserves the fair. and mine in the second has an objective use. but nominative or objective in use. in the first sentence. his for his property. but not in form. "The good alone are great. but expresses for whom. In their function. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. The old dative case. 86: mine stands for my property. the thing is done.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. 90. III.²ID. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. Besides this use of the objective. They all handled it. mine stands for my praise in the second. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. 88.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. 89. In pronouns." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. Curse me this people. as it is called. The Objective. as shown in Sec. 20. was marked by a separate case. or use in a sentence. but the form is the same as the objective." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In such sentences as.

²CARLYLE. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. or that he has not a great deal more. logical subject. 92. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. You have oaten cakes baked some months before." (3) As a grammatical subject. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.Time is behind them and before them. The word you.²EMERSON. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²BULWER. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. to stand for the real. or to the idea. you must condense there. in this century.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. has not made its progress.² NEWMAN. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.²IRVING To empty here. like Chinese skill. Indefinite use of you and your. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. (3) In apposition. as.² .²DE QUINCEY. It is a pity that he has so much learning.²BACON.²ADDISON. was passed by with indulgence. Society. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. which follows the verb. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. and they cry. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. Your mere puny stripling. ²EMERSON. as. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. WEBSTER. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. you sneeze.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. why. as in the sentences. 91. thus. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.²D. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.

herself.²BRYANT. yourselves. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. himself.²SCOTT. keeps a school. I set me down and sigh. .²BUNYAN. And when I awoke. they dropped their arms. ourselves. we use such expressions as. however. since firstThe flight of years began. but seldom in prose. And millions in those solitudes. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. It was late and after midnight. A sturdy lad . farms it.²EMERSON.²HOLMES.. the second is the old form of the second person." and there is an end of it." "He bought him a horse. (thyself). it rained. have laid them downIn their last sleep. when they are direct objects. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. For example. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. who in turn tries all the professions. that is.²BURNS. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia."²IRVING.²THOREAU. This occurs in poetry. who teams it. yourself. There was nothing for it but to return. and its plural selves. -selves. 94. They are myself.²HAWTHORNE.² Now I lay me down to sleep. "I found me a good book. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. I made up my mind to foot it.²ANON. 93.It is finger-cold. Poor Christian was hard put to it. (ourself). An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. as they are also called.²ID. Of the two forms in parentheses. or COMPOUND PERSONAL.²COLERIDGE." etc. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. used in poetry. themselves.. as. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. peddles it. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²IRVING. itself. For when it dawned. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.²DE QUINCEY.

and build the lofty rhyme. Threats to all. I shrink with pain. to every one. shall dissolve. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.As girls were once. ourselves. with self. were changed into the possessive myself.²EMERSON. B. BROWNING.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.² TENNYSON. to us. etc.To you yourself. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. and the others were formed by analogy with these. Use of the reflexives.²WORDSWORTH.. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. as in vulgar English.²ID. not the possessive forms. especially in the speech of rulers. The question might arise.² . What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. NOTE. Origin of these reflexives. theself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.²E. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. 96. In Middle English the forms meself. as. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. 95.² The great globe itself . thyself.²MILTON.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. as.²SHAKESPEARE. as we ourself have been. after the analogy of myself. for example. for example. Held dead within them till myself shall die. As if it were thyself that's here. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.

97. 7. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. is wisdom.²B. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. all conform to it. And it grew wondrous cold. where the word is one with that it tells of. 10.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 6. To know what is best to do. Infancy conforms to nobody. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 8. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 5. 4. let him lowly confess it. FRANKLIN. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. . 3.On the light fantastic toe. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). but it is the soonest spoiled. One obsolete. feminine. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. fight it out. which. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Three now in use.² THACKERAY. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. and how to do it. father. 9. 2. some of them being double possessives. and what.²DE QUINCEY. Years ago. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. some each of masculine. Courage. Come and trip it as we go. and neuter.

There is an old word. number. used formerly to mean which of two. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID.. Use of what. that it is not inflected for gender or number. shall we say. Whose was that gentle voice. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. but for case alone. methought. These show that what is not inflected for case. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. Which of you. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. it is always third person. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. old man?²SHAKESPEARE.Promised. . 100. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. ideas. but now obsolete. 99. Use of which. which is not inflected for gender. actions. Use of who and its forms. referring to things. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. The use of who. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. having three forms. as it always asks about somebody. that. etc. or case. What wouldst thou do. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. 98. the gold. that it is always singular and neuter. not to persons. it refers to either persons or things. that is. As shown here. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. it is selective. with its possessive and objective. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. whether. whispering sweet.

which. 104. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. AND PLUR. pronoun. which and what are sometimes adjectives. it may be shortened into. Who. For instance. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. which is nominative in the first sentence. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case." In the latter sentence. AND PLUR. These bards sang of Border chivalry. who is used as objective instead of whom. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. 99. 103. The antecedent. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. since it is subject of the verb had. being the direct object of the verb shall take. Function of the relative pronoun. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. objective in the last. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. as they take the place usually of a word already used.101. whose? Obj. 102. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. and also in having a conjunctive use. as. Thus we may say. as. 105." Or. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. what may be an adverb in some expressions. in Sec. SINGULAR Nom.² "The last of all the Bards was he.²by the use of the words. subject of doth love. SING. nominative in the second also. who evidently refers to Bards. It usually precedes the pronoun. which and what. and what are also relative pronouns. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. who? Poss. and so to make smoother discourse. for which the pronoun stands. "The last of all the Bards was he. or other word or expression. Further treatment of who. 127). which is called the antecedent of the relative. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns.Who sung of Border chivalry.² .

.² COX. 4..Whose flag has braved. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Who and its forms. with all its capabilities .Whom universal nature did lament. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Indefinite relatives. a thousand years.²SCOTT. The nurse came to us. 2. is a divine creation.²BYRON.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. what. WHITNEY. 3. The origin of language is divine. a simple relative is meant. 106. 107. 5. 6. are the men and women who bless their species. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.²LOWELL In this. When the word relative is used. Two kinds. 2. but the look which is not of the earth. both his and who have the antecedent priest.. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. will be discussed further on. The men whom men respect.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.That guard our native seas. 108.²MILTON. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. Ye mariners of England. They had not their own luster. the women whom women approve. which. 3.²W. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. Generally speaking. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.²PARTON Which and its forms. D. . in the same sense in which man's nature. For her enchanting son. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. 4.²DR JOHNSON.²THACKERAY. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. that.

That..Is fit for treasons.² SHAKESPEARE 2. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. and spoils. 2. Who. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. else this description will seem exaggerated. 4. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. which it certainly is not.5. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²EMERSON. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. BEECHER 5. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²DE QUINCEY. 3. 109.²IRVING. For what he sought below is passed above. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.. Already done is all that he would do.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. Reader... What. bought up all the pigs that could be had. 107. 6. you will not be angry with me for telling you. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. The Tree Igdrasil..²LAMB 3.²BURKE. (a) This gradation . no bad type of what often happens in that country. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .. ought to be kept in view. Examples of the relative that:² 1.²H.²MARGARET FULLER. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. stratagems.²GOLDSMITH. 110. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. The judge . 111. W.. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. The man that hath no music in himself.

Gibbon. (3) It is nearly always third person. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. JOHNSON. Examples of whose. Kingsley.²SWIFT. whose. My horse. the others are all third person.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. a man. things. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.. seemed as much excited as myself. who. Smollett. and 3. Scott. whose wound I had dressed. whose for the possessive. in 4. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Witness the following examples:² And you.²who. (2) It has three case forms. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. 113. or ideas. Cooper. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. p. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.²LOWELL. and 6.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.. The little gorilla.who.²LEIGH HUNT. (4) It has two case forms. 107. and so on. in the third. whom. in the second. that man. Which.whose. who is first person. . While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. The sentences in Sec. It has been seen (Sec. in 5. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.²IRVING. not persons. 112. 5. 2.. The robins. in the first sentence. they are plural.²DR. the relatives are singular. Sec.. In 1. Who referring to animals. whose is second person. son. 96). (2) It is not inflected for gender or number.. referring to animals. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. flung its arms around my neck. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. In sentence 4.²which for the nominative and objective.²THACKERAY. whom. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. and others. possessive case of which..

in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.²RUSKIN. and numerous others. 116. So in Matthew Arnold. let us enter the church itself. and third persons. which is worse.² I swept the horizon. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.114. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.² And. (3) It is the same form for first. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. thus. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.²BEECHER. animals. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus."²RUSKIN. the antecedent follows which. Burke. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. That. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. secondly (which made her stare). whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example.²SCOTT. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain.²THACKERAY. Sometimes. which is very notable and curious. Men may be ready to fight to the death. . and things.² MCMASTER. second. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. (2) It has only one case form. The last two sentences in Sec. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. no possessive.²first.²SHAKESPEARE. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. Primarily. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. This moribund '61.²DE QUINCEY. Which and its antecedents. 115. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. too. 109. This often occurs. In the sentences of Sec. Kingsley. and to persecute without pity.

the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. but what I hate. it usually follows.²SHAKESPEARE. number. plural number. plural number. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. that men must needs abide.²BIBLE What fates impose. 109. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. is always neuter. that do I. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. which. What a man does. but this is not sanctioned as good usage." (3) "These people heard him.² What I would. Who plainly stands for those or the people. and person of the relatives who. as in sentence 6." That evidently refers to truths. who Poss. that he has. consequently is neuter. whose Obj. what we said?²CARLYLE." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. For example. When expressed. for example. and is emphatic. 118. third person. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. 119. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as. either of which would be neuter. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. The gender. 117.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. Nom.²EMERSON." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. we can. . Sec. by taking them out. The sentences of Sec. that do I not. What. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. third person.

not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. but is singular. In (2). Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. but of this. and what is the direct object of the verb call. in (1). The whole expression is its subject. third person. the simple relative. because it has usually no antecedent. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 8. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. which is. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. the highest result of all education. In the same way who. Truths in sentence (2). it is subject of the verb heard. above.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case." Here the subject of is. in the following sentences:² 1. "What can't be cured must be endured. The word what. In the sentence. nobler souls with that which they are. people is the object of the preposition of. 120."²EMERSON. Now. 3. in (3). Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Exercise. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. subject of heard. that takes the case of the truths in (2). is subject of wrought upon and molded. What must be endured? Answer. is what we call nature. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Parsing what. 6. neuter. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Another way. First find the antecedents. then parse the relatives. is in the nominative case. The relative what is handled differently. Some prefer another method of treatment. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. and hence is in the nominative case. so is in the objective case. . it is object of uttered. however. I think they are trying to outwit nature. we is the subject." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 7. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. who is sure to be cunninger than they.. 5. What can't be cured. standing for the people understood. As shown by the following sentences. etc. after all. 4.

. which. no certain antecedent. or what else soever. and which in the second clause. Take which you please. in a new and original way. summer will have its flies. Do what we can.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1.²you cannot have both. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. and in 2." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. Death is there associated. not as direct as the simple relatives. Meaning and use. no particular thing. being referred to. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. whatsoever. that nothing else can stand in their presence. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. whosoever. by meaning and use. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. It is clear that in 1. 121. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. object of with] which [singular. 2. whichsoever. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 2. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. List and examples. whichever. Hence some take what as a double relative.²BURKE. 122. whatever. less common are whoso. object of do] they do. Only itself can inspire whom it will. 6.²MACAULAY. that is.²BURKE. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 7. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. whatsoever. and parse that in the first clause. to everything that. It is no proof of a man's understanding. They are whoever. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 4. 3. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. The simple relatives who. or stand on their head. and his friend a fool. 123. 5. "common souls pay with that [singular. So with the other indefinites. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave.

not following the word such. but which only wealth could have purchased. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. nothing that does not interest us. whereby. 120. for example. 121. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. Other substitutes. 121. 2.²HAWTHORNE. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. are used. There is nothing but is related to us. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. whereupon.As shown in Sec. has been my heaviest affliction. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. and that as after such is equivalent to which. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Instead of the phrases in which. Two words. .²EMERSON. the conjunctions wherein. by which. either one that. Sec.. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. as was used just as we use that or which. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. 124. 417). etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.² 1. everything that (or everything which). Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. etc. Former use of as. This.. Proof that they have the force of relatives. for example. In early modern English. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.² some particular thing. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. but mean any one whom.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. thus. 125. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. what means anything that. upon which. But and as.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore.²DE QUINCEY. 4.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. 126. etc. but and as.

The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. Special caution needed here. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. 1 (b). It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. In sentences 1 (a). though the earthwork hid them. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power.. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. Thus. it is an indefinite relative)." etc. no antecedent is expressed. who having the antecedent gentleman. what is interrogative. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). it is a simple relative. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 2 (b)." Likewise with which in 3 (b). "Who stood behind? We knew. and 3 (b). it is an interrogative. if not. showing that who is plainly interrogative. How to decide. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide.²EMERSON. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. which would indicate that they are not relatives. a question is disguised in each sentence. if expanded. But in 1 (b). the full expression being. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone.²ID. Another caution.²WHITTIER. "But what had become of them? They knew not. So in 2 (b). 127. second. 2. if not. 3. which having the antecedent lines. and whether what = that + which (if so. In studying such sentences. . (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. would be.

which. 2.²CARLYLE.²GOLDSMITH. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²HOLMES. but the life of man in England. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. In the first. Exercise.²G. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Put in the relatives who. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.128. 129. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. and Court Calendars. which has the antecedent hue. I visited many other apartments. and asks no question. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. . Thus. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. whence is the interrogative word.² THACKERAY. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists.²FLETCHER. When Goldsmith died. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew.²FORSTER 6. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. whose has the antecedent you. Relative omitted when object. 4. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. The insect I am now describing lived three years. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. In the second.² These are the sounds we feed upon. ELIOT. On the other hand.²SWIFT. the question is asked by the verb. 3. In the third. Examine the following:² 1. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. 5. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question.

(b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. and what. or indefinite relatives:² 1. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 130. that.²SHAKESPEARE.²Id. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. There was such a crowd went. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Also in literary English we find the same omission. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.²SCOTT. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. and comparatively so in poetry. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. The nobles looked at each other. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Function of adjective pronouns.Ne'er looks upon the sun. which. the house was full. Examples are.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. It is rare in prose. Relative omitted when subject.² LOWELL. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. which was already proceeding. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. who were to be rulers over whom. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. simple relatives. 6. . 3.7. 2. 5.²CAMPBELL.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.

Adjectives. etc. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. such as this. as some. in the first. For instance. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. Caution. a word.²EMERSON." "Where two men ride on a horse." "one man. in order to be an adjective pronoun. in letters of gold.131. 133." Classes of adjective pronouns. In the first use they are adjectives. or use. or an argument in a paragraph." that is. 132. not pronouns. all. neither. or they may stand for nouns. such as each.²IRVING." in the others. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. "each cube. but have lost their adjective use. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. which we have seen in such expressions as. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. 'Truth. or may be the whole of a sentence. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. and on each is written. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. etc. few. and another to get cool under. that. necessarily thought of: thus. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. either." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. expressed or understood. "The dead are there. "these pranks. ." in the second. but in this function. any. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence.²BRYANT. many. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. etc. Primarily they are adjectives. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. and stand for a noun. none. For example. must not modify any word.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. the former. "another bank. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS.

²ID. They had fewer books. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. but these were of the best. for example. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Their minds accorded into one strain. because he was not lying in wait for these. 2.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. accidentally preserved. A man inspires affection and honor. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. and sow wickedness. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Some of these are simple pronouns.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²LOWELL. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. or reclined. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. or sat. Even as I have seen. Such are a few isolated instances.² They stood.All these he saw. 134.²ID. . as seemed good to each. Simple. 5. when the latter was the King of Spain. Definition and examples. 3. Compound. NOTE. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. they that plow iniquity. reap the same. and they have well performed the other. They have not shunned the one. but what he fain had seen He could not see.²EMERSON 4. Exercises.

Two are compound pronouns. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. for example. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.²HAWTHORNE. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.²KINGSLEY. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. Some inflected. Much might be said on both sides.²HOLMES. paused over a horoscope. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. or melt for others' woe. one another.²each other. . as it were. such as one other. with the superstitions of his time. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. as some of the rangers had gone astray. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. imbued. Definition and examples.²EMERSON. 135. The word one has a reflexive form. They led one another.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. ²HAWTHORNE. as most were. Exercise. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Another opposes him with sound argument. The Soldan. another. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. None shall rule but the humble. you quickly come to the end of all. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. we might the more easily discharge them. as.² One reflexive.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. Men take each other's measure when they react.

every one else. no one. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Exercise. anybody else's. as shown in the words everybody's. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things.Exercise.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. ." It means something. something. I tell you what. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. every one (or everyone). and they. anything. any one (or anyone). everybody. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. they say. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Jove laughs. as. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. They indefinite means people in general. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. and was indefinite in Old English.² At lovers' perjuries. somebody else.. Somebody. nothing. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. unlike adjective pronouns. nobody.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. they are never used as adjectives. anyone else. anybody. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Definition and examples. everything. Now. and somewhat. Every one else stood still at his post. some one. etc. everybody else. also aught. what. in building of chaises. naught. 137. 136. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. but. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.

²a feature of natural scenery for which. I first found myself among the mountains.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 12. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. All was now ready for action. . I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 2. 4. 13. 6. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 16. 3. indeed. Whoever deals with M. 17. 10. 138. to which. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 9. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 11. 18. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. were suffered to depart. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. For this did God send her a great reward. Hutchinson tells us of herself. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. and of no other. A reminder. in his negotiations. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 8. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. The table was good. 7. Others did the same thing. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 5. O thou that rollest above. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. but not to quite so enormous an extent. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Exercise. from my earliest days. 14.

29. and seized a pen. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 25. hear.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 23. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 26. hear! 33. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. They know not I knew thee. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. 32. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. And will your mother pity me.19. 31.Who knew thee too well.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. Whatever he knows and thinks. 34. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. who take the world easy. that let him communicate. He sate him down. eat white bread or brown. 21. 27. variety.And it would work 'em woe.Destroyer and preserver. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 35. well-oiled dispositions. thou rollest now. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . A smile of hers was like an act of grace. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. in all its height. And I had done a hellish thing. oh. 30. behold now the semblance of my being. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. I who alone am.

white or red. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. if we are at a distance. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 41. position. or liquid. heavy or light. in pointing out an object. 40." The office of an adjective." "some cities." etc. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. He knew not what to do. 44. such as in the expressions "this man. It may have this office alone. and he learns who receives. As to the kind of words used. 42. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. as. then. who understands me. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. If a chemist discovers a new substance. brittle or tough. and if we are near. Again. He teaches who gives. etc." "that house. We need to add some words to tell its color. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. or gaseous.." "yonder hill. 139. etc. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. size. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. becomes mine.36. Office of Adjectives. that is our permanent state. For example. so that no other will be mistaken for it. "one hat. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 39. 37. or with persons." "a hundred men. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. and so he read. adjectives are used. which was no bad step towards my liberation. Substantives. 38. ADJECTIVES. We are by nature observers. 45. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. the number is limited by adjectives. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. 43. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. . So with any object. Who hears me.

notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "the Roman writer Palladius." . such as. pointing out particular things. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. fair. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. Classes of adjectives. Examples are. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. Definition. words primarily pronouns." "this life-giving book." "ivory-handled pistols. divine. Nouns are not." the "and there." they constitute all his connections. To make this clear.²COLERIDGE." "unlooked-for burden. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "next-door neighbor. to forgive." and the still less significant "and so. derived from proper nouns. "Heaven-derived power. To err is human. rash. remotest.² BACON. 142.²POPE. If he be thankful for small benefits. 143. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. Infinitives." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. "an old English manuscript. (2) Adjectives of quantity. etc. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. it shows that he weighs men's minds. happy. beautiful. With exception of the "and then. deep. such as safe.140. terrible." "ice-cold water. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. and their trash." "the Christian pearl of charity." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. or how much of a thing. (4) Pronominal adjectives. They include relative and interrogative words. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. 141. to describe it or to limit its application." "half-dead traveler. used to tell how many things are spoken of. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. however.

Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. in studying these last-named words. . Oxenham. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. no. Care is needed. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. which are either pure participles used to describe. 144. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. 2. in this. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. For instance: in the sentence. considerable." "an aged man." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. Examples are. and another is drunken." "trailing clouds. any. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." Caution.²COLERIDGE." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. 'Tis midnight. 145." "One is hungry. Exercises. and accomplished is an adjective.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. but small thoughts have I of sleep. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. some. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many." "It came on like the rolling simoom." "a charming sight. much. 143. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." was accomplished is a verb.But ever she looked on Mr. 1. sometimes small.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." "The shattered squares have opened into line.²MACDONALD." was is the verb. having some of each subclass named in Sec." "The clearness and quickness are amazing.

yonder (or yon).²KINGSLEY. "one blaze of musketry. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives." "He had lived by hunting for some months.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. those). but I have gained fourscore." (b) Indefinite numerals. An arrow was quivering in each body. any. no. as. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. Examples.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense." "Then we wandered for many days." "In came some five and twenty more. Not primarily pronouns." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. latter. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. former. its wake." Single ones of any number of changes. Thus.² Every town had its fair. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. The demonstrative adjectives are this. they come under the next division of adjectives. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. (plural these.²VAUGHAN." "I have lost one brother. and with them a few negroes. instead of modifying them. The following sentences present some examples:² . Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. the former²the latter. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "a dozen volunteers. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. that.²CARLYLE. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²THACKERAY. Exercise.²ID." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. are used with plural nouns.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. How many. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. every village. 146. The list. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. When some.

skill which was at pause. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. These do not.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. The silver and laughing Xenil. Indefinite relative adjectives. The taking of which bark. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.²BULWER. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. tell how many things are meant. They are of two kinds.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. WEBSTER..²KINGSLEY. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²D. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²ID. for example. but in the one case. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns."²B. 148. FRANKLIN. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²WORDSWORTH. just as the corresponding pronouns do. These were thy charms.²GOLDSMITH. I verily believe. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. As has been said. 149. but. In which evil strait Mr. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.. skill which was progressive²in the other. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. they are changed to adjectives.²RUSKIN.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. what revenues or garnitures. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.but all these charms are fled. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. . when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.² It matters not what rank he has. Definition. 147. of equal skill.²ID. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²BANCROFT. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. Modify names of persons or things. ²CARLYLE. Oxenham fought desperately. Exercise. like the other numerals.

²IRVING.150. A lady once remarked.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. which is selective among what is known.²LAMB. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. what inquires about things or persons not known. you at least give him full authority over your son. He was turned before long into all the universe. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. Was there. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. As in the pronouns. whatever. Whatsoever kind of man he is. or whether any. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²AGASSIZ...And whichsoever way I turn. proved not altogether displeasing to him. New torments I behold. Examples of their use are. whichever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. and gaze. . whichsoever. 151. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. whichsoever way I move. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. In direct questions. whatsoever. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. it is impossible to determine. In indirect questions. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. which.²RUSKIN.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. and new tormentedAround me. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. nature will be sure to bear us out in.² EMERSON.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. as it rather seemed.²ID. the debt to the rich.²CARLYLE. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. Adjective what in exclamations. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. But when the Trojan war comes. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.

to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. weight. . COMPARISON. etc. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. a sapphire is bluer than the sky..²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. When we place two objects side by side. those). In exclamatory expressions. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. th s (modern those). gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. gold is heavier than iron. 155. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. And yet. which was fully inflected in Old English. 154. or weight. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE.² Oh. This is the old demonstrative. History of this²these and that²those. That.152.²number and comparison.²This. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. All these have certain qualities. and when we compare the objects. It is neither relative nor interrogative. color. But this had also another plural. Meaning of comparison. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. and those as the plural of that. or amount. NUMBER. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.Adjectives have two inflections. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. Exercise. etc. we notice some differences between them as to size. the making of it right. or size. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. Those borrowed from this. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. we do so by means of their qualities. Thus. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. as. of the quality. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. 153 . but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. alas. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.²but not the same degree. The article that was used with neuter nouns.

²THACKERAY. easiest. 158. The two forms. as. and many others. whether they attend their own affair or not. whose favorite pupil he was. So with the words sole. indefatigable. "untamed thought. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. though the simple. giant-like. Substitute for inflection in comparison. and the superlative by adding -est. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 157. Freedom is a perpetual. Definition. red.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. These are properly the only degrees. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. 156. immemorial. The comparative is formed by adding -er." "the largest soul. easy. bluest. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. expressing a greater degree of quality. organic. strictly considered." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. "more matter. but were not common until a century later. reddest. indomitable. great. blue. but. . uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. bluer. 160. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. expressing the greatest degree of quality.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. for example. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. supreme." Words that cannot be compared." "the commonest speech. and the superlative. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. These are called degrees of comparison. universal institution." "no fewer than a hundred. as. 159. sufficient." "It is a nobler valor. redder. A main difference betwixt men is. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. infinite. easier. they are not compared.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. enormous. with less wit. to the simple form.²SEWARD. or amounts in quantity.

which hung behind in the queerest way. and other words are preceded by more and most. honestest. quiet. peaceablest. falling on his knees. strange. finest chiseling." "distantest relationships. witty. 162. there needed to be a most genuine substance. The general rule is. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. The following lists include the majority of them:² . These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. These are adjectives irregularly compared." From Ruskin: "The sharpest.² CARLYLE A gentleman. was most finished. These long. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. as. madam. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.²ID. I will.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. who. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." "more austere and holy. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. harsh forms are usually avoided. mournfulest. though born in no very high degree. easy. most small. and yet familiar. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress.²The Nation." "the wonderfulest little shoes. Adjectives irregularly compared. and patientest fusing. admirablest. indisputablest. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most." "more odd." Carlyle uses beautifulest." said Henry Esmond. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. 163.²ID.Which rule. etc. polished. "So help me God. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression." "sorrowfulest spectacles.

2. uttermost Upmost. outermost Utmost.LIST I. (3) Little is used as positive to less. uppermost LIST III. older Nigher Nearer Later. . [In] Inner Inmost.² We have it in a much lesser degree. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. (2) In Old English. utter 3. which has gone out of use. worst.² O. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. A double comparative. hindermost Much or many More Farther. innermost Outmost. The superlative I form was betst. Good or well Evil. bad. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. 4. as in the sentence (14th century). List I. 1. which has softened to the modern best. evil was the positive to worse.²HAMLET. lesser Elder. last Hindmost. Worser was once used. oldest Nighest. 3. These have no adjective positive:² 1. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. as. There was an old comparative bet. least. though from a different root. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 7. is often used. furthest 10. 8. throw away the worser part of it. a double comparative. latter Hinder LIST II. lesser. as in Shakespeare. [Out] Outer.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. Hind 2. 9. 164. 6. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). next Nearest Latest. 5. further Farthest.

²KINGSLEY.. except the form next. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. etc. strong. strenger. but originally the comparison was nigh. as long. ²LAMB. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. there is scarcely any distinction. next. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form.²ID. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. making the modern farther. and the superlative nearest. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. first. The latter. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. much. doubling the inflection. (5) The forms elder. for example. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. and refer to time. List II. farthest. The most part kept a stolid indifference. . great. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. th came into the others. meaning the largest part. "Many a little makes a mickle. an old superlative ending. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. muchel. near. but not in meaning. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective.. latest. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force." Its spelling has been micel. greatest.²HAWTHORNE.²forth. a distinction has grown up between the two series. the old forms. farrest. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. Since later. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. (9) Latter and last are the older forms.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. further. oldest. etc. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. as. Between the two sets as they now stand. moche. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. In imitation of further. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. are earlier than older. furthest. since the m is for -ma. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. eldest. to which is added -ost. came into use. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. First became entirely detached from the series.² The more part being of one mind. to England we sailed. is quite common. or series. The meanings greater. instead of lenger. are shown in such phrases as.

sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. 166. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. List III. Think what each adjective belongs to. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. 168. Highest and midmost. by the by. 167." "far-seeing as the sun. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. (Sec.165. in having no adjective positives. The adjectives in List III. but they have no adjective positives. Decidedly handsome. and have no comparative force." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Her.²DE QUINCEY. Her bows were deep in the water. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. or have no comparative forms." -Most added to other words. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. but not in their meaning. In List II. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. There. all may belong to the same noun. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²H." "the innermost moral soul. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain.²HAWTHORNE. are like the comparative forms in List II." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. but her after deck was still dry. on the very topmost twig." "The outer is of the day. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. . BEECHER.²KINGSLEY. The comparatives are so in form. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. They have no superlatives.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. the upper light of the world.²SCOTT. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "their utmost exertion. being merely descriptive. W.

rich. 2." making then an adjective. Exercise. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank.²RUSKIN.²BIBLE. In the following quotations.² My then favorite. 7.²NOAH PORTER. we may say "the then king. STOWE. 4. solid. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. 169. round. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank.²HOLMES. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES.For example.²A. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. as. our new government. May we not. now our queen. bright. satisfactory. not decision alone. and broken. usual modifies incomparable decision. therefore. instead of saying. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. The seldom use of it.²HAWTHORNE. the then and still owners. Other instances are. 3. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility." in which then is an adverb. Richard Hooker. ²TROLLOPE. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. But in this sentence." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²HAWTHORNE. This. deep. Bradbury and Evans. It may still be argued. A few improper jests and a volley of good. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. in this sentence. deeply black eyes. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²MRS. By a convenient brevity. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. "the one who was then king. and thine often infirmities. STEPHENS 5. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. Our sometime sister.²TRENCH. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. For thy stomach's sake. . philosophical. and heaven-defying oaths. in prose. H.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. and moral truth. 6.

. Unfamiliar describes truths. positive degree. 4. To every Roman citizen he gives. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. with awkward but rapid pace. and I waited for none. manly way. 3. cannot be compared. To every several man. seventy-five drachmas. MODEL FOR PARSING. therefore descriptive. the method of parsing is simple. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. 9. Since adjectives have no gender. and very few have number. modifies the word truths. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. (3) Its degree of comparison. if it can be compared. 7. 6. this. then. 10. or case. (2) Its number. 2. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. I ask nothing of you. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. not inflected for number. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts.What to tell in parsing. modifies truths. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 8. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. She made no reply. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. frank. (4) What word or words it modifies. Exercise. compared by prefixing more and most. person. In parsing an adjective. This gave the young people entire freedom. 5. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. if it has number. having a singular. 170. across the plain. These points out what truths. therefore demonstrative. plural number.

Like most gifted men. 16. as for armies that were too many by half. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 33. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. yonder oxen in the pasture. 24. during which time I waited. 31. Nearer to our own times. Their name was the last word upon his lips. Here lay two great roads. are immutably fishes. 13. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. the same love to France would have been nurtured. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. oxen. 28. 18. 22. 20. and dogs. In music especially. 14. 29. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. . With every third step. he won affections with ease. 32. growing in the most unfavorable position. 26. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 19. it rests on reality. is the settlement of our own country. not so much for travelers that were few. 25. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. those dogs in the yard. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 21. I know not what course others may take. 23. suggests such thoughts as these. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple.11. and therefore more interesting to us. 27. and many poles supported the lower ones. Two hours elapsed. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 12. To say what good of fashion we can. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. the tomahawk fell. it is so noble a fruit.

Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. 37. Two relics. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. ðat. Our expressions the one. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. the tother. An or a came from the old numeral n. these occurring as the tane.34. the other. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. a before consonant sounds. weary-hearted man was he. 174. the latter is still preserved in the expression. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. Examples: "a house.²SCOTT. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds." An with consonant sounds. the tother. th o. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. that) which was also an article in Old English. 173. just as adjectives do. the tither. that other.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. or the tane." "a yelling crowd." "an orange." "a European. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. later th . meaning one. Many writers use an before h. 35. An historian. sometimes the tother. even when not silent. for example. he is no literary man." the words the and an belong to nouns. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. with an ordinary little garden. and a before consonant sounds.²BREWER." "an honor. A hard-struggling. in vulgar English. ARTICLES. Their origin. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. s o. In Middle English the became an article. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. In the sentence. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. 172. were formerly that one. such as we have been attempting to describe. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road.²MACAULAY. but the former is used. An before vowel sounds. . 171.

is referred to. NOTE.² .. not descriptive. which cannot be used alone. and when the word river is omitted. 178. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. Definition. on opening a story. as in the sentence. thus. or any individual of a group or class.²COLERIDGE.²This use is noticed when.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. or a group or class of things. Kinds. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. 179. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.²IRVING. An hereditary tenure of these offices. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.² Don't you remember how. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. An or a is the indefinite article." the article indicates clearly that a river. the older n.²HEROES OF ASGARD.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²THACKERAY. 175. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. When the is prefixed to a proper name. With names of rivers." "the Ohio. The is the definite article. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. as "the Mississippi. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.. since it points out a particular individual. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. doubtless. The Dakota tribes. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.²G. Reference to a known object.. An and a are different forms of the same word. 177. a person is introduced by a. An article is a limiting word. or group. or class. Articles are either definite or indefinite. 176. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. BANCROFT. and not a state or other geographical division. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. To call attention to attributes.

The simple rise as by specific levity. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²GIBBON. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. NOTE. the gallant. If the good is there. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. Kant. 183. Half abstract. Caution. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. His messages to the provincial authorities. One thing for its class. would speedily extract the required information. For possessive person pronouns. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. not into a particular virtue.²EMERSON. Common. With adjectives used as nouns. 182. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 1. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. 181. her. and the redwing.²MOTLEY. 2. With plural of abstract nouns.²G.²ID. etc. the Spinoza. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. laid it on the miry spot.² The faint. as. . throwing his cloak from his shoulders.² As she hesitated to pass on.²ID. The. the song sparrow. or a match put between the fingers. the Hume. Schelling.²KINGSLEY. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. BANCROFT.²EMERSON. so is the evil. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. but into the region of all the virtues.The Bacon. 180.²SCOTT.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. for example.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

for example. the word following. The nature of intransitive verbs. Hence Definition. to go is no predicate. b). 200: In (1). and not a verb. and shame the most astute. and. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. or the object. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. In the first. an adverb. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. etc. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. the most astute. c). 203. Definition and caution. lone took what? answer. might have been anticipated is also one predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. a verb. hence is not a verb. care. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. By examining a few verbs. we consider a verb as one word."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. can deceive has an object. In the sentence. from the Latin transire. an article. In each case. obeyed is a predicate. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. or an idea. in (3. a preposition. and to receive the action expressed. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. representing something which it influences or controls. a noun. In giving a definition. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii.In (a). as. taking the staff which always guided her steps. 202. in this sentence from Bulwer. in (c). The nature of the transitive verb. Of those expressing action. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. Each influences some object. A verb is a word used as a predicate." put is the predicate. in (2. with some word understood. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. (can) shame also has an object. to say something to or about some person or thing. b). Now. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. which may be a person. in (2. which means to go over.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. in (3. endured what? anguish." Examine the sentences in Sec. but cannot be predicates. but fearing is not a predicate. "Put money in thy purse. all do not express it in the same way. a).²BULWER . 201. Has takes the object hypocrisy. or a material thing. 204. in (b). to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. and a preposition unite as a verb. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. All these are called transitive verbs. "Put thou money in thy purse. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. the most penetrating.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

²BRYCE.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. as.²LONGFELLOW. . the writer can make the statement following. they were recorded in the Book of Life. Unreal²cannot be true. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. 215. Ideal. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.² If.I could lie down like a tired child. popular government must be pronounced impossible. 222. or be fulfilled.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.²SHELLEY. Again.²may or may not be true. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. the second founder. 2). Most excellent stranger. 221. the first great founder of the Empire. WEBSTER. he will see the need of these ethics. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.²FRANKLIN. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. and may or may not be regarded true. for example. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.²MACAULAY. If this be the glory of Julius. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. but. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. the representative system ultimately fail. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. Condition or Supposition.²D.² Now. as. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. I. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. ²EMERSON. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. in our case. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.

the conjunction is often omitted: for example. if his lot had been mine. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. though.. is of similar physiognomy. etc. In the following conditional clauses.²MACAULAY. thus. 3. might. do you think.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. . what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. he supposed. that he might be strong to labor. would have sat still with joy and peace. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. and striven energetically to save Ney. But in no case could it be justified. but when the verb precedes the subject.²FRANKLIN. society could not hold together. and should. The voice." etc. clear. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. II. 2. she was regarded as a prodigy. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. the clause being introduced by that or lest. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. 223. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. P. Exercise.²BAYNE. 5.² CARLYLE. ²LOWELL.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. NOTE. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. since he [Byron] was dead.²SWIFT. he had better not have written. that we cannot but regret its absence.²EMERSON. 4. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. melodious... which cannot be true. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.²CALHOUN. I told him. 7. is used to express purpose. Subjunctive of Purpose. and sonorous. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. especially be. to drink strong beer. except. if he speak to you. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. Epaminondas.²N.²FRANKLIN. if he was the man I take him for. may. WILLIS. 8. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. would you. The subjunctive. as.² If these things were true.. If he had reason to dislike him. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. and what kind of condition:² 1. 6. unless.² It was necessary.

is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. 227. 226. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Rise up. III. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²CARLYLE. Subjunctive of Result. In Indirect Questions.²ID. within its fairy bowers. In a Noun Clause. none of us could say.. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²MOORE. Expressing a Wish. I've wished that little isle had wings. V. VI. VII. The English subjunctive. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. like the quarry-slave at night. Let it rise. Ask the great man if there be none greater. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. In Temporal Clauses. WEBSTER.That vain it were her eyes to close. To tell of what had passed. 225.I have been the more particular..And we. . He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. IV. 224.²SOUTHEY..²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²BRYANT.. So live. I would it were! ²EMERSON. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. like the Latin. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. After a verb of wishing.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²COLERIDGE.²D.²WORDSWORTH. till it meet the sun in his coming.Thou go not.Were wafted off to seas unknown.²DE QUINCEY.

The essence of originality is not that it be new. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. (b) Adjective.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. The first merit. Whatever betide. for example. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Concessive Clauses. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. etc. of cash. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.² Be the matter how it may. in apposition. Complement. often contains a subjunctive.And see the Braes of Yarrow. or whatsoever victual it may be. object. After verbs of commanding. See that there be no traitors in your camp. tell me all that thou hast seen.²THOREAU. is. 229.²COLERIDGE.²WORDSWORTH. Object.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. VIII. Some might lament that I were cold. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²SCOTT. 228. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. I have no thought what men they be.²SHELLEY. which may be (a) Pronoun.Subject. is the ultimate fact of man's life.²TENNYSON. The noun clause. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. that everything be in its place. Come. in its various uses as subject..² DICKENS. That hunger of applause. . we'll turn aside.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE.²COLERIDGE.And look thou tell me true.

we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. for example. or requests. 231. Oh. In spoken English. Q. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. entreaties.The spirit he loves remains. (2) Entreaty. Definition. ADAMS.²BRYANT. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. point to their immortal works. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Usually second person. however. Honor all men. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. 232. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. (1) Command. (3) Request. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood.(c) Adverb. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. though. fear none. and condition contrary to fact.²CHANNING. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. It must be remembered. to express a wish. a concession. At the present day. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. love all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are.²SHELLEY. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.² CARLYLE. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. 230. .²J. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.

Oh. Part we in friendship from your land. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.²SCOTT. there will her heart and her prayers be. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.. Quoth she. "The Devil take the goose. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. to you implied in it."²DICKENS Tell me.²CAMPBELL. 2. request. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. "Come along with me. lest we rust in ease. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. Sometimes with first person in the plural." Exercises on the Moods. 7.²SHAKESPEARE.And God forget the stranger!" . Mark thou this difference. 3. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. receive my hand. or I + they. Whatever inconvenience ensue. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. noble earl. 6. 8. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.And. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.."Hush! mother. but I + you. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. nothing is to be preferred before justice.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Break we our watch up." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. etc." whispered Kit. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. child of earth!While each performs his part. we may use the imperative with we in a command.One glance at their array! 5. etc. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.

" 16. how he may do his work. That a man parade his doubt. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. and opinion displace opinion. 13. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. ruined. no literary man. then. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 10. but repentant child. . Forget thyself to marble. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 26. 14. let him live where else he like. "tell me where I may find my poor.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. 20. 11. whether he do it right or wrong.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 19. Marshall. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. my dear madam. 21. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt." continued Old Morgan. as though an instrument. He. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.High up in silver spikes! 22. 23.9. in what pomps and prosperities he like. 18.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. it would speak.That they might answer him. Though abyss open under abyss. He is. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. Though he were dumb. "Oh. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12." cried he.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. Well." 25. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. or do it at all. That sheaf of darts. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. "Mr. she ought to have it. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.Except. will it not fall unbound.

which represented present and future time. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. as will be shown later on. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses.27.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. Tenses in English. 235. in the third person singular. the past. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. such as Latin and Greek. a form ending in -eth. When the older pronoun thou was in use. tell him to wait. by means of the present. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. Definition. or future time. five in the subjunctive. 28. Tense means time. as. five in the imperative. in the conjugations. "It is not in man that walketh.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. have. as the classical languages have. Old English had only two tenses. "I go away tomorrow. past. The tenses in detail. also. TENSE. Meantime. 233.² present. whatever she did. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. and the past tense. or whether it were as one member of a general party. and future perfect tenses. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. 234." . "Thou walkest. past perfect. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. will. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. or agree with it. such as be. to direct his steps. "Thou walkedst.²the present tense. as." "If he comes. shall." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. Siddons.²nothing could exceed the amiable. PERSON AND NUMBER." present. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. and future. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. kind. and the future tense." past. called auxiliaries. past.

[He] is [They] are 3. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walking. In classical languages. chosen (old. Singular 1. PRESENT TENSE. singular number. walk has walk.²am. walks. etc. Singular 1. You (thou) be 3. mood.²choose. are. Definition. walkedst. moods. wert) 3. [He] were [They] were . Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. been. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. is. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Such verbs as choose have five. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. chose. walked. This is the third person. PRESENT TENSE. tenses. chosest). choosing. choosest. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. walketh. chooses. and numbers. The verb be has more forms. as. persons. 236. Indicative Mood. I were 2. chooseth. etc. but in English. tense. since it is composed of several different roots. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. for example.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. You are 2. 237. 238." and this only in the present tense indicative. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. Singular 1. Few forms. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. I be 2. CONJUGATION. "He walks. Singular 1. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. were.

When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. (2) As auxiliary verbs. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.²SHELLEY. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. (3) be. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.His infancy was nurtured.²GOLDSMITH. obligation. same as the German sind. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. The light that never was on sea and land. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. to form the passive voice.²THACKERAY. as. (d) With the infinitive. thus. Remarks on the verb be. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. etc. for example.Imperative Mood.²BURKE .²WORDSWORTH. condition. (2) was. to express intention.. though it is usually a dialect form. in four ways. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²SCOTT.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. 239. were. etc.. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. which was now become an occasional banquet. (b) With the past participle in -ed. -en.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.²ID. Instead of the plural are. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. is. 240.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.

We chose You chose 3. I choose 2. You chose Plural. PRESENT TENSE. Singular. In addition to the above inflected forms. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. as. etc. 1. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. tenses. tenses. Machinery of a verb in the voices. Indicative Mood. You choose Plural. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I shall be. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You choose Plural. future perfect. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. 240. Singular. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. (2). "I have gone" (present perfect). had. We chose You chose 3. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. I choose 2. by placing have. "I had gone" (past perfect). past perfect.241. 242. I chose 2. Singular. Singular. 1. as. 1. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. [He] choose [They] choose 3. 1. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood." "He will choose. You chose Plural. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. I chose 2. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. ." (2) Present perfect.

Present. he have chosen." "They had been running." 243." "You are chosen. Future. Same as indicative. Same as indicative. . though. Past perfect definite. Indicative Mood. as. [If. Past definite. lest. Present. He will he choosing. Imperative Mood. He has chosen. Present definite. He will choose. "I was chosen. Present perfect. he have been choosing. He will have chosen. "I am running. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. etc.] he choose. Present perfect definite. Present perfect definite. Past. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. of each tense. Only the third person. Subjunctive Mood. Future definite. He had been choosing. singular number. He chose. Past perfect. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Future perfect definite. He had chosen. as. will be given. Past perfect definite. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He is choosing. He will have been choosing.) Choose. Future perfect. Present perfect. (2d per. Past. Present. He chooses. Present definite. Past perfect. Past definite. He was choosing. He has been choosing. ACTIVE VOICE.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present definite." (4) The passive forms. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. " Be choosing. he chose (or were to choose).

NOTE." "He did strike. however. Past perfect. Present perfect. Past. He had been chosen. "He does strike. None. He has been chosen. Past definite. None. he have been chosen. . Present definite. Exercises should be given.. None. He will be chosen. Present. Past. Present perfect definite. but verbals. Imperative Mood. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. etc. He will have been chosen.] [If. 262). He was being chosen. None. He is being chosen.] he be chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Past Perfect. he had been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. " " " " " " " None. Present. (2d per. he were being chosen. Present perfect. Future. though. as. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. None. if learned at all. Past definite. None. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Present perfect definite. Past perfect definite. Also. in affirmative sentences.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. they will be discussed later (Sec.²This table is not to be learned now.) Be chosen. Present tense. Present definite. He is chosen. lest. Subjunctive Mood. Future definite. Past perfect definite. He was chosen. Future perfect definite. Indicative Mood. Future perfect." [Note to Teacher.

clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. Past Tense. ran. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. beg. According to form. sleep. drive.[adj. bit blown broken chidden. drove. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. Some of these also have weak forms. but adds no ending. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. bounden] bitten.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. 245. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. lay. begged. as. which are in parentheses Present Tense. and may or may not change the vowel: as. Definition. slept. run. catch. laid. caught. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. NOTE. Kinds. verbs are strong or weak. 244. bid bound. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

"²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. instead of ate and eaten.²TENNYSON. now told us it was time for repose. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. especially in that of an earlier period. and another (born) for the passive. as. Sometimes in literary English.²MILTON. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. 246. cloven. but is much used in vulgar English." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. which always crew at eleven. nor a dog barked." "the cloven hoof. as.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. cleaved. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.²as (from Shakespeare). and the latter. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. "stricken with paralysis. Not a cock crew. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t)." In this confusion of usage. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²one meaning to adhere or cling. cleft (to split). for example. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. borne is also a passive.²GOLDSMITH. and.²cleave. Historically. and sometimes occurs in poetry. cleaved. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. as." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. . The former used to be cleave.²B. When it means to carry or to endure.² Thou hast clomb aloft. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English." "a sunken snag. the other. to split. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.² We had each drank three times at the well. as (from Holmes).²IRVING. The form clomb is not used in prose.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. cleft. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. "his bounden duty." "a drunken wretch.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. ²THACKERAY. Our cock. only one set remains certain. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). TAYLOR. clave or clove. cleave.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²COLERIDGE. probably to avoid confusion with this.

found.The form gotten is little used. for example. Find. We usually say. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. 5. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 10.² We had all got safe on shore. Give. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. (a) From the table (Sec. Drive. . "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. as "a shorn lamb. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. One example out of many is. which is seldom used except in poetry. driven.²BIBLE. for example.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. flung.²DE FOE. Usually shear is a weak verb. maiden.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. shaken. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. This heard Geraint. 3. even in poetry. Freeze. 4. shore is rare. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. drove. found. broken. 9. 245). 8."²KINGSLEY. fell. threw.²TENNYSON. flung. 2. fallen. and seized a pen. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. 7. thrown. frozen. Break. Fall. gave." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs.²WORDSWORTH.² If. He sate him down. given. shook. as. froze. Fling. Exercises. Throw. begun. 6." but not much as a participle. began.²SCOTT. The butler was hanged. Shake. Begin. and grasping at his sword.²BYRON. broke.

etc. His superiority none might question.²CHANNING This. PAST.. PAST. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. as. according to the infinitive used.²SCOTT. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. PRESENT. . purpose. Must is historically a past-tense form.. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. Ability. of course. 220. as in Sec. as it sometimes does. Like must. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. but came through analogy with should and would.²PAINE. Indicative Use: Permission.[To the Teacher. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise."²WINIER. ability. Can is used in the indicative only.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. HAMILTON.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed... which survives in the sentence. Could may be subjunctive. as it has two meanings. "So mote it be." Must is present or past tense. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 247. etc. 250. 249. (See also Sec.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. Have we valuable territories and important posts.. Subjunctive use.²HAWTHORNE. or. there is one general principle. 251. it is used only in the indicative mood. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. "far off his coming shines. The same remarks apply to ought. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. or when it expresses wish.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. 223. from the obsolete verb motan.²CHANNING. The l in could did not belong there originally. It is indicative when it expresses permission. for full drill on the forms. must have been an ocular deception.

² (a) To express authority. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. The sea shall crush thee. She should not walk. especially in the United States. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. for example. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. he said. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. (b) In indirect quotations. . (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. shall and should are used. not plod along like apeasant. yea. Second and third persons. (b) In questions asking for orders. 252. to the neglect of shall and should. as.²L.Nay. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. BROCKDEN BROWN. promise. I shall be gone. They shall have venison to eat. The following are examples:² Never mind.² With respect to novels. WEBSTER. "I think I will go. while ought always has to. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. as.²BULWER. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. Shall and Will. what shall I say?²N. and corn to hoe. she should ride like a queen.²MACAULAY. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. or confident prediction. as.² The time will come full soon.e. in the form of command. shall and should are used. with pronouns of the first person. C. She rejects his suit with scorn.²IRVING.²COOPER. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.² Futurity and questions²first person.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.. MOULTON. future action). to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i." Uses of shall and should.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.²LONGFELLOW.²THAXTER. my lad. to use will and would.

.²WORDSWORTH. Disguising a command.² I will go myself now.²CABLE. 253. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. First.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. or a promise. as the sole inventor. JAMES. and is equivalent to ought. (c) With direct questions of the second person. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. for example.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. I never was what I should be.that I would do him justice.²SCOTT. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. B.²BYRON..²C. with the conviction that he should win in the end. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. for example. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener..²SWIFT.²A. BROWN. LARNED. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.. thus. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. JR.²ROGERS. and will not return until all is finished. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. And promised.²WORDSWORTH.²WINTER. second and third persons. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. was to be expected. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. time. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²H. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. etc. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²WORDSWORTH. as. purpose.

. as. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.² Subject I omitted: often so. The gift of Beauty. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. through storms their brothers are afraid of. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives..² DICKENS. as.²the original meaning of the word will..²LANDOR. SECOND. action merely expected to occur. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.. Thine was a dangerous gift.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. (5) With the THIRD PERSON..²War Records. without regard to future time.²SCOTT. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²BURKE. so you will. AND THIRD PERSONS. will is used to express command. To be sure. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. for example. This puts the order more mildly. BROWN. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. will and would are used to express simple futurity. (4) With FIRST. as if it were merely expected action. would is used to express a wish. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. Would thou hadst it not. when thou wast born. 254.²BANCROFT. B. In this stately chair would he sit.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. .² Thou wilt take the skiff. and mark on the grounds the works..² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. When I am in town.²SCOTT.²IRVING. and two of my people. for example. They will go to Sunday schools. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. will and would often denote an action as customary. PASSIVE VOICE. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. etc. Roland. for punishment or intimidation. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. Mere futurity.

2. Thou shalt have a suit. 4. yet only seem. I will choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten." answered Herbert stubbornly. 3. 2. [They] shall choose. We will be chosen. promise. [He] shall be chosen. 3. [He] will choose. 1. Singular. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1.Singular. I will be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. [They] shall be chosen. You will choose. Thou art what I would be. . He informed us. We shall be chosen. 2. (a) From Secs. etc. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. [They] will be chosen. [They] will choose. 2. Singular. Singular. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 2. 252 and 253. Plural. You shall choose. To express determination. 2. You shall choose. I shall choose. Plural. 3. We will choose. "I shall not run. Plural. I shall be chosen. 1. Plural. [He] shall choose. 3. 1. 3. 1. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 6. and that of the newest cut. 1. [He] will be chosen. You will be chosen. and justify the use of shall and will.:² ACTIVE VOICE. You will choose. We shall choose. 5. You will be chosen. You shall be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences. PASSIVE VOICE. 3. You shall be chosen.

256. and I have nothing to say. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Present Tense. But the rest. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. bereave beseech bereft. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. my son. bereft." the stranger said. No. and have no change of vowel. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. 255. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. or mylk and wastel breed. bereave besought Past Participle. The beast made a sluggish movement. Irregular Weak Verbs. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. The old ending to verbs of Class II. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 11. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. 10. bereaved besought . 257. was -de or -te. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.²CHAUCER. set.²Class I. put. This ending has now dropped off. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 9. need some attention and explanation. very anxious. which may be called irregular weak verbs.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. as. Past Tense.7. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. 12. put. Lucy stood still. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. 13. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. put.²ID. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. Without having attended to this. WEAK VERBS. Of smale houndes hadde she. then. "I am a wayfarer. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs." 14. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. set. as if he would have more of the enchantment.

stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leapt left lost meant paid penned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped. spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. [To] have been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. 8. have no tense. Imperfect. to express action unconnected with a subject. I returned to reflection on my situation. formed a kind of bedstead. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. [To] be choosing. 266. [To] have been chosen.²the creature warring against the creating power. But later. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Perfect. and a perfect definite form. a perfect. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 268. [To] have chosen. try clemency. .6. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. INFINITIVES. as in the Old English. an indefinite and a perfect form. Perfect definite. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Nothing of the kind having been done. [To] choose. When active. 10. In Sec. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. an imperfect.. 9. Three saplings. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). Cases when to is omitted. and when passive. Infinitives.. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. like participles. To with the infinitive. when inflections became fewer. to was used before the infinitive generally. [To] be chosen. Perfect. they have an indefinite. ACTIVE VOICE.. expressing purpose. will (with should and would). Indefinite. 7. Indefinite. 267.

also in the imperative. "a house to let. liberal woman. it has several attributes of a noun. please. poor woman!" cried Charles. The gerund is like the participle in form. also let. or the object of a verb or a preposition. While the gerund expresses action. as. They shall have venison to eat. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. as. . GERUNDS. it is often preceded by the definite article. 269. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.² She was a kind. make.²COOPER. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). and corn to hoe. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs.²HOWELLS." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms.²DE QUINCEY. "He will choose. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. 271. negative.²E. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. learn [doth learn is one verb. sometimes need (as.²TENNYSON. as in the expression. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. But there was nothing to do. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.²MACAULAY.). present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. "I do go" etc.² What! doth she. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. it may be the subject of a verb. and emphatic forms of the present and past. must. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. 270. (3) After had in the idiomatic use." (4) In exclamations. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.. under "Analysis. watch. feel. too." etc.²IRVING." "I shall have chosen. can (could). 272. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. as. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. and like a noun in use. hear. do (as.²it may be governed as a noun. "She ask my pardon. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. see. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. bid (command)." Examples are. E. as the credulous imagine.²GOLDSMITH.(2) After the verbs may (might). HALE.

and wonderful store of learning! . SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. Sec. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. after examining the nest. (6) Verbal nouns. but cannot govern. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. which express action." also (2. which have lost all verbal force. 273. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. (5) Gerunds. to see the returning hope of the parents. when. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. making the definite tenses." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. 4. and five gerunds." Exercise. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. which express action. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. II). brilliant. Then how pleasing is it. which express action and also modify. according to use as well as meaning. which name an action or state. Words in -ing are of six kinds. What a vast." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. on your leaving the spot. (4) Pure adjectives. (3) Participial adjectives. Exercise. (2) Pure participles. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. and has been put down. 2. five infinitives.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. may govern and be governed.²Find sentences containing five participles." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. but do not assert. b). above." "Certainly dueling is bad.

Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. In parsing verbs. (4) Tense. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 14. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 16. (5) Person and number. Caution.²which of the tenses given in Sec.5. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. he gave out sentence by sentence. (3) Mood. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 15.²strong or weak. give reality to your teaching. slowly. . I suppose I was dreaming about it. like Sir Walter Scott. What is dreaming? 8. 7. 11. giving principal parts. 13. round which is an iron railing. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 234.²active or passive. 10. subjunctive. (2) Voice. bearing her national emblem. you must. Thackeray did not. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 6. 9. 275. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing.²transitive or intransitive. 12. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. dictating from his chair. but. or imperative. much corroded. VERBS. He spread his blessings all over the land.²indicative. by object lessons. write twenty pages without stopping. (b) as to use. I. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating.

2. call might a weak verb. definite. Exercise. etc. (b) whether indefinite. therefore active. intransitive. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 235. past tense. active. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. intransitive. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. then parse it as an adjective. 278(2). (2) Infinitive. and not taken as single verbs. give points (a) and (b). see Sec. (a) From what verb derived. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (1) Participle. has the subject government. In 2. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (b) whether active or passive. (b) its use (Sec. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Let it rise! let it rise. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. (c) to what word it belongs. till it meet the sun in his coming. past tense. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. III. indicative. 2. and should always be analyzed as phrases. If a participial adjective. 4. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. verbals. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. in the world. imperfect. You are gathered to your fathers. perfect. Take these examples:² 1. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. II. But unless the verb is present. usually it does not. we must beware of the rule. 273). would. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. has for its subject Lee. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. In such sentences as 1. Parse the verbs. and ends in -s. 277. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. VERB PHRASES. can. call should a weak verb. might. could. must. Especially frequent are those made up of should. followed by a pure infinitive without to.276. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. may. indicative (as it means could). . 278." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. etc. no sin nor sorrow. (3) Gerund." Sometimes it does.. 3. and parting day linger and play on its summit. It has been intimated in Sec. VERBALS. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. perfect.

and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 11. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 10. 14. as rolled from wing to wing. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. see that it is in good condition. 13. When he arose in the morning. In going for water.Down all the line. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. Right graciously he smiled on us. 17. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.O God. 6. he thought only of her. morning is not a new issuing of light. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. or. a new bursting forth of the sun. a new waking up of all that has life. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 9. 15. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 22. and wondered if she were yet awake. So. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 23. 16. The soul having been often born. as the Hindoos say.Henceforth in me instill. He passed across the room to the washstand. 18. 12. 24. 8. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 19. as usual. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. a deafening shout. leaving me upon the bed. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. a sweet good will." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 21. With them. 20. .5. However that be. from a sort of temporary death.

." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. for example. because.Feast while we may. thou sayest. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.²CARLYLE. 26. Is it only poets. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²EMERSON. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree."²DE QUINCEY. "William's private life was severely pure. as. and live ere life be spent. who live with nature?²ID. A verb.25." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.²SHELLEY." "He was absolute. And now wend we to yonder fountain. ADVERBS. Nor was it altogether nothing. to consent. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Better it were. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. to speak truly. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. place. The word adverb means joined to a verb. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend.²THACKERAY. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. and men of leisure and cultivation. 279. To the almost terror of the persons present.² The young man reveres men of genius. and limit adjectives or adverbs." An adjective or an adverb. 27. When action is expressed. Adverbs modify. and so on. for the hour of rest is at hand. 29.²time. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Oh. or manner: as. they are more himself than he is.

²BYRON. as shown in the sentences. or a word group used as such. 281. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. for example. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. ²IRVING. then. Surely happiness is reflective.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. We are offered six months' credit. but some verb understood. but still with a rich bloom to it. etc. An adverb. A phrase. before.He was incidentally news dealer. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. there are six classes:² (1) Time. being adverbs naturally and fitly. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. NOTE. and that. thus. 169. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. as. Definition. and half awfully. Make music to the lonely ear. like the light of heaven.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.² FRANKLIN.²These last differ from the words in Sec. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. B. 280. 282. which may qualify an action word or a statement. I draw forth the fruit. but really modifying. is a modifying word.²THOREAU.²T. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. to-day. ever. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. Thus considered. .²TROLLOPE. 169 are felt to be elliptical. not simply the forms used in predication. (2) according to their use in the sentence. hitherto. while those in Sec. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.²LEIGH HUNT. It may also modify a sentence.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. lately. ALDRICH. has induced some of us to attend it. perhaps. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. as now.² LOWELL. A clause or sentence. not the noun. all wet and glossy. NOTE.

much. while so precedes only the adjective usually. just. singly. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. etc.thence.²IRVING. above.. Emerson. telling how many times: once. not.²BROWNING. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.²DE QUINCEY.whence. etc. (see also Sec. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. as well. thus.²BURKE. (4) Number. especially the comparative of these words. beautifully.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. two by two.² The master. 283. etc. possibly. Meekness.where. etc. . slightly. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. White.whither.. whencesoever. surely. too. as little.²LECKY. that these adverbs form a very large class. very. bravely. the more evidently they love liberty. slowly.²SHAKESPEARE. better. enough. etc. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.which gained him such universal popularity. telling how anything is done. and others. for example. The more they multiply. Thackeray. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. as hence.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. LOUIS STEVENSON. Motley... whithersoever. This long's the text.there.near. twice. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. telling how much.²R.(2) Place.²HAWTHORNE. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. maybe..was for this once of her opinion. (3) Manner. greatly. etc. So also in Grote. (5) Degree. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. partly. as here. the more perfect will be their obedience. 283). probably. at least.thither. as perhaps. (6) Assertion. [Sidenote The status of such.yonder. and not infrequently are found in literary English. as hither. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. the more friends you will have. I was. or how far he believes it to be true.

It is only occasionally used in literary English." "He spoke positively [manner]. and other writers. Kingsley. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.Pretty. Neville.² You are mighty courteous. Such are most of those given already in Sec. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Again. Some adverbs. STOWE.² "Mighty well.²THACKERAY.²BAYNE." said the king. Dickens. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Emerson. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Direct questions. Aldrich. I perceived his sisters mighty busy." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. B. .²HAWTHORNE. besides modifying.²"He walked too far [place].²FIELDING. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form.² KINGSLEY. Notice meanings.²BULWER. Hard blows and hard money. Pretty is also used by Prescott. and its lawn before [place]. Interrogative. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Simple. 285. Burke. A pretty large experience. a mighty fine gentleman. "Peace.²THACKERAY." "The house. Mighty. De Quincey. Franklin. and art but a fool. for example. 282." "I have seen you before [time]. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.²GOLDSMITH. Beau Fielding. for example."²SCOTT." "That were far better [degree]. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Holmes. 286. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Defoe." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. have the additional function of asking a question. 284. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.

I hearkened.²BYRON (3) Manner.²POE. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.²BYRON. I know not why. When did this humane custom begin?²H. (4) Degree. (4) Degree. I do not remember when I was taught to read. for example. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. . as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (2) Place. they smiled. (5) Reason.²D.²BULWER. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. 287. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. CLAY. WEBSTER.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. I will not ask where thou liest low. (2) Place. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.

Exercise. when does not express time and modify. highest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. when compared. furthest (rathe.eyes. soon. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. obs. soonest. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. higher.²SHAKESPEARE. .²COLERIDGE. just as adjectives do.. as. 290. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. further farthest.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Tell what each word in ly modifies. but the whole clause. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. have the same inflection as adjectives. 288. irregularly compared. Superlative. The following. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative." Exercise. use.²EMERSON. see Sec.) rather 289. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Many adjectives have the same ending. high. sooner. well much little far late Comparative. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.²BYRON. and. Its strings boldlier swept.²TENNYSON. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. when. only occasionally having -er and -est. Only that we may wiselier see. not an adverb. Form vs. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. representing four classes.But in reality. For further discussion. Many adverbs are compared. Then must she keep it safelier.. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.

" Compare these:² 1. etc.²ID.²IRVING. 5. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. 7. even. 2. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. nearly. merely introduces a sentence. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. 3. Such are most. Not near so black as he was painted. or down the leaves laughed through. With his proud. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. The reason is. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. He is inexpressibly mean. But he must do his errand right. many words without -ly have the same form. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. hard. Again. as. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.²THACKERAY.²TENNYSON. if it has the verb be. 291. kindly and good-natured in secret. 292. but with a different meaning. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. 2. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. to be sure. instead of being used adverbially.And his mien of kingly state. hardly. Special use of there. 6. whether adverbs or adjectives.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. 4. . a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. evenly. more courtly in their manners. near. 8.²CHAUCER. that in Old and Middle English. There are eyes. mostly.1. Frequently the word there.² EMERSON.²WORDSWORTH. quick-flashing eye. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. And all about. curiously jolly.

We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. and always. 3.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 12. is always politically unwise. 15. (2) Degree of comparison. 10. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 11. 17. 9. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. But a few steps farther on. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. according to meaning and also use. The higher we rise in the scale of being. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. but continually shifted. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. In parsing adverbs. 293. if the word is compared. burning in the center of the temple. . How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 4. and sate down on the steps of a house. 7. however theoretically enticing. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 16. For the impracticable. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 5. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. the Madonna is in great glory. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. (3) What word or word group it modifies. give² (1) The class. 18. Exercise. at the regular wine-shop. 2. but from my fall? 6. Thither we went. It is the Cross that is first seen. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14.

(2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States." Paragraphs. But now the wind rose again. sentences. 294. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. 21. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. then. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. 295. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. however. Unlike adverbs. or sentence groups." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. Clauses. It was pretty bad after that. 22. etc. nor. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. . (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. but the student will readily find them. should be omnipotent for evil? 24." Sentences. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. but side by side within the American Union. Definition." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. word groups. CONJUNCTIONS. upon which the sun now shone forth. A conjunction is a linking word. 20. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. therefore. hence. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. connecting words.19. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause.

likewise. 297. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. (2) Subordinate. Some of these go in pairs. Causal.or. While the earth bears a plant.. 296.. the bread was spent. as well as.. word groups.nor. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. Some go in threes..or. Correlatives. then.nor. still. however.or. had its weight. else. as well as the room door.. etc.. serves but to show their ignorance.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. not only.but (or but also).. usually between two things. moreover... as.but. They are or. nor. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. hence. not only. either. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. joining words. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. (4) ALTERNATIVE. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. but is emperor in his own right. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.. while. and. (2) ADVERSATIVE.. 298.or whether. whether. only. whether. whether. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. (3) CAUSAL. as but. for. either. introducing a reason or cause. yet.... expressing a choice... neither.. neither. also.. the window being open. the butter too. either. "Howbeit. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. etc.or. or the sea rolls its waves.. Alternative. therefore.. nor. Your letter. Adversative.and. however. both. answering to each other in the same sentence.. neither. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. of the same rank. The chief ones are. . as and. as. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.. The assertion. Nor mark'd they less. and not man corn.Classes of conjunctions.." Nevertheless. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. etc.

. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. sometimes if.²BURKE. etc. howsoever. so that. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. whenever. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. (3) MANNER: how. that. there will the heart be also. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. (6) PURPOSE: that. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. provided.²IRVING. since.²BIBLE. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. QUINCY. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.²WILSON. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. ²ALLSTON. after. wherever. on condition that. as. though. except. whereas. (7) RESULT: that. It is. unless. . or whether such a body is moved along my hand. provided that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. so. ere. so. Neither the place in which he found himself. as. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. nor wing of bird. nor green leaf. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. as. before. Time. 299. (2) TIME: when.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched.as. He is not only bold and vociferous. whithersoever. object. so. etc. in apposition.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. even if. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. in order that. lest.²J. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican.. in case. since. etc. whether. Where the treasure is.²COOPER. seeing. however. nor echo. so that. etc. although. while. nor creeping thing.²PAULDING.. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. whereto. especially that after so. whither.. now. until.²DE QUINCEY. whence. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. etc.

²BYRON. H. a thousand bodies. reason. .²EMERSON. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.² H.²DEFOE.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²EMERSON. not as they were expected or intended. I was again covered with water. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²AMES.²EMERSON. Manner.²CAMPBELL. JACKSON. Then Denmark blest our chief.²AMES. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. We wish for a thousand heads.²COLERIDGE.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Purpose. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Concession. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Cause.² WORDSWORTH. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.That vain it were her eyes to close. but not so long but I held it out. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²AMES.So I behold them not. Condition.² HAWTHORNE. As a soldier. Let the world go how it will. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Result.That he gave her wounds repose. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.² EMERSON.²BURKE. Now he is dead. Substantive. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²IRVING. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Comparison.

2. As will have been noticed. it will remain harmless. The moth fly. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. while. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. hold a subordinate rank. And then recovering. While a faction is a minority. her real merit is known at home.²RUSKIN. . the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. No one had yet caught his character. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 5. 10. 15. then. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. some words²for example. 13. 14. she faintly pressed her hand. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. After he was gone. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 6. 12. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. In what point of view.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. And they lived happily forever after. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. They. the lady called her servant. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. Exercises. the wisest. as. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. as he shot in air. etc. He was brought up for the church. 3.Let us see whether the greatest. however. that. 7. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. While patriotism glowed in his heart. and hid her there. since. 300. 4. Besides. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. 9. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. Crept under the leaf.

only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. word groups. His voice .. 301. even as they would weep. . 304.²EMILY BRONTE. As for as if. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. As though. and the frame will suit the picture.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. 303. none of the lashings having given way. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.²BYRON. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if." as.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. As if. and be a bud again. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.Clouded.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. expressing degree if taken separately. as is shown by the use of as though. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. So silently we seemed to speak. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. In Emerson's sentence. for example. GREELEY. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. In parsing conjunctions. In poetry. in this case..As though a rose should shut.²HOOD. (2) What words. "We meet. the expression would be.²IRVING. they connect. 302.. Consequently. If analyzed. thus. as is often equivalent to as if. etc. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. SPECIAL REMARKS.16. and part as though we parted not. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.So slowly moved about. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.

in 3. the Sphinx was slain. as beside his own chimneys. 2.. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. in 2. compare the sentences. and very seldom?" 8. such as nor. It continued raining. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. 10. . There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. If he could solve the riddle. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.²is subordinate of condition. he is also the correlative of nature. 13. All the postulates of elfin annals.Caution. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. so they paddled on. or in the snow. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor.²EMERSON 3.²that the fairies do not like to be named. 11. Exercise. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. when. dines with as good an appetite. When the gods come among men. He dismisses without notice his thought. At sea.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. and. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. and associates as happily. 12. and the like. 5. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. etc. he sleeps as warm. so that expresses result.² 1. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. and its clause depends on the other. In classifying them.²DEFOE 2. 9. but of the natural. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. He is the compend of time. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. For example. so means therefore. they are not known. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. that it might testify of that particular ray. are regularly of one particular class. so means provided.²I find them true in Concord. 7. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. so that I could not stir abroad." said his wife to Martin Luther. 6. others belong to several classes. because. because it is his. 4. and its clause is independent. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. Some conjunctions. so it be faithfully imparted. "Doctor. or in the forest. It may be safely trusted. 3.

seeing that it behooves me to hasten. Goodness must have some edge to it. save it were sinful like herself. won't you lay on? 17. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. PREPOSITIONS. therefore. And whether consciously or not. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 26. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 22. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 29. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. however. 19. that both were wayward. 28. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. whose names I omit. . 18. I speak. 24. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 305. For. 30. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 20.. 16. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. the whole conditions are changed. in this they agree. There was no iron to be seen. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. It may be so in the majority of cases. enthroned. 21. It is clear. 23.²else it is none. in many a heart. Now you have the whip in your hand. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. you must be.14. when it was presented to them. of good novels only. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. Still. 25. she might have the family countenance. 15. 27.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²ID. by the wrecks of time. he stopped. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.²R. at one. (3) Agency or means. at war. She saw the boat headed for her. the first port made by the ship. STODDARD. at once. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. At St. Helena. at the worst. by many a million of acres.²M. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at random. at first. at least.²B. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at play. expressing the degree of difference.²WARNER. By. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. Exercise. By my faith.. at rest. at peace. at the best. etc. by the ruins of nations.²SWIFT. CONWAY. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail.²ALDRICH. TAYLOR The angel came by night. At that time [the earth] was richer.² (1) The general meaning of place. 320. by means near or close to. at any rate. 321.²EVERETT.²DE QUINCEY. at naught.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at length. by the blessed memory of the departed. Exercise. etc. ²PARTON. H. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. D. Like at. (4) Measure of excess. (2) Time. at work.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at most. . For. as.²COOPER. at all. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. Richard was standing by the window.

²H. and leaped for joy. incitement to action.²PARKMAN." said the Lady of Lochleven. BANCROFT.. respecting. etc.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.²PARKMAN.One of Eve's family.²IRVING. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.² RUSKIN. An Arab woman. poor fellow. The twilight being. etc. "For a fool. as being.(2) In favor of. meaning although.²W. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. meaning with regard to. E."²SCOTT By my faith. There are gains for all our losses..²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²EMERSON. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. GARRISON. in behalf of. etc. He and they were for immediate attack. he repented of his folly. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. had a forest of poor relations. (9) Motive.²HOLMES. or extent of space. the Colonna motto would fit you best.²HOOD." answered Master Brackett.²ID. ate her child. L. if your worship can accomplish that. (7) Concession. But the Colonel. "thou hast counseled wisely. meaning in the character of. For the rest. H. . as to. or in spite of. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²E. (3) Duration of time. reason. for all slips of hers. cause. a person or thing. (6) Like as.²LAMB.²STODDARD. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. Still. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. (5) Reference. For him. but a few sunsets since. they are now for us. considering that etc. "Nay. for famine. for the benefit of. (4) Substitution or exchange. for all his title.

BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. nay. From harmony. Like boys escaped from school. From. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²H.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. The young cavaliers. Exercise.²HALE. (4) Motive. cause. The From Relation.²HUME. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. 323. The king holds his authority of the people.²MILTON.²DRYDEN. if not a desperate man. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. like from.²HIGGINSON. 322. from a desire of seeming valiant. A distrustful. Exercise. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. H. It was from no fault of Nolan's. The general idea in from is separation or source. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. (1) Origin or source. (2) Origin.²ID. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. ceased to be merciful. more. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²HUXLEY. (3) Time.²BANCROFT.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. Of. . or reason. The original meaning of of was separation or source.

south of. out of the most unpromising materials. ²GAVARRE. (d) With words expressing distance. divest. disarm. bound with thongs of boar's hide. etc. You cannot make a boy know.²SCOTT Who formed."²E. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. weeds.²clear of.²ALDRICH. "I am glad of that. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. relieve.²ID. free of. demand. (c) After nouns expressing lack. expressing a part of a number or quantity. (b) After some adjectives. deprive. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. beg.² HUXLEY. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. Other Relations expressed by Of. cure. especially out of.²BAYARD TAYLOR.²DICKENS II. Sandals. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. More than one altar was richer of his vows. Of the Forty. A singular want of all human relation. rid.²HIGGINSON. (3) With expressions of material. HALE. . He is away of his own free will. of his own knowledge. etc. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. acquitted them of. etc. etc.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. there were only twenty-one members present.²BANCROFT.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.²LEW WALLACE. (6) Partitive. motive.. Back of that tree. that Cromwell once ruled England. and grass. The hills were bare of trees. bare of. as north of. or breastpin of native gold. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. White shirt with diamond studs.²PARKMAN. wide of. E. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. free. clear. deprivation. such as ease. etc. purge. ²PARTON. reason. rob. (5) Expressing agency. Asked no odds of.²BOSWELL. ask.

which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Idiomatic use with verbs.²COOPER. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. Such a book as that of Job.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. equal to about.He washed out some of the dirt. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. ²IRVING. when the first is descriptive of the second. (10) Of reference. being equivalent to an infinitive. The nation of Lilliput. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. of is used in the sense of during. for the possessive. (b) Noun and gerund. .²W. etc.²FROUDE. Not even woman's love. 309. concerning.²PRESCOTT.²LAMB. (7) Possessive. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. CHANNING. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²LOWELL. of a sudden. E.²BANCROFT..²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. with regard to. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. standing. of late. (8) Appositional.²ALDRICH. (c) Two nouns. Besides the phrases of old. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. See also Sec. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. The fair city of Mexico. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. and the dignity of a queen.²HALLECK.²SWIFT.²BANCROFT. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. (9) Of time.²BANCROFT.²ID. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. with its object. could give shelter from his contumely.

equal to about. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. on high. Cannon were heard close on the left. disapprove. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. consist. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. and not a day more. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats.²PARKMAN.²PARKMAN. on the wing. SIGOURNEY. ²BANCROFT. and others. To.²PARKMAN.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. without adding to their meaning. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²ALDRICH. approve.²MRS. avail (one's self). On my life. 324. permit. Upon is seldom used to express time. Exercise. etc. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. repent. 325. It also accompanies the verbs tire. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. on board. (4) In adjurations.²Find sentences with six uses of of.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²BRYANT. (2) Time. (b) With motion. allow. you are eighteen. .²DE QUINCEY. such as admit. Upon. on view. on the alert. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (3) Reference. On. accept.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. etc. on a sudden. complain. Exercise. Upon my reputation and credit.²EMERSON. concerning. on trial. The general meaning of on is position or direction. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.

²B. To the few. (5) Equivalent to according to.²LANG. His brother had died. (2) Expressing result. 268). . mid meant in company with. to my taste. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. But when.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. whose influence is felt to this hour. interest. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Nor. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.to be written over.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²BENTON To our great delight.Come to the bridal chamber.²PARTON. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. 326.²PARKMAN. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²HALE. Revolutions. Death!²HALLECK. With. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification... had ceased to be.²often to the loss of vigor. Exercise.²BRYANT.²GOLDSMITH. (b) Referring to time.²IRVING. to him. He usually gave his draft to an aid.. In Old English. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. it may be genuine poetry.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. gay Comedy appears. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. We cook the dish to our own appetite. unmasked. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²BULWER. does the mere music..'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.

(3) Cause.²HOWELLS. "poetry is not a pursuit. (2) Instrumentality. He expired with these words. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. as with you. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. with Heyward at its head. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. but with you. or with the haunch of our near leader. had already reached the defile.²DE QUINCEY.²LANG.²ALDRICH.²EMERSON. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. She seemed pleased with the accident.²DE QUINCEY.²CHANNING. opinion. he gave millions to the sword. it is necessary. Exercise. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. first of all. in spite of. to find the object of the preposition.²Find sentences with four uses of with. With all his sensibility. 327.²COOPER. reason.²E. (4) Estimation.²HOWELLS.²WALLACE (7) Time. motive. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²COLERIDGE. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²HALE. HALE. He was wild with delight about Texas. It seemed a supreme moment with him. with all his boldness. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. I think. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²SCOTT. transmitted from the beginning. Either with the swingle-bar. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. E. . Messala. (5) Opposition. felt it unsafe to trifle further.The advance.

on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. of on. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. I looked towards my windows. . and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. of without. but all to no purpose. And so on. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. In (1). telling what man. we met the defaulter here. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. the phrase answers the question where.²SWIFT 2. by which a dozen apples. but I received no other hurt. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. he followed us one day into those gardens. 3. I heard a noise just over my head. Be that as it will. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I felt my box raised very high in the air. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. came tumbling about my ears. The guns were cleared of their lumber. 2. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. The object of on board is ships. like the clapping of wings. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. Whereupon. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. the malicious rogue. 5. Exercises. (2) on which. or was. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. I remember. beginning. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. of from. I called out several times. 4. (4) from the beginning. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. In (2). I speak these things from a love of justice. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man.²ID. hence we say. because I had given the provocation. In (3). and then borne forward with prodigious speed. shook it directly over my head. country. To our general surprise. (3) without a country. without a country modifies man. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. which. and knocked me down flat on my face. before the dwarf left the queen.

6. 14.He spurred his courser on. he favored the world with his opinions. 16. 7. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. in town. For my part. His breeches were of black silk. 26. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. grasping at the child.Without stop or stay. 20. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. when. 27. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 12. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. to one dark and gloomy. The mother sank and fell. 10. The savage army was in war-paint. 17. 24. He locked his door from mere force of habit. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 18. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 29. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. plumed for battle. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 23. 8. 9. . A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. With all his learning. after a restful morning. 11. I like to see the passing. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 22. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 19. 25. 15. 21. in this respect. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 13. On all subjects known to man. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes.

² JOHNSON.That makes the heavens be mute. and be proud in the midst of its toil. WHAT. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (a) Indefinite relative. A few are discussed below. (c) Substantive conjunction. THAT. We wish that labor may look up here. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (3) As a relative pronoun. (1) Relative pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (4) As an adverb of degree. That night was a memorable one. 330.²WEBSTER.²STOCKTON.²WEBSTER. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (2) As an adjective pronoun. He will raise the price. (b) Of result. .²COLERIDGE. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. And now it is like an angel's song. that you might behold this joyous day. That is what I understand by scientific education.²BEECHER. and not according to form. 328. not merely by the amount of the tax.²HUXLEY. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. 329. That was a dreadful mistake. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.30.²WEBSTER. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.

To say what good of fashion we can. What with the Maltese goats. silent still. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.these sounds are only to be heard. (7) Adverb of degree. 331. (b) Copulative. or not only.Which be they what they may.²ID. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.²S. he knows what good people are to be found there.but.. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union..in Pera." (4) Relative adjective. At what rate these materials would be distributed.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (9) As an exclamation. nearly equivalent to partly. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.²ID. and silent all!²BYRON. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.. (b) Indirect question. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.. (6) Exclamatory adjective.. partly.²THACKERAY. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY..it is impossible to determine.. to see what might be hidden. after not only. (b) Indirect question.Those shadowy recollections. (8) Conjunction.²EMERSON. BUT. Cox...²WORDSWORTH. it rests on reality.²WEBSTER. What. . If he has [been in America]. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. "I'll tell you what.²EMERSON.S.. What.. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. but the result of calculation.

²IRVING. (c) Of degree. meaning otherwise . stands for that . I shall see but little of it.²IRVING. (2) Relative pronoun. AS. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. not. at all moments. not.Then arose not only tears.. after a negative. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. after such. (3) Preposition..²HAWTHORNE. sometimes same. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.He yearned to our patriot bands. (5) Adverb. like the dog. 332. ²CARLYLE. To lead but one measure. (4) Relative pronoun..²LAMB. (b) Of manner. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. on all sides.. . Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. (b) Substantive. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. towards order..²MRS BROWNING. not. (e) Introducing an appositive word. Who knows but.²CARLYLE. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²SHELLEY. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. Doing duty as a guard. or who .²SCOTT. than. but piercing cries. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU..²EMERSON.. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. equivalent to that . (d) Of reason.²FRANKLIN..²IRVING. meaning except. meaning only.

²MAYHEW. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. this.²ALDRICH. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. like drops out.²HAWTHORNE. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. staring like a bewildered man. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. nervous child. Stirring it vigorously. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like Martin was. and as or as if takes its place. and is followed by a dative-objective.²EMERSON.²DARWIN. ²PARKMAN.²ALDRICH. No Emperor.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²SHAKESPEARE. indeed.²HIGGINSON. Note the difference between these two uses. but its verb is omitted.²HALLECK. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. Through which they put their heads.²LAMB. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.LIKE.²CASS. If the verb is expressed. Give Ruskin space enough.²LONGFELLOW. 333. That face. like summer ocean's. NOTE.² HAWTHORNE. and was clearly an adjective. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. I do with my friends as I do with my books. .²EMERSON. (1) An adjective. but this is not considered good usage: for example.-SCOTT. like a cook beating eggs. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.² A timid. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. They look. This follows a verb or a verbal. like him awhile ago. In each case. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. There is no statue like this living man. In this second use. Introduces a clause.

But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.INTERJECTIONS. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. 335. Value of analysis.: for example. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. Some of these are imitative sounds. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. that is. etc. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. clauses introduced by conjunctions. in separating them into their component parts.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. etc.²in determining case. entering into the structure of a sentence.. Definition. subject and predicate. What analysis is. 336. 334. . that is. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. verb. pronoun. as." PART II. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. tut! buzz! etc. but it still retains its identity as noun. Definition.

. declarative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. 337. Definition. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. A rare old plant is the ivy green. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. hence. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. Definition: Predicate. "Come to the bridal chamber. interrogative. 339. which puts the thought in a question. But now all is to be changed. not according to the form in which a thought is put. according to form.Kinds of sentences as to form. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. Examples of these three kinds are. "Old year. Division according to number of statements. (3) Imperative. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. but the sentence would still be declarative. you must not die!" interrogative. but according to how many statements there are. old man?" "Be thou familiar. question. Every sentence must contain two parts. or imperative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. (2) Interrogative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. always friends?" imperative." 340.²a subject and a predicate. "Hath he not always treasures. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. 2. but by no means vulgar. entreaty. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. This is the most common one. "The quality of mercy is not strained." "What wouldst thou do. or command: for example. or request. 338. SIMPLE SENTENCES. which expresses command.

. always reduce them to the order of a statement. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. adjective. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. all. and the real subject is the latter. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general." Exercise. Listen. In the interrogative sentence.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 6. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. 4. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. the subject (you. to suit all cases:² Subject. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. But if we try this with the second sentence. Consequently. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 7. but about the ivy green. especially in poetry. Thus. or adverb that asks about the subject. or an interrogative pronoun. we say all is the subject of the sentence. and is to be supplied. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. the subject is frequently after the verb. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. The last of all the Bards was he. "[You] behold her single in the field. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 341. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. In analyzing such sentences. as. thou. or ye) is in most cases omitted.²What is to be changed? Answer. a rare old plant. Slavery they can have anywhere. on the other hand. we have some trouble. 5.²What is the ivy green? Answer. and our definition must be the following. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 8.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. to an ignorant man. 2. not of a rare old plant. 3. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences.

(6) Independent elements. The subject and predicate have been discussed. or second object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE." Complement: 344. direct. and by object we mean the direct object. and me here is not the object simply of call. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. for example. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. "Ye honor me. (4) The complements. "Ye call me chief. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions." indirect. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. and means summoned. The transitive verb often requires. Of a transitive verb. Direct Object. in addition to the object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. 342. (3) The object. but it is a true complement. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). Indirect object. (5) Modifiers. but of call chief.10. just as if to say. but chief belongs to the verb.²transitive and intransitive. . (2) The predicate. 343.

appear. feel. in the popular judgment. etc. not containing a verb." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. sir!' rang out in response. more familiarly. especially the forms of be. 364. as in drowning. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. A phrase is a group of words. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." (2) PARTICIPIAL. he was now getting old." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. As to form. become. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." Also an expression used as a noun." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. Phrases. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. as. and of massive weight." "The good man." All these complete intransitive verbs. taste." Things used as Subject. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. I mentioned a case of that nature. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." "He was termed Thomas. and barring the door." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. in exercise following Sec.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. or." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. in the original Opium Confessions. See sentence 19. as in the sentence. and. 'Ay. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. 347.. 352. but used as a single modifier. "Brow and head were round." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. introduced by a preposition: for example. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. for instance. ay. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 351." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . Thom of the Gills." (3) INFINITIVE. "A cheery." 345. 346. Complement of an intransitive verb. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. An intransitive verb. 355. to the completion of this man of the world. above sixty. seem.

" "The dead are there." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. 341." 348. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. ." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. (2) In interrogative sentences. or their religion from their sect. but obscures the real subject. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." Things used as Direct Object. 349." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. or the thundering of organs. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." In this sentence. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. (4) After "there introductory." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. Disguised infinitive subject. but the real or logical subject is to print. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. "Therein has been. my deficiency." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." Things used as Complement.²the talent of starting the game. "'By God. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. from their lips. was heard one syllable to justify. but they will be given in detail here. asserting eyes. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." The for did not belong there originally. and ever will be. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. and by Saint George!' said the King." "There are asking eyes. for which see Sec.²the infinitive phrase. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). I saw the quick and the dead." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. prowling eyes." "Never. etc." etc. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.

" ." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. they are adjuncts of the object. the object is made the subject by being passive. Like all the complements in this list. and whenever the complement is a noun." In this last sentence. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. and explaining or modifying the subject.²completing the predicate." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. As complement of an intransitive verb." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. at the same time. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." "I hear the echoes throng. 351." "Serving others is serving us. I." "Their tempers. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Object." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (4) Participle. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. As complement of a transitive verb. or the equivalent of the noun." "She asked her father's permission. Of a transitive verb.350." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. doubtless." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. the shepherd girl. or Complement. (3) Infinitive. and the words italicized are still complements. and." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. complements of the predicate. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. Modifiers of Subject." Modifiers." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny.²heads or tails.

" Exercise.²In each sentence in Sec." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. but it is really a contracted clause." "In the twinkling of an eye. given at the request of a Dutch lady.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. but with other men." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. was now called upon for his defense. no sociable angel. 352. see further Secs. tell whether the subject. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." In such a sentence as. or ." "Him. 357-363." (For participial and infinitive phrases." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. Tells how.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. Retained with passive. the prisoner at the bar. this young idolater. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. or complement is modified. unforgiving. not with nature." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. I have seasoned for thee. "He died like a God. object. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. the verb being omitted. austere. was the scene from King John. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but noble teachers. II. and modify the predicate in the same way." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." "Give them not only noble teachings.²proud. Since the predicate is always a verb." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. 351. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. and leading him from star to star. Modifiers of the Predicate.

. negative. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. 4. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 6. to the animal strength and spirits. in this center? 4. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. These answer the question when. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. His books have no melody. Evil. I took. no humor. but the children of the great." (6) Adverbial objective. But anger drives a man to say anything. 7. 6. but to be loved. according to old philosophers. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. and. and other measures of precaution. 8." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. They do not wish to be lovely. (a) Pick out subject. predicate." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 3. etc." "All such knowledge should be given her. 2. and the direct object is retained: for example. or how long. and as many to oppose it.When the verb is changed from active to passive. how far. Why does the horizon hold me fast. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. after dinner. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. he liked. (b) Pick out the subject. 5." Exercises. Fashion does not often caress the great. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 5. gives wonderful animation. 2. in regard to particulars. no relief to the dead prosaic level. This. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 7." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. a sort of personality to the whole writing. On the voyage to Egypt. with my joy and grief. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. no emotion. To the men of this world. the indirect object is retained. and (direct) object:² 1. . predicate. is good in the making." "One way lies hope. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 3.

Paint me. 2. etc. at length the warrior lady. Unhorse me. that was thy portion in life. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 6. 3. 4. must visit again the home of her childhood. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. upwards. then.²the river Meuse. 3. to the right and to the left. viz. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 4. and a member of the world. this dragoon so lovely. after their long confinement to a ship. 3. . then. downwards. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. Not the less I owe thee justice. 2. 5. a room seventeen feet by twelve. in little peaceful Easedale. 2. In one feature. A river formed the boundary. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. the blooming cornet. the attorney. That night. at the chief hotel. expecting the return of their parents. six children sat by a peat fire. I felt myself. Their intention was to have a gay. I gave him an address to my friend. Compound Predicate. 4. this imperial rider. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. y y y y Compound Subject.. Not compound sentences. for the first time. the present Archbishop of Dublin. I promised her protection against all ghosts. this nun so martial.y 8. Yes. To suffer and to do. happy dinner. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 5.

" Sentences with compound predicates are." "Voyages and travels I would also have. hurry." "He shook his head. however. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. I'm with you once again. the air of the mother. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. ulcer. turned his steps homeward. and the rest is the logical predicate. Examples of compound subjects are. in all such sentences as we quote below. "The company broke up. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. exposes. but it is to be noticed that. 354. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The exclamatory expression. then the grammatical subject and predicate.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. Larger view of a sentence. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. etc. Of this. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. that is. forming a sentence: "Oh. several modifiers. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. the object. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. the verb). young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative." "Ye crags and peaks. shouldered the rusty firelock. For example.353. and its object or complement. the simple subject is situation. "Ah. same as (1). may be the person or thing addressed. etc. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. my brave young man!" . they are not a necessary part." "The name of the child.. together with all its modifiers. etc. together with its modifiers. the tone of her voice. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. 355. complements. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. Bishop." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. in the sentence. hurry. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. Independent Elements of the Sentence." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. above: thus. the predicate." And so with complements. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. modifiers. and.

" (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. to the best of my remembrance. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. he was a conscientious man." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife." Another caution. 351." "Well. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 6). moreover. such as perhaps. grandma. generally speaking. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. then. see Sec.. really. 355. her noticing even this is creditable. "Oh. and some conjunctions. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. 357. why." (5) Participial phrase: "But. There are some adverbs." "Why." "No. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. this story runs thus. object. therefore. such as however. see Sec. etc. (b) As a modifier of subject. how you're winking!" "Now. now. besides. prepositional phrases may be. he somehow lived along. pronoun. modifying a noun. 3. truly. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example." (6) Single words: as. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 350." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes." (3) Independent. six quill-driving gentlemen." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. already noticed." "Truth to say.. (1) Adjectival. etc. that have an office in the sentence. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. 356. instances of which were seen in Sec. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. undoubtedly. These need close watching. . 4)." (2) Adverbial. 352. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. or word used as a noun: for example. and so on.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. or complement (see Sec. nevertheless. yes! everybody knew them. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. y (2) The adverbial use. 4). the company broke up. In their use. The words well. he closed his literary toils at dinner." "At all events. modifying the predicate. let him perish.

etc. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." In this sentence.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. (5). 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . my dear. containing no matters of business. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. necessity. but having no other office than a verbal one. Wilt thou. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. See Sec. and they will be presented here in full." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. This case excepted. "The letter of introduction. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. etc. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. therefore." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes." (b) With the forms of be. and teach her how to be happy and good. or as nearly so as the student will require. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. he should not have known them at all.: as in the sentences." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.would. modifying was speedily run through." (c) With the definite forms of go.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. and hence is adverbial. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.can (could). ought.seem. thus. being equivalent to a future with obligation." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. was speedily run through. The verbal use. but require somewhat closer attention. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15." "There.should. "Because I was. 358. 355. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble.]." etc. y (a) With may (might). I. (1) Completing an incomplete verb.

and the eyes to fill?" 359.. explanatory of a noun preceding: as.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. Don Guzman." "To say what good of fashion we can. already examined. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. The adjectival use." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. to please is equivalent to that he may please." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). etc. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French.²both purpose clauses. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." "To teach is to learn. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. 5). to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." "He insisted on his right to forget her. to hear McOrator after dinner. III. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." 360. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. hang the idiot. complement. 351." "Are you mad. . IV. modifying a noun that may be a subject. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again.: for example." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. 362. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. To test this. "But there was no time to be lost. II. result. (4) In apposition. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. above. The adverbial use. the Scotch fighting all the battles. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. object. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. 361 are used adverbially. etc." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. 361. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). to look means that he might look. notice the following:² In (1)." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. The substantive use.

as in Sec. to hear means if you should hear. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. etc. 4. and to betray and to bring express the reason. etc. (7) Independent elements (Sec... (3). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. savage and serene in one hour. If it is an incomplete verb. V. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. . and to say is equivalent to if we say. to part means because I part. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. which is of two kinds. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 351). Our life is March weather. to find shows the result of the return. equivalent to that you betray. give the complement (Secs. The independent use. 349). 347). object." (See also Sec. must be in a life. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1.In (2). give² (1) The predicate. 363. 351). 364. In analyzing simple sentences. not in a book. In (4). 351)." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 352). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. (5) The subject (Sec. In (5). 355. etc. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 268. 3.²both expressing condition. 355). 2.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. In (3). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. I will try to keep the balance true. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions.

23. He risked everything. a good shot. 12. 9. 7. 24. 8.²a getting-out of their bodies to think.4. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 13. 15. through toys and atoms. Old Adam. The whole figure and air. nor generals. To these gifts of nature. a skilled musician. We are always in peril. 20. to restore civil and religious order. might be called flabby and irresolute. To be hurried away by every event. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. to the moral sphere. I have heard Coleridge talk. nor himself. 18. a graceful dancer. through evil agents. The word conscience has become almost confined. nor troops. Through the years and the centuries. always in a bad plight. 22. His opinion is always original. 5. an accomplished scholar. 6. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. in popular use. The water. Her aims were simple and obvious. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 17. neither ammunition. like a witch's oils. 21. and only to be saved by invention and courage.He sat in the shower. and spared nothing. You may ramble a whole day together. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. nor money. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 11. 16. two stricken hours. is to have no political system at all. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 14. 19. 10. just on the edge of destruction. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning.²to preserve her throne. to keep England out of war. and every moment discover something new. the carrion crow. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual.Burnt green and blue and white. and to the purpose. . with eager energy. good and amiable otherwise. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman.The old crow of Cairo. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance.

Of the same grandeur. 29. Now. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 37. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 38. I hate him and myself. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 26. still. time-honored. 40. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. Oxford. and. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. or perhaps one virtue. 30. 27. Fair name might he have handed down. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 39.Distant. 41. 35. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. to be a reproach to such goodness.Effacing many a stain of former crime. and the why.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. an elderly man. in this world. In the Acadian land. This amiable relative. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. the prime minister of Spain. 31. The villain. 36. secluded. and no provisions but wild berries. the present capital of New England. and the wherefore? . 32. Few in number. baggage far in the rear. the same Condé Olivarez. had but one foible.25. the ship was in an uproar. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Upon this shore stood. in front of all this mighty crowd. The cry. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 33. in less heroic and poetic form. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. to bid you leave the place now and forever. But yield. Supposing this computation to be correct. proud foe. haply. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. upon my own ground. 34. and in my own garden. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Must we in all things look for the how. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. ready to receive her. She had made a two days' march. I dare this.

" Sentences with like." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. if they were expanded. thus. as would be the connective instead of like. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences.From her own loved island of sorrow. the pride and beauty of the grove." This must. 333). however. made merely for convenience and smoothness. are really contracted clauses. Some sentences look like simple ones in form.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. the expressions of manner introduced by like. .² "She is like some tender tree. 365. though often treated as phrases." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. As shown in Part I.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. The simple sentence the basis. but. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Words left out after than or as." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. 367. (Sec." To show that these words are really omitted. 366. as. which is the unit of speech. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].

as in this sentence. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. logically depends on suffering. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. Definition. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. object. predicate. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. which are so united that one member is the main one. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. each clause has its subject.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. 370. object.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. that is." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. and the last. that . complements. Hence the following definition:² Definition.. 371. or it may be applied to the others. murmur. suffering.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.²the backbone. we are aware. 368. and the next one. A clause is a division of a sentence. and modifier. how great .. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. etc. CLAUSES. Independent clause. then we recognize this as the main statement.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.²the other members subordinate to it. 369.. is taken in. or dependent on it. modifiers. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. complement. main. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. . A principal. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).. containing a verb with its subject.

" (4) Apposition.." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. night or day. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. (a) Ordinary apposition. (b) that are . but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. impertinences²would be grammatical... We ourselves are getting . that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. ADJECTIVE. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. but logically the sentence is. 373.. Noun Clauses." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause.. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. pronoun. put an end to my fancies." (2) Object of a verb. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject.. with a noun clause in apposition with it." "I was told that the house had not been shut. for a hundred years. 372. clauses are divided into NOUN." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.' is an electric touch. so the object clause is retained. etc. infinitive." 374." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. thus. 352. adjectives. or adverbs." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. As to their office in the sentence. and the whole clause is not. 'I know that he can toil terribly. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. for example. verbal. over which the torrent came tumbling. But since they are complex in form. for a time.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. impertinences. and ADVERB clauses. 5). that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." Just as the object noun. ." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.Dependent clause. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. for example. attention is called to them here. Kinds. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. and it is .. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.

As the office of an adjective is to modify. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. The reply of Socrates. 3. that he was a scheming impostor. no man will ever know. But the fact is. but.² "It is on the understanding. whether he should choose one or not. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. of a nation. how it changed from shape to shape. 2. 7. whither. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. still remains reasonable. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. . which. Except by what he could see for himself. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. Adjective Clauses. 8. or equivalent of a noun. where. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. etc. 10. 9. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. sometimes by the conjunctions when." Exercise. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Frequently there is no connecting word." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. he could know nothing. a falsehood incarnate. Such a man is what we call an original man. Examples of adjective clauses. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. that all safe legislation must be based. 5. that. 375. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. wherein. What history it had. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. I was napping. and not on the sentiment. whereby. as.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. Other examples of this construction are. 4. 6. a relative pronoun being understood. whence. that. in the sentence. he would repent it.

object. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. I walked home with Calhoun. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 5. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. etc. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. 1.e. and tell what each one modifies." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. the champions advanced through the lists. or that essence we were looking for. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. No man is reason or illumination. Pick out the adjective clauses. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 9.376. 7. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." Exercise. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. . 11. 6." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. Adverbial Clauses. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. all is vacancy. 2. which Rowena tasted. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. i." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. whether subject." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. which formed the center of the mansion. 10. he begins to help us more as an effect. 4. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. 3.. 8. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other.

there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. whatever." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." (5) DEGREE." (7) RESULT. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. that we should try. since he was too great to care to be original. Exercise.: "But still. the wider is the horizon of their thought. etc." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." These mean no matter how good." "He went several times to England." "Who cares for that.² whoever.. Joanna is better." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. so far as we can. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "When he was come up to Christian. or an adverb. a verbal. to make up our shortcomings. an adjective.377. introduced by indefinite relatives. however. with examples. but they require careful study." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. is wider." "The right conclusion is. etc." "The broader their education is. no matter what remains. and will be given in detail." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." "After leaving the whole party under the table. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. expressing the degree in which the horizon. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. 378." (9) CONCESSION. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. tell what kind each is. however good she may be as a witness." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. and what it modifies:² ." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. he goes away as if nothing had happened." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. shaping our actions. etc. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." (3) REASON. adverbs. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. and adverbial conjunctions. the milestones are grave-stones. it takes precedence of everything else. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly.

etc. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. in the sentence. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. howling and whistling. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. they might perhaps say of their visitors. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . its object is that Odin was a reality. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. object. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. 379. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. so as to picture the parts and their relations. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. on a dark wintry night. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and modifiers.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. we are a little disappointed. banging about doors and windows." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. then treat noun clauses as nouns. 380. to tell the truth. snatching up stones to fling at them. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. of which clause Odin is the subject. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. If the children gathered about her. For example. when the wind was unruly. incoherent exclamations. as they sometimes did." 2. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. predicate. 3. and twirling weathercocks. 'Well.1. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. with shrill. find the principal subject and principal predicate.

2. 380). (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1..| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (1) Find the principal clause. 3. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 364. Exercises. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. . d. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 364. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .

does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. I like that representation they have of the tree. 8. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. But now that she has become an establishment. 13. 12. Whether she said the word is uncertain. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. Here lay two great roads. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 21. 11. 6. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. of a light hazel. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 23. 7. if applied to the Bible. that. 10. not so much for travelers that were few.4. could not have been effected. Now. the shepherd girl. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. He was what our country people call an old one. for yours. Had they been better chemists. 17. or whether any. counselor that had none for herself. the flower should revive for us. who would yield to it least. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. . Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. The night proved unusually dark. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 9. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 20. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 15. And those will often pity that weakness most. bishop. 24. that pressed her with an objection. namely. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 14. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. the mixed result. which. 18. 22. 5. had we been worse. M. 16. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. as for armies that were too many by half. whom I choose. dying for them. This is she. Next came a wretched Dominican. The deep eyes. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 19. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year.

These things we are forced to say. Hence the definition. 30. and what content I can find in conversing with each. That which we do not believe. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. is to speak and write sincerely. "was ever written down by any but itself. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 26. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 380. . He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. then map out as in Sec. 382." 4. 7. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 2. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. It makes no difference how many friends I have. and not from his heart. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. if continuously extended. 3. 6. How formed. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 27. "No book.25. or commands. would easily reach. and stamped with his right number. but above it. 5. (b) First analyze. speed. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. that it was no more than his daily walk. though we may repeat the words never so often. and temper. The writer who takes his subject from his ear." said Bentley. questions.² Definition. we cannot adequately say. if there be one to whom I am not equal. COMPOUND SENTENCES.²which will not be disposed of. the following complex sentences:² 1. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 28. 383. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation.

and not the form of the connective. he is twice a man. he dilates. or but." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. others sometimes coördinate. while (whilst). The coördinate conjunctions and. nor. the waving grass. from the second. he walks with arms akimbo. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. Of the following illustrative sentences. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. however. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. Some of these are now conjunctions." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. a simple member. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. nor does he know until he has tried. Another example is. 386.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. . which are simple statements. as but. and which complex:² 1. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. in (2). the semicolon separates the first. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. now adverbs or prepositions. tell which are compound. The division into members will be easier." 384. and connects the first and second complex members. Speak your latent conviction. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. in (3). etc. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). he soliloquizes. for. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. etc. and it shall be the universal sense. Exercise. Thus in (1). Connectives. 383 (1). 297). whereas. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. if there are any. 385. yet. a complex member. Study the thought. and nor the second and third complex members. the planet has a faint. "Only the star dazzles. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. moon-like ray" (adversative).. as in Sec.

unobtrusive boy. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 14. and for everything you gain. 5. 4. For everything you have missed. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. and not by what each is. . nay. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. In this manner. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 2. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. yield to them heart and life. Man does not stand in awe of man. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 364. quiet. for example.2. you lose something. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 13. or. Love. Exercise. 387. (i) Separate it into its main members. 12. from a happy yet often pensive child. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 8. Whilst the world is thus dual. all pain. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. I can still receive. and as yet very early in the morning. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. 9. 381. and thou shalt be loved. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. All loss. However some may think him wanting in zeal. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. is particular. so is every one of its parts. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 11. 7. that it was Easter Sunday. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 10. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. you have gained something else. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. to find a pot of buried gold. 6. 3. The gain is apparent. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. however. the tax is certain. 3. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. passed in that time. 4. I can yet love. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. he grew up to be a mild.

feign to confess here. . On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. We see the noble afar off. 9. abide by it. or we pursue persons. He teaches who gives.5. modesty. and the peace of society is often kept. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. Whatever he knows and thinks. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 14. "as nigh the scythe as you can. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. or hope. why should we intrude? 10. Trust men. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. 20. give those merits room. one is afraid. and makes their business a friendship. as children." "keep the rake. 15. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and they will show themselves great. or men will never know and honor him aright. 19. When you have chosen your part. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. "Strike. crook and hide." says the smith. and they repel us. and the other dares not. or sail with God the seas. only that they may brag and conquer there. 18. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 8. which always make the Actual ridiculous. whilst frankness invites frankness. 21. puts the parties on a convenient footing. 11. because. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. Come into port greatly. treat them greatly. is as thin and timid as any. 17. and he learns who receives. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. or we read books. and you are without effort impelled to truth. if you rip up his claims. They will shuffle and crow. and the cart as nigh the rake. 16. that let him communicate. Stand aside. 7. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies." says the haymaker. We go to Europe. 6. and they will be true to you. and not an emotion of bravery. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and each shows only what lies at its focus. and not a thought has enriched either party. let them mount and expand. "the iron is white." 13.

they die young. 388. but its leading characteristic is. or. and dodge the account. if they live. pronoun and antecedent. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. verb and subject. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment.22. 23.²agreement and government. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. PART III. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 390. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. it never was known to fall into the rear. so readily and lavishly they promise. We see young men who owe us a new world. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Essential point in English syntax. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 25. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. So does culture with us. 24. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Do not craze yourself with thinking. they lose themselves in the crowd. 380. Ground covered by syntax. but go about your business anywhere. SYNTAX. but they never acquit the debt. adjective and noun. By way of introduction. it ends in headache. Following the Latin method. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. INTRODUCTORY.

etc. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. "None remained but he. both forms will be given in the following pages. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. Why study syntax? 391. In some cases." In this there is a possessive form. but are not now. therefore. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. authorities²that is. For example. take the sentence. the sentence. pronoun and antecedent. some of which conform to classical grammar. as to study inflected forms. 393. Second. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Some rules not rigid. following the regular order of subject. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language)." is ambiguous.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly." that is. and it would not matter which one stood first. "The savage here the settler slew. and nothing but important points will be considered. the order being inverted. and imitate it. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. The basis of syntax. good English. As an illustration of the last remark. Also in the sentence. or the same writer will use both indifferently. also expressing a possessive relation. then. and added to it the preposition of. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts.² First. There is. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. 392. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. sometimes verb and subject. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. In Latin. When usage varies as to a given construction. and whose judgment. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. Savage may be the subject. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. . This is not logical. or settler may be the subject. or when they exist side by side in good usage. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. distinct forms would be used.

When two or more possessives stand before the same noun." Juletta tells. or indicate joint ownership or possession. the shore of Galilee. but imply separate possession or ownership. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Joint possession. 396. etc.²EMERSON.²MILTON. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage.² Live your king and country's best support. He kept Bolingbroke's.²BYRON. 395.NOUNS. Use of the possessive.² He lands us on a grassy stage. as. 408). and Peter's. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. ²ID.²MACAULAY. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. for example. Separate possession. PRONOUNS. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Putting Mr. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. the possessive sign is used with each noun. sense and nature's easy fool. the antechamber of the High Priest.²MCCULLOCH.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²RUSKIN.²ROWE. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Mill's and Mr. Woman. and Paul's. 394. . In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. and Peterborough's. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. and Pope's. and Harley's. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. 397.²THACKERAY. Bentham's principles together.

there are two general rules that require attention. .²BYRON. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun.²TROLLOPE. Still. 399.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. sanctioned." 400. others are generally.²POPE.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. for example. This should be "as she. thus. I. Objective for the nominative. together with the relative who. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). and should be the nominative form.) "The young Harper. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²SOUTHEY. the real thought being forgotten. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. No mightier than thyself or me. 398. the last expression has the support of many good writers. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. But he must be a stronger than thee. as. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Some of the violations are universally condemned. if not universally. Since most of the personal pronouns. Bedott Papers. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. who. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. General rules. whom is the complement after the verb am. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.²THACKERAY. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS.²WHITCHER. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.²SHAKESPEARE.

²SCOTT."²KINGSLEY.²MACAULAY." 401. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. The usage is too common to need further examples. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. both in England and America. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. In spoken English.²FIELDING.²LONGFELLOW.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²THACKERAY. BLACK.²RUSKIN. are."²WM. And it was heThat made the ship to go. One exception is to be noted. namely. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. A safe rule." There is no special reason for this. the objective form is regularly found. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. is. and the other forms of the verb be. unless a special.²KINGSLEY. Patrick the Porter.²COLERIDGE."²WINTHROP. .² One I remember especially. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. for example. it will not be me. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. "Than whom. The camp of Richard of England. "If there is any one embarrassed. on the other hand. as. but such is the fact.² For there was little doubt that it was he. But still it is not she. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. they are yet holier than we. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.²PARTON. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. "Who's there?"²"Me.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.

It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person.²MILTON. 5. you or me." 6. 3. as. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. verbals. 11." the word being in apposition with murderer). 2. 9. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. Nominative for the objective. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. You know whom it is that you thus charge. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 404. now. Truth is mightier than us all. as. 10. Me in exclamations. (3) By forgetting the construction. I speak not to" (he should be him. as. or this. or preposition which governs it. 4.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. and prepositions. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. or us). . "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. but not he" (he should be him.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. the object of to). 403. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. as this from Shakespeare. object of saw). used after verbs. verbal. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. "Ask the murderer. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 7.Exercise. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. it is me. 8. If there ever was a rogue in the world. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. Whom they were I really cannot specify. It is not me you are in love with. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away.

"Who were they talking to?" etc.Exception 1.Shall be left upon the morn. as. changed in all save thee. for example.²BYRON. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. "Who did you see?" or. as well as the objective. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Thou. Who have we here?²ID. save thou and thine. None. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²BYRON. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. partial Nature. but he. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²STEELE. We regularly say.²GOLDSMITH. who interrogative. Nature. I've sworn. 406. I arraign. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²KINGSLEY.²KINGSLEY.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. all but he. . for they say there are none such in the world. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. and is usually avoided. etc. Exercise. as.²KINGSLEY.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.² All were knocked down but us two. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. 405. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Thy shores are empires.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. 2. Exception 2. Let you and I look at these. after the preposition but (sometimes save).

3. 7. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. BROWN. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour.²THACKERAY. or objective? . and they know that as well as me.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 12. As antecedent of a relative. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. POSSESSIVE FORMS. They crowned him long ago.²C. 10. II. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. This usage is not frequent. 407." 4.²MACAULAY. Markland. Bartholomew. 9. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 11.²possessive. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. B. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. Preceding a gerund. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. who. 5. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. with Jortin and Thirlby.Ye I salute.²DE QUINCEY. 6.²SCOTT. 8. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²RUSKIN. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.

There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. Possessive.408. and asked why it was not made. studying is a gerund. Why both are found.² CARLYLE. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.² IRVING.²DICKENS. But in common use there is no such distinction." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.²CARLYLE. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. etc. In the examples quoted. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind.²RUSKIN. The use of the objective is older. . and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. Objective. Both types of sentences are found. as he turned away from his wife. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.²DE QUINCEY. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.² THACKERAY. that the bitterness of death was past. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. both are gerunds. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. The last incident which I recollect. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.² SCOTT. and the meaning is. sometimes it has the objective." That is.²MACAULAY. Here I state them only in brief. We heard of Brown. and that in the second.²BREWER. [who was] studying law. object of heard of.

The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. 409.²HOLMES.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. where there were examinations. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²when the antecedent. BROCKDEN BROWN. Every city threw open its gates. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²C.²DEFOE. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²THACKERAY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. taking in each of many persons. it was his own fault.²HUXLEY. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²DE QUINCEY.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. Examples of these constructions are. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. 410.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²CABLE. and ought to agree with them in person. The pale realms of shade. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. if the antecedent is neuter. number. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²THOREAU. If any one did not know it. In such a case as the last three sentences. in one person. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²RUSKIN.² BRYANT.²AUDUBON. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. or is a distributive word. . Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. Watch for the real antecedent. the pronoun will be neuter singular. Everybody had his own life to think of.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²EMERSON III. and gender. preceded by a distributive. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²DE QUINCEY.

²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²BIBLE.²EMERSON. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²FIELDING. Struggling for life. . Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. By using the plural pronoun. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²PALEY. as anybody in their senses would have done.²BYRON. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²ID. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. not a mowing idiot. and giving them means of being so. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.² Not the feeblest grandame.²PALGRAVE.²HUXLEY. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. The sun. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²AUSTEN. This is not considered the best usage. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. let them break it off. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Whosoever hath any gold.²DEFOE.²ID. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. 411. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. till they have lost him.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT.²PAULDING.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. for example.²RUSKIN. If the part deserve any comment.

and he went away.²In the above sentences." A relative. and does not add a new statement. Exercise. Exercise. A relative. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. no one could take upon them to say. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. as." This means.²ID. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. who went away. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side.²HAWTHORNE. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.²ADDISON. It adds a new statement to what precedes. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals.² SHERIDAN. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. As to their conjunctive use. which. 1. tell whether who. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. when coördinating. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. but. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. the definite relatives who. according to the practice of every modern writer. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. 2. or unrestrictive. What these terms mean. I. etc. because. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive.Where she was gone. 413. . when restrictive. in each instance:² Who. The clause is restricted to the antecedent." It defines beggar. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. unless both genders are implied. or what was become of her. that being considered already clear.) and a personal pronoun. "I gave it to the beggar. In the following examples. which. but. That is in most cases restrictive. and that always restrictive. 412. and that are restrictive or not.

8. you. II. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. With narrow shoulders. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. We say I. and it is called logic. 9..3. as that does not vary for person or number. which was to go over the Cordilleras. For example. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 14. 7. Which. who. That. she agreed to join the party. they. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. However. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.²H. 10." that is invariable as to person and number. Hare has printed. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.² MOTLEY. it makes the verb third person singular. etc.²THOREAU. these or that which. 12. which Mr. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. The rule. etc. long arms and legs. and over England are saying.²HOLMES. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. W.²DE QUINCEY. in the sentence.²DE QUINCEY. In what sense true.² IRVING.² NEWMAN. he. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. Yet how many are there who up. etc. The general rule is. 13. 4. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. A grizzly-looking man appeared. On hearing their plan. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. 6. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. . Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. So different from the wild. but.² CARLYLE. down.²ID. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.²ID.²ADDISON. 414. 11. BEECHER 5. that were often vicious. because of its antecedent.

French literature of the eighteenth century. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural... 415. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. when he derided the shams of society.. or which . I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. [plural] that who. Franklin.²ADDISON. He is one of those that deserve very well. but speaks of him as that sort. Singular." or. etc. in winning a battle. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²LOWELL. others regard books as the antecedent. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²HOLMES. and in improving a victory.²LOWELL. but myself. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. The latter is rather more frequent. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. The fiery youth .Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. Let us be of good cheer. who rarely speak at all.. . Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.²whether we should say." One of . "one of the finest books that has been published. the true antecedent. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. and write the verb in the plural. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²BOWLES. [singular or plural.] Both constructions are frequently found.²LECKY.²SCOTT. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.²MACAULAY.. "one of the finest books that have been published.. A disputed point. MORSE.²M. JR.²HOWELLS. T.²J. ARNOLD. etc. with one as the principal word. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²ADDISON.. but the former has good authority.

A rare Roundabout performance.And. The same day I went aboard we set sail. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²ID.²VAUGHAN.²CARLYLE.²EMERSON. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. or where] he died. and see if the sentence is made clearer. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. where. Exercise.In that same state I came.²SCOTT. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. 417. IV. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.² .²IRVING.²GOLDSMITH. III. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. when this dust falls to the urn.² THACKERAY.²ADDISON. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. that is."²DICKENS. when the relative word is a pronoun. But I by backward steps would move. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. object of a preposition understood. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.² RUSKIN.²DEFOE. 416. I could see nothing except the sky. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. whence.²BURNS.²EMERSON. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. return.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation." "India is the place [in which. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²SWIFT. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²In the above sentences. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. and such like: as. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.

This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. as is not used. Mr.He considered.² THACKERAY.²SCOTT. etc. and working in the same spirit. 418. They believe the same of all the works of art. or that. V. Which. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. but which is usually carefully avoided. he.²R. Anacoluthic use of which.²ADDISON. but we find the relative who. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²FRANKLIN. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. if I had resolved to go on with. with Turner.. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. boats. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²WORDSWORTH. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. which.² MACAULAY. for example. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest.² BURKE. ²GOLDSMITH. looking-glasses. but. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.. W.me as his apprentice. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. . The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.² Which. if same is followed by a complete clause. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. she passed the lamp over her face and person. Caution. The regular construction. CHURCH. I might as well have staid at home. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. That.²SWIFT. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. was a discoverer. as of knives. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.

and this be placed in the proper clause. or omit the conjunction. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.²DE QUINCEY. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus.²GOLDSMITH. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.. or. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. 4. . which when Mr. now thrown upon their. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. but none is expressed.²RUSKIN." etc. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. Express both relatives. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. This was a gentleman. That is.²THACKERAY. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. who are now thrown. le Conte.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.." etc. and who are now. Exercise.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. 3. And who. but.²SCOTT. or leave out both connective and relative. (2) "Among the poorer sort. and which. 419.²HAWTHORNE. 2. (1) "Among those who are poor. Exercise. once a great favorite of M. But who." etc. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²which if they once heard.² Direction for rewriting.. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. Thornhill had read. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. After this came Elizabeth herself. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. As the sentences stand. He delivered the letter. he said that all submission was now too late. etc. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. 1.She'd come again.

indeed. But which. 12. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. who. Or who. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. That . and which. 10. one of signal interest. Exercise. Dr.²HAWTHORNE. 8. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and which may even be heard a mile off." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. "A mockery. . like that spoken in the towns. English by name.²IRVING. 9. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. And which. 13.² MOTLEY. and which has never been described.²SCOTT.. and repeat this for any further reference. then. and to whom no door is closed. the French. Or which. either from imitation of their frequent allies. I shall have complete copies. Akin to the above is another fault. etc. 420. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.²DE QUINCEY. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.²DE QUINCEY.5.. which the Scotch had learned. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house.. 1. I saw upon the left a scene far different. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.. 11. 6. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. as a false and astucious mark. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. etc. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.²SCOTT. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 7.²PEARSON. "What knight so craven.

and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted...² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 12. Such as ... 3.²EMERSON. at the head of what. 6. The Tree Igdrasil. the dime. I give to such men as do not belong to me. was hung in air. in his Mephistopheles. 9. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. CHANNING. the cent. was a bustling wharf...²DEFOE. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. half a century ago.²W. Which . 14. which. In my native town of Salem.. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.²W. whom. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. in his present condition.. that . E. 10.. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. and to whom I do not belong. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.²HAWTHORNE. Such as .²DE QUINCEY. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. 8.²EMERSON. . I recommend some honest manual calling. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. He. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. but which.²HOWELLS. what.. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. 15. 7. but which is perhaps not so different from it.²BEECHER.2.²SCOTT That which . G. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. He flung into literature.²SCOTT. 4. such as they have very probably been bred to. 11. I grudge the dollar.²HALLAM. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.²HOLMES. that. 13. That . It rose into a thrilling passion. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. SIMMS. and whose examples and principles we inherit. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. which. 5. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.

By their original meaning. in which case any should be used instead.²MACAULAY.²ID. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²HAWTHORNE. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. . for example. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. one another. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²EMERSON. always at war with one another.² HAWTHORNE. Each other.² Some one must be poor.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²RUSKIN. Use of any. England was then divided between kings and Druids. and in want of his gold²or his corn. as.²GOLDSMITH. that not all combined. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. We call ourselves a rich nation.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. 422. as. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²DICKENS. as it were.²RUSKIN. whether or not the two are equivalent. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. Assume that no one is in want of either. Distributives either and neither. 421. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.

any was often singular..² If any. in the prose of the present day. in Shakespeare. Do you think. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. 424..²STIRLING. and is isolated. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Do you think. Caution.²BEECHER Whenever. as.²PROF. which is plural as often as singular. Any usually plural.² EMERSON. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²FRANKLIN. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²SHAKESPEARE. even in Bettine. None of Nature's powers do better service.² In earnest. In earlier Modern English.²BIBLE. let him ask of God. as. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. for him have I offended.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . before that. I beseech you. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. If any of you lack wisdom. speak. at one time in Bacon. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. Examples of its use are.²EMERSON. None usually plural. during his stay at Yuste. etc.²THACKERAY. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. afterwards in Goethe.. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. as none of the French philosophers were. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). The adjective pronoun none is. whilst I still cherish their genius.²CARLYLE. that I know of. usually plural. then in Plutarch. any of his friends had died. then in Plotinus. 423. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.²SCOTT. .²BURKE. if ever man was. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.

any one else.²SCOTT Like the use of any. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. when it means all persons: for example. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. When all were gone. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember.²THOREAU. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.. etc. and less rarely in poetry. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and all was lost on the other.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. etc. The compounds somebody else.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. the plural..² PEARSON.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. etc.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. or somebody else's? 426. Somebody's else.²NAPIER Plural. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. 425.² Singular.² None of them was cleansed. and Ford has nobody's else. for example. fixing his eyes on the mace.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. as. which is used absolutely. that all was lost. The light troops thought .²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . nobody else. saving Naaman the Syrian.²McMASTER. etc. are treated as units.

. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.SYDNEY SMITH.²MULOCH. "Ye see. His hair. A suit of clothes like somebody else's." "all manner of men. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. P. .²SHERIDAN. the adjectives plural.. etc.²AUSTEN.²G. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. London. Again. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. These sort. or some other such great man as a bishop.² Saturday Review. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²RUSKIN. all manner of. for example."²MRS.²in such as "these sort of books.curled once all over it in long tendrils. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.² FIELDING. or those sort of people." "those kind of trees." the nouns being singular.²RUSKIN.²DICKENS. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²N. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. STOWE. unlike anybody else's in the world. Whitefield or Wesley.²THACKERAY. ELIOT.²SWEET. etc.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. 427. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.² These kind of knaves I know. WILLIS. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. ADJECTIVES. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.

such as. Use of the comparative degree. to express a higher degree of quality. in spoken English. According to the approved usage of Modern English. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. and the adjective is. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. and in this way may take a plural verb.² Which is the better able to defend himself. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. Should we say. which accounts for the construction." A question. for example." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. Consequently we have a confused expression. Later form.² PRESCOTT. "This kind of rules are the best. made to agree with it. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. In Old and Middle English.²RUSKIN. At the source. or the nouns to the plural. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. Of two such lessons. "These kind of trees are best. The result." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. they said. when the necessary dispositions concur. History of this construction. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. with all manner of amusing books. the victor or the vanquished. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. not "all kinds of wild animals. or one object with a class of objects.The library was open. 428. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. .²a strong man with nothing but his fists. This the modern expression reverses. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. more alarming than a total silence." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). as. gradually displacing the old. Burke's sentence." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. "This sort of trees should be planted. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY.

When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. 6.²HUXLEY. Use of the superlative degree. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. 5. To the man who plays well.²TROLLOPE.²HAWTHORNE. etc. has sanctioned. He is taller."²ID. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. Even Dodd himself. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²LOWELL. the highest stakes are paid. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²MACAULAY.²WIRT. by almost the breadth of my nail. 3. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²MACAULAY. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. Gary. . 430. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²THACKERAY. 2. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²SCOTT.²CARLYLE. if not.A braver ne'er to battle rode.² THACKERAY. than any of his court. Other after the comparative form. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Superlative with two objects. Exercise. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. 429.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Henry. 4. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²SWIFT. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. I am concerned to see that Mr. would not have had the face.

In all disputes between States. 431. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. I should say that one has the best cause.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice."²BULWER.²DR BLAIR..²MRS. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Come you more nearer. not a bit of high life among them. These two properties seem essential to wit. and differ only in form.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. ha.²IRVING.²RUSKIN. The following examples are used purposely.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians."²GOLDSMITH. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.²J. who eat white bread or brown. "Ha. Rip was one of those . "Let us see which will laugh loudest. whichever can be got easiest. more particularly the last of them. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne."²HAWTHORNE. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. OLIPHANT. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Also from the same period. CÆSAR.²HAMLET. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. The eldest.²TEMPEST. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. . "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²ADDISON. 1611. Examples from Shakespeare are. Mary.²BEN JONSON.²EMERSON.. and the other contains the best men. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. Double comparative and superlative.²GOLDSMITH.²Bible. After the most straitest sect of our religion. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²SCOTT.

²GIBBON.²GIBBON. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Examples of this construction are.² With a singular noun.² SMOLLETT. These are the three first needs of civilized life. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²DE QUINCEY. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. Three first. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. 433. First three.²RUSKIN. The meaning intended is the same. Definite article. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²ADDISON. not only so in popular speech. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²RUSKIN. ²COWPER. etc.²KINGSLEY. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. For Carlyle. jar upon us constantly. The merit of the Barb. Instances of both are given below. The first five had specific names. .²LAMB. As to these two expressions. and conceit in the last. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. the Spanish. etc. ARTICLES.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The delay in the first three lines. and Secretary Walsingham also. but in literary English.²PRESCOTT.

435. With a plural noun.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.²SCOTT.² MACAULAY..²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. or to emphasize the meaning.²THACKERAY. melodious. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. but inseparable from each other.²CARLYLE.²THE NATION. Indefinite article. The lofty. however. 434. Here the youth of both sexes. but is used with one only. Origin of the Aryans. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. were placed at a very tender age. I think. as.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. as in Sec. 433. and flexible language. of the higher and middling orders. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. He is master of the two-fold Logos. with a singular noun. No. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. with a plural noun. the greatest poems. to distinguish clearly. 433. the hour of parting came. the thought and the word.²PRESCOTT.²TENNYSON. The not repeated. One object and several modifiers.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. . of the eighteenth century. 1508.²ID. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. as. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.² RUSKIN. Meaning same as in Sec. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . having been arranged. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. Frequently. distinct.²TAYLOR. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece..²NEWMAN. and the presents. The flowers.²MACAULAY.

²BULWER.²DICKENS. But in the following sentences. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.²MACAULAY. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. The indefinite article (compare Sec. T." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. JONSON. one noun is expressed. a murderer. a tyrant. like the definite article.²S. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. . 436). to limit two or more modified nouns.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. He saw him in his mind's eye.An early. as in the first three of Sec. In the sentences of Secs. as.436. 433 and 436. 435. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. One article with several adjectives. 437.²B. The indefinite article is used. or clearness to each of several nouns. 438. and inexhausted vein.²THACKERAY. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²BEECHER. only one of which is expressed.² MACAULAY. COLERIDGE. For rhetorical effect. and a usurper. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. rich. a round and a square one alternately.²DRYDEN.²MACAULAY. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²JOHNSON. Examples of this use are.² BURKE. interest. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy." and "a red and a white geranium. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. a collegian.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.

or the great intellectual life of our nation. like some others in this series. A broad and loose rule.²COOPER. then. In English.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Another writer might.²G. He sees that it is better to live in peace. This was spoken of in Part I.VERBS.²M. ELIOT. 276.²CARLYLE This usage. as.²FROUDE. as.²W. Such. for example. 439. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. all that academies can give. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. has got already.²GIBBON. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.²AGASSIZ. 440. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.²The Nation. was the earliest American land. . without academies. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Sec.. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. Singular verb. ARNOLD. Singulars connected by or or nor. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Collective noun of singular meaning. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. and the following illustrations prove it.

or as making up one general idea.²GIBBON. ²EMERSON. a cruel disappointment.²CRITIC. Plural form and singular meaning. nor Mahomet. No.²J. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. nor Paul. and other singulars of plural form.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²DE QUINCEY. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. and every four hours.²BURKE. a loss of wealth. seems at the moment unpaid loss. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.² GOLDSMITH. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²WHITTIER. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. Q. a mutilation. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. (4) When the subject is plural in form.² The unbought grace of life. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. or considered as appositional. that of a large town.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. the cheap defense of nations. for example.²GOLDSMITH. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. but considered as meaning about the same thing.² In a word. a loss of friends. for example.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. Between ourselves. other names. but each one emphatic. ADAMS. as. is gone. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.Jesus is not dead. nor John. A fever.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. as.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²EMERSON . Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.

Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²BUTLER.²ID.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. was punished. as well as sides. thus. Her back. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. each.The rout. Every sound. the fine gentleman. sir!" and the "What then. Here is no ruin. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. Every week. does not take the place of the man. in a judge.² Asia.The author.²PRESCOTT.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. was like to crack. many a. no spent ball.²LONGFELLOW. was dazzled. Every fop.²HAWTHORNE. as. no matter if the second is plural). a gorget. There is a moving tone of voice. as. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. sir!"²MACAULAY. 441.²PRESCOTT. as well as the Drama.²SCOTT.²MACAULAY. The Epic. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. as well as the newest. every valet. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²MACAULAY.² . sir?" and the "No. almost every day. and such like adjectives. no discontinuity. Plural verb.²NEWMAN. no. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. The oldest.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. is a man of wit.²EMERSON. an impassioned countenance. was listened to for five hours. Subjects after the verb. an agitated gesture. Then comes the "Why. a cuirass.²M ARNOLD. with death. For wide is heard the thundering fray. as well as Europe.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²ID. every echo. the ruin. every boor.²RUSKIN. and greaves. nay. the dismay. wineBegins to stir itself. the wit. the partisan. To receive presents or a bribe. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.

far away thy children leave the land. as. the Duke of Berri. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. making up a plural subject.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²SCOTT. as with a subject of plural form. as in Sec. are sufficient to attract a colony.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. All our household are at rest. 440 (5. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. of whom there were a number.² A multitude go mad about it.²FROUDE. A party of workmen were removing the horses. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. b). One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. The Dauphin. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. . Conjunction omitted. were men of insignificant characters. The travelers. a green pasture.²FROUDE.²SWIFT.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²GIBBON. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²EMERSON.² GIBBON.² One or two of these perhaps survive. but the verb is plural.²B. Far. A shady grove.²GOLDSMITH. Philip of Anjou. TAYLOR. a stream of fresh water. The conjunction may be omitted. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. His clothes.²COLERIDGE.²THOREAU.²DE QUINCEY.²ADDISON.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²FRANKLIN. for example.²CARLYLE But its authorship. its date. shirt. as. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.

If there is only one person in the subject. WEBSTER.But notice the construction of this. nor should I.²LOWELL." "She or you may be sure.²WHITTIER.²RUSKIN. "You would not be wiser. of different persons. for example.²ROWE. Not I. the subject being really equivalent to we. the verb takes the construction of the first person. but thou.²GOLDSMITH. Exceptional examples. 442.²SMOLLETT. as. 444. that is. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²D.²BYRON. 443. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. Pattison or I have said.²THACKERAY. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. You and I are farmers. You and I are tolerably modest people. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. General usage. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²DE QUINCEY. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath." or. "He or I can go. nor has she").). .² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. but thou. Not Altamont. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. his blood dost shed. hadst been my lord. This construction is at the best a little awkward.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. we never talk politics. Nothing which Mr.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. When the subjects. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.²RUSKIN. "I have never said so.²THACKERAY. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Second or third and first person in the subject.²M.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision." etc. Ah. ARNOLD.

446.²and. 4.²THACKERAY. In a word. nor bush are there. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Nor wood. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. in my opinion. 8. 6. 11.That neither of their intellects are vast. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 2. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . How each of these professions are crowded. nor tree. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.² TROLLOPE. as illustrated above (Secs. In this sentence from Defoe. which it is proper to mention.²ADDISON. 3.445. BANCROFT.²BYRON. Neither of them. Also in verbals. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 10. as we would hope. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.Her course to intercept. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 5.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. 12.²SMOLLETT. The following illustrate exceptional usage. In the following sentence.²ID." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Both death and I am found eternal.²BURKE. 440-444):² 1. 9. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²G. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.²EMERSON. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 7. Exercise.²MILTON.²perhaps the devil.

But I found I wanted a stock of words. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. 4. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. 447. for exact connection. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Two samples of indirect discourse. however. as.²IRVING.²MACAULAY. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. change them to a better form:² 1.² PALGRAVE 5.²KINGSLEY. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. if not. meaning. Of course. W. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece." .²FRANKLIN 6. I gave one quarter to Ann.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. on my return. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. Direct discourse²that is.²R. 3. Definitions. to have seen should be changed to to see. 448. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . CHURCH.²THACKERAY. The present rule is recent.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Exercise.²DE QUINCEY 2. to have divided with her whatever might remain. It should be remarked.. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.

Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I.. under interrogative pronouns. Direct. 1. 2. etc. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. His exact words were. . unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. "Oh. Her prudence whispered eternally." etc. introductory verb is in the past tense. Oh. and the indirect question by whether or if. She thought to herself. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. "I cannot oblige you . Sebastian's. Summary of the expressions. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse." Indirect. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words.. not attempting to follow the entire quotation.. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead.. have. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. The substance of his lamentation was. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. This includes the auxiliaries be. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. or regular interrogatives. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Direct. interrogative adverbs. 449. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. will. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that." etc. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect.

one summer afternoon.²ADDISON. . like distant peals of thunder.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. with his crew of the Half-moon.Exercise. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. in the sentences first quoted. if this were expanded into a verb. the first discoverer of the river and country. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. 450." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. he assured me that nothing was more easy. FRANKLIN.²GOLDSMITH. VERBALS.²B. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. and that he himself had heard. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. handed down from his ancestor the historian. The trouble is. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works.²ID. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. the sound of their balls. PARTICIPLES. my first observation will be found nearly true. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. Careless use of the participial phrase. Notice this. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.

Exercise. There are.." etc. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. purposely or not. . while defended or excused by others. then. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. and often. It is a solemn. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. my first collection was. Standard writers often use it. This is the more common arrangement. 451.²SCOTT. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. In the following citations.² HERBERT SPENCER..²LAUGHLIN. universal assertion. INFINITIVES.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. 3.²RUSKIN. For example. many things to be carefully considered. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.²ID. . see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. leaving the principal statement as it is..²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. 2. the first sentence would be. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . either "As I was pleased.Correction." Exercise.. Adverb between to and the infinitive. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. avoid it.. if a strike is to succeed.

The rigid rule in such a case would be. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.² MACAULAY.²RUSKIN. 6. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. but they are often removed from the exact position. 7. if they modify single words. etc. I wish the reader to clearly understand. 10.²ID. is to be very cautiously admitted. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.² ADDISON. even. In works of art. even. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. therefore.²The Nation.²DR. 9.4." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. etc. The spirits. etc. Now.²GOLDSMITH. BLAIR. which consists in multitude. from Irving.²TROLLOPE. when such adverbs as only.²BURKE. A little sketch of his. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 452. and earthenware. Position of only. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Exercise. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . are used.. china. No. this kind of grandeur.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 8. but cannot misunderstand the thought. 12. ADVERBS. 13. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 5. 1533. but it is placed before the infinitive. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.²SCOTT. 11.

²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 4. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 5. 11.²RUSKIN. 9. No sonne.²PALGRAVE.²MACAULAY. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²MOTLEY.²COOPER. 14.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. ²ASCHAM.²THACKERAY. In Old and Middle English. 8. 12. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. might not marry. 15.²N. 6. GROTE. During the whole course of his administration.² THACKERAY. My master.²ID. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²EMERSON. 13. WILLIS.²SWIFT. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. for example. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. P.²MRS.²CHAUCER. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. were he never so old of yeares.²HIGGINSON. to avoid a crowd. 7. In relating these and the following laws. He shouted in those clear. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 453. whence he was never destined to return. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.²SYDNEY SMITH. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 16.²ID.1.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 17. 3. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. .²ID. The old usage.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. His last journey to Cannes. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. 2. 10. Irving could only live very modestly.

uncommon.²MRS.²BURKE."²four negatives. nor the grandeur of no king. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²HAWTHORNE.²HOLMES. The prosperity of no empire. however. ²PAGE. and why:² 1. if two negatives are found together.²LOWELL. Exercise. can so agreeably affect. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. But. as. as infrequent."²MRS. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. in Ole Virginia. There weren't no pies to equal hers. under the influence of Latin syntax. who hadn't been to school for nothing. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. 3.²DE QUINCEY. Exceptional use. etc. In the execution of this task. 4. nor never shall. However. 7.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. but ought not to labor after it. when one of the negatives is a connective. Therefore. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. Regular law of negative in modern English. I did not act so hastily. This. is not common. I never did see him again. 2. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. 5. In the latter case. and is still kept in vulgar English. denying each other.²GROTE. the usual way of regarding the question now is. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort.²BAYNE. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. neither.² HAMILTON. STOWE. Not only could man not acquire such information.²DEFOE. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. . STOWE. 6. one of the negatives is often a prefix. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.

as well as of the pronoun... or to reply to it. And who.. The sentence. In the sentence.."²SCOTT.. neither . especially both . The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ." may be changed to "This loose .. but.8. should be scrutinized. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.." . as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. but to their own safety. not only to the success of their common cause. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. Choice and proper position of correlatives. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. if the second precedes a phrase. if the last precedes a verb. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.. 455..²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. or. "A weapon.. but (also)." Besides neither . The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. as the use of the conjunction. and which. nor is often changed to not²either .. "well worthy to confer honor. or with advantage.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. not only .. and. there we were. either. the first ought to be placed before a verb. not or is the proper correlative of neither. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. nor. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical..²LOWELL. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.." said the King... either .²SCOTT. The sentences given in Secs. or to reply to it. or. even neither ." both of the above requirements are violated.²PRESCOTT. 454. Things to be watched.. CONJUNCTIONS. not merely . the first should also. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. Correction.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals..

. 6. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Now. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. They will. substitute that. 3. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Exercise. not merely interest children. or but that for the words but what:² 1. but they will outrage. O. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. Some exceptions. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.²THACKERAY. as. or the negative relative but.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN. and I don't know but what he was right.²GIBBON. Try and for try to. too. but. JEWETT.² ADDISON. 8. 457. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 5. 7. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. nor the disgrace of assailing him. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. but. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. In the following sentences.²BAIN. But what. 456. and chop up their own kin. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²ID. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.Exercise. etc. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Correct the following sentences:² 1.²FRANKLIN.²THACKERAY. or but that. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 2. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. 4. but grown-up persons. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. murder. as.²MACAULAY.²S. Try and avoid the pronoun." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.

Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. no separation or division by twos being implied. Between is used most often with two things only. as already seen in Sec. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²ADDISON. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 458. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.² SWIFT. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 3.²SCOTT. 305. 4. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 5. PREPOSITIONS. 459. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. 6.2.²EMERSON.² BULWER.²ADDISON. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²BURKE. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. Between and among.²EMERSON. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). . In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 313. see Sec. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.²TROLLOPE. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.

Comply with. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conversant with. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. or one object and a group. Mackintosh. etc. List I. correspond. Abhorrent to. 461. and Coleridge.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Some of them have. Averse to. Such are absolve. and another to convey a different meaning.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. . 460. and philosophers like Locke. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. as. confer. Derogatory to. Affinity between. as. Conform to. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Bestow on (upon).: Words with particular prepositions. by custom. Different from. Kant. Paley. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. ²EMERSON. Dissent from. Dependent on (upon). different. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. involve. Such are derogatory. averse. LIST I. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. a soldier of the Cross.²RUSKIN What have I. Accord with.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Two groups or one and a group.²KINGSLEY. and Stewart. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Acquit of.

" also of persons. in the sense of making friends with. as meaning to be in keeping with. 463. Confer with (talk with). . "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. etc.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. LIST III. Reconcile with (note below). Correspond with (write to). Differ from (note below). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Agree to (a proposal). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Change to (become). Independent of. Confide to (intrust to). Differ with (note below). as.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. as. Change with (a person). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Confer on (upon) (give to)." List III. but it is not good usage." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Involve in. as.y y y Deprive of. A taste of (food). 462. Correspond to (a thing). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons.). Reconcile to (note below). and sometimes creeps into standard books. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). List II. Confide in (trust in). "The king is reconciled to his minister. A taste for (art. LIST II. Change for (a thing). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained).

"Die from. I am positively dying with hunger. "Die for. ELIOT.²G." (in behalf of). and ill treatment." "die from. ²THACKERAY. die for.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. Illustrations of "die of.:² "Die of. they shall die by this hand. It would take me long to die of hunger.²MACAULAY. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. It is a man of quality who dies for her. simply from old age. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²BOSWELL. die from. expect from.²SCOTT.²FIELDING. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. If I meet with any of 'em.y y y Die by. "Die with.²BURNETT. . "Die by. die with. People do not die of trifling little colds. part with. ²ATHENÆUM. instrument).²G. Expect of. "Die for. died for love of the fair Marcella." (because of). Take thought and die for Cæsar.²SHAKESPEARE.²GOLDSMITH. He died at last without disease. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²MACAULAY.²BULWER." (material cause. die of. as Cervantes informs us. One of them said he would die for her.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. ELIOT." She would have been ready to die with shame.²MACAULAY. Who. privation.²GOLDSMITH." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. She died of hard work. Part from. No one died from want at Longfeld.²POPE.²ADDISON." etc.

Illustrations of "part with. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. His precious bag. which he would by no means part from.²DICKENS." She will expect more attention from you. . "Part from. I have just seen her. Of Doctor P." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²POE. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. Burke parted from him with deep emotion." To part from you would be misery. 466.²BULWER." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²WALPOLE. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. ELIOT.²AUSTEN. With words implying behavior or disposition. just parted from her.²G." "part from:"² "Part with. as my friend. That is more than I expected of you. Illustrations of "expect of.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. either of or in is used indifferently.²SHAW.²G. 465.²BULWER. Kind in you. ELIOT. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²MACAULAY. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²WALLER.²MARRYAT. It was a little bad of you. 464. and hated to part with them. kind of you. I can part with my children for their good. nothing better was to be expected. "Expect from.²SCOTT. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²TROLLOPE. ELIOT." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²G.²MACAULAY. I have long expected something remarkable from you.

²BEACONSFIELD. the vast abyss. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 9. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. In the friction between an employer and workman. thunder. 11. nor blue. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. nor green. thrown it over Amyas's head. 3. 15.²BULWER.²CARLYLE. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 10.²DICKENS. 13. 7. with seraphims. Very natural in Mr. 5. Thou tread'st. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. In. nor of a pale red. and ran up the alley. 6. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. or that they are any way dependent on each other. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. . To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 14. 1. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. tedious perhaps. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.²TENNYSON. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. But this is idle of you. It will be anything but shrewd in you. nor yellow. but which the story renders necessary. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. The noise of vast cataracts. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. raging storms. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 4. Hampden.He did not think it handsome of you. This narrative. or artillery. or which we are most imperatively required to do.²BULWER. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 8.

Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. produce approbation. 30. were down with raging fever. 38.I would wish me only he. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 19. 37. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled.) 34. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 22. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. you or me. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 20. 36. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. But every man may know. . 17. You have seen Cassio and she together. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 27. 28. The effect of proportion and fitness. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. Friday. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. and other angular figures. 26. and almost as good as a pony. 33. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 411. Every one of these letters are in my name. Squares. 21. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves.And were I anything but what I am. 25. 24. 29. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. When the glass or liquor are transparent. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. or how beautiful it is. but in the price paid to them. the acquiescence of the understanding. 31. what is a just and unjust act. That night every man of the boat's crew. 23. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 18. 32. save Amyas. (Sec. triangles. 16. 35. and most of us do know.

40. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive.000 between them. from nominative clauses.39. nouns. of. syntax uses Absolute. 124. 124. from about 1500 to the present time. 116. origin of. A. Abstract with Active Address. . 47. of. as comparison definition demonstrative. 91. of. of. 25. 47. article. 90. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 310. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. numeral. 119. (2) Middle English. adverbs used complements. as. Adjectives. 260. 89. 133. 102. voice. of. 92. 239. (3) Modern English. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. pronouns. 20. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 98. demonstrative. nominative. He had four children. INDEX. 107. adjectives.

287. objective. 114. predicate. 303. form as as they to in as uses uses of. of. 148. modify. clauses. 183. of. 207. 262. of. 104. 275. 239. 325. of. with with with subject. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 106. parse. to used of. and 185. adjectives. 190. plural pronominal. 116. nouns. adjectives. compared. 190. Alms. 103. 316. of. 191. 207. 303. 194. 323. 187. 195. 27. 116. antecedent. 48. 328. infinitive. conjunctions. 99. Against. parse. 194. quantity.from function how in not of of ordinal. 42. quality. 115. 302. adjectives. 27. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. sentence. as nouns. 109. 242. between of. antecedent. 184. nouns. from to of. 101. of. conjunction. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 97. 325. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. . Agreement. of. 291.

67. of. Arrangement Articles. of. 150. 294. Are. parse. after of. of and pronoun of. 300. to of. same. sentences. Agreement. 225. 67. sentences. words between. 208. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 124. 120. 296. A. which. 84. it. definition of of of Any. 275. which. pronouns. 47. Auxiliary if. derivation in definite. 271. agreement personal as pronoun. 148. uses As At. definition how indefinite. 101. as uses verbs. See with definition complex compound simple who. . 287. 49. syntax. 240. 198. 207. See 74. 74. of. 127. 90. 51. 264. of. possessive. 309. 252. syntax As. in in.Among. sentences. of of of And Antecedent. of. adjective. 331. Anacoluthon Analysis. 79. 231. An. and. 120. which. though. 295.

39. 63. 260. 64. 279. of pronouns. Cause. Can. 278. forms. 62. 46. Among. comparison conjugation of. 49. plurals of. of nouns. 210. 161. But. with But By. of. 195. double possessive. Brethren. 39. 84. of nouns. Be. pronoun. 110. 330.Bad. 278. See of. conjunctions Cherub. definition could. number of. 262. Clause. of pronouns. 66. Case. 47. 262. clauses of. adjective. Children. of nouns. 45. uses of. nominative. uses nominative of. 37. Between. Bridegroom. 111. 48. of pronouns. syntax of. Case. 150. 110. of. of what. 149. 194. 279. objective. best. possessive. . 54. in Old and Modern English. of. of pronouns. 46. 224. uses Better. 283. of nouns. adverb.

312. in analysis. of. 258. 239. of. adjectives. 18. subject. 257. 305. English. 248. plural of. 307. proper. Cleave. 257. predicate. infinitive. 307. predicate of and from from of. 113. superlative. and sentence. of. 110. of. Clomb. 24. 157. and forms of. 53. 108. of. 271. Cloths. definition degrees irregular. clothes. nouns. 158. 268. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 257. nouns. 111. of. 244. defective. . 189. 263. 18. 43. nouns. of. adverbs. of. 264. verb. material. double. sentence. 12. analysis of.definition kinds noun. 43. 107. 315. 108. of. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 23.

188. subjunctive. 143. 269. in Old vs. 196. conjunction. pronoun. correlative. See analysis clauses. Conjunctions. pronoun. conjunctions. same words. definition how subordinate. 328. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. interrogative pronouns. sentence. analysis. 207. definition be. verbs.with Concord. Agreement. conjunctions. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 289. 199. 195. 195. adverbs. of of Conjunctions. sentences. 194. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. to of. other other parts of speech. 255. 194. See in subjunctive. pronouns. sentences. 194. replaced by objective. of. 73. parse. 193. and clause. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 138. 231. See English. 263. 66. coördinate. of. Can. 149. 151. 139. 149. .

102. of personal relative verbs. vs. for. 91. pronouns. Articles. object. 242. of. 102. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. Degrees. pronouns. 300. 333. See See 48. by.Declension. nouns. with. passive adjectives. 287. 152. clause. of. possessive. 43. Comparison. use of dies. Comparative. tenses. Subordinate clause. pronouns. of. pronouns. with of. article. 288. . of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 35. 80. Case. 99. 90. 185. discourse. 160. 51. of. 60. duck. adverbs See adjectives. See adjectives. 303. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. verb. comparative. See 148. 26. 320. from. indirect. 242. nouns. 315.

40. spoken. 300. adjective. vulgar. 257. one ( t). 102. of. 240. literary. 51. Empress. of. 92. of. 194. -En. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 328. added suffix. 12. adjective. 110. 158. 287. complement. of. object. older. drunk. pronoun. 42. 112. 33. 38. 280. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. plural. in 'Em. 241. another. 39. 62.Drank. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 158. of. 90. Each. 299. pronoun. feminine plural English. 287. the of sentence. suffix. . error in sentence. original. 234. of subject. Elements Ellipsis. of. 32. pronouns. to suffix. 92. possessive suffix. predicate. syntax Each Eat Eaves. conjunction. 33. other. Either. 34. 90. ending. 92. 255.

as of from compared marking. 126. as a noun. See Gander. Future Future tense. 102. Gender. 147. 30. Feminine. 48. pronoun. definition distinguished in English. 32.." 31. 110. 103. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 152. gender. expect gone. Few. 112. 319. 102. 45. uses redundant. . of. used of. Further. fishes. 30. For. 211. with in sex. from. modes "common goose. 189. plurals. perfect. 148. uses Foreign Former. 238.. First. etc. 212.Every. of. 152. 235. 287. 212. 30. two a further. of. nouns. 43. other languages. 36. the. 29. Farther. with infinitive. 91. 112. object. first. etc. have adjective. two. adjective. 308. First Fish. 334. From. to of. few.

159. person. of. 43. pronouns. 12. of. Had Hanged. possessive pronouns. personal relative geniuses. 173. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 145. from participle of. noun. Gerund. 144. participle. 285. of. 101. distinguished syntax. Grammar. 275. forms in Girl. 35. had hung. 12. 60. pronoun. on. His Husband. Got. 10. 177. of. and case verbal with. definition divisions opinions province H. . 61. definition basis of. 36. first sentence. its. rather. 231. 120. I. He. Government. an better. 175. she. 159. 60. 80. for before. 176. 9. adjective. 13.of of Genii. it. kinds of. 61.

sentence. adverbs. questions. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 93. 176. questions. elements.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 320. 233. indirect of. Direct object. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 43. . indices. 245. 283. uses discourse. 319. of. of. See Articles. 136. meaning. 178. a object. See you. 73. your. adjectives. use article. 248. of. words. in compared syntax. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. adjectives. 231. pronoun. 72. summary See passive mood. transitive. pronouns. of. with of. 227. 153. 85. Questions. 257. 105. 131. 323. 67. mood. 276. 188. 110. verbs. of clause. 131.

Logic Logical Lord. subject form. 245. It. Lady. 226. Like. syntax. "It Its. 67. 170. lesser. 61. Kind. Lay. of." history etc. 281. 276. 303. 91.. queen. See Madam. adjective. Kine. of. was uses me. 110. pronoun. lie. 110. 227. Lady. of. and See words in. plural. 113. uses Literary Little. of. Latter. . a vs. these double kind. lord. Lay. King.. 36. 63. 113. etc. 102. 36. English. in little. Last. 189. 12. 126. Lie. 36. 190. -Ly. Less.adverbs. 39. syntax the. predicate. latest.

of. in adverbs comparison a. 137-144. of. See definition 136. syntax nearer. 41. 110. Enlargement. . 112. imperative. 112. 188. of. 102. 189. 161. construction as of adverb. sentences. of. mine. 113. mistress. of. conjunctions Many. 34. etc. subjunctive.Manner. Must. 287. Means. 265. 195. 194. indicative. adjective. 36. position adverb. Neither. of. Master. 110. 110. of. nigh. superlatives. 135. 160. 189. Mighty Mine. Many Mapping Mare. 112. 137. out of. Much. 126. -Most. 256. 64. Negative. 325. 114. 187. May. syntax conjunction. 185. Mood. of. 326. might. Modifier. double. 328. Modifiers. comparison Near. 144..

etc. 301.pronoun. letters as 24. 17. proper. now plural. 41. No Nominative. syntax in gender nouns. to use. 17. gender how kinds material. 300. 246. used as. of. 25. 38-41. 29. 41. foreign. Not Noun Nouns. kinds 90. 46. of. 46. 41 43. See 194. class used singular. 18. 92. None. 30. 328. Nor. 124. in. 21. of. 26. of. and figures. 42. words how compound. 45. become neuter. etc. of. clause. 27. become become formation case collective. syntax Neuter or two News. definition according of. parse. 258. material. nouns. of of of of of a. abstract. definition descriptive. 126. of. gender nouns. 125. 20. abstract. 19. to of. formed. common. nouns. 56. half abstract. Case. 30. 38. 32. . 30. of. 17 19. analysis. number once other plural. 25.

with with with Now Number. 242. passive adverbial. indefinite. adverbial. common. of different possessive definite of. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 121. plural. of. See in in in Numeral distributive. and analysis. 235. 42. 66. 278. preposition. 281. 48.. 39. 41. become syntax use with with with Nouns. conjunction. adjectives. spoken of instead nouns. 240. Preposition. 195. 196. 42. 278. in nouns. 282. See verb. plural form. 60. Numeral Object. form. pronouns. 41. 242. etc. verbs. 124. in article. meaning. . 285. 106. article. 41. of. meanings. nominative. 42 44. with case. 92. 48. 18. plural no two singular construction. 102. singular. pronouns. of. definite. 43. adjectives. of.of same two with proper. 101. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 279. of. English. of. as forms titles. singular. indirect. dative. 48. personal. 48. 23. 148. 101. 48. or plural. Nouns.

91. 117. of syntax. 64. nouns. See pronoun. Elder. 93 other. pronoun. 103. 87. as other. See the as of. of of of of of models adjectives. One. 38. for. 94. 191. Older. definite relative uses of. 199. 115. Pains. 325 275. 279. 161. Each adjective. 116. position Order. of. adverb. 237. 56. Our. with (the). 216. adjective. 306. conjunctions. adverbs. 103. as of. part analysis. . Oxen. conjunction. 293. Omission On. inverted. 41. of upon. 69. 56. Ordinal Other Ought. Parsing. 127. of. treatment comparatives. 233. uses numeral pronoun. 101. a in adjectives. indefinite possessive One One as Only. another. Ourself. articles. of. 213. ours.syntax Of. 194.

of. them. 62. possessive and of. 59. pennies. pronouns. verb idioms it from. 317. 134. pease. of. antecedent. Person. verbs. 28. 180. and subject in. 119. of. 219. 27. relatives. pronouns. phrases. from definition other of. . 59. of. 43. of. Pence. 95. included various. predicate use of. pronoun. 173. 247. 181. absolute with of. -ing words. nominative. 56. 59. 69. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 43. agreement of verb nouns. article 150. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. parsed. 322. 61. 281. 63. 148. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. phrase. with. verbs. reflexive. of. 179. 174. 56. 80. verbals. used as voice. 177. not is. 172. 70. 100. 287. of. 64. 62. 335.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. speech. in. 172. part adjective. or of.

and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. or See of of See 185. Nouns. kinds infinitive. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 54. 63. 195. 106. . syntax of of Politics. 37. 64. 236. 's. 281. in of. complete. nouns. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 235.objective syntax table triple uses of. 25. 248. 51. of. vs. of. of. 285. of Phrase. Positive Possessive. 41. double. 206. 236. singular. pronoun. antecedent of of pronouns. 247. omitted. of. 188. Place. spoken of. 303. Personal subjective. singular degree. participial. pronoun. 278. adverbs of. Personification. English. it. 60. 61. appositional. 303. Comparison. pronouns. 49. plural. 247. of. 53. 50. 241. 52. See 60. 281. of. of nouns. adjectives. prepositional. simple. 53. relative. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 245. of. noun nouns. as double. nouns. 67. 245. objects. nouns. of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 278. 232.

300. 129. 299. by parts of of. Prepositions. 207. 64. of. 302. future. by with shown certain of. speech. as antecedent of relative. all. of. somebody definition how indefinite. 195. 279. any. 132. as. 202. 285. objective. 206. 89. adverb. each either. who personal. 208. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. objective. possessive nominative to of. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. case. of. 219. 203. 300. case. 187. usually to as than. 72. of. . 332. by. same used as adjectives. 95. 287. 105. 303. 284. 281. for predicate nominative. none. interrogative. 331. 283. 186. 283. words. parse. of. verbs. plural. after but. 58. 333. of. and one with else's. 59. what. expressed as other of. forms of. 282. 280. parse. 105. and form form form form of. plural. as 54. exclamatory. another. 147. 32. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. adjective. 203. 93. of. 104. plural. meaning. 205. with tense certain. 58.Prefixes. interrogative. in exclamations. singular usually other. 301. neither. Pronouns.

See of. of. indirect compound. 105. and which. 87. Quantity. of. of. of. 188. Quotations. which. of. and relatives. questions. 195. 296. with with gerund. in. 58. with who. 74. 69. that. 291. 83. Questions. in. 85. 293. of. indirect. 99. pronoun. 69. 286. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. nouns. 293. and antecedent. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. Rank. discourse. 101. . pronominal pronouns indirect. Direct same and different. Nouns. use of history formed. same antecedent. 295. 87. 263. adverbs in. Rather. unrestrictive. 74. use in as. 84. in. of. which after same.possessive relative. 68. 142. 74. 85. of. to of. 279. who. from and interrogative. or of. agreement anacoluthon and as. of. 189. 289. parse. 80. personal pronoun. conjunctions Quality. pronouns. 295. 297. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 289.

will. 255. 259. 159. 69. 42. 51. 74. of. 263. forms shots. of sit. 40. which. 294. pronoun. Self Sentences. tenses. object. 196. 159. would. 319. and should.syntax use Result. simple of. 26 271. S. suffix. Seeing. that. 289. simple. of. in form. Shot. sentence. 196. 162. of. 231. ending. 252. 29. Simple in sate. of. reflexive analysis of compound. kinds Sequence Set. of of of complex Sentences. Sex Shall. Same Sat. 43. See Sentences. 'S. who. 242. 195. complex. in of. clauses of. definition . conjunctions Retained Riches. Shear. plural possessive as. effect. 231. elliptical. conjunction. gender. 170.

English. 138. 186. distinguish. 144. 245. . other Such Such Suffix -s. 270. Subject. 169. 240. 258. -es. 303. 38. 12. 260. sort. 237. disuse in spoken complete.Singular Sir. 245. 33. 126. 257. Somebody Sort. Split Spoken -Ster. 323. 258. 38. verbs. 33. 233. 32. -en. of. used mood.. for. 258. 257. English. as. Modern use becoming else's. phonetic in infinitive. of. vs. definition 67. 257. of. 144. English. English. 303. of. 257. these number. etc. of. to of. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. names as a. literary clause. 36. logical. 262. in Middle English. in feminine suffix. Spelling Spinster. adverb. 137. definition how kinds noun. of. of. adverb. See -En.

Tenses. king. of. meaning. of. form. See etc. not suggesting adjectives. 275. subject. in comparison. they. 290. coördinating. than of.. syntax of.. 309. 275. of. 289. 116. 61. of. adjectives. Then. restrictive. 191. of . which. 148. 120. 280. English. English. 88. auxiliaries. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. definition in English Tense. 189. as history syntax Their. There These kind. "the then foreign. 107. 108. me. omission whom. when relative. this. degree. and and of. 33. 152. of. in double." introductory. plural as adverb. of. 123. 222. Kind.. 277. 319. 186. classical of. 297.Suffixes. 147. objects. as history The. 306. of. 147. 119. of languages. 307. of. 109. 186. two basis not same definition definite. that uses That. . adverbs. 106. object. 147. meaning made up in Old of. 106. in Modern number sequence table Than That. article. 306. when as of. 87. as adverbs.

infinitive. 176. conjunctions prepositions To. 195. tother. 180. of. 33. 185. See On. See That. 119. 20. gerund. used. in of. 248. kinds participle. Upon. 308. 175. 188. adverbs those. 114. . phrases. 172. 114. feminine and. 323. of. 322. of. Time. 21. 114. 175. 61. 217. preposition. other noun. words. of. -ing 111.These. 322. 173. Upper. parse. -Trix. thy. verbs. uses of. analysis. certain as the before with of. from cleft to 174. how infinitive. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. in omitted uses T'other.. Utter. 330. first adjective. suffix. Try Two Under. 207. to. uses history of. of. carelessly uses syntax this. first. 247. infinitive. etc. 181. exclamations. of. 175. Thou. 172. try two. thee. 128. of. uttermost.

134. 148. agreement of. verbs by. 160. intransitive. verbs. Vocative in Voice. 179. passive. 159. past tense formed nominative. 130. of English. 157. retained object with passive. becoming irregular. 320. of. 129. 319. table of. defective. 150. person and number of. What. with subject in number. made transitive. 223. remarks on certain. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 154. 155. 245. 169. syntax of. . voice of. of. 317. weak. 133. Vixen. 242. in person. 135. in indirect discourse. active.Verbs. 147. phonetic. 167. of incomplete predication. passive form. change. regular. 33. 236. 131. definition of. definition of. 149. 133. 154. analysis. conjugation of. 330. auxiliary. 12. 169. 148. 154. active meaning. 167. sequence of. 39. formed by. mood of. 151. table of irregular. but uses what. 312. transitive and intransitive. spelling of. tense of. 47. definition of. strong. how to parse. 312-316.

pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 111. English. . 296. 190.. relative. 72. uses See Shall. referring syntax Widower. antecedent adjective. 37. animals. Who. 40. 36. questions. in in indefinite objective. Y. questions. 73. Wife. 246. 83. relative. 77. Will. Yes ending analysis. 36. interrogative Which. 105. 85. Whether. 85. 75. 218. direct of. 105. relative indirect relative. of. wizard. 299. 79. 72. Words in Worse. 32. questions. plural of in nouns -ing. 178. 104.what Whereby. 78. With. in -ly. questions. etc. Woman. 83. 75. in. 295-299. conjunction. 126. whereto. Witch. pronoun. would. worser. pronoun. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 72. of. spoken in of. 194. a. 85.

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