roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question." and "Syntax. "Analysis. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. It is also evident. and their uses and relations in the sentence. but this is bad English now. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. rightly considered.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. their forms. to those who have studied the language historically. A broader view. An æsthetic benefit. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. its peculiar and abundant idioms." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. there is still much for the grammarian to do. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. Literary English. This will take in the usual divisions. as. with its enormous vocabulary. from the question. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. If. Making rules is risky. as compared with Latin or Greek. it will at the same time. so that a small grammar will hold them all. then. Surely our noble language. is worthy of serious study. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training.The province of English grammar is. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. The work it will cover. . Mental training. and thus incite his observation. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. Few inflections. if rightly presented. Authority as a basis. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition." What grammar is. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. however. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. Coming back. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). assist the classification of kindred expressions. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation.

The words state. as they stand for ideas. from the eighteenth century on. that is. Part III. In the more simple state of the Arabs. but. Such words are called nouns. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²GIBBON. reference will be made to vulgar English. and will are evidently names of a different kind.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Part II. The plainest name is Arabs. the words sons and master name objects. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. too. . which belongs to a people. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. and may belong to any of those objects. Spoken English. NOUNS. the nation is free. not objects. The following pages will cover. besides this one. PART I. then. Vulgar English. 1. submission. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Analysis of Sentences. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. The Uses of Words. Occasionally.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. or standard. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. The Parts of Speech. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. or Syntax. and Inflections. three divisions:² Part I.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. by which is meant the free.

but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. is from a Latin word which means general. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. (a) 4. as here used. This does not imply. or the man in front of you. Name for any individual of a class. or things. animals. animals. Thus. or a council. or thing. substance. or idea. and things separately. reducing it to a narrow application. possessed by all. 2. however. we may think of them in groups. a committee. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. Common. Classes of nouns. place. or a congress. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. because each group is considered as a unit. ATTRIBUTE. For instance. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. whether person. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. A noun is a name word.Definition. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Proper. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. 3. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. Abstract. We may say. Thus. They properly belong under common nouns. (b) Common. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. representing directly to the mind an object. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. the name of each is an individual or proper name. or a mob. Besides considering persons. 5. the man here. Name for a group or collection of objects. men in groups may be called a crowd. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. Individual. MATERIAL. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. and appropriate names to the groups. but Chicago names one city. etc. belonging to one. . Collective. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities.

expressing attributes or qualities. Words naturally of limited application not proper. rain. mist. or apart from their natural connection. stone. wine. platinum. NOTE. or action.." 9. however. or that which shows a thing has been proved. moon. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. Such are glass. rock. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. etc. soap. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. celluloid. 7. earth. not things. snow. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. 6. wheat. . If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. instead of to each individual or separate object. etc. sand.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. wheat. etc. Abstract nouns are names of qualities." "a man of understanding. (3) Geological bodies: mud. but in the words sun. They remain common class names. Names of ideas. condition. The quality is still there as much as before. clay. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). conditions. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. cloud. we may say. as in calling a city Cincinnati. frost. frost. expressing state. sugar." "Learning is hard to acquire. potash. but which are not called proper names. When we speak of a wise man. rubber. . The reason is. Again. considered abstractly. rice. It may. etc. granite. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. etc. etc. iron. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. but it is taken merely as a name.²There are some nouns. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. world. there is no such intention. etc. "Painting is a fine art. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. paint. earth. and fasten a special name to the object considered. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. we speak of the wisdom of the man. sugar. and so on. such as sun. gold. or actions. dew. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. proof means the act of proving. tea.

service from serve. The verb. hope. (2) peerage from peer. but are merely names of actions. in the beginning of his life. Thus. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech." "a brisk walk. by altering its function. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. Such are beauty. etc. NOTE. the teachings of the High Spirit. and they cannot express action. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. night. as in the expressions. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. 10.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. lightning. her longing for their favor. as their name implies. there is time for such reasonings. (1) prudence from prudent. day. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. II. 12. redness from red. They cannot govern a word. five abstract.Attribute abstract nouns. the well-being of her subjects. action from act. kingship from king. joy. childhood from child. those opinions and feelings. energy. Caution. stupidity from stupid. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. 273). 1. five proper. speech from speak. as glad²joy. is used as a noun. etc. etc. To avoid difficulty. hopeful²hope. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. the great Puritan awakening. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. the main bearings of this matter. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. Underived abstract nouns. . summer. winter. the rude drawings of the book. thunder. height from high. They are only the husks of verbs. "a long run" "a bold move. 272. he spread his blessings over the land. Exercises.." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. Verbal abstract nouns. shadow. a wedding or a festival. theft from thieve. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. etc. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. the moon caused fearful forebodings. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. ease. mastery from master.

catarrh. as pneumonia. mathematics? 3. Using a dictionary. (b) branches of knowledge.2. pleurisy. typhus. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . diphtheria. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. as physics. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. algebra. geology.

we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Sodom was famous for wickedness. a Hutton. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance.²EMERSON. Material nouns may be used as class names. arras. or to go over to it entirely. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. Nouns change by use. a Locke. damask. Proper names transferred to common use. from Calicut. who was its inventor. in Portugal. thus. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. from the name of Dr. a Bentham. it imposes its classification on other men. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. from Corinth. 15. from China. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. We know a number of objects made of iron. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. 14. a Fourier. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. the guillotine. for example. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. Others of similar character are calico.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. and lo! a new system. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. port (wine). 119). "The cook made the irons hot.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Guillotin. but we may say. currants. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. from a town in France. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. the word port. as a davy. from Damascus. from Oporto. but most of them are in the following groups." referring to flat- . above. a Lavoisier. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. 13. etc. levant and morocco (leather).

So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. and say teas.²PERCIVAL. oils. From all around²Earth and her waters. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. but differ in strength.²BRYANT. Test this in the following sentences:² . or the arts and sciences. tins. and so on. For example. the abstract idea is partly lost.irons. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Class nouns in use. slates. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. mists. as stones. This is a poetic usage. that the power of art is founded on fact. etc. tobaccos. (3) By poetical use. are still names of abstract ideas. When it is said that art differs from science. though not confined to verse.²CARLYLE. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. These are the same in material. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. not material things. are abroad. clays. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. papers. his eyes. on fire. Traffic has lain down to rest. Next Anger rushed. nor are they common class nouns. candies. to prowl or to moan like night birds. be spoken of. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. a steel to whet a knife on. or used as class nouns. Death. a rubber for erasing marks. abstract in meaning. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks.²BYRON. and only Vice and Misery. etc.²COLLINS. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. which are made plural. that is. purity. or made plural. clouds.In lightnings owned his secret stings. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. that disposition is the thing to be created. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. 17. They are not then pure abstract nouns.²RUSKIN. The words preceded by the article a. paints. but in case an art or a science.²HAYNE. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. A halfway class of words. Personification of abstract ideas. smiled. 16. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. or. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. but on dispositions which require to be created. coals.

²SHAKESPEARE. as each repeated pleasure tired." "the State Bank Tax bill. which belongs to another word. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. 19. By ellipses. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. the wealthy. as descriptive adjectives are. All these. etc. a bill as to tax on the banks. nouns used to modify. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.²BURNS. Every why hath a wherefore. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. fear thy blow. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions.²IRVING. sir!"²MACAULAY . sir?" and the "No. they do not express quality.Let us. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question." which contains a pure adjective. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. make our own so." "a morning walk.² GOLDSMITH.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Adjectives. or from any expression. for example. but is still a noun. sir!" and the "What then. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. they cannot be compared. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.²EMERSON. loves. And still. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. however.The Solitary can despise. meaning a walk in the morning. Conjunctions. NOTE. were mere terrors of the night. But it is better to consider them as nouns. When I was young? Ah. a bank in New York. Nouns used as descriptive terms. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. if we must have great actions. "a family quarrel. and joysWhich I too keenly taste." "a New York bank. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.² BURNS. Then comes the "Why. or describe it.²SHAKESPEARE. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. They are more like the possessive noun. 18. But ah! those pleasures. Adverbs.

they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Power laid his rod aside. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. 5. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. FRANKLIN. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. too. of course. in a sentence above. and Then. however. NOTE. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. are spoken of as if pure nouns. Now. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. so. but as a figure of speech. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. It is to be remembered. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. When. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. 4. at the beginning. the wealthy.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. The it. When. and tell to which class each belongs. are used. There are many of these. 20.Nor iron bars a cage. of words rather than of their meaning. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. 1.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. that cobweb of the brain. In the other sentences. whether it mean the sun or the cold.²These remarks do not apply. . Mather's called "Essays to do Good. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. or a criminal. 6. Stone walls do not a prison make. Learning." or "legal. why and wherefore. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies." and another of Dr. or a state secret."²B. Exercise. is ambiguous. without reference to its function in the sentence. 7. is the word "just. 8. or a faithful domestic. in speaking of the principal of a school. etc. 2. to such words as become pure nouns by use. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. the terms the great. 3. Caution. but have an adjectival meaning.. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.

In Latin. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. the silver moon is gone. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. shattered and disabled. 21. 10. Male beings are. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 22. 11. Greek. 21. . 15. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 23.9. that waits you here. 20. the welcome. The hours glide by. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 14. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 18. 12.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. There are exceptions even to this general statement. 19. returned to Spain.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. in English grammar.You seize the flower. But pleasures are like poppies spread. always feminine. A fool speaks all his mind. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 17. and many other languages. It is founded on sex. German. but not so in English. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. The fleet. And see. GENDER. 13.Fair guests. A little weeping would ease my heart. he cried. What gender means in English. always masculine. its bloom is shed. 24. and names of females are usually feminine. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. female. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 16.

² I have seenA curious child .²LAMB. inanimate things are spoken of.When. if there were any signs of life in it. 23. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. or additions to words. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. those which do not distinguish sex. in German. however.. in other languages gender follows the form. the name of it is masculine. or which arouse his interest most. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. 24. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.. that is. Thus. according to their use. Gender nouns. All nouns. that pattern of a husband. or names of things without life. Gunpowder . if of the female sex. the sex being of no consequence." . hortus (garden) is masculine. must be divided into two principal classes. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words... 22. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. mensa (table) is feminine. No "common gender.² IRVING. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. the word child is neuter in the sentence.²masculine and feminine. corpus (body) is neuter. der Tisch (table) is masculine. came to a stand just by the bridge.²gender nouns. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.. are named by gender nouns. The great difference is. and consequently without sex.. "A little child shall lead them. clapping his burnished wings. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. but are spoken of as neuter. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. those distinguishing the sex of the object. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. with its gizzard under its wing. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. . those with which man comes in contact often. Neuter nouns. in English. and neuter nouns. the name of it is feminine. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. For instance: in Latin. das Messer (knife) is neuter. according to use.²IRVING. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. Hence: Definition. He next stooped down to feel the pig. then. Of animals.

cock sparrow²hen sparrow. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Put in convenient form. and for the older word fat they said vat. only to masculine and feminine nouns. The inflections for gender belong. etc. or the lack of it. Male nouns beings. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. domestic. 27. Gender shown by Prefixes. Gender shown by Suffixes. (2) By adding a suffix. though both words have lost their original meanings. If such words as parent.. woman. II. relative. from the masculine fox. I. (3) By using a different word for each gender. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. cousin. These remain in vixen and spinster. teacher. Hence vixen is for fyxen. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. is. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. One feminine. ruler. generally to a masculine word. but spinster has now no connection with it. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. for from they said vram. According to the definition. 28. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. of course. 26. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. he-bear²she-bear.25. as he-goat²she-goat. puts a prefix before the masculine man. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. they are neuter words. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. 29. Very few of class I. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Native suffixes. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. servant.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. as in wine vat. the division of words according to sex. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. For fox they said vox. .

These are attached to foreign words. donna. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as czarina. executrix. and are never used for words recognized as English. trickster.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Unaltered and little used. Ending of masculine not changed. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. song-str-ess. as. Slightly changed and widely used. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as. -ess (French esse. as seam-stress.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. it has none now in the words huckster. 30. but in most cases it has not. the one most used. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. gamester. señorita. Low Latin issa). punster.

neighbor (masculine and feminine). We frequently use such words as author. In some of these pairs. editor. as in the fourteenth century. we use the masculine termination. 31.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. Thus. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Instead of saying doctress. as. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. teacheresse. chairman. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Some of them have an interesting history. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. 32. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. from the French -esse. others have in their origin the same root. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. as. from Latin imperatricem.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). wagoness. the ending -ess. or servauntesse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. etc. teacher or lady teacher. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. Gender shown by Different Words. as was said in the sixteenth century. we use the feminine. fosteress. frendesse. neighboresse." III. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. to represent persons of either sex. NOTE. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress.

had the masculine mearh (horse). written loverd. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Witch is the Old English wicce. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. became identical. Icelandic gás. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. leaving our word drake. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec.).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. The older forms. 33. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. finally gander. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Madam is the French ma dame. Widower. not immediately connected with witch. It is not connected historically with our word duck. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). etc. Mare. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. gand-ra. 16). Two masculines from feminines. widuwa²widuwe. or lauerd in Middle English. as in many other words. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. for example. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Danish gaas. lhauerd.² . in Old English mere. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Besides gander and drake. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. among others) to be from the same root word. though both are ultimately from the same root. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. the old sign of the masculine. Three letters of ened have fallen away. probably meaning house dweller). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Personification. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). from Latin mea domina. but this has long been obsolete. 34.

But other words were inflected afterwards. whenever we adopt a new word. (2) By changing the root vowel. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. .Her home is on the deep. 37. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. The -en inflection. This is not exclusively a poetic use. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 36. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. Our language has two numbers. the engineer speaks so of his engine. 35. treen (trees).²KEATS. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one."Now. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. The first two methods prevailed. that is.No towers along the steep. in Old English. together with the third. In nouns. 38."²BYRON. etc. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.²COLERIDGE. I.²CAMPBELL. and not by the form of the noun. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. shoon (shoes). eyen (eyes). more than one. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. (3) By adding -s (or -es). Effect of personification. Britannia needs no bulwarks. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. 39. NUMBER. for instance. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. the plural.²singular and plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. Definition.

borough²formerly had the same inflection. wight. as. or if preceded by the prepositions in. II. folk. but has now no singular. Akin to this class are some words. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. sail. salmon. but they now add the ending -s. after all. III. swine. dozen. Examples of this inflection are. people. retain the same form for plural meaning.Horse and foot. etc. Such are box. turf. brace. and is still found in dialects. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. The words horse and foot. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. lens.²WHITTIER. heathen. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Children has passed through the same history. Instead of -s.-En inflection imitated by other words. sheep. by. Kine is another double plural. 40. etc. into Frederick town. pair. 42. head. cannon. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. quartz. after numerals (if not after numerals. Brethren has passed through three stages. such as deer. Lee marched over the mountain wall. as. etc.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book.The horse are thousands ten. The old plural was brothru.²Over the mountains winding down.² "God bless me! so then. finally brethren."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. when they mean soldiery. Other words following the same usage are.²MACAULAY. ditch. originally neuter. they add -s): also trout. .² The foot are fourscore thousand. then brothre or brethre.²THOREAU. glass. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. that have the singular and plural alike. cross. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. and get settled. 41.

and some -es.²BRYANT. in its widest extent. and go over to other classes (Secs.-Es added in certain cases.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. volcano² volcanoes. hero²heroes. Formerly. 44. and the real ending is therefore -s. mathematics. etc. e. molasses.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. etc. knife²knives. they lose their identity. means: as. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). pains (care). prize²prizes. e. Words in -ies. fancies. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. When such words take a plural ending. Proper nouns are regularly singular. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . physics. chaise²chaises. as. shelf²shelves. race²races. and many branches of learning.. The lilie on hir stalke grene. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes.²PROF. though this sound combines readily with -s. politics. however.g. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. fairies.² Politics. negro²negroes. these words ended in -ie. So live. though they are plural in form. economics.g. etc.. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. Examples of these are. that when thy summons comes. optics. half²halves. Means plural. the Washingtons. etc. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. a new syllable is made. summons. 43. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. Special Lists. niche²niches. daisies. DANA. It served simply as a means of sight. the Americas. 15 and 17). quoth then that ladie milde. 45. some adding -s. means and politics. is both the science and the art of government. Two words. Some words are usually singular. allies.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. also news. house²houses. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.

it is furnished with a forceps. By these means. With great dexterity these means were now applied. by strongly conveying the passions. I say. riches will accumulate.²G.²GOLDSMITH.²J. 46. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right.²BURKE.²GOLDSMITH. Politics plural. Besides this. Some words have no corresponding singular.² MACAULAY. Sometimes. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. he pronounced to have been a tongs. CURTIS. A relic which.²IRVING. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. however. L. . a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. by those means which we have already mentioned. W. Now I read all the politics that come out. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²MOTLEY. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.Words. LAUGHLIN.

indices (signs in algebra). In speaking of coins. fishes (individuals or kinds).²was it subdued when. carry off chaff. for the numbers came. in mournful numbers. the other unlike it. twopence. two plurals. faculties. or epistles. genii (spirits). may add -s. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. One plural. In Early Modern English thank is found. index²indexes (to books).²LONGFELLOW. two meanings. sixpence. . What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. dice (for gaming). etc. 49. Tell me not.. ways. shots (number of times fired).² I lisped in numbers. Two classes of compound words. clothes (garments). (2) care. part²parts: (1) divisions.The air.²one corresponding to the singular.). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. brethren (of a society or church). number²numbers: (1) figures.. pea²peas (separately). (2) abilities. shot²shot (collective balls). of a periodical. or copies. Numbers also means issues. as two sixpences. making a double plural. as in the lines. trouble. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. riches. eaves. (2) poetry. fish²fish (collectively). (2) literature. penny²pennies (separately).²POPE. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. pence (collectively). Three words were originally singular. pease (collectively). die²dies (stamps for coins. or work in a bellows?²PROF. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.. genius²geniuses (men of genius). 48. 50. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. etc. These make the last part plural. DANA. (2) revenue duties. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.

and then the three Miss Spinneys. the Drs. Briggs.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. . Brown. woman singer. or the name may be pluralized. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. as man singer. Norman. there is some disagreement among English writers. and Mrs. Two methods in use for names with titles. the Misses Rich.² Then came Mr. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Ottoman. Allen. manservant. woman servant. firman. German. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. as the Messrs. Brahman. but add -s. though the latter is often found. then Silas Peckham. 52. The chief member adds -s in the plural.²DR. 51. such as talisman. HOLMES. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. As to plurals of names with titles. The title may be plural. for example. Mussulman.

Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Domesticated words.²GIBBON. The Messrs. They are then said to be naturalized.²THE CRITIC. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Du Maurier. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. FROM THE LATIN. 53.²DICKENS. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. or Anglicized.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise. and retain their foreign plurals. Others have been adopted. FROM THE GREEK. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. These are said to be domesticated. y y analysis antithesis . or Englished.

etc." CASE. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. etc. cell has another relation. Only two case forms. In the sentence. . "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s).² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Definition. Words quoted merely as words." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands)." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Letters. 56. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. as. they form their plurals in the regular way. 54. figures. 55.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. also add -s or 's. figures. as. and expresses a relation akin to possession. In the general wearing-away of inflections. without reference to their meaning.." the word felon's modifies cell.

then.²person. 1. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. may be said to have three cases.²one for the nominative and objective. and the possessive. Uses of the Nominative. and experience. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case.²nature." (2) As a predicate noun. they returned to their homes. 4. learning. 3. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. 58. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. . I. the objective. Three properties belong to wisdom. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. and merit. 57. 2." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Human experience is the great test of truth. completing a verb. 5. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. the enemy of the living.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. must be understood for purposes of analysis. Nouns. when asked unawares. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. fate. three things characterize man. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. excessive grief. Excuses are clothes which.²the nominative. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. whether inflected or not.

6. a patriarch of the village. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. sword in hand and visor down. 9. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. and meaning calmest. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object." "Thou makest the storm a calm. as will be seen in Sec. (5) As the object of a preposition. taking the object storm. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. 4. and being equivalent to one verb. etc. 68. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due." (4) As the second object. and tell which use each has:² 1. and landlord of the inn. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. . how have I frighted thee? II. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. They charged." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends." (3) Adverbially. distance. (in the older stages of the language. completing the verb. But of all plagues.Save. 2. 8. 59. and makest a calm. 3. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman." Exercise. good Heaven." "Cowards die many times before their deaths." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. reconciles. thy wrath can send. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. But the flood came howling one day. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. save. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. they are sands of precious gold. Uses of the Objective. Conscience. taking the object enemies. the word toward which the preposition points. her first law broken. wounded lies. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. Set a high price on your leisure moments. measure.

an elegy to commemorate yesterday. and forfeits paid. the Great Stone Face.. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.e. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. 9.His winter task a pastime made.And gave the leper to eat and drink. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. (3) Subjective possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. as. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.5. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. (2) Objective possessive.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. III. And whirling plate. 10. Possession in some sense is the most common. from day to day. as shown in the sentences. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. as in these expressions. It is a poetic expression.²SHELLEY. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. The noblest mind the best contentment has. the most common of all. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. 7. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.Does his Creator's power display. or in writing yesterday's elegy. 8. Uses of the Possessive. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. The possessive case always modifies another word. 61.² The unwearied sun. expressed or understood. tempests that .²HAWTHORNE.²BYRON. 60. 6.²ADDISON.

64. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. there are only two case forms. 63. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). 62." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. and Obj. To form the possessive plural. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i." Use of the apostrophe. making the possessive singular. growth which several days had developed). "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form.. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. PLURAL. lady Poss. One is the simple form of a word. Nom. How the possessive is formed. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. as schoolboys sometimes write. A suggestion. 62." "at his beddes syde. Poss. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. As said before (Sec. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. child NOTE. 56). in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.winter is likely to have). was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his." etc. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. Nom. A false theory.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. the panther which the forest hides). Case Inflection. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es.e. The use of the apostrophe. . Declension or inflection of nouns. "George Jones his book." "mannes herte [heart]. however.e. 1.. "From every schires ende. in Chaucer. and Obj.

Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. in the name of the emperor their master. as. containing words in apposition. Cervantes' satirical work. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. etc. 66. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.²DE QUINCEY.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves.²CARLYLE. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. store. and from a desire to have distinct forms. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.²HOLMES. etc.Though this opinion was untrue. the possessive sign is usually last. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. my neighbors.²RUSKIN. and the connection must tell us what form is intended.." "A postscript is added. some such word as house. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. but to the ear all may be alike. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. being understood with it: for example. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. I remember him in his cradle at St. stands up for God's truth one man. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. as by the countess's command. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. Peter's.²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. Possessive and no noun limited. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. know the amount of my income. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. 65. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. instead of the emperor their master's name. dwelling. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.. James's. . since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. In compound expressions. the items of my son's."²DE QUINCEY. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. and she walked off from the don's." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Captain Scrapegrace's. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. 67. church. a word with a phrase. for goodness' sake. Kate saw that. as.² LOWELL." Possessive with compound expressions. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence.

Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. in such a sentence as. we use the phrase of Atterbury.²FROUDE. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. the sentence might be understood as just explained. (See also Sec. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. the. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. (3) It prevents ambiguity.²CARLYLE. (b) Rewrite the sentence.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. and at the same time by a possessive noun. as one modifier. For example. making a double possessive.²the introduction which Atterbury made. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. 1.. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. ill-lighted except where she stands. HALE. this. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. A peculiar form. Blair). turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.The double possessive. Both of these are now used side by side. a double possessive. every. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. 68. Clearness. Emphasis.²E. corresponding to 's. Exercises. objective. In most cases. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. E. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. If. (1) When a word is modified by a. that. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. no. 87. etc. and tell whether each is appositional. however. especially when used with this or that. each. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. 2. the statement clearly means only one thing. sometimes they are used together. any. or subjective. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.

15. 69. Nature herself. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 4. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 6. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 7. some idioms²the double possessive. In parsing. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.A weary waste expanding to the skies. Hence. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. There Shakespeare's self.Comes dancing from the East. day's harbinger. 12. 70.3. it seemed. in parsing a noun. therefore. 10. 9. Jove laughs. and destroy the other.They say. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. let him seasonably water the one. we state. 13. 5. 14. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 8.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. with every garland crowned. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 11. Now the bright morning star. Friend. At lovers' perjuries.² . 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.

The correct method.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy.(1) The class to which it belongs. 71. hence it is objective case. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. a fresh tapster. gender. (4) Its office in the sentence. the connection shows a male is meant. which gender. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. it expresses time. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. masculine. 4. NOTE. and relations. hence objective case. it is the object of the preposition by.²common. Throat is neuter. hence it is a common noun. but is the adverbial objective. therefore possessive case. inflections. (3) Whether singular or plural number. Neckcloth. Thief is a common class noun. etc. That in the captain's but a choleric word. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. it denotes only one person. subject of the verb is understood. 68). Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. proper. and therefore nominative case. 2. therefore masculine gender. object of the verb takes. if the latter. and limits neckcloth. it is the name of a male being. like miller's. determining its case. 3. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. hence it is a gender noun. In parsing any word. as to case. MODEL FOR PARSING. and number. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. it expresses possession or ownership. singular number. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. a withered serving man. therefore singular number. names one thing. has no governing word. it has no sex. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. is a common class noun. and to have it found out by accident. Exercise. therefore neuter.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. therefore singular number. .

11. PRONOUNS. A pronoun is a reference word. were natives of Geneva. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. Necker. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. blessings light on him that first invented . 76). 10. Definition. castle. where the Rhone enters the lake. The need of pronouns. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus." Again. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. sleep! 6. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. (2) Interrogative pronouns. from a necessity for short. 8. standing for a name. Now. . This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. 7. and representative words. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Madame de Staël. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 73. the military gentleman shook his forefinger... Mrs. and his daughter. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. For instance. or for a person or thing. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Jarley's back being towards him. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. He giveth his beloved sleep. Time makes the worst enemies friends. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. all in one. definite. or for a group of persons or things. 9.. A few miles from this point. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. but by a question we say. Classes of pronouns. instead of saying.And hated her for her pride.5.²palace. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. and prison. 72. financial minister to Louis XVI.

the person or thing spoken to. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. I Poss. 77. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. my Plural. which relate or refer to a noun. and the person or thing talked about. From analogy to pronouns. (2) Second person. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. representing a person or thing spoken to. Nom. which cannot be used as adjectives. they must represent the person talking. which have forms for person. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. primarily adjectives. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. as nouns have the same form. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 74. 76. (4) Adjective pronouns." Person of nouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. Person in grammar. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. representing the person speaking. mine.(3) Relative pronouns. words. we our. (5) Indefinite pronouns. 75. standing for a person or thing spoken of. that is. even if it had a special form. ours . or other word or expression. Singular. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. This gives rise to a new term. pronoun. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use.. Three persons of pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. "the distinction of person. (3) Third person. they are said to have person by agreement.

Obj. masculine h . your. thy Remarks on These Forms. The speaker may be either male or female.Obj. namely. me us Singular. Old forms. Nom. theirs them Neut. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. they their. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. yours you Plural. yours you THIRD PERSON. by personification. Obj. But the third person has. Nom. she her. you your. neuter. feminine h o. Obj. a separate form for each gender. neuter hit. Nom. Old Form Common Form. or.. thine. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Third person singular has gender. he his him Fem. 78. SECOND PERSON. Poss. . Singular. in the singular. hers her Plur. Poss. First and second persons without gender. thou thee ye you you your. it its it Poss. and also for the neuter. of all Three. Obj. Nom. yours Poss. Masc.

Thou lovest. which is a neuter noun. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. thou Shepherd of Israel. (2) In addressing the Deity. as. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. which was often sounded with the h silent.²SHELLEY. This is of comparatively recent growth. thy. etc. . especially in poetry. and sometimes its. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. heora. etc.²BEECHER. Second person always plural in ordinary English." As shown above. in Old English. 79.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. even when referring to a single object. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. heom. 80. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. In spoken English. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century..²BIBLE Here his refers to altar.:² (1) In elevated style. The consequence is. for example. 81. The form its. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. the forms they. Thou. Two uses of the old singulars. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). as in prayers.² Oh. that didst comfort thy people of old.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. however.. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. it. thee. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. two modern uses of thou. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. them. as possessive of it. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. just as we now say. We use it with a plural verb always. 82. There are. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. their. The plurals were h . etc. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. to thy care we commit the helpless. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time.

²LANDOR. her. he. 'tis his. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. to personify objects (Sec. they have a nominative form. and not make more classes. The forms my.²COWPER. thine. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. The forms mine. their. theirs. thou. our. they. The Possessive. 84. hers. or. That is. him. your. her. Absolute personal pronouns. 58). we. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. though ye is occasionally used as objective. besides a nominative use. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. some say. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 83. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. when they occur in the predicate position. us. Additional nominatives in spoken English. sometimes his and its. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. yours. me. for. them. I spare thee mine. though those named in Sec. 85. 84 are always subjects. thy. The words I. 86. And since thou own'st that praise. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. his. I The Nominative. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. in such a sentence as. her. II. have a peculiar use. us. . In spoken English. 34)." the literary language would require he after was. him. she. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. ²SHAKESPEARE. and follow the usage of literary English. note the following:² 'Twas mine. and sometimes in ordinary speech. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. them. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.²BULWER. and has been slave to thousands. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. "I am sure it was him. Old use of mine and thine.Use of the pronouns in personification. Nominative forms. Not a separate class. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. Yet careful speakers avoid this. its. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. however. ye.

thus. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. If thine eye offend thee.²BIBLE. commenting upon a letter of mine. his. yours.²J. F. hers." said Henry Woodstall. ²HOLMES. but few thy voice. Give every man thine ear. as in nouns.² CARLYLE. (2) To bring emphasis. Besides this.²THACKERAY. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. it tells of good old times. Long Allen.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. anger. we find. pluck it out.²THACKERAY. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. COOPER.²SWIFT.²ID. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. thus. (3) To express contempt. Double and triple possessives. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. yours.²CARLYLE."²SCOTT. in that old Edinburgh house of his.²ID. or satire. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. thine. The forms hers. Like the noun possessives. ours. and with mine. Their uses. 87. "Hold thy peace. ours. FIELDS. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. we have. theirs.²J.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. T.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. This usage is still preserved in poetry. . sometimes its. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. This ancient silver bowl of mine. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. are really double possessives. for example. theirs.

Besides this use of the objective.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. Both joined in making him a present. but not in form. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. In such sentences as. 89. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. in the first sentence. But the first two have a nominative use. 86: mine stands for my property. as shown in Sec. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. but expresses for whom. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. and mine in the second has an objective use. The old dative case." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. ." "None but the brave deserves the fair. In pronouns. "The good alone are great.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. Now the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. mine stands for my praise in the second.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. but the form is the same as the objective. the thing is done. or use in a sentence. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.²BIBLE. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. Curse me this people." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. In their function. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. 20. as it is called.²ID. 90. this dative use. was marked by a separate case. III. for whose benefit. but nominative or objective in use. 88. They all handled it. The Objective. his for his property.

why. 92. logical subject. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² NEWMAN. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.²EMERSON.² .² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²ADDISON. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. you must condense there. was passed by with indulgence. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. to stand for the real. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. you sneeze. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. and they cry.²BULWER. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. 91.²DE QUINCEY. Your mere puny stripling. thus. in this century. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²IRVING To empty here. has not made its progress. as in the sentences. or to the idea. Society. ²EMERSON. like Chinese skill.²D. which follows the verb. WEBSTER." (3) As a grammatical subject.Time is behind them and before them.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²BACON. It is a pity that he has so much learning. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. as. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. Indefinite use of you and your.²CARLYLE.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. or that he has not a great deal more. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. The word you. as. (3) In apposition. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

There was nothing for it but to return. themselves. Of the two forms in parentheses. have laid them downIn their last sleep. they dropped their arms. yourselves. peddles it.²SCOTT.²IRVING. himself. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²BUNYAN.²HOLMES.. For when it dawned. the second is the old form of the second person. For example. 94.²HAWTHORNE." "He bought him a horse. as they are also called. when they are direct objects. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. and its plural selves.²ID. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. but seldom in prose.²THOREAU.²COLERIDGE. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. "I found me a good book.It is finger-cold. used in poetry. however.²DE QUINCEY. . A sturdy lad . I set me down and sigh.² Now I lay me down to sleep." and there is an end of it. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.²EMERSON. since firstThe flight of years began. 93. This occurs in poetry. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²ANON. who teams it. we use such expressions as. Poor Christian was hard put to it. I made up my mind to foot it. yourself. herself. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (ourself). And when I awoke. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. They are myself. itself.. farms it. And millions in those solitudes. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. who in turn tries all the professions. ourselves. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively.²BRYANT." etc. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. (thyself). The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.²BURNS. it rained. It was late and after midnight. keeps a school."²IRVING. that is. as. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. -selves.

² TENNYSON.²SHAKESPEARE. I shrink with pain. NOTE. ourselves.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. thyself.²WORDSWORTH. especially in the speech of rulers. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.As girls were once. for example. 95. 96. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.² The great globe itself . and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.²E.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.²MILTON. Held dead within them till myself shall die. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. to us. Use of the reflexives. and the others were formed by analogy with these.²ID. after the analogy of myself.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. to every one.. for example. as. The question might arise. were changed into the possessive myself. etc. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.²EMERSON. and build the lofty rhyme. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. as in vulgar English. as. Origin of these reflexives. BROWNING. In Middle English the forms meself. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. B. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.² .. with self. shall dissolve. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. theself. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.To you yourself.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. not the possessive forms. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. Threats to all. As if it were thyself that's here. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. as we ourself have been.

(b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. One obsolete. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. and one would like to hear counsel on one point.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself.On the light fantastic toe. Courage. 6. 97. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. all conform to it. Three now in use. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. FRANKLIN.² THACKERAY. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. Infancy conforms to nobody. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. And it grew wondrous cold. but it is the soonest spoiled. father. To know what is best to do. 5. is wisdom. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 8. where the word is one with that it tells of. 7. 10.²B. let him lowly confess it. 2. some each of masculine. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. and what. . fight it out. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 9. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. some of them being double possessives.²DE QUINCEY. 4. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 3. Years ago. and neuter. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. which. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. feminine. Come and trip it as we go. and how to do it.

it is selective. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. 98. etc. The use of who. not to persons. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. 99. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. having three forms. whispering sweet. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. referring to things. but for case alone. Which of you. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Use of who and its forms.There is an old word. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. whether. . 100. but now obsolete.. Use of which. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. ideas. the gold. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Whose was that gentle voice. with its possessive and objective. it refers to either persons or things.Promised. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. methought. used formerly to mean which of two. that is. As shown here. shall we say. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. as it always asks about somebody. or case. actions. which is not inflected for gender. it is always third person. Use of what. that it is always singular and neuter. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. These show that what is not inflected for case. number. that. What wouldst thou do.

Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. for which the pronoun stands. SING." In the latter sentence. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which is nominative in the first sentence. It usually precedes the pronoun." Or. it may be shortened into. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. subject of doth love. who? Poss. whose? Obj. 99. They will be spoken of again in the proper places.² "The last of all the Bards was he.² . and also in having a conjunctive use. nominative in the second also. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. being the direct object of the verb shall take. which and what. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 102. The antecedent. For instance. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. as they take the place usually of a word already used. who is used as objective instead of whom. pronoun. in Sec. and so to make smoother discourse. 103. Who. since it is subject of the verb had. or other word or expression. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. which is called the antecedent of the relative. AND PLUR. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also.Who sung of Border chivalry. and what are also relative pronouns. 127). "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. SINGULAR Nom. which and what are sometimes adjectives. 104. what may be an adverb in some expressions. as. who evidently refers to Bards. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. "The last of all the Bards was he. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. Further treatment of who. Thus we may say. objective in the last.²by the use of the words. AND PLUR. as. 105. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Function of the relative pronoun. which.101.

are the men and women who bless their species.That guard our native seas. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. that. The nurse came to us. both his and who have the antecedent priest. a simple relative is meant. is a divine creation.²THACKERAY. 4. D. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. When the word relative is used.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.²BYRON. Indefinite relatives. 108. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. Two kinds. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.²SCOTT. The origin of language is divine.²LOWELL In this. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Who and its forms.. 3.Whose flag has braved. 6. the women whom women approve. in the same sense in which man's nature. 5. which. 107. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. .²DR JOHNSON.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. 3.Whom universal nature did lament.²W. but the look which is not of the earth.. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 4. 2.² COX. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. 106. what. 2. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. WHITNEY. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. They had not their own luster.²MILTON. a thousand years. For her enchanting son. Generally speaking. with all its capabilities .²PARTON Which and its forms. Ye mariners of England. The men whom men respect. will be discussed further on.

Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. Already done is all that he would do.²MARGARET FULLER.5. and spoils. The man that hath no music in himself..²H.²EMERSON. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. which it certainly is not. 2.²IRVING.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. else this description will seem exaggerated. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 107. 110. stratagems. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. you will not be angry with me for telling you. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. For what he sought below is passed above.. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. 111. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. W..² SHAKESPEARE 2. Examples of the relative that:² 1. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. (a) This gradation . Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Who. 4. no bad type of what often happens in that country. 109..²DE QUINCEY... For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. ought to be kept in view. Reader. 3. bought up all the pigs that could be had.. BEECHER 5. 6. The Tree Igdrasil. That. The judge .²LAMB 3.Is fit for treasons.²GOLDSMITH. What.²BURKE.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.

whom.²DR. whose for the possessive. the others are all third person. . Scott. referring to animals. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].whose. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.²which for the nominative and objective. Smollett. whom. not persons. and 3.²SWIFT. The little gorilla. a man. Sec. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. in the third. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. whose wound I had dressed. The robins.²THACKERAY. Who referring to animals. they are plural. Witness the following examples:² And you. (3) It is nearly always third person. the relatives are singular. son. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. 5.. 112. JOHNSON. The sentences in Sec. Which. possessive case of which. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. whose is second person. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. who.. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. things.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. 96). in the second. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. that man.. and 6. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. and so on. seemed as much excited as myself. Gibbon. My horse. It has been seen (Sec.. Kingsley. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. (2) It has three case forms.²IRVING. In 1. (4) It has two case forms.who. who class With those who think the candles come too soon.²LEIGH HUNT. in the first sentence. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.²who. Cooper. and others. in 4. 113.²LOWELL. p..have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. who is first person.. or ideas. 107. flung its arms around my neck. whose. 2. In sentence 4. Examples of whose. in 5.

I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. and third persons.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich."²RUSKIN. (2) It has only one case form.²RUSKIN.²BEECHER.114. which is worse. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. and numerous others. This moribund '61. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. Burke.²first. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. secondly (which made her stare). (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. second. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. The last two sentences in Sec.²SHAKESPEARE. . whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.² And. 109. too.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. and things. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. That. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. let us enter the church itself. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. and to persecute without pity. This often occurs.²DE QUINCEY. no possessive. which is very notable and curious. (3) It is the same form for first. Men may be ready to fight to the death.² MCMASTER. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. thus. animals. Which and its antecedents. the antecedent follows which. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. Sometimes. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. So in Matthew Arnold. 115. 116.² I swept the horizon. In the sentences of Sec. Primarily. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Kingsley.

plural number. that men must needs abide. for example. What. we can. .² What I would. Sec.²SHAKESPEARE. When expressed. 119. What a man does. 109. which. as in sentence 6.²EMERSON. and person of the relatives who. what we said?²CARLYLE. Who plainly stands for those or the people. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. that he has. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. Nom.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. that do I not. who Poss. 118. The gender. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. is always neuter. but what I hate. number.²BIBLE What fates impose. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed." (3) "These people heard him. The sentences of Sec." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. plural number. and is emphatic. that do I. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. it usually follows. third person. For example. either of which would be neuter. consequently is neuter." That evidently refers to truths. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. by taking them out. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. as. third person. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. whose Obj. 117.

"What can't be cured must be endured. 4. In the same way who. 6. but is singular. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. because it has usually no antecedent. which is. standing for the people understood."²EMERSON. and hence is in the nominative case. we is the subject. The relative what is handled differently. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. is what we call nature. 120. What must be endured? Answer. I think they are trying to outwit nature. then parse the relatives. 5. it is object of uttered. but of this. Some prefer another method of treatment. Another way. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. 8. is subject of wrought upon and molded." Here the subject of is.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. it is subject of the verb heard. the simple relative.. above. Truths in sentence (2). How superior it is in these respects to the pear. is in the nominative case. First find the antecedents. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. neuter. In the sentence. 7." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. third person. etc. 3. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. is subject of the verb can't be cured. the highest result of all education. people is the object of the preposition of. Now. subject of heard. after all. Parsing what. in (1). nobler souls with that which they are. in (3). In (2). Exercise. What can't be cured. who is sure to be cunninger than they. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. The word what. and what is the direct object of the verb call. The whole expression is its subject. As shown by the following sentences. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. so is in the objective case. in the following sentences:² 1. . Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. however. that takes the case of the truths in (2). This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking.

²BURKE. 7. 2. 3. 5. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. It is no proof of a man's understanding. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. 123. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 4. object of with] which [singular. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. 122. that nothing else can stand in their presence. which. . There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. in a new and original way. no particular thing. whatsoever. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. Meaning and use.²MACAULAY. Hence some take what as a double relative. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. and which in the second clause. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. whatever. and in 2. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. not as direct as the simple relatives. object of do] they do. whichsoever. by meaning and use. that is. or stand on their head. Do what we can. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. "common souls pay with that [singular. 121. summer will have its flies. whatsoever. 6. whatever is equivalent to all things which.²you cannot have both. and his friend a fool. They are whoever. or what else soever. and parse that in the first clause. It is clear that in 1. So with the other indefinites. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. less common are whoso. Take which you please. 2. to everything that.²BURKE." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. whichever. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. being referred to. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. whosoever. no certain antecedent. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. Death is there associated. List and examples. The simple relatives who.

as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. There is nothing but is related to us. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. Instead of the phrases in which. etc.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. the conjunctions wherein. but which only wealth could have purchased. etc. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. etc. has been my heaviest affliction.As shown in Sec. 125. but and as.²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE. 124. whereupon. 120. and that as after such is equivalent to which.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. everything that (or everything which).² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. for example. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. Proof that they have the force of relatives. . show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. for example. whereby. 4. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. This.²DE QUINCEY. upon which. In early modern English. Other substitutes. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. as was used just as we use that or which. 417).. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.² 1. Two words. 2. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 126. but mean any one whom.. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. thus. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. But and as. Sec. by which. what means anything that. 121. nothing that does not interest us. Former use of as. not following the word such. either one that. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. are used. 121.² some particular thing.

PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. and 3 (b). it is a simple relative." Likewise with which in 3 (b). (b) Well we knew who stood behind. it is an indefinite relative). no antecedent is expressed. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. which having the antecedent lines. Thus. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. and whether what = that + which (if so. Another caution. who having the antecedent gentleman.²ID. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. a question is disguised in each sentence. . Special caution needed here. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). 1 (b). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. second.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide." etc. 2.²WHITTIER. So in 2 (b). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. How to decide. But in 1 (b).²EMERSON. showing that who is plainly interrogative.. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. which would indicate that they are not relatives. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. it is an interrogative. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. though the earthwork hid them. In studying such sentences. 3. In sentences 1 (a). "Who stood behind? We knew. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. if not. what is interrogative. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. if expanded. if not. the full expression being. 2 (b). what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. 127. "But what had become of them? They knew not. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. would be. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.

2. and Court Calendars.²SWIFT. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. whose has the antecedent you. Relative omitted when object. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences.²FORSTER 6. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. the question is asked by the verb. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. which. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. In the first. . When Goldsmith died. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. 5. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. In the second. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 4. Exercise. 3. and asks no question. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. whence is the interrogative word. The insect I am now describing lived three years. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²GOLDSMITH. In the third. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. ELIOT.² These are the sounds we feed upon.²G. which has the antecedent hue.² THACKERAY.²HOLMES. 129. Examine the following:² 1. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.128. On the other hand. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3.²FLETCHER. Thus. I visited many other apartments.²CARLYLE. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. but the life of man in England. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Put in the relatives who.

which was already proceeding. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4.²SCOTT. and comparatively so in poetry. which. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 3. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. 2. Function of adjective pronouns. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.7. There was such a crowd went. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²SHAKESPEARE. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. 130. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge.²Id.² LOWELL. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. Examples are. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. 6. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. . who were to be rulers over whom. 5. Relative omitted when subject. It is rare in prose. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. The nobles looked at each other. or indefinite relatives:² 1. Also in literary English we find the same omission. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. the house was full. that. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. and what.²CAMPBELL. simple relatives. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.

131. "The dead are there." in the second. such as this. "another bank. 133. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing." Classes of adjective pronouns. or an argument in a paragraph. Adjectives." that is. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. "these pranks. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. For instance. Primarily they are adjectives. the former. and on each is written." "one man. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. neither. In the first use they are adjectives. none. in the first. "each cube. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. . not pronouns. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. many." "Where two men ride on a horse. Caution. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. either. or use. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. any. but in this function.²EMERSON. as some. must not modify any word. which we have seen in such expressions as. expressed or understood. For example. necessarily thought of: thus.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. a word. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. and another to get cool under. but have lost their adjective use." in the others. few. in order to be an adjective pronoun. etc.²BRYANT. 132. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS.²IRVING. or they may stand for nouns. such as each. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. and stand for a noun. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. that." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. all. etc. or may be the whole of a sentence. in letters of gold. etc. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. 'Truth.

and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. but what he fain had seen He could not see.²ID. and they have well performed the other.²LOWELL.²EMERSON 4. as seemed good to each. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. Such are a few isolated instances. Even as I have seen. because he was not lying in wait for these. 5. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. and sow wickedness. Compound. reap the same. for example.² They stood. when the latter was the King of Spain. or reclined. or sat. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. NOTE. Exercises. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. 134. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. 2. they that plow iniquity. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Simple. Some of these are simple pronouns. A man inspires affection and honor. They have not shunned the one.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Definition and examples. 3. . How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Their minds accorded into one strain. They had fewer books.All these he saw. accidentally preserved.²ID. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. but these were of the best.

² One reflexive.²KINGSLEY. such as one other. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. you quickly come to the end of all. Another opposes him with sound argument. The word one has a reflexive form. as most were. Men take each other's measure when they react. as. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. we might the more easily discharge them. ²HAWTHORNE. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²HAWTHORNE. one another. Much might be said on both sides. another. Exercise.²each other.Two are compound pronouns. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. as it were. The Soldan. for example. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. Definition and examples. Some inflected. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.²HOLMES.²EMERSON.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. .It felt the guidance that it does not claim. They led one another. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. paused over a horoscope. imbued. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. as some of the rangers had gone astray. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. None shall rule but the humble. 135. with the superstitions of his time. or melt for others' woe.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.

What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. everything. etc. anybody. as. in building of chaises. . and somewhat. 137. Somebody. 136. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. every one else. some one. anybody else's. nobody. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. they say. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. and they. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Now. and was indefinite in Old English. no one. they are never used as adjectives. anyone else.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Every one else stood still at his post. everybody. also aught. naught. what. etc. anything. every one (or everyone). everybody else.. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. I tell you what.²SHAKESPEARE.² At lovers' perjuries. Jove laughs. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. unlike adjective pronouns. nothing. any one (or anyone). something.Exercise. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. as shown in the words everybody's. Exercise. They indefinite means people in general. Definition and examples. but. somebody else." It means something. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did.

426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 10. Exercise. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. I first found myself among the mountains. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. indeed. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. O thou that rollest above. were suffered to depart. A reminder. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. The table was good.²a feature of natural scenery for which. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. All was now ready for action. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 4. For this did God send her a great reward. 9. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 18. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 8. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. in his negotiations. 7. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 16. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Others did the same thing. and of no other. . 14. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 17. from my earliest days. 5. 13. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 12. to which.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 6. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 138. Whoever deals with M. 11. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 3. 2. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know.

variety. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. 27. 32. 31. Whatever he knows and thinks. well-oiled dispositions. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. oh. thou rollest now. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. in all its height. I who alone am. What can we see or acquire but what we are? .Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 26. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. And will your mother pity me. and seized a pen. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 30.Destroyer and preserver. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 34. He sate him down.Who knew thee too well. 29. 23. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. They know not I knew thee. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. that let him communicate. who take the world easy. 25. behold now the semblance of my being.And it would work 'em woe. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. And I had done a hellish thing. hear. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 35. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. eat white bread or brown. hear! 33.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. 21.19. and tracedWords which I could not guess of.

So with any object. We are by nature observers. 45. 139. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. He teaches who gives. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. adjectives are used. etc. as. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. the number is limited by adjectives. position. brittle or tough." "a hundred men. ADJECTIVES. which was no bad step towards my liberation. etc. Substantives. Office of Adjectives. in pointing out an object. As to the kind of words used. 42. ." "some cities. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. We need to add some words to tell its color." "that house. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. heavy or light." etc. 41. then. 38. Who hears me. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. 39. It may have this office alone. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. 44. if we are at a distance. or gaseous.. and if we are near. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object.36. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Again." The office of an adjective. white or red. "one hat. and he learns who receives. 40. 37." "yonder hill. or with persons. becomes mine. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. and so he read. For example. 43. so that no other will be mistaken for it. that is our permanent state. size. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. who understands me. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. He knew not what to do. If a chemist discovers a new substance. or liquid. such as in the expressions "this man.

This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. 143. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. happy. etc.²COLERIDGE. words primarily pronouns. Classes of adjectives. To err is human. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "unlooked-for burden. to describe it or to limit its application. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. and their trash. 142. terrible. derived from proper nouns." "half-dead traveler." "ivory-handled pistols. If he be thankful for small benefits. however." "the Roman writer Palladius. They include relative and interrogative words. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. beautiful. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. Infinitives. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." . divine.²POPE.² BACON. it shows that he weighs men's minds. "an old English manuscript. With exception of the "and then. (2) Adjectives of quantity. remotest. such as safe. (4) Pronominal adjectives. such as. pointing out particular things." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "ice-cold water." they constitute all his connections. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. to forgive." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. 141. fair. Examples are. Nouns are not.140. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. deep. Definition. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." "this life-giving book." and the still less significant "and so." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. To make this clear. "Heaven-derived power." "the Christian pearl of charity. rash." the "and there. or how much of a thing." "next-door neighbor.

any. Exercises. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction.But ever she looked on Mr." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." Caution. in this.²MACDONALD. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "an aged man." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. 'Tis midnight." was accomplished is a verb." "a charming sight. no. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. Oxenham." "It came on like the rolling simoom. Care is needed." "trailing clouds. and another is drunken." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. Examples are. some. For instance: in the sentence. 145. 2." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. considerable.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. and accomplished is an adjective. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. sometimes small." "One is hungry. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. 144. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. having some of each subclass named in Sec. 143. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.²COLERIDGE. 1.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. much." "The shattered squares have opened into line.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. . They have these three subdivisions:² How much. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. which are either pure participles used to describe. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. in studying these last-named words. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." was is the verb.

Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. instead of modifying them. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. (plural these." (b) Indefinite numerals. no. Exercise. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. former.²CARLYLE.²KINGSLEY. 146. The following sentences present some examples:² . as. The list. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. An arrow was quivering in each body." "a dozen volunteers. latter. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. are used with plural nouns." "I have lost one brother.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.² Every town had its fair. The demonstrative adjectives are this.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. How many." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. that. the former²the latter. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.²THACKERAY. yonder (or yon). "one blaze of musketry.²ID. When some. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." "Then we wandered for many days." Single ones of any number of changes. its wake. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. any. every village. but I have gained fourscore.²VAUGHAN. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. and with them a few negroes. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives." "In came some five and twenty more. Examples." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "He had lived by hunting for some months. they come under the next division of adjectives. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. those). Not primarily pronouns. Thus.

These do not. In which evil strait Mr. Modify names of persons or things.²WORDSWORTH. just as the corresponding pronouns do. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. but.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²D. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. skill which was progressive²in the other.² It matters not what rank he has. tell how many things are meant.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. like the other numerals.²KINGSLEY. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²RUSKIN. skill which was at pause.²BANCROFT. I verily believe. but in the one case. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The taking of which bark. . was the ruin of every mother's son of us. When we speak of the seventeenth century. As has been said. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. These were thy charms. for example.but all these charms are fled.. FRANKLIN. 148. 147. Definition. They are of two kinds.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. Oxenham fought desperately. Exercise. Indefinite relative adjectives.. The silver and laughing Xenil. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. of equal skill. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²ID.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. what revenues or garnitures. they are changed to adjectives. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. WEBSTER. 149."²B. ²CARLYLE.²BULWER.

or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.²AGASSIZ. and gaze. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. whatever.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. nature will be sure to bear us out in. As in the pronouns. Examples of their use are. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. . whichsoever way I move.² EMERSON. whatsoever. it is impossible to determine. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. 151.. which is selective among what is known. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.150. you at least give him full authority over your son.. as it rather seemed. Adjective what in exclamations. or whether any. He was turned before long into all the universe. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.²IRVING. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. A lady once remarked.²ID. New torments I behold.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). and new tormentedAround me. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.²RUSKIN.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whichsoever. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. the debt to the rich. But when the Trojan war comes. which.²LAMB. whichever. proved not altogether displeasing to him. Whatsoever kind of man he is. what inquires about things or persons not known. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. In direct questions. Was there. In indirect questions. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.And whichsoever way I turn.

and those as the plural of that. Those borrowed from this. or amount. NUMBER. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. we notice some differences between them as to size. etc. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. those).²number and comparison.² Oh. gold is heavier than iron.²but not the same degree. 153 .Adjectives have two inflections. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. th s (modern those). This is the old demonstrative. That. or weight. All these have certain qualities. and when we compare the objects.. It is neither relative nor interrogative.²This. Exercise.152. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. the making of it right. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. which was fully inflected in Old English. alas. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. The article that was used with neuter nouns. In exclamatory expressions. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. color. weight. we do so by means of their qualities. Meaning of comparison. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. as. etc. And yet. Thus. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. But this had also another plural. History of this²these and that²those. . of the quality. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. 154. or size. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. 155. COMPARISON. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. When we place two objects side by side. a sapphire is bluer than the sky.

Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. infinite. great. The comparative is formed by adding -er. These are called degrees of comparison. but. for example. bluer." "no fewer than a hundred. as. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. Substitute for inflection in comparison.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. Definition." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. easier.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. universal institution. enormous. as. easiest. They came into use about the thirteenth century. whether they attend their own affair or not. giant-like. indefatigable.²SEWARD. though the simple. and the superlative. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. Freedom is a perpetual. to the simple form. and the superlative by adding -est. reddest. "more matter. blue." "the commonest speech. So with the words sole.²THACKERAY. . red. immemorial. and many others. supreme. easy. strictly considered. 156. 159. expressing a greater degree of quality. The two forms. indomitable. expressing the greatest degree of quality. whose favorite pupil he was.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. or amounts in quantity. sufficient. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. organic. with less wit. 157. These are properly the only degrees." Words that cannot be compared. 160. but were not common until a century later. redder. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. they are not compared. bluest. "untamed thought." "the largest soul. A main difference betwixt men is. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison." "It is a nobler valor. 158.

" From Ruskin: "The sharpest. honestest. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by." "sorrowfulest spectacles. madam. I will. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. Adjectives irregularly compared. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. though born in no very high degree. indisputablest. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. admirablest. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. polished. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. and yet familiar.²ID. witty. mournfulest. which hung behind in the queerest way." "more austere and holy. most small. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression.²ID. there needed to be a most genuine substance. and other words are preceded by more and most. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. strange.² CARLYLE A gentleman. "So help me God. peaceablest. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. was most finished. easy. as. etc." "more odd.²The Nation. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. falling on his knees. finest chiseling." "the wonderfulest little shoes. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words.Which rule. The general rule is." said Henry Esmond." "distantest relationships. These long. These are adjectives irregularly compared. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. quiet. harsh forms are usually avoided. 163. and patientest fusing.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. 162.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. The following lists include the majority of them:² ." Carlyle uses beautifulest. who.

Good or well Evil. 3. as. There was an old comparative bet. (2) In Old English.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 1. List I. furthest 10. lesser Elder. 8. least. [Out] Outer. 4. A double comparative. Hind 2. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives.LIST I. which has gone out of use. bad. 5. lesser. which has softened to the modern best. 2. last Hindmost. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). older Nigher Nearer Later.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. further Farthest. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest.²HAMLET. innermost Outmost.² O. throw away the worser part of it. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. worst. though from a different root. as in Shakespeare. as in the sentence (14th century). 7. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. The superlative I form was betst. uppermost LIST III. latter Hinder LIST II. evil was the positive to worse. [In] Inner Inmost. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. next Nearest Latest. outermost Utmost. is often used. uttermost Upmost. utter 3. (3) Little is used as positive to less. hindermost Much or many More Farther. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 6. . 9. 164. Worser was once used. a double comparative. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. These have no adjective positive:² 1. oldest Nighest.

great. as long. doubling the inflection. but originally the comparison was nigh. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. The latter. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. etc. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. is quite common. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. next. making the modern farther. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. first. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative.² The more part being of one mind. much. Since later.²ID. meaning the largest part. are shown in such phrases as. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer." Its spelling has been micel. and the superlative nearest. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. further. instead of lenger. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. there is scarcely any distinction. to England we sailed. latest. ²LAMB. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form.²HAWTHORNE. and refer to time. In imitation of further. except the form next. since the m is for -ma. The meanings greater. etc. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. strenger. The most part kept a stolid indifference. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. for example. farthest. as. List II. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. strong. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative.²KINGSLEY. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. are earlier than older. muchel. (5) The forms elder. an old superlative ending. a distinction has grown up between the two series. "Many a little makes a mickle. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. farrest. to which is added -ost. furthest. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. greatest. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. . near. moche. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. oldest.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. Between the two sets as they now stand.. or series.²forth..Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. but not in meaning. came into use. First became entirely detached from the series. th came into the others. eldest. the old forms. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force.

Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. all may belong to the same noun. The comparatives are so in form. Her." "their utmost exertion. on the very topmost twig. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. in having no adjective positives. but they have no adjective positives.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. In List II. or have no comparative forms. or each may modify a different word or group of words. and have no comparative force." "far-seeing as the sun. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. The adjectives in List III. the upper light of the world.²EMERSON. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. BEECHER. but her after deck was still dry. was descried The royal banner floating wide. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²KINGSLEY. but not in their meaning. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. 167. There. Think what each adjective belongs to. by the by.²H." -Most added to other words. (Sec. List III. . Decidedly handsome.²DE QUINCEY. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.²DE QUINCEY. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 168. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. They have no superlatives. Her bows were deep in the water." "The outer is of the day." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. are like the comparative forms in List II." "the innermost moral soul.165. 166. Highest and midmost." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. being merely descriptive. W.

Exercise. round. 3. Bradbury and Evans. satisfactory.²HAWTHORNE. our new government.²RUSKIN. This. ²TROLLOPE.²TRENCH. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. and broken." making then an adjective. By a convenient brevity. now our queen. May we not. The seldom use of it. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. and thine often infirmities.²BIBLE. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. and heaven-defying oaths. therefore.²NOAH PORTER. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. Other instances are. usual modifies incomparable decision. 7." in which then is an adverb. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. 4. It may still be argued. Richard Hooker. and moral truth. philosophical. as. 2. the then and still owners. 169.²HOLMES. "the one who was then king.²MRS. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. bright. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. in prose. deeply black eyes.² My then favorite." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. 6.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. . But in this sentence. in this sentence. H." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical.²HAWTHORNE. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. we may say "the then king. rich. not decision alone. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²A. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. Our sometime sister. deep. In the following quotations. STEPHENS 5. For thy stomach's sake. instead of saying. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.For example. STOWE. solid. A few improper jests and a volley of good.

Since adjectives have no gender. then. In parsing an adjective. 10. with awkward but rapid pace. 5. 2. the method of parsing is simple. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 3. Unfamiliar describes truths. therefore descriptive. . (3) Its degree of comparison. this. compared by prefixing more and most. 6. 7. 9. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. having a singular. or case. modifies truths. 4. plural number. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. positive degree. manly way. I ask nothing of you. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. (4) What word or words it modifies.What to tell in parsing. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. therefore demonstrative. To every several man. not inflected for number. (2) Its number. and I waited for none. person. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. 170. modifies the word truths. She made no reply. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. Exercise. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 8. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. These points out what truths. across the plain. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. This gave the young people entire freedom. cannot be compared. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. and very few have number. To every Roman citizen he gives. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. seventy-five drachmas. frank. if it has number. MODEL FOR PARSING. if it can be compared. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza.

27. and dogs. 29. Nearer to our own times. are immutably fishes. Two hours elapsed. suggests such thoughts as these. I know not what course others may take. . I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. not so much for travelers that were few. 32. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. he won affections with ease. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 22. 28. 31. In music especially. 14. those dogs in the yard. 16. it is so noble a fruit. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. With every third step. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 13. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. To say what good of fashion we can. growing in the most unfavorable position. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. during which time I waited. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. oxen. Their name was the last word upon his lips. and many poles supported the lower ones. 20. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 19. 33. is the settlement of our own country. Here lay two great roads.11. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 25. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Like most gifted men. it rests on reality. and therefore more interesting to us. as for armies that were too many by half. yonder oxen in the pasture. the tomahawk fell. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 18. 12. 21. 26. 24. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 23.

34. s o. sometimes the tother. later th . An historian. . Two relics." "a European. such as we have been attempting to describe. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives." "an honor. meaning one." "an orange. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. 172. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Many writers use an before h. he is no literary man. in vulgar English. A hard-struggling. that other. 174. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel.²MACAULAY. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. and a before consonant sounds. An or a came from the old numeral n. Examples: "a house. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. the tither." An with consonant sounds. ARTICLES. that) which was also an article in Old English. the other. the tother." "a yelling crowd. with an ordinary little garden. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general." the words the and an belong to nouns. were formerly that one.²BREWER. th o. 171. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. ðat.²SCOTT. 37. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. the latter is still preserved in the expression. weary-hearted man was he. but the former is used. Our expressions the one. 173. 35. just as adjectives do.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. Their origin. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. even when not silent. An before vowel sounds. or the tane. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. In Middle English the became an article. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. these occurring as the tane. for example. the tother. In the sentence. a before consonant sounds.

²HEROES OF ASGARD.²THACKERAY. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. The is the definite article. or class. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. Definition. 178. or any individual of a group or class. as in the sentence. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. doubtless.²IRVING. Reference to a known object. on opening a story. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. which cannot be used alone.²COLERIDGE. is referred to. With names of rivers.²G. An and a are different forms of the same word. since it points out a particular individual. or a group or class of things. as "the Mississippi. The Dakota tribes. BANCROFT." the article indicates clearly that a river.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business.² . and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. When the is prefixed to a proper name. Kinds. 179.²This use is noticed when.² Don't you remember how. 175.. 177. An or a is the indefinite article.. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. NOTE. To call attention to attributes. and not a state or other geographical division. An article is a limiting word." "the Ohio. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. thus. not descriptive. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. and when the word river is omitted.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. Articles are either definite or indefinite. An hereditary tenure of these offices. or group. the older n. a person is introduced by a. 176.

Half abstract.²EMERSON. but into the region of all the virtues. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. Schelling. Common.²ID. laid it on the miry spot. the song sparrow. the Hume. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²EMERSON. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. Kant. With adjectives used as nouns. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. 181. NOTE. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. 183. Caution. or a match put between the fingers.²G. BANCROFT.²ID. 1. . or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. would speedily extract the required information. The simple rise as by specific levity. His messages to the provincial authorities. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 182. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons.²MOTLEY.²GIBBON.The Bacon. as. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.² The faint. the gallant. 2.² As she hesitated to pass on. One thing for its class. the Spinoza. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. so is the evil. and the redwing. not into a particular virtue. With plural of abstract nouns.²KINGSLEY.²SCOTT. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. For possessive person pronouns. her. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. The. 180. for example. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. etc. If the good is there. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. In the sentence. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. a verb. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. 202. or an idea. with some word understood. the word following. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. The nature of intransitive verbs. 204. lone took what? answer. but cannot be predicates. an article. "Put thou money in thy purse. and not a verb. representing something which it influences or controls. Of those expressing action.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. to go is no predicate. to say something to or about some person or thing. in this sentence from Bulwer. "Put money in thy purse. c)." Examine the sentences in Sec. from the Latin transire.In (a). In the first. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. can deceive has an object. In giving a definition. and a preposition unite as a verb. Hence Definition. care. b). the most penetrating. but fearing is not a predicate. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. 200: In (1). it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. By examining a few verbs. the most astute. for example. The nature of the transitive verb. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. all do not express it in the same way."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. in (3. taking the staff which always guided her steps. Each influences some object. obeyed is a predicate. a noun. In each case. in (2. Now. hence is not a verb. 201.²BULWER . Definition and caution. in (b). she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. which may be a person. and. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. we consider a verb as one word. or a material thing. (can) shame also has an object. or the object. Has takes the object hypocrisy. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. in (2. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. as." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. in (c). etc. All these are called transitive verbs. and to receive the action expressed." put is the predicate. in (3. b). an adverb. endured what? anguish. a preposition. and shame the most astute. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. A verb is a word used as a predicate. 203. a). which means to go over.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

²EMERSON. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. they were recorded in the Book of Life. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. Ideal. 2). as. but. he will see the need of these ethics. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. for example. WEBSTER. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.² Now. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.²may or may not be true. .²BRYCE. 215.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.²D. 221. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. and may or may not be regarded true. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.²MACAULAY.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.²FRANKLIN. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. or be fulfilled. the second founder. popular government must be pronounced impossible. I. the writer can make the statement following. Condition or Supposition. the first great founder of the Empire. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. Most excellent stranger. the representative system ultimately fail. in our case. as. Again.²LONGFELLOW. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. Unreal²cannot be true.²SHELLEY.² If. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. If this be the glory of Julius.I could lie down like a tired child. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. 222.

if he speak to you. I told him. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. would have sat still with joy and peace. which cannot be true.²FRANKLIN. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. 8." etc.²N. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. 223.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.² CARLYLE.²FRANKLIN.. but when the verb precedes the subject. except. 5. that we cannot but regret its absence. the clause being introduced by that or lest. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. and what kind of condition:² 1. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. WILLIS. may. though. and sonorous. melodious. Exercise.. In the following conditional clauses.²SWIFT.²CALHOUN.²EMERSON. P. he had better not have written. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. clear. Epaminondas. might. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. ²LOWELL. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. would you. NOTE. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. thus. But in no case could it be justified. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside.²BAYNE. do you think. if his lot had been mine. if he was the man I take him for.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. she was regarded as a prodigy. he supposed. Subjunctive of Purpose. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled.²MACAULAY. 2.² If these things were true. and should. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. . society could not hold together. If he had reason to dislike him. as.. unless. that he might be strong to labor. 3. to drink strong beer. 6. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.² It was necessary. etc. The voice. 4. The subjunctive.. and striven energetically to save Ney. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. is of similar physiognomy. II. 7. is used to express purpose. especially be. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. since he [Byron] was dead.

²SOUTHEY.Were wafted off to seas unknown. Subjunctive of Result. 224. Ask the great man if there be none greater. Let it rise.Thou go not. I've wished that little isle had wings. To tell of what had passed. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. In Indirect Questions. So live.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.I have been the more particular. V. Expressing a Wish.And we. III. like the Latin. VI. IV. . VII.²BRYANT. Rise up. 226.. In Temporal Clauses.²D. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. 227. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. I would it were! ²EMERSON.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. the answer being regarded as doubtful.That vain it were her eyes to close. 225. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. WEBSTER.²WORDSWORTH. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon..²DE QUINCEY.²COLERIDGE.. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²ID.. within its fairy bowers. The English subjunctive. In a Noun Clause.²MOORE.²CARLYLE. After a verb of wishing. like the quarry-slave at night. none of us could say. till it meet the sun in his coming.

in apposition.² Be the matter how it may. which may be (a) Pronoun.Subject.²TENNYSON.And see the Braes of Yarrow. of cash. object. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. 228. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. (b) Adjective. that everything be in its place. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. is the ultimate fact of man's life.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. we'll turn aside.And look thou tell me true. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. The noun clause. See that there be no traitors in your camp. often contains a subjunctive. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.²DE QUINCEY. After verbs of commanding. etc.²COLERIDGE. Concessive Clauses.²THOREAU.²SHELLEY. for example. I have no thought what men they be. Whatever betide.²CARLYLE. VIII. Come. The essence of originality is not that it be new. tell me all that thou hast seen. Some might lament that I were cold. The first merit. Object. is. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.² DICKENS. That hunger of applause.²COLERIDGE. 229. Complement. in its various uses as subject. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. . or whatsoever victual it may be.. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.

or requests. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Definition. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. for example. however. 230. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. (1) Command. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.(c) Adverb. (3) Request.The spirit he loves remains.² CARLYLE. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.²SHELLEY. though. At the present day. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. love all men.²J. a concession. 231.²BRYANT. In spoken English. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Oh. to express a wish. since commands are directed to a person addressed. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. fear none. and condition contrary to fact. Honor all men. point to their immortal works. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. entreaties. (2) Entreaty. ADAMS.²CHANNING.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. . The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Usually second person. Q. It must be remembered. 232. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.

"²DICKENS Tell me. Break we our watch up. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. we may use the imperative with we in a command. "The Devil take the goose. 6.And God forget the stranger!" . 2. to you implied in it."Hush! mother.. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. Part we in friendship from your land. request.. nothing is to be preferred before justice. noble earl. lest we rust in ease. there will her heart and her prayers be. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Sometimes with first person in the plural. or I + they.And. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.One glance at their array! 5.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. but I + you. 3. "Come along with me. 8." whispered Kit. child of earth!While each performs his part." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.²CAMPBELL. Oh. etc. 7.²SCOTT. Quoth she. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. etc. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Mark thou this difference. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.²SHAKESPEARE. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go." Exercises on the Moods. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. receive my hand.

and opinion displace opinion. That sheaf of darts.That they might answer him.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Forget thyself to marble. will it not fall unbound. 20. 10.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17.Except. 19. 21. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. ruined. Think not that I speak for your sakes. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. as though an instrument." 16. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. Though abyss open under abyss. 26. From the moss violets and jonquils peep." 25. 23. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. "Oh. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. That a man parade his doubt. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. or do it at all. He.9. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot." continued Old Morgan. Though he were dumb. Well. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. in what pomps and prosperities he like. my dear madam. she ought to have it. no literary man.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. how he may do his work. "Mr. Marshall. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. . 18. "tell me where I may find my poor. 14. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. it would speak. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 13.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls." cried he. whether he do it right or wrong. then. but repentant child. let him live where else he like. 11. He is.High up in silver spikes! 22.

tell him to wait. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. or future time. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being." . Old English had only two tenses. to direct his steps. five in the imperative. will. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. 28. also. as the classical languages have. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect.² present. five in the subjunctive. When the older pronoun thou was in use. Tenses in English. whatever she did. shall." "If he comes. PERSON AND NUMBER. "It is not in man that walketh. and the past tense. as. past." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. in the conjugations. Definition. 234. Tense means time. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. "Thou walkedst. by means of the present. kind.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. past perfect. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. Siddons. which represented present and future time. the past. and future.27. such as Latin and Greek. such as be. TENSE. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. a form ending in -eth. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. have." past. "Thou walkest. and the future tense.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. called auxiliaries.²the present tense. The tenses in detail. and future perfect tenses.²nothing could exceed the amiable. as will be shown later on. Meantime. or whether it were as one member of a general party. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. or agree with it. past. 235. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. as. in the third person singular. 233. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present." present. "I go away tomorrow. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs.

²choose. Singular 1. [He] is [They] are 3. walking. moods. been. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. I were 2. Such verbs as choose have five. choosing. were. choosest. but in English. walked. is. The verb be has more forms. You (thou) be 3. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. Singular 1. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walks. walketh. persons. "He walks. tense. 236. are. mood. etc. chosen (old. Singular 1. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. [He] were [They] were . 237. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. PRESENT TENSE. since it is composed of several different roots. as. walkedst. for example. etc. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. chosest). singular number. walk has walk. CONJUGATION. chooseth. This is the third person. 238.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. I be 2. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Few forms. chooses. Indicative Mood. Singular 1. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE." and this only in the present tense indicative. Definition. tenses. PRESENT TENSE.²am. chose. You are 2. and numbers. wert) 3. In classical languages. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE.

Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. (3) be. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.Imperative Mood..His infancy was nurtured.. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²ID. same as the German sind. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (d) With the infinitive. to express intention.²BURKE .²GOLDSMITH. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²SCOTT. obligation. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. 239. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²SHELLEY. Remarks on the verb be. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. The light that never was on sea and land. were. Instead of the plural are. etc. (2) was. for example. though it is usually a dialect form.²THACKERAY. condition.²WORDSWORTH.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. as. in four ways. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. -en. thus. etc. to form the passive voice. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. which was now become an occasional banquet. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. 240. is. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.

You choose Plural. I chose 2. You chose Plural. Some of these have been indicated in Sec." (2) Present perfect. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 242. I choose 2. "I had gone" (past perfect). PRESENT TENSE. tenses. We chose You chose 3. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. had. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 240. I chose 2. 1. tenses. Singular. Singular. We chose You chose 3. [He] choose [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE. future perfect. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. You choose Plural. Singular. etc. In addition to the above inflected forms. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. 1. I choose 2. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. past perfect. Indicative Mood. "I shall be.241. by placing have. "I have gone" (present perfect). ." "He will choose. (2). 1. You chose Plural. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). as. 1. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. Machinery of a verb in the voices. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. as.

etc. He chose. Imperative Mood. Past. (2d per. [If. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past definite. Present definite. lest. He will have been choosing. Past perfect. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Present. He had chosen. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Future perfect definite. "I was chosen. "I am running. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Present perfect definite. he have chosen." "They had been running. as.] he choose. Same as indicative. Past definite. . Present definite.) Choose. He had been choosing. Past perfect definite. He has been choosing. He will choose. ACTIVE VOICE. as. He will he choosing. He is choosing. He has chosen. He was choosing. Indicative Mood." "You are chosen. Present definite. He chooses. Present perfect definite. he have been choosing. he chose (or were to choose). Past perfect definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active." 243. will be given. Present perfect. singular number. though. Past perfect. Future. He will have chosen." (4) The passive forms.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present. Past. Future perfect. of each tense. Only the third person. Future definite. Present. " Be choosing. Present perfect. Subjunctive Mood. Same as indicative.

. they will be discussed later (Sec. He will be chosen. Exercises should be given. . (2d per. None. None. PASSIVE VOICE. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. lest. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Present perfect definite. Present perfect.] [If. He was being chosen. but verbals. Present perfect definite.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs." [Note to Teacher. Imperative Mood. Present definite. he were being chosen. etc. Also. He will have been chosen. Past. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Indicative Mood. he were chosen (or were to be chosen)." "He did strike. Present tense.NOTE. None. Past definite. He had been chosen. however. None. Past. Past perfect definite. Present.] he be chosen. Future. 262). he had been chosen. if learned at all. though. Past definite. Present perfect. He has been chosen. None. None. He was chosen. Past perfect definite. He is chosen. Future perfect. Present.) Be chosen. as. Future definite. Present definite. He is being chosen. Future perfect definite. Subjunctive Mood. in affirmative sentences. Past Perfect. " " " " " " " None. Past perfect. he have been chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. "He does strike.

According to form. drive. verbs are strong or weak. drove. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. run. beg. 245. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. lay. Some of these also have weak forms. Past Tense. bounden] bitten. bid bound. NOTE. and may or may not change the vowel: as. caught. Kinds. Definition. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. begged. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. catch. as. slept. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. which are in parentheses Present Tense.[adj. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . sleep. but adds no ending. ran. laid. 244. bit blown broken chidden.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drunken] driven eaten. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.

stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang.

especially in that of an earlier period. Our cock. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. for example.²one meaning to adhere or cling. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. clave or clove. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. borne is also a passive. as.² Thou hast clomb aloft. which always crew at eleven. and another (born) for the passive. only one set remains certain. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Not a cock crew. nor a dog barked. cloven. Historically.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat." "a drunken wretch.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. cleaved.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.²as (from Shakespeare). ²THACKERAY.²B. the other. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. When it means to carry or to endure. cleft (to split). probably to avoid confusion with this. "his bounden duty. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. cleave.²GOLDSMITH.² We had each drank three times at the well. and the latter. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. The form clomb is not used in prose." "the cloven hoof. Sometimes in literary English. cleft.²TENNYSON. to split. as." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. as. instead of ate and eaten. .²IRVING. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). "stricken with paralysis. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. TAYLOR. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. now told us it was time for repose.²COLERIDGE.²cleave." "a sunken snag.²MILTON. as (from Holmes)."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro." In this confusion of usage. 246. but is much used in vulgar English. and. The former used to be cleave. and sometimes occurs in poetry. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. cleaved. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.

² We had all got safe on shore. Give. found. Exercises. .²SCOTT. Drive. as "a shorn lamb. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Freeze. Usually shear is a weak verb. frozen. and grasping at his sword. gave.²TENNYSON. which is seldom used except in poetry.²DE FOE. Begin. maiden. begun. and seized a pen." but not much as a participle. for example. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. shook. fallen. 10.The form gotten is little used. 245). driven. drove. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. 9. 7.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. (a) From the table (Sec. found. fell. 6. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. even in poetry. as. 2. flung. We usually say. Shake. Break. given. for example. flung. One example out of many is. Throw. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 5. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. threw. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. The butler was hanged. He sate him down. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. 4.²BIBLE. This heard Geraint. shore is rare. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs.²BYRON. broken.² If. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. 8. shaken. broke. Find. thrown. froze. Fling. Fall. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 3. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.²WORDSWORTH. began."²KINGSLEY.

²HAWTHORNE. "So mote it be. there is one general principle. must have been an ocular deception.²CHANNING This. from the obsolete verb motan.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. 220. which survives in the sentence.²PAINE... Like must. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.. 249.²SCOTT. etc..) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. as in Sec. Can is used in the indicative only. PAST. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. The l in could did not belong there originally. Could may be subjunctive. His superiority none might question. . The same remarks apply to ought. 250. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. (See also Sec. for full drill on the forms. Subjunctive use. ability.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. or. purpose. according to the infinitive used. HAMILTON. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. etc. as it has two meanings. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. PAST. They are as follows:² PRESENT."²WINIER. 223.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. 251. Ability.[To the Teacher. It is indicative when it expresses permission. Indicative Use: Permission. Must is historically a past-tense form. as." Must is present or past tense. it is used only in the indicative mood. as it sometimes does. of course. but came through analogy with should and would. 247. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. PRESENT.²CHANNING. "far off his coming shines. or when it expresses wish. Have we valuable territories and important posts.

she should ride like a queen. future action).²THAXTER. not plod along like apeasant.² With respect to novels.²L. as.e.²BULWER. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.Nay. BROCKDEN BROWN. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.² Futurity and questions²first person. The following are examples:² Never mind. as. what shall I say?²N. (b) In indirect quotations. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. for example. to use will and would. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time." Uses of shall and should. shall and should are used. The sea shall crush thee. "I think I will go. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. he said. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. as. while ought always has to. or confident prediction.² (a) To express authority. promise. MOULTON.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. C. They shall have venison to eat.²COOPER. to the neglect of shall and should.²LONGFELLOW. She should not walk. and corn to hoe. especially in the United States. (b) In questions asking for orders. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. . yea. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. I shall be gone. She rejects his suit with scorn. with pronouns of the first person. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. my lad. Second and third persons. in the form of command.²MACAULAY.²IRVING. WEBSTER. shall and should are used. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.² The time will come full soon.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON.. Shall and Will. 252.

² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²H. . Disguising a command. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. as the sole inventor.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. BROWN. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.. and is equivalent to ought. And promised.²SWIFT. First.²CABLE. JR. time. I never was what I should be. purpose.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. etc. LARNED. thus. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²BYRON. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. second and third persons. JAMES. for example. for example.. 253. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²WORDSWORTH. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²WORDSWORTH.²WORDSWORTH. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.²WINTER. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. with the conviction that he should win in the end.²ROGERS.²A. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. B.² I will go myself now.²C. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour..²SCOTT. was to be expected. or a promise. as.that I would do him justice. and will not return until all is finished.

through storms their brothers are afraid of. will is used to express command. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). action merely expected to occur. for example. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. Roland. Mere futurity. as.²LANDOR.²War Records. will and would are used to express simple futurity. PASSIVE VOICE.. Would thou hadst it not. In this stately chair would he sit.²SCOTT. for example. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. as if it were merely expected action. BROWN.²IRVING.² Subject I omitted: often so. This puts the order more mildly. as. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.²SCOTT. They will go to Sunday schools. for punishment or intimidation.² DICKENS.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. when thou wast born. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. will and would often denote an action as customary. 254. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. so you will. and two of my people. SECOND. ..²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. (4) With FIRST. without regard to future time. Thine was a dangerous gift.. etc. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. B. would is used to express a wish.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. AND THIRD PERSONS. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.²BANCROFT. and mark on the grounds the works.²BURKE. When I am in town.² Thou wilt take the skiff. The gift of Beauty.²the original meaning of the word will. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.. To be sure.. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.

2. We shall be chosen. Plural. 1. "I shall not run. 1. 3. I will choose. I shall be chosen. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 3. You shall choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE. 2. 3. PASSIVE VOICE. Singular. [They] will be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences. I shall choose. [They] will choose. You will choose. 4. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. We will choose. 252 and 253. You will choose. Thou art what I would be. etc. I will be chosen. We shall choose. You will be chosen. 3. [He] shall choose. 2. [He] shall be chosen. [He] will be chosen. Plural. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. and justify the use of shall and will. 1. 5. He informed us. Plural. yet only seem. 6. Thou shalt have a suit. You shall be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. Singular. (a) From Secs. [He] will choose. Plural. You shall be chosen. 1." answered Herbert stubbornly. You will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. We will be chosen. 1. and that of the newest cut. [They] shall choose. 2. 3. 2. Singular. You shall choose.Singular. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. promise. 2. To express determination. . 3.

(2) Those which end in -d or -t. This ending has now dropped off. Lucy stood still. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. was -de or -te. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.²CHAUCER. which may be called irregular weak verbs. The beast made a sluggish movement. set.²ID. 255. 13. The old ending to verbs of Class II. and I have nothing to say. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. But the rest.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. then. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. WEAK VERBS. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. bereave beseech bereft. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Of smale houndes hadde she. bereft. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 257. Present Tense. my son. 11.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. as if he would have more of the enchantment." the stranger said. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. 10. 9. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. put. 12. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. bereave besought Past Participle. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this.²Class I. bereaved besought ." 14. Irregular Weak Verbs. set. Past Tense. "I am a wayfarer. very anxious. or mylk and wastel breed. No. need some attention and explanation.7. and have no change of vowel. Without having attended to this. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. put. 256. as. put.

leapt left lost meant paid penned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

To with the infinitive.²the creature warring against the creating power. Imperfect. ACTIVE VOICE. to express action unconnected with a subject. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. and a perfect definite form. INFINITIVES. 266. . INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 7. But later. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. PASSIVE VOICE. formed a kind of bedstead. Three saplings. expressing purpose. Indefinite. an imperfect. [To] be choosing. an indefinite and a perfect form. will (with should and would). a perfect. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Indefinite. try clemency. Cases when to is omitted. [To] have been chosen. 9. [To] have been choosing. as in the Old English.. Infinitives. to was used before the infinitive generally. [To] be chosen. Nothing of the kind having been done. have no tense. 8.6. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. 10. I returned to reflection on my situation. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. Perfect. [To] choose. 267. In Sec. [To] have chosen. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. 268. Perfect. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. like participles.. they have an indefinite. when inflections became fewer. Perfect definite.. and when passive. When active. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system.

²HOWELLS. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.² What! doth she. HALE. do (as." Examples are. liberal woman.²GOLDSMITH. it has several attributes of a noun. make. too. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. and emphatic forms of the present and past.² She was a kind. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. "She ask my pardon. as. 269. 270. and like a noun in use. it may be the subject of a verb.²COOPER. "a house to let." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. negative. They shall have venison to eat. also in the imperative.²it may be governed as a noun. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. also let. must.²E. E. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. "He will choose. watch. . "He need not go") and dare (to venture). as. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative.²DE QUINCEY. 272.²IRVING. as. learn [doth learn is one verb." (4) In exclamations.²MACAULAY.). "I do go" etc. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. please. as in the expression. poor woman!" cried Charles.(2) After the verbs may (might). sometimes need (as. GERUNDS. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. see. bid (command). the gerund may be called a noun verbal. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. can (could). 271. or the object of a verb or a preposition. under "Analysis." etc. The gerund is like the participle in form. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²TENNYSON.. While the gerund expresses action. feel. But there was nothing to do." "I shall have chosen. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. as the credulous imagine. and corn to hoe. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. it is often preceded by the definite article. hear.

according to use as well as meaning. 4. which name an action or state. which express action. b). which express action. (5) Gerunds." also (2." Exercise. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." "Certainly dueling is bad. Words in -ing are of six kinds. Sec. 2. which have lost all verbal force. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. after examining the nest. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. (3) Participial adjectives. may govern and be governed. above. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. Then how pleasing is it." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. five infinitives. making the definite tenses. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. (6) Verbal nouns. What a vast. and five gerunds. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. and has been put down. to see the returning hope of the parents. 273. (2) Pure participles." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun.²Find sentences containing five participles. II)." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. on your leaving the spot. (4) Pure adjectives. Exercise. but do not assert. brilliant. and wonderful store of learning! . when. but cannot govern. which express action and also modify. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man.

²indicative. much corroded. or imperative. 275. 234.²strong or weak. (2) Voice. . by object lessons.²transitive or intransitive. 11.²which of the tenses given in Sec. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. subjunctive. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. write twenty pages without stopping. giving principal parts.²active or passive.5. give reality to your teaching. VERBS. He spread his blessings all over the land. What is dreaming? 8. (4) Tense. 10. 12. The only means of ascending was by my hands. Caution. 15. Thackeray did not. 9. round which is an iron railing. but. he gave out sentence by sentence. 14. 6. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. dictating from his chair. (b) as to use. you must. (3) Mood. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. (5) Person and number. I suppose I was dreaming about it. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. bearing her national emblem. 13. I. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. In parsing verbs. 7. 16. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. like Sir Walter Scott. slowly. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow.

Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. indicative. therefore active. may. 3. and should always be analyzed as phrases. would. It has been intimated in Sec. 235. Take these examples:² 1. past tense. could. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. then parse it as an adjective. and ends in -s. 2. You are gathered to your fathers. no sin nor sorrow. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Especially frequent are those made up of should. has the subject government. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. past tense. Parse the verbs. imperfect. The government might have been strong and prosperous. see Sec. If a participial adjective. till it meet the sun in his coming. II. might. we must beware of the rule. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. give points (a) and (b). active. 278. (2) Infinitive. (b) its use (Sec. VERB PHRASES. and not taken as single verbs. In 2. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. can. 2. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. usually it does not. perfect." Sometimes it does. call might a weak verb. and parting day linger and play on its summit. perfect. (c) to what word it belongs. intransitive. In such sentences as 1. (1) Participle. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. 4. in the world. followed by a pure infinitive without to.. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. (3) Gerund. . 273)." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. must. But unless the verb is present. definite. Exercise. (a) From what verb derived. intransitive. III. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. (b) whether indefinite. Let it rise! let it rise. etc. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. call should a weak verb. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. has for its subject Lee. verbals. 278(2). 277. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. indicative (as it means could). (b) whether active or passive. Have been is a perfect active infinitive.276. VERBALS. etc.

Down all the line. or. Whatever ground you sow or plant. from a sort of temporary death. 9. With them. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 18. 15.Henceforth in me instill. He passed across the room to the washstand. Read this Declaration at the head of the army.O God. 24.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 14. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 22. 11. 20. a deafening shout. So. as rolled from wing to wing. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. . he thought only of her. a sweet good will. When he arose in the morning. 16. leaving me upon the bed. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 10. and wondered if she were yet awake. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 6. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. However that be. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 17. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 8. as the Hindoos say. 12." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. The soul having been often born. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. a new bursting forth of the sun. 23. Right graciously he smiled on us. 13. as usual. see that it is in good condition.5. a new waking up of all that has life. 19. morning is not a new issuing of light. 21. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. In going for water. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance.

and men of leisure and cultivation. When action is expressed. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. And now wend we to yonder fountain. or manner: as. as. Is it only poets. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. they are more himself than he is. and live ere life be spent.25. and so on. Better it were. to consent. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree.² The young man reveres men of genius. thou sayest. ." "He was absolute.²EMERSON." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. 26. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Nor was it altogether nothing. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. The word adverb means joined to a verb. 29. 27. and limit adjectives or adverbs." An adjective or an adverb. who live with nature?²ID. to speak truly. for the hour of rest is at hand. To the almost terror of the persons present." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly."²DE QUINCEY. for example.Feast while we may.²CARLYLE. because.²time. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. "William's private life was severely pure. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. A verb. place.²SHELLEY. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.²THACKERAY. Oh. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. ADVERBS." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Adverbs modify. 279. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way.

which may qualify an action word or a statement. has induced some of us to attend it. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. hitherto. not the noun. 169. I draw forth the fruit. thus. but some verb understood. 280. We are offered six months' credit. but really modifying. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. as. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.² FRANKLIN. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. for example.²LEIGH HUNT. ²IRVING. not simply the forms used in predication. before. B. is a modifying word. Definition. lately.²THOREAU. there are six classes:² (1) Time. being adverbs naturally and fitly. An adverb. NOTE.²TROLLOPE. while those in Sec. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.He was incidentally news dealer. to-day.²T. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. .² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.²These last differ from the words in Sec. etc.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. as now.²BYRON. ever. then. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. 169 are felt to be elliptical.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. 282. A clause or sentence. but still with a rich bloom to it. or a word group used as such. Make music to the lonely ear. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. A phrase. all wet and glossy. and that. Thus considered. 281. Surely happiness is reflective. ALDRICH. It may also modify a sentence. as shown in the sentences. NOTE. perhaps. like the light of heaven.² LOWELL. (2) according to their use in the sentence. and half awfully. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.

The more they multiply.which gained him such universal popularity. possibly. while so precedes only the adjective usually. as hither. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. at least.yonder.. This long's the text. partly. etc. White.. etc. etc. the more friends you will have.whence. twice.²HAWTHORNE. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. too. (see also Sec. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. whithersoever. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.²LECKY. Meekness.was for this once of her opinion. as perhaps. and not infrequently are found in literary English. much.thither. [Sidenote The status of such. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. bravely. LOUIS STEVENSON. etc.(2) Place. enough. especially the comparative of these words. better. Motley.²SHAKESPEARE.²R. very. (4) Number. for example.whither. telling how much.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. telling how anything is done. that these adverbs form a very large class. as little. (5) Degree. the more evidently they love liberty. (6) Assertion.²BURKE. . maybe. Emerson. telling how many times: once. and others.. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. etc. as well.²DE QUINCEY. beautifully.thence. as hence. not. or how far he believes it to be true.near. thus. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.. slightly. the more perfect will be their obedience.there. 283. I was. as here. whencesoever.² The master. singly. (3) Manner. Thackeray.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.²IRVING. probably. slowly. 283). just.. surely. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.²BROWNING. etc. two by two.where. greatly. So also in Grote. above.

"thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Defoe.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY. De Quincey. 284. Neville. besides modifying." "I have seen you before [time]. for example.²BULWER." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. and its lawn before [place]. Direct questions. Hard blows and hard money. Burke. 285.² You are mighty courteous. 286.²THACKERAY. have the additional function of asking a question. Simple. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal." said the king. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. It is only occasionally used in literary English. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Beau Fielding. Notice meanings." "He spoke positively [manner]. A pretty large experience. Again. Aldrich. Emerson."²SCOTT.² KINGSLEY. Some adverbs.² "Mighty well. Interrogative. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. a mighty fine gentleman.²FIELDING.²BAYNE. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. B. and art but a fool. Kingsley. 282. Dickens.²HAWTHORNE. Such are most of those given already in Sec.²"He walked too far [place].Pretty." "That were far better [degree]. Mighty. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. . Pretty is also used by Prescott. STOWE." "The house. Holmes. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. for example. and other writers. Franklin. "Peace.

for example. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. (2) Place. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. WEBSTER. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. I hearkened. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. they smiled. When did this humane custom begin?²H. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. CLAY. (2) Place. (4) Degree. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. 287.²POE.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BYRON (3) Manner. (5) Reason. . I know not why.²D. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. I do not remember when I was taught to read. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²BULWER. (4) Degree. I will not ask where thou liest low. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.

eyes..But in reality. use. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. well much little far late Comparative. sooner.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. irregularly compared. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. when compared. and. but the whole clause. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. further farthest. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.²SHAKESPEARE. Many adverbs are compared.²BYRON. not an adverb. highest. Its strings boldlier swept. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Form vs.²COLERIDGE. Exercise. when. ." Exercise. Then must she keep it safelier. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. high. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. when does not express time and modify. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. For further discussion. 288. representing four classes. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. see Sec. The following. just as adjectives do. soon. have the same inflection as adjectives. Tell what each word in ly modifies. only occasionally having -er and -est. obs. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.²TENNYSON. Superlative. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. soonest. Only that we may wiselier see. Many adjectives have the same ending. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. furthest (rathe.. 290. as. higher.) rather 289.²EMERSON.

²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. nearly. It is true he was rarely heard to speak.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. that in Old and Middle English. quick-flashing eye. as.²IRVING. kindly and good-natured in secret.²ID. 8. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. but with a different meaning. 3." Compare these:² 1. But he must do his errand right. Again.And his mien of kingly state. even.²CHAUCER. merely introduces a sentence.1. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.²TENNYSON. . Not near so black as he was painted. instead of being used adverbially. evenly. curiously jolly. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. whether adverbs or adjectives. There are eyes. to be sure. mostly. 6.²THACKERAY. more courtly in their manners. And all about. hard. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. Special use of there. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 292. 4. 5. The reason is.²WORDSWORTH. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. if it has the verb be. near. 2. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 291. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.² EMERSON. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. many words without -ly have the same form. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. 2. 7. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. etc. Frequently the word there. He is inexpressibly mean. hardly. Such are most. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. or down the leaves laughed through. With his proud.

(3) What word or word group it modifies. 16. 18. 15. but from my fall? 6. But a few steps farther on. 11. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. The higher we rise in the scale of being. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. but continually shifted. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. For the impracticable. 9. 293. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 4. 10. 17. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. and sate down on the steps of a house. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. however theoretically enticing. the Madonna is in great glory. give² (1) The class. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 3. (2) Degree of comparison. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. burning in the center of the temple. 12. In parsing adverbs. at the regular wine-shop. 2. 7.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. and always. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 5. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. according to meaning and also use. Exercise. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. It is the Cross that is first seen. Thither we went. if the word is compared. . is always politically unwise.

however." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases." Sentences. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. Clauses. therefore. A conjunction is a linking word. 20. But now the wind rose again. 22. upon which the sun now shone forth. Unlike adverbs. . but side by side within the American Union. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise." Paragraphs. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. but the student will readily find them. 295. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Definition. then. should be omnipotent for evil? 24.19. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. 294. 21. etc. CONJUNCTIONS. or sentence groups. hence. word groups. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. sentences. connecting words. nor. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. It was pretty bad after that.

Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. and not man corn. also. for. neither. then... neither. While the earth bears a plant.. Adversative. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. both. as and.. however. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. (4) ALTERNATIVE. as but. whether. joining words. Causal.but. etc. . answering to each other in the same sentence.. moreover. and.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. either. 296. expressing a choice. or the sea rolls its waves. of the same rank.or whether. 297.. therefore.. however. etc. the butter too. either.. Your letter.but (or but also).or. not only.. serves but to show their ignorance.or. else. likewise. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. as well as the room door. as.and. (2) Subordinate. Nor mark'd they less. nor. word groups. introducing a reason or cause. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.... yet. still. had its weight. hence. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.Classes of conjunctions... neither.. The chief ones are.. Correlatives.. the bread was spent. Some go in threes. the window being open.nor." Nevertheless. whether.. "Howbeit.. only. Alternative. whether. 298.nor.. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. usually between two things. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. nor.or.or. as well as. as. (2) ADVERSATIVE. while. Some of these go in pairs.. not only.. (3) CAUSAL. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. either. They are or. etc. The assertion.. but is emperor in his own right. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.

even if. etc. whereto. nor creeping thing. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. as. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. so that. so that. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. as. seeing. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. He is not only bold and vociferous. nor green leaf. (6) PURPOSE: that. so. so.²COOPER. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. whenever. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.. (7) RESULT: that. provided that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. in order that. (2) TIME: when.²J. however. now. It is. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. etc. ²ALLSTON. sometimes if. there will the heart be also. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. in apposition. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. before. nor wing of bird. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. Time. nor echo. though. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. howsoever. etc. whither. whithersoever. object. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. ..Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. wherever. so. Neither the place in which he found himself. in case. (3) MANNER: how. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. until. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. since.²IRVING. 299. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. provided.. lest. QUINCY. etc. unless.²DE QUINCEY. except. although. whence.²PAULDING.. Where the treasure is. while. that. whereas. ere. whether.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where.²BIBLE. etc. on condition that. after. especially that after so.²WILSON. as.²BURKE.

seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²AMES.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE.²COLERIDGE.That he gave her wounds repose. but not so long but I held it out. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. . reason.That vain it were her eyes to close.²EMERSON. H. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Let the world go how it will. As a soldier. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Sparing neither whip nor spur. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.² H. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Result.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²DEFOE. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Then Denmark blest our chief. a thousand bodies. Manner. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Condition. Substantive. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. We wish for a thousand heads. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. JACKSON.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²BYRON. I was again covered with water. not as they were expected or intended.²EMERSON.²AMES. Cause.²IRVING. Now he is dead. Concession.²AMES.²CAMPBELL.So I behold them not.²BURKE.² WORDSWORTH. Purpose. Comparison.² EMERSON. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.

according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. as he shot in air. the lady called her servant. After he was gone. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished.Let us see whether the greatest. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Besides. . He was brought up for the church. her real merit is known at home. 3. since. as. however. 9. As will have been noticed. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. And they lived happily forever after. some words²for example.²RUSKIN. No one had yet caught his character. They. While a faction is a minority. And then recovering. it will remain harmless. The moth fly. 14. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 15. 300. 2. while. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. etc. Exercises. 12. and hid her there. While patriotism glowed in his heart. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 13. she faintly pressed her hand. hold a subordinate rank. 4. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. then. 6. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 7. Crept under the leaf.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 10. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 5. the wisest. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. In what point of view. that. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms.

² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. 302. As though. none of the lashings having given way. and the frame will suit the picture. (2) What words. they connect. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved." as. in this case. even as they would weep. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. If analyzed. expressing degree if taken separately. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.16. etc.²IRVING.. In Emerson's sentence. GREELEY. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. In poetry.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. as is shown by the use of as though.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.So slowly moved about. As if. thus.²BYRON. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. . word groups. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. for example. His voice . But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. As for as if. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. as is often equivalent to as if. and be a bud again. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. the expression would be. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. Consequently. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. SPECIAL REMARKS. 303.²EMILY BRONTE. 301. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. "We meet. So silently we seemed to speak. and part as though we parted not.. In parsing conjunctions..As though a rose should shut.Clouded. 304.²HOOD.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.

The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. in 2. and its clause is independent. When the gods come among men. etc. At sea. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. Some conjunctions. and very seldom?" 8. dines with as good an appetite. in 3. In classifying them. 4. It continued raining. It may be safely trusted. For example. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. If he could solve the riddle. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. . such as nor.²I find them true in Concord.²EMERSON 3. 3. 13. so that I could not stir abroad. 9. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. and. as beside his own chimneys. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. or in the snow. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. 2. so means therefore." said his wife to Martin Luther. they are not known. the Sphinx was slain. and the like. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. are regularly of one particular class. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. He dismisses without notice his thought. or in the forest. He is the compend of time. he is also the correlative of nature. 10. but of the natural. that it might testify of that particular ray. 7. so it be faithfully imparted. 11.² 1. so means provided.²that the fairies do not like to be named. when. others belong to several classes.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.. and its clause depends on the other. "Doctor. compare the sentences. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. so that expresses result. 12. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. because. Exercise. All the postulates of elfin annals. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions.Caution. 5. 6.²is subordinate of condition. so they paddled on.²DEFOE 2. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. and associates as happily. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. he sleeps as warm. because it is his. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.

Goodness must have some edge to it. 21. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. won't you lay on? 17. 20. Now you have the whip in your hand. 29. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. save it were sinful like herself. 16. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. Still. 23. the whole conditions are changed. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. enthroned. PREPOSITIONS.²else it is none. 25. 19. I rejoice to stand here no longer. therefore. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. she might have the family countenance. whose names I omit. you must be. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 26. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. It is clear. however. of good novels only. 28. that both were wayward. 22. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. I speak. 30. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. It may be so in the majority of cases. when it was presented to them. And whether consciously or not. 18. 15. in this they agree. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. For. in many a heart. 24. There was no iron to be seen. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 305. . 27.14..

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²WARNER. at first. etc. at the worst.² (1) The general meaning of place.²EVERETT. at any rate.²ID. (2) Time. Helena. at play. at work.. CONWAY. at least. etc. TAYLOR The angel came by night. H. by the wrecks of time. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. by many a million of acres. at length. ²PARTON. he stopped. Exercise. D.²R. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²ALDRICH. STODDARD. (4) Measure of excess.²COOPER. expressing the degree of difference. at all.²M. at rest. At that time [the earth] was richer.²SWIFT.²B. at one. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at once. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at random. She saw the boat headed for her. By. by means near or close to. at most. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Exercise. 320.²DE QUINCEY. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. the first port made by the ship. as. at naught. . He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at war. by the blessed memory of the departed. at the best. (3) Agency or means. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. At St.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. by the ruins of nations. For. 321. at peace. Richard was standing by the window. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. By my faith. Like at.

he repented of his folly. a person or thing.²LAMB.²ID. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. and leaped for joy. if your worship can accomplish that. reason.²E. respecting. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. etc. For the rest. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. (4) Substitution or exchange. L. for the benefit of. or in spite of. cause. as being.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. (5) Reference. poor fellow. the Colonna motto would fit you best. for famine. An Arab woman. "Nay. The twilight being. ate her child. incitement to action. (3) Duration of time.²PARKMAN. but a few sunsets since. "For a fool. "thou hast counseled wisely. Still. (9) Motive. (6) Like as." answered Master Brackett.²H. But the Colonel. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland."²SCOTT By my faith.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies." said the Lady of Lochleven. considering that etc.²W. . He and they were for immediate attack. meaning although.² RUSKIN. There are gains for all our losses. as to.²HOLMES. GARRISON. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²HOOD. had a forest of poor relations. for all his title. meaning with regard to. in behalf of. etc. E.²EMERSON..²IRVING. etc. for all slips of hers. meaning in the character of..One of Eve's family. they are now for us.²STODDARD. or extent of space. H. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. BANCROFT. (7) Concession.²PARKMAN. For him.(2) In favor of.

if not a desperate man. The general idea in from is separation or source. (4) Motive. cause. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. Exercise.²HALE. 322. (2) Origin. The original meaning of of was separation or source. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. 323.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Of. From harmony. Exercise. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. from a desire of seeming valiant. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. From. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. like from. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. or reason. nay.²HUME. Like boys escaped from school. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. (3) Time. A distrustful. more.²ID. The From Relation. The king holds his authority of the people. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²MILTON.²HIGGINSON. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. (1) Origin or source.²HUXLEY. ceased to be merciful.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. H.²H. . The young cavaliers.²DRYDEN.²BANCROFT.

(c) After nouns expressing lack.²SCOTT Who formed. He is away of his own free will. etc. (3) With expressions of material.²ALDRICH. especially out of.²HIGGINSON. weeds. or breastpin of native gold. that Cromwell once ruled England. acquitted them of.²DICKENS II. Of the Forty. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. rid. More than one altar was richer of his vows. bound with thongs of boar's hide. of his own knowledge.²BOSWELL. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. deprive.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.²BANCROFT. "I am glad of that. and grass. Back of that tree. south of. You cannot make a boy know.² HUXLEY. relieve. expressing a part of a number or quantity. deprivation.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. bare of. ²GAVARRE.²BAYARD TAYLOR. etc. wide of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.. Asked no odds of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²PARKMAN. etc. purge. demand. free of. there were only twenty-one members present.²LEW WALLACE. clear. such as ease. free. (d) With words expressing distance. The hills were bare of trees. rob. A singular want of all human relation. E.²ID. White shirt with diamond studs. reason. etc. "Good for him!" cried Nolan.²clear of. cure. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. (b) After some adjectives. divest. disarm. out of the most unpromising materials. Other Relations expressed by Of."²E. etc. ask. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. beg. ²PARTON. . as north of. (5) Expressing agency. HALE. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. Sandals. motive. (6) Partitive.

with its object. (c) Two nouns. standing. when the first is descriptive of the second. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. (b) Noun and gerund.²BANCROFT.²BANCROFT. The fair city of Mexico. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. Not even woman's love.²BANCROFT.²HALLECK. ²IRVING. (7) Possessive. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²ID. . 309. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. concerning. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²PRESCOTT. of a sudden. etc. Besides the phrases of old. could give shelter from his contumely. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. with regard to. for the possessive. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²FROUDE. (10) Of reference. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²LOWELL. Idiomatic use with verbs. of late.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. Such a book as that of Job. of is used in the sense of during. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.. CHANNING. E. and the dignity of a queen. equal to about.²ALDRICH. (8) Appositional. See also Sec.He washed out some of the dirt. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²SWIFT. being equivalent to an infinitive. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²W. (9) Of time. The nation of Lilliput.²COOPER.²LAMB.

It also accompanies the verbs tire. To.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.²PARKMAN.²MRS. ²BANCROFT. on view. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. On my life. and not a day more.²Find sentences with six uses of of. and others. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. Upon. on the alert. on the wing. allow. Exercise. (b) With motion.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. (4) In adjurations.²PARKMAN.²ALDRICH. Upon my reputation and credit. consist.²DE QUINCEY. Cannon were heard close on the left. complain. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. such as admit. (2) Time. accept. Upon is seldom used to express time. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. on board. on high. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. .²BRYANT. on trial. SIGOURNEY. repent. you are eighteen. 325. permit. etc. On. concerning. 324.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²PARKMAN. avail (one's self). It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. Exercise. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. etc. equal to about. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. (3) Reference.²EMERSON. without adding to their meaning. approve. disapprove. on a sudden. The general meaning of on is position or direction.

Revolutions.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²often to the loss of vigor. gay Comedy appears. But when. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks... and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. (5) Equivalent to according to. Death!²HALLECK.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.Come to the bridal chamber.²PARKMAN.²GOLDSMITH.²BULWER.²BRYANT. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. be written over. 268). (b) Referring to time.. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. To the few. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. it may be genuine poetry. does the mere music. Exercise. to him.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²IRVING.²B. (2) Expressing result. . In Old English. had ceased to be.²HALE. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Nor.. to my taste. mid meant in company with.²PARTON.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. He usually gave his draft to an aid. With. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. His brother had died. unmasked.²LANG. interest. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. whose influence is felt to this hour.²BENTON To our great delight. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.

to find the object of the preposition. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. but a pleasure"?²LANG. with all his boldness.²SCOTT. HALE.²ALDRICH. 327. had already reached the defile. He was wild with delight about Texas. he gave millions to the sword.The advance. Messala. reason.²COOPER. . we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. I think. She seemed pleased with the accident. motive. as with you. (2) Instrumentality.²Find sentences with four uses of with. With all his sensibility.²HOWELLS. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²EMERSON. opinion. in spite of. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. (5) Opposition. It seemed a supreme moment with him. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. with Heyward at its head.²HALE. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. first of all.²CHANNING. it is necessary. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (4) Estimation. (3) Cause.²HOWELLS. E. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. transmitted from the beginning. but with you.²COLERIDGE.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. or with the haunch of our near leader.²E. felt it unsafe to trifle further. He expired with these words.²LANG. Exercise. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²WALLACE (7) Time. Either with the swingle-bar. "poetry is not a pursuit.

because I had given the provocation. but all to no purpose. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. 4. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. shook it directly over my head. I looked towards my windows. of from. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. came tumbling about my ears. of on. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. hence we say. To our general surprise. or was. the malicious rogue.²ID. (4) from the beginning. Exercises. country. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. In (2). we met the defaulter here. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. The guns were cleared of their lumber. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. I felt my box raised very high in the air. I heard a noise just over my head. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. by which a dozen apples. (3) without a country. telling what man. The object of on board is ships. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. he followed us one day into those gardens. like the clapping of wings. without a country modifies man. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. but I received no other hurt. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. (2) on which. 5. I remember. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. In (3). and knocked me down flat on my face. 2. Be that as it will. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. before the dwarf left the queen. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. of without. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and then borne forward with prodigious speed.²SWIFT 2. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. I speak these things from a love of justice. the phrase answers the question where. 3. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. . and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. And so on. which. beginning. I called out several times. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. Whereupon. In (1).

The mother sank and fell. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. grasping at the child. He locked his door from mere force of habit. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. he favored the world with his opinions. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. after a restful morning. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 19. in this respect. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. For my part. 8. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 27. The savage army was in war-paint. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. plumed for battle. 10. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 17. 25. With all his learning. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 16. 20. to one dark and gloomy. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years.He spurred his courser on. 12. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 14. On all subjects known to man.6. His breeches were of black silk. I like to see the passing. 15. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. . in town. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 29. 11. when. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 9. 21. 23. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 18. 26.Without stop or stay. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 13. 22. 24. 7.

²WEBSTER. (a) Indefinite relative. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.That makes the heavens be mute. (2) As an adjective pronoun. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. that you might behold this joyous day. A few are discussed below. THAT.²HUXLEY. . That night was a memorable one. He will raise the price.²BEECHER.²STOCKTON. That is what I understand by scientific education. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (3) As a relative pronoun. (4) As an adverb of degree. That was a dreadful mistake. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²COLERIDGE. 330. not merely by the amount of the tax. We wish that labor may look up here. and not according to form. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.² JOHNSON. 329. and be proud in the midst of its toil. (1) Relative pronoun. (b) Of result.30. And now it is like an angel's song.²WEBSTER. (c) Substantive conjunction.²WEBSTER. 328. WHAT.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.

it rests on reality. Cox.Which be they what they may.. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (b) Indirect question.. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question...but. (b) Indirect question. partly. (6) Exclamatory adjective...²WORDSWORTH. What.. To say what good of fashion we can. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. What with the Maltese goats.²ID.. after not only.²EMERSON.² is impossible to determine.²WEBSTER." (4) Relative adjective. (b) Copulative. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. If he has [been in America]. he knows what good people are to be found there. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. nearly equivalent to partly. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (7) Adverb of degree. and silent all!²BYRON.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (9) As an exclamation. to see what might be hidden. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.²S. silent still. 331. (8) Conjunction. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage... Saint Mary! what a scene is here!² Pera. or not only. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. BUT. who go tinkling by to their pasturage... I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.Those shadowy recollections. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.S.²ID. "I'll tell you what. At what rate these materials would be distributed.²THACKERAY. but the result of calculation. . What.these sounds are only to be heard.

meaning only. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. or who . (e) Introducing an appositive word. not. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. after a negative.. To lead but one measure. like the dog.. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.²FRANKLIN. than..²CARLYLE.²MRS BROWNING. (b) Of manner. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. (2) Relative pronoun. (3) Preposition. towards order. . equivalent to that .. not. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.²SCOTT. not. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. 332. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. (4) Relative pronoun.²IRVING. Doing duty as a guard.²IRVING.. meaning except.Then arose not only tears. at all moments. (5) Adverb. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (b) Substantive.²LAMB. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. (c) Of degree. meaning otherwise . on all sides. ²CARLYLE.²SHELLEY.²EMERSON.He yearned to our patriot bands. stands for that . I shall see but little of it.. after such.²IRVING. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain... sometimes same. AS. (d) Of reason. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. but piercing cries.²HAWTHORNE. Who knows but.

Give Ruskin space enough. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like a cook beating eggs. Note the difference between these two uses. like him awhile ago. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²CASS. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.² A timid. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. ²PARKMAN. like drops out.²LONGFELLOW. and is followed by a dative-objective.-SCOTT. If the verb is expressed.² HAWTHORNE. This follows a verb or a verbal.²HIGGINSON. Introduces a clause. staring like a bewildered man. They look. (1) An adjective. like Martin was.²ALDRICH.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. but its verb is omitted. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. NOTE. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. this. In this second use. 333. indeed. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²LAMB.²ALDRICH. . but this is not considered good usage: for example.LIKE.²SHAKESPEARE. In each case. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²DARWIN.²HAWTHORNE. nervous child. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²HALLECK.²EMERSON. and as or as if takes its place. I do with my friends as I do with my books. Through which they put their heads. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. No Emperor. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. and was clearly an adjective. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²MAYHEW. like summer ocean's. That face. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. Stirring it vigorously. There is no statue like this living man. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²EMERSON. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.

. in separating them into their component parts. What analysis is. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech." PART II. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Some of these are imitative sounds. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.: for example.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. 335. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. tut! buzz! etc. that is. but it still retains its identity as noun. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. entering into the structure of a sentence. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. that is. 336." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. . Value of analysis. 334. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Definition. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. subject and predicate. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. etc. Definition. verb.²in determining case. clauses introduced by conjunctions. pronoun. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. etc. as." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].INTERJECTIONS. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].

²a subject and a predicate. Division according to number of statements. (2) Interrogative. interrogative. question. But now all is to be changed. according to form. or imperative. 337. but according to how many statements there are. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. "Hath he not always treasures." "What wouldst thou do. hence. not according to the form in which a thought is put. (3) Imperative. Every sentence must contain two parts. A rare old plant is the ivy green. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. 339. . The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. old man?" "Be thou familiar. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. which puts the thought in a question. declarative. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. always friends?" imperative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. but the sentence would still be declarative. 2. entreaty." 340. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. which expresses command. "The quality of mercy is not strained.Kinds of sentences as to form. 338. or command: for example. Definition. Definition: Predicate. This is the most common one. or request. Examples of these three kinds are. SIMPLE SENTENCES. you must not die!" interrogative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. but by no means vulgar. "Come to the bridal chamber. "Old year. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.

and is to be supplied. and the real subject is the latter. 8. to suit all cases:² Subject. the subject is frequently after the verb. or adverb that asks about the subject.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. always reduce them to the order of a statement. 341. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. we have some trouble. The last of all the Bards was he. and our definition must be the following. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. But if we try this with the second sentence. Listen. Consequently. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. a rare old plant. 6. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. or an interrogative pronoun. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. but about the ivy green. In the interrogative sentence. In analyzing such sentences. thou. on the other hand. 2. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 3. to an ignorant man. as. especially in poetry.²What is to be changed? Answer.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. "[You] behold her single in the field. adjective." Exercise. 5. all. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. the subject (you. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. Thus. 4. . The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. or ye) is in most cases omitted. Slavery they can have anywhere. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. not of a rare old plant. 7.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made.

(2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. but it is a true complement. "Ye honor me. 342. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. "I give thee this to wear at the collar.²transitive and intransitive. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. Indirect object. just as if to say. but chief belongs to the verb. and by object we mean the direct object. in addition to the object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. (2) The predicate. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. (5) Modifiers." indirect. (6) Independent elements. The transitive verb often requires. (4) The complements. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. or second object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). but of call chief." Complement: 344. 343. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. and means summoned. Of a transitive verb. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. Direct Object. direct. The subject and predicate have been discussed. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions.10. "Ye call me chief. . a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. and me here is not the object simply of call. for example. (3) The object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object.

as. 364. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. or. 355." "He was termed Thomas. 352." Things used as Subject." "The good man. as in the sentence. in exercise following Sec.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive." (3) INFINITIVE. "A cheery. ay. As to form. A phrase is a group of words. above sixty. 'Ay." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. taste. etc. in the original Opium Confessions." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. for instance. introduced by a preposition: for example. Phrases." All these complete intransitive verbs." (2) PARTICIPIAL. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. 346. and. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." 345. and barring the door." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. feel. become. Thom of the Gills. but used as a single modifier. 351. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. he was now getting old. An intransitive verb. Complement of an intransitive verb." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. seem.." Also an expression used as a noun. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. especially the forms of be. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. sir!' rang out in response. in the popular judgment. 347. appear. not containing a verb." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. I mentioned a case of that nature. See sentence 19. more familiarly. as in drowning. and of massive weight. "Brow and head were round. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. to the completion of this man of the world.

" The for did not belong there originally. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. and by Saint George!' said the King. I saw the quick and the dead. "Therein has been. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." "There are asking eyes. and ever will be. was heard one syllable to justify. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. 341. prowling eyes." 348. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." Things used as Complement. (4) After "there introductory. or the thundering of organs." In this sentence." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. "'By God.²the infinitive phrase." etc. but they will be given in detail here. . 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." "The dead are there. Disguised infinitive subject. for which see Sec. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. asserting eyes." Things used as Direct Object. from their lips. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. but the real or logical subject is to print. or their religion from their sect.²the talent of starting the game. etc." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. my deficiency. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. but obscures the real subject." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). (2) In interrogative sentences. 349." "Never. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.

and the words italicized are still complements." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Like all the complements in this list." "She asked her father's permission.²heads or tails. the shepherd girl." "I hear the echoes throng. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. Modifiers of Subject. and explaining or modifying the subject. I. and whenever the complement is a noun." "Serving others is serving us." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." In this last sentence." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. Of a transitive verb. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." Modifiers. they are adjuncts of the object. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. 351." (4) Participle. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. Object. (3) Infinitive. or the equivalent of the noun. or Complement. complements of the predicate." . Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. the object is made the subject by being passive." "Their tempers. at the same time. doubtless.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office.350. As complement of an intransitive verb. and. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. As complement of a transitive verb. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective.²completing the predicate.

the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. the prisoner at the bar." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." Exercise. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. I have seasoned for thee." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." In such a sentence as." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. austere. the verb being omitted. "He died like a God." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. 352." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. Since the predicate is always a verb." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. but with other men. was the scene from King John. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. II. Retained with passive. unforgiving.²proud. tell whether the subject." "Give them not only noble teachings. Tells how. or . at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. and modify the predicate in the same way. or complement is modified.²In each sentence in Sec. object. 351.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. and leading him from star to star." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. given at the request of a Dutch lady." "In the twinkling of an eye." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. no sociable angel." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. this young idolater." "Him. but it is really a contracted clause. but noble teachers.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Modifiers of the Predicate. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." (For participial and infinitive phrases. not with nature. 357-363. was now called upon for his defense. see further Secs.

Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. They do not wish to be lovely. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. 4. the indirect object is retained. 2. On the voyage to Egypt." Exercises. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 7. . and. 2. gives wonderful animation. predicate. and as many to oppose it. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. no emotion.When the verb is changed from active to passive. These answer the question when. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. negative." (6) Adverbial objective. in this center? 4. This. (a) Pick out subject. to the animal strength and spirits. To the men of this world. 6. is good in the making. but to be loved. But anger drives a man to say anything. but the children of the great. 8. in regard to particulars. 3. no humor. and (direct) object:² 1." "All such knowledge should be given her. Evil. (b) Pick out the subject. how far. 6. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. a sort of personality to the whole writing. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. predicate. after dinner. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. Why does the horizon hold me fast. A merciless oppressor hast thou been." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. I took. Fashion does not often caress the great. 5." "One way lies hope.. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. His books have no melody. according to old philosophers. and other measures of precaution. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. with my joy and grief. or how long. 7. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. etc. he liked. 5." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. and the direct object is retained: for example. 3.

. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. Yes. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 2.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. 2. 2. happy dinner. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. Their intention was to have a gay. after their long confinement to a ship. 4. the attorney. 3. 5.y 8. a room seventeen feet by twelve. That night. 6. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. at the chief hotel. To suffer and to do. to the right and to the left. that was thy portion in life. 4. then. and a member of the world. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. Compound Predicate. 3. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. etc. expecting the return of their parents.. this imperial rider. burthened with the anxieties of a man. A river formed the boundary. at length the warrior lady. I gave him an address to my friend. then. in little peaceful Easedale. Unhorse me. In one feature. must visit again the home of her childhood. this dragoon so lovely. Not the less I owe thee justice. for the first time.²the river Meuse. I felt myself. six children sat by a peat fire. viz. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. upwards. this nun so martial. Not compound sentences. 5. 4. downwards. I promised her protection against all ghosts. y y y y Compound Subject. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Paint me. 3. the blooming cornet.

The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. the tone of her voice. hurry. Of this. etc. For example. the object. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. 355. my brave young man!" . etc. same as (1). they are not a necessary part. 354." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. hurry.353. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. may be the person or thing addressed. several modifiers.. etc. Independent Elements of the Sentence. Bishop. complements." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. the simple subject is situation. however." "Ye crags and peaks. together with its modifiers. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. forming a sentence: "Oh. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject." And so with complements. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. the verb). in all such sentences as we quote below. the predicate." Sentences with compound predicates are. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. together with all its modifiers. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." "The name of the child." "Voyages and travels I would also have. that is. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. shouldered the rusty firelock. then the grammatical subject and predicate. "Ah. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. two or more subjects of the same predicate." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. above: thus. and its object or complement. I'm with you once again. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. and the rest is the logical predicate. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. modifiers. in the sentence. The exclamatory expression. but it is to be noticed that. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. Larger view of a sentence. Examples of compound subjects are. "The company broke up. ulcer. turned his steps homeward." "He shook his head. exposes. the air of the mother. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. and.

" (2) Adverbial. instances of which were seen in Sec. or word used as a noun: for example." "Why." "Well. These need close watching. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. 356. 4). 350.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. etc. modifying a noun. 357. There are some adverbs. now." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat.." (6) Single words: as." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. grandma. such as perhaps. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. object. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. y (2) The adverbial use. he was a conscientious man. the company broke up. (b) As a modifier of subject. 3." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. generally speaking. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. 355. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 4). see Sec. besides. and some conjunctions. see Sec. that have an office in the sentence. he somehow lived along. or complement (see Sec." "Truth to say. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion." Another caution. moreover." (5) Participial phrase: "But. In their use. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. 6). (1) Adjectival. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. he closed his literary toils at dinner. to the best of my remembrance. 352." "No. nevertheless. how you're winking!" "Now. such as however. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. really. The words well. etc. . already noticed. let him perish. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. therefore. "Oh. modifying the predicate.. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. pronoun. undoubtedly. why. prepositional phrases may be. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. six quill-driving gentlemen. her noticing even this is creditable. 351. and so on." (3) Independent." "At all events. yes! everybody knew them. truly. this story runs thus. then.

" "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. 355. etc. containing no matters of business.should. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. See Sec.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." In this sentence. The verbal use. y (a) With may (might). the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing.would. "The letter of introduction. was speedily run through. 358.seem." (b) With the forms of be. modifying was speedily run through. This case excepted. necessity. I. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. he should not have known them at all.]. Wilt thou. and hence is adverbial. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. "Because I was. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. and they will be presented here in full. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. etc. and teach her how to be happy and good. thus.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. therefore. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. my dear. being equivalent to a future with obligation." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. (5). or as nearly so as the student will require." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. but having no other office than a verbal one.can (could)." (c) With the definite forms of go. but require somewhat closer attention.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings." "There." etc. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.: as in the sentences. ought.

²both purpose clauses. "But there was no time to be lost. and the eyes to fill?" 359. II." 360." "He insisted on his right to forget her. 351. already examined. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. notice the following:² In (1)." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. object." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories.. The adverbial use. above.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). (4) In apposition. . may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. complement. the Scotch fighting all the battles." "To teach is to learn. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. IV." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. The substantive use. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. hang the idiot." "Are you mad. etc." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. to please is equivalent to that he may please. The adjectival use." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). 361. etc. 362. 5). to look means that he might look. III.: for example. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). To test this. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. modifying a noun that may be a subject." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. result. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. to hear McOrator after dinner. Don Guzman. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives." "To say what good of fashion we can. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. 361 are used adverbially.

355. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. to hear means if you should hear. and to say is equivalent to if we say. The independent use. 2.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 4. etc. etc. must be in a life. 3. 364. to find shows the result of the return. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. In (4). 349). 347). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. 363. 351). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 355). In (3). give² (1) The predicate. equivalent to that you betray. to part means because I part." (See also Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (7) Independent elements (Sec. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 352). give the complement (Secs.. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. If it is an incomplete verb. which is of two kinds. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. In (5). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. object. V. 351).²both expressing condition. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. (3). not in a book. and to betray and to bring express the reason. . and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it.. etc. as in Sec.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. savage and serene in one hour. Our life is March weather. 351). (5) The subject (Sec. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. In analyzing simple sentences. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 268. I will try to keep the balance true.In (2).

the carrion crow. always in a bad plight. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. and spared nothing. in popular use. just on the edge of destruction. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 11. To be hurried away by every event. like a witch's oils. Through the years and the centuries. 24. The word conscience has become almost confined. might be called flabby and irresolute. nor himself. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 8. through evil agents. To these gifts of nature.²to preserve her throne. 19. and to the purpose. 9. to keep England out of war. 12. nor troops. Old Adam. to the moral sphere. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 20. 18. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. . The whole figure and air.Burnt green and blue and white.The old crow of Cairo. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. nor generals. 6. 15. and every moment discover something new. a graceful dancer. two stricken hours. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. The water. neither ammunition. 14. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 23. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 13. is to have no political system at all. I have heard Coleridge talk. We are always in peril. through toys and atoms. Her aims were simple and obvious.4. to restore civil and religious order. His opinion is always original. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. You may ramble a whole day together.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 7. with eager energy. 5. good and amiable otherwise. nor money. 17. and only to be saved by invention and courage. a good shot. 10. a skilled musician. an accomplished scholar. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 22. 16.He sat in the shower. He risked everything. 21.

the present capital of New England. or perhaps one virtue. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 31. and. haply. the prime minister of Spain. Oxford. in this world. Now. 40. 41. Must we in all things look for the how. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. the ship was in an uproar. 29. upon my own ground. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 36. 34. the same Condé Olivarez. 38. 26. to be a reproach to such goodness. But yield. The cry. The villain. 35. in front of all this mighty crowd. Upon this shore stood. 30. and no provisions but wild berries. ready to receive her. time-honored. 37. still.Distant. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest.Effacing many a stain of former crime. it would not have been filial or ladylike. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Of the same grandeur. 39. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. secluded. to bid you leave the place now and forever.25. Supposing this computation to be correct. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. an elderly man. had but one foible.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. She had made a two days' march. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. I hate him and myself. and the wherefore? . Few in number. This amiable relative. baggage far in the rear. 32. and the why. Fair name might he have handed down. in less heroic and poetic form. and in my own garden. 33. I dare this. 27. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. proud foe. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. In the Acadian land.

to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. 333). as would be the connective instead of like. 365. the pride and beauty of the grove." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. (Sec. Words left out after than or as. The simple sentence the basis. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. thus.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. COMPLEX SENTENCES." To show that these words are really omitted.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. 367." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. if they were expanded. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." This must. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. but. .² "She is like some tender tree." Sentences with like. are really contracted clauses. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.From her own loved island of sorrow. the expressions of manner introduced by like. made merely for convenience and smoothness. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. however. 366." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. As shown in Part I. though often treated as phrases. which is the unit of speech. as.

. that . and the last. suffering. A clause is a division of a sentence. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. etc." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. each clause has its subject. murmur. 370. complements.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. Hence the following definition:² Definition. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence.²the other members subordinate to it. 369.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. which are so united that one member is the main one. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.. CLAUSES.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. main. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. and modifier. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. Independent clause. or it may be applied to the others. how great . we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement. and the next one. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. object. as in this sentence. Definition. is taken in. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. 368. object. we are aware. A principal. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. predicate. modifiers. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. logically depends on suffering. that is.²the backbone. containing a verb with its subject.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. or dependent on it... A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). complement.. 371.

for a hundred years. and the whole clause is not." (2) Object of a verb. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. (b) that are .² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. 372. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. . or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. 352. night or day. adjectives." "I was told that the house had not been shut. But since they are complex in form. with a noun clause in apposition with it." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. over which the torrent came tumbling. 'I know that he can toil terribly. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. for a time. Noun Clauses. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. (a) Ordinary apposition." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. but logically the sentence is. and ADVERB clauses." (4) Apposition. for example. verbal. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. As to their office in the sentence. ADJECTIVE.. 373.. so the object clause is retained. thus." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.. 5). attention is called to them here. impertinences²would be grammatical. We ourselves are getting ... explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. and it is ." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. impertinences. infinitive. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. for example.. Kinds. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. clauses are divided into NOUN." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living." Just as the object noun." 374. etc.Dependent clause. or adverbs.' is an electric touch. pronoun. put an end to my fancies. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.

What history it had. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. as.² "It is on the understanding. 375. etc. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. wherein. in the sentence. Other examples of this construction are. no man will ever know. Except by what he could see for himself. 8. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. that he was a scheming impostor. 10. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. Examples of adjective clauses. of a nation. that. or equivalent of a noun. I was napping. 2. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. still remains reasonable. a falsehood incarnate. but. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. whence." Exercise. Such a man is what we call an original man. where. 9. whether he should choose one or not. Adjective Clauses. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. whereby. sometimes by the conjunctions when. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. . that. he could know nothing. how it changed from shape to shape. As the office of an adjective is to modify. The reply of Socrates.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. 5. and not on the sentiment. 6. 3. a relative pronoun being understood. he would repent it. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. 7. But the fact is. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. whither. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 4." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. which. Frequently there is no connecting word. that all safe legislation must be based. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife.

There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 5." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. No man is reason or illumination. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. all is vacancy. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Adverbial Clauses. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. the champions advanced through the lists. whether subject. which formed the center of the mansion. 8. 11. 7. 6. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. object." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. he begins to help us more as an effect. Pick out the adjective clauses. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 3. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." Exercise. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. i. etc.376. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. which Rowena tasted. I walked home with Calhoun. and tell what each one modifies.e. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 1. 2." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 10. 4. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture.. 9. or that essence we were looking for. ." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.

shaping our actions." "The right conclusion is. introduced by indefinite relatives." "Who cares for that. and adverbial conjunctions. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." (5) DEGREE. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. he goes away as if nothing had happened. the wider is the horizon of their thought." "He went several times to England.377. etc. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. a verbal. is wider. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. Exercise. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal.² whoever. an adjective." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. however good she may be as a witness." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. 378." (9) CONCESSION. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. etc. and will be given in detail. no matter what remains. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." These mean no matter how good. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly.. and what it modifies:² ." "The broader their education is. to make up our shortcomings. since he was too great to care to be original. Joanna is better." (3) REASON." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. expressing the degree in which the horizon. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. etc." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. adverbs." "When he was come up to Christian.: "But still. but they require careful study. with examples. however." "After leaving the whole party under the table. it takes precedence of everything else. so far as we can." (7) RESULT. or an adverb. tell what kind each is. that we should try. whatever. the milestones are grave-stones. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification.

in the sentence.1. find the principal subject and principal predicate. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. 380. so as to picture the parts and their relations. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. etc. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. and twirling weathercocks. on a dark wintry night. object. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. incoherent exclamations. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. snatching up stones to fling at them. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath." 2. then treat noun clauses as nouns. banging about doors and windows. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. For example. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. its object is that Odin was a reality. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. we are a little disappointed. predicate. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. when the wind was unruly. howling and whistling. of which clause Odin is the subject. 3. to tell the truth. with shrill. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. they might perhaps say of their visitors. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. as they sometimes did. and modifiers. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . 379. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. If the children gathered about her. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 'Well.

. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. Exercises. (1) Find the principal clause. 380). \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. d. 364. 2. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. as seen in the "map" (Sec. . (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 364. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 3. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much.

22. Next came a wretched Dominican. the shepherd girl. had we been worse. 19. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 12. 16. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 14. which. could not have been effected. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 15. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 13. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 18. as for armies that were too many by half. 20. the flower should revive for us. M. He was what our country people call an old one. 11. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 17. if applied to the Bible. that pressed her with an objection. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer.4. whom I choose. that. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. Now. or whether any. And those will often pity that weakness most. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. The night proved unusually dark. dying for them. But now that she has become an establishment. not so much for travelers that were few. . counselor that had none for herself. 9. namely. The deep eyes. This is she. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. who would yield to it least. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 24. 5. 8. 7. 6. the mixed result. 21. of a light hazel. Whether she said the word is uncertain. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 10. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. Here lay two great roads. bishop. 23. Had they been better chemists. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. for yours. I like that representation they have of the tree.

though we may repeat the words never so often. but above it. would easily reach. COMPOUND SENTENCES.25. (b) First analyze.² Definition. These things we are forced to say. Hence the definition. How formed. 383. 27. 5. and not from his heart. the following complex sentences:² 1. 380. "was ever written down by any but itself. is to speak and write sincerely. we cannot adequately say. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days.²which will not be disposed of. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion." 4. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 2. That which we do not believe. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 6. if continuously extended. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. and what content I can find in conversing with each. questions. speed. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. . until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. then map out as in Sec. 30. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. It makes no difference how many friends I have. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 382. or commands. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 28. and temper. 7. "No book. that it was no more than his daily walk. and stamped with his right number. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 3." said Bentley. 26. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will.

and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. he soliloquizes. tell which are compound. now adverbs or prepositions. and which complex:² 1. "Only the star dazzles. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3).. 383 (1). the semicolons cut apart the independent members. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. Study the thought. nor does he know until he has tried. 386. which are simple statements. from the second. and connects the first and second complex members. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. he dilates. the planet has a faint. a complex member. and it shall be the universal sense. 297). From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. etc. Exercise. for. moon-like ray" (adversative). however. as in Sec." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. the semicolon separates the first. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. in (3). The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. he is twice a man. or but. and not the form of the connective. and nor the second and third complex members. whereas. The division into members will be easier." 384. nor. in (2). while (whilst).This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. a simple member. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. Thus in (1). he walks with arms akimbo. etc. yet. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. Some of these are now conjunctions. as but. the waving grass. 385. Another example is. if there are any. . others sometimes coördinate. Connectives. Of the following illustrative sentences. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. Speak your latent conviction." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. The coördinate conjunctions and.

2. 387. the tax is certain. (i) Separate it into its main members. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. nay. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 7. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 10. 4. I can still receive. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. to find a pot of buried gold. 3. Exercise. he grew up to be a mild. 14. unobtrusive boy. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. All loss. The gain is apparent. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. is particular. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. Whilst the world is thus dual. 11. 4. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. and as yet very early in the morning. quiet. and for everything you gain. yield to them heart and life. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. Man does not stand in awe of man. for example. 381. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. passed in that time. . that it was Easter Sunday. 3. Love. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. and not by what each is. 364. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. you lose something. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. however. all pain. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. However some may think him wanting in zeal. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. For everything you have missed. you have gained something else. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. and thou shalt be loved. so is every one of its parts. 6. I can yet love. In this manner. 9. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. from a happy yet often pensive child. 13. 12. or. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 5.2. 8.

"Strike. and they will show themselves great. 8. and you are without effort impelled to truth. or we read books. and they will be true to you. or men will never know and honor him aright. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. or hope. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. 20. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 7. Come into port greatly. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. and he learns who receives. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. whilst frankness invites frankness. treat them greatly. and makes their business a friendship. 21. 17. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. 6." says the haymaker. 14. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. because. that let him communicate. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. or we pursue persons. When you have chosen your part. He teaches who gives. puts the parties on a convenient footing. one is afraid." 13. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and they repel us. We see the noble afar off. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. 16. give those merits room. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. let them mount and expand." says the smith. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. and the other dares not. modesty. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. crook and hide. 9." "keep the rake. We go to Europe. Stand aside.5. 15. "as nigh the scythe as you can. Whatever he knows and thinks. 18. as children. feign to confess here. and not a thought has enriched either party. and not an emotion of bravery. and the peace of society is often kept. "the iron is white. only that they may brag and conquer there. is as thin and timid as any. 19. 11. They will shuffle and crow. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Trust men. and the cart as nigh the rake. and each shows only what lies at its focus. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. why should we intrude? 10. abide by it. if you rip up his claims. or sail with God the seas. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. .

Do not craze yourself with thinking. or. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. So does culture with us.²agreement and government. PART III. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. the department of syntax will be a small affair. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. but go about your business anywhere. INTRODUCTORY. 23. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. 380. 388. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. Ground covered by syntax. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. it never was known to fall into the rear. adjective and noun. if they live. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. 25. they lose themselves in the crowd. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. pronoun and antecedent. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions.22. SYNTAX. so readily and lavishly they promise. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . Following the Latin method. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Essential point in English syntax. but its leading characteristic is. but they never acquit the debt. they die young. We see young men who owe us a new world. verb and subject. 24. By way of introduction. and dodge the account. 390. it ends in headache. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning.

both forms will be given in the following pages. Some rules not rigid. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. In some cases. distinct forms would be used. authorities²that is. etc. There is. and it would not matter which one stood first. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. Savage may be the subject. and imitate it. or settler may be the subject. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. "The savage here the settler slew." is ambiguous. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. then. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. 392. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. good English. Also in the sentence. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and whose judgment. yet the expression is sustained by good authority.² First. For example. take the sentence. When usage varies as to a given construction. The basis of syntax. and nothing but important points will be considered. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. or when they exist side by side in good usage. 393. some of which conform to classical grammar.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. the sentence. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. sometimes verb and subject. or the same writer will use both indifferently. following the regular order of subject." In this there is a possessive form. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. the order being inverted. "None remained but he. as to study inflected forms." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). but are not now. . therefore. This is not logical. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. As an illustration of the last remark. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points." that is. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. also expressing a possessive relation. Why study syntax? 391. In Latin. pronoun and antecedent. and added to it the preposition of. Second.

Separate possession. He kept Bolingbroke's. for example.²MILTON.²THACKERAY. and Pope's." Juletta tells.NOUNS. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. etc. .² Live your king and country's best support. Putting Mr. Bentham's principles together. 408). Adam and Eve's morning hymn. ²ID. sense and nature's easy fool. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²BYRON. and Peter's.² He lands us on a grassy stage.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Use of the possessive. but imply separate possession or ownership. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. or indicate joint ownership or possession. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. and Peterborough's. Joint possession. 397.²MCCULLOCH. and Paul's. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. 394. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. the shore of Galilee.²ROWE. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. the antechamber of the High Priest.²EMERSON. Woman.²MACAULAY. 395. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²RUSKIN. the possessive sign is used with each noun. 396. PRONOUNS. as. and Harley's. Mill's and Mr. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.

the true relation of the words is misunderstood. Since most of the personal pronouns. whom is the complement after the verb am. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. the last expression has the support of many good writers. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Still.²POPE. No mightier than thyself or me. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. 398. who. for example. as." 400. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. thus.²BYRON.²WHITCHER. I. General rules.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.) "The young Harper. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. together with the relative who. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. and should be the nominative form. This should be "as she. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. the real thought being forgotten. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²THACKERAY. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²TROLLOPE. there are two general rules that require attention. Bedott Papers." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. But he must be a stronger than thee.²SOUTHEY.²SHAKESPEARE. if not universally.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Some of the violations are universally condemned. 399. Objective for the nominative.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. others are generally. sanctioned. . have separate forms for nominative and objective use.

it will not be me. and the other forms of the verb be. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. BLACK. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402."²WM." There is no special reason for this. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.²SCOTT. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. on the other hand.²THACKERAY. "Than whom. A safe rule. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. for example. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. they are yet holier than we. But still it is not she. "If there is any one embarrassed. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. is."²WINTHROP.²LONGFELLOW.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. namely. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²RUSKIN.² One I remember especially. the objective form is regularly found. but such is the fact.²COLERIDGE. One exception is to be noted.²MACAULAY."²KINGSLEY. Patrick the Porter. In spoken English. are. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.²FIELDING. The camp of Richard of England.²KINGSLEY." 401. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. The usage is too common to need further examples.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant.² For there was little doubt that it was he. . as. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. And it was heThat made the ship to go. unless a special. "Who's there?"²"Me. both in England and America. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²PARTON.

"I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. or preposition which governs it. 8. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author." the word being in apposition with murderer). I speak not to" (he should be him.²MILTON. verbal. or us). It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 4. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 2. it is me. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Me in exclamations. the object of to). "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). now. and prepositions. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 10. as. as. used after verbs." 6. "Ask the murderer. as. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. but not he" (he should be him. 11. Nominative for the objective. . If there ever was a rogue in the world. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 5. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. you or me. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. as this from Shakespeare. 403. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. 9. or this. in the case of words used in apposition with the object.Exercise. 3. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. verbals. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. 404. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. Whom they were I really cannot specify. (3) By forgetting the construction. It is not me you are in love with. Truth is mightier than us all. 7. object of saw).

²BYRON. Exercise. all but he.²GOLDSMITH. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. I've sworn. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. as. as well as the objective. after the preposition but (sometimes save).Shall be left upon the morn. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²KINGSLEY. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. who interrogative. None. save thou and thine. .²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.²STEELE. I arraign. "Who were they talking to?" etc. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.Exception 1. as. 406. etc.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. partial Nature. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. 405. but he. Exception 2. Nature. Thy shores are empires. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. We regularly say. 2. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Let you and I look at these. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. Thou.²KINGSLEY. changed in all save thee. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. and is usually avoided. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²KINGSLEY. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. "Who did you see?" or.² All were knocked down but us two.²BYRON. for example. Who have we here?²ID. for they say there are none such in the world.

Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. 5." 4. 7. 11. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²C. and they know that as well as me.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²possessive.3. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²SCOTT. This usage is not frequent. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. who. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. Markland. 407. They are coming for a visit to she and I. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. or objective? . 8. 6. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. BROWN. 12.²RUSKIN. Preceding a gerund. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. As antecedent of a relative.Ye I salute. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. B. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. 10. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. Bartholomew. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. II. with Jortin and Thirlby. 9. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY.²MACAULAY. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. They crowned him long ago.

" or "We heard of Brown's studying law.² IRVING. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and the meaning is. as he turned away from his wife. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. Why both are found." That is. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. object of heard of.²CARLYLE. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. The last incident which I recollect. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. But in common use there is no such distinction.² SCOTT. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. studying is a gerund. Possessive. and asked why it was not made.² CARLYLE. Objective. [who was] studying law. In the examples quoted.²BREWER.²RUSKIN. that the bitterness of death was past.408. . both are gerunds. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. We heard of Brown. etc.²DE QUINCEY. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. sometimes it has the objective.²MACAULAY. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Both types of sentences are found. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.² THACKERAY.²DICKENS. Here I state them only in brief. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. The use of the objective is older. and that in the second. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.

If any one did not know it. number. it was his own fault.²C.²DE QUINCEY.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²CABLE. where there were examinations.²AUDUBON. 409. and gender.²HUXLEY. preceded by a distributive.²DEFOE.²when the antecedent.² BRYANT. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. Everybody had his own life to think of. or is a distributive word. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²THOREAU. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. taking in each of many persons. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²EMERSON III. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²RUSKIN.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. BROCKDEN BROWN. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²THACKERAY. In such a case as the last three sentences.²HOLMES. Every city threw open its gates. and ought to agree with them in person. Examples of these constructions are. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. 410.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. Watch for the real antecedent. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. The pale realms of shade. if the antecedent is neuter. in one person.²DE QUINCEY. .² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.

not a mowing idiot. Struggling for life. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²ID.²SCOTT. and giving them means of being so.²AUSTEN. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. as anybody in their senses would have done.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²FIELDING. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.² Not the feeblest grandame. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. By using the plural pronoun. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. This is not considered the best usage.²THACKERAY.²PALGRAVE. for example. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²HUXLEY. 411.²BIBLE. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²EMERSON. let them break it off.²PAULDING. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²BYRON. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²DEFOE. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. The sun. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. If the part deserve any comment. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. till they have lost him.²RUSKIN.²ID. Whosoever hath any gold. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. . but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²PALEY. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.

²HAWTHORNE. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. in each instance:² Who. who went away." It defines beggar. 413. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. the definite relatives who. In the following examples. according to the practice of every modern writer. when restrictive. but. and that may be coördinating or restrictive.) and a personal pronoun. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. which. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. Exercise. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. A relative. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. unless both genders are implied. "I gave it to the beggar. or unrestrictive. 1.²ID." A relative. because. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²In the above sentences. I. tell whether who. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. It adds a new statement to what precedes. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers." This means. 412. As to their conjunctive use. or what was become of her. 2.² SHERIDAN. and he went away. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. . The clause is restricted to the antecedent. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. and that always restrictive. but. no one could take upon them to say. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. That is in most cases restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. when coördinating. which. What these terms mean. as. etc. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. Exercise. and that are restrictive or not.Where she was gone. and does not add a new statement. that being considered already clear.²ADDISON.

²DE QUINCEY. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.²ID. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.²DE QUINCEY. down. A grizzly-looking man appeared. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. On hearing their plan. In what sense true. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. in the sentence. II. which was to go over the Cordilleras. because of its antecedent. 7. 11. 6. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. That.. they. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. as that does not vary for person or number. and over England are saying. Yet how many are there who up. etc. The rule.² MOTLEY. long arms and legs. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. Which. 8. The general rule is. etc. etc. that were often vicious. We say I. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 4.²THOREAU. W. 13. these or that which. 414. . he. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 10. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. she agreed to join the party.² NEWMAN. With narrow shoulders. Hare has printed. who.²H. So different from the wild. However. 12. For example.3. which Mr." that is invariable as to person and number.² CARLYLE.²HOLMES.² IRVING. but. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. or it might have gone hard with the tutor.²ADDISON. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public.²ID. BEECHER 5. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. it makes the verb third person singular. you. and it is called logic. 9. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. 14. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.

What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY." One of .²M. He is one of those that deserve very well.²HOLMES..²MACAULAY. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. but myself.²whether we should say. Franklin. ARNOLD.²LECKY. T. 415.²ADDISON.. [singular or plural. The latter is rather more frequent. but the former has good authority." or... French literature of the eighteenth century.. who rarely speak at all. when he derided the shams of society. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²SCOTT. etc. or which .. etc. MORSE. Let us be of good cheer.²ADDISON. with one as the principal word. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²HOWELLS. others regard books as the antecedent.²LOWELL. and write the verb in the plural. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. "one of the finest books that has been published. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²J. and in improving a victory. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. but speaks of him as that sort.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. JR.²BOWLES. in winning a battle. the true antecedent. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. Singular. "one of the finest books that have been published.] Both constructions are frequently found. . A disputed point. The fiery youth .²LOWELL. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. [plural] that who. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.

when this dust falls to the urn. I could see nothing except the sky.²CARLYLE. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.And. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. The same day I went aboard we set sail. or where] he died.²ADDISON." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase." "India is the place [in which.²SWIFT. return. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.²GOLDSMITH. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. IV.In that same state I came. that is. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. object of a preposition understood.²VAUGHAN. where.² . and see if the sentence is made clearer.²IRVING. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. whence. when the relative word is a pronoun. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. Exercise.²In the above sentences. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.A rare Roundabout performance.²DEFOE.²ID. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. 417.²BURNS.² THACKERAY.²SCOTT. But I by backward steps would move. 416. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.² RUSKIN. and such like: as.²EMERSON. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. III.²EMERSON."²DICKENS. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.

Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. The regular construction..² BURKE. etc. CHURCH. and working in the same spirit. W.²WORDSWORTH. with Turner. if same is followed by a complete clause. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.² THACKERAY. Which. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. but which is usually carefully avoided. I might as well have staid at home. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. 418.² Which. or that.²R. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. was a discoverer.He considered.²ADDISON. They believe the same of all the works of art. Billings vowed that he would follow him to as his apprentice. he.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. Mr. but we find the relative who. Anacoluthic use of which.²SWIFT. V. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. she passed the lamp over her face and person. if I had resolved to go on with. which. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. as of knives.²FRANKLIN.² MACAULAY. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. ²GOLDSMITH.. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. but. looking-glasses. . boats. That.²SCOTT. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. for example. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as is not used. Caution.

Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.. Express both relatives.²HAWTHORNE. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and which. Thornhill had read. and who are now." etc. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. That is. But who.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²SCOTT. once a great favorite of M. And who. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. (3) "Among the poorer sort..She'd come again.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.²RUSKIN. . and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. etc. 419. he said that all submission was now too late. (1) "Among those who are poor.²THACKERAY. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. (2) "Among the poorer sort. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. He delivered the letter. or omit the conjunction.²GOLDSMITH. As the sentences stand. who are now thrown. 3.²which if they once heard. 2. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.² Direction for rewriting. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. 1. 4. now thrown upon their. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure." etc.. but. or leave out both connective and relative. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. but none is expressed.²DE QUINCEY. and this be placed in the proper clause. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. After this came Elizabeth herself." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors.²SHAKESPEARE." etc. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. or. etc. which when Mr. Exercise. Exercise. This was a gentleman. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. le Conte.

And which. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. one of signal interest. Akin to the above is another fault.²IRVING. indeed.. 11.²PEARSON. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. I saw upon the left a scene far different. as a false and astucious mark. 6. and repeat this for any further reference. either from imitation of their frequent allies. which the Scotch had learned.² MOTLEY. "What knight so craven. Or who. and which. 13. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.5..²SCOTT. 10. English by name.. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²SCOTT. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. 7. Dr. 12. "A mockery. like that spoken in the towns. 9. 8.²DE QUINCEY. who. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. .²HAWTHORNE. the French. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. But which. 1. and to whom no door is closed. Exercise. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.. then. Or which. etc." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. and which may even be heard a mile off. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. That . but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.²DE QUINCEY. 420. I shall have complete copies. and which has never been described. etc.

.²HALLAM. That . 8. but which.²DE QUINCEY. 15. 13. 5.²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE.²W.²DEFOE.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. E.. I give to such men as do not belong to me. I grudge the dollar.²SCOTT That which . and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. It rose into a thrilling passion.. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. such as they have very probably been bred to. In my native town of Salem. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. He flung into literature. Such as . the dime. The Tree Igdrasil. 11. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. He. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear..²W.2. 12.²EMERSON. SIMMS. and to whom I do not belong. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. was hung in air.. Such as . was a bustling wharf. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. . which. CHANNING. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.²HOLMES. G. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. the cent. that .² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. what. in his present condition. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 6.. that. 3. 10. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.²SCOTT. at the head of what.. 9.²BEECHER. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. but which is perhaps not so different from it. which. whom. and whose examples and principles we inherit. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 7.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. in his Mephistopheles.. I recommend some honest manual calling. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. 4. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. 14. Which . and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.²HOWELLS. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.. half a century ago.

421. as. England was then divided between kings and Druids. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. as it were.² Some one must be poor. Each other. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. 422. in which case any should be used instead. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. as.² HAWTHORNE. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²MACAULAY.²ID.²GOLDSMITH.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. for example. one another. Distributives either and neither. Assume that no one is in want of either. always at war with one another. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. that not all combined. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²RUSKIN. . and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²EMERSON. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. By their original meaning. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. We call ourselves a rich nation.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.²DICKENS. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. Use of any.²HAWTHORNE. whether or not the two are equivalent.²RUSKIN.

Do you think.²CARLYLE.. any was often singular. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. at one time in Bacon. in the prose of the present day.²THACKERAY.²BIBLE. 424.²PROF. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²EMERSON.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. as. and is isolated. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. If any of you lack wisdom. that I know of. as none of the French philosophers were. Do you think. for him have I offended.² If any. then in Plutarch. which is plural as often as singular. in Shakespeare.²BURKE. even in Bettine. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. when any of them are so good as to visit me. before that.²BEECHER Whenever.²FRANKLIN.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. In earlier Modern English. if ever man was. speak. . 423. then in Plotinus.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. I beseech you. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. Any usually plural. afterwards in Goethe.² EMERSON.. any of his friends had died. usually plural.² In earnest. Caution. let him ask of God. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²STIRLING.²SCOTT. as. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.. during his stay at Yuste. Examples of its use are. None of Nature's powers do better service. whilst I still cherish their genius. None usually plural. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. The adjective pronoun none is. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.

²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. saving Naaman the Syrian.. Somebody's else.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.² None of them was cleansed. The compounds somebody else. The light troops thought .² Singular. 425. that all was lost. fixing his eyes on the mace.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. When all were gone. for example. or somebody else's? 426. any one else. etc. etc.²NAPIER Plural. nobody else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. and Ford has nobody's else. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. when it means all persons: for example. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. the plural. are treated as units.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. and less rarely in poetry.² PEARSON. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and hence is more likely to confuse the student.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. etc..²THOREAU. and all was lost on the other.²SCOTT Like the use of any. which is used absolutely.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.. etc. as.²McMASTER.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.

²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. London.²N. 427.²RUSKIN.² These kind of knaves I know.²MULOCH. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. ADJECTIVES.SYDNEY SMITH. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²SWEET. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.. ELIOT. His hair. the adjectives plural.²SHERIDAN. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²G.²DICKENS. all manner of. Whitefield or Wesley.. etc.²THACKERAY. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. P." the nouns being singular. Again. STOWE.curled once all over it in long tendrils. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. ." "those kind of trees. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.²RUSKIN. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.² Saturday Review.²in such as "these sort of books. "Ye see. or some other such great man as a bishop. etc. or those sort of people. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. for example.²AUSTEN.² FIELDING. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. WILLIS. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. unlike anybody else's in the world." "all manner of men. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). These sort."²MRS.

to express a higher degree of quality. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. According to the approved usage of Modern English." A question. History of this construction. when the necessary dispositions concur." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. the victor or the vanquished. . they said.The library was open. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. The result. At the source.²RUSKIN. "This kind of rules are the best. "These kind of trees are best. gradually displacing the old. not "all kinds of wild animals. as. and in this way may take a plural verb. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. or the nouns to the plural. and the adjective is." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). such as. In Old and Middle English. This the modern expression reverses. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. for example. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. Later form. which accounts for the construction. Consequently we have a confused expression. Should we say. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. made to agree with it. Burke's sentence. in spoken English.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. Of two such lessons." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. more alarming than a total silence.² PRESCOTT.² Which is the better able to defend himself." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. 428. with all manner of amusing books. "This sort of trees should be planted. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. or one object with a class of objects. Use of the comparative degree.

There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. 3. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.A braver ne'er to battle rode. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 6. Exercise. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. if not. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. To the man who plays well. would not have had the face.²WIRT. . Gary. by almost the breadth of my nail.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 429.²SCOTT. Even Dodd himself.²HAWTHORNE.²TROLLOPE. I am concerned to see that Mr. Other after the comparative form. than any of his court. Superlative with two objects. 2. the highest stakes are paid. He is taller. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 5. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²SWIFT. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²LOWELL. 4. etc. Use of the superlative degree. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men."²ID. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Henry.²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE.² THACKERAY. has sanctioned.²MACAULAY.²HUXLEY. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²MACAULAY. 430. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.

Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. "Ha. The eldest.²MRS.²Bible. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. 431. In all disputes between States. Examples from Shakespeare are. who eat white bread or brown. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. not a bit of high life among them.²GOLDSMITH. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. OLIPHANT. Rip was one of those . Mary. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²IRVING. I should say that one has the best cause. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²BEN JONSON.²EMERSON."²HAWTHORNE. These two properties seem essential to wit. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. The following examples are used purposely. whichever can be got easiest. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.. and the other contains the best men.²DR BLAIR.²J. After the most straitest sect of our religion. more particularly the last of them.²SCOTT. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Come you more nearer. Double comparative and superlative. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. CÆSAR. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. and differ only in form. ha. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²TEMPEST. Also from the same period. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. 1611.²RUSKIN. ..²HAMLET.²ADDISON."²GOLDSMITH."²BULWER.

In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. etc.² SMOLLETT. Instances of both are given below. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The first five had specific names. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. etc. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²GIBBON. The delay in the first three lines. 433. ²COWPER.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432.² With a singular noun.²DE QUINCEY. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Three first. The meaning intended is the same.²KINGSLEY.²LAMB. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²ADDISON. Examples of this construction are. and conceit in the last. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²PRESCOTT. ARTICLES. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. not only so in popular speech. Definite article. The merit of the Barb. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²RUSKIN. jar upon us constantly. .²GIBBON. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. but in literary English. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. the Spanish. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. For Carlyle. As to these two expressions.²RUSKIN. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. and Secretary Walsingham also. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. First three.

to distinguish clearly. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. The not repeated.. One object and several modifiers.² MACAULAY. Here the youth of both sexes. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. Indefinite article. the hour of parting came. . 433.²SCOTT. 435.²TENNYSON. Origin of the Aryans. but inseparable from each other. as. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. and flexible language. No. 433. of the higher and middling orders. with a singular noun. The flowers. 1508.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.²NEWMAN. having been arranged. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . He is master of the two-fold Logos. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.²THACKERAY. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. the greatest poems.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. were placed at a very tender age. Frequently. or to emphasize the meaning..²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. with a plural noun. melodious. Meaning same as in Sec.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.² RUSKIN. of the eighteenth century. distinct. however. the thought and the word. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. and the presents. With a plural noun. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²PRESCOTT.²THE NATION. but is used with one only. The lofty. 434. as in Sec.²CARLYLE. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²ID. as.²TAYLOR. I think.²MACAULAY.

Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. 435. 436). He saw him in his mind's eye. In the sentences of Secs." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. The indefinite article (compare Sec. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.² MACAULAY. JONSON. COLERIDGE. or clearness to each of several nouns. 433 and 436." and "a red and a white geranium. rich.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²B. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. and a usurper.²BULWER. T. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. 438. Examples of this use are.²DRYDEN. only one of which is expressed.² BURKE.²THACKERAY. But in the following sentences. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. One article with several adjectives.An early.²BEECHER. as in the first three of Sec. . For rhetorical effect.²MACAULAY. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²MACAULAY. a round and a square one alternately. 437. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.²S.²DICKENS. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. a collegian. like the definite article.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. interest. to limit two or more modified nouns. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. and inexhausted vein. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. a tyrant.436. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. one noun is expressed. The indefinite article is used. a murderer. as.²JOHNSON.

² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. all that academies can give. 440. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²W. Singular verb. Sec. and the following illustrations prove it. as.. then. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²The Nation. In English. ARNOLD. Singulars connected by or or nor. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²AGASSIZ.²CARLYLE This usage.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. like some others in this series. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. ELIOT. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.²COOPER. was the earliest American land. A broad and loose rule.²GIBBON. Collective noun of singular meaning. Such. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. . has got already.VERBS. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. Another writer might.²M. without academies. He sees that it is better to live in peace. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. 439. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²FROUDE. 276. or the great intellectual life of our nation. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. as. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. for example.²G. This was spoken of in Part I.

the cheap defense of nations. nor Mahomet. ADAMS. other names.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²J. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. a mutilation. or as making up one general idea. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. a loss of wealth.²GIBBON. but considered as meaning about the same thing. Between ourselves. that of a large town.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. nor John. for example. seems at the moment unpaid loss. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. (4) When the subject is plural in form.² In a word. for example.Jesus is not dead. is gone. nor Paul. as.²WHITTIER.²DE QUINCEY. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²CRITIC. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. a loss of friends. a cruel disappointment. as. or considered as appositional. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. and other singulars of plural form.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. No. ²EMERSON.² The unbought grace of life.²GOLDSMITH. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. Q. A fever.²BURKE. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²EMERSON . in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.² GOLDSMITH. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. Plural form and singular meaning. but each one emphatic. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. and every four hours.² Politics is the only field now open for me.

the fine gentleman. as. many a. an agitated gesture.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²PRESCOTT. and such like adjectives. Plural verb. sir!" and the "What then. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²ID. For wide is heard the thundering fray. was dazzled. The Epic. Her back. Every week. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²M ARNOLD. Then comes the "Why. no. a gorget. the wit. an impassioned countenance.²MACAULAY. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. as well as Europe. Every fop. nay. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. The oldest. was punished. does not take the place of the man. was listened to for five hours. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.² There is a right and a wrong in them. with death. Here is no ruin. every boor.²NEWMAN. the partisan. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²SCOTT. There is a moving tone of voice. no spent ball.²LONGFELLOW. is a man of wit. Subjects after the verb. sir?" and the "No. no discontinuity. was like to crack. as well as the newest. the dismay. To receive presents or a bribe. 441.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²RUSKIN. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. thus. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor.²BUTLER. every valet. as well as the Drama. as well as sides. Every sound. a cuirass.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. as. no matter if the second is plural).The author. each. the ruin. sir!"²MACAULAY.²EMERSON. almost every day.²MACAULAY.² Asia.²ID.² . in a judge.²HAWTHORNE. wineBegins to stir itself. every echo. and greaves.²PRESCOTT.The rout.

far away thy children leave the land.²SWIFT. b). 440 (5. were men of insignificant characters. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. its date.²SCOTT. shirt. but the verb is plural. TAYLOR. a stream of fresh water. making up a plural subject.²COLERIDGE. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. The conjunction may be omitted. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²CARLYLE But its authorship. for example. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²EMERSON. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. All our household are at rest. Philip of Anjou.²ADDISON.² A multitude go mad about it. as. the Duke of Berri.²GOLDSMITH. Conjunction omitted.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. . One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. as.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²FROUDE. Far. of whom there were a number.²GIBBON.²FRANKLIN.²FROUDE.²THOREAU. The travelers. and its history are alike a mystery to us. A shady grove.²DE QUINCEY.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²B. A party of workmen were removing the horses. as with a subject of plural form. as in Sec. are sufficient to attract a colony.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.² GIBBON.² One or two of these perhaps survive. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. The Dauphin. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. a green pasture. His clothes.

Exceptional examples.But notice the construction of this. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. "You would not be wiser. but thou.²ROWE.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.). Ah. of different persons. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.²GOLDSMITH. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. Second or third and first person in the subject. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. his blood dost shed.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. . You and I are tolerably modest people. Nothing which Mr.²D. as. "I have never said so.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²M. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. Not I. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. When the subjects. ARNOLD. the subject being really equivalent to we. nor has she"). Not Altamont. 443. nor should I. we never talk politics. that is.²THACKERAY. WEBSTER. General usage. "He or I can go." or. hadst been my lord.²THACKERAY. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²LOWELL. This construction is at the best a little awkward. but thou.²RUSKIN.²BYRON. the verb takes the construction of the first person. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²RUSKIN. You and I are farmers. Pattison or I have said. 444." "She or you may be sure.²SMOLLETT. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²WHITTIER. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²DE QUINCEY. If there is only one person in the subject. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. for example. 442." etc.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.

SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).That neither of their intellects are vast. 11.²THACKERAY. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. 440-444):² 1.²EMERSON. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²perhaps the devil. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 446. 8.²G. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. Neither of them.²ADDISON." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. nor tree.²SCOTT.445. Also in verbals.²BURKE. 5. Both death and I am found eternal. Neither of their counselors were to be present. Exercise. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²ID. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. as illustrated above (Secs. In a word. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. in my opinion. BANCROFT. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. In this sentence from Defoe. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²ADDISON.²and. as we would hope. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²MILTON. Nor wood. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.² TROLLOPE. In the following sentence. 10. nor bush are there. 9. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 2. 6.²SMOLLETT. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . How each of these professions are crowded.²BYRON. which it is proper to mention. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 3.Her course to intercept. 12. 4. 7.

²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. The present rule is recent. as.²KINGSLEY. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. 4.²R. Direct discourse²that is. however. meaning. Exercise.²THACKERAY.² PALGRAVE 5. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. I gave one quarter to Ann. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. to have divided with her whatever might remain. on my return. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. CHURCH. if not. change them to a better form:² 1.²DE QUINCEY 2. for exact connection.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. W. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. 3.²FRANKLIN 6. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²IRVING. Definitions." .. 448. Two samples of indirect discourse. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. 447. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. It should be remarked. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Of course. Indirect discourse means reported speech. to have seen should be changed to to see..²MACAULAY.

1. Direct. etc. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Summary of the expressions. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. She thought to herself. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk..(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. and the indirect question by whether or if. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. His exact words were. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. under interrogative pronouns. "Oh. 2." Indirect. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. "I cannot oblige you . or regular interrogatives." etc. Her prudence whispered eternally. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. This includes the auxiliaries be. interrogative adverbs. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. will. ." etc. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. have. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Direct. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat.. introductory verb is in the past tense. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh.. Sebastian's. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.. 449. Oh. The substance of his lamentation was.

Notice this. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²B. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. PARTICIPLES. one summer afternoon. if this were expanded into a verb. the sound of their balls." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. he assured me that nothing was more easy.Exercise. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. and that he himself had heard. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. with his crew of the Half-moon. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. FRANKLIN. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. 450. my first observation will be found nearly true. VERBALS. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²ID. Careless use of the participial phrase. in the sentences first quoted.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. handed down from his ancestor the historian.²ADDISON. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. like distant peals of thunder. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected.²GOLDSMITH. the first discoverer of the river and country. . Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. The trouble is.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact.

my first collection was.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. 451. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. There are.. Standard writers often use it. either "As I was pleased. if a strike is to succeed." etc.. universal assertion. avoid it.²LAUGHLIN. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . then.²SCOTT. It is a solemn. Exercise. 3. This is the more common arrangement... 2.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. In the following citations..²RUSKIN. Adverb between to and the infinitive. INFINITIVES. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. purposely or not. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject.² HERBERT SPENCER. For example. . The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.Correction. many things to be carefully considered. and often. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. leaving the principal statement as it is. while defended or excused by others. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible." Exercise. . the first sentence would be.²ID.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.

etc.² ADDISON. is to be very cautiously admitted.. ADVERBS. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. this kind of grandeur. 11. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²ID. are used. The rigid rule in such a case would be.²The Nation. when such adverbs as only. even. A little sketch of his. even.²RUSKIN. if they modify single words. etc.²DR. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 1533.²BURKE. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. Now. 5. In works of art. 9. which consists in multitude. 7. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. but it is placed before the infinitive..²GOLDSMITH. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 10. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. but they are often removed from the exact position. No." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. The spirits. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. but cannot misunderstand the thought.² MACAULAY. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. BLAIR.²TROLLOPE. china. 13. 8. 6. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . I wish the reader to clearly understand. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Exercise. Position of only. therefore. 12.²SCOTT. and earthenware. from Irving. 452. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. etc. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned.4.

15.²MRS.²N.² THACKERAY. ²ASCHAM. 16.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. His last journey to Cannes. might not marry. No sonne. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.²HIGGINSON. During the whole course of his administration. GROTE. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 453. In relating these and the following laws. for example. 13. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 12.1. were he never so old of yeares.²EMERSON. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 4.²ID. WILLIS. 14. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²SWIFT. In Old and Middle English. 10. 8.²ID. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 7.²PALGRAVE. 3. He shouted in those clear. He could only afford to keep one old horse. Irving could only live very modestly. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²ID.²THACKERAY.²MOTLEY. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 11.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 6. 17.²SYDNEY SMITH. . whence he was never destined to return.²MACAULAY. 5. to avoid a crowd. My master. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²RUSKIN. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 9. P. The old usage.²COOPER. 2.²CHAUCER. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.

This. In the latter case. However. But. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.²HAWTHORNE. if two negatives are found together. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. nor the grandeur of no king. the usual way of regarding the question now is. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. however. 4. uncommon. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. 5. STOWE. STOWE. 6. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.²LOWELL. under the influence of Latin syntax. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. denying each other. 7. I did not act so hastily. as infrequent. when one of the negatives is a connective."²MRS.²MRS. In the execution of this task. nor never shall. Exceptional use. and why:² 1."²four negatives. as. one of the negatives is often a prefix. neither.²HOLMES. Exercise. but ought not to labor after it.²GROTE. etc.²BURKE.² HAMILTON. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²DE QUINCEY. Regular law of negative in modern English. Therefore. Not only could man not acquire such information. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. 3. There weren't no pies to equal hers.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. The prosperity of no empire. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. ²PAGE. . that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. is not common. can so agreeably affect.²BAYNE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. who hadn't been to school for nothing. 2. I never did see him again.²DEFOE. and is still kept in vulgar English. in Ole Virginia.

A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives." said the King. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.." both of the above requirements are violated. and an equivalent pronoun by the other..²PRESCOTT.²LOWELL. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder... This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.." may be changed to "This loose . nor is often changed to not²either . "well worthy to confer honor. not only to the success of their common cause.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it."²SCOTT.²SCOTT. as the use of the conjunction. not only . Choice and proper position of correlatives. and. nor. The sentence.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. should be scrutinized. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. the first should also. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. not merely . Correction... especially both . but.." .. as well as of the pronoun.. and which. And who.. but to their own safety. if the last precedes a verb.8. even neither .. either .. or.. neither . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. there we were. or with advantage. In the sentence.. 454. or to reply to it. The sentences given in Secs. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . not or is the proper correlative of neither.. or. 455. or to reply to it. the first ought to be placed before a verb. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. "A weapon. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind." Besides neither . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. CONJUNCTIONS. but (also).. either. Things to be watched.. if the second precedes a phrase.. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.

Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. murder. 7. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. In the following sentences.Exercise. as. O. Some exceptions. 3. They will. not merely interest children. or the negative relative but. but they will outrage. substitute that.²THACKERAY." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. or but that for the words but what:² 1. nor the disgrace of assailing him. and chop up their own kin. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to.²GIBBON. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. or but that. as. 5. 2. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son.²RUSKIN. Exercise. Now. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 6.² ADDISON.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.²MACAULAY. too. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. but. 456. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Try and for try to. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. Try and avoid the pronoun. 8. JEWETT.²S.²FRANKLIN. but grown-up persons.²ID. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. and I don't know but what he was right.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. 457. .²GOLDSMITH. 4.²BAIN.²THACKERAY. But what. etc. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. but. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.

²EMERSON. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.²SCOTT. Between is used most often with two things only. see Sec. 313. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.²TROLLOPE. 3. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. as already seen in Sec. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 5.² SWIFT. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.2. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.²ADDISON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. 4. PREPOSITIONS. Between and among. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 458. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 6. . several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 459. 305. no separation or division by twos being implied.² BULWER.²ADDISON. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²BURKE.²EMERSON.

Two groups or one and a group. correspond. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. List I. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. as. ²EMERSON. Abhorrent to. and another to convey a different meaning. Such are absolve. etc. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. or one object and a group.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. LIST I. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Such are derogatory. Averse to. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. a soldier of the Cross. Bestow on (upon). Derogatory to. Paley. Acquit of. Comply with. Kant. different. by custom. Affinity between. confer.²RUSKIN What have I. involve. Accord with. and Stewart. and philosophers like Locke. Conform to. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. 461.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Dissent from. Dependent on (upon). to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT.: Words with particular prepositions. Different from. as. Mackintosh.²KINGSLEY. 460. . averse. Conversant with.²between philosophers like Spinoza. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Some of them have. and Coleridge.

Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). as meaning to be in keeping with. Change to (become). etc. as. as. 462. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Confer on (upon) (give to). Involve in. in the sense of making friends with.y y y Deprive of." List III.). A taste of (food). Confide to (intrust to). 463. Correspond with (write to). "The king is reconciled to his minister. Differ from (note below). as. Confide in (trust in)." also of persons. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Agree to (a proposal).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Differ with (note below). Independent of. Change for (a thing). Change with (a person). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. but it is not good usage. LIST III. LIST II. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Reconcile to (note below). A taste for (art. Reconcile with (note below).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. and sometimes creeps into standard books. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. . Confer with (talk with). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Correspond to (a thing). List II.

and ill treatment. they shall die by this hand." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. instrument). I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. Who.²MACAULAY." (in behalf of). Expect of. People do not die of trifling little colds. It is a man of quality who dies for her.y y y Die by. "Die for. If I meet with any of 'em.²FIELDING. ²THACKERAY. expect from. Illustrations of "die of. die from. died for love of the fair Marcella.:² "Die of. part with.²GOLDSMITH. ²ATHENÆUM. . "Die with.²G." She would have been ready to die with shame. ELIOT. "Die for.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²SHAKESPEARE. One of them said he would die for her. I am positively dying with hunger. She died of hard work. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²GOLDSMITH. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. die with. Take thought and die for Cæsar. ELIOT. simply from old age." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²BULWER.²MACAULAY.²BOSWELL.²POPE. No one died from want at Longfeld.²SCOTT. "Die by. "Die from.²G." (because of). as Cervantes informs us.²MACAULAY. privation. Part from." (material cause." "die from. die of. It would take me long to die of hunger." etc. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. He died at last without disease.²BURNETT.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. die for.²ADDISON.

Of Doctor P. as my friend.²MARRYAT. With words implying behavior or disposition.²TROLLOPE. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²WALLER. It was a little bad of you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²MACAULAY.²G. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. .²G.²SHAW.²BULWER.²WALPOLE. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. "Expect from. Illustrations of "expect of.²G. either of or in is used indifferently. 465. That is more than I expected of you. nothing better was to be expected." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. ELIOT. Illustrations of "part with.²MACAULAY." "expect from:"² "Expect of. "Part from. 466. I can part with my children for their good.²POE.²AUSTEN. kind of you. I have just seen her. His precious bag.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. 464." "part from:"² "Part with. just parted from her. Kind in you. Cleveland was sorry to part with him." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. I part with all that grew so near my heart. ELIOT. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²DICKENS. ELIOT.²SCOTT. which he would by no means part from." She will expect more attention from you.²BULWER. and hated to part with them. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general." To part from you would be misery.

He did not think it handsome of you. 6. Hampden.²TENNYSON. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 13. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. nor yellow. nor green. with seraphims.²BULWER. raging storms.²DICKENS. thrown it over Amyas's head. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 10. Thou tread'st. the vast abyss. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 7. 14. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. In the friction between an employer and workman.²BEACONSFIELD. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. thunder. 3. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. But this is idle of you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 15. That is very unreasonable in a person so young.²CARLYLE. nor of a pale red. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 9. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. and ran up the alley. 4. tedious perhaps. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. 5. but which the story renders necessary. 1. or which we are most imperatively required to do. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. The noise of vast cataracts. 11. In. . Very natural in Mr. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²BULWER. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. This narrative. nor blue. 8. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. or artillery. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind.

Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. and other angular figures. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 411. 36. 28. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 37. 35. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 24. and most of us do know. or how beautiful it is. 29. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 23. triangles. and almost as good as a pony. Friday. .And were I anything but what I am. save Amyas. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. That night every man of the boat's crew. 25. 26. but in the price paid to them. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. what is a just and unjust act. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. produce approbation. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 33. But every man may know. You have seen Cassio and she together. 31. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. Squares. 22. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 17.I would wish me only he. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them.) 34. 20. 16. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. (Sec. 18. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 30. 19. you or me. were down with raging fever. 32. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 27. 21. the acquiescence of the understanding. 38. When the glass or liquor are transparent. The effect of proportion and fitness. Every one of these letters are in my name.

FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. as. 25. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 98. 91. 239. numeral. 116. 90. He had four children. . and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 47. 47. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 119. of. as comparison definition demonstrative. 133. pronouns. (2) Middle English. adverbs used complements.000 between them. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 260. 92. of. 20. adjectives. Adjectives.39. from about 1500 to the present time. 107. of. 102. INDEX. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. nominative. 40. (3) Modern English. 310. origin of. Abstract with Active Address. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 89. 124. nouns. article. from nominative clauses. of. voice. 124. of. syntax uses Absolute. A. demonstrative.

184. nouns. and 185. Agreement. quantity. 190. adjectives. of. 148. 190. 195. objective. 103. 207. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 116. 325. to used of. conjunctions. 316. predicate. plural pronominal. form as as they to in as uses uses of. parse.from function how in not of of ordinal. 262. of. 27. 194. sentence. 239. 194. 302. compared. adjectives. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 114. . of. of. as nouns. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 303. 104. parse. 101. 325. 242. antecedent. 115. antecedent. 207. 116. 303. 99. 97. with with with subject. clauses. 191. from to of. modify. 287. 106. 183. 27. 328. of. quality. 109. 48. of. 291. 42. 323. 275. Alms. of. between of. infinitive. Against. 187. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. adjectives. nouns. conjunction.

67. of. of. in in. 124. which. 208. 287. Agreement. of. 74. same. 49. 309. 271. 264. sentences. 148. 84. 79. definition of of of Any. derivation in definite.Among. Auxiliary if. Arrangement Articles. 295. sentences. 101. syntax As. words between. 240. which. 67. of of of And Antecedent. of. 225. which. See with definition complex compound simple who. it. 120. 120. 51. syntax. 252. possessive. Are. though. An. 300. and. uses As At. of. 296. of and pronoun of. . 331. 47. 90. See 74. agreement personal as pronoun. definition how indefinite. after of. to of. adjective. parse. 275. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. A. Anacoluthon Analysis. pronouns. sentences. 150. 294. 207. 231. as uses verbs. 198. 127.

syntax of. of nouns. But. 224. of nouns. of. Can. Clause. 66. 260. . Children. uses nominative of. 195. number of. Cause. nominative. 278. 279. 262. 54. 110. Bridegroom. double possessive. forms. uses of. possessive. 39. of. adverb. Brethren. best. 150. plurals of. 62. 47. clauses of. 194. of pronouns. adjective. with But By. 111. See of. 49. Among. conjunctions Cherub. Case. 161. 279. 45. Between. of pronouns. of pronouns.Bad. of nouns. 283. Be. in Old and Modern English. 262. 278. of what. of nouns. 149. 63. 330. of. 110. uses Better. 46. objective. of pronouns. 84. pronoun. 64. 39. 37. definition could. comparison conjugation of. Case. 46. 210. 48.

nouns. 271. Clomb. 248. of. of. of. 53. 18. 244. and forms of. 18. 24. 111. 43. definition degrees irregular. 263. nouns. of. clothes. subject. 315. Cleave. predicate. English. adjectives. 264. verb. in analysis. 158. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. sentence. 257. 307. proper. and sentence. 113. . 312. 189. 268. 257. 257.definition kinds noun. plural of. 108. 23. adverbs. analysis of. 307. infinitive. 305. of. of. 157. 258. superlative. 12. double. defective. material. 107. nouns. 110. 43. of. Cloths. 108. predicate of and from from of. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 239. of.

definition how subordinate. verbs. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. conjunctions. 255. 328. 289. definition be. same words. adverbs. replaced by objective. 199. analysis. sentences. 138. Dative Declarative Declension of case. of of Conjunctions. conjunctions. of. 143. Agreement. 151.with Concord. coördinate. pronoun. See English. 195. correlative. sentence. 231. . and clause. in Old vs. pronouns. 193. 269. 207. to of. Conjunctions. See analysis clauses. other other parts of speech. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 194. parse. 73. pronoun. Can. 149. 66. interrogative pronouns. 195. 196. 188. See in subjunctive. 139. sentences. of. conjunction. 194. subjunctive. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 194. 263. 149.

333. Articles. 43. 303. 90. possessive. vs. 300. 99. 288. Case. of. article. 80. with. verb. adverbs See adjectives. 51. of. pronouns. for. Comparative. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 35. Subordinate clause. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 185. 242. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 320. pronouns. tenses. passive adjectives. nouns. 26.Declension. See See 48. pronouns. comparative. from. 242. See 148. of. Comparison. See adjectives. 60. Degrees. 102. 91. use of dies. 152. of personal relative verbs. 160. . discourse. by. indirect. nouns. clause. 315. 287. pronouns. object. with of. duck. of. 102.

possessive suffix. Each. 40. 240. plural. object. 62. adjective. pronoun. 299. 241. feminine plural English. 158. of. error in sentence. 112. 32. other. 287. one ( t). Elements Ellipsis. 51. suffix. -En. Either. 287. vulgar. added suffix. 102. literary. pronoun. of. 33. pronouns. predicate. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 92. adjective. 34. Empress. 194. 328. 300. in 'Em.Drank. the of sentence. of. 257. ending. of subject. 90. of. 92. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 280. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. older. 92. . another. 39. complement. of. 158. spoken. 234. conjunction. 255. 42. 12. 90. drunk. 33. of. 110. original. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. to suffix. 38.

235. 30. as a noun. the. other languages. 30. 287. 319. 238. 103. From.. of. expect gone. with infinitive. first." 31. 308. 29. uses redundant. 147. 102. two a further. First. as of from compared marking. 212.Every. First Fish. 91. used of. For. Few. 110. etc. 211. uses Foreign Former. 32. of.. Feminine. gender. 102. to of. 48. 112. etc. adjective. pronoun. Farther. 43. 36. of. 212. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. definition distinguished in English. 112. See Gander. modes "common goose. few. 189. fishes. 334. plurals. two. Further. . 126. perfect. nouns. have adjective. Future Future tense. 45. 152. Gender. 148. 152. 30. with in sex. object. from.

60. pronouns. an better. 177. 35. 12. 176. 275. 80. 36. person. rather. 61. and case verbal with. on. Had Hanged. 145. I. first sentence. He. kinds of. it. 159. she. 175. pronoun. of. 159. 173. 10. Government. 12. Grammar. 13. distinguished syntax. personal relative geniuses. for before. its. of. adjective. possessive pronouns. Gerund. Got. noun.of of Genii. from participle of. 60. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 285. of. His Husband. 120. definition basis of. 144. 61. 101. of. 9. forms in Girl. 231. . 43. participle. definition divisions opinions province H. had hung.

a object. 233. with of. See Articles. questions. 276. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. your. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. words. 245. sentence. elements. 178. Direct object. 73. verbs. 257. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 323. of clause. 231. 110. 105. 153. . summary See passive mood. in compared syntax. of. 319. 176. indirect of. 248. adjectives. adjectives. indices. 136. 67. pronouns. of. 85. 131.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 72. Questions. See you. transitive. questions. 131. 43. mood. use article. of. 283. pronoun. uses discourse. 227. of. 320. meaning. adverbs. 188. 93.

Logic Logical Lord. 281. and See words in. Kind. King. of. 12. these double kind. 113. pronoun. 126.adverbs. 113. plural. lord. Like. 102. 227. lie. Kine. in little. English. 226. syntax. Lady. 110. 36. Lie. 61. . 110. Latter. of. 36. Lay. -Ly. 276. uses Literary Little. 91. predicate. 303. See Madam. 245. 39. Lay. 170. subject form.. "It Its. 189. was uses me. latest. a vs. queen. 36. of." history etc. 190. syntax the. Less. 63. Lady. Last. adjective.. etc. 67. It. lesser. of.

137. -Most. May. of. 126. 137-144. adjective. 325. See definition 136. indicative. mine. 110. of. 36. 135. 189. 102.. conjunctions Many. nigh. etc. 110. 188. double. position adverb. Master. Means. 328. Enlargement. 256. Much. mistress. 64. 112. 161. Negative. 265. of. 41. might. 287. 185. 160. Mood. syntax conjunction. Neither. sentences. imperative. of. of. 114. 189. Modifier. of. 195. 34. 110. in adverbs comparison a. subjunctive. 194. Mighty Mine. Must. superlatives. Modifiers. out of. . 326. 187. 112. syntax nearer. Many Mapping Mare. 113. construction as of adverb.Manner. 144. of. comparison Near. 112. of.

become become formation case collective. become neuter. See 194. clause. 258. Not Noun Nouns. nouns. of. 30. 17 19. 17. 46. to of.pronoun. 25. material. gender how kinds material. 30. etc. 25. 246. 41. to use. 125. Case. parse. foreign. and figures. nouns. 300. gender nouns. 29. . of. 27. Nor. common. No Nominative. 20. formed. 126. 38. in. abstract. definition according of. analysis. 26. 328. 30. 21. kinds 90. 18. class used singular. 42. 92. 124. of. 45. used as. definition descriptive. 41. of. 301. half abstract. 56. of. 46. of of of of of a. abstract. letters as 24. etc. words how compound. of. 41 43. number once other plural. 38-41. of. syntax Neuter or two News. 32. 17. 19. None. now plural. proper. syntax in gender nouns.

48. 235.of same two with proper. plural form. 42. 23. Nouns. form. of. 42. personal. indirect. English. nominative. of. 48. adjectives. 121. 278. 48. 124. singular. and analysis. in article. singular. plural. 240. 279. preposition. See verb. etc. 42 44. definite. 148. 18. meanings. meaning. passive adverbial. 285. common. 195. Preposition. 41. 278. adverbial. 48. plural no two singular construction. conjunction. article. verbs. spoken of instead nouns. 48. as forms titles. . 60. 41. dative. 92. 66.. adjectives. Numeral Object. 101. 242. with with with Now Number. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. pronouns. 101. become syntax use with with with Nouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. in nouns. 43. pronouns. 102. 41. or plural. 106. 39. 242. of. of. 282. with case. of. of. of different possessive definite of. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 196. indefinite. 281.

115. adjective. 103. Ordinal Other Ought. adverb. as other. Elder. 233. definite relative uses of. 161. 117. 91. 64. ours. of. Our. for. 103. 69. 56. as of. a in adjectives. One. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Each adjective. 38. position Order. conjunction. Parsing. 306. . of syntax. with (the). Ourself. 325 275.syntax Of. articles. See the as of. 93 other. of. 293. Omission On. 87. inverted. of upon. 279. Oxen. another. part analysis. pronoun. adverbs. 191. 127. 116. 213. uses numeral pronoun. 94. 194. 216. of. of of of of of models adjectives. Older. 199. 101. 56. See pronoun. 237. Pains. 41. nouns. conjunctions. treatment comparatives.

174. verbs. 63. 28. 172. . 317. and subject in. 59. nominative. of. of. 287. agreement of verb nouns. 56. pease. relatives. absolute with of. not is. article 150. 177. pronouns. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 148. 181. speech. 172. 281. with. 134. used as voice.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. included various. antecedent. 59. 70. phrase. 247. of. in. 62. verbals. verb idioms it from. 69. of. 61. 322. 80. pennies. from definition other of. of. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 95. of. 173. phrases. reflexive. them. 100. -ing words. 119. or of. 180. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 43. 43. 62. 179. of. 219. pronoun. verbs. 27. possessive and of. parsed. 56. part adjective. 335. pronouns. Person. Pence. predicate use of. 59. 64.

53. adverbs of. nouns. Personification. vs. 67. complete. Positive Possessive. omitted. 278. participial. 61. 51. spoken of. of nouns. of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. prepositional. 236. 281. pronouns. 49. pronoun. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 285. nouns. of. or See of of See 185. 247. Nouns. objects. 278. in of.objective syntax table triple uses of. it. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 248. 241. 232. 63. See 60. 281. 303. 235. conjunctions prepositions Plural. singular degree. 245. relative. kinds infinitive. 54. 303. 50. Comparison. of. Place. of. plural. 236. as double. . 's. 53. Personal subjective. nouns. 206. 25. of Phrase. double. of. antecedent of of pronouns. 41. English. 64. of. noun nouns. 106. 52. simple. singular. of. pronoun. 188. appositional. 37. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. adjectives. of. 247. 195. 245. syntax of of Politics. 60.

332. 300. 105. 284. future. by parts of of. case. exclamatory. case. in exclamations. 299. 282. 279. 300. by with shown certain of. of. objective. singular usually other. of. and one with else's. 203. of. and form form form form of.Prefixes. plural. 32. 208. 205. 147. words. plural. as 54. 104. 203. 281. parse. 219. 95. of. Prepositions. each either. 59. . 89. 105. 283. 302. of. 287. interrogative. 283. what. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 195. same used as adjectives. 331. after but. 280. forms of. 64. speech. interrogative. expressed as other of. any. 285. 202. 187. all. parse. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. who personal. as antecedent of relative. possessive nominative to of. somebody definition how indefinite. 58. by. 186. another. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. Pronouns. as. verbs. with tense certain. 132. 58. 93. 206. usually to as than. adverb. of. 301. plural. neither. none. 303. meaning. objective. 129. adjective. 333. 72. for predicate nominative. of. 207.

pronoun. 101. 296. 289. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. that. 293. Direct same and different. 289. with with gerund. 87. 286. which after same. same antecedent. personal pronoun. 297. 188. agreement anacoluthon and as. in. which. from and interrogative. of. in. of. 105. or of. who. Quantity. 85. 74. discourse. 87. conjunctions Quality. adverbs in. and antecedent.possessive relative. 195. 99. pronouns. 69. Questions. to of. of. use in as. 291. of. 68. questions. and relatives. nouns. 293. and which. 84. See of. . in. 74. indirect compound. 85. 263. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. pronominal pronouns indirect. 279. of. of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 58. 189. unrestrictive. with who. 74. Rank. 83. parse. use of history formed. Rather. indirect. Quotations. 80. 142. Nouns. 295. 295. of. of. 69. of.

who. gender. of. Shot. 195. S. See Sentences. 170. 231. 51. would. 263. which. in form. Self Sentences. 196. Same Sat. of. 69. pronoun. 252. conjunctions Retained Riches. 'S. sentence. 242. complex. 43. 26 271. clauses of. simple of. will. of. suffix. 42. 159. 319. simple. effect. 29. 162. 74. in of. Simple in sate. of sit. 259.syntax use Result. elliptical. kinds Sequence Set. that. 294. 196. of. Sex Shall. of of of complex Sentences. definition . 159. 255. conjunction. 231. Shear. and should. 289. 40. tenses. plural possessive as. Seeing. ending. forms shots. object. reflexive analysis of compound.

to of. 138.. 257. 169. of. 32. Split Spoken -Ster. used mood. of. -es. 240. Subject. 245. English. of. definition 67. sort. 257. 245.Singular Sir. of. in Middle English. vs. 126. 137. English. definition how kinds noun. verbs. 233. these number. -en. 270. See -En. 38. names as a. Somebody Sort. 38. 258. 260. etc. literary clause. 144. 33. 257. as. other Such Such Suffix -s. of. 257. 12. distinguish. English. 144. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. disuse in spoken complete. of. 237. 323. English. 36. 303. 258. 303. 186. for. 258. . in feminine suffix. Spelling Spinster. of. adverb. 262. Modern use becoming else's. logical. adverb. phonetic in infinitive. 33.

of. 186. 280. omission whom. me. 307. 123. as history The. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. See etc. Kind. subject. 116. 319. plural as adverb. adjectives. 189. meaning. as adverbs.. 275. classical of. of. 147. coördinating. 289. 107. 152.Suffixes. 186. 191. 61. 106. in double. 306. 306. adverbs. ." introductory. of. that uses That. in comparison. 109. 290. 106. 108. 87. 147. 147. and and of. as history syntax Their. of languages. article. not suggesting adjectives. English. of. of. of . Then. objects. in Modern number sequence table Than That. "the then foreign.. 309. There These kind. 275. this. of. Tenses. English. 33. form. they. 222. two basis not same definition definite. 297. 277. auxiliaries. 120. meaning made up in Old of. restrictive. of. definition in English Tense. degree. when relative. object. 119. 148. 88. than of. which. syntax of.. king. when as of. of.

carelessly uses syntax this. Time. 114. 119. feminine and. tother. uses history of. 207. of. of. 248. first adjective. 61. 217. -Trix. 247. 173. of. etc. 176. used. of. preposition. 322.These. phrases. of. 114. words. 323. 20. verbs. 172. parse. 322. 172. thee. 181. from cleft to 174. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. try two. 175. to. first. Upper. . 330. Upon. thy. gerund. See That. exclamations. See On. certain as the before with of. 308. in of. 185. 175. how infinitive. 21. uses of. Try Two Under. 180. infinitive. of.. 114. adverbs those. Thou. 188. 33. in omitted uses T'other. kinds participle. other noun. conjunctions prepositions To. infinitive. 175. -ing 111. Utter. 128. of. uttermost. analysis. suffix. 195.

Vixen. weak. with subject in number. becoming irregular. . conjugation of. table of.Verbs. verbs by. 149. of English. 12. sequence of. 223. verbs. of incomplete predication. 129. in person. 154. What. in indirect discourse. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 242. strong. 133. change. 148. table of irregular. auxiliary. 245. 330. 39. intransitive. 157. syntax of. active meaning. 130. 169. definition of. phonetic. 133. 160. agreement of. transitive and intransitive. but uses what. spelling of. analysis. defective. 155. voice of. tense of. 135. active. regular. 33. 320. remarks on certain. 236. how to parse. definition of. 148. Vocative in Voice. 151. 154. 169. 179. retained object with passive. 154. 317. 159. past tense formed nominative. of. definition of. 131. person and number of. 147. mood of. 312-316. of. 134. 312. 167. passive form. 319. passive. formed by. 167. 150. made transitive. 47.

. in -ly. 75. Words in Worse. interrogative Which. 126. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 85. 77. 73. 296. 72. plural of in nouns -ing. questions. Woman. pronoun. 75. 178. 40. 295-299. 246. Whether. 111. English. direct of. a. 32. relative indirect relative. relative. wizard. Y. 85. Will. With. of. 299. Who. etc. 79. questions. . Witch. would. 194. 104. Wife. Yes ending analysis. 37.what Whereby. 36. in. 36. in in indefinite objective. referring syntax Widower. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 78. 105. pronoun. conjunction. 85. 105. uses See Shall. 190. 72. 72. spoken in of. antecedent adjective. questions. questions. whereto. 83. 83. relative. of. animals. worser. 218.

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