roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. as. . lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. there is still much for the grammarian to do. Authority as a basis. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. then." What grammar is. Making rules is risky.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. but this is bad English now. The work it will cover. however. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. Coming back." and "Syntax. is worthy of serious study. rightly considered. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. it will at the same time. If. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. so that a small grammar will hold them all. with its enormous vocabulary." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. as compared with Latin or Greek. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Literary English. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). This will take in the usual divisions. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Few inflections. It is also evident. Surely our noble language. from the question. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. Mental training. its peculiar and abundant idioms. to those who have studied the language historically. and their uses and relations in the sentence. and thus incite his observation. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. if rightly presented. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). An æsthetic benefit. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. A broader view. "Analysis. assist the classification of kindred expressions.The province of English grammar is. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. their forms.

The following pages will cover. the words sons and master name objects. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. which belongs to a people. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. NOUNS. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Occasionally. then. The Parts of Speech. but.²GIBBON. the nation is free. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. by which is meant the free. Spoken English.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. The Uses of Words. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. The plainest name is Arabs. Part III. not objects. Part II.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. three divisions:² Part I. Vulgar English. The words state.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. 1. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Such words are called nouns. . submission. Analysis of Sentences. or standard. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. that is. too. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. and the word nation stands for a whole group. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. reference will be made to vulgar English. and may belong to any of those objects. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. PART I. and will are evidently names of a different kind. from the eighteenth century on. as they stand for ideas. or Syntax. and Inflections. besides this one.

Definition. Classes of nouns. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. the man here. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. For instance. because each group is considered as a unit. They properly belong under common nouns. however. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. animals. or idea. or things. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. Abstract. etc. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. A noun is a name word. men in groups may be called a crowd. (b) Common. the name of each is an individual or proper name. . MATERIAL. animals. 3. 5. possessed by all. Common. Name for any individual of a class. or a congress. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. Name for a group or collection of objects. Collective. or a mob. ATTRIBUTE. we may think of them in groups. reducing it to a narrow application. representing directly to the mind an object. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. or the man in front of you. (a) 4. and things separately. is from a Latin word which means general. as here used. substance. whether person. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. but Chicago names one city. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. place. and appropriate names to the groups. Thus. or thing. Individual. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. This does not imply. belonging to one. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. a committee. We may say. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Proper. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Thus. or a council. Besides considering persons. 2. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object.

6. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. paint. etc. 7. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. It may. not things. "Painting is a fine art. or that which shows a thing has been proved. such as sun. etc.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. but it is taken merely as a name. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS." 9. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). expressing attributes or qualities. sand. The quality is still there as much as before. we may say. wheat. rice. Words naturally of limited application not proper. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. however. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. there is no such intention. conditions. dew. rock. etc. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. mist. moon. sugar. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. . potash. etc. earth. proof means the act of proving. (3) Geological bodies: mud. . and so on. snow. stone. world. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. clay. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance.²There are some nouns. etc. wine. celluloid. but in the words sun." "Learning is hard to acquire. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. They remain common class names. etc. frost. Names of ideas. platinum. expressing state. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. instead of to each individual or separate object. or apart from their natural connection. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. When we speak of a wise man. considered abstractly. cloud. Again. rubber." "a man of understanding. NOTE. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. or action. or actions. iron. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. granite. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. condition. soap. sugar. we speak of the wisdom of the man.. but which are not called proper names. The reason is. wheat. rain. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. Such are glass. as in calling a city Cincinnati. gold. earth. tea. and fasten a special name to the object considered. frost.

They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. They are only the husks of verbs. The verb. the moon caused fearful forebodings. the main bearings of this matter. as glad²joy. hope. hopeful²hope. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. but are merely names of actions. Caution. etc. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. height from high. the great Puritan awakening. five abstract. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. and they cannot express action. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. the teachings of the High Spirit. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. joy. etc. shadow. 273). childhood from child. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. by altering its function. summer. the well-being of her subjects. in the beginning of his life. mastery from master. Such are beauty. a wedding or a festival. as in the expressions. her longing for their favor. 12. They cannot govern a word. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. etc.. . etc. Underived abstract nouns. thunder. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. theft from thieve.Attribute abstract nouns." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. there is time for such reasonings. Thus. the rude drawings of the book. energy. (1) prudence from prudent. To avoid difficulty. is used as a noun. redness from red. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. service from serve. 272. kingship from king. (2) peerage from peer. winter.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. II. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. Verbal abstract nouns. day. those opinions and feelings. action from act. night. 10. lightning." "a brisk walk. five proper. as their name implies. stupidity from stupid. NOTE. he spread his blessings over the land. Exercises. 1. ease. "a long run" "a bold move. speech from speak.

typhus. pleurisy. algebra. catarrh. as physics. (b) branches of knowledge. geology.2. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . diphtheria. mathematics? 3. Using a dictionary. as pneumonia. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases.

We know a number of objects made of iron. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Guillotin. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. but we may say. currants. arras. a Hutton. Material nouns may be used as class names.²EMERSON. levant and morocco (leather). from Corinth. from the name of Dr. it imposes its classification on other men. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. the word port. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. who was its inventor. etc. 15. from Damascus. 13. from China. thus. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. from Calicut. or to go over to it entirely. a Bentham. from Oporto. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. "The cook made the irons hot. Nouns change by use. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. from a town in France. damask. the guillotine. Proper names transferred to common use. 119).y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. port (wine). For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. in Portugal. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities." referring to flat- . for example. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. a Lavoisier. Others of similar character are calico. Sodom was famous for wickedness. and lo! a new system. 14.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. above. a Fourier. but most of them are in the following groups. a Locke. as a davy.

²CARLYLE. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.²BYRON. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. From all around²Earth and her waters. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. For example.In lightnings owned his secret stings. etc. Next Anger rushed. 16. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. slates. that the power of art is founded on fact. that disposition is the thing to be created. but differ in strength. A halfway class of words. papers. The words preceded by the article a. though not confined to verse. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Class nouns in use. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. smiled. Personification of abstract ideas.²PERCIVAL. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. 17. This is a poetic usage. which are made plural. are still names of abstract ideas. tobaccos.irons.²COLLINS. etc. and only Vice and Misery. mists. are abroad. (3) By poetical use. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. a rubber for erasing marks. a steel to whet a knife on. Test this in the following sentences:² . as stones. clays. not material things. Death.²BRYANT. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. candies. tins. or the arts and sciences. but on dispositions which require to be created. paints. on fire. or made plural. They are not then pure abstract nouns. purity. These are the same in material. or. coals. nor are they common class nouns.²RUSKIN. to prowl or to moan like night birds. and say teas. Traffic has lain down to rest. clouds. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. be spoken of. the abstract idea is partly lost. that is. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. oils.²HAYNE. abstract in meaning. his eyes. or used as class nouns. but in case an art or a science. When it is said that art differs from science. and so on.

were mere terrors of the night. Every why hath a wherefore. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning.²EMERSON. as descriptive adjectives are. Adverbs. Adjectives. Nouns used as descriptive terms. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow." "the State Bank Tax bill. however.Let us.²SHAKESPEARE." which contains a pure adjective. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. if we must have great actions. When I was young? Ah.²SHAKESPEARE.² GOLDSMITH. or describe it. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. loves. Then comes the "Why. sir!" and the "What then. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. And still.²IRVING. which belongs to another word.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. or from any expression. make our own so. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. They are more like the possessive noun. nouns used to modify. as each repeated pleasure tired. a bill as to tax on the banks. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. But ah! those pleasures. NOTE. sir!"²MACAULAY ." "a morning walk. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. a bank in New York. All these. but is still a noun. fear thy blow. Conjunctions. 19. they cannot be compared. the wealthy. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS.²BURNS. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.The Solitary can despise.² BURNS. meaning a walk in the morning. for example. etc. By ellipses." "a New York bank. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. 18. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. sir?" and the "No. they do not express quality. "a family quarrel. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns.

²Dr BLAIR In this definition. In the other sentences.Nor iron bars a cage. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. 20.²These remarks do not apply. Now. too. or a state secret. When. There are many of these. are spoken of as if pure nouns. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. It is to be remembered. to such words as become pure nouns by use. however. the wealthy. The it. in a sentence above. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. 5. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. without reference to its function in the sentence." or "legal. that cobweb of the brain. of course." and another of Dr. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. Learning. at the beginning. . also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. why and wherefore. 4. is the word "just. is ambiguous. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. or a faithful domestic. 8. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. are used. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Exercise.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. FRANKLIN. Caution. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Power laid his rod aside. of words rather than of their meaning. 2. 1. etc. the terms the great. 7. but as a figure of speech. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. and tell to which class each belongs. so. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. in speaking of the principal of a school.. 3. but have an adjectival meaning. NOTE. When.And Ceremony doff'd her pride."²B. and Then. Stone walls do not a prison make. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. 6. or a criminal.

for every dropHinders needle and thread. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 19. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. its bloom is shed. female. he cried. A fool speaks all his mind. 14. 10. 12. In Latin. 20. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. always feminine. 16. The fleet. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 24.9. A little weeping would ease my heart. What gender means in English. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. It is founded on sex.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. shattered and disabled. German. 22. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. the welcome. and names of females are usually feminine. 21. Greek. And see. 11. in English grammar.Fair guests. The hours glide by. . Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. There are exceptions even to this general statement. that waits you here. Male beings are. 18. always masculine.You seize the flower. returned to Spain. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. 17. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 15. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 21. but not so in English. the silver moon is gone. and many other languages. GENDER. 13. 23. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows.

in German.²LAMB. 24. Gunpowder . Gender nouns. Thus.²gender nouns. Of animals. but are spoken of as neuter. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. or which arouse his interest most. those with which man comes in contact often. corpus (body) is neuter. "A little child shall lead them. the name of it is masculine. The great difference is.²IRVING. or additions to words. inanimate things are spoken of. das Messer (knife) is neuter. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell.When. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. mensa (table) is feminine. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects.² IRVING. according to their use. those distinguishing the sex of the object. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.² I have seenA curious child . or names of things without life. in English. No "common gender. that is. with its gizzard under its wing. For instance: in Latin. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. hortus (garden) is masculine. and neuter nouns." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. 22. the word child is neuter in the sentence. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. the sex being of no consequence.. in other languages gender follows the form. are named by gender nouns.. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. the name of it is feminine. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals.²masculine and feminine.. He next stooped down to feel the pig. if there were any signs of life in it. . Neuter nouns. der Tisch (table) is masculine. that pattern of a husband. those which do not distinguish sex. if of the female sex." .. and consequently without sex. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. came to a stand just by the bridge. must be divided into two principal classes.. however. according to use. 23. then. All nouns. clapping his burnished wings.. Hence: Definition.

only to masculine and feminine nouns. Very few of class I. If such words as parent. Gender shown by Suffixes. Male nouns beings. ruler. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. II. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined.25. 26. Hence vixen is for fyxen. domestic. . (3) By using a different word for each gender. cousin. etc. Gender shown by Prefixes. These remain in vixen and spinster. Native suffixes. One feminine.. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. The inflections for gender belong. or the lack of it. 27. woman. but spinster has now no connection with it. relative. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. as he-goat²she-goat. though both words have lost their original meanings. from the masculine fox. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. I.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. they are neuter words. for from they said vram. 28. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. as in wine vat. servant. According to the definition. teacher. (2) By adding a suffix. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. he-bear²she-bear. puts a prefix before the masculine man.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. of course. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. is. 29. the division of words according to sex. Put in convenient form. and for the older word fat they said vat. For fox they said vox. generally to a masculine word. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes.

The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Unaltered and little used. as. it has none now in the words huckster. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. executrix. and are never used for words recognized as English. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. song-str-ess. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). donna. Slightly changed and widely used. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . punster. These are attached to foreign words. 30.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as seam-stress. trickster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. Low Latin issa). Ending of masculine not changed. gamester. as. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. -ess (French esse. the one most used. as czarina. but in most cases it has not.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. señorita.

In some of these pairs. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. as was said in the sixteenth century. editor. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. neighboresse. Some of them have an interesting history. or servauntesse. etc. 32. we use the feminine. Thus. teacher or lady teacher. others have in their origin the same root." III. as. wagoness. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . as. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. Instead of saying doctress. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. neighbor (masculine and feminine). the ending -ess. from the French -esse. 31. to represent persons of either sex. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. frendesse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century).²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. chairman. we use the masculine termination. Gender shown by Different Words. from Latin imperatricem. NOTE. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. We frequently use such words as author.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. fosteress. as in the fourteenth century. teacheresse.

but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). not immediately connected with witch. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. leaving our word drake. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe).). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. from Latin mea domina. gand-ra. Two masculines from feminines. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. among others) to be from the same root word.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Three letters of ened have fallen away. 33. 34. had the masculine mearh (horse). etc. finally gander. Madam is the French ma dame. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Widower.² . This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Danish gaas. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). probably meaning house dweller). The masculine was formed by adding -a. though both are ultimately from the same root. Witch is the Old English wicce. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). became identical. the old sign of the masculine. for example. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. or lauerd in Middle English. The older forms. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. but this has long been obsolete. widuwa²widuwe. Besides gander and drake. Personification. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Icelandic gás. as in many other words. in Old English mere. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Mare. written loverd. 16). lhauerd.

Clustered around by all her starry Fays. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. more than one. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. (3) By adding -s (or -es). NUMBER. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. whenever we adopt a new word. the engineer speaks so of his engine."²BYRON. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. 37.²singular and plural. shoon (shoes).No towers along the steep. in Old English. 38. and not by the form of the noun. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.²KEATS. together with the third. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. treen (trees). we make its plural by adding -s or -es. etc. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. This is not exclusively a poetic use. Effect of personification. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. But other words were inflected afterwards."Now. . Britannia needs no bulwarks. that is. (2) By changing the root vowel. 39. eyen (eyes). where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 35.²COLERIDGE.²CAMPBELL. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.Her home is on the deep. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. the plural. I. In nouns. for instance. The -en inflection. Definition. 36. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. Our language has two numbers. The first two methods prevailed.

pair. Children has passed through the same history. lens.²Over the mountains winding down. retain the same form for plural meaning. head. swine. Instead of -s. 40.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. originally neuter. and is still found in dialects. etc. Brethren has passed through three stages. into Frederick town. sail. salmon.² "God bless me! so then.Horse and foot. when they mean soldiery. ditch. borough²formerly had the same inflection. then brothre or brethre. after numerals (if not after numerals. they add -s): also trout. Akin to this class are some words. cannon. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Kine is another double plural."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English.²MACAULAY. The words horse and foot. as. dozen. brace. people. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. cross. as. Such are box.²WHITTIER. II. 42. after all. but has now no singular. Examples of this inflection are. by. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. and get settled.-En inflection imitated by other words. Lee marched over the mountain wall. but they now add the ending -s. finally brethren. 41. or if preceded by the prepositions in. sheep. that have the singular and plural alike. III. . turf.²THOREAU. The old plural was brothru. such as deer. etc. glass.² The foot are fourscore thousand. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. Other words following the same usage are. quartz. heathen. wight. etc.The horse are thousands ten. folk. The weakening of inflections led to this addition.

economics. Examples of these are. daisies. means and politics. It served simply as a means of sight. 43. So live. prize²prizes. physics. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . When such words take a plural ending. in its widest extent. fancies. Proper nouns are regularly singular. pains (care). The lilie on hir stalke grene.²BRYANT. and go over to other classes (Secs. means: as. etc. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. and some -es. however. negro²negroes. Two words. 15 and 17). mathematics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). house²houses. Words in -ies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. e.. though they are plural in form. summons. chaise²chaises. they lose their identity.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. Special Lists. as. some adding -s. quoth then that ladie milde. volcano² volcanoes. Formerly. is both the science and the art of government. Means plural.²PROF.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. hero²heroes. the Americas. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. also news. optics. niche²niches. fairies. politics. half²halves. DANA. Some words are usually singular. and the real ending is therefore -s. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o..g. e.² Politics. allies. these words ended in -ie. etc. 45. a new syllable is made. knife²knives. etc. 44.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. and many branches of learning. etc. shelf²shelves. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. though this sound combines readily with -s. the Washingtons. race²races.-Es added in certain cases. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form.g. molasses. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. that when thy summons comes.

²MOTLEY. if I recollect right. however.²GOLDSMITH. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²G. A relic which. With great dexterity these means were now applied. it is furnished with a forceps. .² MACAULAY.²BURKE. he pronounced to have been a tongs. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.Words. 46. Politics plural.²IRVING. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. W. Now I read all the politics that come out. By these means. L. I say. CURTIS. by those means which we have already mentioned. Some words have no corresponding singular. riches will accumulate. Sometimes.²GOLDSMITH.²J.²GOLDSMITH. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. LAUGHLIN. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. by strongly conveying the passions. Besides this.

Numbers also means issues. riches. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. of a periodical. dice (for gaming). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. making a double plural. (2) care. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). 49. or epistles. Three words were originally singular. One plural.). 48.. These make the last part plural. etc.The air. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. or work in a bellows?²PROF. as two sixpences. clothes (garments). the other unlike it. pence (collectively). pease (collectively). sixpence.²POPE. trouble.. faculties. pea²peas (separately).²was it subdued when. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. genius²geniuses (men of genius). Tell me not. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. shots (number of times fired). as in the lines. indices (signs in algebra). two meanings.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. ways. die²dies (stamps for coins. carry off chaff. In Early Modern English thank is found. in mournful numbers. .² I lisped in numbers. (2) literature. genii (spirits). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). Two classes of compound words. fish²fish (collectively).. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. (2) revenue duties.²LONGFELLOW. DANA. etc. for the numbers came. shot²shot (collective balls). brethren (of a society or church). two plurals. 50. fishes (individuals or kinds). or copies. (2) poetry. penny²pennies (separately). (2) abilities. eaves. In speaking of coins.²one corresponding to the singular. may add -s. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. part²parts: (1) divisions. index²indexes (to books). twopence. number²numbers: (1) figures.

the Drs. and then the three Miss Spinneys.²DR. or the name may be pluralized. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. . but add -s. though the latter is often found. firman. and Mrs.² Then came Mr. then Silas Peckham. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. as man singer. as the Messrs. 51.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Briggs. woman servant. Two methods in use for names with titles.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. HOLMES. Mussulman. woman singer. there is some disagreement among English writers. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Ottoman. Norman. As to plurals of names with titles. The title may be plural. Allen. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. manservant. 52. such as talisman. for example. German. Brahman. the Misses Rich. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. Brown.

FROM THE LATIN. or Anglicized. The Messrs. 53.²GIBBON.²DICKENS. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Others have been adopted. and retain their foreign plurals. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Du Maurier. Exercise. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²GOLDSMITH. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. y y analysis antithesis .²THE CRITIC. or Englished. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Domesticated words. These are said to be domesticated. They are then said to be naturalized.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. FROM THE GREEK. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.

Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. and expresses a relation akin to possession. as. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). figures. also add -s or 's. figures. . When the foreign words are fully naturalized. cell has another relation. 54. In the general wearing-away of inflections.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words." the word felon's modifies cell. etc." CASE. 56. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. Letters. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. without reference to their meaning. as. helping to express the idea of place with the word in.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Definition." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Words quoted merely as words.. In the sentence. etc. 55. "He sleeps in a felon's cell." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). Only two case forms. they form their plurals in the regular way.

fate.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. then.²one for the nominative and objective. I. . they returned to their homes. learning. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 58. and the possessive. Excuses are clothes which. Uses of the Nominative. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Human experience is the great test of truth. 3. 57. when asked unawares. whether inflected or not. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. and merit. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns.²person.²the nominative." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Three properties belong to wisdom. and experience. completing a verb. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. three things characterize man. Nouns. the objective. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. the enemy of the living. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. must be understood for purposes of analysis. 5. 4." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise.There are now only two case forms of English nouns." (2) As a predicate noun. may be said to have three cases. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. excessive grief. 1.²nature. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. 2.

and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. 3." Exercise. and tell which use each has:² 1. as will be seen in Sec. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. 2. taking the object storm. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. 68. the word toward which the preposition points. and landlord of the inn. how have I frighted thee? II. wounded lies. and being equivalent to one verb. But of all plagues. sword in hand and visor down. Conscience. and makest a calm. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. thy wrath can send. distance." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. But the flood came howling one day. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 9. taking the object enemies. (in the older stages of the language. They charged. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. etc. .6.Save." (3) Adverbially. Uses of the Objective. save. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. (5) As the object of a preposition." "Thou makest the storm a calm. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. a patriarch of the village. measure." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. reconciles. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. and meaning calmest." (4) As the second object. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. completing the verb. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. good Heaven. her first law broken. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. 59. 4. 8. they are sands of precious gold. Set a high price on your leisure moments. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb.

e.5. The possessive case always modifies another word. expressed or understood. It is a poetic expression. The noblest mind the best contentment has.²BYRON. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 8. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. (2) Objective possessive.. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 10.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. 6. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. Uses of the Possessive. as shown in the sentences.²SHELLEY. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. tempests that . This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. from day to day. 61.² The unwearied sun. the most common of all. 9.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.²ADDISON.And gave the leper to eat and drink. the Great Stone Face. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. or in writing yesterday's elegy. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. And whirling plate. Possession in some sense is the most common.²HAWTHORNE. 7. as.Does his Creator's power display. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. III.His winter task a pastime made. and forfeits paid. (3) Subjective possessive. as in these expressions. 60. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.

How the possessive is formed. The use of the apostrophe.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. A false theory. To form the possessive plural. 1. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. 62. One is the simple form of a word. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general." "mannes herte [heart].winter is likely to have). making the possessive singular. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form." etc. growth which several days had developed). In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. and Obj. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s.e. Declension or inflection of nouns. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. child NOTE. 62. lady Poss. there are only two case forms. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "at his beddes syde. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. Nom.." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. Poss. 64. however. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.e. "From every schires ende. in Chaucer. the panther which the forest hides). As said before (Sec. 56). . was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. PLURAL. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. and Obj. Nom. 63. A suggestion. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. Case Inflection. "George Jones his book. as schoolboys sometimes write." Use of the apostrophe.

It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.Though this opinion was untrue. as by the countess's command. as.. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. James's. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. 65. Cervantes' satirical work. the possessive sign is usually last. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.²SWIFT. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. dwelling.² LOWELL. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. for goodness' sake. 67." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. and from a desire to have distinct forms. I remember him in his cradle at St. know the amount of my income.²RUSKIN. To the eye all the forms are now distinct." Possessive with compound expressions.²HOLMES. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.²THACKERAY. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.. some such word as house. Peter's.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. but to the ear all may be alike. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. Kate saw that. In compound expressions. my neighbors. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. stands up for God's truth one man. a word with a phrase. etc.²DE QUINCEY. instead of the emperor their master's name. and she walked off from the don's. the items of my son's. Possessive and no noun limited. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. containing words in apposition. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. ."²DE QUINCEY. 66. as. church.²CARLYLE. etc." "A postscript is added. Captain Scrapegrace's. in the name of the emperor their master. store. being understood with it: for example. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.

turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.²FROUDE. we use the phrase of Atterbury. etc. and tell whether each is appositional. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.The double possessive. For example. Emphasis. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. (See also Sec. objective. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. (3) It prevents ambiguity. 2. In most cases. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? .²E. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. HALE. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. sometimes they are used together. each. no. ill-lighted except where she stands. corresponding to 's. the sentence might be understood as just explained. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. (1) When a word is modified by a. as one modifier. making a double possessive. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. Both of these are now used side by side. E. however. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. If.²CARLYLE. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. every. the. (b) Rewrite the sentence. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. any. 1. in such a sentence as. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. this. or subjective. Exercises. a double possessive. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. that. the statement clearly means only one thing. 87. and at the same time by a possessive noun.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. 68. especially when used with this or that.²the introduction which Atterbury made. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. A peculiar form. Clearness. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.. Blair). and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.

At lovers' perjuries. day's harbinger.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 15. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules.Comes dancing from the East. Now the bright morning star. 6. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.They say.3. in parsing a noun. 4. we state. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 13. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. There Shakespeare's self. 14. 9. Nature herself. 5. 12. Friend. In parsing. it seemed. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Hence. 10. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 8. and destroy the other. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 11. I must not see thee Osman's bride. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 69. therefore. with every garland crowned. some idioms²the double possessive. Jove laughs.² . let him seasonably water the one. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 70. 7. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies.

The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. subject of the verb is understood. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 71. In parsing any word.(1) The class to which it belongs. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. therefore neuter. etc. . it is the object of the preposition by. NOTE. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. Neckcloth. inflections. therefore singular number. and relations. proper. 2.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. hence it is a common noun. therefore possessive case. MODEL FOR PARSING. The correct method. hence objective case. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. if the latter. masculine. and number. hence it is objective case. names one thing. 68). but is the adverbial objective. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. (3) Whether singular or plural number. is a common class noun. therefore masculine gender. and limits neckcloth. determining its case. and to have it found out by accident. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth.²common. it has no sex. it expresses time. a fresh tapster. it denotes only one person. as to case. it expresses possession or ownership. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. a withered serving man. has no governing word. it is the name of a male being. Exercise. and therefore nominative case. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. gender. (4) Its office in the sentence. 3. singular number. Thief is a common class noun. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. 4. That in the captain's but a choleric word. like miller's. hence it is a gender noun. which gender. object of the verb takes. the connection shows a male is meant. therefore singular number. Throat is neuter.

"Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. but by a question we say. castle. and his daughter. Time makes the worst enemies friends. blessings light on him that first invented . from a necessity for short. sleep! 6. which distinguish person by their form (Sec.. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. all in one. The need of pronouns.." Again. Definition. instead of saying. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns..²palace. definite. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. 8. 10. Now. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. standing for a name. and prison. Madame de Staël. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious.5. Classes of pronouns. A pronoun is a reference word. where the Rhone enters the lake. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Mrs. 11. 72. financial minister to Louis XVI. He giveth his beloved sleep. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. were natives of Geneva. . 73. and representative words. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. Necker. For instance. 7. PRONOUNS. connected with the shore by a drawbridge.And hated her for her pride. Jarley's back being towards him. or for a person or thing. A few miles from this point. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. 9. 76)." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. or for a group of persons or things.

or other word or expression. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. which relate or refer to a noun. Singular. (3) Third person. mine. I Poss. that is. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 76. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Person in grammar. primarily adjectives. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. (2) Second person. they must represent the person talking. pronoun. we our. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. representing a person or thing spoken to. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. they are said to have person by agreement. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Three persons of pronouns. words. and the person or thing talked about. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. which have forms for person." Person of nouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. 74. which cannot be used as adjectives. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (5) Indefinite pronouns. even if it had a special form. representing the person speaking. as nouns have the same form. This gives rise to a new term. Nom.(3) Relative pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. "the distinction of person. 75. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of.. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. From analogy to pronouns. my Plural. (4) Adjective pronouns. ours . 77. the person or thing spoken to.

Obj. 78. they their. . she her. Masc. thy Remarks on These Forms. Nom. thine. neuter hit. feminine h o. yours you Plural. Singular. Poss.. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. neuter. in the singular. it its it Poss. he his him Fem. Old Form Common Form. or. namely. me us Singular. your. The speaker may be either male or female. Obj. a separate form for each gender. masculine h . Third person singular has gender. Old forms.Obj. by personification. yours Poss. First and second persons without gender. SECOND PERSON. Nom. Obj. Nom. hers her Plur. and also for the neuter. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. of all Three. Poss. But the third person has. Nom. thou thee ye you you your. theirs them Neut. so also with the person or thing spoken to. yours you THIRD PERSON. you your. Obj.

² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be..Thou lovest. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The form its. Two uses of the old singulars. heora. as possessive of it. In spoken English. 80. just as we now say. and sometimes its. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. Second person always plural in ordinary English. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). This is of comparatively recent growth. 82. (2) In addressing the Deity. etc.. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.:² (1) In elevated style. even when referring to a single object. There are.²SHELLEY. in Old English. We use it with a plural verb always. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English.²BEECHER. The consequence is. them. Thou. etc. thy. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. to thy care we commit the helpless. however. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. their. two modern uses of thou. for example. heom. the forms they.² Oh.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. 79. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. thee. which is a neuter noun. especially in poetry. etc. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. it. . but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. thou Shepherd of Israel.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. which was often sounded with the h silent. 81. that didst comfort thy people of old." As shown above. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. as in prayers. as. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. The plurals were h . but make the plural you do duty for the singular. perhaps being from the English demonstrative.

she. I The Nominative. besides a nominative use. thy. and has been slave to thousands. hers. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. and not make more classes. ye. they. 58). ²SHAKESPEARE. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. though those named in Sec. Absolute personal pronouns. and follow the usage of literary English. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. Old use of mine and thine. 86. us. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. Yet careful speakers avoid this. That is. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.Use of the pronouns in personification. however. her.²LANDOR. sometimes his and its. 84 are always subjects. note the following:² 'Twas mine. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES." the literary language would require he after was. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. your. he. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. Additional nominatives in spoken English. they have a nominative form. for. him. 83.²BULWER. Not a separate class. though ye is occasionally used as objective. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. them. its. The words I. their. 34). them. her. I spare thee mine. theirs. And since thou own'st that praise.²COWPER. The Possessive. thou. yours. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. or. in such a sentence as. to personify objects (Sec. me. II. when they occur in the predicate position. his. some say. her. we. have a peculiar use. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. and sometimes in ordinary speech. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. In spoken English. us. him. The forms my. 85. 84. our. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. The forms mine. thine. . Thine are the city and the people of Granada. "I am sure it was him. 'tis his. Nominative forms.

Long Allen. This usage is still preserved in poetry."²SCOTT. (2) To bring emphasis. are really double possessives. thus. COOPER.²ID. FIELDS.²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. (3) To express contempt. Give every man thine ear.²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. we have. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. yours.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. hers. his. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. Besides this.² CARLYLE.²J. theirs.²ID.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. theirs. we find. or satire. and with mine. anger. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. thus. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens." said Henry Woodstall. ours. ours. but few thy voice. sometimes its. pluck it out. If thine eye offend thee. . In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. This ancient silver bowl of mine. commenting upon a letter of mine. 87. ²HOLMES. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. The forms hers. it tells of good old times. Like the noun possessives. Their uses. in that old Edinburgh house of his. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. yours. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.²BIBLE. thine. as in nouns.²J. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. for example. T.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. F. "Hold thy peace. Double and triple possessives.

So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. In such sentences as. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. in the first sentence. 86: mine stands for my property.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. Besides this use of the objective. but the form is the same as the objective. the thing is done. but expresses for whom. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. was marked by a separate case. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. Both joined in making him a present.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective." "None but the brave deserves the fair. this dative use. his for his property. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. III. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. but nominative or objective in use. But the first two have a nominative use. The old dative case. In pronouns. They all handled it. . In Old English there was one case which survives in use. 89. Now the objective. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. but not in form. In their function. for whose benefit. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. 20." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. mine stands for my praise in the second. The Objective. and mine in the second has an objective use. Curse me this people.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²ID. "The good alone are great. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. 88. They may be spoken of as possessive in form.²BIBLE. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. as it is called. or use in a sentence. 90. as shown in Sec.

²BULWER. Indefinite use of you and your. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. Your mere puny stripling. 91." (3) As a grammatical subject.²EMERSON. as in the sentences.² . Society. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. It is a pity that he has so much learning. as. which follows the verb.² NEWMAN.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. like Chinese skill. The word you. thus.²ADDISON. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²DE QUINCEY. why. (3) In apposition.²BACON. ²EMERSON. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²IRVING To empty here. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. was passed by with indulgence. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. you sneeze. to stand for the real. and they cry. 92.Time is behind them and before them. or that he has not a great deal more.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. or to the idea.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. WEBSTER. as. in this century. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. logical subject.²CARLYLE. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²D. has not made its progress. you must condense there. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.

94.. itself. And when I awoke. . it rained." "He bought him a horse. For example.²EMERSON. however. 93. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. herself."²IRVING. For when it dawned. himself. have laid them downIn their last sleep. who teams it.² Now I lay me down to sleep.²ANON. but seldom in prose. used in poetry. they dropped their arms. since firstThe flight of years began. yourselves. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. as. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined." etc.²BUNYAN.²HOLMES.It is finger-cold. (ourself). the second is the old form of the second person. Of the two forms in parentheses. I set me down and sigh. themselves. I made up my mind to foot it. Poor Christian was hard put to it. (thyself). The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively.²DE QUINCEY.²ID. It was late and after midnight. "I found me a good book. -selves.. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. yourself. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. and its plural selves. A sturdy lad . keeps a school. when they are direct objects. They are myself. farms it.²BRYANT. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.²THOREAU. who in turn tries all the professions. There was nothing for it but to return.²IRVING. peddles it. ourselves. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition.²COLERIDGE.²BURNS. And millions in those solitudes. as they are also called. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. that is.²HAWTHORNE. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This occurs in poetry. we use such expressions as.²SCOTT." and there is an end of it. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively.

as. theself. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. were changed into the possessive myself. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. Threats to all. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. as. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. Use of the reflexives.As girls were once. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. for example.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. and the others were formed by analogy with these. I shrink with pain. shall dissolve. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.. The question might arise. BROWNING.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. etc. as we ourself have been.To you yourself. NOTE. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. to every one. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. to us. ourselves..²E. for example. and build the lofty rhyme.²EMERSON.²MILTON. after the analogy of myself.²ID.²SHAKESPEARE. as in vulgar English.² The great globe itself .Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. 95. especially in the speech of rulers. Held dead within them till myself shall die. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. In Middle English the forms meself. thyself. not the possessive forms. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. B. Origin of these reflexives. As if it were thyself that's here. 96. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.² TENNYSON. with self.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.²WORDSWORTH.² .

One obsolete. fight it out. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Infancy conforms to nobody. 4. all conform to it. and what. and neuter. Courage. 3. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). . 7. but it is the soonest spoiled.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. father. 5. 6. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 8.On the light fantastic toe. And it grew wondrous cold. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. 2. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. To know what is best to do. is wisdom. some of them being double possessives. Three now in use. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Years ago.²DE QUINCEY. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 10. and how to do it. feminine.²B. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. some each of masculine. 9. 97. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. where the word is one with that it tells of. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Come and trip it as we go. which.² THACKERAY. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. FRANKLIN. let him lowly confess it. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. Biscuit is about the best thing I know.

Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Use of who and its forms. that it is not inflected for gender or number. but for case alone. with its possessive and objective. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. it is always third person. Whose was that gentle voice. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. actions. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. 99. These show that what is not inflected for case. The use of who. ideas. shall we say. What wouldst thou do. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. it refers to either persons or things.There is an old word. Use of what. not to persons. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 98. that is. which is not inflected for gender. etc. whispering sweet. or case. as it always asks about somebody. . As shown here.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. used formerly to mean which of two. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. number. having three forms.. the gold. Use of which. whether. it is selective. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. but now obsolete. 100.Promised. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. that. that it is always singular and neuter. referring to things. Which of you. methought.

127). and so to make smoother discourse. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. 99. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case.²by the use of the words. which and what are sometimes adjectives. These bards sang of Border chivalry. "The last of all the Bards was he. 104. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. It usually precedes the pronoun. in Sec. nominative in the second also. as they take the place usually of a word already used. which is called the antecedent of the relative. it may be shortened into. and also in having a conjunctive use.² "The last of all the Bards was he. or other word or expression. 103. Function of the relative pronoun. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. as. who? Poss. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. and what are also relative pronouns. who evidently refers to Bards. SING. pronoun. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING.Who sung of Border chivalry. SINGULAR Nom. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. For instance. 105. AND PLUR. which and what. what may be an adverb in some expressions. Further treatment of who. which is nominative in the first sentence. who is used as objective instead of whom. for which the pronoun stands. subject of doth love.² . AND PLUR. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences." Or. as." In the latter sentence. The antecedent. Thus we may say. objective in the last.101. since it is subject of the verb had. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. 102. being the direct object of the verb shall take. Who. which. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. whose? Obj. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also.

both his and who have the antecedent priest.²SCOTT.. 106. D. The origin of language is divine. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 6.²BYRON.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.Whom universal nature did lament. 3. They had not their own luster. The men whom men respect.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.²THACKERAY. will be discussed further on. the women whom women approve. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²MILTON.Whose flag has braved.²LOWELL In this. 5. with all its capabilities . WHITNEY. 108. The nurse came to us. 4. For her enchanting son. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. Generally speaking. 107. Indefinite relatives. a thousand years. Ye mariners of England. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. what. which. are the men and women who bless their species.²W. is a divine creation. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.² COX. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. . Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. a simple relative is meant. 4. but the look which is not of the earth.. in the same sense in which man's nature.²PARTON Which and its forms.²DR JOHNSON. 2. 3.That guard our native seas. that.. When the word relative is used. Two kinds. Who and its forms. 2.

which it certainly is not. and spoils. Already done is all that he would do. W.²GOLDSMITH. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.. 107. stratagems. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.. else this description will seem exaggerated. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. The man that hath no music in himself. Examples of the relative that:² 1. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²BURKE.²LAMB 3. For what he sought below is passed above. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. 111. 2.. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. What.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. 3.. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. ought to be kept in view..²MARGARET FULLER. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. bought up all the pigs that could be had. 4. you will not be angry with me for telling you.Is fit for treasons. That.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 6. 110. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. The Tree Igdrasil. Who.²DE QUINCEY.5.. The judge . Reader. no bad type of what often happens in that country. BEECHER 5. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.. 109.²H.²EMERSON.² SHAKESPEARE 2. (a) This gradation .²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²IRVING.

5. whose is second person. and others. they are plural. or ideas.²which for the nominative and objective.²DR. 2.²IRVING. in 5. the relatives are singular. In 1. whose for the possessive. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. The robins.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.²THACKERAY. Gibbon. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.. Sec. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whose. and 3. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. Who referring to animals. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. seemed as much excited as myself. (2) It has three case forms. not persons. JOHNSON. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. in the first sentence. son. Scott. . Which. 96). a man.²SWIFT.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. The little gorilla. In sentence 4. in the second. whom.. Cooper. The sentences in Sec. 113. It has been seen (Sec. the others are all third person. referring to animals. in the third.who. (4) It has two case forms.whose. Witness the following examples:² And you. Kingsley. whom. whose wound I had dressed. that man. Smollett. My horse... things. flung its arms around my neck. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. and so on.²who. possessive case of which. who is first person. Examples of whose.²LOWELL. (3) It is nearly always third person. who. 107. 112.. and 6. p.²LEIGH HUNT. in 4.

This moribund '61.²BEECHER. Primarily.² And.²first.²DE QUINCEY. That. and to persecute without pity. and numerous others. 109. which is worse. So in Matthew Arnold. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. (3) It is the same form for first.² MCMASTER. no possessive.²SHAKESPEARE. The last two sentences in Sec. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. . Sometimes. In the sentences of Sec. 115.² I swept the horizon.114. which is very notable and curious. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Which and its antecedents.²SCOTT. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens."²RUSKIN. Kingsley. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. the antecedent follows which. too. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. and things. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. This often occurs. second.²THACKERAY. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. Men may be ready to fight to the death. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. Burke. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. let us enter the church itself. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. secondly (which made her stare). as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. thus.²RUSKIN. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. (2) It has only one case form. 116. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. and third persons. animals. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.

The gender. who Poss. third person. third person. as. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. Sec. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. and person of the relatives who. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. whose Obj. When expressed. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE. it usually follows. consequently is neuter. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. Nom. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. that do I. that men must needs abide. What. that he has. The sentences of Sec. and is emphatic. which.²BIBLE What fates impose. 118. what we said?²CARLYLE. as in sentence 6. that do I not. plural number. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. either of which would be neuter. For example. 119. for example. What a man does." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. is always neuter." That evidently refers to truths. 117. by taking them out. . whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES.² What I would." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. Who plainly stands for those or the people. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. plural number. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. but what I hate. 109.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. we can. number." (3) "These people heard him.

We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. What can't be cured. In the sentence. In (2). it is subject of the verb heard. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. it is object of uttered. First find the antecedents. The relative what is handled differently. is subject of wrought upon and molded. standing for the people understood. The word what. however. people is the object of the preposition of. Some prefer another method of treatment. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. then parse the relatives. because it has usually no antecedent. Now. but of this. subject of heard. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. the highest result of all education. neuter. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. 120. so is in the objective case. but is singular. in (3). As shown by the following sentences. is in the nominative case.. third person. we is the subject. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. Exercise." Here the subject of is. The whole expression is its subject. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. is what we call nature. 6. 8. . is subject of the verb can't be cured. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. 3. nobler souls with that which they are. 5. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. and what is the direct object of the verb call. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. Parsing what. which is." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 4. in the following sentences:² 1. the simple relative. "What can't be cured must be endured."²EMERSON. and hence is in the nominative case. in (1). that takes the case of the truths in (2). I think they are trying to outwit nature. etc. Another way. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. What must be endured? Answer. In the same way who. 7. Truths in sentence (2). above. after all.

in a new and original way. whatever. summer will have its flies. 4.²BURKE. It is no proof of a man's understanding. to everything that. 123. no certain antecedent." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. whichever. and his friend a fool. no particular thing. whichsoever. 6. They are whoever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. whatever is equivalent to all things which. or what else soever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. "common souls pay with that [singular. 2. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. 121. whatsoever. Take which you please. which. . object of do] they do. 5. and in 2. not as direct as the simple relatives. List and examples. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. So with the other indefinites. or stand on their head. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. The simple relatives who. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. object of with] which [singular. 2. 3. and parse that in the first clause. Do what we can. 7. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. It is clear that in 1.²MACAULAY. 122. Hence some take what as a double relative. less common are whoso. that is. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. and which in the second clause. Meaning and use. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives.²BURKE. being referred to.²you cannot have both. whosoever. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. Only itself can inspire whom it will. by meaning and use. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. that nothing else can stand in their presence. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. Death is there associated. whatsoever.

has been my heaviest affliction. thus. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. whereupon. by which. Two words. . There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. 125. but and as. Instead of the phrases in which. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 121.. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 121.As shown in Sec.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. either one that. but which only wealth could have purchased.² some particular thing.. Other substitutes. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. Sec. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. not following the word such. upon which. 124. 2. etc. 126. for example. whereby.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Proof that they have the force of relatives. are used.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. There is nothing but is related to us. etc. 417). for example. what means anything that. nothing that does not interest us. as was used just as we use that or which. This. Former use of as.² 1. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. But and as.²DE QUINCEY. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. 4. and that as after such is equivalent to which. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.²HAWTHORNE. but mean any one whom. In early modern English. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. etc. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. everything that (or everything which).²EMERSON. the conjunctions wherein. 120.

and whether what = that + which (if so. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. 127. In sentences 1 (a). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. But in 1 (b). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. what is interrogative. 3. 2.²EMERSON. who having the antecedent gentleman.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide.²WHITTIER. if not. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. it is a simple relative. Another caution. it is an interrogative." etc. second. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. . How to decide. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. Special caution needed here. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. which having the antecedent lines. In studying such sentences." Likewise with which in 3 (b). (b) Well we knew who stood behind. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. it is an indefinite relative). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. no antecedent is expressed. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. 1 (b). and 3 (b). would be. which would indicate that they are not relatives. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first.²ID. if not. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. 2 (b).. So in 2 (b). the full expression being. showing that who is plainly interrogative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. "Who stood behind? We knew. though the earthwork hid them. a question is disguised in each sentence. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. Thus. if expanded.

²GOLDSMITH. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. When Goldsmith died.128. In the third. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. . Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 4.²FORSTER 6. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.²G. Relative omitted when object.² THACKERAY. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 3. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. In the first. In the second. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. but the life of man in England. I visited many other apartments. whose has the antecedent you. which. and asks no question.²FLETCHER. On the other hand.²SWIFT. Exercise. whence is the interrogative word. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. Thus. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.² These are the sounds we feed upon. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Examine the following:² 1. and Court Calendars. the question is asked by the verb. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. 129. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. 5. ELIOT. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²CARLYLE. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. Put in the relatives who. 2. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3.²HOLMES. which has the antecedent hue.

He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. and comparatively so in poetry. 130. that. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. simple relatives. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²SCOTT. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. Relative omitted when subject. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. the house was full. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.7. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.²Id.Ne'er looks upon the sun.²CAMPBELL. The nobles looked at each other. Also in literary English we find the same omission. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. 6. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. or indefinite relatives:² 1. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Examples are. 5. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.² LOWELL.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. 2. and what. There was such a crowd went.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. . 3. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. which was already proceeding. It is rare in prose.²SHAKESPEARE. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. who were to be rulers over whom. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. Function of adjective pronouns. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. which.

" "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. neither. in the first. For instance. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. such as each." "one man. Adjectives. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. necessarily thought of: thus. For example. all. many. that. 132. etc. "another bank." that is. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. Primarily they are adjectives." "Where two men ride on a horse. expressed or understood. in letters of gold." in the others. etc. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use." in the second. the former. not pronouns. or use. a word. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. either. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. or an argument in a paragraph. none. 'Truth.²IRVING. but have lost their adjective use. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. but in this function. . and stand for a noun. few.²BRYANT. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. 133. any. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. and another to get cool under. "each cube. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. as some. etc. "these pranks. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. in order to be an adjective pronoun. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. and on each is written. or they may stand for nouns. Caution. which we have seen in such expressions as.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand." Classes of adjective pronouns. in the second they retain an adjective meaning.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. "The dead are there. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns.131. such as this.²EMERSON. must not modify any word. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. In the first use they are adjectives. or may be the whole of a sentence.

Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.²ID. 3. NOTE. or reclined.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. A man inspires affection and honor. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.²LOWELL. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose.²EMERSON 4. 134. but these were of the best.² They stood. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Compound. 2. Some of these are simple pronouns. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.All these he saw. Simple. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. . because he was not lying in wait for these. they that plow iniquity. or sat. Exercises. for example. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. They have not shunned the one. Definition and examples. reap the same. and they have well performed the other. and sow wickedness. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.²ID. They had fewer books. 5. accidentally preserved. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Their minds accorded into one strain. Such are a few isolated instances. Even as I have seen. as seemed good to each. but what he fain had seen He could not see. when the latter was the King of Spain.

None shall rule but the humble. The word one has a reflexive form.²HAWTHORNE. paused over a horoscope. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. you quickly come to the end of all. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Exercise. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.²HOLMES. 135. ²HAWTHORNE. for example. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. Much might be said on both sides. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. with the superstitions of his time. as. Another opposes him with sound argument. Men take each other's measure when they react.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. They led one another.²EMERSON.² One reflexive. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many.Two are compound pronouns.²each other. Some inflected. as some of the rangers had gone astray. such as one other. . we might the more easily discharge them. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. or melt for others' woe.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. another. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. The Soldan. Definition and examples. imbued. as it were.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²KINGSLEY. one another. as most were.

Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. unlike adjective pronouns. some one. Jove laughs. etc.There is always somewhere a weakest spot." It means something. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. every one else. etc. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. Definition and examples. and they. 136. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. every one (or everyone). Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered.²SHAKESPEARE. I tell you what. Now. something. anything. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. they are never used as adjectives. 137. anyone else. Exercise. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. in building of chaises. any one (or anyone). They indefinite means people in general. everybody else. anybody else's. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. no one. somebody else. everybody. what.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. as. also aught.Exercise. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. nothing. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. everything. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.² At lovers' perjuries. Every one else stood still at his post. and somewhat. they say.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns.. and was indefinite in Old English. nobody. anybody. as shown in the words everybody's. . Somebody. but. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. naught.

Others did the same thing. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. All was now ready for action. were suffered to depart. 3. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. For this did God send her a great reward. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 4. . O thou that rollest above. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. to which. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 11. 10. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. from my earliest days. The table was good. 13. in his negotiations. 18. I first found myself among the mountains. Whoever deals with M. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 17. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. A reminder. indeed. 2. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 8. 6. 12. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know.See also "Syntax" (Sec. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 14. Exercise. 9. but not to quite so enormous an extent. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 16. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. and of no other. 5. 7.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 138.

And will your mother pity me. 31.And it would work 'em woe. And I had done a hellish thing. 35. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 34. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . He sate him down.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Whatever he knows and thinks. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. hear! 33. who take the world easy. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 23. that let him communicate. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.19. I who alone am.Who knew thee too well. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. hear. 26. and seized a pen. thou rollest now. eat white bread or brown. They know not I knew thee. in all its height. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 32. oh. behold now the semblance of my being. 29. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 30. well-oiled dispositions. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 21. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. variety.Destroyer and preserver. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 27. 25.

or gaseous. 45. as. So with any object. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. 40. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. Again. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. etc. in pointing out an object. He knew not what to do. becomes mine. 42. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. and he learns who receives. so that no other will be mistaken for it. that is our permanent state. 43. Substantives." "that house. 44.36. Office of Adjectives. 38." The office of an adjective. . I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. such as in the expressions "this man. "one hat. the number is limited by adjectives. size. position. etc. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. or with persons. white or red. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. brittle or tough. 41." "a hundred men. heavy or light." "some cities. We are by nature observers. 139. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. who understands me. 37. If a chemist discovers a new substance. ADJECTIVES. if we are at a distance. adjectives are used. and so he read. He teaches who gives." "yonder hill. It may have this office alone. which was no bad step towards my liberation. We need to add some words to tell its color. and if we are near. Instead of using nouns indefinitely." etc. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. For example.. Who hears me. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. then. or liquid. 39. As to the kind of words used.

the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. etc. 143." "the Christian pearl of charity. happy. such as safe. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. With exception of the "and then. "an old English manuscript. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality.² BACON. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. deep. Infinitives. To make this clear. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "half-dead traveler.²POPE. derived from proper nouns. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. They include relative and interrogative words." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. 142.140. it shows that he weighs men's minds." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. (4) Pronominal adjectives. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. to describe it or to limit its application. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. however. Definition. fair. words primarily pronouns. "Heaven-derived power. To err is human. beautiful. rash. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. Examples are." "the Roman writer Palladius.²COLERIDGE. 141. pointing out particular things. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. to forgive." "ice-cold water. and their trash." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. If he be thankful for small benefits." the "and there." "ivory-handled pistols. Classes of adjectives. remotest." they constitute all his connections." . divine. or how much of a thing. terrible. (2) Adjectives of quantity. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." and the still less significant "and so. Nouns are not. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "unlooked-for burden." "next-door neighbor." "this life-giving book. such as.

but small thoughts have I of sleep.²COLERIDGE. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. much. sometimes small. 2. in this. some.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Oxenham. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "One is hungry. For instance: in the sentence." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "trailing clouds. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. . 'Tis midnight. in studying these last-named words. 143. 1. Exercises. no. which are either pure participles used to describe. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished.But ever she looked on Mr." "It came on like the rolling simoom. Care is needed. and another is drunken. and accomplished is an adjective. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." was is the verb. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. 144. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. any. Examples are.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.²MACDONALD. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." Caution. 145. considerable." "an aged man." "The shattered squares have opened into line." was accomplished is a verb. having some of each subclass named in Sec.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many." "a charming sight.

yonder (or yon). (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Thus. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. its wake.²VAUGHAN." "He had lived by hunting for some months. Examples." "a dozen volunteers. instead of modifying them. as. An arrow was quivering in each body. 146. they come under the next division of adjectives. those). The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.² Every town had its fair." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. the former²the latter. no.²ID.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. former. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." "In came some five and twenty more." "I have lost one brother. every village.²THACKERAY.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Exercise. are used with plural nouns. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. and with them a few negroes. but I have gained fourscore. The list." Single ones of any number of changes.²KINGSLEY. How many. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. "one blaze of musketry." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. latter. any. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." "Then we wandered for many days. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. Not primarily pronouns. When some.²CARLYLE. The demonstrative adjectives are this." (b) Indefinite numerals. The following sentences present some examples:² . that. (plural these. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.

They are of two kinds.²WORDSWORTH. but. Exercise. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. what revenues or garnitures. Indefinite relative adjectives. The silver and laughing Xenil. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.but all these charms are fled. ²CARLYLE. skill which was at pause. Modify names of persons or things. In which evil strait Mr..²BULWER.. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. Definition. Oxenham fought desperately. of equal skill.²GOLDSMITH. tell how many things are meant. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²BANCROFT. for example. but in the one case. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. I verily believe. These do not.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²KINGSLEY.²ID. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. .²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love."²B.²D. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. WEBSTER. 147. they are changed to adjectives. 149. These were thy charms.²ID. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. FRANKLIN. As has been said. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. 148. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. skill which was progressive²in the other. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. like the other numerals.²RUSKIN. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. just as the corresponding pronouns do.² It matters not what rank he has. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. The taking of which bark.

They may be used in direct and indirect questions.150. whichsoever way I move.And whichsoever way I turn. He was turned before long into all the universe. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.²ID. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.. it is impossible to determine.²LAMB. In indirect questions. But when the Trojan war comes. or whether any.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. which is selective among what is known. you at least give him full authority over your son. what inquires about things or persons not known.²AGASSIZ. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. As in the pronouns. nature will be sure to bear us out in.²RUSKIN. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. Was there. Adjective what in exclamations. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. . whichever. In direct questions. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. which. as it rather seemed. Whatsoever kind of man he is. New torments I behold.²CARLYLE. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whatever. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. the debt to the rich. A lady once remarked. whatsoever. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. proved not altogether displeasing to him.² EMERSON. 151. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. whichsoever. and gaze. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. and new tormentedAround me.. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.²IRVING. Examples of their use are.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).

²number and comparison. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs.Adjectives have two inflections.. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. It is neither relative nor interrogative. This is the old demonstrative. as. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. Those borrowed from this. Exercise. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. weight.²This. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. The article that was used with neuter nouns. 153 . And yet. we notice some differences between them as to size. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. gold is heavier than iron. NUMBER. we do so by means of their qualities. th s (modern those). to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. or weight.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. In exclamatory expressions. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. Thus. the making of it right. those). it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. of the quality. That. etc. and when we compare the objects. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. COMPARISON. .152.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. and those as the plural of that. color. History of this²these and that²those. 155. Meaning of comparison. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. 154.²but not the same degree. All these have certain qualities. or size. But this had also another plural. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. etc. When we place two objects side by side. which was fully inflected in Old English.² Oh. or amount. alas.

There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. indefatigable." "the largest soul. but. they are not compared. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. So with the words sole. expressing a greater degree of quality. reddest. easier. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. infinite. bluer. These are called degrees of comparison. sufficient. to the simple form. bluest. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. or amounts in quantity.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. red. universal institution. 157. expressing the greatest degree of quality." Words that cannot be compared.²SEWARD. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. Freedom is a perpetual. and many others. Definition. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 156. "more matter. as. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. indomitable. organic. easiest. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. "untamed thought. 158. The two forms. supreme. A main difference betwixt men is.²THACKERAY. for example. whether they attend their own affair or not." "no fewer than a hundred. blue. with less wit. strictly considered. The comparative is formed by adding -er. and the superlative by adding -est. though the simple. and the superlative. great. Substitute for inflection in comparison. giant-like." "It is a nobler valor.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. enormous. . immemorial. These are properly the only degrees. 159. redder. but were not common until a century later. whose favorite pupil he was." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. easy." "the commonest speech. as. 160.

but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression.²ID. admirablest." "more austere and holy.² CARLYLE A gentleman. and yet familiar." Carlyle uses beautifulest. who. and other words are preceded by more and most. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. etc. harsh forms are usually avoided. 163. "So help me God. madam. Adjectives irregularly compared. quiet. strange." "the wonderfulest little shoes. polished. there needed to be a most genuine substance. easy. The general rule is. which hung behind in the queerest way. finest chiseling." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. indisputablest. These are adjectives irregularly compared. most small. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. I will. as." "sorrowfulest spectacles. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. witty.²The Nation. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. though born in no very high degree. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. peaceablest.Which rule. falling on his knees. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given." "distantest relationships.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. honestest. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. and patientest fusing. was most finished.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. 162." said Henry Esmond. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.²ID. These long." "more odd. The following lists include the majority of them:² . mournfulest.

last Hindmost. There was an old comparative bet. is often used. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. (3) Little is used as positive to less. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. least. older Nigher Nearer Later. though from a different root. 7. next Nearest Latest.² O. uttermost Upmost. which has softened to the modern best. These have no adjective positive:² 1. [Out] Outer. hindermost Much or many More Farther. furthest 10. Hind 2. 4. Worser was once used. . evil was the positive to worse. 9. [In] Inner Inmost. further Farthest.LIST I.²HAMLET. 5. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. worst. A double comparative.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. Good or well Evil. List I. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. a double comparative. outermost Utmost. lesser. uppermost LIST III. 3. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). as. latter Hinder LIST II. 164. bad. oldest Nighest. utter 3. The superlative I form was betst. as in the sentence (14th century). throw away the worser part of it. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. as in Shakespeare. 8. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. lesser Elder. 1. innermost Outmost.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 2. (2) In Old English. which has gone out of use. 6.

are shown in such phrases as. and refer to time.. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. first. or series. "Many a little makes a mickle. doubling the inflection. there is scarcely any distinction. eldest. and the superlative nearest. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. etc. as. furthest. First became entirely detached from the series.²HAWTHORNE. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. but not in meaning. ²LAMB. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. are earlier than older. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. .²KINGSLEY. next." Its spelling has been micel. (5) The forms elder. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. strong. Since later. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. further.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. since the m is for -ma. meaning the largest part. farthest. In imitation of further. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. near. as long.²forth. The meanings greater. the old forms. an old superlative ending. etc. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. oldest. great. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. much. List II. but originally the comparison was nigh.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it.²ID. farrest. Between the two sets as they now stand. except the form next. for example. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. greatest. The latter. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative.. came into use. muchel. strenger. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. to England we sailed. moche. instead of lenger. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. making the modern farther. latest. The most part kept a stolid indifference. is quite common. to which is added -ost. a distinction has grown up between the two series. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. the parallel form mickle being rarely used.² The more part being of one mind. th came into the others.

CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. on the very topmost twig.²H.²EMERSON." "the innermost moral soul. or have no comparative forms.²SCOTT.²KINGSLEY. but her after deck was still dry. are like the comparative forms in List II. They have no superlatives. the upper light of the world. but not in their meaning. Think what each adjective belongs to. Highest and midmost. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. There." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. Decidedly handsome. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. W. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. and have no comparative force. but they have no adjective positives. (Sec. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN.165. Her bows were deep in the water." "The outer is of the day. in having no adjective positives.²HAWTHORNE. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. In List II. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. List III. all may belong to the same noun." -Most added to other words. Her. being merely descriptive. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. 167.²DE QUINCEY. 168. . 166." "far-seeing as the sun. by the by." "their utmost exertion. The comparatives are so in form.²DE QUINCEY. The adjectives in List III. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. BEECHER. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. or each may modify a different word or group of words. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. was descried The royal banner floating wide.

HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. round. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression." in which then is an adverb. ²TROLLOPE. Richard Hooker. May we not." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. STEPHENS 5. satisfactory.²NOAH PORTER. instead of saying.²TRENCH.²BIBLE. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. our new government. now our queen. rich. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.²RUSKIN. The seldom use of it. and thine often infirmities.²MRS. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. It may still be argued. For thy stomach's sake. 7. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. as. deeply black eyes. the then and still owners. Bradbury and Evans. solid. In the following quotations. A few improper jests and a volley of good. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. 2. philosophical.²HAWTHORNE.For example. . Our sometime sister. STOWE. and moral truth. 3. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. H." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. not decision alone. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. and broken.²HAWTHORNE. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. 169. By a convenient brevity. 6. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. we may say "the then king. 4. in this sentence. deep.² My then favorite. therefore. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. in prose. usual modifies incomparable decision. This. and heaven-defying oaths." making then an adjective.²A. But in this sentence. Exercise. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet.²HOLMES. bright. Other instances are. "the one who was then king.

having a singular. modifies the word truths. if it has number. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. 8. (2) Its number. compared by prefixing more and most. Since adjectives have no gender.What to tell in parsing. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 2. seventy-five drachmas. then. positive degree. if it can be compared. 10. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. or case. She made no reply. 5. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. To every several man. Exercise. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. with awkward but rapid pace. 3. and I waited for none. plural number. Unfamiliar describes truths. This gave the young people entire freedom. (4) What word or words it modifies. the method of parsing is simple. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. (3) Its degree of comparison. and most astounding were those frightful yells. These points out what truths. person. not inflected for number. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. 170. To every Roman citizen he gives. this. . manly way. 9. therefore descriptive. I ask nothing of you. modifies truths. frank. across the plain. 6. therefore demonstrative. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. and very few have number. MODEL FOR PARSING. cannot be compared. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. In parsing an adjective. 7. 4. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts.

Nearer to our own times. 22. . The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. it is so noble a fruit. 21. not so much for travelers that were few. the same love to France would have been nurtured. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 13. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. the tomahawk fell. suggests such thoughts as these. those dogs in the yard. 26. and therefore more interesting to us.11. Two hours elapsed. 16. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. yonder oxen in the pasture. Here lay two great roads. 14. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 31. oxen. is the settlement of our own country. 23. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 25. Their name was the last word upon his lips. he won affections with ease. 12. 18. Like most gifted men. it rests on reality. are immutably fishes. and many poles supported the lower ones. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 19. 33. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. To say what good of fashion we can. during which time I waited. growing in the most unfavorable position. 20. 32. I know not what course others may take. With every third step. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. and dogs. 24. 27. 29. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. In music especially. as for armies that were too many by half. 28.

" An with consonant sounds. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. 172. weary-hearted man was he. In the sentence. An historian. with an ordinary little garden. Their origin. A hard-struggling.²MACAULAY. Examples: "a house. Two relics. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. a before consonant sounds. 173. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. the tither. 171. later th . An before vowel sounds. An or a came from the old numeral n. just as adjectives do." "an honor. such as we have been attempting to describe. Our expressions the one. sometimes the tother. the other. 37. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. In Middle English the became an article." "a European. ARTICLES. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. meaning one.34. that) which was also an article in Old English. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. or the tane. the tother. these occurring as the tane. and a before consonant sounds.²BREWER. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. ðat. but the former is used. that other. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . 174. even when not silent." the words the and an belong to nouns. 35. he is no literary man. for example." "an orange." "a yelling crowd. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. th o. the latter is still preserved in the expression. . in vulgar English. were formerly that one. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. the tother. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. s o.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Many writers use an before h. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general.²SCOTT. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks.

because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. 178. not descriptive. With names of rivers.² Don't you remember how.." the article indicates clearly that a river. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. since it points out a particular individual. as "the Mississippi. or group.²This use is noticed when.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. Kinds. An and a are different forms of the same word. as in the sentence. is referred to. Articles are either definite or indefinite. An or a is the indefinite article. The Dakota tribes. or any individual of a group or class.²HEROES OF ASGARD. An article is a limiting word. BANCROFT. To call attention to attributes. An hereditary tenure of these offices. a person is introduced by a. and not a state or other geographical division.²THACKERAY. The is the definite article. on opening a story. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. Reference to a known object.²COLERIDGE. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. NOTE.² . An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. 177. or a group or class of things. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. Definition. 175.²G. which cannot be used alone. 179. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. thus. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. the older n. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.. and when the word river is omitted. 176..²IRVING. doubtless." "the Ohio. When the is prefixed to a proper name. or class.

etc. as.²ID. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. for example. the Spinoza.²EMERSON. the gallant.²KINGSLEY. With plural of abstract nouns. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.² As she hesitated to pass on. laid it on the miry spot. 180. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. the song sparrow. Caution. would speedily extract the required information. her. Kant. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²GIBBON. . Half abstract. BANCROFT. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. The simple rise as by specific levity. and the redwing. but into the region of all the virtues.²EMERSON. His messages to the provincial authorities. If the good is there. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²G. Common. With adjectives used as nouns. Schelling.²ID. 2. the Hume. 183.The Bacon. 182.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. so is the evil.² The faint.²SCOTT. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. For possessive person pronouns. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. NOTE.²MOTLEY. 1. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. One thing for its class. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. not into a particular virtue. 181. or a match put between the fingers. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. The.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

Hence Definition. which means to go over. and shame the most astute. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. endured what? anguish. an article. a verb. All these are called transitive verbs. with some word understood. By examining a few verbs." Examine the sentences in Sec. in (3. A verb is a word used as a predicate. 202. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. a noun. in (c). The nature of the transitive verb. in (3. In each case. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. c). the most astute. Of those expressing action. Definition and caution. in this sentence from Bulwer. to go is no predicate. 200: In (1). a). (can) shame also has an object. and.In (a). b). we consider a verb as one word. 201. in (b). in (2. lone took what? answer. but cannot be predicates. In giving a definition. can deceive has an object. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb." put is the predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. etc. and not a verb. or a material thing. or the object. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. obeyed is a predicate. as. The nature of intransitive verbs. Each influences some object. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. In the first. representing something which it influences or controls. all do not express it in the same way. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. the word following. which may be a person.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. care. and to receive the action expressed. Now. "Put money in thy purse. to say something to or about some person or thing. the most penetrating. a preposition. for example."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. or an idea. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. in (2. 204. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. but fearing is not a predicate. hence is not a verb. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. b). an adverb. taking the staff which always guided her steps. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. In the sentence.²BULWER . and a preposition unite as a verb. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. from the Latin transire. 203. "Put thou money in thy purse.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

he will see the need of these ethics. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. Again. the writer can make the statement following. the representative system ultimately fail. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.²D. . ²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.²BRYCE. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. 222. and may or may not be regarded true. as. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. Ideal. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. Most excellent stranger. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. 2). this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. as. for example. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. Unreal²cannot be true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.² If. the second founder.I could lie down like a tired child.²SHELLEY. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. popular government must be pronounced impossible. WEBSTER. the first great founder of the Empire. they were recorded in the Book of Life.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. If this be the glory of Julius.² Now. 215.²may or may not be true. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. in our case. or be fulfilled. but.²FRANKLIN. Condition or Supposition. I. 221.²MACAULAY.

would have sat still with joy and peace.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. she was regarded as a prodigy." etc. if he speak to you. as. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. and sonorous. 5. unless. If he had reason to dislike him.²N. thus. In the following conditional clauses. 7. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. that he might be strong to labor. which cannot be true. I told him. do you think.²FRANKLIN.²CALHOUN..² It was necessary. the conjunction is often omitted: for example.. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.²FRANKLIN. and striven energetically to save Ney.²MACAULAY. 2. 223. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. 6. 8. Subjunctive of Purpose. 3. II. the clause being introduced by that or lest. is of similar physiognomy. . Exercise. but when the verb precedes the subject.² If these things were true. melodious. WILLIS. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. The subjunctive. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. Epaminondas. P.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. and what kind of condition:² 1. he supposed. The voice. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. he had better not have written. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.²EMERSON. may. society could not hold together.² CARLYLE. though.²BAYNE. clear.. except. 4. etc. ²LOWELL.. to drink strong beer. might. that we cannot but regret its absence. NOTE. if he was the man I take him for. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. since he [Byron] was dead. and should. would you. if his lot had been mine. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. especially be. is used to express purpose.²SWIFT. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. But in no case could it be justified.

Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²BRYANT. V. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. In Temporal Clauses. . After a verb of wishing. 224. Subjunctive of Result. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions..²D. WEBSTER.²CARLYLE.²WORDSWORTH. Expressing a Wish. To tell of what had passed. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²ID. till it meet the sun in his coming. like the quarry-slave at night. within its fairy bowers. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.That vain it were her eyes to close.And we.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. like the Latin. none of us could say.²MOORE. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. In Indirect Questions. 225. So live.²SOUTHEY. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. VII.Were wafted off to seas unknown. III.. IV. 227. the answer being regarded as doubtful. The English subjunctive. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.²DE QUINCEY.Thou go not. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. I would it were! ²EMERSON.. I've wished that little isle had wings. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.²COLERIDGE. Let it rise.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. Ask the great man if there be none greater. Rise up. VI. 226.I have been the more particular. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. In a Noun Clause.

²TENNYSON. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. That hunger of applause. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²CARLYLE. often contains a subjunctive. or whatsoever victual it may be. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.² Be the matter how it may. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Complement. tell me all that thou hast seen.²THOREAU.²WORDSWORTH. . See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. that everything be in its place.² DICKENS. Some might lament that I were cold. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. etc. The first merit. The noun clause. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.. in apposition.²COLERIDGE. Whatever betide.And look thou tell me true. VIII. is the ultimate fact of man's life.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. of cash. Object. object.²SCOTT.²COLERIDGE. is.²DE QUINCEY. Come. 229. The essence of originality is not that it be new.Subject.And see the Braes of Yarrow. I have no thought what men they be. in its various uses as subject. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. which may be (a) Pronoun. we'll turn aside. After verbs of commanding. (b) Adjective. Concessive Clauses. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. for example. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.²SHELLEY. 228.

but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. It must be remembered. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. (1) Command.(c) Adverb. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. 230. love all men. entreaties. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. fear none. a concession. (3) Request.²BRYANT.²J. Q. and condition contrary to fact. 231. since commands are directed to a person addressed. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. In spoken English. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. ADAMS. 232.² CARLYLE. to express a wish. Honor all men. for example. Oh. Definition. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²CHANNING. however. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²SHELLEY. At the present day.The spirit he loves remains. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. or requests. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. though. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. . The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. (2) Entreaty. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Usually second person. point to their immortal works.

2. 8.And God forget the stranger!" . Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Mark thou this difference.. there will her heart and her prayers be.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. nothing is to be preferred before justice. 7. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. etc. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. etc." Exercises on the Moods.²CAMPBELL. request." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Whatever inconvenience ensue." whispered Kit. noble earl. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. receive my hand."Hush! mother. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. child of earth!While each performs his part. Quoth she. Break we our watch up. but I + you. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.²SCOTT. to you implied in it.²SHAKESPEARE.One glance at their array! 5. Part we in friendship from your land.. "Come along with me. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. "The Devil take the goose. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts."²DICKENS Tell me. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Oh. Sometimes with first person in the plural. 6.And. lest we rust in ease. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. 3. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. or I + they.

21. but repentant child. 11. That a man parade his doubt.9. in what pomps and prosperities he like. . is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. Forget thyself to marble. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree.High up in silver spikes! 22. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. no literary man. it would speak." cried he. or do it at all." continued Old Morgan. ruined. Well. "tell me where I may find my poor.That they might answer him. That sheaf of darts. 23. 13. 14. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. 18.Till you might faint with that delicious pain." 25. Think not that I speak for your sakes. He. as though an instrument. Though abyss open under abyss. how he may do his work. she ought to have it. 10. whether he do it right or wrong. Marshall.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Though he were dumb. my dear madam. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 19. He is. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. 26. "Mr. will it not fall unbound.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. and opinion displace opinion. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. "Oh." 16. let him live where else he like.Except. 20. then.

whatever she did. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. to direct his steps. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. and the past tense. and future perfect tenses. past. PERSON AND NUMBER.²the present tense. five in the imperative." "If he comes." past. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. five in the subjunctive. Tenses in English. have. past. as will be shown later on. shall. or whether it were as one member of a general party. "Thou walkedst. tell him to wait. 234. such as Latin and Greek. as. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. or future time.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. kind. called auxiliaries. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect." . When the older pronoun thou was in use. by means of the present. in the conjugations. as. also. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. as the classical languages have. 235. Meantime. Siddons. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. "It is not in man that walketh. 28. which represented present and future time. the past. or agree with it. such as be. past perfect. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Definition. 233. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. The tenses in detail. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.² present. Old English had only two tenses. "I go away tomorrow. a form ending in -eth.²nothing could exceed the amiable." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents.27. in the third person singular. and future. TENSE. and unassuming deportment of Mrs." present. Tense means time. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. and the future tense. "Thou walkest. will.

I were 2. choosest. are. as. This is the third person. since it is composed of several different roots. The verb be has more forms. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. but in English. Singular 1.²am. Singular 1." and this only in the present tense indicative. chooseth. chosen (old. Singular 1. etc. walketh. walking. In classical languages. for example. [He] is [They] are 3.²choose. and numbers. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. tenses. been. 236. sometimes adding the old forms walkest.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. walkedst. CONJUGATION. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. You (thou) be 3. chooses. wert) 3. Such verbs as choose have five. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. moods. chose. I be 2. Singular 1. walked. etc. mood. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. walks. PRESENT TENSE. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. Indicative Mood. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. chosest). tense. is. 238. You are 2. 237. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. Definition. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. were. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. "He walks. persons. choosing. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. [He] were [They] were . singular number. Few forms. walk has walk.

240. (d) With the infinitive. etc. in four ways. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. is. (3) be.. (b) With the past participle in -ed.Imperative Mood.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.²WORDSWORTH. obligation. though it is usually a dialect form. condition. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²GOLDSMITH..²BURKE . By solemn vision and bright silver dream. 239. for example.²SCOTT.²THACKERAY. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²ID. were.²SHELLEY.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. to form the passive voice. thus. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.His infancy was nurtured. as. -en. same as the German sind. to express intention. (2) was. Instead of the plural are. The light that never was on sea and land. etc. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. which was now become an occasional banquet. (2) As auxiliary verbs. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. Remarks on the verb be. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.

etc. tenses. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. Singular. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. I choose 2. You chose Plural. Singular. future perfect. [He] choose [They] choose 3. I choose 2. 242. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood." "He will choose. "I had gone" (past perfect). In addition to the above inflected forms. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. by placing have. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. We chose You chose 3. Indicative Mood. 1. 1. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You choose Plural. "I have gone" (present perfect). past perfect. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. 240. as." (2) Present perfect.241. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. You chose Plural. 1. Singular. Machinery of a verb in the voices. I chose 2. You choose Plural. had. Singular. We chose You chose 3. as. tenses. . I chose 2. 1. (2). "I shall be. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense.

Past perfect definite. He will have chosen. He has been choosing. Present. Past perfect." 243. He will choose. though. He had chosen. "I was chosen. Past. " Be choosing. as. Present definite.] he choose.(3) The definite form of each tense. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. as. He was choosing. Same as indicative. He chooses. Present. Future. singular number. Past perfect definite. Future definite. Present perfect definite. he have been choosing. of each tense. He has chosen. etc. will be given." "You are chosen. Only the third person. he have chosen. (2d per. Subjunctive Mood.) Choose. He will he choosing. He had been choosing. [If. Past perfect. Past definite. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Same as indicative. Present definite. Present perfect definite. Past. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He chose. Present perfect. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. . "I am running. Imperative Mood. Present definite. Future perfect definite. He is choosing. Past definite." "They had been running. Present perfect. he chose (or were to choose). lest. Indicative Mood. Future perfect. He will have been choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. Present." (4) The passive forms. " " " " " " " he be choosing.

"He does strike.. (2d per. He had been chosen. He will be chosen. None. lest. Present perfect definite. Past perfect definite.²This table is not to be learned now. Also. in affirmative sentences. Future. . None. He is chosen. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Past Perfect. Present perfect. None. 262). Future perfect. Present definite. Past definite. None. Present perfect.] he be chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. He was being chosen. he had been chosen.] [If. he have been chosen. Past definite. he were being chosen. Past. Present.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. PASSIVE VOICE. He is being chosen.NOTE. He has been chosen. Past. He was chosen." "He did strike. Past perfect. Future perfect definite." [Note to Teacher. Imperative Mood. Present definite. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). None. " " " " " " " None. they will be discussed later (Sec. etc. Subjunctive Mood. but verbals. Indicative Mood. though. Present tense. Exercises should be given.) Be chosen. however. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present. Past perfect definite. Future definite. None. Present perfect definite. as. He will have been chosen. if learned at all.

abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) .[adj. drove. as. Some of these also have weak forms. begged. beg. drive. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. 244. Definition. 245. lay. which are in parentheses Present Tense. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. but adds no ending.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. Past Tense. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. verbs are strong or weak. caught. catch. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. laid. ran. bounden] bitten. run. bit blown broken chidden. and may or may not change the vowel: as. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. bid bound. slept. According to form. Kinds. NOTE. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. sleep.

drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.

trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sunken] sat slain slidden.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.²one meaning to adhere or cling. as. 246. only one set remains certain. Sometimes in literary English.²TENNYSON. clave or clove.²COLERIDGE. "his bounden duty. Our cock. Not a cock crew. borne is also a passive. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). and another (born) for the passive. as (from Holmes). the other.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.²IRVING.²B.²GOLDSMITH. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. instead of ate and eaten. The former used to be cleave. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. as. ²THACKERAY. TAYLOR. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. as. cleave. cleaved. and. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).²MILTON. and the latter." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. for example. nor a dog barked.²as (from Shakespeare)." "a drunken wretch. and sometimes occurs in poetry.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. but is much used in vulgar English." In this confusion of usage. When it means to carry or to endure. cleft (to split).² Thou hast clomb aloft." "the cloven hoof. probably to avoid confusion with this." "a sunken snag.² We had each drank three times at the well. cloven. cleft. How fairy Mab the junkets eat." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.²cleave. The form clomb is not used in prose. "stricken with paralysis. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. which always crew at eleven. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. Historically. cleaved. now told us it was time for repose. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. to split. . especially in that of an earlier period.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.

Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. 6. began.²BIBLE. shaken. 245). shook. He sate him down. Usually shear is a weak verb.² We had all got safe on shore. Throw. Break. 7. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang.²BYRON. for example. 4. driven. fell. fallen. thrown. threw. Fall.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.²WORDSWORTH. 8. frozen. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. This heard Geraint. and seized a pen. flung.The form gotten is little used. 5. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Shake. broken. as. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. shore is rare. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 2. drove.² If. 3. Begin. found.²TENNYSON. for example. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. froze. broke.²DE FOE. maiden. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Fling. Drive. . Give. 10.²SCOTT. The butler was hanged. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. which is seldom used except in poetry."²KINGSLEY. given. 9. found. even in poetry. flung. gave. (a) From the table (Sec. Exercises. begun. We usually say. One example out of many is. and grasping at his sword." but not much as a participle. Find." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. as "a shorn lamb. Freeze. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1.

. HAMILTON. ability. etc. Indicative Use: Permission. etc. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. purpose.²HAWTHORNE. Can is used in the indicative only. as it sometimes does. as it has two meanings. Must is historically a past-tense form.²CHANNING.²CHANNING This.. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. 223. which survives in the sentence. 247. Ability. . for full drill on the forms. but came through analogy with should and would. His superiority none might question. Like must.²SCOTT. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. according to the infinitive used. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. It is indicative when it expresses permission. 220. as in Sec. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. "far off his coming shines. PAST. of course.²PAINE. Could may be subjunctive.[To the Teacher. or. must have been an ocular deception. PAST. it is used only in the indicative mood.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 251. Subjunctive use. or when it expresses wish..²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. as. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. 249. from the obsolete verb motan." Must is present or past tense. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. "So mote it be. PRESENT."²WINIER. Have we valuable territories and important posts. 250. The l in could did not belong there originally.. there is one general principle..] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. The same remarks apply to ought. (See also Sec. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.

the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. "I think I will go. She should not walk. shall and should are used. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. in the form of command. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. Shall and Will. (b) In indirect quotations.² The time will come full soon. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. she should ride like a queen. The following are examples:² Never mind. (b) In questions asking for orders. future action). They shall have venison to eat. yea.²THAXTER.²IRVING. and corn to hoe. .²BULWER. Second and third persons. C.²MACAULAY. as. to use will and would.Nay.e." Uses of shall and should.. to the neglect of shall and should.²L.² (a) To express authority. BROCKDEN BROWN. especially in the United States. MOULTON. She rejects his suit with scorn. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. while ought always has to.²COOPER. with pronouns of the first person. what shall I say?²N. promise. 252. WEBSTER. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. The sea shall crush thee. as.² Futurity and questions²first person. I shall be gone. or confident prediction. not plod along like apeasant. shall and should are used.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.²LONGFELLOW. as.² With respect to novels. he said. for example. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. my lad.

(b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. LARNED.²CABLE. I never was what I should be. (c) With direct questions of the second person.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. with the conviction that he should win in the end. for example.²WORDSWORTH. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²SWIFT. for example.²WORDSWORTH. . would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. as the sole inventor.²A. purpose.²C.. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²WORDSWORTH..²SCOTT.² I will go myself now.that I would do him justice. And promised. as. B. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.²H. etc. Disguising a command.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. BROWN.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. thus. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. 253. First. and is equivalent to ought.. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²ROGERS. JR. time. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. and will not return until all is finished. second and third persons. or a promise. JAMES. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²BYRON. was to be expected. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²WINTER.

.²IRVING. To be sure. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. Roland.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. for example. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.² Subject I omitted: often so. The gift of Beauty. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. when thou wast born. will and would often denote an action as customary. PASSIVE VOICE. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. When I am in town. SECOND.. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. so you will.. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²the original meaning of the word will.² Thou wilt take the skiff. and two of my people. AND THIRD PERSONS. as if it were merely expected action.²War Records. without regard to future time. will is used to express command. (4) With FIRST. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). will and would are used to express simple futurity. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.²BURKE. In this stately chair would he sit.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. action merely expected to occur. This puts the order more mildly.. and mark on the grounds the works. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. as. They will go to Sunday schools. through storms their brothers are afraid of. as.²BANCROFT.²SCOTT. B. 254. for example.²SCOTT.. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. would is used to express a wish.. for punishment or intimidation. Thine was a dangerous gift. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.² DICKENS. Would thou hadst it not.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. . Mere futurity. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. BROWN.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.²LANDOR. etc.

I shall choose. 2. Plural. [They] will choose. 3. 2. [They] shall be chosen. 252 and 253. We shall be chosen. We will be chosen. I will be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. 1. You will choose. 1. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. and justify the use of shall and will. I will choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 1. "I shall not run. [He] will choose. Singular. You shall be chosen. [He] will be chosen. Singular. 3. Plural. You shall choose.Singular. Plural. (a) From Secs. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. yet only seem. 3. Thou art what I would be. We shall choose. and that of the newest cut." answered Herbert stubbornly. 1. (b) Examine the following sentences. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. [They] will be chosen. 4.:² ACTIVE VOICE. [He] shall choose. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. We will choose. promise. 6. You will be chosen. Plural. He informed us. 3. You will choose. [They] shall choose. . 2. You shall choose. You shall be chosen. 2. 2. Thou shalt have a suit. To express determination. 5. 2. 3. 3. Singular. You will be chosen. I shall be chosen. etc. PASSIVE VOICE. 1. [He] shall be chosen.

bereave besought Past Participle. then. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Lucy stood still. bereft. Without having attended to this.7. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. No. Irregular Weak Verbs. put. Present Tense. need some attention and explanation.²Class I. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. was -de or -te. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. as. 10. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while.²CHAUCER. The old ending to verbs of Class II. "I am a wayfarer. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 256. and have no change of vowel. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. as if he would have more of the enchantment. 257.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. WEAK VERBS. put. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense.²ID. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. 9. put. very anxious. But the rest. and I have nothing to say. my son. The beast made a sluggish movement. bereaved besought . This ending has now dropped off. 11. 12. 13. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. which may be called irregular weak verbs. bereave beseech bereft. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. set. set. or mylk and wastel breed." 14. Past Tense. 255. Of smale houndes hadde she. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment." the stranger said.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. will (with should and would). [To] be chosen. 7. INFINITIVES. they have an indefinite. 268. PASSIVE VOICE. Nothing of the kind having been done. In Sec. Imperfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. [To] be choosing. as in the Old English. Infinitives. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. to was used before the infinitive generally. To with the infinitive.. Three saplings. [To] have been choosing. Indefinite. When active. Perfect definite. 267. [To] have chosen. Indefinite. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. an imperfect. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system.. . Cases when to is omitted.. 8. [To] have been chosen. Perfect. 9. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. have no tense. like participles. a perfect. 10. 266. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. and a perfect definite form. to express action unconnected with a subject.²the creature warring against the creating power. [To] choose. Perfect.6. formed a kind of bedstead. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. ACTIVE VOICE. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). and when passive. expressing purpose. I returned to reflection on my situation. an indefinite and a perfect form. try clemency. when inflections became fewer. But later.

see. negative. watch. While the gerund expresses action. "a house to let. and emphatic forms of the present and past. poor woman!" cried Charles.²IRVING.² She was a kind. feel. learn [doth learn is one verb. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER.(2) After the verbs may (might)." etc. under "Analysis. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. and corn to hoe. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. too. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. as. or the object of a verb or a preposition. hear. liberal woman. .² What! doth she. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.²HOWELLS. The gerund is like the participle in form. "She ask my pardon. They shall have venison to eat. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. do (as. it may be the subject of a verb. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. But there was nothing to do.²E. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent.²GOLDSMITH. "He will choose. can (could). and like a noun in use. 271. GERUNDS. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. please. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. E.²COOPER. HALE. also in the imperative. "I do go" etc." (4) In exclamations. as in the expression. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. must. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. as. 270." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William." Examples are. as the credulous imagine.²DE QUINCEY. make.). 272.²TENNYSON.. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). bid (command). the gerund may be called a noun verbal. it has several attributes of a noun. 269.²it may be governed as a noun. sometimes need (as. it is often preceded by the definite article. also let. as." "I shall have chosen.²MACAULAY.

which express action. which express action and also modify. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. brilliant.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. above. may govern and be governed." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. and wonderful store of learning! . to see the returning hope of the parents. Words in -ing are of six kinds." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. but do not assert. Then how pleasing is it. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. b). (6) Verbal nouns. five infinitives." Exercise. Exercise. which express action. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. and has been put down. but cannot govern. Sec." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. 4." also (2. and five gerunds.²Find sentences containing five participles. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. (3) Participial adjectives. making the definite tenses. 2. (5) Gerunds. after examining the nest. (2) Pure participles. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. 273." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." "Certainly dueling is bad. on your leaving the spot. II). when. which have lost all verbal force. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. which name an action or state. (4) Pure adjectives. according to use as well as meaning. What a vast. they find the nurslings untouched! 3.

giving principal parts. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. Caution. What is dreaming? 8. 12. 6. subjunctive. 11. 275. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb.5. The only means of ascending was by my hands.²active or passive. 15. round which is an iron railing. 14. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. he gave out sentence by sentence. 7. Thackeray did not. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. He spread his blessings all over the land. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. (b) as to use. like Sir Walter Scott.²transitive or intransitive. . (3) Mood. slowly. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 9. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 10. I. by object lessons.²indicative. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 234. give reality to your teaching. bearing her national emblem. In parsing verbs. 13. dictating from his chair. (5) Person and number. (2) Voice. but.²strong or weak. you must. write twenty pages without stopping. (4) Tense. 16. much corroded. VERBS. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. or imperative.²which of the tenses given in Sec.

and not taken as single verbs. usually it does not. Exercise. must. Parse the verbs. VERBALS. see Sec. give points (a) and (b). 277. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. III. indicative. It has been intimated in Sec. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. call should a weak verb. The government might have been strong and prosperous. In 2. (b) its use (Sec. call might a weak verb. 2. 278(2). Have been is a perfect active infinitive. If a participial adjective. active. II. past tense. definite. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. has for its subject Lee. (a) From what verb derived. and should always be analyzed as phrases. past tense. 2. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. etc. then parse it as an adjective. has the subject government. (c) to what word it belongs. therefore active. (2) Infinitive. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. (b) whether active or passive.276. might." Sometimes it does. But unless the verb is present. VERB PHRASES. 4. perfect. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. no sin nor sorrow. and parting day linger and play on its summit. etc. . if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. could. verbals. imperfect. followed by a pure infinitive without to. can. 273). intransitive. intransitive. You are gathered to your fathers. till it meet the sun in his coming. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. would. In such sentences as 1. in the world. Take these examples:² 1. may. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms.. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. 235. (b) whether indefinite. (1) Participle. 3. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. we must beware of the rule. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. and ends in -s. indicative (as it means could). Let it rise! let it rise. perfect. (3) Gerund. 278. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Especially frequent are those made up of should. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.

as usual. 21.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 6. When he arose in the morning.Henceforth in me instill.5. as rolled from wing to wing." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. from a sort of temporary death. So. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. he thought only of her. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. leaving me upon the bed.O God. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 20. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 12. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 24. He passed across the room to the washstand. or. a sweet good will. However that be. 16. 22. 10. morning is not a new issuing of light. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. . a new bursting forth of the sun. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. as the Hindoos say. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. and wondered if she were yet awake. In going for water. 15. 19. 14. 13. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. Right graciously he smiled on us. With them. a deafening shout. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. The soul having been often born.Down all the line. 17. 8. a new waking up of all that has life. see that it is in good condition. 18. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 23. 11. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 9.

Nor was it altogether nothing." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. When action is expressed.² The young man reveres men of genius. and men of leisure and cultivation. and limit adjectives or adverbs. and live ere life be spent. "William's private life was severely pure.²EMERSON. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.25. Oh." An adjective or an adverb. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. as.Feast while we may. 279. 26. and so on. thou sayest. to speak truly. for the hour of rest is at hand. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. place.²THACKERAY.²SHELLEY. A verb. to consent. 29."²DE QUINCEY. ADVERBS. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. or manner: as. To the almost terror of the persons present." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. for example. Is it only poets. . But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. who live with nature?²ID. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. And now wend we to yonder fountain. Better it were. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. they are more himself than he is. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].²time. because. The word adverb means joined to a verb. 27." "He was absolute. Adverbs modify. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road.²CARLYLE.

Thus considered. An adverb. I draw forth the fruit.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.²THOREAU. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb.²T. ALDRICH.²These last differ from the words in Sec. as shown in the sentences. but really modifying. to-day. NOTE. B. like the light of heaven. Surely happiness is reflective. but some verb understood. all wet and glossy. as. Definition. (2) according to their use in the sentence.²BYRON. ²IRVING. 282.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. A clause or sentence. Make music to the lonely ear. there are six classes:² (1) Time. or a word group used as such. for example. hitherto.He was incidentally news dealer. A phrase. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. 281. is a modifying word. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.²LEIGH HUNT. being adverbs naturally and fitly. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. then. 169.² LOWELL. 169 are felt to be elliptical. ever. lately.² FRANKLIN.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. thus. NOTE. perhaps. but still with a rich bloom to it. before. while those in Sec. and half awfully. It may also modify a sentence. which may qualify an action word or a statement.²TROLLOPE. 280.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. etc. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. . We are offered six months' credit. not the noun. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. not simply the forms used in predication. and that. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. as now. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. has induced some of us to attend it.

partly.yonder. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. etc. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. This long's the text. (see also Sec.²HAWTHORNE. while so precedes only the adjective usually. bravely. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. telling how much. telling how anything is done. as little.. above.was for this once of her opinion.near. Meekness..² The master.²R. as hence. I was. So also in Grote. the more friends you will have. etc. and others. or how far he believes it to be true. singly. and not infrequently are found in literary English. (6) Assertion. as hither..where. as perhaps. the more evidently they love liberty. especially the comparative of these words. very.thence.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. two by two. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. not.there. 283). maybe. just. thus. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. etc. for example. LOUIS STEVENSON.which gained him such universal popularity. (5) Degree. better. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. much. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. at least.²BURKE.²SHAKESPEARE. (3) Manner. whencesoever. etc. too. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. whithersoever. The more they multiply. Thackeray.²IRVING. telling how many times: once.. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. probably.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.²LECKY. beautifully.thither. possibly. Emerson. surely. White. twice. enough. Motley.whither. etc. the more perfect will be their obedience. (4) Number.. as here. greatly. slightly. that these adverbs form a very large class.²DE QUINCEY. slowly. etc.(2) Place. . as well.²BROWNING.whence. 283. [Sidenote The status of such.

"²SCOTT. Beau Fielding. 282. Some adverbs.² "Mighty well. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Kingsley. 284. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Simple.²GOLDSMITH. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Holmes. have the additional function of asking a question.² KINGSLEY." said the king." "That were far better [degree]." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Burke.²BULWER. "Peace. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. a mighty fine gentleman. Neville. STOWE. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. De Quincey. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.Pretty.² You are mighty courteous. Defoe.²FIELDING. 286. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Franklin. 285. Notice meanings." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Emerson." "He spoke positively [manner]. Mighty.²THACKERAY." "I have seen you before [time]. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Again." "The house. for example.²THACKERAY. Dickens.²BAYNE. Hard blows and hard money. and other writers. for example. besides modifying. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Direct questions. and its lawn before [place]. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form.²"He walked too far [place]. and art but a fool. Aldrich. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise.²HAWTHORNE. Interrogative. It is only occasionally used in literary English. . A pretty large experience. B.

There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. . or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. CLAY. 287. I hearkened.²BYRON. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. I do not remember when I was taught to read. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (4) Degree. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BULWER.²D. I know not why. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. (2) Place. When did this humane custom begin?²H. (4) Degree. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²POE.²BYRON (3) Manner. I will not ask where thou liest low. (2) Place. for example. WEBSTER. (5) Reason. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. they smiled.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.

²COLERIDGE. when compared. when does not express time and modify.. see Sec. use.. 288. Exercise. soonest. Many adjectives have the same ending. further farthest. Many adverbs are compared. obs. 290. high. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. as. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. just as adjectives do. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. highest. Tell what each word in ly modifies. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. well much little far late Comparative. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. have the same inflection as adjectives." Exercise.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. representing four classes.But in reality. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.eyes. Only that we may wiselier see.²TENNYSON. The following.²BYRON. Then must she keep it safelier. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.) rather 289. soon. irregularly compared. only occasionally having -er and -est. furthest (rathe. Its strings boldlier swept. For further discussion. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. higher. sooner. when.²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. . Superlative. not an adverb. but the whole clause. and. Form vs.

quick-flashing eye.1. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. merely introduces a sentence. . hardly. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. that in Old and Middle English.²IRVING. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. 291.²ID. With his proud.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. mostly. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. even. 8. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. There are eyes. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. 2. 6. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. near.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. kindly and good-natured in secret. if it has the verb be. But he must do his errand right. 4. Again. Special use of there. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. Such are most. He is inexpressibly mean. 292. or down the leaves laughed through. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. to be sure. but with a different meaning. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.²TENNYSON. 7.²CHAUCER. instead of being used adverbially. curiously jolly. more courtly in their manners. 3. as. And all about. Not near so black as he was painted. The reason is. hard. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. nearly. 5. etc. It is true he was rarely heard to speak." Compare these:² 1.²WORDSWORTH. many words without -ly have the same form. 2. whether adverbs or adjectives.And his mien of kingly state.² EMERSON. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. Frequently the word there. evenly.²THACKERAY.

How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 4. (2) Degree of comparison. 15. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. For the impracticable. according to meaning and also use. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. burning in the center of the temple. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 293. (3) What word or word group it modifies. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. It is the Cross that is first seen. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. and always. but continually shifted. 16. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. at the regular wine-shop. 9. Exercise. if the word is compared. 10. 18. but from my fall? 6. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. In parsing adverbs. however theoretically enticing. is always politically unwise. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 5. 11. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 7. the Madonna is in great glory. 2. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. . and sate down on the steps of a house. 17. give² (1) The class. Thither we went. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 12. But a few steps farther on.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 3. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it.

Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. 21. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air." Paragraphs. 20. . Clauses. then. upon which the sun now shone forth. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. therefore.19." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. hence. or sentence groups. word groups. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. 295. etc. 294. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Definition. but the student will readily find them. It was pretty bad after that. connecting words. but side by side within the American Union. Unlike adverbs. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States." Sentences. 22. A conjunction is a linking word. CONJUNCTIONS. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. however. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. and the stern drifted in toward the bank." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. sentences. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. nor. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. But now the wind rose again. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise.

"Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.or. expressing a choice. as well as the room door.but. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.Classes of conjunctions. as well as.. 297. neither. Nor mark'd they less.. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. nor. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. "Howbeit. the window being open. (4) ALTERNATIVE. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Alternative. serves but to show their ignorance. also. neither. had its weight. the bread was spent. still..nor. of the same rank. while. for... answering to each other in the same sentence.. joining words. Your letter.. as but. The assertion.or.. etc.nor. 298. whether. not only. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. therefore... (3) CAUSAL. either. The chief ones are. either. as and. the butter too. . not only.or.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. introducing a reason or cause. moreover.or whether. Adversative. and not man corn. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. word groups. then.. as. or the sea rolls its waves.. however.. hence. yet. however. whether. neither. They are or. Causal. etc." Nevertheless.or. Some go in threes. Some of these go in pairs. usually between two things. both. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.... likewise..but (or but also). While the earth bears a plant. etc. (2) ADVERSATIVE.. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. only.. nor. whether.... either. (2) Subordinate.. Correlatives.and. 296. and. else. as. but is emperor in his own right..

Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. except. so that. however. that. whither. provided that. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.²J. whenever. nor echo. so that.²PAULDING. in case. nor creeping thing. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. so.²WILSON. nor green leaf. It is. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. (2) TIME: when. while.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. object. Where the treasure is. etc. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. there will the heart be also.²COOPER. etc. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. before.²IRVING. wherever. seeing. in apposition. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted.. even if. now. lest. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. as.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. unless. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. nor wing of bird. ²ALLSTON.. as. ere. 299. after. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.. howsoever. (6) PURPOSE: that. Time. QUINCY. . since.²BIBLE. He is not only bold and vociferous. though. sometimes if. whithersoever. especially that after so. (7) RESULT: that. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. etc. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. so. on condition in order that. whereto. whereas. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me.. etc. provided. etc. Neither the place in which he found himself. whence. since.²BURKE. as. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²DE QUINCEY. until. so. whether. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (3) MANNER: how. although.

It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Substantive.²IRVING. So many thoughts moved to and fro. We wish for a thousand heads. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Concession. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Let the world go how it will. Now he is dead. Cause.²AMES. JACKSON. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. I was again covered with water. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.² EMERSON. . his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.² H.²BURKE.²DEFOE. As a soldier.²AMES. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²EMERSON. a thousand bodies.²COLERIDGE.That vain it were her eyes to close. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.² WORDSWORTH. reason. Comparison. H.²EMERSON. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²EMERSON. but not so long but I held it out. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.So I behold them not. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Result. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Manner. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Condition. Purpose.²AMES.²BYRON. Then Denmark blest our chief.²CAMPBELL. not as they were expected or intended.² HAWTHORNE.That he gave her wounds repose.

They. 10. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. After he was gone. 3. her real merit is known at home. it will remain harmless. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. Crept under the leaf. and hid her there. 12. And then recovering. the wisest. He was brought up for the church. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie.Let us see whether the greatest. while. hold a subordinate rank. While a faction is a minority. 15. In what point of view. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. etc. While patriotism glowed in his heart. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions.²RUSKIN. Besides. some words²for example. 6. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. And they lived happily forever after. 300. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. the lady called her servant. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Exercises. 5. then. however. 4. as he shot in air. As will have been noticed. The moth fly. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. since. she faintly pressed her hand. as. 2.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 13. 7. . (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 14. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 9. that. No one had yet caught his character.

"We meet. and be a bud again. the expression would be." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. As though. Consequently. etc. and the frame will suit the picture. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. expressing degree if taken separately. 302. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing." as. thus. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. they connect. . for example. in this case.Clouded. 301. word groups.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. 304. As if. As for as if. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.16.. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. If analyzed. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. as is shown by the use of as though.As though a rose should shut. (2) What words. even as they would weep.²HOOD. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. GREELEY. none of the lashings having given way.²BYRON. 303.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. His voice . So silently we seemed to speak. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. as is often equivalent to as if. In poetry.²EMILY BRONTE..So slowly moved about. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. SPECIAL REMARKS.²IRVING..² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. and part as though we parted not. In parsing conjunctions. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. In Emerson's sentence.

It continued raining. All the postulates of elfin annals. 4. 6. the Sphinx was slain. Exercise. so means provided. as beside his own chimneys. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. are regularly of one particular class. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. and very seldom?" 8. others belong to several classes. in 3. Some conjunctions. For example. he is also the correlative of nature. It may be safely trusted.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. At sea. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.Caution. such as nor. because. 12. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. so means therefore. etc.²DEFOE 2. or in the forest.²I find them true in Concord. and its clause depends on the other. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. but of the natural. so it be faithfully imparted. and. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye.²that the fairies do not like to be named." said his wife to Martin Luther. because it is his. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.² 1. In classifying them. "Doctor. 5. He is the compend of time. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. they are not known. 11. dines with as good an appetite. and its clause is independent. compare the sentences. that it might testify of that particular ray. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. If he could solve the riddle. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. He dismisses without notice his thought.²EMERSON 3.. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. 9. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. 13. When the gods come among men. so that expresses result. 2. he sleeps as warm. when. and the like. 10. or in the snow. 7. 3. . Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.²is subordinate of condition. in 2. and associates as happily. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. so that I could not stir abroad. so they paddled on.

30. 29. whose names I omit. 27. in many a heart. 25. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 19. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. There was no iron to be seen. you must be. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. of good novels only. therefore. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. the whole conditions are changed. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. For. Now you have the whip in your hand. 21.²else it is none. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. It is clear. that both were wayward. 28. 15. save it were sinful like herself. 305. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns.14. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 18. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. Goodness must have some edge to it. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. I rejoice to stand here no longer. in this they agree. . PREPOSITIONS.. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. I speak. And whether consciously or not. enthroned. 22. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 23. 26. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. however. 16. she might have the family countenance. 24. 20. when it was presented to them. won't you lay on? 17. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. It may be so in the majority of cases. Still.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at random. at length. At St. at any rate. She saw the boat headed for her. etc. H. by means near or close to. at one. at least.² (1) The general meaning of place. Helena. at the worst. Like at. expressing the degree of difference. the first port made by the ship. at rest. STODDARD.²ALDRICH. at the best. at work. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. Exercise.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at war. For. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. At that time [the earth] was richer. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²B. . (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. by the ruins of nations. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.²M. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. by the blessed memory of the departed.²DE QUINCEY. 321.. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²R. ²PARTON. By my faith. By. at once. by the wrecks of time. by many a million of acres. D. (4) Measure of excess.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at first. as. etc. 320.²SWIFT. TAYLOR The angel came by night. Exercise. at naught.²ID.²EVERETT. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at play. at most. Richard was standing by the window. CONWAY. at all.²COOPER. he stopped. (3) Agency or means. at peace.²WARNER. (2) Time.

and leaped for joy. meaning with regard to. An Arab woman. for all his title." answered Master Brackett. For the rest. GARRISON. meaning in the character of.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. meaning although. (6) Like as.²E."²SCOTT By my faith. for all slips of hers. but a few sunsets since.²PARKMAN.²PARKMAN. etc. for the benefit of. "Nay. the Colonna motto would fit you best. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.²W.²H. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. etc. a person or thing. as to. H.² RUSKIN. they are now for us. or extent of space. had a forest of poor relations. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²IRVING. (7) Concession." said the Lady of Lochleven. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. There are gains for all our losses. (4) Substitution or exchange. Still. The twilight being.. respecting.²HOLMES.²HOOD. L.²ID. But the Colonel. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. as being. in behalf of.(2) In favor of.²LAMB. for famine. considering that etc. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. or in spite of. ate her child. "thou hast counseled wisely. poor fellow. He and they were for immediate attack. . E.²STODDARD.One of Eve's family. (5) Reference. incitement to action. "For a fool. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.. he repented of his folly. BANCROFT. (9) Motive. For him. cause. (3) Duration of time. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. reason. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. if your worship can accomplish that. etc.²EMERSON.

(2) Origin. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. 323. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. from a desire of seeming valiant. ceased to be merciful. Exercise.²HUXLEY. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. nay.²DRYDEN.²BANCROFT.²ID.²H. more. 322.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Like boys escaped from school. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. (1) Origin or source. (4) Motive. From. if not a desperate man. or reason. It was from no fault of Nolan's. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²HIGGINSON. The king holds his authority of the people.²HALE. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. (3) Time. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The From Relation. like from. A distrustful. H. cause.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. From harmony. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²MILTON. The young cavaliers. Of. Exercise.²HUME. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. The general idea in from is separation or source. The original meaning of of was separation or source. . BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.

Asked no odds of. cure. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. etc. deprive. especially out of. bare of. Of the Forty. ask. rob. (d) With words expressing distance. there were only twenty-one members present. beg. rid. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. divest. Back of that tree.²BANCROFT.²clear of. "I am glad of that. south of. that Cromwell once ruled England. acquitted them of. out of the most unpromising materials. Sandals. relieve. as north of. etc. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²ID. He is away of his own free will. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²BAYARD TAYLOR. weeds. expressing a part of a number or quantity. etc. wide of.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. such as ease. motive. clear. etc.²PARKMAN. reason. free of. (5) Expressing agency. ²GAVARRE. (b) After some adjectives."²E.²BOSWELL. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. (6) Partitive.²LEW WALLACE. and grass.²ALDRICH. (3) With expressions of material. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. bound with thongs of boar's hide. HALE. purge. etc. free. You cannot make a boy know. E. of his own knowledge. A singular want of all human relation. The hills were bare of trees. More than one altar was richer of his vows.. White shirt with diamond studs. Other Relations expressed by Of. ²PARTON.²SCOTT Who formed. disarm.²HIGGINSON. .(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.²DICKENS II. demand. or breastpin of native gold.² HUXLEY. deprivation.

²W. .²BANCROFT. for the possessive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. ²IRVING. of is used in the sense of during. etc. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.He washed out some of the dirt. with its object.²HALLECK. and the dignity of a queen.²SWIFT. (9) Of time.²COOPER. (8) Appositional. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. could give shelter from his contumely.. See also Sec. E. with regard to. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. (7) Possessive. equal to about. Such a book as that of Job. (10) Of reference.²PRESCOTT. (c) Two nouns. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. concerning. Idiomatic use with verbs. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²BANCROFT. of late.²ID. The fair city of Mexico. (b) Noun and gerund. CHANNING. Besides the phrases of old. The nation of Lilliput.²ALDRICH.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²FROUDE. 309.²BANCROFT. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. Not even woman's love. standing. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²LOWELL.²LAMB. being equivalent to an infinitive. of a sudden. when the first is descriptive of the second.

Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. on a sudden.²EMERSON. ²BANCROFT.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. equal to about. allow.²DE QUINCEY. etc. complain. you are eighteen. on board. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²PARKMAN. Upon. (4) In adjurations.²MRS.²ALDRICH. consist. Upon is seldom used to express time. (2) Time. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. on the alert. Exercise. and not a day more. Cannon were heard close on the left. on trial. (b) With motion. On my life. SIGOURNEY. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. on the wing. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. on high. On. accept. 324. permit. without adding to their meaning. concerning. etc.²BRYANT. . It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. Exercise. on view. It also accompanies the verbs tire. repent. disapprove.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire.²Find sentences with six uses of of. such as admit. (3) Reference.²PARKMAN. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. The general meaning of on is position or direction.²PARKMAN. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. 325. To. approve. avail (one's self). Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. and others. Upon my reputation and credit.

²IRVING. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. Exercise.Come to the bridal chamber. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. But when.. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.² be written over. . With expresses the idea of accompaniment. (5) Equivalent to according to. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. (2) Expressing result.²BENTON To our great delight. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. In Old English. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. His brother had died.²LANG.²PARTON. He usually gave his draft to an aid.. (b) Referring to time. to my taste.. With. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. Nor. To the few.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. to him. had ceased to be. whose influence is felt to this hour. mid meant in company with.²GOLDSMITH.²BULWER. interest.²B. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. it may be genuine poetry.. Death!²HALLECK. 326.²PARKMAN. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²BRYANT. gay Comedy appears. We cook the dish to our own appetite. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. 268). does the mere music. unmasked.²often to the loss of vigor. Revolutions.

²DE QUINCEY. (3) Cause.²LANG.²HOWELLS. It seemed a supreme moment with him. but with you. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. .²Find sentences with four uses of with. He was wild with delight about Texas. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. Exercise. he gave millions to the sword. with all his boldness.²HOWELLS. felt it unsafe to trifle further. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²WALLACE (7) Time.The advance. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²SCOTT. E.²DE QUINCEY. (2) Instrumentality. She seemed pleased with the accident. as with you. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²E. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. (5) Opposition. opinion.²COLERIDGE. it is necessary.²ALDRICH. or with the haunch of our near leader. 327. I think. Messala. HALE. motive.²COOPER. had already reached the defile.²EMERSON. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. in spite of.²CHANNING. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. reason. With all his sensibility. but a pleasure"?²LANG. "poetry is not a pursuit. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. Either with the swingle-bar. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. with Heyward at its head. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. to find the object of the preposition. first of all. (4) Estimation.²HALE. He expired with these words. transmitted from the beginning.

The phrases are (1) on board the ships. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. (4) from the beginning. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. of from. shook it directly over my head. and knocked me down flat on my face. To our general surprise. but I received no other hurt. In (2). and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I remember. In (3). that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. In (1). Whereupon. I looked towards my windows. the malicious rogue. without a country modifies man. of without. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. came tumbling about my ears. telling what man. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. (2) on which. which.²SWIFT 2. 4. beginning. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. Exercises. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. he followed us one day into those gardens.²ID. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. 5. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. we met the defaulter here. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. like the clapping of wings. the phrase answers the question where. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. (3) without a country. I felt my box raised very high in the air. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. before the dwarf left the queen. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. by which a dozen apples. 3. country. because I had given the provocation. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. 2. but all to no purpose. The guns were cleared of their lumber. . And so on. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. hence we say. I heard a noise just over my head. I called out several times. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. or was. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I speak these things from a love of justice. The object of on board is ships. of on. Be that as it will. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them.

He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. plumed for battle. His breeches were of black silk. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. in town. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 27. The savage army was in war-paint. 8. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 13. 29. 11. he favored the world with his opinions. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. after a restful morning. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 12. 9. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 7. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. The mother sank and fell. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. . Carteret was far from being a pedant.Without stop or stay. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. grasping at the child. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 20.He spurred his courser on. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 16. 22. to one dark and gloomy. For my part. 25.6. 26. 10. With all his learning. when. 23. in this respect. 21. 14. On all subjects known to man. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 19. I like to see the passing. 15. 24. 18. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 17.

(a) Indefinite relative. THAT. He will raise the price. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.30. That night was a memorable one. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²WEBSTER. (b) Of result. 330. We wish that labor may look up here. 329.² JOHNSON.²STOCKTON.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²BEECHER. (c) Substantive conjunction. 328. .²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. that you might behold this joyous day. WHAT. not merely by the amount of the tax.²COLERIDGE. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. That was a dreadful mistake. (3) As a relative pronoun. That is what I understand by scientific education.That makes the heavens be mute. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (1) Relative pronoun. A few are discussed below. and not according to form. And now it is like an angel's song.²HUXLEY. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (4) As an adverb of degree. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.

after not only. What... but the result of calculation. "I'll tell you what.²WEBSTER. it rests on reality.. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (b) Indirect question. or not only. Cox.²THACKERAY. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. partly. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. BUT. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.²EMERSON. and silent all!²BYRON.²S.. he knows what good people are to be found there. silent still. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. 331. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. nearly equivalent to partly. At what rate these materials would be distributed.but.²WORDSWORTH... (6) Exclamatory adjective. (8) Conjunction.. What with the Maltese goats.. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. If he has [been in America].²EMERSON.²ID.these sounds are only to be heard. (7) Adverb of degree. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (9) As an exclamation. (b) Copulative. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. .it is impossible to determine." (4) Relative adjective.² Pera. What. to see what might be hidden. To say what good of fashion we can. (b) Indirect question. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY...Are yet the fountain light of all our day.S.Which be they what they may...Those shadowy recollections. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.

. but piercing cries. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. . (e) Introducing an appositive word.²LAMB. ²CARLYLE. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. 332. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. after a negative. Who knows but. meaning except. (b) Substantive. To lead but one measure.²SCOTT. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²FRANKLIN. (2) Relative pronoun. meaning otherwise . (d) Of reason. towards order..²EMERSON.. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.. meaning only. (3) Preposition..²HAWTHORNE.²MRS BROWNING.²IRVING. on all sides. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. equivalent to that . His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. not. AS. sometimes same. not. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. or who . There is not a man in them but is impelled withal..He yearned to our patriot bands. after such.Then arose not only tears. (b) Of manner. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. not. (4) Relative pronoun.²IRVING.²CARLYLE. I shall see but little of it. (c) Of degree. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. stands for that .²IRVING.. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²SHELLEY. Doing duty as a guard. than. like the dog.. (5) Adverb. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. at all moments.

² HAWTHORNE. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. (1) An adjective. staring like a bewildered man. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. Introduces a clause. and as or as if takes its place. Give Ruskin space enough. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. In each case. like summer ocean's. In this second use. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.-SCOTT. indeed. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²MAYHEW.² A timid. and was clearly an adjective. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. ²PARKMAN.²DARWIN.²CASS. Stirring it vigorously. but this is not considered good usage: for example. They look.²LAMB.²LONGFELLOW.²HAWTHORNE. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. and is followed by a dative-objective. . like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. That face. nervous child.LIKE. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. like drops out. This follows a verb or a verbal. If the verb is expressed.²HIGGINSON. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²ALDRICH. like Martin was. Through which they put their heads.²ALDRICH. 333.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. There is no statue like this living man. this. like him awhile ago.²EMERSON. Note the difference between these two uses. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like a cook beating eggs. NOTE. but its verb is omitted.²SHAKESPEARE. No Emperor.²HALLECK.²EMERSON. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.

A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. entering into the structure of a sentence. ." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].: for example. etc.INTERJECTIONS. pronoun. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. verb. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. 334. but it still retains its identity as noun. Value of analysis. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. in separating them into their component parts. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. clauses introduced by conjunctions. as. 336. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. What analysis is. that is.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. Some of these are imitative sounds." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. Definition.²in determining case. that is. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. subject and predicate. etc.. 335. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. tut! buzz! etc. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. Definition." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]." PART II. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences.

but according to how many statements there are. but the sentence would still be declarative. you must not die!" interrogative. which expresses command. "Come to the bridal chamber. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. This is the most common one. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Division according to number of statements." 340. SIMPLE SENTENCES. or command: for example. Definition. Examples of these three kinds are. hence. But now all is to be changed. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Every sentence must contain two parts. which puts the thought in a question. (2) Interrogative. 337. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. or imperative. entreaty. not according to the form in which a thought is put. 2." "What wouldst thou do. A rare old plant is the ivy green. Definition: Predicate. 338. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. . old man?" "Be thou familiar.Kinds of sentences as to form. according to form. "Hath he not always treasures. (3) Imperative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. question. "The quality of mercy is not strained. "Old year. or request. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. 339. interrogative. but by no means vulgar. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. always friends?" imperative. declarative.²a subject and a predicate. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation.

or adverb that asks about the subject. the subject (you. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Consequently. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. as. the subject is frequently after the verb. we have some trouble. 5. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. and our definition must be the following. 2. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. 3. The last of all the Bards was he. . Listen. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. to suit all cases:² Subject. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. adjective. But if we try this with the second sentence. Slavery they can have anywhere. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. a rare old plant. thou. 8. to an ignorant man. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. especially in poetry. 341." Exercise.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.²What is to be changed? Answer. all. and the real subject is the latter. or ye) is in most cases omitted. 7. 6. not of a rare old plant. but about the ivy green. always reduce them to the order of a statement. "[You] behold her single in the field.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. In the interrogative sentence. Thus. or an interrogative pronoun.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. In analyzing such sentences. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. 4. on the other hand. and is to be supplied. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. we say all is the subject of the sentence.

342. or second object. . (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. (3) The object. and means summoned. and by object we mean the direct object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object.10. 343. and me here is not the object simply of call. "Ye honor me. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. The transitive verb often requires. Indirect object. (4) The complements. (2) The predicate. Direct Object. just as if to say. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (5) Modifiers. but it is a true complement. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. for example." indirect. (6) Independent elements. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). The subject and predicate have been discussed.²transitive and intransitive. in addition to the object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object." Complement: 344. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. but of call chief. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. direct. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. Of a transitive verb. "Ye call me chief. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. but chief belongs to the verb.

(1) PREPOSITIONAL. 351. as in drowning. to the completion of this man of the world. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. or." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." (3) INFINITIVE. in exercise following Sec. 355. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. 364. Thom of the Gills." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." Also an expression used as a noun." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." "He was termed Thomas. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. A phrase is a group of words. Phrases. become. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. seem." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. taste. As to form. 352. as in the sentence." Things used as Subject. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. especially the forms of be. not containing a verb." 345. sir!' rang out in response. in the popular judgment. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. etc. he was now getting old. ay. feel." (2) PARTICIPIAL." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 'Ay. as." All these complete intransitive verbs. 347. "A cheery. 346. An intransitive verb. I mentioned a case of that nature. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. and. introduced by a preposition: for example. appear. Complement of an intransitive verb. in the original Opium Confessions. more familiarly. and barring the door. for instance. and of massive weight." "The good man. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. See sentence 19. above sixty.. but used as a single modifier. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. "Brow and head were round. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" .

(3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). from their lips. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." In this sentence.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect.²the talent of starting the game." Things used as Complement." 348." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. or their religion from their sect.²the infinitive phrase." The for did not belong there originally. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. my deficiency. was heard one syllable to justify." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. Disguised infinitive subject." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. "'By God." "The dead are there." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. "Therein has been." "Never." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. etc. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. but they will be given in detail here." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. asserting eyes." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. but the real or logical subject is to print. or the thundering of organs. but obscures the real subject. for which see Sec. (2) In interrogative sentences." "There are asking eyes. and ever will be. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. prowling eyes. 341. 349. and by Saint George!' said the King. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. I saw the quick and the dead." Things used as Direct Object." etc. . (4) After "there introductory.

" It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation.²heads or tails. (3) Infinitive." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. the shepherd girl." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. or the equivalent of the noun. 351. complements of the predicate." "I hear the echoes throng." "She asked her father's permission." In this last sentence. or Complement. and the words italicized are still complements. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. Of a transitive verb.350. doubtless." Modifiers. I. and whenever the complement is a noun." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous.²completing the predicate.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. at the same time. and explaining or modifying the subject." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." "Serving others is serving us. Like all the complements in this list. and.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Modifiers of Subject. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. As complement of a transitive verb." (4) Participle. As complement of an intransitive verb. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. they are adjuncts of the object." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." "Their tempers." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. Object. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." . the object is made the subject by being passive.

II. Retained with passive. 352." "In the twinkling of an eye. but it is really a contracted clause. Modifiers of the Predicate. was the scene from King John. no sociable angel.²In each sentence in Sec. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. the prisoner at the bar. but with other men. was now called upon for his defense. and modify the predicate in the same way. 357-363. tell whether the subject. given at the request of a Dutch lady." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. I have seasoned for thee. 351. "He died like a God." Exercise. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. unforgiving. or complement is modified. but noble teachers." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." "Him." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. the verb being omitted. Tells how." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. not with nature." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.²proud." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. this young idolater. austere. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." "Give them not only noble teachings." (For participial and infinitive phrases. see further Secs. or .) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. and leading him from star to star. object. Since the predicate is always a verb." In such a sentence as.

and as many to oppose it." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. (a) Pick out subject. 7. 3. no humor. etc. (b) Pick out the subject. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. no emotion. 6. predicate. 6. This. gives wonderful animation. and the direct object is retained: for example." "All such knowledge should be given her.When the verb is changed from active to passive. with my joy and grief." (6) Adverbial objective. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. in this center? 4. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. On the voyage to Egypt." "One way lies hope. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. the indirect object is retained. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause." Exercises. Evil. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. a sort of personality to the whole writing. how far. His books have no melody. to the animal strength and spirits. These answer the question when. But anger drives a man to say anything. . and (direct) object:² 1. or how long. 7. but to be loved. To the men of this world. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light.. negative. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. Fashion does not often caress the great. Why does the horizon hold me fast. but the children of the great. I took. according to old philosophers. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. They do not wish to be lovely. after dinner. no relief to the dead prosaic level. is good in the making. 8." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. and other measures of precaution. 3. and. 4. 5. predicate. 5. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. in regard to particulars. 2. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 2. he liked.

happy dinner. this nun so martial. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 5. 4. In one feature. Their intention was to have a gay. upwards. 2. at length the warrior lady. Yes. Paint me. the blooming cornet. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. that was thy portion in life. 4. 4. the attorney. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. I promised her protection against all ghosts. Compound Predicate. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. and a member of the world. 3.. then. That night. Not the less I owe thee justice. 5. To suffer and to do. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth.y 8.²the river Meuse. this dragoon so lovely. downwards. viz. must visit again the home of her childhood. y y y y Compound Subject. 6. 3. the present Archbishop of Dublin. I gave him an address to my friend. at the chief hotel. 2. burthened with the anxieties of a man. expecting the return of their parents. 3. etc. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. then. six children sat by a peat fire. a room seventeen feet by twelve. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. 2. Not compound sentences. this imperial rider. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. I felt myself. . A river formed the boundary. to the right and to the left. in little peaceful Easedale. Unhorse me. after their long confinement to a ship. for the first time.

" Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. exposes. and the rest is the logical predicate. complements." "The name of the child. modifiers. then the grammatical subject and predicate. "Ah. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. the tone of her voice. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. For example. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. several modifiers. the predicate. two or more subjects of the same predicate. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. etc. and. shouldered the rusty firelock. the object. hurry. Independent Elements of the Sentence. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. I'm with you once again. together with its modifiers. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. the simple subject is situation. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. together with all its modifiers. hurry." "He shook his head. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. forming a sentence: "Oh.353. my brave young man!" . same as (1). the air of the mother." And so with complements. in all such sentences as we quote below. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. but it is to be noticed that. Larger view of a sentence. and its object or complement. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. above: thus. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. in the sentence. Examples of compound subjects are.. The exclamatory expression. may be the person or thing addressed. 354." "Voyages and travels I would also have. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms." Sentences with compound predicates are. the verb)." "Ye crags and peaks.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. ulcer. they are not a necessary part. Bishop. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. turned his steps homeward." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. Of this. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. etc. however. that is. 355. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. "The company broke up. etc.

"He took the road to King Richard's pavilion." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. undoubtedly. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. the company broke up. . There are some adverbs.. etc. instances of which were seen in Sec. The words well.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. and so on. see Sec. pronoun." (2) Adverbial. he somehow lived along. modifying a noun. besides." Another caution. "Oh." "No." (6) Single words: as. let him perish. generally speaking. such as however. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. and some conjunctions." (3) Independent. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES." (5) Participial phrase: "But. he was a conscientious man. already noticed." "Truth to say. yes! everybody knew them. then. this story runs thus. see Sec. moreover. nevertheless. These need close watching. object. y (2) The adverbial use. truly. In their use." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. 351. or word used as a noun: for example. he closed his literary toils at dinner. (1) Adjectival. 357. now." "At all events. 355. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. (b) As a modifier of subject. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. how you're winking!" "Now. such as perhaps. to the best of my remembrance. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb.. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. why. 350. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use." "Why. six quill-driving gentlemen." "Well. 4). 356. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. that have an office in the sentence. 352. etc. prepositional phrases may be. her noticing even this is creditable. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 4). 6)." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. or complement (see Sec. therefore. grandma. really. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 3. modifying the predicate.

both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. This case excepted. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. he should not have known them at all.can (could). I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. but having no other office than a verbal one." etc. or as nearly so as the student will require. containing no matters of business.would. my dear. modifying was speedily run through. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. and they will be presented here in full. The verbal use.should. ought. 355.seem." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion.].There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every ." In this sentence.: as in the sentences. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. being equivalent to a future with obligation." (b) With the forms of be. 358. "The letter of introduction.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. and teach her how to be happy and good. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. "Because I was. See Sec. Wilt thou." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. I. y (a) With may (might). but require somewhat closer attention. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. therefore. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb." (c) With the definite forms of go. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. etc. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. necessity. (5). and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. was speedily run through. thus. and hence is adverbial." "There. etc.

" (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. 361. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. to look means that he might look. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. notice the following:² In (1)." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. object." "To say what good of fashion we can. 5). such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). already examined." "Are you mad. etc. "But there was no time to be lost. .. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. (4) In apposition. to please is equivalent to that he may please." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. 361 are used adverbially." "He insisted on his right to forget her. and the eyes to fill?" 359." 360. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French.²both purpose clauses.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). 362. to hear McOrator after dinner.: for example. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. The substantive use. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. result. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. III. II." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. the Scotch fighting all the battles. above. Don Guzman. IV. complement. The adverbial use. modifying a noun that may be a subject. hang the idiot. 351." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." "To teach is to learn." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. To test this. The adjectival use." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. etc. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry.

and to betray and to bring express the reason. The independent use. etc.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 349). . (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 351). 3. and to say is equivalent to if we say. give the complement (Secs. 4. etc. In (3). 268. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 351). V.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. In (5). I will try to keep the balance true. (3). 363. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. give² (1) The predicate. etc. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. equivalent to that you betray. to part means because I part. 351). 355." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. object. In analyzing simple sentences.. not in a book. to hear means if you should hear. which is of two kinds. (7) Independent elements (Sec. to find shows the result of the return. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. must be in a life. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 355). In (4). as in Sec. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. (5) The subject (Sec. 364. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. If it is an incomplete verb. savage and serene in one hour. Our life is March weather. 352). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. 347). 2." (See also Sec. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these.²both expressing condition. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree.In (2)..

the carrion crow. a graceful dancer. 16. We are always in peril. 22. Old Adam. 24. and spared nothing. 19. through evil agents. His opinion is always original.He sat in the shower. 12. The water. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. To these gifts of nature. 23. a good shot. through toys and atoms. always in a bad plight. Her aims were simple and obvious. like a witch's oils. 8. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. an accomplished scholar. 6.Burnt green and blue and white. just on the edge of destruction. The whole figure and air. 10. The word conscience has become almost confined. and to the purpose. might be called flabby and irresolute. I have heard Coleridge talk. 7. To be hurried away by every event.4. and only to be saved by invention and courage. nor himself. neither ammunition. You may ramble a whole day together. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 9.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. good and amiable otherwise. 15. 5. 18. two stricken hours. to keep England out of war. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 11. is to have no political system at all. 20.²to preserve her throne. Through the years and the centuries. . nor troops. nor money. and every moment discover something new. to the moral sphere. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. nor generals. to restore civil and religious order. in popular use. 13. 17. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 21. a skilled musician. with eager energy.The old crow of Cairo. He risked everything. 14.

the prime minister of Spain. This amiable relative. 34. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. the same Condé Olivarez. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. still. Must we in all things look for the how. and the why. secluded. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 36. 30. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. and no provisions but wild berries. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. an elderly man. baggage far in the rear. I hate him and myself. 27. 35. I dare this. to bid you leave the place now and forever. 38.Distant. 33. and. 40. But yield. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 26. proud foe. Upon this shore stood. Supposing this computation to be correct. Now. to be a reproach to such goodness. ready to receive her. in front of all this mighty crowd. Fair name might he have handed down. She had made a two days' march. time-honored. it would not have been filial or ladylike. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. haply.Effacing many a stain of former crime. the ship was in an uproar. The villain. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 39. Of the same grandeur. and in my own garden. and the wherefore? . or perhaps one virtue. in less heroic and poetic form. in this world. Few in number. 41. upon my own ground. 32. Oxford. 31. 29.25. had but one foible. 37. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. In the Acadian land. the present capital of New England. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. The cry.

The simple sentence the basis. the pride and beauty of the grove. made merely for convenience and smoothness. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. 367. however." To show that these words are really omitted. which is the unit of speech. 365. 366. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. if they were expanded. but. 333). like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. as." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. the expressions of manner introduced by like. As shown in Part I. though often treated as phrases. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. thus.² "She is like some tender tree." This must.From her own loved island of sorrow.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. COMPLEX SENTENCES." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. (Sec. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. are really contracted clauses. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. as would be the connective instead of like. Words left out after than or as. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." Sentences with like. .CONTRACTED SENTENCES.

. or it may be applied to the others. containing a verb with its subject. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. . 371. 368. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. 369.²the other members subordinate to it. as in this sentence. Hence the following definition:² Definition. object. that is. that . and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. object." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. or dependent on it. etc. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). murmur. is taken in. how great . predicate.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. Independent clause.²the backbone.. each clause has its subject. we are aware.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. modifiers. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. CLAUSES. and modifier. main.. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. and the next one. Definition.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. complement. A clause is a division of a sentence.. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. which are so united that one member is the main one. A principal. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. and the last. suffering. 370. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. complements. logically depends on suffering. then we recognize this as the main statement.

and should not be called an adjunct of the subject.. impertinences.. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. infinitive. 5). but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. and ADVERB clauses.Dependent clause..." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. 'I know that he can toil terribly. over which the torrent came tumbling." (2) Object of a verb. for example. thus. night or day. attention is called to them here. We ourselves are getting ..² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." 374. and the whole clause is not." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause.. with a noun clause in apposition with it. verbal. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. for example. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. . 373. pronoun. for a time. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. so the object clause is retained." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." (4) Apposition. etc." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials." "I was told that the house had not been shut. But since they are complex in form. Noun Clauses. As to their office in the sentence. ADJECTIVE." Just as the object noun. but logically the sentence is. put an end to my fancies. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. (a) Ordinary apposition." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. (b) that are . "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. adjectives. and it is . for a hundred years. 352.. or adverbs. 372. clauses are divided into NOUN. Kinds. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. impertinences²would be grammatical.' is an electric touch. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.

and not on the sentiment. Other examples of this construction are. but. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 7. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. he would repent it. whence. What history it had. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. 4. Frequently there is no connecting word. 6. 375. whether he should choose one or not. As the office of an adjective is to modify. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. a relative pronoun being understood. or equivalent of a noun. Adjective Clauses. Such a man is what we call an original man. 3. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. 10. wherein. 2. as.² "It is on the understanding. The reply of Socrates. that he was a scheming impostor. Except by what he could see for himself. a falsehood incarnate. I was napping. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. of a nation. that. that. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. still remains reasonable. how it changed from shape to shape. 5. But the fact is. etc. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. no man will ever know. which. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. where. whither. 8. he could know nothing. 9. that all safe legislation must be based. . sometimes by the conjunctions when. in the sentence. Examples of adjective clauses. whereby." Exercise.

7. object. 1. 10." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall.e." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. which formed the center of the mansion. Pick out the adjective clauses. etc. 3. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. I walked home with Calhoun. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. Adverbial Clauses. . Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 6. which Rowena tasted." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. 2. i. 5." Exercise. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. 4. and tell what each one modifies. all is vacancy. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. No man is reason or illumination.376. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. 11. or that essence we were looking for. 9. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. he begins to help us more as an effect." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. whether subject." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 8. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. the champions advanced through the lists.

adverbs." "Who cares for that. is wider. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. the milestones are grave-stones." (7) RESULT." (5) DEGREE." These mean no matter how good." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. expressing the degree in which the horizon. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. introduced by indefinite relatives. Joanna is better. since he was too great to care to be original. to make up our shortcomings." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. etc. that we should try. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. Exercise." (9) CONCESSION.: "But still. shaping our actions. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. however." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." "After leaving the whole party under the table. but they require careful study. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and what it modifies:² . whatever. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. an adjective. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. tell what kind each is." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. a verbal. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. and will be given in detail." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. with examples. or an adverb." "The right conclusion is. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. no matter what remains. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. 378. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. so far as we can. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were.377." "When he was come up to Christian." "The broader their education is. he goes away as if nothing had happened. the wider is the horizon of their thought." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. etc. etc." "He went several times to England." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification.² whoever." (3) REASON. however good she may be as a witness. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. Shakespeare is our city of refuge.. it takes precedence of everything else. and adverbial conjunctions.

It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. they might perhaps say of their visitors. and twirling weathercocks. predicate. to tell the truth. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. so as to picture the parts and their relations.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. object. For example. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. find the principal subject and principal predicate. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. 380." 2. incoherent exclamations. snatching up stones to fling at them. banging about doors and windows. we are a little disappointed. 3. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. on a dark wintry night. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. its object is that Odin was a reality. in the sentence. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. etc. and modifiers. howling and whistling. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. of which clause Odin is the subject. then treat noun clauses as nouns. when the wind was unruly. If the children gathered about her. 379. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. as they sometimes did. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. 'Well. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. with shrill.1.

.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. as seen in the "map" (Sec. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. Exercises. 3. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (1) Find the principal clause. 2.. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. d. 364. 380). (2) Analyze it according to Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 364. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.

It was haunted to that degree by fairies. the mixed result. that pressed her with an objection. 14. 22. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 9. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. which. 7.4. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 12. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. Had they been better chemists. 10. And those will often pity that weakness most. whom I choose. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. The night proved unusually dark. as for armies that were too many by half. Here lay two great roads. 20. Next came a wretched Dominican. This is she. Whether she said the word is uncertain. if applied to the Bible. 24. Now. counselor that had none for herself. 5. M. of a light hazel. But now that she has become an establishment. that. The deep eyes. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 16. 23. could not have been effected. 13. . She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. namely. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 21. 6. dying for them. or whether any. 15. the flower should revive for us. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 18. He was what our country people call an old one. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. had we been worse. for yours. 17. who would yield to it least. bishop. 19. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. not so much for travelers that were few. 8. the shepherd girl. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. I like that representation they have of the tree. 11.

382. COMPOUND SENTENCES. That which we do not believe. (b) First analyze. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. and temper. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. if there be one to whom I am not equal. the following complex sentences:² 1.25. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. questions." said Bentley. 30. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. and stamped with his right number.² Definition. 3. 27. "was ever written down by any but itself. These things we are forced to say. 6. 26. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. 7. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. and not from his heart. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature.²which will not be disposed of. 383. or commands. speed. if continuously extended. It makes no difference how many friends I have. Hence the definition. but above it. would easily reach. 2. then map out as in Sec. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 28. How formed. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. though we may repeat the words never so often. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. 5. "No book. is to speak and write sincerely. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 380. we cannot adequately say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days." 4. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. . that it was no more than his daily walk.

Of the following illustrative sentences. the waving grass.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. for. Connectives. tell which are compound. and connects the first and second complex members. he dilates. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. others sometimes coördinate. whereas. Study the thought. and which complex:² 1. The division into members will be easier. while (whilst). 386." 384. or but. now adverbs or prepositions. he walks with arms akimbo. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. he is twice a man. as in Sec. in (2). as but. and it shall be the universal sense. from the second. nor does he know until he has tried. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and not the form of the connective." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest.. 383 (1). Another example is. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. . "Only the star dazzles. a simple member. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. the planet has a faint. Speak your latent conviction. etc. he soliloquizes. nor. yet. etc. moon-like ray" (adversative). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. which are simple statements. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. The coördinate conjunctions and. in (3). a complex member. 385. however. Some of these are now conjunctions. Exercise. and nor the second and third complex members. 297). (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. if there are any. the semicolon separates the first. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. Thus in (1).

11. the tax is certain. 4. The gain is apparent. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. (i) Separate it into its main members. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 14. or. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 5. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. In this manner. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 4. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. for example. However some may think him wanting in zeal. passed in that time. yield to them heart and life. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. Man does not stand in awe of man. For everything you have missed.2. however. 7. 13. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 10. 12. is particular. nay. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. and as yet very early in the morning. he grew up to be a mild. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 9. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. all pain. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 364. 8. that it was Easter Sunday. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 2. I can still receive. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. from a happy yet often pensive child. 3. to find a pot of buried gold. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. and not by what each is. Whilst the world is thus dual. and for everything you gain. I can yet love. . 3. Exercise. 381. so is every one of its parts. you lose something. unobtrusive boy. 6. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. and thou shalt be loved. Love. quiet. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. All loss. you have gained something else. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 387. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium.

feign to confess here. 11. and the peace of society is often kept. They will shuffle and crow. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. Whatever he knows and thinks. 7. modesty. Stand aside. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and they will show themselves great. and he learns who receives. abide by it. 15. or sail with God the seas. only that they may brag and conquer there. as children. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and makes their business a friendship. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade." "keep the rake. and they will be true to you. 8. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. or we read books. whilst frankness invites frankness. that let him communicate. and not a thought has enriched either party. "as nigh the scythe as you can. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. We see the noble afar off. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. if you rip up his claims. When you have chosen your part. 17. 6. or we pursue persons." 13. and each shows only what lies at its focus. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. or men will never know and honor him aright. 9. or hope. give those merits room. is as thin and timid as any. why should we intrude? 10. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. let them mount and expand. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. We go to Europe. 14." says the smith.5. . and they repel us. and the other dares not. 20. puts the parties on a convenient footing. and not an emotion of bravery. Come into port greatly. "the iron is white. 21. He teaches who gives. 19. "Strike. 18. treat them greatly. because. one is afraid. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. 16. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. Trust men. crook and hide. and the cart as nigh the rake." says the haymaker.

if they live. it never was known to fall into the rear. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. We see young men who owe us a new world. pronoun and antecedent. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. but go about your business anywhere. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. so readily and lavishly they promise. adjective and noun. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . the department of syntax will be a small affair. 388. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning.²agreement and government. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Do not craze yourself with thinking. 24. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. or. PART III. they lose themselves in the crowd. 23. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. but its leading characteristic is. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. So does culture with us.22. but they never acquit the debt. INTRODUCTORY. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Essential point in English syntax. SYNTAX. verb and subject. and dodge the account. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 380. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. 390. By way of introduction. 25. Following the Latin method. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. it ends in headache. they die young. Ground covered by syntax. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment.

sometimes verb and subject. 392. The basis of syntax. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. then. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. or the same writer will use both indifferently. or settler may be the subject. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. good English. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. both forms will be given in the following pages. In some cases. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Why study syntax? 391. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. and added to it the preposition of. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. . the order being inverted. This is not logical. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. 393. or when they exist side by side in good usage. some of which conform to classical grammar. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. There is. as to study inflected forms. the sentence. also expressing a possessive relation. but are not now. take the sentence. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. For example. "None remained but he. and imitate it. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree." that is. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. Also in the sentence. distinct forms would be used.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. Savage may be the subject. Second. etc.² First. therefore. authorities²that is." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. following the regular order of subject. and nothing but important points will be considered. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. and whose judgment. "The savage here the settler slew." In this there is a possessive form. When usage varies as to a given construction. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. Some rules not rigid. and it would not matter which one stood first. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). In Latin. As an illustration of the last remark. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. pronoun and antecedent." is ambiguous.

²ROWE. Joint possession. Bentham's principles together.NOUNS. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Mill's and Mr.² He lands us on a grassy stage. 394. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.²BYRON.²RUSKIN. Woman. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. 395. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. 397. ." Juletta tells. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. 408). the antechamber of the High Priest. and Harley's.²THACKERAY. and Peter's. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.²MILTON. or indicate joint ownership or possession. He kept Bolingbroke's. Use of the possessive. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. etc. 396. and Paul's. the possessive sign is used with each noun. and Pope's. but imply separate possession or ownership.² Live your king and country's best support. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Putting Mr. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. PRONOUNS.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. sense and nature's easy fool. as. the shore of Galilee. Separate possession.²MCCULLOCH. and Peterborough's. for example.²EMERSON. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. ²ID.

398. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. others are generally. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. whom is the complement after the verb am. I. together with the relative who. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. for example. the real thought being forgotten.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. General rules. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.²POPE. Objective for the nominative. Still. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). sanctioned. ." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. Some of the violations are universally condemned.²BYRON. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Since most of the personal pronouns. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. 399. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. No mightier than thyself or me. as." 400. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. Bedott Papers. the last expression has the support of many good writers.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.²SOUTHEY.²THACKERAY. This should be "as she. who. thus. if not universally. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²WHITCHER.²TROLLOPE.²SHAKESPEARE.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.) "The young Harper. But he must be a stronger than thee. and should be the nominative form. there are two general rules that require attention.

"²WM. as. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. the objective form is regularly found.²FIELDING. but such is the fact. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. The usage is too common to need further examples. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.²PARTON.²SCOTT. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.²THACKERAY. unless a special. both in England and America.²COLERIDGE. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. And it was heThat made the ship to go."²WINTHROP. One exception is to be noted."²KINGSLEY. for example. is. The camp of Richard of England." 401. it will not be me. "If there is any one embarrassed. .I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. they are yet holier than we.²LONGFELLOW. Patrick the Porter." There is no special reason for this. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. "Than whom. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. "Who's there?"²"Me.²MACAULAY. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. are.² For there was little doubt that it was he. namely. on the other hand. But still it is not she.²KINGSLEY. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. and the other forms of the verb be.² One I remember especially. In spoken English. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. A safe rule. BLACK.²RUSKIN.

as. or us). Me in exclamations. 9. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. "Ask the murderer. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 403. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. used after verbs. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 404. as." the word being in apposition with murderer). Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 7. and prepositions. or this. as. but not he" (he should be him. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. it is me. 3. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. I speak not to" (he should be him. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. the object of to). verbal. 5. you or me.Exercise." 6. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. It is not me you are in love with. verbals.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. or preposition which governs it. 4. Whom they were I really cannot specify. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 10.²MILTON.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). You know whom it is that you thus charge. 2. 11. now. 8. (3) By forgetting the construction. Truth is mightier than us all. . It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. as this from Shakespeare. object of saw). Nominative for the objective. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn.

Shall be left upon the morn. Thy shores are empires. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.Exception 1. Who have we here?²ID. as.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. as. partial Nature. Nature. as well as the objective. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. and is usually avoided.²STEELE. save thou and thine. Exercise. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. etc. for they say there are none such in the world. "Who did you see?" or. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. changed in all save thee. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. for example. Exception 2. 405. "Who were they talking to?" etc. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²BYRON. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. but he. Let you and I look at these.²BYRON. all but he. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.²KINGSLEY. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²KINGSLEY.² All were knocked down but us two. I arraign. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Thou. . Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. We regularly say. I've sworn. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. who interrogative. 406. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²KINGSLEY.²GOLDSMITH. None. 2.

11. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. This usage is not frequent. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. and they know that as well as me. POSSESSIVE FORMS. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 9.3. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St." 4. Markland. who. 12. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well.²SCOTT. Preceding a gerund. 8. 407. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. They crowned him long ago. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²MACAULAY. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. II.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. 7. B. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach.²THACKERAY. They are coming for a visit to she and I.²C. with Jortin and Thirlby. 10. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. BROWN. 5. Bartholomew.²DE QUINCEY. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.²possessive. As antecedent of a relative.Ye I salute. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.²RUSKIN. 6. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. or objective? .

[who was] studying law.²DICKENS. etc. both are gerunds. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.² THACKERAY. We heard of Brown. object of heard of. as he turned away from his wife. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.408. sometimes it has the objective. Both types of sentences are found. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. In the examples quoted. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. Possessive.²BREWER. that the bitterness of death was past.² CARLYLE. Here I state them only in brief.²CARLYLE. and asked why it was not made. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.²RUSKIN. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. The last incident which I recollect." That is. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and that in the second.²MACAULAY. But in common use there is no such distinction. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.² IRVING. Why both are found. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and the meaning is. Objective. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. . There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.²DE QUINCEY.² SCOTT. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. studying is a gerund. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. The use of the objective is older. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.

There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. 410.²CABLE.²AUDUBON. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. or is a distributive word.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²THOREAU.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. taking in each of many persons.²DE QUINCEY.²C. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²DEFOE.²when the antecedent. .²DE QUINCEY. and ought to agree with them in person.²HUXLEY. in one person. 409. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. Every city threw open its gates. preceded by a distributive. it was his own fault. the pronoun will be neuter singular. Everybody had his own life to think of. If any one did not know it. and gender. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. where there were examinations. if the antecedent is neuter.²EMERSON III.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. In such a case as the last three sentences.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²THACKERAY. Watch for the real antecedent. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²HOLMES. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. BROCKDEN BROWN.²RUSKIN. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. The pale realms of shade. number. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.² BRYANT. Examples of these constructions are. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.

Avoided: By using both pronouns.²ID. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Struggling for life.²EMERSON. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.² Not the feeblest grandame.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²AUSTEN.²THACKERAY.²FIELDING. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Whosoever hath any gold.²HUXLEY. and giving them means of being so. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. By using the plural pronoun. till they have lost him.²PALGRAVE. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²DEFOE. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. 411. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Every one must judge of their own feelings. .²PAULDING. This is not considered the best usage. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. let them break it off. not a mowing idiot. for example. The sun.²SCOTT. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²BYRON. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²BIBLE. If the part deserve any comment. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²RUSKIN. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²ID. as anybody in their senses would have done.²PALEY. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.

or unrestrictive. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. which. Exercise. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. etc.) and a personal pronoun. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. 413." This means. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. What these terms mean. I." It defines beggar. "I gave it to the beggar. the definite relatives who. As to their conjunctive use. Exercise. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. and he went away. as. in each instance:² Who. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. In the following examples." A relative.²ID. according to the practice of every modern writer. 1.² SHERIDAN. That is in most cases restrictive.Where she was gone. when coördinating. unless both genders are implied. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. and that are restrictive or not. which. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. but. because. tell whether who. A relative.²ADDISON. that being considered already clear. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. no one could take upon them to say. but. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. who went away. The clause is restricted to the antecedent.²In the above sentences. 2. or what was become of her. 412. and that always restrictive. It adds a new statement to what precedes.²HAWTHORNE. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. . and does not add a new statement. when restrictive.

10. 414. etc.²H.. and over England are saying. The general rule is. but. etc. We say I. which Mr. 7. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. BEECHER 5. II. In what sense true. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.3. they. 4. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. because of its antecedent.²DE QUINCEY. and it is called logic. .²ADDISON. That. 14. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. 8. or it might have gone hard with the tutor.² CARLYLE. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. Yet how many are there who up.² IRVING. long arms and legs. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.²HOLMES. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. in the sentence." that is invariable as to person and number. which was to go over the Cordilleras. it makes the verb third person singular. these or that which. who.² NEWMAN. 12. that were often vicious. So different from the wild.² MOTLEY. 13.²DE QUINCEY. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. However. A grizzly-looking man appeared. down. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. W. 11. Hare has printed.²ID. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.²ID. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. etc. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. you. as that does not vary for person or number. 9. For example. he. On hearing their plan. The rule. 6. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. Which. she agreed to join the party. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. With narrow shoulders. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²THOREAU.

.²M." or. and write the verb in the plural. and in improving a victory. The fiery youth .. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²LECKY. when he derided the shams of society.²whether we should say..²HOLMES. He is one of those that deserve very well. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. Let us be of good cheer. others regard books as the antecedent. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²ADDISON. A disputed point. French literature of the eighteenth century. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. T. but the former has good authority.²SCOTT." One of . [singular or plural.] Both constructions are frequently found. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. etc. Singular.²LOWELL. who rarely speak at all. MORSE. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. or which .Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.²ADDISON. "one of the finest books that has been published. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent... "one of the finest books that have been published.²BOWLES. The latter is rather more frequent.. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²HOWELLS.²MACAULAY. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.. in winning a battle. with one as the principal word. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. etc. but speaks of him as that sort.²J. ARNOLD. 415.. but myself. JR. the true antecedent. [plural] that who. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. Franklin.²LOWELL.

² RUSKIN. object of a preposition understood. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. when this dust falls to the urn. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. Exercise. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation." "India is the place [in which. III. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. IV. or where] he died.² .²GOLDSMITH. that is.²ID."²DICKENS.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. and such like: as.And. and see if the sentence is made clearer. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.²SWIFT. But I by backward steps would move.A rare Roundabout performance.²VAUGHAN. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²SCOTT. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²ADDISON. I could see nothing except the sky. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²BURNS.² THACKERAY. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.In that same state I came. where. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²EMERSON. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²IRVING. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. when the relative word is a pronoun.²DEFOE. whence.²CARLYLE.²In the above sentences. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. 417. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²EMERSON. 416. return.

MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²SCOTT. as of knives. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. which. if I had resolved to go on with. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. They believe the same of all the works of art.²FRANKLIN. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. or that. as is not used. was a discoverer. for example. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. Which. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Mr.² MACAULAY. I might as well have staid at home. she passed the lamp over her face and person. if same is followed by a complete clause. . The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest.²R.. he. V. CHURCH. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. etc.²ADDISON. but we find the relative who. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. and working in the same spirit. with Turner. boats. W.² Which. but. ²GOLDSMITH.²SWIFT. The regular construction. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. 418. but which is usually carefully as his apprentice.²WORDSWORTH.He considered.² THACKERAY. looking-glasses.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. That.. Anacoluthic use of which.² BURKE. Caution.

(2) "Among the poorer sort. once a great favorite of M. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. As the sentences stand.²THACKERAY.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. 4.. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.²RUSKIN. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.²which if they once heard.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. 2. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. . or. That is. 1.²GOLDSMITH. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.²DE QUINCEY. and which. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. or omit the conjunction. 419. and who are now. (1) "Among those who are poor.²SHAKESPEARE. now thrown upon their.. Express both relatives. le Conte. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. he said that all submission was now too late. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. This was a gentleman. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. But who." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. etc.. but none is expressed." etc. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. and this be placed in the proper clause. (3) "Among the poorer sort. And who. but. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty." etc. etc. Thornhill had read.²HAWTHORNE. 3. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. who are now thrown. Exercise. After this came Elizabeth herself. which when Mr. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. Exercise.² Direction for rewriting. He delivered the letter." etc. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.²SCOTT. or leave out both connective and relative.She'd come again.

² MOTLEY. 420. etc. Dr. and repeat this for any further reference. Or who. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. "What knight so craven.5. English by name. either from imitation of their frequent allies.²SCOTT. etc.²HAWTHORNE. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. and to whom no door is closed.²DE QUINCEY. Or which. I saw upon the left a scene far different. one of signal interest. 1. 6. 8. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. But which. 10. who... 12.. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . Exercise. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Akin to the above is another fault. 9. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. as a false and astucious mark. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and which has never been described.²PEARSON. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. and which. I shall have complete copies. "A mockery.²SCOTT. indeed. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. That .²DE QUINCEY. . 7.. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.²IRVING. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. the French. then." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. and which may even be heard a mile off. like that spoken in the towns. 13. which the Scotch had learned. And which. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 11.

11.2.²W. 14. 12.²SCOTT That which . It rose into a thrilling passion. . in his Mephistopheles. That ..²EMERSON. In my native town of Salem.. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.²EMERSON. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. in his present condition. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. I grudge the dollar.²HOWELLS. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. The Tree Igdrasil. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 4. I recommend some honest manual calling.. Such as . appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT. such as they have very probably been bred to.²DEFOE. half a century ago.. but which.²W. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Such as .. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. SIMMS. 9. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. which. He.²BEECHER. and whose examples and principles we inherit. E. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.. 3.²HAWTHORNE.²HOLMES. what. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. I give to such men as do not belong to me. but which is perhaps not so different from it. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 6. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. 5. 8. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. Which . the cent.. CHANNING. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. whom. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 15. 10.. 7. was hung in air.. which. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. at the head of what. G.. He flung into literature. that . was a bustling wharf.. 13. that. the dime.²HALLAM. and to whom I do not belong.

²RUSKIN.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Use of any.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. as.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. and in want of his gold²or his corn. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. We call ourselves a rich nation. By their original meaning. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. whether or not the two are equivalent. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. that not all combined.²DICKENS. as it were. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. as. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. in which case any should be used instead. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. one another. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. .²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. Distributives either and neither. Each other. 422.²ID. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. Assume that no one is in want of either. 421.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. always at war with one another. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²MACAULAY. England was then divided between kings and Druids. for example.²HAWTHORNE.² Some one must be poor.

² EMERSON. afterwards in Goethe. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. and is isolated. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). Caution. 423. when any of them are so good as to visit me.² If any. None of Nature's powers do better service. any was often singular. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²EMERSON.. any of his friends had died. in Shakespeare. that I know of.²BIBLE. for him have I offended. at one time in Bacon. usually plural. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. then in Plotinus. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²CARLYLE. Any usually plural. .²BURKE. Examples of its use are. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²STIRLING. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. speak. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.² In earnest. which is plural as often as singular. in the prose of the present day. let him ask of God.²SHAKESPEARE..²PROF.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT.²FRANKLIN. as. as.²BEECHER Whenever. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. etc. if ever man was. I beseech you. Do you think. The adjective pronoun none is. then in Plutarch. Do you think. In earlier Modern English.. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. whilst I still cherish their genius. even in Bettine. during his stay at Yuste. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. If any of you lack wisdom. 424. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as none of the French philosophers were. None usually plural. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. before that.

etc. any one else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. Somebody's else. when it means all persons: for example.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. etc.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. etc. The compounds somebody else. The light troops thought . 425. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.² PEARSON.²THOREAU. which is used absolutely. the plural.. nobody else.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and all was lost on the other.² Singular. When all were gone.²NAPIER Plural. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. and less rarely in poetry. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. for example.² None of them was cleansed.. fixing his eyes on the mace. etc. or somebody else's? 426. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. that all was lost. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. as. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. and Ford has nobody's else. are treated as units.²McMASTER. saving Naaman the Syrian.

"Ye see. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. ADJECTIVES.²SHERIDAN. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.² These kind of knaves I know.²THACKERAY. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.²AUSTEN. unlike anybody else's in the world. STOWE." "those kind of trees.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. for example. the adjectives plural. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes." the nouns being singular. Whitefield or Wesley. etc."²MRS. . etc.. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. P. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.SYDNEY SMITH.²N.²MULOCH. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. or some other such great man as a bishop. Again. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).² FIELDING.²RUSKIN. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²in such as "these sort of books. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. 427. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²G. His hair. ELIOT.. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.²SWEET. or those sort of people.²DICKENS." "all manner of men.²RUSKIN. These sort. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.² Saturday Review. London. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. all manner of.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.curled once all over it in long tendrils. WILLIS.

Use of the comparative degree.²RUSKIN.² PRESCOTT. to express a higher degree of quality. the victor or the vanquished. History of this construction. or the nouns to the plural. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. Consequently we have a confused expression. 428. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. In Old and Middle English. made to agree with it. or one object with a class of objects. not "all kinds of wild animals. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. and in this way may take a plural verb. with all manner of amusing books. they said. Burke's sentence. for example. At the source. This the modern expression reverses. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." A question. when the necessary dispositions concur. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Later form. Should we say. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. which accounts for the construction." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. and the adjective is. as. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. such as. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. "This sort of trees should be planted. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. in spoken English.² Which is the better able to defend himself. "These kind of trees are best. "This kind of rules are the best. . gradually displacing the old. According to the approved usage of Modern English. more alarming than a total silence." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. The result.The library was open." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. Of two such lessons.

I am concerned to see that Mr. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²HUXLEY. 3."²ID. Other after the comparative form. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²THACKERAY.²HAWTHORNE. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²SWIFT. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. would not have had the face.²CARLYLE. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. Gary.²SCOTT. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. the highest stakes are paid. by almost the breadth of my nail. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²MACAULAY. 430.²MACAULAY. 5. 429. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. 6. Even Dodd himself. Superlative with two objects. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. He is taller. 2.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. has sanctioned. . Exercise.²LOWELL. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. etc. Henry. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. if not.²WIRT. To the man who plays well.²TROLLOPE. Use of the superlative degree.² THACKERAY. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. than any of his court.A braver ne'er to battle rode. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 4.

Double comparative and superlative.. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. The eldest. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child."²BULWER.²EMERSON. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. The following examples are used purposely. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. whichever can be got easiest.²SCOTT. OLIPHANT. . "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. not a bit of high life among them. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²RUSKIN. ha.²GOLDSMITH. "Ha. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²Bible. Mary.²HAMLET.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²ADDISON.²MRS.²DR BLAIR. Examples from Shakespeare are.²J. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Come you more nearer. In all disputes between States. Rip was one of those ."²HAWTHORNE.²BEN JONSON. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. who eat white bread or brown.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²TEMPEST.. 1611. and the other contains the best men. These two properties seem essential to wit. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party."²GOLDSMITH. Also from the same period. 431. more particularly the last of them. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. I should say that one has the best cause. and differ only in form.²IRVING. CÆSAR.

²GIBBON. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. The meaning intended is the same. .²PRESCOTT. the Spanish. etc.²RUSKIN.²GIBBON. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Three first. and Secretary Walsingham also. but in literary English. These are the three first needs of civilized life.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. etc. The first five had specific names. The delay in the first three lines.² With a singular noun.²ADDISON. ARTICLES.²LAMB. and conceit in the last. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. As to these two expressions. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. Instances of both are given below. 433. Examples of this construction are. jar upon us constantly. not only so in popular speech. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. The merit of the Barb. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. For Carlyle. First three. Definite article. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. ²COWPER. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.² SMOLLETT.²KINGSLEY. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.

of the eighteenth century. as in Sec. were placed at a very tender age. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. with a plural noun. 435.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. Indefinite article. the thought and the word.²THACKERAY.²THE NATION. and flexible language.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.²MACAULAY.² RUSKIN. The flowers. to distinguish clearly. 433.²PRESCOTT. as. 1508. I think. 434. the hour of parting came. as.. but inseparable from each other. The lofty. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. Here the youth of both sexes. Frequently. . or to emphasize the meaning. with a singular noun. having been arranged.²SCOTT. No. distinct.² MACAULAY.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.. of the higher and middling orders. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. but is used with one only. The not repeated. One object and several modifiers. He is master of the two-fold Logos.²TAYLOR. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.²CARLYLE. however. Origin of the Aryans. the greatest poems. and the presents.²NEWMAN. Meaning same as in Sec. 433. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.²TENNYSON. melodious. With a plural noun.²ID. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.

the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. and a usurper. But in the following sentences.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. and inexhausted vein.²BEECHER. or clearness to each of several nouns. a collegian. a murderer.²B. interest.²DICKENS.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. as." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. 438.² BURKE. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. one noun is expressed. only one of which is expressed." and "a red and a white geranium. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²BULWER. a tyrant. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. .² MACAULAY. rich. In the sentences of Secs. One article with several adjectives. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. to limit two or more modified nouns. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. The indefinite article (compare Sec. 436). Examples of this use are. He saw him in his mind's eye.²THACKERAY. as in the first three of Sec. For rhetorical effect.²MACAULAY.²DRYDEN. a round and a square one alternately. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. T. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. COLERIDGE.An early. 433 and 436. The indefinite article is used.²JOHNSON.²MACAULAY. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²S. like the definite article. 435.436. 437. JONSON. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.

Another school professes entirely opposite principles. 439. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. and the following illustrations prove it. Such. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. has got already. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. 440. ELIOT. as.²GIBBON. all that academies can give. Sec.²W. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. In English. A broad and loose rule. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. for example.²COOPER.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. 276. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. Another writer might.²CARLYLE This usage. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. or the great intellectual life of our nation. as. Singulars connected by or or nor. ARNOLD.²G. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. then. was the earliest American land. He sees that it is better to live in peace.²M. without academies.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Collective noun of singular meaning.²AGASSIZ. Singular verb. like some others in this series.²FROUDE. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. . This was spoken of in Part I.VERBS.²The Nation. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby..

and other singulars of plural form. Between ourselves. nor Paul. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²DE QUINCEY. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. as.Jesus is not dead. and every four hours. other names. nor John. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. that of a large town.²J. A fever.²BURKE. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. for example.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. nor Mahomet. ADAMS. No. a loss of wealth. seems at the moment unpaid loss. or considered as appositional. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. the cheap defense of nations. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.²GOLDSMITH. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. Q. or as making up one general idea. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²WHITTIER.² The unbought grace of life. as. a mutilation.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. a cruel disappointment.²EMERSON . is gone. for example.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. ²EMERSON. Plural form and singular meaning. but considered as meaning about the same thing. a loss of friends. but each one emphatic. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.² In a word. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.² GOLDSMITH.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²CRITIC.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²GIBBON. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.

wineBegins to stir itself. Here is no ruin. was like to crack. in a judge.²MACAULAY.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²SCOTT. as well as sides. the wit. was listened to for five hours.The author. sir!" and the "What then. the dismay. Her back. each. a gorget. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.²PRESCOTT. Every fop. as well as the newest.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. Every sound. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. There is a moving tone of voice. the ruin. 441. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²M ARNOLD.² . and such like adjectives. To receive presents or a bribe. Plural verb.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. is a man of wit. was dazzled. sir?" and the "No. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²MACAULAY. no matter if the second is plural). the partisan. an impassioned countenance. nay. a cuirass. no spent ball.²ID. as well as Europe. The Epic.²LONGFELLOW. was punished. the fine gentleman. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²NEWMAN. Then comes the "Why. thus. as. every valet. many a. every echo. as well as the Drama. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. no. The oldest. Subjects after the verb. every boor. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. with death.² Asia.²HAWTHORNE.The rout.²ID. sir!"²MACAULAY. Every week.²PRESCOTT. as.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. an agitated gesture. and greaves. no discontinuity. does not take the place of the man. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. almost every day.²BUTLER. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.

The travelers. its date. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²FROUDE. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. A party of workmen were removing the horses.² A multitude go mad about it.²DE QUINCEY.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.² GIBBON. His clothes. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. far away thy children leave the land. as with a subject of plural form. the Duke of Berri. are sufficient to attract a colony.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²GOLDSMITH. a green pasture.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²GIBBON. b). Philip of Anjou. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. Far.²CARLYLE But its authorship. but the verb is plural. The Dauphin. Conjunction omitted. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²ADDISON. All our household are at rest. were men of insignificant characters. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²EMERSON. shirt.²COLERIDGE. as in Sec. The conjunction may be omitted.²FROUDE. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²FRANKLIN. a stream of fresh water.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²SCOTT. 440 (5. TAYLOR.²THOREAU. as. A shady grove. . of whom there were a number.²B. as.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²SWIFT. making up a plural subject. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. for example.

AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. nor should I. hadst been my lord.²WHITTIER. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²THACKERAY. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. Nothing which Mr." etc. that is. Pattison or I have said. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject." "She or you may be sure. Ah. but thou." or.²D. 444. "He or I can go. You and I are tolerably modest people.²THACKERAY. When the subjects. as. the verb takes the construction of the first person. Not Altamont. You and I are farmers. Exceptional examples.²ROWE. .²BYRON. for example. "You would not be wiser.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH. General usage.²DE QUINCEY.). If there is only one person in the subject.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. Not I.But notice the construction of this. WEBSTER. nor has she").² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. ARNOLD.²SMOLLETT. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. of different persons. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. the subject being really equivalent to we.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²LOWELL.²RUSKIN. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. we never talk politics. 443. Second or third and first person in the subject. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. his blood dost shed. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. 442. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. "I have never said so.²M. but thou. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.

446. 10.²BYRON. as we would hope.²and.²SMOLLETT. 5. 6. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). The following illustrate exceptional usage.²MILTON.²ID. How each of these professions are crowded. In a word. Exercise. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. nor bush are there. BANCROFT. which it is proper to mention. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 11.445. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²SCOTT. Nor wood.² TROLLOPE. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. as illustrated above (Secs. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 440-444):² 1.²G. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. In this sentence from Defoe. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. 7. 3. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 4. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.²ADDISON. in my opinion. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. nor tree.That neither of their intellects are vast. Both death and I am found eternal. 12.²EMERSON. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²perhaps the devil. Neither of their counselors were to be present. In the following sentence. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²BURKE. Also in verbals.²ADDISON." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²THACKERAY. 8. 2. Neither of them. 9.Her course to intercept.

to have seen should be changed to to see. The present rule is recent. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²MACAULAY. 4. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. Definitions.² PALGRAVE 5. if not. It should be remarked. 448. however. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²THACKERAY.²FRANKLIN 6. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.. 3.. change them to a better form:² 1. 447. to have divided with her whatever might remain.²R. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²KINGSLEY.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Of course. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. for exact connection. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. I gave one quarter to Ann. CHURCH. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers." . meaning. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Two samples of indirect discourse.²DE QUINCEY 2. as. W.²IRVING. on my return. Exercise. Direct discourse²that is. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.

449. This includes the auxiliaries be. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Direct. have.. Her prudence whispered eternally. "I cannot oblige you . "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. 1. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk." Indirect. not attempting to follow the entire quotation... will. and the indirect question by whether or if. etc. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. His exact words were." etc. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Direct. introductory verb is in the past tense. "Oh. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. under interrogative pronouns. Sebastian's. or regular interrogatives. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. interrogative adverbs. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. . Summary of the expressions. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse.. Oh. 2.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. The substance of his lamentation was. She thought to herself. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person." etc.

Careless use of the participial phrase. FRANKLIN. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. he assured me that nothing was more easy. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. Notice this. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. the sound of their balls. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. my first observation will be found nearly true. like distant peals of thunder. VERBALS. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. with his crew of the Half-moon. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. 450. handed down from his ancestor the historian. the first discoverer of the river and country. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.Exercise. in the sentences first quoted." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. if this were expanded into a verb. and that he himself had heard. PARTICIPLES.²ADDISON. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²GOLDSMITH.²ID. one summer afternoon.²B. . The trouble is.

²RUSKIN. This is the more common arrangement. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. .. The practice is condemned by many grammarians..Correction. There are.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works." etc. leaving the principal statement as it is. then. 451. INFINITIVES. In the following citations..²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.²SCOTT. purposely or not.²LAUGHLIN. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. while defended or excused by others. if a strike is to succeed. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. 2.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. For example. 3. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. the first sentence would be.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. Standard writers often use it. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. . He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business." Exercise. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.² HERBERT SPENCER. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. Adverb between to and the infinitive. It is a solemn. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. either "As I was pleased. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them..²ID. many things to be carefully considered. Exercise. my first collection was. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. universal assertion. and often. avoid it.

That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. etc. 13. 10. Exercise. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation.²SCOTT. 7. 5. BLAIR. this kind of grandeur. I wish the reader to clearly understand. are used..²The Nation. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. even. even.²BURKE. In works of art. 8. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 1533. Now.²RUSKIN. No. china. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. which consists in multitude. 12. is to be very cautiously admitted. 9. A little sketch of his. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. from Irving..² ADDISON. 6.²ID. etc. The spirits. when such adverbs as only.4. 11. Position of only.²GOLDSMITH. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²TROLLOPE.²DR. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. but cannot misunderstand the thought.² MACAULAY. but it is placed before the infinitive. and earthenware. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . but they are often removed from the exact position. ADVERBS. if they modify single words. therefore.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. The rigid rule in such a case would be. 452. etc.

7. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²ID.²ID. His last journey to Cannes. 17. Irving could only live very modestly. 8. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 16.²EMERSON.²HIGGINSON.²RUSKIN.²N. In Old and Middle English.²THACKERAY. for example.²ID.²CHAUCER.²SYDNEY SMITH. The old usage. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 15. might not marry. 14. WILLIS.1. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 5. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 10.²MACAULAY. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 6.²COOPER.² THACKERAY.²MRS. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. ²ASCHAM. whence he was never destined to return. 9.²MOTLEY. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 11. He shouted in those clear. In relating these and the following laws. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. to avoid a crowd.²SWIFT.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 2. 3. P. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. . During the whole course of his administration.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. No sonne. 453. 13. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. My master. 12. were he never so old of yeares. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²PALGRAVE.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 4. GROTE. He could only afford to keep one old horse.

²GROTE. I did not act so hastily.²MRS.²BURKE. can so agreeably affect. Regular law of negative in modern English."²MRS. Not only could man not acquire such information.²HOLMES. denying each other. The prosperity of no empire. STOWE. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. 2. 5. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. but ought not to labor after it. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. Therefore.²BAYNE. uncommon. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. one of the negatives is often a prefix. There weren't no pies to equal hers. 7. under the influence of Latin syntax. Exercise.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. In the execution of this task. is not common. 3. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. STOWE. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. . You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. and why:² 1.² HAMILTON.²DE QUINCEY.²DEFOE. In the latter case.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. This.²LOWELL. 6. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. however. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. However. Exceptional use. as infrequent. when one of the negatives is a connective. 4. nor never shall. nor the grandeur of no king. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. who hadn't been to school for nothing.²HAWTHORNE. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. if two negatives are found together. and is still kept in vulgar English. in Ole Virginia. I never did see him again."²four negatives. as. ²PAGE. etc. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. neither. But. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. the usual way of regarding the question now is.

not merely . And who.. if the second precedes a phrase.²SCOTT. there we were. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.. 455. or to reply to it.."²SCOTT. not or is the proper correlative of neither. Choice and proper position of correlatives. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. "A weapon. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives." may be changed to "This loose . as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. the first should also..... The sentence. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. but (also). not only . as well as of the pronoun. and which. but to their own safety. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever.. CONJUNCTIONS. "well worthy to confer honor. not only to the success of their common cause. neither . or." both of the above requirements are violated. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. nor.. nor is often changed to not²either . and. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. either . either.." Besides neither . The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . if the last precedes a verb. In the sentence. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. but.. 454..²PRESCOTT. the first ought to be placed before a verb. or.. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. as the use of the conjunction. Things to be watched. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is." said the King. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. or with advantage.. even neither .... should be scrutinized. The sentences given in Secs.. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. especially both ." .²LOWELL. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.8.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. or to reply to it. Correction.

and chop up their own kin." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²RUSKIN. In the following sentences. But what. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 7. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. and I don't know but what he was right.Exercise. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²ID. but they will outrage. nor the disgrace of assailing him. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. substitute that. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. or but that for the words but what:² 1. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. They will. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. 456. .²THACKERAY. 6. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. Some exceptions. Try and for try to. or but that. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. not merely interest children. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. Now.²GIBBON. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. O. 5. but grown-up persons.²GOLDSMITH. but.²THACKERAY. 4. 457.²BAIN. but. Correct the following sentences:² 1. or the negative relative but.²S.²MACAULAY. 3.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. 8. etc. Exercise. too. 2. Try and avoid the pronoun. as. murder.²FRANKLIN. JEWETT. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.² ADDISON. as. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.

They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. see Sec. Between and among.2. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). PREPOSITIONS. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 6. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. 459. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. 4. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²ADDISON. 305. no separation or division by twos being implied. 5.² SWIFT. 3.²BURKE. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Between is used most often with two things only. .² BULWER. 458.²SCOTT. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²EMERSON.²ADDISON. as already seen in Sec. 313.²TROLLOPE.²EMERSON. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.

²KINGSLEY. Dependent on (upon). etc. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. LIST I. averse. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Mackintosh. Two groups or one and a group. Different from. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Such are derogatory.²RUSKIN What have I. and Stewart. Conversant with. correspond. 460. as. Derogatory to. . 461. and Coleridge. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Dissent from. confer. a soldier of the Cross. Some of them have.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Affinity between. or one object and a group. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. ²EMERSON.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire.: Words with particular prepositions. Such are absolve. Kant. Conform to. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Comply with. Averse to. as. different. Paley. Acquit of. and philosophers like Locke. Bestow on (upon). involve. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. by custom. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. and another to convey a different meaning. Abhorrent to.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Accord with.²between philosophers like Spinoza. List I.

"The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. . y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person)." List III. A taste for (art. List II. Reconcile to (note below). Change for (a thing). Reconcile with (note below). LIST II. Agree to (a proposal). 463. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Differ from (note below). Independent of. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Confer with (talk with). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Confer on (upon) (give to). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. LIST III." also of persons. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). etc. Correspond to (a thing).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Confide in (trust in)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. 462. as. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Involve in. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. in the sense of making friends with. Confide to (intrust to).y y y Deprive of. Change with (a person). Change to (become). Differ with (note below). as. Correspond with (write to). as meaning to be in keeping with. as.). but it is not good usage. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. A taste of (food).

He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²SCOTT. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. ²THACKERAY. as Cervantes informs us. ELIOT. "Die for.²MACAULAY. "Die by. "Die with. No one died from want at Longfeld. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. ELIOT." etc. instrument)." "die from. die from.²GOLDSMITH.²ADDISON. Expect of. simply from old age. It is a man of quality who dies for her.y y y Die by. People do not die of trifling little colds. privation. Part from.²MACAULAY. I am positively dying with hunger.²MACAULAY.²BULWER. die with. part with. "Die from. If I meet with any of 'em.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. ." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Who. Illustrations of "die of.²FIELDING.²G.²SHAKESPEARE. "Die for.²BOSWELL. He died at last without disease.²G." (because of). expect from. die of." (in behalf of)." She would have been ready to die with shame." (material cause.:² "Die of.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. She died of hard work. It would take me long to die of hunger. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²BURNETT.²GOLDSMITH. die for. ²ATHENÆUM. and ill treatment. One of them said he would die for her." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²POPE. Take thought and die for Cæsar. died for love of the fair Marcella. they shall die by this hand.

I have long expected something remarkable from you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. ELIOT.²WALLER." To part from you would be misery.²DICKENS. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. His precious bag. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. I can part with my children for their good.²WALPOLE.²BULWER. Kind in you. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. "Expect from. ELIOT. ELIOT. Illustrations of "part with. 464.²BULWER." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²POE. That is more than I expected of you.²G. "Part from. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²G." "part from:"² "Part with." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. as my friend.²MARRYAT. It was a little bad of you. kind of you. either of or in is used indifferently. and hated to part with them. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²G. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²MACAULAY. .²SCOTT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²SHAW.²TROLLOPE. I have just seen her. 466. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²AUSTEN.²MACAULAY." "expect from:"² "Expect of. Of Doctor P. 465. which he would by no means part from. nothing better was to be expected. just parted from her. With words implying behavior or disposition. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. Illustrations of "expect of." She will expect more attention from you.

4.²BEACONSFIELD. 10. This narrative. raging storms. 6. . That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. the vast abyss. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2.²TENNYSON. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 15. nor blue. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. or artillery. Thou tread'st. thrown it over Amyas's head. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. But this is idle of you. and ran up the alley.²CARLYLE. with seraphims. 8. 14. nor of a pale red. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. thunder.²BULWER. 7. Hampden.²DICKENS. but which the story renders necessary. The noise of vast cataracts. 1. 5. 11. Very natural in Mr. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. In the friction between an employer and workman. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 9. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 13. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. nor yellow. nor green. or that they are any way dependent on each other. In. That is very unreasonable in a person so young.²BULWER. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me.He did not think it handsome of you. It will be anything but shrewd in you. it is commonly said that his profits are high. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 3. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. tedious perhaps.

) 34. 28. 36. 21. 26. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. and other angular figures.I would wish me only he. 25. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. Squares. and almost as good as a pony. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. and most of us do know. were down with raging fever.And were I anything but what I am. 38. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 35. . are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 24. 37. or how beautiful it is. 30. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. you or me. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 16. 17. 33. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 18. Friday. save Amyas. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. But every man may know. what is a just and unjust act. 27. (Sec. but in the price paid to them. produce approbation. 31. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. The effect of proportion and fitness. 29. triangles. That night every man of the boat's crew. 20. 32. 22. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 19. You have seen Cassio and she together. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 23. When the glass or liquor are transparent. Every one of these letters are in my name. 411. the acquiescence of the understanding.

of.39. of. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive.000 between them. 40. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. origin of. (2) Middle English. 119. nouns. 124. 47. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. He had four children. . from about 1500 to the present time. numeral. 124. (3) Modern English. 90. from nominative clauses. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. of. 239. 102. adverbs used complements. 98. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. syntax uses Absolute. 47. 116. of. article. 89. 92. Abstract with Active Address. as comparison definition demonstrative. 133. 310. of. 107. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 25. 91. demonstrative. Adjectives. nominative. A. 20. as. 260. INDEX. adjectives. voice. pronouns.

191. . 323. parse. 275. 27. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. predicate. 42. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. Agreement. 97. 184. quality. 291. 115. conjunctions. 325. Alms. antecedent. 287.from function how in not of of ordinal. compared. Against. 194. 101. form as as they to in as uses uses of. plural pronominal. of. 48. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 316. 262. nouns. sentence. 328. 187. 99. nouns. of. adjectives. 303. infinitive. 114. 302. 195. as nouns. 190. parse. 207. between of. 148. 116. of. clauses. 239. of. of. from to of. 104. 190. objective. adjectives. quantity. 183. with with with subject. 242. and 185. 303. conjunction. antecedent. to used of. 103. 106. 207. of. 109. 325. 27. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. adjectives. 194. 116. of. modify.

which. sentences. parse. though. 84. Are. which. words between. 309. as uses verbs. 148. in in. 296. it. of. . syntax As. 101. derivation in definite. 120. sentences. Auxiliary if. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. definition of of of Any. 240. of. Agreement. 225. See with definition complex compound simple who. 252. pronouns. 124. possessive. 120. 79. of of of And Antecedent. 231. 295. 271. of. 51. 127. sentences. Anacoluthon Analysis. agreement personal as pronoun. 150. 287. 275. An. 49. after of. 67. 264. 198. adjective. A. 300. 47. to of. 67. Arrangement Articles. 74.Among. uses As At. 331. syntax. same. definition how indefinite. See 74. of and pronoun of. 207. 90. of. 208. of. and. 294. which.

Case. 63. number of. of pronouns. nominative. pronoun. 84. 150. 278. 39. possessive.Bad. clauses of. Can. of pronouns. uses of. 195. . adjective. 37. 49. 47. 110. plurals of. syntax of. Among. of pronouns. uses Better. 64. definition could. best. Brethren. See of. 54. objective. Bridegroom. 283. 279. Cause. of. of nouns. in Old and Modern English. of pronouns. 279. 46. 194. Clause. 39. 48. 62. 330. 149. 45. forms. 66. of what. of nouns. 110. 161. 46. 111. double possessive. 210. conjunctions Cherub. with But By. 262. 278. uses nominative of. Children. of. adverb. Between. 262. 224. 260. comparison conjugation of. of. of nouns. But. Be. of nouns. Case.

110. 43. . 264. of. in analysis. 248. adjectives. 12. of. predicate of and from from of.definition kinds noun. 263. 258. 108. 315. 108. double. 43. and forms of. defective. nouns. 268. 107. 189. nouns. infinitive. of. of. of. 271. 244. sentence. analysis of. subject. 157. Cleave. Cloths. 113. 305. plural of. 53. material. 158. 257. 18. definition degrees irregular. 307. 257. English. 239. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. predicate. 312. clothes. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. verb. of. adverbs. and sentence. nouns. 23. Clomb. 111. 18. 24. proper. of. 307. 257. superlative. of.

conjunctions. pronoun. conjunctions. . interrogative pronouns. 328. 66. 195. 263. 231. See English. Conjunctions.with Concord. 207. 196. 73. 138. Can. 195. 194. See in subjunctive. coördinate. same words. definition be. conjunction. pronouns. replaced by objective. 255. adverbs. in Old vs. parse. See analysis clauses. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. definition how subordinate. 149. 194. Dative Declarative Declension of case. pronoun. 139. of. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. verbs. 269. 199. sentence. to of. Agreement. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 194. 143. subjunctive. of. 151. analysis. sentences. correlative. 193. 149. sentences. 188. 289. of of Conjunctions. other other parts of speech. and clause.

adverbs See adjectives. of. 102. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 242. nouns. of. vs. Degrees. from. 185. 102. clause. of personal relative verbs. pronouns. of. 43. . discourse. of. nouns. 288. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 320. pronouns. passive adjectives. See See 48. by. use of dies. 303. 35. indirect. Articles. object. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. possessive. verb. for. 152. 333. article.Declension. comparative. 160. pronouns. Comparative. tenses. Case. See 148. pronouns. 287. with of. 80. Subordinate clause. 60. See adjectives. 300. 90. 242. 26. 99. with. duck. 51. Comparison. 315. 91.

one ( t). 32. object. 90. of. pronouns. Empress. another. 287. ending. 255. 92. 42. of. 234. 38. -En. 102. 34. 194. suffix. 299. 51. pronoun. in 'Em. 92. Each. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. vulgar. drunk. 92. possessive suffix. 33. 287. 328. plural. added suffix. 300. 158. 158. 39. error in sentence. 241. to suffix. . feminine plural English. the of sentence. spoken. conjunction. 62. predicate. 240. of subject. 257. 112. of. original. Either. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 280. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 90. 12. of. adjective. 33. of. of. adjective. other. pronoun.Drank. 40. 110. literary. older. complement. Elements Ellipsis.

" 31. with infinitive. as a noun. adjective. first.Every. etc. 235. nouns. to of. 189.. Future Future tense. as of from compared marking. Few. gender. . have adjective. object. with in sex. First. 126. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 212.. of. 30. uses Foreign Former. For. 287. the. Farther. used of. expect gone. 30. of. 29. from. 308. modes "common goose. etc. two a further. few. 36. uses redundant. two. definition distinguished in English. 147. 334. 110. From. 48. Gender. perfect. 102. pronoun. fishes. See Gander. 212. of. 32. 148. 211. 102. 152. 103. 43. 112. Feminine. 30. 319. 91. plurals. 152. other languages. 238. First Fish. 112. 45. Further.

person. had hung. participle. she. 80. its.of of Genii. 159. and case verbal with. Gerund. 173. 285. first sentence. pronoun. rather. 12. of. He. 35. possessive pronouns. 159. 145. of. forms in Girl. 176. 61. Got. 12. kinds of. 177. definition basis of. distinguished syntax. 13. 10. 60. adjective. 61. . His Husband. 101. of. definition divisions opinions province H. 36. an better. it. 9. 43. Government. 144. for before. on. from participle of. 120. 275. I. 175. Grammar. Had Hanged. pronouns. 231. personal relative geniuses. 60. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. of. noun.

with of. your. indirect of. elements. 319. pronoun. transitive. 178. 85. . 176. 131. See Articles. questions. 257. 188. adjectives. of. 323. of. 320. 105. 73. Direct object. verbs. adverbs.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 110. 245. of. 67. indices. 136. adjectives. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. summary See passive mood. in compared syntax. 227. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. uses discourse. mood. 153. pronouns. of. questions. meaning. Questions. 72. 248. a object. words. See you. 283. use article. 93. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 233. of clause. 231. 43. sentence. 276. 131.

"It Its. subject form. Less. a vs. 281. of. 110. lord. Like. 63. Lady. was uses me. 67. latest. Lie. 303. 227. lesser. 36. 245. English. -Ly. 110. of. 36. 39." history etc. syntax. 12. 61. 113. Lay. 113. Last. Lady. syntax the. . pronoun. Lay. adjective. predicate. 91. 190. Latter. of. See Madam. of. Kine. lie. 276. 126.. uses Literary Little. in little. 102. queen. these double kind. Logic Logical Lord. It. Kind.. 170. etc. 36.adverbs. 226. King. plural. 189. and See words in.

See definition 136. nigh. 187. -Most. 137-144. might. of.Manner. 113. 110. 114. subjunctive. mine. comparison Near. 194. of. syntax nearer. Much. 112. double. of. May. Master. 195. Modifier. 185. Mighty Mine. Must. 188. 34. 110. mistress. construction as of adverb. Many Mapping Mare. Modifiers. 256. Neither. 189. of. of. . 36. of. 325. in adverbs comparison a. 102. sentences.. imperative. 64. 328. Means. 160. etc. 326. of. 126. syntax conjunction. position adverb. 287. 161. 110. 112. superlatives. 137. 135. indicative. 112. 41. 144. adjective. of. Negative. 189. Mood. Enlargement. 265. conjunctions Many. out of.

26. 30. 246. 25. 17 19. letters as 24. 56. of. 45. abstract. foreign. analysis. to of. of. 30. 30. kinds 90. material. of of of of of a. of. Nor. 301. Not Noun Nouns. syntax in gender nouns. of. 18. 92. 46. common. Case. nouns. formed. See 194. 17. of. syntax Neuter or two News. 27. 258. used as. etc. gender nouns. definition descriptive. and figures. 126. 19. 20. 42. clause. become neuter. to use. 124. class used singular. in. abstract. definition according of. 41 43. . of. 46. 41. number once other plural. 25. No Nominative. proper. half abstract. 32. of. 29. etc. 38-41. None. 38.pronoun. gender how kinds material. words how compound. now plural. 125. parse. 41. nouns. 21. 17. 328. become become formation case collective. 300.

101. or plural. 148. of. Preposition. with case. 278.of same two with proper. adverbial. 41. personal. spoken of instead nouns. 281. singular. 92. with with with Now Number. 42. Nouns. passive adverbial. meaning. etc. of. plural no two singular construction. 42. See verb. singular. in nouns. preposition. adjectives. conjunction. of. 278. 240. 106. 282. indirect. in article. common. and analysis. 48. 18. 42 44. 41. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 242. English. 102. 235. 242. 43. adjectives. 279. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 196. 121. 195. Numeral Object. . dative. pronouns. 48. 60. 101. 66. as forms titles. form. plural. indefinite. 124. of. pronouns.. 23. 48. meanings. verbs. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 285. of different possessive definite of. plural form. definite. 48. 48. 41. See in in in Numeral distributive. of. of. nominative. article. 39.

Parsing. of of of of of models adjectives. as of. Ordinal Other Ought. 191. Omission On. 216. 69. Older.syntax Of. 56. 233. conjunctions. Ourself. of. another. with (the). 194. ours. of. of upon. Each adjective. position Order. pronoun. 103. definite relative uses of. a in adjectives. 93 other. conjunction. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 325 275. 94. 161. 91. Elder. 293. adverb. 117. 237. 213. See pronoun. 41. 64. 279. Pains. uses numeral pronoun. 56. 306. nouns. adjective. adverbs. 199. as other. 127. 116. See the as of. articles. One. for. inverted. of. Our. 38. of syntax. 103. 101. treatment comparatives. . Oxen. part analysis. 87. 115.

of. 80. 172. in. -ing words. 335. 56. 59. Pence. of. 134. included various. 62. 95. pronoun. 317. used as voice. reflexive. of. 181. speech. 28. 62. 119. 61. pronouns. 27. 179. phrases. pronouns. 172. 177. 43. possessive and of. of. 281. not is. 148. verb idioms it from. 59. with. 100. parsed. 173. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 219. pennies. 287. absolute with of. them. Person. 56. 322. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. antecedent. . part adjective. of. 247. relatives. verbs.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 70. verbs. verbals. of. pease. phrase. or of. and subject in. predicate use of. 43. from definition other of. article 150. of. agreement of verb nouns. 174. 59. 63. 180. nominative. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 69. 64.

232. 49. double. spoken of. 241. 303. vs.objective syntax table triple uses of. Comparison. 235. of. Personal subjective. in of. 52. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. of. participial. English. 53. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 67. of nouns. 37. complete. simple. relative. noun nouns. nouns. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. as double. 281. 51. 's. 25. plural. prepositional. Personification. Positive Possessive. of. 61. . of. 278. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. antecedent of of pronouns. 195. 54. kinds infinitive. 236. pronoun. 106. 248. of Phrase. adjectives. 247. of. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 41. 285. pronouns. 245. 245. it. of. 303. or See of of See 185. 278. 281. See 60. 64. 188. of. objects. singular degree. 60. 63. 50. Place. omitted. singular. nouns. adverbs of. 206. syntax of of Politics. 236. appositional. of. 247. nouns. Nouns. 53. pronoun.

and form form form form of. adverb. none. who personal. for predicate nominative. 301. verbs. 287. as antecedent of relative. each either. 203. Prepositions. interrogative. same used as adjectives. case. adjective. by parts of of. 303. 58. of. of. 282. any. by. future. 132.Prefixes. Pronouns. as 54. usually to as than. 104. another. with tense certain. possessive nominative to of. 95. 283. after but. as. somebody definition how indefinite. 105. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 89. 72. of. all. what. 285. 333. 206. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. singular usually other. meaning. 32. 283. 186. 93. 331. 300. 279. of. by with shown certain of. 280. speech. interrogative. parse. parse. plural. 281. 64. plural. case. objective. 207. objective. 58. 105. 147. of. 187. expressed as other of. 208. 195. 202. forms of. of. 299. 59. of. 300. 284. 332. 203. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. plural. and one with else's. 205. 302. 219. in exclamations. neither. exclamatory. words. 129. .

105. 289. 87. 87. 289. 101. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 295. 74. 74. questions. of. nouns. unrestrictive. of. 74. same antecedent. in. 58. pronoun. in. of. parse. agreement anacoluthon and as. adverbs in. 68. pronominal pronouns indirect. which. See of. of. or of. . 279. of. and which. pronouns. 188. indirect compound. conjunctions Quality. 293. and relatives. 189. use in as. of. 69. 83. 84. in. 297. indirect. who. 296. 69. 99. to of. with who. Quantity. from and interrogative. which after same. Quotations. Rather. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. Rank. Direct same and different. 286. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 263. Nouns. 293. 142. of. 85. with with gerund. use of history formed. 195. and antecedent. of. 80. that. 291. discourse. 85.possessive relative. of. personal pronoun. 295. Questions.

289. 43. of of of complex Sentences. Shot. 159. Simple in sate. kinds Sequence Set. 'S. Seeing. 162. 196. in of. 51. 40. simple. of sit.syntax use Result. 231. 263. 159. forms shots. definition . plural possessive as. simple of. complex. which. S. Same Sat. that. Sex Shall. 42. would. 29. 294. 252. object. conjunctions Retained Riches. 26 271. 170. 195. 74. conjunction. 255. of. See Sentences. effect. 319. reflexive analysis of compound. and should. 69. pronoun. 259. sentence. in form. gender. Self Sentences. suffix. of. ending. tenses. elliptical. 231. of. Shear. of. clauses of. will. 196. 242. who.

definition how kinds noun. 257. 12. etc. literary clause. English. 144. 32. 303. 169. Somebody Sort. 36. 38. 258. 245. 38. of. 237. names as a. 144. 245. of. adverb. phonetic in infinitive. 233.. English. verbs. used mood. . 323. 260. in Middle English. of. 138. of. logical. of. 33. Subject. to of. disuse in spoken complete. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 270. English. in feminine suffix. vs. 258. English. as. Modern use becoming else's. distinguish. for. Split Spoken -Ster. 126. -es.Singular Sir. 186. 303. See -En. 257. 262. adverb. 240. of. of. definition 67. sort. 257. Spelling Spinster. -en. 137. 33. 257. other Such Such Suffix -s. these number. 258.

form. 309. subject. 107. 186. . English. of. Then. of. There These kind. 147. 319. 297. that uses That. 289.. coördinating. as history The. 119. 108. king. 186." introductory. 116. when as of. 88. adjectives. article. English. this. of. 306. than of. 152. adverbs. 275. objects. 106. 120. 277. definition in English Tense. of. as history syntax Their. 87. of. degree. in comparison. object. meaning. 106. 123. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax.Suffixes. and and of. as adverbs. of. syntax of. of. 191. omission whom. which. in Modern number sequence table Than That. of languages. 148. plural as adverb. meaning made up in Old of. when relative. they. 61. classical of. 306. 109. 307. Kind. 147. not suggesting adjectives.. 147. 280. of. in double. of . Tenses. 33. 290. restrictive. two basis not same definition definite. 189. auxiliaries. "the then foreign. 222. 275.. me. See etc.

21. 173.These. 175. adverbs those. 33. in omitted uses T'other. 188. words. 180. uses of. from cleft to 174. thy. 114. 114. exclamations. to. parse. 322. Try Two Under. Utter. kinds participle. of. infinitive. 323. tother. suffix. -Trix. in of. of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 175. feminine and. of.. Upper. gerund. certain as the before with of. first. carelessly uses syntax this. phrases. 247. infinitive. of. 248. try two. 119. other noun. -ing 111. 172. of. of. 114. how infinitive. used. preposition. uses history of. 308. verbs. 128. 175. 172. Time. uttermost. thee. 61. conjunctions prepositions To. 330. Thou. 322. 195. first adjective. . See That. of. 207. 176. 20. 217. 185. etc. See On. Upon. 181. analysis.

245. 129. 134. verbs. 151. verbs by. phonetic. formed by. table of. 154. 317. 150. 157. 149. passive form. of incomplete predication. 169. 223. in indirect discourse. intransitive.Verbs. 130. mood of. how to parse. 179. transitive and intransitive. 154. past tense formed nominative. 47. of. agreement of. 148. 154. 169. person and number of. active meaning. 135. What. tense of. sequence of. 133. 320. 12. change. 167. auxiliary. remarks on certain. of. retained object with passive. Vocative in Voice. 330. 39. syntax of. 160. 319. 236. analysis. spelling of. conjugation of. strong. 167. 159. definition of. of English. regular. but uses what. made transitive. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. . Vixen. 131. 147. definition of. becoming irregular. 312. 312-316. 33. 148. with subject in number. 155. passive. voice of. defective. in person. active. 133. definition of. weak. table of irregular. 242.

85. Y. Wife. 72. Yes ending analysis. English. wizard. in.what Whereby. 111. 83. . 296. direct of. 126. 37. Whether. pronoun. With. 75. 295-299. conjunction. whereto. Who. 75. of. relative. 32. Will. spoken in of. 105. 85. 178. 105. pronoun. 77. 218. 299. 78. relative. plural of in nouns -ing. 79. 40. would. questions. relative indirect relative. 85. a. antecedent adjective. Words in Worse. 83. 72. 36. Woman. worser. interrogative Which. 104. in -ly.. questions. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. etc. questions. in in indefinite objective. of. 194. uses See Shall. referring syntax Widower. animals. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 190. 72. 36. Witch. 73. questions. 246.

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