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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. its peculiar and abundant idioms. The work it will cover. but this is bad English now. so that a small grammar will hold them all. Authority as a basis. Coming back. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. "Analysis. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. is worthy of serious study. if rightly presented. with its enormous vocabulary. and their uses and relations in the sentence. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. assist the classification of kindred expressions. . "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Making rules is risky." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. Mental training. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. rightly considered. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Surely our noble language. An æsthetic benefit. and thus incite his observation. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. their forms. to those who have studied the language historically. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. A broader view. Few inflections. from the question. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. as. Literary English." What grammar is." and "Syntax.The province of English grammar is. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. If. there is still much for the grammarian to do. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. it will at the same time. as compared with Latin or Greek. however. It is also evident. then. This will take in the usual divisions. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.

since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. which belongs to a people. Occasionally. In the more simple state of the Arabs. NOUNS. submission. Vulgar English. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. PART I. not objects. that is. or standard. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood.²GIBBON. The following pages will cover. Spoken English. the words sons and master name objects. Such words are called nouns. too. but. Part II. The Parts of Speech. and Inflections. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. . The words state. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Part III. by which is meant the free. from the eighteenth century on. besides this one. or Syntax. The Uses of Words. Analysis of Sentences. the nation is free. and will are evidently names of a different kind. then.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. reference will be made to vulgar English. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. as they stand for ideas. The plainest name is Arabs. and the word nation stands for a whole group. three divisions:² Part I. 1. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. and may belong to any of those objects.

Name for any individual of a class. They properly belong under common nouns. a committee. because each group is considered as a unit. possessed by all. etc. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Individual. (b) Common. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Besides considering persons. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. 3. MATERIAL.Definition. This does not imply. 2. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. animals. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. ATTRIBUTE. Thus. as here used. substance. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. or the man in front of you. we may think of them in groups. however. and appropriate names to the groups. For instance. . Common. Proper. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or a mob. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. 5. reducing it to a narrow application. Collective. A noun is a name word. Classes of nouns. or idea. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Abstract. men in groups may be called a crowd. or thing. We may say. or a council. whether person. or a congress. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. or things. animals. and things separately. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. the man here. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. is from a Latin word which means general. place. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. (a) 4. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Thus. representing directly to the mind an object. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. but Chicago names one city. belonging to one. Name for a group or collection of objects. that a proper name can be applied to only one object.

Names of ideas. "Painting is a fine art. sugar. we may say. etc. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. earth. cloud. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. granite. Such are glass. (3) Geological bodies: mud. and so on. It may.Names for things thought of in mass. proof means the act of proving. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. there is no such intention. or that which shows a thing has been proved. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. etc. moon. wine. 6. instead of to each individual or separate object. The quality is still there as much as before. dew. but it is taken merely as a name. Again. They remain common class names. and fasten a special name to the object considered. etc.²There are some nouns. frost. as in calling a city Cincinnati. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. condition. rain. stone. gold. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. celluloid. conditions. etc. clay. . (4) Natural phenomena: rain." "a man of understanding. expressing attributes or qualities. expressing state. Words naturally of limited application not proper.. considered abstractly. sugar. The reason is. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). however. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. wheat. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. but which are not called proper names. potash. earth. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. or actions. sand. When we speak of a wise man. or apart from their natural connection. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. world. or action. rice." 9. not things. rubber. etc. NOTE. mist. rock. such as sun. etc. but in the words sun. frost. platinum. we speak of the wisdom of the man." "Learning is hard to acquire. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. paint. tea. wheat. soap. 7. . The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. etc. iron. etc. snow.

The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. but are merely names of actions. energy. summer. 12. . Exercises. etc. the teachings of the High Spirit. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. speech from speak. height from high. 273). (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. kingship from king. etc. the rude drawings of the book. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. Thus. To avoid difficulty. hope. shadow. hopeful²hope. Underived abstract nouns. and they cannot express action. a wedding or a festival. redness from red. he spread his blessings over the land. 1. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. (1) prudence from prudent.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. They cannot govern a word. Such are beauty. Caution. is used as a noun. the well-being of her subjects. those opinions and feelings. theft from thieve. her longing for their favor. ease. thunder. stupidity from stupid. the moon caused fearful forebodings. as glad²joy. as in the expressions. etc. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. NOTE. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. (2) peerage from peer. etc. the great Puritan awakening. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. childhood from child. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. They are only the husks of verbs. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function.Attribute abstract nouns. 10. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. five abstract. in the beginning of his life. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. joy. winter. the main bearings of this matter. "a long run" "a bold move. five proper. action from act. The verb." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. there is time for such reasonings. night. mastery from master. day." "a brisk walk. Verbal abstract nouns.. service from serve. II. by altering its function. lightning. as their name implies. 272. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify.

algebra. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. as physics. Using a dictionary. diphtheria. catarrh. mathematics? 3. as pneumonia. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. typhus. pleurisy.2. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . geology. (b) branches of knowledge.

(2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. currants. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. in Portugal. a Bentham. the guillotine. Material nouns may be used as class names. it imposes its classification on other men. arras. who was its inventor. damask. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. and lo! a new system. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. 119). from the name of Dr. Others of similar character are calico. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. as a davy. or to go over to it entirely. from a town in France. a Lavoisier. port (wine). the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Guillotin. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. from Oporto. a Fourier. a Locke. thus. Proper names transferred to common use. We know a number of objects made of iron. from Corinth. but we may say. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. etc. for example. "The cook made the irons hot. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. the word port. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. 14. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. 15. Nouns change by use. 13. from Damascus. above. from China." referring to flat- . Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. from Calicut. a Hutton. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance.²EMERSON. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. levant and morocco (leather). but most of them are in the following groups.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power.

smiled. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. (3) By poetical use.²PERCIVAL. The words preceded by the article a.²COLLINS. etc. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. to prowl or to moan like night birds. slates. oils. which are made plural. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. mists. or. coals. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. a steel to whet a knife on. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified.In lightnings owned his secret stings. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. and only Vice and Misery. Death. 16. When it is said that art differs from science. Next Anger rushed. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated.²HAYNE. abstract in meaning. or made plural. They are not then pure abstract nouns. not material things. candies. that the power of art is founded on fact. as stones. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. though not confined to verse. These are the same in material. Test this in the following sentences:² . tobaccos. and so on. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. his eyes. are still names of abstract ideas.irons. are abroad. Personification of abstract ideas. papers. Traffic has lain down to rest. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. but differ in strength. nor are they common class nouns. or the arts and sciences. the abstract idea is partly lost. that disposition is the thing to be created. but on dispositions which require to be created. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. For example. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. etc. paints.²BYRON. but in case an art or a science. From all around²Earth and her waters. on fire. clays. clouds. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. or used as class nouns. that is. Class nouns in use. A halfway class of words.²RUSKIN. and say teas. a rubber for erasing marks. be spoken of. purity. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. This is a poetic usage. 17.²CARLYLE. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. tins.²BRYANT.

" "the State Bank Tax bill. loves.²IRVING. When I was young? Ah.Let us.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. 19. NOTE.²BURNS. 18. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. Conjunctions. the wealthy. But it is better to consider them as nouns." which contains a pure adjective.²SHAKESPEARE. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. but is still a noun. which belongs to another word. sir!" and the "What then. or from any expression." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. sir?" and the "No. they do not express quality. By ellipses. Then comes the "Why. a bank in New York. But ah! those pleasures. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. as descriptive adjectives are. All these. however. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. nouns used to modify. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. Every why hath a wherefore. sir!"²MACAULAY . Adjectives. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. etc. for example. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Nouns used as descriptive terms. a bill as to tax on the banks. as each repeated pleasure tired.²EMERSON. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. they cannot be compared. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. or describe it. They are more like the possessive noun. "a family quarrel. meaning a walk in the morning. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired." "a New York bank.² GOLDSMITH. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. fear thy blow. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. And still. if we must have great actions. were mere terrors of the night." "a morning walk.The Solitary can despise. Adverbs. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. make our own so. and joysWhich I too keenly taste.² BURNS.²SHAKESPEARE.

also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. and tell to which class each belongs. Now. however. Caution. so. is the word "just. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. 20."²B. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. 3. When.Nor iron bars a cage. the wealthy. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. 5. that cobweb of the brain. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. There are many of these. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. that the above cases are shiftings of the use." or "legal.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. whether it mean the sun or the cold. NOTE. are used.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. When.." and another of Dr. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. or a state secret. but have an adjectival meaning. to such words as become pure nouns by use. 8. and Then. 1. in speaking of the principal of a school. The it. etc." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. or a faithful domestic. In the other sentences. . at the beginning. 7. in a sentence above. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. Learning. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. of words rather than of their meaning. Exercise.²These remarks do not apply. of course. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. the terms the great. 2. but as a figure of speech. without reference to its function in the sentence. Power laid his rod aside. too. why and wherefore. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. 4. 6. It is to be remembered. Stone walls do not a prison make. or a criminal. are spoken of as if pure nouns. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. is ambiguous. FRANKLIN.

and many other languages. A fool speaks all his mind. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 15. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. its bloom is shed. 20. 24. 11. 17. Greek. . the silver moon is gone. 10. that waits you here. 21. returned to Spain. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. But pleasures are like poppies spread. The fleet. the welcome.You seize the flower. female. 23. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. and names of females are usually feminine. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 21. 19. 12. but not so in English. It is founded on sex. 13. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. in English grammar. always feminine. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 16. GENDER.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. In Latin. The hours glide by. What gender means in English. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. German. A little weeping would ease my heart. Male beings are. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 14. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. for every dropHinders needle and thread. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. always masculine. There are exceptions even to this general statement.9. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. he cried. 22. 18.Fair guests. And see. shattered and disabled.

Of animals.. Thus. Gender nouns.² I have seenA curious child . "A little child shall lead them. those distinguishing the sex of the object. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. corpus (body) is neuter. .. in English.. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. that pattern of a husband. or which arouse his interest most. the word child is neuter in the sentence. that is.. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. No "common gender. those with which man comes in contact often. the name of it is feminine. if of the female sex. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. in other languages gender follows the form. those which do not distinguish sex. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. are named by gender nouns. but are spoken of as neuter.. 24. hortus (garden) is masculine. with its gizzard under its wing. or names of things without life.²masculine and feminine. das Messer (knife) is neuter. according to their use. however. then. All nouns. if there were any signs of life in it. mensa (table) is feminine. 23.. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. For instance: in Latin.² IRVING. the name of it is masculine.²gender nouns. in German. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. or additions to words. and consequently without sex." . Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. according to use. and neuter nouns. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. inanimate things are spoken of. The great difference is. came to a stand just by the bridge. clapping his burnished wings. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. the sex being of no consequence. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. must be divided into two principal classes. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Hence: Definition.²LAMB. 22." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. Neuter nouns. Gunpowder .When. He next stooped down to feel the pig.²IRVING. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex.

² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. The inflections for gender belong. domestic. 26. they are neuter words. For fox they said vox. According to the definition. 28. 27. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. as he-goat²she-goat. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Gender shown by Prefixes. the division of words according to sex. . etc.. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. though both words have lost their original meanings. for from they said vram. ruler. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. but spinster has now no connection with it. is. Put in convenient form. 29. These remain in vixen and spinster. cousin. One feminine. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Hence vixen is for fyxen. as in wine vat. Native suffixes. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. servant. generally to a masculine word. Gender shown by Suffixes.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Very few of class I. from the masculine fox. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. teacher. of course. relative. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. and for the older word fat they said vat. (2) By adding a suffix. I. If such words as parent. puts a prefix before the masculine man. (3) By using a different word for each gender. he-bear²she-bear. Male nouns beings. or the lack of it.25. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. woman. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. II.

Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. Ending of masculine not changed. Low Latin issa). as czarina. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). señorita. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. -ess (French esse. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as seam-stress. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . the one most used. punster. donna. but in most cases it has not. Unaltered and little used. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. 30. executrix. trickster. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. and are never used for words recognized as English.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as. gamester. These are attached to foreign words. Slightly changed and widely used. song-str-ess.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. it has none now in the words huckster.

teacher or lady teacher. Gender shown by Different Words. as in the fourteenth century. NOTE. Some of them have an interesting history. In some of these pairs. as. others have in their origin the same root." III. neighbor (masculine and feminine). teacheresse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. Thus.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. frendesse. neighboresse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. as. 31. from the French -esse. the ending -ess. We frequently use such words as author. we use the masculine termination. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. etc. 32. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt .²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. fosteress. as was said in the sixteenth century.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). to represent persons of either sex. chairman. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. from Latin imperatricem. we use the feminine. Instead of saying doctress. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. or servauntesse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. wagoness. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. editor.

Personification. in Old English mere. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. written loverd. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). It is not connected historically with our word duck. from Latin mea domina. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom.). had the masculine mearh (horse). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Danish gaas. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Witch is the Old English wicce. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. among others) to be from the same root word. probably meaning house dweller). material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Madam is the French ma dame. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). lhauerd. though both are ultimately from the same root. Icelandic gás. the old sign of the masculine. Two masculines from feminines. or lauerd in Middle English. widuwa²widuwe. The older forms. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Mare.² . finally gander. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Widower. Three letters of ened have fallen away. gand-ra. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. for example. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. as in many other words. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. The masculine was formed by adding -a. became identical. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Besides gander and drake. but this has long been obsolete. leaving our word drake. 33. etc. 16). not immediately connected with witch. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). 34. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe).

more than one. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 35. whenever we adopt a new word. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. Effect of personification.²CAMPBELL. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. The first two methods prevailed. (3) By adding -s (or -es). . In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. NUMBER.²KEATS. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. and not by the form of the noun."Now. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. eyen (eyes). In nouns. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. together with the third. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. 37.No towers along the steep. This is not exclusively a poetic use. But other words were inflected afterwards. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. that is. The -en inflection.Her home is on the deep. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. for instance. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. the engineer speaks so of his engine. treen (trees). the plural. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. 38."²BYRON.²singular and plural. in Old English. (2) By changing the root vowel. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. Our language has two numbers. Britannia needs no bulwarks. I.²COLERIDGE. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. 36. Definition. shoon (shoes). 39.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. etc.

heathen. sail. The words horse and foot. head.² The foot are fourscore thousand. Other words following the same usage are. brace. lens. etc.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. glass. by. Kine is another double plural.²MACAULAY. II. retain the same form for plural meaning. finally brethren. 40. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. 42. Examples of this inflection are. that have the singular and plural alike. quartz. etc. Brethren has passed through three stages. or if preceded by the prepositions in. originally neuter.²WHITTIER. ditch. pair.Horse and foot.²THOREAU. etc. sheep. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. but has now no singular. borough²formerly had the same inflection. they add -s): also trout.The horse are thousands ten. The old plural was brothru. then brothre or brethre. folk. and is still found in dialects. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. 41. swine. Akin to this class are some words. as. into Frederick town. Lee marched over the mountain wall. after numerals (if not after numerals. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. Such are box. Children has passed through the same history. but they now add the ending -s. dozen. cross. and get settled. The weakening of inflections led to this addition.² "God bless me! so then. when they mean soldiery."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. people. wight. as. Instead of -s.²Over the mountains winding down. turf. such as deer. III. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance.-En inflection imitated by other words. after all. . salmon. cannon.

15 and 17). hero²heroes. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. 45. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . When such words take a plural ending. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. e. these words ended in -ie. the Americas. etc. DANA. summons. etc. house²houses.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. molasses. daisies. and some -es. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. Words in -ies.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. knife²knives. Formerly. also news. as.. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. pains (care). means and politics. though this sound combines readily with -s. that when thy summons comes. Examples of these are. is both the science and the art of government. chaise²chaises. Some words are usually singular..g. some adding -s. means: as. fancies. Means plural. mathematics. allies.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. etc. fairies. politics. they lose their identity. race²races. optics. niche²niches. The lilie on hir stalke grene. quoth then that ladie milde. etc. prize²prizes.²BRYANT. 43.g. half²halves. a new syllable is made. physics. Proper nouns are regularly singular.-Es added in certain cases. e. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. It served simply as a means of sight. volcano² volcanoes. and go over to other classes (Secs.²PROF. in its widest extent. So live. and the real ending is therefore -s. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. 44. Two words. shelf²shelves. however. economics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). though they are plural in form.² Politics. and many branches of learning. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. negro²negroes. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. the Washingtons. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. Special Lists.

With great dexterity these means were now applied. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. he pronounced to have been a tongs. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²J. CURTIS.Words. if I recollect right. . Some words have no corresponding singular.²GOLDSMITH. 46. by those means which we have already mentioned.²MOTLEY. By these means. L.² MACAULAY. Besides this. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. A relic which. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. W. Sometimes.²IRVING. it is furnished with a forceps.²GOLDSMITH. by strongly conveying the passions.²BURKE. riches will accumulate. Now I read all the politics that come out. LAUGHLIN.²G. Politics plural. however. I say.²GOLDSMITH. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.

number²numbers: (1) figures. brethren (of a society or church). DANA. the other unlike it. These make the last part plural. (2) revenue duties. dice (for gaming). One plural.²LONGFELLOW. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. Numbers also means issues. two meanings. faculties. 50.. as in the lines. making a double plural. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). as two sixpences. Tell me not. shots (number of times fired). pence (collectively). In speaking of coins. Three words were originally singular.²was it subdued when. genius²geniuses (men of genius). two plurals. or copies. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. In Early Modern English thank is found. for the numbers came. etc. die²dies (stamps for coins. (2) abilities. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. penny²pennies (separately). indices (signs in algebra). Two classes of compound words.²one corresponding to the singular. (2) care. or epistles. index²indexes (to books).The air.. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. etc.²POPE. may add -s. part²parts: (1) divisions. pease (collectively). . eaves. in mournful numbers. (2) literature. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. ways.. fishes (individuals or kinds). fish²fish (collectively). riches.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). pea²peas (separately). trouble. shot²shot (collective balls). twopence. or work in a bellows?²PROF. clothes (garments).² I lisped in numbers. sixpence. genii (spirits). 49. carry off chaff. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. of a periodical. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. 48. (2) poetry.

firman. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Briggs. the Misses Rich. such as talisman.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. As to plurals of names with titles. or the name may be pluralized. Ottoman. as man singer. woman singer. Mussulman. . followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Two methods in use for names with titles. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. manservant. there is some disagreement among English writers. The chief member adds -s in the plural. woman servant.²DR. for example.² Then came Mr. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. the Drs. Brahman. 51. Allen. German. and Mrs. as the Messrs.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. Norman. though the latter is often found. 52. but add -s. HOLMES. The title may be plural. then Silas Peckham. Brown. and then the three Miss Spinneys.

A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²DICKENS. Domesticated words. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.²GIBBON. FROM THE GREEK. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. These are said to be domesticated. FROM THE LATIN. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Du Maurier. Exercise. or Englished. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. y y analysis antithesis . The Messrs. and retain their foreign plurals. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. or Anglicized. 53. Others have been adopted.²THE CRITIC. They are then said to be naturalized. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.²GOLDSMITH. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.

and expresses a relation akin to possession. etc. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). Letters. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. Words quoted merely as words. cell has another relation. figures. 55. In the general wearing-away of inflections. they form their plurals in the regular way. without reference to their meaning. Definition." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). 54. Only two case forms. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. In the sentence.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s)." the word felon's modifies cell. etc. also add -s or 's. as. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. figures. ." CASE. as. 56. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence..

Human experience is the great test of truth. three things characterize man. I." (2) As a predicate noun. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. must be understood for purposes of analysis. and merit. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. . then. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Excuses are clothes which. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. the enemy of the living. 4. learning. Nouns. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 1. 5. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. Three properties belong to wisdom. and experience.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. and the possessive.²one for the nominative and objective. 57." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. 58." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. whether inflected or not. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. when asked unawares. 3.²nature. Uses of the Nominative.²person. excessive grief. fate. the objective. may be said to have three cases. they returned to their homes.²the nominative. 2. completing a verb.

Set a high price on your leisure moments." "Cowards die many times before their deaths.Save. 4." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and meaning calmest. 3. 68. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. reconciles. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. completing the verb. and landlord of the inn. a patriarch of the village. 59. they are sands of precious gold. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. taking the object enemies. and tell which use each has:² 1. her first law broken. 9. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. Tender men sometimes have strong wills." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." Exercise. 2. thy wrath can send. and being equivalent to one verb. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder." (4) As the second object. (5) As the object of a preposition." (3) Adverbially. save. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. But of all plagues. They charged. the word toward which the preposition points. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. distance. how have I frighted thee? II. as will be seen in Sec. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse.6. 8. wounded lies." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. Conscience. etc. But the flood came howling one day. and makest a calm. good Heaven. measure. Uses of the Objective. sword in hand and visor down. (in the older stages of the language. taking the object storm. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. .

There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. and forfeits paid. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. III. The noblest mind the best contentment has. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. tempests that .² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. from day to day.²SHELLEY. 9.²BYRON. 60. as shown in the sentences. And whirling plate. as. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. (2) Objective possessive. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. The possessive case always modifies another word. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. It is a poetic expression. the Great Stone Face.² The unwearied sun. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 10. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. as in these expressions.²HAWTHORNE. expressed or understood.Does his Creator's power display. or in writing yesterday's elegy. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. Uses of the Possessive. 7. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.e. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.His winter task a pastime made. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.²ADDISON. Possession in some sense is the most common. 8.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. 6. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. 61.. the most common of all.And gave the leper to eat and drink. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.5.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. (3) Subjective possessive.

however. and Obj. lady Poss. "George Jones his book. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example.winter is likely to have). Nom. 63. 1. growth which several days had developed). Poss. A false theory. 62. As said before (Sec." "mannes herte [heart]. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). the panther which the forest hides).. Declension or inflection of nouns.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. The use of the apostrophe. 56). "From every schires ende. as schoolboys sometimes write. Case Inflection. How the possessive is formed." etc. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. One is the simple form of a word. there are only two case forms. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. 64. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe.. Nom. 62. A suggestion. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es." "at his beddes syde. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i." Use of the apostrophe. To form the possessive plural. .e. PLURAL. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. making the possessive singular. in Chaucer. and Obj. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. child NOTE. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.e. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case.

²CARLYLE. etc."²DE QUINCEY. dwelling.²THACKERAY. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. in the name of the emperor their master. the possessive sign is usually last. a word with a phrase. for goodness' sake. church. but to the ear all may be alike. as by the countess's command. as. Possessive and no noun limited. 65. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. . tailor's bill²THACKERAY. and from a desire to have distinct forms." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.²RUSKIN.Though this opinion was untrue. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. Peter's. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.²SWIFT." Possessive with compound expressions. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. 67. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. I remember him in his cradle at St. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²HOLMES. as. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. In compound expressions. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. some such word as house. instead of the emperor their master's name. being understood with it: for example. Cervantes' satirical work. and the connection must tell us what form is intended.² LOWELL.²DE QUINCEY. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. etc. the items of my son's. my neighbors. store.. Captain Scrapegrace's. 66. containing words in apposition. know the amount of my income. Kate saw that. stands up for God's truth one man. and she walked off from the don's." "A postscript is added. James's.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves.

however. For example. (See also Sec. (1) When a word is modified by a.The double possessive.²FROUDE. Emphasis. If. and tell whether each is appositional. especially when used with this or that. each. and at the same time by a possessive noun. etc. or subjective. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. a double possessive. Clearness. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. Blair). the statement clearly means only one thing. 68. A peculiar form. as one modifier. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. 87. E. every.²CARLYLE. (3) It prevents ambiguity. no. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. Both of these are now used side by side. the sentence might be understood as just explained. ill-lighted except where she stands. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. 1. sometimes they are used together. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. objective. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es.. (b) Rewrite the sentence. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us.²E. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. In most cases. that. the. we use the phrase of Atterbury. in such a sentence as.²the introduction which Atterbury made. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. making a double possessive. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. corresponding to 's. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. this. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. 2. HALE. any. Exercises. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.

in parsing a noun. Hence. 6. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 14. My quarrel and the English queen's are one.They say. 8. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 13. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 11. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. with every garland crowned. 70. and destroy the other.² . would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. Now the bright morning star. 5. 7.A weary waste expanding to the skies. In parsing. 10. let him seasonably water the one. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. There Shakespeare's self. therefore. 69. Nature herself. Jove laughs. 15. 4.Comes dancing from the East. 12.3. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. it seemed. day's harbinger. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. Friend. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. At lovers' perjuries. 9. some idioms²the double possessive. we state. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.

which gender. and limits neckcloth. NOTE. Neckcloth. it expresses possession or ownership. hence it is objective case. therefore masculine gender. 71. and therefore nominative case. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. proper.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. 3. That in the captain's but a choleric word. is a common class noun. (4) Its office in the sentence. (3) Whether singular or plural number. and number. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. 68). and relations. and to have it found out by accident. singular number. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. hence it is a common noun. as to case. inflections. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. Thief is a common class noun. hence objective case. the connection shows a male is meant.(1) The class to which it belongs. but is the adverbial objective. it is the object of the preposition by. MODEL FOR PARSING. hence it is a gender noun. In parsing any word. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. a withered serving man. therefore possessive case. it expresses time. object of the verb takes. etc. 4. gender.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. Throat is neuter. therefore singular number. . like miller's. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. it has no sex. if the latter. a fresh tapster. has no governing word. Exercise. The correct method. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. it denotes only one person. therefore singular number. determining its case. masculine.²common. subject of the verb is understood. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. 2. names one thing. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. it is the name of a male being. therefore neuter.

"Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.. castle. and prison. . or for a group of persons or things. 72. 73. PRONOUNS. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. 11. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.²palace. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. the military gentleman shook his forefinger.. Now. 8. 10. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Madame de Staël.5. Time makes the worst enemies friends. standing for a name. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. financial minister to Louis XVI. A pronoun is a reference word. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. The need of pronouns. Mrs. Necker. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. where the Rhone enters the lake. sleep! 6.. He giveth his beloved sleep. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. definite. from a necessity for short.And hated her for her pride. or for a person or thing." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 9. instead of saying. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Classes of pronouns." Again. 76). since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. but by a question we say. were natives of Geneva. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Jarley's back being towards him. all in one. Definition. and his daughter. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. A few miles from this point. 7. blessings light on him that first invented . and representative words. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. For instance.

which have forms for person. even if it had a special form. (2) Second person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated.. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. 75. 77. my Plural. "the distinction of person. (3) Third person. as nouns have the same form. pronoun. and the person or thing talked about. words. which relate or refer to a noun. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. (5) Indefinite pronouns." Person of nouns. Person in grammar. the person or thing spoken to. Three persons of pronouns. which cannot be used as adjectives. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. they must represent the person talking. standing for a person or thing spoken of. This gives rise to a new term. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. primarily adjectives. representing a person or thing spoken to. Singular. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. representing the person speaking. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. I Poss. that is. or other word or expression. (4) Adjective pronouns. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things.(3) Relative pronouns. 76. we our. From analogy to pronouns. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. mine. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. 74. they are said to have person by agreement. Nom. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. ours . which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns.

Nom. or.. so also with the person or thing spoken to. she her. Singular. hers her Plur. Old forms. Obj. feminine h o. Nom. me us Singular. and also for the neuter. thou thee ye you you your. The speaker may be either male or female. Obj. yours you Plural. 78. he his him Fem. Poss. your. Poss. neuter hit. Old Form Common Form. SECOND PERSON. it its it Poss. First and second persons without gender. Third person singular has gender. Obj. neuter. Nom. in the singular. namely. a separate form for each gender. Obj. they their. . Nom. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. thy Remarks on These Forms. Masc. you your. of all Three. But the third person has. theirs them Neut. masculine h .Obj. by personification. thine. yours Poss. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. yours you THIRD PERSON.

2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. etc. it. two modern uses of thou. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. (2) In addressing the Deity.:² (1) In elevated style. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. just as we now say.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. Second person always plural in ordinary English. etc. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. and sometimes its. heom.²BEECHER. 82. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. In spoken English. Two uses of the old singulars. the forms they.." As shown above. them. We use it with a plural verb always. heora. . The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. even when referring to a single object. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. Thou.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 81. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. thy. etc. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. There are. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). The old form was his (from the nominative hit). which was often sounded with the h silent. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. The consequence is. as possessive of it. as in prayers. in Old English. especially in poetry. however. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. for example. as. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. their. thee. 80. 79. The plurals were h . that didst comfort thy people of old. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. The form its.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.Thou lovest. which is a neuter noun.. thou Shepherd of Israel. to thy care we commit the helpless.²SHELLEY. This is of comparatively recent growth. perhaps being from the English demonstrative.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English.² Oh.

84 are always subjects. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. they.Use of the pronouns in personification. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. some say. thy. for. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. and not make more classes. . Nominative forms. them. and follow the usage of literary English. have a peculiar use. 86. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. though ye is occasionally used as objective.²LANDOR. thine. your. Yet careful speakers avoid this. ²SHAKESPEARE. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. their. he. to personify objects (Sec. in such a sentence as. us. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. and sometimes in ordinary speech. its. me. they have a nominative form. ye. Additional nominatives in spoken English. him. And since thou own'st that praise. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. 85. In spoken English. Absolute personal pronouns. That is. 58). but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. we. I The Nominative. or. Old use of mine and thine. 34).²COWPER. 84. note the following:² 'Twas mine. The forms mine. "I am sure it was him. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. The forms my. his." the literary language would require he after was. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. yours. theirs. however. II. The Possessive. though those named in Sec. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. thou. Not a separate class. besides a nominative use. us. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. when they occur in the predicate position. them. 83. her. her. her. I spare thee mine. 'tis his. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. our.²BULWER. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. him. hers. and has been slave to thousands. she. sometimes his and its. The words I.

²BIBLE. and with mine. thus.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. as in nouns."²SCOTT.² CARLYLE. Give every man thine ear. but few thy voice. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. or satire.²SWIFT. we have. (2) To bring emphasis.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. for example. anger. F. T. This ancient silver bowl of mine. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. ²HOLMES. (3) To express contempt. The forms hers. ours. COOPER. theirs.²THACKERAY. . theirs. Besides this.²J. Long Allen.²CARLYLE. This usage is still preserved in poetry. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. pluck it out. are really double possessives. thine. commenting upon a letter of mine. hers. FIELDS.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. we find. yours. thus. ours. 87." said Henry Woodstall.²J. it tells of good old times. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. Their uses. his.²ID. If thine eye offend thee.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. sometimes its. Like the noun possessives. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.²ID. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. yours. "Hold thy peace. Double and triple possessives.²THACKERAY. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. in that old Edinburgh house of his. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.

mine stands for my praise in the second. as it is called. "The good alone are great. was marked by a separate case.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. Both joined in making him a present. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. They all handled it. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. Now the objective. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. But the first two have a nominative use.²ID. but the form is the same as the objective. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen.²BIBLE. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. and mine in the second has an objective use. but nominative or objective in use. as shown in Sec. In their function. the thing is done. his for his property. 20. but not in form. 90. or use in a sentence. In such sentences as. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. in the first sentence. 88. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. III. The old dative case. Curse me this people." "None but the brave deserves the fair. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. The Objective.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. 89. but expresses for whom. . the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. this dative use. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. 86: mine stands for my property. In pronouns. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. Besides this use of the objective." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. for whose benefit." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb.

Society.²EMERSON. 91. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. has not made its progress. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. The word you. which follows the verb. Indefinite use of you and your. thus. logical subject. was passed by with indulgence. as. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²DE QUINCEY. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. you sneeze. why. to stand for the real. Your mere puny stripling. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. in this century.²BACON. or to the idea. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.²D. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.Time is behind them and before them. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.²BULWER.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.² NEWMAN.²ADDISON. as in the sentences.² . you must condense there. ²EMERSON. It is a pity that he has so much learning. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. 92. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²IRVING To empty here. and they cry. WEBSTER.²CARLYLE. like Chinese skill. or that he has not a great deal more. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. yet it is but like the thorn or brier." (3) As a grammatical subject. as. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. (3) In apposition.

²BURNS. -selves. that is. who in turn tries all the professions. as.. (ourself). keeps a school.²IRVING.² Now I lay me down to sleep.²HOLMES. yourselves. it rained. used in poetry. who teams it. ourselves.²ID. the second is the old form of the second person. when they are direct objects. peddles it. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. itself. For when it dawned. however. . An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²SCOTT. we use such expressions as. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS." "He bought him a horse. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. farms it.²THOREAU.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. They are myself. I set me down and sigh. since firstThe flight of years began. There was nothing for it but to return. himself. they dropped their arms. Poor Christian was hard put to it. themselves.It is finger-cold.²ANON.²DE QUINCEY." and there is an end of it.²COLERIDGE. but seldom in prose. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively."²IRVING. I made up my mind to foot it. herself. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. have laid them downIn their last sleep. as they are also called. It was late and after midnight. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. and its plural selves. 94. Of the two forms in parentheses. A sturdy lad . (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²BRYANT. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. And millions in those solitudes. "I found me a good book." etc.²BUNYAN.. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (thyself). And when I awoke. This occurs in poetry. yourself. For example. 93.

as. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. to us. In Middle English the forms meself. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. for example. theself. The question might arise. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. and the others were formed by analogy with these. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. Held dead within them till myself shall die. NOTE.²EMERSON..²WORDSWORTH. with self.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. as.² .²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. for example. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. BROWNING. Threats to all.²ID. Origin of these reflexives.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.² The great globe itself . were changed into the possessive myself. shall dissolve.² TENNYSON.²E.. to every one.²MILTON. as we ourself have been. 96. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. not the possessive forms.To you yourself. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.As girls were once. especially in the speech of rulers. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. Use of the reflexives. as in vulgar English. As if it were thyself that's here. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. I shrink with pain. ourselves. after the analogy of myself.²SHAKESPEARE. B. 95. etc. thyself. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. and build the lofty rhyme. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.

Biscuit is about the best thing I know.²B. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. all conform to it. some each of masculine. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. father. To know what is best to do. Infancy conforms to nobody. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. feminine. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. is wisdom. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. let him lowly confess it.² THACKERAY. Come and trip it as we go. 4. Courage. 6. FRANKLIN.On the light fantastic toe. Years ago. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. Three now in use. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. some of them being double possessives. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 97. 10. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 7. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.²DE QUINCEY. and how to do it. 9. and neuter. fight it out. 3. 8. And it grew wondrous cold. 2. . and what. where the word is one with that it tells of. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. which. but it is the soonest spoiled. One obsolete. 5.

old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Which of you. with its possessive and objective. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. it is selective. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Whose was that gentle voice. that is. The use of who. Use of what. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. . that it is always singular and neuter. ideas. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Use of which. etc. These show that what is not inflected for case. As shown here. 100. whether.Promised. as it always asks about somebody. Use of who and its forms. referring to things. number. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. 98.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. What wouldst thou do. whispering sweet. that. but for case alone. shall we say. having three forms. not to persons. but now obsolete. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. or case. it is always third person. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. which is not inflected for gender. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. used formerly to mean which of two. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. actions. the gold. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. it refers to either persons or things. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. 99..There is an old word. methought. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater.

which is nominative in the first sentence. and what are also relative pronouns. who? Poss." Or.² . what may be an adverb in some expressions. For instance. as they take the place usually of a word already used. Who. Function of the relative pronoun. AND PLUR. 104. it may be shortened into. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. nominative in the second also. "The last of all the Bards was he. and so to make smoother discourse.²by the use of the words. which is called the antecedent of the relative. being the direct object of the verb shall take. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. 127). The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. in Sec. It usually precedes the pronoun. subject of doth love.101. Further treatment of who. 99. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. Thus we may say. which and what. who evidently refers to Bards. SINGULAR Nom. who is used as objective instead of whom. as. since it is subject of the verb had. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. which. 105. AND PLUR. which and what are sometimes adjectives. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. for which the pronoun stands. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. pronoun. SING. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives.² "The last of all the Bards was he. as. whose? Obj. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 103. or other word or expression. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. and also in having a conjunctive use. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. The antecedent. These bards sang of Border chivalry." In the latter sentence. 102.Who sung of Border chivalry. objective in the last.

will be discussed further on. They had not their own luster. Two kinds. When the word relative is used.²DR JOHNSON. 4. . The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. Ye mariners of England... Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE.²LOWELL In this. with all its capabilities . The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²MILTON. WHITNEY. For her enchanting son.Whom universal nature did lament. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. Indefinite relatives. 2. The men whom men respect. but the look which is not of the earth. what. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. the women whom women approve. which.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.²W.That guard our native seas. 107. is a divine creation. 4. both his and who have the antecedent priest.²BYRON.²THACKERAY.² COX. 108. 2.²SCOTT. Generally speaking.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. that. D. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²PARTON Which and its forms. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 6. are the men and women who bless their species.Whose flag has braved. 3. Who and its forms. in the same sense in which man's nature. The origin of language is divine.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. 3. a simple relative is meant. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. a thousand years. 106. The nurse came to us. 5.

²IRVING. 111. ought to be kept in view. else this description will seem exaggerated.. The Tree Igdrasil. Examples of the relative that:² 1. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. bought up all the pigs that could be had.. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. 6. you will not be angry with me for telling you. 109. Already done is all that he would do. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. (a) This gradation .. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. no bad type of what often happens in that country. The judge . 4.² SHAKESPEARE 2. which it certainly is not.²EMERSON.²BURKE. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.5.²DE QUINCEY.²LAMB 3. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . and spoils. 110.²MARGARET FULLER.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. Reader.. 2.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. Who.. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. BEECHER 5. That. 3. 107.²GOLDSMITH. stratagems.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. W. For what he sought below is passed above. What.²H..Is fit for treasons. The man that hath no music in himself. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.

seemed as much excited as myself. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. whose.²THACKERAY. they are plural. In sentence 4. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. The sentences in Sec. The robins. 2. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.whose. and so on. in the first sentence. possessive case of which. Scott. The little gorilla. 112. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].²SWIFT.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. things. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. the relatives are singular. the others are all third person. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. p. (2) It has three case forms. It has been seen (Sec. who.. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. Kingsley.²DR. that man. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. 107. whom. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. (3) It is nearly always third person. . who class With those who think the candles come too soon. not persons.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. 113. or ideas.. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. and 3. in the second. Cooper.²who. Which. 96).who. in 4. and others. whose is second person.²LEIGH HUNT. JOHNSON. Examples of whose. 5. and 6. whose wound I had dressed. son. In 1. Smollett. in 5.. (4) It has two case forms. in the third.²LOWELL..²which for the nominative and objective. whose for the possessive. a man.²IRVING. Who referring to animals. referring to animals. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.. whom. Gibbon. flung its arms around my neck. My horse. Sec. who is first person. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. Witness the following examples:² And you.. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.

(4) It has the same form for singular and plural.² And. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. This moribund '61. Men may be ready to fight to the death.²BEECHER.114.²THACKERAY. and third persons. That. which is very notable and curious. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Which and its antecedents. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns.²first.²SHAKESPEARE. no possessive. 115.² MCMASTER.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. and things.²RUSKIN.² I swept the horizon. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. The last two sentences in Sec.²SCOTT. 109. 116. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. and to persecute without pity. Sometimes. too. thus. second. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent."²RUSKIN. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. This often occurs. which is worse. In the sentences of Sec. So in Matthew Arnold. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. . the antecedent follows which. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. animals. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. and numerous others. secondly (which made her stare). as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. (3) It is the same form for first. Primarily. let us enter the church itself. Burke. Kingsley. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light.²DE QUINCEY. (2) It has only one case form. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.

" That evidently refers to truths. third person. that do I not. by taking them out. 117. that do I. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. and person of the relatives who. What. it usually follows. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. and is emphatic. The gender. Sec. that he has. When expressed. . What a man does.²SHAKESPEARE. for example. either of which would be neuter. who Poss." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. what we said?²CARLYLE. 118. third person. but what I hate." (3) "These people heard him. we can. whose Obj.²EMERSON. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 109. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. as. The sentences of Sec." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. as in sentence 6.²BIBLE What fates impose. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. plural number. 119. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. is always neuter. For example. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. Nom. number. that men must needs abide. plural number. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. consequently is neuter. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. which.² What I would.

not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. The relative what is handled differently. and hence is in the nominative case. the simple relative. Truths in sentence (2). 4. In the sentence. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. etc. it is object of uttered. above. who is sure to be cunninger than they. but of this. In the same way who."²EMERSON. which is. because it has usually no antecedent." Here the subject of is. Some prefer another method of treatment. nobler souls with that which they are. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. we is the subject. As shown by the following sentences. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. neuter. is what we call nature. then parse the relatives. is subject of the verb can't be cured. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. in (1). I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time.. it is subject of the verb heard. so is in the objective case. in the following sentences:² 1. Exercise. The whole expression is its subject. 3. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. I think they are trying to outwit nature. What can't be cured. is subject of wrought upon and molded. In (2). . This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. First find the antecedents. "What can't be cured must be endured. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Now. after all. The word what. however. is in the nominative case. What must be endured? Answer. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. 6." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. standing for the people understood. Parsing what. Another way. people is the object of the preposition of. the highest result of all education. third person.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. in (3). 120. 5. and what is the direct object of the verb call. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. but is singular. that takes the case of the truths in (2). 7. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. 8. subject of heard.

Do what we can. or what else soever. which. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. 7. . in a new and original way. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. no certain antecedent. less common are whoso. whatsoever. and parse that in the first clause. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. that nothing else can stand in their presence. object of with] which [singular. or stand on their head. It is no proof of a man's understanding. 4. summer will have its flies. not as direct as the simple relatives. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. They are whoever. Death is there associated. 2. to everything that. It is clear that in 1. 121. 5. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. Take which you please. Meaning and use. 3. So with the other indefinites. whatsoever. whatever is equivalent to all things which. 6. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. and in 2. whosoever. whatever. List and examples. whichever.²MACAULAY. Only itself can inspire whom it will. The simple relatives who. 122. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. 2. that is. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. Hence some take what as a double relative. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. by meaning and use. no particular thing.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. being referred to. and his friend a fool.²BURKE. object of do] they do.²BURKE. and which in the second clause. "common souls pay with that [singular.²you cannot have both. 123. whichsoever.

as shown by the last sentence in Sec. In early modern English. either one that.² 1. .²HAWTHORNE. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. everything that (or everything which). nothing that does not interest us. but mean any one whom. This.² some particular thing. the conjunctions wherein. upon which.. for example. 4. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. whereby. etc. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. There is nothing but is related to us. 126. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. 417). 121. what means anything that. but which only wealth could have purchased. thus. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. Proof that they have the force of relatives. for example.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. and that as after such is equivalent to which. 121. Instead of the phrases in which. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. has been my heaviest affliction. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. 2. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Sec. But and as. 124. 120. Other substitutes. etc. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. by which. etc.As shown in Sec. whereupon. as was used just as we use that or which. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. Former use of as. but and as. Two words. not following the word such. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY.. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 125. are used. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.

(b) But what had become of them they knew not. the full expression being. which would indicate that they are not relatives. who having the antecedent gentleman. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. no antecedent is expressed. and whether what = that + which (if so. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. 2. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. it is an indefinite relative). 127. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). if expanded. if not. what is interrogative. Another caution.. which having the antecedent lines. In studying such sentences. 1 (b). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. . (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. Special caution needed here.²WHITTIER. would be. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. "Who stood behind? We knew. 3. So in 2 (b). "But what had become of them? They knew not. though the earthwork hid them. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. if not. and 3 (b). But in 1 (b)." Likewise with which in 3 (b). it is an interrogative. a question is disguised in each sentence. second. Thus. In sentences 1 (a). (b) Well we knew who stood behind. showing that who is plainly interrogative. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. it is a simple relative.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. 2 (b).²ID.²EMERSON. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. How to decide." etc.

The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. ELIOT.²SWIFT. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Exercise. 2. Examine the following:² 1.²CARLYLE. 129. Relative omitted when object. I visited many other apartments. the question is asked by the verb. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. but the life of man in England. In the second.²G. In the third. Thus. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. whence is the interrogative word. which. When Goldsmith died. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 4.²GOLDSMITH. whose has the antecedent you.²FORSTER 6. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. and Court Calendars. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. 5. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences.²FLETCHER. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr.² THACKERAY. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²HOLMES.128. 3. Put in the relatives who. and asks no question. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. . OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. which has the antecedent hue.² These are the sounds we feed upon. In the first. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. On the other hand. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.

Also in literary English we find the same omission. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.² LOWELL. It is rare in prose.²CAMPBELL. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Function of adjective pronouns. and what. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. 3. There was such a crowd went. which was already proceeding. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. Examples are. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. Relative omitted when subject. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. 5.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4.Ne'er looks upon the sun. or indefinite relatives:² 1. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. . And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. that. simple relatives. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. who were to be rulers over whom.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 130.²SHAKESPEARE. 2. The nobles looked at each other. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball.²Id. 6. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. the house was full. and comparatively so in poetry.7. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. which. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.²SCOTT.

any. as some. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. and on each is written. and stand for a noun. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. etc. and another to get cool under.²EMERSON." that is. "The dead are there. or may be the whole of a sentence. either. or an argument in a paragraph." in the others. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. few. Primarily they are adjectives." in the second. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. Adjectives. none. "these pranks. must not modify any word.131.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. "another bank. in order to be an adjective pronoun." Classes of adjective pronouns. not pronouns." "Where two men ride on a horse. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. . such as this. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²BRYANT. such as each. 'Truth. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. that. necessarily thought of: thus. but in this function. a word. or they may stand for nouns. In the first use they are adjectives. in the first. but have lost their adjective use. 132.²IRVING. "each cube. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. Caution." "one man. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. expressed or understood. For example. etc. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. the former. or use. etc.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. in letters of gold. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. 133. many. all. For instance. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. which we have seen in such expressions as. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. neither.

Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 134.All these he saw. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. or reclined. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. 3. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.²EMERSON 4. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Even as I have seen. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. accidentally preserved. Their minds accorded into one strain. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Exercises. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. 2. for example. Simple. when the latter was the King of Spain. 5. A man inspires affection and honor. as seemed good to each. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and they have well performed the other.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.² They stood. Definition and examples. They had fewer books. and sow wickedness.²ID. Compound.²ID. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. They have not shunned the one. they that plow iniquity.²LOWELL. but these were of the best.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. reap the same. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Such are a few isolated instances. NOTE. . or sat. because he was not lying in wait for these. Some of these are simple pronouns.

The lines sound so prettily to one's self. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. another. as it were. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. as some of the rangers had gone astray. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. we might the more easily discharge them. paused over a horoscope. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. . 135. you quickly come to the end of all. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.²HOLMES. one another. Some inflected. such as one other. The word one has a reflexive form.²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.Two are compound pronouns. The Soldan.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. Another opposes him with sound argument. Men take each other's measure when they react. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. Much might be said on both sides. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²each other. imbued. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many.²KINGSLEY. as most were. as. with the superstitions of his time. Exercise. They led one another. for example. or melt for others' woe.² One reflexive.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. ²HAWTHORNE. None shall rule but the humble. Definition and examples.

William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. every one else. what. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. anyone else.. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. 136. they are never used as adjectives.² At lovers' perjuries. any one (or anyone). .Exercise. they say. also aught. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. etc. and somewhat. no one. Jove laughs. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case." It means something. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Exercise. Every one else stood still at his post.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. naught. unlike adjective pronouns. 137. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. as shown in the words everybody's. and they. but. nobody. somebody else. anything. as. and was indefinite in Old English. some one. everybody else. everybody. etc.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Definition and examples. Somebody. anybody. everything. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. every one (or everyone).²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. something. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. in building of chaises. nothing. I tell you what. They indefinite means people in general. Now.²SHAKESPEARE. anybody else's.

²a feature of natural scenery for which. 11. 4. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 9. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 5. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 18. All was now ready for action. 138. 17. Hutchinson tells us of herself. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 7. I first found myself among the mountains. O thou that rollest above. indeed. 16. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. A reminder. 12. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. and of no other. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Whoever deals with M. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. to which. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. from my earliest days. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. The table was good. 6. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. For this did God send her a great reward. 14. 10. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. were suffered to depart.See also "Syntax" (Sec. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 13. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 8. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 2. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. in his negotiations. Exercise. 3. . Others did the same thing. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else.

in all its height. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 34. oh. He sate him down.19. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. Whatever he knows and thinks. variety. I who alone am. and seized a pen. thou rollest now. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. well-oiled dispositions. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. that let him communicate.Destroyer and preserver. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 26. 31. 32.And it would work 'em woe. 27. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 25. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. They know not I knew thee. who take the world easy.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. And I had done a hellish thing.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. What can we see or acquire but what we are? .Who knew thee too well. 29. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. hear. 35. 23. eat white bread or brown. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. behold now the semblance of my being. 30. And will your mother pity me. 21. hear! 33. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere.

we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house." The office of an adjective." "a hundred men.. or with persons. 45. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. As to the kind of words used. or gaseous. We need to add some words to tell its color. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. 42. For example. 44." etc. If a chemist discovers a new substance. as. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid." "yonder hill. heavy or light. 43. 41. and so he read. size. It may have this office alone. We are by nature observers. So with any object. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. etc. in pointing out an object. such as in the expressions "this man. then. so that no other will be mistaken for it. Office of Adjectives. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 38. if we are at a distance. and he learns who receives.36. . Again. becomes mine. white or red. and if we are near. 39. who understands me. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. the number is limited by adjectives. etc. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. adjectives are used. He knew not what to do. ADJECTIVES. 40. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 139. He teaches who gives. or liquid. that is our permanent state. which was no bad step towards my liberation. brittle or tough. "one hat. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. Who hears me. Substantives." "some cities. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. 37. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present." "that house. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. position.

"Heaven-derived power.140. pointing out particular things." "ivory-handled pistols. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. With exception of the "and then." and the still less significant "and so." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. deep. (2) Adjectives of quantity. divine. derived from proper nouns. To make this clear. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. etc. it shows that he weighs men's minds. Infinitives. Classes of adjectives. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 142. or how much of a thing. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them.² BACON. (3) Demonstrative adjectives." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." they constitute all his connections. however." "next-door neighbor. happy. They include relative and interrogative words. Examples are. "an old English manuscript." "ice-cold water." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." "unlooked-for burden. beautiful." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "the Christian pearl of charity. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. words primarily pronouns. used to tell how many things are spoken of. Nouns are not. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." . (4) Pronominal adjectives." "the Roman writer Palladius.²COLERIDGE.²POPE. rash. To err is human. 143. If he be thankful for small benefits. to describe it or to limit its application. fair. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. terrible. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." the "and there. and their trash. Definition. such as safe." "this life-giving book. to forgive. remotest." "half-dead traveler. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. such as. 141.

" "The clearness and quickness are amazing. no.²COLERIDGE. but small thoughts have I of sleep. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." was is the verb. Care is needed." Caution. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. some.²MACDONALD. For instance: in the sentence. . 143. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. considerable. 145. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. 'Tis midnight. sometimes small.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." "trailing clouds." "It came on like the rolling simoom. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." was accomplished is a verb. Exercises.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun.But ever she looked on Mr." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. much. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. 2. any. in this. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. having some of each subclass named in Sec. and accomplished is an adjective. 1. which are either pure participles used to describe." "One is hungry. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." "The shattered squares have opened into line. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. in studying these last-named words. Examples are." "an aged man. and another is drunken. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. Oxenham." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." "a charming sight. 144. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished.

" "He had lived by hunting for some months. but I have gained fourscore.²KINGSLEY. The following sentences present some examples:² ." "In came some five and twenty more. any. Examples." Single ones of any number of changes. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.²VAUGHAN. are used with plural nouns. (plural these. The list. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. Exercise. An arrow was quivering in each body. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. every village. Thus. they come under the next division of adjectives. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." "a dozen volunteers." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. those).²THACKERAY. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. the former²the latter. former. as. no.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound.²ID." (b) Indefinite numerals." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. Not primarily pronouns. 146. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. yonder (or yon). for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. instead of modifying them. its wake. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection.² Every town had its fair. that.²CARLYLE. When some." "I have lost one brother. The demonstrative adjectives are this. How many. and with them a few negroes. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. "one blaze of musketry.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking." "Then we wandered for many days. latter. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time.

of equal skill.²KINGSLEY. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. . was the ruin of every mother's son of us. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. tell how many things are meant. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. ²CARLYLE. just as the corresponding pronouns do.. 149. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. These were thy charms.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. for example.²ID. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²WORDSWORTH.. Exercise.²BULWER. 147. These do not.²RUSKIN. WEBSTER.²ID. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. skill which was progressive²in the other. what revenues or garnitures. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. FRANKLIN. I verily believe. Modify names of persons or things. 148. The taking of which bark. they are changed to adjectives. but in the one case. skill which was at pause. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. They are of two kinds. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. In which evil strait Mr. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. Oxenham fought desperately.but all these charms are fled.² It matters not what rank he has. Definition.²D. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. like the other numerals. As has been said."²B. but. Indefinite relative adjectives.²GOLDSMITH. The silver and laughing Xenil.²BANCROFT.

Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. New torments I behold. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.²LAMB. But when the Trojan war comes. or whether any.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. whatsoever. whichsoever way I move. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. and new tormentedAround me.²AGASSIZ. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps..150. which..²CARLYLE. the debt to the rich. and gaze. what inquires about things or persons not known. In direct questions. . he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whichsoever. it is impossible to determine. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. you at least give him full authority over your son. proved not altogether displeasing to him. Whatsoever kind of man he is. He was turned before long into all the universe. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.And whichsoever way I turn. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²IRVING. As in the pronouns. 151. Examples of their use are.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whatever.² EMERSON. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whichever. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.²RUSKIN. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²ID. nature will be sure to bear us out in. A lady once remarked. Adjective what in exclamations. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. as it rather seemed. In indirect questions. which is selective among what is known. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. Was there.

In exclamatory expressions. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. NUMBER. or size.²number and comparison. th s (modern those).²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. etc. 155. or weight. It is neither relative nor interrogative. color. we notice some differences between them as to size. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. the making of it right. we do so by means of their qualities.. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. gold is heavier than iron.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. That. Exercise. All these have certain qualities.² Oh. Meaning of comparison. But this had also another plural.²This. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. etc. When we place two objects side by side. those). which was fully inflected in Old English. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. Thus. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. COMPARISON.152. History of this²these and that²those. or amount.Adjectives have two inflections. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. This is the old demonstrative. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. The article that was used with neuter nouns. . Those borrowed from this. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. 154. of the quality. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. as. alas. and those as the plural of that. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. 153 . but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. and when we compare the objects. weight. And yet.²but not the same degree. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.

²THACKERAY. but. red. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. with less wit. to the simple form. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree." Words that cannot be compared. indefatigable. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. 157. redder. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. Freedom is a perpetual. whether they attend their own affair or not. Definition. giant-like. 156." "no fewer than a hundred. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 158. infinite. organic. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. reddest. easier. as. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. immemorial. whose favorite pupil he was." "the largest soul. The two forms. supreme. but were not common until a century later. expressing the greatest degree of quality. sufficient." "the commonest speech. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms.²SEWARD. they are not compared. . A main difference betwixt men is. 160. "untamed thought. bluer." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. or amounts in quantity. These are called degrees of comparison. great.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. and the superlative. though the simple. and the superlative by adding -est. bluest. and many others. easiest. blue. enormous. Substitute for inflection in comparison. indomitable. expressing a greater degree of quality. "more matter.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. as. So with the words sole." "It is a nobler valor. universal institution. easy. for example. The comparative is formed by adding -er. strictly considered. These are properly the only degrees. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. 159.

examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. quiet." "distantest relationships." "sorrowfulest spectacles. most small. and patientest fusing. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. The following lists include the majority of them:² . though born in no very high degree. madam.²The Nation. polished. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. These are adjectives irregularly compared. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. harsh forms are usually avoided. was most finished. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.²ID." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. and yet familiar." Carlyle uses beautifulest. falling on his knees. who. etc. 162. Adjectives irregularly compared.Which rule." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. witty.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries." "more austere and holy. finest chiseling. honestest. and other words are preceded by more and most. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. there needed to be a most genuine substance." "the wonderfulest little shoes.² CARLYLE A gentleman.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck." said Henry Esmond.²ID. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. easy. as. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. I will. which hung behind in the queerest way." "more odd. These long. The general rule is. indisputablest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. peaceablest. strange. 163. "So help me God. mournfulest. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. admirablest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.

Worser was once used. furthest 10. 7. worst.² O. 9. latter Hinder LIST II. lesser. older Nigher Nearer Later. . The superlative I form was betst. 3. [Out] Outer. (2) In Old English. which has softened to the modern best. 2. a double comparative. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 5. outermost Utmost. as in Shakespeare. as. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. hindermost Much or many More Farther.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. List I. bad. Hind 2. [In] Inner Inmost. These have no adjective positive:² 1. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. A double comparative. 4. 1.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 164. next Nearest Latest. uttermost Upmost. Good or well Evil. uppermost LIST III. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. oldest Nighest. (3) Little is used as positive to less. evil was the positive to worse. innermost Outmost. lesser Elder. 8. 6. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. throw away the worser part of it. as in the sentence (14th century). further Farthest.²HAMLET. least.LIST I. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). though from a different root. last Hindmost. which has gone out of use. There was an old comparative bet. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. utter 3. is often used.

and the superlative nearest. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. but originally the comparison was nigh. instead of lenger. a distinction has grown up between the two series. ²LAMB. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. List II. "Many a little makes a mickle. doubling the inflection. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. The latter. except the form next. First became entirely detached from the series. strong. farthest. to which is added -ost. great. (5) The forms elder. strenger. etc.²KINGSLEY. The meanings greater. oldest. th came into the others. eldest. first. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. . Since later. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. further. came into use. is quite common. much. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. there is scarcely any distinction. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. making the modern farther.²ID. are shown in such phrases as. moche.²forth. the old forms. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. as long. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. as. muchel. next. Between the two sets as they now stand. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. In imitation of further. furthest. and refer to time. for example. etc. greatest. to England we sailed.² The more part being of one mind. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force.. meaning the largest part. near. are earlier than older.. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. farrest. or series. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti." Its spelling has been micel. The most part kept a stolid indifference. since the m is for -ma. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.²HAWTHORNE. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. but not in meaning. an old superlative ending. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. latest.

Think what each adjective belongs to. are like the comparative forms in List II. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove." "The outer is of the day. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. by the by.²EMERSON. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." "the innermost moral soul. or have no comparative forms. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. The comparatives are so in form. W. being merely descriptive. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. Decidedly handsome. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. but not in their meaning. on the very topmost twig. They have no superlatives.165. 167. all may belong to the same noun. and have no comparative force. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. but her after deck was still dry." "their utmost exertion. In List II. was descried The royal banner floating wide. The adjectives in List III." -Most added to other words. (Sec. the upper light of the world. .²SCOTT. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN.²H. Highest and midmost. 166." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. BEECHER.²HAWTHORNE. 168. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. Her bows were deep in the water." "far-seeing as the sun. List III.²KINGSLEY." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. in having no adjective positives. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. or each may modify a different word or group of words. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.²DE QUINCEY. Her.²DE QUINCEY. but they have no adjective positives. There. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.

ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. round. 3. we may say "the then king. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. solid. as.²MRS. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. therefore. in prose. instead of saying. Our sometime sister." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.² My then favorite.²HAWTHORNE. bright. "the one who was then king. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. deep." making then an adjective. STEPHENS 5. and heaven-defying oaths. For thy stomach's sake.²HAWTHORNE. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision.²A. Exercise. But in this sentence. 2. deeply black eyes. Other instances are.²HOLMES. STOWE. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. It may still be argued. Bradbury and Evans. and broken. This. and thine often infirmities. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet.For example. rich. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. in this sentence. the then and still owners. Richard Hooker. 169. and moral truth. In the following quotations. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. usual modifies incomparable decision. satisfactory. 4." in which then is an adverb. May we not. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.²TRENCH. H. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. ²TROLLOPE. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. 6. The seldom use of it. not decision alone. 7.²NOAH PORTER." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. now our queen. A few improper jests and a volley of good.²BIBLE. philosophical. .²RUSKIN. By a convenient brevity. our new government.

if it has number. therefore descriptive. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. To every Roman citizen he gives. 7. and very few have number. cannot be compared. (2) Its number. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. To every several man. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. compared by prefixing more and most. This gave the young people entire freedom. then. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 170. frank. Unfamiliar describes truths. 2. person. seventy-five drachmas. if it can be compared. with awkward but rapid pace. and I waited for none. modifies truths. I ask nothing of you. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. or case. therefore demonstrative. having a singular. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 4. Exercise. She made no reply. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. positive degree. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. but that you proceed to your end by a direct.What to tell in parsing. These points out what truths. plural number. manly way. 5. (3) Its degree of comparison. Since adjectives have no gender. not inflected for number. 8. this. 10. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. In parsing an adjective. MODEL FOR PARSING. the method of parsing is simple. 3. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. 6. . modifies the word truths. (4) What word or words it modifies. 9. across the plain. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza.

during which time I waited. 23. Here lay two great roads. growing in the most unfavorable position. 32. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 26. are immutably fishes. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 21. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 12. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. Nearer to our own times. Two hours elapsed. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. it is so noble a fruit. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 13. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 19. and many poles supported the lower ones. the tomahawk fell. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Their name was the last word upon his lips. suggests such thoughts as these.11. 33. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. and therefore more interesting to us. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. With every third step. 31. 25. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 16. To say what good of fashion we can. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 29. I know not what course others may take. not so much for travelers that were few. as for armies that were too many by half. 14. 20. yonder oxen in the pasture. In music especially. is the settlement of our own country. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. and dogs. 18. he won affections with ease. 24. 22. 27. those dogs in the yard. it rests on reality. . 28. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. oxen. Like most gifted men. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. the same love to France would have been nurtured.

The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . meaning one. he is no literary man. An historian. later th . because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. A hard-struggling.²BREWER. these occurring as the tane. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. 35. Their origin. An before vowel sounds. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. weary-hearted man was he." the words the and an belong to nouns. just as adjectives do. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. Our expressions the one. and a before consonant sounds." "a European. for example. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. 174. 172." "an honor." "a yelling crowd. a before consonant sounds. sometimes the tother. 171. 173. in vulgar English. or the tane. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. s o. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. the tother. . that) which was also an article in Old English. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. th o. ðat. 37. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. ARTICLES. such as we have been attempting to describe.²SCOTT." "an orange." An with consonant sounds. An or a came from the old numeral n. the latter is still preserved in the expression. the tother. but the former is used. with an ordinary little garden. Many writers use an before h. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. even when not silent. were formerly that one. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. In the sentence. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. Two relics. the other. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. In Middle English the became an article. Examples: "a house. that other.²MACAULAY.34. the tither.

The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. is referred to. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. which cannot be used alone. Articles are either definite or indefinite. doubtless. With names of rivers. 177. or any individual of a group or class. as "the Mississippi. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. An and a are different forms of the same word. When the is prefixed to a proper name. An hereditary tenure of these offices. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. 176. and when the word river is omitted. NOTE. 179. The is the definite article. since it points out a particular individual.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²IRVING. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with.² . but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. and not a state or other geographical division. Kinds. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. Reference to a known object. as in the sentence..²G. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. on opening a story. thus. or a group or class of things.²This use is noticed when." "the Ohio. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. or class.²COLERIDGE. not descriptive. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. the older n. The Dakota tribes. An article is a limiting word. or group.. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. 178.²HEROES OF ASGARD. 175. Definition." the article indicates clearly that a river.²THACKERAY. a person is introduced by a.² Don't you remember how. An or a is the indefinite article. BANCROFT. To call attention to attributes.

²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. One thing for its class. The. as. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. 183. the Hume. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 181. the Spinoza. Common. for example. her. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.²SCOTT.The Bacon. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²ID.²EMERSON. so is the evil. Caution. not into a particular virtue. Kant. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²KINGSLEY. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²EMERSON. If the good is there. but into the region of all the virtues. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. For possessive person pronouns. 2. With adjectives used as nouns. BANCROFT. The simple rise as by specific levity. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. 1. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU.²GIBBON.²ID. laid it on the miry spot. His messages to the provincial authorities. NOTE. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. the song sparrow.² As she hesitated to pass on. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 180. or a match put between the fingers. etc. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. Schelling. With plural of abstract nouns. 182.² The faint. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²G. and the redwing.²MOTLEY. Half abstract. the gallant. . would speedily extract the required information.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

for example. a verb. an article. "Put money in thy purse. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. The nature of intransitive verbs. a). and to receive the action expressed. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. Of those expressing action. b). or an idea. and a preposition unite as a verb. all do not express it in the same way. an adverb. Each influences some object. The nature of the transitive verb. 204. lone took what? answer. a noun.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. a preposition. In the first. "Put thou money in thy purse."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. but fearing is not a predicate. the word following. we consider a verb as one word. to go is no predicate. as. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating.²BULWER . and. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. (can) shame also has an object. or the object. which may be a person. in (c).In (a). Definition and caution. in (2. Now. and shame the most astute. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. but cannot be predicates. in this sentence from Bulwer. in (2. In each case. A verb is a word used as a predicate. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. which means to go over. in (b). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. taking the staff which always guided her steps. representing something which it influences or controls. or a material thing. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. to say something to or about some person or thing. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS." put is the predicate. All these are called transitive verbs. Hence Definition. with some word understood. 202. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii." Examine the sentences in Sec. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. Has takes the object hypocrisy. the most penetrating. c). A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. hence is not a verb. in (3. b). might have been anticipated is also one predicate. in (3." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. By examining a few verbs. 201. obeyed is a predicate. etc. In giving a definition. 200: In (1). from the Latin transire. the most astute. endured what? anguish. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. care. In the sentence. 203. and not a verb. can deceive has an object.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

222. he will see the need of these ethics. they were recorded in the Book of Life.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. Ideal. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. If this be the glory of Julius. as. for example.²D.²LONGFELLOW. . the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.²SHELLEY. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. popular government must be pronounced impossible. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. ²EMERSON. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. but. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Again. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. the second founder. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. 221.² Now. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. 2).I could lie down like a tired child. I. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. and may or may not be regarded true. or be fulfilled. the first great founder of the Empire. the writer can make the statement following. WEBSTER. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.²BRYCE. in our case. the representative system ultimately fail. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. 215. Most excellent stranger.² If.²MACAULAY. Unreal²cannot be true.²FRANKLIN. Condition or Supposition.²may or may not be true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. as.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.

3. since he [Byron] was dead.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. clear. 2. unless. if he was the man I take him for. that he might be strong to labor. do you think. 7.²CALHOUN. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. WILLIS.²EMERSON. and what kind of condition:² 1.²BAYNE. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.² CARLYLE. society could not hold together. to drink strong beer.²SWIFT. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. but when the verb precedes the subject. may. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. 223. she was regarded as a prodigy.²FRANKLIN. he had better not have written. If he had reason to dislike him. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. P.. ²LOWELL. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. that we cannot but regret its absence. and should. would have sat still with joy and peace.²N. the clause being introduced by that or lest. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. and striven energetically to save Ney.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. and sonorous. etc. NOTE. Subjunctive of Purpose. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. thus. he supposed.. . But in no case could it be justified. though. 8. might.. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. Epaminondas. 5. In the following conditional clauses. II. except. especially be.. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. which cannot be true. as. 6. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. would you.²FRANKLIN.²MACAULAY. 4. The subjunctive. I told him. if he speak to you.² If these things were true.² It was necessary. melodious. Exercise." etc. is used to express purpose. is of similar physiognomy. The voice. if his lot had been mine.

²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. like the Latin. In Temporal Clauses. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²BRYANT.And we. WEBSTER. In Indirect Questions.²COLERIDGE. like the quarry-slave at night. I would it were! ²EMERSON. 224. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Rise up. Ask the great man if there be none greater... The English subjunctive. within its fairy bowers.Thou go not.²SOUTHEY. 225.²ID. Let it rise. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. VI.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.²D.²MOORE. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. In a Noun Clause. till it meet the sun in his coming. . He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. the answer being regarded as doubtful. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. III.²DE QUINCEY. Subjunctive of Result. Expressing a Wish.²WORDSWORTH. To tell of what had passed. 227..²CARLYLE.I have been the more particular. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.Were wafted off to seas unknown. After a verb of wishing. VII. I've wished that little isle had wings. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. none of us could say.That vain it were her eyes to close. 226. IV. So live. V. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.

which may be (a) Pronoun. object. often contains a subjunctive. The noun clause. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.²WORDSWORTH. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²THOREAU. The essence of originality is not that it be new.²CARLYLE. in its various uses as subject. we'll turn aside. The first merit. See that there be no traitors in your camp. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. of cash.And look thou tell me true. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. for example. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. (b) Adjective. VIII. That hunger of applause.And see the Braes of Yarrow. in apposition. Some might lament that I were cold.²COLERIDGE.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. that everything be in its place. 228.²DE QUINCEY. . etc.² Be the matter how it may.. Complement. Object. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. or whatsoever victual it may be. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²TENNYSON. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. is. 229. Concessive Clauses. Come.²SCOTT. After verbs of commanding.² DICKENS. is the ultimate fact of man's life.²SHELLEY.Subject. tell me all that thou hast seen. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²COLERIDGE. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Whatever betide. I have no thought what men they be.

² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. though.(c) Adverb. (2) Entreaty. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. . The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. entreaties. Q.The spirit he loves remains. It must be remembered. fear none. 231. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Definition. however. IMPERATIVE MOOD. (1) Command. (3) Request. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. for example. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. 230. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. ADAMS. or requests. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Honor all men. to express a wish.²J. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used.²BRYANT. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. since commands are directed to a person addressed. love all men. In spoken English.² CARLYLE. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Usually second person. At the present day. and condition contrary to fact.²SHELLEY. Oh. 232. a concession. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.²CHANNING. point to their immortal works.

3. receive my hand. lest we rust in ease. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. 2.²CAMPBELL. 8. Oh. Quoth she." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. to you implied in it. but I + you. or I + they. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Whatever inconvenience ensue. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. request. Break we our watch up. Mark thou this difference. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts."Hush! mother.. Sometimes with first person in the plural.²SCOTT. "Come along with me.²SHAKESPEARE." Exercises on the Moods.One glance at their array! 5. Part we in friendship from your land. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.And God forget the stranger!" . child of earth!While each performs his part. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.."²DICKENS Tell me. etc. 7.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.And. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. noble earl. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. there will her heart and her prayers be." whispered Kit. "The Devil take the goose. 6. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. etc. we may use the imperative with we in a command. nothing is to be preferred before justice.

High up in silver spikes! 22. Think not that I speak for your sakes.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. He is. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Well. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 23. "Oh. 11. That sheaf of darts. but repentant child. Forget thyself to marble.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. "tell me where I may find my poor. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. ruined. 13." 16. will it not fall unbound.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. in what pomps and prosperities he like. 10. 21. as though an instrument. 20. . or do it at all." 25. 18.9. Though he were dumb. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.That they might answer him. "Mr.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Marshall. it would speak. my dear madam. whether he do it right or wrong." cried he. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.Except. let him live where else he like. no literary man. 26. how he may do his work. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. Though abyss open under abyss. 14. she ought to have it. then. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. and opinion displace opinion. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. He. 19. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. That a man parade his doubt. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause." continued Old Morgan. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar.

TENSE. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. past. "I go away tomorrow. past perfect. to direct his steps. Old English had only two tenses. "Thou walkedst. 233." past. The tenses in detail. or whether it were as one member of a general party. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. a form ending in -eth. When the older pronoun thou was in use. Tense means time. Meantime. will. 235. such as be. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no.27. five in the subjunctive. Definition. and the past tense. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. and future perfect tenses. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. and the future tense. as will be shown later on.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. as." .² present. Tenses in English. by means of the present.²nothing could exceed the amiable. whatever she did. 28.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. also.²the present tense. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. called auxiliaries. and future. as. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. have. tell him to wait. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. five in the imperative. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. or agree with it. Siddons. in the third person singular. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. kind. "Thou walkest. "It is not in man that walketh. as the classical languages have. or future time. in the conjugations." present." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. past. the past. PERSON AND NUMBER. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. shall. which represented present and future time. such as Latin and Greek. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. 234." "If he comes.

etc. chosest). and numbers. were. but in English. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. PRESENT TENSE. tenses. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. PRESENT TENSE. walked.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. chooses. This is the third person. chosen (old. singular number. is. Singular 1. Singular 1. Definition. 237. walketh. Such verbs as choose have five. CONJUGATION. The verb be has more forms. Singular 1. walkedst. for example. choosing. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. choosest. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. 236. In classical languages. I were 2. I be 2. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. "He walks. Indicative Mood. You are 2. chose. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. Few forms. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. moods. Singular 1. wert) 3. walks. etc. since it is composed of several different roots. mood.²choose. been. walking. [He] were [They] were . are. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. You (thou) be 3. chooseth. persons. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. [He] was Subjunctive Mood.²am. walk has walk. as. tense. [He] is [They] are 3. 238." and this only in the present tense indicative.

and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (3) be. which was now become an occasional banquet. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²WORDSWORTH.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. to express intention. is.²ID. (d) With the infinitive.²GOLDSMITH. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. etc. to form the passive voice. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. were. The light that never was on sea and land. 240. obligation. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. though it is usually a dialect form. same as the German sind. (2) was.Imperative Mood. 239.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. -en. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²SHELLEY. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. Remarks on the verb be. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature.²BURKE . If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. for example.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. thus. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. condition. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. (2) As auxiliary verbs. etc.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT.. Instead of the plural are. as. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.His infancy was nurtured. in four ways.

and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. You choose Plural. You chose Plural. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE." (2) Present perfect. We chose You chose 3. 1. "I had gone" (past perfect). Singular. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. Singular. as. You chose Plural. had. Indicative Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. I choose 2." "He will choose. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. (2). tenses. 1. In addition to the above inflected forms. past perfect. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). I chose 2. as. "I shall be. Machinery of a verb in the voices. PRESENT TENSE. "I have gone" (present perfect). by placing have. 1. 240. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I chose 2. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose.241. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. etc. future perfect. tenses. We chose You chose 3. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 242. I choose 2. 1. Singular. [He] choose [They] choose 3. . Singular. PRESENT TENSE.

Present perfect. Past perfect. lest. "I was chosen. Only the third person. Present definite. Present. will be given. Present. Present definite. He will have chosen. Past definite. He had chosen. Past perfect. of each tense. as. He will have been choosing. Future definite. He has been choosing.] he choose. Subjunctive Mood. Present. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. he chose (or were to choose). he have been choosing. . Imperative Mood. Past. though.(3) The definite form of each tense. he have chosen. Future. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. ACTIVE VOICE. etc. singular number." "They had been running. (2d per. Present perfect definite." (4) The passive forms." "You are chosen. Same as indicative. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Present perfect. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Same as indicative. "I am running. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He chose. Past perfect definite. Past perfect definite. [If. He chooses. Past. Present definite. He was choosing. He will choose. He is choosing. Past definite. Future perfect. He had been choosing. as. Indicative Mood. " Be choosing.) Choose. He will he choosing. Present perfect definite." 243. He has chosen. Future perfect definite.

he had been chosen. Past definite. Present perfect definite. Past. Present perfect definite. Future perfect definite. lest. None. Future perfect. Present definite. Present definite." "He did strike. (2d per. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. PASSIVE VOICE. Present. He will be chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. he were being chosen. Past perfect definite. Future. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature.] he be chosen. None. if learned at all. they will be discussed later (Sec. None. . however. Indicative Mood. He will have been chosen. He has been chosen. None. Future definite. Exercises should be given. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). but verbals. Imperative Mood. as. He was being chosen. Present tense. Past Perfect. Past. etc. Present perfect.NOTE. 262). He is being chosen. Also. He is chosen." [Note to Teacher. Present perfect. he have been chosen. He had been chosen. though. in affirmative sentences. None.) Be chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Subjunctive Mood. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. " " " " " " " None.²This table is not to be learned now.. None. Present. Past definite.] [If. He was chosen. "He does strike.

which are in parentheses Present Tense. catch. According to form. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. Kinds. drive. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. bounden] bitten. and may or may not change the vowel: as. verbs are strong or weak. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form.[adj. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . Some of these also have weak forms. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. bid bound. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. lay. as. sleep. Definition. run. beg. 244. begged.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. but adds no ending. bit blown broken chidden. 245. laid. ran. Past Tense. slept. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. caught. drove. NOTE.

drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.

and the latter. for example. probably to avoid confusion with this. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. and sometimes occurs in poetry. borne is also a passive. ²THACKERAY. cleave. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. cleaved. TAYLOR. nor a dog barked. cleaved. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). which always crew at eleven." In this confusion of usage. but is much used in vulgar English.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. now told us it was time for repose." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. The former used to be cleave. "his bounden duty. cloven. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. Sometimes in literary English. .²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. as." "a drunken wretch.²MILTON." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. especially in that of an earlier period.²COLERIDGE. instead of ate and eaten.² Thou hast clomb aloft. Our cock. "stricken with paralysis. 246. clave or clove. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). How fairy Mab the junkets eat. only one set remains certain. to split. The form clomb is not used in prose. and another (born) for the passive.²TENNYSON.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. Historically.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.²as (from Shakespeare).²IRVING. the other. When it means to carry or to endure.²GOLDSMITH.² We had each drank three times at the well. Not a cock crew. cleft. as (from Holmes). as. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings." "the cloven hoof. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as." "a sunken snag.²one meaning to adhere or cling. as. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. and. cleft (to split).²B.²cleave.

²BYRON. Fling. for example. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. which is seldom used except in poetry. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. flung. Exercises. threw. gave. given. fell. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. One example out of many is. began. shore is rare. found."²KINGSLEY. 5. even in poetry. 2. frozen. Break. 9. Find. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Shake. 8. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Usually shear is a weak verb. found.²DE FOE.²BIBLE.² We had all got safe on shore. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. 10. and seized a pen." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend." but not much as a participle. as "a shorn lamb. Begin. as. We usually say. Throw. shaken. thrown. 4.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.²WORDSWORTH. maiden. He sate him down. fallen. Drive. . Give. driven. drove. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. Fall.The form gotten is little used.²TENNYSON. begun. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective.²SCOTT. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. Freeze.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. The butler was hanged. broken. 6. 245). 7. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. shook. 3. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs.² If. flung. froze. for example. (a) From the table (Sec. broke. and grasping at his sword. This heard Geraint.

²SCOTT. must have been an ocular deception.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. They are as follows:² PRESENT. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. 223." Must is present or past tense. PRESENT. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe.²PAINE. etc. from the obsolete verb motan. (See also Sec. Must is historically a past-tense form. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. "So mote it be. HAMILTON. as it has two meanings. which survives in the sentence."²WINIER..²HAWTHORNE. It is indicative when it expresses permission. Have we valuable territories and important posts.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. The same remarks apply to ought.²CHANNING. 250. ability. Can is used in the indicative only. according to the infinitive used. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. etc. but came through analogy with should and would. "far off his coming shines. Subjunctive use. or. as in Sec. . Like must. 220. for full drill on the forms. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. 247. or when it expresses wish. purpose. 251. as. 249.. Ability.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. PAST. there is one general principle. His superiority none might question. of course. as it sometimes does.²CHANNING This. PAST. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons... Indicative Use: Permission. Could may be subjunctive.. The l in could did not belong there originally. it is used only in the indicative mood.[To the Teacher.

C. to use will and would. (b) In indirect quotations. he said.Nay. They shall have venison to eat.² The time will come full soon. Shall and Will. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.²L. especially in the United States. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. or confident prediction.. as. (b) In questions asking for orders. 252.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.²MACAULAY." Uses of shall and should. with pronouns of the first person. The sea shall crush thee. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.² With respect to novels. "I think I will go.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. She rejects his suit with scorn. shall and should are used.²LONGFELLOW. for example. and corn to hoe. I shall be gone. yea. as.²THAXTER.e. The following are examples:² Never mind. as. MOULTON. She should not walk. she should ride like a queen.² Futurity and questions²first person. promise. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. while ought always has to. WEBSTER. what shall I say?²N. my lad. in the form of command. BROCKDEN BROWN. to the neglect of shall and should. Second and third persons. shall and should are used. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. not plod along like apeasant. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.² (a) To express authority.²BULWER. . (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.²COOPER.²IRVING. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. future action).

B. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²WINTER. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. LARNED.²C. was to be expected. and will not return until all is finished.that I would do him justice. Disguising a command.²A. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.. with the conviction that he should win in the end.² I will go myself now.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. for example. time.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH.. . That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. And promised. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. and is equivalent to ought. First. thus. for example. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. I never was what I should be.²WORDSWORTH. as. etc. purpose.²ROGERS. JR.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²H. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. 253.²SWIFT.. second and third persons. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²WORDSWORTH. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. JAMES.²BYRON.²CABLE. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. or a promise. as the sole inventor. BROWN. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.

She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. for example. and two of my people.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. Thine was a dangerous gift.²BANCROFT. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose)..² All this will sound wild and chimerical.²War Records. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. will is used to express command.²SCOTT. as.² Subject I omitted: often so. and mark on the grounds the works. as. SECOND. PASSIVE VOICE. 254. for example. B.² Thou wilt take the skiff. for punishment or intimidation..² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. When I am in town. To be sure. They will go to Sunday schools. as if it were merely expected action. without regard to future time. This puts the order more mildly.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. will and would often denote an action as customary.² DICKENS. In this stately chair would he sit. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. The gift of Beauty. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. BROWN... through storms their brothers are afraid of. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. Mere futurity. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. Would thou hadst it not. (4) With FIRST. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.²BURKE. so you will. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²the original meaning of the word will. Roland. action merely expected to occur.. when thou wast born. would is used to express a wish. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. etc.²SCOTT. will and would are used to express simple futurity.²IRVING. AND THIRD PERSONS. .²LANDOR. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.

[They] will choose. You shall choose. 3. 252 and 253. You will choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 1. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. To express determination. [They] shall be chosen. [They] will be chosen. 4. Exercises on Shall and Will. 3. You will be chosen. 2. We shall be chosen. We will be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. You shall be chosen. Singular. We shall choose. 1. 2. [He] will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. and that of the newest cut. (b) Examine the following sentences. yet only seem. 5.Singular. 3. 2. Plural. Plural. 2. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 3. [They] shall choose. [He] shall be chosen. You shall choose. . that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. Singular. PASSIVE VOICE. 1. [He] will be chosen. 2. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. We will choose. "I shall not run. Thou art what I would be. Plural. You shall be chosen. Singular. He informed us. I shall be chosen. 6. [He] shall choose. I will choose. You will choose. 3. promise. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1." answered Herbert stubbornly. You will be chosen. (a) From Secs.:² ACTIVE VOICE. 1. Plural. I shall choose. 3. I will be chosen. etc.

This ending has now dropped off. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Present Tense. was -de or -te. set. 12. as if he would have more of the enchantment. bereave beseech bereft. 257. Lucy stood still. and have no change of vowel. 256.7. bereave besought Past Participle. 9. and I have nothing to say. Without having attended to this. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. "I am a wayfarer. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. (2) Those which end in -d or -t." the stranger said. put. need some attention and explanation. But the rest." 14. my son. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.²Class I. stirred her slightly with his muzzle.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. bereaved besought .²CHAUCER. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. set. 255. No. or mylk and wastel breed. bereft. The beast made a sluggish movement. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 13. then. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 10. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. Of smale houndes hadde she. as. Past Tense. very anxious. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Irregular Weak Verbs. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 11. put.²ID. WEAK VERBS. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. put. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.

spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

10. [To] choose. will (with should and would). ACTIVE VOICE. they have an indefinite. to express action unconnected with a subject. Three saplings.. Infinitives. Nothing of the kind having been done. In Sec. But later. When active. to was used before the infinitive generally. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). an imperfect. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. like participles. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. have no tense. Perfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. INFINITIVES. 8. [To] be chosen. Indefinite. 9. [To] have been choosing. Imperfect. an indefinite and a perfect form. PASSIVE VOICE.6. [To] have chosen. when inflections became fewer. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. expressing purpose. and a perfect definite form. and when passive. Perfect. Cases when to is omitted. Perfect definite. a perfect. .. 266. [To] have been chosen. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. try clemency. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. formed a kind of bedstead. I returned to reflection on my situation. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 7. 267.²the creature warring against the creating power. [To] be choosing. as in the Old English. To with the infinitive. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive.. 268. Indefinite.

under "Analysis. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. But there was nothing to do. please." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. it may be the subject of a verb. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.). 269. . 272. learn [doth learn is one verb. it is often preceded by the definite article. GERUNDS. "I do go" etc. They shall have venison to eat.²it may be governed as a noun.²IRVING. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²MACAULAY. also in the imperative. "He will choose." etc. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. E.²TENNYSON. The gerund is like the participle in form. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. liberal woman. make. also let. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William.²GOLDSMITH. and emphatic forms of the present and past. 271. as. sometimes need (as. and corn to hoe. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. bid (command). see. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win." "I shall have chosen. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs." (4) In exclamations. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. feel. While the gerund expresses action.(2) After the verbs may (might). 270. can (could).² She was a kind. as. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. watch. too. as in the expression. "a house to let.. as the credulous imagine.² What! doth she." Examples are. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. or the object of a verb or a preposition.²E.²COOPER. do (as.²DE QUINCEY. "She ask my pardon. hear.²HOWELLS. HALE. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. as. poor woman!" cried Charles. and like a noun in use. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. negative. must. it has several attributes of a noun.

They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. 273. (6) Verbal nouns. What a vast. II). according to use as well as meaning. on your leaving the spot. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. but cannot govern." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. but do not assert. (2) Pure participles. Exercise. which have lost all verbal force. making the definite tenses. which express action. to see the returning hope of the parents." "Certainly dueling is bad. 4. and five gerunds. after examining the nest. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. Then how pleasing is it. Sec. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. and wonderful store of learning! ." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. which express action. (4) Pure adjectives. (5) Gerunds. five infinitives." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. may govern and be governed.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. above." Exercise. when. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. and has been put down." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. 2. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. Words in -ing are of six kinds. b). brilliant. (3) Participial adjectives. which name an action or state.²Find sentences containing five participles. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which express action and also modify. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." also (2.

like Sir Walter Scott. 16. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. much corroded. (3) Mood. (4) Tense. 11. 15. 9.5. he gave out sentence by sentence. 14. He spread his blessings all over the land. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 7. bearing her national emblem. In parsing verbs. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. (b) as to use. What is dreaming? 8. 6. dictating from his chair. . 12. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining.²transitive or intransitive. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow.²active or passive. I. I suppose I was dreaming about it. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. give reality to your teaching. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 10. subjunctive. round which is an iron railing. VERBS. (2) Voice. 234. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. Thackeray did not. The only means of ascending was by my hands. but. write twenty pages without stopping. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. you must. Caution. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. by object lessons.²which of the tenses given in Sec. slowly. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form.²strong or weak. 275.²indicative. 13. giving principal parts. or imperative. (5) Person and number.

see Sec. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. (3) Gerund. might. then parse it as an adjective. . and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. indicative (as it means could). it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number." Sometimes it does. If a participial adjective. 2. (c) to what word it belongs. would. In 2. no sin nor sorrow. 273). The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. has the subject government. Parse the verbs. Exercise. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. (a) From what verb derived. has for its subject Lee.. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. we must beware of the rule. Take these examples:² 1. II. and not taken as single verbs. perfect. imperfect. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. give points (a) and (b). But unless the verb is present. indicative. intransitive. (b) its use (Sec. It has been intimated in Sec. may. and parting day linger and play on its summit. intransitive. etc. till it meet the sun in his coming. 3. Especially frequent are those made up of should. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. and ends in -s." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. past tense. 4. Let it rise! let it rise. 278. III. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. past tense. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. (b) whether indefinite. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. could. must. 278(2). followed by a pure infinitive without to. You are gathered to your fathers. 235. active. 277. call should a weak verb. in the world. (1) Participle. definite. can. 2. VERB PHRASES. etc. perfect. usually it does not. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. call might a weak verb. In such sentences as 1. (2) Infinitive. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. (b) whether active or passive. and should always be analyzed as phrases. verbals. VERBALS. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. therefore active.276.

12. In going for water. 22. 9. morning is not a new issuing of light. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. see that it is in good condition. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 16. 24. . from a sort of temporary death. a new bursting forth of the sun. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. and wondered if she were yet awake. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 21. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. a deafening shout. He passed across the room to the washstand." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. leaving me upon the bed. 6. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation.Down all the line. So.O God. However that be. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. With them. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 13. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 19. as rolled from wing to wing. 20. Right graciously he smiled on us. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 23. When he arose in the morning. or. as the Hindoos say. as usual. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.Henceforth in me instill. 8. 11. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 14. 15. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. he thought only of her. 18.5. 17. The soul having been often born. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 10. a sweet good will. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. a new waking up of all that has life.

and so on." "He was absolute. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. who live with nature?²ID. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. Is it only poets. for example. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 279. because. And now wend we to yonder fountain. or manner: as.²CARLYLE. they are more himself than he is.25. .²THACKERAY. for the hour of rest is at hand. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. thou sayest." An adjective or an adverb. and live ere life be spent. to speak truly. Adverbs modify.² The young man reveres men of genius. Better it were." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 29." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.Feast while we may. To the almost terror of the persons present."²DE QUINCEY." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. When action is expressed.²time. A verb. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. and limit adjectives or adverbs. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. "William's private life was severely pure. and men of leisure and cultivation. The word adverb means joined to a verb.²EMERSON. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Oh.²SHELLEY. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. place. Nor was it altogether nothing. 26. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. as. ADVERBS. 27. to consent.

because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. but really modifying. there are six classes:² (1) Time. ever. not simply the forms used in predication. has induced some of us to attend it. which may qualify an action word or a statement. all wet and glossy. but still with a rich bloom to it. We are offered six months' credit.²TROLLOPE. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. perhaps. NOTE. hitherto.² FRANKLIN.²T. ²IRVING. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.²These last differ from the words in Sec. 280. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. and half awfully. Definition. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. as. then. Make music to the lonely ear.² LOWELL.²BYRON. like the light of heaven.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. thus. NOTE. as shown in the sentences. A phrase. Thus considered. for example. (2) according to their use in the sentence. ALDRICH.²THOREAU. Surely happiness is reflective. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. to-day. etc. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. but some verb understood. and that. as now.²LEIGH HUNT. A clause or sentence.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. 282. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. or a word group used as such. I draw forth the fruit. B. 169.He was incidentally news dealer. not the noun. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. is a modifying word. 169 are felt to be elliptical.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. 281. before. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. . lately. An adverb. while those in Sec. being adverbs naturally and fitly. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. It may also modify a sentence. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.

surely. and not infrequently are found in literary English. not. two by two. bravely.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. (see also Sec.was for this once of her opinion. probably.²SHAKESPEARE.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.thence. (6) Assertion. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.near.thither. as perhaps. beautifully.. telling how anything is done.. singly. as little. or how far he believes it to be true.where.²HAWTHORNE. etc. very. The more they multiply.there. the more friends you will have. . etc. Meekness. much..(2) Place.²LECKY. slowly. just. [Sidenote The status of such. that these adverbs form a very large class. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.. as here. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. etc. greatly. telling how much. This long's the text.which gained him such universal popularity. for example. etc. whithersoever. as hither. Thackeray. while so precedes only the adjective usually. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. as hence. twice. 283. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. So also in Grote. maybe.. telling how many times: once. and others. better. whencesoever. (4) Number.²BURKE. White. (3) Manner.²IRVING. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. as well. LOUIS STEVENSON. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.yonder. Emerson. partly. the more evidently they love liberty.whither. especially the comparative of these words. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. thus. too.²DE QUINCEY. the more perfect will be their obedience. above. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. possibly. etc. slightly. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.² The master. Motley. I was.²BROWNING. 283). This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. etc. (5) Degree. at least.²R.whence. enough.

" "I have seen you before [time]." "That were far better [degree]. Aldrich. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Interrogative. 284.²GOLDSMITH. a mighty fine gentleman.²THACKERAY. 286. besides modifying. De Quincey. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.Pretty. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. STOWE. for example. and other writers. Pretty is also used by Prescott. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²FIELDING.² You are mighty courteous. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Dickens. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Neville. for example. have the additional function of asking a question." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Emerson. and its lawn before [place]. Mighty. Some adverbs.²BAYNE. Franklin. Direct questions.² KINGSLEY. Kingsley." "The house. Such are most of those given already in Sec." said the king. Defoe."²SCOTT. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.² "Mighty well.²BULWER. B.²HAWTHORNE. and art but a fool. 282. Hard blows and hard money. A pretty large experience. Holmes. Beau Fielding. Burke. It is only occasionally used in literary English. "Peace.²THACKERAY.²"He walked too far [place]. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Again." "He spoke positively [manner]. Simple. 285. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Notice meanings." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. . "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.

²POE. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. WEBSTER. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. for example. I know not why. . There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²BYRON (3) Manner.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. I hearkened. (2) Place. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.²D.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (5) Reason. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. CLAY. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. (2) Place. (4) Degree. 287. When did this humane custom begin?²H.²BULWER. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.²BYRON. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. they smiled. (4) Degree. I will not ask where thou liest low.

Superlative. Tell what each word in ly modifies." Exercise. For further discussion. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. 288. see Sec. representing four classes. higher.But in reality. as. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.²TENNYSON. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. just as adjectives do. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Exercise. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.. 290. well much little far late Comparative. Then must she keep it safelier. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. . The following. use.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. sooner. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. irregularly compared. further farthest. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. high. highest.²EMERSON. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Form vs. Many adjectives have the same ending. but the whole clause. soonest. when compared.²COLERIDGE.²SHAKESPEARE. and. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. when.) rather 289. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.²BYRON. Many adverbs are compared. only occasionally having -er and -est. Its strings boldlier swept. obs. soon. Only that we may wiselier see.eyes. have the same inflection as adjectives.. furthest (rathe. when does not express time and modify. not an adverb.

curiously jolly. 2. mostly. Again. He is inexpressibly mean.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. hard." Compare these:² 1. even. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. if it has the verb be.² EMERSON. The reason is. whether adverbs or adjectives. evenly.²IRVING. that in Old and Middle English. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 8. but with a different meaning. There are eyes. And all about. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 3. 291. more courtly in their manners. hardly. to be sure. 6.And his mien of kingly state.²ID. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. 7. 5. etc. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing.1. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory.²CHAUCER. instead of being used adverbially. Not near so black as he was painted. quick-flashing eye. But he must do his errand right. Special use of there. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. merely introduces a sentence. or down the leaves laughed through.²THACKERAY. 2. as. kindly and good-natured in secret. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. many words without -ly have the same form. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.²WORDSWORTH. nearly. 4. Frequently the word there. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. . adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark.²TENNYSON. With his proud. Such are most. 292. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. near.

In parsing adverbs. the Madonna is in great glory. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. according to meaning and also use. (2) Degree of comparison. 9.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Exercise. however theoretically enticing. 12. 10. 17. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. if the word is compared. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. but from my fall? 6. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 3. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. burning in the center of the temple. 16. and always. but continually shifted. 2. 7. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 5. and sate down on the steps of a house. For the impracticable. is always politically unwise. It is the Cross that is first seen. (3) What word or word group it modifies. give² (1) The class. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 4. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. at the regular wine-shop. Thither we went. 293. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 18. 11. 15. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. . We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. But a few steps farther on. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence.

nor. sentences. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. however. Clauses. 20. but the student will readily find them." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. etc. 22. or sentence groups. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. It was pretty bad after that. Unlike adverbs. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. but side by side within the American Union. upon which the sun now shone forth. . connecting words. But now the wind rose again. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. CONJUNCTIONS. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. A conjunction is a linking word." Paragraphs. 294. hence." Sentences. therefore. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. 295. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. 21. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. then. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air.19. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. Definition. word groups.

as and.or. as well as the room door. and not man corn. the butter too.. of the same rank. however. (3) CAUSAL... The chief ones are.. or the sea rolls its waves. whether.or.or whether.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. They are or. Adversative. "Howbeit. not only. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. either. (4) ALTERNATIVE..Classes of conjunctions. (2) Subordinate.but. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. whether. answering to each other in the same sentence. word groups. as well as.or. Your letter... and. whether. . Causal.. either. else... however. Nor mark'd they less. etc. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. usually between two things. Alternative. Correlatives. therefore. either.nor.or. Some of these go in pairs.but (or but also).. Some go in threes. nor.nor. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. also.. for. as but. etc. as. hence. neither. serves but to show their ignorance. yet.. The assertion. the bread was spent. While the earth bears a plant. 298.. then. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. the window being open.. expressing a choice.. still. likewise... nor. not only. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. while.. both... 297. neither. had its weight. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. joining words. only. as. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.. 296. (2) ADVERSATIVE.and. introducing a reason or cause. moreover. neither.. but is emperor in his own right. etc. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate." Nevertheless.

whenever. until. nor green leaf. wherever. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. Time. except. before.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. while. in order that. unless. provided. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. ²ALLSTON. although. whither.²WILSON. that. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. QUINCY. whereas. so. He is not only bold and vociferous. after. It is.²BURKE. whether.²PAULDING. in case. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. etc. etc. etc.²DE QUINCEY. (6) PURPOSE: that. (3) MANNER: how. provided that. object. so that. whithersoever. Neither the place in which he found himself. now.²COOPER. so that. on condition that. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will.. sometimes if. even if. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. nor wing of bird. ere.²IRVING. . howsoever. 299. (2) TIME: when. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. so. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. (7) RESULT: that. since. whereto. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. as. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. seeing. nor creeping thing.²BIBLE. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. there will the heart be also.. Where the treasure is. whence.²J. since. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.as. etc. as. though. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject.. lest. however. especially that after so. so. as. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.. etc. in apposition. nor echo.

not as they were expected or intended.²DEFOE.²CAMPBELL.²BURKE.²IRVING. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. We wish for a thousand heads. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. H. As a soldier.² WORDSWORTH.² EMERSON.²AMES. Cause. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE.² HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. Condition.That he gave her wounds repose. reason. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. I was again covered with water. Purpose.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.So I behold them not.² H. but not so long but I held it out.²AMES. Concession. Substantive. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. JACKSON. Comparison. . Result. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Manner. Then Denmark blest our chief.²AMES.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²EMERSON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Let the world go how it will. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. So many thoughts moved to and fro.That vain it were her eyes to close. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Now he is dead. a thousand bodies.²BYRON.

some words²for example. 9. then. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 3. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. And they lived happily forever after. as. her real merit is known at home. He was brought up for the church. since. that. The moth fly. etc. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 12. . Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 5. 2. Crept under the leaf.Let us see whether the greatest. and hid her there. the wisest. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. No one had yet caught his character. she faintly pressed her hand. As will have been noticed. it will remain harmless. however. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 6. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. In what point of view. hold a subordinate rank. Exercises. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. And then recovering. 7. 10. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 13. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. They. the lady called her servant. While a faction is a minority. 4. 300. After he was gone. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 15.²RUSKIN. as he shot in air. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. Besides. 14. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. while.

Consequently. So silently we seemed to speak. 303. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong.²IRVING.²EMILY BRONTE. word groups. 301. GREELEY.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. If analyzed. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.. and be a bud again. As for as if. for example. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. and the frame will suit the picture. and part as though we parted not.²HOOD. in this case. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. (2) What words. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. In Emerson's sentence. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. As though.Clouded. His voice .² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. SPECIAL REMARKS. as is often equivalent to as if.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. In poetry. 302. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.²BYRON. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved.. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.. as is shown by the use of as though. . thus. none of the lashings having given way. "We meet." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.So slowly moved about.16.As though a rose should shut. even as they would weep. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing." as. As if. expressing degree if taken separately. they connect. etc. In parsing conjunctions. the expression would be. 304. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.

He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. Some conjunctions. others belong to several classes. such as nor. the Sphinx was slain. 10. . hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. so they paddled on. Exercise. he sleeps as warm. and associates as happily.²is subordinate of condition. so means therefore." said his wife to Martin Luther. 9. so means provided.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. At sea. but of the natural. 5. because it is his. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. as beside his own chimneys.²DEFOE 2. 13. If he could solve the riddle. He dismisses without notice his thought. 11. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.²EMERSON 3. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait.. 3.²I find them true in Concord. are regularly of one particular class. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. "Doctor. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. etc. 4. because. It continued raining. and. 2. compare the sentences. In classifying them. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. and the like. that it might testify of that particular ray. they are not known. in 2. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. and its clause is independent. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. 6. and very seldom?" 8. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. 7. and its clause depends on the other.Caution. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted.² 1. It may be safely trusted. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. 12. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. he is also the correlative of nature. All the postulates of elfin annals. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. when. so that expresses result. so it be faithfully imparted. so that I could not stir abroad. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness.²that the fairies do not like to be named. When the gods come among men. in 3. He is the compend of time. or in the snow. For example. dines with as good an appetite. or in the forest.

He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. .²else it is none. Still. 16. I speak. that both were wayward. she might have the family countenance. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. in many a heart. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 15. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. the whole conditions are changed. For. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. save it were sinful like herself. 22. however.14. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. when it was presented to them. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 27. whose names I omit. 21. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. It is clear. PREPOSITIONS. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. There was no iron to be seen. 20. 305. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. won't you lay on? 17.. 30. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 26. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 18. And whether consciously or not. in this they agree. 19. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. therefore. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. enthroned. you must be. I rejoice to stand here no longer. Goodness must have some edge to it. Now you have the whip in your hand. 23. of good novels only. 25. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 29. 24. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. It may be so in the majority of cases. 28.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at the best.²EVERETT. Exercise.²M.²WARNER. at first. ²PARTON. by means near or close to. by the blessed memory of the departed.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. by the ruins of nations. H. Like at. at work. as. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. By. 321. at all. at rest. TAYLOR The angel came by night. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. the first port made by the ship. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at once. (2) Time.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at most. . at peace. Richard was standing by the window. at random. at least. CONWAY. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. etc.² (1) The general meaning of place. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at one. by the wrecks of time.. at length. D. and phrases signifying state or condition of being.²B. at war. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.²ALDRICH. (4) Measure of excess. By my faith. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations.²DE QUINCEY.²COOPER. at the worst. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. by many a million of acres. (3) Agency or means. etc. At that time [the earth] was richer. For. 320. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at any rate.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. he stopped. expressing the degree of difference.²SWIFT.²ID. Exercise. at naught. At St.²R. Helena. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. STODDARD. She saw the boat headed for her. at play.

etc.. An Arab woman. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. E. for all his title.²HOOD. There are gains for all our losses. meaning although.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. as being.²IRVING.²H. BANCROFT.²LAMB. incitement to action. H. ate her child. (7) Concession. L. for famine. but a few sunsets since.One of Eve's family. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. reason. poor fellow. Still. But the Colonel. (6) Like as. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. in behalf of. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.²STODDARD. (5) Reference. and leaped for joy. The twilight being. cause. respecting. the Colonna motto would fit you best. considering that etc. (4) Substitution or exchange. for all slips of hers. "thou hast counseled wisely. . or in spite of. (9) Motive. meaning in the character of. For the rest. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. they are now for us. (3) Duration of time."²SCOTT By my faith.²E. if your worship can accomplish that. "Nay. meaning with regard to. had a forest of poor relations.²ID.²W.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies." answered Master Brackett.(2) In favor of. or extent of space. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. "For a fool. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.²EMERSON. he repented of his folly. etc.²HOLMES.. as to. for the benefit of." said the Lady of Lochleven. He and they were for immediate attack. GARRISON. etc.²PARKMAN. For him.² RUSKIN. a person or thing.²PARKMAN. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.

²H. (2) Origin. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The king holds his authority of the people. Of. ceased to be merciful. (3) Time. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²DRYDEN. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. From. From harmony. The From Relation. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²ID. (1) Origin or source. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. A distrustful.²HIGGINSON. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. 323. The general idea in from is separation or source.²HUXLEY. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. It was from no fault of Nolan's. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²BANCROFT. (4) Motive. The original meaning of of was separation or source. .²Find sentences with three meanings of from. like from. if not a desperate man. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. or reason. Like boys escaped from school. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. more. H. nay. The young cavaliers.²MILTON. from a desire of seeming valiant.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. Exercise.²HUME.²HALE. 322. Exercise. cause.

rid. You cannot make a boy know. cure. He is away of his own free will.²ID. ²GAVARRE. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. (b) After some adjectives. More than one altar was richer of his vows. (c) After nouns expressing lack. . E. Other Relations expressed by Of. especially out of. etc."²E. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. as north of. ask. that Cromwell once ruled England. weeds. Sandals. A singular want of all human relation.²DICKENS II.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. purge. ²PARTON.²PARKMAN.²SCOTT Who formed. White shirt with diamond studs. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. Back of that tree. Asked no odds of. south of. etc. acquitted them of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. or breastpin of native gold. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. such as ease.²ALDRICH. expressing a part of a number or quantity. bound with thongs of boar's hide. rob.. (6) Partitive. free.²HIGGINSON. bare of. (3) With expressions of material. of his own knowledge. etc. deprive. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. there were only twenty-one members present.²BOSWELL. beg.² HUXLEY.²LEW WALLACE. HALE. out of the most unpromising materials.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. disarm. etc. deprivation.²BANCROFT.²clear of. wide of. etc. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. (5) Expressing agency.²BAYARD TAYLOR. and grass. relieve. reason. demand. free of. The hills were bare of trees. motive. divest. "I am glad of that. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. clear. (d) With words expressing distance. Of the Forty.

. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. (b) Noun and gerund. (c) Two nouns. CHANNING.²BANCROFT. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. equal to about.. Besides the phrases of old. of a sudden. of late.²BANCROFT.²LOWELL. (9) Of time.He washed out some of the dirt. See also Sec. E.²ID.²LAMB. 309.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. The nation of Lilliput. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. of is used in the sense of during. (8) Appositional. standing. ²IRVING. with its object. for the possessive. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. (7) Possessive.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. The fair city of Mexico.²ALDRICH. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. when the first is descriptive of the second. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²W.²COOPER. (10) Of reference. being equivalent to an infinitive. Such a book as that of Job. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. Idiomatic use with verbs. concerning.²BANCROFT. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. with regard to. Not even woman's love.²FROUDE. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²SWIFT. etc. and the dignity of a queen.²PRESCOTT. could give shelter from his contumely.²HALLECK.

(2) Time. and not a day more. Upon my reputation and credit. avail (one's self). approve. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. without adding to their meaning.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. disapprove. (3) Reference.²PARKMAN. repent. on the wing. complain. permit. accept. allow.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. To. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.²PARKMAN. On my life. on view. It also accompanies the verbs tire.²BRYANT. 325. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. concerning.²Find sentences with six uses of of. on board. ²BANCROFT. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²PARKMAN. etc. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. . I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. Upon is seldom used to express time. on trial. (4) In adjurations.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. on the alert. and others.²EMERSON. consist. such as admit. Exercise. 324. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. on a sudden. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats.²ALDRICH. equal to about. On.²DE QUINCEY. you are eighteen. (b) With motion. The general meaning of on is position or direction. etc.²MRS. on high. Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. SIGOURNEY. Exercise.

mid meant in company with. unmasked.. . Nor. had ceased to be.²GOLDSMITH. to him.. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.to be written over. 268). Death!²HALLECK. does the mere music. He usually gave his draft to an aid. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. 326. to my taste. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. (b) Referring to time.²often to the loss of vigor.²PARTON.²B. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Full of schemes and speculations to the last..²IRVING. Exercise.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²PARKMAN. But when. With. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. His brother had died.Come to the bridal chamber. gay Comedy appears. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. Revolutions.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. To the few. interest. whose influence is felt to this hour. (2) Expressing result.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. We cook the dish to our own appetite. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²HALE. In Old English. (5) Equivalent to according to.²LANG..²BULWER. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²BRYANT.²BENTON To our great delight. it may be genuine poetry.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.

with Heyward at its head. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. With all his sensibility.²DE QUINCEY. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²ALDRICH. it is necessary. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²E. It seemed a supreme moment with him. motive.²HOWELLS. I think. HALE. or with the haunch of our near leader. opinion.²LANG. Exercise. "poetry is not a pursuit. (2) Instrumentality. Either with the swingle-bar.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. E.²Find sentences with four uses of with. (3) Cause.²COOPER. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²COLERIDGE. felt it unsafe to trifle further. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.The advance.²WALLACE (7) Time. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. She seemed pleased with the accident. 327. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. but a pleasure"?²LANG. first of all. but with you. transmitted from the beginning. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. Messala. as with you.²HOWELLS. He was wild with delight about Texas. to find the object of the preposition.²CHANNING. He expired with these words. in spite of. had already reached the defile. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²HALE.²DE QUINCEY. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. (5) Opposition. reason. he gave millions to the sword. (4) Estimation. with all his boldness. .

Be that as it will. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. 4. shook it directly over my head. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky.²ID. by which a dozen apples. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. telling what man. hence we say. the phrase answers the question where. (3) without a country. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. beginning. of from. which. . and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. because I had given the provocation. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. 3. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. The object of on board is ships. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I looked towards my windows. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. or was. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I remember. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. Exercises. before the dwarf left the queen. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. In (2). though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. but all to no purpose. I speak these things from a love of justice. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. of without. (4) from the beginning. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. of on. but I received no other hurt. I called out several times. we met the defaulter here. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. Whereupon. like the clapping of wings. without a country modifies man.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. And so on.²SWIFT 2. In (1). 5. To our general surprise. country. the malicious rogue. I heard a noise just over my head. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. 2. he followed us one day into those gardens. came tumbling about my ears. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The guns were cleared of their lumber. I felt my box raised very high in the air. (2) on which. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. In (3). and knocked me down flat on my face.

Without stop or stay. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 11. He locked his door from mere force of habit. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. to one dark and gloomy. 15. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. when. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 27. 12. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28.He spurred his courser on. . 19. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. Carteret was far from being a pedant. in this respect. His breeches were of black silk. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 21. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. With all his learning. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 18. 26. 13. 20. 17. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 23. 29. 10. The mother sank and fell. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 7. 9. plumed for battle.6. 16. 24. 22. I like to see the passing. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 8. grasping at the child. he favored the world with his opinions. The savage army was in war-paint. after a restful morning. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. in town. 25. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. On all subjects known to man. 14. For my part. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition.

328. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.30. . A few are discussed below. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (a) Indefinite relative.² JOHNSON. (2) As an adjective pronoun. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (b) Of result.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. and be proud in the midst of its toil. WHAT. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. not merely by the amount of the tax. THAT. We wish that labor may look up here. That night was a memorable one. And now it is like an angel's song. That was a dreadful mistake.That makes the heavens be mute.²WEBSTER. 329. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (c) Substantive conjunction. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (3) As a relative pronoun. that you might behold this joyous day. and not according to form. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. 330. He will raise the price.²STOCKTON.²COLERIDGE. (4) As an adverb of degree.²HUXLEY. (1) Relative pronoun. That is what I understand by scientific education.²BEECHER.

(6) Exclamatory adjective.Those shadowy recollections. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH.Are yet the fountain light of all our day.but. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. . (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. BUT..these sounds are only to be heard.²ID. What with the Maltese goats. At what rate these materials would be distributed.²S..." (4) Relative adjective.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.. "I'll tell you what. What.. nearly equivalent to partly. To say what good of fashion we can. silent still. If he has [been in America]. after not only. (7) Adverb of degree.. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (8) Conjunction. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.²EMERSON. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (9) As an exclamation. What.²EMERSON.. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.. he knows what good people are to be found there.²ID.Which be they what they may. 331. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.²WEBSTER. Cox. and silent all!²BYRON.in Pera.²THACKERAY. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (b) Copulative. (b) Indirect question. or not only.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. but the result of calculation. it rests on reality. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. partly. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (b) Indirect question...S.it is impossible to determine. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. to see what might be hidden.

as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. like the dog.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. .Then arose not only tears. towards order. (4) Relative pronoun. on all sides. (d) Of reason.²IRVING. not.²CARLYLE. than.²SCOTT. Doing duty as a guard. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. 332.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. sometimes same. meaning except. To lead but one measure. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. not.²MRS BROWNING. meaning only.²IRVING. ²CARLYLE. (3) Preposition. (b) Of manner.²IRVING. but piercing cries.²LAMB.²HAWTHORNE. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (2) Relative pronoun. meaning otherwise . As orphans yearn on to their mothers. stands for that . (5) Adverb.²SHELLEY... not.He yearned to our patriot bands. Who knows but. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.²EMERSON. at all moments. (e) Introducing an appositive word.. or who .. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. after such.. (b) Substantive. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²FRANKLIN. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. I shall see but little of it. (c) Of degree. equivalent to that . AS. after a negative.

²PARKMAN.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. but this is not considered good usage: for example. indeed. like drops out. In each case. staring like a bewildered man. In this second use.²DARWIN.²ALDRICH.²SHAKESPEARE. Note the difference between these two uses.²CASS. like Martin was. this.² HAWTHORNE. but its verb is omitted. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. (1) An adjective. and was clearly an adjective.²ALDRICH. and as or as if takes its place.LIKE. NOTE. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. like him awhile ago. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like a cook beating eggs. They look.-SCOTT. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. and is followed by a dative-objective.²HIGGINSON. . like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²MAYHEW. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. This follows a verb or a verbal. Introduces a clause. 333. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²HAWTHORNE. That face. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Give Ruskin space enough.²EMERSON. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²LONGFELLOW. Through which they put their heads. Stirring it vigorously. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²EMERSON. No Emperor.² A timid.²HALLECK. like summer ocean's. If the verb is expressed. nervous child.²LAMB. There is no statue like this living man. I do with my friends as I do with my books. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.

Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. in separating them into their component parts. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. entering into the structure of a sentence.: for example. Some of these are imitative sounds. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. but it still retains its identity as noun. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences.INTERJECTIONS. as. 334. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Value of analysis. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. .²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. subject and predicate. What analysis is.. etc. etc. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. 336. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. clauses introduced by conjunctions. 335. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. pronoun." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. Definition. that is." PART II. that is. Definition. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. tut! buzz! etc. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.²in determining case. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. verb. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun].

In order to get a correct definition of the subject. But now all is to be changed. which expresses command. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. according to form. Examples of these three kinds are. but the sentence would still be declarative. 339. (3) Imperative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. "Come to the bridal chamber. 2. or imperative.²a subject and a predicate. "Hath he not always treasures. which puts the thought in a question. interrogative. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. you must not die!" interrogative. or request. question. 337. 338. entreaty. A rare old plant is the ivy green. but by no means vulgar. old man?" "Be thou familiar. always friends?" imperative. Every sentence must contain two parts. Division according to number of statements. . hence. Definition: Predicate. or command: for example. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. "The quality of mercy is not strained. This is the most common one. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence." 340." "What wouldst thou do.Kinds of sentences as to form. declarative. (2) Interrogative. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. "Old year. but according to how many statements there are. Definition. not according to the form in which a thought is put. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named.

5. as. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. 4. But if we try this with the second sentence. or adverb that asks about the subject. especially in poetry. In the interrogative sentence. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. the subject (you. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. the subject is frequently after the verb. Thus. and the real subject is the latter. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. not of a rare old plant. a rare old plant. The last of all the Bards was he. Consequently. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. "[You] behold her single in the field. Listen. 8. adjective. In analyzing such sentences. 341. on the other hand. or ye) is in most cases omitted.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. to suit all cases:² Subject. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. we say all is the subject of the sentence. to an ignorant man. 6." Exercise. and our definition must be the following. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. we have some trouble. or an interrogative pronoun.²What is the ivy green? Answer. always reduce them to the order of a statement. but about the ivy green. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. . and is to be supplied. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Slavery they can have anywhere. thou.²What is to be changed? Answer. 2. all.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. 7. 3.

or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. "Ye honor me. Direct Object. and by object we mean the direct object. (5) Modifiers. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (3) The object. but it is a true complement. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. but chief belongs to the verb. "Ye call me chief. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. (4) The complements. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. Indirect object. . All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (6) Independent elements." indirect. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. 342. for example. but of call chief. The subject and predicate have been discussed. direct. The transitive verb often requires. and me here is not the object simply of call.²transitive and intransitive. in addition to the object. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. (2) The predicate. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. 343. just as if to say. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. Of a transitive verb.10." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object." Complement: 344. or second object. and means summoned.

" Also an expression used as a noun." 345. See sentence 19. "A cheery." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. 346. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. A phrase is a group of words. as in the sentence. more familiarly. ay. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. 347. especially the forms of be. 364." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." (2) PARTICIPIAL. taste." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. 352. and of massive weight. An intransitive verb. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. and. become. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. and barring the door. seem." "The good man. Complement of an intransitive verb. as." All these complete intransitive verbs." (3) INFINITIVE. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. in the popular judgment. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. he was now getting old. Thom of the Gills. to the completion of this man of the world. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. As to form. 355.. 351. not containing a verb. Phrases. but used as a single modifier. sir!' rang out in response. "Brow and head were round. introduced by a preposition: for example. for instance. in the original Opium Confessions. I mentioned a case of that nature. above sixty. in exercise following Sec. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 'Ay." "He was termed Thomas." Things used as Subject." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. etc. or. as in drowning. feel. appear." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary.

" (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. 349." In this sentence." 348. for which see Sec." "Never. but obscures the real subject. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. (2) In interrogative sentences. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. etc." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." The for did not belong there originally." "There are asking eyes. I saw the quick and the dead. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." "The dead are there. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." etc. 341." Things used as Complement. "Therein has been.²the talent of starting the game. . and by Saint George!' said the King." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. and ever will be. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. "'By God. but they will be given in detail here. or their religion from their sect." Things used as Direct Object.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. from their lips. but the real or logical subject is to print. Disguised infinitive subject. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. was heard one syllable to justify. my deficiency." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. (4) After "there introductory. asserting eyes. prowling eyes. or the thundering of organs.²the infinitive phrase. Complement: Of an intransitive verb.

or Complement." ." "She asked her father's permission. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. doubtless. As complement of a transitive verb." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (4) Participle.²completing the predicate. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. at the same time. I. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." "Their tempers. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. or the equivalent of the noun. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. and explaining or modifying the subject." "Serving others is serving us. they are adjuncts of the object. and.²heads or tails. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. complements of the predicate." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. Object.350. the object is made the subject by being passive. 351." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. Like all the complements in this list." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Of a transitive verb." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. (3) Infinitive. Modifiers of Subject." In this last sentence. and the words italicized are still complements." "I hear the echoes throng. As complement of an intransitive verb. and whenever the complement is a noun." Modifiers." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. the shepherd girl.

" In such a sentence as." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. this young idolater. but noble teachers. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. unforgiving. see further Secs." "In the twinkling of an eye. not with nature." "Him. was the scene from King John." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Modifiers of the Predicate.²proud. the prisoner at the bar. Tells how." "Give them not only noble teachings. Retained with passive." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. 351. and modify the predicate in the same way. but with other men. II. interpreting for him the most difficult truths.²In each sentence in Sec. object. and leading him from star to star. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. austere. or ." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. given at the request of a Dutch lady." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. but it is really a contracted clause. I have seasoned for thee. tell whether the subject." Exercise. no sociable angel." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. 357-363." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. 352. or complement is modified. Since the predicate is always a verb." (For participial and infinitive phrases." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. the verb being omitted. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. "He died like a God. was now called upon for his defense.

2. These answer the question when. to the animal strength and spirits. I took. (b) Pick out the subject. 2. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. They do not wish to be lovely. is good in the making. 5. 7. predicate. and the direct object is retained: for example." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. and (direct) object:² 1. predicate." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. etc. Evil. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. Fashion does not often caress the great. On the voyage to Egypt. . 4." "All such knowledge should be given her. he liked. but to be loved.When the verb is changed from active to passive. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. but the children of the great. 6. 8. This. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. His books have no melody. To the men of this world. with my joy and grief. no humor. the indirect object is retained. But anger drives a man to say anything. 3. and other measures of precaution. A merciless oppressor hast thou been.. or how long." (6) Adverbial objective. (a) Pick out subject. according to old philosophers. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. a sort of personality to the whole writing. 3." "One way lies hope. no emotion." Exercises. 6. in regard to particulars." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. no relief to the dead prosaic level. and. 5. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. negative. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. in this center? 4. after dinner. gives wonderful animation. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. how far. and as many to oppose it. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 7. and complement: y y y y y y y 1.

I gave him an address to my friend. viz. etc. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. A river formed the boundary. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. Yes. burthened with the anxieties of a man. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. Their intention was to have a gay. then. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 4. 4. Not compound sentences. after their long confinement to a ship. Not the less I owe thee justice. in little peaceful Easedale. at length the warrior lady. Compound Predicate. 5. I felt myself. To suffer and to do. In one feature. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. and a member of the world. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore.y 8. happy dinner. 2. 3. 4. 3. the blooming cornet. 6. downwards. 2. the attorney. 3. must visit again the home of her childhood. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. this nun so martial. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. for the first time. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. Paint me. this dragoon so lovely. a room seventeen feet by twelve. expecting the return of their parents. . Unhorse me. 5. at the chief hotel. 2. then.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. y y y y Compound Subject. that was thy portion in life. That night.²the river Meuse. I promised her protection against all ghosts. to the right and to the left. six children sat by a peat fire.. upwards. this imperial rider.

"He caught his daughter and her child in his arms." "Voyages and travels I would also have. the object. but it is to be noticed that. above: thus. together with all its modifiers. in the sentence. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. and its object or complement. 354. the predicate. "The company broke up. "Ah. my brave young man!" . Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. Examples of compound subjects are. however. shouldered the rusty firelock. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. the simple subject is situation. I'm with you once again. that is. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. same as (1). exposes. For example. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. and." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. complements. two or more subjects of the same predicate. and the rest is the logical predicate.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. turned his steps homeward. the verb).353. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety." "Ye crags and peaks. hurry. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject." And so with complements. they are not a necessary part. modifiers. then the grammatical subject and predicate. etc. The exclamatory expression. in all such sentences as we quote below.. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them." "The name of the child." Sentences with compound predicates are. etc. Independent Elements of the Sentence." "He shook his head. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. the air of the mother. together with its modifiers. the tone of her voice. Of this. Larger view of a sentence. may be the person or thing addressed. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. forming a sentence: "Oh." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. ulcer. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. etc. 355. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. Bishop. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. hurry. several modifiers.

(b) As a modifier of subject. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. let him perish. then. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. pronoun. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary." (2) Adverbial. etc. such as perhaps. see Sec." "At all events." (5) Participial phrase: "But. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 3. etc. 4)." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 352." (3) Independent. he somehow lived along. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. nevertheless.. and so on. or complement (see Sec. he was a conscientious man. object. 350. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short." Another caution. how you're winking!" "Now. now. the company broke up. such as however." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. In their use. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. and some conjunctions. 6)." (6) Single words: as. her noticing even this is creditable. These need close watching. or word used as a noun: for example." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. really. prepositional phrases may be. undoubtedly. The words well. 4). . It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. instances of which were seen in Sec. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. truly. modifying the predicate. therefore. y (2) The adverbial use." "Why. 356." "Well. There are some adverbs. 357. 351. "Oh. besides. 355. this story runs thus. see Sec. already noticed. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. moreover. that have an office in the sentence. six quill-driving gentlemen." "Truth to say. (1) Adjectival. he closed his literary toils at dinner. generally speaking. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. grandma. to the best of my remembrance. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. modifying a noun. yes! everybody knew them.. why." "No.

Wilt thou." (b) With the forms of be. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing.seem. (1) Completing an incomplete verb.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. 355. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. therefore. and teach her how to be happy and good." (c) With the definite forms of go. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. he should not have known them at all.would.: as in the sentences.should. my dear. This case excepted. The verbal use. necessity. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. See Sec.]. being equivalent to a future with obligation. but having no other office than a verbal one. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. or as nearly so as the student will require. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. "Because I was. I. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. ought." etc. 358. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . (5). and they will be presented here in full. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. y (a) With may (might). etc. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. but require somewhat closer attention.can (could). and hence is adverbial.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. modifying was speedily run through. etc." In this sentence. thus." "There. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. containing no matters of business. "The letter of introduction. was speedily run through. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.

such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. The adverbial use. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. already examined. II. to please is equivalent to that he may please. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. 362. above." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. 361.: for example. the Scotch fighting all the battles." "Are you mad. to look means that he might look. object. hang the idiot." "To teach is to learn. Don Guzman. modifying a noun that may be a subject. and the eyes to fill?" 359. To test this. 5). III. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." 360..moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). was to have the foe's life at their mercy. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). IV. to hear McOrator after dinner. 351. result. The adjectival use." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. notice the following:² In (1). "Do they not cause the heart to beat. (4) In apposition. etc. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. complement. 361 are used adverbially. . it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." "He insisted on his right to forget her." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). The fact that the infinitives in Sec. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec.²both purpose clauses. "But there was no time to be lost." "To say what good of fashion we can. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. The substantive use. etc." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death.

not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. savage and serene in one hour. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it.²both expressing condition. and to betray and to bring express the reason. and to say is equivalent to if we say." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop.In (2). object. 268. 349). etc. 351). 3. The independent use. Our life is March weather. 364. 355).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 352). etc. (5) The subject (Sec. In analyzing simple sentences. etc. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 4. In (5). to find shows the result of the return. as in Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. In (4). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. to part means because I part. 2. 347). (3). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. V. 363. give the complement (Secs. 355. In (3). give² (1) The predicate. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. must be in a life. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. . which is of two kinds.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. to hear means if you should hear. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec.. 351). I will try to keep the balance true. If it is an incomplete verb. (7) Independent elements (Sec." (See also Sec. not in a book.. 351). equivalent to that you betray. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1.

an accomplished scholar. The water. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 11. . and every moment discover something new. 20. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. good and amiable otherwise. through evil agents. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. and only to be saved by invention and courage.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. just on the edge of destruction. The word conscience has become almost confined. the carrion crow. The whole figure and air. 13. 10. Through the years and the centuries. You may ramble a whole day together. nor himself. and spared nothing. 17. 8. Her aims were simple and obvious. a graceful dancer. His opinion is always original. might be called flabby and irresolute. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 7. to the moral sphere. 19. is to have no political system at all. neither ammunition. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. like a witch's oils.Burnt green and blue and white.²to preserve her throne. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. To these gifts of nature. and to the purpose. 5. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 22. 6. Old Adam. with eager energy. to restore civil and religious order. I have heard Coleridge talk. 12. two stricken hours. 9. in popular use. a good shot.He sat in the shower. 16. 21. a skilled musician. nor troops. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 23. To be hurried away by every event. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. nor money. 24. always in a bad plight. through toys and atoms. He risked everything. We are always in peril. nor generals. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 14. 18. 15. to keep England out of war.The old crow of Cairo. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest.4.

the same Condé Olivarez.25. and no provisions but wild berries. 33. it would not have been filial or ladylike. baggage far in the rear. In the Acadian land. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. She had made a two days' march. The villain. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. secluded. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. This amiable relative. I dare this. to be a reproach to such goodness. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. or perhaps one virtue. upon my own ground. in front of all this mighty crowd. 38. ready to receive her. 34. Fair name might he have handed down. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 36. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. the ship was in an uproar. I hate him and myself. 31. and the wherefore? . 26. Few in number. time-honored. in this world. still. 37. Supposing this computation to be correct. in less heroic and poetic form. The cry. Oxford. Must we in all things look for the how. 32. 27. had but one foible. 40. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. proud foe. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors.Effacing many a stain of former crime.Distant. and the why. the prime minister of Spain. and. the present capital of New England. haply. 41. 29. and in my own garden.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. an elderly man. to bid you leave the place now and forever. 35. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. Upon this shore stood. Now. 30. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. Of the same grandeur. But yield. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 39.

² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. As shown in Part I. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. thus.CONTRACTED SENTENCES." This must. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. though often treated as phrases. Words left out after than or as. the expressions of manner introduced by like. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. if they were expanded." Sentences with like.From her own loved island of sorrow." To show that these words are really omitted. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. as would be the connective instead of like. COMPLEX SENTENCES. are really contracted clauses. however. which is the unit of speech. 365. as. . 333).² "She is like some tender tree." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. but. 366. 367. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. made merely for convenience and smoothness." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. (Sec. The simple sentence the basis. the pride and beauty of the grove. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.

containing a verb with its subject.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. or it may be applied to the others. is taken in. 371. . A clause is a division of a sentence. object. and the next one. 370. how great . A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. Definition.. Hence the following definition:² Definition. that . object. etc. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. suffering. and modifier. then we recognize this as the main statement. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places.²the other members subordinate to it. 369. logically depends on suffering.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. 368. main. murmur. as in this sentence. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware..Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence.. A principal. each clause has its subject. Independent clause. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. complements. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. complement. or dependent on it. that is.²the backbone. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.. and the last. we are aware. predicate. CLAUSES. modifiers. which are so united that one member is the main one.

5). Noun Clauses." Just as the object noun. attention is called to them here. put an end to my fancies. 'I know that he can toil terribly. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. and the whole clause is not." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." (2) Object of a verb. impertinences²would be grammatical. for example. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. (b) that are . but logically the sentence is. etc. or adverbs." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. over which the torrent came tumbling. 372." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. for example. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. for a time. But since they are complex in form. night or day. infinitive. for a hundred years. and it is . Kinds.." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.Dependent clause.' is an electric touch. 373. impertinences." (4) Apposition. (a) Ordinary apposition. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. ADJECTIVE. We ourselves are getting ." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. As to their office in the sentence. adjectives... clauses are divided into NOUN." "I was told that the house had not been shut. with a noun clause in apposition with it. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. pronoun.. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some.. verbal." 374. thus. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. 352. and ADVERB clauses. . so the object clause is retained..² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.

how it changed from shape to shape. 4. etc. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. and not on the sentiment. as. that he was a scheming impostor. . or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. that all safe legislation must be based. Except by what he could see for himself. Examples of adjective clauses. that. of a nation. but. 3. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. where. Other examples of this construction are. sometimes by the conjunctions when. 8. whether he should choose one or not. whither. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. 375. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. he could know nothing. 2. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. still remains reasonable. Such a man is what we call an original man. 5. no man will ever know. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. in the sentence. 9. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. which. whereby. or equivalent of a noun. 7. Adjective Clauses. he would repent it. that. I was napping. The reply of Socrates. whence.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. 6. 10. But the fact is. As the office of an adjective is to modify. wherein. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Frequently there is no connecting word. What history it had. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. a falsehood incarnate.² "It is on the understanding. a relative pronoun being understood." Exercise.

Pick out the adjective clauses. etc." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups." Exercise. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. object. whether subject. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive.e. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. I walked home with Calhoun." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. 2." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 10. i.. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 9. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 3. No man is reason or illumination. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 8. 7. which Rowena tasted. ." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. the champions advanced through the lists. 5. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. or that essence we were looking for. which formed the center of the mansion. 11. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. he begins to help us more as an effect." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. and tell what each one modifies. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. Adverbial Clauses." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 1. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 6. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 4.376. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. all is vacancy.

however good she may be as a witness." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "After leaving the whole party under the table. the wider is the horizon of their thought. with examples." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. tell what kind each is. so far as we can. it takes precedence of everything else. the milestones are grave-stones. since he was too great to care to be original. 378." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. etc." (7) RESULT." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." "Who cares for that. or an adverb. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. shaping our actions. and will be given in detail. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and what it modifies:² . but they require careful study.377. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. and adverbial conjunctions." "When he was come up to Christian.. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. etc. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. whatever." (5) DEGREE. that we should try. Exercise. is wider. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. however." "The right conclusion is." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." (3) REASON." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." (9) CONCESSION. Joanna is better. an adjective." "He went several times to England." "The broader their education is." These mean no matter how good.: "But still. introduced by indefinite relatives. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. no matter what remains.² whoever. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. adverbs. he goes away as if nothing had happened. expressing the degree in which the horizon. a verbal. to make up our shortcomings. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. etc.

object. they might perhaps say of their visitors. find the principal subject and principal predicate. of which clause Odin is the subject. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. as they sometimes did. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . snatching up stones to fling at them. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. in the sentence. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. banging about doors and windows.1. with shrill. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. we are a little disappointed. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. 3. incoherent exclamations. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. when the wind was unruly. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. on a dark wintry night. howling and whistling. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. then treat noun clauses as nouns. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. For example. predicate. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. etc." 2. and modifiers. 379. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. so as to picture the parts and their relations. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. 'Well. If the children gathered about her. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. to tell the truth. its object is that Odin was a reality. and twirling weathercocks. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. 380. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves.

| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. . True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. 380). as seen in the "map" (Sec. d. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 364.. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 3. Exercises. (1) Find the principal clause. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 2.

if applied to the Bible. not so much for travelers that were few. counselor that had none for herself. The night proved unusually dark. 8. I like that representation they have of the tree. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. Whether she said the word is uncertain. whom I choose. 11. 21. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 19. 12. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. namely. that. 15. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 10. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 20. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. . the mixed result. bishop. Here lay two great roads. which. could not have been effected. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. This is she. or whether any. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. the shepherd girl. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. who would yield to it least. 6. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. of a light hazel. dying for them. But now that she has become an establishment. 23. the flower should revive for us. 18. 14. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. for yours. 13. 17.4. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 24. He was what our country people call an old one. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. that pressed her with an objection. 22. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. as for armies that were too many by half. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. M. Now. 7. 9. Had they been better chemists. 16. Next came a wretched Dominican. And those will often pity that weakness most. had we been worse. 5. The deep eyes.

and not from his heart. would easily reach. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. 30. and temper. or commands. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. that it was no more than his daily walk. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. That which we do not believe. 3. 2." 4. (b) First analyze. and stamped with his right number. 28. the following complex sentences:² 1. speed.²which will not be disposed of. How formed." said Bentley. if there be one to whom I am not equal.25. 27. "No book. 383. and what content I can find in conversing with each. if continuously extended. COMPOUND SENTENCES.² Definition. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 7. "was ever written down by any but itself. we cannot adequately say. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. 6. is to speak and write sincerely. 382. though we may repeat the words never so often. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. then map out as in Sec. 380. It makes no difference how many friends I have. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. These things we are forced to say. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. questions. but above it. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. . The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 5. 26. Hence the definition.

he walks with arms akimbo. if there are any. while (whilst). 385. now adverbs or prepositions. the planet has a faint. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. tell which are compound. in (3). Another example is. Exercise. which are simple statements. 386. a simple member. moon-like ray" (adversative). and not the form of the connective. yet. as in Sec. and nor the second and third complex members." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. others sometimes coördinate. in (2)." 384. Some of these are now conjunctions. he soliloquizes. . he dilates.. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. etc. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. nor does he know until he has tried. for. however. or but. and which complex:² 1. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. The coördinate conjunctions and. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. Thus in (1). as but." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. The division into members will be easier. Of the following illustrative sentences. a complex member. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. whereas. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. the waving grass. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Study the thought. 297). nor. "Only the star dazzles. the semicolon separates the first. Connectives. and it shall be the universal sense. and connects the first and second complex members. Speak your latent conviction. 383 (1). etc. from the second. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. he is twice a man. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. and none but he knows what that is which he can do.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses.

I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. all pain. to find a pot of buried gold. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. 381. for example. 364. or. I can still receive. 2. 8. he grew up to be a mild. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 387. For everything you have missed. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 9. 3. Man does not stand in awe of man. 12. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. passed in that time. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. All loss.2. and thou shalt be loved. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 4. however. 5. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. . of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. nay. (i) Separate it into its main members. you lose something. that it was Easter Sunday. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 13. is particular. Love. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. so is every one of its parts. 10. you have gained something else. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. and as yet very early in the morning. quiet. However some may think him wanting in zeal. Whilst the world is thus dual. and for everything you gain. 14. In this manner. unobtrusive boy. I can yet love. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. yield to them heart and life. 6. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. Exercise. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 3. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. from a happy yet often pensive child. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. the tax is certain. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. and not by what each is. 7. The gain is apparent. 4. 11.

The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and they repel us. 17." says the smith. and they will be true to you. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. if you rip up his claims. 14. They will shuffle and crow. 8. and makes their business a friendship. feign to confess here. 16. or men will never know and honor him aright. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. why should we intrude? 10. or hope. let them mount and expand. 20. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and he learns who receives. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 15. that let him communicate. puts the parties on a convenient footing. modesty. and the peace of society is often kept. and not a thought has enriched either party. 18. "Strike. and not an emotion of bravery." says the haymaker. Stand aside." "keep the rake. "the iron is white. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. 19. only that they may brag and conquer there. and they will show themselves great. or we pursue persons. and the other dares not. 6. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. whilst frankness invites frankness. because. and each shows only what lies at its focus. or sail with God the seas. is as thin and timid as any. When you have chosen your part. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. crook and hide. 9. and you are without effort impelled to truth. Trust men.5. as children. We go to Europe. 21." 13. Whatever he knows and thinks. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 7. We see the noble afar off. treat them greatly. 11. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. which always make the Actual ridiculous. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. one is afraid. . and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. Come into port greatly. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. He teaches who gives. give those merits room. abide by it. "as nigh the scythe as you can. or we read books. and the cart as nigh the rake.

388. Following the Latin method. By way of introduction. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. INTRODUCTORY. 24. 23. or. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. 390. if they live. Do not craze yourself with thinking. but its leading characteristic is. but go about your business anywhere. Ground covered by syntax. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. 25.²agreement and government. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. So does culture with us. SYNTAX. We see young men who owe us a new world. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. pronoun and antecedent. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. verb and subject. and dodge the account. 380. they die young. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. so readily and lavishly they promise. it ends in headache. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. Essential point in English syntax. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their .22. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. it never was known to fall into the rear. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. adjective and noun. PART III. but they never acquit the debt. they lose themselves in the crowd. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. the department of syntax will be a small affair.

there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once.² First. sometimes verb and subject. authorities²that is. as to study inflected forms. both forms will be given in the following pages. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. Also in the sentence. Second. The basis of syntax." that is. some of which conform to classical grammar. and whose judgment. In some cases. In Latin. good English. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. or settler may be the subject." is ambiguous. then. but are not now. pronoun and antecedent. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. Why study syntax? 391." In this there is a possessive form. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and nothing but important points will be considered.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. "None remained but he. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). Some rules not rigid. also expressing a possessive relation. For example. . standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. and imitate it. and it would not matter which one stood first. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. distinct forms would be used. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. When usage varies as to a given construction. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. and added to it the preposition of. 392. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. or when they exist side by side in good usage. the order being inverted. "The savage here the settler slew. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. following the regular order of subject. take the sentence. the sentence. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. therefore. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. As an illustration of the last remark. etc. 393. or the same writer will use both indifferently. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. There is. Savage may be the subject. This is not logical.

²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN.²EMERSON. Putting Mr. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. as.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. the antechamber of the High Priest. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. the possessive sign is used with each noun. 397. and Harley's. 395. Woman. 394. etc. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. the shore of Galilee.² He lands us on a grassy stage.²BYRON. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.² Live your king and country's best support. for example. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. and Peter's. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. 408). But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Mill's and Mr. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. Bentham's principles together.²MCCULLOCH." Juletta tells. PRONOUNS. and Peterborough's. and Paul's. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Use of the possessive. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Separate possession. and Pope's. sense and nature's easy fool.²MACAULAY. ²ID. or indicate joint ownership or possession. He kept Bolingbroke's. . but imply separate possession or ownership.²MILTON.NOUNS. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.²ROWE. Joint possession. 396.

the real thought being forgotten. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. No mightier than thyself or me. 399. Some of the violations are universally condemned. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Since most of the personal pronouns." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.²SOUTHEY. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. Objective for the nominative. there are two general rules that require attention. if not universally. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.) "The young Harper. sanctioned. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.²TROLLOPE. and should be the nominative form.²BYRON. together with the relative who.²WHITCHER.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. Still. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.²THACKERAY. as. for example. I." 400.²SHAKESPEARE. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. Bedott Papers. But he must be a stronger than thee.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.²POPE. thus. General rules. whom is the complement after the verb am. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. . who. This should be "as she. 398. others are generally.

"Than whom. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. it will not be me. One exception is to be noted. "Who's there?"²"Me. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. are. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²SCOTT. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²FIELDING. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. as. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. both in England and America. The camp of Richard of England."²WM. and the other forms of the verb be. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. unless a special. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. But still it is not she.²PARTON. but such is the fact.²THACKERAY.²LONGFELLOW. for example. "If there is any one embarrassed." There is no special reason for this. A safe rule.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant.² For there was little doubt that it was he. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.²COLERIDGE. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. The usage is too common to need further examples.²MACAULAY. the objective form is regularly found." 401.²KINGSLEY. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne."²WINTHROP. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. Patrick the Porter. BLACK. namely. is. they are yet holier than we. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²RUSKIN. .² One I remember especially."²KINGSLEY. on the other hand. In spoken English.

verbals.²MILTON. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 11. . and prepositions. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women." 6. 4. 10. (3) By forgetting the construction. or this. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 404. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. If there ever was a rogue in the world. It is not me you are in love with. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. Me in exclamations. you or me. object of saw). Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns.Exercise. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 8. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 403. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. Whom they were I really cannot specify. 5. as. it is me. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. You know whom it is that you thus charge. the object of to). Truth is mightier than us all." the word being in apposition with murderer). now. I speak not to" (he should be him. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. verbal. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 3. Nominative for the objective.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. 2. or preposition which governs it. as. used after verbs. "Ask the murderer. 9. but not he" (he should be him. as. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. 7. or us). as this from Shakespeare.

all but he. as.²KINGSLEY. Exercise. save thou and thine. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. and is usually avoided. as. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. who interrogative. Exception 2.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Thy shores are empires. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. 2. Who have we here?²ID.²STEELE. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. etc. "Who were they talking to?" etc. . 405. for example.²KINGSLEY. as well as the objective. partial Nature.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.²BYRON. but he. for they say there are none such in the world. Let you and I look at these.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. changed in all save thee. I've sworn. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Nature.²BYRON.Shall be left upon the morn. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²KINGSLEY.Exception 1. I arraign. "Who did you see?" or.² All were knocked down but us two. 406. Thou.²GOLDSMITH. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. We regularly say. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. None. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.

12. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 407.²MACAULAY. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. BROWN. Bartholomew. and they know that as well as me. This usage is not frequent. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.²C. Preceding a gerund. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. 7. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 10. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. B. Markland.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.3. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. or objective? .²DE QUINCEY. They crowned him long ago. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.²RUSKIN. 5. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. POSSESSIVE FORMS. II. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 6.²possessive.²SCOTT. with Jortin and Thirlby. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. who. As antecedent of a relative. 8.²THACKERAY. 11. "Nonsense!" said Amyas." 4. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. They are coming for a visit to she and I.Ye I salute. 9. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.

The last incident which I recollect. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. [who was] studying law. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. studying is a gerund. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. Why both are found. and that in the second. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.408.² THACKERAY. Possessive. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.²CARLYLE. and asked why it was not made.²BREWER. In the examples quoted. and the meaning is. that the bitterness of death was past. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. But in common use there is no such distinction.²DE QUINCEY. as he turned away from his wife. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning." That is. Objective.² CARLYLE. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. Here I state them only in brief. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. both are gerunds.² IRVING.²RUSKIN. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. object of heard of. . sometimes it has the objective. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. Both types of sentences are found. The use of the objective is older.² SCOTT." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²MACAULAY. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. etc.²DICKENS. We heard of Brown. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.

²EMERSON III. the pronoun will be neuter singular. The pale realms of shade. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. and gender.²CABLE. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²AUDUBON.²THOREAU. taking in each of many persons. in one person.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²HOLMES. If any one did not know it. 410. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²when the antecedent.²DEFOE. Watch for the real antecedent.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²DE QUINCEY. Every city threw open its gates. where there were examinations. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. Examples of these constructions are. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. BROCKDEN BROWN. if the antecedent is neuter. it was his own fault. preceded by a distributive.² BRYANT.²HUXLEY.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²RUSKIN. Everybody had his own life to think of. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. In such a case as the last three sentences.²C. number.²THACKERAY. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. and ought to agree with them in person. 409. . The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²DE QUINCEY. or is a distributive word.

Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Every one must judge of their own feelings. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²ID.Avoided: By using both pronouns. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. . let them break it off. 411. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. If the part deserve any comment.²EMERSON.²HUXLEY.²PAULDING. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. By using the plural pronoun. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Whosoever hath any gold.²PALEY. till they have lost him. and giving them means of being so. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. for example. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²BIBLE.²FIELDING. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.² Not the feeblest grandame.²SCOTT.²BYRON. The sun.²RUSKIN. as anybody in their senses would have done.²THACKERAY. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. not a mowing idiot.²DEFOE.²PALGRAVE. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²AUSTEN. Struggling for life.²ID.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. This is not considered the best usage. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.

²HAWTHORNE. because.Where she was gone. when coördinating. In the following examples. 1. the definite relatives who. which. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. but. as. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. That is in most cases restrictive. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. etc." This means. Exercise. I.²ID. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest.² SHERIDAN. and that may be coördinating or restrictive." A relative. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. and that always restrictive. Exercise. and he went away.²ADDISON. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. but. A relative. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. unless both genders are implied. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one].²In the above sentences. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. . RELATIVE PRONOUNS. that being considered already clear. who went away. 412. What these terms mean. in each instance:² Who. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. according to the practice of every modern writer. "I gave it to the beggar. and that are restrictive or not. 413.) and a personal pronoun. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. when restrictive." It defines beggar. or unrestrictive. no one could take upon them to say. tell whether who. It adds a new statement to what precedes. which. and does not add a new statement. As to their conjunctive use. or what was become of her. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. 2.

II. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. For example. you. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. he. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. which was to go over the Cordilleras. because of its antecedent. So different from the wild. long arms and legs.² IRVING. 414. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. these or that which. The general rule is. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. they.²ADDISON. W.²DE QUINCEY. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.² MOTLEY. Hare has printed. BEECHER 5.. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. 8. and it is called logic. The rule. Which. which Mr.²H. in the sentence.²ID. 6. who. With narrow shoulders. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.3. We say I.² CARLYLE. she agreed to join the party. A grizzly-looking man appeared. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. However.² NEWMAN." that is invariable as to person and number. 12. On hearing their plan. 4. 9. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. and over England are saying. etc. as that does not vary for person or number. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²HOLMES.²THOREAU. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. That. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. etc. . but. that were often vicious.²ID. 14. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.²DE QUINCEY. it makes the verb third person singular. 13. 7. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 10. down. 11. Yet how many are there who up. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. In what sense true. etc.

but speaks of him as that sort. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²LOWELL.²M. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.. Let us be of good cheer. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived..²LOWELL. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions..²LECKY. but the former has good authority. . He is one of those that deserve very well. who rarely speak at all.²SCOTT. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. [singular or plural." One of . in winning a battle. with one as the principal word. [plural] that who. "one of the finest books that have been published.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. The latter is rather more frequent. etc. and write the verb in the plural. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. Singular.²ADDISON. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. JR.²BOWLES. when he derided the shams of society. French literature of the eighteenth century.²whether we should say.. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. and in improving a victory.. or which . Franklin. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. A disputed point.²HOLMES.²ADDISON. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.. 415. others regard books as the antecedent. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. ARNOLD.²HOWELLS. etc." or.²J. but myself. The fiery youth . the true antecedent.] Both constructions are frequently found.²MACAULAY.. MORSE. "one of the finest books that has been published. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. T.

²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. that is. return. where. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²SWIFT.²VAUGHAN. and such like: as.²DEFOE. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.In that same state I came." "India is the place [in which. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. or where] he died. I could see nothing except the sky.² .²In the above sentences. Exercise.²CARLYLE. IV. The same day I went aboard we set sail. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.²GOLDSMITH. object of a preposition understood. and see if the sentence is made clearer. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.² RUSKIN. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. 416. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.A rare Roundabout performance. But I by backward steps would move.²ID. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²IRVING. III.And. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²BURNS. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²ADDISON. 417. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²EMERSON.²SCOTT.² THACKERAY. when the relative word is a pronoun."²DICKENS. when this dust falls to the urn. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²EMERSON. whence.

This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. if I had resolved to go on with. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. but which is usually carefully avoided. Caution. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. he. which. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. as is not used. I might as well have staid at home. and working in the same spirit.²SCOTT. Anacoluthic use of which. That. but we find the relative who.² Which. with Turner. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. looking-glasses. for example. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. ²GOLDSMITH.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.² THACKERAY. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. Mr. Which. The regular construction. boats. They believe the same of all the works of art. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.me as his apprentice. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.. etc. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest.²WORDSWORTH.² MACAULAY.²FRANKLIN.²SWIFT. but. 418. . V. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.²R. if same is followed by a complete clause.² BURKE. as of knives. or that.²ADDISON. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.He considered. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. W. was a discoverer. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.. she passed the lamp over her face and person. CHURCH.

That is. etc. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. And who. once a great favorite of M. which when Mr. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.²SCOTT. le Conte.²THACKERAY. but none is expressed. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. or omit the conjunction.She'd come again. etc. 1." etc. but. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them..²DE QUINCEY.²GOLDSMITH. This was a gentleman.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. or.. and who are now thrown upon their compassion." etc. Express both relatives. who are now thrown. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun." etc. As the sentences stand.. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. 3. or leave out both connective and relative. (1) "Among those who are poor.²RUSKIN. But who. Thornhill had read. now thrown upon their. Exercise. he said that all submission was now too late.²HAWTHORNE. . Exercise. He delivered the letter. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. and this be placed in the proper clause. 419. (3) "Among the poorer sort. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.²SHAKESPEARE. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. and which. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. and who are now. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. 4.²which if they once heard. (2) "Among the poorer sort. After this came Elizabeth herself. 2.² Direction for rewriting. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.

indeed. But which. either from imitation of their frequent allies. Or who. one of signal interest. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. English by name. and which has never been described. 13. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. I saw upon the left a scene far different.²DE QUINCEY. the French.² MOTLEY. . "What knight so craven. 420.²HAWTHORNE. Dr. Akin to the above is another fault. That . There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. 6. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. as a false and astucious mark.²SCOTT. and which. which the Scotch had learned.²DE QUINCEY. 9. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 10. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. I shall have complete copies. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.5. Or which. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 11. "A mockery.²SCOTT. And which.. like that spoken in the towns. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. and which may even be heard a mile off. 8. etc. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. etc. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .. 1. who. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. then. and repeat this for any further reference.²PEARSON.. 7." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian.²IRVING. Exercise. and to whom no door is closed. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. 12.

whom. 8. 9... and whose examples and principles we inherit.²BEECHER. the dime..²DE QUINCEY. 6.. 5. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²HOLMES. 13. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. that . such as they have very probably been bred to.²HAWTHORNE. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. the cent. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.²DEFOE. I grudge the dollar..²EMERSON. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. In my native town of Salem.²W. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. was hung in air.²SCOTT That which . I recommend some honest manual calling. The Tree Igdrasil. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. 3. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. He flung into literature. 14. 12. in his Mephistopheles.2. . Such as . Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. Which . was a bustling wharf.. and to whom I do not belong. CHANNING. that. 4. half a century ago. That .²SCOTT. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.. in his present condition. G. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE..²HALLAM.. SIMMS. which. I give to such men as do not belong to me.²W.. It rose into a thrilling passion. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.²EMERSON. 11. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. but which is perhaps not so different from it. at the head of what. 10. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. but which. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. which. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President..²HOWELLS.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. E. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. what. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. He. 7. 15. Such as . Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours..

² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.² HAWTHORNE.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²DICKENS.²MACAULAY.²ID. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. 422. as it were. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²EMERSON. We call ourselves a rich nation. Assume that no one is in want of either. Use of any. . into the high pavilion of their thoughts. as. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²GOLDSMITH. always at war with one another. one another. 421.²RUSKIN. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. as.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. whether or not the two are equivalent. Each other. Distributives either and neither. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.² Some one must be poor. in which case any should be used instead. for example. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²RUSKIN. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. that not all combined. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. England was then divided between kings and Druids. By their original meaning. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²HAWTHORNE. and in want of his gold²or his corn.

in the prose of the present day. In earlier Modern English. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.² In earnest. Examples of its use are.²PROF. 423. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²BURKE. etc. in Shakespeare. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. . before that. afterwards in Goethe. None usually plural. any was often singular.²THACKERAY. during his stay at Yuste. 424. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.²SHAKESPEARE. as none of the French philosophers were. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BEECHER Whenever. I beseech you. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. for him have I offended.. Caution.² If any. even in Bettine. which is plural as often as singular. that I know of. at one time in Bacon...Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²BIBLE. if ever man was. and is isolated. None of Nature's powers do better service. when any of them are so good as to visit me. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. speak. as. any of his friends had died. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. as. Any usually plural. then in Plutarch. whilst I still cherish their genius. If any of you lack wisdom. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). let him ask of God.²STIRLING. Do you think.² EMERSON. usually plural. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.²SCOTT. Do you think.²FRANKLIN. then in Plotinus. The adjective pronoun none is. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.

are treated as units.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²THOREAU. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. and less rarely in poetry. and Ford has nobody's else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. for example.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.²McMASTER.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. any one else. the plural. etc.. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²NAPIER Plural.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. saving Naaman the Syrian. Somebody's else. The light troops thought . But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. or somebody else's? 426.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. when it means all persons: for example. etc.² Singular. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. 425. as. The compounds somebody else. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.² None of them was cleansed.. etc. etc.² PEARSON.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. and all was lost on the other. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. fixing his eyes on the mace. nobody else. which is used absolutely. When all were gone. that all was lost. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.

I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. "Ye see. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got..²G.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²MULOCH.²AUSTEN.²DICKENS.²RUSKIN. His hair. Whitefield or Wesley.²THACKERAY.² These kind of knaves I know. London. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. etc. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS." "all manner of men. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²SHERIDAN. all manner of.. STOWE. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²SWEET.²RUSKIN. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. unlike anybody else's in the world. the adjectives plural. These sort. or those sort of people. ADJECTIVES.² Saturday Review." "those kind of trees. for example. Again." the nouns being singular. A suit of clothes like somebody else's."²MRS. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.² FIELDING. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. WILLIS. etc.²in such as "these sort of books. ELIOT. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. 427. P. or some other such great man as a bishop.SYDNEY SMITH.²N. . as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.

The library was open. . Burke's sentence. made to agree with it. Should we say. such as. "This kind of rules are the best. in spoken English. Consequently we have a confused expression. for example. The result. and the adjective is. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. which accounts for the construction. with all manner of amusing books. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. According to the approved usage of Modern English. "This sort of trees should be planted. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. Later form. In Old and Middle English. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. when the necessary dispositions concur. more alarming than a total silence. they said. or one object with a class of objects." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. not "all kinds of wild animals. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. and in this way may take a plural verb. the victor or the vanquished. to express a higher degree of quality. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract.² Which is the better able to defend himself. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. This the modern expression reverses." A question. At the source. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. gradually displacing the old. 428. Use of the comparative degree." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind)." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS.²RUSKIN. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. "These kind of trees are best. or the nouns to the plural.² PRESCOTT. Of two such lessons." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. as. History of this construction.

Superlative with two objects. 2. if not. 3. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. etc.² THACKERAY. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. 430. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²LOWELL. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²SCOTT.²THACKERAY. would not have had the face.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 4. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 5.²TROLLOPE. the highest stakes are paid. I am concerned to see that Mr. 429. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. 6."²ID. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.A braver ne'er to battle rode. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. Exercise. Even Dodd himself. has sanctioned. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. To the man who plays well. Gary. . to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²MACAULAY.²SWIFT.²MACAULAY. Use of the superlative degree. by almost the breadth of my nail. than any of his court.²WIRT.²HUXLEY. He is taller. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²CARLYLE. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²HAWTHORNE. Other after the comparative form. Henry. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.

²ADDISON. After the most straitest sect of our religion. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²DR BLAIR.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. more particularly the last of them."²GOLDSMITH.²IRVING. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.. Rip was one of those .Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. ha. not a bit of high life among them."²HAWTHORNE. The eldest.²Bible.. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.²HAMLET. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. 1611.²MRS. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. The following examples are used purposely.²SCOTT. Come you more nearer. I should say that one has the best cause.²BEN JONSON. These two properties seem essential to wit. 431. Mary. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. whichever can be got easiest. Examples from Shakespeare are. Also from the same period. and differ only in form. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. OLIPHANT.²RUSKIN. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. CÆSAR. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him."²BULWER.²EMERSON. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. . Double comparative and superlative. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²TEMPEST. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. who eat white bread or brown.²GOLDSMITH. In all disputes between States.²J. and the other contains the best men. "Ha.

The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. ²COWPER. not only so in popular speech. The meaning intended is the same. These are the three first needs of civilized life. As to these two expressions. The first five had specific names. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. First three. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²GIBBON. The merit of the Barb. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. Examples of this construction are. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. etc.²KINGSLEY.²DE QUINCEY.² With a singular noun. jar upon us constantly. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. but in literary English.²RUSKIN.² SMOLLETT. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²RUSKIN. ARTICLES.²GIBBON. and conceit in the last.²ADDISON. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The delay in the first three lines.²PRESCOTT. Instances of both are given below. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. . Three first. the Spanish. For Carlyle. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. and Secretary Walsingham also. etc. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Definite article. 433.²LAMB. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432.

It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. the hour of parting came.²ID. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. of the eighteenth century. I think. Here the youth of both sexes. Meaning same as in Sec. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .. The not repeated. or to emphasize the meaning. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. were placed at a very tender age. . Indefinite article. 434. but inseparable from each other. The lofty. 433. No. the greatest poems. as.²SCOTT. One object and several modifiers.² MACAULAY. as in Sec.. 435. with a singular noun. With a plural noun.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. melodious.²TENNYSON.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. however.²CARLYLE. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.²PRESCOTT. but is used with one only. and flexible language. Frequently. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²NEWMAN. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. He is master of the two-fold Logos. The flowers. as. with a plural noun. and the presents. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.²THE NATION.²TAYLOR.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. distinct. of the higher and middling orders. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. to distinguish clearly. Origin of the Aryans. having been arranged. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.²MACAULAY. 1508.² RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. the thought and the word. 433.

Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²MACAULAY. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²THACKERAY. T. and inexhausted vein. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. only one of which is expressed. 438. 433 and 436. as in the first three of Sec. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. interest. a round and a square one alternately.²B. 435. as. to limit two or more modified nouns. a murderer.436. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²DICKENS. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. The indefinite article is used. In the sentences of Secs. 436). But in the following sentences.²BULWER. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.An early.² MACAULAY. JONSON. COLERIDGE. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²DRYDEN. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. a tyrant.² BURKE. For rhetorical effect. The indefinite article (compare Sec. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. rich. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. He saw him in his mind's eye." and "a red and a white geranium. a collegian. one noun is expressed. . and a usurper." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.²BEECHER. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. or clearness to each of several nouns.²S. Examples of this use are. One article with several adjectives.²MACAULAY. 437.²JOHNSON. like the definite article.

He sees that it is better to live in peace. 439. then.²COOPER. Singulars connected by or or nor. A broad and loose rule. 276. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. ELIOT.²AGASSIZ.²G. Such. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. In English. like some others in this series. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²FROUDE. as. was the earliest American land. and the following illustrations prove it. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Another writer might. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. as. all that academies can give. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Collective noun of singular meaning.²GIBBON. Sec. without academies.²M. . has got already.VERBS. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.²CARLYLE This usage.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. ARNOLD. or the great intellectual life of our nation.²W. for example.. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. This was spoken of in Part I. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²The Nation. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. 440. Singular verb.

²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. as. seems at the moment unpaid loss. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²J. or considered as appositional. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. A fever. a loss of friends.²DE QUINCEY. Q.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Plural form and singular meaning. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. is gone.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. nor John. ²EMERSON. the cheap defense of nations. ADAMS.² The unbought grace of life. No.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.² In a word.²WHITTIER.²GIBBON. and other singulars of plural form.² GOLDSMITH.Jesus is not dead.²EMERSON . but considered as meaning about the same thing. or as making up one general idea. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. a loss of wealth.²CRITIC. nor Paul. and every four hours. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. a cruel disappointment. other names.²BURKE. for example. for example.² Politics is the only field now open for me. but each one emphatic. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. as. (4) When the subject is plural in form. that of a large town. Between ourselves.²GOLDSMITH.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. a mutilation. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. nor Mahomet.

sir!"²MACAULAY. a cuirass. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²EMERSON. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. was punished. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. as well as the newest. no matter if the second is plural).²RUSKIN. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. Plural verb.²HAWTHORNE. as.The author. a gorget. every valet. the fine gentleman. Every sound. many a. was like to crack.² . each. no.²PRESCOTT. and greaves. Then comes the "Why. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. was dazzled. There is a moving tone of voice.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. as well as Europe.The rout. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. Her back. Subjects after the verb. the dismay. as. and such like adjectives. no discontinuity.²NEWMAN. Every fop. The oldest. as well as the Drama. sir!" and the "What then.²MACAULAY. nay.²ID. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. To receive presents or a bribe.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. 441. Here is no ruin. as well as sides. the wit.²BUTLER. every echo. is a man of wit. wineBegins to stir itself.² There is a right and a wrong in them.² Asia. no spent ball.²M ARNOLD. was listened to for five hours.²PRESCOTT.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. the ruin. an agitated gesture. an impassioned countenance.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²LONGFELLOW.²ID. For wide is heard the thundering fray. the partisan. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. does not take the place of the man. thus. almost every day. The Epic. Every week. with death. sir?" and the "No. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. in a judge. every boor.

² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. as in Sec. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. The conjunction may be omitted.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. and its history are alike a mystery to us. as with a subject of plural form. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.² GIBBON. for example.²ADDISON.²EMERSON. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²THOREAU. as.²SCOTT.²FRANKLIN. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²FROUDE. a stream of fresh water. Conjunction omitted. All our household are at rest.²SWIFT. were men of insignificant characters. but the verb is plural.² One or two of these perhaps survive. The travelers. 440 (5.²FROUDE.²GIBBON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²B. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. the Duke of Berri. His clothes. .² A multitude go mad about it. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²GOLDSMITH. its date. are sufficient to attract a colony.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²CARLYLE But its authorship. far away thy children leave the land. making up a plural subject. a green pasture. b). as. A shady grove. Philip of Anjou.These bits of wood were covered on every square. Far.²DE QUINCEY.²COLERIDGE. The Dauphin. shirt. TAYLOR. of whom there were a number.

²D.²LOWELL. that is." "She or you may be sure. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²DE QUINCEY." or. 442.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. but thou. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. for example.²GOLDSMITH. of different persons.).² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. "I have never said so.²M. "He or I can go.But notice the construction of this. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. This construction is at the best a little awkward. General usage. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. WEBSTER.²SMOLLETT.²WHITTIER. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²RUSKIN. You and I are tolerably modest people.²RUSKIN. 444.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.²THACKERAY. Second or third and first person in the subject.²BYRON. but thou. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. nor has she"). Not Altamont. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.²ROWE. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON." etc. the verb takes the construction of the first person. as. nor should I. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. When the subjects. hadst been my lord. . Ah. his blood dost shed. Nothing which Mr. we never talk politics. ARNOLD. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. You and I are farmers. 443. "You would not be wiser. Not I. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Pattison or I have said. If there is only one person in the subject. Exceptional examples.²THACKERAY.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. the subject being really equivalent to we.

If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. BANCROFT. Also in verbals. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²EMERSON. as illustrated above (Secs. which it is proper to mention. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. nor bush are there.²and. 440-444):² 1. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 6. 5. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²SMOLLETT. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 10. How each of these professions are crowded. 3. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²ADDISON. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 8. 12. nor tree.²THACKERAY. 4.²SCOTT. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.That neither of their intellects are vast.²BYRON.Her course to intercept.²ID.²BURKE. as we would hope. In a word.²ADDISON. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Lack of logical sequence in verbs." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. 446. 7. In this sentence from Defoe. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. Nor wood. Neither of them. In the following sentence. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²G.²perhaps the devil. in my opinion. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 9. Both death and I am found eternal. 2. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²MILTON. Exercise. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 11. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.445.² TROLLOPE.

4.. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . on my return. I gave one quarter to Ann. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. CHURCH.²FRANKLIN 6. 447. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. 448. But I found I wanted a stock of words." . The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.²R.. Of course. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. change them to a better form:² 1.²MACAULAY. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. to have seen should be changed to to see.²KINGSLEY. Direct discourse²that is. as.²THACKERAY. Indirect discourse means reported speech. if not.²DE QUINCEY 2. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. 3. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.² PALGRAVE 5. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. It should be remarked. W. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. Exercise. Definitions. The present rule is recent. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Two samples of indirect discourse.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them.²IRVING. meaning.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. to have divided with her whatever might remain. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. for exact connection. however. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.

Direct. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Summary of the expressions. introductory verb is in the past tense. interrogative adverbs. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. or regular interrogatives. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. "I cannot oblige you . Direct. . The substance of his lamentation was." etc.. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. 1. 2. Her prudence whispered eternally. "Oh. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. She thought to herself. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh.. His exact words were. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. 449. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words." etc. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. have. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. under interrogative pronouns. This includes the auxiliaries be. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. will. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. and the indirect question by whether or if. Sebastian's. etc..(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs." Indirect. Oh..

one summer afternoon. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Notice this. The trouble is. the sound of their balls. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. in the sentences first quoted. he assured me that nothing was more easy." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. if this were expanded into a verb. FRANKLIN. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works.²ADDISON.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. VERBALS.²B. .²GOLDSMITH. my first observation will be found nearly true. Careless use of the participial phrase. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. the first discoverer of the river and country.²ID. and that he himself had heard. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. 450. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. like distant peals of thunder. with his crew of the Half-moon. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.Exercise. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. handed down from his ancestor the historian. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. PARTICIPLES.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example.

²RUSKIN. leaving the principal statement as it is.²LAUGHLIN. This is the more common arrangement. 3.. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. then. while defended or excused by others. 2.²ID. avoid it. and often. purposely or not. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.Correction. universal assertion. if a strike is to succeed. For example. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. INFINITIVES.²SCOTT.. many things to be carefully considered..² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. Standard writers often use it.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. my first collection was. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them." etc." Exercise. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. . yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. 451. Adverb between to and the infinitive.² HERBERT SPENCER. There are. the first sentence would be. In the following citations. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. either "As I was pleased. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . . or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. It is a solemn. Exercise.

11. is to be very cautiously admitted.²SCOTT.4.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 8. this kind of grandeur. Exercise. therefore.² ADDISON. 10. etc." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. 452. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.. etc.²RUSKIN. Now. The spirits.² MACAULAY. even. 9. 7.²TROLLOPE. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²The Nation. if they modify single words.²DR. In works of art. BLAIR. I wish the reader to clearly understand. are used. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. A little sketch of his. and earthenware. 1533. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. ADVERBS. even.²ID. 6. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. but cannot misunderstand the thought. china. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. but they are often removed from the exact position. but it is placed before the infinitive. etc. The rigid rule in such a case would be. which consists in multitude. when such adverbs as only. 5. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. No. 12. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.²BURKE. 13. Position of only. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. from Irving..²GOLDSMITH.

would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 6. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²MACAULAY. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²PALGRAVE.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²ID. My master. to avoid a crowd. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²ID. 15. WILLIS.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 2. 13. might not marry. In Old and Middle English. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 11. 14. During the whole course of his administration.²MOTLEY. 453. 7. whence he was never destined to return. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. GROTE. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 4.²N. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 17. were he never so old of yeares. He shouted in those clear. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. 3. The old usage.²COOPER.²SWIFT. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. In relating these and the following laws. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.1.²EMERSON. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. No sonne. 10.²SYDNEY SMITH.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 9.²ID.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 16.²HIGGINSON. . 5.² THACKERAY. 12.²CHAUCER. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. ²ASCHAM. Irving could only live very modestly. 8.²MRS. His last journey to Cannes. P. for example. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.

²PAGE. but ought not to labor after it. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. STOWE. But. 2. STOWE. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. as infrequent. can so agreeably affect. This.²DE QUINCEY. 3. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. There weren't no pies to equal hers.²GROTE. Exercise.²BURKE.²HAWTHORNE. if two negatives are found together. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.² HAMILTON. denying each other. and why:² 1. In the latter case. Not only could man not acquire such information. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. However.²BAYNE. under the influence of Latin syntax. In the execution of this task. 7. uncommon. The prosperity of no empire.²DEFOE.²HOLMES."²four negatives.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. is not common. 5. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. the usual way of regarding the question now is. I did not act so hastily. who hadn't been to school for nothing. I never did see him again. Therefore. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. nor never shall. when one of the negatives is a connective. as.²MRS. 4.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. however. etc. 6. in Ole Virginia. neither. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. Regular law of negative in modern English. . "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. nor the grandeur of no king.²LOWELL."²MRS. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. and is still kept in vulgar English. one of the negatives is often a prefix. Exceptional use.

²PRESCOTT. Things to be watched." both of the above requirements are violated. either... Correction.. if the second precedes a phrase. not merely . the first ought to be placed before a verb. or with advantage. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. as well as of the pronoun.. or. and. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. In the sentence."²SCOTT. either .. The sentences given in Secs..²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it." may be changed to "This loose . "well worthy to confer honor. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. 455. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. Choice and proper position of correlatives. should be scrutinized. especially both ." . or.. neither . nor is often changed to not²either . even neither .²SCOTT. CONJUNCTIONS. but (also)... as the use of the conjunction. 454... 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here." Besides neither . And who.. nor.. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.." said the King. but. the first should also.. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.²LOWELL. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. not or is the proper correlative of neither. or to reply to it... A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. not only to the success of their common cause. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. there we were. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. or to reply to it. and which. not only . "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it... The sentence. "A weapon.8. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. if the last precedes a verb. but to their own safety.

I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. or the negative relative but.²GOLDSMITH. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. 7. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. but. or but that for the words but what:² 1. substitute that. They will.Exercise. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²GIBBON. murder. . "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. In the following sentences. 2. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 5. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. O. JEWETT." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Correct the following sentences:² 1. 6. nor the disgrace of assailing him. Now. But what.²BAIN. Exercise. 3.²S. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. Try and avoid the pronoun. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. as. 457. not merely interest children.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. etc.²ID. but they will outrage. but grown-up persons. as.²THACKERAY. Some exceptions. and I don't know but what he was right.²FRANKLIN.² ADDISON. Try and for try to.²MACAULAY. too. but.²THACKERAY. or but that.²RUSKIN. 456. and chop up their own kin. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 4. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. 8. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.

They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²ADDISON. 458. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.²SCOTT.²TROLLOPE. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. as already seen in Sec. 3.²BURKE. 305. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²EMERSON. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. see Sec. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 6. Between and among. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.²EMERSON. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.²ADDISON. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. no separation or division by twos being implied. 313.² SWIFT.² BULWER. Between is used most often with two things only.2. 4. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. PREPOSITIONS. . 459. 5.

Dissent from. or one object and a group. LIST I. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. 461. by custom. involve. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. correspond.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Dependent on (upon). ²EMERSON. a soldier of the Cross. List I. and Coleridge.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Mackintosh. Bestow on (upon). Two groups or one and a group. confer.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Comply with. 460. Such are derogatory. averse. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Paley. Such are absolve. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. and Stewart. Kant.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Acquit of.: Words with particular prepositions. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary.²RUSKIN What have I. Some of them have. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. and another to convey a different meaning. Affinity between. as. Accord with. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Averse to. etc. different. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Conversant with. Conform to. as. Derogatory to. Abhorrent to. and philosophers like Locke. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. .²KINGSLEY. Different from.

"The king is reconciled to his minister. Differ with (note below). Disappointed in (a thing obtained).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Reconcile to (note below).). LIST II. as. Independent of. and sometimes creeps into standard books. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. as meaning to be in keeping with. Confer with (talk with). in the sense of making friends with. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. as. etc. Change to (become).y y y Deprive of. 463. Involve in. Confer on (upon) (give to). Correspond to (a thing). A taste for (art. List II. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. as. 462." also of persons. Confide in (trust in). . Differ from (note below). A taste of (food). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions." List III. Correspond with (write to)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Change for (a thing). Confide to (intrust to). Agree to (a proposal). Change with (a person). but it is not good usage. Reconcile with (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). LIST III. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons.

expect from. simply from old age. "Die with. privation. ELIOT.y y y Die by.²GOLDSMITH. ²THACKERAY. Expect of. He died at last without disease. "Die for.²BULWER. It would take me long to die of hunger." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²G. instrument).²SHAKESPEARE. "Die from. I am positively dying with hunger. "Die for.²POPE. die from.²SCOTT. and ill treatment. Part from.²MACAULAY. part with. If I meet with any of 'em.²MACAULAY. People do not die of trifling little colds.:² "Die of.²GOLDSMITH. die of. died for love of the fair Marcella." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. ELIOT. Illustrations of "die of. die for. ²ATHENÆUM.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL." (material cause.²ADDISON. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. Who.²G.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day." She would have been ready to die with shame.²BURNETT.²BOSWELL. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. they shall die by this hand." (in behalf of). as Cervantes informs us. She died of hard work." "die from. die with. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire." (because of). ." etc. One of them said he would die for her. It is a man of quality who dies for her. No one died from want at Longfeld. "Die by. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²MACAULAY.²FIELDING.

466. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. "Part from. "Expect from." She will expect more attention from you.²G.²G. Kind in you. I have just seen her. and hated to part with them. Illustrations of "part with. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general." To part from you would be misery. .²SCOTT.²DICKENS." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. 465." "part from:"² "Part with.²MACAULAY. It was a little bad of you. His precious bag.²WALLER. That is more than I expected of you. With words implying behavior or disposition.²MARRYAT. ELIOT. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. Illustrations of "expect of. ELIOT.²WALPOLE." "expect from:"² "Expect of. I can part with my children for their good. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²G. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. Of Doctor P.²AUSTEN." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. ELIOT.²MACAULAY.²BULWER.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²POE.²BULWER. I have long expected something remarkable from you. which he would by no means part from.²TROLLOPE. kind of you. just parted from her. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²SHAW. 464. either of or in is used indifferently. nothing better was to be expected. as my friend.

nor of a pale red. 15. the vast abyss. In. 3. 11. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. but which the story renders necessary. or which we are most imperatively required to do. and ran up the alley. But this is idle of you. Hampden. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 1. 9. 8. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. It will be anything but shrewd in you.²CARLYLE. 14. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. nor green.²BULWER.²BEACONSFIELD. 10. Thou tread'st. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. it is commonly said that his profits are high. The noise of vast cataracts. raging storms. 4. 6. 7. nor blue. thrown it over Amyas's head.He did not think it handsome of you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. or that they are any way dependent on each other. 13. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. In the friction between an employer and workman. with seraphims. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers.²BULWER. 5. This narrative. Very natural in Mr. thunder. or artillery. nor yellow. tedious perhaps. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. .²TENNYSON.²DICKENS.

That night every man of the boat's crew. 32. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. triangles. what is a just and unjust act. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. Every one of these letters are in my name. 36. 411. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 24. Friday. 18. the acquiescence of the understanding. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. and other angular figures. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. 31. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 20. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 30. 16.And were I anything but what I am. 35. 38. The effect of proportion and fitness. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. save Amyas.) 34. Squares. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 27. you or me. and most of us do know. 17. 28. but in the price paid to them. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 22. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. (Sec. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 25. 21. 23. 29. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 19. . Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. You have seen Cassio and she together. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. were down with raging fever. 37.I would wish me only he. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. When the glass or liquor are transparent. produce approbation. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. and almost as good as a pony. 33. 26. or how beautiful it is. But every man may know. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled.

of. from nominative clauses. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 47. 47. 107. 260. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 89. 124. of. 92. 20. 25. from about 1500 to the present time. Adjectives. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. of. . numeral. 40. 239. nominative. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. pronouns. 310. voice. adverbs used complements. He had four children. nouns. of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 90. (3) Modern English. demonstrative.39.000 between them. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 91. origin of. INDEX. article. of. 102. as comparison definition demonstrative. syntax uses Absolute. 98. 124. 133. Abstract with Active Address. A. 116. as. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 119. adjectives. (2) Middle English.

115. 116. 239. plural pronominal. 207. with with with subject. as nouns. 184. 207. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. antecedent. Agreement. infinitive. of. 195. 194. parse. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. adjectives. of. 114. conjunction. adjectives. to used of. 303. 103. from to of. of. nouns. 48. 287. Against. 190. clauses. objective. 302. and 185. 27. 106. of. 325. 187. 325. compared. modify. predicate. adjectives. 116. 42. 109. conjunctions. antecedent. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 242. 190. nouns. 191. 27. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. parse. 183. 194. 275. . quantity. 303. of. Alms. 316. 101. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 262. 328. quality. 323. of. sentence. 104. 99.from function how in not of of ordinal. 291. 148. of. between of. 97.

198. uses As At. See with definition complex compound simple who. 300. 287. parse. 294. definition how indefinite. 148. Arrangement Articles. agreement personal as pronoun. Auxiliary if. 264. 252. of and pronoun of. same. syntax As. 124. 231. 120. A. to of. 49. though. of. and. possessive. 207. which. An. of. as uses verbs. 127. Agreement. it. derivation in definite. 90. sentences. . 51. of. sentences. pronouns. 296. of. 271. 79. of. words between. 67. in in. 225. 101. 208. 309. 67. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 240. sentences. which. 120. Anacoluthon Analysis. 295. 74. 275. 84. which.Among. 150. definition of of of Any. after of. syntax. 47. See 74. Are. 331. of of of And Antecedent. adjective.

Among. of nouns. 39. of.Bad. of. possessive. 110. in Old and Modern English. See of. Children. 54. 279. 195. 150. 283. 278. 47. Bridegroom. 262. of pronouns. of pronouns. 49. 110. best. 39. 260. 62. of pronouns. with But By. But. double possessive. 64. conjunctions Cherub. 45. of what. 330. Cause. plurals of. 278. number of. 161. Case. 46. 37. 46. of pronouns. pronoun. 66. 111. uses nominative of. Clause. definition could. Can. 224. of nouns. uses of. objective. 262. 210. nominative. adjective. forms. uses Better. Between. Brethren. of nouns. 149. adverb. 84. clauses of. 279. 48. 194. of. 63. Case. comparison conjugation of. . of nouns. syntax of. Be.

defective. 248. 111. adjectives. superlative. adverbs. material. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. . in analysis. 158. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 268. 315. of. 157. 239. 257. 257. Cloths. 307. 108. definition degrees irregular. infinitive. 43. verb. 24. 271. 258. clothes. predicate of and from from of. sentence. 264. of. of. of. 43. proper. of. 18. 107. of. of. plural of. Cleave.definition kinds noun. 108. 312. 257. nouns. 12. 263. analysis of. nouns. 110. Clomb. and forms of. nouns. predicate. 18. subject. 113. and sentence. 189. of. 53. 23. 307. double. 244. English. of. 305.

restrictive use of See relative Relative of. to of. replaced by objective. 66. subjunctive.with Concord. of. 255. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 195. analysis. See in subjunctive. and clause. sentences. 149. 289. 199. 263. pronoun. 194. of. Can. 151. Agreement. verbs. 73. 196. 328. 207. 195. conjunction. coördinate. . 143. conjunctions. Dative Declarative Declension of case. See analysis clauses. definition how subordinate. parse. 188. sentence. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. interrogative pronouns. other other parts of speech. 139. 149. of of Conjunctions. conjunctions. Conjunctions. correlative. definition be. 194. 231. pronouns. 138. 194. See English. same words. 193. in Old vs. pronoun. sentences. 269. adverbs.

333. . of. from. 303. vs. of personal relative verbs. with of. 26. 320. nouns. by. 60. 242. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. pronouns. 35. clause. pronouns. 90. of. 242. 51. Comparative. 288. Articles. Comparison. comparative. of. 99. indirect. See 148. of. duck. 80. passive adjectives. 102. adverbs See adjectives. pronouns. tenses. 315. 300. use of dies. object. nouns. discourse. Subordinate clause. 91. 102. See adjectives. with. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 43. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. possessive. 185. 287.Declension. Case. pronouns. 160. Degrees. See See 48. for. 152. verb. article.

90. object. 240. possessive suffix. drunk. 92. 299. 241. 280. original. Elements Ellipsis. 300. adjective. feminine plural English. Either. plural. added suffix. 33. of. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 328. older. 255. 102. 40. pronouns. vulgar. 62. 90.Drank. 257. 287. ending. predicate. pronoun. 234. complement. 158. to suffix. syntax Each Eat Eaves. suffix. conjunction. 158. adjective. Empress. 12. . of. 110. of subject. 39. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. Each. pronoun. 33. 42. error in sentence. the of sentence. 38. of. -En. other. of. in 'Em. one ( t). 194. 92. another. of. 92. 287. 51. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 32. literary. of. 112. 34. spoken.

30. 102.. first. as a noun. pronoun. gender. 148. Future Future tense. have adjective. 152. 147. expect gone. 287. few. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 30. 29. First Fish. perfect. two. two a further. 45. modes "common goose. 126. definition distinguished in English. of. 152. Gender. 112. Farther. fishes.Every. from. . plurals. to of. with infinitive. 308. From. as of from compared marking. of. 102. See Gander. nouns. 110. Feminine. 43. 112. object. uses redundant. 319. 189. Few. 36. other languages. of." 31. 91. 235. 103. the. 238. uses Foreign Former.. 211. 212. with in sex. Further. First. 32. 48. For. used of. 30. etc. adjective. etc. 212. 334.

173. it. rather. I. 177. of. . participle. had hung. 144. 10. noun. 61. its. 159.of of Genii. person. 12. 60. pronouns. 80. 176. she. of. and case verbal with. of. possessive pronouns. His Husband. definition basis of. 120. Had Hanged. 36. Grammar. 275. 159. Gerund. 61. 231. first sentence. He. of. adjective. on. 9. 35. kinds of. Got. 13. an better. from participle of. 12. 145. forms in Girl. 43. 60. Government. 101. distinguished syntax. for before. personal relative geniuses. 175. definition divisions opinions province H. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. pronoun. 285.

67. of. 72. 276. questions. elements. 85. 131. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 323. indices. 136. 73. pronoun. use article. Direct object. indirect of. adjectives. 245. 231. sentence. 176. See Articles. adverbs. 319. 227. mood. of clause. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. of. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 320. 110. 248. in compared syntax. a object. . meaning. words. 153. your. 283. 93. transitive. 131. verbs. pronouns. summary See passive mood. of. adjectives.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 257. with of. questions. uses discourse. of. 233. 43. See you. 188. 105. 178. Questions.

113. 276. Lie. queen. syntax the. of. of. Lay. syntax. of. Logic Logical Lord. 91. 36. Less. 113. English. Lady. "It Its. Like. 36. etc. . these double kind. 170. 36. lesser. 227. and See words in. adjective. latest. lie. King.. Kind.adverbs. 226. lord. 189. subject form. 12. 63. 39. Latter. 281." history etc. of. Lay. 110. 190. 110. in little. 303. 102. -Ly. was uses me. Last. 61. Kine. plural. See Madam.. Lady. 67. uses Literary Little. pronoun. It. 126. 245. a vs. predicate.

subjunctive. position adverb. of. Negative. double.Manner. Many Mapping Mare. 195. Master. superlatives. 110. 64. 34. conjunctions Many. 161. Must. Mood. 137. Means. 41. of. 110. imperative. of. 160. nigh. 144. 189. mine. syntax conjunction. . 256. 135. Much. adjective. 112. Mighty Mine. 102. syntax nearer. 325. 328. Modifiers. 188. 187. in adverbs comparison a. 265. 36. indicative. comparison Near. 110. of. Neither. 185. 189. construction as of adverb. -Most. 114.. See definition 136. Enlargement. of. 112. sentences. 137-144. of. 126. of. 112. out of. May. might. 113. 287. Modifier. mistress. etc. 194. 326. of.

gender nouns. analysis. 38. 246. of of of of of a. 30. Case. 258. proper. 17 19. become become formation case collective. 29. 125. of. 21. parse. None. 30. See 194. letters as 24. and figures. 42. 32. class used singular. abstract. definition descriptive. 46. material. to of. etc. 41.pronoun. of. 300. common. 17. clause. 25. nouns. 124. of. 45. 30. kinds 90. 46. formed. half abstract. of. 328. nouns. of. Not Noun Nouns. abstract. Nor. syntax Neuter or two News. 18. 19. 41. to use. 301. 56. foreign. etc. words how compound. 38-41. 20. of. 126. syntax in gender nouns. in. number once other plural. 26. definition according of. 25. 41 43. 27. used as. become neuter. 17. of. 92. gender how kinds material. No Nominative. now plural. .

48. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 101. dative. 48. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. preposition. 23. verbs. definite. pronouns. 235. meaning. plural.. Numeral Object. 101. spoken of instead nouns. of. as forms titles. 102. form. English. 279. 124. 43. 41. 278. 42.of same two with proper. pronouns. 196. with with with Now Number. 39. 282. of. See verb. 121. of. or plural. . See in in in Numeral distributive. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 48. indefinite. of different possessive definite of. indirect. plural form. 41. etc. of. 18. conjunction. 240. singular. Nouns. meanings. adverbial. 66. 41. 285. adjectives. personal. 242. and analysis. common. 195. article. of. passive adverbial. with case. singular. 42. 106. nominative. 92. plural no two singular construction. in nouns. 281. adjectives. 242. 48. in article. 42 44. 48. of. 60. 148. Preposition. 278.

. nouns. of syntax. 91. Our. indefinite possessive One One as Only. adverbs. 64. Omission On. another. ours. of of of of of models adjectives. 116. 87. 103. of. Elder. 38. position Order. conjunction. for. with (the). 306. 115. 69. See the as of. Ourself. 101. pronoun. 216. 325 275. part analysis. Older. See pronoun. adverb. Pains. 194. articles. conjunctions. 199. of. treatment comparatives. of upon. 117. 293. Each adjective. 103. definite relative uses of. 191. of. 56. 237. 213. 93 other. as of. inverted. a in adjectives.syntax Of. as other. 161. 41. Ordinal Other Ought. 56. 94. Oxen. Parsing. uses numeral pronoun. One. adjective. 233. 279. 127.

pronoun. 80. 173. pennies.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. of. of. 287. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 56. 181. 28. 59. of. 172. 179. included various. possessive and of. reflexive. 70. pronouns. pronouns. pease. 59. 61. or of. of. 43. 63. nominative. used as voice. 64. phrases. 317. verbs. 247. from definition other of. 281. verb idioms it from. 180. 177. Person. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. article 150. not is. 134. and subject in. of. 322. 335. 174. parsed. 95. Pence. verbals. phrase. absolute with of. in. verbs. predicate use of. part adjective. agreement of verb nouns. 43. 219. antecedent. . 100. 27. 148. of. them. 62. -ing words. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. relatives. speech. of. 119. with. 172. 69. 62. 56. 59.

245. simple. 188. 303. 281. appositional. relative. of. Place. . 236. nouns. Nouns. 245. adjectives. of Phrase. of. English. 61. vs. of nouns. adverbs of. 60. 63. as double. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 106. 25. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. objects. See 60. double. singular degree. 53. 285. noun nouns. Personal subjective. of. nouns. 67. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. participial. singular. 41. nouns. 206. prepositional. 54. 303. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 49. 64. of. 247. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 195. omitted. Personification. complete. in of. 37. 278. syntax of of Politics. pronoun. plural. spoken of. 278. antecedent of of pronouns. pronoun. of. it. 247. or See of of See 185. 281. 53. of. 248. kinds infinitive. of. 50.objective syntax table triple uses of. 241. 236. pronouns. 235. 232. 51. Positive Possessive. of. 's. Comparison. 52.

93. parse. 58. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. expressed as other of. singular usually other. 299. 302. 186. 303. 59. objective. for predicate nominative. plural. and form form form form of. 287. 206. future. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. adjective. of. 279. 95. any. in exclamations. all. . 202. each either. by parts of of. none. of. 187. 281. Pronouns. 300. 129. as antecedent of relative. of. 195. of. 205. case. what. meaning. 207. 331. by. 58. 332. 285. words. exclamatory. neither. 105. 105. verbs. 89. usually to as than. as. of. 300. interrogative. possessive nominative to of. same used as adjectives. 283. somebody definition how indefinite. interrogative. after but. by with shown certain of. 333. of. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. speech. another. 282. 280. of. as 54. who personal. objective. with tense certain. 32. Prepositions. 208. adverb. plural. 132. 203. 147. forms of. 284. case. parse. and one with else's.Prefixes. 64. 301. 219. 104. plural. 283. 203. 72.

85. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 74. of. pronouns. Rather. of. 195. 291. 80. in. discourse. pronoun. with with gerund. of. 296. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. or of. 101. and antecedent. Quotations. questions. 84. conjunctions Quality. to of. in. 263. same antecedent. 87. of. 189. from and interrogative. 289. 69. . 74. 74. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. indirect. of. 188. agreement anacoluthon and as. 293. Questions. use in as. 69. of.possessive relative. which. use of history formed. See of. 68. and which. 87. 297. of. 293. parse. who. that. 295. 58. 286. with who. 105. indirect compound. 99. pronominal pronouns indirect. of. 142. Direct same and different. personal pronoun. nouns. 289. 85. Quantity. 295. unrestrictive. and relatives. in. Rank. 279. adverbs in. which after same. Nouns. 83. of.

conjunctions Retained Riches. 252. effect. clauses of. in of. in form. 196. Simple in sate. 43. sentence. will. Sex Shall. object. 170. 162. of sit. pronoun. 159. 'S. of. that. 51. and should. See Sentences. simple of. 289. of. Shot. 159. 69. Shear. 231. Seeing. 242. 195. 294. suffix. plural possessive as. 255. 74. tenses. of. 26 271. 263. of. who. 196. forms shots. complex. 29. 42. would. 231. of of of complex Sentences. 40. elliptical.syntax use Result. ending. conjunction. simple. which. 319. definition . Self Sentences. 259. S. kinds Sequence Set. Same Sat. gender. reflexive analysis of compound.

33. 237. to of. 270. English. 260. of. 257. 240. Spelling Spinster. Modern use becoming else's. 126. vs. 257. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 169. Subject. 257. etc. other Such Such Suffix -s. Somebody Sort. 12. English. 38. in feminine suffix. of. 245. adverb. distinguish. of.Singular Sir. definition 67. -es. 303. 245. names as a. 144. . 257. Split Spoken -Ster. in Middle English. 258. of. 33. 303. -en. 138. disuse in spoken complete. 36. definition how kinds noun.. for. 38. of. 137. these number. 144. used mood. 32. See -En. 258. sort. 258. verbs. adverb. 323. 186. of. 262. logical. English. 233. as. of. phonetic in infinitive. literary clause. English.

not suggesting adjectives. degree. 309. "the then foreign. 88. that uses That. of . objects. meaning made up in Old of. auxiliaries. in double. There These kind. 297. they. 307. 116. 61. syntax of. 186. 152. me. 147.. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 119. coördinating. 277.. 306. meaning. 33. 120. 319. classical of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 106. subject. of. as adverbs. 275. 306. 189. and and of. plural as adverb. 222. in comparison. 106. restrictive. 147. of. 123. 290. 186. as history The. when as of. 108. article. 289. this. of languages. See etc. omission whom.. definition in English Tense. 148. 109. 87. which. Tenses. king. of. of. 191. of. 280. object. as history syntax Their. of. two basis not same definition definite." introductory. of. 107. adjectives. English. of. when relative. Then. 147. English. adverbs. . form. than of. 275.Suffixes. Kind.

infinitive. feminine and. carelessly uses syntax this. kinds participle. of. words. 20. 248. first adjective. 323. first. to. in omitted uses T'other. conjunctions prepositions To. 33. 185. of. 114. infinitive. etc. of. try two. 188. -ing 111. tother. gerund. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 175. in of. -Trix. exclamations. 175. of. 119. uses of. how infinitive. uses history of. used. 176. 322. 172. Try Two Under. 195. from cleft to 174. adverbs those. preposition. Time. 21. 247.. certain as the before with of. 61. 180. 181. uttermost. 173. Thou. 128. See On. thee. . parse. 330. 172. of. analysis. 175. thy.These. 207. Upon. of. 114. Upper. Utter. 308. phrases. verbs. suffix. See That. 217. 322. 114. of. other noun.

Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went.Verbs. 154. 242. remarks on certain. definition of. 320. auxiliary. mood of. retained object with passive. active. strong. 319. 312. regular. 157. of incomplete predication. 151. formed by. passive form. change. 179. weak. table of irregular. intransitive. passive. 135. agreement of. verbs by. 223. phonetic. conjugation of. syntax of. 148. What. 236. table of. 167. 149. 147. but uses what. 131. defective. 130. voice of. Vocative in Voice. 12. 245. 129. 33. of. with subject in number. 133. 47. of. 317. transitive and intransitive. 154. past tense formed nominative. analysis. 330. of English. 133. spelling of. 150. 169. 312-316. in person. verbs. 169. 39. tense of. . active meaning. definition of. definition of. 160. 134. how to parse. 155. 154. sequence of. in indirect discourse. 148. Vixen. made transitive. becoming irregular. 167. person and number of. 159.

85. 77. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. spoken in of. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. antecedent adjective. 75. 105. 78. pronoun. in in indefinite objective. 85. 83. animals. 105. Y. 296. questions. 111. referring syntax Widower. Yes ending analysis. 178. Words in Worse. wizard. whereto. 36. 72. questions. plural of in nouns -ing. pronoun. of. interrogative Which. questions. Witch. worser.what Whereby. Who. 194. 218. 32. 79. would. Whether. of. relative indirect relative. English. 83. 72. 36. 75. 295-299. relative. 40. 190. a. Woman. in. 72. Will. 85. 126. uses See Shall. . Wife. conjunction. direct of. 73. 37. etc. in -ly. 104. questions. 299. relative. 246.. With.

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