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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests.The province of English grammar is. however. It is also evident. it will at the same time. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). "Analysis. with its enormous vocabulary. as compared with Latin or Greek. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). Authority as a basis. to those who have studied the language historically. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. This will take in the usual divisions. Mental training. as. but this is bad English now. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. then. Coming back. and their uses and relations in the sentence." and "Syntax. there is still much for the grammarian to do. . Literary English. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. their forms. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. If. Few inflections. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. from the question. its peculiar and abundant idioms. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. assist the classification of kindred expressions. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered." What grammar is. and thus incite his observation.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). Surely our noble language. is worthy of serious study. if rightly presented. The work it will cover. rightly considered. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. so that a small grammar will hold them all. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. A broader view. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. An æsthetic benefit. Making rules is risky.

The following pages will cover. that is. or Syntax. NOUNS.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. 1. but. too. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. then. besides this one. by which is meant the free. or standard. Vulgar English. reference will be made to vulgar English. which belongs to a people. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. as they stand for ideas. three divisions:² Part I.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Such words are called nouns. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. The words state. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. In the more simple state of the Arabs. submission. PART I. the nation is free. The Parts of Speech. and Inflections.²GIBBON. Part II. not objects. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. Occasionally. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Spoken English. and may belong to any of those objects.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. and will are evidently names of a different kind. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Analysis of Sentences. . the words sons and master name objects. Part III. The plainest name is Arabs. The Uses of Words. from the eighteenth century on.

city is a word applied to any one of its kind. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Classes of nouns. Proper. the name of each is an individual or proper name. or a council. Thus. Abstract. animals. etc. or a congress. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. place. belonging to one. or things. MATERIAL. men in groups may be called a crowd. They properly belong under common nouns. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or the man in front of you. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. reducing it to a narrow application. Common. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. we may think of them in groups. is from a Latin word which means general. A noun is a name word. and things separately. however. For instance. and appropriate names to the groups.Definition. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. as here used. Individual. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. whether person. the man here. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. . but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. ATTRIBUTE. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. This does not imply. Name for a group or collection of objects. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. possessed by all. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. or idea. 2. animals. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. or thing. Besides considering persons. Name for any individual of a class. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. because each group is considered as a unit. a committee. 3. or a mob. Collective. (a) 4. (b) Common. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. but Chicago names one city. representing directly to the mind an object. substance. We may say. Thus. 5. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only.

sugar. there is no such intention. 6. but which are not called proper names. etc. however. Words naturally of limited application not proper. etc. sand. They remain common class names. granite.Names for things thought of in mass. and so on. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. stone. It may. or apart from their natural connection. When we speak of a wise man. rock. clay. instead of to each individual or separate object. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. etc. gold. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. proof means the act of proving. celluloid." 9. sugar." "Learning is hard to acquire. earth. expressing attributes or qualities. moon. "Painting is a fine art. frost. cloud. etc. platinum. dew. world. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. frost. we speak of the wisdom of the man. iron. but in the words sun. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. . 7. or action. The quality is still there as much as before. or that which shows a thing has been proved. and fasten a special name to the object considered. wheat. Again. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. etc. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. earth. paint. . rain. etc. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. expressing state. wine. mist. considered abstractly. etc. NOTE. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. not things. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. or actions. etc." "a man of understanding. wheat.. Names of ideas. soap. Such are glass. snow. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). rubber. The reason is. (3) Geological bodies: mud.²There are some nouns. as in calling a city Cincinnati. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. potash. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. but it is taken merely as a name. we may say. such as sun. condition. rice. tea. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. conditions.

as in the expressions. 273).²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. theft from thieve. and they cannot express action. the teachings of the High Spirit. kingship from king. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. the well-being of her subjects. etc. the rude drawings of the book. is used as a noun. summer. action from act. etc. winter. Thus. a wedding or a festival. night. II. as glad²joy. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. Underived abstract nouns. but are merely names of actions.Attribute abstract nouns. her longing for their favor. hopeful²hope. They are only the husks of verbs. childhood from child. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. "a long run" "a bold move. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. service from serve. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. etc. the great Puritan awakening. joy. etc. The verb. 1. Caution. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. the main bearings of this matter. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. To avoid difficulty. thunder. 12. NOTE. They cannot govern a word." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. he spread his blessings over the land. lightning. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. ease. the moon caused fearful forebodings. as their name implies. five abstract. hope. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. mastery from master. Such are beauty. those opinions and feelings. energy. speech from speak. (2) peerage from peer. height from high. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. Verbal abstract nouns. 272. day. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. five proper. . 10. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. stupidity from stupid. redness from red. (1) prudence from prudent." "a brisk walk. by altering its function. shadow. Exercises. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. there is time for such reasonings.. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. in the beginning of his life.

Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. (b) branches of knowledge.2. as physics. geology. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . typhus. diphtheria. mathematics? 3. pleurisy. algebra. Using a dictionary. catarrh. as pneumonia.

nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. and lo! a new system. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. arras. Nouns change by use. levant and morocco (leather). the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. from Corinth. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. etc. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. Sodom was famous for wickedness. a Hutton. 119). By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. damask. from Damascus. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. but we may say. but most of them are in the following groups. Material nouns may be used as class names. "The cook made the irons hot. We know a number of objects made of iron. who was its inventor. as a davy. Guillotin. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. Proper names transferred to common use. 14. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. from the name of Dr. port (wine). a Bentham. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. from Oporto. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. for example. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. a Locke. or to go over to it entirely. the guillotine. 15. it imposes its classification on other men. above. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. currants.²EMERSON. Others of similar character are calico. thus. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all." referring to flat- . a Fourier. from a town in France. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. the word port. in Portugal. a Lavoisier.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from China.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. 13. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. from Calicut.

and so on. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. For example. to prowl or to moan like night birds. are abroad. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. and only Vice and Misery. on fire. Traffic has lain down to rest. candies. be spoken of. 16.²CARLYLE. etc. (3) By poetical use. nor are they common class nouns. and say teas. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.²PERCIVAL. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Death. These are the same in material. that the power of art is founded on fact. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract.²BRYANT. smiled. coals. 17.irons. etc. the abstract idea is partly lost. that disposition is the thing to be created. not material things. or used as class nouns. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. Next Anger rushed. They are not then pure abstract nouns. tins. or. abstract in meaning. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. This is a poetic usage. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. Personification of abstract ideas. that is. Class nouns in use. which are made plural. Test this in the following sentences:² . clays. tobaccos. purity.²BYRON. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. or the arts and sciences. but on dispositions which require to be created. though not confined to verse. paints. mists. a steel to whet a knife on. or made plural. but differ in strength. are still names of abstract ideas. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. but in case an art or a science.²HAYNE. papers.²COLLINS.In lightnings owned his secret stings. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. When it is said that art differs from science.²RUSKIN. clouds. The words preceded by the article a. his eyes. From all around²Earth and her waters. as stones. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. A halfway class of words. oils. slates. a rubber for erasing marks. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.

Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.²IRVING. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. Nouns used as descriptive terms.²SHAKESPEARE. Then comes the "Why. They are more like the possessive noun. or describe it.²BURNS. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. Adverbs. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. And still." which contains a pure adjective. a bill as to tax on the banks." "a New York bank.Let us. were mere terrors of the night. etc. All these. Adjectives. or from any expression. nouns used to modify. as each repeated pleasure tired. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. a bank in New York. Conjunctions." "a morning walk. meaning a walk in the morning. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. the wealthy.The Solitary can despise. make our own so. if we must have great actions.²SHAKESPEARE. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. NOTE. they do not express quality. for example. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.² BURNS." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. sir!"²MACAULAY . but is still a noun. When I was young? Ah. they cannot be compared. But ah! those pleasures.² GOLDSMITH. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow." "the State Bank Tax bill. 18. fear thy blow. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. which belongs to another word.²EMERSON. sir!" and the "What then. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. 19. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. Every why hath a wherefore.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. loves. But it is better to consider them as nouns. "a family quarrel. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. as descriptive adjectives are. however. By ellipses. sir?" and the "No. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.

in speaking of the principal of a school. too. is ambiguous. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. or a state secret. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. In the other sentences. is the word "just. of words rather than of their meaning. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. so. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns." or "legal. 4. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. but as a figure of speech. It is to be remembered. that cobweb of the brain. the wealthy. are spoken of as if pure nouns. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. or a faithful domestic. When. whether it mean the sun or the cold. but have an adjectival meaning."²B. Power laid his rod aside. without reference to its function in the sentence. 7. the terms the great. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage.. that the above cases are shiftings of the use.Nor iron bars a cage. etc. at the beginning. or a criminal. 3. 6. of course. Learning." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Exercise. why and wherefore.²These remarks do not apply. are used. and Then.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. 5. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. however. 1. and tell to which class each belongs. in a sentence above. . 2. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. The it.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. 20. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Caution. Now. FRANKLIN. Stone walls do not a prison make. NOTE. When. 8. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences." and another of Dr. There are many of these.

A fool speaks all his mind. 17. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day.Fair guests. female. he cried. the welcome. but not so in English. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 13. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 24. for every dropHinders needle and thread. Male beings are. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. always masculine. The hours glide by. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 10. 23. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine.You seize the flower. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. and names of females are usually feminine. German. It is founded on sex. returned to Spain. 21. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 20. And see. 14. its bloom is shed. Greek. always feminine. 21. . A little weeping would ease my heart. GENDER. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. that waits you here. 11. In Latin. 19. 22. 15. What gender means in English. 16.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 12. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. and many other languages.9. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. The fleet. 18. shattered and disabled. in English grammar.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. the silver moon is gone. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy.

Of animals. corpus (body) is neuter." . in German.² IRVING. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. came to a stand just by the bridge. hortus (garden) is masculine. Thus.²IRVING. however. those which do not distinguish sex. or names of things without life. in other languages gender follows the form. but are spoken of as neuter.. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Gunpowder . or additions to words.. No "common gender. Some words either gender or neuter nouns.. according to use. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. . Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. the name of it is feminine.²masculine and feminine. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.²gender nouns. 24. clapping his burnished wings.² I have seenA curious child . Neuter nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. and consequently without sex. in English. For instance: in Latin. the sex being of no consequence. Gender nouns.. are named by gender nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. those distinguishing the sex of the object. if of the female sex. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. 23. with its gizzard under its wing. mensa (table) is feminine. "A little child shall lead them. that pattern of a husband. All nouns. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. then. Hence: Definition." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. if there were any signs of life in it. must be divided into two principal classes. das Messer (knife) is neuter. 22. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. those with which man comes in contact often. or which arouse his interest most.. that is. the name of it is masculine. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words.²LAMB. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.. The great difference is. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock.When. according to their use. inanimate things are spoken of. der Tisch (table) is masculine. and neuter nouns.

Put in convenient form. 27. 26. ruler. puts a prefix before the masculine man. is. he-bear²she-bear. If such words as parent. . One feminine. relative. 28. Gender shown by Suffixes. Very few of class I. only to masculine and feminine nouns. (2) By adding a suffix. as he-goat²she-goat. and for the older word fat they said vat. for from they said vram. or the lack of it. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. Gender shown by Prefixes. of course. These remain in vixen and spinster. cousin. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. domestic.. Male nouns beings. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. (3) By using a different word for each gender. For fox they said vox. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. teacher. generally to a masculine word. from the masculine fox. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. 29. servant. Native suffixes. woman. as in wine vat. etc. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. According to the definition. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. the division of words according to sex. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. I. II.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. though both words have lost their original meanings.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings.25. The inflections for gender belong. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. they are neuter words. but spinster has now no connection with it. Hence vixen is for fyxen.

as czarina. These are attached to foreign words.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. the one most used. it has none now in the words huckster.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. -ess (French esse. donna. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Low Latin issa). señorita. trickster. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. gamester. as. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). as seam-stress. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. Ending of masculine not changed. 30. but in most cases it has not. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. Slightly changed and widely used. Unaltered and little used. executrix. punster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. and are never used for words recognized as English. song-str-ess. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .

" III. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. 32. Some of them have an interesting history. as. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. or servauntesse. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. the ending -ess. as was said in the sixteenth century. neighboresse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. 31. from Latin imperatricem. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. we use the feminine. as in the fourteenth century. from the French -esse. etc. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. editor.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. from the Old French maistre²maistresse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. In some of these pairs. teacheresse. as. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. We frequently use such words as author. chairman. Gender shown by Different Words. we use the masculine termination. neighbor (masculine and feminine). When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. NOTE. Instead of saying doctress. Thus. others have in their origin the same root. to represent persons of either sex. frendesse. wagoness. teacher or lady teacher. fosteress.

It is not connected historically with our word duck. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. widuwa²widuwe.² . but this has long been obsolete. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. or lauerd in Middle English. Personification. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. leaving our word drake. The older forms. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. gand-ra. Mare. 33. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. as in many other words. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). from Latin mea domina. Widower. the old sign of the masculine. Two masculines from feminines. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf.). Icelandic gás. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. 16). in Old English mere. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. though both are ultimately from the same root.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. had the masculine mearh (horse). became identical. Danish gaas. 34. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Madam is the French ma dame. etc. not immediately connected with witch. for example. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). lhauerd. Besides gander and drake. Witch is the Old English wicce. finally gander. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. among others) to be from the same root word. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. probably meaning house dweller). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Three letters of ened have fallen away. written loverd.

But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. and not by the form of the noun. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. for instance. 39. Britannia needs no bulwarks. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. The first two methods prevailed. This inflection remains only in the word oxen."²BYRON. the plural. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. The -en inflection."Now. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. In nouns. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. 35. 36. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. Our language has two numbers. treen (trees). (2) By changing the root vowel. Effect of personification.²COLERIDGE. I. etc. (3) By adding -s (or -es). we make its plural by adding -s or -es.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English.²singular and plural. NUMBER. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. whenever we adopt a new word. . But other words were inflected afterwards. the engineer speaks so of his engine. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. shoon (shoes). eyen (eyes). In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. 38. that is. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne.Her home is on the deep. together with the third.No towers along the steep.²CAMPBELL. Definition. in Old English. This is not exclusively a poetic use.²KEATS. 37.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. more than one.

²THOREAU. swine. etc. cannon. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es.² "God bless me! so then. head. quartz. wight. Kine is another double plural. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like.² The foot are fourscore thousand. The old plural was brothru. Lee marched over the mountain wall.Horse and foot. but has now no singular.²Over the mountains winding down. they add -s): also trout. after all. then brothre or brethre. lens. brace.The horse are thousands ten. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. and get settled. 42. Such are box. etc. cross. pair. and is still found in dialects. etc. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. dozen. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. sheep. such as deer. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.-En inflection imitated by other words. by. into Frederick town. III. as. originally neuter. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. sail. retain the same form for plural meaning."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. folk. finally brethren. Other words following the same usage are. Examples of this inflection are. when they mean soldiery. glass. ditch. . Instead of -s. borough²formerly had the same inflection. The words horse and foot. salmon. as. that have the singular and plural alike. Brethren has passed through three stages.²WHITTIER. turf. heathen. but they now add the ending -s.²MACAULAY. 40. after numerals (if not after numerals. people. 41. Akin to this class are some words. II.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Children has passed through the same history.

and many branches of learning. Two words.g. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . 44. Special Lists. that when thy summons comes. etc. as. chaise²chaises. hero²heroes. etc. means and politics. also news. they lose their identity. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes..g. is both the science and the art of government. Formerly. fairies. fancies. the Washingtons. and the real ending is therefore -s. and some -es. volcano² volcanoes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY.²PROF. summons. shelf²shelves. Some words are usually singular. optics. though they are plural in form. physics. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. 45. prize²prizes.. e. these words ended in -ie. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). some adding -s. It served simply as a means of sight. 43. Proper nouns are regularly singular. in its widest extent. molasses. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. means: as. however.² Politics. The lilie on hir stalke grene. e. half²halves.²BRYANT.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Examples of these are. race²races. mathematics. house²houses. the Americas. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. knife²knives.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. When such words take a plural ending. economics. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. niche²niches.-Es added in certain cases. allies. and go over to other classes (Secs. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. though this sound combines readily with -s. etc. quoth then that ladie milde. politics. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. Words in -ies. Means plural. negro²negroes. pains (care). etc. 15 and 17). DANA. daisies. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. So live. a new syllable is made. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.

. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. LAUGHLIN. Besides this. Sometimes.²GOLDSMITH.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right. CURTIS.²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps. Some words have no corresponding singular. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²G. however.²MOTLEY.²BURKE. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. by strongly conveying the passions. Politics plural. L. Now I read all the politics that come out. 46. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. With great dexterity these means were now applied. By these means. riches will accumulate.²J.² MACAULAY.Words. he pronounced to have been a tongs. I say. A relic which. by those means which we have already mentioned.²IRVING. W.

may add -s. making a double plural. shots (number of times fired). or epistles. carry off chaff. clothes (garments).²LONGFELLOW. 49. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. the other unlike it. genii (spirits). fishes (individuals or kinds). Tell me not. One plural. twopence. 48. two plurals. pence (collectively). riches.. (2) revenue duties. trouble. etc. Other words have one plural form with two meanings.²POPE.The air. indices (signs in algebra). faculties. These make the last part plural. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. 50. Two classes of compound words. pease (collectively). of a periodical. In speaking of coins.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. as two sixpences. brethren (of a society or church). (2) literature. die²dies (stamps for coins. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth)..²was it subdued when. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. for the numbers came. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. In Early Modern English thank is found. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). two meanings. penny²pennies (separately). fish²fish (collectively). Three words were originally singular. number²numbers: (1) figures. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. .²one corresponding to the singular. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. as in the lines.² I lisped in numbers. Numbers also means issues. ways. in mournful numbers. genius²geniuses (men of genius). sixpence. or copies. index²indexes (to books). part²parts: (1) divisions.. dice (for gaming). (2) care. eaves. DANA. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.). etc. or work in a bellows?²PROF. (2) poetry. pea²peas (separately). shot²shot (collective balls). (2) abilities.

manservant. Two methods in use for names with titles. Brahman. Briggs. there is some disagreement among English writers. but add -s. or the name may be pluralized. Ottoman. though the latter is often found. Brown.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. . as man singer. woman servant. and then the three Miss Spinneys. 51. and Mrs. HOLMES. the Misses Rich. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. such as talisman. Mussulman.²DR. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Allen.² Then came Mr. as the Messrs. As to plurals of names with titles. then Silas Peckham. woman singer. for example. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. German. 52. firman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Norman. the Drs. The title may be plural.

FROM THE GREEK. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Du Maurier. The Messrs. They are then said to be naturalized. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. or Anglicized. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.²DICKENS.²GOLDSMITH. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.²GIBBON. and retain their foreign plurals. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. 53. y y analysis antithesis . Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Domesticated words. or Englished.²THE CRITIC. Exercise. These are said to be domesticated. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. FROM THE LATIN. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Others have been adopted.

" "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). In the sentence. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Only two case forms. 54. Words quoted merely as words. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. and expresses a relation akin to possession. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. they form their plurals in the regular way. without reference to their meaning. etc. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. Letters. also add -s or 's. etc. Definition. cell has another relation. In the general wearing-away of inflections. as.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. 56. figures. as.. figures.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters." the word felon's modifies cell." CASE. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). form their plurals by adding -s or 's. 55. .

whether inflected or not." (2) As a predicate noun.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 57. then." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise.²the nominative." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. three things characterize man.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. completing a verb. 2. may be said to have three cases. Uses of the Nominative. 1. Three properties belong to wisdom. and the possessive.²one for the nominative and objective. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²person. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 5. must be understood for purposes of analysis. 4. . the enemy of the living. fate. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 3. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. learning. Human experience is the great test of truth. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. and experience. they returned to their homes. excessive grief. Excuses are clothes which. and merit. the objective.²nature. I. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. 58." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Nouns. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. when asked unawares. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.

and meaning calmest. good Heaven. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. But of all plagues.Save. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. 4. thy wrath can send. and tell which use each has:² 1. etc. how have I frighted thee? II. 8. sword in hand and visor down. wounded lies. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. and being equivalent to one verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. taking the object storm. 68. 59. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. and makest a calm. But the flood came howling one day. Conscience. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. 9. (in the older stages of the language. Uses of the Objective. . O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. (5) As the object of a preposition. her first law broken. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. a patriarch of the village. as will be seen in Sec. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. they are sands of precious gold. taking the object enemies." Exercise.6." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. completing the verb. 3. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder." "Thou makest the storm a calm." (4) As the second object. reconciles. save. 2." (3) Adverbially. distance. Set a high price on your leisure moments. the word toward which the preposition points." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. They charged. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. and landlord of the inn. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. measure.

as shown in the sentences.²BYRON. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.His winter task a pastime made. as. 9. 10. III.5. Uses of the Possessive.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. The possessive case always modifies another word. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. It is a poetic expression.²SHELLEY. And whirling plate.²HAWTHORNE.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. Possession in some sense is the most common. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.Does his Creator's power display. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. as in these expressions. the Great Stone Face. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. (2) Objective possessive.e. 8.²ADDISON. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. and forfeits paid. The noblest mind the best contentment has. the most common of all. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. or in writing yesterday's elegy. 60. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. 7. 61. (3) Subjective possessive. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.And gave the leper to eat and drink. 6. tempests that ..² The unwearied sun. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. expressed or understood. from day to day. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.

Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. lady Poss. Nom. A false theory." etc. child NOTE. To form the possessive plural. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i.e. and Obj. Case Inflection. making the possessive singular. As said before (Sec. "George Jones his book." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. in Chaucer. however. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. and Obj. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. Nom. "From every schires ende. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Poss.. One is the simple form of a word." "at his beddes syde.e.. 62.winter is likely to have). A suggestion. Declension or inflection of nouns. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. 64. PLURAL. . The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. growth which several days had developed)." Use of the apostrophe. The use of the apostrophe. 63. the panther which the forest hides). 1. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. as schoolboys sometimes write. there are only two case forms. 62. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. 56). "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). expressing the relations of nominative and objective. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form." "mannes herte [heart]. How the possessive is formed.

for goodness' sake."²DE QUINCEY." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. store. as.²DE QUINCEY. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. In compound expressions. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. a word with a phrase. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. etc. 66. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. some such word as house. and from a desire to have distinct forms. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. the possessive sign is usually last. Captain Scrapegrace's. Cervantes' satirical work. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. church. as by the countess's command. 67.. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. my neighbors. but to the ear all may be alike." Possessive with compound expressions.²HOLMES. I remember him in his cradle at St.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. know the amount of my income. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. the items of my son's. Possessive and no noun limited. Kate saw that. in the name of the emperor their master. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. Peter's.² LOWELL." "A postscript is added. etc.. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.²SWIFT. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. containing words in apposition. and she walked off from the don's. dwelling.Though this opinion was untrue. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. being understood with it: for example. .²CARLYLE. 65. instead of the emperor their master's name. as. stands up for God's truth one man. James's.

a double possessive. objective. Blair). 2. making a double possessive. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive.The double possessive. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. etc. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²FROUDE.²the introduction which Atterbury made. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. corresponding to 's.²E. Clearness. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. every. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. no. Exercises. (b) Rewrite the sentence. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . HALE. If. each. that.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. however. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. and tell whether each is appositional. sometimes they are used together. For example. 68. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. any. A peculiar form. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. 87. Emphasis. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. (See also Sec. In most cases. 1.²CARLYLE. the sentence might be understood as just explained. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. Both of these are now used side by side. we use the phrase of Atterbury. in such a sentence as.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. or subjective. the. this. especially when used with this or that. the statement clearly means only one thing.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. (3) It prevents ambiguity. (1) When a word is modified by a. as one modifier.. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. E. ill-lighted except where she stands. and at the same time by a possessive noun.

There Shakespeare's self. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. some idioms²the double possessive. 5. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. day's harbinger. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 13.² . it seemed. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 7. in parsing a noun. Jove laughs. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 70. 9.They say. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. and destroy the other. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.Comes dancing from the East. 69.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 8. Nature herself. therefore. At lovers' perjuries.A weary waste expanding to the skies. let him seasonably water the one. 4. 12. 10. Now the bright morning star. In parsing. Friend. 15. 11. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. we state. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Hence. with every garland crowned. 14. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son.3. 6. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.

(2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. Throat is neuter. therefore possessive case. subject of the verb is understood. and therefore nominative case. 2. it denotes only one person. determining its case. it is the object of the preposition by. like miller's. (3) Whether singular or plural number. NOTE. 71. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. therefore singular number. a fresh tapster. inflections. In parsing any word. and relations. and limits neckcloth. which gender. hence it is a gender noun. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. The correct method. therefore neuter.²common. hence it is a common noun. singular number.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. etc. it has no sex. Exercise. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. That in the captain's but a choleric word. and number. but is the adverbial objective. it expresses possession or ownership. a withered serving man. . of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. therefore masculine gender. has no governing word. and to have it found out by accident. Neckcloth. if the latter. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 3. hence it is objective case. as to case. MODEL FOR PARSING. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue.(1) The class to which it belongs. is a common class noun. Thief is a common class noun. (4) Its office in the sentence. gender. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. masculine. it expresses time. proper. names one thing. hence objective case. the connection shows a male is meant. object of the verb takes. 68). 4. therefore singular number. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. it is the name of a male being.

Definition. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. A pronoun is a reference word. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 72. castle. all in one. blessings light on him that first invented .²palace.. and his daughter. or for a group of persons or things. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. He giveth his beloved sleep. 73. Jarley's back being towards him. financial minister to Louis XVI. instead of saying. were natives of Geneva. 7. but by a question we say. 10. Necker. standing for a name.. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. The need of pronouns. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Now. . When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome." Again. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. 8. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. which are used to ask questions about persons or things.. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. definite. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. 76). from a necessity for short." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. and representative words. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. we evidently cannot state the owner's name.And hated her for her pride. Mrs. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. or for a person or thing. sleep! 6. where the Rhone enters the lake. For instance. and prison. PRONOUNS. A few miles from this point. Classes of pronouns. 11. (2) Interrogative pronouns. 9.5. Madame de Staël.

I Poss. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. my Plural. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. From analogy to pronouns. (2) Second person. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. words. "the distinction of person. 75. Singular. (4) Adjective pronouns. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. and the person or thing talked about. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. pronoun. mine. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. or other word or expression. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. which have forms for person. that is. ours ." Person of nouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 76. as nouns have the same form. which relate or refer to a noun. which cannot be used as adjectives. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. Nom. standing for a person or thing spoken of. (5) Indefinite pronouns.(3) Relative pronouns. they must represent the person talking. representing the person speaking. they are said to have person by agreement. Three persons of pronouns. primarily adjectives. representing a person or thing spoken to. even if it had a special form. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. we our. 74. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. This gives rise to a new term. Person in grammar. 77.. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. (3) Third person. the person or thing spoken to.

Nom. and also for the neuter. of all Three. neuter. Obj. in the singular. yours you THIRD PERSON. Old forms. Poss. In Old English these three were formed from the same root.. neuter hit. Third person singular has gender. by personification. Obj. yours you Plural. . Nom. Nom. a separate form for each gender. Obj. theirs them Neut. yours Poss. thou thee ye you you your. he his him Fem. hers her Plur. it its it Poss. thine. thy Remarks on These Forms. or.Obj. Obj. you your. your. 78. Singular. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Masc. masculine h . she her. The speaker may be either male or female. me us Singular. SECOND PERSON. But the third person has. they their. Old Form Common Form. feminine h o. Nom. Poss. First and second persons without gender. so also with the person or thing spoken to. namely.

81. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. in Old English. especially in poetry. In spoken English.. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. etc.²SHELLEY. however. that didst comfort thy people of old. Two uses of the old singulars. them. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. The consequence is.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. heom.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. to thy care we commit the helpless. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.²BEECHER.² Oh. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. as possessive of it. for example. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.:² (1) In elevated style. two modern uses of thou. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. just as we now say. Thou. We use it with a plural verb always. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. This is of comparatively recent growth. which is a neuter noun. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). as. thy. thee." As shown above. The plurals were h . even when referring to a single object. The form its. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. 82.Thou lovest. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. etc. their. thou Shepherd of Israel. heora. Second person always plural in ordinary English. There are. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. as in prayers. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. the forms they.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. 80. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. (2) In addressing the Deity. etc. which was often sounded with the h silent.. 79. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. and sometimes its.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. . the Old English objective was hem (or heom). it. It is worth while to consider the possessive its.

Additional nominatives in spoken English. ²SHAKESPEARE. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. I The Nominative. to personify objects (Sec. Yet careful speakers avoid this. its." the literary language would require he after was. thy. your. I spare thee mine. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. however. us. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. our. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. though those named in Sec. 34). me. Nominative forms. . but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns.²BULWER. he. and has been slave to thousands. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. him. when they occur in the predicate position.²LANDOR. them. hers. The words I. 'tis his. Not a separate class.Use of the pronouns in personification. her. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. "I am sure it was him. 84. and follow the usage of literary English. her. note the following:² 'Twas mine. some say. thine. her. 84 are always subjects. and not make more classes. Old use of mine and thine. us. him. have a peculiar use. That is. The forms mine. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. In spoken English. The Possessive. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. ye. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 58). yours. 85. thou. 83. for. or. though ye is occasionally used as objective. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. The forms my. sometimes his and its. Absolute personal pronouns. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. theirs. we. their.²COWPER. his. besides a nominative use. they. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. they have a nominative form. she. 86. them. II. and sometimes in ordinary speech. And since thou own'st that praise. in such a sentence as.

²BIBLE. theirs. The forms hers. thine. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.²J. yours. theirs.²CARLYLE. 87. his. If thine eye offend thee.²J. thus. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. (2) To bring emphasis. for example. (3) To express contempt. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. "Hold thy peace. anger. Besides this. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. sometimes its. in that old Edinburgh house of his. This usage is still preserved in poetry.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. commenting upon a letter of mine.²THACKERAY. This ancient silver bowl of mine. we have. as in nouns. thus.²SWIFT. Their uses.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. ours." said Henry Woodstall. F. .²ID. T. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. but few thy voice. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day."²SCOTT.² CARLYLE. ours. Give every man thine ear. and with mine. hers. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. it tells of good old times. we find. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.²ID. Like the noun possessives. Double and triple possessives. are really double possessives. Long Allen. pluck it out. yours. or satire. FIELDS. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. ²HOLMES. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.²THACKERAY.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. COOPER.

In their function. his for his property." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb.²BIBLE. as shown in Sec. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. Curse me this people. mine stands for my praise in the second. . 90. In pronouns. but expresses for whom. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. The old dative case. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. as it is called.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. or use in a sentence. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. The Objective. III. this dative use. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. 20. 86: mine stands for my property.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²ID. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. the thing is done. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. In such sentences as. was marked by a separate case. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. in the first sentence. but not in form. "The good alone are great. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. 88." "None but the brave deserves the fair." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. for whose benefit. Besides this use of the objective. and mine in the second has an objective use. but the form is the same as the objective.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. They all handled it. Both joined in making him a present. but nominative or objective in use. 89. But the first two have a nominative use. Now the objective.

and they cry. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. to stand for the real. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. you must condense there. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. logical subject. as in the sentences. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. 92. WEBSTER.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. why. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. ²EMERSON. or that he has not a great deal more. Indefinite use of you and your.² NEWMAN.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²BACON. as.²IRVING To empty here. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. thus. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.² .²ADDISON. or to the idea. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. was passed by with indulgence.²EMERSON. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²BULWER. Society. It is a pity that he has so much learning.Time is behind them and before them. 91.²D. Your mere puny stripling." (3) As a grammatical subject. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. as. The word you. which follows the verb. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. you sneeze. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.²CARLYLE. in this century.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. has not made its progress.²DE QUINCEY. like Chinese skill. (3) In apposition.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.

² Now I lay me down to sleep. yourselves. For when it dawned. (ourself). A sturdy lad . and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.It is finger-cold. peddles it. And when I awoke. It was late and after midnight. however.²HOLMES.²DE QUINCEY. Poor Christian was hard put to it. but seldom in prose. who teams it. keeps a school. There was nothing for it but to return.²ANON. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. since firstThe flight of years began. For example. I set me down and sigh. we use such expressions as. used in poetry. herself. -selves. ourselves. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively..²BUNYAN."²IRVING. 94. farms it." and there is an end of it.²EMERSON. Of the two forms in parentheses. "I found me a good book. when they are direct objects.²ID. 93.²COLERIDGE. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. itself. and its plural selves. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.²SCOTT. have laid them downIn their last sleep. who in turn tries all the professions. it rained. (thyself). yourself. himself. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.. as they are also called. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. And millions in those solitudes." etc. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²BRYANT. themselves. This occurs in poetry." "He bought him a horse. .²IRVING. that is. I made up my mind to foot it. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²HAWTHORNE. the second is the old form of the second person.²THOREAU. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia.²BURNS. they dropped their arms. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. They are myself. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. as. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.

Held dead within them till myself shall die. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. to us.² TENNYSON. BROWNING. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. with self. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. NOTE.²MILTON.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.. after the analogy of myself.. 95.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.² .As girls were once. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. etc. thyself. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. as.²SHAKESPEARE. especially in the speech of rulers. As if it were thyself that's here. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. In Middle English the forms meself.²E. to every one. and build the lofty rhyme. and the others were formed by analogy with these.To you yourself. B. were changed into the possessive myself. Threats to all. not the possessive forms. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. ourselves. as in vulgar English. as.²ID.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. for example. Origin of these reflexives. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. as we ourself have been. for example. I shrink with pain.²EMERSON. The question might arise. shall dissolve. Use of the reflexives. 96. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.² The great globe itself . theself.²WORDSWORTH.

For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). One obsolete. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. where the word is one with that it tells of. And it grew wondrous cold. 5. 4. and how to do it. 7. 8. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. feminine. some each of masculine. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Courage. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. 97. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.²B. Come and trip it as we go. FRANKLIN. 3. father. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. . Biscuit is about the best thing I know. To know what is best to do. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Three now in use. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. some of them being double possessives. but it is the soonest spoiled. which. and neuter. Years ago.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. Infancy conforms to nobody. let him lowly confess it. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. all conform to it. fight it out. 6.² THACKERAY. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. 9. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. is wisdom.On the light fantastic toe.²DE QUINCEY. 10. 2. and what.

Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. with its possessive and objective. referring to things.Promised. Use of which. Use of who and its forms. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. used formerly to mean which of two. the gold. Whose was that gentle voice. What wouldst thou do. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Which of you.There is an old word. These show that what is not inflected for case. which is not inflected for gender.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. that is. whether. it is always third person. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. as it always asks about somebody. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. that. whispering sweet. Use of what. methought. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. but now obsolete. ideas. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. it is selective. shall we say. The use of who. but for case alone. it refers to either persons or things. having three forms. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. 98.. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. number. 100. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. As shown here. 99. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. actions. not to persons. etc. or case. . that it is always singular and neuter. that it is not inflected for gender or number. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Further treatment of who. The antecedent. who? Poss. pronoun. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. in Sec." Or. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. It usually precedes the pronoun. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. which. or other word or expression. 105. and so to make smoother discourse. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. 102. Who. and what are also relative pronouns. SINGULAR Nom. for which the pronoun stands." In the latter sentence. objective in the last. whose? Obj. which is called the antecedent of the relative.101. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. as. 127). 104. For instance. which and what. and also in having a conjunctive use. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case.² .²by the use of the words. what may be an adverb in some expressions. 99. nominative in the second also. who is used as objective instead of whom.Who sung of Border chivalry. since it is subject of the verb had. Function of the relative pronoun. 103. AND PLUR. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. being the direct object of the verb shall take.² "The last of all the Bards was he. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. subject of doth love. Thus we may say. These bards sang of Border chivalry. which is nominative in the first sentence. "The last of all the Bards was he. AND PLUR. it may be shortened into. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. as they take the place usually of a word already used. which and what are sometimes adjectives. as. SING. who evidently refers to Bards.

Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. They had not their own luster. 106. WHITNEY.²W.. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. When the word relative is used..Whose flag has braved. but the look which is not of the earth. Who and its forms.²SCOTT. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. are the men and women who bless their species. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.That guard our native seas.²THACKERAY. . For her enchanting son. Generally speaking. 4.. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Indefinite relatives. Two kinds.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. a thousand years. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. 108. 5. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. D. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 4. The men whom men respect. 2.²LOWELL In this. that. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. The origin of language is divine. 3. 2. will be discussed further on. the women whom women approve. in the same sense in which man's nature.² COX. The nurse came to us. 6. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. 3. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.Whom universal nature did lament. what. which.²BYRON. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. is a divine creation. a simple relative is meant. Ye mariners of England. with all its capabilities . 107.²DR JOHNSON.²PARTON Which and its forms.²MILTON.

. 107. 109. The Tree Igdrasil. else this description will seem exaggerated.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully...²H. 111.5.²BURKE.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. For what he sought below is passed above. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²EMERSON.. you will not be angry with me for telling you. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.²LAMB 3.. That.²MARGARET FULLER. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. bought up all the pigs that could be had. The judge . Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.²GOLDSMITH.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Who. Examples of the relative that:² 1. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.. Reader. Already done is all that he would do. 6. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²IRVING. ought to be kept in view.Is fit for treasons. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . and test every remark in the following paragraphs. and spoils. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. 2.. BEECHER 5. (a) This gradation . (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²DE QUINCEY. W. 3. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. The man that hath no music in himself. 110. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. What. stratagems. no bad type of what often happens in that country. which it certainly is not. 4.

My horse. 96). whose.²LEIGH HUNT. referring to animals. It has been seen (Sec. in the third. and 3.who. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. whom. who is first person. Sec. JOHNSON. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. whose is second person. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.. The robins.²IRVING. flung its arms around my neck. Examples of whose. 5. 113. Who referring to animals. the others are all third person. The little gorilla.whose. (3) It is nearly always third person. Scott. warm little housekeeper [the cricket].have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.²who. things. Smollett. Cooper. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.. whom.²THACKERAY.. Kingsley.. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. The sentences in Sec. a man. p. .. whose wound I had dressed. not persons. who.²LOWELL. and 6. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number.²which for the nominative and objective. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. or ideas. (2) It has three case forms. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. In 1. they are plural. Which. In sentence 4.. 107. son. Gibbon. (4) It has two case forms. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. possessive case of which. in 5.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. in the first sentence. and so on. Witness the following examples:² And you. in 4.²SWIFT. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. 2. seemed as much excited as myself. that man. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. in the second. the relatives are singular. and others.²DR. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whose for the possessive. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. 112.

Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. So in Matthew Arnold. 115. and numerous others.² MCMASTER. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. In the sentences of Sec. This often occurs. . which is very notable and curious.²DE QUINCEY. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain.²SCOTT. (2) It has only one case form."²RUSKIN. and third persons. the antecedent follows which. thus. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Men may be ready to fight to the death. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. which is worse. let us enter the church itself. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.²first. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. second. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.114. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. (3) It is the same form for first. no possessive. Burke. animals. Kingsley. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²THACKERAY. Primarily. Sometimes. Which and its antecedents. This moribund '61. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. too. The last two sentences in Sec. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. secondly (which made her stare). 109. That. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.²SHAKESPEARE. and things. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. 116.² I swept the horizon.²RUSKIN. and to persecute without pity. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.² And. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example.²BEECHER.

as. The sentences of Sec." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. who Poss. that men must needs abide. third person. Sec. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. . as in sentence 6. it usually follows. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES.²EMERSON. that do I. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. that do I not. The gender. What a man does. Nom. we can. but this is not sanctioned as good usage." (3) "These people heard him." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. consequently is neuter. number. what we said?²CARLYLE. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. by taking them out. is always neuter." That evidently refers to truths. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. for example. third person. Who plainly stands for those or the people. whose Obj. For example. either of which would be neuter. which.² What I would. and person of the relatives who. 109. but what I hate. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. 118. plural number.²SHAKESPEARE.²BIBLE What fates impose. When expressed. What. and is emphatic. that he has. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. plural number. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 119. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. 117. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths.

it is object of uttered.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. in (3). then parse the relatives. Another way. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. Now. but of this. 120. but is singular. in (1). . is what we call nature. What can't be cured. The whole expression is its subject. above. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody."²EMERSON. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 4. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. the highest result of all education. etc. subject of heard. I think they are trying to outwit nature. and hence is in the nominative case. In (2). Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." Here the subject of is. 6. 5. because it has usually no antecedent. which is. in the following sentences:² 1. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. is subject of the verb can't be cured. 7. 3. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. standing for the people understood. neuter. The relative what is handled differently. In the same way who. is in the nominative case." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. "What can't be cured must be endured. In the sentence. so is in the objective case. Exercise.. First find the antecedents. What must be endured? Answer. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Some prefer another method of treatment. Parsing what. it is subject of the verb heard. Truths in sentence (2). people is the object of the preposition of. The word what. As shown by the following sentences. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 8. third person. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. we is the subject. the simple relative. is subject of wrought upon and molded. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. nobler souls with that which they are. and what is the direct object of the verb call. however. after all. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2.

whichsoever. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 122. and in 2. Do what we can.²BURKE.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. Take which you please. It is no proof of a man's understanding. whatsoever. It is clear that in 1. The simple relatives who. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. no particular thing. 2. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. 5. 123. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous.²MACAULAY. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. or what else soever. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. being referred to. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. 6. They are whoever. and his friend a fool. 4. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Hence some take what as a double relative. that is. 121. Only itself can inspire whom it will. object of with] which [singular. in a new and original way. to everything that. whosoever." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. and parse that in the first clause. summer will have its flies. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. whatever is equivalent to all things which. whatever. 3. which. object of do] they do. or stand on their head. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and which in the second clause. Meaning and use. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. by meaning and use. not as direct as the simple relatives. less common are whoso. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 7. . "common souls pay with that [singular.²BURKE. So with the other indefinites. whichever. no certain antecedent. 2. List and examples. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Death is there associated. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities.²you cannot have both. whatsoever.

² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. 121.As shown in Sec. but which only wealth could have purchased.. whereupon.² some particular thing. 4. etc. by which. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. the conjunctions wherein. Other substitutes. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. 120. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. 126. 121. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. There is nothing but is related to us. etc. Two words. thus. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. and that as after such is equivalent to which.²DE QUINCEY. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. for example. 417). In early modern English. as was used just as we use that or which.²HAWTHORNE. upon which. nothing that does not interest us. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. whereby. 125. But and as. for example. Former use of as. has been my heaviest affliction.²EMERSON. but and as. everything that (or everything which). as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. This. not following the word such. either one that.² 1. are used.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. Proof that they have the force of relatives.. Sec. 124.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. Instead of the phrases in which. . what means anything that. 2. but mean any one whom.

it is an interrogative. a question is disguised in each sentence. if not. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun.. 2 (b). there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. 1 (b). and whether what = that + which (if so. showing that who is plainly interrogative. But in 1 (b). How to decide. if expanded. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. . who having the antecedent gentleman. and 3 (b). if not. Another caution. Thus. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. (b) Well we knew who stood behind." etc. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does." Likewise with which in 3 (b). no antecedent is expressed.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. which having the antecedent lines. the full expression being. it is an indefinite relative). what is interrogative.²EMERSON. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. which would indicate that they are not relatives. In sentences 1 (a). second. it is a simple relative. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. "Who stood behind? We knew. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. 127. though the earthwork hid them. "But what had become of them? They knew not. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. Special caution needed here. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen.²WHITTIER.²ID. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 2. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. would be. So in 2 (b). In studying such sentences. 3.

129. and asks no question. I visited many other apartments. whose has the antecedent you. 4. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. On the other hand. . The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Thus. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. When Goldsmith died. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. Relative omitted when object. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 2.²HOLMES.128. In the second. but the life of man in England. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.² These are the sounds we feed upon. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. which has the antecedent hue. ELIOT. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. Put in the relatives who.²GOLDSMITH. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. Examine the following:² 1. the question is asked by the verb.²SWIFT. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. and Court Calendars.²FORSTER 6. The insect I am now describing lived three years. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. In the first. Exercise. whence is the interrogative word.²FLETCHER. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.² THACKERAY.²G.²CARLYLE. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 5. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. In the third. which. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. 3.

²CAMPBELL. which.7. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.Ne'er looks upon the sun. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. 130. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.²SHAKESPEARE. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. Function of adjective pronouns.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. who were to be rulers over whom. 3. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. which was already proceeding. It is rare in prose. Also in literary English we find the same omission.²SCOTT. 2. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. There was such a crowd went. or indefinite relatives:² 1. The nobles looked at each other. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. the house was full. 5.²Id. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.² LOWELL. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. and comparatively so in poetry. Examples are. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 6. simple relatives.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. Relative omitted when subject. and what. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. . He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. that. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns.

but have lost their adjective use. 133.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. in the first. and stand for a noun. which we have seen in such expressions as. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. and on each is written. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. in order to be an adjective pronoun. or may be the whole of a sentence.²EMERSON. many. or use." in the second. the former. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. expressed or understood. or an argument in a paragraph." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. any. or they may stand for nouns. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. "each cube.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. not pronouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. such as each. 132. must not modify any word. a word. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. etc. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. Primarily they are adjectives. etc. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. necessarily thought of: thus. 'Truth. Adjectives. as some. few. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. In the first use they are adjectives. "The dead are there.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. and another to get cool under. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS.²BRYANT. etc. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. Caution. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. all. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. . "another bank. in letters of gold. none. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. either. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. For example.131. For instance. "these pranks." that is. but in this function." in the others. neither." Classes of adjective pronouns." "Where two men ride on a horse. in the second they retain an adjective meaning." "one man.²IRVING. such as this. that.

Exercises. Compound. 2. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Such are a few isolated instances.²ID. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. NOTE.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. . because he was not lying in wait for these. and they have well performed the other. 134. they that plow iniquity. but what he fain had seen He could not see. They have not shunned the one. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. A man inspires affection and honor.² They stood. or reclined.All these he saw. or sat. Their minds accorded into one strain. as seemed good to each.²LOWELL.²ID. 5. Simple. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. accidentally preserved.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. 3. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Some of these are simple pronouns. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. when the latter was the King of Spain.²EMERSON 4. for example. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. and sow wickedness. They had fewer books. reap the same. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. Definition and examples. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. but these were of the best. Even as I have seen. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.

The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. or melt for others' woe. Much might be said on both sides. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. None shall rule but the humble. They led one another. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. as most were. as it were. such as one other. The Soldan.²KINGSLEY.² One reflexive. imbued. we might the more easily discharge them. Some inflected. Men take each other's measure when they react. with the superstitions of his time. one another.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. Another opposes him with sound argument. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. Definition and examples. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.²HOLMES.Two are compound pronouns. ²HAWTHORNE.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²each other. as some of the rangers had gone astray. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. another. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. 135. . as. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. you quickly come to the end of all. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. paused over a horoscope. for example. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The word one has a reflexive form.

anything. they are never used as adjectives. . in building of chaises. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. some one. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. and somewhat. any one (or anyone).²SHAKESPEARE. Now. unlike adjective pronouns. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. nothing. everything. Jove laughs. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. somebody else. anybody. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. anybody else's. nobody. what. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. something. everybody else. I tell you what. as shown in the words everybody's. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. every one (or everyone). no one..² At lovers' perjuries. Exercise. also aught. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. anyone else.Exercise. everybody. every one else. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. naught. Definition and examples.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns." It means something. Every one else stood still at his post. as. They indefinite means people in general. 137. but. etc. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. and they. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. they say. 136. and was indefinite in Old English. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. etc. Somebody. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy.There is always somewhere a weakest spot.

But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. A reminder. 18. I first found myself among the mountains. Whoever deals with M. 9. were suffered to depart. 6. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. The table was good. 4. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. and of no other. 14. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. . round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 13. 5. from my earliest days. Exercise. 17. 8.²a feature of natural scenery for which. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. Our readers probably remember what Mrs.See also "Syntax" (Sec. indeed. to which. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 11. 10. 2. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 7. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. in his negotiations. Others did the same thing. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 138. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 12. 16. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. O thou that rollest above. Hutchinson tells us of herself. All was now ready for action. For this did God send her a great reward. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 3. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted.

I who alone am. behold now the semblance of my being.19.Destroyer and preserver. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. oh. well-oiled dispositions. 27.And it would work 'em woe. 29. He sate him down. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 23. And I had done a hellish thing.Who knew thee too well. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. variety. Whatever he knows and thinks. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. They know not I knew thee. eat white bread or brown. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 31. hear! 33. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 30. hear. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 35. 21. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 26. 34. that let him communicate. who take the world easy. 32.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. and seized a pen. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. and tracedWords which I could not guess of.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. thou rollest now. in all its height. 25. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. And will your mother pity me.

white or red. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. that is our permanent state. 41. and if we are near. . For example. 37. Who hears me. 39. As to the kind of words used. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. who understands me. 42. the number is limited by adjectives. If a chemist discovers a new substance." The office of an adjective. or liquid. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 44." etc. in pointing out an object. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. Substantives. and he learns who receives. brittle or tough. becomes mine. position. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. or gaseous. 139. So with any object. ADJECTIVES." "yonder hill. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." "some cities. adjectives are used. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. which was no bad step towards my liberation. etc. Again.36. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. as. 45. etc." "that house. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. He teaches who gives. We are by nature observers. We need to add some words to tell its color. He knew not what to do. such as in the expressions "this man. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. size. 43. 40. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. 38. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. and so he read. then.. It may have this office alone. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. so that no other will be mistaken for it. or with persons. Office of Adjectives. if we are at a distance. heavy or light." "a hundred men. "one hat.

the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. With exception of the "and then." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. remotest." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." they constitute all his connections. They include relative and interrogative words. Nouns are not." "unlooked-for burden." "ice-cold water. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. however. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives.² BACON. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. beautiful. 141. Classes of adjectives. rash. such as safe. (2) Adjectives of quantity. "Heaven-derived power. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. To make this clear. "an old English manuscript." "next-door neighbor. Infinitives." "the Roman writer Palladius. derived from proper nouns. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." ." the "and there. or how much of a thing. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them.²POPE. fair. Definition. it shows that he weighs men's minds. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "half-dead traveler. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. (4) Pronominal adjectives. Examples are.140. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. to describe it or to limit its application. to forgive. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. words primarily pronouns. divine.²COLERIDGE." "the Christian pearl of charity. and their trash. such as. happy. If he be thankful for small benefits." and the still less significant "and so. etc." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. terrible." "this life-giving book. 143. pointing out particular things. deep. To err is human. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "ivory-handled pistols. 142.

But ever she looked on Mr. Oxenham. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. 2. much. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. and another is drunken. 145." Caution. 143.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. 1. some." was is the verb. in studying these last-named words. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. 'Tis midnight. having some of each subclass named in Sec." "One is hungry. any. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. Examples are. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. but small thoughts have I of sleep. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. no.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "trailing clouds. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "The shattered squares have opened into line. 144. in this.²MACDONALD.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. which are either pure participles used to describe." "an aged man. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. For instance: in the sentence. considerable." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." was accomplished is a verb." "a charming sight. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." "It came on like the rolling simoom. and accomplished is an adjective. Exercises. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction.²COLERIDGE. Care is needed. sometimes small. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. .

The demonstrative adjectives are this. that. Examples.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. those). as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "In came some five and twenty more." "He had lived by hunting for some months. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. yonder (or yon)." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. When some." (b) Indefinite numerals. instead of modifying them. its wake. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. former. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. the former²the latter. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Not primarily pronouns.²THACKERAY. and with them a few negroes. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. The following sentences present some examples:² ." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. (plural these. Thus.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.²ID.² Every town had its fair. no. An arrow was quivering in each body. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. are used with plural nouns.²VAUGHAN. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. any. How many. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. as. but I have gained fourscore. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." "Then we wandered for many days. Exercise. 146. every village.²CARLYLE." "I have lost one brother." "a dozen volunteers." Single ones of any number of changes. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. latter. they come under the next division of adjectives. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives.²KINGSLEY. The list. "one blaze of musketry.

147. they are changed to adjectives.²RUSKIN. for example. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²BANCROFT. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.² It matters not what rank he has. 149. Exercise. As has been said. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.²BULWER. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century..but all these charms are fled."²B. In which evil strait Mr. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. Oxenham fought desperately. Definition. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. of equal skill. skill which was progressive²in the other.²KINGSLEY.²ID. Modify names of persons or things. . FRANKLIN. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.²D. ²CARLYLE. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. Indefinite relative adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. skill which was at pause. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. like the other numerals. tell how many things are meant. They are of two kinds.²WORDSWORTH. but in the one case..²GOLDSMITH. but. what revenues or garnitures. The silver and laughing Xenil. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. The taking of which bark. I verily believe. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. 148. These do not.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. WEBSTER. These were thy charms.²ID. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.

whichever. Examples of their use are. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. In direct questions. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. Adjective what in exclamations. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. whichsoever way I move. . At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.. what inquires about things or persons not known.150. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. and new tormentedAround me.²LAMB.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. whichsoever.²IRVING. whatsoever. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. as it rather seemed. Was there. New torments I behold. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.And whichsoever way I turn. In indirect questions. you at least give him full authority over your son.²AGASSIZ. nature will be sure to bear us out in.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.²RUSKIN.²ID. 151. which is selective among what is known. whatever. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. As in the pronouns. and gaze. Whatsoever kind of man he is. or whether any.. A lady once remarked. the debt to the rich. proved not altogether displeasing to him. But when the Trojan war comes. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. He was turned before long into all the universe.² EMERSON. which.²CARLYLE. it is impossible to determine. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.

When we place two objects side by side. Exercise. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. as. alas.²but not the same degree. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. gold is heavier than iron.152. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. It is neither relative nor interrogative. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. The article that was used with neuter nouns. or size.²number and comparison. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness.² Oh. 153 . . but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. the making of it right. th s (modern those). History of this²these and that²those. we do so by means of their qualities. That. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. and those as the plural of that. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. NUMBER. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. etc. Those borrowed from this.²This. color. This is the old demonstrative. or amount. of the quality. we notice some differences between them as to size. All these have certain qualities.Adjectives have two inflections. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. etc. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. In exclamatory expressions. those).. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. And yet. 155. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. Thus. Meaning of comparison. which was fully inflected in Old English. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. or weight.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. But this had also another plural. and when we compare the objects. 154. weight. COMPARISON.

"more matter.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. giant-like.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. Definition. supreme. as. 159." "the commonest speech. . infinite. reddest. "untamed thought. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. These are properly the only degrees. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. red." "no fewer than a hundred. So with the words sole. they are not compared. but were not common until a century later. indomitable. A main difference betwixt men is. blue. as. easiest. These are called degrees of comparison. or amounts in quantity. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. 158. 157." "It is a nobler valor. expressing the greatest degree of quality. for example." "the largest soul. sufficient. easier.²THACKERAY. and many others. but. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison.²SEWARD. 160. immemorial. enormous. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. The two forms. though the simple. whether they attend their own affair or not. indefatigable. and the superlative by adding -est. easy. bluer. to the simple form. and the superlative. organic. The comparative is formed by adding -er. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 156. redder.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. whose favorite pupil he was. Substitute for inflection in comparison. bluest. Freedom is a perpetual. with less wit. expressing a greater degree of quality." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. universal institution." Words that cannot be compared. great. strictly considered.

Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning.²ID. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables.Which rule. The general rule is." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. admirablest. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. was most finished. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words." said Henry Esmond. who. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by." "more austere and holy. though born in no very high degree. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." Carlyle uses beautifulest. honestest. finest chiseling. strange. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. and patientest fusing. quiet. and yet familiar. and other words are preceded by more and most. Adjectives irregularly compared. most small. The following lists include the majority of them:² ." "more odd. witty. which hung behind in the queerest way." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. there needed to be a most genuine substance. as. peaceablest.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain.² CARLYLE A gentleman. "So help me God. mournfulest. I will.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck." "distantest relationships. harsh forms are usually avoided." "the wonderfulest little shoes.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.²ID. polished. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. easy. These long. indisputablest." "sorrowfulest spectacles. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. falling on his knees. 163. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. etc. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. These are adjectives irregularly compared. madam. 162. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative.²The Nation.

a double comparative. as in Shakespeare. 164. These have no adjective positive:² 1. lesser. utter 3. 4. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). worst. which has gone out of use. uttermost Upmost. least. 8. 1. The superlative I form was betst. A double comparative. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. innermost Outmost. next Nearest Latest. There was an old comparative bet. as. uppermost LIST III. latter Hinder LIST II. is often used. 6. [In] Inner Inmost. oldest Nighest. List I. outermost Utmost. (2) In Old English. older Nigher Nearer Later. [Out] Outer. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 9.² O. furthest 10. which has softened to the modern best. Worser was once used. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.²HAMLET. lesser Elder. bad. 7. Hind 2.²MATTHEW ARNOLD.LIST I. hindermost Much or many More Farther. further Farthest. last Hindmost. 3.² We have it in a much lesser degree. though from a different root. (3) Little is used as positive to less. as in the sentence (14th century). . [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 5. throw away the worser part of it. 2. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. Good or well Evil. evil was the positive to worse.

(10) Hinder is comparative in form. as long. is quite common. etc. first. or series. making the modern farther. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. there is scarcely any distinction.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it.² The more part being of one mind. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. but not in meaning. farrest. The meanings greater. eldest. much. and the superlative nearest. next. furthest. List II. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force." Its spelling has been micel. . and on it were built a double comparative nearer. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. meaning the largest part. to which is added -ost. muchel. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. a distinction has grown up between the two series. near. an old superlative ending. instead of lenger. but originally the comparison was nigh. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. great. Since later. oldest. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. the parallel form mickle being rarely used.²forth. latter and last are used in speaking of succession.²HAWTHORNE. ²LAMB. "Many a little makes a mickle.. The latter. since the m is for -ma. are earlier than older. the old forms. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative.²KINGSLEY. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. moche. farthest. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. doubling the inflection. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. are shown in such phrases as. (5) The forms elder. greatest. as. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. The most part kept a stolid indifference. strenger. etc. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. except the form next. and refer to time. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. to England we sailed. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. th came into the others. Between the two sets as they now stand.²ID. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further.. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. strong. for example. further. First became entirely detached from the series. latest. came into use. In imitation of further.

²KINGSLEY.165." "their utmost exertion. The adjectives in List III. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. all may belong to the same noun." "the innermost moral soul. but they have no adjective positives. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. Highest and midmost. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. BEECHER. In List II. in having no adjective positives. . (Sec. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink." "far-seeing as the sun. are like the comparative forms in List II. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. 166. Her bows were deep in the water. There." -Most added to other words. List III. the upper light of the world." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. by the by. Her.²SCOTT. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Think what each adjective belongs to. on the very topmost twig.²EMERSON. but not in their meaning. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence.²DE QUINCEY. and have no comparative force. being merely descriptive. They have no superlatives. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN.²H." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The comparatives are so in form.²DE QUINCEY. or have no comparative forms. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. 168. Decidedly handsome. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. but her after deck was still dry. W." "The outer is of the day. or each may modify a different word or group of words.²HAWTHORNE. 167. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove.

²HAWTHORNE. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. 6.²HAWTHORNE. now our queen.² My then favorite. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. in prose. instead of saying. usual modifies incomparable decision. 2. STOWE. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. round. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. the then and still owners.²RUSKIN. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. "the one who was then king. as. 169. . adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.For example.²HOLMES. H. solid. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. The seldom use of it. and moral truth. A few improper jests and a volley of good. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²TRENCH. But in this sentence.²A. therefore. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID." making then an adjective. not decision alone. we may say "the then king. and heaven-defying oaths. In the following quotations. in this sentence. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1.²NOAH PORTER. ²TROLLOPE." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. deeply black eyes. Bradbury and Evans. and broken. 7. Richard Hooker.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. bright." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 3. STEPHENS 5. For thy stomach's sake. philosophical. May we not. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES." in which then is an adverb. deep. rich.²BIBLE. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank.²MRS. our new government. It may still be argued. Exercise. This. satisfactory. By a convenient brevity. and thine often infirmities. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. Other instances are. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. 4. Our sometime sister.

modifies truths. person. Since adjectives have no gender. across the plain. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. and most astounding were those frightful yells. MODEL FOR PARSING. In parsing an adjective. and I waited for none. Exercise. and very few have number. 10. She made no reply. I ask nothing of you. then. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. the method of parsing is simple. This gave the young people entire freedom. having a singular. 6. frank. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 2. 8. this. therefore descriptive. if it has number. or case. 4. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. 3. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. To every several man. Unfamiliar describes truths. 170. therefore demonstrative. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. (3) Its degree of comparison. not inflected for number. (4) What word or words it modifies. plural number. These points out what truths.What to tell in parsing. manly way. seventy-five drachmas. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. with awkward but rapid pace. if it can be compared. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. . tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. (2) Its number. To every Roman citizen he gives. 5. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. compared by prefixing more and most. positive degree. modifies the word truths. 7. 9. cannot be compared. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza.

What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. I know not what course others may take. With every third step. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 24. it is so noble a fruit. he won affections with ease. 33. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 12. 13. 25. growing in the most unfavorable position. 26. 29. Two hours elapsed. 18. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 21. 23. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 20.11. Their name was the last word upon his lips. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. yonder oxen in the pasture. are immutably fishes. 31. 28. 22. during which time I waited. 27. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. is the settlement of our own country. not so much for travelers that were few. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. it rests on reality. and many poles supported the lower ones. 16. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. Here lay two great roads. In music especially. . the tomahawk fell. the same love to France would have been nurtured. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. and dogs. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. and therefore more interesting to us. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. To say what good of fashion we can. as for armies that were too many by half. oxen. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 32. Nearer to our own times. suggests such thoughts as these. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 19. those dogs in the yard. Like most gifted men. 14.

were formerly that one. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. th o. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. s o. In Middle English the became an article. ðat. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . or the tane." "an orange." "a yelling crowd. An before vowel sounds. he is no literary man. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. the tither. An or a came from the old numeral n. 172. 173. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. Their origin. that) which was also an article in Old English. even when not silent.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. that other. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized." An with consonant sounds. in vulgar English. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. .²BREWER. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. In the sentence. later th . meaning one." "a European. weary-hearted man was he. for example. An historian. a before consonant sounds. the tother. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. Two relics. ARTICLES. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. the latter is still preserved in the expression. Our expressions the one." the words the and an belong to nouns. A hard-struggling. just as adjectives do. these occurring as the tane.²MACAULAY. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. 171." "an honor. Many writers use an before h. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. 174.34. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. 35. the other. Examples: "a house. the tother. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words.²SCOTT. but the former is used. 37. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. sometimes the tother. with an ordinary little garden. and a before consonant sounds. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. such as we have been attempting to describe.

and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. and when the word river is omitted.² Don't you remember how.² .²THOMAS JEFFERSON. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. 177. since it points out a particular individual. Articles are either definite or indefinite.²THACKERAY. or a group or class of things.. BANCROFT." "the Ohio. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. An article is a limiting word.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. An or a is the indefinite article. The Dakota tribes. is referred to. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.²G. With names of rivers. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. 175. 178." the article indicates clearly that a river. and not a state or other geographical division. Definition. on opening a story. doubtless. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.²HEROES OF ASGARD. NOTE. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. not descriptive.²This use is noticed when. 176. To call attention to attributes. or any individual of a group or class. An and a are different forms of the same word. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. a person is introduced by a. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. When the is prefixed to a proper name. The is the definite article. as "the Mississippi. Kinds. or class.. as in the sentence. thus. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. which cannot be used alone..²COLERIDGE. or group. An hereditary tenure of these offices. Reference to a known object.²IRVING. 179. the older n.

Kant. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. With plural of abstract nouns. Schelling. Common. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. His messages to the provincial authorities. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²ID. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.²G. not into a particular virtue. for example. One thing for its class. 183. Half abstract. would speedily extract the required information.²KINGSLEY. but into the region of all the virtues. . the gallant. the Spinoza. The.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. 182. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 2. as.²EMERSON. The simple rise as by specific levity.²MOTLEY. Caution. With adjectives used as nouns.²SCOTT. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²EMERSON. 1. BANCROFT. If the good is there. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. laid it on the miry spot. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. her. For possessive person pronouns. NOTE.²GIBBON.² As she hesitated to pass on. and the redwing.² The faint.²ID. or a match put between the fingers. etc. the song sparrow. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. the Hume.The Bacon. 181. so is the evil. 180. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

202. an adverb. in this sentence from Bulwer. "Put money in thy purse. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. and a preposition unite as a verb. or a material thing. and. for example. Each influences some object." put is the predicate. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. the most penetrating. taking the staff which always guided her steps. (can) shame also has an object. care. The nature of the transitive verb. Hence Definition. In the first. Now. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. as. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. a preposition. or the object. representing something which it influences or controls. c). an article.²BULWER . All these are called transitive verbs. lone took what? answer. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (b). 200: In (1). All do not express action: some denote state or condition." Examine the sentences in Sec. in (2. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. but fearing is not a predicate. a verb. which means to go over. and shame the most astute. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. but cannot be predicates.In (a). are united with verbs as one verb phrase. in (2. with some word understood. b). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. 204. which may be a person. all do not express it in the same way. endured what? anguish. "Put thou money in thy purse. we consider a verb as one word. the most astute. Has takes the object hypocrisy. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. In each case. a). etc. b)."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. and not a verb. Of those expressing action. 203. in (3. or an idea. hence is not a verb. By examining a few verbs. can deceive has an object. a noun. Definition and caution. In giving a definition. in (3.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. 201. In the sentence. to go is no predicate. from the Latin transire. to say something to or about some person or thing. the word following. and to receive the action expressed. in (c). Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. The nature of intransitive verbs. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. obeyed is a predicate.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

in our case. Again. 215. Unreal²cannot be true. for example. the first great founder of the Empire. Ideal. 221. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. popular government must be pronounced impossible. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. the second founder. Most excellent stranger. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.²MACAULAY. the writer can make the statement following. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.² Now. or be fulfilled. WEBSTER. as. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. he will see the need of these ethics. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. and may or may not be regarded true.²D. but. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.²BRYCE. .² If. I. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.²FRANKLIN. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. ²EMERSON. they were recorded in the Book of Life.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.²SHELLEY.I could lie down like a tired child.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. 222.²LONGFELLOW. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. Condition or Supposition. If this be the glory of Julius. as. 2). the representative system ultimately fail.²may or may not be true.

melodious. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. 8. clear. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. she was regarded as a prodigy. do you think. and what kind of condition:² 1. that we cannot but regret its absence. society could not hold together. the clause being introduced by that or lest. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. would have sat still with joy and peace.²FRANKLIN. 5. II. since he [Byron] was dead. 6. but when the verb precedes the subject.²CALHOUN. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. unless. and sonorous. might.²EMERSON. and should.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. thus. which cannot be true. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. as. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. .²MACAULAY. he had better not have written. The subjunctive. In the following conditional clauses.² If these things were true. WILLIS.²SWIFT. NOTE.²BAYNE.. But in no case could it be justified.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. If he had reason to dislike him. Epaminondas.²N. ²LOWELL. though...² It was necessary. The voice. if he speak to you. Subjunctive of Purpose. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. may. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. that he might be strong to labor. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. 7. if his lot had been mine. P. 3.² CARLYLE.²FRANKLIN. if he was the man I take him for. Exercise. is used to express purpose. I told him. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. would you. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. 4. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. especially be. 223. etc. is of similar physiognomy. he supposed. to drink strong beer.. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. and striven energetically to save Ney." etc. except. 2. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding.

In Indirect Questions. V. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²ID. like the quarry-slave at night. To tell of what had passed.. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. none of us could say. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.²MOORE.²DE QUINCEY. like the Latin.²BRYANT. within its fairy bowers.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. Let it rise. .²D.²SOUTHEY. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.Thou go not.That vain it were her eyes to close.. 224. In a Noun Clause. 226. WEBSTER.And we. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.I have been the more particular. 225... the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. I would it were! ²EMERSON. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Ask the great man if there be none greater. III. The English subjunctive. 227. Rise up. In Temporal Clauses. After a verb of wishing. Expressing a Wish. Subjunctive of Result. So live. IV. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. I've wished that little isle had wings. VII. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. the answer being regarded as doubtful. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²COLERIDGE. till it meet the sun in his coming. VI. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.²WORDSWORTH. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE.Were wafted off to seas unknown.

²WORDSWORTH. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. Object. I have no thought what men they be.² Be the matter how it may. is. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²TENNYSON.²DE QUINCEY. in its various uses as subject. which may be (a) Pronoun.²SCOTT. Complement. that everything be in its place. 229. Some might lament that I were cold. we'll turn aside. or whatsoever victual it may be.²SHELLEY. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. Whatever betide.²COLERIDGE. tell me all that thou hast seen. After verbs of commanding.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. is the ultimate fact of man's life. The noun clause. of cash. object.²THOREAU. The essence of originality is not that it be new. etc. . (b) Adjective.. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. That hunger of applause. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. often contains a subjunctive.Subject. The first merit. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. 228. VIII. for example. Come.²CARLYLE. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.And look thou tell me true. in apposition. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.² DICKENS.²COLERIDGE.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. Concessive Clauses.And see the Braes of Yarrow. See that there be no traitors in your camp.

and condition contrary to fact.² CARLYLE. Oh. fear none. 231. (1) Command. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. It must be remembered.(c) Adverb.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Honor all men. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. though. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. a concession. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. however. Usually second person. or requests. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Definition. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. 232. we had found [should have found] a poem here. ADAMS. At the present day. for example. In spoken English.The spirit he loves remains. to express a wish.²BRYANT. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. (2) Entreaty. Q. IMPERATIVE MOOD.²SHELLEY. entreaties.²CHANNING. (3) Request. point to their immortal works. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. . that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. 230. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²J. love all men.

we may use the imperative with we in a command. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Oh. "Come along with me. receive my hand. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair." whispered Kit. Whatever inconvenience ensue. nothing is to be preferred before justice. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. request. 8.²SCOTT."Hush! mother. there will her heart and her prayers be.And. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.²CAMPBELL. lest we rust in ease. 3. Part we in friendship from your land. or I + they.²SHAKESPEARE.One glance at their array! 5. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. "The Devil take the goose. child of earth!While each performs his part. etc. etc. to you implied in it. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. but I + you.And God forget the stranger!" ." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed."²DICKENS Tell me. Sometimes with first person in the plural. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart... noble earl. 6. Mark thou this difference. Break we our watch up. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. 7. Quoth she. 2." Exercises on the Moods. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.

Think not that I speak for your sakes. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15.Except." 25. ruined." 16. 19. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. and opinion displace opinion. 20. 23.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. He. my dear madam. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. or do it at all. "tell me where I may find my poor. then. will it not fall unbound. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. . 26. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 11. Though abyss open under abyss. whether he do it right or wrong. Forget thyself to marble. it would speak. That a man parade his doubt. 18. but repentant child. "Mr. no literary man. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 21.High up in silver spikes! 22. as though an instrument." continued Old Morgan. 13. she ought to have it." cried he. "Oh. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. how he may do his work. let him live where else he like. He is. 14. Though he were dumb.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. That sheaf of darts. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Marshall.That they might answer him. Well.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast.9. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. 10.

tell him to wait.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. such as be. by means of the present. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. past. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. and future.27. 234. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. have. Meantime. in the conjugations." past. the past. 28. TENSE. past. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. whatever she did. or agree with it.² present. PERSON AND NUMBER. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. five in the imperative. as. will. "Thou walkedst. or whether it were as one member of a general party. "I go away tomorrow." "If he comes. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. Tense means time. Definition. as. also. "It is not in man that walketh. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood.²nothing could exceed the amiable. kind." present. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. or future time. called auxiliaries. The tenses in detail. in the third person singular. as the classical languages have. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. such as Latin and Greek. Old English had only two tenses. five in the subjunctive. which represented present and future time. "Thou walkest. and the past tense. to direct his steps. Tenses in English. When the older pronoun thou was in use.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. past perfect. as will be shown later on. and future perfect tenses. Siddons. shall. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. and the future tense. 233. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. a form ending in -eth. 235." .²the present tense.

" and this only in the present tense indicative.²am. persons. chooses. and numbers. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. "He walks. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. walks. are. 238. The verb be has more forms. wert) 3. walking. is. walked. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. tenses. PRESENT TENSE. 237. walketh. walk has walk. were. but in English. [He] were [They] were . Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. moods. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. mood. Indicative Mood. as. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. This is the third person. I were 2. choosing. Singular 1.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. [He] is [They] are 3. been. Few forms. You are 2. 236. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. PRESENT TENSE. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. choosest. Such verbs as choose have five. for example. Definition. CONJUGATION. In classical languages. etc. chooseth. I be 2. chosen (old. Singular 1. Singular 1. chosest). since it is composed of several different roots. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. You (thou) be 3. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. Singular 1. chose. singular number.²choose. walkedst. etc. tense.

By solemn vision and bright silver dream.. is.His infancy was nurtured.²WORDSWORTH.²GOLDSMITH. (b) With the past participle in -ed. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. for example. (3) be. 240. (d) With the infinitive.²ID. (2) was.²SCOTT.²BURKE . 239. etc. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. obligation. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. Remarks on the verb be. Instead of the plural are. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. (2) As auxiliary verbs. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. to form the passive voice. The light that never was on sea and land.²SHELLEY.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. thus. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. -en.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. as. same as the German sind. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. were. condition.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. though it is usually a dialect form. in four ways. to express intention. etc. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. which was now become an occasional banquet.Imperative Mood.²THACKERAY.

PRESENT TENSE. Singular. You chose Plural. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. I chose 2. We chose You chose 3. I choose 2. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. You choose Plural. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). by placing have. 240. You choose Plural. You chose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 242. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. (2). tenses. We choose You choose PAST TENSE." (2) Present perfect. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. past perfect. Singular. Singular. I choose 2. Some of these have been indicated in Sec." "He will choose. 1. had. "I had gone" (past perfect). "I shall be.241. I chose 2. as. future perfect. Indicative Mood. 1. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. 1. 1. Singular. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] choose [They] choose 3. In addition to the above inflected forms. tenses. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. as. We chose You chose 3. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE. Machinery of a verb in the voices. . PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. etc. "I have gone" (present perfect). there are many periphrastic or compound forms.

" (4) The passive forms.) Choose. Present perfect. Subjunctive Mood. Same as indicative. Present definite. Present definite. He will have chosen. He was choosing. he have been choosing. Present perfect definite. Same as indicative. " Be choosing. ACTIVE VOICE." "You are chosen. Past perfect definite. He had been choosing. he chose (or were to choose). he have chosen. Present perfect definite. singular number. Past definite. Indicative Mood." 243. as. He will have been choosing. Future. Present definite. Past perfect. He is choosing. etc. [If. He has been choosing. He will choose.] he choose. Present. Past. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Past definite. . Future definite. Past. Future perfect definite.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present." "They had been running. Imperative Mood. will be given. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). "I am running. "I was chosen. He has chosen. He had chosen. Future perfect. Past perfect definite. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present. as. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. though. Only the third person. lest. Present perfect. " " " " " " " he be choosing. of each tense. (2d per. He chose. He chooses. He will he choosing. Past perfect.

Past Perfect. though. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Present perfect definite. Present definite. Future perfect definite. . Present. etc. Also. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Past perfect definite. lest. however. Past. He is chosen. None. Future perfect. Indicative Mood.) Be chosen. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Imperative Mood. Past perfect. PASSIVE VOICE. None. Present definite. Past definite. he had been chosen. Past definite. but verbals.²This table is not to be learned now. in affirmative sentences. if learned at all. they will be discussed later (Sec. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect.. " " " " " " " None. He will be chosen. He has been chosen.NOTE. "He does strike. Present tense. Past perfect definite. Present. He is being chosen. he have been chosen. He had been chosen. He will have been chosen." "He did strike. Exercises should be given. None. as.] he be chosen. 262). (2d per." [Note to Teacher. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. he were being chosen. He was chosen.] [If. None. He was being chosen. Future definite. Future. Past. None. None. Present perfect. Present perfect definite.

Some of these also have weak forms. 244. bounden] bitten. run. verbs are strong or weak. as. Definition. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense.[adj. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . and may or may not change the vowel: as.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. which are in parentheses Present Tense. sleep. Past Tense. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. lay. but adds no ending. According to form. laid. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. NOTE. begged. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. drive. Kinds. beg. drove. 245. ran. caught. bit blown broken chidden. catch. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. bid bound. slept. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drunken] driven eaten. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.

stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden.

The former used to be cleave. "stricken with paralysis.²IRVING." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. TAYLOR. but is much used in vulgar English. clave or clove." "a drunken wretch. for example. instead of ate and eaten. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. cleft. the other. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). cleaved.²GOLDSMITH. Historically. The form clomb is not used in prose. Our cock. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." "a sunken snag. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.²as (from Shakespeare). probably to avoid confusion with this.²one meaning to adhere or cling. especially in that of an earlier period. and. now told us it was time for repose.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. only one set remains certain. as." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. cloven. Not a cock crew. which always crew at eleven.² Thou hast clomb aloft. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. ²THACKERAY. nor a dog barked.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. and another (born) for the passive. as." "the cloven hoof." In this confusion of usage. as (from Holmes). instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated)."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. "his bounden duty. to split.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. as. When it means to carry or to endure. 246. cleave. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. cleft (to split). borne is also a passive.²TENNYSON.²MILTON.²cleave. . cleaved. and sometimes occurs in poetry.²COLERIDGE.²B. and the latter. Sometimes in literary English. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.² We had each drank three times at the well.

Fall. shore is rare. Shake. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. began. gave.²DE FOE. 6. Give.² We had all got safe on shore. 4. as. We usually say." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend.The form gotten is little used. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. even in poetry. 2. broken. found. frozen. for example. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. broke. as "a shorn lamb. and grasping at his sword. threw. Drive. This heard Geraint. 245). shaken. flung. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 3. 7. driven. Throw. maiden. 5.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.²BYRON.²BIBLE. flung. found. fell. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. He sate him down. and seized a pen. The butler was hanged.²TENNYSON. Fling. Usually shear is a weak verb. One example out of many is."²KINGSLEY. (a) From the table (Sec. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Find. Begin. 8. Break. given. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. for example. which is seldom used except in poetry.²WORDSWORTH. begun. Exercises. froze. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. 10. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs.² If. 9. shook.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. thrown. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. fallen. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.²SCOTT. drove. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. . Freeze." but not much as a participle.

but came through analogy with should and would.. They are as follows:² PRESENT. (See also Sec. PAST. 249. 223. Can is used in the indicative only. Like must. ability. of course.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A.²PAINE. for full drill on the forms. it is used only in the indicative mood.²CHANNING. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.. etc.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. Have we valuable territories and important posts. must have been an ocular deception. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive.[To the Teacher. The same remarks apply to ought. "far off his coming shines.. Subjunctive use. Ability.²HAWTHORNE. there is one general principle. as. or when it expresses wish. Indicative Use: Permission. Could may be subjunctive. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. The l in could did not belong there originally. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. "So mote it be."²WINIER.²SCOTT. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. 251. as it has two meanings. or. His superiority none might question. 250.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. PAST. HAMILTON. purpose. from the obsolete verb motan. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. etc.. which survives in the sentence.. PRESENT." Must is present or past tense. as it sometimes does. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. as in Sec. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. . according to the infinitive used.²CHANNING This. Must is historically a past-tense form. 247. 220. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. It is indicative when it expresses permission.

whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. The following are examples:² Never mind. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. shall and should are used. he said. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.²LONGFELLOW. in the form of command. or confident prediction..Nay.² The time will come full soon. She should not walk. and corn to hoe. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. she should ride like a queen. (b) In questions asking for orders. 252. with pronouns of the first person. as. I shall be gone. as. while ought always has to. WEBSTER. They shall have venison to eat. what shall I say?²N. promise. to the neglect of shall and should.²BULWER. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him." Uses of shall and should. for example. my lad.²MACAULAY.²L. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. to use will and would.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. MOULTON. "I think I will go. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. (b) In indirect quotations. . especially in the United States.² (a) To express authority.²IRVING. BROCKDEN BROWN.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. The sea shall crush thee. not plod along like apeasant. as. She rejects his suit with scorn.²COOPER. Shall and Will. yea.²THAXTER.e.² With respect to novels. C. shall and should are used.² Futurity and questions²first person. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. Second and third persons. future action). the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.

was to be expected.²SCOTT.² I will go myself now. or a promise. and is equivalent to ought.. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²WORDSWORTH. second and third persons.²H. for example.. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. for example. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²WORDSWORTH.²CABLE. time.²A. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. thus. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. with the conviction that he should win in the end. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. And promised. purpose. B. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. . If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²WINTER.that I would do him justice. BROWN. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. as.²ROGERS. LARNED. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. First.²BYRON.²C. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. I never was what I should be.. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²SWIFT.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. etc. JAMES. as the sole inventor.²WORDSWORTH. 253. Disguising a command. and will not return until all is finished. JR.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.

This puts the order more mildly.. Roland.. etc.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. would is used to express a wish. and mark on the grounds the works..²IRVING. as if it were merely expected action.² DICKENS. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. and two of my people. will and would are used to express simple futurity. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. as.²SCOTT.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. for example. so you will. PASSIVE VOICE. In this stately chair would he sit. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. Would thou hadst it not.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.² Thou wilt take the skiff. .²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. action merely expected to occur. The gift of Beauty. through storms their brothers are afraid of.²the original meaning of the word will. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.²SCOTT. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. They will go to Sunday schools.. AND THIRD PERSONS.. will and would often denote an action as customary. as. for example. B.²BURKE. for punishment or intimidation. (4) With FIRST. 254. when thou wast born. When I am in town. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.²BANCROFT. BROWN. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.. without regard to future time. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. will is used to express command. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.²War Records.² Subject I omitted: often so. Mere futurity. To be sure. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. SECOND. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. Thine was a dangerous gift.²LANDOR.

:² ACTIVE VOICE. 6. 1. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Singular. Thou shalt have a suit. 2. 4.Singular. Plural. Plural. I will choose. 1. 3. "I shall not run. . 1. [He] shall choose. yet only seem. (a) From Secs. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. You shall be chosen. You shall be chosen." answered Herbert stubbornly. To express determination. We shall choose. 3. He informed us. Plural. (b) Examine the following sentences. 2. You will choose. We will choose. promise. You will choose. PASSIVE VOICE. You shall choose. [He] will be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. [They] will choose. Singular. I shall choose. We shall be chosen. 252 and 253. 2. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 1. [They] shall be chosen. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. and justify the use of shall and will. etc. You will be chosen. Plural. 3. 5. 3. You shall choose. I shall be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 3. Thou art what I would be. 2. [He] will choose. 2. 3. and that of the newest cut. We will be chosen. Singular. You will be chosen. [They] shall choose. I will be chosen. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. [They] will be chosen. 1. 2.

stirred her slightly with his muzzle. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 255. and have no change of vowel. put. then. Irregular Weak Verbs. as if he would have more of the enchantment. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. Lucy stood still.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. put. The beast made a sluggish movement. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. my son. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. as. Of smale houndes hadde she. Past Tense. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. was -de or -te. set. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. which may be called irregular weak verbs.²Class I. bereaved besought . bereave besought Past Participle. 9. Without having attended to this. 11. "I am a wayfarer. need some attention and explanation. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.²CHAUCER. WEAK VERBS. No.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. very anxious. 257. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this.²ID. 12. The old ending to verbs of Class II. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. put. or mylk and wastel breed." the stranger said. 10. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. 13. and I have nothing to say. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. bereave beseech bereft. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. bereft. set.7. 256." 14. But the rest. Present Tense. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. This ending has now dropped off.

leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made .

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Cases when to is omitted. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. [To] be chosen. like participles. have no tense. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. [To] have been chosen. they have an indefinite. [To] have been choosing. Perfect. . 267. In Sec. Indefinite. 266. try clemency. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. and a perfect definite form. INFINITIVES. To with the infinitive. will (with should and would).. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system.²the creature warring against the creating power. and when passive. to express action unconnected with a subject. Nothing of the kind having been done. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. [To] have chosen. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [To] be choosing. 268. a perfect... But later. Imperfect. 7. I returned to reflection on my situation. PASSIVE VOICE. an indefinite and a perfect form. expressing purpose. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. to was used before the infinitive generally. Indefinite. 9. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow).6. Infinitives. ACTIVE VOICE. an imperfect. 8. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. Perfect definite. as in the Old English. [To] choose. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. When active. formed a kind of bedstead. when inflections became fewer. Perfect. Three saplings. 10.

The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.(2) After the verbs may (might). Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).²HOWELLS. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. sometimes need (as. negative. While the gerund expresses action. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.²MACAULAY. must. as." etc. can (could). "I do go" etc. do (as. watch." "I shall have chosen. and emphatic forms of the present and past. "He will choose. 272." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. it has several attributes of a noun. and like a noun in use. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. also in the imperative. GERUNDS. poor woman!" cried Charles. too. under "Analysis." (4) In exclamations.²IRVING.²DE QUINCEY.²it may be governed as a noun. as the credulous imagine. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. or the object of a verb or a preposition. "She ask my pardon. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. as. and corn to hoe. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. make. liberal woman.²GOLDSMITH. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative.²COOPER. E.² What! doth she. But there was nothing to do. learn [doth learn is one verb.² She was a kind. it is often preceded by the definite article. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. "a house to let. . rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. HALE.. 271. as in the expression. also let. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. hear. as. feel." Examples are. 270. it may be the subject of a verb. They shall have venison to eat. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. 269. The gerund is like the participle in form. please.²TENNYSON. bid (command).). see.²E.

Exercise." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. 2. above. which express action and also modify. according to use as well as meaning." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. 4. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek." also (2. (5) Gerunds." "Certainly dueling is bad. II). after examining the nest. (3) Participial adjectives. which express action. which express action. when. and five gerunds. making the definite tenses. and wonderful store of learning! . they find the nurslings untouched! 3. (2) Pure participles." Exercise. but cannot govern." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. 273. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Sec. What a vast.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (4) Pure adjectives. which name an action or state. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. but do not assert. on your leaving the spot. brilliant." "He could not help holding out his hand in return.²Find sentences containing five participles. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. and has been put down. b). five infinitives. Words in -ing are of six kinds. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. to see the returning hope of the parents. Then how pleasing is it. (6) Verbal nouns." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. may govern and be governed. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. which have lost all verbal force.

but. The only means of ascending was by my hands.²transitive or intransitive. 15. you must. . A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. VERBS. much corroded.²which of the tenses given in Sec. Thackeray did not. (3) Mood. giving principal parts. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. Caution. give reality to your teaching.²indicative. I suppose I was dreaming about it. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. round which is an iron railing. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 11. (4) Tense. In parsing verbs. write twenty pages without stopping. (b) as to use. 16. 12. 6. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. I.²active or passive. subjunctive. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 10. He spread his blessings all over the land. by object lessons. 234. dictating from his chair. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 275. (2) Voice. like Sir Walter Scott. he gave out sentence by sentence. or imperative. 14. What is dreaming? 8. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 7. bearing her national emblem.²strong or weak. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS.5. 13. (5) Person and number. slowly. 9.

2. and should always be analyzed as phrases. till it meet the sun in his coming. III. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. But unless the verb is present. and not taken as single verbs. perfect. VERB PHRASES. (3) Gerund. 2. we must beware of the rule. call should a weak verb. and ends in -s. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. may. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (b) whether indefinite. Especially frequent are those made up of should. definite. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. You are gathered to your fathers. usually it does not. Parse the verbs. indicative (as it means could). Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. 278(2). VERBALS. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. (c) to what word it belongs. Exercise. In such sentences as 1." Sometimes it does. imperfect. II. followed by a pure infinitive without to. Take these examples:² 1. (1) Participle. call might a weak verb. could. 273). and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. In 2. 278. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. see Sec. therefore active. then parse it as an adjective. past tense. in the world. verbals. 235. no sin nor sorrow. (b) its use (Sec. indicative. active. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. etc. (2) Infinitive. 277.276. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. has for its subject Lee. and parting day linger and play on its summit. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 3. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. has the subject government. perfect. (a) From what verb derived. intransitive. must. can. It has been intimated in Sec. might. (b) whether active or passive. . If a participial adjective. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. etc. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive.. intransitive. The government might have been strong and prosperous. 4. would. give points (a) and (b). Let it rise! let it rise. past tense.

The soul having been often born. 6. So. 24. as the Hindoos say. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. "God save our Lord the King!" 7.Down all the line. or. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. With them. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence.O God. 23. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. leaving me upon the bed. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 15. 17. and wondered if she were yet awake. 19. a new waking up of all that has life. see that it is in good condition. 20. Right graciously he smiled on us. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. morning is not a new issuing of light. 13." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 11.5. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. a deafening shout. 18.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 16. 9. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. a sweet good will. . When he arose in the morning. 14. a new bursting forth of the sun. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. He passed across the room to the washstand. 12. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 8. he thought only of her. However that be. 21. In going for water. 10. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. as rolled from wing to wing. from a sort of temporary death. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 22.Henceforth in me instill. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. as usual. Whatever ground you sow or plant.

they are more himself than he is. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]." An adjective or an adverb. and live ere life be spent. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. who live with nature?²ID. to speak truly. place.²time. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. or manner: as. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. A verb. ADVERBS. as. When action is expressed. Better it were. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. and so on. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. thou sayest. Oh.² The young man reveres men of genius. 27. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree.Feast while we may."²DE QUINCEY. for the hour of rest is at hand. for example. The word adverb means joined to a verb." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. 29. and limit adjectives or adverbs. Adverbs modify. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. . 26.²CARLYLE. to consent.²EMERSON.25. Is it only poets. because." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. To the almost terror of the persons present. "William's private life was severely pure.²SHELLEY." "He was absolute." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. And now wend we to yonder fountain.²THACKERAY. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Nor was it altogether nothing. and men of leisure and cultivation. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. 279.

²LEIGH HUNT. not simply the forms used in predication. hitherto. all wet and glossy. and half awfully. as shown in the sentences. like the light of heaven. thus.² FRANKLIN. being adverbs naturally and fitly. which may qualify an action word or a statement. 280. not the noun.²T. B. Thus considered. Definition. . before. I draw forth the fruit. A phrase. ALDRICH. 169. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. 282. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. NOTE. for example. there are six classes:² (1) Time. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. is a modifying word. NOTE. lately. Surely happiness is reflective.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. 281. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. perhaps.²TROLLOPE. but some verb understood.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. but still with a rich bloom to it. as now. has induced some of us to attend it. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. but really modifying. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. (2) according to their use in the sentence. A clause or sentence. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. and that.²BYRON. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. We are offered six months' credit. etc. 169 are felt to be elliptical.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time.² LOWELL. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. ²IRVING. Make music to the lonely ear. while those in Sec. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. ever.²THOREAU. An adverb. then.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. to-day. or a word group used as such. as. It may also modify a sentence.²These last differ from the words in Sec.He was incidentally news dealer.

thence. just.. slightly. probably. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.was for this once of her opinion.. while so precedes only the adjective usually.. above. or how far he believes it to be true. much. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. two by two. surely. twice. (5) Degree. as here. etc. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. This long's the text. Motley. the more friends you will have. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. too. Thackeray.²BROWNING. and not infrequently are found in literary English. I was. etc. not.there.whither. the more perfect will be their obedience. 283. greatly.²R.²IRVING. telling how anything is done. that these adverbs form a very large class. enough.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. 283). beautifully. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. for example. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. as little. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. as well. Meekness. and others. telling how many times: once. LOUIS STEVENSON. as perhaps. (3) Manner. telling how much. whencesoever. The more they multiply. especially the comparative of these words. thus. slowly. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. at least. bravely. as hither.. So also in Grote. singly. partly. possibly. [Sidenote The status of such. . Emerson.²BURKE. White. (4) Number. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. (6) Assertion. very.where.thither. (see also Sec.. whithersoever.near. etc.whence.yonder. better.which gained him such universal popularity.²DE QUINCEY. the more evidently they love liberty. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.²HAWTHORNE. maybe.² The master.(2) Place. as hence. etc.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.²LECKY. etc.

²THACKERAY.²BAYNE. Direct questions. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Emerson. Kingsley."²SCOTT. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Interrogative.²BULWER. Pretty is also used by Prescott. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Defoe.² KINGSLEY. 282. STOWE. It is only occasionally used in literary English.² You are mighty courteous. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.Pretty. Dickens." said the king. a mighty fine gentleman. Simple." "I have seen you before [time]. Holmes. A pretty large experience. "Peace. . Mighty. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.²FIELDING. 284. Again." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Notice meanings." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. 286.²HAWTHORNE. Neville. Aldrich." "That were far better [degree]. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Burke. for example. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for.² "Mighty well. Franklin. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. and its lawn before [place]. for example. Hard blows and hard money. and art but a fool.²THACKERAY. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise." "The house. B. Beau Fielding.²"He walked too far [place]. and other writers. Some adverbs.²GOLDSMITH. De Quincey. besides modifying. have the additional function of asking a question. 285." "He spoke positively [manner].

There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. I hearkened. When did this humane custom begin?²H.²BYRON. I know not why. 287. I will not ask where thou liest low. WEBSTER. for example. (4) Degree. (5) Reason. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²BYRON (3) Manner. CLAY. (2) Place.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²POE. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. (2) Place. they smiled.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (4) Degree.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²BULWER.²D. . "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.

Then must she keep it safelier. representing four classes. as. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. higher. The following. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.²EMERSON. when does not express time and modify. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. further farthest. only occasionally having -er and -est.²COLERIDGE. 290. high. are often used as adjectives:² Positive.²TENNYSON. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. 288. just as adjectives do. irregularly compared. Superlative. obs. have the same inflection as adjectives.. Tell what each word in ly modifies. see Sec. soon. but the whole clause. and. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. Its strings boldlier swept. Form vs. Exercise. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. well much little far late Comparative. Many adjectives have the same ending. For further discussion. use.²SHAKESPEARE. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Only that we may wiselier see.eyes. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. highest. sooner. when. soonest. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.²BYRON." Exercise. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. not an adverb. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. .) rather 289. Many adverbs are compared. when compared.. furthest (rathe.But in reality.

The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. 7. near. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 4. . 6. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. if it has the verb be. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. quick-flashing eye. to be sure. whether adverbs or adjectives. Frequently the word there. hardly. Not near so black as he was painted. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. but with a different meaning. He is inexpressibly mean.²IRVING.And his mien of kingly state. And all about. Again. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. With his proud. hard. merely introduces a sentence.²CHAUCER. that in Old and Middle English. 3. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. as." Compare these:² 1.1. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt.²THACKERAY.²ID. instead of being used adverbially. evenly.²WORDSWORTH. many words without -ly have the same form. even. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Such are most. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. But he must do his errand right.²TENNYSON. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth.² EMERSON. nearly. There are eyes. Special use of there. etc.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. 8. 2. curiously jolly. 5. 291. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 2. The reason is. 292. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. mostly. more courtly in their manners. or down the leaves laughed through. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. kindly and good-natured in secret.

Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. Exercise. 4. 5. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. the Madonna is in great glory. 7. . The higher we rise in the scale of being. Thither we went. 2. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. if the word is compared. give² (1) The class. burning in the center of the temple. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. and sate down on the steps of a house. 15. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. but continually shifted. 10. according to meaning and also use. 16. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 293. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. It is the Cross that is first seen. 3. 9. 11.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. For the impracticable. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. but from my fall? 6. 17. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. and always. at the regular wine-shop. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. however theoretically enticing. (2) Degree of comparison. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 18. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. But a few steps farther on. is always politically unwise. In parsing adverbs. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 12. (3) What word or word group it modifies.

upon which the sun now shone forth. word groups. and found room to wonder how it could have got there." Sentences. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. Definition. 295. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause." Paragraphs. Clauses. but the student will readily find them. or sentence groups. then. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. but side by side within the American Union. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. 294. A conjunction is a linking word. CONJUNCTIONS. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. But now the wind rose again. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. 22. etc. therefore. connecting words. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God.19." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. It was pretty bad after that. 21." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. Unlike adverbs. hence. sentences. nor. however. 20. . and the stern drifted in toward the bank. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States.

They are or. however. therefore.but. for. as well as the room door. either. whether. or the sea rolls its waves. Alternative. else. yet.. neither.. however.and..or. nor. Nor mark'd they less. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. . the butter too.or whether... while. had its weight. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. and not man corn. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. usually between two things. not only. whether. neither. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. The chief ones are. still. (4) ALTERNATIVE. neither. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. whether.. not only. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. nor. serves but to show their ignorance. expressing a choice. introducing a reason or cause. but is emperor in his own right. etc. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. then. 297. as and. "Howbeit... also. The assertion.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. 298.. word groups.nor. only... While the earth bears a plant. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. 296... answering to each other in the same sentence. Correlatives. the window being open. (3) CAUSAL. Some go in threes.nor. as well as. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. Causal.... both.. hence.. (2) ADVERSATIVE..but (or but also)." Nevertheless. either.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.Classes of conjunctions. as but. either. moreover. as. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. etc. and..or.or. the bread was spent. (2) Subordinate. Your letter.or.. likewise. as. Adversative. of the same rank. joining words. etc. Some of these go in pairs.

²BIBLE. sometimes if. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. unless. etc. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. there will the heart be also.²PAULDING. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. as. lest. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. nor echo. after. nor creeping thing. so that. (2) TIME: when. before. (7) RESULT: that. now.as..²J. provided that.. . Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. even if. so that. except. etc. so. until. whereas. It is. QUINCY. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.²DE QUINCEY. whithersoever. etc. while. object. Where the treasure is. although. so. seeing. (6) PURPOSE: that. nor green leaf. Time. whither. as. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. ²ALLSTON. in apposition. especially that after so.²BURKE. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. on condition that. since. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. whence. since. whenever. however. so. in order that. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.²WILSON. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. He is not only bold and vociferous. 299.. etc.. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. in case.²IRVING.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. that. howsoever. ere. whether. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. or whether such a body is moved along my hand.²COOPER. nor wing of bird. provided.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. etc. as. though. (3) MANNER: how. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. whereto. wherever. Neither the place in which he found himself.

²CARLYLE Events proceed.² EMERSON. JACKSON. Condition. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. I was again covered with water.² WORDSWORTH.²IRVING.²DEFOE. but not so long but I held it out. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Comparison. Substantive. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. We wish for a thousand heads. . Manner.²AMES. Result.So I behold them not. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.That he gave her wounds repose. Purpose. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²BYRON.²BURKE. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Concession. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²COLERIDGE. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. not as they were expected or intended.²EMERSON. Then Denmark blest our chief. Now he is dead. H.²CAMPBELL. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Let the world go how it will. reason.² H. a thousand bodies. Cause.²EMERSON.That vain it were her eyes to close. Sparing neither whip nor spur.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²AMES.²AMES. As a soldier.

10. As will have been noticed. it will remain harmless. They. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. while. 12. Exercises. 4. 300. In what point of view. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. . she faintly pressed her hand. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 2. some words²for example. etc. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. the lady called her servant. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence.Let us see whether the greatest. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 15. the wisest. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. After he was gone. 13. 9. While a faction is a minority. Crept under the leaf.²RUSKIN. And they lived happily forever after. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. He was brought up for the church. as he shot in air. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. then. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. The moth fly. and hid her there. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. And then recovering. as. 3. since. hold a subordinate rank. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 7. 6. 14.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. that. Besides. her real merit is known at home. 5. No one had yet caught his character. however.

303. GREELEY. thus. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. Consequently. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. as is shown by the use of as though.As though a rose should shut. In poetry. SPECIAL REMARKS.²EMILY BRONTE. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. If analyzed. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. etc.. 302. and part as though we parted not.²IRVING. As for as if. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. and the frame will suit the picture... As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. "We meet. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.16. expressing degree if taken separately. And their orbs grew strangely dreary." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. they connect.²BYRON. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. As if. word groups. So silently we seemed to speak. and be a bud again. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. 301. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. 304.Clouded. the expression would be. for example. In Emerson's sentence.²HOOD.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H." as. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.So slowly moved about.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. in this case.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. even as they would weep. His voice . In parsing conjunctions. none of the lashings having given way. as is often equivalent to as if. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. As though. . (2) What words.

" said his wife to Martin Luther. He is the compend of time.Caution.²that the fairies do not like to be named. Some conjunctions. Exercise. 7. He dismisses without notice his thought. he is also the correlative of nature. are regularly of one particular class. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. so it be faithfully imparted. but of the natural. or in the forest. when. or in the snow. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. and associates as happily. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. so means therefore. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. because it is his. he sleeps as warm. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. so that expresses result. so means provided. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. All the postulates of elfin annals. in 3.²EMERSON 3. It may be safely trusted. At sea. In classifying them. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. 5. dines with as good an appetite. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. that it might testify of that particular ray. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. 2. and very seldom?" 8. others belong to several classes. in 2. because. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. 4. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word.²is subordinate of condition. . 12. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne.² 1. compare the sentences. so they paddled on. 11. 13.²DEFOE 2. and its clause depends on the other. as beside his own chimneys. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. 3. "Doctor. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. and the like. If he could solve the riddle. When the gods come among men. etc. For example. they are not known. such as nor. and. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. 9. 6.²I find them true in Concord. and its clause is independent.. so that I could not stir abroad. the Sphinx was slain.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. It continued raining. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 10.

nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. won't you lay on? 17. Now you have the whip in your hand. 20. however. 27. For. that both were wayward. I rejoice to stand here no longer. . save it were sinful like herself. 30. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. in many a heart. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. And whether consciously or not. you must be. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. whose names I omit. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 16. 15. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. There was no iron to be seen.²else it is none. I speak. 29. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. It is clear. 25. Goodness must have some edge to it. 28. therefore. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 23. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. the whole conditions are changed. It may be so in the majority of cases. enthroned. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. in this they agree. when it was presented to them. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 26. 24. 21.. 18. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field.14. 22. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 305. of good novels only. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. she might have the family countenance. PREPOSITIONS. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. Still. 19.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at the best. ²PARTON. (2) Time. . at war.²ID. at least. he stopped. By. at one. the first port made by the ship. By my faith. (3) Agency or means. at length.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. by the blessed memory of the departed. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. H. at work. (4) Measure of excess. For. Exercise.² (1) The general meaning of place. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail.²WARNER. at peace. STODDARD. etc.²EVERETT.. at naught. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. Helena. at rest. at any rate. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²DE QUINCEY. 320. by the wrecks of time.²M.²COOPER. 321. She saw the boat headed for her. at random. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. D.²SWIFT. by means near or close to. at play. etc. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. Like at. by many a million of acres. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Richard was standing by the window. at the worst. At St. Exercise.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.²B. at first. as. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. expressing the degree of difference.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. CONWAY. at once.²R. at all.²ALDRICH. by the ruins of nations. At that time [the earth] was richer. at most. TAYLOR The angel came by night.

or in spite of. For the rest. they are now for us. (4) Substitution or exchange. E. for all slips of hers. ate her child. reason.²PARKMAN. respecting.²LAMB.²STODDARD.²PARKMAN. There are gains for all our losses. etc. "For a fool. meaning in the character of. (3) Duration of time. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. considering that etc. the Colonna motto would fit you best. had a forest of poor relations. (5) Reference. . for famine. as being. if your worship can accomplish that.²HOOD.²IRVING. meaning although.One of Eve's family. Still. (9) Motive. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. but a few sunsets since. BANCROFT. GARRISON. The twilight being." said the Lady of Lochleven. H. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. etc. poor fellow. cause. he repented of his folly. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. or extent of space.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. (6) Like as." answered Master Brackett.²W. for the benefit of. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. and leaped for joy.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. meaning with regard to.²H. a person or thing.. He and they were for immediate attack.. etc."²SCOTT By my faith.² RUSKIN. as to. for all his title. An Arab woman. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²HOLMES. "thou hast counseled wisely.²EMERSON. L. incitement to action. (7) Concession.²E. For him.(2) In favor of. in behalf of. But the Colonel. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²ID. "Nay.

The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²DRYDEN.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²HIGGINSON. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. if not a desperate man. H. Of. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²H. The From Relation.²HUME. The original meaning of of was separation or source. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²HUXLEY. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. Like boys escaped from school. From.²ID. Exercise. The king holds his authority of the people. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. It was from no fault of Nolan's. (4) Motive. .²HALE. (2) Origin. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. The young cavaliers. nay. cause. ceased to be merciful. Exercise.²BANCROFT. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. like from. or reason. (3) Time. From harmony. from a desire of seeming valiant. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. 323. A distrustful. The general idea in from is separation or source. more. (1) Origin or source.²MILTON. 322.

²GAVARRE. rid. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. Other Relations expressed by Of. E. etc. free. reason.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. HALE. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. ²PARTON. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. divest. as north of. disarm. wide of. deprivation. Sandals. . clear. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. ask. or breastpin of native gold.²BAYARD TAYLOR. (d) With words expressing distance. relieve.²PARKMAN.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. weeds. (6) Partitive. south of. Back of that tree."²E.²ID. free of.² HUXLEY. of his own knowledge. out of the most unpromising materials. (b) After some adjectives. bound with thongs of boar's hide. You cannot make a boy know. cure. rob. He is away of his own free will.²clear of.²ALDRICH. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place.²LEW WALLACE. (5) Expressing agency. acquitted them of. there were only twenty-one members present. that Cromwell once ruled England. bare of. etc. (c) After nouns expressing lack. and grass. motive. The hills were bare of trees. purge. A singular want of all human relation. "I am glad of that. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. such as ease. (3) With expressions of material. White shirt with diamond studs. etc. etc. More than one altar was richer of his vows. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²SCOTT Who formed. beg.. deprive. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Asked no odds of.²BOSWELL.²HIGGINSON. especially out of.²BANCROFT. Of the Forty. demand. etc.²DICKENS II.

Not even woman's love. for the possessive.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. Besides the phrases of old. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. 309. ²IRVING. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²ALDRICH. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. The nation of Lilliput. being equivalent to an infinitive. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²BANCROFT. See also Sec. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. Such a book as that of Job.²PRESCOTT. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. (9) Of time. and the dignity of a queen. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. etc. (b) Noun and gerund.²W. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. equal to about. concerning. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. with regard to.²LAMB. Idiomatic use with verbs. of a sudden.²FROUDE. when the first is descriptive of the second. . Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. of is used in the sense of during.²ID. standing.He washed out some of the dirt. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (10) Of reference..²COOPER.²BANCROFT. of late. could give shelter from his contumely. (7) Possessive. (8) Appositional. CHANNING.²SWIFT. E. (c) Two nouns. with its object.²BANCROFT. The fair city of Mexico. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²HALLECK.²LOWELL.

avail (one's self). SIGOURNEY. on trial.²PARKMAN.²BRYANT. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. complain. you are eighteen.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. etc. 325.²ALDRICH. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. To. and others. on view. on board. approve. and not a day more. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. accept. equal to about. (4) In adjurations.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON. concerning. ²BANCROFT. permit.²MRS.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. repent. Upon is seldom used to express time. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. (2) Time. allow. Exercise. Upon. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. Upon my reputation and credit. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. on the wing. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. on the alert. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. such as admit.²Find sentences with six uses of of.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. Cannon were heard close on the left. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. consist. It also accompanies the verbs tire. (3) Reference. . (b) With motion. On my life.²PARKMAN. The general meaning of on is position or direction. On. disapprove. Exercise. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. etc. 324. on a sudden. on high.²PARKMAN. without adding to their meaning.

Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²BULWER. had ceased to be. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²often to the loss of vigor. mid meant in company with. Death!²HALLECK. In Old English.²PARKMAN.²B. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. Revolutions. He usually gave his draft to an aid.. But when.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. Nor. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. to my taste. to him. (5) Equivalent to according to.²IRVING. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. whose influence is felt to this hour.²LANG. 268).²GOLDSMITH. interest.²BENTON To our great delight. Exercise. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. With... gay Comedy appears.²PARTON. it may be genuine poetry.to be written over.²HALE. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.. (2) Expressing result. To the few. (b) Referring to time.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. does the mere music. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.Come to the bridal chamber. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. unmasked. .of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. His brother had died.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²BRYANT. 326.

motive.²HOWELLS. Messala.²CHANNING.²COLERIDGE. opinion. Exercise. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. he gave millions to the sword. had already reached the defile. He was wild with delight about Texas. With all his sensibility. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. 327.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²SCOTT. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. E. to find the object of the preposition. in spite of. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. or with the haunch of our near leader. reason. but with you.²LANG. He expired with these words. (2) Instrumentality. felt it unsafe to trifle further. with all his boldness. transmitted from the beginning.²COOPER.²WALLACE (7) Time.²ALDRICH. HALE. I think. (3) Cause. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. with Heyward at its head. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²E. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²EMERSON. (5) Opposition. "poetry is not a pursuit. it is necessary. She seemed pleased with the accident. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. as with you. .²DE QUINCEY.The advance. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (4) Estimation. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²DE QUINCEY. first of all. Either with the swingle-bar.²HALE. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²HOWELLS. It seemed a supreme moment with him. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.

I remember. beginning. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. Whereupon. of on. I looked towards my windows. (2) on which. In (1). by which a dozen apples. we met the defaulter here. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. (4) from the beginning. the malicious rogue. . the phrase answers the question where. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. because I had given the provocation. of without. shook it directly over my head. And so on. Exercises. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. The object of on board is ships. 5. without a country modifies man. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. country.²ID. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. or was. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. he followed us one day into those gardens. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. Be that as it will. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in.²SWIFT 2. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. I felt my box raised very high in the air. came tumbling about my ears. but all to no purpose. To our general surprise. like the clapping of wings. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. In (2). 2. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. hence we say. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. I speak these things from a love of justice. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. which.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. The guns were cleared of their lumber. 3. 4. (3) without a country. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. I called out several times. I heard a noise just over my head. In (3). one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. of from. and knocked me down flat on my face. telling what man. before the dwarf left the queen. but I received no other hurt.

15. 16. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. On all subjects known to man. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. His breeches were of black silk. 23. 13. The savage army was in war-paint. to one dark and gloomy. . though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 14. 24. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 12. 20.6. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. 21. With all his learning. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. when. For my part. 18. he favored the world with his opinions. 19. 7. I like to see the passing. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. in this respect. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. He locked his door from mere force of habit. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. in town. 27. 26.Without stop or stay. 22. after a restful morning. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road.He spurred his courser on. Carteret was far from being a pedant. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 17. 29. plumed for battle. grasping at the child. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 25. 8. 9. 10. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 11. The mother sank and fell. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day.

(4) As an adverb of degree. (b) Of result. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. That is what I understand by scientific education. That was a dreadful mistake. (1) Relative pronoun. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. not merely by the amount of the tax. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. THAT. (c) Substantive conjunction. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²BEECHER.²WEBSTER. We wish that labor may look up here. A few are discussed below.²COLERIDGE.²HUXLEY. that you might behold this joyous day. He will raise the price. And now it is like an angel's song. . 329. and not according to form. (a) Indefinite relative. 330.² JOHNSON.30. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. WHAT.²WEBSTER. 328.²WEBSTER. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (3) As a relative pronoun.That makes the heavens be mute. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That night was a memorable one. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²STOCKTON. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.

(b) Indirect question. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY." (4) Relative adjective. silent still.S. "I'll tell you what. What with the Maltese goats... after not only.²ID. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (b) Indirect question. Cox. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. or not only.Are yet the fountain light of all our day.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. At what rate these materials would be distributed. partly..²EMERSON. If he has [been in America].Those shadowy recollections. nearly equivalent to partly.²WEBSTER.these sounds are only to be heard. What.. (9) As an exclamation.... BUT.²THACKERAY. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. to see what might be hidden.²S. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.it is impossible to determine.but..Which be they what they may. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (b) Copulative. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.²ID.in Pera. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (7) Adverb of degree. (8) Conjunction.. it rests on reality.. and silent all!²BYRON. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. What.²WORDSWORTH. . 331. (6) Exclamatory adjective. he knows what good people are to be found there.²EMERSON. but the result of calculation.. To say what good of fashion we can. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.

²IRVING. (2) Relative pronoun. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. but piercing cries.. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. (3) Preposition. after such. (e) Introducing an appositive word. Doing duty as a guard. sometimes same.. AS... on all sides.He yearned to our patriot bands. than. not. (b) Of manner. To lead but one measure.Then arose not only tears. like the dog. at all moments. . it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. Who knows but. meaning except.. equivalent to that . ²CARLYLE. stands for that . not..²HAWTHORNE. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times..²IRVING.²MRS BROWNING.. meaning otherwise .²FRANKLIN. not.²SCOTT. (d) Of reason. towards order. after a negative. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²SHELLEY. I shall see but little of it. (5) Adverb. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (c) Of degree. or who . 332.²LAMB.²EMERSON. meaning only. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. (b) Substantive.²CARLYLE. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. (4) Relative pronoun. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²IRVING. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.

No Emperor.²CASS. Introduces a clause. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²HALLECK. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. and was clearly an adjective.²HIGGINSON. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. this. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. nervous child.²SHAKESPEARE. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. If the verb is expressed. like a cook beating eggs. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²LAMB. Note the difference between these two uses. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.² A timid. They look. In each case. 333. but this is not considered good usage: for example. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. ²PARKMAN. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²ALDRICH.²ALDRICH. (1) An adjective. and as or as if takes its place. like him awhile ago.²LONGFELLOW. In this second use.² HAWTHORNE.²DARWIN. staring like a bewildered man.-SCOTT.LIKE. like drops out. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. like Martin was. Stirring it vigorously. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²MAYHEW.²EMERSON. There is no statue like this living man. like summer ocean's. This follows a verb or a verbal. but its verb is omitted. Through which they put their heads. . I do with my friends as I do with my books.²EMERSON. and is followed by a dative-objective. NOTE. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. That face.²HAWTHORNE. indeed. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Give Ruskin space enough.

and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. verb. pronoun. Some of these are imitative sounds. as. . Definition.: for example.²in determining case." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. tut! buzz! etc. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. etc.. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. 335." PART II.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].INTERJECTIONS. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. etc. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. in separating them into their component parts. that is. Value of analysis. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. that is. but it still retains its identity as noun. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. subject and predicate." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Definition. entering into the structure of a sentence. 336. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. What analysis is. 334. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion.

But now all is to be changed." 340. Definition. SIMPLE SENTENCES. 2. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. always friends?" imperative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. Every sentence must contain two parts." "What wouldst thou do. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. This is the most common one. (2) Interrogative. but by no means vulgar. "Old year. hence. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. question. but the sentence would still be declarative. (3) Imperative. Examples of these three kinds are. 338. Definition: Predicate. but according to how many statements there are. 337. entreaty. 339. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. "The quality of mercy is not strained. Division according to number of statements. . sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "Hath he not always treasures.²a subject and a predicate. you must not die!" interrogative. which puts the thought in a question. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. "Come to the bridal chamber. according to form. interrogative.Kinds of sentences as to form. not according to the form in which a thought is put. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. old man?" "Be thou familiar. which expresses command. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. or command: for example. A rare old plant is the ivy green. or request. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. declarative. or imperative.

In the interrogative sentence. 2. or ye) is in most cases omitted. 6. and is to be supplied. ." Exercise. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. to an ignorant man. all. Listen. Slavery they can have anywhere. or an interrogative pronoun. The last of all the Bards was he.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. the subject is frequently after the verb. we have some trouble. not of a rare old plant. thou. always reduce them to the order of a statement. 3. adjective. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. 4. 5. or adverb that asks about the subject. on the other hand. In analyzing such sentences. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Consequently. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. and the real subject is the latter. as.²What is the ivy green? Answer. "[You] behold her single in the field.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. a rare old plant. and our definition must be the following. Thus. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. but about the ivy green. the subject (you. especially in poetry. 341.²What is to be changed? Answer. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. to suit all cases:² Subject. 8. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. we say all is the subject of the sentence. But if we try this with the second sentence. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. 7. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general.

²transitive and intransitive. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. . and means summoned. and me here is not the object simply of call." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. or second object. Direct Object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. "She seldom saw her course at a glance." Complement: 344. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. The transitive verb often requires. (3) The object." indirect. Of a transitive verb. but chief belongs to the verb. (2) The predicate. but of call chief. just as if to say. but it is a true complement. direct. 343. (5) Modifiers. (6) Independent elements. for example.10. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. and by object we mean the direct object. Indirect object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. in addition to the object. The subject and predicate have been discussed. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. 342. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. (4) The complements. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). "Ye honor me. "Ye call me chief.

355. in the original Opium Confessions." All these complete intransitive verbs." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." Also an expression used as a noun. in the popular judgment. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." "The good man. introduced by a preposition: for example. "Brow and head were round. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. for instance. 346. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. and barring the door. "A cheery." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. 347. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. 364. seem." (3) INFINITIVE. he was now getting old. I mentioned a case of that nature. sir!' rang out in response. Thom of the Gills. or." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. as. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. taste. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. as in drowning. 'Ay." "He was termed Thomas. but used as a single modifier. feel. ay. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. as in the sentence. and of massive weight. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. more familiarly. not containing a verb." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . Complement of an intransitive verb. especially the forms of be." Things used as Subject. above sixty. As to form." 345. and. become. to the completion of this man of the world. Phrases. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. A phrase is a group of words. See sentence 19. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." (2) PARTICIPIAL.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. etc. appear.. 351. An intransitive verb. 352. in exercise following Sec.

" (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." 348. but obscures the real subject. but they will be given in detail here. ." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. and by Saint George!' said the King." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. or their religion from their sect. (4) After "there introductory. I saw the quick and the dead. etc. 341." The for did not belong there originally. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. Disguised infinitive subject.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." etc. for which see Sec." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. "Therein has been. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. and ever will be." In this sentence. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. my deficiency." "The dead are there." Things used as Direct Object.²the infinitive phrase. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. "'By God. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. (2) In interrogative sentences. from their lips. or the thundering of organs." "Never." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." Things used as Complement. 349.²the talent of starting the game. but the real or logical subject is to print. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. asserting eyes. was heard one syllable to justify. prowling eyes. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." "There are asking eyes. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud.

²heads or tails. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. and whenever the complement is a noun." . These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. the object is made the subject by being passive. Of a transitive verb. they are adjuncts of the object. and the words italicized are still complements." Modifiers. at the same time. Like all the complements in this list. and. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object.350. Object. As complement of a transitive verb." "She asked her father's permission." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. As complement of an intransitive verb." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." In this last sentence.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. the shepherd girl.²completing the predicate. and explaining or modifying the subject." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Modifiers of Subject." (4) Participle." "I hear the echoes throng.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. 351." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. I. doubtless. or Complement. complements of the predicate. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." "Serving others is serving us. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. (3) Infinitive." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. or the equivalent of the noun." "Their tempers.

but with other men. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. I have seasoned for thee.²proud. Since the predicate is always a verb. object. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. Retained with passive." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. the verb being omitted." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. and modify the predicate in the same way." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. Tells how. and leading him from star to star." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. not with nature." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. was the scene from King John. II. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." "Him. 357-363." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. see further Secs. given at the request of a Dutch lady." In such a sentence as." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. but it is really a contracted clause. but noble teachers. 351." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "Give them not only noble teachings. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." Exercise. was now called upon for his defense. austere. 352." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. this young idolater.²In each sentence in Sec." "In the twinkling of an eye. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. "He died like a God. no sociable angel." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." (For participial and infinitive phrases. unforgiving. tell whether the subject. Modifiers of the Predicate.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. the prisoner at the bar. or complement is modified. or .

after dinner. but the children of the great." "All such knowledge should be given her. 7. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. the indirect object is retained. according to old philosophers. Fashion does not often caress the great. 5. . But anger drives a man to say anything. no relief to the dead prosaic level. or how long. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. and (direct) object:² 1. (b) Pick out the subject. (a) Pick out subject. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. On the voyage to Egypt. 3. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. predicate. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. in regard to particulars. I took. and. 4. Evil. 2." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster." "One way lies hope. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. no humor." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. 3. with my joy and grief. 8. a sort of personality to the whole writing.When the verb is changed from active to passive. 7. is good in the making. 5. Why does the horizon hold me fast. These answer the question when. etc. 2. To the men of this world. and as many to oppose it. and the direct object is retained: for example. 6.. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour." (6) Adverbial objective. His books have no melody. 6. They do not wish to be lovely. he liked. how far. to the animal strength and spirits. in this center? 4. predicate." Exercises. This. gives wonderful animation. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. no emotion. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. negative. and other measures of precaution. but to be loved.

to the right and to the left.. the attorney. y y y y Compound Subject. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. In one feature. a room seventeen feet by twelve. 3. this dragoon so lovely. after their long confinement to a ship. burthened with the anxieties of a man. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. Paint me. Unhorse me. 6. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Not the less I owe thee justice.²the river Meuse. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Their intention was to have a gay. then. etc. and a member of the world.y 8. at the chief hotel. 4. 5. Not compound sentences. this imperial rider. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. six children sat by a peat fire. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. viz. 2. at length the warrior lady. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. happy dinner.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. the blooming cornet. Yes. this nun so martial. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. 3. 2. expecting the return of their parents. 3. I gave him an address to my friend. That night. that was thy portion in life. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. then. To suffer and to do. in little peaceful Easedale. downwards. . Compound Predicate. must visit again the home of her childhood. 5. 2. 4. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. I promised her protection against all ghosts. upwards. 4. for the first time. A river formed the boundary. I felt myself.

together with its modifiers. Bishop. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. the object. the predicate. and the rest is the logical predicate." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. may be the person or thing addressed. shouldered the rusty firelock. my brave young man!" . The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. I'm with you once again.353." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. that is. modifiers. they are not a necessary part. complements. "The company broke up. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. etc. The exclamatory expression. turned his steps homeward. "Ah." "Ye crags and peaks. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. 355. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." "The name of the child. 354." "He shook his head. Independent Elements of the Sentence. the air of the mother. several modifiers. in the sentence. For example. Larger view of a sentence. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. then the grammatical subject and predicate. but it is to be noticed that.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. two or more subjects of the same predicate. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. same as (1). ulcer. in all such sentences as we quote below. etc. hurry. hurry. and its object or complement. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. etc. the verb). It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. forming a sentence: "Oh. above: thus." And so with complements. Examples of compound subjects are. and. however. the simple subject is situation. together with all its modifiers.." Sentences with compound predicates are. the tone of her voice. exposes." "Voyages and travels I would also have. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. Of this.

nevertheless. yes! everybody knew them. undoubtedly. or word used as a noun: for example. such as however. now. 352. and some conjunctions. he was a conscientious man. modifying a noun." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. (b) As a modifier of subject. 355. 4)." "No. therefore. see Sec. There are some adverbs. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. really." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. already noticed. 6). PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. besides. . 351. let him perish. or complement (see Sec.. The words well." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. "Oh. moreover. generally speaking." Another caution. why. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "Why. grandma.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. her noticing even this is creditable. 3." (6) Single words: as. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." (3) Independent. see Sec." "Well. truly. he closed his literary toils at dinner. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 350. etc. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. such as perhaps. 4). and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use." (2) Adverbial. then." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. six quill-driving gentlemen. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. and so on. pronoun. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. prepositional phrases may be. (1) Adjectival. that have an office in the sentence. instances of which were seen in Sec. 356. the company broke up. modifying the predicate." "Truth to say. object. he somehow lived along.. how you're winking!" "Now. In their use. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. These need close watching." (5) Participial phrase: "But. etc. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "At all events. y (2) The adverbial use. to the best of my remembrance. 357. this story runs thus. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases.

seem." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. "Because I was. etc. I. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. and they will be presented here in full.]. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes.can (could).would. he should not have known them at all. y (a) With may (might). being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . etc. See Sec. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. ought. therefore.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings.: as in the sentences. but having no other office than a verbal one. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. 358. and teach her how to be happy and good. my dear. "The letter of introduction. being equivalent to a future with obligation. was speedily run through." (c) With the definite forms of go." "There. This case excepted. containing no matters of business.should. (5). Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. Wilt thou. modifying was speedily run through. or as nearly so as the student will require. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. but require somewhat closer attention." (b) With the forms of be. and hence is adverbial. thus. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. 355." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years." In this sentence. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. The verbal use." etc. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. necessity.

" "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again.: for example.." 360. IV. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. "But there was no time to be lost. The adjectival use. To test this. notice the following:² In (1)." "To teach is to learn. modifying a noun that may be a subject. The substantive use." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. . 361. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. to look means that he might look. 361 are used adverbially. II. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. etc.²both purpose clauses. and the eyes to fill?" 359. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. to hear McOrator after dinner. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. The adverbial use. complement. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. hang the idiot. Don Guzman." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. etc." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. already examined." "To say what good of fashion we can." "He insisted on his right to forget her. the Scotch fighting all the battles. (4) In apposition." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. result." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive)." "Are you mad. above. object. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. to please is equivalent to that he may please. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. 351. 362. 5). III.

Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. The independent use. savage and serene in one hour. In (5). V. . In analyzing simple sentences." (See also Sec. (3). etc. 355). to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 351). etc.In (2). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. If it is an incomplete verb. 364. I will try to keep the balance true. (5) The subject (Sec. etc. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 352).) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. as in Sec. 349). In (4). object. 4. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. to part means because I part. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec.." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 268. give² (1) The predicate. which is of two kinds. equivalent to that you betray. must be in a life.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. not in a book. 347).. 363. 2. to find shows the result of the return. and to betray and to bring express the reason. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. In (3). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. give the complement (Secs. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 351). 355. 351). (7) Independent elements (Sec. and to say is equivalent to if we say. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. Our life is March weather. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. to hear means if you should hear. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions.²both expressing condition. 3.

16. a good shot. Through the years and the centuries. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. You may ramble a whole day together. 14. a graceful dancer. 22. 21. to the moral sphere.Burnt green and blue and white. 17. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. is to have no political system at all. The water. 5. and to the purpose. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. To be hurried away by every event. His opinion is always original. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 19. with eager energy. 24. 10. nor troops. 7. We are always in peril. 13. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance.The old crow of Cairo.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 18. through evil agents. nor money. two stricken hours.²to preserve her throne. The whole figure and air. to restore civil and religious order. nor himself. a skilled musician. and spared nothing. 6. Old Adam. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. like a witch's oils. 11. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 20. through toys and atoms. in popular use. good and amiable otherwise. nor generals. to keep England out of war. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 8. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. always in a bad plight. Her aims were simple and obvious. and every moment discover something new. I have heard Coleridge talk. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. the carrion crow. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. might be called flabby and irresolute. 9. He risked everything. neither ammunition. 15.He sat in the shower. . The word conscience has become almost confined. 12.4. To these gifts of nature. just on the edge of destruction. an accomplished scholar. 23.

and. This amiable relative. 35. I hate him and myself. to be a reproach to such goodness. 34.Distant. the same Condé Olivarez. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. and no provisions but wild berries. Must we in all things look for the how. baggage far in the rear.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. proud foe. Fair name might he have handed down. upon my own ground. to bid you leave the place now and forever. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. an elderly man. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. and the wherefore? . Now. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 30. Of the same grandeur. But yield. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 33. Oxford. She had made a two days' march. I dare this. in front of all this mighty crowd. or perhaps one virtue. In the Acadian land. had but one foible. in this world. 41. The villain. still. 37. and the why. the present capital of New England. 27. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 38. it would not have been filial or ladylike. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. the ship was in an uproar. 26. 36. Few in number. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter.Effacing many a stain of former crime. 32. and in my own garden. 40. the prime minister of Spain. Supposing this computation to be correct. 31. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. time-honored. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. haply.25. secluded. The cry. in less heroic and poetic form. 29. Upon this shore stood. ready to receive her. 39.

The simple sentence the basis. thus. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. which is the unit of speech. Words left out after than or as.² "She is like some tender tree. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity.From her own loved island of sorrow. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. if they were expanded. made merely for convenience and smoothness. (Sec. 367. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. are really contracted clauses. though often treated as phrases." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. As shown in Part I. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. as." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. COMPLEX SENTENCES. as would be the connective instead of like." Sentences with like. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. . 366." To show that these words are really omitted. 365." This must. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. 333)." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. the pride and beauty of the grove." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. but. however. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences.

²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. object. . murmur.. complements. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. that . or dependent on it.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. is taken in. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. or it may be applied to the others. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. and modifier. we are aware. and the next one. 370. as in this sentence. 369. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. 368.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. each clause has its subject. that is.. A clause is a division of a sentence. Hence the following definition:² Definition. A principal. and the last. modifiers. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). complement. object. etc. Independent clause. 371. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. logically depends on suffering. Definition. how great .²the backbone. which are so united that one member is the main one. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind.²the other members subordinate to it. predicate.. containing a verb with its subject.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. suffering. then we recognize this as the main statement. CLAUSES. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. main.

'I know that he can toil terribly. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences." (4) Apposition. with a noun clause in apposition with it. but logically the sentence is. 372. 352. so the object clause is retained. But since they are complex in form. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. thus. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. ADJECTIVE. impertinences²would be grammatical. infinitive. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." (2) Object of a verb." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. and it is . 5).' is an electric touch." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. for a time.. verbal.. night or day. (a) Ordinary apposition. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. for example. Noun Clauses. 373. . according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. As to their office in the sentence. and the whole clause is not. and ADVERB clauses. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex.. Kinds. or adverbs. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. attention is called to them here. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things." "I was told that the house had not been shut.. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.. over which the torrent came tumbling." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. adjectives. pronoun." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. for example. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.. put an end to my fancies. (b) that are . We ourselves are getting ." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. clauses are divided into NOUN. for a hundred years." Just as the object noun..Dependent clause." 374. etc. impertinences." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. is retained after a passive verb (Sec.

the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. Except by what he could see for himself. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. whereby. 6. 9." Exercise. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. What history it had. that. 8. a falsehood incarnate. or equivalent of a noun. in the sentence. whether he should choose one or not. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. how it changed from shape to shape. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Such a man is what we call an original man. a relative pronoun being understood. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 7. 2. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. he could know nothing. Other examples of this construction are. 3. Examples of adjective clauses. sometimes by the conjunctions when. and not on the sentiment. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. 375. Adjective Clauses. . 10. wherein. he would repent it. whence. Frequently there is no connecting word. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. of a nation. still remains reasonable. where. etc. But the fact is.² "It is on the understanding. but. which. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. The reply of Socrates. I was napping. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. whither. no man will ever know. that he was a scheming impostor. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 5. that. 4. that all safe legislation must be based. as.

1. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. and tell what each one modifies. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 7." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. Adverbial Clauses. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. he begins to help us more as an effect. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 4. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. which formed the center of the mansion. 8. all is vacancy. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. Pick out the adjective clauses." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. I walked home with Calhoun. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. which Rowena tasted. the champions advanced through the lists. 5." Exercise. .e. whether subject. 11. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. object.376." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. etc." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. or that essence we were looking for. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 9. 3. 10. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 2. i. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. No man is reason or illumination. 6..

tell what kind each is. it takes precedence of everything else. adverbs." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." (5) DEGREE." "The right conclusion is. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. Exercise. and adverbial conjunctions. that we should try. an adjective. 378. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. however good she may be as a witness. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." (7) RESULT." (9) CONCESSION. shaping our actions." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. whatever." "He went several times to England." "When he was come up to Christian." "Who cares for that. to make up our shortcomings. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. no matter what remains. however. expressing the degree in which the horizon. and will be given in detail." (3) REASON.. he goes away as if nothing had happened. is wider. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. since he was too great to care to be original." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. etc." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. with examples. etc." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. introduced by indefinite relatives." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. the wider is the horizon of their thought." These mean no matter how good." "After leaving the whole party under the table. a verbal." "The broader their education is. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. so far as we can. etc.: "But still." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. Joanna is better. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. Shakespeare is our city of refuge.377. but they require careful study. or an adverb. and what it modifies:² . the milestones are grave-stones. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries.² whoever.

when the wind was unruly. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. on a dark wintry night. 380. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. its object is that Odin was a reality. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. For example. they might perhaps say of their visitors. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. as they sometimes did. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. If the children gathered about her. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied.1. predicate. banging about doors and windows. etc. with shrill. and modifiers. incoherent exclamations. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. we are a little disappointed. then treat noun clauses as nouns." 2.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. of which clause Odin is the subject. find the principal subject and principal predicate." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. snatching up stones to fling at them. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. in the sentence. 'Well. so as to picture the parts and their relations. 3. object. and twirling weathercocks. 379. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. howling and whistling. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. to tell the truth. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time.

This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 2. Exercises. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 364. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 3. 364. d. (1) Find the principal clause.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 380). .

4. Next came a wretched Dominican. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 8. 10. namely. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 24. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. the flower should revive for us. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 15. 9. had we been worse. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. M. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. . Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. could not have been effected. bishop. 21. The night proved unusually dark. that pressed her with an objection. if applied to the Bible. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. the shepherd girl. or whether any. 12. 13. who would yield to it least. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 22. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 5. Whether she said the word is uncertain. which. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. This is she. He was what our country people call an old one. But now that she has become an establishment. Had they been better chemists. 16. 7. Here lay two great roads. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 19. 6. I like that representation they have of the tree. dying for them. as for armies that were too many by half. not so much for travelers that were few. 14. Now. And those will often pity that weakness most. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 17. that. 23. the mixed result. for yours. 20. of a light hazel. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. The deep eyes. counselor that had none for herself. 18. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 11. whom I choose. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer.

(b) First analyze. though we may repeat the words never so often. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. if continuously extended. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 382. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. or commands. 6. 7." said Bentley. Hence the definition. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. That which we do not believe. then map out as in Sec. COMPOUND SENTENCES. speed. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. It makes no difference how many friends I have. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 27. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. How formed. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. would easily reach. and stamped with his right number. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. These things we are forced to say. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. is to speak and write sincerely." 4. we cannot adequately say. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. questions. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 383. that it was no more than his daily walk. "was ever written down by any but itself. 2. and not from his heart. 3. .25. the following complex sentences:² 1. 380. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. if there be one to whom I am not equal. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 28. but above it. and temper. 26.²which will not be disposed of. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. "No book. 5. 30.² Definition.

in (3). which are simple statements. from the second. and not the form of the connective. or but. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. 385. tell which are compound. he dilates. a simple member. Exercise. others sometimes coördinate. and connects the first and second complex members. however. in (2). and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. the semicolon separates the first. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. Of the following illustrative sentences. he walks with arms akimbo. he soliloquizes. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and nor the second and third complex members. Thus in (1). Another example is. as in Sec.. nor. The coördinate conjunctions and." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. 383 (1). yet. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. as but. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Study the thought. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. if there are any.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. . etc. etc. Some of these are now conjunctions." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. whereas. and which complex:² 1. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. now adverbs or prepositions. a complex member. 297). moon-like ray" (adversative). nor does he know until he has tried. 386. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. "Only the star dazzles. Connectives. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and it shall be the universal sense. the planet has a faint." 384. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. while (whilst). he is twice a man. Speak your latent conviction. for. The division into members will be easier. the waving grass.

or. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 4. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. . whilst all later teachings are tuitions. For everything you have missed. 8. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. that it was Easter Sunday. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. Whilst the world is thus dual. 10. nay. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. for example. 4. all pain. 6. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. unobtrusive boy. 9.2. 14. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. is particular. (i) Separate it into its main members. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. quiet. you lose something. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. you have gained something else. and for everything you gain. 12. and as yet very early in the morning. 381. 5. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. yield to them heart and life. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. the tax is certain. 11. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. Love. However some may think him wanting in zeal. passed in that time. 3. 3. 7. to find a pot of buried gold. 2. Man does not stand in awe of man. All loss. I can yet love. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 387. I can still receive. however. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. from a happy yet often pensive child. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. The gain is apparent. so is every one of its parts. 364. Exercise. In this manner. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. and not by what each is. 13. and thou shalt be loved. he grew up to be a mild.

" says the haymaker. Come into port greatly. 9." "keep the rake. 6. one is afraid. They will shuffle and crow. 15. and not a thought has enriched either party. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and they will be true to you. and they will show themselves great. 11. 18. and each shows only what lies at its focus. let them mount and expand. if you rip up his claims. and the other dares not. When you have chosen your part. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax." 13. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. and they repel us. 14. We go to Europe. is as thin and timid as any. crook and hide. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. Trust men. "the iron is white. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. . or hope. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 8. give those merits room.5. and you are without effort impelled to truth. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. or sail with God the seas. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. or we read books. 7. only that they may brag and conquer there. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. 21. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. whilst frankness invites frankness. why should we intrude? 10. We see the noble afar off. or we pursue persons. and makes their business a friendship. treat them greatly. feign to confess here. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. as children. "Strike. 17. because. 20. which always make the Actual ridiculous." says the smith. abide by it. and he learns who receives. 16. modesty. or men will never know and honor him aright. puts the parties on a convenient footing. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Stand aside. and the peace of society is often kept. 19. Whatever he knows and thinks. He teaches who gives. that let him communicate. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and not an emotion of bravery. and the cart as nigh the rake. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world.

but its leading characteristic is. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. 23. 25. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. verb and subject. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms.²agreement and government. So does culture with us. pronoun and antecedent. By way of introduction.22. 380. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . 388. We see young men who owe us a new world. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. but go about your business anywhere. so readily and lavishly they promise. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Following the Latin method. Do not craze yourself with thinking. but they never acquit the debt. Essential point in English syntax. SYNTAX. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. it ends in headache. the department of syntax will be a small affair. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. they lose themselves in the crowd. or. PART III. Ground covered by syntax. 24. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. if they live. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. it never was known to fall into the rear. and dodge the account. adjective and noun. they die young. 390. INTRODUCTORY.

The basis of syntax. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. sometimes verb and subject. also expressing a possessive relation. There is. and imitate it. and nothing but important points will be considered. distinct forms would be used. then. In Latin. but are not now. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). take the sentence. 392. and added to it the preposition of." is ambiguous. . "The savage here the settler slew. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Why study syntax? 391. Second. both forms will be given in the following pages. Also in the sentence. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. following the regular order of subject. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. good English. and whose judgment. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. etc. the sentence. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points.² First. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. "None remained but he. When usage varies as to a given construction. and it would not matter which one stood first. therefore. pronoun and antecedent." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. some of which conform to classical grammar. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. As an illustration of the last remark. Some rules not rigid. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. or the same writer will use both indifferently." that is. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. as to study inflected forms. 393. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. or when they exist side by side in good usage. This is not logical. Savage may be the subject. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. the order being inverted. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. authorities²that is. In some cases." In this there is a possessive form. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. or settler may be the subject. For example. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English.

²ID. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. etc. for example. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. but imply separate possession or ownership.²RUSKIN.²ROWE. and Paul's. Joint possession. 397. as. Mill's and Mr. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. sense and nature's easy fool. 408).² Live your king and country's best support. and Peter's. and Harley's. . He kept Bolingbroke's. Woman. Use of the possessive. the shore of Galilee.²MCCULLOCH.²MILTON.²THACKERAY. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²BYRON. and Peterborough's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. the possessive sign is used with each noun.² He lands us on a grassy stage. PRONOUNS. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Putting Mr.²EMERSON. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. 396.NOUNS. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Separate possession." Juletta tells. 394. or indicate joint ownership or possession. the antechamber of the High Priest. Bentham's principles together. and Pope's. 395. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²MACAULAY.

²POPE. I.²WHITCHER.²SOUTHEY.) "The young Harper. and should be the nominative form. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Still. the real thought being forgotten. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. sanctioned.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. whom is the complement after the verb am.²THACKERAY.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. But he must be a stronger than thee. Objective for the nominative. Since most of the personal pronouns. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Bedott Papers. there are two general rules that require attention. Some of the violations are universally condemned. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. others are generally. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. as. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²SHAKESPEARE. General rules. thus. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. the last expression has the support of many good writers. This should be "as she. who. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. 398.²BYRON.²TROLLOPE. . "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. together with the relative who. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. for example." 400. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). No mightier than thyself or me. if not universally. 399.

is. unless a special. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. it will not be me. And it was heThat made the ship to go. But still it is not she. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne." 401."²WINTHROP. One exception is to be noted."²WM. BLACK.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²PARTON. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON.²THACKERAY. both in England and America. namely." There is no special reason for this. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.²MACAULAY. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. on the other hand. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. as. "Who's there?"²"Me."²KINGSLEY. The camp of Richard of England. A safe rule.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. The usage is too common to need further examples. but such is the fact. Patrick the Porter.²RUSKIN. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. are. and the other forms of the verb be. "If there is any one embarrassed.²KINGSLEY. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.² For there was little doubt that it was he. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.²COLERIDGE. the objective form is regularly found. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. for example. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.² One I remember especially.²SCOTT. they are yet holier than we.²LONGFELLOW. . And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. "Than whom. In spoken English. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²FIELDING.

404. "Ask the murderer. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me.Exercise. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. but not he" (he should be him. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. Whom they were I really cannot specify. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. 2.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. now. as. or this. 4. 7. the object of to). Nominative for the objective. Truth is mightier than us all. Me in exclamations. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns." the word being in apposition with murderer). 11. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. (3) By forgetting the construction. and prepositions.²MILTON. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women." 6. If there ever was a rogue in the world. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 8. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. . or preposition which governs it. 403. as.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. It is not me you are in love with. used after verbs. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. you or me. verbals. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. as. or us). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 3. as this from Shakespeare. 5. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. verbal. it is me. object of saw). 9. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. I speak not to" (he should be him. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 10. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who.

The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. all but he. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. as well as the objective. Let you and I look at these. Nature. partial Nature.²KINGSLEY. I arraign. "Who did you see?" or. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Exception 2. We regularly say.²KINGSLEY. 2.Exception 1.Shall be left upon the morn.²BYRON. .²BYRON. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Who have we here?²ID. for example. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. for they say there are none such in the world. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. as.²GOLDSMITH. Thou. etc. who interrogative. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. I've sworn.²KINGSLEY. Exercise. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. as. 405.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. None. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. after the preposition but (sometimes save). but he. and is usually avoided. "Who were they talking to?" etc. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. save thou and thine. changed in all save thee.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.²STEELE. 406. Thy shores are empires. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.² All were knocked down but us two.

As antecedent of a relative. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. Preceding a gerund. 12. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. who. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 7. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Markland. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. with Jortin and Thirlby. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail.²MACAULAY. 11.Ye I salute. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 5. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.²possessive. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. and they know that as well as me. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. 10. 6." 4.²RUSKIN.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²SCOTT. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. This usage is not frequent. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.²DE QUINCEY. B. Bartholomew. POSSESSIVE FORMS. They crowned him long ago. 9.3. BROWN. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²C. 8. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 407. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. or objective? . II.²THACKERAY. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well.

Objective.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY.² SCOTT. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.408.²BREWER. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. and that in the second. . In the examples quoted. and the meaning is. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. both are gerunds. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. studying is a gerund. But in common use there is no such distinction.² CARLYLE. Why both are found.²DE QUINCEY. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. The last incident which I recollect.² IRVING." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. as he turned away from his wife. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. Both types of sentences are found. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.²CARLYLE. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. We heard of Brown. [who was] studying law. sometimes it has the objective. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth." That is. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. and asked why it was not made. The use of the objective is older. Here I state them only in brief. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. object of heard of. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.² THACKERAY. that the bitterness of death was past. etc.²DICKENS. Possessive.

BROCKDEN BROWN.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. the pronoun will be neuter singular.² BRYANT. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²DE QUINCEY. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. 410. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²CABLE. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. and ought to agree with them in person. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. The pale realms of shade.²C. or is a distributive word.²HOLMES. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. Every city threw open its gates. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²when the antecedent.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²HUXLEY. Everybody had his own life to think of.²DEFOE. number.²THACKERAY.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. In such a case as the last three sentences. 409. taking in each of many persons.²THOREAU. Examples of these constructions are. if the antecedent is neuter. Watch for the real antecedent. where there were examinations. . If any one did not know it. and gender. in one person.²EMERSON III.²AUDUBON. preceded by a distributive. it was his own fault. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN.

²SCOTT. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. let them break it off. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²EMERSON. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Struggling for life.²ID. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. till they have lost him. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²BYRON.²BIBLE. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. 411.²PALEY. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²AUSTEN. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. By using the plural pronoun. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²RUSKIN.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²ID. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²PAULDING. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.² Not the feeblest grandame.²FIELDING. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²THACKERAY. This is not considered the best usage. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. not a mowing idiot.²HUXLEY.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Whosoever hath any gold. If the part deserve any comment. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. . for example.²PALGRAVE.²DEFOE. as anybody in their senses would have done. The sun. and giving them means of being so.

" This means. as. which. ." A relative. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. according to the practice of every modern writer. or what was become of her.²HAWTHORNE. As to their conjunctive use. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Exercise. but.² SHERIDAN. 1. unless both genders are implied. 2. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. "I gave it to the beggar. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive.) and a personal pronoun. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. 412.Where she was gone." It defines beggar. which. and that always restrictive. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. etc. I. when coördinating. 413. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. because. the definite relatives who. That is in most cases restrictive. It adds a new statement to what precedes. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. and he went away. What these terms mean. A relative. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. and does not add a new statement. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.²ADDISON. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. tell whether who. Exercise. but.²In the above sentences. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. no one could take upon them to say. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. when restrictive.²ID. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. in each instance:² Who. or unrestrictive. and that are restrictive or not. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. that being considered already clear. In the following examples. who went away.

He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. W. who. etc. BEECHER 5. The general rule is. . Yet how many are there who up. In what sense true. as that does not vary for person or number. Which. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. II. because of its antecedent. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. Hare has printed.² MOTLEY. and over England are saying.²THOREAU. that were often vicious. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. The rule.²HOLMES. 414. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. she agreed to join the party. 10. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. it makes the verb third person singular. 14. On hearing their plan. 6. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. which was to go over the Cordilleras. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. and it is called logic.²DE QUINCEY." that is invariable as to person and number.² CARLYLE. We say I. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 9.. With narrow shoulders.3.²ID.²ID. but.² NEWMAN. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. For example. they. etc.² IRVING. 11. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.²DE QUINCEY. in the sentence.²ADDISON.²H. 13. However. down. A grizzly-looking man appeared. That. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. So different from the wild. these or that which. you. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. etc. he. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. which Mr. 8. long arms and legs. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. 12. 4. 7.

What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.²J. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²ADDISON. The fiery youth .²HOWELLS. others regard books as the antecedent. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. in winning a battle.²MACAULAY.²whether we should say. He is one of those that deserve very well. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. the true antecedent. A disputed point.. [singular or plural. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²ADDISON. ARNOLD. . Singular. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. "one of the finest books that have been published.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.²LOWELL. and in improving a victory. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²LOWELL. with one as the principal word. etc.²BOWLES. The latter is rather more frequent. who rarely speak at all. when he derided the shams of society.] Both constructions are frequently found. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. MORSE.. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. JR. but myself...²LECKY. Let us be of good cheer. T. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest." or. etc. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. French literature of the eighteenth century. but speaks of him as that sort.²M. Franklin. [plural] that who.²SCOTT.. and write the verb in the plural.. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²HOLMES. or which . "one of the finest books that has been published. but the former has good authority. 415." One of ..

III.²DEFOE. 416. But I by backward steps would move. that is.²EMERSON.²EMERSON.² THACKERAY. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.And.²SWIFT. 417. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. I could see nothing except the sky.In that same state I came. when the relative word is a pronoun. return. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²ADDISON.²GOLDSMITH." "India is the place [in which.²CARLYLE. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. whence. Exercise. where. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²BURNS.²SCOTT. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. and see if the sentence is made clearer. or where] he died. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. when this dust falls to the urn. object of a preposition understood. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE."²DICKENS. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.² RUSKIN.²In the above sentences. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²VAUGHAN. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. IV. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.A rare Roundabout performance.² . or is equivalent to the conjunction when. and such like: as. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²IRVING.²ID. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.

²R. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.² MACAULAY. etc. as is not used. Mr.He considered. and working in the same spirit. if same is followed by a complete clause. ²GOLDSMITH.²SWIFT.. which. W. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.²ADDISON. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. . CHURCH. The regular construction.² Which. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. looking-glasses. but we find the relative who. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. or that. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. if I had resolved to go on with. with Turner. but which is usually carefully avoided. That. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. boats. but. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. They believe the same of all the works of art..²WORDSWORTH.²SCOTT. as of knives. Which. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. I might as well have staid at home.me as his apprentice.²FRANKLIN. Anacoluthic use of which. she passed the lamp over her face and person. he. was a discoverer. 418. Caution. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.² BURKE.² THACKERAY. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. V. for example.

That is.² Direction for rewriting.." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. now thrown upon their. which when Mr. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who." etc. 4. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. or leave out both connective and relative.²RUSKIN. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. 419. (3) "Among the poorer sort.²DE QUINCEY. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. le Conte. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. who are now thrown.²which if they once heard. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. or omit the conjunction. Thornhill had read.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. This was a gentleman.She'd come again. 2. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. And who. and in whom I myself was not a little interested." etc. and who are now. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. (2) "Among the poorer sort. he said that all submission was now too late." etc. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.. Exercise. He delivered the letter.²THACKERAY. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. Exercise.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. but. or. 1. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and which. 3.²HAWTHORNE. But who. (1) "Among those who are poor. . etc.²SCOTT. Express both relatives. once a great favorite of M. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.²GOLDSMITH. After this came Elizabeth herself. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. As the sentences stand. and this be placed in the proper clause. but none is expressed.

That . 9.²HAWTHORNE. like that spoken in the towns. 12. then. the French. I saw upon the left a scene far different. and repeat this for any further reference. who. as a false and astucious mark. Akin to the above is another fault.5. English by name.. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.²DE QUINCEY. Or who. 11. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. I shall have complete copies." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. and which may even be heard a mile off. But which. 7. 8.²DE QUINCEY. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. etc. 6..²SCOTT. 10. and to whom no door is closed. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²PEARSON.²IRVING. and which has never been described. 13. Dr. etc. indeed. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. which the Scotch had learned. "What knight so craven.²SCOTT. ..² MOTLEY. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. and which.. one of signal interest. Exercise. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 420. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. And which. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. Or which. "A mockery. 1. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. either from imitation of their frequent allies.

at the head of what. 12.²EMERSON. but which. E. half a century ago.. He flung into literature. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. which. 11. I grudge the dollar. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.²HOLMES. 6.²HALLAM.. 9.. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. was a bustling wharf...²BEECHER. In my native town of Salem. SIMMS. and whose examples and principles we inherit. I give to such men as do not belong to me. Which .²W. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 8. in his present condition.. that . in his Mephistopheles. 4. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. but which is perhaps not so different from it. 7. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. 10.. and to whom I do not belong. Such as . CHANNING. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. whom. 5. was hung in air. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. . and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.²DE QUINCEY. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. the cent.²HAWTHORNE..²W. such as they have very probably been bred to.. Such as . that. 3. G. 15. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. He.²HOWELLS.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. what.²DEFOE. the dime.. 13. I recommend some honest manual calling. It rose into a thrilling passion. The Tree Igdrasil. 14.²EMERSON. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. That .² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.²SCOTT That which . which. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.2.²SCOTT.

²MACAULAY. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. Each other. By their original meaning.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Distributives either and neither. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²ID.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. England was then divided between kings and Druids. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²RUSKIN.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²DICKENS. 421. We call ourselves a rich nation. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²HAWTHORNE. 422.² Some one must be poor. always at war with one another. as. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. Assume that no one is in want of either. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. . as it were. whether or not the two are equivalent. in which case any should be used instead. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. as. for example. Use of any. that not all combined. one another. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN.

²FRANKLIN. Caution. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. afterwards in Goethe.. whilst I still cherish their genius. that I know of. I beseech you. if ever man was. before that. even in Bettine. The adjective pronoun none is. at one time in Bacon. during his stay at Yuste. None usually plural.²SHAKESPEARE. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. then in Plotinus.²EMERSON. as none of the French philosophers were. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.² EMERSON.²BURKE. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. for him have I offended. Do you think. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. etc.²BEECHER Whenever. None of Nature's powers do better service. If any of you lack wisdom. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.. any of his friends had died. Any usually plural. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²PROF. as. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. which is plural as often as singular. 423. let him ask of God.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . In earlier Modern English. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²SCOTT. when any of them are so good as to visit me. then in Plutarch.²STIRLING.² If any. .²THACKERAY. any was often singular. Examples of its use are.²BIBLE. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. usually plural. speak. in the prose of the present day. 424. Do you think.²CARLYLE. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.² In earnest. and is isolated.. in Shakespeare. as.

²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. The light troops thought . but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings..²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.² PEARSON.² Singular. etc. as. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. etc. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and hence is more likely to confuse the student..Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. or somebody else's? 426.²THOREAU. nobody else. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.² None of them was cleansed. and all was lost on the other. the plural. when it means all persons: for example.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. fixing his eyes on the mace. any one else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²SCOTT Like the use of any. etc. The compounds somebody else. for example. which is used absolutely.²NAPIER Plural. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. and less rarely in poetry. etc. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. Somebody's else. saving Naaman the Syrian. When all were gone. are treated as units. that all was lost. and Ford has nobody's else.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. 425.²McMASTER.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.

²DICKENS.²RUSKIN.²in such as "these sort of books. His hair.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.² Saturday Review. P.²THACKERAY.SYDNEY SMITH. unlike anybody else's in the world.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. These sort. or those sort of people.²N. ELIOT. Whitefield or Wesley. London. "Ye see. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. ADJECTIVES. etc."²MRS.²SHERIDAN.. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.² These kind of knaves I know. all manner of. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. Again.²AUSTEN. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²MULOCH.²G. for example.²RUSKIN. WILLIS. the adjectives plural. . etc. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). 427. or some other such great man as a bishop. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.² FIELDING. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.²SWEET.curled once all over it in long tendrils. STOWE. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got." "those kind of trees. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes." the nouns being singular. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft." "all manner of men.

or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. to express a higher degree of quality. At the source." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. Use of the comparative degree. or one object with a class of objects. Burke's sentence. such as. Of two such lessons. for example. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. not "all kinds of wild animals. Consequently we have a confused expression. "These kind of trees are best. with all manner of amusing books. "This kind of rules are the best.The library was open. "This sort of trees should be planted." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. This the modern expression reverses. made to agree with it. or the nouns to the plural. and in this way may take a plural verb. more alarming than a total silence. in spoken English. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Should we say. when the necessary dispositions concur. According to the approved usage of Modern English. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. which accounts for the construction.²RUSKIN.² Which is the better able to defend himself. "A sort of uncertain sounds are." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind)." A question. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. they said." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. . Later form. and the adjective is. 428. History of this construction. In Old and Middle English. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. as. the victor or the vanquished. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. gradually displacing the old. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. The result. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English.² PRESCOTT. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms.

To the man who plays well. 5. Even Dodd himself. by almost the breadth of my nail.² THACKERAY."²ID.²LOWELL. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. would not have had the face. Use of the superlative degree. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. .²WIRT. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²THACKERAY. 6.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Gary. 3. Exercise. etc.²MACAULAY.²HAWTHORNE. Superlative with two objects. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²TROLLOPE. 4. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²CARLYLE. has sanctioned. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. the highest stakes are paid. Other after the comparative form. Henry. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. He is taller.A braver ne'er to battle rode. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²SWIFT. 2.²MACAULAY. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. 429. 430. I am concerned to see that Mr. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. than any of his court.²HUXLEY. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.²SCOTT. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. if not.

With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. 1611. ha. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Mary.²J. The eldest.²SCOTT. Double comparative and superlative. After the most straitest sect of our religion. and the other contains the best men. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Rip was one of those .²BEN JONSON.²ADDISON. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Examples from Shakespeare are. Come you more nearer.²TEMPEST. I should say that one has the best cause. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²Bible. not a bit of high life among them. Also from the same period. more particularly the last of them.²RUSKIN..²DR BLAIR. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²GOLDSMITH. and differ only in form. These two properties seem essential to wit.²MRS.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²HAMLET. "Ha. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. In all disputes between States. CÆSAR. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. OLIPHANT. .²EMERSON. who eat white bread or brown. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. The following examples are used purposely. whichever can be got easiest.²IRVING. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. 431."²HAWTHORNE."²BULWER."²GOLDSMITH.. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.

have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. . Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The merit of the Barb. and Secretary Walsingham also. ARTICLES.²GIBBON. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. Three first. Instances of both are given below. but in literary English. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Examples of this construction are.²ADDISON. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. ²COWPER. The first five had specific names.²KINGSLEY. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. etc.²DE QUINCEY. and conceit in the last. the Spanish. First three.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The delay in the first three lines. not only so in popular speech.²RUSKIN. etc.² SMOLLETT.²LAMB.²RUSKIN. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.²PRESCOTT.² With a singular noun. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. As to these two expressions. Definite article. For Carlyle.²GIBBON. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. 433. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The meaning intended is the same. jar upon us constantly. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. These are the three first needs of civilized life.

Frequently.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. . or to emphasize the meaning.²SCOTT. 434. and the presents.²TENNYSON. I think.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. distinct. as. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. With a plural noun. having been arranged. to distinguish clearly.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.²NEWMAN. as in Sec. melodious. were placed at a very tender age. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. 433. Here the youth of both sexes.²THE NATION.²TAYLOR. with a singular noun.²MACAULAY. with a plural noun. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. however. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. Indefinite article. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. the hour of parting came. 1508.²PRESCOTT. The not repeated. The lofty. The flowers. but inseparable from each other.² RUSKIN.. Origin of the Aryans. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. He is master of the two-fold Logos.²ID. but is used with one only. of the higher and middling orders.²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. the greatest poems. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. as. 433. of the eighteenth century. Meaning same as in Sec. the thought and the word. 435.. and flexible language. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . One object and several modifiers. No.² MACAULAY.

" Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. and inexhausted vein. and a usurper.²B. 438. Examples of this use are. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. 435. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. or clearness to each of several nouns. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. interest. as in the first three of Sec. . a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. 437. One article with several adjectives. For rhetorical effect.436.²BEECHER. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. only one of which is expressed. COLERIDGE." and "a red and a white geranium. But in the following sentences. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. T.² MACAULAY.²BULWER.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.An early. a round and a square one alternately. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. a tyrant.²DRYDEN. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²JOHNSON. like the definite article. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.² BURKE. He saw him in his mind's eye.²THACKERAY. rich. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²MACAULAY. as. In the sentences of Secs.²MACAULAY. a murderer. a collegian. one noun is expressed.²DICKENS. The indefinite article (compare Sec. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 436).²S. to limit two or more modified nouns. JONSON. 433 and 436. The indefinite article is used.

He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²COOPER. for example. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Another writer might.²FROUDE. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²CARLYLE This usage. without academies. Another school professes entirely opposite principles.VERBS. ARNOLD. then. and the following illustrations prove it. ELIOT. . A broad and loose rule. as.²G. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Singular verb.²M.²AGASSIZ. Sec. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. He sees that it is better to live in peace.²GIBBON. This was spoken of in Part I. like some others in this series. Singulars connected by or or nor. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. Collective noun of singular meaning. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. 440. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.²The Nation.²W. was the earliest American land. In English.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. 276.. as. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Such. all that academies can give. has got already. or the great intellectual life of our nation. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. 439.

and other singulars of plural form. nor Paul. nor Mahomet.²DE QUINCEY.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. No. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.² In a word.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. nor John.² The unbought grace of life.²GOLDSMITH. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²BURKE. other names. for example. that of a large town. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. but considered as meaning about the same thing. or considered as appositional. ADAMS.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Plural form and singular meaning.²EMERSON .²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. or as making up one general idea. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor.² Politics is the only field now open for me. for example. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. a cruel disappointment. A fever.²GIBBON. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. the cheap defense of nations.²CRITIC. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. is gone. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. a mutilation. Between ourselves. as.²J.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. a loss of wealth. and every four hours. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.² GOLDSMITH.²WHITTIER. but each one emphatic. seems at the moment unpaid loss. as. (4) When the subject is plural in form. a loss of friends.Jesus is not dead. Q. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. ²EMERSON.

with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. was listened to for five hours. the partisan. the ruin. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²RUSKIN.² Asia. nay. as. sir!" and the "What then. Then comes the "Why. sir?" and the "No. was punished.²SCOTT. and such like adjectives.²MACAULAY. There is a moving tone of voice.²ID. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²LONGFELLOW. the wit. is a man of wit. For wide is heard the thundering fray. no spent ball. Plural verb. 441. Her back. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. Every fop. the dismay.²HAWTHORNE. as well as Europe. no matter if the second is plural). no. Subjects after the verb.²EMERSON.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. wineBegins to stir itself. as well as sides. does not take the place of the man. as well as the newest. as. The oldest. an impassioned countenance. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. sir!"²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. a cuirass.²PRESCOTT. thus. every valet. The Epic.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. in a judge.The author. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. as well as the Drama. no discontinuity. Every sound.²PRESCOTT. many a. was like to crack.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²BUTLER. each.²NEWMAN.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. Every week. a gorget.² . with death. every boor. Here is no ruin. was dazzled. an agitated gesture. every echo.²ID.The rout. the fine gentleman.²M ARNOLD. To receive presents or a bribe. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. and greaves. almost every day.

(3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. but the verb is plural. All our household are at rest.²FRANKLIN. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. The Dauphin. His clothes. The travelers. 440 (5.² One or two of these perhaps survive. were men of insignificant characters. as. A party of workmen were removing the horses.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.²GOLDSMITH.²CARLYLE But its authorship. are sufficient to attract a colony.²GIBBON.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²THOREAU. far away thy children leave the land. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. Philip of Anjou. A shady grove.²FROUDE. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. Conjunction omitted.² A multitude go mad about it.²SWIFT.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²ADDISON. shirt.²SCOTT.²FROUDE. making up a plural subject. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. . the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. as with a subject of plural form. a green pasture.²COLERIDGE. TAYLOR. as.²EMERSON. The conjunction may be omitted.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. Far. the Duke of Berri. its date. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²B.² GIBBON. a stream of fresh water. as in Sec.²DE QUINCEY. b). (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. for example. of whom there were a number.

"I have never said so.²BYRON." "She or you may be sure." etc. Second or third and first person in the subject. the subject being really equivalent to we. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²SMOLLETT. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. ARNOLD. Pattison or I have said. . are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions." or. You and I are farmers. Not Altamont.²LOWELL. 443.²RUSKIN. You and I are tolerably modest people. If there is only one person in the subject.²WHITTIER.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Ah. Nothing which Mr. we never talk politics. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. "You would not be wiser. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. 444. hadst been my lord. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²GOLDSMITH. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. of different persons. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. his blood dost shed.²M. "He or I can go.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²ROWE. but thou.But notice the construction of this. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. nor has she"). Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. that is.).²D. nor should I.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. Not I. This construction is at the best a little awkward. WEBSTER. but thou. for example. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. General usage. 442.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. Exceptional examples. as. When the subjects. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.

4. 2. in my opinion.²ADDISON.²MILTON. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 446. Neither of them. Both death and I am found eternal. 10.That neither of their intellects are vast. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²G. 8.²SMOLLETT. BANCROFT.²THACKERAY.²BYRON. which it is proper to mention. In a word. Exercise. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²EMERSON.Her course to intercept. 6. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. as illustrated above (Secs. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 11. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²perhaps the devil. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²and. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. 5. How each of these professions are crowded. nor bush are there. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 9. In this sentence from Defoe. 3. Also in verbals. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).²ID. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 440-444):² 1.²SCOTT.²BURKE. Nor wood. In the following sentence. 12.445. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²ADDISON.² TROLLOPE. nor tree. 7. as we would hope.

a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. Of course. Definitions. if not. CHURCH. on my return. The present rule is recent.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²KINGSLEY. W. to have divided with her whatever might remain.²IRVING. Two samples of indirect discourse. to have seen should be changed to to see." . Indirect discourse means reported speech. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. 3. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²R. 448. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²THACKERAY. But I found I wanted a stock of words. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. as. It should be remarked. Direct discourse²that is. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. 4. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.. meaning.²MACAULAY. for exact connection. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.²DE QUINCEY 2.² PALGRAVE 5. Exercise. I gave one quarter to Ann. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. 447.. however. change them to a better form:² 1.²FRANKLIN 6.

Direct.. under interrogative pronouns. Her prudence whispered eternally. will. 449. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. She thought to herself. 2. This includes the auxiliaries be." etc." etc. .(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. The substance of his lamentation was. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Oh. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. and the subjunctive mood of verbs." Indirect. 1.. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. interrogative adverbs. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Summary of the expressions. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. etc.. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. or regular interrogatives. have. introductory verb is in the past tense.. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. His exact words were. "Oh. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Direct. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. "I cannot oblige you . (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Sebastian's. and the indirect question by whether or if.

like distant peals of thunder. handed down from his ancestor the historian. the sound of their balls.²B. Careless use of the participial phrase.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. with his crew of the Half-moon. the first discoverer of the river and country. he assured me that nothing was more easy. and that he himself had heard. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²GOLDSMITH. VERBALS. my first observation will be found nearly true. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. PARTICIPLES. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. . having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill.²ID. if this were expanded into a verb. FRANKLIN.²ADDISON. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.Exercise. in the sentences first quoted. 450. one summer afternoon. The trouble is.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. Notice this. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.

than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. .' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. For example.. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.Correction. then.. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.²RUSKIN. the first sentence would be. 3. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. while defended or excused by others. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. This is the more common arrangement. universal assertion. purposely or not.²SCOTT.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. leaving the principal statement as it is. Standard writers often use it. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.² HERBERT SPENCER. There are. Adverb between to and the infinitive. many things to be carefully considered.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself..²ID. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.. Exercise. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. It is a solemn. 2.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. 451. avoid it.²LAUGHLIN. and often. either "As I was pleased." etc." Exercise. if a strike is to succeed. my first collection was. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. In the following citations. . INFINITIVES.

" Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.²GOLDSMITH.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.4. are used. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . and earthenware. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. etc.²The Nation. The spirits. 452. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 5. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. 11. I wish the reader to clearly understand. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. 10.²ID.. but it is placed before the infinitive. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. even. Position of only. is to be very cautiously admitted. from Irving. 6. this kind of grandeur. but they are often removed from the exact position. In works of art. Exercise. Now. if they modify single words. 7. BLAIR. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. therefore.²BURKE. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. when such adverbs as only. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.² ADDISON.²SCOTT.²DR. 12. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. ADVERBS. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation.²TROLLOPE. A little sketch of his.²RUSKIN. but cannot misunderstand the thought. 13. china.² MACAULAY. even. which consists in multitude. 1533. etc. 8. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 9. The rigid rule in such a case would be. No. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.. etc.

He shouted in those clear.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. were he never so old of yeares. 14. 13. WILLIS. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. His last journey to Cannes.²MRS. 10. 9. The old usage.²N. 453. 3.²THACKERAY. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²EMERSON. My master. No sonne. In Old and Middle English.²ID.²MOTLEY.²PALGRAVE. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²ID. . Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 17. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.1. 6.²CHAUCER. might not marry. Irving could only live very modestly. 7.²SWIFT.²ID. 2.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²COOPER.²SYDNEY SMITH.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 16. whence he was never destined to return. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 5. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 4. In relating these and the following laws. 12. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. During the whole course of his administration.²MACAULAY. 11.²RUSKIN. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. ²ASCHAM. for example. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. GROTE. 8.²HIGGINSON.² THACKERAY. to avoid a crowd. 15. P.

Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. But. is not common. 7. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.²DEFOE.²HAWTHORNE. as. There weren't no pies to equal hers. can so agreeably affect. . In the execution of this task. Regular law of negative in modern English. Therefore. the usual way of regarding the question now is. STOWE. one of the negatives is often a prefix. when one of the negatives is a connective. under the influence of Latin syntax. 6. In the latter case. 2. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way."²MRS. in Ole Virginia. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. if two negatives are found together. who hadn't been to school for nothing. The prosperity of no empire. However. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. Exceptional use.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all."²four negatives.²DE QUINCEY. 3. neither. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. 4. and why:² 1.²GROTE. I never did see him again. ²PAGE. etc. uncommon.²MRS. as infrequent. This. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.²HOLMES. Exercise. STOWE.²LOWELL. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. Not only could man not acquire such information. nor the grandeur of no king. nor never shall. 5.² HAMILTON.²BURKE. I did not act so hastily.²BAYNE. but ought not to labor after it. and is still kept in vulgar English. however. denying each other. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.

. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. nor is often changed to not²either .. 455. even neither ."²SCOTT.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .²SCOTT." both of the above requirements are violated.. not only to the success of their common cause. nor. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. The sentences given in Secs. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. especially both . or. but. as the use of the conjunction. Correction.²LOWELL... but (also)... but to their own safety. CONJUNCTIONS. either . In the sentence." said the King. or. should be scrutinized. 454. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. not only . And who. or to reply to it.. either. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives... the first should also... or with advantage..." Besides neither . "well worthy to confer honor. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.8. and which. there we were. "A weapon. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. neither . as well as of the pronoun... A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. and. not merely . 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. if the second precedes a phrase. Choice and proper position of correlatives. The sentence. if the last precedes a verb. not or is the proper correlative of neither. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. the first ought to be placed before a verb.. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. Things to be watched." may be changed to "This loose .. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.²PRESCOTT." . or to reply to it.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it.

as. not merely interest children. but they will outrage. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. 5. 8. Now.²BAIN. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. or but that. and I don't know but what he was right. 3.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. Try and for try to. 7. but.²MACAULAY. substitute that.²GIBBON.²FRANKLIN.²THACKERAY.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. but grown-up persons. etc." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 2. Exercise. 456. 6. but. or the negative relative but. JEWETT.²ID. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. nor the disgrace of assailing him. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. 457. Try and avoid the pronoun. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. In the following sentences. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.² ADDISON.²S. Some exceptions. Correct the following sentences:² 1. or but that for the words but what:² 1. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.Exercise.²THACKERAY. But what. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. 4. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²GOLDSMITH. murder. O. as. and chop up their own kin. . we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²RUSKIN. They will. too.

²EMERSON.²EMERSON. 3. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Between and among. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 313. no separation or division by twos being implied. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.² BULWER. Between is used most often with two things only. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.²BURKE. PREPOSITIONS. as already seen in Sec. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 305. see Sec. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.²TROLLOPE.²ADDISON. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. .²ADDISON.²SCOTT.2. 6. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 4. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.² SWIFT. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 458. 459. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 5. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.

and Stewart. Dissent from.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. and philosophers like Locke. . Conversant with. Bestow on (upon). Some of them have. Averse to. Two groups or one and a group. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. different.²RUSKIN What have I. Comply with. as. Conform to. Such are absolve. etc. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Dependent on (upon).²KINGSLEY. Kant. by custom. 460. Acquit of. Derogatory to. and another to convey a different meaning. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. as. List I. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. averse. LIST I. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. 461. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Affinity between. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Accord with. and Coleridge. confer. Different from.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Abhorrent to. ²EMERSON. correspond. Mackintosh. involve.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. or one object and a group.: Words with particular prepositions. Such are derogatory. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Paley. a soldier of the Cross.

Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Confide in (trust in). LIST III." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. as. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Reconcile to (note below)." also of persons. A taste for (art. etc. as. "The king is reconciled to his minister.y y y Deprive of. Confer with (talk with). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. 463. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. but it is not good usage. Independent of. LIST II. Agree to (a proposal).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Correspond to (a thing).). as meaning to be in keeping with. Change for (a thing). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Involve in. in the sense of making friends with. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. A taste of (food). 462. Differ from (note below).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. List II. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. . Correspond with (write to). Confide to (intrust to). as. Differ with (note below)." List III. Confer on (upon) (give to). Change to (become). Reconcile with (note below). Change with (a person).

die for.²G. It is a man of quality who dies for her. and ill treatment.²GOLDSMITH.²FIELDING." etc. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. ²ATHENÆUM. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. ²THACKERAY." (because of). I am positively dying with hunger. they shall die by this hand. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. He died at last without disease. died for love of the fair Marcella. Part from. She died of hard work. Who.²SHAKESPEARE. "Die with. privation. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²BULWER.²POPE.²BURNETT. simply from old age. ELIOT. part with. Expect of. instrument)." (material cause.²MACAULAY. One of them said he would die for her.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. "Die by.²ADDISON.²BOSWELL.²MACAULAY. as Cervantes informs us.²GOLDSMITH. People do not die of trifling little colds. . No one died from want at Longfeld. expect from.²SCOTT. die of. die from." "die from. ELIOT. If I meet with any of 'em. Take thought and die for Cæsar." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. "Die from. "Die for. die with. It would take me long to die of hunger. Illustrations of "die of.y y y Die by." (in behalf of).²G." She would have been ready to die with shame. "Die for." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²MACAULAY.:² "Die of.

" "expect from:"² "Expect of. I have just seen her. I part with all that grew so near my heart. It was a little bad of you.²MACAULAY. ELIOT.²BULWER." "part from:"² "Part with. "Part from. kind of you.²SHAW. That is more than I expected of you.²POE. His precious bag.²G. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. "Part with" is used with both persons and things." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. 464.²G. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. as my friend. I have long expected something remarkable from you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. . which he would by no means part from." To part from you would be misery. With words implying behavior or disposition.²MACAULAY. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. Illustrations of "expect of. ELIOT.²SCOTT. I can part with my children for their good. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²G. Illustrations of "part with. either of or in is used indifferently. "Expect from. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. ELIOT. Of Doctor P. just parted from her.²AUSTEN.²WALLER. nothing better was to be expected. 466.²DICKENS.²TROLLOPE. Kind in you.²BULWER." She will expect more attention from you. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. and hated to part with them.²MARRYAT. 465." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²WALPOLE.

He did not think it handsome of you. nor of a pale red. The noise of vast cataracts.²DICKENS. . 14. and ran up the alley. nor green. 6. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. Thou tread'st. or artillery. or that they are any way dependent on each other. tedious perhaps.²CARLYLE. 3. 5. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 10. 8. 4. it is commonly said that his profits are high. This narrative. raging storms. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 15. 13. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. nor blue. but which the story renders necessary.²BEACONSFIELD. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. thrown it over Amyas's head. 7. In. 9. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. thunder. 11. the vast abyss.²BULWER. or which we are most imperatively required to do. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame.²BULWER. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 1.²TENNYSON. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. Hampden. with seraphims. In the friction between an employer and workman. But this is idle of you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. nor yellow. Very natural in Mr.

Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion.) 34. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 32. produce approbation. 26. 28. and other angular figures. and most of us do know. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant.And were I anything but what I am. were down with raging fever. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 35. but in the price paid to them. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. (Sec. .I would wish me only he. the acquiescence of the understanding. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. triangles. or how beautiful it is. When the glass or liquor are transparent. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. what is a just and unjust act. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 22. But every man may know. 33. The effect of proportion and fitness. save Amyas. 27. 411. 18. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 36. 37. Every one of these letters are in my name. That night every man of the boat's crew. 24. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 25. 21. 38. Squares. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 19. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 23. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 29. You have seen Cassio and she together. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. and almost as good as a pony. 30. 20. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 16. 31. you or me. 17. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Friday.

the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 40. 92. 310. as. 98. 89. 90. Abstract with Active Address. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 47. 260. nouns. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. voice. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 107. 124. He had four children. syntax uses Absolute. Adjectives. INDEX.39. (3) Modern English. 47. adjectives. 91. 124. 116. demonstrative. 25. 20. 239. 102. as comparison definition demonstrative. 119. of. of. from nominative clauses. 133. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. article. of. . A. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. of. numeral. pronouns. of. adverbs used complements.000 between them. from about 1500 to the present time. (2) Middle English. nominative. origin of.

194. 325. 103. 109. 104. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 325. Against. 242. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 27. adjectives. 275. parse. and 185. infinitive. with with with subject. sentence. 287. antecedent. 303. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 148. 303. of. from to of. of. 116. predicate. 183. plural pronominal. 302. 97. 239. conjunction. of. between of. adjectives. 48. 291. 114. 207. 190. as nouns. nouns. of. 42. modify. 27. 187. 184. 207. form as as they to in as uses uses of. . quality. clauses. of. 194. 195. 262. objective. 191. 323. 106.from function how in not of of ordinal. of. quantity. Alms. 190. adjectives. Agreement. of. 116. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. compared. nouns. conjunctions. antecedent. 101. 99. 316. to used of. parse. 115. 328.

120. of of of And Antecedent. words between. 47. uses As At. See 74. adjective. and. syntax As. of. A. 67. 208. after of. sentences. 252. 90. same. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. parse. 207. in in. agreement personal as pronoun. derivation in definite. Agreement. 51. Arrangement Articles. Are. as uses verbs. 127. An. 240. definition how indefinite. 49. 150. 296. though. 264. 271. 120. of. of and pronoun of. to of. . 225. 309. sentences. syntax. it. 231. possessive. 74. 295.Among. which. 67. 148. 294. 84. Auxiliary if. definition of of of Any. 331. which. 300. 198. which. 79. of. 101. sentences. 275. 287. of. See with definition complex compound simple who. Anacoluthon Analysis. of. pronouns. 124.

194. Be. uses Better. 224. plurals of. 330. of nouns. 149. of nouns. number of. of pronouns. 278. 39. conjunctions Cherub. 161. in Old and Modern English. 210. of. of. 45. 111. nominative. Among. of what. 279. 62. Between. 48. of pronouns. 39. adverb. Children. of nouns. comparison conjugation of. 260. But. 110. pronoun. 46. 262.Bad. 279. 110. Cause. 47. 63. 54. uses of. Can. 37. adjective. objective. 283. 49. Clause. possessive. Brethren. of pronouns. of nouns. clauses of. 84. best. 195. definition could. See of. 150. of. uses nominative of. Case. syntax of. 262. 278. Case. 46. . double possessive. of pronouns. Bridegroom. 66. forms. 64. with But By.

of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 12. 111. clothes. 18. predicate. 257. nouns. Cloths. 158. Cleave. material. 305. 53. of. of. 268. of. predicate of and from from of. subject. 258. 108. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 263. sentence. 189. 43. of. adverbs. defective. 312. nouns. 307. 264. adjectives. of. of. 244. analysis of. 307. 18. 107. of. in analysis. Clomb. 108. of. plural of. superlative. 257. 110. definition degrees irregular. proper. of. infinitive. 315. English. and forms of. double. and sentence. 271. . verb. 23. 24.definition kinds noun. nouns. 248. 113. 157. 257. 43. 239.

coördinate. 195. 269. conjunctions. 199. 193. 194. 231. 195. 73. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. interrogative pronouns. of. sentence. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 188. 328. Can. pronoun. same words. in Old vs. of. replaced by objective. 151. and clause. Agreement. 263. 207. 66. sentences. 138. to of. definition be. 194. See analysis clauses. definition how subordinate. See English.with Concord. adverbs. verbs. 194. conjunction. 255. Conjunctions. of of Conjunctions. 149. 149. analysis. pronoun. 143. . subjunctive. parse. 196. See in subjunctive. Dative Declarative Declension of case. correlative. 139. 289. other other parts of speech. pronouns. sentences. conjunctions. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could.

91. Case. 90.Declension. passive adjectives. comparative. from. 303. with of. of. 102. by. 320. of. 287. nouns. of. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 333. Comparative. article. 35. Subordinate clause. 315. of. 152. with. of personal relative verbs. Degrees. See See 48. object. 242. tenses. indirect. nouns. 80. adverbs See adjectives. for. 26. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. use of dies. Comparison. possessive. discourse. See adjectives. 51. 60. vs. duck. verb. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. pronouns. 288. Articles. See 148. 242. 185. 43. pronouns. 300. pronouns. 160. 102. 99. . clause. pronouns.

suffix. object. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 51. 257. vulgar. Each. 92. 112. of. 299. conjunction. to suffix. adjective. original. plural. spoken. complement. 280. 92. added suffix. 90. 102. possessive suffix. 32. pronoun. ending. 12. 33. 241. 38. older. of. 92. Either. 158. 42. predicate.Drank. of. 234. 194. adjective. error in sentence. 328. 34. pronouns. 300. Elements Ellipsis. of subject. feminine plural English. of. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. . of. 255. one ( t). drunk. another. 287. Empress. syntax Each Eat Eaves. -En. 62. pronoun. 287. 90. in 'Em. of. literary. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 110. other. 33. 40. the of sentence. 240. 158. 39.

from. first. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 189. 308. definition distinguished in English. Few. 36. See Gander. fishes. as a noun. First Fish. 29. etc.Every. 110. of.. Farther. 152. nouns. 30. 148. object. First. used of. 112. 103. of. 147. Gender. 102. 102. perfect. pronoun. 112. 152. 235. 212." 31. 45. expect gone. 211. modes "common goose. 238. Future Future tense. 30. of. few. two. For. plurals. . From. 126. 43. uses redundant. two a further. 319. have adjective. to of. 48. 334. uses Foreign Former. with in sex. other languages. Feminine. 287. 212.. the. 91. gender. Further. as of from compared marking. 30. etc. 32. adjective. with infinitive.

it. He. 145. of. pronouns. distinguished syntax. 231. 60. of. she.of of Genii. person. its. Gerund. 159. of. noun. had hung. His Husband. Had Hanged. from participle of. 173. 61. 275. Government. possessive pronouns. 60. personal relative geniuses. . 43. 61. kinds of. 175. 35. first sentence. 12. pronoun. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. on. 285. 9. adjective. 13. Got. 12. rather. 177. Grammar. definition divisions opinions province H. I. 80. an better. 120. for before. definition basis of. of. 10. 176. forms in Girl. 144. 36. 101. 159. and case verbal with. participle.

pronouns. of. 176. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 233. 131. 323. 188. 110. 245. 231. 131. adjectives. in compared syntax. elements. 153. with of. verbs. Questions. indirect of. indices. 43. questions. 257. sentence. adverbs. Direct object. 178. your. transitive. See Articles. . 136. meaning. of. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 105. pronoun. See you. mood. 227. 276. 283. 248. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. use article.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 319. a object. 93. of. 85. 67. 73. summary See passive mood. 320. questions. 72. of. words. uses discourse. adjectives. of clause.

predicate. 36. 227. "It Its. 189. English. a vs. etc. Latter. of. plural. of. queen. 102. Like. 113. 281. syntax the. Lady. 91. Kind. and See words in. 110. 39. of. King. -Ly. these double kind.adverbs. 12. 303. 190. subject form. Lay. latest. in little. . was uses me. 63. of. lesser.. Lie. pronoun. 276. It. 67. Lay. 245. lie.. Less. adjective. Lady. 36. 126. 61. 110. Logic Logical Lord. 36." history etc. lord. See Madam. Kine. syntax. uses Literary Little. 170. 113. Last. 226.

syntax conjunction. 161. comparison Near. 110. 112. Master. 325. 112. superlatives. 265. 160. 188. sentences. of. mistress. 144. Means. construction as of adverb. Negative. of. 113. of. 187. double.. position adverb. mine. 287. 194. 126. 256. 195. 34. See definition 136. 110. 189. etc. Mood. 41. of. of. 137. Modifier. 137-144. Many Mapping Mare. Modifiers. 36. 102.Manner. 326. in adverbs comparison a. . of. 64. -Most. nigh. Neither. of. might. 110. Much. Mighty Mine. syntax nearer. subjunctive. 328. May. imperative. 112. indicative. Enlargement. 114. adjective. 189. conjunctions Many. 135. of. 185. Must. out of.

abstract. 301. common. gender nouns. half abstract. definition descriptive. nouns. 300. 42. 125. and figures. 41. number once other plural. letters as 24. 30. Case. syntax in gender nouns. 32. of. analysis. to of. in. 27. 56. 17. 30. of. to use. 246. 20. 25. material. Not Noun Nouns. 41 43. 45. class used singular. No Nominative. of. used as. 26. of. None. of. Nor. of. 17. 46. etc. of of of of of a. 124. gender how kinds material. words how compound. 19. proper. nouns. etc. 30. 46. syntax Neuter or two News. become neuter. 18. 328. definition according of.pronoun. 38-41. abstract. now plural. formed. . 25. 38. 92. of. 17 19. become become formation case collective. clause. 21. foreign. 29. parse. See 194. 126. 41. 258. kinds 90.

nominative. 92. and analysis. 48. 282. 278. become syntax use with with with Nouns. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 60. 48. 48. 18. Preposition. 124. 121. definite. adjectives. 101. of. plural no two singular construction. of different possessive definite of. English. of. plural. pronouns. singular. 48. 66. of. 42. Numeral Object. 278. 41. passive adverbial.. with with with Now Number. adjectives. 23. 281. 102. See verb. See in in in Numeral distributive. 279. 196. indefinite. indirect. in article. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. of. 242. 42. meaning. 39. verbs. personal. with case. or plural. 101. singular. of. in nouns. form. 235. 43. 148. 285. etc. 240. 106. spoken of instead nouns. pronouns. of. plural form. 42 44. Nouns. 48. conjunction. common.of same two with proper. dative. . as forms titles. 242. preposition. meanings. 195. 41. adverbial. 41. article.

41. 116. conjunctions. 56. 64. Parsing. Older.syntax Of. uses numeral pronoun. 93 other. 117. definite relative uses of. 94. 199. position Order. 237. Oxen. 38. pronoun. 103. articles. Elder. of. 56. inverted. Ourself. of. Each adjective. 306. a in adjectives. adjective. of syntax. 115. 233. part analysis. Pains. One. nouns. 216. See the as of. 91. 191. Our. 161. as of. 127. ours. treatment comparatives. 325 275. Ordinal Other Ought. See pronoun. 69. with (the). 279. conjunction. adverb. of. 293. of upon. Omission On. 101. 87. 194. . 103. indefinite possessive One One as Only. another. for. adverbs. 213. of of of of of models adjectives. as other.

181. predicate use of. or of. article 150. 80. Person. antecedent. 172. 56. verbs. 335. from definition other of. of. 70. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 219. 180. pronouns. used as voice. relatives. 64. possessive and of. 317. reflexive. of. 287.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. nominative. 61. verbs. 179. with. phrase. 56. 174. pronoun. 43. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. pronouns. part adjective. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. and subject in. verb idioms it from. Pence. of. 63. of. 62. . 119. agreement of verb nouns. them. 69. not is. of. 62. 100. pennies. 59. 59. included various. 173. 172. -ing words. verbals. 148. pease. parsed. 281. 59. absolute with of. 177. of. in. 28. speech. 322. 134. 43. 247. of. 27. phrases. 95.

noun nouns. 278. 236. 's. 281. antecedent of of pronouns. 51. in of. 53. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 41. spoken of. double. 241. pronoun. Positive Possessive. 235. Personification. 188. of. 37. Nouns. 236. 54. of. participial. as double. 50. 106. conjunctions prepositions Plural. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. nouns. of. 281. 303. English. 245. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 278. of. 195. pronouns. complete. 245. simple. of. of Phrase. of. adjectives. kinds infinitive. of.objective syntax table triple uses of. 247. 232. objects. 61. 67. of. 247. pronoun. singular degree. adverbs of. 49. syntax of of Politics. . relative. omitted. See 60. 60. singular. prepositional. 63. nouns. plural. or See of of See 185. it. 64. 25. 285. of nouns. Personal subjective. 53. 52. Comparison. 303. 206. nouns. 248. Place. vs. appositional.

another. 72. 104. 283. after but. 202. 279. none. 280. 95. objective. 333. objective. expressed as other of. 205. usually to as than. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 58. with tense certain. 287. possessive nominative to of. and form form form form of. 105. neither. 332. 281. meaning. as. in exclamations. case. plural. 195. of. 132. 59. 207. what. 105. 93. of. 32. interrogative.Prefixes. same used as adjectives. 58. 206. each either. somebody definition how indefinite. future. by with shown certain of. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 89. 187. 302. 300. Prepositions. verbs. as 54. singular usually other. Pronouns. 299. who personal. of. of. adjective. case. by. plural. 300. 284. parse. 283. 147. any. 285. forms of. words. 203. as antecedent of relative. 203. adverb. of. 186. parse. 331. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. interrogative. all. 208. exclamatory. by parts of of. 301. for predicate nominative. 303. plural. 282. . of. 219. of. 64. 129. speech. and one with else's.

Questions. Nouns. and relatives. who. 188. 99. 74. or of. use in as. of. 101. to of. nouns. Rather. which after same. 189. that. 195. of. 74.possessive relative. personal pronoun. 289. same antecedent. questions. Quotations. in. 286. of. 74. 289. 142. Quantity. pronoun. conjunctions Quality. 296. discourse. 105. of. with with gerund. 69. 293. and antecedent. indirect. Direct same and different. of. unrestrictive. agreement anacoluthon and as. 295. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 87. 293. indirect compound. in. parse. from and interrogative. 84. 80. 295. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 87. which. pronouns. pronominal pronouns indirect. in. 263. 58. 297. of. 279. of. use of history formed. See of. and which. with who. 291. 68. 85. 83. . clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. adverbs in. 69. of. of. 85. Rank.

will. 259. 74. reflexive analysis of compound. Seeing. Shot. 162. 159. kinds Sequence Set. 40. effect. 170. 255. 242. See Sentences. plural possessive as. conjunctions Retained Riches. 43. Simple in sate. of. 231. 252. Same Sat. simple of. of. 231. of of of complex Sentences. 29. 196. would. sentence. forms shots. 'S. tenses. and should. conjunction. S. 51. 319. simple. pronoun. elliptical. object. gender. 196. 42. Self Sentences. in form. Sex Shall. of. of. in of. 69. 195. 289. which. of sit. complex.syntax use Result. 294. who. that. Shear. suffix. 26 271. definition . ending. clauses of. 263. 159.

257. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 262. used mood. names as a. 186. in Middle English. 323. 233. 12. 36. of. literary clause. Subject. 303. 257. distinguish. to of. -es. disuse in spoken complete. Spelling Spinster. 270. 32. of. in feminine suffix. English. See -En. 258. 137. 258. 144. English.. 303. verbs. 240. Somebody Sort. 38. 33. as. Modern use becoming else's. 169. -en. adverb. 245. of. 33. definition 67. sort. adverb. of. vs. 245. logical.Singular Sir. of. etc. 126. other Such Such Suffix -s. of. 258. 257. English. definition how kinds noun. 260. these number. phonetic in infinitive. of. Split Spoken -Ster. 257. . 38. English. 144. for. 138. 237.

123. 289. that uses That. plural as adverb. they. 275. 280. of. Kind. Then. 290. of. 306. 120. when relative. of.Suffixes. meaning made up in Old of. 108. degree. . 109. of. English. as history syntax Their. and and of. "the then foreign. this. 152. of languages. 106. in comparison. when as of. than of. in double. 61. 319. of . 309. object. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 148. 189. article. 222. of. 307. not suggesting adjectives. as adverbs." introductory. 277. 107.. meaning. 297. of. subject. as history The. 147. classical of. definition in English Tense. See etc. restrictive. of. form. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 88. 275. English. 87. 191. Tenses. adverbs.. 186. coördinating. of. which. 33. adjectives. 106. There These kind. 116. 147. auxiliaries.. objects. omission whom. syntax of. 119. 306. me. 147. king. two basis not same definition definite. 186.

used. Upon. phrases. 175. feminine and. Thou. 185. other noun. 247. of. Try Two Under. in omitted uses T'other. 61. of. of. uses history of. preposition. 114. -Trix. of. 323. gerund.These. Upper. 175. 180. 172. Utter. 217. etc. infinitive. how infinitive. infinitive. thy. 33. uttermost. to. See On. 175. of. -ing 111. 322. kinds participle. 308. 188. uses of. 172. 21. 119. 195. thee. 173. verbs. Time. 114. words. carelessly uses syntax this. 322. 330. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. tother. first adjective. conjunctions prepositions To. See That. certain as the before with of. 20. first. in of. exclamations. of. 114. 181. . parse. 207. analysis. 128.. 176. suffix. 248. from cleft to 174. adverbs those. of. try two.

236. 169. 134. 147. of. 129. agreement of. formed by. syntax of. 319. 33. 149. past tense formed nominative. 133. mood of. definition of. auxiliary. how to parse. of English. weak. 154. passive form. 223. . of incomplete predication. 312. sequence of. 167.Verbs. becoming irregular. strong. 245. 131. spelling of. change. 133. 179. person and number of. in person. 130. active. remarks on certain. 154. 160. made transitive. conjugation of. defective. 47. 167. 151. regular. voice of. active meaning. 135. 148. 150. 155. table of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. of. but uses what. retained object with passive. 312-316. What. passive. verbs. 157. Vocative in Voice. 12. transitive and intransitive. intransitive. definition of. phonetic. 169. 320. tense of. 159. 242. table of irregular. 39. verbs by. analysis. 330. 148. in indirect discourse. Vixen. 317. 154. definition of. with subject in number.

78. 77. of. pronoun. direct of. wizard. 75.what Whereby. in -ly. 83. whereto. relative. 79. 126. of. 40. 85. referring syntax Widower. relative indirect relative. uses See Shall. would. 85. 83. 104. pronoun. Woman. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 218. Words in Worse. animals. 295-299. . Y. etc. 72. questions. spoken in of. Wife. 36. 72. in. in in indefinite objective. English. questions. 296. questions. 85. worser. Whether. 105. 246. 37. conjunction. Who. questions. plural of in nouns -ing. 105. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. Yes ending analysis. Witch. antecedent adjective. Will. a. 299. relative. interrogative Which. 75. 111. 36. 194. 178.. 72. With. 190. 32. 73.

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